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Collective bargaining in British Columbia's community colleges Colebrook, Peter 1991

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COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA'S  COMMUNITY COLLEGES  By PETER  COLEBROOK  B.A., N o t r e Dame U n i v e r s i t y o f N e l s o n , 1966 M.L.S., U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1967 M.P.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  D e p a r t m e n t o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and H i g h e r We a c c e p t to  THE  this  thesis  as  conforming  the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (c) P e t e r  Colebrook  Education  In presenting this thesis in partial f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , F a c u l t y of Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver. Canada Date  /$/f/  Adult  Columbia  and  Higher  Education,  ABSTRACT T h i s study  examines c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  community c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. overview of b a r g a i n i n g  i n 14 u n i o n i z e d  I t provides  a broad  i n the c o l l e g e s and i n s i g h t s i n t o the  t e n s i o n s commonly a s s o c i a t e d with c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . study  combines q u a l i t a t i v e data  and q u a n t i t a t i v e data  The  through  the use o f i n t e r v i e w s , c o n t r a c t u a l a n a l y s i s and two questionnaires.  One survey  examined the o p i n i o n s of board  members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s on v a r i o u s aspects  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  competitive  The l a t t e r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i s t r i b u t i v e  i n c l u d e d the  bargaining,  governance, the scope of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements and a number of proposed m o d i f i c a t i o n s aimed a t improving i n the c o l l e g e s .  The study  bargaining  i s s i g n i f i c a n t as i t f i l l s  a void  i n the r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o the above i s s u e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia's c o l l e g e s . The l i t e r a t u r e review encompassed a wide range of research.  T h i s i n c l u d e d m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d t o the e v o l u t i o n of  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  i n higher  education;  i n f l u e n c e o p i n i o n s of b a r g a i n i n g ;  f a c t o r s that  constructive  conflict,  d e s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n ; r e s o l u t i o n techniques integrative  conflict  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b a r g a i n i n g ; and  bargaining.  The study  revealed a competitive  collective  bargaining  c l i m a t e i n the c o l l e g e s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by such f a c t o r s as a  lack  of  trust  contractual  and r e s p e c t ,  constraints  The c o m p e t i t i v e factors  management faculty  and a l a c k  climate  (government style  inexperienced  was  associations  and p e r s o n a l  preferences).  In  from the  terms  agreements  b o a r d members  of  factors  and t h e  senior  population.  well  local  level rather  Distributive of  negotiations  does  not  model  appears  to  be b e s t  the  salaries,  of  higher  faculty,  intrinsic  values  the of  benefits. education,  the  model of  bargaining is  issues.  The l a t t e r  governance,  peer  suited  of  likely  as  come  necessary  the  the  from a  modifications and e q u a l  access  labour matters  remain the  to  it  the Given  the  at  is,  include faculty and t h e  the  it  distributive of  Level  I  collegial  rights  involved, to  Although  resolution the  cornerstone  varying professional  management  parties  evaluation,  of  provincial level.  competitive  issue  scope  essentially  i n B r i t i s h Columbia's colleges. be as  e.g.  training,  the  are  favour  r e s o l u t i o n of  bargaining w i l l  to  traditions of  than at  have  issues,  the  the  leaders  The r e s p o n d e n t s  as  faculty  and p o l i t i c a l  issues,  The f a c u l t y  to the  (age  the  and a c a d e m i c  administrators  communications,  as  (the  political orientation,  t h a t would enhance information,  external  c o m p o s i t i o n of  governance  and t h e i r  same p o p u l a t i o n .  different  factors  (combined v o c a t i o n a l  associations);  collective  the  priorities.  by a number o f  internal  a president);  negotiators,  bargaining  aggravated  policies);  of  of  faculty  and  a more  accommodate  the  collaborative Level  participation selection  needs  of  in  II college  other  faculty.  The s t u d y  p r o d u c e d a number o f  contributed  to  the  recommendations  research  for  literature  practice.  and  V  CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  ix  CHAPTER 1  THE RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCH PROBLEM AND QUESTIONS Research Problem Research Question Sub-questions Null-Hypothesis SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT DISSERTATION OUTLINE  1 3 3 4 4 5 5 7 14  2  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE C O L L E C T I V E BARGAINING AND HIGHER EDUCATION . . . Public Sector Higher Education B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Community C o l l e g e s . . . . FACTORS WHICH MAY INFLUENCE OPINIONS AND BEHAVIOUR O p i n i o n s on C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g . Environmental Factors Personal Factors . . . . . Age Experience Rank and T e n u r e Gender . Job F u n c t i o n C a r e e r M o b i l i t y and A s p i r a t i o n s Miscellaneous Personal Factors Professionalism Organizational Satisfaction . . . . Economic S a t i s f a c t i o n CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION Conflict Constructive Conflict Dysfunctional Conflict Competition Conflict Resolution Mediation Fact Finding Conventional A r b i t r a t i o n Mediation-Arbitration Final Offer Selection Summary  16 17 17 22 29 38 38 42 45 45 46 47 48 50 52 53 54 60 61 63 63 65 66 68 70 71 72 73 76 76 79  vi Integrative Bargaining. . . . Future C o n f l i c t Resolution LIMITATIONS SUMMARY  . . . .  79 82 86 89  3  RESEARCH DESIGN . . SCOPE OF THE STUDY Community C o l l e g e s Populations C o l l e g e Boards Senior College Administrators F a c u l t y Leaders RESEARCH PROCEDURE P r e - r e s e a r c h Procedures Pre-Survey Interviews F a c t u a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l Data Contract Analysis O p i n i o n Survey  92 92 92 94 94 96 98 99 100 101 102 105 106  4  PRE-SURVEY INTERVIEWS PURPOSE SAMPLE INTERVIEW PROCESS SYNOPSIS P r o v i n c i a l Labour C l i m a t e C o l l e g e Labour C l i m a t e s C o l l e g e Boards Personalities C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and I n f o r m a t i o n Autonomy Governance Previous Negotiations . . . . N e g o t i a t i n g Teams A d m i n i s t r a t i v e N e g o t i a t i n g Teams F a c u l t y N e g o t i a t i n g Teams Sector Differences F a c u l t y and F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n s Province-Wide Bargaining C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g and C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n Miscellaneous Points SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS TO C O L L E C T I V E BARGAINING Suggested M o d i f i c a t i o n s  109 109 110 Ill 113 114 115 115 117 118 119 121 122 124 124 126 128 132 134 135 138 140 140  5  FACTUAL INSTITUTIONAL DATA PURPOSE . DATA COLLECTION P r o c e s s and S o u r c e s Limitations ANALYSIS . . N e g o t i a t i n g Teams C o l l e g e N e g o t i a t i n g Teams F a c u l t y N e g o t i a t i n g Teams  146 146 147 147 147 149 151 151 153  vii C o n t r a c t s and N e g o t i a t i o n s S t r i k e s and L o c k o u t s Grievances D e c i s i o n M a k i n g and C o m m i t t e e s SUMMARY  156 164 166 168 169  6  C O L L E C T I V E AGREEMENTS PURPOSE METHOD LIMITATIONS OBSERVATIONS Purpose of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements Faculty Associations E n v i r o n m e n t a l Changes Province-Wide Bargaining SUMMARY  7  MAIN SURVEY PURPOSE METHOD Sample S e l e c t i o n Development of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Rate of R e t u r n LIMITATIONS ANALYSIS A n a l y s i s Process P r o f i l e of the Respondents Age Gender Y e a r s Employed or A s s o c i a t e d With The C o l l e g e Subject D i s c i p l i n e F a c u l t y Employment S t a t u s P r i o r C o l l e c t i v e Bargaining Experience P o l i t i c a l Preference O c c u p a t i o n s o f B o a r d Members O p i n i o n s of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Competition Governance Scope o f C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g S t a t e m e n t s and P r o f i l e F a c t o r s Proposed M o d i f i c a t i o n s  8  CONCLUSION PURPOSE RESEARCH DESIGN SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS INTERPRETATION OF THE FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Implications f o r Research Future Research  17 2 172 173 173 174 175 177 180 181 183 186 186 187 187 188 193 194 195 197 197 201 201 203  .  .  •  .  .  204 205 205 206 207 208 209 209 221 234 241 244 260 260 262 263 269 276 276 283  Recommendations G r o u p One G r o u p Two SUMMARY .  For  Practice  284 285 288 291  APPENDIX  1  INSTITUTIONAL  APPENDIX  2  MAIN SURVEY  306  APPENDIX  3  O P I N I O N S OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , CHI-SQUARE  314  APPENDIX  4  OPINIONS OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , HYPOTHESIS  316  O P I N I O N S OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , O N E - W A Y A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  318  O P I N I O N S OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS  321  APPENDIX  APPENDIX  5  6  QUESTIONNAIRE  .  .  294  APPENDIX  7  SCOPE OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , CHI-SQUARE  325  APPENDIX  8  SCOPE OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , HYPOTHESIS  327  SCOPE OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , ONE-WAY A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  330  APPENDIX  APPENDIX  9  10  SCOPE  OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G ,  DESCRIPTIVE  STATISTICS  335  APPENDIX  11  PROPOSED  MODIFICATIONS,  CHI-SQUARE  .  .  .  .  341  APPENDIX  12  PROPOSED  MODIFICATIONS,  HYPOTHESIS  .  .  .  .  343  APPENDIX  13  PROPOSED  MODIFICATIONS, 345  14  ONE-WAY A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E PROPOSED M O D I F I C A T I O N S , DESCRIPTIVE  348  APPENDIX  APPENDIX  15  BIBLIOGRAPHY  PERSONAL .  STATISTICS  FACTORS  AND S E L E C T E D  STATEMENTS  .  352 363  ix L I S T OF TABLES TABLES 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5  PAGE 150 157 158 159  5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9  Bargaining Units . . . . . Length of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements . . . Length of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements, Average C o l l e c t i v e Agreements, Method of S e t t l e m e n t . . . . C o l l e c t i v e Agreements, Method of Settlement, Average Lag T i m e s , Averages L a g T i m e s , Ranges S t r i k e s and S t r i k e V o t e s S t r i k e s and S t r i k e V o t e s , A v e r a g e  7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16  Rate of R e t u r n P r o f i l e of the Respondents O p i n i o n s of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , C o m p e t i t i o n . . Competition, Variance O p i n i o n s of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , Governance . . Governance, Variance Scope S c o p e , F T e s t , L e v e l I Needs S c o p e , F T e s t , L e v e l I I Needs Scope, D i r e c t i o n of Responses, L e v e l I Needs. . . S c o p e , D i r e c t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s , L e v e l I I Needs . . Selected P r o f i l e Factors Proposed M o d i f i c a t i o n s , F Test M o d i f i c a t i o n s , H0=H1, A l l A g r e e d M o d i f i c a t i o n s , HO^HI, A l l d i s a g r e e d . . . . . . . . M o d i f i c a t i o n s , H O ^ H I , A g r e e d and D i s a g r e e d . . . .  194 199 210 212 222 224 235 236 237 238 239 242 248 249 250 252  . .  . .  160 162 162 164 164  1  1 THE  RESEARCH PROBLEM  Community c o l l e g e s are an important p a r t of B r i t i s h Columbia's postsecondary e d u c a t i o n a l  system.  They  d e l i v e r a comprehensive a r r a y of e d u c a t i o n a l  and t r a i n i n g  programs i n response to the ever changing e d u c a t i o n a l demands of t h e i r l o c a l communities. achieve the goals  In order  f o r the c o l l e g e s to  s e t out i n t h e i r mission  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  statements, the  process and the r e s u l t i n g c o l l e c t i v e  agreements must c o n t r i b u t e c o l l e g e ' s human r e s o u r c e s .  to the e f f e c t i v e a l l o c a t i o n of a T h i s r e g u i r e s a labour r e l a t i o n s  atmosphere c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o o p e r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d y s f u n c t i o n a l  tensions.  knowledge of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  r a t h e r than one Given the p a u c i t y of  in British  Columbia's  community c o l l e g e s , t h i s study attempts to f i l l  p a r t of t h a t  void. C o l l e c t i v e bargaining  i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community  c o l l e g e s p a r a l l e l e d the development of c o l l e c t i v e i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r .  The f i r s t  bargaining  community c o l l e g e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1963, but i t was not u n t i l 1974 that four community c o l l e g e s signed their faculty associations  c o l l e c t i v e agreements with  (Perra 1979; Stewart 1983:113).  Although the four c o l l e g e s were under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of l o c a l s c h o o l boards and hence the P u b l i c Schools  Act,  the  the  f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s opted f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n as labour unions under the Labour Code.  Between 1974  and  1977  there was  a  domino e f f e c t as f o u r t e e n of the f i f t e e n community c o l l e g e s signed c o l l e c t i v e agreements.  One  comparison method f o r determining r e l a t e d working c o n d i t i o n s . c o l l e g e s and entered  The  c o l l e g e adopted the  fair  s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s and other f o u r t e e n  community  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , however,  a new  era of labour r e l a t i o n s by adopting  d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g 1980a, 1980b; Walton & McKersie 1965).  The  the  (Birnbaum  l a t t e r approach i s  sometimes commonly r e f e r r e d to as the trade union model, the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s model or the a d v e r s a r i a l model of collective  bargaining.  In 1971, i n United  W o l l e t t , with r e f e r e n c e to c o l l e c t i v e  S t a t e s i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education,  bargaining described  the d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g as a p o l i t i c a l process. dynamic and  T h i s r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e s the  i n c r e a s i n g formal nature  pluralistic,  of c o l l e c t i v e  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g to higher  was  not a "...Mysterious  bargaining. education  phenomenon" (Crispo 1978,146) to be  f e a r e d because " . . . P r o f e s s i o n a l s have l e a r n e d t h a t i f they don't have i t i n the agreement, they don't have  it".  "...Unions do not depend on the grace of the governing and  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n r e s p e c t i n g employee i n t e r e s t s  board  {Kemerer & B a l d r i d g e 1976,60). v a r i o u s authors, 1978;  During  i n c l u d i n g Birnbaum  the ensuing  years  (1980a, 1980b), Crossman  F i s h e r & Ury (1981), and Thomas (1976), have  that the d i s t r i b u t i v e  approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g can  l e a d to d y s f u n c t i o n a l t e n s i o n s or c o n f l i c t w i t h i n (Masuch 1985).  suggested  Birnbaum  institutions  (1980, 1980b) a l s o suggests  that the  a d v e r s a r i a l nature of the d i s t r i b u t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s incompatible traditions  with the higher  education's  of c o l l e g i a l i t y and the f a c u l t y ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m .  Using p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s with c o l l e c t i v e practitioners,  factual  bargaining  i n s t i t u t i o n a l data,  collective  agreements and an o p i n i o n g u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h i s study  examines  v a r i o u s aspects of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia's u n i o n i z e d community c o l l e g e s . RESEARCH PROBLEM AND QUESTIONS T h i s s e c t i o n focuses on the study's  r e s e a r c h problem.  a l s o d e f i n e s the primary  r e s e a r c h g u e s t i o n , presents  of r e l a t e d sub-guestions  and s t a t e s the study's  It  a number  general n u l l -  hypothesis . Research Problem One of the g e n e r a l problems i n t h i s f i e l d of r e s e a r c h i s whether or not c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g c o n t r i b u t e s to or h i n d e r s the e f f e c t i v e  management of a c o l l e g e ' s human resources to  meet a community's e d u c a t i o n a l needs.  I t i s assumed that a  higher l e v e l of c o o p e r a t i o n among the p a r t i e s concerned may  result  i n a more e f f e c t i v e  resources services.  management of a c o l l e g e ' s human  and more e f f e c t i v e  e d u c a t i o n a l programs  and  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i f the t e n s i o n s commonly  a s s o c i a t e d with the d i s t r i b u t i v e  model of  collective  b a r g a i n i n g are d y s f u n c t i o n a l , what m o d i f i c a t i o n s could i n t r o d u c e d to reduce those Research  be  tensions?  Question  What are the o p i n i o n s of a sample of board members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  faculty  leaders i n B r i t i s h  Columbia's u n i o n i z e d community c o l l e g e s toward v a r i o u s of the d i s t r i b u t i v e  model of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining?  l a t t e r i n c l u d e competition, c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and  aspects  The  governance, the scope of  s p e c i f i c proposed m o d i f i c a t i o n s or  a l t e r n a t i v e s to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g that might reduce dysfunctional  any  tensions.  Sub-questions Is there a s i g n i f i c a n t  and meaningful d i f f e r e n c e i n the  o p i n i o n s among the three p o p u l a t i o n s ,  i.e., faculty  s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , board members, toward two the d i s t r i b u t i v e competition,  to c o l l e c t i v e  aspects  of  approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , i . e . ,  governance; toward the scope of  b a r g a i n i n g and  leaders,  collective  toward proposed a l t e r n a t i v e s or m o d i f i c a t i o n s bargaining?  In the event there are s i g n i f i c a n t  and  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the opinions among the f a c u l t y  meaningful leaders, senior  administrators,  b o a r d members,  do the  toward the  d i s t r i b u t i v e approach  toward  integrative  the  Is the  there  approach  a significant  independent v a r i a b l e s ,  preference,  as  variables?  In t h i s  opinions  to to  e.g.  case the  c o m p e t i t i o n and g o v e r n a n c e  collective  opinions  collective  age,  study latter  and t h e  dependent respondents  bargaining,  scope  of  between  political  i n c l u d e s the  collective  or  bargaining?  gender, and t h e  tend  bargaining  and m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e  d e f i n e d i n the  on two a s p e c t s o f  respective  i.e.,  collective  bargaining. If the  there  is  o p i n i o n s of  differences associated  a significant the  and m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e  three populations,  be m o d i f i e d t o w i t h the  reduce  collective  how c a n  those  any d y s f u n c t i o n a l  bargaining  among  tensions  process?  Null-Hypothesis In  general,  no d i f f e r e n c e  the  i n the  null-hypothesis  o p i n i o n s among the  toward the  two a s p e c t s  of  collective  bargaining,  i.e.,  the  scope  of  alternatives  (H0=H1)is  collective  the  three  that  bargaining,  or m o d i f i c a t i o n s to  or  governance;  toward  collective  is  populations  d i s t r i b u t i v e approach competition,  there  the  to toward  proposed  bargaining.  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH This  research to  is the  significant  the  only study,  the  o p i n i o n s o f b o a r d members,  in several  researcher's  ways.  knowledge,  senior  that  administrators  This  is  examines and  faculty  leaders  bargaining,  toward v a r i o u s  aspects of  i . e . , competition,  collective  governance;  approach to c o l l e c t i v e  bargaining i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a ' s u n i o n i z e d community c o l l e g e s . been s e v e r a l  studies  universities  (Adell  1979,1983,1985;  & Carter  facets  colleges 1981;  of c o l l e c t i v e  ( D e n n i s o n 1987;  1983;  study with respect Collective effective  educational  1983;  Perra  1979;  t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community  Given  the achievement the important  allocate  relations  s t u d y may s u g g e s t  structures  or procedures  this  i n the The  agreements of a  role  college'  community s y s t e m and  to personnel,  u n d e r s t a n d one o f t h e f a c t o r s  this  1985;  colleges.  human r e s o u r c e s .  have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u c c e s s same v e i n ,  Michael  ingredient  and t h e c o l l e c t i v e  not h i n d e r ,  objectives.  to b e t t e r  examined  Skolnik  play i n B r i t i s h Columbia's postsecondary  important  labour  have  none a r e as c o m p r e h e n s i v e as  amount o f f u n d s t h e c o l l e g e s  In t h i s  bargaining i n  studies  bargaining i s a c r i t i c a l  to,  absence  b a r g a i n i n g i n C a n a d i a n community  bargaining process  must c o n t r i b u t e  have  i s a conspicuous  to c o l l e c t i v e  a l l o c a t i o n of a c o l l e g e ' s  collective  colleges  there  D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1986;  Papale  Wood 1986)  there  Ponak & Thompson  Although several  Newcombe 1982;  Stewart  related  While  b a r g a i n i n g i n Canadian  1972;  Thompson 1975)  community c o l l e g e s .  the  of c o l l e c t i v e  empirical research  various  the scope of  b a r g a i n i n g ; and p r o p o s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e  distributive  of  collective  it  is  that can  of those  colleges  modifications i n t o accommodate  the  professional this in  needs  study w i l l  a practical  practitioners  of c o l l e g e  contribute sense  faculty.  It  i s anticipated  t o t h e knowledge o f t h e f i e l d and  t o t h e knowledge o f t h e l a b o u r  within  the  that  relations  colleges.  CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT The s t u d y ' s theory  and e m p i r i c a l d a t a .  provides  a foundation  understanding process, the  conceptual  provides  In t h i s  (Berger  case,  between  open s y s t e m s  theory  & Cummings 1978)  literature,  of the i n t e r v i e w s ,  the f a c t u a l  anticipated  the conceptual  o f improvements  bargaining agreements,  institutional  o b t a i n e d from the o p i n i o n  that  for  the c o l l e c t i v e  and t h e m a t e r i a l  selection  a bridge  the dynamics of the c o l l e c t i v e  the r e l e v a n t  results  context  survey.  It  framework may a s s i s t  to the c u r r e n t  collective  data  is  with the bargaining  process. Kochan generally or  (1980)  suggests  followed a h i s t o r i c a l  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  organizational structural, spheres  that  approach,  approach.  i n nature  personnel,  (Bolman & D e a l  labour r e l a t i o n s  cultural, 1984).  across  f o r u s i n g open s y s t e m  The v a r i o u s  framework. Dunlop's  In spite  (1958)  theory  as t h e  approach  is  and p o l i t i c a l labour  the y e a r s ,  of i t s shortcomings  structural  theory  has  an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  economical  m o d e l s t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d o v e r basis  an e c o n o m i c  Open s y s t e m s  and c u t s  research  relations  provide a  conceptual (Gunderson 1982).  model o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  was one  8 of  the f i r s t  integration  attempts  to e x p l a i n  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  A l t h o u g h i t was r e f e r r e d not  appear  systems  labour  relations  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  t o as a s y s t e m ,  through factors.  D u n l o p ' s model  theory  (Robins  & Oliva  1982).  H i s model c o n t i n u e d  researchers  ( A l l a n 1971;  Walker  1969;  a l . 1975).  I t was n o t u n t i l  (1975)  labour  Wood e t  relations  model t h a t  which i n c l u d e d concepts G u n d e r s o n 1984; Katz  incorporates  both  organizations  theory  and c o n t i n u e d  primary  on t h e i r  relationship  is beneficial  system  to maintain  to c o l l e c t i v e  environment Homeostasis,  a balance,  changing  been  Shirom  1965)  aspects of f o r examining the  to d e s c r i b e theory  within a few o f and comment  bargaining. on two c o n f l i c t i n g  Change c a n be d i s r u p t i v e it.  a steady  and c y c l i c a l  and i t s i n t e r n a l however,  Easton  s u r v i v a l depends  remain v i a b l e without  the ever  & Deom 1984;  o f open s y s t e m s  change and no c h a n g e . cannot  Easton  s u r v i v a l of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  a system's  system  between  a framework  characteristics  Ironically forces;  It  (Anderson &  model h a s s u b s e g u e n t l y  and e x t e r n a l  and p r o v i d e s  1971;  Craig's  B o u l d i n g 1956;  (Larouche  to  was d e v e l o p e d  theory  ( B o u l d i n g 1956;  internal  dynamic e n v i r o n m e n t s . the  Craig's  researchers  Open s y s t e m s  adaptation  f r o m open s y s t e m s  & Kann 1 9 6 6 ) .  Peterson  an a p p r o a c h  Bolman & D e a l 1984;  m o d i f i e d by o t h e r 1985).  does  t o u s e many o f t h e terms now a s s o c i a t e d w i t h open  be m o d i f i e d by o t h e r  1965;  the  It  i s important  state  for a  or e g u i l i b r i u m  demands  hierarchical  but a  of i t s  external  sub-systems.  i s d i f f i c u l t to m a i n t a i n because of the  natural  tendency  autonomy. its  Each  boundary  achieve  more  systems  are  the  early  between  which  in  of  any  the  theory  rational  views  turn,  bases  must  the  sub-systems  external  the  The to  resources  essence  are  often  goals  tendency may b e  to  satisfy  the  interests  of  in  of  the a  open  necessary relations  stratifications, among  contact  of  the  their  those  the  an may  their  each  main  system.  sub-system  develop  needs  system  natural  divergence  their  to  the  may n o t or  the  trend or  strive this  own o p i n i o n s to  use  demands  of  the  always  be  in  other  toward  value  Yet,  share  o n how b e s t or  different  knowledge  u n w i l l i n g n e s s to  decisions  main  this  goal  of  with  distinct  the  own d e c i s i o n s  These  Subseguently, to  sub-  as  industrial  tensions  to  make  lead  of  avoided,  generates  generate  sub-systems  environment.  may  of  some  and  to  tension  conflict  natural  their  there  external  autonomy  a  be  order  objectives  inherent  environment,  natural  autonomy  attempt  systems.  as  to  in  thicken  various  the  Unlike  to  1984,130).  contribute  of  the  which perceived  the  necessarily  attempts  achieve and  and  local  sub-systems  system.  conflict  (Barbash  information.  best  natural  order  "Conflict is  system  to  industrialism necessarily  of  their  writings,  toward  Although  cooperate  many p a r t s  of  parts  and  to  a  Although  more  a  and o t h e r  is  stratified"  because  within  there  phenomenon. because  sub-systems  self-determination.  management  systems  system's  itself  reguired  the  violation  a  sub-system  main system,  between  for  of  sublocal  divergence  between its  the  various  hierarchical  lead  to  the  sub-systems.  ineffective  available.  or  Masuch 1 9 8 5 ) . bargaining  is  realizing as  the  the  the  the  p o i n t where  the  must  hierarchical goals  of  services  external  programs  the  in the  unable the  to  they  (Barbash  adapt  changes  a system  their to  resources main  conflict  will  of  t h e main  1984;  Glasl  fail  for  faculty  transfer that  are  is  to  sub-systems  provide  needs  of  demands o f  some r e a s o n ,  the  other  faculty,  the  latter's  It  local e v o l v i n g and or  or  if  is  they  clauses  a part  of  imperative  senior  sub-systems,  faculty,  in their  their  restrictive  b o a r d members,  trades  occurring  to  systems  therefore,  their  college  remain v i a b l e .  and t h e  as  products,  job market,  e.g.,  then the  e.g.,  of  equilibrium.  the  of  an  purpose  and i t s  t o be s e n s i t i v e needs  1984;  links  e n v i r o n m e n t and a d j u s t  agreements,  sub-systems,  the  system  collective  Community c o l l e g e s ,  meet t h e  may no l o n g e r  administrators, university  the  and the  for  organization  satisfy  educational  collective  college  of  demise  sub-systems  environment.  If  cyclical  a college's  the  that  and s e r v i c e s  communities.  are  the  and  d i v i s i v e n e s s may  a b o u n d a r y s p a n n i n g mechanism t h a t  c o n t i n u a l l y scan  often  the  sub-systems  The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f or  this  sub-system  m a i n t a i n i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  programs  a main s y s t e m  From t h e s e p r e c e d i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s ,  organization's  in  In t u r n ,  d y s f u n c t i o n a l and l e a d t o  one o r more o f  well  to  o r between  and i n e f f i c i e n t use  T e n s i o n s between  s y s t e m may e s c a l a t e become  sub-systems  to  sphere  e.g.,  be aware of  of  influence  for  and t o be a b l e  to  adjust  must m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e administrators as  set  out  management  If  the  or  This of  rigid  desire  dominate  or  the  students  may d e c i d e  to  college not  terminated,  be a b l e  offer  accepted,  and  in  tensions  not  unrealistic  for  autonomy,  the  labour  strikes.  tendency  their  These  The  t h a t would p r o v i d e  may have  to the  a college  over  their  a  system's  no one p a r t  In severe  college,  obtain jobs,  college  are  during  settle,  lockouts,  natural  to  related  morale  autonomy and c o n t r o l  programs  objectives  and power s t r u g g l e s .  conditions  attend  board,  t h e n t h e r e may  could result  scholarships,  an e n t i r e  its  current,  may be i n j e o p a r d y . to  e.g.,  achieve  not  l e a d to  increase  withdraw from a program,  may no l o n g e r  not  positions,  D e s p i t e the  sub-systems  parts,  colleges  A c t and m i s s i o n  are  trust  seek w o r k i n g  may n o t  to  Community  m i s s i o n statement  are  additional professional  graduates  is  an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o  offers,  own a c t i v i t i e s .  various  unclear,  a lack  e.g.,  f a c u l t y may a l s o for  it  could subseguently  negotiations, demands o r  are  of g o a l s .  including  differences  if  college's  effectively  be a d i v e r g e n c e problems  among i t s  changes.  C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e  strategies  communicated  those  and f a c u l t y ,  i n the  statements.  to  cases,  students be  can  may  cancelled,  private  sector  president  may be  b o a r d may be d i s m i s s e d and  so  on. Open s y s t e m  theory  also  of p r e d i c t a b l e  responses  system  sub-systems.  and i t s  to  suggests the  natural  In i t s  that  there  tensions  guest  for  are  a number  between  increased  a  autonomy, system,  when a s u b - s y s t e m b e g i n s t o d i v e r g e  the  latter  eguilibrium.  will  g e n e r a l l y b e g i n t o move t o  For example,  the  makers may impose more r u l e s , powers,  exercise  its  restrict  sub-systems  and so o n .  strengthen eliciting  its the  can c o n t r o l attempting  centralize rights,  resources,  s u p p o r t of  other  main s y s t e m ,  impose i t s  comply w i t h  Still  choice  compromise t h a t side  i n the  the  long run. the  situations  be a b l e  to  separate. destroy the  the  either  s u b - s y s t e m may s e v e r  restore  In these  them b o t h . interests  eguilibrium  that  to  of  situations  out  on i t s  by  by  for  the  central, system. reach  for  the its  a either  c o n f l i c t may relationship  own.  In  still  and the main s y s t e m may n o t  t h e b a l a n c e between them o r  instances In these  the  t e n s i o n s may i m m o b i l i z e  action-reaction  a l l concerned to  satisfies  they  services,  is  to  by  so t o g e t h e r  the  two s i d e s  sub-system(s)  of  specific  resources,  Another response  In c e r t a i n  flow  and r e g u l a t i o n s ,  demands of  t h e main s y s t e m and s t r i k e  other  in  for  the  a c t u a l l y may n o t be s a t i s f a c t o r y  be so e x t r e m e t h a t with  is  policy  terminate  by w i t h d r a w i n g i t s  the  the  a s u b - s y s t e m may a t t e m p t  own new r u l e s  sub-system to another  or  sub-systems  demanding more power and so o n .  restore  central  control  isolate  In r e t u r n ,  main  d e c i s i o n making  autonomy by s e e k i n g a l t e r n a t e  the to  main s y s t e m ' s  management  information,  from the  the  reach  situations,  a new p o i n t o f  p r i n c i p l e s of  each  party.  and it  is  Open s y s t e m s mechanisms system  are  theory  used to  and i t s  suggests  facilitate  environment  when t h e s e  is  or  i n t e n t i o n a l l y blocked that  processes  enable  or homeostasis sharing  of  the  In t h i s  experience  experienced  change the  is  their the  way t h e  so  the  one way f o r ever  main s y s t e m  s p a n n i n g mechanisms  i n the  to  evaluation  committees,  equilibrium  change  theory  rather  suggests  know what  entire  system.  is  than  that  the  and t o  an o r g a n i z a t i o n  thereby  board,  In a d d i t i o n  change,  a general  committees,  committee,  faculty  administrators,  a  committees,  to  boundary e.g., academic  faculty  membership on instructional  program e v a l u a t i o n committees,  human r e l a t i o n s  to  i n f l u e n c e and  t h e r e may be s e v e r a l  college  to  Collective  sub-groups within  senior  sub-systems  required  to  the  decision  and the  which c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e  committees  feedback  as  process  and a p p o i n t m e n t  faculty-college  are  s h o u l d be  p r o f e s s i o n a l development  select  p o i n t may become  i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n .  f a c u l t y membership on the  selection  become u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y  bargaining process  c h a n g i n g needs  formal negotiation  council,  system  a  sub-systems.  a c q u i s i t i o n of new k n o w l e d g e ,  i n the  negotiators  between  maintain i t s  only incremental  incrementally balance  express  to  Open s y s t e m s  participants  bargaining  system  and i t  balance  i n f o r m a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  severe d i s l o c a t i o n . active  the  t h e s e mechanisms  t h r o u g h the  making p r o c e s s . generally  communication channels  Essentially that  communications  and a s y s t e m  It  disrupted.  that boundary spanning  joint  joint  professional  14 development the  board  purposes  sessions,  and  its  they  essential  committees.  serve  for  Open  department  an  these  theory  the  data.  accommodate  dynamics to  the  can  background  associated  demands  of  centralization,  all  bargaining  process  dissertation and  dissertation  is  by  is  a  review  providing  an  of  the  colleges,  literature  related  fourteen Chapter  scope  and  conflict and  the  by  and  external  bargaining. of  the  and  for  Sensitivity environment,  boundary  spanning  the  collective  community  colleges.  following  to  a  Chapter  fashion.  the  Chapter  builds  on  the  evolution  of  education,  including  British  toward  design.  collective  a  broad  on  One,  It  resolution.  a wide  chapters,  addition  examining  opinions  with  describes  In  higher  research  interviews Five  internal  eight  information  in  to  in  of  literature.  background  Columbia's  study's  empirical  understanding  consists  organized  bargaining  and  benchmark  the  Columbia's  appendix.  collective  conflict  are  and  homeostasis  British  of  other  mechanisms  conceptual  changes  to  the  meetings  OUTLINE  bibliography  Two  collective  important in  a  the  open  being.  literature  cyclical  of  spanning  well  both  autonomy,  are  This  with  the  mechanisms  DISSERTATION  boundary  provides  understanding  and  Regardless  organization's  systems  It  meetings  range  collective  Chapter Chapter  Three Four  bargaining  variety  of  Chapter  factual  One  of  bargaining, outlines  the  summarizes practitioners. institutional  data  on c o l l e c t i v e  b a r g a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community  colleges.  In overview of  collective  agreements  material.  Chapter  a representative  i n Chapter  Seven r e p r e s e n t s  project.  It  presents  s u r v e y of  randomly s e l e c t e d  administrators collective  the  results  and f a c u l t y  bargaining,  the  proposed m o d i f i c a t i o n s to  leaders scope the  and p r e s e n t s  the  of  the the  toward  of  research  senior  two a s p e c t s  collective  the  other  self-administered  b o a r d members,  conclusions.  a b i b l i o g r a p h y and a p p e n d i x e s  heart  the  current  C h a p t e r E i g h t draws study's  of  of  complements  the  college  bargaining.  is  Six,  sample  approach study's  of  b a r g a i n i n g and to  collective  material  Following  together  Chapter  containing pertinent  Eight  data.  16  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The p u r p o s e  of  the  literature  historical  framework  for  literature  pertinent  to  anticipated the  that  development  part  of  with  the  public  the  sections  associated  of  w i t h the  the  deals of  collective  aspects  of  the  of  number o f  separate  that  conflict  material study.  is  the  the  streams  appear  bargaining.  of  assist  often  to  and  major  literature  influence  associated  the  deals  private  The o t h e r  of  aspects  first  that  One c o l l e c t i o n  describes  of  of  people's deals  with  with conflict  integrative  fourth section  the  The  with  and B r i t i s h  Another stream  research  foundation for  was  design.  education  problem.  b a r g a i n i n g and the  limitations  It  in particular.  The t h i r d s e c t i o n  collective  problem.  the  b a r g a i n i n g i n the  d i s t r i b u t i v e ' b a r g a i n i n g and v a r i o u s resolution.  examine  research  includes higher  with factors  provide a  background m a t e r i a l  collective  research  to  r e v i e w would a l s o  an a p p r o p r i a t e  three  is  and t o  research  community c o l l e g e s  consist  opinions  It  study  literature  e v o l u t i o n of  Columbia's  various  of  the  review presents  sectors.  thought  the  the  review  outlines  literature.  model a  This  remaining portions  of  the  17 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND HIGHER EDUCATION Public  Sector  Before  examining  bargaining evolution higher  i s necessary  of c o l l e c t i v e  education,  colleges. in  it  o p i n i o n s of  to develop  bargaining  and t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s  1  ferment  1986).  took  t h e emergence o f t h e women's  and h i g h t e c h n o l o g y  and t h e t w i n economic  inflation  and h i g h unemployment,  of  change.  collective Legal  particularly  sector  employees.  to  movement,  factors  contributed  the  increased  C o m m i s s i o n 1985;  digit  t o an a t m o s p h e r e  supportive  legislation  i n the p u b l i c  of l a b o u r  labour  originated  private  impacted  the N a t i o n a l  practice  Carter  sector.  i n the  public  Labour  major  step  f o r an e m p l o y e r n o t  b a r g a i n i n g w i t h employees 1973;  related  relations,  (Wagner A c t ) , was t h e f i r s t  Carr  student  changes were b o t h p r e c e d e d by  bargaining,  an u n f a i r  the  to the space  cf double  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s  A c t o f 1935  making i t  D e n n i s o n 1987;  a p e r i o d o f 30 y e a r s g r a d u a l l y  engage i n c o l l e c t i v e  Royal  d u r i n g a p e r i o d of  related  particularly  i n the f i e l d  collective  but over  toward  social  bargaining,  sector  Relations  These  by i n c r e a s i n g l y  reforms  colleges  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e V i e t n a m War,  activism,  and p a r a l l e l e d  community  From a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e ,  race,  to  i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r and  place  i n research  consciousness  of the  C o l u m b i a ' s community  surge  social  an a p p r e c i a t i o n  ( A n d e r s o n & G u n d e r s o n 1984;  Dennison & G a l l a g h e r  social  collective  including B r i t i s h Columbia's  The o r i g i n o f B r i t i s h  the 1960 s  social  people's  1982;  (Canada,  Garbarino  1975). the  The C a n a d i a n government  early  part  passed  of the twentieth  century  bargaining  i n the p r i v a t e  Act,  R a i l w a y D i s p u t e A c t , 1903,  1900,  Investigations (Carter  A c t , 1907,  1984;  This  Canada,  early  toward  involved voluntary  government's 1944, the of  legislation government,  legislation. fundamental the  right  employees, binding least  process  agreements,  representation,'and (Woods  1973).  Carter  legislation.  the U n i t e d uci  in.5d  faith,  of at  conciliation  exclusivity  (1982)  by t h e  i n good  over  of  the  contracts  union control  States  included  selected  compulsory  system  s, number  These  bargaining  procedures,  Ponak  lockout  While  parliamentary  trade unions,  or a l o c k o u t ,  (1982),  initially  w h i c h was a p p r o v e d i n  after  a two s t a g e  internal  was o r i e n t e d  The  concepts.  negotiation,  to a s t r i k e  units,  representatives  grievance  legislation  conciliation.  O r d e r 1003 con  to organize  1973).  or a  f o r Canada's  bargaining  i n duration,  Woods  to a s t r i k e  i n Canadian labour  of b a r g a i n i n g  compulsory  prior  prior  t h e A c t was p a t t e r n e d  o f employees  collective  Disputes  The p r o c e s s  O r d e r 1003,  was d e s i g n e d  collective  a year  bargaining  to compulsory  Privy Council  certification  Industrial  u n l i k e the American  of d i s p u t e s .  Privy Council  was a m i l e s t o n e  to  e . g . , Dominion C o n c i l i a t i o n  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n 1985;  conciliation  changed  related  in  C o n c i l i a t i o n and L a b o u r A c t , 1908,  to e s t a b l i s h  the r e s o l u t i o n  b u t was l a t e r  sector,  legislation,  w h i c h was d e s i g n e d  a number o f b i l l s  its  and Woods  of affairs (1973)  note  that  parallel  over  a p e r i o d of t i m e ,  sector  comprehensive until  emergence  conducive general,  legal  support  however,  between  was n o t  e n v i r o n m e n t was  and t h e s t a t u s precipitous  changes  quo i n  time  in social  b a r g a i n i n g f o r many a r e a s  twenty  including  and t h i r t y  which i n c l u d e s f e d e r a l municipal  employees,  employees  of a s s o r t e d  rapid rate  Although  for public  norms"  working  years  health  old.  provincial  the mid 1 9 6 0 ' s .  