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Collective bargaining in British Columbia's community colleges Colebrook, Peter 1991

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COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA'S COMMUNITY COLLEGES By PETER COLEBROOK B.A., Notre Dame U n i v e r s i t y of Nelson, 1966 M.L.S., U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1967 M.P.A., U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (c) Peter Colebrook In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l f ulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Administration, Adult and Higher Education, Faculty of Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver. Canada Date /$/f/ ABSTRACT This study examines c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i n 14 unionized community colleges i n B r i t i s h Columbia. It provides a broad overview of bargaining i n the colleges and in s i g h t s into the tensions commonly associated with c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. The study combines q u a l i t a t i v e data and quantitative data through the use of interviews, contractual analysis and two questionnaires. One survey examined the opinions of board members, senior administrators and f a c u l t y leaders on various aspects of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. The l a t t e r included the competitive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i s t r i b u t i v e bargaining, governance, the scope of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements and a number of proposed modifications aimed at improving bargaining i n the colleges. The study i s s i g n i f i c a n t as i t f i l l s a void i n the research r e l a t e d to the above issues i n B r i t i s h Columbia's colleges. The l i t e r a t u r e review encompassed a wide range of research. This included material r e l a t e d to the evolution of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i n higher education; factors that influence opinions of bargaining; constructive c o n f l i c t , destructive c o n f l i c t and dysfunctional competition; c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n techniques associated with bargaining; and int e g r a t i v e bargaining. The study revealed a competitive c o l l e c t i v e bargaining climate i n the colleges, characterized by such factors as a l a c k of t r u s t and r e s p e c t , i n e x p e r i e n c e d f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t o r s , c o n t r a c t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s and a l a c k of b a r g a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s . The c o m p e t i t i v e c l i m a t e was a g g r a v a t e d by a number of e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s (government p o l i c i e s ) ; i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s ( the management s t y l e of a p r e s i d e n t ) ; the c o m p o s i t i o n of the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s (combined v o c a t i o n a l and academic f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s ) ; and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s (age and p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s ) . In terms of governance i s s u e s , the scope of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , the b o a r d members and the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a re e s s e n t i a l l y from the same p o p u l a t i o n . The f a c u l t y l e a d e r s come from a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s p o n d e n t s f a v o u r m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h a t would enhance c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , t r a i n i n g , and e q u a l a c c e s s to i n f o r m a t i o n , as w e l l as the r e s o l u t i o n of l a b o u r m a t t e r s a t the l o c a l l e v e l r a t h e r t h a n at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . D i s t r i b u t i v e b a r g a i n i n g w i l l l i k e l y r e m a i n the c o r n e r s t o n e of n e g o t i a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o l l e g e s . A l t h o u g h i t does n o t have to be as c o m p e t i t i v e as i t i s , the d i s t r i b u t i v e model appears to be b e s t s u i t e d t o the r e s o l u t i o n of L e v e l I i s s u e s , e . g . s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s . G i v e n the c o l l e g i a l t r a d i t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , the v a r y i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l needs of the f a c u l t y , the i s s u e of management r i g h t s and the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s of the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d , a more c o l l a b o r a t i v e model of b a r g a i n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y to accommodate L e v e l I I i s s u e s . The l a t t e r i n c l u d e f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o l l e g e g o v e r n a n c e , peer e v a l u a t i o n , and the s e l e c t i o n of o t h e r f a c u l t y . The s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e d to the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e and p r o d u c e d a number of recommendations f o r p r a c t i c e . V CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES i x CHAPTER 1 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 1 RESEARCH PROBLEM AND QUESTIONS 3 R e s e a r c h Problem 3 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4 S u b - q u e s t i o n s 4 N u l l - H y p o t h e s i s 5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH 5 CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT 7 DISSERTATION OUTLINE 14 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 16 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND HIGHER EDUCATION . . . 17 P u b l i c S e c t o r 17 H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 22 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Community C o l l e g e s . . . . 29 FACTORS WHICH MAY INFLUENCE OPINIONS AND BEHAVIOUR 38 O p i n i o n s on C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g . 38 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s 42 P e r s o n a l F a c t o r s . . . . . 45 Age 45 E x p e r i e n c e 46 Rank and T e n u r e 47 Gender . 48 Job F u n c t i o n 50 C a r e e r M o b i l i t y and A s p i r a t i o n s 52 M i s c e l l a n e o u s P e r s o n a l F a c t o r s 53 P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m 54 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S a t i s f a c t i o n . . . . 60 Economic S a t i s f a c t i o n 61 CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION 63 C o n f l i c t 63 C o n s t r u c t i v e C o n f l i c t 65 D y s f u n c t i o n a l C o n f l i c t 66 C o m p e t i t i o n 68 C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n 70 M e d i a t i o n 71 F a c t F i n d i n g 72 C o n v e n t i o n a l A r b i t r a t i o n 73 M e d i a t i o n - A r b i t r a t i o n 76 F i n a l O f f e r S e l e c t i o n 76 Summary 79 v i I n t e g r a t i v e B a r g a i n i n g . . . . . . . . 79 F u t u r e C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n 82 LIMITATIONS 86 SUMMARY 89 3 RESEARCH DESIGN . . 92 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 92 Community C o l l e g e s 92 P o p u l a t i o n s 94 C o l l e g e Boards 94 S e n i o r C o l l e g e A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 96 F a c u l t y L e a d e r s 98 RESEARCH PROCEDURE 99 P r e - r e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s 100 P r e - S u r v e y I n t e r v i e w s 101 F a c t u a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l D a t a 102 C o n t r a c t A n a l y s i s 105 O p i n i o n Survey 106 4 PRE-SURVEY INTERVIEWS 109 PURPOSE 109 SAMPLE 110 INTERVIEW PROCESS I l l SYNOPSIS 113 P r o v i n c i a l Labour C l i m a t e 114 C o l l e g e Labour C l i m a t e s 115 C o l l e g e Boards 115 P e r s o n a l i t i e s 117 Communicat ions and I n f o r m a t i o n 118 Autonomy 119 Governance 121 P r e v i o u s N e g o t i a t i o n s . . . . 122 N e g o t i a t i n g Teams 124 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e N e g o t i a t i n g Teams 124 F a c u l t y N e g o t i a t i n g Teams 126 S e c t o r D i f f e r e n c e s 128 F a c u l t y and F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n s 132 P r o v i n c e - W i d e B a r g a i n i n g 134 C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g and C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n 135 M i s c e l l a n e o u s P o i n t s 138 SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING 140 S u g g e s t e d M o d i f i c a t i o n s 140 5 FACTUAL INSTITUTIONAL DATA 146 PURPOSE . 146 DATA COLLECTION 147 P r o c e s s and S o u r c e s 147 L i m i t a t i o n s 147 ANALYSIS . . 149 N e g o t i a t i n g Teams 151 C o l l e g e N e g o t i a t i n g Teams 151 F a c u l t y N e g o t i a t i n g Teams 153 v i i C o n t r a c t s and N e g o t i a t i o n s 156 S t r i k e s and L o c k o u t s 164 G r i e v a n c e s 166 D e c i s i o n Making and Committees 168 SUMMARY 169 6 COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS 17 2 PURPOSE 172 METHOD 173 LIMITATIONS 173 OBSERVATIONS 174 Purpose of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements 175 F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n s 177 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Changes 180 P r o v i n c e - W i d e B a r g a i n i n g 181 SUMMARY 183 7 MAIN SURVEY 186 PURPOSE 186 METHOD 187 Sample S e l e c t i o n 187 Development of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 188 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 193 Rate of R e t u r n 194 LIMITATIONS 195 ANALYSIS 197 A n a l y s i s P r o c e s s 197 P r o f i l e of the Respondents 201 Age 201 Gender 203 Y e a r s Employed or A s s o c i a t e d W i t h The C o l l e g e 204 S u b j e c t D i s c i p l i n e 205 F a c u l t y Employment S t a t u s 205 P r i o r C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g E x p e r i e n c e . . 206 P o l i t i c a l P r e f e r e n c e 207 O c c u p a t i o n s of B o a r d Members 208 O p i n i o n s of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g 209 C o m p e t i t i o n 209 Governance 221 Scope of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g 234 Sta tements and P r o f i l e F a c t o r s 241 P r o p o s e d M o d i f i c a t i o n s 244 8 CONCLUSION • 260 PURPOSE 260 RESEARCH DESIGN 262 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS 263 INTERPRETATION OF THE FINDINGS . . 269 IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS 276 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r R e s e a r c h 276 F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 283 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s F o r P r a c t i c e 284 G r o u p One 285 G r o u p Two 288 SUMMARY . 291 A P P E N D I X 1 I N S T I T U T I O N A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E . . 294 A P P E N D I X 2 MAIN SURVEY 306 A P P E N D I X 3 O P I N I O N S OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , C H I - S Q U A R E 314 A P P E N D I X 4 O P I N I O N S OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , H Y P O T H E S I S 316 A P P E N D I X 5 O P I N I O N S OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , ONE-WAY A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E 318 A P P E N D I X 6 O P I N I O N S OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , D E S C R I P T I V E S T A T I S T I C S 321 A P P E N D I X 7 SCOPE OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , C H I - S Q U A R E 325 A P P E N D I X 8 S C O P E OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , H Y P O T H E S I S 327 A P P E N D I X 9 S C O P E OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , ONE-WAY A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E 330 A P P E N D I X 10 SCOPE OF C O L L E C T I V E B A R G A I N I N G , D E S C R I P T I V E S T A T I S T I C S 335 A P P E N D I X 11 PROPOSED M O D I F I C A T I O N S , C H I - S Q U A R E . . . . 341 A P P E N D I X 12 PROPOSED M O D I F I C A T I O N S , H Y P O T H E S I S . . . . 343 A P P E N D I X 13 PROPOSED M O D I F I C A T I O N S , ONE-WAY A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E 345 A P P E N D I X 14 PROPOSED M O D I F I C A T I O N S , D E S C R I P T I V E S T A T I S T I C S 348 A P P E N D I X 15 P E R S O N A L F A C T O R S AND S E L E C T E D S T A T E M E N T S . 352 B I B L I O G R A P H Y . 363 i x L I S T OF TABLES TABLES PAGE 5 .1 B a r g a i n i n g U n i t s . . . . . 150 5 .2 L e n g t h of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements . . . 157 5 .3 L e n g t h of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements , A v e r a g e 158 5.4 C o l l e c t i v e Agreements , Method of S e t t l e m e n t . . . . 159 5 .5 C o l l e c t i v e Agreements , Method of S e t t l e m e n t , Average 160 5 .6 Lag T i m e s , A v e r a g e s 162 5 .7 Lag T i m e s , Ranges 162 5.8 S t r i k e s and S t r i k e V o t e s 164 5 .9 S t r i k e s and S t r i k e V o t e s , Average 164 7 .1 Rate of R e t u r n 194 7.2 P r o f i l e of the Respondents 199 7.3 O p i n i o n s of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , C o m p e t i t i o n . . . 210 7.4 C o m p e t i t i o n , V a r i a n c e 212 7 .5 O p i n i o n s of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , Governance . . . 222 7.6 G o v e r n a n c e , V a r i a n c e 224 7.7 Scope 235 7.8 Scope , F T e s t , L e v e l I Needs 236 7 .9 S c o p e , F T e s t , L e v e l I I Needs 237 7.10 S c o p e , D i r e c t i o n of R e s p o n s e s , L e v e l I N e e d s . . . . 238 7.11 Scope , D i r e c t i o n of R e s p o n s e s , L e v e l I I Needs . . . 239 7.12 S e l e c t e d P r o f i l e F a c t o r s 242 7.13 P r o p o s e d M o d i f i c a t i o n s , F T e s t 248 7.14 M o d i f i c a t i o n s , H0=H1, A l l A g r e e d 249 7.15 M o d i f i c a t i o n s , HO^HI, A l l d i s a g r e e d . . . . . . . . 250 7.16 M o d i f i c a t i o n s , HO^HI, A g r e e d and D i s a g r e e d . . . . 252 1 1 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM Community colleges are an important part of B r i t i s h Columbia's postsecondary educational system. They deliver a comprehensive array of educational and tr a i n i n g programs i n response to the ever changing educational demands of their l o c a l communities. In order for the colleges to achieve the goals set out i n their mission statements, the c o l l e c t i v e bargaining process and the r e s u l t i n g c o l l e c t i v e agreements must contribute to the e f f e c t i v e a l l o c a t i o n of a college's human resources. This reguires a labour relations atmosphere characterized by cooperation rather than one characterized by dysfunctional tensions. Given the paucity of knowledge of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community colleges, t h i s study attempts to f i l l part of that void. C o l l e c t i v e bargaining i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community colleges p a r a l l e l e d the development of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i n the public sector. The f i r s t community college i n B r i t i s h Columbia was established i n 1963, but i t was not u n t i l 1974 that four community colleges signed c o l l e c t i v e agreements with the i r faculty associations (Perra 1979; Stewart 1983:113). Although the four colleges were under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the l o c a l school boards and hence the Public Schools Act, the faculty associations opted for c e r t i f i c a t i o n as labour unions under the Labour Code. Between 1974 and 1977 there was a domino e f f e c t as fourteen of the f i f t e e n community colleges signed c o l l e c t i v e agreements. One college adopted the f a i r comparison method for determining s a l a r i e s , benefits and related working conditions. The other fourteen community colleges and t h e i r respective faculty associations, however, entered a new era of labour relations by adopting the d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining (Birnbaum 1980a, 1980b; Walton & McKersie 1965). The l a t t e r approach i s sometimes commonly referred to as the trade union model, the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s model or the adversarial model of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. In 1971, Wollett, with reference to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i n United States i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education, described the d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining as a p o l i t i c a l process. This reference indicates the p l u r a l i s t i c , dynamic and increasing formal nature of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. The introduction of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining to higher education was not a "...Mysterious phenomenon" (Crispo 1978,146) to be feared because "...Professionals have learned that i f they don't have i t i n the agreement, they don't have i t " . "...Unions do not depend on the grace of the governing board and the administration i n respecting employee interests {Kemerer & Baldridge 1976,60). During the ensuing years various authors, including Birnbaum (1980a, 1980b), Crossman 1978; Fisher & Ury (1981), and Thomas (1976), have suggested that the d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining can lead to dysfunctional tensions or c o n f l i c t within i n s t i t u t i o n s (Masuch 1985). Birnbaum (1980, 1980b) also suggests that the adversarial nature of the d i s t r i b u t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i s incompatible with the higher education's tr a d i t i o n s of c o l l e g i a l i t y and the faculty's professionalism. Using personal interviews with c o l l e c t i v e bargaining p r a c t i t i o n e r s , factual i n s t i t u t i o n a l data, c o l l e c t i v e agreements and an opinion guestionnaire, this study examines various aspects of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i n B r i t i s h Columbia's unionized community colleges. RESEARCH PROBLEM AND QUESTIONS This section focuses on the study's research problem. It also defines the primary research guestion, presents a number of related sub-guestions and states the study's general n u l l -hypothesis . Research Problem One of the general problems i n this f i e l d of research i s whether or not c o l l e c t i v e bargaining contributes to or hinders the e f f e c t i v e management of a college's human resources to meet a community's educational needs. It i s assumed that a higher l e v e l of cooperation among the parties concerned may r e s u l t i n a more e f f e c t i v e management of a college's human resources and more e f f e c t i v e educational programs and services. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i f the tensions commonly associated with the d i s t r i b u t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining are dysfunctional, what modifications could be introduced to reduce those tensions? Research Question What are the opinions of a sample of board members, senior administrators and faculty leaders i n B r i t i s h Columbia's unionized community colleges toward various aspects of the d i s t r i b u t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining? The l a t t e r include competition, governance, the scope of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining and s p e c i f i c proposed modifications or alternatives to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining that might reduce any dysfunctional tensions. Sub-questions Is there a s i g n i f i c a n t and meaningful difference in the opinions among the three populations, i . e . , faculty leaders, senior administrators, board members, toward two aspects of the d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining, i . e . , competition, governance; toward the scope of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining and toward proposed alternatives or modifications to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining? In the event there are s i g n i f i c a n t and meaningful differences i n the opinions among the faculty leaders, senior a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , board members, do the r e s p e c t i v e o p i n i o n s tend toward the d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g or toward the i n t e g r a t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ? Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t and m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e between the independent v a r i a b l e s , e . g . age, gender , p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e , as d e f i n e d i n the s tudy and the dependent v a r i a b l e s ? In t h i s case the l a t t e r i n c l u d e s the r e s p o n d e n t s o p i n i o n s on two a s p e c t s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , i . e . , c o m p e t i t i o n and governance and the scope of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I f t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t and m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e among the o p i n i o n s of the t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s , how can those d i f f e r e n c e s be m o d i f i e d to reduce any d y s f u n c t i o n a l t e n s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s ? N u l l - H y p o t h e s i s In g e n e r a l , the n u l l - h y p o t h e s i s (H0=H1)is t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n the o p i n i o n s among the t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s toward the two a s p e c t s of the d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , i . e . , c o m p e t i t i o n , g o v e r n a n c e ; toward the scope of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , or toward the proposed a l t e r n a t i v e s or m o d i f i c a t i o n s to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH T h i s r e s e a r c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n s e v e r a l ways. T h i s i s the o n l y s t u d y , to the r e s e a r c h e r ' s knowledge, t h a t examines the o p i n i o n s of b o a r d members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s toward v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , i . e . , c o m p e t i t i o n , g o v e r n a n c e ; the scope of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ; and p r o p o s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s u n i o n i z e d community c o l l e g e s . W h i l e t h e r e have been s e v e r a l s t u d i e s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s ( A d e l l & C a r t e r 1972; Ponak & Thompson 1979,1983,1985; Thompson 1975) t h e r e i s a c o n s p i c u o u s absence of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n community c o l l e g e s . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have examined v a r i o u s f a c e t s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n C a n a d i a n community c o l l e g e s (Dennison 1987; Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986; M i c h a e l 1981; Newcombe 1982; Papale 1983; P e r r a 1979; S k o l n i k 1985; Stewart 1983; Wood 1986) none are as comprehensive as t h i s s tudy w i t h r e s p e c t to B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s . C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s a c r i t i c a l i n g r e d i e n t i n the e f f e c t i v e a l l o c a t i o n of a c o l l e g e ' s human r e s o u r c e s . The c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and the c o l l e c t i v e agreements must c o n t r i b u t e t o , not h i n d e r , the achievement of a c o l l e g e ' e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . G i v e n the i m p o r t a n t r o l e community c o l l e g e s p l a y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p o s t s e c o n d a r y system and the amount of funds the c o l l e g e s a l l o c a t e to p e r s o n n e l , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d one of the f a c t o r s t h a t can have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the success of those c o l l e g e s In t h i s same v e i n , t h i s s tudy may suggest m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s s t r u c t u r e s or p r o c e d u r e s to accommodate the p r o f e s s i o n a l needs of c o l l e g e f a c u l t y . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s s tudy w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the knowledge of the f i e l d and i n a p r a c t i c a l sense to the knowledge of the l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i t h i n the c o l l e g e s . CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT The s t u d y ' s c o n c e p t u a l c o n t e x t p r o v i d e s a b r i d g e between t h e o r y and e m p i r i c a l d a t a . In t h i s case , open systems t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a f o u n d a t i o n (Berger & Cummings 1978) f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the dynamics of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , the c o l l e c t i v e agreements , the r e s u l t s of the i n t e r v i e w s , the f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d a t a and the m a t e r i a l o b t a i n e d from the o p i n i o n s u r v e y . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the c o n c e p t u a l framework may a s s i s t w i t h the s e l e c t i o n of improvements to the c u r r e n t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . Kochan (1980) suggests t h a t l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s r e s e a r c h has g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d a h i s t o r i c a l a p p r o a c h , an economic approach or an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . Open systems t h e o r y i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e and c u t s a c r o s s an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s s t r u c t u r a l , p e r s o n n e l , c u l t u r a l , economical and p o l i t i c a l spheres (Bolman & D e a l 1984) . The v a r i o u s l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s models t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d over the y e a r s , p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r u s i n g open system t h e o r y as the c o n c e p t u a l framework. In s p i t e of i t s shor tcomings (Gunderson 1982) . D u n l o p ' s (1958) s t r u c t u r a l model of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s was one 8 of the f i r s t a t tempts to e x p l a i n l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s through the i n t e g r a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . A l t h o u g h i t was r e f e r r e d to as a system, D u n l o p ' s model does not appear to use many of the terms now a s s o c i a t e d w i t h open systems t h e o r y (Robins & O l i v a 1982) . H i s model c o n t i n u e d to be m o d i f i e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( A l l a n 1971; P e t e r s o n 1971; Walker 1969; Wood et a l . 1975) . I t was not u n t i l C r a i g ' s (1975) l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s model t h a t an approach was d e v e l o p e d which i n c l u d e d c o n c e p t s from open systems t h e o r y (Anderson & Gunderson 1984; Bolman & D e a l 1984; B o u l d i n g 1956; E a s t o n 1965; Katz & Kann 1966) . C r a i g ' s model has s u b s e g u e n t l y been m o d i f i e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s (Larouche & Deom 1984; Shirom 1985) . Open systems t h e o r y ( B o u l d i n g 1956; E a s t o n 1965) i n c o r p o r a t e s b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l a s p e c t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p r o v i d e s a framework f o r examining the a d a p t a t i o n and c o n t i n u e d s u r v i v a l of o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n dynamic e n v i r o n m e n t s . I t i s b e n e f i c i a l to d e s c r i b e a few of the p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of open systems t h e o r y and comment on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I r o n i c a l l y a s y s t e m ' s s u r v i v a l depends on two c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s ; change and no change. Change can be d i s r u p t i v e but a system cannot remain v i a b l e w i t h o u t i t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r a system to m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e , a s teady s t a t e or e g u i l i b r i u m between the ever changing and c y c l i c a l demands of i t s e x t e r n a l environment and i t s i n t e r n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l s u b - s y s t e m s . H o m e o s t a s i s , however, i s d i f f i c u l t to m a i n t a i n because of the n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y o f a s y s t e m ' s s u b - s y s t e m s t o w a r d l o c a l a u t o n o m y . E a c h s u b - s y s t e m w i t h i n a s y s t e m a t t e m p t s t o t h i c k e n i t s b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n i t s e l f a n d o t h e r s u b - s y s t e m s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e more s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s u b -s y s t e m s a r e r e g u i r e d t o c o o p e r a t e t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e m a i n s y s t e m , t h e r e i s a n a t u r a l a n d i n h e r e n t t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e many p a r t s o f a n y s y s t e m . U n l i k e some o f t h e e a r l y management w r i t i n g s , w h i c h p e r c e i v e d c o n f l i c t as a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e r a t i o n a l o r d e r a n d t o be a v o i d e d , o p e n s y s t e m s t h e o r y v i e w s c o n f l i c t as a n a t u r a l a n d n e c e s s a r y p h e n o m e n o n . " C o n f l i c t i s t h e e s s e n c e o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s b e c a u s e i n d u s t r i a l i s m n e c e s s a r i l y g e n e r a t e s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s , w h i c h i n t u r n , n e c e s s a r i l y g e n e r a t e t e n s i o n s among t h o s e s t r a t i f i e d " ( B a r b a s h 1 9 8 4 , 1 3 0 ) . A l t h o u g h s u b - s y s t e m s a r e o f t e n i n c o n t a c t w i t h d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e i r d i s t i n c t k n o w l e d g e b a s e s must c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e g o a l s o f t h e m a i n s y s t e m . Y e t , b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y o f e a c h s u b - s y s t e m t o s t r i v e f o r more a u t o n o m y t h e r e may be an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o s h a r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e s u b - s y s t e m s may d e v e l o p t h e i r own o p i n i o n s a n d a t t e m p t t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s o n how b e s t t o u s e t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o s a t i s f y t h e i r n e e d s o r t h e demands o f t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e s e d e c i s i o n s may n o t a l w a y s be i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e m a i n s y s t e m o r t h e o t h e r s u b -s y s t e m s . S u b s e g u e n t l y , t h i s n a t u r a l t r e n d t o w a r d l o c a l a u t o n o m y may l e a d t o g o a l d i v e r g e n c e o r v a l u e d i v e r g e n c e between the v a r i o u s sub-sys tems or between a main system and i t s h i e r a r c h i c a l s u b - s y s t e m s . In t u r n , t h i s d i v i s i v e n e s s may l e a d to the i n e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f i c i e n t use of the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . T e n s i o n s between the s u b - s y s t e m and the main system may e s c a l a t e to the p o i n t where the c o n f l i c t w i l l become d y s f u n c t i o n a l and l e a d to the demise of the main system or one or more of the sub-sys tems (Barbash 1984; G l a s l 1984; Masuch 1985) . From these p r e c e d i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s a boundary s p a n n i n g mechanism t h a t l i n k s an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s h i e r a r c h i c a l sub-systems f o r the purpose of r e a l i z i n g the g o a l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s sub-systems as w e l l as m a i n t a i n i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m . The p r i m a r y purpose of a system i s to p r o v i d e p r o d u c t s , programs or s e r v i c e s t h a t s a t i s f y the needs of o t h e r systems i n the e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . Community c o l l e g e s , t h e r e f o r e , must c o n t i n u a l l y scan t h e i r environment and a d j u s t t h e i r programs and s e r v i c e s to meet the demands of t h e i r l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . I f they f a i l to be s e n s i t i v e to the e v o l v i n g and o f t e n c y c l i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs of the job market , or i f they are u n a b l e to adapt f o r some r e a s o n , e . g . , r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s i n the c o l l e c t i v e agreements , then the c o l l e g e or a p a r t of the c o l l e g e may no l o n g e r remain v i a b l e . I t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r a c o l l e g e ' s s u b - s y s t e m s , e . g . , b o a r d members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , f a c u l t y and the l a t t e r ' s s u b - s y s t e m s , e . g . , u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r f a c u l t y , t r a d e s f a c u l t y , to be aware of the changes t h a t are o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i r sphere of i n f l u e n c e and to be a b l e to a d j u s t to those changes . Community c o l l e g e s must m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e among i t s v a r i o u s p a r t s , e . g . , b o a r d , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f a c u l t y , i f i t i s to a c h i e v e i t s o b j e c t i v e s as se t out i n the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e Act and m i s s i o n s t a t e m e n t s . I f the c o l l e g e ' s m i s s i o n s tatement and r e l a t e d management s t r a t e g i e s are u n c l e a r , are not c u r r e n t , are not communicated e f f e c t i v e l y or are not a c c e p t e d , then t h e r e may be a d i v e r g e n c e of g o a l s . T h i s c o u l d r e s u l t i n morale problems i n c l u d i n g a l a c k of t r u s t and power s t r u g g l e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d s u b s e g u e n t l y l e a d to t e n s i o n s d u r i n g l a b o u r n e g o t i a t i o n s , e . g . , an u n w i l l i n g n e s s to s e t t l e , u n r e a l i s t i c demands or o f f e r s , r i g i d p o s i t i o n s , l o c k o u t s , s t r i k e s . The f a c u l t y may a l s o seek w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t would p r o v i d e f o r a d d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy and c o n t r o l over t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s . D e s p i t e the n a t u r a l tendency f o r a s y s t e m ' s sub-sys tems d e s i r e to i n c r e a s e t h e i r autonomy, no one p a r t can dominate or the c o l l e g e may be i n j e o p a r d y . In severe c a s e s , s t u d e n t s may d e c i d e not to a t t e n d the c o l l e g e , s t u d e n t s may withdraw from a program, programs may have to be c a n c e l l e d , graduates may not be a b l e to o b t a i n j o b s , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r may no l o n g e r o f f e r s c h o l a r s h i p s , a c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t may be t e r m i n a t e d , an e n t i r e c o l l e g e board may be d i s m i s s e d and so o n . Open system t h e o r y a l s o sugges ts t h a t t h e r e are a number of p r e d i c t a b l e r e s p o n s e s to the n a t u r a l t e n s i o n s between a system and i t s s u b - s y s t e m s . In i t s guest f o r i n c r e a s e d autonomy, when a s u b - s y s t e m b e g i n s to d i v e r g e from the main sys tem, the l a t t e r w i l l g e n e r a l l y b e g i n to move to r e s t o r e the e g u i l i b r i u m . For example, the main s y s t e m ' s c e n t r a l p o l i c y makers may impose more r u l e s , c e n t r a l i z e d e c i s i o n making powers , e x e r c i s e i t s management r i g h t s , c o n t r o l the f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s , i s o l a t e or t e r m i n a t e s p e c i f i c sub-sys tems and so o n . In r e t u r n , a s u b - s y s t e m may attempt to s t r e n g t h e n i t s autonomy by s e e k i n g a l t e r n a t e r e s o u r c e s , by e l i c i t i n g the s u p p o r t of o t h e r sub-systems so t o g e t h e r they can c o n t r o l the main system, by w i t h d r a w i n g i t s s e r v i c e s , by a t t e m p t i n g to impose i t s own new r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , by demanding more power and so o n . Another response i s f o r the s u b - s y s t e m to comply w i t h the demands of the c e n t r a l , sys tem. S t i l l another c h o i c e i s f o r the two s i d e s to r e a c h a compromise t h a t a c t u a l l y may not be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r e i t h e r s i d e i n the l o n g r u n . In c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s the c o n f l i c t may be so extreme t h a t the s u b - s y s t e m may sever i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the main system and s t r i k e out on i t s own. In s t i l l o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s the s u b - s y s t e m ( s ) and the main system may not be a b l e to e i t h e r r e s t o r e the b a l a n c e between them or s e p a r a t e . In these i n s t a n c e s the t e n s i o n s may i m m o b i l i z e and d e s t r o y them b o t h . In these a c t i o n - r e a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s , i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t s of a l l concerned to r e a c h a new p o i n t of e g u i l i b r i u m t h a t s a t i s f i e s the p r i n c i p l e s of each p a r t y . Open systems t h e o r y sugges ts that boundary s p a n n i n g mechanisms are used to f a c i l i t a t e communications between a system and i t s environment and a system and i t s u b - s y s t e m s . I t i s when these communicat ion channels become u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y or i n t e n t i o n a l l y b l o c k e d t h a t the b a l a n c e p o i n t may become d i s r u p t e d . E s s e n t i a l l y these mechanisms are feedback p r o c e s s e s t h a t e n a b l e the system to m a i n t a i n i t s e q u i l i b r i u m or homeostas is through the a c q u i s i t i o n of new knowledge, the s h a r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . In t h i s way the system and the sub-systems g e n e r a l l y e x p e r i e n c e o n l y i n c r e m e n t a l change r a t h e r than s e v e r e d i s l o c a t i o n . Open systems t h e o r y sugges ts t h a t the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be e x p e r i e n c e d n e g o t i a t o r s so as to know what i s r e q u i r e d to i n c r e m e n t a l l y b a l a n c e the e n t i r e s y s t e m . C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s one way f o r s u b - g r o u p s w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n to express t h e i r ever c h a n g i n g needs and to t h e r e b y i n f l u e n c e and change the main system i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n . In a d d i t i o n to the f o r m a l n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s t h e r e may be s e v e r a l boundary s p a n n i n g mechanisms which c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e change, e . g . , f a c u l t y membership on the c o l l e g e b o a r d , a g e n e r a l academic c o u n c i l , p r o f e s s i o n a l development committees , a f a c u l t y s e l e c t i o n and appointment committee , f a c u l t y membership on committees to s e l e c t s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n commit tees , program e v a l u a t i o n commit tees , j o i n t f a c u l t y - c o l l e g e human r e l a t i o n s committees , j o i n t p r o f e s s i o n a l 14 d e v e l o p m e n t s e s s i o n s , d e p a r t m e n t m e e t i n g s a n d o p e n m e e t i n g s o f t h e b o a r d a n d i t s c o m m i t t e e s . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e o t h e r p u r p o s e s t h e y s e r v e t h e s e b o u n d a r y s p a n n i n g m e c h a n i s m s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s w e l l b e i n g . O p e n s y s t e m s t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a c o n c e p t u a l b e n c h m a r k f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e b a c k g r o u n d l i t e r a t u r e a n d t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a . I t c a n a c c o m m o d a t e b o t h t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l d y n a m i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . S e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e demands o f t h e c y c l i c a l c h a n g e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , a u t o n o m y , h o m e o s t a s i s a n d b o u n d a r y s p a n n i n g m e c h a n i s m s a r e a l l i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s . D I S S E R T A T I O N O U T L I N E T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t c h a p t e r s , a b i b l i o g r a p h y a n d an a p p e n d i x . I n a d d i t i o n t o C h a p t e r O n e , t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n . C h a p t e r Two i s a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . I t b u i l d s o n C h a p t e r One b y p r o v i d i n g b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o l l e g e s , a n d b y e x a m i n i n g a b r o a d r a n g e o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o o p i n i o n s t o w a r d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , c o n f l i c t a n d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . C h a p t e r T h r e e o u t l i n e s t h e s t u d y ' s s c o p e a n d r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . C h a p t e r F o u r s u m m a r i z e s f o u r t e e n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s . C h a p t e r F i v e d e s c r i b e s a w i d e v a r i e t y o f f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d a t a on c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s . In overview of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of c o l l e c t i v e agreements i n Chapter S i x , complements the o t h e r m a t e r i a l . Chapter Seven r e p r e s e n t s the h e a r t of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . I t p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d s u r v e y of randomly s e l e c t e d c o l l e g e board members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s toward two a s p e c t s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the scope of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and p r o p o s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the c u r r e n t approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Chapter E i g h t draws the s t u d y ' s m a t e r i a l t o g e t h e r and p r e s e n t s the s t u d y ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . F o l l o w i n g Chapter E i g h t i s a b i b l i o g r a p h y and appendixes c o n t a i n i n g p e r t i n e n t d a t a . 16 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose of the l i t e r a t u r e review i s to p r o v i d e a h i s t o r i c a l framework f o r the s tudy and to examine the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t to the r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e review would a l s o a s s i s t w i t h the development of an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . The f i r s t p a r t of the r e v i e w p r e s e n t s the background m a t e r i a l that d e a l s w i t h the e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s . I t i n c l u d e s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . The o t h e r major s e c t i o n s c o n s i s t of three s e p a r a t e streams of l i t e r a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m . One c o l l e c t i o n of thought d e a l s w i t h f a c t o r s t h a t appear to i n f l u e n c e p e o p l e ' s o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Another s tream d e a l s w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the c o n f l i c t o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s t r i b u t i v e ' b a r g a i n i n g and v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . The t h i r d s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the i n t e g r a t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and the f o u r t h s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s a number of l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n s of the s t u d y . 17 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND HIGHER EDUCATION P u b l i c S e c t o r B e f o r e examining p e o p l e ' s o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i t i s n e c e s s a r y to d e v e l o p an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s . The o r i g i n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s i n the 1960 1 s and the 1970's took p l a c e d u r i n g a p e r i o d of s o c i a l ferment (Anderson & Gunderson 1984; Dennison 1987; D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1986). From a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the surge i n r e s e a r c h and h i g h t e c h n o l o g y r e l a t e d to the space r a c e , the emergence of the women's movement, the i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Vietnam War, s t u d e n t a c t i v i s m , and the twin economic f a c t o r s c f double d i g i t i n f l a t i o n and h i g h unemployment, c o n t r i b u t e d to an atmosphere of s o c i a l change. These s o c i a l changes were b o t h preceded by and p a r a l l e l e d by i n c r e a s i n g l y s u p p o r t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t e d to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r . L e g a l re forms i n the f i e l d of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , o r i g i n a t e d i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r but over a p e r i o d of 30 y e a r s g r a d u a l l y impacted p u b l i c s e c t o r employees . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s the N a t i o n a l Labour R e l a t i o n s A c t of 1935 (Wagner A c t ) , was the f i r s t major s t e p toward making i t an u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e f o r an employer not to engage i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g w i t h employees (Canada, R o y a l Commission 1985; C a r r 1973; C a r t e r 1982; G a r b a r i n o 1975) . The Canadian government p a s s e d a number of b i l l s i n the e a r l y p a r t of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r e l a t e d to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , e . g . , Dominion C o n c i l i a t i o n A c t , 1900, Rai lway D i s p u t e A c t , 1903, I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n s A c t , 1907, C o n c i l i a t i o n and Labour A c t , 1908, ( C a r t e r 1984; Canada, R o y a l Commission 1985; Woods 1973). T h i s e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n , u n l i k e the American l e g i s l a t i o n which was d e s i g n e d to e s t a b l i s h b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s , was o r i e n t e d toward the r e s o l u t i o n of d i s p u t e s . The p r o c e s s i n i t i a l l y i n v o l v e d v o l u n t a r y c o n c i l i a t i o n p r i o r to a s t r i k e or a l o c k o u t but was l a t e r changed to compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n . The government ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l Order 1003, which was approved i n 1944, was a m i l e s t o n e i n Canadian l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . While the l e g i s l a t i o n was d e s i g n e d f o r Canada 's p a r l i a m e n t a r y system of government, the Act was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the U n i t e d S t a t e s l e g i s l a t i o n . P r i v y C o u n c i l Order 1003 con u c i i n . 5 d s, number of fundamental c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g c o n c e p t s . These i n c l u d e d the r i g h t of employees to o r g a n i z e t rade u n i o n s , the c e r t i f i c a t i o n of b a r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s e l e c t e d by the employees , compulsory n e g o t i a t i o n , b a r g a i n i n g i n good f a i t h , b i n d i n g agreements , g r i e v a n c e p r o c e d u r e s , c o n t r a c t s of at l e a s t a year i n d u r a t i o n , a two stage compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e s s p r i o r to a s t r i k e or a l o c k o u t , e x c l u s i v i t y of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , ' a n d i n t e r n a l u n i o n c o n t r o l over i t s a f f a i r s (Woods 1973) . C a r t e r (1982), Ponak (1982) and Woods (1973) note t h a t over a p e r i o d of t i m e , the p r o v i n c e s i n t r o d u c e d p a r a l l e l l e g i s l a t i o n . The g r a d u a l emergence of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r a l l o w e d the p r o c e s s to mature and f o r a comprehensive l e g a l s u p p o r t system to emerge. I t was not u n t i l the 1960's however, t h a t "The s o c i a l environment was c o n d u c i v e to c h a l l e n g i n g a u t h o r i t y and the s t a t u s quo i n g e n e r a l , making i t a p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e c i p i t o u s time f o r p u b l i c employees to under take major changes i n s o c i a l norms" (Ponak 1982,349) . C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r many areas of the p u b l i c s e c t o r i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , i n c l u d i n g Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i s between twenty and t h i r t y y e a r s o l d . The p u b l i c s e r v i c e , which i n c l u d e s f e d e r a l employees , p r o v i n c i a l employees , m u n i c i p a l employees , h e a l t h care w o r k e r s , t e a c h e r s and employees of a s s o r t e d government e n t e r p r i s e s , e x p e r i e n c e d i t s most r a p i d r a t e of growth from 1956 and 1965 (Ponak 1932). A l t h o u g h t h e r e were a number of p u b l i c s e c t o r t r a d e u n i o n s , e . g . , M u n i c i p a l employees , p r i o r to the mid 1950's (Ponak 1982), the a s s o c i a t i o n - c o n s u l t a t i o n approach to e s t a b l i s h i n g working c o n d i t i o n s dominated l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s from World War I to the mid 1 9 6 0 ' s . "The a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t p u b l i c employees formed opposed s t r i k e a c t i o n and eschewed compulsory membership r e q u i r e m e n t s . . . S t r e s s was l a i d on a v a r i e t y of . c o n s u l t a t i o n m e c h a n i s m s . . . " (Ponak 1982 ,345) . At that time t h e r e was a g e n e r a l p e r c e p t i o n t h a t b a r g a i n i n g was improper (Carr 1973) and the f e e l i n g t h a t the government would take care of i t s employees and would t r e a t them f a i r l y (Carr 1973: Ponak 1984) . With the r a p i d e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l changes i n the 1950's and 1 9 6 0 ' s , - t h i s p r o c e s s of " c o l l e c t i v e b e g g i n g " ( C r i s p o 1975) began to break down (Ponak 1982) . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , P r e s i d e n t K e n n e d y ' s 1962 E x e c u t i v e Order 10988 g r a n t e d l i m i t e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s to f e d e r a l p u b l i c employees and i n 1963, the Canadian government p r o c l a i m e d the P u b l i c S e r v i c e S t a f f R e l a t i o n s A c t . The A c t which p r o v i d e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s f o r f e d e r a l employees was f o l l o w e d by a s u c c e s s i o n of p r o v i n c i a l a c t s t h a t g r a n t e d s i m i l a r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s to p r o v i n c i a l employees (Canada 1985; C a r t e r 1982; Ponak 1982; Woods 1973) . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s f a v o u r a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n c o i n c i d e d w i t h the massive growth of the p u b l i c s e c t o r from 1956 to 1965 (Ponak 1982; Rose 1984). Rose (1984,91) w i t h r e f e r e n c e to Ponak (1982) notes " . . . T h a t the s h i f t from " a s s o c i a t i o n - c o n s u l t a t i o n " to " u n i o n - c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " was as much a f u n c t i o n of p u b l i c p o l i c y changes as of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s . . . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n l e d to changes i n l e a d e r s h i p as s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n s began to model themselves a f t e r u n i o n s . P u b l i c s e c t o r employees were a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the b a r g a i n i n g g a i n s t h a t p r i v a t e s e c t o r u n i o n s s e c u r e d , as w e l l as by the g e n e r a l c l i m a t e of s o c i a l change d u r i n g the 1960s" . I t i s worth n o t i n g soma of the s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p u b l i c s e c t o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . At the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l the government i s both employer and r e g u l a t o r . T h i s means that governments can u n i l a t e r a l l y a l t e r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g agreements through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . Governments are a l s o not s u b j e c t to the same demand and s u p p l y mechanisms of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r markets and governments can r a i s e taxes to cover any a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s . They can a l s o save money by l o c k i n g out employees or by not d i s c o u r a g i n g a s t r i k e . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p u b l i c s e c t o r b a r g a i n i n g i s the phenomenon c a l l e d "phantom" b a r g a i n i n g (Ponak 1932,354) . A l t h o u g h o f t e n governed by l o c a l autonomous b o a r d s , e . g . , community c o l l e g e s , s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , many p r o v i n c i a l governments have g r a d u a l l y assumed almost f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f u n d i n g these g u a s i -governmental a g e n c i e s . Hence, many l a b o u r u n i o n s would , u n d o u b t e d l y p r e f e r to d e a l w i t h the p r i m a r y source of f u n d s , the p r o v i n c i a l government, r a t h e r than d e a l w i t h the l o c a l b o a r d s . In these i n s t a n c e s the u n i o n ( s ) may p e r c e i v e t h a t the l o c a l g o v e r n i n g body may not have complete power over i t s own r e s o u r c e s , i n which case the u n i o n may attempt to b r i n g p r e s s u r e to bear on a h i g h e r l e v e l of power ( M i l l e t t 19S5) . In a d d i t i o n , i t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t " d e c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s t r u c t u r e s can impede u n i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s " (Thompson & Swimmer 1984 ,111) . T h i s u n d e r s c o r e s that n o t i o n t h a t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r i s i n d e e d a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s ( W o l l e t t 1971) . H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n At the sair.e time as r a d i c a l s o c i a l and economic changes were t a k i n g p l a c e , the 1960's e x p e r i e n c e d an e x t r a o r d i n a r y phase of p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n e x p a n s i o n . Dennison & G a l l a g h e r (1986,31) , w i t h r e f e r e n c e to a paper by A x l e r o d , " P r o p e l l e d by buoyant economic c o n d i t i o n s , f a v o u r e d by f r e e - s p e n d i n g p o l i t i c i a n s , and b u t t r e s s e d by w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c s u p p o r t , h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the 1960's became one of C a n a d a ' s major growth i n d u s t r i e s . . . P o p u l a r f a i t h i n the economic v a l u e of p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n r e a c h e d u n p r e c e d e n t e d h e i g h t s " . C o u p l e d w i t h the p r e c e d i n g f a c t o r s was the h i g h e r r e t e n t i o n r a t e s of the secondary s c h o o l system, the i n c r e a s e i n the number of c o l l e g e age s t u d e n t s , the i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y of p a r e n t s to pay f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , and a g r e a t e r awareness of the v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n i n an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y (Dennison 1987) . Dennison (1937) w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the Economic C o u n c i l of C a n a d a ' s 1964 Annual R e p o r t , notes t h a t t h i s l a t t e r concept grew out of the human c a p i t a l movement. In a d d i t i o n , the push f o r expanded h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and programs was encouraged by the f e d e r a l r e p o r t s , e . g . , Massey Commission, 1951, and f e d e r a l f u n d i n g programs, e . g . , E s t a b l i s h e d Programs F i n a n c i n g Arrangement , 1977. F o r m a l i z e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g began to 23 emerge on the h e e l s of t h i s massive e x p a n s i o n i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . P r i o r to the appearance of the community c o l l e g e , the u n i v e r s i t y and the t rade s c h o o l were the p r i m a r y d e l i v e r y methods of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n both Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Not u n l i k e the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned c o n s u l t a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n some of the o t h e r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s e c t o r s , c o n s u l t a t i v e u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s were not uncommon d u r i n g the 1940's and the 1 9 5 0 ' s . A l t h o u g h a number of Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s had a h i s t o r y of a u t h o r i t a r i a n p r e s i d e n t s (Thompson 1975), some u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s would i n v i t e the f a c u l t y to s e l e c t a few of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s to meet w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and to engage i n i n f o r m a l and v o l u n t a r y b a r g a i n i n g (Thompson 1968) . T h i s approach was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y t r a d i t i o n of c o l l e g i a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e d i d not r e g u i r e a f o r m a l c o d i f i e d p r o c e s s (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986) . The r e s u l t i n g arrangements " . . . w e r e g e n t l e m a n ' s agreements and they [had] no f o r c e i n law" (Green 1971) . By the mid s i x t i e s , " c h i n k s i n the armour of c o l l e g i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada began to a p p e a r . . . a t a time when c o l l e g i a l l y governed i n s t i t u t i o n s were coming under i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l a t t a c k f o r b e i n g u n r e s p o n s i v e " (Dennsion & G a l l a g h e r 1986 ,222) . F a c u l t y were becoming d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the wages, poor job s e c u r i t y , the p e r c e i v e d e r o s i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l f a c u l t y r i g h t s , a l a c k of l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n and what they p e r c e i v e d to be the u n i l a t e r a l c a p r i c i o u s a c t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1936; Thompson 1932). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h open systems t h e o r y , i t has been h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t when p e r s o n a l or group e f f i c a c y d i m i n i s h e s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and a sense of p o w e r l e s s n e s s s e t s i n , those i n v o l v e d w i l l take c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n (Danese 1977; D u l l 1971; Walker & Lawler 1980) . C r i s t (1983), w i t h r e f e r e n c e to Ponak & Thompson (1983), suggests t h a t the v a r i a n c e i n governance systems and the l a c k of d e f i n i t i o n of s h a r e d governance i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n makes comparisons d i f f i c u l t . A number of w r i t e r s (Anderson 1985; B e g i n 1974; B i g o n e s s 1978; C a r r & VanEyck 1973; Franke 1972; F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1976; G a r b a r i n o 1975; G e r h a r t & Maxey 1978; G r o s s v i c k l e 1930; Herman 1975; Ladd & L i p s e t 1973) ; M c l n n i s 1972; Thompson 1975; V o l p e 1982) have suggested t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s a l a r i e s and e t h e r b a s i c w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , p a r t of the movement toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was p r e c i p i t a t e d by a p e r c e i v e d l o s s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . P e r r a (1979,21) w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the w r i t i n g s of R y o r , sugges ts t h a t academics saw t h a t " the o n l y e f f e c t i v e way to s top the e r o s i o n of t h e i r power and to r e - a s s e r t t h e i r p r o p e r r o l e i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s " was to t u r n to u n i o n s . In the l a t e 1970 's , C r i s p o (1978,146) wrote " U n i o n i s m f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s not a m y s t e r i o u s phenomenon". I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d why p r o f e s s i o n a l s are t u r n i n g to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g to s o l v e some of the problems they have been v a g u e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d about i n the p a s t . A c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g c o n t r a c t embodying p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as w e l l as p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t c a p r i c i o u s management, i s more e f f e c t i v e than a p o l i c y s tatement adopted u n i l a t e r a l l y by management or dependent on the whims or f a v o u r a b l e budgets of a law-making b o d y . . . P r o f e s s i o n a l s have l e a r n e d t h a t i f they d o n ' t have i t i n the agreement, they d o n ' t have i t " . Thompson (1982,382) r e f i n e s these p r e v i o u s thoughts a b i t f u r t h e r . He sugges ts t h a t "The m o t i v a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r a d o p t i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g may be c l a s s i f i e d as d e f e n s i v e or o f f e n s i v e . D e f e n s i v e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s d e f i n e d as when f a c u l t y " o r g a n i z e themselves to a v o i d i n c l u s i o n i n a b a r g a i n i n g u n i t or u n i o n dominated by n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s " . H i s r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t many p r o f e s s i o n a l s embraced c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g as a d e f e n s i v e mechanism and t h a t at l e a s t i n i t i a l l y the agreements f o c u s e d on fundamental i s s u e s such as s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s and b a s i c working c o n d i t i o n s . " P r o f e s s i o n a l motives are o f f e n s i v e when they o r g a n i z e to a c h i e v e t h e i r own economic or s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s through b a r g a i n i n g . . . " and " . . . u s u a l l y respond to a r e a l or p e r c e i v e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e i r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s which o f t e n c h a l l e n g e s b a s i c v a l u e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m -autonomy, p r i d e i n work, and economic s e c u r i t y " (Thompson 1982,382,383). Thompson suggested t h a t management's a c t i o n s , as a c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y , are o f t e n the cause of o f f e n s i v e a c t i o n s . T h i s same i d e a i s noted i n an e a r l i e r a r t i c l e by Hammer & Berman (1981) i n which they say that c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s a response to m a n a g e r i a l power. In the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r these d e f e n s i v e and o f f e n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e v e l o p e d i n s p i t e of one view that sugges ts " C o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o l l e g e board members and c o l l e g e f a c u l t y members are not n o r m a l l y a d v e r s a r i e s i n the same ways t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s and workers may be i n o t h e r w o r k p l a c e s ; they o f t e n share s i m i l a r s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s , they h o l d common i n s t i t u t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and they want most of the same d a y - t o - d a y r e s u l t s (Dennison Sc. G a l l a g h e r 1935,223). With r e f e r e n c e to the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , however, Kochan at a l . (19843,265), had noted e a r l i e r t h a t w h i l e " A m e r i c a n managers had never abandoned t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c o p p o s i t i o n to u n i o n s . . . t h e c o s t s to management of o p p o s i n g u n i o n s was too h i g h . . . " . G i v e n the e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , i t i s not u n r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t the p r e v i o u s s e n t i m e n t s may a p p l y e q u a l l y to the p u b l i c s e c t o r and more s p e c i f i c a l l y to h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . A l l of these f a c t o r s u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d to a domino e f f e c t among community c o l l e g e s b o t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. Y e t , s i n c e i t s appearance i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n as a means to c o u n t e r a c t the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of f a c u l t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n the b i - l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g does not appear to have i n c r e a s e d the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f a c u l t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l governance , e . g . , s e n a t e s , academic c o u n c i l s ( B a l d r i g e 1981; Benjamin 1985; Ponak & Thompson 1979; S p r i t z e r & Odewahn 1978). I t appears to have f o r m a l i z e d the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s ( B a l d r i d g e 1981; Bohlander 1935; Dayal 1984; H i n e s 1934; Ponak & Thompson 1984b) which i n some i n s t a n c e s may make c o l l e c t i v e agreements more d i f f i c u l t to r e a c h . D r i s c o l l ' s (1972) and P l u m l e y ' s (1978) f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t perhaps i t i s not j u s t the l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s t h a t i s c r i t i c a l but the f a c u l t y ' s l a c k of t r u s t i n the d e c i s i o n makers, i . e . , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In t h e i r r e s e a r c h Katz et a l . (1985) found a c o r r e l a t i o n between h i g h c o n f l i c t and low t r u s t . M o r t i m e r ' s r e s e a r c h (1973), however, sugges ts t h a t g e n e r a l l y , c o l l e g e f a c u l t y do not expect to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s to the same ex tent as u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y . T h i s l a s t f i n d i n g may be m i s l e a d i n g i n t h a t when the r e s e a r c h was conducted the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s had not matured i n the c o l l e g e s e c t o r . In a d d i t i o n , i t may have g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d the h e t e r o g e n e i t y of c o l l e g e f a c u l t y but may not have a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d the s t r o n g d e s i r e c f a c o l l e g e ' s u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r f a c u l t y to a c h i e v e p r o f e s s i o n a l r i g h t s more a k i n to t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y c o u n t e r p a r t s . M i l l e t ' s (1934) r e s e a r c h suggests that when t h e r e i s a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , e . g . , s t a t e w i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o l l e g e systems, as noted a decade e a r l i e r - i o *-» by Ryor (1978), f a c u l t y sought compensat ion f o r the p e r c e i v e d l o s s of power or autonomy by e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e to move to system wide c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . These c y c l i c a l s tages of development are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Thompson & Swimmer's (1984) o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . R i l e y ' s (1979) r e s e a r c h sugges ts t h a t when c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , are c e n t r a l i z e d at a s t a t e l e v e l , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n the t e n s i o n between the l o c a l b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s and the c o l l e g e boards or c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , as w e l l as an i n c r e a s e i n the t e n s i o n between the boards and the s t a t e m i n i s t r i e s . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t , s i n c e the s t a t e m i n i s t r i e s u s u a l l y c o n t r o l the m a j o r i t y of a c o l l e g e ' s f u n d s , program a p p r o v a l s , and o t h e r s i m i l a r m a t t e r s . The p e r c e p t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s tha t there has been a g r a d u a l s h i f t to more M i n i s t r y i n v o l v e m e n t i n l o c a l c o l l e g e governance (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1936; H o l l i c k - K e n y o n 1979; M i c h a e l s 1981) . In time t h i s may r e s u l t i n more p r e s s u r e by some of the l o c a l and autonomous f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s to move to a form of p r o v i n c e - w i d e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . T h i s i n t u r n c o u l d p l a c e more p r e s s u r e on the c o l l e g e b o a r d s , s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the C o l l e g e -I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t o r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n . The l a t t e r i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g many of the c e r t i f i e d c o l l e g e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , but e x c l u d e s a l l 3CGEU l o c a l s . Based on these o b s e r v a t i o n s , the s t r u c t u r e of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s may be an emergent i s s u e i n the f u t u r e . I t i s a g a i n s t t h i s tumultuous s o c i a l and economic t a p e s t r y t h a t the community c o l l e g e o r i g i n a t e d . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Community C o l l e g e s The growth of the community c o l l e g e system i n B r i t i s h Columbia p a r a l l e l e d the growth of community c o l l e g e s i n o t h e r p a r t s of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r (19S6) note that as e a r l y as 1932, Knot t had d e v e l o p e d a master p l a n f o r a system of community c o l l e g e s i n 3 r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e n t i t l e d " The J u n i o r C o l l e g e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " . However, i t was not u n t i l the amendments to the P u b l i c S c h o o l s Act i n 1958, the t a b l i n g of the Report of the R o y a l Commission on E d u c a t i o n (Chant Commission) i n 1960, and the work of Macdonald i n 1962, t h a t a d i v e r s i f i e d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n d e l i v e r y system began to r e c e i v e more c o n s i d e r a t i o n . One of the c r i t i c a l elements of M a c d o n a l d ' s r e p o r t was the need f o r " . . . D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y , both i n r e s p e c t to the k i n d s of e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a v a i l a b l e and the p l a c e s where i t can be o b t a i n e d . . . " (Macdonald 1962,.19). Dennison (1987) suggests t h a t a new type of i n s t i t u t i o n was r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e g r e a t e r access to h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r b o t h f u l l t ime and p a r t t ime s t u d e n t s , to p r o v i d e l o c a l access to h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , to p r o v i d e a broad based c u r r i c u l u m and to p r o v i d e c ours es and programs t h a t c o u l d cope w i t h the t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes t h a t were o c c u r r i n g i n s o c i e t y . In 1977 these t e n a n t s of comprehensiveness found t h e i r way i n t o the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e A c t . S e c t i o n 7 of the A c t s t a t e s t h a t "The o b j e c t s of a c o l l e g e are to p r o v i d e comprehensive (a) courses of s tudy e q u i v a l e n t to those g i v e n by a u n i v e r s i t y at the f i r s t and second year p o s t secondary l e v e l ; (b) post secondary e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g ; and (c) c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . A c r o s s Canada t h e r e were many v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s theme. In a d d i t i o n to h a v i n g a community o r i e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than a p r o v i n c i a l mandate, an emphasis on access r a t h e r than e l i t i s m , a s t u d e n t o r i e n t a t i o n , autonomous boards of g o v e r n o r s and a p r o p e n s i t y f o r t e a c h i n g r a t h e r than r e s e a r c h , i t was the B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e g e ' s comprehensive c u r r i c u l u m that s e t i t apar t from many of the o t h e r c o l l e g e systems i n Canada (Dennison 1 9 8 7 ; ' D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1986) . T h i s concept of c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s , was l a t e r se t out i n the 1977 C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e A c t . Only A l b e r t a ' s c o l l e g e system was and s t i l l i s comparable to the B r i t i s h Columbia model . P e r r a (1979) notes t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s , which were e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d from 1963-1376, were i n i t i a l l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l s c h o o l boards and t h e r e f o r e f e l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t . T h i s came about through the amendment of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t i n 1963, which e n a b l e d l o c a l p u b l i c s c h o o l beards to " . . . e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n and o p e r a t e . . . " Community c o l l e g e s (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1936 ,29) . The c o l l e g e s c o n t i n u e d to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l s c h o o l boards u n t i l a s e p a r a t e C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e s Act was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1977. From the b e g i n n i n g t h e s e c o l l e g e b o a r d s , u n l i k e the u n i v e r s i t i e s or the v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b o t h academic and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n making (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986) . A f a c t o r t h a t would have an impact on c o l l e g e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s was the c o m b i n a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and academic d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , as s e t out p r i m a r i l y under S e c t i o n 12 of the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e s A c t , was a d e p a r t u r e from the u n i v e r s i t y t r a d i t i o n of c o l l e g i a l or p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n making w i t h r e s p e c t to academic m a t t e r s . At the t ime of w r i t i n g , the community c o l l e g e s , u n l i k e the u n i v e r s i t i e s , f e l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e s ' s I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A c t . The l a b o u r a c t p r i o r to the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A c t was c a l l e d the L a b o u r Code . In 1973, the Labour Code was s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e v i s e d by the government of the d a y , the New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y . In 1974, the Labour Code was amended to p e r m i t the c e r t i f i c a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y e e s , except those c o v e r e d by the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t . A c c o r d i n g to the May 13, 1975 m i n u t e s of the UBC F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n , the f a c u l t y v o t e d to implement a s p e c i a l p l a n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s , c o n d i t i o n s of a p p o i n t m e n t , p r o m o t i o n and d i s m i s s a l . O t h e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s were l e f t to the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t i e s and academic d e c i s i o n s were l e f t to the l e g i s l a t i v e mandate of the a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d u n i v e r s i t y s e n a t e . In 1977, the S o c i a l C r e d i t government r e v i s e d the U n i v e r s i t i e s A c t , and d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d the u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y i n the a r e a of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ( P e r r a 1979) . The C o l l e g e s and I n s t i t u t e A c t (1977) p r o v i d e d t h r e e methods f o r the c o l l e g e s and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l employees t o d e t e r m i n e s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s and o t h e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Under P a r t 1 of the A c t a p r o f e s s i o n a l employee i s d e f i n e d as " . . . an employee of an i n s t i t u t i o n who p r o v i d e s e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s to s t u d e n t s and i n c l u d e s an employee who i s a l i b r a r i a n or an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . . . " but " . . . d o e s not i n c l u d e p e r s o n s d e s i g n a t e d by the m i n i s t e r as s e r v i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n i n a m a n a g e r i a l or c o n f i d e n t i a l c a p a c i t y . . . " . The t h r e e methods i n c l u d e c e r t i f i e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the b i l a t e r a l agreement method and the f a i r c o m p a r i s o n method. P e r r a (1979,28) s u g g e s t s t h a t w h i l e the b i l a t e r a l and f a i r c o m p a r i s o n methods have " . . . t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m e e t i n g the needs of p r o f e s s i o n a l s and f o r f o s t e r i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m : p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n management, peer group e v a l u a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h . . . " t h a t " . . . u n l e s s f a c u l t i e s can be p r o v i d e d w i t h a s s u r a n c e s t h a t they w i l l e n j o y some autonomy under the C o l l e g e s and P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e s A c t , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t they w i l l seek to d e c e r t i f y t h e i r u n i o n s t a t u s g r a n t e d under the Labour C o d e " . At the time of w r i t i n g no autonomous f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n has p u r s u e d t h a t c o u r s e of a c t i o n . The I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Act p r o v i d e s a number of advantages t h a t the o t h e r two methods do not o f f e r . I t a f f o r d s the r i g h t of a b i n d i n g c o n t r a c t , the r i g h t to s t r i k e or l o c k o u t , i n t e r n a l u n i o n s e c u r i t y , the r i g h t and the f l e x i b i l i t y to b a r g a i n about a n y t h i n g the two s i d e s want to d i s c u s s , and employee p r o t e c t i o n from u n i l a t e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the Labour Code a f f o r d s the p a r t i e s the body of law a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s p r e c e d e n t s and due p r o c e s s . S i n c e the time of i t s i n c e p t i o n the Labour Code has been supplemented by o t h e r l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s , e . g . , E s s e n t i a l S e r v i c e s A c t , Human R i g h t s Ac t and the Compensation S t a b i l i z a t i o n Program (1983). N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r o v i s i o n f o r autonomous g o v e r n i n g boards under the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e s A c t , i n the e a r l y 1980's concerns were r a i s e d about the e r o s i o n of the b o a r d s ' autonomy. One of the concerns e x p r e s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Calader 1984; Corwin 1984; D e n n i s o n & G a l l a g h e r 1986; H o l l i c k - K e n y o n 1979; M i c h a e l s 1981; Newcomb 1982; P e r r a 1979) i s the p e r c e p t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n c o l l e g e autonomy. These authors c i t e , as examples of the d r i f t toward p r o v i n c i a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the c o l l e g e system, the l a c k of l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d members on c o l l e g e b o a r d s , the apparent p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e of board a p p o i n t m e n t s , the appointment of board members w i t h o u t a s p e c i f i c term of appointment , the a b o l i t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o u n c i l s i n 1983, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a 34 . p r o v i n c e - w i d e system of f o r m u l a f u n d i n g and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of S e c t i o n 66 of the A c t which every f i v e y e a r s r e q u i r e s c o l l e g e s to show cause why they s h o u l d c o n t i n u e to e x i s t . From a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e these s h i f t s r a i s e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to phantom b a r g a i n i n g , p r o v i n c e - w i d e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n making i n academic a r e a s , the autonomy of c o l l e g e boards and management r i g h t s . In a d d i t i o n to the v a r i o u s p o l i c y s h i f t s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o l l e g e s have been s u b j e c t e d to c y c l e s of f i n a n c i a l e x p a n s i o n and f i n a n c i a l re t renchment (Dennison 1987; Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986) . F o l l o w i n g the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , the f i r s t h i n t of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t came i n 1964, when the government of the day moved to l i m i t the s c h o o l t e a c h e r ' s s a l a r i e s . H i t by both double d i g i t i n f l a t i o n and h i g h unemployment, the e x p a n s i o n of the 1960s began to slow down w i t h the New Democrat i c P a r t y ' s budget r e s t r a i n t program p r i o r to the 1975 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . In s p i t e of the p r e s s u r e s on the c o l l e g e s to expand to meet the e d u c a t i o n a l demands of t h e i r r e g i o n s , the S o c i a l C r e d i t government, f o l l o w i n g t h e i r s u c c e s s at the p o l l s i n 1975 and a g a i n i n 1983, r e d u c e d community c o l l e g e b u d g e t s . R i g h t a c r o s s the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s t a f f l a y o f f s and job s e c u r i t y became c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , which i n t u r n p l a c e d p r e s s u r e on the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . These and o t h e r a s p e c t s of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s have been a c o n c e r n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o l l e g e s f o r some t i m e . Newcomb (1982), notes t h a t i n a r e p o r t f o r the M i n i s t r y , M i c h a e l s (1981), uncovered a number of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s concerns i n the c o l l e g e sys tem. These i n c l u d e d such i s s u e s as the a n t i - u n i o n tone of the government ' s l e g i s l a t i o n ; c e n t r a l i z a t i o n v e r s u s l o c a l autonomy; the d i s a s t r o u s use of t h i r d p a r t y l a b o u r e x p e r t s ; the e x p e n s i v e and cumbersome p r o c e s s of m e d i a t i o n and a r b i t r a t i o n ; the i n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s among the c o l l e g e s and the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s ; the slow r e s p o n s e time and the l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the BCGEU h e a d q u a r t e r s s t a f f to l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s ; ' t rade u n i o n i s m v e r s u s p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ; the a d v e r s a r i a l n e s s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g v e r s u s c o l l e g i a l i t y ; the l a c k of a common i n f o r m a t i o n base f o r n e g o t i a t o r s ; the f r e q u e n t t u r n o v e r of c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s ; the l a c k of i n t e r n a l l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s e x p e r t i s e ; the l a c k of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; the p a r t i s a n nature of board appointments and the l a c k of a s t r a t e g i c p r o v i n c i a l manpower p l a n . U n l i k e O n t a r i o , Quebec and some of the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , n e g o t i a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s f o u r t e e n c o l l e g e s c e r t i f i e d under the Labour Code are h a n d l e d at the l o c a l l e v e l as opposed to the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986; P e r r a 1979) . Some c o l l e g e s have s e p a r a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the academic and v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y , w h i l e o t h e r c o l l e g e s have one a s s o c i a t i o n f o r a l l of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l f a c u l t y . In one c o l l e g e b o t h the academic and v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y are p a r t of a B r i t i s h Columbia Government Employees Union l o c a l and i n another c o l l e g e the academic f a c u l t y , v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y and the support s t a f f are a l l p a r t of the same b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . In those c o l l e g e s that have a separate union f o r the v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y , the union i s a l o c a l chapter of the province-wide B r i t i s h Columbia Government Employees Union. T h i s arrangement i s a c a r r y over from the time p r i o r to the i n c l u s i o n of the v o c a t i o n a l - schools i n the community c o l l e g e system. On the academic s i d e , Perra (1979) notes that as e a r l y as 1978 there was t a l k about province-wide c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g through the auspices of the C o l l e g e F a c u l t y F e d e r a t i o n , a loose k n i t f e d e r a t i o n of the v a r i o u s academic f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e . The F e d e r a t i o n was l a t e r re-named the B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e - I n s t i t u t e Educators A s s o c i a t i o n . Although the A s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e s labour r e l a t i o n s advice to it's member f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , i t does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any province-wide b a r g a i n i n g . I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t there does not appear to be any p u b l i c l i t e r a t u r e that d e s c r i b e s the f e e l i n g s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Government Employees Union toward the academic f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s and the BC-CIEA which d i d not appear to be i n c l i n e d to. j o i n the main stream labour movement, but sought s i m i l a r b e n e f i t s . While many of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s were and continue to appear to be u n c e r t a i n as to the r o l e of province-wide c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the board members of the e a r l y 1980's were a l s o s p l i t i n t h e i r o p i n i o n of p r o v i n c i a l - w i d e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . M i c h a e l s (1981) and Newcomb (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t many of c o l l e g e b o a r d members were opposed to p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g on the b a s i s t h a t i t would s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce l o c a l autonomy, i n t e r f e r e w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , i n t e r f e r e w i t h the purpose of the l o c a l c o l l e g e s and produce f r a c t i o u s l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . On the o t h e r hand t h e r e were those t h a t thought p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g would reduce l o c a l i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s , a v o i d the l e a p f r o g g i n g e f f e c t of s a l a r y s e t t l e m e n t s , and a l l o w c o l l e g e s to share l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s expenses . M i c h a e l s (1981) i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s at the time f o c u s e d on a two t i e r approach to p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g . T h i s background m a t e r i a l i s i m p o r t a n t f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . I t o f f e r s a number of i n s i g h t s i n t o the e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a base upon which to examine the o t h e r streams of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e and forms a p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e from which to b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s , the f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l data on c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the c o l l e c t i v e agreements and the r e s u l t s of the o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of open systems t h e o r y can a l s o be found i n t h i s background m a t e r i a l , e . g . , c y c l e s of change, e n v i r o n m e n t a l changes, demands f o r autonomy, h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . FACTORS WHICH MAY - INFLUENCE OPINIONS AND BEHAVIOUR The second p a r t of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w f o c u s e s on two a r e a s . One c o l l e c t i o n of thought d e a l s w i t h the f a c t o r s t h a t appear to i n f l u e n c e p e o p l e ' s o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . A n o t h e r stream of l i t e r a t u r e e x p l o r e s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h a t are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . O p i n i o n s on C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g While f a c t u a l d a t a r e p r e s e n t one area of r e s e a r c h , o p i n i o n s of i s s u e s r e p r e s e n t another area of r e s e a r c h . O p i n i o n s , which are boundary s p a n n i n g mechanisms, l i n k p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r i n the b i - l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s c a l l e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Walton & M c K e r s i e 1965) . C r i s t (1983,352) says that p e o p l e ' s o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g are i m p o r t a n t to c o n s i d e r s i n c e the " . . . p e r s o n a l i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s w i l l determine the natur e and e x t e n t of the impact c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s to have on the o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s " . Owens (1981,290) goes on to say the outcome of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i s d e t e r m i n e d by p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and " . . . p e r c e p t i o n i s the key to b e h a v i o u r . The way persons see t h i n g s d e t e r m i n e s they way they w i l l a c t " . The l i t e r a t u r e connotes t h a t the o p i n i o n s of one p a r t y may c r e a t e s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s i n the o t h e r p a r t y (Bacharach & Lawler 1981; Druckman et a l . 