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A unit on French Canadian culture and its effects on student attitudes Krawczyk, Andrew J. 1984

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A UNIT ON FRENCH CANADIAN CULTURE AND ITS EFFECTS ON STUDENT ATTITUDES By ANDREW J. KRAWCZYK B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1973. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Social and Educational Studies) We accept this thesis as confirming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY, 1984 (c) Andrew J. Krawczyk, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT Increased open mindedness towards a l l cultures has been a long sought after objective of Canada's federal government, and also of British Columbia's Social Studies Curriculum. A principal part of this understanding in the Canadian context lies in an increased appreciation and understanding of each other's cultures by Canada's two largest cultural groups, the British and the French. In order to promote and develop such understanding, a variety of strategies have been suggested as the most effective means of promoting multicultural understanding. Studies seem to indicate that the most effective strategies combine methods of promoting awareness and appreciation of other cultures, with methods which allow for appreciation of one's own culture. It is the purpose of this study to test this hypothesis by examining whether the additional teaching of a component which leads to understanding the French Canadian culture, as a complement to a regular unit on the history of French-English relations in Canada, would increase open mindedness toward French Canadians. Because the study involves attitude change, the concept of attitudes and attitude change was examined. Attitudes in this study were defined as a summary of beliefs and evaluations which an individual may hold toward a specific situation or concept. In order to produce change, therefore, new information would have to be brought in which would question these evaluations. A number of strategies have been suggested to induce such change. The most effective, i i i however, seem to involve introducing new information through experiential strategies which would affect immediately an individual's self concept, and thus induce change. The study was carried out in a senior secondary school in North Vancouver. In 1980 two intact grade eleven classes were used. One class, which served as the control group, was taught a fourteen day unit on the history of French-English relations. The other class, which served as the experimental group, was taught a five day culture component, in addition to the history section. A quasi experimental research design was chosen, with students in both classes being asked to submit paragraph answers to the same questions before, and after, the study. Coders were trained in a method of decoding content designed by Osgood. Three coders were used for the study, and a tabulation chart was created for them to report their findings in a quantitative manner. Inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y was calculated in order to determine the degree of consistency among the coders' findings. There was a divergence in these findings, and the results can only be said to be tentative, and inconclusive. Both groups, experimental and control, had lower scores of open mindedness after the study, than before. The experimental group, however, had a far lesser drop after the study, than had the control group. The study does suggest some possibilities for further research using cultural components as strategies for increasing open mindedness among students. Among these is the possibility of trying a similar I V study among younger students, or u t i l i z i n g a more objective method of evaluating attitudes, and self concept. V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE List of Tables Chapter I Introduction to the Problem 1 Chapter II Attitudes and Attitude Change ... 6 Chapter III Details of the Study 17 Chapter IV Results and Conclusions •••• 31 Chapter V Discussion 42 Bibliography 46 Appendix A Instructions for Coders 51 Appendix B : Sample of Measuring Charts 55 Appendix C- Sample Scoring of Respondents ... 56 Appendix D The Curriculum 58 J TO. LIST OF TABLES Table No. Table I Table II i Table III Table IV Table V Table VI Table VII Page 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 T i t l e Tabulated Scores on the Pre and Post Test for the Control Group, for each Coder by Rankings Tabulated Scores on the Pre and Post Test for the Experimental Group, for each Coder by Rankings Degree of F i t among Coders using Kendall's W for Control Group Pre-Test Degree of F i t among Coders using Kendall's W for Control Group Post-Test. Degree of F i t among Coders using Kendall's W for Experimental Group Pre-Test. Degree of F i t among Coders using Kendall's W for Experimental Group Post-Test. Percentage of Change for Each Coder between Pre and Post Test results for the Experimental and Control groups. -1-CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Increased open mindedness, respect for, and awareness of a l l cultures within our society, have been stated objectives of Social Studies programmes within British Columbia schools for approximately fifteen years (British Columbia Social Studies Curriculum Guide, 1968 p.3). Multiculturalism within a bilingual framework has been a policy of the Canadian government since 1971 (House of Commons Debates, 1971). To date, however, the development of successful strategies in order to promote these objectives remains very much in the experimental and developmental stages (Kehoe, 1979; Burnet, 1981; Ijaz, 1981). Several justifications have been provided for the inclusion of those objectives.in school curriculum. In the eighteenth century, the Swiss educator J.J.. Rousseau wrote that: The highest possible level of perfection is said to have been achieved when each citizen i s , and can do, nothing without the cooperation of other citizens; the acquired resources of the col l e c t i v i t y are equal, or superior to, the sum of the natural resources of the individuals (Rousseau, 1968, p. 58). In order to f a c i l i t a t e such co l l e c t i v i t y in a varied cultural environment such as Canada's, people must f i r s t respect differences among persons. We must learn to accept, and respect our individual differences rather than -2-"search' for magic potions trying to transform (each individual) ... (to) f i t our system." (Kennedy quoted in Ross, 1969, p. 179). It is the task of multicultural education to promote such respect so that people wiLl cooperate in a multicultural society. In order to bring this about, Wright and Coombs claim that; ...multicultural education must develop the modes of reasoning for arriving at judgments concerning how people in differing backgrounds should be treated (Wright & Coombs, 1981, p. 9)., This is of primary importance in Canada. Observers have written of the existence of racism and prejudice in our society (Kehoe, 1979; Lefroy, 1973). Yet, we remain locked into a debate over what should be the appropriate responses and strategies which would promote open mindedness and respect for cultural diversity (Henley and Young, 1981). Schools have come to be recognized as a key medium for the communication of multicultural objectives. ~ Schools are social institutions. The work which they do must, therefore in the long run, reflect changes in the values and ideals of the society .that maintains and administers them. (Bramwell, 1979, p. 1). In a multicultural society, particularly in an o f f i c i a l l y bicultural framework such as Canada's, the school, as a chief agent of education, has a responsiblity to orient students toward their own cultures, and also toward the diversity of cultures which surround -3-them. As Canada contains many ethnic groups, and two o f f i c i a l languages, the schools must teach students how to live in this reality. Within the broad context of the school's role in promoting multicultural education, Social