f r o m 1956  and 1965  a number o f p u b l i c prior  action  sector  approach relations  "The a s s o c i a t i o n s  that  and eschewed  membership r e q u i r e m e n t s . . . S t r e s s was l a i d .consultation  mechanisms..."  t h e r e was a g e n e r a l  (Ponak  perception  that  is  service,  employees,  experienced  its  (Ponak  1932).  trade  unions,  to the mid 1950's  dominated labour  formed opposed s t r i k e  sector  t e a c h e r s and  enterprises,  the a s s o c i a t i o n - c o n s u l t a t i o n conditions  The p u b l i c  care workers,  government  employees,  of the p u b l i c  Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  employees,  of growth  t h e r e were  Municipal  1982),  to  It  1982,349).  i n North America,  e.g.,  major  and f o r a  t o emerge.  "The s o c i a l  a particularly  to undertake  Collective  most  system  that  b a r g a i n i n g i n the  t o mature  to c h a l l e n g i n g a u t h o r i t y making i t  employees  of c o l l e c t i v e  a l l o w e d the p r o c e s s  the 1960's  (Ponak  introduced  legislation.  The g r a d u a l private  the p r o v i n c e s  (Ponak  to e s t a b l i s h i n g f r o m W o r l d War I  public  employees  compulsory on a v a r i e t y  1982,345).  At that  of time  b a r g a i n i n g was i m p r o p e r  (Carr  1973)  and t h e f e e l i n g t h a t  c a r e of i t s employees Ponak 1 9 8 4 ) . the  1950's  (Crispo  and 1 9 6 0 ' s , - t h i s  1975)  public  proclaimed  them f a i r l y  process  States,  President  limited  employees  the P u b l i c  and i n 1963,  Service  which p r o v i d e d c o l l e c t i v e  Staff  employees  (Canada 1985;  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s  Relations Act.  the  massive  (Ponak Ponak  1982; (1982)  g r o w t h of t h e p u b l i c Rose  1984).  notes  Rose  "...That  "association-consultation" was  1982;  favourable  Ponak 1982;  sector  f r o m 1956 t o 1965  the s h i f t  with reference  that  private  to " u n i o n - c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " p o l i c y changes  climate  of s o c i a l  staff  unions.  Public  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e b a r g a i n i n g g a i n s  unions secured,  change  after  as o f  . . .  i n l e a d e r s h i p as  t o model t h e m s e l v e s  sector  to  from  l e d t o changes  also  Woods 1973) .  l e g i s l a t i o n coincided with  Dissatisfaction  e m p l o y e e s were  that  to p r o v i n c i a l  w i t h the c o n s u l t a t i o n process  sector  The A c t  for federal  disillusionment  began  to  of p r o v i n c i a l a c t s  (1984,91)  as much a f u n c t i o n o f p u b l i c  associations  Executive  the C a n a d i a n government  bargaining rights  Carter  begging"  1982).  bargaining rights  similar collective  in  bargaining rights  e m p l o y e e s was f o l l o w e d by a s u c c e s s i o n granted  1973:  changes  K e n n e d y ' s 1962  collective  take  (Carr  of " c o l l e c t i v e  began t o b r e a k down (Ponak  10988 g r a n t e d  federal  treat  With the r a p i d e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l  In t h e U n i t e d Order  and would  t h e government w o u l d  during  as w e l l  the 1960s".  as by t h e g e n e r a l  It of  i s worth n o t i n g  public sector  provincial  t h e government  bargaining  restrictive  governments  agreements  legislation.  and g o v e r n m e n t s  additional employees  costs.  called  Governments  They c a n a l s o  bargaining  governed  by l o c a l  schools,  hospitals,  assumed  can r a i s e  of p u b l i c sector  "phantom"  almost  governmental  full  p r o v i n c i a l government,  boards. local  In these  governing  resources, pressure  bargaining  i s t h e phenomenon  1932,354). e.g.,  Although  community  In a d d i t i o n ,  f o r funding these  many l a b o u r  with the  than d e a l  the union(s)  body may n o t have  level  power  structures  o f power  out t h a t  over  guasi,  local that  the  i t s own  to b r i n g  (Millett  19S5) .  "decentralized  c a n impede u n i o n  (Thompson & Swimmer 1 9 8 4 , 1 1 1 ) .  gradually  of funds,  may p e r c e i v e  complete  often  colleges,  u n i o n s would  rather  i t h a s been p o i n t e d  decision-making  have  source  on a h i g h e r  sector  Another  w i t h the primary  instances  to  t o c o v e r any  i n w h i c h c a s e t h e u n i o n may a t t e m p t  to bear  not s u b j e c t  of the p r i v a t e  a strike.  responsibility  to d e a l  of  save money by l o c k i n g o u t  boards,  Hence,  alter  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  many p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s  agencies.  undoubtedly p r e f e r  can u n i l a t e r a l l y  are a l s o  taxes  (Ponak  autonomous  A t t h e f e d e r a l and  through  o r by n o t d i s c o u r a g i n g  characteristic  characteristics  i s b o t h e m p l o y e r and  same demand and s u p p l y mechanisms  markets  the  bargaining.  T h i s means t h a t  collective  the  collective  level  regulator.  soma o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  effectiveness"  This underscores  that  notion  that  collective  political  process  Higher At  b a r g a i n i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r (Wollett  t h e sair.e time  as r a d i c a l  the 1960's  of postsecondary  Gallagher  (1986,31),  "Propelled  1971) .  Education  were t a k i n g p l a c e , phase  economic  education  higher  Canada's  major  growth  economic  value  of postsecondary  the  increase  conditions,  education  rates  a greater  awareness of the v a l u e  that  capital  movement.  this  federal  reports,  funding  programs,  Arrangement,  faith reached  of e d u c a t i o n  latter  concept  school  grew  the  (1937)  1964  Programs  Formalized c o l l e c t i v e  with  o u t o f t h e human  was e n c o u r a g e d  e . g . , Established  and  Annual  t h e p u s h f o r expanded  and programs  system,  i n an  Dennison  of Canada's  factors  education,  e . g . , Massey C o m m i s s i o n , 1951,  1977.  i n the  age s t u d e n t s ,  (Dennison 1987).  In a d d i t i o n ,  facilities  by w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c  t o pay f o r h i g h e r  t o the Economic C o u n c i l  notes  f a v o u r e d by  of the secondary  a b i l i t y of p a r e n t s  society  by A x l e r o d ,  d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s became one o f  increased  education  to a paper  i n t h e number of c o l l e g e  Report,  Dennison &  Coupled w i t h the p r e c e d i n g  retention  industrialized  changes  extraordinary  expansion.  i n d u s t r i e s . . . Popular  heights".  the h i g h e r  an  and b u t t r e s s e d  support,  was  and economic  experienced  with reference  by b u o y a n t  unprecedented  social  education  free-spending p o l i t i c i a n s ,  reference  i s indeed a  higher  by t h e and f e d e r a l  Financing  b a r g a i n i n g began  to  23  emerge on t h e h e e l s  of t h i s  massive  expansion  i n higher  education. Prior  to the appearance  university methods  and t h e t r a d e  of h i g h e r  Columbia.  o f t h e community c o l l e g e ,  school  education  Not u n l i k e  were t h e p r i m a r y  the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  i n some o f t h e o t h e r  consultative  university  the 1940's  presidents  the f a c u l t y  informal  and v o l u n t a r y  approach  was c o n s i s t e n t  process  administration  bargaining  no f o r c e  "...were  d i d not r e g u i r e  gentleman's  i n l a w " (Green  By t h e m i d s i x t i e s , institutions  governed  and e x t e r n a l  attack  Gallagher  1986,222).  wages,  traditional  poor  "chinks  colleagues  and t o engage i n This  tradition a formal  of  codified  The r e s u l t i n g  agreements  i n t h e armour  to a p p e a r . . . a t  institutions  and t h e y  Faculty  rights,  of  [had]  collegial  a t i m e when  were coming u n d e r  for being unresponsive"  job security,  faculty  administrations  1971).  i n Canada began  collegially  a number o f  (Thompson 1 9 6 8 ) .  w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y  and t h e r e f o r e  were n o t uncommon  a few o f t h e i r  ( D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1986) .  arrangements  the  to s e l e c t  sectors,  authoritarian  some u n i v e r s i t y  meet w i t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y  collegiality  Although of  consultative  service  associations  had a h i s t o r y  (Thompson 1 9 7 5 ) ,  would i n v i t e to  faculty  public  and t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s .  Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s  delivery  i n b o t h Canada and B r i t i s h  associations  during  the  internal  (Dennsion &  were b e c o m i n g d i s s a t i s f i e d the p e r c e i v e d  a lack  of l e g a l  with  e r o s i o n of p r o t e c t i o n and  what  they  perceived  administrators  in  w i t h open s y s t e m s  t h a t when p e r s o n a l  institutions  powerlessness action (1983), that  of h i g h e r  sets  (Danese  1977;  the v a r i a n c e  Dull  comparisons  governance  Carr  1976;  G a r b a r i n o 1975;  process. Ryor,  proper  loss Perra  i n higher  1972;  Volpe  unions.  part  suggests  education  makes  (1979,21)  that  B e g i n 1974;  1982)  professionals  G r o s s v i c k l e 1930;  1970's,  suggested  with s a l a r i e s  that  and e t h e r toward  e d u c a t i o n was p r e c i p i t a t e d by i n t h e d e c i s i o n making  with reference  academics  have  saw t h a t  to the w r i t i n g s of  " t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e way  power and t o r e - a s s e r t  i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s "  In the l a t e  Bigoness  F e u i l l e & Blandin  o f t h e movement  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  the e r o s i o n of t h e i r role  Crist  and t h e l a c k o f  & Maxey 1978;  bargaining i n higher  suggests  stop  corrective  1973);  Thompson 1975;  working c o n d i t i o n s ,  a perceived  for  systems  Franke  Gerhart  Ladd & L i p s e t  1972;  collective  take  Walker & Lawler 1980).  a d d i t i o n to the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  basic  diminishes  and a s e n s e o f  ( A n d e r s o n 1985;  & V a n E y c k 1973;  Herman 1975;  to  or group e f f i c a c y  difficult.  1978;  in  of  i t has been  t o Ponak & Thompson ( 1 9 8 3 ) ,  A number o f w r i t e r s  Mclnnis  1971;  action  Thompson 1 9 3 2 ) .  involved will  i n governance  of shared  theory,  education  i n , those  with reference  definition  capricious  ( D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1936;  Consistent hypothesized  t o be t h e u n i l a t e r a l  Crispo  was t o t u r n  (1978,146)  i s not a mysterious  their  wrote  phenomenon".  to  "Unionism It  i s not  difficult  to  collective  u n d e r s t a n d why p r o f e s s i o n a l s  b a r g a i n i n g to  solve  some of  been v a g u e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d about bargaining  contract as  management,  more e f f e c t i v e  unilaterally  well  learned don't  that  have  if  for  of  they  (1982,382)  or  as  inclusion  that  dependent  have  it  on the  adopted  whims o r  i n the  agreement,  embraced  conditions.  organize  objectives  to  these previous  have  they  at  thoughts  "organize  suggests  the  salaries,  "Professional  achieve  as  bargaining to  is  avoid  their  that  many  b a r g a i n i n g as  initially  s u c h as  bit  o r u n i o n d o m i n a t e d by  collective least  themselves  a  professionals  Defensive c o l l e c t i v e  His research  on f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e s  a  defensive  agreements  benefits  motives  own economic  are or  and  focused basic  o f f e n s i v e when social  t h r o u g h b a r g a i n i n g . . . " and " . . . u s u a l l y r e s p o n d t o  or p e r c e i v e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n  which o f t e n autonomy,  of  capricious  " T h e m o t i v a t i o n of  in a bargaining unit  mechanism and t h a t  real  against  b a r g a i n i n g may be c l a s s i f i e d  when f a c u l t y  professionals  they  or  have  A collective  than a p o l i c y statement  refines  offensive.  non-professionals".  working  protection  don't  adopting c o l l e c t i v e  defined  past.  they  a law-making b o d y . . . P r o f e s s i o n a l s  He s u g g e s t s  defensive  i n the  problems  to  it".  Thompson further.  as  by management  f a v o u r a b l e budgets  the  turning  embodying p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s  participation, is  are  challenges  pride  basic  i n work,  in their  values  of  and economic  working c o n d i t i o n s  professionalismsecurity"  (Thompson  a  1982,382,383).  Thompson s u g g e s t e d  as  a centralized  of  offensive  article  organizational  actions.  by Hammer & Berman  collective  offensive suggests college  (1981)  faculty that  sector  reference  had n e v e r  college  had noted  high...".  costs  Given  sector,  previous  similar  sector,  earlier  social  counteract  bi-lateral  philosophies,  and t h e y  want most  they  of the With  Kochan a t a l .  while "American  managers  o f o p p o s i n g u n i o n s was t o o  i t i s not unreasonable  b a r g a i n i n g i n the  t o assume  that the  may a p p l y e q u a l l y t o t h e p u b l i c education.  A l l of these  t o a domino e f f e c t  both i n the U n i t e d States since  i n the  may be i n o t h e r  however,  that  t o management  undoubtedly c o n t r i b u t e d  Yet,  b o a r d members and  the e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e  sentiments  that  p h i l o s o p h i c o p p o s i t i o n to  s p e c i f i c a l l y to higher  colleges  o f one v i e w  ( D e n n i s o n Sc. G a l l a g h e r 1935,223).  abandoned t h e i r  unions...the  public  results  to the p r i v a t e  (19843,265),  power.  t h e s e d e f e n s i v e and  common i n s t i t u t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s  same d a y - t o - d a y  the cause  say that  to managerial  and w o r k e r s  share  actions,  i n an e a r l i e r  are not normally a d v e r s a r i e s  supervisors often  i s noted  developed i n spite  members  they  are often  i n which they  "College administrators,  workplaces;  to  same i d e a  education  relationships  same ways  more  authority,  b a r g a i n i n g i s a response  In the h i g h e r  hold  This  t h a t management's  i t s appearance  among community  education  of f a c u l t y  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s ,  factors  and C a n a d a .  i n higher  the d e t e r i o r a t i o n  s e c t o r and  as a means  involvement i n the  collective  bargaining  does  not  appear  t o have  involvement academic  Thompson 1979;  Bohlander 1984b)  of  (Baldrige  Spritzer  1935;  Dayal  & Odewahn 1 9 7 8 ) .  1984;  to r e a c h . suggest  1934;  senates,  appears  Ponak & Thompson  (1972)  perhaps  makers, (1985) trust.  but the f a c u l t y ' s  i . e . , Administration. found  a correlation  college  institution's university  and P l u m l e y ' s  i t i s not j u s t  This  between h i g h  conflict  and low  (1973),  last  Millet's  however,  accurately  to t h e i r  (1934)  finding  suggests  sector.  reflected faculty  university  research  suggests  centralization  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  administration  of c o l l e g e  t o t h e same e x t e n t  i n an as  may be m i s l e a d i n g i n process  I n a d d i t i o n , i t may of c o l l e g e  faculty  the s t r o n g  desire  to achieve  professional  cf a  counterparts. that  functions,  systems,  that  to p a r t i c i p a t e  the h e t e r o g e n e i t y  university transfer  more a k i n  is  i n the d e c i s i o n  was c o n d u c t e d t h e b a r g a i n i n g  have g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d  rights  that  Katz et a l .  had n o t m a t u r e d i n t h e c o l l e g e  b u t may n o t have  the l a c k  research  f a c u l t y do n o t e x p e c t  when t h e r e s e a r c h  college's  of t r u s t  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  faculty.  agreements  In t h e i r  Mortimer's research  generally,  that  lack  t o have  1981;  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  critical  Ponak &  may make c o l l e c t i v e  Driscoll's that  It  (Baldridge  Hines  w h i c h i n some i n s t a n c e s  findings  e.g.,  1 9 8 1 ; B e n j a m i n 1985;  the b a r g a i n i n g process  more d i f f i c u l t (1978)  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f a c u l t y  i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l governance,  councils  formalized  increased  when t h e r e e.g.,  is a  statewide  as n o t e d a decade  earlier  -i o *-»  by R y o r  (1978),  loss  power o r  of  faculty  are  observations Riley's  including level,  bargaining  is  units  boards  since  the  funds,  as  as  shift  governance  some of to  1981). the  professional  this  more p r e s s u r e  faculty  bargaining  process  that  at  a  state  the  between  significant, majority similar  of  been  college 1979;  to  This  college  boards,  and the  College-  many of  issue  all of  is  a  matters.  t h e r e has  bargaining.  structure  may be an emergent  local  tension  associations  but excludes the  functions,  i n more p r e s s u r e  The l a t t e r  representing  B a s e d on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  bargaining.  Hollick-Kenyon  faculty  associations,  associations,  (1984)  involvement i n l o c a l  on the  Association.  the  and o t h e r  may r e s u l t  and autonomous  association  is  usually control  more M i n i s t r y  Educator's  i n the  is  of  college  This  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  faculty  or  an i n c r e a s e  province-wide c o l l e c t i v e  administrators, Institute  boards  to  stages  collective  t e n s i o n between  state m i n i s t r i e s .  In time  local  could place  college  to  cyclical  centralized  ( D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1936;  a form of  turn  are  program a p p r o v a l s ,  The p e r c e p t i o n a gradual  These  perceived  t o move  t h a t when c e r t a i n  i n the  college  state ministries  college's  Michaels  suggests  and the  and t h e  the  a desire  e v o l u t i o n of  bargaining,  well  for  w i t h Thompson & Swimmer's  an i n c r e a s e  administrations, the  the  research  collective  there  bargaining.  consistent  regarding  (1979)  compensation  autonomy by e x p r e s s i n g  s y s t e m wide c o l l e c t i v e development  sought  by move  in  senior  a  the  certified  3CGEU the  i n the  locals.  collective future.  It  is the  against  this  tumultuous  community c o l l e g e British  the growth  note  that  as e a r l y  master p l a n f o r a system Columbia, However,  entitled it  i n 1958,  that  began  elements  of e d u c a t i o n a l  suggests provide and p a r t  that  greater time  education,  access  students,  and programs  changes  that  One of  was t h e need f o r  i n respect  available  to the  and t h e p l a c e s  education  to provide  that  local  c o u l d cope  were o c c u r r i n g  comprehensiveness  education  Dennison  o f i n s t i t u t i o n was r e q u i r e d  to higher  (1987) to  f o r both f u l l  access  to  where  time  higher  c u r r i c u l u m and t o p r o v i d e w i t h the  in society.  found t h e i r  Schools  and t h e work of  consideration.  both  to p r o v i d e a broad based  courses  of  more  Columbia".  to the P u b l i c  ( M a c d o n a l d 1962,.19).  a new t y p e  3ritish  of the R o y a l Commission  i n 1960,  of o p p o r t u n i t y ,  c a n be o b t a i n e d . . . "  in  College i n B r i t i s h  of Macdonald's r e p o r t  experience  other  Knott had d e v e l o p e d a  a d i v e r s i f i e d higher  to r e c e i v e  in  Dennison & Gallagher  t h e amendments  Commission)  "...Diversification  it  as 1932,  " The J u n i o r  (Chant  system  critical  kinds  o f community c o l l e g e s  the t a b l i n g of the Report  M a c d o n a l d i n 1962, delivery  that  in British  o f community c o l l e g e s  was n o t u n t i l  on E d u c a t i o n  the  system  o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  (19S6)  tapestry  originated.  o f t h e community c o l l e g e  Columbia p a r a l l e l e d  Act  and economic  C o l u m b i a ' s Community C o l l e g e s  The g r o w t h  parts  social  way i n t o  technological  I n 1977  these  tenants  t h e C o l l e g e and  Institute of  Act.  a college  equivalent  7 of the A c t s t a t e s  are to p r o v i d e comprehensive  that  (a)  t o t h o s e g i v e n by a u n i v e r s i t y a t  second year  post  and t r a i n i n g ; Across  Section  secondary  and (c)  level;  continuing  Canada t h e r e were  (b)  post  courses  a student  secondary  it  Columbia  apart  rather  college's  1987;'Dennison  comprehensiveness, Institute  Act.  comparable Perra  theme.  rather  than a  notes  were  that  boards  Public  Schools A c t .  and a  i t was t h e  curriculum that systems  set  i n Canada  This  concept  college  of  s y s t e m was and s t i l l  is  This  beards  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the  and t h e r e f o r e  fell  under  came about  to " . . . e s t a b l i s h  Community c o l l e g e s  boards  of governors  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community  P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t i n 1963,  colleges  elitism,  s e t o u t i n t h e 1977 C o l l e g e and  established  initially  school  school  college  than  to the B r i t i s h Columbia model.  w h i c h were  1963-1376,  rather  & G a l l a g h e r 1986).  Only A l b e r t a ' s  (1979)  colleges,  boards  comprehensive  was l a t e r  education  on t h i s  than r e s e a r c h ,  f r o m many o f t h e o t h e r  (Dennison  the  on a c c e s s  autonomous  for teaching  study  education.  many v a r i a t i o n s  an e m p h a s i s  orientation,  propensity British  mandate,  of  t h e f i r s t and  In a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g a community o r i e n t a t i o n provincial  "The o b j e c t s  local  the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the  t h r o u g h t h e amendment o f  which enabled l o c a l and m a i n t a i n and  public  operate..."  (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1936,29).  The  c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l  until  a s e p a r a t e C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e s  school  A c t was  introduced  i n 1977.  unlike  universities  the  responsibility making  for  or  primarily  Section  a departure  participatory  labour  12  from the  1986)  schools,  .  A factor was  the  College  university  boards,  had  that  the  d e c i s i o n making, of  college  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  relations  and a c a d e m i c  under  vocational  both academic  on c o l l e g e  administrative  beginning these  the  (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r  an i m p a c t  was  From t h e  decision would have  combination as  set  out  and I n s t i t u t e s  tradition  d e c i s i o n making w i t h r e s p e c t  of  to  of  Act,  collegial  or  academic  matters. At  the  time  universities,  of  writing,  fell  under  the  the  Industrial  Relations  Act.  Industrial  Relations  A c t was  the  L a b o u r Code was  the  day,  was  amended  the  employees, According  called  substantially  permit  except  j u r i s d i c t i o n of  The l a b o u r  New D e m o c r a t i c to  the  those  covered  May 13,  1975  Association,  the  faculty  voted  the  respective  to  the  legislative  university revised  the  senate.  minutes to  mandate  prior  of  1974, of  the  the  the  implement  Act,  the  1973,  government  of  L a b o u r Code  Schools  Act.  UBC F a c u l t y a special  of  Credit  plan  for  appointment,  decisions  academically Social  In  professional  Public of  the  provinces's  to  by t h e  conditions  the  unlike  Labour Code.  and a c a d e m i c  1977,  Universities  the  Other working c o n d i t i o n s  faculties  In  In  by t h e  benefits,  p r o m o t i o n and d i s m i s s a l . to  the  certification  the  salaries,  act  revised  Party.  to  determining  community c o l l e g e s ,  were  left  were  left  oriented government  and d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d  the  university  faculty  i n the area  of c o l l e c t i v e  bargaining  (Perra  1979) . The  Colleges  methods  f o r the c o l l e g e s  determine Under "...  salaries,  Part  persons  provided  professional  and o t h e r  and i n c l u d e s  designated  working c o n d i t i o n s . employee  but " . . . d o e s as s e r v i n g  collective  (1979,28)  suggests  that  while the b i l a t e r a l  c o m p a r i s o n methods  have  "...the  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s  professionalism:  faculties  participation  it  union  course  granted  no autonomous of  action.  they  under  the b i l a t e r a l  and f a i r  seek  the  their  that  peer  group  "...unless  that  they  and P r o v i n c i a l  will  Perra  f o r meeting  will  association  enjoy  Institutes  to d e c e r t i f y  the Labour C o d e " .  faculty  The t h r e e  i n management,  growth..."  the C o l l e g e s  i s doubtful that  status  writing  potential  c a n be p r o v i d e d w i t h a s s u r a n c e s  some autonomy u n d e r Act,  the i n s t i t u t i o n  comparison method.  and f o r f o s t e r i n g  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  educational  bargaining,  method and t h e f a i r  evaluation  i s d e f i n e d as  not i n c l u d e  or c o n f i d e n t i a l c a p a c i t y . . . " .  agreement  needs  to  an e m p l o y e e who i s a  by t h e m i n i s t e r  include c e r t i f i e d  three  employees  o f an i n s t i t u t i o n who p r o v i d e s  o r an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . . . "  a managerial  methods  and t h e i r  benefits  to students  librarian  A c t (1977)  1 of the A c t a p r o f e s s i o n a l  an e m p l o y e e  services  in  and I n s t i t u t e  their  A t the time o f  has pursued  that  The I n d u s t r i a l advantages affords or  that  discuss,  and employee  Services  Stabilization autonomous  Institutes the  expressed  cite,  Program  Perra  1986; 1979)  interference  centralization b o a r d members  a specific  administrative  term  councils  to  precedents  and  t h e L a b o u r Code  acts,  e.g.,  A c t and t h e C o m p e n s a t i o n  t h e C o l l e g e and  concerns  autonomy. (Calader  were r a i s e d  One o f t h e 1984;  Hollick-Kenyon  1979; of  autonomy.  about  concerns  Corwin  i s the p e r c e p t i o n  of the d r i f t  board appointments,  want  with i n d u s t r i a l  relations  under  i n college  on c o l l e g e  and the  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r o v i s i o n  1980's  of the c o l l e g e  strike  t h e L a b o u r Code  legislative  (1983).  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  to  unilateral  of i t s i n c e p t i o n  governing boards  as examples  without  from  A c t , Human R i g h t s  of the boards'  Newcomb 1982; provincial  the r i g h t  In a d d i t i o n ,  the time  Dennison & G a l l a g h e r  of  protection  A c t , i n the e a r l y  erosion  the r i g h t  t h e body o f law a s s o c i a t e d  Since  It  a n y t h i n g t h e two s i d e s  been s u p p l e m e n t e d by o t h e r  Essential  for  contract,  B r i t i s h Columbia's labour  due p r o c e s s . has  about  a number o f  do n o t o f f e r .  security,  decisions.  the p a r t i e s  relations,  two methods  union  to b a r g a i n  administrative  Act provides  of a b i n d i n g  internal  flexibility  affords  the other  the r i g h t  lockout,  Relations  1984;  M i c h a e l s 1981; increasing  These  authors  toward p r o v i n c i a l system,  boards,  the l a c k  the apparent  the appointment of appointment, i n 1983,  of l o c a l  school  political  nature  of board  members  the a b o l i t i o n of the  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a  34 . province-wide of  Section  colleges  system  of formula funding  66 o f t h e A c t w h i c h e v e r y  t o show c a u s e why t h e y  and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  f i v e years  requires  should continue  to  exist.  From a c o l l e c t i v e  bargaining perspective  these  questions  t o phantom b a r g a i n i n g ,  province-wide  related  collective academic  bargaining,  areas,  participatory  shifts  raise  d e c i s i o n making i n  t h e autonomy o f c o l l e g e  boards  and management  rights. In a d d i t i o n to the v a r i o u s Columbia's expansion  colleges  have  Following  the f i r s t  when t h e government teacher's  been s u b j e c t e d  and f i n a n c i a l r e t r e n c h m e n t  & G a l l a g h e r 1986). education,  following 1983,  restraint  their  reduced  public issues,  service  the expansion  regions, success  at  Party's  relations  process.  budget  have  restraint  In s p i t e  program  of the  the  the S o c i a l C r e d i t  government,  educational  t h e p o l l s i n 1975 and a g a i n i n  layoffs  These  i n f l a t i o n and  t o expand t o meet  community c o l l e g e staff  the s c h o o l  o f t h e 1960s began t o s l o w  budgets.  and o t h e r  been a c o n c e r n  Right across  and j o b s e c u r i t y  which i n t u r n p l a c e d p r e s s u r e  bargaining  came i n 1964,  H i t by b o t h d o u b l e d i g i t  on t h e c o l l e g e s  of f i n a n c i a l  ( D e n n i s o n 1987; D e n n i s o n  t o t h e 1975 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n .  demands o f t h e i r  to c y c l e s  the r a p i d expansion of h i g h e r  h i n t of f i s c a l  down w i t h t h e New D e m o c r a t i c  pressures  British  o f t h e day moved t o l i m i t  salaries.  h i g h unemployment,  prior  policy shifts,  on t h e aspects  became  the  critical  collective of labour  i n B r i t i s h Columbia's  colleges  for  some  time.  Newcomb ( 1 9 8 2 ) ,  notes  Ministry,  Michaels  (1981),  relations  concerns  i n the c o l l e g e  issues  third  party  process  labour  respective lack  local  faculty  autonomy;  lack  frequent  and cumbersome  the i n e q u i t a b l e  the slow response  unionism versus  of c o l l e c t i v e  turnover  of c o l l e g e expertise;  opportunities;  t i m e and  appointments  and t h e l a c k  staff  to  collegiality;  for negotiators;  presidents;  the p a r t i s a n  and t h e  p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ; the  bargaining versus  the l a c k  use o f  among t h e c o l l e g e s  o f a common i n f o r m a t i o n base  relations  training  legislation;  the d i s a s t r o u s  the expensive  associations;  trade  f o r the  i n c l u d e d such  o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e BCGEU h e a d q u a r t e r s  situations;'  labour  experts;  These  of the government's  of f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s  adversarialness the  local  system.  o f m e d i a t i o n and a r b i t r a t i o n ;  distribution  the  versus  i n a report  u n c o v e r e d a number o f l a b o u r  as t h e a n t i - u n i o n t o n e  centralization  that  the l a c k  of l a b o u r nature  of a s t r a t e g i c  the  of  internal  relations  of board  p r o v i n c i a l manpower  plan. Unlike  Ontario,  negotiations under  i n B r i t i s h Columbia's fourteen  t h e L a b o u r Code a r e h a n d l e d a t  opposed Perra  Quebec and some o f t h e o t h e r  to the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l  1979).  academic  and v o c a t i o n a l  association college  Some c o l l e g e s  have  faculty,  colleges  the l o c a l  level  certified as  (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r separate  associations  while other  f o r a l l of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  b o t h the academic  provinces,  and v o c a t i o n a l  colleges  faculty. faculty  1986; f o r the have one  I n one are part  of a  British  C o l u m b i a Government E m p l o y e e s U n i o n  another  college  the In  support  the academic  staff  vocational  British  arrangement  inclusion system. early  have a s e p a r a t e  On t h e a c a d e m i c  as 1978 t h e r e through  Federation, faculty  over  side,  chapter  i n t h e community  Perra  (1979) n o t e s  of the C o l l e g e  Columbia  college  t h a t as collective  Faculty  of the v a r i o u s  i n the p r o v i n c e .  academic  The F e d e r a t i o n  was  College-Institute  Educators A s s o c i a t i o n .  Although the A s s o c i a t i o n  labour  t o it's member  r e l a t i o n s advice  Union.  from t h e t i m e p r i o r t o t h e  knit federation  the B r i t i s h  unit.  of the  Government E m p l o y e e s  the auspices  associations  f a c u l t y and  f o r the  was t a l k a b o u t p r o v i n c e - w i d e  a loose  re-named  union  i s a local  Columbia  i s a carry  and i n  o f t h e same b a r g a i n i n g  of the v o c a t i o n a l - schools  bargaining  later  that  f a c u l t y , the union  province-wide This  faculty, vocational  are a l l part  those c o l l e g e s  local  provides  faculty associations, i t  does n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n any p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g . worth n o t i n g literature  that  that  there  does n o t appear  describes  Government E m p l o y e e s U n i o n associations inclined similar  and t h e BC-CIEA w h i c h d i d n o t a p p e a r  to. j o i n  t h e main s t r e a m  Columbia  the academic f a c u l t y  labour  t o be  movement, b u t s o u g h t  benefits.  W h i l e many o f f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s appear  t o be any p u b l i c  the f e e l i n g s of the B r i t i s h toward  I ti s  t o be u n c e r t a i n  collective  bargaining,  were and c o n t i n u e t o  as t o t h e r o l e o f p r o v i n c e - w i d e t h e b o a r d members o f t h e e a r l y  1980's  were a l s o  split  bargaining.  Michaels  many o f c o l l e g e bargaining local  local  that  internal  salary  thought  province-wide This  w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e  a v o i d the leap  Michaels  (1981)  focused  to share  indicated  on a two t i e r  i s important  a number o f i n s i g h t s  reduce  labour that  approach  into  for several  to  also  provides  streams of r e l e v a n t  the f a c t u a l  bargaining,  the c o l l e c t i v e  questionnaire.  theory  can a l s o  cycles  of change,  literature  and forms  understand  institutional agreements  the  data  environmental  a p o i n t of pre-survey  and t h e r e s u l t s o f open  background m a t e r i a l , changes,  the  on c o l l e c t i v e  Many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  be f o u n d i n t h i s  structures.  and h i g h e r  a b a s e upon w h i c h t o examine  from which to b e t t e r  interviews,  reasons.  the e v o l u t i o n of  It  hierarchical  there  bargaining.  education.  opinion  hand  f r o g g i n g e f f e c t of  b a r g a i n i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r  reference  c o l l e g e s and  On t h e o t h e r  collective  other  reduce  p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g would  background m a t e r i a l  offers  that  bargaining  of the l o c a l  and a l l o w c o l l e g e s  a t t h e time  reported  i t would s u b s t a n t i a l l y  relations.  tensions,  expenses.  discussions  It  labour  (1982)  collective  were o p p o s e d t o p r o v i n c e - w i d e  w i t h the p u r p o s e  settlements,  relations  that  interfere  fractious  were t h o s e  and Newcomb  b o a r d members  interfere  produce  o p i n i o n of p r o v i n c i a l - w i d e  (1981)  on t h e b a s i s  autonomy,  process,  i n their  demands  of the systems e.g.,  f o r autonomy,  FACTORS WHICH MAY - INFLUENCE OPINIONS AND BEHAVIOUR The s e c o n d p a r t areas.  of t h i s  literature  review focuses  One c o l l e c t i o n o f t h o u g h t d e a l s w i t h  appear  to i n f l u e n c e p e o p l e ' s opinions  bargaining. aspects  Another stream  the f a c t o r s  with  Opinions While opinions  of l i t e r a t u r e  explores  together  of i s s u e s  represent  represent  one a r e a  another  area  of  research,  of  research.  which are boundary spanning mechanisms,  (1983,352)  says  bargaining  are important to c o n s i d e r s i n c e the  that  "...personalities representatives  people's opinions  and a t t i t u d e s  bargaining  called  Crist  of c o l l e c t i v e  and e x t e n t  involved  i n the process  o f the i m p a c t  collective  i s t o have on t h e o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n making  (1981,290)  bargaining  1965).  goes  process  "...perception  process".  on t o s a y t h e outcome o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e  i s d e t e r m i n e d by p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and  i s t h e key t o b e h a v i o u r .  determines  parties  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , u n i o n  and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s  determine the nature  things  link  i n t h e b i - l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s b a r g a i n i n g (Walton & M c K e r s i e  Owens  are o f t e n  on C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g  collective  will  various  collective bargaining.  f a c t u a l data  Opinions,  that  of c o l l e c t i v e  o f c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h a t  associated  on two  t h e y way t h e y w i l l  connotes  that  the o p i n i o n s  opinions  i n the other  party  The way p e r s o n s s e e  act".  The l i t e r a t u r e  o f one p a r t y may c r e a t e (Bacharach  similar  & L a w l e r 1981;  Druckman  et  a l . 1972) .  are  positive,  the  other  actions  This  suggests  cooperative  party  will  adversarial  the  " o f the other  (1981^)  also  reinforce  found  each  "differences  be s i m i l a r .  are n e g a t i v e ,  autocratic, actions  i f t h e o p i n i o n s o f one p a r t y  or c o n s t r u c t i v e ,  likely  o f one p a r t y  that  that  other  will  destructive  then i t  follow  that  These n o t i o n s  Masuch  (1985)  suggest  that  viciously  escalation  and Mondy internal  Factors important  that  affect  f o r other  community c o l l e g e s (1965,184) involve  stress  important  contingent the  (1930).  conflict According & Likert  "The i s s u e s  (1982)  through  predictive  to the v a l u e s  when c o n f l i c t  of  authors  of c o n f l i c t . b a r g a i n i n g are  to the nature  i n labour and a r e  negotiations  "...strongly  i n which they h e l d by t h e  1930b),  of  Walton & McKersie  These s e n t i m e n t s  (1934)  t o B i r n b a u m (1930a,  a tendency  situations  negative  and a r e r e l a t e d  upon a t t i t u d e s . . . " .  (1976)  of  circles  human v a l u e s . . . "  is related  Pruitt  i n some  o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e  work o f Bolman & D e a l  that  i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n l e a d t o  i n B r i t i s h Columbia. that  suit.  The two l a t t e r  escalating  reasons  is likely  and i n t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h  tensions  destructive,  the  domineering,  t o be r e s o l v e d  re-enforcement, are found i n both G l a s l ' s model o f c o n f l i c t  of  o p i n i o n s and b e h a v i o u r s c a n  w i t h the r e s u l t  solution.  however,  uncooperative,  o f o p i n i o n may n o t be a b l e  a collaborative  If,  and c o m p e t i t i v e party  then the a c t i o n s  Coser  are echoed i n  say that protagonists.  (1956)  and L i k e r t  emerges i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h  t o w a r d homogeneous v a l u e s ,  t h e c o n f l i c t w i l l be  slow to e r u p t , intense  b u t when i t does  up i t w i l l  be more  than i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s with heterogeneous  values.  B a s e d on t h e s e the  research  heterogeneous  Columbia the  college  suggests  could  sector  that  findings  nature  tensions  with  emerge  i n homogeneous a c a d e m i c  of  of B o u l d i n g  once  parties, involve  (1964)  the f e e l i n g s w i l l matters  academic  parking.  I t would a p p e a r  divergence  of o p i n i o n  (Kleingartner  1973;  of  opinion  reasonable  regarding Level  Ponak 1981)  tension those  is likely  associated  salaries, of  regarding Level  between  it  while  (1978) regardless  various  when t h e t e n s i o n s e.g.  tenure,  as  e.g. salaries,  benefits,  t o assume  while a  that  I bargaining goals  may r e s u l t  i n increased  i s when t h e r e  t o be much more i n t e n s e .  benefits,  and J u d d  i s a divergence  II bargaining goals,  with basic  The r e s e a r c h  d e c i s i o n making,  matters,  t e n s i o n between t h e p a r t i e s ,  associated  or c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s ,  participatory  o p p o s e d t o more s u b s t a n t i v e  t h a t may  by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  be more i n t e n s e  of p r i n c i p l e  freedom,  (1984)  do a r i s e  also  e.g., university  be more i n t e n s e .  Guetzlow  when c o n f l i c t s  It  aroused the emotion  the p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s  the s e c t o r ,  in British  departments  and. e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  that  given  more f r e g u e n t l y and r a p i d l y i n  t h e c o n f l i c t would l i k e l y  supplement  that  t h a n i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r .  departments,  findings  i t would a p p e a r  o f community c o l l e g e s  have p r o f e s s i o n a l v a l u e s transfer  flare  t h a t the  Level  I needs a r e  c o n d i t i o n s o f employment, e . g . ,  Level  I I needs  are those  conditions  employment w h i c h a r e more p r o f e s s i o n a l i n n a t u r e ,  e.g.,  autonomy,  d e c i s i o n making,  d r a w i n g on t h e l i t e r a t u r e preceding intense  attitudes as  of p e r s o n a l  intensify  existing  (Karim & P e g n e t t e r appears  rigid  that  approach  (1973)  p e r n aps  and Weick within  (1976)  rigidly  structured Birnbaum  manner the  hierarchical e.g.,  conflict more  as n o t e d  i n the  i n the f o r m a t i o n o f  Coser  (1956),  Deutsch  suggest  that  be more  suggest  there w i l l  organizations These that  than  authors,  loose  along  organizations a r e more  as d e s c r i b e d  structured  (1979)  conflict  i n more  loosely  with  organizations,  e.g.,  i n an open and f o r t h r i g h t  of d i s p e r s i n g t e n s i o n s  and t h e r e f o r e  loosely  c e n t r a l i z e d and  to Glassman  and t h a t  Colleges  A  involved  with references  deal with c o n f l i c t  hand,  e.g  may a l s o  (1979),  and a r e c a p a b l e  other  the p a r t i e s  play a part  bargaining.  organizations.  universities,  negative  e.g. salaries.  a hierarchical,  may a l s o  structured  (1930a)  w i l l be  party's  or s i n c e r i t y  to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of c o l l e c t i v e  and R u b i n  the  causes or f e e l i n g s ,  factors,  between  (1985),  1933).  background m a t e r i a l , opinions  conflict  the o t h e r  interest  tensions  Baron  complements  that  with i n t e r n a l  opposed to e x t e r n a l lack  more  on a g g r e s s i o n ,  associates  and b e h a v i o u r  perceived  It  evaluations.  f i n d i n g s when he s u g g e s t s  when one p a r t y  values,  peer  that  a r e more  more  rigid,  administratively  i n the A c t , tend  do n o t d e a l  with i t  organizations.  to  easily.  