1972) . T h i s sugges ts t h a t i f the o p i n i o n s of one p a r t y are p o s i t i v e , c o o p e r a t i v e or c o n s t r u c t i v e , then the a c t i o n s of the o ther p a r t y w i l l l i k e l y be s i m i l a r . I f , however, the a c t i o n s of one p a r t y are n e g a t i v e , u n c o o p e r a t i v e , d o m i n e e r i n g , a u t o c r a t i c , a d v e r s a r i a l and c o m p e t i t i v e then i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the a c t i o n s " o f the o t h e r p a r t y w i l l f o l l o w s u i t . P r u i t t (1981^) a l s o found t h a t d e s t r u c t i v e o p i n i o n s and b e h a v i o u r s can r e i n f o r c e each o th er w i t h the r e s u l t tha t i n some s i t u a t i o n s " d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n may not be a b l e to be r e s o l v e d through a c o l l a b o r a t i v e s o l u t i o n . These n o t i o n s of n e g a t i v e r e - e n f o r c e m e n t , are found i n b o t h G l a s l ' s (1982) p r e d i c t i v e model of c o n f l i c t e s c a l a t i o n and i n the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h of Masuch (1985) and Mondy (1930). The two l a t t e r authors suggest t h a t i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n can l e a d to v i c i o u s l y d e s t r u c t i v e , e s c a l a t i n g c i r c l e s of c o n f l i c t . F a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g are i m p o r t a n t f o r o t h e r reasons and are r e l a t e d to the n a t u r e of community c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Walton & M c K e r s i e (1965,184) s t r e s s that "The i s s u e s i n l a b o u r n e g o t i a t i o n s i n v o l v e i m p o r t a n t human v a l u e s . . . " and are " . . . s t r o n g l y c o n t i n g e n t upon a t t i t u d e s . . . " . These s e n t i m e n t s are echoed i n the work of Bolman & D e a l (1934) i n which they say that c o n f l i c t i s r e l a t e d to the v a l u e s h e l d by the p r o t a g o n i s t s . A c c o r d i n g to Birnbaum (1930a, 1930b), Coser (1956) and L i k e r t & L i k e r t (1976) when c o n f l i c t emerges i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a tendency toward homogeneous v a l u e s , the c o n f l i c t w i l l be slow to e r u p t , but when i t does f l a r e up i t w i l l be more i n t e n s e than i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h heterogeneous v a l u e s . Based on these r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i t would appear t h a t g i v e n the heterogeneous n a t u r e of community c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t e n s i o n s c o u l d emerge more f r e g u e n t l y and r a p i d l y i n the c o l l e g e s e c t o r than i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r . I t a l s o sugges ts t h a t i n homogeneous academic departments t h a t may have p r o f e s s i o n a l v a l u e s and. e x p e c t a t i o n s , e . g . , u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r d e p a r t m e n t s , t h a t once aroused the emotion a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n f l i c t would l i k e l y be more i n t e n s e . The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s of B o u l d i n g (1964) Guetzlow (1984) and Judd (1978) supplement the p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of the s e c t o r , when c o n f l i c t s do a r i s e between v a r i o u s p a r t i e s , the f e e l i n g s w i l l be more i n t e n s e when the t e n s i o n s i n v o l v e mat ters of p r i n c i p l e or c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , e . g . academic f reedom, p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n making, t e n u r e , as opposed to more s u b s t a n t i v e m a t t e r s , e . g . s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s , p a r k i n g . I t would appear r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t w h i l e a d i v e r g e n c e of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g L e v e l I b a r g a i n i n g g o a l s ( K l e i n g a r t n e r 1973; Ponak 1981) may r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d t e n s i o n between the p a r t i e s , i t i s when t h e r e i s a d i v e r g e n c e of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g L e v e l I I b a r g a i n i n g g o a l s , tha t the t e n s i o n i s l i k e l y to be much more i n t e n s e . L e v e l I needs are those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s of employment, e . g . , s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s , w h i l e L e v e l I I needs are those c o n d i t i o n s of employment which are more p r o f e s s i o n a l i n n a t u r e , e . g . , autonomy, d e c i s i o n making, peer e v a l u a t i o n s . Baron (1985), drawing on the l i t e r a t u r e on a g g r e s s i o n , complements the p r e c e d i n g f i n d i n g s when he sugges ts that c o n f l i c t w i l l be i n t e n s e when one p a r t y a s s o c i a t e s the o t h e r p a r t y ' s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n t e r n a l causes or f e e l i n g s , e . g v a l u e s , as opposed to e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s , e . g . s a l a r i e s . A p e r c e i v e d l a c k of p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t or s i n c e r i t y may a l s o i n t e n s i f y e x i s t i n g t e n s i o n s between the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d (Karim & P e g n e t t e r 1933). I t appears t h a t pern aps a h i e r a r c h i c a l , c e n t r a l i z e d and more r i g i d approach to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as noted i n the background m a t e r i a l , may a l s o p l a y a p a r t i n the f o r m a t i o n of o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Coser (1956), Deutsch (1973) and Rubin (1979), w i t h r e f e r e n c e s to Glassman (1979) and Weick (1976) suggest t h a t t h e r e w i l l be more c o n f l i c t w i t h i n r i g i d l y s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s than i n more l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These a u t h o r s , a l o n g w i t h Birnbaum (1930a) suggest t h a t l o o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e . g . , u n i v e r s i t i e s , d e a l w i t h c o n f l i c t i n an open and f o r t h r i g h t manner and are c a p a b l e of d i s p e r s i n g t e n s i o n s more e a s i l y . 0 the o t h e r hand, o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t are more r i g i d , more h i e r a r c h i c a l and t h a t are more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y c e n t r a l i z e d , e . g . , C o l l e g e s as d e s c r i b e d i n the A c t , tend to suppress c o n f l i c t and t h e r e f o r e do not d e a l w i t h i t as e f f e c t i v e l y as more l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p r e c e d i n g l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s the n o t i o n that i t i s i m p o r t a n t to c o n s i d e r ' o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t to examine a number of the f a c t o r s that the l i t e r a t u r e has i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n c i n g the f o r m a t i o n of o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . While the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s tudy i n c l u d e the board members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s , there appears to be l i m i t e d l i t e r a t u r e on the o p i n i o n s of board members toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ( M i c h a e l s 1981; Newcomb 1932) and l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e on the o p i n i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ( S p r i t z e r & Odewahn 1978). The o p i n i o n s of these two groups are i m p o r t a n t , but i n view of the d e a r t h of l i t e r a t u r e i n these two a r e a s , the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d e a l s almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the o p i n i o n s of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l f a c u l t y toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I t i s assumed t h a t some of the s a l i e n t f a c t o r s t h a t appear to i n f l u e n c e f a c u l t y o p i n i o n s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g may a l s o i n f l u e n c e the o p i n i o n s of c o l l e g e b o a r d members and s e n i o r c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s As noted e a r l i e r , f a c u l t y a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g appear to be i n f l u e n c e d by a l a r g e number of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , e . g . c u l t u r a l , s t r u c t u r a l , economic, l e g a l , e x t e r n a l a g e n t s . Many authors have commented on the impact of c u l t u r e on an o r g a n i z a t i o n and the p e r s o n n e l i n t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n ( H a l l 1976; R o b e r t s 1983; P e t e r s 1983; C l a r k 1984; E a s t o n 1965) . S e v e r a l have a l s o noted the impact of c u l t u r e on c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Proulx 1971; Walker and L a w l e r 1980; Anderson and Gunderson 1982; C a r r & VanEyck 1973 G a r b a r i n o 1975; Dolan 1979). The e v o l v i n g c e n t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e of American h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s o appears to be r e l a t e d to changes i n f a c u l t y a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ( M i l l e t 1984; C a r r & VanEyck 1973; D o l a n 1979; G a r b a r i n o 1975; Kemerer and B a l d r i d g e 1975; Rubin 1979; Stubb 1981; S k o l n i k 1935) . In a d d i t i o n to the p e r c e i v e d c a p r i c i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n s , i n f l a t i o n , unemployment and boom and b u s t c y c l e s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l f u n d i n g have a l s o been shown to be c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n the movement towards p u b l i c s e c t o r u n i o n i z a t i o n (Thompson 1975 1984c; C a r r & VanEyck 1973; M i n t z 1979; Ponak 1932; W o l l n e t 1971; Stubbs 1981; G a r v i n 1980; Anderson and Gunderson 1984) . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the m u l t i p l i c i t y of the v a r i o u s e x t e r n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , i . e . , AAUP, NEA, A F T , a l s o appears to have i n f l u e n c e d the move toward or the l a c k of movement toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Ladd and L i p s e t 1973; C a r r & VanEyck 1973; G a r b a r i n o 1975; Kemerer and B a l d r i d g e 1975; P r o u l x 1971; A d e l l and C a r t e r 1972; Thompson 1975; A l u t t o & B e l a s c o 1974; K e l l y 1976; 3 e g i n 1974). One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s to emerge d u r i n g the f o r m a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , i n c l u d i n g the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r , i s what G a r b a r i n o (1975) r e f e r r e d to as c r e e p i n g l e g a l i s m . The ever i n c r e a s i n g f o r m a l i z a t i o n of the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s c o u p l e d w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n b o t h Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e s u l t e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the n e c e s s a r y j u d i c i a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c systems to handle p u b l i c s e c t o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ( A d e l l and C a r t e r 1972; Thompson 1975; Anderson 1982; Ponak 1932; W o i l n e t t 1971; Birmingham 1930; Stubbs 1931; Canada, R o y a l Commission 1985) . The impact of t h i s l e g a l i s t i c , f o r m a l and r u l e o r i e n t e d approach to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , has been a move away from d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s i n a p e r s o n a l , c o n s u l t a t i v e or c o l l e g i a l manner. I n s t e a d t h e r e has been the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a more d e p e r s o n a l i z e d , l e g a l i s t i c , or a d v e r s a r i a l approach to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine whether or not there i s a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between these e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s and the a t t i t u d e s of f a c u l t y toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , but the l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e seems to suggest t h a t the e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s may have prompted a d e f e n s i v e response to L e v e l I b a r g a i n i n g g o a l s ( K l e i n g a r t n e r 1973; Ponak 1931; Thompson 1982) . While these e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s are i m p o r t a n t , much of the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h of the pas t twenty y e a r s has f o c u s e d on the v a r i a b l e s at the p e r s o n a l l e v e l . P e r s o n a l F a c t o r s The e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e suggests that r e s e a r c h e r s have l o n g been i n t e r e s t e d i n the impact of a number of p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , e . g . age, years of e x p e r i e n c e , academic rank and t e n u r e , gender , job f u n c t i o n , s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e and o ther m i s c e l l a n e o u s f a c t o r s . To o b t a i n a broad p i c t u r e the l i t e r a t u r e has been drawn from s t u d i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n s t r u c t o r s i n the c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y and p u b l i c s c h o o l s e c t o r s . Age. Whi le age i s one of the most w i d e l y s t u d i e d p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , t h e r e does not appear to be a consensus r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Many c f the e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that younger s t a f f members tend to be "more s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and o f t e n tend to be more m i l i t a n t . T h i s has shown to be the case i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s e c t o r (Corwin 1974; B l a c k 1980; V o r n b e r g 1984; W o h n s e i d l e r 1975'; C o n k l i n 1981; Cocanougher 1971; D a v i s 1972; A l u t t c and B e l n s c o 1973), i n the community c o l l e g e s e c t o r (Woolston 1S76; Jones 1976; Moats 1982), i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r (Kemerer & B a l d r i d g e 1975; B i g o n e s s 1978; Ponak & Thompson 1979, 1984; Shirom 1977; Grass 1976; Ladd & L i p s e t 1973; Ramsey 1976; L i t t l e 1979; R i l e y 1976; M c l n n i s 1972) and i n zhe p u b l i c s e c t o r (Farber 1930) . I t has been sugges ted t h a t the young s t a f f members tend to be more m i l i t a n t because they l a c k o r g a n i z a t i o n a l power. Cocanougher's f i n d i n g s (1971) and Donnenwerth's f i n d i n g s (1978) suggest that the o l d e r workers are l e s s s u p p o r t i v e of-c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g e f f o r t s because they are more s a t i s f i e d . Donnenwerth (1978) a l s o r e p o r t e d that there was a d e c l i n e i n m i l i t a n c y among o l d e r workers because the more m i l i t a n t and d i s s a t i s f i e d workers may have l e f t the o r g a n i z a t i o n . S t i l l other r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have suggested that i t i s not the younger s t a f f members who are the most s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g but r a t h e r those i n the 30-39 cohort (Fox and Wince 1976; Jennings 1975; Franke 1931; C o n k l i n 1931). T h i s age cohort may be more s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t e more i n the b a r g a i n i n g process because of t h e i r domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , e.g. dependents, career o b j e c t i v e s , maturing power needs. Some r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , however, show no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between age and a t t i t u d e s towards c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Warren 1970; Plumley 1973; F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1976; Schutt 1932). While there does not appear to be a consensus r e g a r d i n g the impact of age on f a c u l t y a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , age may w e l l be a f a c t o r i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . Experience. The impact of a person's years of experience i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n appears to be as ambiguous as the age f a c t o r i n determining a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Various s t u d i e s have found that i t i s s t a f f with l e s s experience i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n who are more s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Ponak & Thompson 1984; Ramsey 1373; Jones 1976; L i t t l e 1979; R o s s i 1974; F o s t e r 1976). Yet v a r i o u s s t u d i e s have found t h a t i t i s not the most i n e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f who are the most m i l i t a n t or the most s u p p o r t i v e of b a r g a i n i n g but r a t n e r those who have between f i v e and ten y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e (Fox and Wince 1975; B u l l 1981; Franke 1981; V o r n b e r g 1984) . On the o t h e r hand, some f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n between e x p e r i e n c e and a t t i t u d e s i n e i t h e r the p u b l i c s c h o o l s e c t o r (Warren 1980; W o h n s e i d l e r 1975) or i n the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r (Moats 1982; Smith 1976; Ponak & Thompson 1979). These r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s p a r a l l e l the r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to age and a g a i n they do not appear to be c o n c l u s i v e . Rank and T e n u r e . While the i s s u e of rank and tenure does not a p p l y to the c o l l e g e s e c t o r , i t may become a f a c t o r i n the f u t u r e . R e s e a r c h i n t o the v a r i a b l e s of rank and tenure i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r r e v e a l s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s as the v a r i a b l e s of age and y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e but o f f e r some a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t s . On the one hand, some s t u d i e s have shown t h a t f a c u l t y i n the lower academic ranks or those w i t h o u t tenure are more prone to suppor t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Ladd & L i p s e t 1973; F e u i l l e Sc B l a n d i n 1974; Wooiston 1976; F o s t e r 1976; R i l e y 1975; Streams 1978; Carnahan 1973; Ponak & Thompson 1979; Kubiak 1931; Franke 1931; Maher 1982; Hines 1984) . Yet a s m a l l number of o t h e r s t u d i e s have not found any r e l a t i o n s h i p between rank and tenure and p r o - u n i o n a t t i t u d e s (Mclnnes 1972; Smith 1975; Piumley 1978) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have found a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a p e r s o n ' s rank c r tenure s t a t u s and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Kazlow 1977; Moats 1932; Ponak & Thompson 1984b). In o t h e r words, i n these cases i t has been the more s e n i o r s t a f f t h a t s u p p o r t e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The r a t i o n a l e here i s t h a t they have t u r n e d to the f a c u l t y b a r g a i n i n g u n i t to p r o t e c t t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r e s t s . Kazlow (1977) found t h a t i n a s p e c i f i c u n i v e r s i t y , many of the t e n u r e d f a c u l t y were t h r e a t e n e d by the young a g g r e s s i v e untenured f a c u l t y who were i n t e r e s t e d i n moving up the c a r e e r l a d d e r and who were more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h and p u b l i s h i n g . S i n c e many of the f a c u l t y members who j o i n e d the c o l l e g e s i n the mid to l a t e 1960s are now r e a c h i n g m i d d l e age, the t i g h t f u n d i n g s i t u a t i o n , the t i g h t job market and the demands of t h e i r dependents may combine to f o r c e the o l d e r more e x p e r i e n c e d f a c u l t y members to t u r n to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g to p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . The gap between the s e n i o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f and the younger f a c u l t y may a l s o i n c r e a s e the c o n f l i c t w i t h i n c o l l e g e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Gender . Gender , l i k e age,' i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d when examining a t t i t u d e s on c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . In the p a s t , females i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l , c o l l e g e , and u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r s , 43 appear to have been g e n e r a l l y l e s s s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and l e s s m i l i t a n t than males (Seeman 1961; Warren 1970; H e l l r i e g e l 1S70; B u l l 1971; A l u t t o & 3elasco 1374; Ladd & L i p s e t 1973; Davis 1973; Corwin 1374; Wohnseidler 1975; Fox and Wince 1976; Plumley 1978; M i l l e r 1975; Dolan 1979; C o n k l i n 1381; Black 1333) . Conversely, some s t u d i e s have not found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (Mclnnis 1372; L i t t l e 1379). Not u n l i k e the s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r i n g the age f a c t o r , some r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have shown that i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the gender of the person that i s s i g n i f i c a n t but whether or not the person has dependents. Those with dependents tend to favour c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and tend to be more agg r e s s i v e i n t h e i r demands ( F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1974; Jennings 1375; Gchutt 1382; Streams 137S; R i l e y 1976). The i n f l u e n c e of gender on the formation of a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , u n l i k e some of the other p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , may be more complex. Many of the s t u d i e s c i t e d above were done p r i o r to the emergence of the woman's movement and p r i o r to the i n c r e a s e d number of women i n the work f o r c e , i n c l u d i n g higher education. These two f a c t o r s coupled with the i n c r e a s e d number of s i n g l e parents i n the work f o r c e of the 1380's may present r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s than the e a r l i e r s t u d i e s . T h i s i s suggested i n a recent a r t i c l e by E n g l i s h (1385). A more v a l i d study i n view of today's trend may be a recent study by LeLouarn (1982). He found that females were l e s s s a t i s f i e d than the males and were more outspoken i n t h e i r demands du r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s . A 1371 study by Cocanougher tr a c k e d teachers who te m p o r a r i l y l e f t the job f o r c e to have a f a m i l y . He found that i n many cases the woman's s a l a r y represented a f a m i l y ' s second income which reduced t h e i r demands. In s p i t e of these trends i n today's work f o r c e , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n appears to have been p a i d to t h i s f a c t o r i n the rec e n t l i t e r a t u r e . An i n t e r e s t i n g development i s the p i o n e e r i n g r e s e a r c h by G i l l i g a n (1982). In her work, G i l l i g a n determined that women approach p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n s and problem s o l v i n g i n an d i f f e r e n t manner than males. Drawing on her work, the q u e s t i o n that immediately a r i s e s , i s how would the c u r r e n t a d v e r s a r i a l approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g be a f f e c t e d i f more women were on the f a c u l t y and c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g committees or i f more women served as mediators or a r b i t r a t i o n chairman? The new environmental c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l as the new re s e a r c h i n t o how women approach c o n f l i c t , w i l l undoubtedly r a i s e many new questions i n the years Job F u n c t i o n . Except f o r Plumley's 1978 study, there i s l i t t l e evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e that the l e v e l of a person's degree i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e formation. During the formative years of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the mid 1960s, i t was noted that the c o l l e g e s e c t o r tended to be u n i o n i z e d more r a p i d l y than the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r (Carr £ VanEyck 1373; Garbarino 1975). F o l l o w i n g t h i s l i n e of thought, numerous 51 examinations of u n i v e r s i t i e s have shown that f a c u l t y who c a r r y heavy t e a c h i n g loads or those who are not h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h , tend to be more s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Kazlow 1977; Karnes 1978; Herman 1974; S t e c k l e i n & W i l l i e 1982; Ponak &-Thompson 1984; Ladd & L i p s e t 1973; L i p s e t 1975; F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1974; Franks 1931; Woolston 1976; Jones 1976; Plumley 1973; R i l e y 1976). The i m p l i c a t i o n f o r c o l l e g e s i s that s i n c e c o l l e g e s are p r i m a r i l y t e a c h i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , the f a c u l t y may be more su p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g than u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y . In a d d i t i o n to the- p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy and c o l l e g i a l i t y t h a t e x i s t o u t s i d e of the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , many u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y not only enjoy the f i n a n c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l rewards of r e s e a r c h , they a l s o enjoy the power and autonomy that accompanies r e s e a r c h (Neuman 1374). Some c o l l e g e f a c u l t y on the other hand, e.g., u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r f a c u l t y , may be d e p r i v e d of those o u t l e t s and t h e r e f o r e l i k e the nurses (Ponak 1381), may have to turn to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g to seek both L e v e l I rewards, e.g., economic rewards, and L e v e l II rewards, e.g., p r o f e s s i o n a l rewards. In the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r there appears to be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a f a c u l t y member's su b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e and t h e i r o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . F a c u l t y i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and humanities tend to be more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r values than the s c i e n c e f a c u l t y and hence more su p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Ladd & L i p s e t 1973; Franke 1931; Jones 1976; Smith 1976; Streams 1973; Flumley 1973; R i l e y 1976; F e s t e r 1975; Neuman 1974; Ponak & Thompson 1979). Ladd & L i p s e t (1973) suggest that i n e l i t e u n i v e r s i t i e s while the s o c i a l s c i e n c e and humanities f a c u l t y may be p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i n c l i n e d towards b a r g a i n i n g , the tenured f a c u l t y r e s i s t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . They app a r e n t l y r e s i s t b a r g a i n i n g i n order to preserve v a r i o u s aspects of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l environment, such as the u n i v e r s i t y ' s system of m e r i t o r i o u s promotion and i t s a s s o c i a t e d b e n e f i t s . Neuman (1974) found that s c i e n c e f a c u l t y i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r d i d not support c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g because they p e r c e i v e d that they had more power w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and had more independence because of t h e i r e x t e r n a l r e s e a r c h g r a n t s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , however, to g e n e r a l i z e these f i n d i n g s to the c o l l e g e f a c u l t y s i n c e the c o l l e g e s lack the independent r e s e a r c h base and the t r a d i t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n making. I t i s l i k e l y , however, that a s i m i l a r range of values or perhaps a wider range cf values e x i s t i n the heterogeneous f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s of some of B r i t i s h Columbia's community c o l l e g e s . Career M o b i l i t y and A s p i r a t i o n s . Career a s p i r a t i o n s and career m o b i l i t y may a l s o be r e l a t e d to the a t t i t u d e s people h o l d toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Perhaps p r e d i c t a b l y , those f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t e d with a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s or who a s p i r e to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s may be l e s s s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and l e s s m i l i t a n t than o t h e r f a c u l t y members (Lindeman 1975; F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1974; Ramsey 1973; Moats 1982, Ponak & Thompson 1984; R i l e y 1976; Cocanougher 1971) . In b o t h the p u b l i c s c h o o l s e c t o r and the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r i t a l s o appears to be the people f r u s t r a t e d by the l a c k of c a r e e r advancement or m o b i l i t y who are more m i l i t a n t (Donnenwerth 1978; Woolston 1976; B l a c k 1983; S c h u t t 1982; F a r b e r 1980; Walker & Lawler 1980) . M i s c e l l a n e o u s P e r s o n a l F a c t o r s . A number of o ther p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , i . e . p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n , r a c e , r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l background are a l s o o f t e n r e f e r r e d to i n the r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . A number of s t u d i e s have shown t h a t those f a c u l t y who are l i b e r a l or l e f t of c e n t r e i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y , e . g . , NDP, Democrats , tend to f a v o u r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Davis 1972; Kazlow 1973; Ladd & L i p s e t 1973; R o s s i 1974; W o h n s i e d l e r 1975; R i l e y 1976; Woolston 1976; Jones 1976; Streams 1978; Ponak & Thompson 1979,1984b) . With r e s p e c t to another f a c t o r , Donnenwerth (1975) d i d not f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a f a c u l t y member's r e l i g i o n but o ther s t u d i e s have found t h a t C a t h o l i c s (Ladd & L i p s e t 1973; Fox & Wince 1976; Franke 1981) are more s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g than P r o t e s t a n t s . The r e s e a r c h sugges ts t h a t t h e r e i s perhaps a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between p o l i t i c s and r e l i g i o n . In a d d i t i o n , those w i t h a European background tend to s u p p o r t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g more than i n d i g e n o u s N o r t h Americans (Fox & Wince 1976) . A number of s t u d i e s suggest t h a t the f a c u l t y who come from b l u e c o l l a r f a m i l i e s or who have o t h e r w i s e been exposed to the b e n e f i t s of u n i o n s , tend to be more s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Bakke 1945; J e n n i n g s & Niemi 1963; W o h n s i e d l e r 1975; R i l e y 1976; Fox & Wince 1976; S c h u t t 1932; Cotgrove 1982; McShane 1985) . P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m The matter of f a c u l t y p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . R e f e r r i n g to the emergence of the American c o l l e g e movement, S t e c k l e i n & E c k e r t (1958,4) o b s e r v e d t h a t " . . . c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s seem to have e n t e r e d t h i s f i e l d more by a c c i d e n t than by d e s i g n " . T h i s p o i n t was r e i n f o r c e d by P e r r a (1979,4) when he observed t h a t i n the B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e g e system "Few of the i n s t r u c t o r s i n the community c o l l e g e system had s e l e c t e d c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r . The three s e c t o r s ( u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r , c a r e e r and v o c a t i o n a l ) knew or u n d e r s t o o d l i t t l e of the p h i l o s o p h y of the o t h e r or t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs and w a n t s " . C o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s were drawn from the p u b l i c s c h o o l system, the b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , the u n i v e r s i t i e s , the p r o f e s s i o n s , the q u a s i - p r o f e s s i o n s and the t r a d e s c h o o l s (Carr 1973; D e n n i s o n 1987; Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986; G a r b a r i n o 1975; Kemerer 1975; P e r r a 1979) . U n l i k e the u n i v e r s i t i e s , the c o l l e g e s " . . . h a v e not had a l o n g h i s t o r y through which c o l l e g i a l c o n v e n t i o n s and customs c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d " (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986 ,221) . These c o n v e n t i o n s may a l s o have been p a r t i a l l y l i m i t e d by the parameters of the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e A c t , e . g . , r o l e of the b o a r d . Rather than p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e a g u e s i n the m e r i t o c r a t i c environment of a u n i v e r s i t y , community c o l l e g e f a c u l t y were and are o f t e n p e r c e i v e d to be more l i k e employees than c o l l e a g u e s (Dennison "Sc. G a l l a g h e r 1986) and are i n f a c t r e f e r r e d to as employees i n the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e A c t , 1977. These d i v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e s , v a l u e s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s not o n l y l a i d the ground work f o r p o t e n t i a l t e n s i o n s between the f a c u l t y and the c o l l e g e s , but between the v a r i o u s s u b - u n i t s w i t h i n the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h E t z i o n i (1964) r e f e r r e d to f a c u l t y as s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l s and c o l l e g e f a c u l t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia are d e f i n e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l employees by the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e A c t , most community c o l l e g e f a c u l t y would u n d o u b t e d l y r e f e r to themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l s . P e r r a (1979), w i t h r e f e r e n c e to a number of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , suggests t h a t t r u e p r o f e s s i o n a l s are concerned w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , c o n t r o l l e d a c c r e d i t a t i o n , autonomy, s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t , s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n , s h a r e d d e c i s i o n making, peer e v a l u a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z e d e x p e r t i s e and o t h e r s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t e s . Thompson (1984) and Ponak (1981), w i t h r e f e r e n c e to K e r r et a l . (1977), i d e n t i f y a number of s i m i l a r , though perhaps more l i b e r a l , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . These i n c l u d e e x p e r t i s e , p r o l o n g e d t r a i n i n g , d e d i c a t i o n to the p r o f e s s i o n , c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f e l l o w p r o f e s s i o n a l s , an o b l i g a t i o n to render s e r v i c e w i t h o u t c o n c e r n f o r o n e ' s s e l f i n t e r e s t , e t h i c s , autonomy and the c o l l e g i a l maintenance of s t a n d a r d s . G i v e n the v a r i e t y of backgrounds (Carr 1973; Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1986; G a r b a r i n o 1975; Kemerer 1975; P e r r a 1979) and t h e i r d i v e r s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s , one might a n t i c i p a t e that the v a r i o u s groups w i t h i n the ranks of a c o l l e g e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n may w e l l have w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g views of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . T h i s was i n f a c t s u b s t a n t i a t e d by G e r h a r t & Maxey (1978). For i n s t a n c e , a t r a d e s i n s t r u c t o r , a u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r i n s t r u c t o r , a n u r s i n g i n s t r u c t o r and a b u s i n e s s i n s t r u c t o r w i t h a C h a r t e r e d A c c o u n t a n t d e s i g n a t i o n may not view p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n the same way. D u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g these d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s are l i k e l y to be e x p r e s s e d i n the demands or g o a l s of each group of i n s t r u c t o r s . Ponak (1981) i n d i c a t e s that K l e i n g a r t n e r (1973) r e f e r s to the b a s i c c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s s u e s such as wages, f a i r t reatment on the j o b , f r i n g e b e n e f i t s and so on as L e v e l I g o a l s . L e v e l I I g o a l s , or p r o f e s s i o n a l b a r g a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e i tems such as job s a t i s f a c t i o n , ca reer development , peer e v a l u a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , w o r k l o a d s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of j o i n t committees f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p o l i c y m a t t e r s , and o t h e r s i m i l a r i s s u e s r e l a t e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy. K l e i n g a r t n e r (1973) a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t s i n c e L e v e l I I g o a l s d e a l w i t h power, a u t h o r i t y and m a t t e r s of p r i n c i p l e , these b a r g a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s may be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s fundamental v a l u e s and views on management r i g h t s . These i s s u e s r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about the scope or the c o n t e n t of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Thompson (1982), w i t h r e f e r e n c e to two s t u d i e s (Ponak 1981; Ponak & Thompson 1979), suggests t h a t the scope of the n e g o t i a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s i n c o n c l u s i v e and v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the p r o f e s s i o n . In one s t u d y , a group of n u r s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they p r e f e r r e d to b a r g a i n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l s r a t h e r than economic g o a l s (Ponak 1981) . In another s t u d y , Ponak & Thompson (1979), a group of u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y " . . . r e v e a l e d much l e s s i n t e r e s t i n b a r g a i n i n g over non-economic i tems ( f o r example, t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t i o n , committee a s s i g n m e n t s , p r o c e d u r e s f o r s e l e c t i n g department chairmen) than s a l a r i e s , p e n s i o n s , s a b b a t i c a l s . . . " (Thompson 1982 ,393) . In view of the d i f f e r e n c e s , Thompson (1982) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n the one case the u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y were p r o b a b l y a b l e to s a t i s f y t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l needs through o t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d c o n s u l t a t i v e or c o l l e g i a l c h a n n e l s . In a s i m i l a r v e i n , G e r h a r t & Maxey (1978) i n an e a r l i e r a r t i c l e , p o i n t out t h a t i n l a r g e e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n there may be l e s s need to b a r g a i n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l or L e v e l I I b e n e f i t s s i n c e they may a l r e a d y be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , e . g . p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n academic d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . K l e i n g a r t n e r (1973) says t h a t L e v e l I b a r g a i n i n g g o a l s must be s a t i s f i e d b e f o r e employees f o c u s on L e v e l I I g o a l s . In Thompson & P o n a k ' s s t u d y , the f a c u l t y e i t h e r d i d not see the need to n e g o t i a t e L e v e l II g o a l s , were a p p r e h e n s i v e about l o s i n g those b e n e f i t s t h a t they had or were more concerned about t h e i r L e v e l I g o a l s . The nurses may not have had the same p r o f e s s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s as the u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y and wanted to a c t i v e l y pursue t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s t h r o u g h the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . I t i s not c l e a r from the l i t e r a t u r e whether or not t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the L e v e l I and L e v e l I I needs of employees and the o v e r a l l m a t u r a t i o n or e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Another f a c t o r i n these cases may be the e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e or the m a t u r i t y of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Compounding the matter of L e v e l I and L e v e l I I needs i s the i s s u e of management r i g h t s as p e r c e i v e d by c o l l e g e board members and the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . G i v e n the p e r c e i v e d t r a d i t i o n of f a c u l t y p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n some s e c t o r s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the i s s u e of f a c u l t y p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n the community c o l l e g e s i s a l s o a d r i v i n g f o r c e i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a r e n a . The g u e s t i o n of governance i s not an u n r e l a t e d i s s u e . In the f o r m a t i v e s tages of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h e r e was the q u e s t i o n whether or not c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g would r e p l a c e the t r a d i t i o n a l forms of i n s t i t u t i o n a l governance , e . g . , Senates , or whether c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g would f o c u s on i s s u e s o t h e r than governance ( B a l d r i d g e & K e m e r e r 1976; G a r b a r i n o 1975). The former concept was r e f e r r e d to as the c o m p e t i t i v e model and the second was r e f e r r e d to as the d u a l t r a c k m o d e l . While Brown (1982), P o r t e r (1973) and Walker & Lawler (1980) suggest tha t f a c u l t y w i l l move to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and w i l l suppor t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the absence of governance o p p o r t u n i t i e s , Ponak & Thompson's (1984c) f i n d i n g s suggest o t h e r w i s e . T h e i r work sugges ts t h a t f a c u l t y i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s do not expect the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s to c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l governance , but r a t h e r to c o n c e n t r a t e on b a s i c working c o n d i t i o n s or L e v e l I g o a l s , e . g . , s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s , g r i e v a n c e mechanisms. The q u e s t i o n i n a l l of t h i s f o r the c o l l e g e s e c t o r i s whether or not the d i f f e r e n t f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the c o l l e g e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s v a r y i n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . For example, w i l l one f a c u l t y group expect the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s to meet t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l or L e v e l I I o b j e c t i v e s as the n u r s e s d i d i n P o n a k ' s (1981) s tudy and w i l l another f a c u l t y group f o c u s on L e v e l I g o a l s as i n the Ponak & Thompson (1984b) s t u d y . On another p l a n e , D r i s c o l l ' s (1972) and P l u m l e y ' s (1978) f i n d i n g s suggest tha t perhaps i t i s not the f a c u l t y ' s l a c k of p a r t i c i - p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s t h a t i s r e l a t e d to the n e g a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s , as much as i t i s the l a c k of t r u s t i n the d e c i s i o n makers and the d e c i s i o n - - m a k i n g p r o c e s s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , i f the p e r c e i v e d l o s s of autonomy and p e r c e i v e d i n c r e a s e i n the b u r e a u c r a t i c power of the a d m i n s t r a t i o n pushed f a c u l t y toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g appears to have i n c r e a s e d the number of r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s (Ponak & Thompson 1984; Dayal 1984; H i n e s 1984; B o h l a n d e r 1985) . T h i s suggests t h a t the scope of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements has been expanded to compensate f o r the absence of a key i n g r e d i e n t of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ; f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the governance p r o c e s s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S a t i s f a c t i o n A l o n g the same l i n e s as p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i s the i s s u e of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . Research i n b o t h the p u b l i c s c h o o l s e c t o r and the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r , s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p e r s o n a l job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n l e a d s to s u p p o r t f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and m i l i t a n t b e h a v i o u r (Davis 1972; Giandomenico 1973; Ramsey 1973; F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1976; B e g i n 1979; D o l a n 1979; A r a g h i 1981; LeLouarn 1982 , ; Herman 1983; Ponak & Thompson 1984b). Job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n may i n c r e a s e the l e v e l of i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r e s s . One s t u d y r e p o r t e d t h a t when t h e r e was a h i g h l e v e l of s t r e s s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the f a c u l t y were i n c l i n e d to be more s u p p o r t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ( A l u t t o & B e l a s c o 1974) . There appears to be , t h e r e f o r e , a c l o s e t i e between o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and f a c u l t y s a t i s f a c t i o n . 