Studies play a very important function; Social Studies teaching ... helps students come to grips with human nature, to understand people - how and why they are the way they are, and through this come to understand themselves and how they relate to others. (Beyer, 1969, p. 1 4 ) . Although it is realized that Social Studies is not the only subject in which goals of multiculturalism might be realized, as Bramwell (1979) points out, the Social Studies do have as a prime function the development of the above mentioned aims. It is therefore not surprising that many Social Studies programmes, including the 1968 British Columbia Curriculum, contain objectives concerning the understanding of self, and the respecting of cultural differences. The most appropriate strategies to employ in a multicultural programme designed to change attitudes, and increase awareness, respect and open mindedness, have been the subject of much debate. The problem appears to be in deciding not just on what " i strategy should be used, but also on what the chief objective of the multicultural programme should be. Wright and Coombs (1981) suggest that the major objective should be to stress the concept of person. In order to do this, they suggest that the programme should incorporate the following six objectives. 1. Developing a sense of self worth 2. Developing a sense of "humaness", -4-and "interdependence" 3. Developing a sense of society 4. Developing an understanding of the concepts of "prejudice", "stereotyping" and "racism" 5. Developing an understanding of what harms people 6. Promoting good reasoning (Wright, Coombs, 1981 ) . These objectives point out that the key to a successful strategy in multicultural education lies partly in an understanding that awareness and appreciation of other cultures, is related to an awareness and appreciation of one's own; The key to an understanding and appreciation of other cultures and tolerance toward its members lies not in mere knowledge about cultural differences, but in an awareness of intercultural similarities and the roots of cultural diversity. (Ijaz, 1981, p. 20) Having claimed that these are objectives of multicultural education, successful strategies which would achieve them continue to be tested and tried (Bramwell, 1981; Kehoe, 1979). The purpose of this study wi l l be to determine whether a strategy consisting of learning about one's own culture and about the French Canadian culture and history, can increase open mindedness, thereby creating respect among English Canadians towards the other " o f f i c i a l " culture in our country. According to Henley and Young, multicultural education in Canada must begin with an increased appreciation of the religious and linguistic differences which exist between the French and English populations (Henley and Young, 1981). Rather than mitigate those Throughout, French Canadian culture w i l l only refer to French Canadian culture as exhibited in Quebec. - 5 -differences, as well as those related to the regionalism caused by the geographic size of our country, Canadian schools have in the past been accused of not transmitting the knowledge and attitudes necessary for respecting the diversity of Canadian society (Hodgetts, 1969). In fact, school curricula, and school textbooks throughout English Canada have been accused of containing a highly ethnocentric focus, centering on an Anglo-Saxon version of the development of Canada (Werner, 1974; Pratt, 1975). It will be the objective of this study to attempt to alter such lack of information and perspective in the curriculum and, in the process, positively affect the attitudes of British Columbia's students in order to: - "... foster an awareness of the distinctive characteristic of our multi-ethnic society." (Tomkins, 1972, p. 9). The study w i l l involve the preparation and teaching of a unit on French Canadian culture, as an addition to a prescribed unit on the history of French-English relations. Pre and post tests w i l l be given to students in the class, and results w i l l be compared to a control group which wi l l be taught a prescribed unit only. The study wi l l be carried out in a senior secondary school located in North Vancouver containing, predominantly, an English Canadian mix of students. As this was a "one-shot" study using a quasi-experimental design and a research methodology which had not been previously used in educational research, no generalizations regarding the efficacy of the intervention on other students in British Columbia or elsewhere can be formulated. - 6 -CHAPTER TWO ATTITUDES AND ATTITUDE CHANGE Attitudes have been defined in a variety of ways. Allport (1935), a psychologist, defined them as states of readiness exerting influence upon individual respones. In educational literature, "attitude" definitions have centered on the characteristic and specific origin of an attitude, as well as its application to educational theories. Zimbardo (1969) classified attitudes into distinctive categories so that educators could best distinguish them in various educational domains. According to Zimbardo, each domain meant the following; a) Affective: - a person's evaluation of, liking of, or emotional response to, some object or person. b) Cognitive: - a person's beliefs about, or factual knowledge of, the object or person. c) Behavioral: - overt actions directed toward an object or person. Bern (1970), however, very succinctly points out that these three are inextricably linked, as he states; Attitudes are likes and dislikes, (they) are made up of emotional, behavioral and social influences and cognitive reasoning. Thus, according to Bern, attitudes are our responses, favorable or unfavorable, to an object, to situations, or to any other feature of -7-our existence with which we come into c o n t a c t . These definitions, however, Leave very unclear the relationship between attitude and behavior. Does i t , for example, mean that having an attitude toward X, wiLL immediately predispose a person's behavior toward X? The issue i s whether there is a direct relationship between an attitude and behavior . Daniels (1976) deals with this matter directly. He examines attitudes from the point of view of how the word is used in our daily language. His finding is that 'attitudes' is a word used as a summary evaluation of objects, and that therefore it is possible that holding an attitude toward X, may permit someone to, on balance, state an indifference toward X. An attitude, is only one factor in a person's behavior. If I have a negative attitude toward school work, i t does not necessarily mean that I w i l l act negatively toward i t . It may be that a number of other factors such as valuing high grades or believing that the way to success in adult l i f e lies through doing well at school wi1L come into play, and I w i l l do my school work, even though I may s t i l l have a negative attitude towards school work. As Audi puts i t : -It is not single attitudes, but constellations of attitudes together with various wants and beliefs that determine what particular action a person is likely to take with respect to the object of a given attitude. (Audi, 1972, 198). The importance of the attitude, is that it involves evaluations. And: -8-Because attitudes involve evaluations, their cognitive core can i t s e l f be evaluated. Thus attitudes can be unjustifiable or justi f i a b l e , rational or not, sensible or not ... (Daniels, 1976, p. 31). Daniels therefore argues that teaching can influence attitudes. Teaching can 1) bring into question the knowledge on which attitudes are based,; 2) improve a person's understanding of the normative principles .involved and 3) improve the justifications used to defend a person's evaluations. If the evaluations and knowledge upon which attitudes are based are changed, behavior may also be modified. It is also important to distinguish between attitudes, beliefs and values. Rokeach defines beliefs as "inferences made by an observer about underlying states of expectancy (Rokeach, 1973, p. 2)." Further, he separates this concept