0  more  centralized, suppress  as e f f e c t i v e l y  as  The p r e c e d i n g l i t e r a t u r e important is  also  to  opinions this  has  of  study  opinions  are  leaders,  of  these  salient toward of  collective  As n o t e d bargaining  bargaining. appear  environmental  external  impact  of  organization  (Hall  participants  in  literature  on  the  bargaining these  of  two  groups  literature  deals  in  almost  assumed t h a t  influence faculty  faculty some of  the  opinions  i n f l u e n c e the  college  on  bargaining  instructional  is  and s e n i o r  of  opinions  administrators.  Factors  to  faculty  attitudes  toward  be i n f l u e n c e d by a l a r g e  agents.  culture  dearth  the  that  administrators  collective  b a r g a i n i n g may a l s o  factors,  legal,  to  It  the  collective  section  o p i n i o n s of  earlier,  appear  the  factors  be l i m i t e d l i t e r a t u r e  The o p i n i o n s o f  following  b o a r d members  Environmental  toward  i n v i e w of  that  collective  college  to  and l i t t l e  w i t h the  factors  appears  is It  formation  senior  Newcomb 1932)  the  the  it  bargaining.  W h i l e the  toward  but  notion that  i n f l u e n c i n g the  b o a r d members  two a r e a s ,  toward  there  & Odewahn 1 9 7 8 ) .  exclusively  a number of  b o a r d members,  administrators  important,  the  collective  bargaining.  i n c l u d e the  1981;  (Spritzer  examine  i d e n t i f i e d as  o p i n i o n s of  (Michaels  to  collective  and f a c u l t y the  c o n s i d e r ' o p i n i o n s of  important  literature  supports  e.g.  cultural,  Many a u t h o r s  on an o r g a n i z a t i o n 1976;  Roberts  1983;  collective number o f  structural, have  economic,  commented on  and the Peters  personnel 1983;  the in  Clark  that  1984;  Easton  culture Lawler  1965).  Several  on c o l l e c t i v e 1980;  bargaining  1975;  structure  of American h i g h e r  Garbarino 1981;  ( M i l l e t 1984; 1975;  Kemerer  S k o l n i k 1935).  administrative bust  Dolan 1979).  cycles  unionization  Anderson  Wollnet  influenced  t h e move  collective  bargaining  1974;  significant collective higher as  1971;  i . e . , AAUP,  Kelly  factors  creeping  D o l a n 1979;  R u b i n 1979;  Carr  Stubbs  been shown t o public  Kemerer 1972;  3egin  & V a n E y c k 1973; 1981;  Garvin  appears  to  o f movement 1973;  legalism.  1980;  The e v e r  the  Thompson 1 9 7 5 ;  1974).  have toward  and B a l d r i d g e  1975; Alutto &  One o f t h e most  i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , i s what  Mintz  Carr &  t o emerge d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n  sector,  sector  professional  (Ladd and L i p s e t  1976;  capricious  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  or the l a c k  and C a r t e r  also  Stubb  and boom and  towards  NEA, A F T , a l s o  toward  bargaining  education  1975;  t o be  collective  unemployment  external  G a r b a r i n o 1975; Adell  appears  toward  i n t h e movement  of the v a r i o u s  1971;  & VanEyck 1973  centralized  f u n d i n g have  and G u n d e r s o n 1 9 8 4 ) .  VanEyck 1 9 7 3 ;  Carr  & VanEyck 1973;  inflation,  of  W a l k e r and  In a d d i t i o n to the p e r c e i v e d  factors  1932;  associations,  Belasco  Carr  the impact  1971;  also  attitudes  (Thompson 1975 1 9 8 4 c ;  multiplicity  Proulx  education  in institutional  Ponak  (Proulx  and B a l d r i d g e  actions,  be c o n t r i b u t i n g  1979;  noted  The e v o l v i n g  to changes i n f a c u l t y  bargaining  also  A n d e r s o n and G u n d e r s o n 1982;  Garbarino  related  have  Garbarino increasing  of  i n c l u d i n g the (1975)  referred  f o r m a l i z a t i o n of  to  the  bargaining  process  c o u p l e d w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n  enabling  legislation  resulted  i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  bureaucratic bargaining 1982;  Canada,  systems (Adell  Ponak  1932;  dealing  conflict  manner.  oriented  approach has been  t h e r e has been  legalistic,  relationship  between  of f a c u l t y  Anderson Stubbs  1931;  this to  a move away  from  consultative  or  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  or a d v e r s a r i a l  suggests  literature  seems t o s u g g e s t  prompted  that  whether  these  toward  literature  approach  there  collective  of to  that  1973;  1931;  environmental  factors  the p e r s o n a l  to L e v e l  level.  bargaining,  but the  years  The  f a c t o r s may  I bargaining  Thompson 1 9 8 2 ) .  are important, twenty  f a c t o r s and  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  (Kleingartner  of the past  is a  i s a high c o r r e l a t i o n .  response  Ponak  or not there  environmental  a defensive  at  of  i n a personal,  i s d i f f i c u l t to determine  research  collective  B i r m i n g h a m 1930;  resolution,  Instead  j u d i c i a l and  Thompson 1975;  The i m p a c t  States  resolution.  attitudes  have  1972;  tensions  depersonalized,  conflict  the  public sector  1971;  and r u l e  with i n t e r n a l  collegial  causal  Woilnett  formal  organizational  It  to handle  and C a r t e r  and the U n i t e d  of the n e c e s s a r y  Royal Commission 1985).  legalistic,  a more  i n b o t h Canada  of  While  goals  these  much o f t h e e m p i r i c a l  has f o c u s e d  on t h e  variables  Personal  Factors  The e x i s t i n g  literature  l o n g been i n t e r e s t e d factors,  e.g.  tenure,  gender,  literature  i n the impact  age, years  miscellaneous  suggests  subject  academic  i n the c o l l e g e ,  have  personal r a n k and  d i s c i p l i n e and o t h e r  To o b t a i n a b r o a d p i c t u r e  h a s b e e n drawn f r o m s t u d i e s  instructors  researchers  o f a number o f  of e x p e r i e n c e ,  job function,  factors.  that  the  associated  with  u n i v e r s i t y and p u b l i c  school  sectors. Age. factors,  W h i l e age i s one o f t h e most t h e r e does  not appear  widely studied  t o be a c o n s e n s u s  relationship  between  bargaining.  Many c f t h e e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s  younger  staff  bargaining to  members  and o f t e n  be t h e c a s e  1980;  tend tend  1971;  community c o l l e g e  school  D a v i s 1972;  1978;  (Woolston  1976;  Ladd & L i p s e t  1973;  1976;  Mclnnis  and i n zhe p u b l i c  It  has been s u g g e s t e d  more m i l i t a n t  because  Conklin  (Kemerer  Ramsey 1976;  of  collective  This  has shown Black  1981; 1973),  i n the  1976;  Moats  & Baldridge  1975;  1984;  S h i r o m 1977;  Little sector  that  t h e young s t a f f  they  lack  the  that  ( C o r w i n 1974;  1S76; J o n e s  Ponak & Thompson 1979,  1972)  indicate  A l u t t c and B e l n s c o  i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r  Bigoness  sector  regarding  collective  t o be more m i l i t a n t .  W o h n s e i d l e r 1975';  sector  toward  t o be "more s u p p o r t i v e  i n the p u b l i c  V o r n b e r g 1984;  Cocanougher  1982),  age and a t t i t u d e s  personal  1979;  Riley  (Farber  members  organizational  Grass  1930) .  t e n d t o be  power.  Cocanougher's  findings  (1978) s u g g e s t collective  w o r k e r s may  research  collective and  1931).  members who  Wince 1976; age  and  b e c a u s e of  their  may  participate  however, show no  1973;  Feuille  does n o t  age  on  appear  faculty  w e l l be  an  the  1975;  be  The  Franke  significant  impact  factor Various  i n determining  i n the  research  that  between  (Warren  regarding  collective  age  1970;  1932).  While  the  impact  bargaining,  age  situations.  a person's years  t o be  process dependents,  as  of  ambiguous as  a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e  s t u d i e s have f o u n d  experience  of  e.g.  Schutt  a consensus  in specific  collective  correlation  bargaining 1976;  of  Some  cohort  Conklin  bargaining  responsibilities,  the  of  30-39  1931;  and  Still  i t i s not  i n the  more i n the  to be  a decline in  organization. that  of-  satisfied.  more m i l i t a n t  more s u p p o r t i v e  & Blandin  o r g a n i z a t i o n appears  was  most s u p p o r t i v e  a t t i t u d e s toward  a factor  Experience. in  may  domestic  the  supportive  a r e more  there  r a t h e r those  Jennings  cohort  the  a t t i t u d e s towards c o l l e c t i v e  Plumley  of  are  less  they  o b j e c t i v e s , m a t u r i n g power n e e d s .  studies,  there  that  s t u d i e s have s u g g e s t e d  bargaining  and  because  have l e f t  b a r g a i n i n g but  This  career  efforts  among o l d e r w o r k e r s b e c a u s e  younger s t a f f  (Fox  Donnenwerth's f i n d i n g s  o l d e r workers are  (1978) a l s o r e p o r t e d  dissatisfied other  the  bargaining  Donnenwerth militancy  that  (1971) and  i t is staff  o r g a n i z a t i o n who  with  experience  the  age  bargaining. less  a r e more s u p p o r t i v e  of  collective Jones  bargaining  1976;  various  Little  studies  inexperienced supportive five  1979;  have  staff  (Warren  (Moats  research again  that  there  age  insights. faculty are  sector  Lipset 1976;  parallel  Riley  1984).  hand,  correlation  the p u b l i c  Bull  between  school  the i s s u e  sector,  sector  but o f f e r  Streams  Kubiak  t o age and  ranks  of r a n k and t e n u r e  i n the  1978;  1931;  as t h e v a r i a b l e s  some a d d i t i o n a l have  or those  collective 1974;  shown t h a t without  bargaining  1931;  Y e t a s m a l l number o f o t h e r  tenure  (Ladd &  W o o i s t o n 1976;  C a r n a h a n 1973;  Franke  does i n the  some s t u d i e s  F e u i l l e Sc B l a n d i n 1975;  These  a factor  s i m i l a r patterns  academic  to support  education  o f r a n k and t e n u r e  i t may become  the v a r i a b l e s  reveal  related  some  t o be c o n c l u s i v e .  While  into  i n the lower  1973;  On t h e o t h e r  the r e s e a r c h  On t h e one h a n d ,  Thompson 1979; Hines  in either  of experience  more p r o n e  between  (Fox and Wince 1975;  is l i t t l e  S m i t h 1976;  do n o t a p p e a r  and y e a r s  who have  Ponak & Thompson 1 9 7 9 ) .  Research  university  those  1982;  a p p l y to the c o l l e g e  future.  Yet  or i n the h i g h e r  Rank and T e n u r e . not  1976).  W o h n s e i d l e r 1975)  findings  they  Foster  1373;  i s n o t t h e most  Vornberg 1984).  and a t t i t u d e s  1980;  sector  it  of e x p e r i e n c e  1981;  suggest  experience  found t h a t  of b a r g a i n i n g but r a t n e r  Franke  findings  R o s s i 1974;  Ramsey  who a r e the most m i l i t a n t o r the most  and t e n y e a r s  1981;  (Ponak & Thompson 1984;  Foster  Ponak &  Maher 1982; studies  have n o t  of  f o u n d any r e l a t i o n s h i p between attitudes  ( M c l n n e s 1972;  Interestingly, correlation collective  several  between  the  more  senior  The r a t i o n a l e bargaining Kazlow  here  (1977)  tenured  have  status  Moats 1932; cases  that  they their  turned  to  established  in a specific  threatened  more  have  interested  actively  it  has  been  bargaining. the  faculty  interests.  university,  by the  and  Ponak &  supported c o l l e c t i v e  who were  and who were  tenure  i n these  .  negative  that  that  were  found a  rank cr  words,  and p r o - u n i o n  P i u m l e y 1978)  (Kazlow 1977;  protect  found  untenured f a c u l t y ladder  is  to  faculty  studies  In o t h e r staff  unit  S m i t h 1975;  a person's  bargaining  Thompson 1 9 8 4 b ) .  r a n k and t e n u r e  young  many o f  the  aggressive  i n m o v i n g up the  career  involved i n research  and  publishing. S i n c e many of in  the  tight of  mid t o  protect  situation,  faculty their  instructional the  faculty  1960s a r e  dependents  experienced to  late  funding  their  the  the  members  the  tight  demands  to  interests.  j o b market  to  force  turn  to  and the  younger  conflict  within  college  faculty  Gender.  Gender,  examining females  attitudes  i n the  age,'  is  on c o l l e c t i v e  public  the  school,  and the older  collective  The gap between  staff  like  colleges  now r e a c h i n g m i d d l e a g e ,  may combine members  who j o i n e d the  faculty  the  more bargaining  senior  may a l s o  increase  associations.  often  c o n s i d e r e d when  bargaining.  college,  In the  and u n i v e r s i t y  past, sectors,  43 a p p e a r t o have been g e n e r a l l y l e s s bargaining  and l e s s m i l i t a n t  W a r r e n 1970; H e l l r i e g e l 3elasco  1374; Ladd  Wohnseidler Miller  Conversely,  1973; D a v i s  ( M c l n n i s 1372; L i t t l e  tend  t o be more a g g r e s s i v e Jennings  The toward  the gender  to favour i n their  1375; G c h u t t  collective factors,  movement and p r i o r work f o r c e ,  demands  recent of  than  today's  found  & Blandin 1976).  of a t t i t u d e s  t o t h e emergence o f t h e woman's  t o t h e i n c r e a s e d number o f women i n t h e higher  the e a r l i e r  education.  studies.  by E n g l i s h (1385).  t r e n d may be a r e c e n t  that females  (Feuille  Many o f t h e s t u d i e s  These  t h e i n c r e a s e d number o f s i n g l e  article  b a r g a i n i n g and  1382; Streams 137S; R i l e y  work f o r c e o f t h e 1380's may p r e s e n t results  that  has dependents.  collective  may be more complex.  including  with  of the person  b a r g a i n i n g , u n l i k e some o f t h e o t h e r  above were done p r i o r  coupled  some r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have  i n f l u e n c e o f g e n d e r on t h e f o r m a t i o n  personal cited  Not u n l i k e t h e  but whether or n o t the person  Those w i t h d e p e n d e n t s  1333) .  a significant  1379).  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e age f a c t o r ,  significant  1974;  1973; C o r w i n 1374;  1979; C o n k l i n 1381; B l a c k  shown t h a t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  tend  1971; A l u t t o &  some s t u d i e s have n o t f o u n d  relationship  is  (Seeman 1961;  1975; Fox and Wince 1976; P l u m l e y 1978;  1975; D o l a n  studies  t h a n males  1S70; B u l l  & Lipset  s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e  were l e s s  two f a c t o r s  parents  radically  i n the  different  This i s suggested A more v a l i d study  satisfied  study  by L e L o u a r n than  ina i n view  (1982).  He  t h e males and were  more o u t s p o k e n study job  i n their  by C o c a n o u g h e r  force  demands d u r i n g  tracked  t o have a f a m i l y .  woman's s a l a r y r e p r e s e n t e d reduced  their  demands.  work f o r c e , l i t t l e factor An  interesting  Gilligan  (1982).  who t e m p o r a r i l y  He f o u n d  that  a family's  In s p i t e  of these  income  trends  which  i n today's  t o have been p a i d  i s the p i o n e e r i n g  tensions  and p r o b l e m  r e s e a r c h by  determined  t h a t women  s o l v i n g i n an d i f f e r e n t  manner t h a n m a l e s .  D r a w i n g on h e r work, t h e q u e s t i o n  immediately  i s how would  approach  to c o l l e c t i v e  were on t h e f a c u l t y  bargaining  as m e d i a t o r s  new  environmental  conditions  how  women a p p r o a c h c o n f l i c t ,  Job  Function.  Except  evidence  degree  i s significantly  it  the c u r r e n t a d v e r s a r i a l be a f f e c t e d i f more women  or a r b i t r a t i o n  as w e l l will  or i f  chairman?  as t h e new r e s e a r c h  undoubtedly  The into  raise  many new  1978 s t u d y ,  there i s  i n the years  little  the  that  and c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s  more women s e r v e d  questions  to t h i s  literature.  development  arises,  l e f t the  i n many c a s e s t h e  second  I n h e r work, G i l l i g a n  approach p e r s o n a l  A 1371  teachers  a t t e n t i o n appears  i n the recent  negotiations.  formative was n o t e d  f o rPlumley's  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  years that  that  the l e v e l  r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e formation.  of c o l l e c t i v e  bargaining  the c o l l e g e sector  tended  more r a p i d l y t h a n  the u n i v e r s i t y sector  Garbarino  Following  1975).  of a person's  this  line  During  i n t h e mid 1960s, t o be u n i o n i z e d  ( C a r r £ VanEyck 1373;  of thought,  numerous  51 examinations heavy  of u n i v e r s i t i e s  teaching  research,  tend  (Kazlow 1977; 1982;  1976;  t o be  more s u p p o r t i v e  1974;  1973;  who  are  not of  Herman 1974; Ladd  Franks  Riley  teaching of  outside  only  of  enjoy  research,  the  the  they  Woolston  other  the  bargaining  financial  a l s o enjoy  deprived  of  those  (Ponak 1381), may seek b o t h L e v e l Level In  the  their social their  of  sciences values  supportive  have t o  turn  of  science  collective  are  more  collegiality  that  of  that  Some c o l l e g e f a c u l t y  like  the  may  on  be  nurses  bargaining  economic r e w a r d s ,  to  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l rewards. there  appears  t o be  member's s u b j e c t  bargaining.  humanities  t h a n the  be  autonomy  to c o l l e c t i v e  e.g.,  collective  and  may  p r o f e s s i o n a l rewards  therefore  between a f a c u l t y  opinions  Jones  than u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y .  power and  o u t l e t s and  e.g.,  1975;  colleges  university transfer faculty,  university sector  relationship  Lipset  u n i t , many u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y  and  the  I rewards,  II rewards,  Willie  1976;  since  faculty  (Neuman 1 3 7 4 ) .  hand, e.g.,  in  1976).  bargaining  accompanies r e s e a r c h  carry  bargaining  Stecklein &  a d d i t i o n t o the- p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy and  exist  who  heavily involved  & L i p s e t 1973;  1931;  institutions,  collective  faculty  collective  i m p l i c a t i o n for c o l l e g e s i s that  supportive  the  those  Karnes 1978;  Plumley  primarily  not  or  & Blandin  The  In  loads  Ponak &-Thompson 1984;  Feuille  have shown t h a t  tend  t o be  faculty  bargaining  and  (Ladd  a discipline  Faculty  in  the  more l i b e r a l  in  hence more & Lipset  1973;  and  Franke 1973;  1931;  Jones  Riley  1979).  1976;  Ladd  be  while  resist  bargaining  the  social  meritorious  (1974) f o u n d  sector  d i d not  perceived  support  that  findings  to  independent decision  college  research  making.  values  or  f a c u l t y i n the  hold  It is likely,  community  faculty  may  administrative  and  these lack  the  of p a r t i c i p a t o r y  that  some of  a s i m i l a r range exist in  the  British  colleges. Aspirations.  also  collective  associated  they  research  colleges  tradition  of  university  organization  external  however,  faculty associations  mobility  toward  the  the  the  of  benefits.  because  to g e n e r a l i z e  f a c u l t y since  C a r e e r M o b i l i t y and career  bargaining  however,  base and  aspects  i t s associated  their  apparently  university's  perhaps a wider range c f values  heterogeneous Columbia's  the  faculty the  They  various  more power w i t h i n  It i s d i f f i c u l t ,  to  and  more i n d e p e n d e n c e b e c a u s e of  the  humanities  bargaining.  s u c h as  science  grants.  elite  towards b a r g a i n i n g ,  collective  t h e y had  Flumley  Ponak & Thompson in  and  to p r e s e r v e  promotion  that  that  science  environment,  Neuman  of  Neuman 1974;  collective  i n order  professional  Streams 1973;  (1973) s u g g e s t  faculty resist  s y s t e m of  had  1975;  philosophically inclined  tenured  their  S m i t h 1976;  Fester  & Lipset  universities may  1976;  with  be  Career  r e l a t e d to  bargaining.  be  attitudes  functions  or who  less supportive  of  and  people  Perhaps p r e d i c t a b l y ,  administrative  p o s i t i o n s may  the  aspirations  those aspire  collective members Moats  bargaining  (Lindeman 1975;  1982,  1971).  i t also  of c a r e e r  (Donnenwerth  Farber  1980;  Miscellaneous personal  research  Walker  studies  bargaining.  related  who a r e l i b e r a l o r l e f t e.g.,  NDP, D e m o c r a t s ,  (Davis  1972;  Wohnsiedler  1975;  S t r e a m s 1978; another  between  studies  found that  1976;  Franke  1981)  bargaining  than  is  a positive  perhaps  religion.  a faculty  Protestants.  shown t h a t  i n their  In a d d i t i o n ,  those  political  collective 1973; 1976;  faculty  ideology,  bargaining  Rossi Jones  1974; 1976;  With r e s p e c t  d i d not f i n d  a  to  significant  r e l i g i o n but other  (Ladd & L i p s e t  1973;  supportive  collective  The r e s e a r c h  correlation  religion  collective  member's  a r e more  race,  toward  Woolston  Catholics  Schutt  of other  to i n the  have  (1975)  1983;  referred  Ladd & L i p s e t  Donnenwerth  relationship  Wince  often  Ponak & Thompson 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 4 b ) .  factor,  have  A number  to favour  R i l e y 1976;  frustrated  Black  affiliation,  of c e n t r e  K a z l o w 1973;  Cocanougher  1980).  to a t t i t u d e s  tend  1973;  o r m o b i l i t y who a r e more  Factors.  A number o f s t u d i e s  Ramsey  t o be t h e p e o p l e  & Lawler  i.e. political  faculty  and t h e h i g h e r  W o o l s t o n 1976;  background are a l s o  other  R i l e y 1976; sector  advancement 1978;  than  & B l a n d i n 1974;  appears  Personal  factors,  and s o c i a l  Feuille  the p u b l i c s c h o o l  sector  by t h e l a c k militant  militant  Ponak & Thompson 1984;  In both  education  1982;  and l e s s  between  of  suggests  Fox &  that  there  p o l i t i c s and  those w i t h a European background  tend  to  support  collective  Americans  b a r g a i n i n g more  (Fox & Wince 1 9 7 6 ) .  that  the f a c u l t y  have  otherwise  who come  from b l u e c o l l a r  been e x p o s e d  & Niemi  Wince 1976;  1963;  Schutt  bargaining  Cotgrove  1982;  suggest  f a m i l i e s o r who  to the b e n e f i t s  W o h n s i e d l e r 1975;  1932;  indigenous North  A number o f s t u d i e s  be more s u p p o r t i v e o f c o l l e c t i v e Jennings  than  of u n i o n s , (Bakke  Riley  tend  to  1945;  1976;  Fox &  McShane 1 9 8 5 ) .  Professionalism The m a t t e r is  of f a c u l t y  an i m p o r t a n t  the  emergence  Eckert  factor  professionalism i n higher  in collective  of the American c o l l e g e  (1958,4)  observed  entered  This  p o i n t was r e i n f o r c e d by P e r r a  that  i n the B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e g e  college transfer, the  field  more by a c c i d e n t  career  as a c a r e e r .  p h i l o s o p h y of the other  wants". system,  College instructors the business  professions,  D e n n i s o n 1987;  1975;  Kemerer  1975;  or t h e i r were  "...have  "Few o f t h e  system had s e l e c t e d sectors  particular  (university little  not had a l o n g h i s t o r y  school  the  and t h e t r a d e  Unlike  of  needs and  drawn from t h e p u b l i c  the u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  1979).  to  when he o b s e r v e d  D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1986; Perra  seem  knew o r u n d e r s t o o d  the q u a s i - p r o f e s s i o n s  1973;  colleges  sector,  Stecklein &  t h a n by d e s i g n " .  system  The t h r e e  and v o c a t i o n a l )  R e f e r r i n g to  teachers  (1979,4)  i n t h e community c o l l e g e  teaching  movement,  "...college  have  instructors  this  that  bargaining.  education  schools  (Carr  Garbarino  the u n i v e r s i t i e s , through which  the  collegial  conventions  and customs  (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986,221). have  been p a r t i a l l y  and I n s t i t u t e professional university, perceived  the  colleagues  t o be more  like  colleges,  values,  Act,  (1964)  a number o f p r e v i o u s  controlled  accreditation,  specialized Thompson Kerr  et a l .  perhaps  more  shared  expertise  (1984)  often (Dennison  t o as employees  in  diverse the ground  and the  w i t h i n the  to f a c u l t y  would u n d o u b t e d l y r e f e r (1979),  with reference  suggests  with professional  similar  (1981),  that  associations,  evaluation,  attributes.  with reference  i d e n t i f y a number o f s i m i l a r ,  liberal,  true  self-employment,  d e c i s i o n making, peer  and o t h e r  as  i n B r i t i s h Columbia are  studies,  autonomy,  and Ponak  (1977),  of a  by t h e C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e  Perra  research  are concerned  self-regulation,  environment  the f a c u l t y  sub-units  faculty  as p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  professionals  than  not only l a i d  faculty  employees  community c o l l e g e  themselves  These  referred  and c o l l e g e  as p r o f e s s i o n a l  most  A c t , 1977.  the v a r i o u s  Rather  colleagues  referred  between  of the C o l l e g e  were and a r e  than  may a l s o  associations.  Although E t z i o n i  defined  employees  tensions  faculty  semi-professionals  faculty  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  b u t between  respective  of the b o a r d .  and a r e i n f a c t  C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e  work f o r p o t e n t i a l  conventions  i n the m e r i t o c r a t i c  community c o l l e g e  experiences,  These  l i m i t e d by t h e p a r a m e t e r s  Act, e . g . , role  "Sc. G a l l a g h e r 1986)  c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d "  characteristics  to though  of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m .  to to  These  include expertise,  profession, obligation interest,  close  association  to render ethics,  prolonged t r a i n i n g ,  service  d e d i c a t i o n to the  w i t h f e l l o w p r o f e s s i o n a l s , an without concern  f o r one's  self  autonomy and t h e c o l l e g i a l m a i n t e n a n c e  of  standards. Given  the v a r i e t y  Gallagher their that  1986; G a r b a r i n o 1975;  diverse  instructional  the v a r i o u s  association  may w e l l  (1978).  transfer  instructor,  instructor  Perra  one m i g h t  the ranks  a nursing instructor  w i t h a C h a r t e r e d A c c o u n t a n t d e s i g n a t i o n may n o t  bargaining  are l i k e l y  these d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s i n t h e demands o r g o a l s  instructors.  Ponak  refers  to the b a s i c  wages,  fair  Level  peer  organization's establishment  that  Kleingartner  bargaining issues  II goals,  s u c h as and so on as  s u c h as j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  career  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  committees  and o t h e r  (1973)  or p r o f e s s i o n a l b a r g a i n i n g  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s ,  matters,  t o be  on t h e j o b , f r i n g e b e n e f i t s  evaluation,  of j o i n t  collective  of each group of  indicates  collective  i n c l u d e items  development,  policy  (1981)  treatment  I goals.  objectives  a university  and a b u s i n e s s  During  Level  faculty  by G e r h a r t &  instructor,  v i e w p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n t h e same way.  expressed  anticipate  views of  substantiated  a trades  1979) and  of a c o l l e g e  differing  was i n f a c t  For instance,  1973; D e n n i s o n &  Kemerer 1975;  have w i d e l y  This  (Carr  functions,  groups w i t h i n  professionalism. Maxey  of backgrounds  workloads,  f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  similar issues  related  to  professional that  since  matters  autonomy.  Level  II goals  of p r i n c i p l e ,  conflict  Kleingartner  with the c o l l e g e  the scope  Thompson 1981;  administrator's  rights.  or the content  (1982),  strategies  varies  according  nurses  indicated that  professional  goals  study,  university  faculty  bargaining  over  department  they  were  committee  that  professional  Gerhart  out t h a t  established,  (Ponak  interest  for  in teaching selecting  sabbaticals..." Thompson  II benefits  faculty  p r o f e s s i o n a l needs  & Maxey  i n large  1981).  a group of  or c o l l e g i a l  through  channels.  (1978)  established  t h e r e may be l e s s  or L e v e l  a group of  i n t h e one c a s e t h e u n i v e r s i t y  In a s i m i l a r v e i n ,  education  goals  pensions,  their  of the  i s i n c o n c l u s i v e and  In view of the d i f f e r e n c e s ,  consultative  higher  (Ponak  the scope  procedures  than s a l a r i e s ,  established  point  questions  bargaining.  ( f o r example,  assignments,  to s a t i s f y  article,  that  much l e s s  items  raise  values  to b a r g a i n f o r  t h a n economic  probably able  other  issues  I n one s t u d y ,  preferred  non-economic  suggests  fundamental  Ponak & Thompson ( 1 9 7 9 ) ,  (Thompson 1 9 8 2 , 3 9 3 ) . (1982)  suggests  "...revealed  may be i n  t o two s t u d i e s  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s  rather  chairmen)  pointed out  a u t h o r i t y and  of c o l l e c t i v e  to the p r o f e s s i o n .  In another  evaluation,  These  with reference  Ponak & Thompson 1 9 7 9 ) ,  negotiation  well  d e a l w i t h power,  also  these b a r g a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s  and v i e w s on management about  (1973)  i n an e a r l i e r institutions  of  need t o b a r g a i n f o r since  e.g. participation  they  may a l r e a d y be  i n academic  decision  making. goals  Kleingartner  (1973)  says  must be s a t i s f i e d b e f o r e  that  employees  goals.  I n Thompson & P o n a k ' s  study,  not  the  L e v e l II  see  need to  apprehensive more  about  concerned  have had t h e faculty  about  f r o m the  literature  overall  maturation  organization.  evolutionary  education,  of it  is  i n the  the  formative  matter  the of  rights  senior  is  a  university  not  employees  and  i n the  of  these  administrators.  of  issue  of  bargaining is  needs  the  the  governance,  e.g.,  is  the  board perceived of  higher  faculty is  also  a  driving  arena. not  collective  t h e r e was  the  organizations.  Given  community c o l l e g e s  of governance  the  bargaining i n  p e r c e i v e d by c o l l e g e  the  clear  relationship  L e v e l I and L e v e l I I  that  may n o t  i n t h e s e c a s e s may be  an u n r e l a t e d  issue.  b a r g a i n i n g i n the  q u e s t i o n whether  b a r g a i n i n g would r e p l a c e  institutional  the  were  professional  collective  maturity  as  did  had o r  p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n some s e c t o r s  likely  stages  and u n i v e r s i t i e s collective  or  as  It  is  of  they  The n u r s e s  their  needs  either  II  were  that  there  e v o l u t i o n of  collective  The g u e s t i o n  not  Another f a c t o r  faculty  professionalism force  or  o f management and t h e  or  and L e v e l I I  nature  Compounding t h e  tradition  goals,  bargaining process.  whether  Level I  pursue  on L e v e l  faculty  Level I goals.  actively  t h r o u g h the  the  members  the  same p r o f e s s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s  between  issue  their  bargaining  focus  l o s i n g those b e n e f i t s  and wanted t o  objectives  the  negotiate  Level I  the  Senates,  or  traditional or  whether  In  colleges  not forms  of  collective  b a r g a i n i n g would f o c u s (Baldridge concept  & Kemerer  (1982),  Porter  faculty  will  collective  concern  vary  process.  Level  within  will  the  Ponak & Thompson (1984b)  faculty  and P l u m l e y ' s  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  in  that  attitudes,  the d e c i s i o n makers  or L e v e l I  faculty  process  goals,  or not the  associations bargaining  group expect the p r o f e s s i o n a l or (1981)  on L e v e l I g o a l s On a n o t h e r  plane,  f i n d i n g s suggest  to the  study  as i n  of p a r t i c i - p a t i o n  is related  to  The q u e s t i o n  i s whether  (1978) lack  suggest  but r a t h e r  d i d i n Ponak's  study.  support  bargaining  t o meet t h e i r  group focus  that  i n Canadian  mechanisms.  one f a c u l t y  i t i s not the f a c u l t y ' s  organizational  suggest  findings  faculty  sector  as t h e n u r s e s  will  perhaps  (1980)  of the c o l l e c t i v e  and  (1972)  that  the c o l l e g e  bargaining process  II objectives  Driscoll's  W h i l e Brown  governance  (1984c)  grievance  expectations  another  of  the c o l l e c t i v e  f o r the c o l l e g e  F o r example,  collective  model and t h e  b a r g a i n i n g and w i l l  working c o n d i t i o n s  benefits,  factions  in their  The f o r m e r  with i n s t i t u t i o n a l governance,  on b a s i c  a l l of t h i s  different  work s u g g e s t s  do n o t e x p e c t  salaries,  governance  model.  and W a l k e r & L a w l e r  Ponak & T h o m p s o n ' s  itself  concentrate  in  (1973)  Their  universities  e.g.,  t o as t h e d u a l t r a c k  b a r g a i n i n g i n the absence  otherwise.  than  t o as t h e c o m p e t i t i v e  move t o c o l l e c t i v e  opportunities,  to  other  1976; G a r b a r i n o 1 9 7 5 ) .  was r e f e r r e d  s e c o n d was r e f e r r e d  on i s s u e s  that i n the  negative  as much as i t i s t h e l a c k  of  and t h e d e c i s i o n - - m a k i n g p r o c e s s  trust within  the  institution.  Ironically,  autonomy and p e r c e i v e d the  if  increase  the  i n the  a d m i n s t r a t i o n pushed f a c u l t y  collective  b a r g a i n i n g appears  rules  and r e g u l a t i o n s  Hines  1984;  (Ponak  This  collective  a g r e e m e n t s has  the  absence  a key i n g r e d i e n t  participation  i n the  Organizational Along  the  school  sector  hypothesis for  and the  collective  1979;  Dolan  as  that  of  internal  Araghi  the  of  bargaining  satisfaction  of  1984;  the  scope  compensate  professionalism;  professionalism is Research  the  of for  faculty  1981;  support  Job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  faculty  therefore,  and f a c u l t y  were  stress. of  the  inclined  to  (Alutto & Belasco a close  tie  satisfaction.  to  support  (Davis  1972;  1976;  Begin  Herman  1983;  may i n c r e a s e  One s t u d y  stress  of  public  leads  LeLouarn 1982,;  level  issue  i n b o t h the  F e u i l l e & Blandin  organizational  organization,  to b e ,  number  process.  Ramsey 1973;  when t h e r e was a h i g h  appears  to  b a r g a i n i n g and m i l i t a n t b e h a v i o u r  1979;  collective  of  the  that  of  bargaining,  Dayal  job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  Ponak & Thompson 1 9 8 4 b ) . level  suggests  university sector,  personal  G i a n d o m e n i c o 1973;  power  Satisfaction  satisfaction.  that  increased  been expanded  governance  same l i n e s  organizational  have  of  bureaucratic  & Thompson 1984;  the  loss  toward c o l l e c t i v e  to  Bohlander 1985).  of  perceived  within  the  reported  the  be more  supportive  1974).  There  between  organizational  61 A number o f s t u d i e s general  i m p r e s s i o n of t h e i r  favourable  then they  bargaining  and l e s s  1975,  have  will  shown t h a t  institution's  be l e s s  militant  F e u i l l e & Blandin  likely  (Zalesny  1974;  view of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  negative,  e.g.,  likely  i n the sense (Ponak  imbalance  o f power  1976;  Ponak & Thompson 1 9 8 4 c ;  the f a c u l t y  respect their  loss  Porter  1972;  Thompson 1 9 7 5 ) .  this  1976;  Gress  Jennings  (1982) , r e p o r t e d  that  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n does n o t  the f a c u l t y  will  attempt  o f power by b e i n g more  active  to  overcome  i n the  process.  Satisfaction  attitudes  suggested their  that  toward c o l l e c t i v e  that basic  salaries. sense  will  Cocanougher  F e u i l l e & Blandin  faculty  e.g.,  I f the  then the f a c u l t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  satisfy  Volpe  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has t o o  on w h i c h r e s e a r c h e r s  has  collective  Cowan 1982;  One o f t h e v a r i a b l e s  their  the  then  bargaining  Economic  that  is  administration is  as S t e c k l e i n and W i l l i e  the f a c u l t y ,  collective  the  Herman 1975,  perceive  perceived  that  ( A n d e r s o n 1985,  Maher 1982;  if  1985;  b a r g a i n i n g to c o u n t e r a c t  1971;  (1976) , as w e l l  administration to support  & Thompson 1 9 8 4 c ) ,  look to c o l l e c t i v e  faculty's  Ponak & Thompson 1 9 8 4 c ) .  faculty's  much i n f l u e n c e  i f the  faculty  or L e v e l I  economic  the i n d i v i d u a l  economic  bargaining.  want u n i o n s ,  economic  This  members'  at  have  (1984)  initially,  1981)  to  needs,  d e p r i v a t i o n may be a b s o l u t e , faculty  is  needs and  Baker  least  (Ponak  focused  member may need a  in  salary  increase  t o s u r v i v e o r i t may be r e l a t i v e  comparable economic  cohorts.  reasons  relations 1966).  This  was n o t e d by some o f t h e e a r l y  researchers  {Bakke 1945;  Seeman 1 9 5 1 ; C h r i s t r u p  formation  of l o c a l b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s  (Bigoness  1978;  the  1972),  public  the c o l l e g e  school sector  C o r w i n 1972)  1980;  Schutt  concept  relative,  1982).  sector  Fox & W i n c e ' s  a r e more p r o n e  (1976)  Dull  l e v e l or b o t h .  research  suggests  a f a c u l t y member's bargaining. Bigoness  that  there  age, s a l a r y  found that  be one o f t h e b e s t bargaining.  t h a t males who  collective This  these p a r t i c u l a r  issue  of t h e i r  of  course  faculty age,  Donnenwerth's  l e v e l and a t t i t u d e s (1974),  Davis  (Farber  their (1978)  is a positive correlation  F e u i l l e & Blandin  (1978)  collective  On t h i s  1971;  work complements t h e  to support  b a r g a i n i n g because  sector  1982),  i n general  than males w i t h h i g h e r s a l a r i e s .  collective  to the  Stecklein & Willie  (Donnenwerth 1978;  the q u e s t i o n of whether  support  to  or  G r o s s v i c k l e 1980;  o f e c o n o m i c r e l a t i v i t y by d e m o n s t r a t i n g  bargaining  salary  sector  and t h e p u b l i c  lower s a l a r i e s  raises  absolute  i n the u n i v e r s i t y  Ponak & Thompson 1984;  1972;  have  labour  t o have been one o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s  Mclnnis  of  p r o p e n s i t y to favour unionism f o r  E c o n o m i c d e p r i v a t i o n , whether  appears  to the s a l a r i e s  Lagoe  between  toward  (1979) and  the l e v e l of economic d e p r i v a t i o n  predictors  o f employee a t t i t u d e s  toward  63 CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION Although  collective  bargaining  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , tension  or c o n f l i c t  Strauss  1982).  the p r o c e s s  (Barbash  Since  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  1984;  "Conflict,  necessarily  the  t o examine  various  methods  shared  involves  Birnbaum 1980,1981;  latent  essence of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . . . " necessary  a  or m a n i f e s t ,  (Barbash  the n a t u r e  of c o n f l i c t  of c o n f l i c t  resolution.  1984,  i s the  130)  before  it is  considering  Conflict The d e f i n i t i o n o f terms of  empirical research  i s one o f t h e most  (Berger  & Cummings 1 9 7 9 ) .  T h i r d World D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s clash,  competition,  restlessness,  interference,  behaviour  varies  conflict  as a d i s a g r e e m e n t  frustrating as  thwarting  acts,  (1969)  distribution personal divergent  inner needs.  of i s s u e s , (1976)  of a l e s s  behaviour, Millett  differences, views,  Pondy  Glueck  (1977)  Deutsch  refers  (1973)  (1958)  W i l s o n (1981)  party (1985)  as a breakdown i n  as a d i s a g r e e m e n t Robbins  to  as  Baron  as a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  resources,  (1969)  In the  powerful party,  and Druckman (1973) of scarce  uncertainty,  as one more p o w e r f u l  M a r c h & Simon (1984)  like  the d e f i n i t i o n of  F o r example,  Thomas  t h e needs  communications, Pondy  widely.  Webster's  u s i n g terms  indecision,  literature,  conflict  incompatible  conflict  and i n c o m p a t i b l e  organizational  common p r o b l e m s  (1974)  o f power, over  i n terms o f  as a c o n f r o n t a t i o n  i n terms o f g o a l  the  of  divergence,  Balke  et a l .  Likert  (1965)  & Likert  i n terms o f m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e  (1976)  p e o p l e d o , and J u d d Given  the c o n c e p t  conflict  as a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g what  (1978)  i n terms o f d i s s i m i l a r  of p l u r a l i s m  i n open s y s t e m s  attempting  and t h e c e n t r a l to s a t i s f y  and autonomy.  Jandt  system that  their  respective  (1983,31)  standards  to the other  However v a l i d ,  needs  the c e n t r a l  conflict  of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  of themselves  as p r i m a r y ,  t h e i r own  subgroups...conflict is  inescapable".  t h e s e d i v e r s e d e f i n i t i o n s do n o t a p p e a r  constructive  issue  o f how t o d i s t i n g u i s h  to  between n o r m a l  c o n f l i c t and d y s f u n c t i o n a l o r p a t h o l o g i c a l  (Barbash  from a p r a c t i c a l appears  theory,  are the r e s u l t of  and t h e members o f e a c h g r o u p t e n d t o a p p l y  or  values.  f o u n d t h a t when " . . . s u b g r o u p s  an o r g a n i z a t i o n t e n d t o t h i n k  address  other  m i g h t be s e e n as t h e t e n s i o n between t h e v a r i o u s  sub-systems  within  intents,  1984).  From a t h e o r e t i c a l  perspective  p e r s p e c t i v e and  collective bargaining conflict  t o l i e on a c o n t i n u u m w i t h c o n s t r u c t i v e  conflict  t o w a r d one end and p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t t o w a r d t h e o t h e r e n d . Barbash  (1984,132)  determine the  is  that  "It  a n a l y t i c a l l y the nature  two e x t r e m e s .  thoughts  suggests  In t h i s  of Thomas's  no e v i l ,  constructive management".  vein,  (1976,889)  but r a t h e r  i s not y e t p o s s i b l e to  o f t h e b o u n d a r y . . . " between Barbash  (1984,134)  notion that  "Conflict  a phenomenon w h i c h c a n have  or d e s t r u c t i v e  effects  echoes the  d e p e n d i n g on i t s  itself,  Constructive  Conflict.  continuum i s c o n s t r u c t i v e writers  perceived  violated  the concept  recognizing discuss  of r a t i o n a l  the b e n e f i t s  interacting  conflict.  side  i t helps  forcing organizational (Bartos  1956;  Druckman 1973;  Wilson 1981).  conflict. note  that  (1984,102)  Robbins  organization,  uses  (1974),  conflict  1977;  that  absence of c o n f l i c t  It  writers  also  that  the o r g a n i z a t i o n environments  is i n this tension  is  in  survival  Coser  latter  instead  sense  of  and Townsend  (1970)  t o t h e w e l l b e i n g o f an  eliminate  would l e a d  While  B o u l d i n g 1956,1964;  T j o s v o l d (1984)  you cannot  it  and by m a i n t a i n i n g a  t h e term  is essential  recent  an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  change  of homeostasis  Barbash  that  and e x t e r n a l  to ensure  order.  They s u g g e s t  demonstrates  level  that  was d y s f u n c t i o n a l s i n c e  of c o n f l i c t ,  with i t s i n t e r n a l  conflict  organizational  and s t r u c t u r a l  of c o n f l i c t .  conflict  s u c h a way t h a t  Classical  a l l conflict  the negative  organizational  by b o t h  that  Toward one end o f t h e  conflict  t o t h e demise  and t h a t  the  of the  organization. Consistent Kohn to  (1986),  w i t h the p e r s p e c t i v e  with reference  constructive  conflict  disequilibrium. is the  seen  assisting in  i n goal  the a c t i v i t i e s  to Jonson  & Jonson  facilitator  that  by r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g formation,  social  conflict  the growth of  values  by e n s u r i n g g r e a t e r  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  refers  into  perspective,  increases  theory,  (1981),  as f r i e n d l y e x c u r s i o n s  From the c o n s t r u c t i v e  as a s o c i a l  organization  o f open s y s t e m s  and norms, participation  by stemming  withdrawal  f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , by f o r c i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n changes  i n the e x t e r n a l  think",  by b a l a n c i n g power,  distribution  channels  and i t ' s s u b - s y s t e m s  environment,  of r e s o u r c e s ,  communication  by m a i n t a i n i n g g r o u p  steam v a l v e  (Coser  Gleuck  1977;  1972;  1977;  Subbarao  Hall  1985;  Javis  Thomas 1976;  the c o n f l i c t  collective  b a r g a i n i n g w o u l d assumed  contributes various  that  to the success  stratified  Dysfunctional  1956;  i s so o f t e n  Within  associated  of the system  Conflict.  