61 A number of s t u d i e s have shown t h a t i f the f a c u l t y ' s g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s f a v o u r a b l e then they w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y to s u p p o r t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and l e s s m i l i t a n t (Zalesny 1985; Cowan 1982; V o l p e 1975, F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1974; Ponak & Thompson 1984c) . I f the f a c u l t y ' s view of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s n e g a t i v e , e . g . , i n the sense t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has too much i n f l u e n c e (Ponak & Thompson 1984c) , then the f a c u l t y w i l l l i k e l y l o o k to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g to c o u n t e r a c t t h i s imbalance of power (Anderson 1985, P o r t e r 1972; Cocanougher 1971; Maher 1982; Herman 1975, F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1976; Gress 1976; Ponak & Thompson 1984c; Thompson 1975) . Jennings (1976) , as w e l l as S t e c k l e i n and W i l l i e (1982) , r e p o r t e d t h a t i f the f a c u l t y p e r c e i v e t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n does not r e s p e c t the f a c u l t y , then the f a c u l t y w i l l at tempt to overcome t h e i r p e r c e i v e d l o s s of power by b e i n g more a c t i v e i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . Economic S a t i s f a c t i o n One of the v a r i a b l e s on which r e s e a r c h e r s have f o c u s e d i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c u l t y members' economic needs and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Baker (1984) has sugges ted that f a c u l t y want u n i o n s , at l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , to s a t i s f y t h e i r b a s i c economic or L e v e l I (Ponak 1981) needs , e . g . , s a l a r i e s . T h i s economic d e p r i v a t i o n may be a b s o l u t e , i n the sense t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l f a c u l t y member may need a s a l a r y i n c r e a s e to s u r v i v e or i t may be r e l a t i v e to the s a l a r i e s of comparable c o h o r t s . T h i s p r o p e n s i t y to f a v o u r u n i o n i s m f o r economic reasons was noted by some of the e a r l y l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s r e s e a r c h e r s {Bakke 1945; Seeman 1951; C h r i s t r u p 1966) . Economic d e p r i v a t i o n , whether a b s o l u t e or r e l a t i v e , appears to have been one of the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s to the f o r m a t i o n of l o c a l b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r (Bigoness 1978; Ponak & Thompson 1984; G r o s s v i c k l e 1980; M c l n n i s 1972), the c o l l e g e s e c t o r S t e c k l e i n & W i l l i e 1982), the p u b l i c s c h o o l s e c t o r (Donnenwerth 1978; D u l l 1971; D a v i s 1972; Corwin 1972) and the p u b l i c s e c t o r i n g e n e r a l (Farber 1980; S c h u t t 1982) . Fox & W i n c e ' s (1976) work complements the concept of economic r e l a t i v i t y by d e m o n s t r a t i n g that males who have lower s a l a r i e s are more prone to s u p p o r t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g than males w i t h h i g h e r s a l a r i e s . T h i s of course r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of whether these p a r t i c u l a r f a c u l t y s u p p o r t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g because of t h e i r age, t h e i r s a l a r y l e v e l or b o t h . On t h i s i s s u e Donnenwerth 's (1978) r e s e a r c h sugges ts t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a f a c u l t y member's age, s a l a r y l e v e l and a t t i t u d e s toward b a r g a i n i n g . F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n (1974), Lagoe (1979) and B i g o n e s s (1978) found that the l e v e l of economic d e p r i v a t i o n to be one of the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s of employee a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . 63 CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION A l t h o u g h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d a s h a r e d d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , the p r o c e s s n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s t e n s i o n or c o n f l i c t (Barbash 1984; Birnbaum 1980,1981; S t r a u s s 1982) . S i n c e " C o n f l i c t , l a t e n t or m a n i f e s t , i s the essence of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . . . " (Barbash 1984, 130) i t i s n e c e s s a r y to examine the n a t u r e of c o n f l i c t b e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i o u s methods of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . C o n f l i c t The d e f i n i t i o n of terms i s one of the most common problems of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h (Berger & Cummings 1979) . W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d World D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s c o n f l i c t u s i n g terms l i k e c l a s h , c o m p e t i t i o n , i n t e r f e r e n c e , i n d e c i s i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y , r e s t l e s s n e s s , and i n c o m p a t i b l e i n n e r needs . In the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r l i t e r a t u r e , the d e f i n i t i o n of c o n f l i c t v a r i e s w i d e l y . For example, Glueck (1977) r e f e r s to c o n f l i c t as a disagreement of i s s u e s , Deutsch (1973) as i n c o m p a t i b l e a c t s , Thomas (1976) as one more p o w e r f u l p a r t y f r u s t r a t i n g the needs of a l e s s p o w e r f u l p a r t y , Baron (1985) as t h w a r t i n g b e h a v i o u r , March & Simon (1958) as a breakdown i n communicat ions , M i l l e t t (1984) as a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power, Pondy (1969) and Druckman (1973) as a disagreement over the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , Robbins (1974) i n terms of p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , W i l s o n (1981) as a c o n f r o n t a t i o n of d i v e r g e n t v i e w s , Pondy (1969) i n terms of g o a l d i v e r g e n c e , B a l k e et a l . (1965) i n terms of m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i n t e n t s , L i k e r t & L i k e r t (1976) as a l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g what o t h e r p e o p l e do , and Judd (1978) i n terms of d i s s i m i l a r v a l u e s . G i v e n the concept of p l u r a l i s m i n open systems t h e o r y , c o n f l i c t might be seen as the t e n s i o n between the v a r i o u s sub-sys tems and the c e n t r a l system t h a t are the r e s u l t of a t t e m p t i n g to s a t i s f y t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e needs of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and autonomy. Jandt (1983,31) found t h a t when " . . . s u b g r o u p s w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n tend to t h i n k of themselves as p r i m a r y , and the members of each group tend to a p p l y t h e i r own s t a n d a r d s to the o t h e r s u b g r o u p s . . . c o n f l i c t i s i n e s c a p a b l e " . However v a l i d , these d i v e r s e d e f i n i t i o n s do not appear to address the c e n t r a l i s s u e of how to d i s t i n g u i s h between normal or c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t and d y s f u n c t i o n a l or p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t (Barbash 1984) . From a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and from a p r a c t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g c o n f l i c t appears to l i e on a continuum w i t h c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t toward one end and p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t toward the o ther end . Barbash (1984,132) sugges ts t h a t " I t i s not y e t p o s s i b l e to determine a n a l y t i c a l l y the n a t u r e of the b o u n d a r y . . . " between the two ext remes . In t h i s v e i n , Barbash (1984,134) echoes the thoughts of Thomas's (1976,889) n o t i o n t h a t " C o n f l i c t i t s e l f , i s no e v i l , but r a t h e r a phenomenon which can have c o n s t r u c t i v e or d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s depending on i t s management". C o n s t r u c t i v e C o n f l i c t . Toward one end of the c o n f l i c t continuum i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t . C l a s s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l w r i t e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t a l l c o n f l i c t was d y s f u n c t i o n a l s i n c e i t v i o l a t e d the concept of r a t i o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l o r d e r . While r e c o g n i z i n g the n e g a t i v e s i d e of c o n f l i c t , r e c e n t w r i t e r s a l s o d i s c u s s the b e n e f i t s of c o n f l i c t . They suggest that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t demonstrates that the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h i t s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l environments i n such a way t h a t i t h e l p s to ensure an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s s u r v i v a l by both f o r c i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change and by m a i n t a i n i n g a l e v e l of homeostas is (Bartos 1977; B o u l d i n g 1956,1964; Coser 1956; Druckman 1973; W i l s o n 1981) . I t i s i n t h i s l a t t e r sense t h a t Barbash (1984,102) uses the term t e n s i o n i n s t e a d of c o n f l i c t . Robbins (1974), T j o s v o l d (1984) and Townsend (1970) note t h a t c o n f l i c t i s e s s e n t i a l to the w e l l b e i n g of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , tha t you cannot e l i m i n a t e c o n f l i c t and t h a t the absence of c o n f l i c t would l e a d to the demise of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p e r s p e c t i v e of open systems t h e o r y , Kohn (1986), w i t h r e f e r e n c e to Jonson & Jonson (1981), r e f e r s to c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t as f r i e n d l y e x c u r s i o n s i n t o d i s e q u i l i b r i u m . From the c o n s t r u c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , c o n f l i c t i s seen as a s o c i a l f a c i l i t a t o r t h a t i n c r e a s e s the growth of the o r g a n i z a t i o n by r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g s o c i a l v a l u e s and norms, a s s i s t i n g i n g o a l f o r m a t i o n , by e n s u r i n g g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , by stemming w i t h d r a w a l from the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , by m a i n t a i n i n g group o r d e r , by f o r c i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t ' s sub-sys tems to adopt to changes i n the e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t , by overcoming "group t h i n k " , by b a l a n c i n g power, by e n s u r i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , by r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g b l o c k e d communicat ion c h a n n e l s or feedback mechanisms and by p r o v i d i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l steam v a l v e (Coser 1956; D e u t s c h 1973; G l e u c k 1977; H a l l 1977; J a v i s 1972; March & Simon 1958; Subbarao 1985; Thomas 1976; T j o s v o l d 1984). W i t h i n the above parameters the c o n f l i c t t h a t i s so o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g would assumed to be c o n s t r u c t i v e i f i t c o n t r i b u t e s to the s u c c e s s of the system as a whole and i t s v a r i o u s s t r a t i f i e d s u b - s y s t e m s . D y s f u n c t i o n a l C o n f l i c t . Toward the o t h e r end of the c o n f l i c t continuum i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . T h i s form of c o n f l i c t would appear to be c o n f l i c t t h a t i n h i b i t s the o r g a n i z a t i o n and one or more of i t s sub-systems from s u c c e s s f u l l y a d a p t i n g to the ever e v o l v i n g e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . In extreme c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h i s type of c o n f l i c t c o u l d r e s u l t i n b a n k r u p t c i e s , employee t e r m i n a t i o n s , d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n of p r o d u c t l i n e s , programs or s e r v i c e s as w e l l as v i o l e n t and p r o l o n g e d s t r i k e s . Judd (1978) suggests t h a t these v a r i o u s forms of d e s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t a c c e n t u a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s of a group or g r o u p s , r a t h e r than s t r e s s i n g the p o s i t i v e or the common good. Kochan e t a l . (1984B,265) found that under certain circumstances the d i s t r i b u t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining "...became less responsive to growing environmental, organizational and workload pressures". The ex i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e indicates that destructive c o n f l i c t has been characterized by many writers i n many ways (Barbash 1984; Beres 1984; Birnbaum 1980,1981; Boulding 1964; Coser 1956; Deutsch 1973; Douglas 1984; Javis 1972; Kohn 1986; Likert 1976; March & Simon 1958; McCarthy 1981; Pondy 1969; Thomas 1976; Wynn 1972). These writers have characterized dysfunctional c o n f l i c t using such terms as competition, stereotyping, b e l i t t l i n g attitudes, hateful language, dogmatic statements, low tolerance for others and their positions, a s i m p l i s t i c view of problems and solutions, deception, secrecy, r i g i d positions, over confidence i n one position, a fixed pie perspective of the resources available, c o n f l i c t that i s no longer related to the cause, face saving positions, excessive adherence to rules, too many rules, compromise, arbi t r a r y time l i n e s , and win-lose or lose-lose attitudes and positions. Destructive c o n f l i c t has also been characterized by violence, c i v i l disobedience, the termination of unions, declining productivity, domination, the use of sanctions, the exclusion of organizational units from the work force, distorted communications, a lack of f a i r representation, excessive professionalism and excessive unionism, unnecessary resistance to change, time delays, excessive autonomy or c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and the use of knowledge to attack the other party. Clearly t h e r e are a v a r i e t y of views and the t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t between c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t i s u n c l e a r (Barbash 1984) . The l i t e r a t u r e on c o m p e t i t i o n , however, h e l p s a l i t t l e to c l a r i f y the boundary between the two ends of the c o n f l i c t c o n t i n u u m . C o m p e t i t i o n . The c o n s t r u c t i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e aspec ts of c o n f l i c t have been c a p t u r e d i n Thomas' (1976) two way model which i s based on the work of Blake & Mouton (1964). The model d e p i c t s the a d v e r s a r i a l or d i s t r i b u t i v e approach to b a r g a i n i n g on one p l a n e and the i n t e g r a t i v e or c o o p e r a t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g on another p l a n e (Walton & M c K e r s i e 1965) . In a more r e c e n t work, F i s h e r & Ury (1984) r e f e r r e d to these two approaches to b a r g a i n i n g as h a r d and s o f t b a r g a i n i n g . While the l a t t e r may be more d e s i r a b l e , the a p p a r e n t l y i n h e r e n t a d v e r s a r i a l na ture of " D i s t r i b u t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s c e n t r a l to l a b o u r n e g o t i a t i o n s and i s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d as the dominant a c t i v i t y i n the union-management r e l a t i o n s h i p " (Walton & M c K e r s i e 1965 ,11) . In a more g e n e r a l s e n s e , Kohn (1986,156) sugges ts t h a t "What makes disagreement d e s t r u c t i v e i s not the f a c t of c o n f l i c t i t s e l f but the a d d i t i o n of c o m p e t i t i o n " and i n t h i s c o n t e x t " . . . t h e p o i n t i s to win r a t h e r than to r e a c h the b e s t s o l u t i o n . . . " . Walton and M c K e r s i e (1965:167) a l s o say t h a t , " I n d i s t r i b u t i v e b a r g a i n i n g t h e r e i s pure c o m p e t i t i o n f o r some l i m i t e d v a l u e " . These comments g r a p h i c a l l y c a p t u r e Thomas' model which d e l i n e a t e s between the terms l o s e - l o s e , w i n - l o s e and w i n - w i n . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o m p e t i t i o n i n t o the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s can l e a d to v i c i o u s d e s t r u c t i v e c i r c l e s (Kohn 1986; Masuch 1985; Mondy 1980) and which i n t u r n can l e a d to a r a p i d and i r r e v e r s i b l e e s c a l a t i o n of c o n f l i c t t h a t can u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y a system ( G l a s l 1982) . W i t h i n the c o n t e x t of open system t h e o r y these p r o c e s s e s are a k i n to the s t r u g g l e f o r autonomy and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n as a system t h i c k e n s i t s boundary or s k i n ( G l a s l 1982 ,124) . The l i t e r a t u r e suggests a number of s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s t h a t may c o n t r i b u t e to c o m p e t i t i o n between two p a r t i e s . Perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g l y many of these have a l r e a d y been mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n on d e s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t . A number of the f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the i n e x p e r i e n c e of those i n v o l v e d i n the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s (Barbash I R R A - 3 ; Bazerman et a l . 1985), the l a c k of e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l norms and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s (Beres & Schmidt 1982), over c o n f i d e n c e of one s i d e or the o t h e r (Bazerman et a l . 1985), a r i s k s e e k i n g mind se t (Tversky &. Kahneman 1981), a f i x e d p i e p e r s p e c t i v e (Bazerman et a l . 1985; G l a s l 1982; Walton & M c K e r s i e 1976), a l a c k of s e l f esteem (Barbash I R R A - 3 ; Kohn 1986), over c o n f i d e n c e (Bazerman 1983), c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s (Beres & Schimdt 1982; Birnbaum 1980a,1980b; Coser 1956; L i k e r t & L i k e r t 1976), s t r u c t u r a l l y r i g i d o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Coser 1965, Deutsch 1973; Glassman 1973; Rubin 1979; Weick 1976), a l a c k of se t g o a l s , b a r g a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s or e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s (Bazerman et a l . 1985; P r u i t t 1983), a l a c k of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y or a l a c k of a f e e l i n g of s h a r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Bazerman et a l . 1985; Kohn 1986), too many r u l e s t h a t c o n s t r a i n the b a r g a i n e r s (Kohn 1986), a c o n t i n u e d and i n c r e a s i n g l y r i g i d adherence to a f i x e d p o s i t i o n (Bazerman 1983), when the s i z e of the b a r g a i n i n g group i s too l a r g e (Jonson & Jonson 1981), and p e o p l e w i t h c o m p e t i t i v e v a l u e s t h a t p e r p e t u a t e the c o m p e t i t i v e approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Kohn 1986) . G i l l i g a n ' s (1984) r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t c o m p e t i t i v e b e h a v i o u r may be more a n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of males than f e m a l e s , which r a i s e s a number of o t h e r i s s u e s r e l a t e d to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . While c o n f l i c t i s b o t h n a t u r a l and n e c e s s a r y , the l i t e r a t u r e sugges ts t h a t c o n f l i c t appears to become d y s f u n c t i o n a l when i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s p e c t s of c o m p e t i t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , the l i t e r a t u r e i m p l i e s t h a t c o n f l i c t i s p o s i t i v e or c o n s t r u c t i v e when the above f a c t o r s are a b s e n t . With t h i s c r i t i c a l concept i n p l a c e , we can now examine a v a r i e t y of approaches to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n The l i t e r a t u r e of management of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c o n f l i c t i s r e v i e w e d i n terms of the t r a d i t i o n a l methods u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , have i n t u r n r e c e i v e d wide spread use i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , i n c l u d i n g h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . These methods of c o n f l i c t s e t t l e m e n t i n c l u d e m e d i a t i o n , f a c t f i n d i n g , c o n v e n t i o n a l a r b i t r a t i o n , m e d i a t i o n - a r b i t r a t i o n , and f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n . In the a rea of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h e r e has been a p a r a l l e l development of Canadian p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p u b l i c s e c t o r l a b o u r law. As noted e a r l i e r , however, many of the market c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t are p r e s e n t i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and work i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the v a r i o u s forms of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , are l a r g e l y absent i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . M e d i a t i o n . M e d i a t i o n appears to be one of the most w i d e l y used and s u c c e s s f u l t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n approaches i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ( G a l l a g h e r & P e g n e t l e r 1978; Kochan & J i c k 1978) . I t appears to be most e f f e c t i v e i n low c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , when b o t h p a r t i e s are h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d to s e t t l e and do not h o l d back , when the b a r g a i n i n g zones of the two p a r t i e s o v e r l a p , when at l e a s t one p a r t y i n the d i s p u t e i s i n e x p e r i e n c e d and when the d i s p u t e i n v o l v e s i s s u e s of p r i n c i p l e r a t h e r than s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s (Anderson & Kochan 1977; G l a s l 1982; Kochan 1980; Kochan & J i c k 1978; Rubin 1980) . I t a l s o appears to work b e s t when i t i s used at a l a t e s tage i n the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s ( G l a s l 1982) and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s t r i k e t h r e a t . In view of t h i s p o i n t , i t may be t h a t m e d i a t i o n might be s u c c e s s f u l when used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a v a r i a t i o n of f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n . 72 K o l b (1983) found t h a t m e d i a t i o n h e l p e d p a r t i e s to narrow t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s but d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y h e l p to b r i n g about a s e t t l e m e n t . Hasson (1983) a l s o showed t h a t m e d i a t i o n a s s i s t e d the p a r t i e s to d e f i n e t h e i r problems and Byrnes (1978) found i t to be a u s e f u l r e l i e f v a l v e . In one U n i t e d S t a t e s s t u d y , m e d i a t i o n appears to have been l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y when d e a l i n g w i t h b a s i c i s s u e s or L e v e l I b a r g a i n i n g g o a l s , e . g . , i n a b i l i t y to pay, u n r e a l i s t i c economic e x p e c t a t i o n s , s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s (Kochan 1980) . Based on t h i s American s t u d y , i f a round of n e g o t i a t i o n s i s f o c u s i n g on L e v e l I I , or p r o f e s s i o n a l , i s s u e s r a t h e r than on L e v e l I i s s u e s , then m e d i a t i o n may be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l to u s e . These e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the use of m e d i a t i o n i n G l a s l ' s (1982) t h e o r e t i c a l model of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , when needed the most, e . g . , h i g h c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h L e v e l I i t e m s , m e d i a t i o n appears to be the l e a s t e f f e c t i v e approach to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n (Bigoness 1976 ; D e u t s c h 1976; Kochan & J i c k 1973; Rubin 1980; T h i b a u l t & Walker 1975) . In f a c t , i n these s i t u a t i o n s , m e d i a t i o n appears to harden the p o s i t i o n s of the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . A l t h o u g h m e d i a t i o n may be an e f f e c t i v e L e v e l I c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i g u e i n Canada, t h e r e appears to be an absence of l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s a r e a . F a c t F i n d i n g . Kochan (1980) r e p o r t s t h a t f a c t f i n d i n g i s one of the p r i m a r y c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i g u e s i n the American n o n - u n i f o r m e d p u b l i c s e c t o r . In Canada, f a c t f i n d i n g or c o n c i l i a t i o n , i s used m a i n l y by the f e d e r a l government and the government of O n t a r i o . F a c t f i n d i n g g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s m e d i a t i o n but precedes a r b i t r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i n some cases i t may be the f i n a l s t e p i n the r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . I t i s more f o r m a l than m e d i a t i o n but l e s s f o r m a l than a r b i t r a t i o n . G a l l a g h e r (1982) and G e r h a r t (1981) both r e p o r t e d t h a t when f a c t f i n d i n g i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a r b i t r a t i o n , i t was time consuming and e x p e n s i v e . G e r h a r t (1981) found t h a t i t was most e f f e c t i v e when used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the t o t a l package approach to f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n . S i n c e i t i s so s i m i l a r to m e d i a t i o n i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Kochan (1980) found f a c t f i n d i n g was most e f f e c t i v e under many of the same c o n d i t i o n s t h a t m e d i a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e . C o n v e n t i o n a l A r b i t r a t i o n . C o n v e n t i o n a l a r b i t r a t i o n i s one of the most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d forms of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n N o r t h American h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n (Douglas 1984) . A r b i t r a t i o n i s d e s i g n e d to i n s t i l l enough u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d i n g government or t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , t h a t the p a r t i e s s e t t l e v o l u n t a r i l y . Thompson & C a i r n i e (1973) found t h a t a r b i t r a t i o n worked b e s t when the a r b i t r a t i o n c r i t e r i a were unknown and the a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e s s was p e r c e i v e d to be a g r e a t r i s k to the p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . They a l s o found r i g i d time l i n e s h e l p e d to i n c r e a s e the r i s k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 74 a r b i t r a t i o n and t h a t a r b i t r a t i o n was more e f f e c t i v e i n s m a l l groups where p o l i t i c a l and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s converged to produce a d d i t i o n a l r i s k . A r b i t r a t i o n appears to o f f e r a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to a s t r i k e (Thompson & C a i r n i e 1973) where s t r i k e s are p r o h i b i t e d by law, p r o h i b i t e d by c o n t r a c t (Farber & Katz 1979; Stevens 1966), or p e r c e i v e d to be u n a c c e p t a b l e by the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . C o n n a l l y (1983), F e u i l l e (1985) and Thompson & C a i r n i e (1973) r e p o r t e d , however, t h a t t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between the end r e s u l t of a r b i t r a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s and n o n - a r b i t r a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s . In the l o n g r u n they found t h a t cases which proceeded to a r b i t r a t i o n o f t e n i n v o l v e d c a t c h up agreements . F e u i l l e (1985) and F a r b e r & Katz (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t i t was not n e c e s s a r i l y the a r b i t r a t i o n i t s e l f t h a t was i m p o r t a n t i n the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s but r a t h e r i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y to the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the c o n f l i c t . The l i t e r a t u r e f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r s to the c h i l l i n g and the n a r c o t i c e f f e c t s of a r b i t r a t i o n . C h i l l i n g r e f e r s to the n o t i o n that p a r t i e s w i l l r e f u s e to engage i n m e a n i n g f u l b a r g a i n i n g knowing t h a t they can save face and perhaps o b t a i n a b e t t e r s e t t l e m e n t by r e f e r r i n g the problem(s) to an e x t e r n a l agent . The n a r c o t i c e f f e c t r e f e r s to the n o t i o n that once p a r t i e s use an e x t e r n a l agent to s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s they w i l l l i k e l y c o n t i n u e to use a r b i t r a t i o n over and over r a t h e r than s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s at the t a b l e . The r e s e a r c h appears to be d i v i d e d on the c h i l l i n g e f f e c t of a r b i t r a t i o n . In a comprehensive review of the e m p i r i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e , Anderson (1981) found t h a t w h i l e the f i e l d r e s e a r c h tended to show t h a t a r b i t r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d to the c h i l l i n g e f f e c t , the e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h showed t h a t the t h r e a t of a r b i t r a t i o n i n d u c e d movement toward a s e t t l e m e n t . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r e c e d i n g r e v i e w , Magenau (1983) i n a more r e c e n t s t u d y , found t h a t a r b i t r a t i o n had a c h i l l i n g e f f e c t when the c o n f l i c t was h i g h and the p a r t i e s p e r c e i v e d that they had to save f a c e . G l a s l ' s (1982) model of c o n f l i c t e s c a l a t i o n and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , s u p p o r t s the use of a r b i t r a t i o n i n h i g h c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the n a r c o t i c e f f e c t of a r b i t r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h K o c h a n ' s (1983) r e s e a r c h sugges ts t h a t t h e r e i s not s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t the t h e o r y of the n a r c o t i c e f f e c t of a r b i t r a t i o n , F e u i l l e ' s (1985) suggests o t h e r w i s e . In a d d i t i o n to these c o n c e r n s , there i s the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t a r b i t r a t o r s tend to s p l i t the p a r t i e s p o s i t i o n s . In the case of L e v e l I i t e m s , e . g . , s a l a r i e s , t h i s may not be c r i t i c a l . Thompson & C a i r n i e (1973) found t h a t a r b i t r a t i o n was most e f f e c t i v e when i t was l i m i t e d to L e v e l I i s s u e s . I f an a r b i t r a t o r a t tempted to s p l i t L e v e l I I i t e m s , i tems of p r i n c i p l e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r p a r t y would be s a t i s f i e d and the problem may w e l l be f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d . T h i s l a t t e r 76 p o i n t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Thomas's (1965) l o s e - l o s e view of compromise s o l u t i o n s . M e d i a t i o n - A r b i t r a t i o n . T h i s form of c o n v e n t i o n a l a r b i t r a t i o n i s where the a r b i t r a t o r can ac t as a mediator d u r i n g the a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e s s . I t i s an attempt to b r i d g e the gap between the i n f o r m a l and f l e x i b l e n a t u r e of m e d i a t i o n and the r i g i d i t y and f o r m a l i t y of c o n v e n t i o n a l a r b i t r a t i o n (Kochan, 1980) . The l i m i t e d l i t e r a t u r e on M e d i a t i o n -A r b i t r a t i o n sugges ts t h a t t h i s c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e has not been s u b j e c t e d to s u f f i c i e n t s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h to be a b l e to judge i t s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses . I t appears t h a t w h i l e the M e d i a t i o n - A r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e s s sometimes a s s i s t s to narrow the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p a r t i e s , i n most cases the c o n f l i c t i s u l t i m a t e l y s e t t l e d by a r b i t r a t i o n . F i n a l O f f e r S e l e c t i o n . F i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n takes a v a r i e t y of forms and a c c o r d i n g to the l i t e r a t u r e has been used at a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y , i . e . , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a (Swimmer 1975) . In one form of f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n , the p a r t i e s submit t h e i r f i n a l o f f e r s to a s i n g l e a r b i t r a t o r or t r i p a r t i t e p a n e l and the a r b i t r a t o r ( s ) s e l e c t one of the proposed packages . In t h i s form t h e r e i s a c l e a r winner and a c l e a r l o s e r . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , an a r b i t r a t o r may s e l e c t from the two p r o p o s a l s on an i s s u e by i s s u e b a s i s . In t h i s type of f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n b o t h p a r t i e s s t a n d to g a i n and l o s e . In s t i l l another form, the two p a r t i e s may each submit two f i n a l o f f e r s . One o f f e r r e p r e s e n t s a p o l i t i c a l and f a c e s a v i n g o f f e r and the o t h e r o f f e r r e p r e s e n t s a r e a l i s t i c o f f e r . In some i n s t a n c e s the p a r t i e s are p e r m i t t e d to c o n t i n u e the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s a f t e r they have s u b m i t t e d t h e i r f i n a l o f f e r s up to the time of the a r b i t r a t i o n award. In t h i s l a s t form of f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n , the a r b i t r a t o r may mediate between the two p o s i t i o n s . The l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n i s most e f f e c t i v e i n f o r c i n g the two s i d e s to s e t t l e when the two p a r t i e s must submit a f i n a l o f f e r i n package form, where the p a r t i e s are not a l l o w e d to b a r g a i n or o t h e r w i s e a l t e r t h e i r f i n a l o f f e r d u r i n g a r b i t r a t i o n , and where the a r b i t r a t o r must s e l e c t one of the two o f f e r s (Delany 1984; Hoh 1984) . R e s e a r c h by Weitzman & S t o c k i n g (1980) sugges ts t h a t the package form of f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n i s comparable to a s t r i k e . I t c r e a t e s an i n t e n s e p r e s s u r e on the n e g o t i a t o r s where n e i t h e r s i d e can a f f o r d to adopt a take i t or l e a v e i t a t t i t u d e , s i n c e the a r b i t r a t o r cannot s p l i t the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r f i n a l o f f e r s . Kochan (1980) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s approach to f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n f o r c e s the p a r t i e s to submit r e a l i s t i c p a c k a g e s . The r e s e a r c h submits t h a t when the p a r t i e s are aware t h a t they must s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s or f a c e f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n , the p r e s s u r e e x e r t e d on the p a r t i e s by t h i s form of f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n o n l y comes i n t o p l a y d u r i n g the l a s t s tages of the 78 c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g or m e d i a t i o n p r o c e s s ( D e N i s i & Dworkin 1981; G a l l a g h e r 1979; Magneau 1984). S e v e r a l o t h e r e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s are noteworthy i n t h a t they p o i n t out some l i m i t a t i o n s of the p r o c e s s . Champlain (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t w h i l e f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n narrowed the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p a r t i e s , g e n e r a l l y t h e r e was not s u f f i c i e n t p r e s s u r e to s e t t l e a l l of the o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e s . D e N i s i & Dworkin (1981) found t h a t f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n , u n l i k e the r e s e a r c h on m e d i a t i o n , was o n l y e f f e c t i v e when the p a r t i e s were e x p e r i e n c e d n e g o t i a t o r s , when t h e r e were c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i s s u e s , when the p a r t i e s c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r a c t i o n s , and when the p a r t i e s had a s t a k e i n the outcome. Based on these f i n d i n g s , and t a k i n g i n t o account the l i t e r a t u r e on c o n v e n t i o n a l a r b i t r a t i o n , f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n may be b e s t s u i t e d f o r L e v e l I i tems and may not be s u i t e d to r e s o l v i n g d i s p u t e s r e l a t e d to L e v e l I I i t e m s . In s p i t e of t h i s apparent p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s under c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n i s not a w i d e l y a c c e p t e d form of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n N o r t h American l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s , l e t a lone h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . For example, one s tudy r e p o r t e d t h a t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o u r out of f i v e s e t t l e m e n t s r e f e r r e d to a t h i r d p a r t y , were h a n d l e d by c o n v e n t i o n a l a r b i t r a t i o n (Delaney & F e u i l l e 1984) . Summary. The p r e c e d i n g approaches to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n are t r a d i t i o n a l impasse p r o c e d u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i v e or a d v e r s a r i a l model of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . A c c o r d i n g to Thomas's (1976) model , these t r a d i t i o n a l methods of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n r e p r e s e n t e i t h e r w i n - l o s e s o l u t i o n s or l o s e - l o s e s o l u t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , depending on the i s s u e s , these approaches may not r e s o l v e the u n d e r l y i n g c o n f l i c t between the p a r t i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e appears to suggest that m e d i a t i o n may be b e s t s u i t e d f o r the r e s o l u t i o n of L e v e l I I i s s u e s and a r b i t r a t i o n or f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n b e s t s u i t e d f o r the r e s o l u t i o n of L e v e l I i s s u e s . These approaches , r e p r e s e n t one approach to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n and r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r s h o r t comings , s h o u l d not and w i l l not be d i s c a r d e d r e a d i l y . R a t h e r , an e f f o r t s h o u l d be made to b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and attempt to improve t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I n t e r g r a t i v e B a r g a i n i n g I n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , a term used by Walton & M c K e r s i e (1965), i s not a t r a d i t i o n a l or common form of r e s o l v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s . I n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , as a working approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , seems to have g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y d u r i n g the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s . T h i s was d u r i n g a time when t h e r e was a p e r c e p t i b l e d e c l i n e i n American p r i v a t e s e c t o r u n i o n s and a swing to human r e s o u r c e management concepts (Kochan et a l . (1985). Over the y e a r s Birnbaum (1980,1981), Crossman (1978), F o l l e t t (1941), Deutsch (1976), F i s h e r (1964,1981) , March & Simon (1958), Thomas (1976) and Kochan et a l . (1985) have advocated t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i d e r s h i f t i n g from d i s t r i b u t i v e b a r g a i n i n g to a form of i n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . J u d g i n g from the v a r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i t appears t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s comparable to p r i n c i p l e d b a r g a i n i n g ( F i s h e r & Ury 1981) and s i n g l e team b a r g a i n i n g (Crossman 1978) . T h i s approach to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n emphasizes the human r e s o u r c e s s i d e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than the p o l i t i c a l or s t r u c t u r a l s i d e s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g at tempts to genera te a w i n - w i n a t t i t u d e b y " f o c u s i n g on the s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s r a t h e r than on the p e o p l e i s s u e s , on a c o l l a b o r a t i v e problem s o l v i n g approach to r e s o l v i n g i s s u e s r a t h e r than on power and s a n c t i o n s , by r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g e f f e c t i v e communicat ion c h a n n e l s , by i n c r e a s i n g each p a r t y ' s s e n s i t i v i t y to the o ther p a r t y ' s c o n s t i t u e n t i n t e r e s t s , by n e g o t i a t i n g from p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r than power, by e n c o u r a g i n g f l e x i b i l i t y , and at the o u t s e t of the p r o c e s s by e s t a b l i s h i n g common b i - l a t e r a l g o a l s . I t i s a p r o c e s s t h a t b u i l d s on the common s t r e n g t h s of the two s i d e s , e . g . , v a l u e s , g o a l s , needs , and by i n v o l v i n g a l l concerned i n a common problem s o l v i n g e x e r c i s e (Crossman 1978) . Knowledge i s not used as a weapon but r a t h e r to r e s o l v e common problems and i s not used to a t t a c k the o t h e r s i d e or to d e f e n d one p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . T h i s approach i s b u i l t on the g e n e r a l concept t h a t agreements between people are more l i k e l y when the l e v e l of c o o p e r a t i o n i s g r e a t e r than the l e v e l of c o m p e t i t i o n . The a u t h o r s a l s o suggest t h a t communications may not be e f f e c t i v e i f the p a r t i e s are c o m p e t i t i v e l y o r i e n t e d or when e i t h e r p a r t y can t h r e a t e n the o t h e r (Deutsch & Krauss I960) . Deutsch and K r a u s s ' l a b o r a t o r y f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Thomas' (1976) t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l . Whi le i n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s promoted i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e do not appear to be many e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on i t s u s e , i t s s u c c e s s or i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d a number of i s s u e s , some o b s e r v a t i o n s have been made. W e i n s t e i n (1978), a l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i t i o n e r , p o i n t s out that s i n g l e team b a r g a i n i n g o n l y appears to be e f f e c t i v e i n d i s c u s s i n g non-monetary i s s u e s . W e i n s t e i n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n i s echoed i n a s tudy by Dyer et a l . (1973). D y e r ' s s t u d y , as w e l l as those by H o r v i t z (1982) and Ruggles (1981) found that c o l l a b o r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s were thought to be most b e n e f i c i a l i n non-economic a r e a s , e . g . , q u a l i t y of work, but not i n areas a s s o c i a t e d w i t h economic i s s u e s . The i n t e g r a t i v e model c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the academic model of c o l l e g i a l i t y and the p r e c e d i n g s t u d i e s suggest t h a t i t may be b e s t s u i t e d to n e g o t i a t i o n s r e l a t e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l or L e v e l I I n e e d s . The l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t f o r i n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g to work there are a number of p r e c o n d i t i o n s . S i n c e t h i s form of b a r g a i n i n g i s o r i e n t e d toward j o i n t problem s o l v i n g , the p a r t i e s have to be m o t i v a t e d to s e t t l e , t h e r e has to be more emphasis on the communication p r o c e s s r a t h e r than the c o n t r a c t u a l language and there has to be a g r e a t d e a l of t r u s t (Walton & M c K e r s i e 1965}. On the o t h e r hand, i n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g may a l s o work where the b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s have d e t e r i o r a t e d to the p o i n t where the two p a r t i e s are w i l l i n g to t r y a n y t h i n g i n o r d e r to r e - e s t a b l i s h an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m . For t h i s method of b a r g a i n i n g , the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that t h e r e has to be s t r u c t u r a l changes to the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , a l o n g e r time frame, the development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g t e c h n i q u e s , the use of j o i n t sub-commit tees to r e s e a r c h common c o n c e r n s , and the use of t h i i - d p a r t y n e u t r a l s (Birnbaum 1981; Crossman 1978; F i s h e r & Ury 1981) . F u t u r e C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n Upon r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , a number of q u e s t i o n s remain unanswered. For example, i f "There i s a f e e l i n g that our system of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s l e a v e s much to be d e s i r e d . . . that c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s a r c h a i c and that the a d v e r s a r y system i s not w o r k i n g . . . t h e r e must b e " a b e t t e r way" (Downie 1984,317) , then the q u e s t i o n i s what type of b a r g a i n i n g i s b e s t s u i t e d f o r what type of b a r g a i n i n g g o a l s , what are the b e s t c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n methods f o r what s i t u a t i o n s , what are the a l t e r n a t i v e s , how do we modify or change the p r o c e s s and w i l l the new p r o c e s s e s become permanent? C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the concepts of open systems t h e o r y , the l i t e r a t u r e i m p l i e s t h a t change i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t r o d u c e and once changes are implemented i t i s d i f f i c u l t to s u s t a i n them over an extended p e r i o d of t i m e . A c c o r d i n g to the d e c i s i o n t a b l e s d e v e l o p e d by Coleman & F r a s e r (1979), w i t h r e f e r e n c e to Loomis (1954), the chances of an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t would reduce some of the a d v e r s i t y of the c u r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i v e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , would have something i n the o r d e r of a one i n ten chance of b e i n g s u s t a i n e d over t i m e . The tendency toward system homeostas is i s j u s t too g r e a t to expect s i g n i f i c a n t changes to o c c u r and to remain i n p l a c e . In t h i s v e i n , Katz et a l . (1935,523) say t h a t many p e o p l e " . . . h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed t h a t the time t e s t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g are the most e f f e c t i v e means of managing the d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s that e x i s t i n employment r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . However, Downie (1984,318) notes t h a t " . . . w h i l e there i s d i s a f f e c t i o n w i t h the c u r r e n t i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s s i t u a t i o n , i t i s e q u a l l y t r u e that the a d v e r s a r y p r o c e s s w i l l remain the c o r n e r s t o n e of our i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s s y s t e m " . Coleman & F r a s e r (1979), Kochan (1984c) and S t r a u s s (1984) have a l l i n d i c a t e d t h a t change, i n n o v a t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i v e v e n t u r e s between employers and employees are hard to i n t r o d u c e , are f r a g i l e and d i f f i c u l t to s u s t a i n . Kochan (1980,417) goes on to suggest t h a t one of the reasons f o r t h i s apparent r e s i s t a n c e to change i s that " . . . t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s too c e n t r a l . . . " to modern i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s " . . . a n d d e a l s too e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h r e c u r r i n g economic p r o b l e m s . . . to expect t h a t some new r e f o r m e f f o r t . . . c a n r e p l a c e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " . Kochan (1980b,412) says t h a t " . . . c h a n g e i s not e a s i l y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o our c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s y s t e m . In f a c t , perhaps the major l e s s o n to be l e a r n e d from the h i s t o r y of p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s to i n t r o d u c e changes i n t o the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i s that they came v e r y s l o w l y and o n l y w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y . A complex a r r a y of s t r u c t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s l i m i t s the s p r e a d and enthusiasm w i t h which demands f o r changes are c r e a t e d by u n i o n and management p r a c t i t i o n e r s " . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r e v i o u s comments, some authors are s o u n d i n g a c a u t i o u s note of o p t i m i s m . B a r b a s h ' s (1980,5) words, "I t h i n k the time has come f o r r e e v a l u a t i o n of the a d v e r s a r y p r i n c i p l e " , p a r a l l e l the thoughts of Downie and B e r b e r . Downie (1984,318) noted i n a r e c e n t a r t i c l e t h a t " . . . w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the a d v e r s a r y system, however, c o o p e r a t i v e programs seem to be p l a y i n g a l a r g e r r o l e " . Derber (1982,1) goes on to say t h a t " . . . t h e l o n g time a d v e r s a r i a l system i s b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o d i f i e d . . . b y a more i n t e g r a t i v e , m u t u a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h " to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Kochan et a l . (1984B) and B u r t o n (1987) suggest t h a t there i s a s h i f t i n some p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n d u s t r i e s to i n c l u d e the employees i n the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g of the companies . Some companies " . . . s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n s u l t w i t h u n i o n l e a d e r s about major b u s i n e s s i s s u e s , c o m p e t i t i v e c o s t s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l change or o t h e r f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the l o n g - r u n employment p r o s p e c t s " (Kochan et a l . 1984b,270) . T h i s can r e s u l t i n what i s r e f e r r e d to as s t r a t e g i c b a r g a i n i n g (Kochan et a l . 1984,270) where n e g o t i a t i o n s " . . . s p e c i f i c a l l y i n v o l v e t r a d e - o f f s of changes i n wages, b e n e f i t s or o ther c o n t r a c t u a l p r o v i s i o n s i n exchange f o r new investment or employment commitments" . I f o r g a n i z a t i o n s are e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the c u r r e n t a d v e r s a r i a l approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the q u e s t i o n of how to s u s t a i n r e l e v a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s remains a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k . V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s (Barbash 1934; Downie 1984; Goodman 1980; Kochan 1984b; Kochan & P i o r e 1984; M c K e r s i e 1985) suggest t h a t f o r a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n n o v a t i o n to be s u s t a i n e d i t must s a t i s f y a number of c o n d i t i o n s . For example, the change must be p e r c e i v e d to a s s i s t both s i d e s i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e g o a l s , must be seen as f r e e from any c o - o p t i n g by e i t h e r s i d e , must be seen as r e l a t i v e l y r i s k f r e e f o r b o t h p a r t i e s , must be i n t r o d u c e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y over t i m e , must be l o c a l i z e d and must p r o c u r e q u i c k t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s f o r b o t h s i d e s . The l i t e r a t u r e sugges ts that however a t t r a c t i v e the changes are to the a d v e r s a r i a l p r o c e s s , the changes w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to i n t r o d u c e and s u s t a i n s i n c e a l l those p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n the c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e c y c l i c a l changes i n a t t i t u d e s toward the p r o j e c t and the changes (Kochan 1984c) . In a d d i t i o n to a genuine commitment to the i n n o v a t i o n by both p a r t i e s , success appears to a l s o depend on s t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on b o t h b a r g a i n i n g teams over an extended p e r i o d of t i m e . Downie (1984), Kochan (1984c) a l l say that perhaps the b i g g e s t c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i t i o n e r s i s to ensure t h a t the v a r i o u s approaches to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , no matter how t r a d i t i o n a l or i n n o v a t i v e , can e x i s t s i d e by s i d e . T h i s s u r v e y has c o n s i d e r e d the concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n f l i c t and some approaches to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . I t appears t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l not be as e f f e c t i v e as they c o u l d be i f they r e l y on one approach to c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n and i g n o r e o t h e r approaches t h a t may be more s u i t e d to the i s s u e s at h a n d . C l e a r l y , when the l i t e r a t u r e i s viewed as whole , i t sugges ts that w h i l e the c u r r e n t a d v e r s a r i a l or d i s t r i b u t i v e system w i l l remain as the dominant f o r c e f o r some time to come, t h a t i n c r e m e n t a l changes w i l l o c c u r and p e r s i s t over t i m e . LIMITATIONS There are a number of l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the background m a t e r i a l and the v a r i o u s streams of l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d . A l i m i t e d number of the e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to Canadian p o s t s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s . In view of the e d u c a t i o n a l s o c i a l , economic , l e g a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d when a p p l y i n g the U n i t e d S t a t e s m a t e r i a l to Canadian s i t u a t i o n s . The s i t u a t i o n i s a l s o c o m p l i c a t e d by the d e a r t h of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e s e a r c h on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s . Another c a u t i o n i s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the time when the s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d . For example, some of the s t u d i e s were conducted p r i o r to c e r t i f i c a t i o n e l e c t i o n s (Begin 1974; Danese 1977; F e u i l l e & B l a n d i n 1976; Herman 1975; Plumley 1978) when emotions p r o b a b l y would have been r u n n i n g h i g h . S t i l l o t h e r s were conducted some time a f t e r the f o r m a t i v e y e a r s (Dayal 1984; Maher 1982; Ponak & Thompson 1984b; S t e c k l e i n & W i l l i e 1982) when f e e l i n g s may have s u b s i d e d and s t a b i l i z e d . While many of the s t u d i e s r e l i e d on o r i g i n a l d a t a , at l e a s t one s tudy d i d not (Carr & VanEyck 1973) . Most of the s t u d i e s c i t e d , d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own i n s t r u m e n t s or used p o r t i o n s of i n s t r u m e n t s d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r s c h o l a r s (Bigoness 1978; Birnbaum 1983; D a v i s 1972; D u l l 1971; G r o s s v i c k l e 1980; Plumley 1978; Ponak & Thompson 1984b). While the s t u d i e s c i t e d the f a c u l t y as t h e i r main source of d a t a , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one s tudy ( Z a l e s n y 1985) i t was u n c l e a r whether or not the term f a c u l t y i n c l u d e d a l l segments of f a c u l t y , e . g . department heads , l i b r a r i a n s , c o u n s e l l o r s . As noted e a r l i e r , there i s an absence of m a t e r i a l on the o p i n i o n s of community c o l l e g e b o a r d members and s e n i o r c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t f a c u l t y members o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g may or may not i n f l u e n c e the board members of the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Cross s e c t i o n s t u d i e s dominate the l i t e r a t u r e but t h e r e are v e r y few l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s ( B a l d r i d g e 1981; Birnbaum 1983; K e l l e y 1976; S t e c k l e i n & W i l l i e 1982) . L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s may p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g as w e l l as a d d i t i o n a l d a t a . A more g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n was that i n many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s the c o n c e p t u a l framework was u n c l e a r . By and l a r g e v e r y few of the s t u d i e s (Hackett 1980; Ponak & Thompson 1984b,1984c) appear to have o b t a i n e d t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n o t h e r than by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h , which r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s about the t r i a n g u l a t i o n of the s t u d i e s . A number of the s t u d i e s on c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n (Anderson 1981), were conducted i n c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s u s i n g u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . I t i s u n l i k e l y such s i m u l a t i o n s c o u l d a d e g u a t e l y d u p l i c a t e the p r e s s u r e and the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g or the r e a c t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e d n e g o t i a t o r s . Without any p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r s t u d i e s of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n a c t i o n , the r e s u l t s of these l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s may or may not be r e l e v a n t to a c t u a l c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g must a l s o be t r e a t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . While i t i s a c r e a t i v e and p o s i t i v e o r i e n t e d approach to n e g o t i a t i o n s , the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s a rea appears to be p r i m a r i l y t h e o r e t i c a l and s p e c u l a t i v e . There does not appear to be any major e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on t h i s model of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . In a s i m i l a r v a i n , t h e r e does not appear to be any r e s e a r c h t h a t examines the L e v e l I and L e v e l I I needs of community c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g c o n t e x t . W h i l e many w r i t e r s d e p l o r e the a d v e r s a r i a l na ture of the d i s t r i b u t i v e model of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , t h e r e are few s t u d i e s t h a t l i n k the p e r c e i v e d a d v e r s a r i a l n e s s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . t o c o m p e t i t i o n . G i l l i a n ' s r e s e a r c h on women's approach to c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n opens a new area f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , but c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d i n a p p l y i n g the r e s u l t s to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . A l l of the p r e c e d i n g f a c t o r s , i n one way or a n o t h e r , may c o n t r i b u t e to the v a r i a n c e i n the r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s c i t e d . Y e t , as noted i n one of Ponak & Thompsons' (1984b,450) s t u d i e s , " . . . d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the nature of the samples , type of i n s t r u m e n t , . . s a m p l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y . . . " and t h e o r e t i c a l models and concepts u s e d , the " . . . s t u d i e s suggest some common p a t t e r n s . . . " I t i s these common p a t t e r n s upon which f u t u r e s t u d i e s can be b a s e d . An awareness of t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s can a s s i s t w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n of more e f f e c t i v e s t u d i e s . SUMMARY Chapter Two o u t l i n e d the e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s , h i g h l i g h t e d many of the f a c t o r s that may c o n t r i b u t e to the t e n s i o n s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s t r i b u t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and a s s i s t e d w i t h the development of the s t u d y ' s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . The background m a t e r i a l d e l i n e a t e d the e v o l u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o l l e g e s , and the complex a r r a y of f o r c e s t h a t can i n f l u e n c e the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . The l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s e d on some of the f a c t o r s that may i n f l u e n c e o p i n i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and i n t u r n a f f e c t the b e h a v i o u r of the p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . The s t u d y ' s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n l a r g e l y f l o w e d from the l i t e r a t u r e because i n response to some of the l i m i t a t i o n s of o t h e r s t u d i e s , i t was deemed n e c e s s a r y to a t t a i n a b a l a n c e of o r i g i n a l q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e m a t e r i a l . S i m i l a r l y , many of the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d d u r i n g the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s and the many of the f a c t o r s used i n the main s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , were i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The l i t e r a t u r e encompassed many areas of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g t h a t c o u l d not be r e a s o n a b l y pursued i n t h i s s t u d y . Some of those areas i n c l u d e d the impact of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s over an extended p e r i o d of t i m e ; the impact of more women on c o l l e g e b o a r d s , as s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , as f a c u l t y members, as f a c u l t y l e a d e r s , as n e g o t i a t o r s , as m e d i a t o r s and as a r b i t r a t o r s ; p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r s t u d i e s of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and the v a r i o u s methods of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n ; e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of i n t e g r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ; i n depth r e s e a r c h on a p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n between c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and i n s t i t u t i o n a l m o r a l e ; s t u d i e s on the impact of a c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t , board chairman or f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t on c o l l e g e morale and s u b s e q u e n t l y on c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ; s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to the r a t i o n a l e f o r i n c l u d i n g s p e c i f i c c l a u s e s i n the c o l l e c t i v e agreements ; and a d d i t i o n a l work on the f a c t o r s t h a t shape the o p i n i o n s of c o l l e g e board members and s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . 92 3 RESEARCH DESIGN The purpose of Chapter Three i s to p r o v i d e d e t a i l s on the s t u d y ' s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . I t i n c l u d e s the scope of the s t u d y , the r a t i o n a l e f o r the s t u d y ' s d e s i g n , and r e v i e w s the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . SCOPE OF THE STUDY Community C o l l e g e s As noted p r e v i o u s l y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s are an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the p r o v i n c e ' s p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . T h i s r e s e a r c h s tudy f o c u s e s on the 14 u n i o n i z e d community c o l l e g e s . Under the a u s p i c e s of the C o l l e g e s and I n s t i t u t e A c t and the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A c t , these 14 c o l l e g e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s s e l e c t e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g as the method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s and o t h e r r e l a t e d w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . N o r t h I s l a n d C o l l e g e was e x c l u d e d because i t does not have a c e r t i f i e d f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n but r a t h e r uses the f a i r comparison method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g f a c u l t y s a l a r i e s and r e l a t e d w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The f a i r comparison method i s unigue to the c o l l e g e s ' l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S a l a r i e s , f o r example, are s t r u c k by c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from the o t h e r c o l l e g e s and then u s i n g complex m a t h e m a t i c a l t e c h n i g u e s to e s t b l i s h s a l a r y ranges and an a p p r o p r i a t e s a l a r y f o r each r a n g e . The p r o v i n c e ' s o t h e r p o s t s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s were e x c l u d e d from t h i s s tudy because they do not share many of the same mandates or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the p u b l i c c o l l e g e s . For example, the B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y , the E m i l y C a r r C o l l e g e of A r t and D e s i g n , the J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t e , and the P a c i f i c M a r i n e T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e have l e s s comprehensive programs than the c o l l e g e s , have more homogeneous f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and have p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r than r e g i o n a l mandates. The B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y was e x c l u d e d because of i t s unique programs and i t s r e c e n t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the former P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . The t h r e e u n i v e r s i t i e s were a l s o e x c l u d e d from t h i s s tudy s i n c e they are so d i f f e r e n t from the community c o l l e g e s . These o t h e r p o s t s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s would have i n t r o d u c e d too many u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s i n t o the s t u d y . At the o u t s e t of t h i s s t u d y some c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n to examining c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n community c o l l e g e s on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . The s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a n c e i n the p r o v i n c i a l community c o l l e g e systems (Dennison & G a l l a g h e r 1936) would a l s o have i n t r o d u c e d too many u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s i n t o the s t u d y . A compara t ive s t u d y of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e g e systems, perhaps the o n l y two p r o v i n c e s t h a t have comparable c o l l e g e systems (Dennison & 94 S o u t h e r n 1985), was a l s o r u l e d o u t . Other r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the A l b e r t a c o l l e g e system were underway at the time of w r i t i n g . In view of the p r e c e d i n g comments, and the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s 14 u n i o n i z e d community c o l l e g e s were s e l e c t e d as the r e s e a r c h b a s e . P o p u l a t i o n s On the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i d e of the c o l l e g e s , the board members, s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t the t h r e e i n t e r n a l groups w i t h i n each c o l l e g e t h a t are p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . Each of these d i s t i n c t i v e groups b r i n g d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , needs , e x p e r i e n c e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s to the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e . C o l l e g e B o a r d s . Members of the c o l l e g e boards were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s tudy because under S e c t i o n 12 of the C o l l e g e s and I n s t i t u t e s A c t , board members are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and academic d e c i s i o n s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s are each governed by an autonomous board of p r o v i n c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d l a y p e o p l e and under S e c t i o n 6 of the A c t , " . . . t h e Board of a c o l l e g e s h a l l c o n s i s t of 5 or more members a p p o i n t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l " . The A c t i s s i l e n t r e g a r d i n g the terms of appointment , which means t h a t the b o a r d members s e r v e at the p l e a s u r e of the government. U n l i k e the g o v e r n i n g boards i n some of the o t h e r 95 Canadian' c o l l e g e j u r i s d i c t i o n s , e . g . , A l b e r t a , S e c t i o n 11 (1) of the A c t s t a t e s t h a t , "No employee or s t u d e n t of an i n s t i t u t i o n s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d t o , or c o n t i n u e as a member o f , the board of an i n s t i t u t i o n " . These d i s t i n c t i o n s have a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . While the c o l l e g e s o f f e r u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s , t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the way the c o l l e g e s and the u n i v e r s i t i e s are g o v e r n e d . U n l i k e the c o l l e g e b o a r d s , the u n i v e r s i t y boards are o n l y t a c i t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r academic d e c i s i o n s and p o l i c i e s . The c o l l e g e s do not have the e g u i v a l e n t of a u n i v e r s i t y s e n a t e . The l a t t e r are empowered by the U n i v e r s i t i e s Act to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r academic g o v e r n a n c e . The c o l l e g e s , as n o t e d i n the review of the l i t e r a t u r e , do not have the e n t r e n c h e d u n i v e r s i t y t r a d i t i o n of c o l l e g i a l i t y , e . g . , p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n making . These p r e c e d i n g f a c t o r s may i n f l u e n c e the p e r c e p t i o n s of the academic f a c u l t y i n the c o l l e g e s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s , thus b r i n g i n g the c o l l e g e f a c u l t y i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the c o l l e g e s ' management r i g h t s . T h i s i n t u r n may a f f e c t the tenor of the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and the scope of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements . F o r many of the c o l l e g e f a c u l t y , e . g . , t r a d e s i n s t r u c t o r s , the q u e s t i o n of the b o a r d s ' j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the academic d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s may not be an i s s u e at a l l . In many of these i n s t a n c e s a top down approach to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . T h i s may, however, c r e a t e i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t w i t h i n some of the more heterogeneous f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e f a c u l t y from a wide range of d i s c i p l i n e s , e . g . , v o c a t i o n a l programs, u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r programs. Under S e c t i o n 25(1) of the A c t , the board i s r e q u i r e d to a p p o i n t a c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r " . . . w h o s h a l l , under the d i r e c t i o n of the b o a r d , s u p e r v i s e and d i r e c t the i n s t r u c t i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o t h e r s t a f f of the i n s t i t u t i o n and e x e r c i s e powers and p e r f o r m d u t i e s a s s i g n e d to him by the b o a r d " . Some s e c t o r s of the c o l l e g e s ' i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f may p e r c e i v e t h i s to be a more r i g i d management s t y l e than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s e n j o y i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e c t o r . A f u r t h e r i r r i t a n t f o r some may be the f l e x i b l e and p e r m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a program a d v i s o r y committee under S e c t i o n 12 (lb) of the A c t . G i v e n the c o l l e g e b o a r d s ' l e g i s l a t e d management r i g h t s , the terms of o f f i c e , and the management t r a d i t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , the above f a c t o r s have the p o t e n t i a l to c r e a t e t e n s i o n s between the b o a r d s , the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the f a c u l t y . Another group t h a t i s c r i t i c a l to t h i s s tudy i s the group r e f e r r e d to as the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . S e n i o r C o l l e g e A d m i n i s t r a t o r s . S e c t i o n s 25, 23 and 29 of the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e A c t e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y r e f e r to t h i s group of employees . A l t h o u g h the A c t d i r e c t l y r e f e r s o n l y to the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r and the b u r s a r , under S e c t i o n 29, the board may a u t h o r i z e the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r to " . . . a p p o i n t employees i t c o n s i d e r s n e c e s s a r y to c a r r y on the b u s i n e s s and o p e r a t i o n s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . . . " . By d e f i n i t i o n the A c t e x c l u d e s a l l m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n n e l from the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . T y p i c a l l y t h i s i n c l u d e s academic deans or v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s , campus p r i n c i p a l s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s , deans and d i r e c t o r s of human r e l a t i o n s or p e r s o n n e l . For the purpose of t h i s s t u d y , the p h y s i c a l p l a n t d i r e c t o r s or comparable p o s i t i o n s were e x c l u d e d on the b a s i s t h a t they are not l i k e l y to be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s . S i m i l a r l y , academic department heads were presumed to be members of the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . S i n c e s e n i o r c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are l e g a l l y not p a r t of the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , the f a c u l t y may p e r c e i v e them as r e p r e s e n t i n g m a n a g e r i a l v a l u e s r a t h e r than academic v a l u e s , thereby c r e a t i n g p o t e n t i a l t e n s i o n s d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s . T h i s p o i n t i s u n d e r s c o r e d by G e r h a r t & Maxey 's (1978) r e s e a r c h which i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may not be as d i s c i p l i n e or a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d as t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y c o u n t e r p a r t s . There i s l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e on c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' views of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g or t h e i r r e l a t e d v a l u e s . S p r i t z e r & Odewahan's (1978) e a r l y r e s e a r c h sugges ts t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f e l t t h a t f a c u l t y d i d not u n d e r s t a n d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , f a c u l t y u n i o n s were d i v i s i v e , f a c u l t y u n i o n s would l e a d to m e d i o c r i t y , and f a c u l t y l e a d e r s would u n l i k e l y s u p p o r t the g o a l s h e l d by the administrators. The e x i s t i n g research suggests that administrators also believed that the faculty lacked the necessary experience and t r a i n i n g to handle c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. Given the colleges' legal mandate for comprehensiveness, a c c e s s i b i l i t y and responsiveness, as well as these preceding administrative views of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining, the issue of management rights may be a controversial issue (Dennison 1987; Dennison & Gallagher 1986). As compared to the university sector, the potential differences between administrators and faculty may be further aggravated by the colleges' more h i e r a r c h i c a l or r i g i d decision making process (Rubin 1979). Like the board members the senior college administrators represent a s i g n i f i c a n t group i n the c o l l e c t i v e bargaining process. Faculty Leaders. Faculty leaders are the t h i r d group involved i n t h i s study and are covered under the Act's d e f i n i t i o n of a professional employee. For the purpose of th i s research, the faculty are those professionals who provid d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l services to students. While l i b r a r i a n s , counsellors, academic department heads and other similar professionals are included i n many of the bargaining units studied, there i s no attempt to examine many of the unigue issues associated with these sub-groups. The faculty leaders are those who have served on a faculty association executive, a c o l l e c t i v e bargaining team, or both. The faculty i n a community college add a complex dimension to the c o l l e c t i v e bargaining process. Their varied career origins, the penchant for c o l l e g i a l i t y by some faculty factions, the emphasis on teaching, their orientation to subject d i s c i p l i n e s , their professionalism, t h e i r reportedly l e f t leaning p o l i t i c a l tendencies and other similar factors make them somewhat unique i n public sector bargaining. In addition, t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t i o n as bona fide labour unions and the many variations i n the structure of the the i r faculty associations add to the complexity of negotiations. RESEARCH PROCEDURE The study employed a multi-pronged approach to the c o l l e c t i o n of data (Borg & G a l l 1983; Yin 1984). The study involved a number of pre-research steps, pre-survey interviews with labour p r a c t i t i o n e r s , the c o l l e c t i o n of factual i n s t i t u t i o n a l data, an analysis of a sample of c o l l e c t i v e agreements and a self-administered opinion survey. To of f s e t the c r i t i c i s m s i n the l i t e r a t u r e that a t t i t u d i n a l research i s too subjective and therefore not as v a l i d as factual research, some scholars are c a l l i n g for research studies that combine both factual data and a t t i t u d i n a l data (Katz et a l . 1985; Salanick & Pfeffer 1977). In response to these c r i t i c i s m s an e f f o r t was made to c o l l e c t both q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative data from a variety of sources. An attempt was also made to 100 d e s i g n t h e s t u d y i n s u c h a way s o t h a t i t c o u l d be u s e d as a b a s i s f o r a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y . P r e - r e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d a number o f p r o c e d u r a l s t e p s p r i o r t o t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s t a g e . I n i t i a l l y , t h e r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l , a l o n g w i t h t h e r e g u i r e d d o c u m e n t s , was s e n t t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s S c r e e n i n g C o m m i t t e e f o r R e s e a r c h a n d O t h e r S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g Human S u b j e c t s . O n c e t h e p r o j e c t was a p p r o v e d , l e t t e r s o f t r a n s m i t t a l o u t l i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e , s c o p e a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t u d y w e r e s e n t t o 14 c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s . T h e l e t t e r s i n v i t e d e a c h c o l l e g e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . I n i t i a l l y , 10 c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . F o l l o w - u p d i s c u s s i o n s r e s u l t e d i n two o f t h e f o u r r e m a i n i n g p r e s i d e n t s a g r e e i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o j e c t . One o f t h e r e m a i n i n g two p r e s i d e n t s s a i d t h a t he r e g r e t t e d he c o u l d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e due t o a l a c k o f s t a f f t o c o l l e c t t h e f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d a t a . T h e o t h e r p r e s i d e n t , w h i l e u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n d i c t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . W h e n e v e r a r e s p o n s e was r e c e i v e d f r o m a c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t , a t h a n k y o u l e t t e r a n d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d a t a was s e n t t o t h e p r e s i d e n t . A f t e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e c e i v e d t h e c o m p l e t e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l e t t e r was s e n t t o t h e p r e s i d e n t e x p r e s s i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s 101 appreciation for completing the survey and explaining the next phase of the research project. Pre-Survey Interviews Prior to the development of the main opinion survey questionnaire, informal interviews were conducted with 13 labour r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The purpose of the interviews was to develop a f e e l i n g for the relevancy of the study's conceptual context, the l i t e r a t u r e , the contractual analysis and the factual i n s t i t u t i o n a l data; to se n s i t i z e the researcher to B r i t i s h Columbia's labour and community college environments; to secure additional ideas for the development and refinement of the survey instrument; and to obtain a number of ideas for improving c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. The pra c t i t i o n e r s who were interviewed represented a broad spectrum of the labour r e l a t i o n s f i e l d . A complete l i s t of those interviewed can be found i n Chapter Four. For economic reasons the interviews were limited to the lower B r i t i s h Columbia Mainland. The majority of the interviews were conducted i n person during A p r i l , 1986. Two additional interviews were conducted i n the summer of 1988 with one of the l a t t e r interviews conducted by telephone. In keeping with Yin's (1984) recommendations, the interviews were informal and open ended. The exploratory purpose of the pre-survey interviews made i t unnecessary to employ elaborate recording and coding procedures. Prior to 102 t h i s p h a s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h a l i s t o f a r e a s t h e r e s e a r c h e r w a n t e d t o e x p l o r e was p r e p a r e d . T h i s l i s t f o r m e d a c o r e f o r e a c h i n t e r v i e w . A s new i s s u e s e m e r g e d f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e y w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s u c c e e d i n g i n t e r v i e w s . T h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e a l s o u s e d t o c o r r o b o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n p r e c e d i n g i n t e r v i e w s . T h e same g u e s t i o n s w e r e n o t a l w a y s a s k e d i n t h e same o r d e r o r i n t h e same m a n n e r a s t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n a more f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d t y p e o f i n t e r v i e w . A t t h e o u t s e t o f e a c h i n t e r v i e w , e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t was made aware o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , a n d t h e m a t t e r o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . D u r i n g e a c h i n t e r v i e w n o t e s w e r e made i n p o i n t f o r m . L a t e r t h e same d a y t h e n o t e s w e r e r e v i e w e d a n d r e - o r g a n i z e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . F a c t u a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l D a t a I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o comment o n t h e p u r p o s e o f c o l l e c t i n g t h e f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d a t a , what d a t a t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d a n d o n t h e s o u r c e s a n d l i m i t s o f t h e d a t a . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e b a c k g r o u n d d a t a w o u l d p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e o f what h a d h a p p e n e d o r what was h a p p e n i n g i n p r a c t i c e , p r o v i d e a f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s a n d t h e m a i n o p i n i o n s u r v e y , a s s i s t w i t h t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e m a i n s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t , a n d p r o v i d e a b e n c h m a r k f o r any f u t u r e s t u d i e s . I n v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o l l e g e s y s t e m a n d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e C o l l e g e s a n d I n s t i t u t e s A c t 103 i n 1977, the researcher i n i t i a l l y decided to c o l l e c t i n s t i t u t i o n a l data for the period of 1977 to 1988. The categories of data that were col l e c t e d for each college included the number, type and a f f i l i a t i o n of the bargaining units, the composition of the college and faculty bargaining units, the chairmanship of the negotiating teams, the number of c o l l e c t i v e agreements signed since 1977, the time each contract took to negotiate, the method of settlement, the number of grievances and how the grievances were set t l e d , the number of s t r i k e votes, the number of s t r i k e s , the number of lockouts, and other types of decision making opportunities for the faculty, e.g., j o i n t faculty-administration committees. In the preparation of the background guestionnaire, there were a number of other factors which may have also been good indicators of a college's labour relations climate but which were impractical to c o l l e c t , e.g., s t a t i s t i c s on alcohol or drug abuse, records on absenteeism and sick leave, i n s t i t u t i o n a l evaluations, faculty and program evaluations, the success of a college's students in other postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , and the placement of graduates. The inclusion of these other factors may have taken the study i n a d i r e c t i o n beyond the scope of this research project. In addition to the preceding background information, the various colleges were also asked to submit a l i s t of senior administrators, board members, and faculty leaders, as well as a copy of their l a t e s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement(s). 104 T h e r e were a number o f p r o b l e m s t h a t a r o s e d u r i n g t h i s p h a s e o f t h e p r o j e c t . The r e s e a r c h e r u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e t i m e i t w o u l d t a k e f o r t h e c o l l e g e s t o c o m p l e t e and r e t u r n t h e c o m p l e t e d g u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Many c i t e d b o t h t h e l a c k o f s t a f f and r e c o r d s f o r t h e d e l a y . Two c o l l e g e s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h t h e amount o f d a t a r e q u e s t e d and w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e p r o j e c t , a g a i n c i t i n g t h e l a c k o f s t a f f and h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s as t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r w i t h d r a w i n g . One o f t h e c o l l e g e s s u b s e q u e n t l y a g r e e d t o s u b m i t a l i m i t e d amount o f d a t a , w h i l e t h e o t h e r c o l l e g e d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o j e c t . The p r o b l e m o f i n c o m p l e t e c o l l e g e r e c o r d s r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l o f t h e c o l l e g e s o n l y s u b m i t t i n g d a t a f o r l i m i t e d t i m e s p a n s and f o r s p e c i f i c g u e s t i o n s . I n one i n s t a n c e t h e r e q u e s t f o r p a r t o f t h e d a t a was p a s s e d a l o n g t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n , b u t no d a t a was e v e r r e c e i v e d . I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r was a s k e d t o c o n t a c t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s two F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n s f o r some o f t h e d e t a i l s . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e no i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e a c a d e m i c f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e a g e n t o f t h e BCGEU r e f e r r e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e BCGEU t o s e e k p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e l o c a l b a r g a i n i n g u n i t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . F o r a number o f r e a s o n s t h e d a t a was u n a v a i l a b l e . Some o f t h e g u e s t i o n s were p o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e d a t a was h a r d t o g u a n t i f y o r d e s c r i b e , e.g., t h e g u e s t i o n on c o m m i t t e e s . I n a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l c o l l e g e s d i d n o t s e n d c o p i e s o f t h e i r f a c u l t y c o n t r a c t s . 