from attitudes by stating that attitudes are "an organization of several beliefs around a specific object or situation" (Rokeach, 1973, p. 18). This concept connects very closely with Daniels'. If attitudes are summative evaluations, then a belief is a constituent of that summary. If, for example, I hold the belief that a l l French Canadians are agitated in their communications, this may lead me to have a negative attitude toward French Canadians, i f I also hold the belief that agitated communication is inappropriate. If, however, I hold the belief that only agitated communication is appropriate, then my attitudes toward French Canadians would likely be positive. Taylor (1961) provides a very useful definition of values. - 9 -A person's v a l u e s , he s t a t e s : ... include a l l the standards and rules which together make up his way of l i f e . They define his ideals and l i f e goals to f u l f i l l the standards; to follow the rules . (Taylor, 1961, p. 293). It is a statement of worth. Baier adds to our understanding of values, when he states: The values of the group differ from beliefs in that, unlike the latter, their subject matter is the good l i f e and how to come closer to i t . (Baier, 1969, p. 57). For the purposes of this study an attitude will be defined as a summary evaluation which consists of beliefs about, and evaluations of, an attitude object. Attitude Change Research has shown that attitude formation, because i t involves a personal organization of belief structures, has to be a long, on-going activity. (Bern, 1970; Newcomb, 1969; Zimbardo, 1969). In terms of attitudes toward ethnic groups, Goodman (1964) suggests that there are levels of growth in attitude formation toward others. These levels involve three distinct stages 1) ethnic awareness, 2) ethnic orientation, and 3) the emergence, of adult-like ethnic values, e.g. a respect for a member of another ethnic group. Significantly, Goodman's research points out that this final transformation occurs during adolescence, -10-...when one can understand and codify the various positive and negative differentiating ethnic Labels that one is using (it is then that) one takes on an adult-like stance. (Bennet, 1975, p.3). Attitude change, therefore, has to involve some process of affecting the on-going process of attitude acquisition and development. (Goodman, 1964) Furthermore, although a variety of research has not conclusively substantiated the theory (Ijaz, 1980; Kehoe, 1979; Goodman, 1964; and Bennett 1975) i t does suggest that adolescence would be the most effective stage to induce change. Festinger (1957) argues that this formation process can best be affected by placing an individual's beliefs , into discord with his behavior. Further, his theory states that at a l l times the mind seeks consonnance between beliefs and behavior and that i f any behavior is in dissonance with the belief, the mind then w i l l be looking for ways to return to a cognitive consonnance. The process of attitude change therefore, would have to be initiated by placing beliefs into conflict. The expectation would be that in resolving the conflict between the beliefs, a new summative attitude would result from the conflict resolution. A more specific account of how conflict resolution is brought about through the dissonance theory is suggested by Rosenberg (1960). In his work, Rosenberg claims that the process of attitude change results from an affective-cognitive inconsistency. Conflict occurs when actions do not resemble cognitive-held beliefs. If, for example, one avoided members of a particular culture because one - 1 1 -believed they were aggressive and then one met unaggressive members of that culture, the believe that a l l were aggressive would be brought into question. Within this conceptualization, the educational problem i s to decide when a communication is effective enough to produce inconsistency. Brehm and Cohen (1962) argue that in order for any communication to effect change, the new belief must induce volition and commitment. Commitment would be given to the resolution as long as the elements remain consonant. Volition would then follow, in that the individual would feel a certain responsibility over this changed attitude because of his control over i t . Communication i t s e l f , according to Fishbein (196.7) can only be effective i f ...(the learner learns something new about the concept, i f he forms a new stimulus-response association. Simply learning that S i s R w i l l not produce attitude change. (Fishbein, 1967, p. 188). According to this theory, the process of change begins with the learning of new beliefs.through either the development of new concepts or stimulus-response associations or, the changing of the individual's previous belief hierarchy. For example, an individual's held beliefs in favor of segregated housing could be questioned by indicating that desegregation could lead to "greater prestige" abroad. This, as a belief, could then override other held beliefs about segregation and, therefore, change the attitude toward segregated housing. Fishbein further explains that the degree of change w i l l be a direct result of the strength and character of the i n i t i a l attitude, -12-and how i t compares to the new attitude. The key, of course, to initiate this change wouLd have to be the individual's a b i l i t y to accept the information. , According to Rokeach (1973) such effective communication would occur only i f it somehow affects an individual's self concept. Specifically, he explains that inconsistencies occur only in cognitive systems, and they may exist below a level of awareness. The more these inconsistencies become clear, however, the more they affect self-concept. A contradiction within the cognitive system may be assumed to have no psychological import unless i t implicates self-conception. (Rokeach, 1973 P 2 2 9 ) . As an example, a farmer may pride himself on growing nutritious carrots and celery. That the local grocer tells him these vegetables do not taste any good wi l l not affect any change. If, however, he is told that his vegetables contain no nutritional value, then he would become concerned. According to Rokeach then, attitudes directly affect behavior, and w i l l change only when self-concept is brought to question. Dissonance theory has been used to try to affect attitude change toward cultural groups. The studies which will be discussed (Earnest, 1968; Ijaz, 1980; Kleg, 1970) seem to indicate that the dissonance must in some ways affect self-concept or everyday student experiences. Allport (1959) and Dewey (1967) both have stated that -13-factual information would have greater potential, to affect attitude change when those facts are related directly to the daily l i f e of the student. Earnest (1968) found that a prepared unit on human relations was more successful in affecting "open mindedness" toward varied cultural and ethnic groups than had a simple history unit in her grade nine classroom. Kleg (1970) in a study using the "Race, Caste and Prejudice" unit developed by Marion Rice at the University of Georgia (1969), found that a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant change toward more open attitudes resulted from the use of the unit with senior secondary level students (Kleg, 1970, p. 143). The unit dealt not only with a history of race relations in the U.S., and a history of ethnic cultures, i t also dealt with topics such as self awareness, the nature of discrimination, and a study of the results of prejudice. Various activities were used to stimulate discussion, involvement and questionning within the unit. Control groups and treatment groups were compared using pre and post tests on measures of knowledge and attitudes. The experimental group was taught the Race, Caste, Prejudice unit; the control group was given the regular course on the history of race relations. Although a number of hypotheses were tested, a principal finding was that: ... cognitive-affective attitudinal changes did occur due to the treatment ... immediately after the