Toward t h e o t h e r  t o be c o n f l i c t  organization  and one o r more  successfully  adapting  positive  it  i n bankruptcies,  lines,  of d e s t r u c t i v e  of a group or g r o u p s ,  o r t h e common g o o d .  This  form o f  i n h i b i t s the  evolving  employee  and p r o l o n g e d s t r i k e s . forms  end o f t h e  of i t s sub-systems  to the ever  d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n of product  differences  that  I n extreme c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  these v a r i o u s  if  sub-systems.  would appear  violent  with  as a whole and i t s  conflict  as  t h e above  t o be c o n s t r u c t i v e  continuum i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t .  could result  1973;  March & Simon 1958;  conflict  environment.  and by p r o v i d i n g  Deutsch  T j o s v o l d 1984).  parameters  "group  blocked  mechanisms  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  to  appropriate  by r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g  or feedback  to adopt  by o v e r c o m i n g  by e n s u r i n g an  order,  from  external  this  type  of  conflict  terminations,  programs Judd  (1978)  conflict rather  or s e r v i c e s  accentuate  than  Kochan e t a l .  suggests  stressing  (1984B,265)  as w e l l that the the found  that under c e r t a i n circumstances the d i s t r i b u t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  "...became l e s s responsive  to growing  environmental, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and workload p r e s s u r e s " .  The  e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that d e s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t  has  been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by many w r i t e r s i n many ways (Barbash Beres 1984; Birnbaum 1 9 8 0 , 1 9 8 1 ;  Boulding  1964; Coser  1984;  1956;  Deutsch 1973; Douglas 1984; J a v i s 1972; Kohn 1986; L i k e r t 1976; March & Simon 1958; McCarthy 1981; Pondy 1969; Thomas 1976; Wynn 1 9 7 2 ) .  These w r i t e r s have c h a r a c t e r i z e d  dysfunctional  c o n f l i c t u s i n g such terms as  stereotyping,  b e l i t t l i n g a t t i t u d e s , h a t e f u l language, dogmatic  statements, low  tolerance  f o r others  s i m p l i s t i c view of problems and  longer  of the resources  their positions, a  s o l u t i o n s , deception,  r i g i d p o s i t i o n s , over confidence perspective  and  competition,  i n one  secrecy,  p o s i t i o n , a fixed pie  available, conflict  that i s no  r e l a t e d to the cause, face saving p o s i t i o n s ,  excessive  adherence to r u l e s , too many r u l e s , compromise, a r b i t r a r y time lines,  and  Destructive  win-lose or l o s e - l o s e a t t i t u d e s and c o n f l i c t has  c i v i l disobedience,  positions.  a l s o been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  the t e r m i n a t i o n  p r o d u c t i v i t y , domination, the use  violence,  of unions, d e c l i n i n g  of s a n c t i o n s ,  the  exclusion  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s from the work f o r c e , d i s t o r t e d communications, a l a c k of f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , professionalism  and  excessive  to change, time d e l a y s , and  the use  excessive  unionism, unnecessary r e s i s t a n c e  excessive  of knowledge to a t t a c k  autonomy or c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , the other  party.  Clearly  there  are a v a r i e t y  constructive  conflict  (Barbash  1984).  a little  to c l a r i f y  conflict  continuum.  have  and t h e t r a n s i t i o n  t h e b o u n d a r y between  The c o n s t r u c t i v e  been c a p t u r e d  bargaining  on one p l a n e  approach  to c o l l e c t i v e  McKersie  1965).  referred  to these  soft  (1976)  bargaining  is central  regarded  Kohn  destructive addition to  there  (1965:167)  i s pure  comments  than  suggests  nature  also  competition  that  or  to  cooperative  plane  (Walton &  & U r y (1984)  the  of " D i s t r i b u t i v e and i s u s u a l l y  the best  I n a more  "What makes  of c o n f l i c t  say t h a t ,  itself  context  general  disagreement  but the  "...the  solution...".  point  is  W a l t o n and  "In d i s t r i b u t i v e bargaining  f o r some l i m i t e d v a l u e " .  g r a p h i c a l l y capture  The  i n t h e union-management  and i n t h i s  to r e a c h  (1964).  may be more d e s i r a b l e ,  (Walton & M c K e r s i e 1 9 6 5 , 1 1 ) .  of competition"  two way model  Fisher  to l a b o u r n e g o t i a t i o n s  i s not the f a c t  win r a t h e r  McKersie  adversarial  (1986,156)  aspects of  t o b a r g a i n i n g as h a r d and  as t h e d o m i n a n t a c t i v i t y  relationship" sense,  b a r g a i n i n g on a n o t h e r  While the l a t t e r  inherent  helps  t h e two ends o f t h e  and t h e i n t e g r a t i v e  two a p p r o a c h e s  apparently  unclear  or d i s t r i b u t i v e approach  I n a more r e c e n t work,  bargaining.  between  however,  and d e s t r u c t i v e  i n Thomas'  the a d v e r s a r i a l  is  on c o m p e t i t i o n ,  w h i c h i s b a s e d on t h e work o f B l a k e & Mouton model d e p i c t s  point  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t  The l i t e r a t u r e  Competition. conflict  of views  Thomas' model w h i c h  These delineates  between  t h e terms l o s e - l o s e ,  introduction lead  of c o m p e t i t i o n  to v i c i o u s  Mondy 1980)  escalation  theory  autonomy or  destructive  a system  system  skin  into  and w i n - w i n .  circles  of c o n f l i c t  ( G l a s l 1982).  these processes  and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n (Glasl  (Kohn 1986;  t o a r a p i d and  that  Within  can u l t i m a t e l y  the c o n t e x t  are akin  as a s y s t e m  thickens  suggests  to c o m p e t i t i o n  between  the  previous  conflict.  section  include  on d e s t r u c t i v e  the i n e x p e r i e n c e  process  (Barbash  of e s t a b l i s h e d  social  (Beres & Schmidt 1982), other  (Bazerman  et  &. Kahneman 1 9 8 1 ) , et  a l . 1985;  self  esteem  (Bazerman  boundary  norms  over  a risk  1982;  Birnbaum 1980a,1980b; rigid  et  a l . 1985),  Coser  1956;  o f one s i d e  R u b i n 1979;  (Coser  Weick 1 9 7 6 ) ,  or e x t e r n a l  or the (Tversky  (Bazerman  over  a l a c k of  confidence  (Beres & Schimdt  Likert  the  expectations  s e e k i n g mind s e t  I R R A - 3 ; Kohn 1 9 8 6 ) ,  organizations  bargaining p r i o r i t i e s  A number o f t h e  Walton & McKersie 1976),  c o n f l i c t i n g values  Perhaps  i n v o l v e d i n the  and s o c i a l  confidence  that  been m e n t i o n e d i n  I R R A - 3 ; Bazerman  a l . 1985),  (Barbash  G l a s s m a n 1973;  of those  a fixed pie perspective  Glasl  1983),  structurally  for  factors  two p a r t i e s .  already  lack  its  a number o f s p e c i f i c  s u r p r i s i n g l y many o f t h e s e have  bargaining  o f open  to the s t r u g g l e  not  factors  Masuch 1985;  1982,124).  The l i t e r a t u r e may c o n t r i b u t e  The  the b a r g a i n i n g process can  and w h i c h i n t u r n c a n l e a d  irreversible destroy  win-lose  & Likert 1965, a lack  constraints  1982;  1976),  Deutsch of s e t  1973; goals,  (Bazerman  et a l .  1985;  Pruitt  feeling  1983),  of shared  Kohn 1 9 8 6 ) ,  responsibility  (Bazerman  more  to c o l l e c t i v e  research  a natural  raises  constrain  1983),  group i s too l a r g e  people with competitive  (1984)  that  (Bazerman  or a lack  the  bargainers  when t h e s i z e  (Jonson  values  that  bargaining  suggests  that  characteristic  a number o f o t h e r  the  (Kohn 1 9 8 6 ) .  competitive  Gilligan's  b e h a v i o u r may be  than  related  to a  1 9 8 1 ) , and  perpetuate  o f males  issues  adherence  of the  & Jonson  competitive  of a  e t a l . 1985;  a c o n t i n u e d and i n c r e a s i n g l y r i g i d  fixed position  approach  of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  t o o many r u l e s  (Kohn 1 9 8 6 ) ,  bargaining  a lack  to  females,  which  collective  bargaining. While  conflict  literature  i s both n a t u r a l  suggests  that  dysfunctional  when i t  competition.  Conversely,  is  positive  With  this  variety  critical  concept  of approaches  appears  i s characterized  to  to c o n f l i c t  become  implies that  when t h e above i n place,  factors  resolution,  are  absent.  we c a n now examine  a  resolution.  o f management  of labour  relations  r e v i e w e d i n terms o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l methods  bargaining.  conflict  Resolution  The l i t e r a t u r e  associated  the  by a s p e c t s o f  the l i t e r a t u r e  or c o n s t r u c t i v e  Conflict  is  conflict  and n e c e s s a r y ,  w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e model of The t r a d i t i o n a l often  associated  approaches  to  conflict  usually  collective conflict  w i t h the p r i v a t e  sector,  have i n  turn received higher  wide s p r e a d  education.  include mediation,  use  i n the  public  sector,  T h e s e methods  of  fact  conventional  finding,  conflict  settlement arbitration,  mediation-arbitration,  and f i n a l  offer  of  conflict  t h e r e has  been a p a r a l l e l  of  Canadian p r i v a t e  noted  resolution  earlier,  however,  are  present  i n the  the  various  forms  in  higher  collective  of  .  market  I n the  area  development  labour  law.  constraints  As  that  and work i n c o n j u n c t i o n  M e d i a t i o n appears  It  t h i r d party  are  to  overlap,  largely  with  absent  Kochan 1977; Rubin 1980). stage  conjunction  than  Glasl It  also  i n the  issues  to  bargaining  threat.  with a v a r i a t i o n  Kochan & conflict to  settle  the  two  dispute  issues  is  of  Kochan & J i c k when i t  ( G l a s l 1982)  I n view o f  final  of  in  (Anderson &  be s u c c e s s f u l of  i n the  work b e s t  process  most w i d e l y  i n low  zones  involves  Kochan 1980;  may be t h a t m e d i a t i o n m i g h t conjunction  one p a r t y  dispute  appears  with a s t r i k e  1978;  motivated  bargaining  substantive  1982;  highly  the  approaches  & Pegnetler  are  least  and when the  rather  be one o f  be most e f f e c t i v e  when the  when a t  to  intervention  (Gallagher  appears  h o l d back,  inexperienced  a late  sector  resolution,  when b o t h p a r t i e s  and do n o t  principle  the  sector  conflict  bargaining  situations,  parties  many o f  private  u s e d and s u c c e s s f u l  1978)  and p u b l i c  selection.  education.  Mediation.  Jick  sector  including  this  when u s e d  offer  1978; is  used  at  and i n point, in  selection.  it  72 Kolb  (1983)  their  found that  differences  a settlement. assisted (1978)  the p a r t i e s  (1983)  goals,  expectations,  Level  II,  issues,  (1982)  situations least  1976  to  issues  rather  theoretical  effective  harden  the most,  1976;  than  In f a c t ,  i n Canada,  literature  Fact  i n this  Finding.  one o f t h e p r i m a r y  there  on t h i s  tool  I  to u s e .  These  resolution. conflict  mediation  appears  resolution  t o be  (Bigoness  1973; R u b i n 1980; T h i b a u l t & situations,  of the p a r t i e s  m e d i a t i o n may be an e f f e c t i v e  Based  the u s e o f m e d i a t i o n i n  to c o n f l i c t  i n these  I  economic  on L e v e l  e . g . , high  Kochan & J i c k  been  i s f o c u s i n g on  model o f c o n f l i c t  approach  the p o s i t i o n s  technigue  with  d e a l i n g with Level I items,  1975).  t o have or L e v e l  (Kochan 1 9 8 0 ) .  issues  about  and B y r n e s  appears  i f a round of n e g o t i a t i o n s  when needed  ;Deutsch  Walker  benefits  f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t  Ironically,  the  mediation  t h e n m e d i a t i o n may be an e f f e c t i v e  Glasl's  to b r i n g  e . g . , i n a b i l i t y to pay, u n r e a l i s t i c  or p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  empirical  narrow  valve.  when d e a l i n g w i t h b a s i c  salaries,  American study,  to  mediation  problems  relief  study,  help  showed t h a t  their  t o be a u s e f u l  satisfactory  bargaining  also  to d e f i n e  I n one U n i t e d S t a t e s less  helped p a r t i e s  but d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y  Hasson  found i t  mediation  mediation  involved.  Level I c o n f l i c t  appears  appears  Although  resolution  t o be an a b s e n c e o f  area.  Kochan  (1980)  conflict  reports  resolution  that  fact  technigues  finding i n the  is  American non-uniformed p u b l i c s e c t o r . or  conciliation,  the  government  i s u s e d m a i n l y by t h e f e d e r a l  of O n t a r i o .  mediation but precedes may be t h e f i n a l formal  step  Fact  (1982)  and G e r h a r t  formal  (1981)  finding  time  c o n s u m i n g and e x p e n s i v e .  both reported  when u s e d  to f i n a l  Gerhart  (1981)  i n conjunction  offer  similar  to m e d i a t i o n i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that  found f a c t  finding  conditions  t h a t m e d i a t i o n was  Conventional  education  widely accepted with c o l l e c t i v e  (Douglas  intervention  that  into  settle  effective  Arbitration.  enough u n c e r t a i n t y  parties  was most  time  risk lines  found that  Since  i t i s so  Kochan  (1980)  or t h i r d  t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s ,  the r i s k  found  associated  found  criteria  was p e r c e i v e d  They a l s o  instill  party  (1973)  worked b e s t when t h e a r b i t r a t i o n process  to  t h a t the  Thompson & C a i r n i e  concerned.  i s one  resolution  A r b i t r a t i o n i s designed  helped to increase  total  i n North American higher  s u r r o u n d i n g government  to the p a r t i e s  it  under many o f t h e same  of c o n f l i c t  bargaining  1984).  i t was  Conventional a r b i t r a t i o n  were unknown and t h e a r b i t r a t i o n great  t h a t when  effective.  forms  voluntarily.  arbitration  selection.  it  i s more  w i t h the  approach  associated  It  i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a r b i t r a t i o n ,  effective  t h e most  follows  arbitration.  package  of  finding  i n some c a s e s  process.  than  fact  government and  generally  although  i n the r e s o l u t i o n  fact  was most  finding  arbitration,  than m e d i a t i o n but l e s s  Gallagher  In Canada,  with  t o be a rigid  74 arbitration  and t h a t  a r b i t r a t i o n was more e f f e c t i v e  g r o u p s where p o l i t i c a l and p e r s o n a l produce viable  additional risk. alternative  strikes  A r b i t r a t i o n appears  to a s t r i k e  parties  Stevens  1966),  involved.  Connally  (1983),  difference  t h e end r e s u l t  between  and n o n - a r b i t r a t e d  reported,  settlements.  cases which proceeded  up a g r e e m e n t s . reported  that  Feuille  Feuille  however,  where  (Farber  (1985) and  that  of a r b i t r a t e d  t h e r e was no settlements  In the l o n g r u n they  to a r b i t r a t i o n  (1985)  and F a r b e r  i t was n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  was i m p o r t a n t  rather  to o f f e r a  o r p e r c e i v e d t o be u n a c c e p t a b l e by  (1973)  that  to  (Thompson & C a i r n i e 1973)  Thompson & C a i r n i e  that  converged  a r e p r o h i b i t e d by l a w , p r o h i b i t e d by c o n t r a c t  & K a t z 1979; the  factors  i n small  i n the c o n f l i c t  often  found  involved  & Katz  catch  (1979)  the a r b i t r a t i o n  itself  r e s o l u t i o n process but  i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y to the p a r t i e s  involved  i n the  conflict. The l i t e r a t u r e narcotic notion  effects  that  bargaining a better  frequently refers  of a r b i t r a t i o n .  parties  will  knowing t h a t  settlement The n a r c o t i c  parties  u s e an e x t e r n a l  likely  than s e t t l e  continue their  they  effect  Chilling t o engage  can save  by r e f e r r i n g  agent.  will  refuse  at  to the  and p e r h a p s t o an  to the n o t i o n that  to s e t t l e  and t h e  i n meaningful  face  to use a r b i t r a t i o n  differences  refers  the problem(s)  refers  agent  to the c h i l l i n g  their over  the t a b l e .  obtain external once  differences and o v e r  they  rather  The r e s e a r c h of  appears  arbitration.  In a comprehensive  and e x p e r i m e n t a l the to  field  threat  effect,  (1983)  effect  perceived  there  effect  research  suggests  support  the t h e o r y (1985)  study,  that  arbitrators  critical. was most  an a r b i t r a t o r principle,  (1982) supports  situations. r e g a r d i n g the  effect  of  (1983)  evidence  to  arbitration,  otherwise. there  i s the p e r c e p t i o n  the p a r t i e s  e.g., salaries,  Thompson & C a i r n i e effective  Glasl's  i s not s u f f i c i e n t  tend to s p l i t  case of L e v e l I items,  that  arbitration  Although Kochan's  In a d d i t i o n t o these c o n c e r n s , that  that  resolution,  of opinion  of the n a r c o t i c  suggests  showed  review,  face.  i n high c o n f l i c t  there  contributed  was h i g h and t h e  and c o n f l i c t  of a r b i t r a t i o n .  while  toward a  found  had t o s a v e  is a difference  narcotic  Feuille's  research  i n d u c e d movement  escalation  use of a r b i t r a t i o n  Similarly,  the experimental  they  found that  arbitration  when t h e c o n f l i c t  that  model o f c o n f l i c t the  A n d e r s o n (1981)  i n a more r e c e n t  effect  review of the e m p i r i c a l  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r e c e d i n g  had a c h i l l i n g parties  on t h e c h i l l i n g  t e n d e d t o show t h a t  of a r b i t r a t i o n  settlement. Magenau  literature,  research  the c h i l l i n g  the  t o be d i v i d e d  (1973)  positions.  this  found  In the  may n o t be that  arbitration  when i t was l i m i t e d t o L e v e l I i s s u e s .  attempted  to s p l i t  i t is unlikely  and t h e p r o b l e m may w e l l  that  Level II  either  be f u r t h e r  items,  party  If  items of  would be s a t i s f i e d  aggravated.  This  latter  76 point  i s consistent  compromise  with Thomas's  arbitration  the  lose-lose  i s where  gap between  This  form o f  the a r b i t r a t o r  the a r b i t r a t i o n  process.  conventional  c a n a c t as a m e d i a t o r  It  i s an a t t e m p t  t h e i n f o r m a l and f l e x i b l e n a t u r e  and t h e r i g i d i t y and f o r m a l i t y o f c o n v e n t i o n a l (Kochan,  1980).  Arbitration has  suggests  to judge  while  that  is ultimately  Final variety  Offer  and w e a k n e s s e s .  o f f o r m s and a c c o r d i n g  1975).  their  final  offers  loser.  In t h i s  proposals  on an i s s u e  selection  another  form,  offer  select  form t h e r e  Alternatively,  to the l i t e r a t u r e  selection,  to a s i n g l e  and t h e a r b i t r a t o r ( s )  packages.  i n most  selection  cases  an a r b i t r a t o r  both p a r t i e s  t h e two p a r t i e s  used  (Swimmer  parties or  tripartite  w i n n e r and a  may s e l e c t  basis.  stand  the  one o f t h e p r o p o s e d  is a clear  by i s s u e  to  takes a has been  the  arbitrator  that  assists  i . e . , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a  I n one f o r m o f f i n a l  submit  offer  t o be  appears  sometimes  by a r b i t r a t i o n .  technique  research  It  settled  Final  arbitration  systematic  the p a r t i e s ,  Selection.  of m e d i a t i o n  resolution  between  a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y ,  offer  conflict  to s u f f i c i e n t  i t s strengths  the d i f f e r e n c e s  conflict  panel  this  to b r i d g e  on M e d i a t i o n -  the M e d i a t i o n - A r b i t r a t i o n process  narrow  at  The l i m i t e d l i t e r a t u r e  n o t been s u b j e c t e d  able  view o f  solutions.  Mediation-Arbitration.  during  (1965)  In t h i s  from the two type  t o g a i n and l o s e .  may e a c h  clear  of  final In  s u b m i t two f i n a l  still  offers. offer some  One o f f e r  represents  and t h e o t h e r instances  after  up t o t h e t i m e  form of f i n a l between  represents  the p a r t i e s  bargaining process offers  offer  offer  a p o l i t i c a l and f a c e a realistic  are permitted  t h e y have  effective  submitted t h e i r award.  the a r b i t r a t o r  final  In t h i s  last  may m e d i a t e  suggests  that  final  i n f o r c i n g t h e two s i d e s  to s e t t l e  are not a l l o w e d to b a r g a i n or otherwise arbitration,  one o f t h e two o f f e r s  Research package strike.  It  creates  where n e i t h e r attitude, between  since their  approach  an i n t e n s e  final  offers.  offer  packages.  during negotiations  selection  selection  The r e s e a r c h t h e y must  or f a c e  comes  on t h e a take  split  Kochan (1980) forces  offer  by t h i s  into play during  alter  their must  that the to a  negotiators i t or leave  it  the d i f f e r e n c e indicates  the p a r t i e s  submits settle  final  e x e r t e d on t h e p a r t i e s only  cannot  where t h e  i s comparable  pressure  most  Hoh 1 9 8 4 ) .  suggests  can a f f o r d to adopt  a r e aware t h a t  pressure  selection  the a r b i t r a t o r  to f i n a l  realistic parties  side  offer  (1980)  form,  the a r b i t r a t o r  ( D e l a n y 1984;  by Weitzman & S t o c k i n g form of f i n a l  i n package  and where  is  when t h e two  parties  during  offer  selection  must  offer  submit a f i n a l  offer  parties  select  In  t h e two p o s i t i o n s .  The l i t e r a t u r e  final  offer.  to c o n t i n u e the  of the a r b i t r a t i o n  selection,  saving  that  their  this  to submit  when t h e differences  selection,  the  form o f f i n a l  the l a s t  that  stages  offer of the  78 collective 1981;  b a r g a i n i n g or mediation process  (DeNisi  & Dworkin  G a l l a g h e r 1979; Magneau 1 9 8 4 ) . Several  they  other  e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s are noteworthy  p o i n t o u t some l i m i t a t i o n s  Champlain  (1982)  reported  narrowed the d i f f e r e n c e s was n o t s u f f i c i e n t issues.  DeNisi  selection, effective  that  pressure  the r e s e a r c h  experienced  clearly  understood  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r  and t a k i n g i n t o arbitration, Level  certain accepted  situations,  l e t alone  that  settlements  apparent  conventional  when  clearly  and when t h e findings,  on c o n v e n t i o n a l  may be b e s t  suited for  to r e s o l v i n g  final  potential  offer  disputes  resolution  higher  under  i s not a widely  i n North American labour  education.  For example,  four out of  to a t h i r d p a r t y ,  arbitration  effectiveness  selection  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  referred  negotiators,  items.  form of c o n f l i c t  relations, reported  of t h i s  offer  B a s e d on t h e s e  and may n o t be s u i t e d  to L e v e l I I  In s p i t e  selection  there  was o n l y  actions,  the l i t e r a t u r e  offer  final  when t h e p a r t i e s  i n the outcome.  account  final  I items  related  defined issues,  had a s t a k e  generally  on m e d i a t i o n ,  were  selection  a l l of the o u t s t a n d i n g  found that  t h e r e were  parties  offer  the p a r t i e s ,  to s e t t l e  (1981)  when t h e p a r t i e s  process.  while f i n a l  between  & Dworkin  unlike  of the  i n that  were  (Delaney & F e u i l l e  one s t u d y  five  h a n d l e d by 1984).  Summary. are  The p r e c e d i n g  traditional  distributive According of  lose-lose  solutions.  for  suited  and a r b i t r a t i o n  the r e s o l u t i o n  represent of  Therefore,  their  readily. understand  their  traditional  win-lose  the u n d e r l y i n g appears  offer  to c o n f l i c t  an e f f o r t strengths  and a t t e m p t  of L e v e l best  that II  suited  approaches,  resolution  s h o u l d be made  issues,  to suggest  These  or  conflict  selection  s h o u l d n o t and w i l l  methods  solutions  d e p e n d i n g on t h e  of L e v e l I i s s u e s .  comings,  Rather,  either  bargaining.  f o r the r e s o l u t i o n  or f i n a l  one a p p r o a c h short  these  The l i t e r a t u r e  m e d i a t i o n may be b e s t issues  represent  resolution  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  model,  may n o t r e s o l v e  the p a r t i e s .  to c o n f l i c t  model o f c o l l e c t i v e  (1976)  resolution  approaches  between  procedures  or a d v e r s a r i a l  to Thomas's  conflict  these  impasse  approaches  and r e g a r d l e s s  n o t be d i s c a r d e d to  better  to improve  their  effectiveness. Intergrative Integrative (1965),  Bargaining bargaining,  i s not a t r a d i t i o n a l  organizational working  conflicts.  approach  gained p o p u l a r i t y a  time  a term u s e d by W a l t o n & M c K e r s i e o r common form o f  Integrative  to c o l l e c t i v e  when t h e r e was a p e r c e p t i b l e  private concepts  sector  unions  bargaining,  bargaining,  d u r i n g the e a r l y  resolving  seems  seventies. decline  to  This  (1985).  have was d u r i n g  i n American  and a s w i n g t o human r e s o u r c e  (Kochan e t a l .  as a  Over t h e y e a r s  management  Birnbaum  (1980,1981), Fisher  Crossman  (1964,1981),  Kochan e t a l . consider  comparable  bargaining.  side  bargaining  sides  issues  rather  and s a n c t i o n s ,  from p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r  goals.  It  a l l concerned  to r e s o l v e  the other  another.  This  side  Integrative by"focusing issues,  to r e s o l v i n g  on  issues  each  party's  interests,  t h a n power,  by  by e n c o u r a g i n g  that  b u i l d s on t h e  e . g . , values,  goals,  needs,  i n a common p r o b l e m s o l v i n g  Knowledge i s n o t u s e d as a weapon  common p r o b l e m s  and i s n o t u s e d  o r t o d e f e n d one p o s i t i o n  approach  the p o l i t i c a l  by r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g  i s a process  and by i n v o l v i n g  rather  than  the human  o f t h e p r o c e s s by e s t a b l i s h i n g  o f t h e two s i d e s ,  1978).  is  & U r y 1981) and  emphasizes  constituent  common s t r e n g t h s  (Crossman  bargaining  by i n c r e a s i n g  negotiating  common b i - l a t e r a l  party's  the o u t s e t  descriptions  than on t h e p e o p l e  to the other  and a t  t o a form o f  a win-win a t t i t u d e  communication channels,  flexibility,  rather  problem s o l v i n g approach  on power  (1976) and  1978).  resolution  to generate  (1976),  organizations  (Fisher  o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  attempts  than  (Crossman  sensitivity  attack  Thomas  integrative  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n  a collaborative  effective  that  to c o n f l i c t  on t h e s u b s t a n t i v e  but  that  Deutsch  J u d g i n g from t h e v a r i o u s  to p r i n c i p l e d b a r g a i n i n g  structural  exercise  (1941),  (1958),  advocated  i t appears  approach  resources  rather  have  team b a r g a i n i n g  This  or  March & Simon  (1985)  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  single  Follett  s h i f t i n g from d i s t r i b u t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  integrative in  (1978),  i s b u i l t on t h e g e n e r a l  to  against concept  that  a g r e e m e n t s between cooperation authors if  i s greater  also  suggest  the p a r t i e s  can  threaten  Krauss'  p e o p l e a r e more  that  the other  cited  observations  only  et  al.  were  o r when e i t h e r I960) .  w i t h Thomas'  or i t s l i m i t a t i o n s .  points  out that  Dyer's study,  t o be most  q u a l i t y o f work,  single  i n discussing  observation  (1981)  (1978),  i s echoed  as w e l l  found  that  as t h o s e by H o r v i t z collaborative  but not i n areas  associated  model o f c o l l e g i a l i t y and t h e p r e c e d i n g i t may be b e s t  or L e v e l II needs.  integrative  preconditions. toward  joint  model c l o s e l y  suited  this  The l i t e r a t u r e  the p a r t i e s  areas,  parallels  the  studies related  suggests  to  that  a r e a number o f  form of b a r g a i n i n g i s  problem s o l v i n g ,  decisions  with  to n e g o t i a t i o n s  b a r g a i n i n g t o work t h e r e Since  bargaining  i n a s t u d y by Dyer  academic  professional  a labour  b e n e f i c i a l i n non-economic  The i n t e g r a t i v e  some  non-monetary  issues.  that  literature  s t u d i e s on  team  economic  for  (1976)  Although the  Weinstein  t o be e f f e c t i v e  and R u g g l e s  suggest  party  D e u t s c h and  b a r g a i n i n g i s promoted i n the  been made.  Weinstein's  thought  e.g.,  effective  u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d a number o f i s s u e s ,  have  (1973).  (1982)  (Deutsch & Krauss  practitioner,  appears  issues.  oriented  t o be many e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h  use, i t s success  relations  may n o t be  The  model.  t h e r e do n o t a p p e a r  references  communications  f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t  While i n t e g r a t i v e  its  when t h e l e v e l o f  the l e v e l of c o m p e t i t i o n .  are c o m p e t i t i v e l y  laboratory  theoretical  than  likely  have  oriented  t o be m o t i v a t e d  to  settle,  process  t h e r e has t o be more e m p h a s i s on t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n  rather  be a g r e a t other  the  integrative  re-establish  (Walton & M c K e r s i e  research  indicates  t h e use o f j o i n t  common c o n c e r n s ,  F o r t h i s method t h e r e h a s t o be a longer  conflict  resolution,  example,  if  sub-committees  to neutrals  related  t o c o n f l i c t and  a number o f q u e s t i o n s r e m a i n u n a n s w e r e d .  "There i s a f e e l i n g  relations  collective  bargaining i s archaic  leaves  that  our system of  much t o be d e s i r e d . . . t h a t and t h a t  n o t w o r k i n g . . . t h e r e must b e " a b e t t e r t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n i s what  best  s u i t e d f o r what  best  c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n methods alternatives,  problem  Resolution  industrial  1984,317),  time  F i s h e r & Ury 1981).  Upon r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e  will  that  to  and t h e use o f t h i i - d p a r t y  Crossman 1978;  Future C o n f l i c t  the  t o the p o i n t where  to the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s ,  techniques,  (Birnbaum 1981;  is  work where t h e  to t r y anything i n order  the l i t e r a t u r e  changes  On the  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c r e a t i v e  solving  For  1965}.  b a r g a i n i n g may a l s o  are w i l l i n g  and t h e r e has t o  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m .  of b a r g a i n i n g ,  frame,  language  r e l a t i o n s h i p s have d e t e r i o r a t e d  two p a r t i e s  structural  the c o n t r a c t u a l  d e a l of t r u s t  hand,  bargaining  than  the a d v e r s a r y  way" (Downie  type of b a r g a i n i n g i s  type of b a r g a i n i n g g o a l s ,  become  what a r e t h e  f o r what s i t u a t i o n s ,  how do we m o d i f y o r change  t h e new p r o c e s s e s  system  permanent?  what a r e  t h e p r o c e s s and  Consistent literature  w i t h the concepts  implies that  once  changes  over  an e x t e n d e d  change  o f open s y s t e m s  is difficult  are implemented i t  d e v e l o p e d by Coleman & F r a s e r  Loomis  (1954),  some o f t h e a d v e r s i t y bargaining in  process,  t e n chance  significant  "...have  vein,  bargaining  Katz et a l .  and p r a c t i c e s  a r e t h e most  diverse  interests  However,  Downie  disaffection it  that  (1935,523)  cornerstone  that  change,  " . . . w h i l e there  process  and d i f f i c u l t that  (1984)  remain the Coleman &  have a l l  to s u s t a i n .  i s that  ventures  are hard to i n t r o d u c e ,  one o f t h e r e a s o n s  t o change  will  system".  is  situation,  i n n o v a t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i v e  fragile  resistance  that  and S t r a u s s  e m p l o y e r s and e m p l o y e e s  suggest  collective  industrial relations  between  to  with  tested  means o f managing t h e  the adversary  Kochan (1984c)  expect  s a y t h a t many p e o p l e  the t i m e  of our i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s  (1979),  indicated  that  to  i n employment r e l a t i o n s h i p s " .  notes  w i t h the c u r r e n t  o f a one  and t o r e m a i n i n p l a c e .  associated  exist  reduce  The t e n d e n c y  too great  effective  (1984,318)  i s e q u a l l y true  Fraser  i s just  time.  to  collective  something i n the order  t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed t h a t  institutions  distributive  of b e i n g s u s t a i n e d over  to occur  them  with reference  o f an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t would  would have  changes  In t h i s  (1979),  of the c u r r e n t  toward system homeostasis  to s u s t a i n  A c c o r d i n g to the d e c i s i o n  tables  the chances  the  t o i n t r o d u c e and  is difficult  p e r i o d of t i m e .  theory,  Kochan (1980,417) for this  "...the  are  goes on  apparent  i n s t i t u t i o n of  collective  bargaining "...and  i s too c e n t r a l . . . "  deals  t o modern i n d u s t r i a l  too e f f e c t i v e l y with r e c u r r i n g  p r o b l e m s . . . to expect  that  economic  some new r e f o r m e f f o r t . . . c a n  collective  bargaining".  Kochan (1980b,412) s a y s  "...change  i s not e a s i l y  introduced into  bargaining  system.  In f a c t ,  learned  from the h i s t o r y  changes  into  slowly  perhaps  the b a r g a i n i n g process  the m a j o r  i s that  difficulty.  and p o l i t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s  Downie  of optimism.  parallel  (1984,318)  the context  cooperative  programs  (1982,1)  adversarial  introduce came  very of  t h e s p r e a d and  are created  by u n i o n  some a u t h o r s  Barbash's  Kochan e t a l .  the thoughts  noted i n a recent  of the a d v e r s a r y  seem t o be p l a y i n g  goes on t o s a y t h a t  system  integrative,  a shift  note  principle",  "...within  Derber  t o be  are  (1980,5)  t h i n k t h e time has come f o r r e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e  adversary Berber.  to they  limits  t h e p r e v i o u s comments,  sounding a cautious "I  lesson  practitioners".  Notwithstanding  words,  that  A complex a r r a y  e n t h u s i a s m w i t h w h i c h demands f o r changes and management  replace  our c o l l e c t i v e  of previous e f f o r t s  and o n l y w i t h g r e a t  structural  relations  o f Downie and article  system, a larger  "...the  long  that  however, role". time  i s being s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o d i f i e d . . . b y  mutualistic  approach"  (1984B) and B u r t o n  i n some p r i v a t e  sector  employees  i n the s t r a t e g i c  companies  "...share  to c o l l e c t i v e  (1987)  suggest  industries  planning  a more  bargaining. that  there  is  to i n c l u d e the  of the companies.  i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n s u l t  with union  Some leaders  about  major  change  or  other  prospects" is  business  factors  (Kochan et  referred  1984,270)  issues,  to  as  provisions  i n exchange  commitments".  If  modifications collective  to  modifications Various  remains  that  example,  it the  achieving  the  for  their  free time,  changes  the  will  changes  experience and t h e  cyclical  changes  employment  approach  to  sustain  relevant  Goodman  McKersie  1985)  conditions.  goals,  assist  must be s e e n  must be s e e n  as  be  For  both sides as  free  The l i t e r a t u r e are  to to  involved changes  the  relatively  introduce i n the  tangible  suggests  that  cooperative  over  the  since  all  projects  t o w a r d the  In a d d i t i o n to  risk  however  process,  and s u s t a i n  in attitudes  (Kochan 1 9 8 4 c ) .  quick  adversarial  in  from  must be i n t r o d u c e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y  be d i f f i c u l t  participants  or  contractual  b a r g a i n i n g i n n o v a t i o n to  a number o f  side,  f o r both s i d e s .  attractive  those  1984;  must be l o c a l i z e d and must p r o c u r e  results  other  Downie 1984;  must be p e r c e i v e d t o  for both p a r t i e s ,  al.  task.  1934;  Kochan & P i o r e  any c o - o p t i n g by e i t h e r  or  q u e s t i o n of how t o  respective  i n what  experimenting with  adversarial  a collective  change  are  (Barbash  must s a t i s f y  can r e s u l t  (Kochan e t  benefits  a formidable  researchers  Kochan 1984b;  sustained  current  bargaining,  This  new i n v e s t m e n t  organizations the  technological  " . . . s p e c i f i c a l l y involve  i n wages, for  costs,  l o n g - r u n employment  bargaining  where n e g o t i a t i o n s changes  the  1984b,270).  strategic  of  suggest  affecting  al.  trade-offs  1980;  competitive  project  a genuine  commitment to  also  t o t h e i n n o v a t i o n by b o t h p a r t i e s ,  depend on s t a b l e  teams o v e r (1984c) labour  an e x t e n d e d  a l l say that relations  approaches or  This conflict appears  perhaps  resolution, side  that  institutions rely  and  approaches  ignore  other  issues  at hand.  whole,  i t suggests  distributive time  t o come,  over  time.  will  the  various  associated  resolution.  n o t be as e f f e c t i v e to c o n f l i c t  t h a t may be more  remain  incremental  as  they  resolution to the  i s v i e w e d as  adversarial  as t h e d o m i n a n t changes w i l l  with It  suited  when t h e l i t e r a t u r e  that while the c u r r e n t  system that  the concepts  on one a p p r o a c h  Clearly,  facing  no m a t t e r how t r a d i t i o n a l  to c o n f l i c t  will  c o u l d be i f t h e y  that  Kochan  by s i d e .  has c o n s i d e r e d  and some a p p r o a c h e s  (1984),  challenge  i s to ensure  appears  bargaining  Downie  the b i g g e s t  practitioners  can e x i s t  survey  on b o t h  p e r i o d of time.  to c o n f l i c t  innovative,  representation  success  force  occur  or f o r some  and p e r s i s t  LIMITATIONS There  a r e a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s  background m a t e r i a l reviewed. directly  and t h e v a r i o u s  related  to Canadian postsecondary  caution  differences must  social,  between  i n the  streams of  A l i m i t e d number o f t h e e m p i r i c a l  view of the e d u c a t i o n a l cultural  inherent  economic,  literature  studies  institutions. legal,  In  p o l i t i c a l and  Canada and t h e U n i t e d  be e x e r c i s e d when a p p l y i n g  are  the U n i t e d  States, States  material  to  Canadian s i t u a t i o n s .  c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e British  dearth  of  The s i t u a t i o n  collective  example,  i n the  some o f  time when the  the  studies  certification  elections  Blandin  Herman 1975;  1976;  Another caution  studies  were  P l u m l e y 1978)  Maher 1982;  time  after  W h i l e many o f  cited,  portions  instruments  1978;  the  or not  of  the  department is  as  (Carr  their  term f a c u l t y  Dull  1971;  1984; 1982)  ( Z a l e s n y 1985) included  all  that  on the  the  of  i n f l u e n c e the  with  the whether  faculty,  As n o t e d  e.g.  earlier,  community  administrators.  f a c u l t y members o p i n i o n s of  b a r g a i n i n g may or may n o t  1980;  studies  o p i n i o n s of  college  (Bigoness  Grossvickle  segments  the  used  was u n c l e a r  counsellors.  factors  or  of d a t a , it  at  Most o f  scholars  While  main s o u r c e  of m a t e r i a l  administrators.  were  (Dayal  own i n s t r u m e n t s  b o a r d members and s e n i o r affect  others  & VanEyck 1 9 7 3 ) .  1972;  librarians,  an a b s e n c e  Feuille &  Stecklein & Willie  d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r  Davis  one s t u d y  heads,  to  r e l i e d on o r i g i n a l d a t a ,  college  senior  Still  Ponak & Thompson 1 9 8 4 b ) .  faculty  exception  there  studies  developed t h e i r  B i r n b a u m 1983;  Plumley cited  of  For  s u b s i d e d and s t a b i l i z e d .  one s t u d y d i d n o t  studies  1978;  the  the  when e m o t i o n s  formative years  Ponak & Thompson 1984b;  when f e e l i n g s may have  least  the  on  is  conducted.  Danese 1977;  p r o b a b l y w o u l d have been r u n n i n g h i g h . c o n d u c t e d some  were  conducted p r i o r  ( B e g i n 1974;  also  bargaining research  C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s .  differences  is  The  collective  b o a r d members of  the  Cross are  very  1983;  section  dominate  few l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s  Kelley  studies  studies  1976;  the l i t e r a t u r e (Baldridge  Stecklein & Willie  bargaining  as w e l l  as a d d i t i o n a l d a t a .  o b s e r v a t i o n was t h a t  i n many r e s e a r c h  framework was u n c l e a r .  By and l a r g e  A more studies  very  Ponak & Thompson 1 9 8 4 b , 1 9 8 4 c )  obtained  their  information other  the  general the c o n c e p t u a l  appear  studies t o have  t h a n by t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  questions  about  the t r i a n g u l a t i o n of  studies. A number o f t h e s t u d i e s  1981),  were  on c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n  conducted i n c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y  using u n i v e r s i t y students. could adeguately associated  duplicate  negotiators.  studies  of c o n f l i c t  results  of these  actual  appears  While  studies  it  this  model o f c o l l e c t i v e  observer  in action,  may o r may n o t be  the relevant  b a r g a i n i n g must a l s o be  is a creative  and p o s i t i v e  the l i t e r a t u r e  t o be p r i m a r i l y t h e o r e t i c a l t o be any m a j o r  of  situations.  to n e g o t i a t i o n s ,  not appear  such s i m u l a t i o n s  W i t h o u t any p a r t i c i p a n t  bargaining  does  situations  b a r g a i n i n g or the r e a c t i o n s  on i n t e g r a t i v e  treated with caution.  (Anderson  and t h e r i s k s  r e s o l u t i o n techniques  collective  approach  is unlikely  the p r e s s u r e  laboratory  The l i t e r a t u r e  oriented  It  with c o l l e c t i v e  experienced  to  collective  few o f the  1980;  which r a i s e s  Longitudinal of  (Hackett  approach,  1981; B i r n b a u m  1982).  may p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e  but there  and s p e c u l a t i v e .  empirical research  bargaining.  i n this  area  There  s t u d i e s on  In a s i m i l a r v a i n ,  there  does  not appear  and L e v e l  II  t o be any r e s e a r c h  needs within  many w r i t e r s  deplore  distributive  model o f c o l l e c t i v e  studies  link  bargaining.to approach  future  the  results All  studies, the  bargaining context.  the a d v e r s a r i a l  nature  competition.  research,  Gillian's  there  research  of  theoretical  bargaining. i n one way o r a n o t h e r , may  i n the r e s u l t s  of the  studies  studies  It  used,  the " . . . s t u d i e s  suggest  i s these  common p a t t e r n s  upon  c a n be b a s e d .  