105 Another problem that became apparent d u r i n g the course of the study was the absence of one common source of i n s t i t u t i o n a l data on c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community c o l l e g e s . Wherever p o s s i b l e , the background i n s t i t u t i o n a l data r e c e i v e d from the c o l l e g e s was checked a g a i n s t s i m i l a r data obtained from the M i n i s t r y of Labour's Research O f f i c e , the p r o v i n c i a l government's Mediation S e r v i c e s and p r o v i n c i a l government p u b l i c a t i o n s , the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e Educators A s s o c i a t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s , and the B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c Employers A s s o c i a t i o n . C o n t r a c t A n a l y s i s Although the r e s e a r c h e r was unable to o b t a i n a copy of a l l of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements, twelve c u r r e n t c o l l e c t i v e agreements from nine c o l l e g e s were reviewed. The purpose of the c o n t r a c t u a l review was to s e n s i t i z e the r e s e a r c h e r to the scope, complexity, l e n g t h , language and tone of the d i f f e r e n t agreements. There was no i n t e n t i o n to c a r r y out an exhaustive i n t e r - c o l l e g e c o n t r a c t u a l c l a u s e by c l a u s e comparison or a n a l y s i s i n the f a s h i o n of Dennison (1987), Chandler & J u l i u s (1979) or Stewart (1983). T h i s l a t t e r type of r e s e a r c h was c l e a r l y beyond the scope and mandate of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The o b s e r v a t i o n s gleaned from the c o n t r a c t u a l a n a l y s i s were intended to supplement the f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l data, the pre-survey i n t e r v i e w s and the main o p i n i o n survey. 106 Opinion Survey A mail-out self-administered survey instrument was also used to c o l l e c t data. The opinion survey approach was selected as a primary method for securing personal opinions on s p e c i f i c aspects of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. For this portion of the study, the time period 1983-1988 was considered an optimum time frame. It was f e l t that prior to 1983 people may not accurately r e c o l l e c t c r i t i c a l events, personal experiences or opinions. It was also f e l t that 1983 was a c r i t i c a l year for B r i t i s h Columbia's community colleges, e.g., budget r e s t r i c t i o n s , d i s s o l u t i o n of the three p r o v i n c i a l councils, elimination of l o c a l school board representatives on college boards. This portion of the study involved three d i s t i n c t community college populations, i . e . , board members, senior administrators, and faculty leaders i n 13 unionized B r i t i s h Columbia community colleges. The population of board members was determined to be those board members who served from 1983 to 1988. The faculty leaders included those who had either served as a member of the l o c a l faculty bargaining unit's executive or negotiating team or both from 1983 to 1988. This portion of the study did not include any BCGEU faculty leaders. The population of senior administrators embraced a l l relevant current senior administrators, including presidents, p r i n c i p a l s , vice-presidents, campus p r i n c i p a l s , deans, directors and bursars. The names and addresses of the b o a r d members were o b t a i n e d from the B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s and the c o l l e g e s . The names and a d d r e s s e s f o r the f a c u l t y l e a d e r s and s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were o b t a i n e d d i r e c t l y from the c o l l e g e s or the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . In an e f f o r t to ensure sample s i z e s t h a t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e (Borg & G a l l 1983), the samples i n c l u d e d s i x board members, s i x f a c u l t y l e a d e r s and s i x s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s from each of the 13 c o l l e g e s . There were 78 b o a r d members; 78 s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and 78 f a c u l t y members, f o r a t o t a l of 234 p a r t i c i p a n t s . The g u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s i tems grew out of open systems t h e o r y , the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s , the f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l data and the c o n t r a c t u a l a n a l y s i s as w e l l as the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t tempted to determine the sample p o p u l a t i o n ' s o p i n i o n s of v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the r e s e a r c h problem and s u b -q u e s t i o n s , i . e . , c o m p e t i t i o n , governance , scope of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements and p r o p o s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the d i s t r i b u t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . These t h r e e s e c t i o n s employed measurement s c a l e s d e s i g n e d to measure the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s o p i n i o n s . For s t a t i s t i c a l purposes a f o u r p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e was used (Borg & G a l l 1983; Sudman & Bradburn 1982; Y i n 1984) . The s c a l e was as f o l l o w s : - 2 = s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e , - l = d i s a g r e e , +l=agree, +2=strongly a g r e e . A f o u r t h p a r t of the g u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d a number of independent v a r i a b l e s , which came from the l i t e r a t u r e . 108 They were r e l a t e d to p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n of the r e s p o n d e n t s , e . g . , age, g e n d e r , y e a r s of employment or a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n , p r i o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e . S i n c e not a l l of the independent v a r i a b l e s were a p p l i c a b l e to each of the t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s , t h r e e v e r s i o n s of t h i s s e c t i o n were d e v e l o p e d and u s e d . E v e r y e f f o r t was made to ensure the s u r v e y ' s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the f o u r p o i n t s c a l e would encourage the r e s p o n d e n t s to respond to each statement and t h e r e b y a v o i d common r a t i n g e r r o r p r o b l e m s . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o at tempted to address such i s s u e s as double b a r r e l l e d g u e s t i o n s , l e a d i n g g u e s t i o n s , l e n g t h of time to complete the s u r v e y , and o t h e r s i m i l a r f a c t o r s (Borg & G a l l 1983; Sudman & Bradburn 1982) . The g u e s t i o n n a i r e was checked by an e x p e r t i n the development of g u e s t i o n n a i r e s and then p i l o t e d . A number of changes were made as a r e s u l t of the p i l o t t e s t . The d a t a was a n a l y z e d u s i n g d e s c r i p t i v e and i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s . N o n - p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s , e . g . , C h i - s g u a r e t e s t , and p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s , e . g . , F t e s t , were used i n the a n a l y s i s . 109 4 PRE-SURVEY INTERVIEWS The i n f o r m a l p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s were the next s tage i n the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s , d e s c r i b e s the sample, comments on the i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s and p r e s e n t s a s y n o p s i s of the f i n d i n g s . The l a t t e r i n c l u d e s a number of proposed m o d i f i c a t i o n s to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . PURPOSE The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s was m u l t i f o l d . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s would b u i l d on the l i t e r a t u r e , a s s i s t w i t h the development of the main s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t and s e n s i t i z e the r e s e a r c h e r to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s . The i n t e r v i e w s were a l s o conducted to s o l i c i t i d e a s from l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i t i o n e r s f o r i m p r o v i n g the c u r r e n t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . As noted i n Chapter T h r e e , i t was a l s o expected t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s would add a g u a l i t a t i v e d i m e n s i o n to the s t u d y . In r e t r o s p e c t a l l of the o b j e c t i v e s were a c h i e v e d . SAMPLE T h i r t e e n l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i t i o n e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d . They r e p r e s e n t e d a c r o s s s e c t i o n of e x p e r t s f a m i l i a r w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p u b l i c s e c t o r , i n c l u d i n g h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . G i v e n the i n f o r m a l n a t u r e of the i n t e r v i e w s , t h e r e was no attempt to adhere to a r i g i d s t r a t i f i e d random sample r e p r e s e n t i n g the t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s to be s t u d i e d . R a t h e r , the l i s t was c o m p l i e d through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s and r e f e r r a l s . The sample was l i m i t e d to a manageable s i z e and f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , e . g . , economics , t ime c o n s t r a i n t s , was l i m i t e d to p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Lower M a i n l a n d . The sample i n c l u d e d : F a c u l t y T . Kozar F a c u l t y member, B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y J . Sayre F a c u l t y member, C a p i l i n o C o l l e g e J . S h i e l d s P r e s i d e n t , B r i t i s h Columbia Government Employees Union J . Waters P r e s i d e n t , C o l l e g e - I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1985-87 Human Resource D i r e c t o r s - C o l l e g e s D. Jones D i r e c t o r of Human Resources Vancouver Community C o l l e g e U . Haag D i r e c t o r of Human R e s o u r c e s , Kwantlan C o l l e g e I l l Human Resource D i r e c t o r s - O t h e r P o s t - S e c o n d a r y I n s t i t u t i o n s R. B e l l D i r e c t o r of Human R e s o u r c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y E . Stewart D i r e c t o r of P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Human Resource D i r e c t o r - P r i v a t e S e c t o r R. Sawka D i r e c t o r of Human R e s o u r c e s , DOMTAR Former D i r e c t o r of Human R e s o u r c e s , Douglas C o l l e g e Independent R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s K. B i g e s b y B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s B. G a l l a g h e r Labour Lawyer Chairman, W o r k e r ' s Compensation Board Former V i c e - c h a i r m a n , B . C . Labour R e l a t i o n s Board L . Hobbs D i r e c t o r , B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c E m p l o y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n Former D i r e c t o r of Human R e s o u r c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y P r o v i n c i a l Government 's M e d i a t i o n S e r v i c e s F . Long M e d i a t o r INTERVIEW PROCESS The m a j o r i t y of the i n t e r v i e w s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the same time p e r i o d and f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r f o r m a t . They were conducted p r i m a r i l y d u r i n g A p r i l of 1986, but i n o r d e r to round out the sample , t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n the summer of 1988. C o n s i d e r i n g the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s , the s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e of the t o p i c , the need to e s t a b l i s h a sense of t r u s t w i t h each p a r t i c i p a n t and to ensure the 112 p a r t i c i p a n t s c o o p e r a t i o n , the d e c i s i o n was made to conduct the i n t e r v i e w s i n an i n f o r m a l manner (Yin 1983) . P r i o r to the s t a r t of the i n t e r v i e w s a l i s t of t o p i c s was c o m p i l e d . The l i s t was expanded s l i g h t l y d u r i n g the course of the i n t e r v i e w s . The i t e m s , which were based on the l i t e r a t u r e and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : - l a b o u r c l i m a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia - l a b o u r c l i m a t e i n i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e g e s - i m p l i c a t i o n s of r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and u n i o n s - a d v e r s a r i a l b a r g a i n i n g and c o l l e g i a l i t y - d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p u b l i c s e c t o r - d i f f e r e n c e s between the p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r s - i m p a c t of the c o m p o s i t i o n of the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s -management r i g h t s - s c o p e of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements - a p p o i n t m e n t of board members - i m p a c t of f i n a n c i a l re t renchment on b a r g a i n i n g - p r o v i n c i a l u n i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s - t i m e r e g u i r e d to n e g o t i a t e c o l l e c t i v e agreements - p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g - i m p a c t of c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s on n e g o t i a t i o n s - l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y on the n e g o t i a t i n g teams - m e d i a t i o n , a r b i t r a t i o n and f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n - s i n g l e team b a r g a i n i n g - s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s - c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n making - c o m p o s i t i o n of the n e g o t i a t i n g teams - t r u s t - r e s p e c t - t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e g o t i a t o r s - u s e of t h i r d p a r t i e s i n n e g o t i a t i o n s - i m p a c t of p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , e . g . , p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e - l o c a l autonomy and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g - d i f f e r e n c e s between f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n t r a c t s - s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g b a r g a i n i n g - i m p a c t of government p o l i c i e s on b a r g a i n i n g By and l a r g e , these t o p i c s were g e n e r a l l y c o v e r e d but not a l l of the areas were covered w i t h each p e r s o n . The t o p i c s , however, were not d i s c u s s e d i n the same o r d e r or i n the same 113 c o n t e x t d u r i n g each i n t e r v i e w . The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n tone and l a s t e d between one and two hours e a c h . Notes were kept d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s which were r e c o m p i l e d f o l l o w i n g each i n t e r v i e w . In the absence of a f o r m a l c o d i n g system the r e s e a r c h e r had to be c a r e f u l not to e d i t o r i a l i z e or to add any p e r s o n a l thoughts t h a t were not e x p r e s s e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . D u r i n g s u c c e e d i n g i n t e r v i e w s the r e c o m p i l e d notes were used to c l a r i f y s p e c i f i c i tems r a i s e d i n the p r e v i o u s i n t e r v i e w s and to e x p l o r e new t o p i c s . At the c o n c l u s i o n of the i n t e r v i e w s , the r e s p o n s e s were r e v i e w e d and grouped i n t o b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s . The r e a c t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s to the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s was one of i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm and c o o p e r a t i o n . G i v e n the s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e of the t o p i c , s e v e r a l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s s p e c i f i c a l l y asked t h a t t h e i r comments be o f f the r e c o r d and t h a t the c o n v e r s a t i o n not be r e c o r d e d . In s p i t e of some of these c o n c e r n s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were c a n d i d and appeared to welcome the o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Each p r a c t i t i o n e r o f f e r e d to pursue the i n t e r v i e w at a l a t e r d a t e . SYNOPSIS The r e s p o n s e s to the i n t e r v i e w s were c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o b r o a d h e a d i n g s . Those c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d p r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r c l i m a t e , c o l l e g e l a b o u r c l i m a t e s , autonomy, governance , p r e v i o u s n e g o t i a t i o n s , n e g o t i a t i n g teams, s e c t o r d i f f e r e n c e s , 114 f a c u l t y and f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , m i s c e l l a n e o u s and suggested m o d i f i c a t i o n s . P r o v i n c i a l Labour C l i m a t e D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e . I t was p o i n t e d out that a v e r y h i g h percentage of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p u b l i c s e c t o r l a b o u r f o r c e s are u n i o n i z e d . I t was a l s o noted t h a t over the y e a r s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the l a s t f i v e y e a r s , t h e r e had been an i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a b o u r u n i o n s and the S o c i a l C r e d i t government. There appeared to be a g e n e r a l consensus among the f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h a t many of the t e n s i o n s i n the p u b l i c c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s d u r i n g the p a s t few y e a r s were a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the haphazard p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s of the government. These i n c l u d e d an absence of l o n g range budget g u i d e l i n e s f o r the c o l l e g e s and s t r a t e g i c p l a n s f o r p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and manpower. There was a f e e l i n g t h a t the government was p l a c i n g the l o c a l c o l l e g e and i n s t i t u t e boards i n almost i m p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to l a b o u r m a t t e r s . They p e r c e i v e d t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was compounded by the government ' s i n t e r e s t i n p r i v a t i z a t i o n , r e d u c t i o n i n funds f o r p e o p l e s e r v i c e s , and a n t i - u n i o n s t a n c e . Concern was a l s o e x p r e s s e d about the government ' s use of f e d e r a l t r a n s f e r payments f o r n o n - e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Two 115 p e o p l e f a m i l i a r w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and who had a t r a d e u n i o n o r i e n t a t i o n , e x p r e s s e d the p e r c e p t i o n that perhaps t h e r e was l e s s support f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g than i n the pas t because the t r a d e s s t u d e n t s were p o t e n t i a l t rade u n i o n members. A c r o s s s e c t i o n of those i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t t h a t i n the e a r l y years of the New Democrat ic P a r t y ' s mandate that t h e r e was l e s s c o n f r o n t a t i o n between l a b o u r and management. One e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n f o r t h i s was that the New Democrat ic P a r t y was s u p p o r t i v e of l a b o u r and d i d not d i s c o u r a g e u n i o n i z a t i o n i n the f l e d g l i n g community c o l l e g e s . One f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , however, e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t i n the end the New Democrat ic P a r t y p r o v e d t h a t they were no b e t t e r than the p r e v i o u s S o c i a l C r e d i t government. C o l l e g e Labour C l i m a t e s Many of the p a r t i c i p a n t s mentioned the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s . A l o n g t h i s v e i n they commented on the impact of c o l l e g e b o a r d s , c o l l e g e l e a d e r s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. C o l l e g e B o a r d s . There were a number of d i v e r s e views expressed r e g a r d i n g the c o l l e g e b o a r d s . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , one f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f e l t t h a t the g u a l i t y of the boards had improved d r a m a t i c a l l y once the s c h o o l board members were d r o p p e d . H i s p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t w h i l e they were on the 116 c o l l e g e boards the s c h o o l board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i d not unders tand h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n or the r o l e of a community c o l l e g e , undermined f a c u l t y p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and h e l d a p u b l i c s c h o o l m e n t a l i t y toward l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . Another f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e agreed t h a t the g u a l i t y of the board members had improved i n r e c e n t y e a r s and s a i d t h a t i n s p i t e of the p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e of the b o a r d s , the board members were committed to h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l f e l t tha t the board members' l o y a l t y to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s superseded p a r t y o b l i g a t i o n s and t h a t board members a s t u t e l y used t h e i r p o l i t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s to the advantage of t h e i r c o l l e g e s . On the n e g a t i v e s i d e , t h e r e was a p e r s p e c t i v e that the p o l i t i c a l l y a p p o i n t e d board members were and always would be h e s i t a n t to c h a l l e n g e those who had a p p o i n t e d them. T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g tough economic t imes or when the government i n t e r f e r e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s autonomy, the l o c a l board members would not speak out a g a i n s t the government ' s a c t i o n s f o r f e a r of r e p r i s a l s . One n o n - f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d t h a t some board members appeared to be more c o n s e r v a t i v e than the government. Under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , some f e l t tha t t h e r e would be i n c r e a s e d b o a r d - f a c u l t y c o n f l i c t i n the y e a r s ahead. A p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s a i d t h a t there was v e r y l i t t l e t r u s t between the c o l l e g e s and the t h e i r f a c u l t y and f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s sent iment was echoed by o t h e r s and a f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 117 f e l t t h a t the b e h a v i o u r of the c o l l e g e boards and c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d a l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r the f a c u l t y . P e r s o n a l i t i e s . Many of those i n t e r v i e w e d commented on the importance of the p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d . They a t t r i b u t e d some of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the g e n e r a l c o l l e g e and l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e s to those i n l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s . A number of n o n - f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t the f a c u l t y l e a d e r s were n a i v e about the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o l l e g e s . They a l s o f e l t t h a t some f a c u l t y l e a d e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d on the n e g o t i a t i n g teams because they had p e r s o n a l axes to g r i n d . D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s the p r a c t i t i o n e r s made r e f e r e n c e a g a i n and a g a i n to the impact of p e r s o n a l i t i e s on the c o l l e g e c l i m a t e s and l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e s . P r i m a r i l y , those comments f o c u s e d on the c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t and s e c o n d a r i l y on the b o a r d c h a i r m a n . Many of those i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t t h a t the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r ' s e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , e x p e r i e n c e s , a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , management s t y l e , p e r c e p t i o n s of f a c u l t y and u n i o n s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , e x p e c t a t i o n s and o t h e r s i m i l a r f a c t o r s , se t the tone of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n each c o l l e g e . One f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e gave an example of a c o l l e g e where the p r e s i d e n t was a u t h o r i t a r i a n , u n c o o p e r a t i v e and a n t i - u n i o n , w h i l e h i s s u c c e s s o r was j u s t the o p p o s i t e . In t h i s example, i t was noted t h a t t h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l change i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e from one p r e s i d e n t to the n e x t . Another f a c u l t y member s a i d t h a t w h i l e a c o l l e g e 11.8 p r e s i d e n t had to be f a i r and tough, the p r e s i d e n t a l s o had to l i s t e n and u n d e r s t a n d the f a c u l t y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . S e v e r a l people c i t e d s p e c i f i c examples of dominant board chairmen and t h e i r n e g a t i v e a f f e c t on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s . W h i l e many r e c o g n i z e d the s h o r t term impact of a dominant board chairman, they f e l t t h a t i t was r e a l l y the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r t h a t a f f e c t e d a c o l l e g e ' s l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e . One p e r s o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n s o m e c a s e s t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s h a d been born out through the mandatory i n s t i t u t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s . Communications and I n f o r m a t i o n . There was a common i n t e r e s t i n u n f e t t e r e d access to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Some of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t those c o l l e g e s w i t h p o s i t i v e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e s appeared to be the ones w i t h easy and open access to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e d a l a c k of s e c r e c y and a w i l l i n g n e s s to d i s c u s s i s s u e s openly at a l l l e v e l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . An e x p e r i e n c e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s a i d t h a t o f t e n a l o t of time was wasted at the b e g i n n i n g of b a r g a i n i n g a r g u i n g over each o t h e r ' s i n f o r m a t i o n or m i s i n f o r m a t i o n . One a d m i n i s t r a t o r f e l t t h a t i t was c r i t i c a l f o r c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to communicate d i r e c t l y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l f a c u l t y members r a t h e r than have to go t h r o u g h the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . One f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sugges ted t h a t i f f a c u l t y members were a l l o w e d to s i t on the c o l l e g e boards and that i f t h e r e was more of a b a l a n c e between p o l i t i c a l a p p o i n t e e s and f a c u l t y members, then there may be l e s s s e c r e c y and l e s s i n s t i t u t i o n a l t e n s i o n . One 119 example of c o o p e r a t i o n between a c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n was where one c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t had a p p o i n t e d u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to t h r e e s e n i o r management commit tees . Autonomy S e v e r a l people r a i s e d the matter of board autonomy w i t h r e s p e c t to a broad range of i s s u e s . A number of the p e o p l e who had d i r e c t involvement i n community c o l l e g e s s a i d t h a t the government had become more than j u s t a p r o v i d e r of funds and t a l k e d about p r o v i n c i a l i n t r u s i o n s i n t o c o l l e g e autonomy. As examples of these changes, they c i t e d the changes i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of l o c a l c o l l e g e b o a r d s , the appointment of board members w i t h o u t term, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f o r m u l a f u n d i n g , the mandatory f i v e year i n s t i t u t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s , and the p e r c e i v e d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s a f t e r the d i s s o l u t i o n of the t h r e e a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l s i n 1983. As o u t l i n e d i n the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e A c t , the l a t t e r t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o u n c i l s were supposed to c o o r d i n a t e f u n d i n g and program development throughout the c o l l e g e sys tem. S e v e r a l p e o p l e c i t e d the government ' s former Compensation S t a b i l i z a t i o n Program, as another example of the government ' s i n t e r f e r e n c e i n f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Another p e r s o n w i t h a f a c u l t y p e r s p e c t i v e gave a s p e c i f i c example of where the p o l i t i c i a n s and M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s , r a t h e r than the Board 120 and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , appeared to be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the academic programming of one i n s t i t u t i o n . A p u b l i c s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , however, suggested that many of the c o l l e g e b o a r d s , as w e l l as many f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , had u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to government f u n d i n g and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . In o t h e r words, d u r i n g a p e r i o d of re t renchment i t was p o l i t i c a l l y n a i v e to assume the government would c o m p l e t e l y r e s p e c t l o c a l autonomy and take a hands o f f p o s t u r e s i n c e they p r o v i d e d the m a j o r i t y of funds to o p e r a t e the c o l l e g e s . The same p e r s o n f e l t tha t many p u b l i c s e c t o r a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g c o l l e g e s , had a narrow v i s i o n of t h e i r mandate and had not been a g g r e s s i v e enough i n d e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t e sources of r e v e n u e . T h i s p e r s o n went on to say that the government was l i k e l y to respond more p o s i t i v e l y to those c o l l e g e s that i n i t i a t e d a number of l o c a l f i n a n c i a l i n i t i a t i v e s than those c o l l e g e s who depended on p r o v i n c i a l h a n d o u t s . In o r d e r to r e v e r s e the r e c e n t d e c l i n e i n the f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s of the c o l l e g e s , t h i s p e r s o n suggested t h a t the c o l l e g e s s h o u l d d e v e l o p p r o j e c t s and s e r v i c e s t h a t would enhance t h e i r f u n d i n g base , thereby i n c r e a s i n g the c o l l e g e s ' p o l i t i c a l l e v e r a g e . G e n e r a l l y , b o t h management and academic p e r s o n n e l f e l t t h a t the a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r of the S o c i a l C r e d i t government had p o l i t i c i z e d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n which i n t u r n had a f f e c t e d the l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e i n the p u b l i c c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s . 121 Governance D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t i t u t i o n a l governance and l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s was d i s c u s s e d by a number of p e o p l e . The f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s drew a t t e n t i o n to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o r i g i n s , f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h u n i o n s , e d u c a t i o n , working c o n d i t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s f a c u l t y g r o u p s , e . g . , academic f a c u l t y , v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y . I t was suggested by a number of p e o p l e t h a t t h e academic f a c u l t y viewed themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The n o t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m c o u p l e d w i t h the t r a d i t i o n of c o l l e g i a l i t y i n the u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r s e c t o r made t h a t group of f a c u l t y more i n c l i n e d to want to maximize t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . They p o i n t e d out that s i n c e f a c u l t y are not a l l o w e d to s i t on c o l l e g e boards and t h e r e are o f t e n inadeguate academic c o u n c i l s , perhaps some f a c u l t y groups t u r n e d to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and the c o l l e c t i v e agreement, to ensure p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy. From the p e r s p e c t i v e of s e v e r a l academic f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , those c o l l e g e s which had good l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e s were those w i t h comprehensive c o l l e c t i v e agreements t h a t e n s h r i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and f a c u l t y power i n the agreements . One f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d t h a t t h e r e was c l e a r l y a g r e a t d e a l of d i f f e r e n c e among the c o l l e g e s i n t h i s r e g a r d . A c c o r d i n g to a number of those i n t e r v i e w e d the v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y , due to t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d s , may not share the same i n t e r e s t i n . 122 p r o f e s s i o n a l mat ters as the more academic o r i e n t e d f a c u l t y . The r e s u l t they s a i d was that the v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y c o n t r a c t s f o c u s e d on more b a s i c l a b o u r i s s u e s , e . g . s a l a r i e s , b e n e f i t s , are s i m p l e and do not c o n t a i n many of the governance c l a u s e s of the academic f a c u l t y c o n t r a c t s . Those f a m i l i a r w i t h the s e p a r a t e v o c a t i o n a l u n i o n ' s s i t u a t i o n s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n some c o l l e g e s t h e r e was so l i t t l e t r u s t and r e s p e c t and the p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s o t e n s e , t h a t m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o l l e c t i v e agreements were becoming a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y to ensure s t a b i l i t y w i t h i n the c o l l e g e s . P r e v i o u s N e g o t i a t i o n s There were a number of comments r e l a t e d to the impact of e a r l i e r c o l l e c t i v e agreements on c u r r e n t l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the c o l l e g e s . One f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e suggested t h a t d u r i n g the next few y e a r s t h e r e c o u l d be more t e n s i o n between f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s and c o l l e g e b o a r d s , as the boards at tempted to recoup what they p e r c e i v e d to be l o s t management r i g h t s . T h i s sent iment was echoed by a c r o s s s e c t i o n of the p r a c t i t i o n e r s . S e v e r a l p e o p l e w i t h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b i a s suggested t h a t i n the f o r m a t i v e days the board members who had been a p p o i n t e d by the New Democrat ic P a r t y s u p p o r t e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t a number of c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the day gave up too many management r i g h t s . They went on to suggest t h a t t h i s problem was compounded by the f a c t t h a t i n many c a s e s , the e a r l y c o n t r a c t s were 123 n e g o t i a t e d by the academic v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s . On t h i s p o i n t , the view was e x p r e s s e d t h a t the academic v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s ' l a c k of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , p r e v i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , b i a s toward f a c u l t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , and t h e i r d e s i r e not to o f f e n d t h e i r s t a f f , s i m p l y gave away too many management r i g h t s . Not u n l i k e the c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s the academic v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s were seen as academic l e a d e r s and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e was the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t academic v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d not serve on c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g teams. A f a c u l t y p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t was e x p r e s s e d suggested t h a t p r i o r to c e r t i f i c a t i o n , the f a c u l t y were at the whims of the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e t u r n e d to c e r t i f i c a t i o n out of f r u s t r a t i o n . They s a i d that t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n o f t e n appeared to be a r e s u l t of u n i l a t e r a l and a r b i t r a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s , as w e l l as an apparent l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r the f a c u l t y by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the board members. I t was mentioned t h a t many of the v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y were p a r t of the BCGEU when they were t r a n s f e r r e d from the p r o v i n c i a l government ' s v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s to s e v e r a l of the c o l l e g e s as per S e c t i o n 29 of the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e s A c t . In a d d i t i o n , many of the t r a d e s f a c u l t y came out of u n i o n i z e d i n d u s t r i e s so t h a t they were more f a m i l i a r w i t h t rade unions than the academic f a c u l t y . A f a c u l t y member s a i d t h a t some of the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s were and s t i l l are p e r c e i v e d to be q u i t e l e f t 124 w i n g . T h i s p e r s o n p o i n t e d out t h a t when the facul ty -a s s o c i a t i o n s sought a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the o n l y p e o p l e t h a t were prepared to o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e were the o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r u n i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y some of the more r a d i c a l l a b o u r u n i o n s . N e g o t i a t i n g Teams A d m i n i s t r a t i v e N e g o t i a t i n g Teams. Many of the p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d h e l d s t r o n g views on the membership and the c o n t i n u i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams. There was a g e n e r a l consensus t h a t a c o l l e g e ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g team s h o u l d not be c h a i r e d by a board member, a c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t or an academic v i c e - p r e s i d e n t . There was a l s o a s t r o n g f e e l i n g t h a t a p r e s i d e n t or v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s h o u l d not even serve on a c o l l e g e ' s n e g o t i a t i n g team. The r a t i o n a l e was t h a t i t was the f u n c t i o n of these two p o s i t i o n s to m o t i v a t e the f a c u l t y and to d e v e l o p team s p i r i t . The p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t i f they were on a c o l l e g e ' s n e g o t i a t i n g committee , they may compromise t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as c o l l e g e l e a d e r s . One p e r s o n s a i d t h a t i t was i m p e r a t i v e f o r a p r e s i d e n t and a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t to be f r e e to i n f o r m a l l y a s s i s t w i t h the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and to ac t as playmakers i n the b a c k g r o u n d . Another p o i n t was that the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d as a n e g o t i a t o r are not n e c e s s a r i l y the s k i l l s of an a d m i n i s t r a t o r and v i s a - v e r s a . There was, however, support from a l l q u a r t e r s f o r an i n f l u e n t i a l member of the board to serve as a member of a c o l l e g e ' s committee . The thought was t h a t i t was good f o r the board to be aware of what was g o i n g on at the b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e s i n c e the board would u l t i m a t e l y have to r a t i f y the c o n t r a c t . The r a t i o n a l e f o r not h a v i n g the P e r s o n n e l Committee of the Board handle n e g o t i a t i o n s was t h a t the e n t i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e c o u l d then be b y - p a s s e d and t h a t a c o l l e g e ' s board members were not u s u a l l y i n a p o s i t i o n to be c o g n i z a n t of the l e g a l nuances of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . An a d m i n i s t r a t o r suggested t h a t i f a c o l l e g e ' s b a r g a i n i n g team c o n s i s t e d of o n l y board members or i f i t i n c l u d e d the c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t , the f a c u l t y would expect too much from the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and would be d i s s a t i s f i e d r e g a r d l e s s of the s e t t l e m e n t . Another comment was t h a t i f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e team c o n s i s t e d of board members or the p r e s i d e n t , t h a t i t would be p e r c e i v e d there would not be a f u r t h e r i n t e r n a l c o u r t of a p p e a l . Both a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s agreed that c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g y i e l d e d the bes t r e s u l t s when the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e team was c h a i r e d by a D i r e c t o r of Human Resources or the e g u i v a l e n t . There was r e c o g n i t i o n , however, of the d i f f e r e n c e between the l a r g e and s m a l l c o l l e g e s w i t h r e s p e c t to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f and the r o l e t h a t the b u r s a r o f t e n p l a y e d i n the s m a l l e r c o l l e g e s . I t was noted t h a t i n one s m a l l c o l l e g e where t h e r e was no D i r e c t o r of Human R e s o u r c e s , a board member w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e had made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . S e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d t h a t members of the two n e g o t i a t i n g teams s h o u l d be i n t e r n a l s t a f f r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l c o n s u l t a n t s or l a w y e r s . G e n e r a l l y , the f a c u l t y and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r s d i s l i k e d the use of e x t e r n a l agents i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . F a c u l t y N e g o t i a t i n g Teams. A number of o b s e r v a t i o n s were a l s o o f f e r e d about the f a c u l t y b a r g a i n i n g teams. The f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about how d i f f i c u l t i t was to get f a c u l t y to p a r t i c i p a t e on c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g teams. There was a l s o some concern e x p r e s s e d about the f a c u l t y who became i n v o l v e d because of a p e r s o n a l need, a p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m , or t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s . From the f a c u l t y ' s p o i n t of view i t was c r i t i c a l tha t the f a c u l t y members on the n e g o t i a t i n g team had to have adequate r e l e a s e time to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . I t was mentioned that the t r a d e s f a c u l t y u s u a l l y had to teach more hours per week than the academic s t a f f and t h a t t h e r e was o f t e n j u s t one or two i n s t r u c t o r s per s u b j e c t a r e a . The r e s u l t was that the t r a d e s f a c u l t y o f t e n found i t more d i f f i c u l t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g than the academic f a c u l t y . The p o i n t was a l s o made that o f t e n the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , e . g . Human Resource Managers , who d i d the b a r g a i n i n g f o r t h e i r c o l l e g e s u s u a l l y d i d not have many o ther a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s p e r c e i v e d i n e q u i t y t h e r e f o r e p l a c e d the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n n e g o t i a t o r s at a disadvantage. S e v e r a l f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s a i d that the key to e n s u r i n g the best f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s was to p r o v i d e workload r e l i e f . They f e l t that the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s should be prepared to compensate the c o l l e g e s f i n a n c i a l l y f o r the r e l i e f time. People r e c o g n i z e d that there were some f a c u l t y who d i d not o f f e r to serve on the b a r g a i n i n g teams because they w e r e s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r working c o n d i t i o n s , they were f r u s t r a t e d with t h e i r work or the c o l l e g e , they simply d i d not want to become i n v o l v e d with union a c t i v i t i e s , they d i d not want to be p e r c e i v e d as t r o u b l e makers or they considered unions beneath t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . i One of the g r e a t e s t concerns expressed by a l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , was the l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y on the f a c u l t y b a r g a i n i n g teams from one c o n t r a c t to the next c o n t r a c t . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n was g u a l i f i e d to some extent i n that some people f e l t the turn over was l e s s p r e v a l e n t among the v o c a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s than the academic a s s o c i a t i o n s . The l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y appeared to c r e a t e a number of s i g n i f i c a n t problems f o r both the management and f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams. Taken together, these concerns i n c l u d e d a l a c k of h i s t o r i c a l background i n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i o u s c o n t r a c t u a l i s s u e s ; a l a c k of s e n s i t i v i t y to the c o n t r a c t language; u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s ; r i g i d b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s ; an i n a b i l i t y of the f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t o r s to say no to d e p a r t m e n t a l p r o p o s a l s and t h e r e f o r e an i n a b i l i t y to se t b a r g a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s which r e s u l t e d i n too many i tems on the t a b l e ; an i n a b i l i t y to know when to move on i s s u e s or when to s t r i k e a d e a l ; a l a c k of knowledge w i t h r e s p e c t to m e d i a t i o n , a r b i t r a t i o n and the e n t i r e l e g a l p r o c e s s ; and a l a c k of s e n s i t i v i t y to the nuances of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f . An e x p e r i e n c e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a i d t h a t each new round of new t a l k s u s u a l l y r e g u i r e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e team to t r a i n the f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t o r s . He s a i d t h a t i t was f r u s t r a t i n g to always be d e a l i n g w i t h new f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t o r s . One p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d t h a t i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e , f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s were the most d i f f i c u l t s e c t o r to d e a l w i t h i n m e d i a t i o n due to the l a c k of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e . I t appeared t h a t the h i g h f a c u l t y t u r n o v e r r a t e c r e a t e d a d d i t i o n a l t e n s i o n s d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s at a time when the emphasis s h o u l d be on r e s o l v i n g the i s s u e s . S e c t o r D i f f e r e n c e s Those w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n o ther s e c t o r s , e . g . , p r i v a t e s e c t o r , u n i v e r s i t i e s , p u b l i c i n s t i t u t e s , commented on s e v e r a l p o i n t s r e l a t e d to the d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i o u s s e c t o r s . There were a number of comments r e l a t e d to the heterogeneous c o m p o s i t i o n of the v a r i o u s f a c u l t y b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s . I t was suggested by s e v e r a l p e o p l e t h a t the d i v e r s e mix of i n s t r u c t o r ' s backgrounds , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and f u n c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e s to a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s , a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h i n some f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n . They s a i d t h a t t h i s d i v e r s i t y o f t e n l e a d s to a l a c k of e q u i t a b l e working c o n d i t i o n s and mutual r e s p e c t w i t h i n the same a s s o c i a t i o n , which i n t u r n c o n t r i b u t e s to i n t e r n a l u n i o n t e n s i o n s . S e v e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e o p l e f e l t t h a t i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y e a s i e r w i t h the v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y than w i t h the academic f a c u l t y and t h a t the v o c a t i o n a l c o n t r a c t s were more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . One human r e s o u r c e d i r e c t o r s a i d t h a t u n l i k e the c o l l e g e s e c t o r , i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f o f t e n do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n many of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s , the l i n e s of a u t h o r i t y are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , d e c i s i o n s are o f t e n top down, p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l a r i e s are o f t e n n e g o t i a t e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , s a l a r i e s are o f t e n based on m e r i t and t h e r e are u s u a l l y f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e p l a n s . U n l i k e some of the o ther s e c t o r s , t h e r e appeared to be a common p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the p r e s e n t c o l l e c t i v e agreements s t r e s s e g u i t y and m e d i o c r i t y , do not p r o v i d e any i n c e n t i v e s f o r the s t a f f and do not a d e g u a t e l y r e c o g n i z e or compensate f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s among the members of the j o i n t a c a d e m i c - v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . D u r i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h e r e were o f t e n r e f e r e n c e s to p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and u n i o n i s m . Some of the n o n - f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t once the f a c u l t y had j o i n e d c e r t i f i e d b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s , they f o r f e i t e d the r i g h t to be c a l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s and were r e a l l y j u s t employees . A l o n g t h i s same 130 l i n e of thought , these same p a r t i c i p a n t s g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d the c o l l e c t i v e agreements to be n o t h i n g more than t r a d i t i o n a l b l u e c o l l a r c o n t r a c t s w i t h t h e i r emphasis on r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . Y e t , s e v e r a l f a c u l t y members s a i d how amazing i t was to see the v a r i a t i o n i n the f a c u l t y c o n t r a c t s , g i v e n t h a t each c o l l e g e o f f e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same academic programs, o p e r a t e s under the same l e g i s l a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s under s i m i l a r f u n d i n g arrangements . Among the p r a c t i t i o n e r s some c o l l e g e ' s c o n t r a c t s were r e c o g n i z e d as comprehensive f a c u l t y o r i e n t a t e d c o n t r a c t s that gave the r e s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s a g r e a t d e a l of say i n the development of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s . Other l e s s comprehensive c o n t r a c t s were p e r c e i v e d to be management dominated c o n t r a c t s . A number of p o i n t s were made r e l a t e d to c o n t r a c t s e t t l e m e n t s , to s t r i k e s and to l o c k o u t s . S e v e r a l people commented t h a t i n the c o l l e g e s e c t o r t h e r e are few i n c e n t i v e s f o r e i t h e r the boards or the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s to s e t t l e q u i c k l y , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t c o n t r a c t t a l k s o f t e n take e i g h t e e n months to s e t t l e . Two n o n - f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d t h a t , as compared to the v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y , the academic f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n n e g o t i a t o r s tend to c a r r y on p r o t r a c t e d d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o n t r a c t u a l i s s u e s . On t h i s p o i n t one f a c u l t y member s a i d , "What do you expect? T h i n g s move s l o w l y i n a c a d e m i a " . 131 S e v e r a l n o n - f a c u l t y p e o p l e noted t h a t i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and sometimes i n c e r t a i n areas of the p u b l i c s e c t o r , c o n t r a c t t a l k s and work stoppages are s h o r t i n d u r a t i o n . They a t t r i b u t e d t h i s to the number of i n c e n t i v e s to s e t t l e , e . g . , l o s s of p e r s o n a l and c o r p o r a t e income. S e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d that the absence of p r i v a t e s e c t o r market l i k e c o n d i t i o n s i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , i n c l u d i n g h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , o f t e n p r o l o n g e d n e g o t i a t i o n s . A f a c u l t y member s a i d that he f e l t t h a t the Compensation S t a b i l i z a t i o n Program had i n t r o d u c e d market l i k e c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e two management people f e l t t h a t the program i n t e r f e r e d w i t h f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I t was a l s o noted t h a t under the A c t , c o l l e g e boards are r e q u i r e d to r e t u r n any s a v i n g s from a l o c k o u t to the p r o v i n c i a l government thereby e l i m i n a t i n g an i n c e n t i v e f o r u s i n g l o c k o u t s as an o f f e n s i v e weapon. The p a r t i c i p a n t s sugges ted s e v e r a l o t her reasons f o r s l u g g i s h s e t t l e m e n t p e r i o d s . They s a i d that the c o l l e g e s are not c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s by the government and t h e r e f o r e the f a c u l t y do not have much p o l i t i c a l l e v e r a g e at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . They noted t h a t at the l o c a l l e v e l , e s p e c i a l l y i n the more r u r a l communit ies , the c o l l e g e f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t some of the top wage earners i n the community and a l o n g w i t h t h e i r f r i n g e b e n e f i t s , e . g . , h o l i d a y s , weekly c l a s s r o o m h o u r s , s a b b a t i c a l s , are not l i k e l y to r e c e i v e much l o c a l community sympathy i n the event of a s t r i k e . One p e r s o n s a i d t h a t i n a p r o t r a c t e d l a b o u r d i s p u t e i n the Lower M a i n l a n d , s t u d e n t s c o u l d c o n s i d e r t r a n s f e r r i n g to 132 o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , thereby f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g the power of a f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n . Both f a c u l t y and n o n - f a c u l t y people s a i d t h a t i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , the f a c u l t y are c l i e n t o r i e n t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t h e r e f o r e are not g e n e r a l l y s t r i k e p r o n e . F a c u l t y and F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n s In a d d i t i o n to the i tems mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , a number of o t h e r i s s u e s were r a i s e d w i t h r e s p e c t to the f a c u l t y s i d e of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . A concern e x p r e s s e d by s e v e r a l p e o p l e , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r background, was the f i n a n c i a l i n e q u i t y between the c o l l e g e s and f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s to f i n a n c e l e g a l c o u n s e l , l a b o u r c o n s u l t a n t s , g r i e v a n c e s and a r b i t r a t i o n s . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the BCGEU has an advantage i n t h i s area s i n c e i t o f f e r s t r a i n i n g courses i n a number of areas and has l a r g e f i n a n c i a l and human r e s o u r c e bases upon which to draw. The l o c a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , on the o ther hand, are l a r g e l y dependent on t h e i r own l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . One person sugges ted that these i n e g u i t i e s among the a s s o c i a t i o n s was why t h e r e appeared to be a r e s u r g e n c e of i n t e r e s t i n the B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e -I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n ' s approach to c o o r d i n a t e d l e g a l a d v i c e . A l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d w h i l e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the C o l l e g e - I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n and the BCGEU was c o r d i a l , t h e r e was some f e e l i n g on the p a r t of the BCGEU t h a t the C o l l e g e - I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n and i t s member a s s o c i a t i o n s wanted a l l of the 133 b e n e f i t s of o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r but were not p r e p a r e d to j o i n or suppor t t h e . m a i n stream l a b o u r movement. The l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a l s o suggested t h a t the BCGEU's hard f i g h t f o r i n c r e a s e d s a l a r i e s and a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s had i n d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t t e d the non-BCGEU f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Someone s a i d i t was s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , g i v e n a c o l l e g e ' s p e r s o n n e l c o s t s r e p r e s e n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70% to 80% of the c o l l e g e ' s o p e r a t i n g budget , the B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s was not more a c t i v e i n the f i e l d of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . Another p o t e n t i a l source of t e n s i o n t h a t was i d e n t i f i e d was the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a g n a t i o n of the c o l l e g e f a c u l t y . I t was p o i n t e d out that t h e r e appeared to be l e s s and l e s s c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , f a c u l t y o f t e n taught the same c o u r s e s year a f t e r y e a r , f a c u l t y i n the s m a l l e r c o l l e g e s were g e n e r a l l y i s o l a t e d from peers i n t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e and few f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n u n i v e r s i t y s t y l e r e s e a r c h or c o n s u l t i n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t these c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d l e a d to f a c u l t y boredom, f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , which i n t u r n c o u l d i n d i r e c t l y i n c r e a s e the t e n s i o n w i t h i n a c o l l e g e . I t was f e l t t h a t these p o t e n t i a l l y f r u s t r a t e d or bored f a c u l t y may attempt to vent t h e i r p e r s o n a l concerns v i a the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . S e v e r a l people w i t h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b i a s observed t h a t perhaps one of the reasons f o r t e n s i o n between the two p a r t i e s at the n e g o t i a t i n g t a b l e was t h a t f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t e n p r e s e n t the same r e q u e s t s year a f t e r y e a r . They s a i d t h e r e appeared to be a l a c k of new approaches by the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g c o l l e g e and l a b o u r p r o b l e m s . They suggested t h a t f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s appeared to have d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g b a r g a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s and c o n s e g u e n t l y too many i tems were o f t e n p l a c e d i n i t i a l l y on the t a b l e . S i m i l a r l y , i t was noted that the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s always asked f o r c o n c e s s i o n s from the c o l l e g e s and r a r e l y , i f e v e r , d i s p l a y e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to d i s c u s s ways of i n c r e a s i n g the f a c u l t y ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s or p r o d u c t i v i t y . P r o v i n c e - W i d e B a r g a i n i n g There were d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to the matter of p r o v i n c e - w i d e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . A l t h o u g h the BCGEU r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f a v o u r e d p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g , a l l of the n o n - f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t s and a l l of the academic f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one, were a g a i n s t any form of p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g . Those i n f a v o u r of l o c a l b a r g a i n i n g s a i d t h a t i t was i m p e r a t i v e that the c o l l e g e s r e t a i n the r i g h t to manage t h e i r own i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s . They f e l t the c o l l e g e s were too d i v e r s e and t h a t i n the l o n g run p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g would p u l l each c o l l e g e down to the lowest common denominator , would i n h i b i t l o c a l autonomy, and would not a l l o w the c o l l e g e s to respond to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . As noted above, one non-BCGEU f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f e l t tha t i n o r d e r to i n c r e a s e the p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e on the p r o v i n c i a l government, t h a t at some p o i n t i n the f u t u r e , i t may be more 135 advantageous to b a r g a i n f o r c e r t a i n i t e m s , e . g . , s a l a r i e s , at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l r a t h e r than at a l o c a l l e v e l . C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g and C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , b o t h l a b o u r and management p a r t i c i p a n t s o f f e r e d a number of g e n e r a l comments on c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , i n c l u d i n g v a r i o u s c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Many of the most e x p e r i e n c e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s f e l t that the c u r r e n t model of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was an e f f e c t i v e way to handle n e g o t i a t i o n s and i t worked bes t when e x p e r i e n c e d n e g o t i a t o r s were i n v o l v e d . While they agreed t h a t the p r o c e s s i s a d v e r s a r i a l , they a l s o suggested t h a t i t i s the best way to ensure t h e r e i s a b a l a n c e of power between employers and employees . I t appeared from the comments, t h a t some of the more e x p e r i e n c e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s approached n e g o t i a t i o n s as a problem s o l v i n g e x e r c i s e , w h i l e the i n e x p e r i e n c e d n e g o t i a t o r s appeared to approach n e g o t i a t i o n s i n a more c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l manner. One person sugges ted t h a t i f the government would s top m e d d l i n g i n the f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e would r e t u r n to n o r m a l . Some p r a c t i t i o n e r s , however, were not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r e s e n t system and made a number of s u g g e s t i o n s that are l i s t e d i n the s e c t i o n on suggested m o d i f i c a t i o n s . I t was noted that c e r t i f i c a t i o n under the Labour Code i n c l u d e d access to the t r a d i t i o n a l p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s such as s t r i k e s , l o c k o u t s , m e d i a t i o n and a r b i t r a t i o n . In d i s c u s s i n g m e d i a t i o n , i s was p o i n t e d o u t tha t a l e g a l l o c k o u t or s t r i k e cannot be c a l l e d u n t i l a mediator i s a p p o i n t e d and h i s r e p o r t i s f i l e d w i t h the government. Those i n t e r v i e w e d who had f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e w i t h m e d i a t i o n s a i d t h a t i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , m e d i a t i o n worked b e s t when there was s u f f i c i e n t p r e s s u r e on both s i d e s to s e t t l e , when t h e r e was a r e a l commitment by b o t h s i d e s to s e t t l e , when one s i d e was i n e x p e r i e n c e d , when one s i d e needed to save f a c e , when one s i d e needed a s s i s t a n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s g o a l s and p r i o r i e s , when one s i d e needed a s s i s t a n c e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and when one s i d e d i d not f u l l y comprehend the l e g a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Some went on to say t h a t m e d i a t i o n sometimes preformed a problem s o l v i n g r o l e . One e x p e r i e n c e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s a i d t h a t i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e , impasses at the c o l l e g e l e v e l were f a r more d i f f i c u l t to r e s o l v e through m e d i a t i o n than p r i v a t e s e c t o r d i s p u t e s or o t h e r p u b l i c s e c t o r d i s p u t e s . I t was mentioned t h a t i n the event of an impasse , under B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Labour Code, b o t h p a r t i e s have to m u t u a l l y agree to proceed to a r b i t r a t i o n u n l e s s i t i s a p a r t of t h e i r c o n t r a c t . In t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e many of the p a r t i c i p a n t s suggested t h a t v e r y few c o l l e g e s and f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s proceeded to a r b i t r a t i o n . There appeared to be an almost unanimous f e e l i n g among the human r e s o u r c e o f f i c e r s and the academic f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s that a r b i t r a t i o n was too b l u n t an i n s t r u m e n t f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . For many of the p r a c t i t i o n e r s , a r b i t r a t i o n was an u n a c c e p t a b l e method of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n on the b a s i s t h a t i t r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s of c o n t r o l over l o c a l m a t t e r s . For many, the r e s o l u t i o n of i n t e r n a l c o l l e g e problems v i a the a s s i s t a n c e of an e x t e r n a l t h i r d p a r t y was an u n a c c e p t a b l e method of c o n f l i c t management. They suggested that g e n e r a l l y a r b i t r a t i o n does not appear to r e s o l v e the u n d e r l y i n g problems t h a t l e a d to the impasse , tha t an a r b i t r a t o r g e n e r a l l y appears to s p l i t the two p o s i t i o n s and t h a t a r b i t r a t o r s o f t e n o n l y address the monetary i s s u e s and i g n o r e many e s s e n t i a l non-economic i s s u e s . The l a t t e r , i t was p o i n t e d o u t , are o f t e n the causes of some of the r e a l i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s i n the c o l l e g e s . On the o ther hand, those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the BCGEU, f e l t t h a t a r b i t r a t i o n was an a c c e p t a b l e form of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . They r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t took t i m e , was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a d v e r s a r i a l n a t u r e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and s u i t e d the needs of t h e i r members. A number of people from b o t h s i d e s , suggested t h a t i f e i t h e r the c o l l e g e or the f a c u l t y f e l t s t r o n g l y enough about an i s s u e , they s h o u l d e x e r c i s e t h e i r r i g h t to s t r i k e or l o c k o u t . I t was noted that the c o l l e g e s ' l o c k o u t o p t i o n had r a r e l y been u s e d . On t h i s p o i n t , one p r a c t i t i o n e r sugges ted that u n l i k e the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , t h e r e i s not much of an i n c e n t i v e f o r the c o l l e g e boards to e x e r c i s e t h e i r l o c k o u t o p t i o n , e . g . , no monetary i n c e n t i v e , bad p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , i n c r e a s e d bad s t a f f 138 m o r a l e . C i t i n g a c o u p l e of examples, two human r e s o u r c e d i r e c t o r s s a i d t h a t l o c k o u t s or the t h r e a t of a l o c k o u t had p r o v e d to be e f f e c t i v e i n r e s t o r i n g a b a l a n c e of power i n the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , i n c u r t a i l i n g w i l d ca t work d i s r u p t i o n s and p r e v e n t i n g sympathy s t r i k e s . Only one of those i n t e r v i e w e d had had d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n form of a r b i t r a t i o n . I t was suggested t h a t t h i s form of a r b i t r a t i o n had o n l y been used once or twice i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s . S e v e r a l people f e l t t h a t f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n was j u s t to r i s k y f o r b o t h s i d e s and r e j e c t e d i t as a means of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . One p e r s o n thought t h a t i t d i d not c r e a t e a s t r i k e l i k e p r e s s u r e , s i n c e i t d i d not have a d i r e c t impact on the f a c u l t y ' s pay cheques or the e m p l o y e r ' s r e v e n u e . One of the academic f a c u l t y f e l t t h a t the i s s u e by i s s u e form of f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n , would be an a c c e p t a b l e method of a r b i t r a t i o n . I t was p o i n t e d out that the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s was r e l a t i v e l y young and that the c u r r e n t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s needed an o p p o r t u n i t y to mature . M i s c e l l a n e o u s P o i n t s D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s s e v e r a l o ther m i s c e l l a n e o u s i tems were r a i s e d . One of those i tems was the l a c k of a common source of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the n e g o t i a t i n g teams. I t was mentioned by s e v e r a l p e o p l e , tha t o f t e n t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l 139 of unnecessary c o n f l i c t and time wasted d u r i n g the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s due to the l a c k of a common source of i n s t i t u t i o n a l d a t a . Another i tem t h a t was r a i s e d by some of the f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was the matter of l o c a l v e r s u s p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l power. A c o u p l e of f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s a i d the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s sometimes found i t v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g when they c o u l d not n e g o t i a t e w i t h the people who had the u l t i m a t e f i n a n c i a l power; the p r o v i n c i a l government. They suggested t h a t t h i s was o f t e n the b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n s r e l a t e d to p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g . S e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s had had p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s i n g l e team b a r g a i n i n g at one i n s t i t u t i o n . One a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a i d t h a t r e l a t i o n s among the a d m i n s t r a t i o n and the f a c u l t y had d e t e r i o r a t e d to t h a t p o i n t where they had to t r y something r a d i c a l i n o r d e r to s a l v a g e the r e l a t i o n s h i p . While the D i r e c t o r of Human Resources and a l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e were p o s i t i v e about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s i n g l e t e a m ' b a r g a i n i n g , one f a c u l t y member was not as e n t h u s i a s t i c . T h i s l a t t e r p e r s o n s a i d that w h i l e the s i n g l e team n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s was i n i t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , u n f o r t u n a t e l y the c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t v a n i s h e d a f t e r the agreement was s i g n e d . He r e p o r t e d that the two s i d e s r e v e r t e d to an a d v e r s a r i a l s tance r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of one s e c t i o n of the agreement soon a f t e r i t was r a t i f i e d . I t was suggested t h a t s i n g l e teams b a r g a i n i n g was one a p p r o a c h , but t h a t i t may work o n l y when and where there was a g r e a t d e a l of t r u s t and c o o p e r a t i o n . One p e r s o n 140 "mentioned t h a t s i n g l e team b a r g a i n i n g was b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by another B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . i n s t i t u t i o n . SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING The p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s produced a number of s u g g e s t i o n s aimed at i m p r o v i n g the c u r r e n t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i n the u n i o n i z e d community c o l l e g e s . In some cases the s u g g e s t i o n was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of s e v e r a l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e i n o t h e r cases a s u g g e s t i o n came from one of the p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The suggested m o d i f i c a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y aimed at i m p r o v i n g the c u r r e n t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g system r a t h e r than p r o p o s i n g r a d i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s to the system. Suggested M o d i f i c a t i o n s S e v e r a l of the n o n - f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t tha t i s s u e s s h o u l d not be l e f t to f e s t e r d u r i n g the l i f e of a c o n t r a c t . I t was recommended t h a t c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , e x c l u d i n g s a l a r i e s and b e n e f i t s , s h o u l d be s u b j e c t to n e g o t i a t i o n when they occur or at r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g the y e a r . For example, the n e g o t i a t i n g teams s h o u l d meet t h r e e or f o u r t imes per year to d e a l w i t h emergent i s s u e s . Based on one member's e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , i t was suggested t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n to c o n t i n u o u s c o n t r a c t s which c o u l d be amended at any time by a l e t t e r of agreement s i g n e d by both p a r t i e s . A human r e s o u r c e s o f f i c e r suggested t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out i n an i n f o r m a l atmosphere and the s e a t i n g o r g a n i z e d i n such a way t h a t the people from the two s i d e s c o u l d s i t s i d e by s i d e i n s t e a d of ac ross the t a b l e from one a n o t h e r . Two human r e s o u r c e o f f i c e r s suggested t h a t i n i t i a l l y , c o n t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n s s h o u l d a v o i d d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s i n terms of f o r m a l c o n t r a c t l a n g u a g e . T h i s approach would a l l o w the p a r t i e s to c o n c e n t r a t e on the i s s u e s and to f o c u s on s o l v i n g mutual problems i n s t e a d of h a v i n g to d e a l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the i s s u e s and the l a n g u a g e . The nuances of the f o r m a l c o n t r a c t u a l language c o u l d be s o r t e d out a f t e r a g e n e r a l consensus had been reached on the i s s u e s . Perhaps one of the most common m o d i f i c a t i o n s proposed by a wide spectrum of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s , was that t h e r e s h o u l d be mechanisms to ensure c o n t i n u i t y on the f a c u l t y b a r g a i n i n g teams over an extended p e r i o d of t ime , e . g . , s t a g g e r e d terms. Another i d e a put f o r t h by s e v e r a l of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s and a government o f f i c i a l , was that t h e r e s h o u l d be j o i n t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s f o r the f a c u l t y , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and board members. S e v e r a l people recommended t h a t these s e s s i o n s s h o u l d be sponsored by the p r o v i n c i a l government ' s M e d i a t i o n S e r v i c e s . I t was p o i n t e d out by the BCGEU r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h a t the BCGEU 142 c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d e s t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Two human r e s o u r c e s o f f i c e r s and a government o f f i c i a l suggested t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n to the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , new ways of i m p r o v i n g the i n t e r n a l communications had to be found to improve the b e f o r e and a f t e r n e g o t i a t i o n s c l i m a t e . I t was noted t h a t t r u s t and improved communications c o u l d not be l e g i s l a t e d . For example i t was suggested that there s h o u l d be r e g u l a r meetings between the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the e x e c u t i v e of the l o c a l f a c u l t y and suppor t s t a f f unions to e x p l o r e i tems of mutual c o n c e r n . S i m i l a r l y , i t was recommended that c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n to e s t a b l i s h i n g a j o i n t management-union c o n t r a c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n committee . The committee, which c o u l d a l s o be the two n e g o t i a t i n g teams, would be charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of m o n i t o r i n g the c o n t r a c t d u r i n g i t s l i f e and attempt to r e s o l v e d i f f i c u l t i e s as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . I t was recommended that a r b i t r a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e s o l v e d q u i c k l y and t h a t the time frames s h o u l d be s h o r t e r , e . g . , f a s t t r a c k e d . S e v e r a l n o n - f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t that the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s r e q u i r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e to e s t a b l i s h r e a l i s t i c g o a l s and b a r g a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s . 143 Both f a c u l t y and n o n - f a c u l t y p r a c t i t i o n e r s agreed w i t h the concept of r e l e a s e time f o r f a c u l t y members to p a r t i c i p a t e i n f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I t was suggested t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be on the b a s i s t h a t the F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n s re imburse the c o l l e g e s f o r the r e l e a s e t i m e . Based on one human r e s o u r c e o f f i c e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n b o t h the c o l l e g e and the p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , i t was suggested that the c o l l e c t i v e agreements s h o u l d d e a l w i t h o n l y b a s i c economic mat ters and a l l o t h e r i tems s h o u l d be se t out i n m u t u a l l y agreed to p o l i c i e s . U n l i k e many of the o t h e r p r a c t i t i o n e r s , s e v e r a l n o n -f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n to moving away from the t r a d i t i o n a l " i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s " or a d v e r s a r i a l approach to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and f o c u s on v a r i o u s problem s o l v i n g approaches to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . One human r e s o u r c e s o f f i c e r suggested s i n g l e team b a r g a i n i n g as an o p t i o n . There was a l s o the o b s e r v a t i o n that s i n g l e team b a r g a i n i n g was not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h economic i s s u e s . C o n t r a r y to many of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s v i e w s , a government o f f i c i a l and a human r e s o u r c e s o f f i c e r suggested that the Labour Code was i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c o l l e g e f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . The i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t the f a c u l t y 144 a s s o c i a t i o n s s h o u l d d e c e r t i f y and c o n s i d e r u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e methods to determine s a l a r i e s and working c o n d i t i o n s . One f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e suggested that i n the f u t u r e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n to some form of p r o v i n c e - w i d e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r the non-BCGEU f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h another f a c u l t y member was a s t r o n g advocate of l o c a l c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e suggested that under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , p r o v i n c e - w i d e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g might be worth c o n s i d e r a t i o n i f i t were l i m i t e d to s a l a r i e s and b e n e f i t s . A f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e suggested that t r i p a r t i t e b a r g a i n i n g , i . e . , government, c o l l e g e s , f a c u l t y , c o u l d r e p l a c e the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e of l o c a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n - c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i o n s . A c r o s s s e c t i o n of p r a c t i t i o n e r s sugges ted that there s h o u l d be a common source of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n that both p a r t i e s c o u l d a c c e s s . One human r e s o u r c e s o f f i c e r suggested some form of the Compensation S t a b i l i z a t i o n Program s h o u l d remain i n d e f i n i t e l y . There was almost unanimous agreement t h a t the P r e s i d e n t and the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t Academic s h o u l d not be on a c o l l e g e ' s b a r g a i n i n g team. There was a g e n e r a l consensus that the p r o v i n c i a l government s h o u l d p r o v i d e the c o l l e g e and i n s t i t u t e boards w i t h three to f i v e year budget g u i d e l i n e s . Both f a c u l t y and n o n - f a c u l t y p r a c t i t i o n e r s suggested that one board member s h o u l d be a on a c o l l e g e ' s n e g o t i a t i n g team. 146 5 FACTUAL INSTITUTIONAL DATA Chapter F i v e r e p r e s e n t s another p a r t of the s t u d y ' s m u l t i-pronged approach to c o l l e c t i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . I t s e t s out the purpose f o r g a t h e r i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d . PURPOSE Chapter F i v e s e r v e d s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s . One of the main purposes was to o b t a i n f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l t h a t would complement and expand on the o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s . Another purpose was to o b t a i n f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t might shed l i g h t on a s p e c t s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the d a t a would a l s o a s s i s t w i t h the development of the main s u r v e y . The i tems t h a t were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l g u e s t i o n n a i r e were based on the l i t e r a t u r e , the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . 147 DATA COLLECTION P r o c e s s and Sources A v a r i e t y of sources were used to o b t a i n the data f o r t h i s s e c t i o n of the s t u d y . The main source of i n f o r m a t i o n was a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was m a i l e d to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o l l e g e s . In a d d i t i o n to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , d a t a was a l s o o b t a i n e d from a number of secondary s o u r c e s . These i n c l u d e d o f f i c i a l government documents and p u b l i c a t i o n s , cor respondence w i t h o f f i c i a l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s M i n i s t r y of L a b o u r , and s t a t i s t i c s produced by the B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c Employers A s s o c i a t i o n . L i m i t a t i o n s A l t h o u g h the i n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v e d to be a r i c h source of i n f o r m a t i o n , i t had a number of l i m i t a t i o n s . Ten c o l l e g e s agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p o r t i o n of the s t u d y . The c o l l e g e s which d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e they s u p p o r t e d the s t u d y , they were unable to p a r t i c i p a t e due to l i m i t e d b u d g e t s , l i m i t e d s t a f f i n g , and severe time c o n s t r a i n t s . S i m i l a r r e s t r a i n t s were a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the d a t a s u b m i t t e d by s e v e r a l of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o l l e g e s i n t h a t some of the d a t a that was s u b m i t t e d was i n c o m p l e t e . I t became apparent t h a t many c o l l e g e s do not m a i n t a i n comprehensive or e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e f i l e s r e l a t e d to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . 148 In o r d e r to determine the p o p u l a t i o n s from which to draw the s t u d y ' s samples , one p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e asked f o r the names of the f a c u l t y who had s e r v e d on e i t h e r the l o c a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e , the l o c a l n e g o t i a t i n g team or b o t h . The r e s e a r c h e r was u n a b l e to o b t a i n the r e q u i r e d f a c u l t y l i s t s from one of the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s and, f o r a number of r e a s o n s , the names of the f a c u l t y l e a d e r s of f i v e BCGEU v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n l o c a l s were a l s o u n a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , the q u e s t i o n of f a c u l t y c o n t i n u i t y c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d a c r o s s the complete c o l l e g e s p e c t r u m . T h i s a l s o meant t h a t one of the academic a s s o c i a t i o n s and a l l of the s e p a r a t e v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s had to be e x c l u d e d from the s t u d y ' s main s u r v e y . At tempts to r e s o l v e a number of the p r e c e d i n g l o g i s t i c a l problems u n d e r s c o r e d the a p p a r e n t l y s e n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between some c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s and the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l as a c c e n t u a t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between the autonomous l o c a l s and the BCGEU a f f i l i a t e d l o c a l s . The l a c k of h i s t o r i c a l c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g data was not o n l y apparent i n the c o l l e g e s but a l s o i n government c i r c l e s . The P r o v i n c e ' s M e d i a t i o n S e r v i c e s do not m a i n t a i n e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s r e l a t e d to m e d i a t i o n , and what t h e r e i s , i s c o n f i d e n t i a l . Another source of secondary d a t a was the p r o v i n c e ' s M i n i s t r y of L a b o u r . The M i n i s t r y ' s p u b l i c a t i o n , the Labour Research B u l l e t i n , was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 1983, so the M i n i s t r y ' s Research Branch was c o n t a c t e d 149 d i r e c t l y . The B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c E m p l o y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n ' s s t a t i s t i c s were another source of d a t a . Each of these s e p a r a t e s o u r c e s was used to b u i l d as complete a p i c t u r e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as p o s s i b l e . Whi le most of the r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not appear to have d i f f i c u l t y i n c o m p l e t i n g the m a j o r i t y of i t e m s , the s tatement r e l a t e d to c o l l e g e committees was not c l e a r enough. T h e r e f o r e , the d a t a from t h i s i tem was not used as i n t e n d e d . In view of the p r e c e d i n g l i m i t a t i o n s , care had to be e x e r c i s e d i n drawing any system wide g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from the f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d a t a . ANALYSIS The d e s c r i p t i o n of the d a t a o b t a i n e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the o t h e r s o u r c e s f o l l o w s the seguence of the g u e s t i o n s i n the g u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s i n c l u d e s the age and s t r u c t u r e of the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s , the s t r u c t u r e of the b a r g a i n i n g teams, c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s , s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s , and g r i e v a n c e s . 