treatment. (Kleg, 1970, p. 143). A similar study was conducted by the Alleghany, Pennsylvania school d i s t r i c t in 1971. Units were developed which dealt with distinct cultures, their origins and their values. An -14-experimentaL approach was used in order to allow the experimental group contact and interaction with a variety of ethnic groups, as well as with diverse guest speakers and research a c t i v i t i e s . Pre and post attitude tests were given to the treatment group, as well as to a control group which had not used the experiental approach. The findings suggested "greater open mindedness toward ethnic groups by the experimental group (Alleghany Report, 1972)." A unit developed at Magee Secondary in Vancouver, British Columbia, dealt with a comparable problem. In presenting a unit on the North West Coast Indians, teachers sought to give students a greater awareness of the Indian culture by making them aware of the origins of their own culture. Ethnocentrism, stereotyping and the formation of values were discussed, as students learned about . the origins of values in a l l cultures. The design was a simple pre-post test format with only the treatment group being tested on semantic differental scales involving basic concepts (e.g. culture, ethnic backgrounds). The findings showed a more positive attitude toward the concepts at the conclusion of the unit. (Magee Report, 1973). Ijaz (1980) in his study found greater open mindedness when students were involved in not only learning information about another culture, but also by experiencing the other culture through direct exposure to i t and activities with its members. Using elementary children only in a suburban Toronto, Ontario setting, the programj ...combined an activity and experience approach with an emphasis on cultural similarities and the sources of cultural diversity. (Ijaz, 1980, p.18 ) -15-Within the framework of the course, the programme taught the students about behavioral patterns and situations in India by asking the students to act them out in imaginary situations and then tracing them directly to similar values and attitudes in Canadian culture, as well as other cultures. Ijaz refers to this as experimental teaching and learning. By means of a Semantic Differential Measure, the Bogardus Social Distance Scale, and an evaluation sheet, students' attitudes were assessed before and after the designed treatment. The results revealed significantly improved attitudes toward East Indians in a l l students who participated in the program, and a follow up study showed that the effects of the program were maintained three months after its conclusion. (Ijaz, 1980, p.19) In a final summation to his study, Ijaz concludes that an awareness of i n t ercultural similarities and the roots of cultural diversity can best be achieved through this kind of combined factual, affective and experiental teaching. He does point out that his findings are limited to elementary level students. However, he does add that; The program can also be modified to suit students in other grades, provided i t is adapted in content and presentation to their age, interests, and intellectual and emotional level. Care should be taken, however that the program contains both cognitive and experiential elements which are so essential for acquiring genuine knowledge, understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of another culture. (Ijaz, 1981, p. 20). -16-Summary and Conclusions Attitudes have been defined as the summary of beliefs and evaluations which an individual may hold toward a specific situation or concept. A number of strategies have been discussed which could be used to induce attitude change. Dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) suggests that the most effective method to use would be one where an individual's held beliefs would be brought to question through the introduction of new knowledge, thus prompting dissonnance in the individual's belief system. A relationship was also established between acquiring that new knowledge and subsequent behavior (Rokeach, 1973). Methods of finding the most effective means of introducing and communicating such new beliefs in order to induce attitude change toward ethnic and cultural groups have been experimented with in the educational f i e l d . Kleg (1970) points out that greater knowledge by the use of more diverse teaching techniques, improved content material, and greater student participation could lead to some positive change in attitudes toward other ethnic or cultural groups. Other studies involving either similar treatments, or designs, show comparable findings (Earnest, 1968; Alleghany, 1971; Magee, 1973). The findings, however do have some limitations such as the nature of the sample, the attitude measures used, the effect of social conditions on the study, the age group used, and the effect of the treatment over time. Ijaz (1980) emphasized the experiential method among -17-elementary children and found similar attitudinal improvements toward racial groups. His approach did not stress the s k i l l s of analyzing cultures, as much as it stressed the need for students to experience the number of values which are ;shared among cultures. The studies do point to a need to further establish the link between an improvement in the individual's a b i l i t y to reflect on our beliefs and attitude change among secondary level students, as well as the need to examine the influence of more experiential teaching on attitudes of secondary students. The theory does suggest that a unit combining increased knowledge with an experiential approach which permits the student to analyze another culture by means of understanding one's own, would induce increased open mindedness toward that culture. It w i l l be the purpose of this study to examine this hypothesis. -18-CHAPTER 3 DETAILS OF THE STUDY In order to carry out the study, a quasi experimental design was chosen. Two groups, an experimental and a control, responded to a question designed to assess their attitudes toward French Canadian culre. Both the control and experimental groups were exposed to a curriculum which dealt with the history of French-English relations in Canada. The students in the experimental group were also taught an innovative curriculum which would introduce them to French Canadian culture. This curriculum was designed with the cooperation and guidance of curriculum experts at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. The observation was done by means of content analysis of responses to the question; "How much of French culture should be allowed to survive in Canada?" Respondents in both the experimental and control groups were asked to write short paragraphs (to a maximum of 10 lines) explaining their answers. This question was given to students before, and after, the treatment period. The responses were compared using the "atomic approach to coding" as illustrated in Osgood ( 1 9 5 9 ) . The school used in this study was a senior secondary school in North Vancouver. The school enrolls students from throughout the large North Vancouver school d i s t r i c t . It contains a mix of students of various socio-economic backgrounds, with the vast majority being of -19-British origin. The study was conducted in the 1980-1981 school year. For the study, intact Grade 11 Social Studies classes composed of approximately thirty students each were used. This grade level was chosen because of the compatibility of the designed curriculum with the existing prescribed curriculum by the British Columbia Ministry of Education Social Studies Curriculum Guide, 1968. The classes were not culturally homogeneous, and were chosen randomly at the beginning of term. Furthermore, each of the comparison groups was selected in precisely the same manner (by computerized, random selection of timetable programming). However, they did reflect the predominantly white, British, middle class population which surrounds the school. The control and experimental groups were each taught by a different teacher with the experimental