can a s s i s t  An awareness  with construction  o f more  of  their  effective  studies. SUMMARY Chapter bargaining  Two o u t l i n e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f  collective  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community  colleges,  h i g h l i g h t e d many o f t h e f a c t o r s tensions  often  of  o f i n s t r u m e n t , . . s a m p l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y . . . " and  some common p a t t e r n s . . . "  limitations  (1984b,450)  c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the nature  m o d e l s and c o n c e p t s  which f u t u r e  collective  i n applying  Y e t , as n o t e d i n one o f Ponak & T h o m p s o n s '  type  a r e few  on women's  b u t c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d  to the v a r i a n c e  samples,  While  and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n opens a new a r e a  to c o l l e c t i v e  "...despite  I  of the  bargaining,  of the p r e c e d i n g f a c t o r s ,  contribute cited.  the c o l l e c t i v e  the L e v e l  instructors,  the p e r c e i v e d a d v e r s a r i a l n e s s  to c o n f l i c t  for  examines  o f community c o l l e g e  particularly  that  that  associated  t h a t may c o n t r i b u t e  to the  w i t h d i s t r i b u t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and  assisted  w i t h the  development  The b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l bargaining colleges, the  i n higher and t h e  collective  some o f  the  bargaining  education,  complex  factors  literature  and t h e  many o f  it  the were  The l i t e r a t u r e  time;  the  that  raised  factors  studies methods  to  main  of of  the  and as  conflict  bargaining;  correlation  between  on the  of  balance  Similarly, interviews  survey  collective study.  collective  an e x t e n d e d boards,  faculty  as  p e r i o d of senior  leaders,  as  participant and  empirical studies  i n depth research  impact  a  bargaining process  resolution;  collective  attain  arbitrators;  collective  limitations  pursued i n t h i s  over  as  the  literature.  impact of  members,  f l o w e d from  pre-survey  be r e a s o n a b l y  faculty  parties  material.  of more women on c o l l e g e  integrative  studies  some o f  many a r e a s  institutions  mediators  as  to  u s e d i n the  i n c l u d e d the  in specific impact  influence  the  design largely  d u r i n g the  encompassed  c o u l d not  areas  can  b e h a v i o u r of  i d e n t i f i e d i n the  negotiators,  morale;  forces  and q u a n t i t a t i v e  as  various  that  the  research  administrators,  observer  of  was deemed n e c e s s a r y  questions  questionnaire,  bargaining  B r i t i s h Columbia's  i n response  original qualitative  those  including  collective  of  the  collective  t h a t may i n f l u e n c e o p i n i o n s of  other  many of  e v o l u t i o n of  design.  f o c u s e d on  because  studies,  research  The l i t e r a t u r e  of  Some o f  array  study's  the  bargaining process.  The s t u d y ' s  bargaining  the  delineated  and i n t u r n a f f e c t  concerned. the  of  on a  the of  possible  b a r g a i n i n g and i n s t i t u t i o n a l of  a college  president,  board  chairman or  faculty  association  and s u b s e q u e n t l y on c o l l e c t i v e the  rationale  for  including  president bargaining;  specific  studies  clauses  agreements;  and a d d i t i o n a l work on t h e  opinions  college  of  on c o l l e g e  i n the  factors  b o a r d members and s e n i o r  that  morale  related  to  collective shape  the  administrators.  92  3 RESEARCH DESIGN The study's the  purpose  Chapter  research design.  rationale  parts  of  of  the  for  the  data  Three It  study's  collection  is  to  includes design,  provide details the  scope  of  and r e v i e w s  on  the the  the  study, various  process.  SCOPE OF THE STUDY Community  are  Colleges  As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y ,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community  an i m p o r t a n t  the  part  of  education  system.  This  unionized  community c o l l e g e s .  Colleges  and I n s t i t u t e  these  college  14  bargaining and  other  as  the  related  North Island a certified  are  postsecondary focuses  Under the  auspices  Industrial  associations  on the  14  of  the  Relations  selected  Act,  collective  determining s a l a r i e s ,  benefits  working c o n d i t i o n s . C o l l e g e was  working c o n d i t i o n s .  example,  study  A c t and the  method f o r  faculty  colleges'  research  faculty  but  because  rather  determining faculty  The f a i r  legislation struck  excluded  association  c o m p a r i s o n method f o r  the  province's  colleges  it  uses  does the  salaries  c o m p a r i s o n method i s  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  by c o l l e c t i n g  not  have  fair and  related  unigue  Salaries,  i n f o r m a t i o n from the  to for  other  colleges  and t h e n u s i n g  estblish  salary  ranges  complex m a t h e m a t i c a l and an a p p r o p r i a t e  technigues  salary  for  to  each  range. The p r o v i n c e ' s o t h e r excluded  from t h i s  same mandates example,  the  or  postsecondary  study because  t h e y do n o t  characteristics  British  Columbia  as  the  Institute  E m i l y C a r r C o l l e g e o f A r t and D e s i g n , and t h e  homogeneous f a c u l t y  than the  the  a s s o c i a t i o n with  the  of  they  are  its  to  postsecondary  this  examining c o l l e c t i v e  national  basis.  also  have  Institute  Alberta  and B r i t i s h  two p r o v i n c e s t h a t  and  its  e x c l u d e d from  into  the  have  study.  s t u d y some c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n  i n the  ( D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1936)  s t u d y of  collective  Columbia c o l l e g e  have c o m p a r a b l e c o l l e g e  would into  bargaining in  systems,  on a  provincial  i n t r o d u c e d t o o many u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s  A comparative  of  b a r g a i n i n g i n community c o l l e g e s  systems  study.  rather  i n s t i t u t i o n s would  The s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a n c e  community c o l l e g e  less  so d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e community  t o o many u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s of  Institute,  have more  also  introduced  outset  have  For  former P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l  These other  the  Justice  the  the  u n i q u e programs  colleges.  At  Technology,  Columbia  The t h r e e u n i v e r s i t i e s were  study s i n c e  colleges.  and have p r o v i n c i a l  The B r i t i s h  T e c h n o l o g y was e x c l u d e d b e c a u s e  Institute.  colleges,  associations,  than r e g i o n a l mandates.  this  of  were  s h a r e many of  public  P a c i f i c Marine T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e  comprehensive programs  recent  institutions  perhaps  systems  the  the  the  only  (Dennison &  94  Southern 1985), related were  to  was a l s o  collective  underway a t  preceding British  the  comments,  as  the  Other r e s e a r c h  b a r g a i n i n g i n the time  of w r i t i n g .  and t h e  C o l u m b i a ' s 14  selected  ruled out.  research  Alberta college I n v i e w of  researcher's  unionized  projects system  the  personal  experience,  community c o l l e g e s  were  base.  Populations On t h e  instructional  members,  senior  internal  groups w i t h i n  s i d e of  administrators  i n v o l v e d w i t h the  each  collective  collective  Boards.  represent  are  study because  Colleges  and I n s t i t u t e s  community c o l l e g e s  the  Each of  different values,  needs,  to  the  Act,  college  boards  under S e c t i o n  12  b o a r d members a r e  and a c a d e m i c are  the  decisions.  were  of  the  responsible  e a c h g o v e r n e d by an autonomous b o a r d  a p p o i n t e d l a y p e o p l e and u n d e r S e c t i o n 6 of  Act,  Board of  a college  members a p p o i n t e d by t h e Act that  is  silent  the  r e g a r d i n g the  Unlike  the  shall consist  of  5 or  terms at  of  the  appointment, pleasure  g o v e r n i n g boards  of  of  the  more  L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l " .  b o a r d members s e r v e  government.  for  B r i t i s h Columbia's  provincially "...the  three  primarily  bargaining process.  Members o f  in this  administrative  board  table.  included  all  that  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s  bargaining  College  colleges,  and f a c u l t y  college  these d i s t i n c t i v e groups b r i n g experiences,  the  The  w h i c h means  the  i n some of  the  other  95  Canadian' c o l l e g e of  the  Act states  institution the  jurisdictions, that,  have  bargaining.  courses,  there  colleges  and t h e  is  boards,  a substantial universities  the  academic  do n o t  the  eguivalent  have  empowered by the  the  literature,  making. of  the  of  the  do n o t  academic  faculty  thus  colleges'  tenor  collective  of  the  a member  of,  have  the  Unlike  only  The  e.g.,  i n the  The  n o t e d i n the  college  rights.  faculty  and the  review  of  perceptions  and t h e i r  This  for  decision  may i n f l u e n c e t h e  colleges  latter  university  participatory  factors  colleges  be r e s p o n s i b l e  entrenched  the  tacitly  and p o l i c i e s .  as  way  the  a u n i v e r s i t y senate.  the  management  university  respective  into  conflict  i n t u r n may scope  of  affect  the  college  faculty,  q u e s t i o n of  the  boards'  jurisdiction  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  may n o t  be an i s s u e  I n many o f  sector.  are  for  the  academic  private  (1)  F o r many o f  in  administration  of  b r i n g i n g the  agreements.  instructors,  all.  11  an  between  governed.  bargaining process  trades the  are  The c o l l e g e s ,  These p r e c e d i n g  the  as  offer  difference  decisions  collegiality,  associations, with  of  implications  U n i v e r s i t i e s Act to  governance.  tradition  continue  colleges  u n i v e r s i t y boards  for  academic  or  student  a number o f  W h i l e the  responsible  are  or  Section  an i n s t i t u t i o n " .  These d i s t i n c t i o n s  college  Alberta,  "No employee  s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d t o ,  board of  collective  e.g.,  is  the  these  instances  consistent T h i s may,  a t o p down a p p r o a c h  with their  however,  experiences  create  internal  e.g.,  to in  the  conflict  at  within that  some o f  the  more h e t e r o g e n e o u s  include faculty  e.g.,  vocational  Under S e c t i o n appoint  a chief  direction  of  institution him by the  board,  staff  management  style  university  sector.  Section  12  of  (lb)  officer  the  Given the  of  potential  to  and the  this  to  irritant  Act.  traditions  to  of  higher  create  enjoy  for  the  terms o f  tensions  in  assigned  to  rigid the  some may be to  under boards'  office, the  between  and  above the  to  the  factors  boards,  Another group t h a t  group r e f e r r e d  the  the  college  education,  faculty.  study i s  the  the  the  be a more  a program a d v i s o r y committee of  under  colleges'  legislation related  management  critical  the  to  the  staff  counterparts  A further  shall,  and p e r f o r m d u t i e s  this  their  programs.  required  and d i r e c t  may p e r c e i v e  rights,  administrators  "...who  of  management  the  board i s  Some s e c t o r s  than  of d i s c i p l i n e s ,  and o t h e r  powers  legislated  have  the  supervise  and p e r m i s s i v e  establishment  Act,  administrative  board".  associations  university transfer  the  and e x e r c i s e  instructional  flexible  of  executive  the  instructional,  f r o m a wide r a n g e  programs,  25(1)  faculty  as  the  is the  senior  administrators. Senior the  College Administrators.  C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e  refer refers  to  this  only  to  group of the  Act either  employees.  chief  Sections  executive  25,  directly  Although officer  or  the  23  and 29  of  indirectly Act  and t h e  directly bursar,  under  Section  officer carry  29,  to " . . . a p p o i n t  on t h e b u s i n e s s  By d e f i n i t i o n the  faculty  deans  t h e b o a r d may a u t h o r i z e employees  associations.  personnel.  deans  or comparable  that  are not l i k e l y  they  instructional were  of  of t h i s  matters.  senior  the f a c u l t y  representing thereby point  college  managerial  creating  potential  which i n d i c a t e s discipline  There  administrators'  that  understand divisive, leaders  is little  Spritzer  faculty  may p e r c e i v e  than  academic  (1978)  bargaining,  support  values,  university  on c o l l e g e  b a r g a i n i n g or  that  (1978) faculty  faculty  the goals  This  research  their  early  research  d i d not  unions  were  unions would l e a d t o m e d i o c r i t y ,  would u n l i k e l y  them as  may n o t be as  as t h e i r  literature  felt  heads  during negotiations.  & Odewahan's  administrators  collective  department  administrators  oriented  plant  associations.  & Maxey's  views of c o l l e c t i v e  values.  suggests  college  or academically  counterparts.  related  that  rather  or  are l e g a l l y not part  the f a c u l t y  i s u n d e r s c o r e d by G e r h a r t  administrative  involved i n  academic  tensions  academic  e x c l u d e d on t h e b a s i s  administrators  values  from  the p h y s i c a l  of the f a c u l t y  associations,  personnel  includes  study,  t o be d i r e c t l y Similarly,  to  o f human r e l a t i o n s  p o s i t i o n s were  presumed t o be members Since  this  and d i r e c t o r s  directors  necessary  a l l managerial  campus p r i n c i p a l s ,  For the purpose  executive  of the i n s t i t u t i o n . . . " .  Typically  or v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s ,  vice-presidents,  i t considers  and o p e r a t i o n s  the A c t excludes  the c h i e f  and f a c u l t y  h e l d by t h e  administrators. administrators  The  e x i s t i n g research  a l s o b e l i e v e d that the f a c u l t y lacked  necessary experience and bargaining.  Given the c o l l e g e s ' l e g a l mandate f o r  as these preceding  responsiveness,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e views of  (Dennison 1987;  as w e l l  collective  the i s s u e of management r i g h t s may  controversial issue 1986).  the  t r a i n i n g to handle c o l l e c t i v e  comprehensiveness, a c c e s s i b i l i t y and  bargaining,  suggests that  Dennison &  be a Gallagher  As compared to the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r , the p o t e n t i a l  d i f f e r e n c e s between a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  and  f a c u l t y may  aggravated by the c o l l e g e s ' more h i e r a r c h i c a l or d e c i s i o n making process  (Rubin 1979).  the s e n i o r c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s group i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g F a c u l t y Leaders.  rigid  L i k e the board members  represent  a significant  process.  are covered under the  d e f i n i t i o n of a p r o f e s s i o n a l employee.  Act's  For the purpose of  the f a c u l t y are those p r o f e s s i o n a l s who  d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s to students. c o u n s e l l o r s , academic department heads and  While  other s i m i l a r units  i s no attempt to examine many of the unigue  i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d with these sub-groups. are those who  provid  librarians,  p r o f e s s i o n a l s are i n c l u d e d i n many of the b a r g a i n i n g s t u d i e d , there  further  F a c u l t y l e a d e r s are the t h i r d group  i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study and  t h i s research,  be  have served  a c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  The  f a c u l t y leaders  on a f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n  team, or both.  executive,  The  f a c u l t y i n a community c o l l e g e add a complex dimension  to the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g process.  Their varied  career  o r i g i n s , the penchant f o r c o l l e g i a l i t y by some f a c u l t y factions,  the emphasis on teaching,  subject d i s c i p l i n e s , left  t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n to  their professionalism, their  leaning p o l i t i c a l  tendencies  and other  reportedly  similar factors  make them somewhat unique i n p u b l i c s e c t o r b a r g a i n i n g .  In  a d d i t i o n , t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t i o n as bona f i d e labour unions and the many v a r i a t i o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e of the t h e i r f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s add to the complexity  of n e g o t i a t i o n s .  RESEARCH PROCEDURE The  study employed a multi-pronged approach to the  c o l l e c t i o n of data  (Borg & G a l l 1983; Y i n 1984).  i n v o l v e d a number of p r e - r e s e a r c h  The study  steps, pre-survey  interviews  with labour p r a c t i t i o n e r s , the c o l l e c t i o n of f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l data,  an a n a l y s i s of a sample of c o l l e c t i v e  agreements and a s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d o p i n i o n survey.  To o f f s e t  the c r i t i c i s m s i n the l i t e r a t u r e that a t t i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h i s too s u b j e c t i v e and t h e r e f o r e not as v a l i d as f a c t u a l r e s e a r c h , some s c h o l a r s are c a l l i n g f o r r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s that combine both f a c t u a l data  and a t t i t u d i n a l data  S a l a n i c k & P f e f f e r 1977).  (Katz e t a l . 1985;  In response to these c r i t i c i s m s an  e f f o r t was made t o c o l l e c t both q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e data from a v a r i e t y of sources.  An attempt was a l s o made to  100 design basis  the for  a  longitudinal  way  prior  Human  to  University  of  study  for  sent  invited  Initially,  10  participate  each  the  four  the  he  regretted  to  collect  to  he  the  study.  while  a willingness  Whenever  a  thank  you  response letter  institutional researcher letter  and  data  was  received  was  sent  to  to  to  was  was  scope  and  college  indicated  letters  in a  the  from  questionnaire to  the  completed president  The  willingness resulted  to  to  a  lack  The  to in  participate  due  said of  that  staff  other  questionnaire,  in a  of  study.  presidents  the  of  presidents.  two  data.  participate  Involving  significance  agreeing  remaining  complete  sent  the  approved,  sent  Sciences  Studies  participate  received  the  a  procedural  documents,  participate  to  the  as  reguired  institutional  was  used  the  presidents  the  unable  of  Follow-up discussions  not  indicted  number  and O t h e r  presidents  factual  be  Initially,  community  college  could  could  stage.  purpose,  14  One o f  it  Columbia's Behavioral  project  remaining  project.  the  Research  the  college  in  in  president,  with  o u t l i n i n g the  were  the  collection  British  Once  that  involved a  along  Committee  Subjects.  letters  data  proposal,  transmittal  of  the  so  study.  project  research  Screening  a  a  This  the  two  such  Procedures  research  the  in  Pre-research  steps  to  study  a  personal  college related  the  After  institutional expressing  president, to  president.  interview. a  factual the  questionnaire  the  researcher's  101 a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r completing  the survey  and e x p l a i n i n g the next  phase of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . Pre-Survey  Interviews  P r i o r t o the development of the main o p i n i o n questionnaire,  survey  i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with 13  labour r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s  was to develop a f e e l i n g f o r the r e l e v a n c y of the study's conceptual and  context,  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  the f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l data;  researcher  to s e n s i t i z e the  to B r i t i s h Columbia's labour and community c o l l e g e  environments; to secure and  the c o n t r a c t u a l a n a l y s i s  refinement  a d d i t i o n a l ideas f o r the development  of the survey  instrument;  number of ideas f o r improving  and to o b t a i n a  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  p r a c t i t i o n e r s who were i n t e r v i e w e d represented spectrum of the labour r e l a t i o n s f i e l d . those  interviewed  The  a broad  A complete l i s t of  can be found i n Chapter Four.  For economic  reasons the i n t e r v i e w s were l i m i t e d to the lower B r i t i s h Columbia Mainland.  The m a j o r i t y of the i n t e r v i e w s  were conducted i n person d u r i n g A p r i l ,  1986.  Two a d d i t i o n a l  i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n the summer of 1988 with one of the l a t t e r i n t e r v i e w s conducted by In keeping with Yin's  telephone.  (1984) recommendations, the  i n t e r v i e w s were i n f o r m a l and open ended. purpose of the pre-survey  The e x p l o r a t o r y  i n t e r v i e w s made i t unnecessary to  employ e l a b o r a t e r e c o r d i n g and coding procedures.  P r i o r to  102 this  phase  wanted  to  of  the  explore  each  interview.  they  were  have  in been  At aware  the of  a  more  and  interview  notes  the  were  It the  is  of  what  reviewed  to  confidentiality.  in  point  and  form.  comment  on  data,  the  what  background data  survey,  assist  the  of  with  reference  the  and p r o v i d e of the  the  and  what  pre-survey  they  would  of  was  the  During  into  made  the  each  same  day  categories.  Data  the  frame  always  interview.  Later  re-organized  obtained  participant  of  that  or  of  The  not  as  nature  for  interviews,  were  type  each  the  sources  of  and  study,  core  information  structured  interview,  a  interviews.  same m a n n e r  the  results  system  made  from the  succeeding  the  researcher  formed  same g u e s t i o n s  in  the  the  list  emerged  on  a  view  of  institutional  provide  In  were  had happened  instrument,  each  Institutional  and  anticipated  or  areas  corroborate  The  matter  important  factual  collected  of  the  to  of This  the  formally  purpose  interview,  Factual  into  used  order  outset  the  notes  also  same  in  list  prepared.  interviews.  the  a  A s new i s s u e s  were  preceding  asked  was  incorporated  interviews in  research  purpose data  limits  better  of of  the the  It  a  the  the  practice,  British  main  main  any  future  and  the  opinion  survey  Columbia  Colleges  was  picture  understanding  and  for  benchmark  data.  provide  for  a  collecting  researcher  the  happening i n  of  introduction  of  would  preparation  history  the  was  interviews  of  studies. college  Institutes  Act  103 i n 1977,  the r e s e a r c h e r  i n i t i a l l y decided  i n s t i t u t i o n a l data f o r the p e r i o d of 1977 categories  to  collect  to 1988.  The  of data that were c o l l e c t e d f o r each c o l l e g e  i n c l u d e d the number, type and  affiliation  of the  u n i t s , the composition of the c o l l e g e and  bargaining  faculty  bargaining  u n i t s , the chairmanship of the n e g o t i a t i n g teams, the number of c o l l e c t i v e agreements signed contract  took to n e g o t i a t e ,  number of grievances  lockouts,  and  other  the time each  the method of settlement,  and how  number of s t r i k e votes,  s i n c e 1977,  the grievances  the  were s e t t l e d , the  the number of s t r i k e s ,  the number of  types of d e c i s i o n making o p p o r t u n i t i e s  the f a c u l t y , e.g.,  j o i n t f a c u l t y - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n committees.  In the p r e p a r a t i o n  of the background g u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  a number of other  f a c t o r s which may  i n d i c a t o r s of a c o l l e g e ' s labour were i m p r a c t i c a l to c o l l e c t , drug abuse, r e c o r d s  have a l s o been good  f a c u l t y and  sick  leave,  program  the success of a c o l l e g e ' s students i n other institutions,  and  of these other  project.  preceding  the v a r i o u s  background i n f o r m a t i o n ,  members, and  The i n c l u s i o n  have taken the study i n a d i r e c t i o n  beyond the scope of t h i s r e s e a r c h  a l s o asked to submit a l i s t  evaluations,  postsecondary  the placement of graduates.  f a c t o r s may  In a d d i t i o n to c o l l e g e s were  of s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  f a c u l t y l e a d e r s , as w e l l as a copy of  latest collective  which  s t a t i s t i c s on a l c o h o l or  on absenteeism and  i n s t i t u t i o n a l evaluations,  there were  r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e but  e.g.,  for  agreement(s).  board  their  the  104 There phase it  were  of the p r o j e c t .  would  take  completed and  concern  colleges data,  with  as  t h e amount  while  In  instance,  another  organization's details. the  In this  academic  referred  the researcher  Faculty instance  faculty  the data  guestion send  was  along  amount  the data  poorly  to guantify  ever  f o r some was  received.  received  from  o f t h e BCGEU to  to participate  several  the  of the  o f t h e BCGEU  was  the  to contact  seek i n the  unavailable. with  or describe,  contracts.  resulted  for limited  was  constructed  In addition,  faculty  i n the  instance  the agent  unit  of  to the  asked  information  bargaining  were  hard  of their  no  of reasons  on committees.  copies  Associations  to the President  f o r the l o c a l  F o r a number  was  a s s o c i a t i o n and  Some o f t h e g u e s t i o n s that  passed  a s s o c i a t i o n , b u t no d a t a  the researcher  permission study.  two  data  I n one  from  of the  college records  guestions.  staff  their  One  a limited  submitting  was  of  historical  f o r withdrawing.  only  of the data  faculty  and  time  the  and withdrew  of s t a f f  to submit  the  the lack  expressed  requested  of incomplete  and f o r s p e c i f i c  respective  both  colleges  this  and r e t u r n  college d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e  problem  f o r part  during  underestimated  cited  the lack  of the colleges  spans  request  of data  agreed  the other  The  Two  reason  arose  to complete  Many  citing  the primary  several  time  again  that  researcher  f o r the c o l l e g e s  subsequently  project. in  The  f o r the delay.  project,  records  of problems  guestionnaires.  records  the  a number  the  result  e.g., the  colleges d i d not  105 Another problem the  s t u d y was  the  institutional  that  a b s e n c e of  d a t a on  one  collective  Columbia's  community  background  institutional  checked a g a i n s t  became a p p a r e n t d u r i n g  colleges.  Mediation College  Services  and  and  Employers  Contract  the  agreements.  was  r e v i e w was  (1979) o r  project.  the  and  was of  the  the  British  British  the  twelve current  s e n s i t i z e the  l a n g u a g e and  Columbia  clause  by  The  (1983).  and  an  from the the  the  type of  this  the  exhaustive  comparison  latter  mandate o f  to supplement  interviews  out  to  of  the d i f f e r e n t  (1987), C h a n d l e r  This  gleaned  purpose  researcher  tone of  clause  a copy o f a l l  collective  i n t e n t i o n to c a r r y  s c o p e and  observations  pre-survey  unable to o b t a i n  of Dennison  Stewart  a n a l y s i s were i n t e n d e d data,  no  fashion  beyond  The  was  to  length,  contractual  i n the  clearly  Ministry  the  c o l l e g e s were r e v i e w e d .  T h e r e was  inter-college  Julius  from the  colleges  p r o v i n c i a l government's  of C o l l e g e s ,  agreements,  complexity,  analysis  from the  the  p r o v i n c i a l government p u b l i c a t i o n s ,  researcher  collective  contractual  scope,  Wherever p o s s i b l e ,  Analysis  agreements from n i n e the  British  in  of  Association.  A l t h o u g h the of  bargaining  I n s t i t u t e Educators A s s o c i a t i o n ,  Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n Public  of  obtained  Labour's R e s e a r c h O f f i c e , the  course  common s o u r c e  data received  s i m i l a r data  the  or & research  research  contractual  factual  institutional  main o p i n i o n  survey.  106 Opinion  Survey  A mail-out  s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d survey instrument was a l s o  used to c o l l e c t data.  The o p i n i o n survey approach was  s e l e c t e d as a primary method f o r s e c u r i n g p e r s o n a l s p e c i f i c aspects  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  opinions on  For t h i s p o r t i o n  of the study, the time p e r i o d 1983-1988 was considered an optimum time frame. not  accurately r e c o l l e c t c r i t i c a l  or o p i n i o n s . for  I t was f e l t  I t was a l s o f e l t  that p r i o r to 1983 people may events,  personal  experiences  that 1983 was a c r i t i c a l  year  B r i t i s h Columbia's community c o l l e g e s , e.g., budget  r e s t r i c t i o n s , d i s s o l u t i o n of the three p r o v i n c i a l c o u n c i l s , e l i m i n a t i o n of l o c a l school board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on c o l l e g e boards. T h i s p o r t i o n of the study i n v o l v e d three community c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n s , administrators,  distinct  i . e . , board members, s e n i o r  and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s i n 13 u n i o n i z e d  B r i t i s h Columbia community c o l l e g e s .  The p o p u l a t i o n of board  members was determined to be those board members who from 1983 to 1988. e i t h e r served  The f a c u l t y l e a d e r s i n c l u d e d those who had  as a member of the l o c a l f a c u l t y b a r g a i n i n g  u n i t ' s executive 1988.  served  or n e g o t i a t i n g team or both from 1983 to  T h i s p o r t i o n of the study d i d not i n c l u d e any BCGEU  faculty leaders.  The p o p u l a t i o n  of s e n i o r  administrators  embraced a l l r e l e v a n t c u r r e n t s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i n c l u d i n g p r e s i d e n t s , p r i n c i p a l s , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s , campus p r i n c i p a l s , deans, d i r e c t o r s and b u r s a r s .  The names and addresses of the  b o a r d members were Association addresses  o b t a i n e d from the B r i t i s h Columbia  o f C o l l e g e s and t h e c o l l e g e s .  f o r the f a c u l t y  leaders  and s e n i o r  were o b t a i n e d d i r e c t l y  from the c o l l e g e s  faculty  I n an e f f o r t  associations.  t h a t were samples six  statistically  included  senior  were  The the  for a total  relevant  factual well  o f 234  i n s t i t u t i o n a l data  questionnaire opinions  attempted  of v a r i o u s  agreements  purposes  of  grew o u t o f open s y s t e m s  theory,  the  analysis  as  The  t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n ' s  governance,  scales  p r o b l e m and s u b -  scope  These t h r e e  of the  a four point L i k e r t scale Y i n 1984).  -l=disagree,  opinions. was u s e d  +l=agree,  the d i r e c t i o n  For  statistical  (Borg & G a l l  The s c a l e  of the g u e s t i o n n a i r e  independent v a r i a b l e s ,  sections  d e s i g n e d t o measure  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  A fourth part  interviews,  and p r o p o s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e  Sudman & B r a d b u r n 1982;  agree.  faculty  bargaining process.  -2=strongly disagree,  There  and 78  of the r e s e a r c h  collective  intensity  the  l e a d e r s and  administrators  to determine  i . e . , competition,  and  six faculty  personal experiences.  aspects  e m p l o y e d measurement  sizes  1983),  and t h e c o n t r a c t u a l  questions,  distributive  sample  (Borg & G a l l  the p r e - s u r v e y  as t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s  respective  participants.  items  literature,  or the  f r o m e a c h o f t h e 13 c o l l e g e s .  78 s e n i o r  guestionnaire's  administrators  to ensure  s i x b o a r d members,  78 b o a r d members;  members,  acceptable  administrators  The names and  1983;  was as f o l l o w s : +2=strongly  c o n t a i n e d a number  w h i c h came f r o m t h e  literature.  108 They were e.g.,  related  age,  to p e r s o n a l  gender,  years  institution,  prior  preference.  S i n c e not  applicable this  to  section  Every e f f o r t and v a l i d i t y .  and t h e r e b y researcher barrelled complete 1983;  of  the  the  piloted. pilot  the  political  independent v a r i a b l e s  ensure  was a n t i c i p a t e d  the  respondents  attempted  to  were  three versions  of  survey's r e l i a b i l i t y the  error  address  and o t h e r  changes  each  problems.  l e n g t h of  statement  as  double  time  to  (Borg & G a l l  The g u e s t i o n n a i r e guestionnaires  were made as  scale  The  such i s s u e s  similar factors  development of  A number o f  four point  respond to  leading guestions,  survey,  i n the  the  that  to  Sudman & B r a d b u r n 1 9 8 2 ) .  by an e x p e r t  with  d e v e l o p e d and u s e d .  guestions, the  respondents,  association  three populations,  a v o i d common r a t i n g also  the  bargaining experience,  a l l of  was made t o  It  would encourage  employment o r  collective  each were  of  i n f o r m a t i o n of  was  checked  and t h e n  a result  of  the  test.  The d a t a statistics.  was a n a l y z e d u s i n g d e s c r i p t i v e Non-parametric s t a t i s t i c s ,  and p a r a m e t r i c analysis.  statistics,  e.g.,  F test,  and i n f e r e n t i a l  e.g., were  Chi-sguare used i n  the  test,  109  4  PRE-SURVEY INTERVIEWS The i n f o r m a l p r e - s u r v e y the  data  c o l l e c t i o n process.  purpose of the  interviews  the  interviews,  interview process  This  were  chapter  describes  and p r e s e n t s  the  the  next  stage  outlines  sample,  a s y n o p s i s of  in  the  comments the  on  findings.  The l a t t e r  i n c l u d e s a number o f p r o p o s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s  collective  bargaining.  to  PURPOSE The p u r p o s e o f anticipated assist  w i t h the  sensitize British also  that  the  practitioners  the  the  interviews  interviews  development  researcher  to  of  was m u l t i f o l d .  would b u i l d the  collective  to for  As n o t e d  interviews  In r e t r o s p e c t  solicit  ideas  i m p r o v i n g the  all  of  the  objectives  literature,  instrument  The i n t e r v i e w s  current  and  was a l s o  bargaining  expected  d i m e n s i o n to  were  were  relations  collective  it  would add a g u a l i t a t i v e  was  bargaining in  from l a b o u r  i n Chapter Three,  It  on t h e  main s u r v e y  C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s .  conducted  process.  the  achieved.  the  that  study.  SAMPLE Thirteen  labour  They r e p r e s e n t e d collective including  a cross  higher  stratified  Given  random sample Rather,  the  size  constraints,  and f o r  was  sector  the  to  was  the  l i m i t e d to  Lower M a i n l a n d .  f a m i l i a r with and p u b l i c  to  a  of  the  three populations  l i m i t e d to  reasons,  sector,  rigid  complied through  The sample was various  interviewed.  i n f o r m a l nature  adhere  representing list  were  experts  private  education.  and r e f e r r a l s .  Columbia's  of  t h e r e was no a t t e m p t  be s t u d i e d .  manageable  practitioners  section  b a r g a i n i n g i n the  interviews,  contacts  relations  e.g.,  practitioners  personal a  economics,  time  in British  The sample i n c l u d e d :  Faculty T.  Kozar  F a c u l t y member, Technology  B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e  J.  Sayre  Faculty  Capilino  J.  Shields  P r e s i d e n t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government Employees Union  J.  Waters  President, College-Institute A s s o c i a t i o n , 1985-87  Human R e s o u r c e  member,  College  Educators  Directors-Colleges  D.  Jones  D i r e c t o r o f Human R e s o u r c e s Community C o l l e g e  Vancouver  U.  Haag  D i r e c t o r of College  Kwantlan  Human R e s o u r c e s ,  to  of  Ill Human R e s o u r c e R.  Bell  E.  Stewart  Post-Secondary  Institutions  D i r e c t o r o f Human R e s o u r c e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e of Technology D i r e c t o r of P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  Human R e s o u r c e R.  Directors-Other  Sawka  Director-Private  Sector  D i r e c t o r o f Human R e s o u r c e s , DOMTAR Former D i r e c t o r o f Human R e s o u r c e s , Douglas C o l l e g e  Independent  Representatives  K.  Bigesby  B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of  B.  G a l l a g h e r L a b o u r Lawyer Chairman, Worker's Compensation Board Former V i c e - c h a i r m a n , B . C . L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board  L.  Hobbs  Director,  B r i t i s h Columbia  Colleges  P u b l i c Employers'  Association Former D i r e c t o r o f Human R e s o u r c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology Provincial F.  Government's M e d i a t i o n Services  Long  Mediator  INTERVIEW PROCESS The  majority  of  the  interviews  occurred  t i m e p e r i o d and f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r f o r m a t . conducted p r i m a r i l y d u r i n g A p r i l round out  the  summer o f  1988.  the  sensitive  sense of  trust  sample,  three  of  the  1986,  interviews  C o n s i d e r i n g the nature  of  the  w i t h each p a r t i c i p a n t  same  They were but  were  purpose of  topic,  d u r i n g the  conducted the  need t o  and t o  i n order  to in  the  interviews, establish  ensure  the  a  112 participants interviews start list  of  cooperation,  the  d e c i s i o n was made t o  i n an i n f o r m a l manner  the  interviews  a list  ( Y i n 1983)  of  topics  was expanded s l i g h t l y d u r i n g the  interviews. personal  The i t e m s ,  experience,  w h i c h were  i n c l u d e d the  .  Prior  was  to  compiled.  course  of  b a s e d on t h e following  conduct  the  the The  the literature  and  topics:  - l a b o u r c l i m a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia -labour climate i n individual colleges - i m p l i c a t i o n s of r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and u n i o n s - a d v e r s a r i a l b a r g a i n i n g and c o l l e g i a l i t y - d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p u b l i c s e c t o r - d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r s - i m p a c t of the c o m p o s i t i o n of the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s -management r i g h t s - s c o p e o f the c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s - a p p o i n t m e n t o f b o a r d members - i m p a c t o f f i n a n c i a l r e t r e n c h m e n t on b a r g a i n i n g - p r o v i n c i a l u n i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s - t i m e r e g u i r e d to n e g o t i a t e c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s -province-wide bargaining - i m p a c t o f c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s on n e g o t i a t i o n s - l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y on t h e n e g o t i a t i n g teams - m e d i a t i o n , a r b i t r a t i o n and f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n - s i n g l e team b a r g a i n i n g - s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s - c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n m a k i n g - c o m p o s i t i o n o f the n e g o t i a t i n g teams -trust -respect -training opportunities for negotiators -use of t h i r d p a r t i e s i n n e g o t i a t i o n s -impact of p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , e . g . , p o l i t i c a l preference - l o c a l autonomy and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g - d i f f e r e n c e s between f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s contracts -suggestions for improving bargaining - i m p a c t o f government p o l i c i e s on b a r g a i n i n g By and l a r g e , of  the  these  a r e a s were  however,  were  not  topics  were  generally  covered w i t h each discussed  i n the  covered  person. same o r d e r  The or  but not  all  topics, i n the  same  113 context  during  each  conversational each.  formal  each  c o d i n g system  expressed  or  to  during  the  the  raised  i n the  At  c o n c l u s i o n of  the  interview. researcher  G i v e n the  sensitive  were u s e d t o  clarify specific  the  interviews,  appeared  these  interest,  nature  a later  of  the  the  to  the  the  topic,  items topics.  were  pre-survey  not  cooperation.  several  their  of  the  comments  be r e c o r d e d .  participants  were  o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s  Each p r a c t i t i o n e r  not  interviews  new  responses  e n t h u s i a s m and  conversation  concerns,  the  to  categories.  participants  t o welcome t h e  bargaining. at  the  explore  a  not  t h a t were  succeeding  and t o  of  be c a r e f u l  thoughts  s p e c i f i c a l l y asked t h a t  and t h a t  some o f  had t o  absence  During  was one o f  participants record  of  In the  interviews.  r e v i e w e d and g r o u p e d i n t o b r o a d  interviews  i n t e r v i e w s w h i c h were  previous interviews  The r e a c t i o n  were  between one and two h o u r s  add any p e r s o n a l  recompiled notes  the  The i n t e r v i e w s  and l a s t e d  kept d u r i n g  following  editorialize  the  i n tone  N o t e s were  recompiled  interview.  be o f f  the  In s p i t e  of  c a n d i d and collective  o f f e r e d to pursue  the  interview  date.  SYNOPSIS The r e s p o n s e s  to  the  i n t e r v i e w s were  categorized  into  broad headings.  Those c a t e g o r i e s  included p r o v i n c i a l labour  climate,  college  labour climates,  autonomy,  previous  negotiations,  negotiating  teams,  governance,  sector  differences,  114 faculty  and f a c u l t y  conflict  associations,  resolution,  collective  miscellaneous  and  bargaining  and  suggested  modifications. Provincial  Labour  During  interviews,  British out  also  noted  last  f i v e years,  that  confrontational  over  tensions  but p a r t i c u l a r l y  There  faculty  for  feeling  that  institute  the  boards  government i n almost  labour matters.  compounded by the reduction  C o n c e r n was federal  also  transfer  payments  that  the  was the  the  general many o f during  haphazard  colleges  and  and manpower.  that  interest services,  about for  during  be a  local  impossible positions  people  expressed  to  was p l a c i n g t h e  government's  It  the  the in  the the  policy  i n c l u d e d an a b s e n c e  the  They p e r c e i v e d  i n funds f o r  of  These  education  private  unionized.  and i n s t i t u t i o n s  for  pointed  l a b o u r u n i o n s and  appeared  result  guidelines  postsecondary  are  representatives  government.  was  to  increasingly  between  public colleges  l o n g range budget  to  years,  relationship  the  It  forces  few y e a r s were a d i r e c t of  climate.  referred  B r i t i s h Columbia's  t h e r e had been an  among t h e i n the  decisions  plans  the  often  labour  C r e d i t government.  consensus  past  participants  a v e r y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of  and p u b l i c s e c t o r  Social  the  Columbia's labour r e l a t i o n s  that  sector  the  Climate  of  strategic T h e r e was  a  college  and  with  respect  situation  was  privatization,  and a n t i - u n i o n  government's  non-educational  use  stance. of  programs.  