150 Age and S t r u c t u r e of the B a r g a i n i n g U n i t s T a b l e 5.1 B a r g a i n i n g U n i t s C o l l e g e F i r s t F i r s t # of C e r t i f i e d Opened C o n t r a c t B a r g a i n i n g U n i t s Camosun 1971 1974 2 C a p i l i n o 1968 1974 1 C a r i b o o 1970 1976 1 Douglas 1970 1976 1 E as t Kootenay 1974 1976 1 F r a s e r V a l l e y 1974 1977 1 Kwantlan 1981 1981 1 M a l a s p i n a 1969 1974 2 New C a l a d o n i a 1969 1976 1 N o r t h e r n L i g h t s 1975 1977 1 N o r t h West 1976 1977 1 Okanagan 1963 1974 2 S e l k i r k 1965 1974 2 Vancouver 1965 1965 2 The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t , w h i l e some of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s f i r s t opened t h e i r doors i n the mid 1960 ' s , many of the f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreements were not s i g n e d u n t i l the mid 1 9 7 0 ' s . Twelve c o l l e g e s s i g n e d t h e i r f i r s t agreement between 1974 and 1977. As noted i n Chapter 1, the data c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n among the c o l l e g e s w i t h r e s p e c t to the s t r u c t u r e of the c e r t i f i e d b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s . Nine of the f o u r t e e n c o l l e g e s have one b a r g a i n i n g u n i t which r e p r e s e n t s b o t h academic and v o c a t i o n a l 151 f a c u l t y . One c o l l e g e , F r a s e r V a l l e y c o l l e g e has a b a r g a i n i n g u n i t t h a t r e p r e s e n t s academic f a c u l t y , v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y and a l l of the n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p o r t s t a f f . F i v e c o l l e g e s have s e p a r a t e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s f o r the academic and v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y . In these l a t t e r cases the v o c a t i o n a l b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s are p a r t of the BCGEU. P r i o r to the i n t e g r a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s and the community c o l l e g e s , the i n s t r u c t o r s i n the v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s were members of the BCGEU. T h i s data p o i n t s out the r e l a t i v e y o u t h f u l n e s s and the i m m a t u r i t y of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s . I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e i n the c o m p o s i t i o n and p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s as w e l l as t h e i r degree of l o c a l autonomy. N e g o t i a t i n g Teams C o l l e g e N e g o t i a t i n g Teams. Data was a v a i l a b l e on the c o m p o s i t i o n of e l e v e n c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g teams. The m a t e r i a l r e v e a l e d t h a t the number of c o l l e g e p e r s o n n e l on c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g teams ranged from t h r e e to s i x p e o p l e , w i t h an average of f o u r p e o p l e . There d i d not appear to be a d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of p e o p l e on a c o l l e g e ' s n e g o t i a t i n g team r e l a t i v e to the g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n or s i z e of c o l l e g e , e . g . l a r g e urban c o l l e g e s , s m a l l e r i n t e r i o r c o l l e g e s . The responses to the g u e s t i o n n a i r e suggest t h a t a l t h o u g h the people may change over t i m e , the p o s i t i o n s of the people who 152 serve on the team g e n e r a l l y remain f a i r l y c o n s t a n t , e . g . , D i r e c t o r of Human R e s o u r c e s , B u r s a r . The g u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not address the matter of c o n t i n u i t y on the c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g teams. P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and comments from some of those i n t e r v i e w e d would suggest t h a t u s u a l l y those who serve on c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g teams remain i n t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s f o r extended p e r i o d s of t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , as compared to f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams, t h e r e i s a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y of c o n t i n u i t y on the c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g teams. There was a h i g h degree of c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h r e s p e c t to the p o s i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d on these n e g o t i a t i n g teams. E i g h t of e l e v e n c o l l e g e s r e p o r t e d t h a t the Academic V i c e - P r e s i d e n t or e q u i v a l e n t was on the team. E i g h t of e l e v e n c o l l e g e s a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t the D i r e c t o r of Human Resources or the P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e r s e r v e d on the team. Four c o l l e g e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t at l e a s t one board member a l s o c u r r e n t l y s e r v e d on the c o l l e g e ' s team. One c o l l e g e r e p o r t e d t h a t a board member used to serve on the n e g o t i a t i n g team but t h a t t h i s was no l o n g e r the c a s e . In two of the f o u r cases the b o a r d members were the Chairman of the B o a r d ' s P e r s o n n e l Committee. Two r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o l l e g e s r e p o r t e d t h a t the c o l l e g e P r e s i d e n t s e r v e d on the n e g o t i a t i n g team. In b o t h c a s e s , a c o l l e g e board member a l s o s e r v e d on the n e g o t i a t i n g team. Three c o l l e g e s r e p o r t e d t h a t the B u r s a r was on t h e i r team. In two of these l a t t e r t h r e e c a s e s , the c o l l e g e s were s m a l l and d i d not appear to employ 153 a Human Resource D i r e c t o r or P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e r . A l l of the c o l l e g e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a v a r i e t y of o t h e r p o s i t i o n s were r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e i r n e g o t i a t i n g team, e . g . A s s i s t a n t Deans, I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r s , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t s , but t h e r e was a l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y i n these m i s c e l l a n e o u s p o s i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e are a wide v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , the make-up of the c o l l e g e s ' n e g o t i a t i n g teams was remarkably s i m i l a r and were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h comments made d u r i n g the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s . F a c u l t y N e g o t i a t i n g Teams. The data on the f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams c o n f i r m s e v e r a l of the o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s . The m a t e r i a l a l s o p o i n t s out some unique d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o l l e g e and f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams. Data on 10 f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams was a v a i l a b l e but as noted e a r l i e r , i t d i d not i n c l u d e any data on the BCGEU l o c a l s . The b a r g a i n i n g teams r e p r e s e n t e d e i t h e r combined a c a d e m i c - v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s or s e p a r a t e academic a s s o c i a t i o n s . The f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n e d more p e o p l e than the c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t i n g teams. The number of f a c u l t y on the b a r g a i n i n g committees ranged from a low of t h r e e to a h i g h of se v en , w i t h an average of s i x . Two teams i n c l u d e d the P r e s i d e n t of the F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n and s i x teams i n c l u d e d an o f f i c e r of the F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n o t h e r than the A s s o c i a t i o n s ' s P r e s i d e n t . . A l l 10 r e p o r t e d that the 154 teams i n c l u d e d members of the f a c u l t y o t h e r than j u s t members of the F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e . Four of the ten f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s s a i d t h a t t h e i r f a c u l t y at l a r g e were e l e c t e d to the n e g o t i a t i n g committee and two i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f a c u l t y were a p p o i n t e d . In s i x of the ten c o l l e g e s , the Chairman of the f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g committee was an o f f i c e r of the F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n o t h e r than the P r e s i d e n t . The p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n of the c o n t i n u i t y of f a c u l t y from one b a r g a i n i n g team to the next and the movement of p e o p l e i n and out of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s over t i m e . Most a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p o r t e d t h a t , l i k e the c o l l e g e teams, p o s i t i o n s on the f a c u l t y b a r g a i n i n g teams remained c o n s t a n t over t i m e , e . g : P r e s i d e n t of the F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n , but t h a t the people changed f r e g u e n t l y . The l i s t s of f a c u l t y members s e r v i n g on the v a r i o u s n e g o t i a t i n g teams were examined i n an e f f o r t to determine p e o p l e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the b a r g a i n i n g teams over a p e r i o d of time and the c o n t i n u i t y from one n e g o t i a t i n g p e r i o d to the n e x t . The e x a m i n a t i o n was based on seven c o l l e g e s f o r the p e r i o d 1977 through 1986. In the most s t a b l e s i t u a t i o n , n i n e p e o p l e s e r v e d on one F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n ' s n e g o t i a t i n g teams d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d of t i m e . In the most u n s t a b l e s i t u a t i o n , 33 p e o p l e s e r v e d on another F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n ' s n e g o t i a t i n g teams f o r the same p e r i o d of t i m e . On average , 18 p e o p l e s e r v e d on a F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n n e g o t i a t i n g team over a p p r o x i m a t e l y a decade . Of the 128 f a c u l t y who s e r v e d on the > 155 teams d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of t i m e , 56.25% s e r v e d on one n e g o t i a t i n g team; 27.34% s e r v e d on two n e g o t i a t i n g teams; 11.72% s e r v e d on t h r e e n e g o t i a t i n g teams; 3.9% s e r v e d on f o u r n e g o t i a t i n g teams; 0% s e r v e d on f i v e n e g o t i a t i n g teams; and l e s s than 1% s e r v e d on s i x n e g o t i a t i n g teams. While these f i g u r e s demonstrate the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of people over a ten year span, they do not d e p i c t the c o n t i n u i t y r a t e s from one b a r g a i n i n g s e s s i o n to the n e x t . For example, a f a c u l t y member may serve on a n e g o t i a t i n g team and then not serve on another n e g o t i a t i n g team f o r n i n e y e a r s . The c o n t i n u i t y r a t e s from one b a r g a i n i n g team to the next b a r g a i n i n g team v a r i e d g r e a t l y from b a r g a i n i n g s e s s i o n to b a r g a i n i n g s e s s i o n and from c o l l e g e to c o l l e g e . The c o n t i n u i t y of p e o p l e from one b a r g a i n i n g s e s s i o n to the next b a r g a i n i n g s e s s i o n ranged from a low of 26.7% i n one c o l l e g e to a h i g h of 68.8% i n another c o l l e g e . The d a t a showed t h a t , on average , 45.4% of one b a r g a i n i n g team s e r v e d on the next or subseguent b a r g a i n i n g team. These f i g u r e s by and l a r g e r e f l e c t the o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s . Depending on the year and the c o l l e g e , the p a r t i c i p a t i o n f i g u r e s , c o u p l e d w i t h the c o n t r a c t to c o n t r a c t c o n t i n u i t y r a t e s , suggest t h a t t h e r e i s the h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e w i l l be q u i t e a b i t of i n e x p e r i e n c e on the f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams. One c a u t i o n i s t h a t the g u e s t i o n n a i r e was not d e s i g n e d to determine whether or not the f a c u l t y s e r v i n g on the . v a r i o u s 156 n e g o t i a t i n g teams had had any f o r m a l l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s t r a i n i n g p r i o r to s e r v i n g on the f a c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g teams. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o d i d not address the reasons why the p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y r a t e s were not h i g h e r or lower than they were. For example, these r a t e s c o u l d be a f f e c t e d by the l e n g t h of time i t takes to s e t t l e a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, the l o n g hours of p r e p a r a t i o n t h a t are r e g u i r e d , the l a c k of workload r e l i e f f o r f a c u l t y , a budget c r i s i s , i n t e r n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n p o l i t i c s , the r e s o l u t i o n of a p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n , the amount of t e n s i o n between i n d i v i d u a l f a c u l t y and c o l l e g e n e g o t i a t o r s d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s , the l a c k of p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o c e s s and so o n . C o n t r a c t s and N e g o t i a t i o n s The a n a l y s i s of the c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d the l e n g t h of c o n t r a c t s s i g n e d , how the c o n t r a c t s were s e t t l e d and the l a g time between the e x p i r a t i o n of one c o n t r a c t and the s i g n i n g of a new c o n t r a c t . T h i r t e e n c o l l e g e s were examined i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In s p i t e of i n c o m p l e t e d a t a , t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t data to p r e s e n t a b r o a d p i c t u r e of c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s community c o l l e g e s . The d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t f o r the c o l l e g e s s t u d i e d , 106 i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r a c t s were s i g n e d d u r i n g the 1977-1986 p e r i o d . T h i s i n c l u d e d 53 c o n t r a c t s which were one year i n d u r a t i o n , 48 c o n t r a c t s between one and two y e a r s i n l e n g t h and f i v e c o n t r a c t s l o n g e r than two y e a r s . I t i s u s e f u l to d i s t i n g u i s h 157 the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e n g t h of the c o n t r a c t s a c c o r d i n g to the type of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n , i . e . , combined a c a d e m i c - v o c a t i o n a l , s e p a r a t e academic , s e p a r a t e v o c a t i o n a l . T a b l e 5.2 Length of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements Length Type of F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n of Combined Academic V o c a t i o n a l T o t a l C o n t r a c t 1 year 15 c o n t r a c t s 20 c o n t r a c t s 18 c o n t r a c t s 53 c o n t r a c t s 2 y e a r s 22 c o n t r a c t s 12 c o n t r a c t s 14 c o n t r a c t s 48 c o n t r a c t s 2+ y e a r s 5 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 5 c o n t r a c t s D u r i n g the 10 year span s t u d i e d , few c o l l e g e s and f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s opted f o r c o l l e c t i v e agreements t h a t were more than two y e a r s l o n g . A l t h o u g h the d a t a i s l i m i t e d , t h e r e appears to be some d i f f e r e n c e between the l e n g t h of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements i n terms of the type of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n i n v o l v e d . I t appears t h a t those f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s which are more homogeneous o p t e d f o r s h o r t e r c o n t r a c t s . I f t h i s data were t r a c k e d over an extended p e r i o d of time t h i s p a t t e r n may or may not c o n t i n u e . To h e l p to see t h i s p a t t e r n more c l e a r l y i t i s b e n e f i c i a l to express the p r e v i o u s d a t a i n terms of the average number of c o n t r a c t s per 158 c o l l e g e a c c o r d i n g to the type of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n and the l e n g t h of the c o n t r a c t s s i g n e d . T a b l e 5.3 Length of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements , Average Length Type of F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n of C o n t r a c t Combined Academic V o c a t i o n a l 1 y e a r 1.86 c o n t r a c t s 4.0 c o n t r a c t s 3.6 c o n t r a c t s / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e 2 y e a r s 2.75 c o n t r a c t s 2.40 c o n t r a c t s 2.80 c o n t r a c t s / C o l l e g e / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e 2+ years .63 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e T a b l e 5.3 r e v e a l s a number of i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s . The s e p a r a t e academic and v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s c l e a r l y tend toward one year agreements . In terms of two year agreements, a l l t h r e e types of a s s o c i a t i o n s are f a i r l y comparable . The s e p a r a t e v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s , however, had a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r average r a t e of two year c o n t r a c t s . Without c o n d u c t i n g i n depth i n t e r v i e w s r e l a t e d to each c o n t r a c t , i t was i m p o s s i b l e to determine the r a t i o n a l e f o r the one y e a r , two year and t h r e e year c o n t r a c t s . 159 Another area of i n t e r e s t was the method used to s e t t l e each c o n t r a c t . The d a t a o b t a i n e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and o t h e r sources i s b e s t d e p i c t e d i n c h a r t f o r m . T a b l e 5.4 C o l l e c t i v e Agreements , Method of S e t t l e m e n t Method of Type of F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n S e t t l e m e n t Combined Academic V o c a t i o n a l T o t a l B a r g a i n i n g 26 c o n t r a c t s 30 c o n t r a c t s 24 c o n t r a c t s 80 c o n t r a c t s M e d i a t i o n 11 c o n t r a c t s 3 c o n t r a c t s 5 c o n t r a c t s 19 c o n t r a c t s A r b i t r a t i o n 4 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 4 c o n t r a c t s F i n a l O f f e r 3 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 3 c o n t r a c t s The data c l e a r l y s u b s t a n t i a t e s what was s a i d i n the p r e - s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w s . E i g h t y of the one hundred and s i x c o n t r a c t s s t u d i e d d u r i n g t h i s 10 year p e r i o d were s e t t l e d by f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . An a d d i t i o n a l 19 were s e t t l e d through m e d i a t i o n . Only seven were s e t t l e d through i n t e r e s t a r b i t r a t i o n or f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n . Not o n l y do the more homogeneous academic and v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s tend toward one year c o n t r a c t s , they tend to s e t t l e t h e i r agreements through the f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s i s as opposed to the use of m e d i a t i o n , a r b i t r a t i o n or f i n a l o f f e r s e l e c t i o n . T a b l e 5.5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the same 160 p a t t e r n e x i t s when the above d a t a i s e x p r e s s e d i n terms of the number of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n each of the three types of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . T a b l e 5.5 C o l l e c t i v e Agreements , Method of S e t t l e m e n t , Average Method of Type of F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n S e t t l e m e n t Combined Academic V o c a t i o n a l B a r g a i n i n g 3.25 c o n t r a c t s 6.00 c o n t r a c t s 4 . 80 c o n t r a c t s / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e M e d i a t i o n 1.38 c o n t r a c t s .60 c o n t r a c t s 1.00 c o n t r a c t s / C o l l e g e / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e A r b i t r a t i o n .50 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s / C o l l e g e / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e F i n a l O f f e r .36 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s 0 c o n t r a c t s / C o l l e g e / c o l l e g e / c o l l e g e The more heterogeneous combined a c a d e m i c - v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s appeared to r e q u i r e more a s s i s t a n c e to s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s than the s e p a r a t e academic and s e p a r a t e v o c a t i o n a l f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s p a t t e r n may be due to chance a l o n e and t h e r e f o r e a more l o n g i t u d u a l view i s p r o b a b l y needed to d i s c e r n a s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n over t i m e . One might i n a d v e r t e n t l y assume that s i n c e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75% of the c o n t r a c t s were s e t t l e d w i t h o u t any form of t h i r d 161 p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e i f any t e n s i o n i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . One of the concerns e x p r e s s e d i n the i n t e r v i e w s was the l e n g t h of time i t o f t e n took to n e g o t i a t e new c o n t r a c t s . T h e r e f o r e , the time between the end of one c o n t r a c t and the time a new c o n t r a c t was s i g n e d was examined. T h i s i n t e r v a l of time i s r e f e r r e d to as the l a g t i m e . In r e v i e w i n g the d a t a , the l a g time between the e x p i r a t i o n of one c o n t r a c t and the s u c c e s s f u l agreement on a new c o n t r a c t appeared to be one of the few i n d i c a t o r s of t e n s i o n among some of the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s and the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . The d a t a were based on the same 106 c o n t r a c t s c i t e d \ e a r l i e r . Of those c o n t r a c t s , 15 were e l i m i n a t e d due to l a c k of l a g time d a t a . Another n i n e were e l i m i n a t e d because the c o n t r a c t s were s i g n e d p r i o r to the e x p i r a t i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements . In o t h e r words, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% of the c o n t r a c t s s t u d i e d were s i g n e d p r i o r to the e x p i r a t i o n of an e x i s t i n g agreement. These r e p r e s e n t e d f o u r combined a s s o c i a t i o n s , f o u r s e p a r a t e academic a s s o c i a t i o n s and one s e p a r a t e v o c a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . Almost 90% of the new c o n t r a c t s were s i g n e d a f t e r the e x p i r a t i o n of the o l d c o n t r a c t . The f o l l o w i n g l a g t imes were averaged and rounded o f f to the n e a r e s t week. 162 T a b l e 5.6 Lag T i m e s , Averages Type of Combined F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n Academic V o c a t i o n a l Lag Times 32.8 Weeks 16.4 Weeks 26.0 weeks W h i l e the l a g t imes ranged from 16 .4 Weeks to 32.8 Weeks, the o v e r a l l average was 25.6 Weeks or a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x months. There was, however, a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n each type of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n . For example: T a b l e 5.7 Lag Times , Ranges Type of F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n Range Combined Academic V o c a t i o n a l Low 19.0 Weeks 7 Weeks 10.8 Weeks . High 43.2 Weeks 27.8 Weeks 38.2 Weeks Not u n l i k e the p r e v i o u s examples , the combined f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d the l o n g e s t average l a g t ime , as w e l l as the h i g h e s t s i n g l e l a g t i m e . C o n t r a r y to the some of the 163 opinions expressed i n pre-survey interviews, the separate vocational faculty associations experienced a.much longer average lag time than the separate academic faculty associations and only s l i g h t l y less than the combined faculty associations. On this same point, i t i s worth noting that i n the f i v e colleges where there were separate academic and vocational faculty associations, a l l f i v e of the vocational a s s o c i a t i o n s had longer average l a g times. Only one separate vocational faculty association signed off a new agreement prior to the expiration of an old agreement. The preceding data indicates that there may be a pattern of behaviour among the various types of faculty associations. The data suggests that the more homogeneous faculty associations tend toward shorter contracts, tend to s e t t l e their agreements without t h i r d party intervention and tend to have shorter lag times. These figures may be indi c a t i v e of the l e v e l of c o n f l i c t or tension i n certain types of associations. Yet, the data may also r e f l e c t such factors as the negotiators' holiday patterns, the time i t takes to prepare complex negotiating strategies, the d i f f i c u l t y faculty have i n accommodating both their teaching and negotiating functions, the d i f f i c u l t y i n establishing bargaining p r i o r i t i e s for the more heterogeneous faculty associations, and other s i m i l a r factors. The data also suggest that from an administrative perspective, the separate vocational faculty 164 associations are not necessarily easier to deal with as was mentioned i n the pre-survey interviews. Strikes and Lockouts This section i s based on the same 106 contracts mentioned e a r l i e r and for the period 1977-1986. The data that was obtained from a l l sources can be described as follows: Table 5.8 Strikes and Strike Votes Type of Faculty Association Combined Academic Vocational Total Number of Strike Votes 8 1 3 12 Number of Strikes 4 1 1 6 Table 5.9 Strikes and Strike Votes, Average Type of Faculty Association Combined Academic Vocational Number of Strike Votes /College 1 .2 .6 Number of Strikes /College .5 .2 .2 165 In terms of the combined faculty associations, Table 5.8 and 5.9 reveal a similar pattern as existed i n Tables 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 and 5.7. In spite of the tensions associated with these strikes and s t r i k e votes, 94 c o l l e c t i v e agreements, or 88% of a l l the c o l l e c t i v e agreements studied during the 1977-1986 i n t e r v a l , were reached without s t r i k e votes. Ninety-four percent of a l l the agreements were settled without a s t r i k e . Although the numbers are very s m a l l , t h e more heterogeneous combined faculty associations appear to have more d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining their settlements than the more homogeneous associations. Yet, the data i s somewhat misleading i n that eight of the twelve s t r i k e s took place during the tumultuous 1981-1984 period. As mentioned i n the pre-survey interviews, the data shows that the strikes were generally of a short duration, i . e . , 1 day, 2 days, 2 days, 5 days, 14 days, and 30 days. Based on the data that were available, the main issues associated with the s t r i k e votes and the strikes appeared to involve l e v e l I items, e.g., wages, various aspects of job security. These facts suggest that changes i n the environment had guite an impact on the labour relations climates within the various colleges. After a s t r i k e i n 1977, one of the colleges and i t s respective faculty association agreed to a binding i n t e r e s t a r b i t r a t i o n clause i n their c o l l e c t i v e agreement. While there were twelve s t r i k e votes and six strikes during the 1977-1986 period, there were only two employer 166 i n i t i a t e d lockouts during this same i n t e r v a l . The data tend to support the pre-survey interviews, i n which i t was noted that college boards do not often revert to lockouts. Grievances Grievances, l i k e lag times, s t r i k e votes, strikes and lockouts, are another indicator of the labour relations behaviour within B r i t i s h Columbia's community colleges. Nine colleges responded to this part of the questionnaire. Each college had one or more grievances during the 1977-1986 period. The number of grievances for the nine colleges are as follows: 1, 6, 9, 9, 10, 16, 44, 47, 54. These figures demonstrate that three of the nine colleges experienced noticeably higher grievance levels than the other colleges during this period of time. Interestingly, these were some of the same colleges that were i d e n t i f i e d i n the pre-survey interviews as having a great deal of i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . The two colleges which had 44 and 47 grievances also had above average lag times during contract negotiations. The college with 54 grievances experienced three s t r i k e votes within a three year period. The data represent a small sample, but a longitudinal study may reveal a correlation between various factors, e.g., s t r i k e votes, s t r i k e s , grievances, contractual lag times. Although one of the colleges had only nine grievances, those grievances occurred from 1980 to 1987 with six of the nine grievances occurring i n 1984. This data 167 appears to r e f l e c t the perceptions expressed during the interviews that there was guite a b i t of variance among the colleges with respect to their i n t e r n a l labour "relations climates and that colleges were susceptible to environmental pressures. By and large the grievances appeared to be the result of in d i v i d u a l disputes or concerns, rather than the general faculty a s s o c i a t i o n disputes. For example, i n the college that had eight grievances i n 1984, a l l eight grievances were -related to i n d i v i d u a l l a y o f f s . Although there was a lack of data, generally the grievances involved such areas as hours of work, work loads, retirements, l a y o f f s , d i s c i p l i n e , contract duties, sick leave and other personal matters. The majority of the preceding items appeared to be Level I items. These issues may have been generated by individuals or by conditions beyond the control of the college and the respective faculty associations, e.g. reductions i n base funding. The data does not give any indica t i o n whether or not the bargaining process i t s e l f contributed to the grievances or whether the grievances contributed to tensions during the bargaining process. Another indicator of the behaviour within the colleges i s the way these grievances were se t t l e d . Seventy-five percent of the grievances studied were apparently either withdrawn or accommodated i n t e r n a l l y i n a mutually s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. Certainly, the l a t t e r i s an indicator of the a b i l i t y of the colleges, the faculty associations and the individuals 168 concerned to reconcile personal concerns without the use of external agents. While 25% of the grievances reguired the intervention of a t h i r d party, this figure i s deceiving. The data showed that 38 of the 49 i n d i v i d u a l grievances se t t l e d by a r b i t r a t i o n were from the college which had 54 grievances. The other 11 i n d i v i d u a l grievances that were set t l e d by a r b i t r a t i o n were s p l i t f a i r l y evenly among three other c o l l e g e s . This data suggests that generally there are few grievances i n the college system. The few that exist are handled at the l o c a l l e v e l without the use of t h i r d parties. 0 Decision Making and Committees The i n s t i t u t i o n a l guestionnaire contained a section reguesting information on the number and types of committees within each college. The objective of t h i s guestion was to determine the opportunities for the faculty to par t i c i p a t e i n the decision making process i n each college other than c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. As i t turned out this question was of limited value. It became clear upon receipt of the completed questionnaires that this s p e c i f i c question had not been designed cor r e c t l y . It did not ask the colleges for adequate information on the purpose, composition and usefulness of the various committees, nor did i t ask whether or not the committees were contractual. Notwithstanding the foregoing problems, some useful information was obtained. 169 Among the six colleges that did respond, there was a t o t a l of 37 college-wide committees. On this limited basis i t would appear that within B r i t i s h Columbia's community colleges there probably are a number of opportunities for the faculty to participate in college decision making processes besides c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. One might assume that there are numerous opportunities to resolve in t e r n a l problems and to s a t i s f y professional Level II needs through these committees. Yet, i t was not clear whether the committees had any rea l decision making power, whether the faculty were adeguately represented on the committees, whether the committees were dominated by department heads, whether the faculty f e l t they could speak out f r e e l y on these committees, whether the committees were dominated by senior college administrators, whether the faculty representatives were elected by their peers, appointed by the faculty associations or appointed by the college administration and other similar questions. SUMMARY Although Chapter Five had a number of l i m i t a t i o n s i t proved to be a good source of factual data related to the c o l l e c t i v e bargaining process i n the colleges. The material also complemented the l i t e r a t u r e and the pre-survey interviews, a l l of which assisted with the development of the main survey questionnaire. It could be argued that the small number of s t r i k e votes and s t r i k e s , coupled with the fact that many of the colleges s e t t l e their agreements and grievances without t h i r d party intervention, indicates that c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i s working well i n the colleges. Many of the comments i n the interviews and this data suggest otherwise, e.g. lag times. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the data suggest that perhaps the larger and more heterogeneous faculty associations tend to experience more d i f f i c u l t y i n managing and negotiating their agreements than the other types of associations. While the vocational associations appear to experience less d i f f i c u l t i e s than the combined associations they appear to have more d i f f i c u l t i e s than the homogeneous academic faculty associations. For the most part the strikes and grievances deal with Level I items. What i s not clear from the data i s the method used by the colleges to resolve matters of p r i n c i p l e or Level II items. The interviews suggested that these types of issues may go p a r t i a l l y unresolved, e.g., f a i l u r e of ar b i t r a t o r s to deal with these items. These issues may follow other avenues of resolution, e.g., votes of non-confidence in a college president, lack of continuity on the faculty negotiating teams. The experimental research by Deutsch & Kraus (1960) suggests that during negotiations, the passage of time hardens the participants' positions which in turn reduces the l e v e l of cooperation and increases the l e v e l of competition. As the pre-survey interviews implied, the long lag times may be due i n part to the inexperience of the negotiators. The r e l a t i v e immaturity of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i n the colleges and the pa r t i c i p a t i o n and continuity rates of the faculty negotiating teams confirm many of the observations made during the pre-survey interviews. 172 6 COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS Coll e c t i v e agreements, l i k e the i n s t i t u t i o n a l material i n Chapter Five, r e f l e c t the behaviour of college administrations and college faculty associations over time. The following sections describe the purpose of this review of c o l l e c t i v e agreements, the method used to examine the contracts, the lim i t a t i o n s of the chapter, and a number of general observations. PURPOSE The examination of 11 c o l l e c t i v e agreements served a number of purposes. One purpose was to provide a q u a l i t a t i v e overview of the contracts that would build on the data i n the previous chapters. It was also anticipated that the review would provide additional insights into the differences between the various types of faculty associations and the scope of the respective agreements. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of areas of potential c o n f l i c t was also of inte r e s t . It was also anticipated that a review of the agreements would shed some l i g h t on the implications for province-wide c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. 173 This chapter was not intended to be an i n depth quantitative analysis or comparative analysis of the various clauses (Baristow 1976; Dennison 1986) or the language of the contracts (Chandler & Julius 1979; Stewart 1983). These l a t t e r approaches to contractual analysis were well beyond the scope of this study. Rather, this portion of the research was intended to provide a very broad view of the contracts and their implications for the c o l l e c t i v e bargaining process i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community colleges. METHOD This g u a l i t a t i v e review involved several steps. I n i t i a l l y , seven c o l l e c t i v e agreements from f i v e colleges were examined i n some d e t a i l and the major items i n the agreements were roughly grouped for comparative purposes. Following thi s , f i v e other contracts, representing four colleges, were examined but i n much less d e t a i l . These 11 agreements represented combined faculty associations, separate academic faculty associations and separate vocational faculty associations. Dennison's (1986) comparative analysis of 17 community college contracts was examined and used as a benchmark for comparative purposes. LIMITATIONS There were a number of l i m i t a t i o n s associated with the review of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements. One l i m i t a t i o n was that copies of a l l of the colleges' c o l l e c t i v e agreements could not be obtained. Another l i m i t a t i o n was that the differences i n the organization, d e f i n i t i o n s , language and scope of the agreements made di r e c t comparison d i f f i c u l t . More than ten years ago, Bairstow (1976) made the same point when he said that "Currently, the format and content of community college agreements vary so widely that any attempts at comparison are d i f f i c u l t The r e s u l t was that a general q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h was taken versus a more quantitative approach. Co l l e c t i v e agreements are, i n many ways, h i s t o r i c a l records of labour relations i n the respective community colleges. Personal experience suggests that once items are placed i n an agreement they are rarely removed. The agreements, therefore, do not necessarily r e f l e c t the current state of a f f a i r s within a college. Along this same l i n e , the contracts reveal l i t t l e about the many variables that shape c o l l e c t i v e agreements, e.g., personalities, p r e s i d e n t i a l management styles, faculty morale, working conditions in the l o c a l communities, community demands, expectations of the various internal faculty interest groups, the success or f a i l u r e of j o i n t faculty-college committees, and other similar factors. OBSERVATIONS The observations were grouped into four broad areas, i . e . , the purpose of c o l l e c t i v e agreements, environmental factors, 175 contractual variations according to association type, and implications for province-wide c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. Purpose of C o l l e c t i v e Agreements It appears as i f the primary purpose of the c o l l e c t i v e agreements i s to provide a stable employment relationship for a d e f i n i t e period of time. The agreements are formal, b i - l a t e r a l , and l e g a l l y binding boundary spanning mechanisms that attempt to provide an eguilibrium between the colleges and their respective faculty associations. In this sense the contracts attempt to balance the management rights of the colleges and the faculty's desire for increased benefits, professional autonomy and so on. Although c o l l e c t i v e bargaining takes place during c y c l i c a l windows of r e l a t i v e i n s t a b i l i t y , the contracts attempt to dampen even that i n s t a b i l i t y by providing for the continuation of the existing contracts u n t i l new ones are signed. The contracts are also designed to dampen i n s t a b i l i t y during the l i f e of the agreements i n that they set out the rules of behaviour to which the two parties must adhere. The degree of s t a b i l i t y varies from one contract to another, e.g., salary scales based on academic g u a l i f i c a t i o n s , seniority clauses, layoff and r e c a l l provisions, programs that allow for the r e t r a i n i n g of existing faculty, procedures which outline the i n t e r n a l re-assignment of q u a l i f i e d faculty, position bumping, the regularization of part-time faculty, clauses protecting the 176 employees from technological change, l i s t s of acceptable mediators or arbitrators and grievance procedures. In many instances the colleges appear to counter the faculty associations' desire for more benefits and power by employing such management devices as term certain contracts for a l l faculty, regular faculty evaluations, separation clauses i n the event of program terminations, management r i g h t s c l a u s e s a n d o t h e r s i m i l a r c l a u s e s . Although the majority of the contracts contain management rights clauses, a few do not. One college has what i s referred to as a consultative clause. Personal experience suggests that many of the management rights clauses are very general. The strength of these clauses i s tempered by the scope or comprehensiveness of the respective contracts. What i s not apparent in the contracts, i s whether or not administrative practice, lack of use, or precedent, has compromised the colleges' management's rights with respect to any of the clauses i n the contracts. While a l l of the contracts examined were similar in the area of Level I items, e.g., s a l a r i e s , benefits, grievance procedures, there was a difference with respect to Level II items, p a r t i c u l a r l y governance. S p e c i f i c a l l y , there appeared to be a difference among many of the colleges in the area of faculty p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l decision making. Some colleges have many more formalized college-faculty committees than other colleges. These j o i n t committees cover such areas 1 7 7 as the selection of faculty, department heads and senior administrators; educational leave; professional development; termination; mediation; workloads; i n i t i a l salary placement; regularization of part-time faculty; non-renewal of contracts; faculty evaluations; sexual harassment; labour-management rel a t i o n s ; on-going contract management; suspensions; budget development; technological change; the pursuit of professional e x c e l l e n c e ; f a c u l t y r e d u c t i o n s ; t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s a n d the establishment and adherence to professional standards and ethics. Depending on various factors, the lack of these preceding Level II boundary spanning clauses may account for the differences i n the colleges' i n d u s t r i a l relations climates noted i n Chapter 5. Some of those factors might include the type of faculty association, the educational background or pri o r experience of the faculty, the professional expectations of the faculty or segments of the faculty associations, the management style of a p a r t i c u l a r college administration, changes in personnel, and the desire of an administration t o reduce faculty p a r t i c i p a t i o n in an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s decision making process. Faculty Associations In many ways, the contracts mirror the composition of the respective faculty associations. For example, there appeared to be a difference between the contracts of the smaller homogeneous and separate vocational faculty associations as 178 compared to the larger and more heterogeneous combined academic-vocational faculty associations. The former contracts tend to be shorter, use simple language, are less, complex and focus mainly on basic working conditions or Level I factors. These agreements often include Level I items that are generally not found i n most of the other college contracts. These items are more often associated with non-professional, support s t a f f or b l u e - c o l l a r contracts. For example, they often contain references to shop stewards, union in s i g n i a , union b u l l e t i n boards, coffee and lunch breaks, automatic bank deposits, s h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l s , overtime d i f f e r e n t i a l s , safety and health, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures, red c i r c l i n g of s a l a r i e s , protective clothing and parking. As noted i n the interviews, these separate vocational contracts appear to place less emphasis on professional matters, e.g., faculty evaluations, academic freedom, and external consulting. While some of the agreements do c a l l for j o i n t college-faculty committees, there generally appears to be fewer j o i n t college-faculty committees than those contracts which include academic faculty members. By and large the vocational faculty seem to work more hours per week and more months per year for less money than their university transfer colleagues. There was also a difference in one area of organizational power; communications. In several BCGEU contracts the college administrations were required to communicate d i r e c t l y with the BCGEU agents or the 179 President of the BCGEU rather than with l o c a l elected faculty representatives. This could well be a source of tension between a college.and i t s faculty members, just as i t could lead to charges from faculty members that the BCGEU st a f f are too far removed from the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n to be sensitive to l o c a l needs. At the other end of the spectrum are the larger and more heterogeneous combined academic-vocational faculty associations. These contracts tend to be longer, contain more d e f i n i t i o n s , use more complex language, and involve more varia t i o n s . For example, the salary scales include more variations i n academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , there are more complex d e f i n i t i o n s of employee categories, and there are more p o l i c i e s that apply only to s p e c i f i c segments of the faculty association. While there i s considerable v a r i a t i o n among this group of contracts, there i s generally more emphasis placed on Level II factors or professional matters, e.g., statements on the philosophy of various contractual clauses; complex workload formulae for each category of faculty member, program and type of in s t r u c t i o n ; professional development; study leaves; faculty evaluations; academic freedom; human rig h t s ; c o n f l i c t of interest; external consulting; authorship and copyright; college mission statements; community work; and faculty p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a wide array of j o i n t college-faculty committees. With respect to this l a s t point, there i s a great deal of d i v e r s i t y among the colleges i n th i s group. These 130 complex contracts r e f l e c t the heterogeneous nature of the respective faculty associations. While they might s e t t l e an issue or a series o