group being taught by the researcher. To overcome the possibility of teacher effect (Borg, 1963, p. 1 7 1 ) , the two teachers involved worked very closely in ensuring st r i c t adherence to the prepared curriculum (Appendix D). Daily consultation occurred with regard to content and pedagogy ensuring that similar teaching strategies were being used. The control group curriculum lasted fourteen periods, each period being approximately 100 minutes in length, while the experimental treatment continued for an additional five periods. The attitude question was given to students in both groups on the f i r s t day of the study, and was repeated at the end of fourteen periods for the control group, and at the end of nineteen periods for the experimental -20-group. The common curriculum content used for both the control and the experimental groups was designed to be congruent with material already available for the Social Studies course. Most of the references were standard textbooks supplied by the Ministry of Education. In addition, some original material was introduced (see Appendix D). The cultural component of the curriculum, which was used only by the experimental group, was designed specifically for the study. It incorporated readings available in the regular course of study with visual and print material originally acquired in Ontario and Quebec. As far as one can be aware, the material had never before been used in classrooms in British Columbia. The teaching strategies involved both teacher presentation of materials, and student researching using available materials in order to better familiarize students with the content. The cultural unit commenced with a review of the student's own cultural background, in order to provide the student with a content and an understanding of the meaning of the term "cuLture". This was supplemented with a study of French Canadian traditions in the arts, music, and literature. Finally, an excerpt was presented to the students in which three French Canadian students, of similar age to the participants answered questions related to their own attitudes toward the French/Canadian culture (see Appendix D). Werner's paradigms for the creation of a multicultural curriculum (Werner, 1977) , were used as a guide in formulating the framework of this portion of the content. The curriculum utilized an - 2 1 -insider's view of a culture, focussing on exhibits of the culture and dialogues written by French Canadian students. Based on an i n i t i a l awareness of the student's own personal ethnicity, this insider's perspective allowed the student to better understand the French Canadian culture. The perceptions which the student would then have of the French Canadian culture would, according to the paradigms, be interpretive, rather than dictated. The two intact classes involved were scheduled simultaneously which meant that they would be taught at the same time of the day , in the school schedule. The two classes, however, were taught separately, with no combining of classes for presentations. Content analysis was used as the measuring approach in this study. Content analysis has been defined as: ...a method of data as well as a method of observation. Instead of observing people's behavior directly, or asking them about i t , the researcher takes the communication that people have produced and asks questions of that communication. (Nachmias, 1976 p. 132). It not only serves as a basis of observation and analysis, but i t can also be, ...any technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristics of messages. (Holsti, 1968 p. 601). It was chosen for this study primarily because of this quality of being able to identify specific characteristics in messages -22-of communication. Whereas direct attitudinal testing asks the individual to analyze his behavior, content analyses techniques directly reflect the behavior. The observer, therefore, measures the attitude as i t is being communicated, not as i t is being systematically analyzed by the respondent. Rather than the respondent evaluating specific statements which are provided by the experimenter, students freely respond in an open ended way to an attitude object. The experimental design agreed with Nachmias' assessment that a significant application of content analysis occurs when inferences are made about the effects of messages on their recipients. He states, "The researcher determines the effects of A's messages to B by content analyzing B's messages (Nachmias 1976, p. 134)." It was felt that a direct evaluation of the class' communications through their responses would yield a more reflective measure of their attitudes and thereby serve as a viable test of the research hypothesis. Another important reason for the selection of content analysis was the opposition of the school's administration to the use of standardized attitude tests. The administration refused permission for the use of tests such as those created by Thurstone (1927) or Osgood (1959). The administration was concerned that issues could be raised by these tests to which some students might object to. It was feared that students' reactions might bring on parental pressure; a p o l i t i c a l situation which the administration wanted to avoid. Content analysis was felt to be a much less controversial, and more direct ; - 2 3 -method of testing the research hypothesis. Despite the use of content analysis in other research studies (Westley, 1963; Lamarche, 1976) a comprehensive literature search yielded no studies on the effects of classroom interventions. A possible explanation for this could be that, in most cases, more direct techniques of measurement could be and were, u t i l i z e d . Such techniques yield results which are less time consuming to analyse than those yielded from content analysis and therefore would probably have been preferred in many circumstances. The type of content analysis used in this study is described by Osgood as the "Evaluation Assertion Analysis" method (Osgood, 1959). The method was chosen because of its compatibility with the experiment. This method can systematically and consistently measure both the quality of the attitude exhibited in the response and its intensity. Also, i t yields quantitative data so that pre and post test results can be correlated and compared. The method consists of the following procedures. Each sentence of a student response is broken up into three different components; 1) an attitude object 2) a common meaning term (descriptor) and 3) their verbal connectors. Each part is then scored for intensity of feeling along a seven point scale. This process was carried out, by three different raters, for both pre and post test experimental and control groups responses (Appendix A). The results are then tabulated in order that quantitative comparisons to be made. The method, -24-therefore, not onLy supplies a useful method of breaking down content for analysis, but also contains a method of computation which makes possible quantitative examination of the experimental data. A number of factors were taken into account and included in order that the content analysis method chosen would be a valid instrument of measure. Foremost consideration was given to ensure c instructions to respondents, as well as the inclusion of material. As Holsti states In a systematic content analysis, the inclusion or exclusion of content is done according to consistently applied c r i t e r i a of selection. This requirement eliminates analysis in which only materials supporting the investigator's hypotheses are examined (Holsti, 1968, p. 598). A further important factor was the specifying of content characteristics which would be identified and measured, and the application of rules which would be followed in order to identify and record those characteristics (Nachmias, 1976). A further important factor was that, The content analysis procedure involved the interaction of two processes 1. specification of the content characteristics to be measured and 2. application of the rules for identifying and recording the