Two  115 people  f a m i l i a r with vocational  union o r i e n t a t i o n , was  less  because  support the  for  trades  members.  A cross  the  years  early  t h e r e was l e s s  section  New D e m o c r a t i c  the  previous  Labour  Many o f  the  British  College expressed  expressed  Party  the  proved that  in  that  New D e m o c r a t i c discourage  view t h a t  t h e y were  One f a c u l t y i n the  end  no b e t t e r  than  government.  Climates mentioned the  labour r e l a t i o n s  significant  climates  of  and i n s t i t u t e s .  impact  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  of  college  Along  boards,  for participation  in  d e c i s i o n making.  Boards.  regarding  one f a c u l t y  the  that  management.  community c o l l e g e s .  commented on the  leaders,  institutional  T h e r e were the  college  representative  had i m p r o v e d d r a m a t i c a l l y dropped.  that  past  mandate  l a b o u r and  C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s  v e i n they  college  was  Party's  there  union  interviewed f e l t  between  fledgling  i n the  trade  l a b o u r and d i d n o t  participants  i n the  those  this  Social Credit  College  potential  trade  that perhaps  t r a i n i n g than  New D e m o c r a t i c  however,  the  differences  of  given for  i n the  perception  were  confrontation  representative,  this  the  was s u p p o r t i v e o f  unionization  the  vocational  students  of  One e x p l a n a t i o n Party  expressed  t r a i n i n g and who had a  felt once  a number o f  diverse  boards.  On the  that  guality  the  H i s p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t  the  views  positive of  the  s c h o o l b o a r d members while they  were  on  the  side, boards were  116 college  boards  the  school board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  understand h i g h e r education or college,  role  of  representative  toward l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s .  agreed  that  had i m p r o v e d i n r e c e n t political  nature  committed to  of  the  years  the  the  their  individual  respective  connections  On the  negative  to  the  side,  advantage  of  a p p o i n t e d b o a r d members were  hesitant  challenge  to  those  during  interfered  i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  the  fear  of  tough economic  speak  out  reprisals.  that  superseded  used  their  colleges. that  the  times  o r when t h e  against  the  the  local  government board  government's  actions  One n o n - f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Under c e r t a i n  said  t o be more c o n s e r v a t i v e  circumstances,  some f e l t  than that  t h e r e would be i n c r e a s e d  board-faculty conflict  i n the  ahead.  practitioner  t h e r e was  little faculty  A private trust  sector  between  associations.  a faculty  the  colleges  This  representative  the  and a l w a y s would be  autonomy,  some b o a r d members a p p e a r e d government.  were  colleges  their  the  who had a p p o i n t e d them.  Therefore,  members would n o t  of  felt  t h e r e was a p e r s p e c t i v e  politically  public  faculty  in spite  b o a r d members  This  a  b o a r d members  o b l i g a t i o n s and t h a t b o a r d members a s t u t e l y  political  that  the  and s a i d t h a t  boards,  l o y a l t y to  Another  g u a l i t y of  higher education.  b o a r d members'  for  a community  u n d e r m i n e d f a c u l t y p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and h e l d  school mentality  party  the  d i d not  said that  and t h e  sentiment  their  faculty  years very  and  was e c h o e d by o t h e r s  and  117 felt  that  the b e h a v i o u r of  administrators  importance  some o f  the  relations  of  Many o f the  differences  climates  that  about  the  to  i n the  those  leaders  the  of p e r s o n a l i t i e s  relations college of  president  those  educational management  style,  the  faculty  that  the  tone  of  axes  on the  that  on t h e  to  the  of  labour r e l a t i o n s  faculty  and o t h e r each of  the  the  next.  t h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l  similar  the Many  factors,  college.  a college and  opposite.  climate  f o c u s e d on  and u n i o n s ,  successor  labour r e l a t i o n s  to  and l a b o u r  values,  while his  institution's  climates  attitudes,  uncooperative  was n o t e d t h a t  the  officer's  was a u t h o r i t a r i a n ,  it  During  executive  president  was j u s t  were  felt  board chairman.  chief  an example  leaders  a g a i n and a g a i n  comments  within  A number  negotiating  grind.  college  those  expectations  gave  attributed  They a l s o  made r e f e r e n c e  perceptions  representative  faculty.  and l a b o u r  faculty  colleges.  and s e c o n d a r i l y on the  skills,  the  They  college  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , experiences,  interpersonal set  felt  Primarily,  interviewed f e l t  college  in leadership positions.  practitioners  climates.  for  involved.  general  t h e y had p e r s o n a l  the  and  i n t e r v i e w e d commented on  participated  interviews impact  boards  respect  those  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  some f a c u l t y  teams b e c a u s e  of  personalities  of n o n - f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t s naive  college  indicated a lack  Personalities. the  the  One  where  anti-union,  In t h i s change  in  example, the  f r o m one p r e s i d e n t  A n o t h e r f a c u l t y member s a i d t h a t  the  while  a  to  college  11.8  president  had t o  be f a i r  and t o u g h ,  the  listen  and u n d e r s t a n d  the  people  cited  examples  of  on t h e i r  respective  their  specific  negative  affect  many r e c o g n i z e d chairman, officer  they  that  One p e r s o n  the felt  Some o f  the  openly  a lack  at  all  beginning  that  for  respective  representative  balance  that  institutional  organization.  often  a lot  of  on t h e  members  college  between  rather  that  boards  if  secrecy  information.  be t h e  and l e s s  if  with ones  information.  This  discuss  issues  experienced  was w a s t e d  that  at  the  information  it  t h a n have  faculty  had  a common  communicate  One  and t h a t  climate.  evaluations.  other's  felt  to  p o l i t i c a l appointees  t h e r e may be l e s s  each  associations.  suggested  executive  perceptions  to  An  time  and  board  those c o l l e g e s  appeared  administrators  faculty  these  and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o  the  faculty  chief  institutional  climates to  the  to  While  a dominant  T h e r e was  One a d m i n i s t r a t o r  college  with i n d i v i d u a l  sit  to  colleges.  institutional  of b a r g a i n i n g a r g u i n g o v e r  or m i s i n f o r m a t i o n . critical  of  of  cases  indicated  secrecy  levels said  some  access  had  Several  labour r e l a t i o n s  mandatory  relations  of  impact  and I n f o r m a t i o n .  participants  practitioner  to  the  perspective.  was r e a l l y  in  e a s y and open a c c e s s  included  the  it  that  through  labour  term  also  dominant b o a r d c h a i r m e n  a college's  in unfettered  positive with  that  indicated  Communications interest  short  affected  been b o r n o u t  faculty's  president  to  was directly go  through  faculty members  were a l l o w e d  t h e r e was more o f  a  and f a c u l t y  members,  then  institutional  tension.  One  119 example  of  c o o p e r a t i o n between a c o l l e g e  faculty  association  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a  was where one c o l l e g e  appointed union representatives  to  three  president senior  had  management  committees. Autonomy Several respect  to  people r a i s e d a b r o a d range  who had d i r e c t government talked  of  of  these  local  they  college the  f i v e year  perceived  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  d i s s o l u t i o n of i n the  administrative  cited  boards,  the  the  three  c o u n c i l s were  Program, i n free  as  autonomy. in  As  the board  formula funding,  Act,  the  the  f u n d s and  appointment of  supposed to  another  and  the  college  the  the after  i n 1983. latter  coordinate  As three  funding  system.  former Compensation  example  of  bargaining.  gave a s p e c i f i c  p o l i t i c i a n s and M i n i s t r y  said that  changes  advisory councils  collective  people  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  the g o v e r n m e n t ' s  with a f a c u l t y perspective the  the  C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e  people c i t e d  interference  the  i n s t i t u t i o n a l evaluations,  and p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h o u t  Stabilization  the  a p r o v i d e r of  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  mandatory  Several  A number o f  than j u s t  changes,  members w i t h o u t t e r m ,  outlined  b o a r d autonomy w i t h  provincial intrusions into college  c o m p o s i t i o n of  the  issues.  of  i n v o l v e m e n t i n community c o l l e g e s  had become more  about  examples  the matter  officials,  the  government's  Another person example  rather  of  where  than the  Board  120 and t h e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , appeared to  determining  the  A public many o f  the  sector college  associations, government  academic  representative,  however,  boards,  as many f a c u l t y  and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . it  a hands o f f p o s t u r e  funds  to  operate  public  sector  vision  of  the  agencies,  their  say  that  mandate  positively financial  the to  since  In o t h e r  sources  of  colleges  handouts.  In o r d e r  financial  and p o l i t i c a l  person  suggested  that  the  the  management  and a c a d e m i c  higher  of  colleges'  the  colleges  to  reverse  status  their  political  climate  i n the  public  t h a t many  enough i n  p e r s o n went on  r e s p o n d more  of  local  who depended on the the  recent  decline  colleges,  this  should develop projects funding base, leverage.  personnel f e l t  Social Credit  to  of  had a narrow  This  that  colleges  and  and  thereby  Generally, the  government had  e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i n t u r n had a f f e c t e d  relations  the m a j o r i t y  i n i t i a t e d a number of  colleges  t h a t would enhance  increasing  behaviour  revenue.  that  the  services  colleges,  during  autonomy and  and had n o t been a g g r e s s i v e  i n i t i a t i v e s than those  provincial  local  to  assume  The same p e r s o n f e l t  including  that  words,  n a i v e to  they p r o v i d e d  government was l i k e l y  those  suggested  with respect  was p o l i t i c a l l y  colleges.  developing alternate  in  well  government would c o m p l e t e l y r e s p e c t  take  to  as  had u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s  funding  in  programming of one i n s t i t u t i o n .  a p e r i o d of r e t r e n c h m e n t the  be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d  attitude  politicized  the  labour  institutes.  both and  121 Governance D u r i n g the institutional  interviews governance  a number o f p e o p l e . attention  to  the  education,  various  faculty It  academic notion  i n the  e.g., by  and e x p e c t a t i o n s faculty,  a  of  number  as  participation  boards  councils,  since  and t h e r e  climates  collective  that  agreements  and f a c u l t y  power  representative difference number of  i n the  said that  among the those  sector  not  turned to  share  sit  on  academic to  collective  ensure of  several w h i c h had  comprehensive  a great  regard.  vocational the  group  interests  One f a c u l t y  t h e r e was c l e a r l y  may n o t  a l l o w e d to  those with  in this  of  processes.  enshrined professional  colleges  The  made t h a t  those c o l l e g e s  agreements.  the  their  perspective  were  i n t e r v i e w e d the  backgrounds,  tradition  inadeguate  agreement,  representatives,  good l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  are  groups  From the  that  d e c i s i o n making  often  collective  autonomy.  faculty  are  vocational  people  to m a x i m i z e  faculty  some f a c u l t y  and the  professional academic  that  perhaps  bargaining  want  i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  They p o i n t e d out college  to  of t h e  professionals.  university transfer  inclined  drew  f a m i l i a r i t y with  academic  viewed themselves  i n the  was d i s c u s s e d by  origins,  of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m c o u p l e d w i t h the  f a c u l t y more  their  between  representatives  working c o n d i t i o n s  suggested  faculty  collegiality of  The f a c u l t y  groups,  was  relationship  and l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  differences  unions,  faculty.  the  deal  of  A c c o r d i n g to  faculty,  same i n t e r e s t  due in .  to  a  122 professional The r e s u l t  matters  they  as  the  s a i d was  more  that  the  f o c u s e d on more b a s i c  labour  are  contain  of  s i m p l e and do n o t the  academic  faculty  separate vocational colleges  collective ensure  Previous  within that  within  the  rights.  the  faculty  attempted  to  This  next  comments  associations  benefits,  governance  clauses  i n d i c a t e d that  more  and  the i n some  the  comprehensive  Several i n the  on c u r r e n t  necessary  to  there  labour  to  boards, to  days  They went on t o  suggest  the  tension  as  be l o s t  the  boards  management  section  of  the  bias  b o a r d members who had  Party  college  day gave up t o o many management  rights.  i n many c a s e s ,  this the  that  supported a number of  that  result  of  suggested  p e o p l e w i t h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  New D e m o c r a t i c  the  impact  relations  c o u l d be more  they p e r c e i v e d  formative  of  the  representative  and c o l l e g e  b a r g a i n i n g w i t h the  that  related  was e c h o e d by a c r o s s  administrations  fact  contracts  colleges.  few y e a r s  been a p p o i n t e d by the  the  the  and r e s p e c t  that  One f a c u l t y  sentiment  that  collective  the  r e c o u p what  practitioners. suggested  salaries,  becoming a b s o l u t e l y  agreements  colleges.  during  faculty  Those f a m i l i a r w i t h  trust  tense,  a number o f  collective  between  so  faculty.  Negotiations  T h e r e were earlier  many of  contracts.  a g r e e m e n t s were  stability  e.g.  union's situations,  environment  oriented  vocational  issues,  t h e r e was so l i t t l e  political  academic  p r o b l e m was early  compounded by  contracts  were  123 negotiated the of  by the  academic  v i e w was e x p r e s s e d collective  experience,  vice-presidents.  that  the  academic  bargaining experience,  bias  making p r o c e s s ,  toward  faculty  and t h e i r  not  to  presidents  the  academic  academic  leaders  academic  vice-presidents  negotiating  to  college out  of  administrations frustration. to  for  that  serve  the  faculty  were  and t h e r e f o r e  of  decisions,  the  faculty  that  unilateral as  well  by the  as  the  BCGEU when t h e y were  government's  as  per  Section  I n a d d i t i o n , many o f  the  so  that  academic  the  vocational 29  of  the  trades  t h e y were  were  the  that  to  the  certification often  arbitrary  the  schools  that  whims of  lack  and the  vocational  transferred to  from  several  of board faculty the of  C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e s  faculty  more  came o u t  of  the Act.  unionized  f a m i l i a r with trade  unions  faculty.  A f a c u l t y member s a i d t h a t associations  suggested  administrators  of  than  as  college  an a p p a r e n t  were  industries  the  seen  frustration  and  was m e n t i o n e d t h a t many o f  colleges  on  at  this  It  provincial  were  suggestion  turned  members. part  the  was e x p r e s s e d  They s a i d  be a r e s u l t  administrative respect  s h o u l d not  perspective  certification,  appeared  Not u n l i k e  vice-presidents t h e r e was  staff,  teams.  A faculty prior  and t h e r e f o r e  decision  offend their  rights.  lack  instructional  i n v o l v e m e n t i n the  desire  point,  vice-presidents'  previous  s i m p l y gave away t o o many management college  On t h i s  and s t i l l  are  some of  the  perceived  faculty to  be q u i t e  left  124 wing.  This  p e r s o n p o i n t e d out  associations collective offer  sought  bargaining,  assistance  some of  advice  were  t h e more r a d i c a l  Negotiating  when the  regarding  the the  that  certification  only people  that  and the  college's  teams.  the  vice-president.  a college  college's  negotiating  positions  president  college  leaders.  informally  assist  w i t h the  playmakers  i n the  background.  of  a president  an a d m i n i s t r a t o r  support  to  committee,  for  r e q u i r e d as  or  that  the  that  for  was  if  they  said  that  were  necessarily  T h e r e was,  act  to  as  the  the  skills  however,  an i n f l u e n t i a l member o f  on  was  be f r e e  that  to  their  it  and to  A n o t h e r p o i n t was not  to  the  and  t h e y may compromise  bargaining process  and v i s a - v e r s a .  it  faculty  and a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t  are  a  on a  was t h a t  motivate  chaired  academic  even s e r v e  One p e r s o n  a negotiator  from a l l q u a r t e r s  an  a  be  f e e l i n g that  The p e r c e p t i o n was  imperative  skills  membership  faculty  consensus  The r a t i o n a l e  two p o s i t i o n s  spirit.  the  on t h e  and  a strong  s h o u l d not  team.  negotiating  as  especially  b a r g a i n i n g team s h o u l d n o t  or v i c e - p r e s i d e n t  a college's  views  administrative  president  d e v e l o p team  strong  T h e r e was a l s o  these  Many o f  T h e r e was a g e n e r a l  administrative  of  to  labour unions.  interviewed held  by a b o a r d member,  function  prepared  Teams  c o n t i n u i t y of  negotiating  were  and  organized labour unions,  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e N e g o t i a t i n g Teams. practitioners  faculty-  the  board  to  thought  serve was  as  that  a member of it  was good f o r  was g o i n g on at  the  ultimately  have  to  having  Personnel  the  negotiations could were  was  the  usually in  that  a college's  if  members  or  a  collective  if  it  position  i n c l u d e d the  dissatisfied  regardless  that the  if  the  be a f u r t h e r  of  that  internal  it  administrative  however,  of  difference  colleges  with respect role  colleges.  that  It  substantial  the  the  to  of  private  between  the  bursar that  of  president,  legal  suggested  only board the  faculty  and would be  Another  consisted  comment  o f b o a r d members t h e r e would  representatives best  not  the  large  agreed  results  T h e r e was  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  when  the  of recognition, and s m a l l specialized  o f t e n p l a y e d i n the i n one s m a l l c o l l e g e  Human R e s o u r c e s , sector  the  appeal.  eguivalent.  was n o t e d  was no D i r e c t o r  consisted  c h a i r e d by a D i r e c t o r  or  of  An a d m i n i s t r a t o r  b a r g a i n i n g y i e l d e d the  Human R e s o u r c e s  and the  cognizant  settlement.  and f a c u l t y  team was  the  of  not  members  bargaining process  team  for  structure  board  would be p e r c e i v e d  court  Both a d m i n i s t r a t i v e collective  the  administrative  president,  be  what  b o a r d would  The r a t i o n a l e  a college's  to  The  Board handle  college  much from the  the  administrative  b a r g a i n i n g team  too  since  the  bargaining.  would expect  that  entire  committee.  b o a r d to be aware of  contract.  Committee o f  that  of  or  the  t h e n be b y - p a s s e d and t h a t not  the  bargaining table ratify  nuances  was  a college's  staff  smaller where  there  a b o a r d member w i t h  collective  bargaining  experience  had made a s i g n i f i c a n t Several  participants  c o n t r i b u t i o n to  said that  members  teams s h o u l d be i n t e r n a l  staff  consultants  Generally,  or  lawyers.  administrative agents  i n the  Faculty also  practitioners collective  representatives to  get  faculty  T h e r e was became  also  the  to  participate  or  their  point  view i t  participate  i n the  than  the  academic  two i n s t r u c t o r s trades  faculty  collective  per often  adequate  the  made t h a t  often  Resource  Managers,  who d i d the  release  This  faculty's  members time  on  The r e s u l t  to  that  week one  that  or  the  participate  faculty. e.g.  bargaining for  per  just  was  the  to  t e a c h more h o u r s  academic  teams.  was m e n t i o n e d  administrators,  have many o t h e r  responsibilities.  From the  more d i f f i c u l t  the  was  f a c u l t y who  t h e r e was o f t e n  area.  it  personal  faculty  It  were  faculty  bargaining  a  the  The  how d i f f i c u l t  need,  found i t  external  observations  a personal  and t h a t  b a r g a i n i n g than  d i d not  about  that  the  process.  the  subject  and  of  about  have  negotiating  b a r g a i n i n g teams.  u s u a l l y had to staff  use  expressed  was a l s o  usually  faculty  the  bargaining process.  faculty  two  process.  external  on c o l l e c t i v e  was c r i t i c a l  team had to  the  than  political inclinations.  negotiating  trades  of  bargaining  A number o f  concern  some c o n c e r n  problem,  the  bargaining  expressed  of  the  disliked  faculty  i n v o l v e d because  of  rather  N e g o t i a t i n g Teams.  o f f e r e d about  the  The p o i n t Human  their  colleges  administrative  perceived  inequity therefore  placed  in  the  faculty association negotiators  Several the  faculty representatives  best  disadvantage. the  key  to  ensuring  faculty participated in negotiations  was  to  provide  workload r e l i e f . associations financially  They f e l t  should  be  f o r the  teams b e c a u s e conditions,  the  simply  time.  union a c t i v i t i e s ,  o f f e r to serve  the  colleges  on  with t h e i r their  that  the  want t o be  there  bargaining  working work o r  want t o become i n v o l v e d  t h e y d i d not  they considered  faculty  People recognized  satisfied  d i d not  respective  t o compensate  t h e y were f r u s t r a t e d w i t h  they  makers o r  that  d i d not  were  they  s a i d that  prepared  relief  were some f a c u l t y who  college,  at a  perceived  unions beneath t h e i r  the with as  trouble  professional  status. i One  of  the  participants,  greatest was  the  c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by  lack  bargaining  teams from one  perception  was  felt  the  o v e r was the  c o n t i n u i t y on  contract  to  the  t o some e x t e n t  the  next  the  faculty contract.  i n that  This  some p e o p l e  turn less prevalent  academic  create  gualified  of  a l l of  among the  associations.  a number of  The  significant  lack  faculty negotiating  these concerns  included  information  on  various  sensitivity  to  the  expectations;  rigid  of  contractual  contract  than  c o n t i n u i t y appeared  teams.  Taken  historical issues;  language;  bargaining  of  associations  problems f o r both  management and  a lack  vocational  to  the together,  background  a lack  of  unrealistic  p o s i t i o n s ; an  inability  of  the  faculty negotiators  to  say no t o  therefore  an i n a b i l i t y to  set  resulted  i n t o o many i t e m s  departmental  proposals  and  b a r g a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s which  on t h e  table;  an i n a b i l i t y t o know  when t o move on i s s u e s  o r when t o  strike  a deal;  knowledge w i t h r e s p e c t  to m e d i a t i o n ,  entire  legal  of  collective  the  process;  administrator reguired  the  and a l a c k  that  each  administrative He s a i d t h a t  d e a l i n g w i t h new f a c u l t y that  in his  difficult labour faculty  experience,  sector  to  relations turnover  negotiations resolving Sector  at  the  points  was  faculty  the  nuances  An e x p e r i e n c e d  new t a l k s  train  the  the  usually  faculty  frustrating  to  always  One p a r t i c i p a n t  associations  be said  the  most  d e a l w i t h i n m e d i a t i o n due t o  the  lack  experience.  It  rate  additional tensions  created  a t i m e when the  appeared  emphasis  that  the  of  high during  s h o u l d be on  issues.  Differences  related  to  the  the  comments  backgrounds,  that  e.g.,  related  private  commented on  among the  faculty  people  sectors,  institutes,  differences  various  by s e v e r a l  instructor's  i n other  public  a number of  c o m p o s i t i o n of suggested  it  to  to  of  were  universities,  T h e r e were  itself.  new r o u n d of team  and  sensitivity  negotiators.  Those w i t h e x p e r i e n c e sector,  arbitration  bargaining process  said  negotiators.  of  a lack  to  various the  educational  diverse levels  sectors.  heterogeneous  bargaining units.  the  several  It  was  mix o f and  functions  contributes  to  expectations this  a variety  within  which  leads  administrative negotiations  people  were  t h a n w i t h the  director  administrative  professional  are  professional  clearly salaries  salaries  financial  collective  or  Unlike  for  eguity  the  for  the  conversations  Some of  that  once  the  bargaining units,  they  forfeited really  faculty the  just  the  that  i n many  lines  of  t o p down,  individual are  other the  and do n o t  t h e r e were  and u n i o n i s m .  often  and t h e r e  faculty  private  the  on an  differences  academic-vocational  and were  i n the  usually  sectors,  present  and m e d i o c r i t y ,  staff  felt  professionals  resource  participate  are  some o f  faculty  vocational  sector,  o f t e n do n o t  contract  vocational  One human  often negotiated  plans.  Several  experience,  the  o f t e n b a s e d on m e r i t  compensate  professionalism participants  and t h a t  defined, decisions are  that  association,  tensions.  w i t h the  t o be a common p e r c e p t i o n  the  same  union  college  staff  They s a i d  and  e q u i t a b l e working  the  forward.  agreements s t r e s s  joint  During  of  in their  easier  the  aspirations  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s ,  any i n c e n t i v e s  recognize the  are  incentive  there appeared  of  that  faculty  said that unlike  authority  a lack  internal  were more s t r a i g h t  of  provide  felt  academic  the  basis,  to  generally  sector the  to  values,  association.  and m u t u a l r e s p e c t w i t h i n  i n turn contributes  contracts  interests,  some f a c u l t y  diversity often  conditions  of  do n o t  adeguately  among the  members  associations. often  the  references  non-faculty  had j o i n e d  right  to  to  employees.  be  certified  called  Along  this  same  130 line  of  the  thought,  collective  blue  collar  each  see  similar  the  variation  offers  funding  i n the  were  to  the  to  recognized gave the  deal  of  say  as  be management  strikes  and t o  college  for  boards  or  quickly,  w i t h the  eighteen  months  that,  compared t o  as  faculty  faculty in  result  to  the  given  member s a i d ,  sector faculty  that  comprehensive  faculty  of  contracts  contracts. to  contract  Several  there  are  people  few  associations  contract  some  faculty  development  dominated  talks  incentives to  often  settle  take  Two n o n - f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t s  vocational tend  contractual  faculty, to  carry  issues.  "What do you e x p e c t ?  that  under  comprehensive  i n the  it  programs,  practitioners  lockouts.  negotiators  regarding  academia".  the  settle.  association  discussions  s a i d how amazing  respective  Other l e s s  i n the  the  and  same a c a d e m i c  Among the  commented t h a t either  traditional  contracts,  A number o f p o i n t s were made r e l a t e d settlements,  than  on r u l e s  members  faculty  that  policies.  perceived  faculty  arrangements.  a great  institutional  emphasis  perceived  same l e g i s l a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s  contracts  associations  generally  be n o t h i n g more  approximately  contracts  orientated  to  several  u n d e r the  college's  were  agreements  Yet,  college  operates  same p a r t i c i p a n t s  contracts with their  regulations. was t o  these  the  said  academic  on  On t h i s  protracted point  one  T h i n g s move s l o w l y  131 Several sector  non-faculty  and sometimes  contract  talks  attributed  to  loss  of p e r s o n a l  said  that  in  the  in certain  the  number o f  and c o r p o r a t e  absence of  public sector,  the  market the  to  the  that  thereby  an o f f e n s i v e reasons  colleges  political the  are  not  considered  level,  the  faculty  at  the  the  faculty  especially represent  i n the  weekly c l a s s r o o m much l o c a l  One p e r s o n  that  hours,  fringe  that  felt  that  are  It  required  provincial for  using  lockouts  several  They s a i d  services  by  that  the  have much They n o t e d  that  communities,  t o p wage e a r n e r s benefits,  sabbaticals,  are  i n the  in a protracted  students  felt  bargaining.  more r u r a l the  he  introduced  periods.  community sympathy  said  Lower M a i n l a n d ,  some o f  often  suggested  do n o t  e.g.,  conditions  people  provincial level.  community and a l o n g w i t h t h e i r  in  like  boards  the  essential  the  receive  to  The p a r t i c i p a n t s  sluggish settlement  leverage  holidays,  college  They  participants  education,  e l i m i n a t i n g an i n c e n t i v e  and t h e r e f o r e  local  Act,  college  strike.  settle,  member s a i d  from a l o c k o u t  weapon.  for  the  the  to  to  market  collective  sector,  in duration.  Several  sector  with free  private  public  w h i l e two management  under  any s a v i n g s  government  at  income.  A faculty  interfered  noted  return  other  short  i n c l u d i n g higher  conditions,  program  government as  are  the  C o m p e n s a t i o n S t a b i l i z a t i o n Program had  like  was a l s o  of  i n the  incentives  private  prolonged n e g o t i a t i o n s . that  that  areas  and work s t o p p a g e s  this  the  people noted  could consider  in  e.g., not  event  labour  likely of  a  dispute  transferring  to  132 other  institutions,  faculty that  association.  in their  Faculty  sections, the  and F a c u l t y  concern  the  a number o f  faculty  s i d e of  expressed  other  and  associations  that  the  training and  own l o c a l  ineguities  Institute legal  of  advice.  relationship  and t h e  on  of  part  Association  the  and i t s  previous with respect  regardless  finance  legal  of  in this areas  It  other  area  and has  hand,  are  i n the  recognized it  large  offers  financial  local  largely  was why t h e r e  dependent that  appeared  these to  be  B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e -  Association's  approach  BCGEU was c o r d i a l , the  to  coordinated  said while  College-Institute  BCGEU t h a t  labour  since  The  A  colleges  One p e r s o n s u g g e s t e d  associations  the  the  was  to  their  counsel,  and a r b i t r a t i o n s .  A labour representative  Association the  to  on t h e  interest  between  said  prone.  bargaining process.  people,  resources.  Educators  a  oriented  strike  raised  b a s e s upon w h i c h to d r a w .  among t h e  a resurgence  generally  were  collective  an a d v a n t a g e  associations,  their  issues  i n a number o f  human r e s o u r c e  faculty on  courses  client  f i n a n c i a l i n e q u i t y between  grievances  BCGEU has  not  are  m e n t i o n e d i n the  by s e v e r a l  was  consultants,  power of  and n o n - f a c u l t y p e o p l e  faculty  are  items  the  the  r e d u c i n g the  Associations  background, faculty  the  and t h e r e f o r e  a d d i t i o n to  further  Both f a c u l t y  experience,  professionals  In  thereby  Educators  t h e r e was some  College-Institute  member a s s o c i a t i o n s  the  feeling  Educators  wanted a l l of  the  133 benefits support  of  organized  the.main  representative increased  it  stream  also  salaries  benefitted  the  operating  suggested  the  was n o t more a c t i v e  was  the  after  year,  isolated  boredom,  their  Several perhaps at  that  the  negotiating  appeared  the to  of  the  concerns  table  same r e q u e s t s  for  was  relations.  faculty.  It  to  be l e s s  and l e s s  career  the  same c o u r s e s  colleges  research  frustrated  or  via  were  year  or  to  bored f a c u l t y bargaining bias  year.  o f new a p p r o a c h e s  It  felt  may a t t e m p t process.  two  associations They s a i d  by t h e  could  was  observed the  The  faculty  which i n t u r n  a college.  faculty  after  generally faculty  could lead  the  year  consulting.  t e n s i o n between  that  Colleges  college  tension within  reasons  be a l a c k  costs  college's  d i s c i p l i n e and few  style  said  the  taught  smaller  for  t h a t was i d e n t i f i e d  and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  personal  the  Someone  personnel  the  p e o p l e w i t h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  one of  present  tension  or  had i n d i r e c t l y  labour  these c o n d i t i o n s  these p o t e n t i a l l y  vent  often  in university  increase  of  of  appeared  in their  frustration  indirectly that  there  i n the  from p e e r s  80% o f  field  source  faculty  i m p l i c a t i o n was  BCGEU's h a r d f i g h t  associations.  to  stagnation  that  faculty  participated  70%  join  The l a b o u r  given a college's  i n the  professional  opportunities,  the  to  B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of  potential  was p o i n t e d o u t  prepared  and a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s  approximately  Another  that  non-BCGEU f a c u l t y  budget,  not  l a b o u r movement.  was s u r p r i s i n g t h a t ,  represented  to  l a b o u r b u t were  faculty  that parties often  there  associations suggested  to  that  difficulty  too  ever,  asked  for  it  was  concessions  non-faculty  form of  said  that  retain  right  to  the  colleges  province-wide lowest  and a l l  w i t h the  bargaining  felt  bargaining. it  was  in  to  government,  the of  diverse  if  increasing  to  at  the  one,  that  and t h a t  the  i n the  of  of  any  local  colleges  affairs.  They  long run  down to  the  autonomy,  and  local  conditions.  on the  future,  the  faculty  representative  pressure  of  BCGEU all  i n the  local to  matter  were a g a i n s t  each c o l l e g e  respond  political  some p o i n t  the  academic  would i n h i b i t  colleges  to  own i n t e r n a l  one non-BCGEU f a c u l t y  increase that  of  bargaining,  imperative  manage t h e i r  were t o o  a l l o w the above,  the  and r a r e l y ,  Those i n f a v o u r  b a r g a i n i n g would p u l l  As n o t e d order  of  exception  common d e n o m i n a t o r ,  would n o t  ways  on  associations  A l t h o u g h the  province-wide  participants  province-wide  the  and  productivity.  bargaining.  favoured  representatives,  faculty  opinions with respect  collective  representatives  or  have  initially  colleges  discuss  They  Bargaining  T h e r e were d i v e r s e province-wide  to  placed  the  from the  effectiveness  Province-Wide  that  to  priorities  were o f t e n  noted  problems.  appeared  bargaining  displayed a willingness  faculty's  and l a b o u r  associations  many i t e m s  Similarly,  always  the  faculty  college  in establishing  conseguently table.  existing  it  felt  that  provincial  may be  more  135 advantageous the  to b a r g a i n f o r  certain  items,  p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l rather  t h a n at  a local  Collective  B a r g a i n i n g and C o n f l i c t  During  interviews,  the  participants collective techniques. that  the  Many o f  current  effective  way t o  t h e most  negotiators  the  is  process  best  way t o  adversarial,  ensure  there  the  negotiations  is It  more e x p e r i e n c e d as  they  also  appeared  appeared  to  Some p r a c t i t i o n e r s ,  suggestions  that  are  While  they  suggested of  power  agreed  that  it  that  is  comments,  that  while  the  that  i n the  however,  was n o t e d  included  access  that to  the  c e r t i f i c a t i o n under t h e traditional private  if  p r o v i n c e would were  not  and made a number  section  in  collective  on  suggested  modifications. It  the  approached  free  system  l i s t e d i n the  when  approach n e g o t i a t i o n s  labour r e l a t i o n s  present  felt  between  from the  i n the  return  of  worked b e s t  One p e r s o n s u g g e s t e d  that  s a t i s f i e d w i t h the  practitioners  exercise,  bargaining process  entirely  resolution  practitioners  government would s t o p m e d d l i n g  to n o r m a l .  conflict  and i t  a balance  a more c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l manner. the  on  b a r g a i n i n g was an  involved.  a problem s o l v i n g  inexperienced negotiators  level.  comments  experienced  collective  were  e m p l o y e r s and e m p l o y e e s . some of  various  handle n e g o t i a t i o n s  experienced  at  b o t h l a b o u r and management  including  model o f  salaries,  Resolution  o f f e r e d a number o f g e n e r a l  bargaining,  e.g.,  L a b o u r Code  sector  conflict  resolution  techniques  arbitration. a legal  In d i s c u s s i n g  lockout  appointed  sufficient  pressure  inexperienced, needed  when one  needed  fully  bargaining.  level  mediation  filed  that  were f a r  than p r i v a t e  was  w i t h the  mediation  sides  side  to  to  until  a mediator  government.  settle,  settle,  needed  to  in establishing  the  on to  i n understanding  the  say  in his more  ramifications  One  sector  disputes  priories,  of  side  collective  sometimes  experienced  experience,  difficult  was  and when one  that mediation  a  when one and  legal  was  when t h e r e was  save f a c e ,  process  said  when t h e r e  goals  bargaining  is  Those  when o n e s i d e  its  and  pointed o u t that  hand e x p e r i e n c e w i t h m e d i a t i o n  a problem s o l v i n g r o l e . said  is  m e d i a t i o n worked b e s t  comprehend Some went  practitioner college  is  assistance  collective  lockouts,  c a n n o t be c a l l e d  sides  when one  side  preformed  by b o t h  strikes,  mediation,  on b o t h  assistance  traditional d i d not  report  experience,  commitment  side  strike  who had f i r s t  in their  real  or  and h i s  interviewed that  s u c h as  to  impasses resolve  or  other  at  the  through public  sector  disputes. It  was m e n t i o n e d  British agree  that  i n the  C o l u m b i a ' s Labour Code,  to  contract.  proceed  to  In t h e i r  suggested  that  very  proceeded  to  unanimous  feeling  arbitration  event of  both p a r t i e s  have  unless  a part  e x p e r i e n c e many o f few c o l l e g e s  arbitration. among t h e  There  an i m p a s s e ,  it  is  the  to  under mutually  of  their  participants  and f a c u l t y  associations  appeared  be an  human r e s o u r c e  to  officers  almost and  the  academic blunt  faculty  an i n s t r u m e n t  practitioners, conflict of  internal third  local  college  the  an a r b i t r a t o r  arbitrators  often  pointed out,  are  i n the  often  w i t h the  acceptable  form of  took  time,  collective  BCGEU,  felt  conflict  A number o f p e o p l e  from b o t h s i d e s ,  the  faculty  issue, It  was n o t e d  used. the  they  college monetary  felt  should exercise that  On t h i s  private  the  the  point,  sector,  boards  to  colleges'  there  exercise  incentive,  is  external  to  not  the  that  two p o s i t i o n s issues  the  real  it  of  suggested  right  those was  an  lockout  their that  strike  that  nature  of  members. if  enough about to  or  either an lockout.  o p t i o n had r a r e l y suggested  that  much of  an i n c e n t i v e  their  lockout  option,  relations,  was  internal  They r e c o g n i z e d  needs  and  and  The l a t t e r ,  not  bad p u b l i c  to  impasse,  adversarial  one p r a c t i t i o n e r  of  appear  hand,  strongly  their  loss  does  arbitration  w i t h the the  an  monetary  resolution.  i n the  management.  the  other  of  resolution of  some of  that  method  the  conflict  issues.  On the  was c o n s i s t e n t  or  the  causes of  b a r g a i n i n g and s u i t e d  college  lead  split  address  colleges.  associated  to  non-economic the  the  arbitration  too  F o r many of  assistance  that  was  resulted  method o f  appears only  it  F o r many,  problems  generally  that  the  generally  i g n o r e many e s s e n t i a l  it  matters.  underlying  resolution.  basis  problems v i a  that  arbitration  was an u n a c c e p t a b l e  was an u n a c c e p t a b l e  They s u g g e s t e d  conflicts  that  conflict  arbitration  over  party  resolve  for  r e s o l u t i o n on the  control  that  representatives  unlike for  e.g.,  increased  been  bad  the  no staff  138 morale.  Citing  a couple of  directors  said that  proved to  be e f f e c t i v e  lockouts  bargaining process,  with  the  final  suggested once  or  Several risky  that  twice  strike  faculty's  the  academic offer  offer this  that  faculty  It  final  the  offer  thought  since  felt  it  or  had in  the  work d i s r u p t i o n s  experience It  colleges.  selection  was  just  as  a means  of  that  it  d i d not  create  d i d not  a direct  employer's  revenue.  issue  by i s s u e  would be an a c c e p t a b l e that  the  current  a  impact  on  One o f  form o f  method  of  collective  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community the  to  conflict  have  the  was  had o n l y been u s e d  it  the  that  young and t h a t  Miscellaneous  of power  arbitration.  arbitration  was p o i n t e d o u t  bargaining process  were r a i s e d .  cat  form of  and r e j e c t e d  selection,  was r e l a t i v e l y  of  f o r m of  felt  bargaining process  source  selection  pay cheques  arbitration.  During  a balance  a lockout  i n t e r v i e w e d had had d i r e c t  pressure,  the  final  those  of  resource  strikes.  One p e r s o n  like  threat  in c u r t a i l i n g wild  both sides  resolution.  the  two human  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community  people  for  or  in restoring  and p r e v e n t i n g sympathy O n l y one of  examples,  colleges  collective  n e e d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  mature.  Points  interviews One o f  those  information for  m e n t i o n e d by s e v e r a l  several items the  people,  other was  miscellaneous  the  lack  negotiating that  often  of  teams.  there  is  items  a common It  was  a great  deal  139 of u n n e c e s s a r y  conflict  and time wasted  process  the  of  data.  due t o  financial faculty  was  power.  associations  c o u l d not  that  was o f t e n  this  province-wide Several  matter  the  basis  participants  among the  radical  to  salvage  i n order  the  faculty  provincial said  frustrating  p e o p l e who had the They  discussions  the  when  ultimate  suggested  related  to  o f Human R e s o u r c e s  positive  about  their  member was n o t  s a i d t h a t w h i l e the  the  reverted  the  as  an a d v e r s a r i a l  one s e c t i o n  was r a t i f i e d .  It  was s u g g e s t e d but  t h e r e was a g r e a t  deal  that of  it  the  of  the that  faculty  try  something  While  the  This  latter process  cooperative  regarding  agreement single  was  spirit  He r e p o r t e d  stance  were  team'bargaining,  team n e g o t i a t i o n  was s i g n e d .  of  and the  representative  with single  unfortunately  with  administrator  had to  enthusiastic.  interpretation  was one a p p r o a c h ,  One  relationship.  single  agreement to  they  and a l a b o u r  experience  successful,  experience  adminstration  p o i n t where  Director  two s i d e s  very  one i n s t i t u t i o n .  that  vanished a f t e r  versus  had had p e r s o n a l  to  initially  institutional  representatives  found i t  for  bargaining  bargaining.  had d e t e r i o r a t e d  person  local  p r o v i n c i a l government. the  relations  one f a c u l t y  of  by some of  faculty  w i t h the  team b a r g a i n i n g a t  that  of  sometimes  negotiate  power;  single  the  A couple of  financial  said  a common s o u r c e  A n o t h e r i t e m t h a t was r a i s e d  representatives  they  lack  d u r i n g the  that  the  the  soon a f t e r  it  teams b a r g a i n i n g  may work o n l y when and where  trust  and c o o p e r a t i o n .  One p e r s o n  140 "mentioned t h a t another  single  team b a r g a i n i n g was b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by  British Columbia.institution.  SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS The  pre-survey  aimed a t in  the  interviews  improving  unionized  TO COLLECTIVE  the  p r o d u c e d a number of  current  i n other  cases  practitioners. aimed at rather  collective  community c o l l e g e s .  s u g g e s t i o n was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e while  BARGAINING  of  The s u g g e s t e d  improving  the  came  of  the  f r o m one of  collective  process the  participants,  m o d i f i c a t i o n s were  current  than p r o p o s i n g r a d i c a l  bargaining  I n some c a s e s  several  a suggestion  suggestions  the  generally  bargaining  i n n o v a t i o n s to  the  system  system.  Suggested M o d i f i c a t i o n s Several issues  salaries  four  It  non-faculty representatives be l e f t  or  at  per year  during  the  critical  s h o u l d be s u b j e c t  the to  negotiating  to  that  experience  consideration  that  life  of  issues,  w h i c h c o u l d be amended a t  agreement  s i g n e d by b o t h  a  excluding  n e g o t i a t i o n when during  the three  or  sector,  it  issues.  i n the  private  s h o u l d be g i v e n t o  contracts  parties.  felt  teams s h o u l d meet  d e a l w i t h emergent  Based on one member's was s u g g e s t e d  fester  r e g u l a r l y scheduled i n t e r v a l s  For example, times  to  was recommended t h a t  and b e n e f i t s ,  occur  year.  the  s h o u l d not  contract.  they  of  continuous  any t i m e by a l e t t e r  of  A human r e s o u r c e s  officer  suggested  s h o u l d be c a r r i e d  out  seating  i n s u c h a way t h a t  sides one  organized  could s i t  s i d e by s i d e  the  instead  of  discussions  formal contract  parties  to  the  issues  people across  the  from the the  two  table  one o f  wide s p e c t r u m was  that  the  faculty  of  there  issues  and to  of h a v i n g to  language.  deal  The nuances  c o u l d be s o r t e d  the  the  most  on the  out  from  focus  terms the  on s o l v i n g  simultaneously with of  the  after  a  administratively oriented to  ensure  an e x t e n d e d  formal general  participants, c o n t i n u i t y on p e r i o d of  time,  terms.  i d e a put  f o r t h by s e v e r a l and a government  there  collective  s h o u l d be j o i n t  administrators  p e o p l e recommended t h a t  these  p r o v i n c i a l government's  p o i n t e d out  in  common m o d i f i c a t i o n s p r o p o s e d by a  b a r g a i n i n g teams o v e r  faculty,  initially,  issues.  oriented participants  the  that  a p p r o a c h would a l l o w  s h o u l d be mechanisms  staggered  Another  This  on the  had been r e a c h e d  Perhaps  e.g.,  language.  language  suggested  should avoid discussing issues  instead  and the  contractual consensus  officers  concentrate  mutual problems  the  and  another.  contract  for  negotiations  i n an i n f o r m a l atmosphere  Two human r e s o u r c e  of  that  by the  of  the  administratively  official,  was  bargaining training and b o a r d members.  sessions  sessions Several  s h o u l d be s p o n s o r e d by  Mediation Services.  BCGEU r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  that  that  the  It  was  BCGEU  142 currently  provides  training opportunities  for  its  representatives. Two human r e s o u r c e s suggested of  that,  noted  the  that  regular  trust For  explore  of  to  between local  it  It  to  faculty  committee.  and t h a t  It  there  be  s h o u l d be  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and staff  to  was  c o u l d not  that  that  unions  management-union  the to  contract  frames  contract  with  as  be  the  during its  quickly  arbitrations  s h o u l d be  which c o u l d a l s o  would be c h a r g e d  d i f f i c u l t i e s as  time  consideration  The c o m m i t t e e ,  teams,  the  be f o u n d  climate.  and s u p p o r t  of m o n i t o r i n g the  resolve  new ways  concern.  was recommended t h a t  quickly  college  was recommended  two n e g o t i a t i n g  responsibility  had to  was s u g g e s t e d  the  official  training sessions,  negotiations  establishing a joint  administration  attempt  it  of mutual  Similarly,  the  communications  and a f t e r  example  the  items  and a government  and i m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  meetings  executive  given  internal  before  legislated.  the  i n a d d i t i o n to  i m p r o v i n g the  improve  officers  life  and  possible.  s h o u l d be  s h o u l d be s h o r t e r ,  resolved e.g.,  fast  tracked. Several associations realistic  non-faculty representatives required professional  goals  and b a r g a i n i n g  felt  assistance  priorities.  that to  the  faculty  establish  143 Both f a c u l t y  and n o n - f a c u l t y p r a c t i t i o n e r s  concept  of  release  faculty  association  bargaining. that  the  release  It  time  faculty  activities,  was  Faculty  for  suggested  including that  Associations  collective matters  and t h e  participate  the in  collective  s h o u l d be on the  basis  the  the  colleges  to  items  for  sectors,  it  experience  was  s h o u l d be s e t  i n both  suggested  out  that  the  economic  i n mutually  policies. the  participants  other  felt  moving away from the  adversarial various  officer's  should deal with only basic  and a l l o t h e r  faculty  approach  to  practitioners,  that  traditional collective  an o p t i o n .  officer  T h e r e was  b a r g a i n i n g was n o t  appropriate  the for  non-  s h o u l d be g i v e n  "industrial relations" b a r g a i n i n g and f o c u s to  suggested  also  several  consideration  problem s o l v i n g approaches  One human r e s o u r c e s as  private  agreements  U n l i k e many of  to  to  with  time.  college  agreed  this  reimburse  Based on one human r e s o u r c e the  members  agreed  collective single  bargaining  that  dealing with  on  bargaining.  team  observation  or  single  team  economic  issues . Contrary official  to many of  the  participant's  and a human r e s o u r c e s  L a b o u r Code was i n a p p r o p r i a t e associations.  officer for  The i m p l i c a t i o n was  suggested  college that  views,  a  that  faculty  the  government  faculty  the  144 associations methods  to  should d e c e r t i f y  determine  One f a c u l t y consideration collective Although  certain  s h o u l d be g i v e n  bargaining  for  faculty  bargaining,  conditions,  the  suggested to  some  if  it  alternative  i n the  f o r m of  a strong  representative  province-wide  be w o r t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n  that  associations.  a d v o c a t e of  suggested  collective  future,  province-wide  non-BCGEU f a c u l t y  member was  the  using  and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  representative  another  collective  salaries  and c o n s i d e r  local  that  bargaining  were l i m i t e d to  salaries  suggested  tripartite  under might  and  benefits. A faculty  representative  bargaining,  i.e.,  the  practice  current  government, of  local  that  colleges, faculty  faculty,  could  replace  association-college  negotiations. A cross  section  of p r a c t i t i o n e r s  s h o u l d be a common s o u r c e both p a r t i e s  could  of  institutional  officer  suggested  C o m p e n s a t i o n S t a b i l i z a t i o n Program  and the  almost  team.  there  information  that  some  f o r m of  the  should remain i n d e f i n i t e l y .  unanimous agreement  Vice-President  bargaining  that  access.  One human r e s o u r c e s  T h e r e was  suggested  that  Academic s h o u l d n o t  the  be on a  President college's  T h e r e was a g e n e r a l  consensus  government  s h o u l d p r o v i d e the  with  to  three  f i v e year  Both f a c u l t y  that  college  the p r o v i n c i a l  and i n s t i t u t e  boards  budget g u i d e l i n e s .  and n o n - f a c u l t y p r a c t i t i o n e r s  one b o a r d member s h o u l d be a on a c o l l e g e ' s  suggested  negotiating  that team.  146  5 FACTUAL INSTITUTIONAL DATA Chapter F i v e represents multi-pronged sets the  out data  the  approach purpose  to  for  another  of  the  collecting relevant gathering  c o l l e c t i o n process,  information  part  the  study's  information.  institutional  and a d e s c r i p t i o n of  It  material,  the  collected.  PURPOSE Chapter F i v e served purposes and  was t o  obtain factual  expand on the  interviews.  items  on a s p e c t s o f  literature.  assist  w i t h the  t h a t were  guestionnaire interviews  material  A n o t h e r p u r p o s e was t o  m e n t i o n e d i n the  The  purposes.  opinions expressed  t h a t might shed l i g h t  would a l s o  several  were  It  and p e r s o n a l  obtain factual collective  of  complement  the  information  bargaining that  main  the  survey.  institutional  literature,  experience.  main  pre-survey  was a n t i c i p a t e d  included in this  the  t h a t would  i n the  development  b a s e d on the  One of  the  pre-survey  data  147 DATA COLLECTION Process  and  A variety section  of  of  the  questionnaire  s o u r c e s were u s e d  study.  the  questionnaire,  secondary  g o v e r n m e n t documents officials  of  statistics  to  obtain  The m a i n s o u r c e  w h i c h was m a i l e d t o  In a d d i t i o n to a number o f  Sources  sources.  the  of  data  d a t a was  These  for  this  i n f o r m a t i o n was  participating also  a  colleges.  obtained  from  included o f f i c i a l  and p u b l i c a t i o n s ,  correspondence  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s M i n i s t r y of  p r o d u c e d by t h e  the  Labour,  with and  B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c  Employers  Association. Limitations A l t h o u g h the rich  s o u r c e of  Ten c o l l e g e s study. while  institutional  information,  agreed to  The c o l l e g e s they  supported  the  severe  constraints.  i n the  submitted  colleges  submitted  incomplete.  colleges files  do n o t  related  to  in this  participate  they  i n that  maintain  It  some of  the  of  bargaining.  or  that  to  were  and  also  the  data  became a p p a r e n t  a  the  limited staffing,  comprehensive  collective  of  indicated  were u n a b l e  by s e v e r a l  be  limitations.  portion  Similar restraints  participating was  study,  l i m i t e d budgets,  data  proved to  had a number o f  which d i d not  due t o  reflected  it  participate  participate time  questionnaire  that  that  easily  was  many  accessible  148 In  order  the  study's  the  names  faculty both.  to determine samples,  of  the  one p a r t  number o f  reasons,  BCGEU v o c a t i o n a l  the  the  the  names  faculty  of  Therefore,  the  meant  the  from the  number o f  the  apparently  only  lack  the  is,  was the  is  faculty  of  five  continuity  college  spectrum.  associations  Attempts  some  the  a  also  faculty  associations  or  for  to  and a l l  had t o  be  resolve  problems underscored  collective  colleges  but  records  Ministry  also  a  the  college  as  well  autonomous  as locals  b a r g a i n i n g data i n government  do n o t  related  maintain  and  of L a b o u r .  Labour Research  1983,  M i n i s t r y ' s Research  of  was  not  circles.  easily  to m e d i a t i o n ,  Another source  the  the  team  and,  bargaining units  between  publication, so  local  locals.  confidential.  province's  were  complete  for  required  leaders  locals  academic  Mediation Services  historical  faculty  main s u r v e y .  differences  i n the  Province's  there  the  faculty  of h i s t o r i c a l  apparent  accessible  the  the  associations  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  and t h e  BCGEU a f f i l i a t e d The  The  study's  sensitive  accentuating  the  preceding l o g i s t i c a l  administrations  the  one o f  separate vocational  excluded  o b t a i n the  draw  asked  negotiating  q u e s t i o n of  This  that  on e i t h e r  local  association  be c o n s i d e r e d a c r o s s  of  questionnaire  faculty  c o u l d not also  the  was u n a b l e t o  f r o m one o f  unavailable.  of  executive,  The r e s e a r c h e r lists  p o p u l a t i o n s f r o m w h i c h to  f a c u l t y who had s e r v e d  association  faculty  the  and what  secondary  data  The M i n i s t r y ' s  Bulletin, B r a n c h was  was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n contacted  149 directly.  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P u b l i c  Association's these of  statistics  separate  collective  s o u r c e s was bargaining  W h i l e most o f  the  i n completing  related  college the  data  In view of  the  preceding  build  activities  the  as  as  of  complete  appear items,  clear  i t e m was n o t  limitations,  data.  Each a  of  picture  possible.  d i d not  majority  from t h i s  d r a w i n g any s y s t e m  institutional  to  s o u r c e of  c o m m i t t e e s was n o t  Therefore,  in  used  respondents  difficulty to  were a n o t h e r  Employers'  to the  statement  enough. used  as  c a r e had t o  wide g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  have  intended. be  f r o m the  exercised factual  data.  ANALYSIS The d e s c r i p t i o n  of  questionnaire  and t h e  the  i n the  guestions  structure bargaining and  of  the  teams,  grievances.  the other  data obtained sources  guestionnaire.  bargaining contract  units,  from  follows This the  negotiations,  the  the  seguence  includes  structure strikes  the  of and  of  age  and  the lockouts,  150 Age and S t r u c t u r e  Table  Units  5.1  Bargaining  Units  College  First Opened  Camosun Capilino Cariboo Douglas E a s t Kootenay Fraser Valley Kwantlan Malaspina New C a l a d o n i a Northern Lights N o r t h West Okanagan Selkirk Vancouver  The d a t a community  colleges  mid 1 9 7 0 ' s .  between  1974  confirmed colleges  that,  while  opened  collective  2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2  some o f B r i t i s h  their  As n o t e d  signed  units.  bargaining  unit  i n t h e mid 1 9 6 0 ' s ,  first  1,  Nine of the f o u r t e e n  of the  until  agreement  the data  variation  to the s t r u c t u r e  which r e p r e s e n t s  their  i n Chapter  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e  bargaining  doors  Columbia's  a g r e e m e n t s were n o t s i g n e d  Twelve c o l l e g e s  with respect  # of C e r t i f i e d Bargaining Units  1974 1974 1976 1976 1976 1977 1981 1974 1976 1977 1977 1974 1974 1965  first  and 1977.  that  First Contract  1971 1968 1970 1970 1974 1974 1981 1969 1969 1975 1976 1963 1965 1965  indicated  many o f t h e f i r s t the  of the B a r g a i n i n g  among t h e certified  colleges  have one  b o t h a c a d e m i c and v o c a t i o n a l  151 faculty.  One c o l l e g e ,  unit  represents  all  that of  have  the  Fraser  Valley  academic  non-instructional  faculty, support  separate bargaining units  faculty.  In these  units  part  are  provincial  the  i n the  This  cases  schools  vocational out  of  Columbia's  community c o l l e g e s .  difference  i n the  local  collective  a bargaining  vocational  staff.  the  Five  academic  vocational to  faculty  the  and  colleges  and  vocational  bargaining the  and the  community c o l l e g e s ,  the  schools  were members  relative  integration  also  the  youthfulness  bargaining process It  of  and  bargaining units  as  indicates  well  as  the  in British the  c o m p o s i t i o n and p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n  collective  their  of  the  degree  of  autonomy.  Negotiating  Teams  C o l l e g e N e g o t i a t i n g Teams. c o m p o s i t i o n of revealed  that  negotiating  eleven the  college  number o f  teams r a n g e d  average of  four people.  difference  i n the  team r e l a t i v e e.g.  has  of  the  immaturity  various  the  Prior  data points the  for  BCGEU.  vocational  instructors BCGEU.  of  latter  college  large  responses  to  from t h r e e  to  the  p e o p l e may change  people  geographic  guestionnaire over  to  time,  six  on a c o l l e g e ' s or  interior  suggest  the  on  to  that  positions  size  on  The  be a negotiating of  although the  material  w i t h an  colleges.  of  the  college  people,  appear  location  smaller  teams.  personnel  There d i d not  urban c o l l e g e s ,  available  negotiating  college  number o f the  D a t a was  college, The the  p e o p l e who  152 serve  on the  e.g.,  Director  d i d not  those  serve  of  address  negotiating of  team g e n e r a l l y  remain f a i r l y  Human R e s o u r c e s ,  the  teams.  matter  of  Personal  Bursar.  experience  administrative Therefore,  as  negotiating  positions compared  a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y of  guestionnaire  from some  t h a t u s u a l l y t h o s e who  extended  faculty  college  and comments  teams r e m a i n i n  for  to  The  c o n t i n u i t y on the  i n t e r v i e w e d would s u g g e s t  on c o l l e g e  constant,  their  periods  of  negotiating  c o n t i n u i t y on t h e  time.  teams,  college  there  is  negotiating  teams. T h e r e was a h i g h d e g r e e the  positions  represented  of  eleven colleges  or  e q u i v a l e n t was on the  reported Officer least  that served  the  consistency  with respect  on t h e s e n e g o t i a t i n g  reported  that  team.  Director  on t h e  of  the  E i g h t of  eleven colleges  Four c o l l e g e s  one b o a r d member a l s o  currently  Eight  Academic V i c e - P r e s i d e n t  o f Human R e s o u r c e s  team.  teams.  to  or  the  also  Personnel  indicated that  served  on the  at  college's  team.  One c o l l e g e  reported  that  a b o a r d member u s e d t o  serve  on the  negotiating  team b u t  that  this  case.  I n two of of  the  the  Board's  colleges  the  cases,  the  that  team.  on t h e  Bursar  cases  the  Personnel  reported  negotiating served  four  college  In both c a s e s ,  negotiating  was on t h e i r colleges  b o a r d members were  Committee.  the  were  team.  team.  was no l o n g e r  the Chairman  Two r e l a t i v e l y President  a college  served  these  s m a l l and d i d n o t  small on  the  b o a r d member  Three c o l l e g e s I n two o f  the  reported latter  appear  to  also that  three employ  153 a Human R e s o u r c e colleges  Director  indicated that  represented  on t h e i r  or  Personnel  a variety  negotiating  of  Officer.  other  team,  A l l of  positions  e.g.  were  Assistant  Deans,  Information O f f i c e r s , Administrative Vice-Presidents, t h e r e was a l a c k positions.  of  consistency  Although  configurations,  the  there  are  i n these  the  was r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r and were during  the  pre-survey  Faculty negotiating the  of  possible  negotiating  teams  w i t h comments  made  interviews. The d a t a  teams c o n f i r m s e v e r a l interviews.  unique d i f f e r e n c e s  colleges'  consistent  N e g o t i a t i n g Teams.  pre-survey  but  miscellaneous  a wide v a r i e t y  make-up o f  the  of  the  The m a t e r i a l  between  the  college  on t h e  faculty  observations also  points  and f a c u l t y  made out  in  some  negotiating  teams. D a t a on 10 noted e a r l i e r , locals.  faculty it  d i d not  associations.  i n c l u d e any d a t a  faculty  The f a c u l t y  c o n t a i n e d more p e o p l e number o f  faculty  three  to  teams i n c l u d e d six  teams was a v a i l a b l e  The b a r g a i n i n g teams r e p r e s e n t e d  academic-vocational  low o f  negotiating  on t h e  the  or  combined  separate  teams  the  negotiating  college  seven,  an o f f i c e r  of of  Faculty  the  President.  teams.  ranged  The  from a  six.  Two  A s s o c i a t i o n and  Faculty  . A l l 10  academic  generally  w i t h an a v e r a g e o f the  as  BCGEU  negotiating  President  Associations's  either  b a r g a i n i n g committees  a h i g h of  teams i n c l u d e d  t h a n the  than  associations  on t h e  but  Association  reported  that  other the  154 teams i n c l u d e d members of  the  Faculty  associations the  the  said that  Faculty  In s i x  of  movement  time.  college  teams,  Association,  but  The l i s t s negotiating people's of  time  over  the  1977  people  served  during  that  teams f o r  approximately  the  of  to  Association's  on a n o t h e r  Faculty time.  the  128  the  Faculty  to  various determine  for  negotiating  On a v e r a g e , team  the  the  situation,  nine  teams  situation,  Association's  faculty  a period  p e r i o d to  unstable  Association negotiating Of the  like  freguently.  stable  most  and  teams  b a r g a i n i n g teams o v e r  most  next  bargaining  bargaining of  the  the  that,  s e r v i n g on t h e  In the  a decade.  the  collective  reported  changed  time.  s e r v e d on a F a c u l t y  C h a i r m a n of  was b a s e d on s e v e n c o l l e g e s  same p e r i o d o f  to  faculty  q u e s t i o n of  President  In the  faculty  elected  the  the  examined i n an e f f o r t  on one F a c u l t y  p e r i o d of  the  the  faculty  people  t h r o u g h 1986.  served  of  e.g:  ten  were  c o n t i n u i t y f r o m one n e g o t i a t i n g  period  people  the  members  President.  raised  on the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e  The e x a m i n a t i o n  just  was an o f f i c e r  f a c u l t y members  next.  33  large  colleges,  than the  time,  teams were  and the  at  Most a s s o c i a t i o n s  that  of  ten  i n and o u t  positions  remained constant  than  f r o m one b a r g a i n i n g team  of p e o p l e  over  the  interviews  faculty  process  other  Four of  faculty  committee  A s s o c i a t i o n other  continuity  faculty  and two i n d i c a t e d t h a t  of  negotiating  The p r e - s u r v e y  the  their  committee  appointed. faculty  the  Association executive.  negotiating  were  of  negotiating  18  people  over  who s e r v e d  on  the  >  155 teams d u r i n g negotiating  this team;  11.72% s e r v e d negotiating less  than  continuity  teams;  these  0% s e r v e d  figures  demonstrate span,  on a n o t h e r  bargaining  session  continuity  of people  bargaining  session  reflect  they  do n o t d e p i c t  team  to the n e x t .  f o r nine  team and years.  from b a r g a i n i n g s e s s i o n to c o l l e g e .  to  The to the next  f r o m a low o f 26.7% i n one c o l l e g e college.  The d a t a  45.4% o f one b a r g a i n i n g team s e r v e d b a r g a i n i n g team.  the o b s e r v a t i o n s  For  to the next  f r o m one b a r g a i n i n g s e s s i o n  ranged  rates  the  on a n e g o t i a t i n g  and f r o m c o l l e g e  a h i g h o f 68.8% i n a n o t h e r  subseguent  teams.  from one b a r g a i n i n g team  team v a r i e d g r e a t l y  t e a m s ; and  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  negotiating  bargaining  teams;  3.9% s e r v e d on f o u r  on f i v e n e g o t i a t i n g  member may s e r v e  The c o n t i n u i t y r a t e s  on a v e r a g e ,  teams;  f r o m one b a r g a i n i n g s e s s i o n  a faculty  on one  on two n e g o t i a t i n g  on s i x n e g o t i a t i n g  a ten year  rates  then not serve  to  56.25% s e r v e d  on t h r e e n e g o t i a t i n g  people over  example,  27.34% s e r v e d  1% s e r v e d  While of  p e r i o d of time,  These  figures  made d u r i n g  the  showed  that,  on t h e n e x t o r  by and l a r g e  pre-survey  interviews. D e p e n d i n g on t h e y e a r figures, rates, will  to  c o u p l e d w i t h the c o n t r a c t  suggest  be q u i t e  teams.  and t h e c o l l e g e ,  that  whether  to c o n t r a c t  continuity  i s the h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t  a b i t of i n e x p e r i e n c e  One c a u t i o n  determine  there  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i s that  on t h e f a c u l t y  the g u e s t i o n n a i r e  or not the f a c u l t y  there  negotiating  was n o t d e s i g n e d  s e r v i n g on t h e . v a r i o u s  156 negotiating prior  to  teams had had any f o r m a l l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  s e r v i n g on the  faculty  questionnaire  also  participation  and c o n t i n u i t y r a t e s  than  they were.  the  l e n g t h of  the  long hours  For  time  the  negotiators  for  signing this  individual  that  are  why  the  higher  or  lower  c o u l d be a f f e c t e d  reguired, crisis,  the  lack  of  lack  internal  faculty  by  agreement,  a personal  individual the  The  a collective  a budget  process  the  of  faculty  concern,  and  college  personal  and so o n .  contract  signed, the  In s p i t e  data  The d a t a  not  r e s o l u t i o n of  to  negotiations  how t h e  expiration  a new c o n t r a c t .  negotiations  This  of  contracts  section.  sufficient  the  reasons  were  settle  teams.  and N e g o t i a t i o n s  t i m e between of  to  faculty,  w i t h the  The a n a l y s i s  lag  takes  t e n s i o n between  Contracts  the  it  the  these r a t e s  during negotiations,  satisfaction  l e n g t h of  example,  politics,  amount o f  address  of p r e p a r a t i o n  workload r e l i e f association  d i d not  negotiating  training  contracts of  of  incomplete data, a broad p i c t u r e  i n c l u d e d 53  contracts  between  contracts  longer  that  were  contracts  for  the  there of  w h i c h were  one and two y e a r s than  two y e a r s .  It  the  examined  in  was  contract  studied,  106  1977-1986 p e r i o d .  one y e a r  i n length is  and  and  colleges.  colleges  s i g n e d d u r i n g the  were  the  settled  one c o n t r a c t  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community  contracts  were  Thirteen colleges  present  revealed  considered  in duration, and  48  five  u s e f u l to d i s t i n g u i s h  157 the  differences  the  type  of  i n the  faculty  Collective  Length of Contract  year years years  During  to  combined  academic,  separate  vocational.  the  appears  to  collective  10  year  span s t u d i e d ,  opted f o r long.  collective  contracts.  involved.  It  which are If  this  pattern data  this  pattern more  agreements data  between  i n terms of appears  the  were  type  that  tracked  may o r may n o t  clearly  i n terms o f  it the  is  is  the  and that  of  were  more  there the  faculty faculty for  shorter  an e x t e n d e d  continue.  b e n e f i c i a l to  contracts contracts contracts  faculty  l e n g t h of  opted  over  53 48 5  limited,  those  more homogeneous  data  Total  18 c o n t r a c t s 14 c o n t r a c t s 0 contracts  few c o l l e g e s  A l t h o u g h the  agreements  associations  previous  20 c o n t r a c t s 12 c o n t r a c t s 0 contracts  be some d i f f e r e n c e  association  time  Agreements  15 c o n t r a c t s 22 c o n t r a c t s 5 contracts  t h a n two y e a r s  this  i.e.,  according  Type o f F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n Combined Academic Vocational  associations  of  separate  contracts  5.2  L e n g t h of  1 2 2+  the  association,  academic-vocational,  Table  l e n g t h of  period  To h e l p t o express  a v e r a g e number o f  see  the  contracts  per  158 college  according  length  of  Table  5.3  the  Length of  of  to  the  contracts  type  of  association  and  the  signed.  C o l l e c t i v e Agreements,  Length Contract  faculty  Type of Combined  Average  Faculty Association Academic Vocational  1  year  1.86 contracts /college  4.0 c o n t r a c t s /college  3.6 c o n t r a c t s /college  2  years  2.75 contracts /College  2.40 contracts /college  2.80 contracts /college  2+  years  .63 c o n t r a c t s /college  0 contracts /college  0 contracts /college  Table  5.3  separate  reveals academic  a number o f  and v o c a t i o n a l  t e n d t o w a r d one y e a r agreements, comparable. however,  all  types  of  of  associations  two  are  faculty  one y e a r ,  was  and t h r e e y e a r  year  associations, of  i m p o s s i b l e to determine  two y e a r  clearly  fairly  two  Without conducting i n depth i n t e r v i e w s it  The  associations  I n terms  The s e p a r a t e v o c a t i o n a l  each c o n t r a c t , the  three  agreements.  faculty  points.  had a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a v e r a g e r a t e  contracts.  for  interesting  the  year related rationale  contracts.  to  159 Another each other  area of  contract. sources  Table  interest  The d a t a is  method u s e d t o  o b t a i n e d from the  best depicted  i n chart  settle  questionnaires  and  form.  5.4  Collective  Agreements,  Method of Settlement  Method o f  26  contracts  Mediation  11  contracts  Arbitration Final  Offer  The d a t a  80  contracts  3 contracts  5 contracts  19  contracts  4 contracts  0 contracts  0 contracts  4  contracts  3 contracts  0 contracts  0 contracts  3  contracts  E i g h t y of 10  bargaining.  the year  arbitration  or  homogeneous  academic  offer  This  opposed to  offer  settled  selection.  they  free the  i n the  tend  faculty to  free  settled  through  interest  tend  their  bargaining  indicates  more  associations  settle  of m e d i a t i o n ,  T a b l e 5.5  by  Not o n l y do the  collective  use  were  pre-survey  contracts  settled  through  selection.  contracts,  t h r o u g h the  as  p e r i o d were  and v o c a t i o n a l  agreements is  what was s a i d  An a d d i t i o n a l 19  O n l y s e v e n were final  24  one h u n d r e d and s i x  mediation.  t o w a r d one y e a r  contracts  substantiates  studied during this collective  30  Total  contracts  clearly  interviews.  Settlement  Type o f F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n Combined Academic Vocational  Bargaining  final  was t h e  process.  arbitration that  the  or  same  160 pattern  exits  number o f  when t h e  institutions  above d a t a  is  i n each  the  of  expressed three  i n terms  types  of  of  the  faculty  associations.  Table  5.5  Collective  Agreements,  Method o f Settlement  Method o f  Combined  Type o f  Settlement,  Average  Faculty Association Academic Vocational  Bargaining  3.25 contracts /college  6.00 contracts /college  4.80 c o n t r a c t s /college  Mediation  1.38 contracts /College  .60 c o n t r a c t s /college  1.00 contracts /college  Arbitration  .50 c o n t r a c t s /College  0 contracts /college  0 contracts /college  Final  .36 c o n t r a c t s /College  0 contracts /college  0 contracts /college  Offer  The more h e t e r o g e n e o u s associations their  appeared  differences  vocational chance  combined a c a d e m i c - v o c a t i o n a l to  r e q u i r e more a s s i s t a n c e  than the  separate  faculty associations.  alone  and t h e r e f o r e  academic  This  contracts  were  may be due  to  a more l o n g i t u d u a l v i e w i s p r o b a b l y  One m i g h t i n a d v e r t e n t l y assume the  settle  and s e p a r a t e  pattern  needed to d i s c e r n a s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n  75% of  to  faculty  settled  that  over  time.  since  approximately  w i t h o u t any f o r m of  third  161 party the  intervention,  collective  expressed took the  to  time.  interviews  negotiate  This  of  new c o n t r a c t  appeared  tension  among some o f  faculty  associations.  earlier. of  lag  time d a t a .  collective  an e x i s t i n g  c o n t r a c t s were  off  nearest  week.  lag  often between  were  the  and  contracts  of the  cited  e l i m i n a t e d because of  the  the  of  expiration  of  f o u r combined  A l m o s t 90% o f  were  lack  10%  associations  expiration  \  the  approximately to  lag  on a  e l i m i n a t e d due t o  words,  times  the  the  few i n d i c a t o r s  expiration  academic  as  signed  agreement  administrations  association.  The f o l l o w i n g  the  the  These r e p r e s e n t e d  the  to  t i m e between  signed p r i o r  signed after  it  time  referred  same 106  In other  four separate  contract. to  to  the  successful  A n o t h e r n i n e were  s t u d i e d were  separate vocational  lag  college  signed p r i o r  time  is  the  agreement.  associations,  l e n g t h of  in  concerns  time  be one o f  15  the  a new c o n t r a c t was  to  agreements.  contracts  One o f  any t e n s i o n  time  and the  b a s e d on the  if  Therefore,  the  Of t h o s e c o n t r a c t s ,  c o n t r a c t s were  the  were  of  data,  one c o n t r a c t  The d a t a  little  the  and t h e  interval  I n r e v i e w i n g the  expiration  was  new c o n t r a c t s .  one c o n t r a c t  was e x a m i n e d .  t h e r e was  bargaining process.  i n the  end o f  that  of  the  the  averaged  and one new  old and r o u n d e d  162 Table  5.6  Lag Times, Averages  Combined  32.8  L a g Times  the l a g  While  overall There each  however,  ranged  type of  a  faculty  of F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n Academic Vocational  16.4  Weeks  a v e r a g e was 25.6  was,  Table  times  Type  16 .4  from  Weeks  Weeks  26.0  Weeks t o  32.8  or a p p r o x i m a t e l y  c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f association.  For  six  weeks  Weeks,  the  months.  variation  within  example:  5.7  Lag T i m e s ,  Ranges  Type  of F a c u l t y  Association  Academic  Vocational  Range  Combined  Low  19.0  Weeks  7  Weeks  10.8  Weeks  . High  43.2  Weeks  27.8  Weeks  38.2  Weeks  Not u n l i k e  the  associations as  the  previous  examples,  experienced  highest  single  lag  the  the  longest  time.  combined  faculty  average  lag  time,  as  Contrary to  the  some o f  well the  163  opinions  expressed i n pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s ,  vocational  faculty associations  the separate  experienced a.much  longer  average l a g time than the separate academic f a c u l t y associations  and only s l i g h t l y l e s s than the combined f a c u l t y  associations.  On t h i s same p o i n t ,  i t i s worth n o t i n g  that i n  the f i v e c o l l e g e s where there were separate academic and vocational  f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l l f i v e of the v o c a t i o n a l  associations  vocational  had l o n g e r  average l a g times.  f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n signed  O n l y one s e p a r a t e  o f f a new agreement  p r i o r to the e x p i r a t i o n of an o l d agreement. The  preceding data i n d i c a t e s that there may be a p a t t e r n  of behaviour among the v a r i o u s The  types of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s .  data suggests that the more homogeneous f a c u l t y  associations  tend toward s h o r t e r  contracts,  t h e i r agreements without t h i r d party have s h o r t e r  l a g times.  i n t e r v e n t i o n and tend to  These f i g u r e s may be i n d i c a t i v e of  the l e v e l of c o n f l i c t or t e n s i o n associations.  i n c e r t a i n types of  Yet, the data may a l s o r e f l e c t such f a c t o r s as  the n e g o t i a t o r s '  holiday patterns,  prepare complex n e g o t i a t i n g  the time i t takes to  s t r a t e g i e s , the d i f f i c u l t y f a c u l t y  have i n accommodating both t h e i r teaching functions,  tend to s e t t l e  the d i f f i c u l t y  i n establishing  and n e g o t i a t i n g bargaining  p r i o r i t i e s f o r the more heterogeneous f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and  other s i m i l a r f a c t o r s .  administrative  perspective,  The data a l s o suggest that from an the separate v o c a t i o n a l  faculty  164 associations  are not n e c e s s a r i l y e a s i e r to deal with as was  mentioned i n the pre-survey  interviews.  S t r i k e s and Lockouts This s e c t i o n i s based on the same 106 c o n t r a c t s e a r l i e r and f o r the p e r i o d  1977-1986.  mentioned  The data that was  obtained from a l l sources can be d e s c r i b e d  as f o l l o w s :  Table 5.8 S t r i k e s and S t r i k e Votes Type of F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n Combined Academic Vocational  Total  Number of S t r i k e Votes  8  Number of Strikes  4  1  3 1  12 1  Table 5.9 S t r i k e s and S t r i k e Votes, Average Type of F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n Combined Academic Vocational  Number of S t r i k e Votes /College Number of Strikes /College  1  .2  .6  .5  .2  .2  6  165 In terms of the combined f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , Table 5.8 and 5.9 r e v e a l a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n as e x i s t e d i n Tables 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 and 5.7.  In s p i t e of the tensions  these s t r i k e s and s t r i k e votes, 88%  associated  94 c o l l e c t i v e agreements, or  of a l l the c o l l e c t i v e agreements s t u d i e d during the  1977-1986 i n t e r v a l , were reached without s t r i k e Ninety-four a  with  strike.  percent  votes.  of a l l the agreements were s e t t l e d without  Although the numbers are very  small,  t h e more  heterogeneous combined f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s appear to have more d i f f i c u l t y  i n obtaining  homogeneous a s s o c i a t i o n s . misleading during  t h e i r settlements  Yet, the data i s somewhat  i n that e i g h t of the twelve s t r i k e s took place  the tumultuous 1981-1984 p e r i o d .  pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s ,  days, 14 days, and 30 days.  and  As mentioned i n the  the data shows that the s t r i k e s were  g e n e r a l l y of a short d u r a t i o n ,  available,  than the more  i . e . , 1 day, 2 days, 2 days, 5  Based on the data that were  the main i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d with the s t r i k e votes  the s t r i k e s appeared to i n v o l v e l e v e l I items, e.g.,  wages, v a r i o u s  aspects of job s e c u r i t y .  These f a c t s suggest  that changes i n the environment had g u i t e an impact on the labour  r e l a t i o n s climates  w i t h i n the v a r i o u s  colleges.  After  a s t r i k e i n 1977, one of the c o l l e g e s and i t s r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n agreed to a b i n d i n g  interest arbitration  clause i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e agreement. While there were twelve s t r i k e votes and s i x s t r i k e s during  the 1977-1986 p e r i o d ,  there were only two employer  166 i n i t i a t e d l o c k o u t s during t h i s same i n t e r v a l . to support the pre-survey  The data tend  i n t e r v i e w s , i n which i t was  noted  that c o l l e g e boards do not o f t e n r e v e r t to l o c k o u t s . Grievances Grievances, l i k e l a g times, s t r i k e votes, s t r i k e s l o c k o u t s , are another behaviour  and  i n d i c a t o r of the labour r e l a t i o n s  w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community c o l l e g e s .  c o l l e g e s responded to t h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Nine Each  c o l l e g e had one or more grievances d u r i n g the 1977-1986 period.  The number of g r i e v a n c e s f o r the nine c o l l e g e s are as  f o l l o w s : 1, 6, 9, 9, 10,  16,  44,  47,  54.  These f i g u r e s  demonstrate that three of the nine c o l l e g e s experienced n o t i c e a b l y higher grievance l e v e l s than the other c o l l e g e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of time.  Interestingly,  these were some of  the same c o l l e g e s that were i d e n t i f i e d i n the  pre-survey  i n t e r v i e w s as having a g r e a t d e a l of i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . two  c o l l e g e s which had  44 and 47 grievances a l s o had  average l a g times d u r i n g c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s .  The  The  above college  with 54 grievances experienced three s t r i k e votes w i t h i n a three year p e r i o d .  The data represent a s m a l l sample, but a  l o n g i t u d i n a l study may f a c t o r s , e.g., l a g times.  r e v e a l a c o r r e l a t i o n between v a r i o u s  s t r i k e votes, s t r i k e s , g r i e v a n c e s , c o n t r a c t u a l  Although  one  of the c o l l e g e s had only nine  g r i e v a n c e s , those grievances occurred from 1980 s i x of the nine grievances o c c u r r i n g i n 1984.  to 1987 T h i s data  with  167 appears to r e f l e c t  the p e r c e p t i o n s  i n t e r v i e w s that there was  expressed  during  the  g u i t e a b i t of v a r i a n c e among the  c o l l e g e s with r e s p e c t to t h e i r i n t e r n a l labour "relations c l i m a t e s and  that c o l l e g e s were s u s c e p t i b l e to environmental  pressures. By and  l a r g e the grievances  appeared to be the r e s u l t of  i n d i v i d u a l d i s p u t e s or concerns, faculty a s s o c i a t i o n disputes. that had  e i g h t grievances  r a t h e r than the  general  For example, i n the c o l l e g e  i n 1984,  a l l e i g h t grievances  - r e l a t e d to i n d i v i d u a l l a y o f f s .  Although there was  data, g e n e r a l l y the grievances  i n v o l v e d such areas  work, work loads, r e t i r e m e n t s ,  layoffs, discipline,  d u t i e s , s i c k leave and other personal matters. of the preceding i s s u e s may  as hours of  The  have been generated by i n d i v i d u a l s or by  a s s o c i a t i o n s , e.g. not g i v e any itself  a l a c k of  contract majority  items appeared to be L e v e l I items.  beyond the c o n t r o l of the c o l l e g e and reductions  These conditions  the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y  i n base funding.  The  data does  i n d i c a t i o n whether or not the b a r g a i n i n g  c o n t r i b u t e d to the grievances  were  or whether the  c o n t r i b u t e d to tensions d u r i n g the b a r g a i n i n g  process  grievances  process.  Another i n d i c a t o r of the behaviour w i t h i n the c o l l e g e s i s the way  these grievances  of the grievances  were s e t t l e d .  Seventy-five  s t u d i e d were apparently  accommodated i n t e r n a l l y i n a mutually  percent  e i t h e r withdrawn or  s a t i s f a c t o r y manner.  C e r t a i n l y , the l a t t e r i s an i n d i c a t o r of the a b i l i t y of c o l l e g e s , the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s and  the i n d i v i d u a l s  the  168 concerned  to r e c o n c i l e p e r s o n a l concerns  e x t e r n a l agents.  without  the use of  While 25% of the grievances r e g u i r e d the  i n t e r v e n t i o n of a t h i r d p a r t y , t h i s f i g u r e i s d e c e i v i n g .  The  data showed that 38 of the 49 i n d i v i d u a l grievances s e t t l e d a r b i t r a t i o n were from the c o l l e g e which had The  54 g r i e v a n c e s .  other 11 i n d i v i d u a l g r i e v a n c e s that were s e t t l e d  a r b i t r a t i o n were s p l i t colleges.  evenly among three other  T h i s data suggests  that g e n e r a l l y there are  grievances i n the c o l l e g e system.  The  handled  the use of t h i r d  at the l o c a l l e v e l without  0  D e c i s i o n Making and The  by  fairly  few  by  that e x i s t  few are  parties.  Committees  i n s t i t u t i o n a l g u e s t i o n n a i r e contained a s e c t i o n  r e g u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the number and w i t h i n each c o l l e g e .  