characteristics. (Nachmias, 1976, p. 135). The content characterizations involved making decisions for onsistency of a l l submitted -25-the identification of the recording unit to be used to analyze the content, and then the choice of the context units in which these units would be place. The word is the smallest recording unit which can be used to measure content (Holsti, 1969, p. 116). It is very d i f f i c u l t , however, to 1 classify a recording unit on its own. The unit must have some sense of reference to the context in which it appears. For that reason, the word is measured within its context unit, that being; "the largest body of content that may be searched to characterize a recording unit (Holsti, 1969, p. 118)." In Osgood's method, words are placed into one of three context units. They either are the object of an attitude (A.O.) or they are the descriptors of an attitude (C.M.T.), or they are the words which join the "A.O." and the "C.M.T." together (the verbal connectors). Every word in the sentence would belong in one of those context units. As a further step in specifying the content characteristics which would be identified and measured, categories had to be decided on in which the context units would be examined. The selection of categories forms the single most important decision in context analysis studies (Berelson, 1952 p. 197). Several rules in category formation were followed. First of a l l , categories were "exhaustive and mutually exclusive (Nachmias, 1976, p. 137)." That is to say, categories ensured that they included every recording unit relevant to the study, and that they also established a way to ensure that those units only be included once within any category. -26-Furthermore, categories "adequately reflect the researcher's question. (Holsti, 1968, p. 95)." In order to do so, the conceptual definition of the study was identified and, secondly, indicators were set so as to determine whether given categories properly reflected the definition. In this study, the conceptual definition was the study of student attitudes toward the existence of a Quebec culture. The indicators were, therefore, some measures of the intensity of those attitudes. Furthermore, the categories which were used in this study were categories of direction which measured the intensity of feeling toward the subject on a semantic differential scale. This choice of directional categories agreed with Holsti who states that attitude studies generally use some form of direction categories (Holsti, 1969 p. 107). Finally, the rules for the recording of the units follow directly from the choice of direction categories. The quantification process was a recording of. the total intensity of attitudes, thus providing quantitative data for comparison (see Appendix A for method and application). The method presented a number of concerns related both to r e l i a b i l i t y and to validity. Internal validity, as Campbell and Stanley define i t , is the question of, "did in fact the experimental treatments make a difference in this specific experimental instance (Campbell & Stanley, 1963 p. 5)" -27-CampbeLl & Stanley (1963) point to a number of variables which could affect the experimental treatment's findings. The study controlled for these as best as possible. Variations in the scoring procedure were controlled by the training of each scorer with the use of precisely the same training manual (see Appendix A). Furthermore, each of the three scorers were identical at each stage of the evaluation, and they each used the training manual during their scoring. Furthermore, because both the experimental, and the control group had been selected in exactly the same manner, previously held beliefs and biases among group members were as likely to be held in one group as in the other. Maturation and external influences were also felt to be problems equal to both the control and the experimental group. Pre-testing controlled for possible differences by allowing comparisons to be made. FinalLy, only respondents who participated in both the pre and the post test writing sessions were included in the final s t a t i s t i c s , thus avoiding the problem of differential losses of respondents. It was f e l t , however, that by using the pre test, and control group design that this was controlled for because the passage of time would have equal effect on both groups and therefore not vary the results. Another factor which could have affected the study's findings is testing. In any pre and post test design such as this, there does exist the concern that responding to the pre test creates -28-expectat ions in the mind of the respondent which, independent of the experimental variable, could affect post test results. (i.e. the Hawthorne effect. Borg, 1963, p.p. 338-339). This could not be controlled for. However, i t was felt that the number of weeks between the administration of the pre and post tests was sufficient to offset any possible pretest effect. A number of issues related to the external validity of the study were considered. Campbell & Stanley define external validity as the examination ...to what populations, settings, treatments, variables and measurement variables can this (treatment) be generalized. (Campbell & Stanley, 1956, p. 6). Factors which could have affected this validity include: 1. Reactive or interaction effect - an increase or decrease of the respondent's sensitivity to the issue being investigated, because of the use of the pre test. 2. Reactive effects of experimental arrangements - this would imply that generalizations made about the effect of the experimental variable might not be transferrable to non experimental settings. These factors were controlled for in the study. If indeed the pre test sensitized the students to the subject matter, then i t would do so for a l l students, in both groups. The sensitivity factor, therefore, would, be of equal effect to both and would not affect the comparisons between each group. As for precluding generalizations about the effect of the experiment because of the insulation of the -29-experimental setting, the study does not intend to make such generalizations,. This was a "one-shot" experiment. In order to determine i f findings are generalizable, one would have to conduct similar experiments in a variety of classroom settings. Reliability may be defined as ...the level of consistency in the measuring device. In general, the consistency reflects the degree to which the test may be considered stable or may be depended upon to yield similar test results under similar circumstances. (Borg, 1963, p. 84) As such, r e l i a b i l i t y in content analysis presents a special consideration, because the stability of the instrument depends very much on not just the coding techniques chosen, but also on the coders who apply the coding. In this case, Reliability (in content analysis) is a function of the coders' s k i l l , insight and experience, cl a r i t y of categories and coding rules which guide their use; and the degree of ambiguity in the data. (Holsti, 1968 p. 1 3 5 ) . The data used in the study were obtained as a result of precisely the same instructions being given to a l l respondents to the attitude measure. Category r e l i a b i l i t y was dealt with by supplying specific instructions to the coders on how to classify respondents' communication, and then supplying a seven point nominal scale in which these elements could be scored. The coders were each of similar educational background (university graduates) and were each trained -30-extensively in the procedure, with the use of the manual (Appendix A). Experimental studies have confirmed that such training and precise definitions will increase the r e l i a b i l i t y of both the categories, and the coders (Holsti, 1968, p. 136). In order to increase the level of r e l i a b i l i t y for the study, three different coders were used. Tests have shown that increasing the amount of coders, and then correlating their results, broadens the r e l i a b i l i t y of the findings generated (Bloc, 1961; Scott, 1955; Funkhouser and Parker, 1968). Reliability increases, therefore, as the number of raters using the categories report their findings,and their correlation is studied for degree of f i t . It was felt that three coders would give an adequate sampling for proper correlation and r e l i a b i l i t y . Summary This study tested the hypothesis that increased awareness of a culture would increase students' open mindedness toward that culture. A quasi experiment design was followed, and two grade 11 Social Studies classes were used. In order to introduce the cultural component, a curriculum, which utilized materials from the French Canadian culture was introduced. The testing instrument chosen for the study was the content analysis method developed by Osgood (1956). This method had apparently never before been used in an educational setting, however i t was found to be the most suitable one for the study, -31-considering the limitations which had been imposed on i t . A number of factors affecting internal and external vali d i t y , as well as r e l i a b i l i t y were discussed, and i t was felt that the study had controlled for them as much as was possible. -32-CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Twenty students in the control, and twenty-two in the experimental group were present for both sessions of pre and post test writing. Their responses to the questions were scored by three trained coders. Each coder had been given an instruction book (Appendix A), and each one had been briefed on the purpose, and the method of scoring and tabulation. After one coder had completed scoring one set of paragraphs, these were then passed on to the next coder for re-scoring. This process was continued untiL each of the scorers had had an opportunity to mark each of the pre and post test results. At the conclusion of this process, their scores were tabulated according to the system devised by Osgood (1956). This was done by adding up each of the intensity measures as they appeared on the scoring sheet (Appendix B). and dividing them by the number of themes for each paragraph. Thus each respondent would be identified by the score arrived at by each coder. These numbers were then placed on tabulation charts - one which would identify the control group, (Table 1) and one which would identify the experimental group (Table 2). -33-TABLE I Tabulated Scores on the Pre and Post Test for the Control Group For Each Coder by Rankings Coder I Coder II Coder III lank Pre Rank Post Rank Pre Rank Post Rank Pre Rank Post 4 .5 1 -4.25 9 5 1 -5.3 16 2.5 8 -1 13 4.3 6 -2.5 17 6.3 3 -1.5 11 1 15 2 14 4.5 12 1.3 18 6.5 12 4.6 16 2.5 18 2.5 6 1.5 16 2 .4 4 11 3.6 9 - .16 15 2 9 3 4 -3 4 4 7 .25 10 .6 10 - .5 11 3.75 1 -4.25 3 3.3 2 -2.5 1 -4 1 -4 19 6.75 12 1.3 19 6.5 8 1.3 20 6 18 2.5 8 2 17 4 16 5.3 14 5.7 2 -2.5 3 -2.8 18 6 7 -2.25 14 6 6 - .75 12 1.5 12 0 1 0 18 5 14 6 15 5.8 5 -1.3 7 -1.1 9 3 .4 -3 1 - .8 10 2.5 12 1.5 2 -3 19 6.75 3 -3.75 10 5.3 4 -1.2 19 1.6 9 - .6 12 4 10 -1 4 4 9 2 3 -2 4 -2.3 1 0 11 - .5 2 .33 20 7.5 7 - .5 14 .6 1 0 8 -2 14 6 5 -1 6 -1 13 .5 7 1.8 12 1.3 20 6.5 16 6 18 5 20 3.5 17 5.3 8 -2. 13 5.5 13 5 19 5.6 5 -2.2 5 1 15 1.8 10 5.3 17 6.8 8 - .3 6 -1.6 15 4.6 19 5.75 8 . 4.6 18 7 4 -1.5 15 2 16 5 20 7.5 4 4 19 7.4 14 1.6 10 - .5 -34-TABLE II Tabulated Scores on the Pre and Post Test for the Experimental Group, For Each Coder by Rankings Coder I Coder II Coder III tank Pre Rank Post Rank Pre Rank Post Rank Pre Rank Post 21 7 4 -1 22 7.8 2 -2 16 2.5 11 1.6 18 6 13 5.3 14 6 16 5.3 10 1.3 12 1.8 10 3 8 ( 2.3 20 7 19 6.3 21 4 22 4.5 18 6 11 5 14 6 20 6.5 11 1.5 8 1 4 -1 1 5 8 4.5 11 4 5 - .6 17 2.5 14 5 5 - .25 19 6.3 7 2.5 12 1.6 19 2.8 12 4 6 1.3 5 2 4 1.3 12 1.6 7 .6 4 -1 17 6.5 11 5 14 5 12 1.6 17 2.5 15, 5.3 19 6.8 7 4.3 20 6.5 16 2.5 10 1.5 6 0 21 9 4 -1 12 4.6 1 -2.5 20 3 6 0 22 9 14 6 12 4.6 15 2 9 1.3 3 - .2 9 3.4 6 2.2 10 3.6 20 3.6 6 -1.6 20 6.7 10 4.9 11 5 14 5 22 5 5 - .3 17 5.5 1 -4 18 6.25 5 1.4 16 2.5 13 2 13 4.4 2 -2.3 2 -3 2 -2 2 -2 2 -2.5 15 5.3 20 7.5 13 5.3 17 5.6 19 3.5 13 2 22 7.8 17 6.2 21 7.5 9 3.2 4 -1.5 21 3.1 6 0 . 7 1.6 10 4.8 8 3 6 0 3 -2 1 -3 15 6 3 -2.5 17 5.6 6 0 13 2 10 3 13 5.3 14 6 6 2.2 8 1 4 -1.5 9 2.6 15 6 9 4.6 22 7.5 3 -1.8 16 2.2 2 -2.5 3 -1.25 1 -7 1 -5.7 9 1.1 1 -3.6 TABLE III Student - Pre Test Control Group Degree of Fit Among Coders Using Kendell's W for Control Group: Pre-Test CODER A 4 13 14 6 9 11 19 8 18 1 9 20 12 1 1 7 17 5 15 16 B 9 17 18 4 4 3 19 16 14 14 i 10 4 2 14 20 13 10 8 14 C 16 11 16 9 10 1 20 2 12 5 12 14 3 7 6 18 19 8 14 14 Ry 29 41 48 19 23 15 58 26 44 20 22 44 19 10 21 45 49 23 27 34 Mean = 30.85 W = 3,447.01 1/12(3) (20 - 20) W = 3,447.01 6,000 W = .57 N = 20 TABLE IV Degree of Fit Among Coders Using Kendell's W for Control Group: Post-Test Student - Post Test (Control Group) CODER A 1 6 12 16 4 1 12 17 7 18 4 3 10 11 8 12 8 15 19 20 B 1 3 12 11 7 2 8 14 6 15 10 4 9 20 5 16 13 17 18 19 C 8 15 18 15 10 1 18 2 12 7 12 9 4 14 13 20 5 6 15 10 10 24 42 42 21 4 38 33 25 40 26 16 23 45 26 48 26 38 52 49 Mean 31.4 3,390.90 6,000 3390.80 1/12(3) (20 - 20) W = .56 W = W = TABLE V Degree of Fit Among Coders Using Kendall's W for Experimental Group: Pre-Test CODER A 21 18 10 18 4 14 12 ,4 15 6 6 3 20 17 13 15 22 6 1 10 9 2 B 22 14 20 14 8 19 5 11 7 4 14 6 11 18 2 13 21 10 3 14 9 1 C 16 10 21 11 5 12 12 12 16 1 15 20 22 16 2 19 4 6 6 18 3 9 59 42 51 43 .17 45 29 27 38 11 35 29 53 51 17 47 47 22 10 42 21 12 Mean = 34 W = 4428 1/12(3) (22 - 22) W = 4428 7969.5 W = .55 N = 22 TABLE VI Degree of Fit Among Coders Using Kendall's W For Experimental Group: Post-Test Student - Post-Test (Experimental Group). CODER A 4 13 8 11 1 5 6 17 19 21 22 9 10 1 2 20 17 7 15 13 15 3 B 2 16 19 20 11 7 4 14 20 12 12 10 14 5 2 17 9 8 17 6 22 1 C 11 12 22 8 17 19 7 17 10 20 9 6 5 13 2 13 21 3 13 4 16 1 17 41 49 39 29 41 17 48 49 53 43 25 29 19 6 50 47 18 45 23 53 5 Mean 33.9 W = 5,053.82 1/12 (3) (22 - 22) W = 5053.82 7969.5 W = .63 N = 22 -39-The inter rater r e l i a b i l i t y of the scores was then computed, in order to find the degree of agreement between coders for each step of the rating process. If a simple percentage agreement method between raters is used, a high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y between the coders is obtained (i.e. between 74 and 89.3%). This is to be expected, given an eighteen point scale, when the majority of scores were close to the middle of the scale. In order to get a more reliable measure of inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y , Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W (Siegel, 1956) was used. The results for each student, at each stage, were ranked in order of lowest result (1) to highest tabulated result (20 or 22). (See TableslI, II). The totals were then added, and the coefficient was found (Tables III - VI). W was found to be .57 for the Pre-Test Control Group, .56 for the Post-Test Control Group, .55 for the Pre-Test Exerimental Group, and .63 for the Post Test Experimental Group. ' These results show limited agreement between coders at each stage of observation. This limited agreement does not justify any conclusive s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. However, in order to classify the differences in the scores from the pre to the post stage, in both the control and experimental groups, a simple method of calculation was used. Each column in Figures I and II was totalled. This yielded a total assessment of the intensity of the respondents attitudes for each -40-coder at each of the two stages. The two scores were then subtracted, and the difference divided into the original pre score, in order to determine the degree of change which had occurred between the stages for each coder. This result was multiplied by 100 in order to produce a percentage total. (Table VII). TABLE VII Percentage of Change for Each Coder Between Pre and Post Test Results For the Experimental and Control Group CONTROL Coder I Coder II Coder III Group Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Total Score 3.19 .25 4.79 2.6 .94 -.19 % change = -92 % change = -45 % change = -120 EXPERIMENTAL Coder I Group Pre Post Coder II Pre Post Coder III Pre Post Total Score 2.94 3.3 4.1 2.96 1.43 1.13 % change - 12 % change = -27 % change = -21 -41-A number of factors may account for this divergence in the results. The method of calculation, f i r s t of a l l , because of its subjective nature, may have lead to great divergence among the coders. Secondlyj the instructions (Appendix B) may not have been as clear, and precise, as they could have been. Of importance to note, however is that a pattern does emerge in that for a l l three coders, the control group results are far more negative than are the experimental group's results. Conclusions: Given the limited agreement between coders and the divergence of results as shown in Table VII there appear however to be two emerging patterns which can be summarized as follows. 