The  types of committees  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s g u e s t i o n was  to  determine the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the f a c u l t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n making process i n each c o l l e g e other  than  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. As i t turned out t h i s q u e s t i o n was  of l i m i t e d v a l u e .  It  became c l e a r upon r e c e i p t of the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s that t h i s s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n had not been designed did  correctly.  not ask the c o l l e g e s f o r adequate i n f o r m a t i o n on  purpose, composition  It  the  and u s e f u l n e s s of the v a r i o u s committees,  nor d i d i t ask whether or not the committees were c o n t r a c t u a l . Notwithstanding  the f o r e g o i n g problems, some u s e f u l  i n f o r m a t i o n was  obtained.  169 Among the s i x c o l l e g e s that d i d respond, there was a t o t a l of 37 college-wide  committees.  On t h i s l i m i t e d b a s i s i t would  appear that w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community c o l l e g e s probably  there  are a number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the f a c u l t y to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o l l e g e d e c i s i o n making processes c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  besides  One might assume that there are  numerous o p p o r t u n i t i e s to r e s o l v e i n t e r n a l problems and to s a t i s f y p r o f e s s i o n a l L e v e l I I needs through these committees. Yet,  i t was not c l e a r whether the committees had any r e a l  d e c i s i o n making power, whether the f a c u l t y were adeguately represented  on the committees, whether the committees were  dominated by department heads, whether the f a c u l t y f e l t  they  could speak out f r e e l y on these committees, whether the committees were dominated by s e n i o r c o l l e g e  administrators,  whether the f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were e l e c t e d by t h e i r peers,  appointed  by the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s or appointed  the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and other  by  s i m i l a r questions.  SUMMARY Although Chapter F i v e had a number of l i m i t a t i o n s i t proved to be a good source of f a c t u a l data r e l a t e d to the c o l l e c t i v e bargaining a l s o complemented  process  i n the c o l l e g e s .  the l i t e r a t u r e and the pre-survey  i n t e r v i e w s , a l l of which a s s i s t e d with main survey  The m a t e r i a l  questionnaire.  the development of the  I t could be argued that the small number of s t r i k e votes and  s t r i k e s , coupled with the f a c t that many of the c o l l e g e s  s e t t l e t h e i r agreements and grievances  without t h i r d  i n t e r v e n t i o n , i n d i c a t e s that c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g w e l l i n the c o l l e g e s . and  i s working  Many of the comments i n the i n t e r v i e w s  t h i s data suggest otherwise, e.g. l a g times.  specifically,  party  More  the data suggest that perhaps the l a r g e r and  more heterogeneous f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s tend to experience more d i f f i c u l t y i n managing and n e g o t i a t i n g than the other  types of a s s o c i a t i o n s .  t h e i r agreements  While the v o c a t i o n a l  a s s o c i a t i o n s appear to experience l e s s d i f f i c u l t i e s  than the  combined a s s o c i a t i o n s they appear to have more d i f f i c u l t i e s than the homogeneous academic f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . most p a r t the s t r i k e s and grievances  For the  deal with L e v e l I items.  What i s not c l e a r from the data i s the method used by the c o l l e g e s to r e s o l v e matters of p r i n c i p l e or L e v e l I I items. The  interviews  suggested that these types of i s s u e s may go  p a r t i a l l y unresolved, with these items.  e.g., f a i l u r e of a r b i t r a t o r s to deal  These i s s u e s may f o l l o w other  avenues of  r e s o l u t i o n , e.g., votes of non-confidence i n a c o l l e g e president,  l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y on the f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g  teams. The experimental research  by Deutsch & Kraus  suggests that d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s ,  (1960)  the passage of time hardens  the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p o s i t i o n s which i n turn reduces the l e v e l of cooperation  and i n c r e a s e s  pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s  the l e v e l of competition.  implied,  As the  the long l a g times may be due  i n p a r t to the i n e x p e r i e n c e  of the n e g o t i a t o r s .  immaturity of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g participation  i n the c o l l e g e s and the  and c o n t i n u i t y r a t e s of the f a c u l t y  teams confirm many of the o b s e r v a t i o n s survey  interviews.  The r e l a t i v e  negotiating  made during the p r e -  172  6 COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS C o l l e c t i v e agreements, l i k e the i n s t i t u t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n Chapter F i v e , r e f l e c t and  the behaviour of c o l l e g e  college faculty associations  sections describe  over time.  administrations  The f o l l o w i n g  the purpose of t h i s review of c o l l e c t i v e  agreements, the method used to examine the c o n t r a c t s , the l i m i t a t i o n s of the chapter, and a number of general observations. PURPOSE The  examination of 11 c o l l e c t i v e agreements served a  number of purposes.  One purpose was to p r o v i d e a q u a l i t a t i v e  overview of the c o n t r a c t s previous chapters.  that would b u i l d on the data i n the  I t was a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d that the review  would provide a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t s i n t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s respective  types of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s agreements.  and the scope of the  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of areas of  p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t was a l s o of i n t e r e s t .  I t was a l s o  a n t i c i p a t e d that a review of the agreements would shed some l i g h t on the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r province-wide c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  173 This chapter was  not  intended  to be an i n depth  q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s or comparative a n a l y s i s of the clauses  (Baristow  contracts  1976;  Dennison 1986)  (Chandler & J u l i u s 1979;  various  or the language of  Stewart 1983).  the  These  l a t t e r approaches to c o n t r a c t u a l a n a l y s i s were w e l l beyond  the  scope of t h i s study.  was  intended  to provide  Rather, t h i s p o r t i o n of the research a very broad view of the c o n t r a c t s  t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  and  process i n  B r i t i s h Columbia's community c o l l e g e s . METHOD T h i s g u a l i t a t i v e review i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l Initially,  seven c o l l e c t i v e agreements from f i v e c o l l e g e s were  examined i n some d e t a i l and were roughly this,  the major items i n the  grouped f o r comparative purposes.  f i v e other  examined but represented  steps.  contracts, representing  i n much l e s s d e t a i l .  agreements  Following  four c o l l e g e s , were  These 11  agreements  combined f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , separate academic  f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s and associations.  Dennison's  separate v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y (1986) comparative a n a l y s i s of  community c o l l e g e c o n t r a c t s was  examined and  17  used as a  benchmark f o r comparative purposes. LIMITATIONS There were a number of l i m i t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with review of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements. copies  One  l i m i t a t i o n was  the that  of a l l of the c o l l e g e s ' c o l l e c t i v e agreements could  not  be  obtained.  the  Another l i m i t a t i o n was  organization,  that  the  d e f i n i t i o n s , language and  differences  scope of  agreements made d i r e c t comparison d i f f i c u l t . years ago, that  Bairstow  "Currently,  the  (1976) made the format and  agreements vary so widely that difficult  The was  approach  r e s u l t was  a general  taken versus a more q u a n t i t a t i v e  respective  community once items  r a r e l y removed.  necessarily  contracts reveal  about the many v a r i a b l e s  are  The  r e f l e c t the  a college.  c o l l e c t i v e agreements, e.g.,  are  qualitative  s t a t e of a f f a i r s w i t h i n little  college  i n many ways, h i s t o r i c a l  p l a c e d i n an agreement they are do not  said  approach.  Personal experience suggests that  agreements, t h e r e f o r e ,  ten  attempts at comparison  that  records of labour r e l a t i o n s i n the colleges.  when he  content of community any  C o l l e c t i v e agreements are,  the  More than  same p o i n t  in  current  Along t h i s same l i n e ,  personalities,  that  shape  presidential  management s t y l e s , f a c u l t y morale, working c o n d i t i o n s i n l o c a l communities, community demands, e x p e c t a t i o n s of v a r i o u s i n t e r n a l f a c u l t y i n t e r e s t groups, the f a i l u r e of j o i n t f a c u l t y - c o l l e g e  the  the  the  success or  committees, and  other  similar  factors.  OBSERVATIONS The  o b s e r v a t i o n s were grouped i n t o four  broad areas, i . e . ,  the purpose of c o l l e c t i v e agreements, environmental  factors,  175  c o n t r a c t u a l v a r i a t i o n s according  to a s s o c i a t i o n type,  and  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r province-wide c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Purpose of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements I t appears as i f the primary purpose of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements i s to provide a s t a b l e employment r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d of time. bi-lateral,  and  The  agreements are  l e g a l l y binding  formal,  boundary spanning mechanisms  that attempt to provide an e g u i l i b r i u m between the and  their respective  contracts  faculty associations.  the  f a c u l t y ' s desire for increased  p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy and  so on.  takes place d u r i n g  instability,  the c o n t r a c t s  i n s t a b i l i t y by p r o v i d i n g contracts  In t h i s sense  attempt to balance the management r i g h t s of  c o l l e g e s and  bargaining  colleges  u n t i l new  Although c o l l e c t i v e  f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n  ones are signed. during  of the e x i s t i n g  The  contracts  the  l i f e of  are  also  the  the r u l e s of behaviour to  p a r t i e s must adhere. contract  benefits,  attempt to dampen even that  agreements i n that they set out  v a r i e s from one  the  c y c l i c a l windows of r e l a t i v e  designed to dampen i n s t a b i l i t y  which the two  the  The  degree of  to another, e.g.,  s a l a r y s c a l e s based  on academic g u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s e n i o r i t y c l a u s e s , r e c a l l p r o v i s i o n s , programs that allow  stability  layoff  and  f o r the r e t r a i n i n g of  e x i s t i n g f a c u l t y , procedures which o u t l i n e the i n t e r n a l re-assignment of q u a l i f i e d f a c u l t y , p o s i t i o n bumping, r e g u l a r i z a t i o n of part-time f a c u l t y , clauses  the  protecting  the  176 employees from t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, l i s t s mediators or a r b i t r a t o r s and grievance  of acceptable  procedures.  In many i n s t a n c e s the c o l l e g e s appear to counter the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s ' d e s i r e f o r more b e n e f i t s and power by employing such management devices as term c e r t a i n c o n t r a c t s for a l l faculty, regular faculty evaluations,  separation  c l a u s e s i n the event of program t e r m i n a t i o n s ,  management  rights  clauses  and  other  similar  clauses.  Although the  m a j o r i t y of the c o n t r a c t s c o n t a i n management r i g h t s c l a u s e s , a few do not.  One c o l l e g e has what i s r e f e r r e d to as a  consultative clause.  Personal  experience  suggests that many  of the management r i g h t s c l a u s e s are very g e n e r a l . s t r e n g t h of these  The  c l a u s e s i s tempered by the scope or  comprehensiveness of the r e s p e c t i v e c o n t r a c t s .  What i s not  apparent i n the c o n t r a c t s , i s whether or not a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e , l a c k of use, or precedent, has compromised the c o l l e g e s ' management's r i g h t s with r e s p e c t to any of the c l a u s e s i n the c o n t r a c t s . While a l l of the c o n t r a c t s examined were s i m i l a r i n the area of L e v e l I items, procedures, items,  e.g., s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s , grievance  there was a d i f f e r e n c e with r e s p e c t to L e v e l I I  p a r t i c u l a r l y governance.  Specifically,  there appeared  to be a d i f f e r e n c e among many of the c o l l e g e s i n the area of f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making.  Some  c o l l e g e s have many more f o r m a l i z e d c o l l e g e - f a c u l t y committees than other c o l l e g e s .  These j o i n t committees cover  such  areas  177  as the s e l e c t i o n of f a c u l t y , department heads and s e n i o r administrators; termination;  educational  leave;  p r o f e s s i o n a l development;  mediation; workloads; i n i t i a l  s a l a r y placement;  r e g u l a r i z a t i o n of part-time f a c u l t y ; non-renewal of c o n t r a c t s ; f a c u l t y evaluations;  sexual  harassment; labour-management  r e l a t i o n s ; on-going c o n t r a c t development; t e c h n o l o g i c a l excellence;  faculty  management; suspensions; budget  change; the p u r s u i t of p r o f e s s i o n a l  reductions;  training  programs  and  the  establishment and adherence to p r o f e s s i o n a l standards and ethics.  Depending on v a r i o u s  p r e c e d i n g Level  f a c t o r s , the lack of these  I I boundary spanning c l a u s e s  may account f o r  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o l l e g e s ' i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s noted i n Chapter 5.  climates  Some of those f a c t o r s might i n c l u d e the  type of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n , the e d u c a t i o n a l  background or  p r i o r experience of the f a c u l t y , the p r o f e s s i o n a l  expectations  of the f a c u l t y or segments of the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , the management s t y l e of a p a r t i c u l a r c o l l e g e  administration,  changes i n personnel, and the d e s i r e of an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  to  reduce f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n making process. Faculty  Associations  In many ways, the c o n t r a c t s respective  faculty associations.  mirror  the composition of the  For example, there  to be a d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n t r a c t s homogeneous and separate v o c a t i o n a l  appeared  of the smaller  f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s as  178 compared to the l a r g e r and  more heterogeneous combined  academic-vocational f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . contracts  tend to be s h o r t e r , use  complex and  former  simple language, are  focus mainly on b a s i c working c o n d i t i o n s  Level I f a c t o r s .  found i n most of the other  These items are more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d  non-professional,  college with  automatic bank d e p o s i t s ,  lunch  shift differentials,  s a f e t y and  health,  parking.  and  salaries,  As noted i n the  these separate v o c a t i o n a l c o n t r a c t s  interviews,  appear to place  emphasis on p r o f e s s i o n a l matters, e.g., academic freedom, and  breaks,  overtime  classification  r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures, red c i r c l i n g of p r o t e c t i v e c l o t h i n g and  less  f a c u l t y evaluations,  external consulting.  While some of  f o r j o i n t c o l l e g e - f a c u l t y committees,  g e n e r a l l y appears to be  For  to shop stewards, union  i n s i g n i a , union b u l l e t i n boards, c o f f e e and  agreements do c a l l  or  support s t a f f or b l u e - c o l l a r c o n t r a c t s .  example, they o f t e n c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s  differentials,  less,  These agreements o f t e n i n c l u d e L e v e l I items  that are g e n e r a l l y not contracts.  The  the there  fewer j o i n t c o l l e g e - f a c u l t y committees  than those c o n t r a c t s which i n c l u d e academic f a c u l t y members. By and  l a r g e the v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y seem to work more hours  per week and more months per year f o r l e s s money than t h e i r university transfer colleagues. i n one  There was  also a difference  area of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l power; communications.  s e v e r a l BCGEU c o n t r a c t s required  the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s  In were  to communicate d i r e c t l y with the BCGEU agents or  the  179 President  of the BCGEU r a t h e r than with  representatives.  local elected faculty  This could w e l l be a source of t e n s i o n  between a c o l l e g e . a n d  i t s f a c u l t y members, j u s t as i t c o u l d  l e a d to charges from f a c u l t y members that the BCGEU s t a f f are too f a r removed from the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n to be s e n s i t i v e to l o c a l needs. At the other  end of the spectrum are the l a r g e r and more  heterogeneous combined academic-vocational associations.  These c o n t r a c t s tend  faculty  to be longer,  c o n t a i n more  d e f i n i t i o n s , use more complex language, and i n v o l v e more variations.  For example, the s a l a r y s c a l e s i n c l u d e more  v a r i a t i o n s i n academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,  there are more complex  d e f i n i t i o n s of employee c a t e g o r i e s , and there are more p o l i c i e s that apply association.  only to s p e c i f i c segments of the f a c u l t y  While there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  v a r i a t i o n among t h i s  group of c o n t r a c t s , there i s g e n e r a l l y more emphasis placed on Level I I f a c t o r s or p r o f e s s i o n a l matters, e.g., statements on the philosophy  of v a r i o u s c o n t r a c t u a l c l a u s e s ;  workload formulae f o r each category and  complex  of f a c u l t y member, program  type of i n s t r u c t i o n ; p r o f e s s i o n a l development; study  leaves; f a c u l t y evaluations;  academic freedom; human r i g h t s ;  c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t ; e x t e r n a l c o n s u l t i n g ; authorship and copyright;  college mission  statements; community work; and  f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a wide array of j o i n t c o l l e g e - f a c u l t y committees.  With r e s p e c t  to t h i s l a s t p o i n t , there i s a great  deal of d i v e r s i t y among the c o l l e g e s i n t h i s group.  These  130 complex c o n t r a c t s r e f l e c t the heterogeneous nature of the respective faculty associations.  While they might s e t t l e an  i s s u e or a s e r i e s of i s s u e s once and f o r a l l , the impression renegotiate.  that they would be d i f f i c u l t  to manage and  The r e s u l t could be that there may be more  p o t e n t i a l f o r misunderstanding and c o n f l i c t ; harder to e s t a b l i s h b a r g a i n i n g longer  to n e g o t i a t e  experience  they a l s o g i v e  that i t may be  p x - i o r i t i e s ; that they may take  and t h e r e f o r e the a s s o c i a t i o n s may  a high n e g o t i a t o r burnout.rate;  that there may be  more i n t e r n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e s s ; and r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l y more c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  experience  to  negotiate. Between the two ends of the spectrum l i e the more homogeneous academic f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Given the inherent  academic nature of the c o n s t i t u e n t s , these c o n t r a c t s tend to be q u i t e s i m i l a r to the c o n t r a c t s a s s o c i a t e d with associations.  the combined  Yet, i n many ways they appear to be l e s s  complex, e.g., l e s s complex d e f i n i t i o n s and groups of constituents. Environmental Changes As noted i n the pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s , a number of environmental i s s u e s can be p o t e n t i a l sources of c o n f l i c t and a f f e c t the c o l l e g e s ' labour r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e s .  The c o n t r a c t s  c o n t a i n a number of boundary spanning mechanisms that the c o l l e g e ' s e x t e r n a l environment.  reflect  These mechanisms i n c l u d e  competitive  s a l a r y s c a l e s , comparable b e n e f i t packages,  s i m i l a r workload formulas f o r s i m i l a r types  of f a c u l t y ,  layoff  procedures due to p r o v i n c i a l budget cuts, s e n i o r i t y c l a u s e s , r e - t r a i n i n g clauses due to t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, clauses prevent  or r e s t r i c t  that  the c o l l e g e from c o n t r a c t i n g out i t s  i n s t r u c t i o n , programs or s e r v i c e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l development or e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e s . on the economic, p o l i t i c a l  While these  depending  or e d u c a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s at the  time, may become contentious process.  Each of these,  types  p o i n t s d u r i n g the b a r g a i n i n g of c l a u s e s and the other  clauses  i n a c o l l e c t i v e agreement c o n t r i b u t e to a temporary balance of power between a c o l l e g e and i t s f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , they are a double edged sword. mission  Given that a  i s to be responsive  i t y college's  to the e d u c a t i o n a l demands of i t s  l o c a l community, the c o l l e c t i v e agreements could i n h i b i t or be p e r c e i v e d by c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to i n h i b i t a c o l l e g e ' s a b i l i t y to adjust to i t s changing environment, e.g., lack of enrollment  i n s p e c i f i c programs, l o c a l demand f o r new  programs. Province-Wide During  Bargaining  the pre-survey  i n t e r v i e w s , the matter of p r o v i n c e -  wide c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was r a i s e d . participants felt considered,  Some of the  that province-wide b a r g a i n i n g should be  at l e a s t f o r some L e v e l I items,  e.g., s a l a r i e s .  Others s a i d that province-wide b a r g a i n i n g should be avoided at  182 all  costs.  A review of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  additional insights into this issue.  contracts  provided  When reviewing the  c o l l e c t i v e agreements the p r a c t i c a l i t y and l o g i s t i c s of such a move was overshadowed by the complexity of the c o n t r a c t s . Many other  items would a l s o have to be addressed, i n c l u d i n g  the impact on board autonomy and management r i g h t s , f a c u l t y workloads, the c o l l e g e s ' mandate to meet l o c a l  educational  needs, l o c a l program d e l i v e r y c o s t s , f a c u l t y p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n c l u d i n g f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l d e c i s i o n making processes,  educational  similar factors.  q u a l i t y , f a c u l t y morale, and other  The mere d i f f e r e n c e i n the scope of the  e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i v e agreements would suggest that some f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s would probably not be w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e  their  hard won comprehensive b e n e f i t s i n the i n t e r e s t s of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n or as some would suggest, m e d i o c r i t y .  In  f a c t , i t may be that those comprehensive c o n t r a c t s may not be appropriate  for a l l faculty associations.  The BCGEU c o n t r a c t s  are r e l a t i v e l y simple c o l l e c t i v e agreements but even then Michaels  (1382) found that f a c u l t y i n v o l v e d s a i d that the  BCGEU headquarters s t a f f were i n s e n s i t i v e to l o c a l needs. s p i t e of t h e i r c o m p a r a b i l i t y  i n such a b a s i c area  the l a t t e r are always tempered by l o c a l economic The  task would be much more formidable  multitude contracts.  In  as s a l a r i e s , conditions.  c o n s i d e r i n g the  of Level I I or p r o f e s s i o n a l items i n many of the P r o v i n c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of c l a u s e s  d e a l i n g with a  l o c a l balance of power i n a c o l l e g e would be d i f f i c u l t to  133 accomplish. and  Considering  the magnitude of such an undertaking  i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , there  is little  doubt that i n order to  manage the c o l l e g e s , s p e c i a l deals would be made at the l o c a l level,  thereby v i o l a t i n g the s p i r i t  c o l l e c t i v e agreement  (Skolnik  of a master p r o v i n c i a l  1985).  SUMMARY This b r i e f q u a l i t a t i v e examination of a sample of c o l l e c t i v e agreements provided  i n s i g h t s i n t o the scope of the  agreements and h i g h l i g h t e d d i f f e r e n c e s among the agreements on the b a s i s of type of a s s o c i a t i o n .  I t complimented the  p r e v i o u s chapters by i d e n t i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l sources of t e n s i o n . In comparison to the separate v o c a t i o n a l faculty associations, faculty associations were longer,  the c o n t r a c t s contained  and academic  involving large  more r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s ,  used more complex language, and placed more  emphasis on L e v e l  I I needs i n v o l v i n g value laden matters of  p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i n c i p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l power. cases these c o n t r a c t s contracts  combined  seemed to s u b s t i t u t e l e g a l l y  for tradition, collegiality,  While these c o n t r a c t s  In many binding  t r u s t , and r e s p e c t .  may have been intended to r e s o l v e  a wide  range of i s s u e s once and f o r a l l , they may a l s o be more difficult  to n e g o t i a t e .  Such c o n t r a c t s  could  account f o r some  of the s p i n - o f f s noted i n the pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s and Chapter 5, e.g. d i f f i c u l t y  in establishing  p r i o r i t i e s , more s t r i k e votes,  longer  bargaining  l a g times.  In turn,  184  prolonged n e g o t i a t i o n s inexperienced r a t e s and  could account f o r the number of  faculty negotiators  t o lower p a r t i c i p a t i o n  due  lower c o n t i n u i t y r a t e s from one  team to the next.  The  s i t u a t i o n may  be  faculty negotiating  f u r t h e r complicated  the p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d or severe changes i n the  by  college's  environmental c o n d i t i o n s . I t appeared that t h e c o l l e g e s which have combined academic-vocational or heterogeneous f a c u l t y associations  and  may  have  more  b u i l t - i n potential for  hence more d y s f u n c t i o n a l  conflict.  these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e c o n t r a c t s more homogeneous a s s o c i a t i o n s , e.g.,  The  competition  absence of seme of  a s s o c i a t e d with  separate academic  a s s o c i a t i o n s , separate v o c a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , may f o r the data noted i n Chapter 5, strikes.  I t i s worth n o t i n g  e.g.,  account  s h o r t e r l a g times, l e s s  that even i f there was  to move to province-wide b a r g a i n i n g ,  the  the  this contractual  suggests that the c o n t r a c t u a l o b s t a c l e s  and  logistics  will  review are  formidable. This review of some of the community c o l l e g e  contracts  r a i s e d a number of i s s u e s that could be addressed by researchers.  future  For example, i t would be b e n e f i c i a l to t r a c e  e v o l u t i o n of s p e c i f i c c o l l e g e c o n t r a c t s and  the  c o r r e l a t e the  changes over time with environmental and i n t e r n a l administrative c o l l e g e s and  changes; to examine the c u l t u r e of  specific  compare them to the development of the  c o l l e c t i v e agreements; and  to determine i f there  is  colleges' any  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the c o l l e c t i v e agreements  and  the a t t i t u d e s of the board members or s e n i o r  administrators  toward the f a c u l t y and v i c e v e r s a . The  q u a l i t a t i v e review of the c o n t r a c t s complimented  data i n the previous  chapters.  development of the main survey  I t a l s o a s s i s t e d with questionnaire.  the  the  186  7 MAIN SURVEY In a d d i t i o n to the pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s i n s t i t u t i o n a l data,  the study i n c l u d e d a s e l f  o p i n i o n survey of s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , faculty leaders. methods f o l l o w e d  and the f a c t u a l administered  board members and  The purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the i n developing,  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  administering  and a n a l y z i n g  and some of the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s s e c t i o n  of the study are o u t l i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages.  In each  s e c t i o n , a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s f o l l o w s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s .  A copy of the main survey instrument and the  d e t a i l e d data are l o c a t e d i n the appendices. PURPOSE The  purpose of the survey was to a s s i s t i n determining  whether or not there was a d i f f e r e n c e i n the o p i n i o n s members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s toward the  three areas of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g problem.  of board  The l a t t e r i n c l u d e d aspects  o u t l i n e d i n the r e s e a r c h of competition and  governance, the scope of c o l l e c t i v e agreements and proposed modifications The  to the c u r r e n t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  process.  survey was a l s o designed to o b t a i n a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  I t was a l s o expected to provide  information  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between some of the c o l l e c t i v e  responses to the personal s e c t i o n s of the survey.  statements and the f i r s t two The m a t e r i a l was expected to  complement the pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s , institutional  the f a c t u a l  data and the a n a l y s i s of the c o l l e c t i v e  agreements, thereby p r o v i d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l q u a n t i t a t i v e element to the study. i  METHOD T h i s s e c t i o n e x p l a i n s how the three were s e l e c t e d , how the q u e s t i o n n a i r e administered,  and the r a t e of r e t u r n .  sample  populations  was developed and I t a l s o i n c l u d e s an  overview of the s t a t i s t i c a l methods used to analyze the data. Sample S e l e c t i o n The study's p o p u l a t i o n s senior administrators population  i n c l u d e d c o l l e g e board members,  and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s .  A sample  was s e l e c t e d from each of the three  populations.  The names and addresses of c o l l e g e board members who had served  during  the p e r i o d 1983-1988 were i n i t i a l l y  obtained  from the B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s  and then  confirmed by the i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e g e s .  From these l i s t s s i x  board members from each c o l l e g e were s e l e c t e d at random to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. had  served  The names of f a c u l t y leaders  on a f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n executive,  n e g o t i a t i n g team, or both, during obtained  who  or a f a c u l t y  the p e r i o d 1983-1988, were  from the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s and  colleges.  The  names of s i x f a c u l t y l e a d e r s from each c o l l e g e  were s e l e c t e d at random to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. s e l e c t i o n of the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i f f e r e n t pattern. administrators colleges.  The  The  followed a s l i g h t l y  names of c u r r e n t s e n i o r c o l l e g e  were obtained  from the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i n g  Six s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  from each c o l l e g e were  then s e l e c t e d at random to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the survey. the two  other  represented and  sample p o p u l a t i o n s ,  the s e n i o r  administrators  those c u r r e n t l y employed as s e n i o r  not n e c e s s a r i l y those who  administrators d e v i a t i o n was  during  were employed as  the 1983-1988 p e r i o d .  administrators senior  This  latter  necessary s i n c e i t would have been too  to l o c a t e the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who  had  colleges.  i n c l u d e d 78  The  three sample p o p u l a t i o n s  members, 78 s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t o t a l of 234  content  literature, and  various board  78 f a c u l t y l e a d e r s , f o r  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  was  based on  the  the pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  questionnaire  d e a l t with  and  seen as being power and  the  Questionnaire  the c o l l e c t i v e agreements.  competition  left  difficult  people.  Development of the The  and  Unlike  two  governance.  closely allied  The  aspects  first  s e c t i o n of  of c o l l e c t i v e  Competition and  data  the  bargaining:  governance were  to the balance of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  hence the e g u i l i b r i u m of an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  review of the l i t e r a t u r e suggested that d y s f u n c t i o n a l  The conflict  189 was  o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to competition.  odd  numbered statements i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the  represented  some of those key  t r u s t , r u l e s and  regulations, respect,  number of b a r g a i n i n g The  f a c t o r s , e.g.,  questionnaire inexperience,  win-lose a t t i t u d e s ,  issues.  even numbered statements i n the f i r s t  survey instrument represented  s e c t i o n of  education.  As w e l l  prominent i s s u e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e many of the  as  items  were a l s o mentioned i n the pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s .  The  appeared to be at the crux of such L e v e l I I i s s u e s  as  professionalism,  the  a broad range of governance  i s s u e s commonly a s s o c i a t e d with higher being  The  factors  autonomy, c o l l e g i a l i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  d e c i s i o n making, and management r i g h t s . The  second s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  d e a l t with  the  scope of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements, i . e . , what items should or should  not be  i n c l u d e d i n a c o l l e c t i v e agreement.  importance of examining the scope of the c o l l e c t i v e is  that i t i s r e l a t e d to the f a c u l t y ' s L e v e l I and  needs, a c o l l e g e ' s management r i g h t s and values.  They are a l s o c r i t i c a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l power.  The  The agreements  Level  II  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  to the long term balance of  l i t e r a t u r e suggested that  the  i n c l u s i o n of L e v e l II needs i n c o l l e c t i v e agreements vary according  to the p r o f e s s i o n i n v o l v e d .  The  contractual  a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d that there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the scope of the agreements with r e s p e c t d i f f e r e n c e s v a r i e d according  to L e v e l I I items.  to the type of f a c u l t y  be  The  association.  Given the t r a d i t i o n s of higher  education  and  p o t e n t i a l t e n s i o n between the concepts of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m  the and  unionism, as w e l l as the tensions between facultyp r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and management r i g h t s , some d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n were expected between the three sample populations the area of L e v e l I I items. I I needs are o f t e n value  The  l i t e r a t u r e i m p l i e d that L e v e l  laden and  to be more t e n s i o n a s s o c i a t e d with L e v e l I needs. contained  Recognizing  a l l of the items,  L e v e l I f a c t o r s , e.g., II f a c t o r s , e.g.,  t h e r e f o r e there i s l i k e l y these f a c t o r s than with  that not  a l l the  contracts  an equal number of  representative  s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s , parking,  and  Level  f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n on j o i n t c o l l e g e -  f a c u l t y committees, were s e l e c t e d from v a r i o u s agreements.  in  In the g u e s t i o n n a i r e  represented  L e v e l I needs and  represented  Level I I needs.  to the i n d i v i d u a l L e v e l I and  the odd  collective  numbered statements  the even numbered statements The  importance of the responses  L e v e l II items were not  important as the o v e r a l l responses to each of the two  as broad  c a t e g o r i e s of statements. The  t h i r d s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  focused  s e l e c t i o n of p o s s i b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the c u r r e n t bargaining  process.  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  collective  the f a c t u a l  the a n a l y s i s of the c o n t r a c t s ,  d i s c u s s i o n s with a wide v a r i e t y of c o l l e a g u e s , researcher's  the  These proposed m o d i f i c a t i o n s came from  the pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s ,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l data,  on  t h e s i s a d v i s o r s and  personal  informal  the  experience.  The  191 items  are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the many p o s s i b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s to  the c u r r e n t process.  One u n d e r l y i n g thought behind  this  s e c t i o n was whether or not the proposed m o d i f i c a t i o n s would help to reduce the tensions o f t e n experienced c o l l e c t i v e bargaining process. to  determine to what extent  unacceptable The  d u r i n g the  Another thought was to attempt  the ideas would be acceptable or  to the three sample p o p u l a t i o n s .  f o u r t h s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n v o l v e d a s e r i e s  of  statements designed  to y i e l d a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e of each  of  the three sample p o p u l a t i o n s .  The l i s t  of items was  s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r each of the three sample p o p u l a t i o n s . The  f a c t o r s that were s e l e c t e d represented  some of the more  prominent f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  e.g.,  age,  gender, years of employment or a s s o c i a t i o n with a c o l l e g e , years of experience  i n that p o s i t i o n ,  d i s c i p l i n e , occupations, experience, The stages.  political  prior collective  bargaining  preference.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e went through a number of developmental Initially,  long l i s t s of p o t e n t i a l statements f o r  each s e c t i o n were compiled. reduced  instructional  These l i s t s were g r a d u a l l y  to what appeared to be the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  elements f o r each s e c t i o n .  Every  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s r e l i a b i l i t y c l e a r and unambiguous.  e f f o r t was made to improve  and to make the statements  To t h i s end the mechanics of the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , e.g. p o s i t i v e statements,  negative  d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d g u e s t i o n s , l e a d i n g statements,  statements,  placement of  192 questions,  simple  statements, l e n g t h of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  were reviewed by an expert questionnaires.  i n the development of  The r e s e a r c h e r ' s  numerous suggestions.  advisory  committee a l s o made  The s e c t i o n on the scope of the  c o l l e c t i v e agreements was s i m i l a r to a previous  study  conducted by Ponak & Thompson (1934) . A four p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e was s e l e c t e d f o r the f i r s t sections  of the s t u d y . The four c a t e g o r i e s  were  Agree, Agree, Disagree and S t r o n g l y Disagree.  Strongly  For s t a t i s t i c a l  purposes, the four c a t e g o r i e s were l a t e r assigned values  three  the numeric  of +2, +1, -1 and -2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t was assumed t h a t  the s c a l e would demonstrate the d i r e c t i o n of a p a r t i c i p a n t ' s opinions  and the magnitude of those o p i n i o n s .  In order to  avoid a problem o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with g u e s t i o n n a i r e s , was  there  no n e u t r a l o p t i o n , i . e . , Don't Know, f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s  to s e l e c t . Once a d r a f t survey instrument had b een de veloped and approved by the r e s e a r c h e r ' s at the r e s e a r c h e r ' s purpose of the p i l o t guestionnaire,  t h e s i s committee, i t was p i l o t e d  A l b e r t a community c o l l e g e .  t e s t was to check on the mechanics of the  i t was decided  c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g process and  Since the main  that the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the between the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  college  the B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e g e s would not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  distort  the r e s u l t s of the p i l o t  questionnaire  was administered  test.  The p i l o t  to experienced  negotiators  r e p r e s e n t i n g board members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  and f a c u l t y  leaders.  A number of the statements and p a r t of the  questionnaire's comments.  format were r e v i s e d as a r e s u l t of t h e i r  The changes were r e l a t i v e l y minor and the survey  d i d not have to be r