1. In both instances, in the control and in the experimental classes, the open mindedness score decreased as a result of the presentations of lessons on either 'pure' French Canadian history, or French Canadian history and culture. In both situations, the intensity totals were generally lower in the post test, signifying a decreased positive attitude, and a lessening of open mindedness. 2. The degree of negative change was far less in the experimental group than i t had been in the control group (Fig. 6). In a l l three coders' results, i t was clear that there was a much less change in the -42-experimental group, than there had been in the control group. For one coder, in fact (Coder I) the post test results indicated an increase in open mindedness. However, given the d i f f i c u l t y of the scoring technique, and the divergence in scores as shown in Table VII, between the coders, this conclusion has to be regarded as very tentative. The fact that there is agreement among a l l three coders of a similar pattern, can only be indicative. -43-CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Even though the results can only be said to be tentative, a number of points can be raised. 1. Teaching of content, whether i t be h i s t o r i c a l , or cultural over a short period of time, is not likely to have a positive influence on student attitudes. It would appear from this study, and several others (e.g. Kehoe, 1979) that there needs to be further work in providing strategies for students which would promote open mindedness. 2. It appears that the addition of a cultural component, in order to acquaint the student with the societal context of historical events, does have some potential as a method of gaining a positive attitude change. A l l three coders did identify marked differences between the control and the experimental groups' reactions in the post-experimental stage. Although the change was not a l l positive, there does appear to be an enough of a difference in the results to consider that the culture component had a more positive influence on student attitudes than the singular historical component. (Table VII) The length of the curriculum did not appear to have an effect. It does not appear that because experimental students studied the additional unit for a week that this necessarily led to negative attitudes. 3. Evaluative Assertion Analysis is a very d i f f i c u l t , and rarely used method of evaluating data in an educational study. No evidence - 4 4 -was found in educational research which showed previous uses of this method. The method i t s e l f proved extremely cumbersome and time consuming, and yielded inconsistent results. More direct attitude tests could probably offer a more precise, and certainly more easily administered method of gathering data. 4. There is very l i t t l e material in British Columbia schools available to teach about the culture of French Canadian peoples. Much of the material gathered for this study was brought from Quebec and had to be translated into English. The present Social Studies curriculum does not offer much opportunity to study French Canadian history or culture. , Stemming from this study, there are a number of applications and possibilities for further research. Certainly, studies can be undertaken using more direct attitude tests in order to establish more reliable results. Furthermore, studies could be undertaken incorporating self concept as a variable in attitude change formation, as Rokeach (1973) suggested. Such a study would add self concept measures to a research design similar to the one used in this study. Because the culture unit does include several activities which involve an analysis of an individual's self concept, i t would be an important addition to the design to include several self concept measurement instruments. Such a design would then be able to investigate whether there had occurred any change in self concept, a factor which could alter the student's attitudes (Rokeach, 1973). -45-Much more work, also, needs to be done in developing units on culture, and adding them on to existing units in Quebec history. As has already been pointed out, there is a great lack of resources in British Columbia schools for the teaching about the second most common culture in our country. Greater availability of resources, and perhaps different, alternative teaching strategies, such as the use of cultural immersion, or more role play simulations, could make a significant impact on creating greater understanding of the Frenh Canadian culture. (Ijaz, 1981). Another area for further research could be a study which would use the cultural curriculum only, without the inclusion of historical data, in order to increase open mindedness (Ijaz, 1981). Different samples should also be sought for such studies, in order to evaluate the effect of a similar program on students in a much more ethnically diverse community than the one used in this study. It is certainly possible that in a community which is far more heterogeneous culturally, that students would be far more aware of the diversity, and the importance of culture. Making them aware of the French Canadian culture could spark an already existing sensitivity and openness to other cultures. Again, of course, the opposite could be true. Finally, studies could try to u t i l i z e different grade levels than those used in this study. Material could be modified to suit younger grades. It is certainly possible, as some studies have demonstrated (Ijaz, 1981) that younger students could be more open to unknown cultures, than the students used in this study. i-46-The need to understand and increase awareness of Canada's bicultural,.and multicultural heritage has been shown to be o f f i c i a l l y supported and promoted. The method to achieve i t s t i l l needs a great deal of work and research. 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University of Edmonton Alberta, 1976. Dewey, J. Democracy and Education, Boston: Houghton & M i f f l i n Co., 1967. Earnest, C. "The Effects of Two Teaching Methods in Modifying Ninth Grade Pupils' Attitudes Toward Minority Groups", Phd. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1968. Fenton, E. The New Social Studies, New York: Rinehart and Winston, 1967. Festinger, L. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1957. Fishbein, M. & Raven, B. "An Operational Definition of Belief and Attitude" In M. Fishbein (Ed.) Readings in Attitude Theory  and Measurement, New York: Wiley, 1967. Forcese, D. & Richer, S. Social Research Methods, Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall, 1970. Funkhouser, R. & Parker, E. "Analyzing coding r e l i a b i l i t y : - the random- systematic-error coefficient" In Public Opinion Quarterly, 1968, 32., P-P- 122-128. Galtung, Y. Theory and Methods of Social Research, London: George Allen & Unwin, 1967. Goodman, M. Race Awareness in Young Children, Cambridge: Addison-Wesley, 1964. Henley, R. & Young, Y. "Multicultural Education: Contemporary Variation on a Historical Theme" History and Social Science  Teacher 1981, 17(1), p.p. 7-16. Hodgetts, A. What Culture? What Heritage?, Toronto: OISE Press, 1968. Holsti, 0. "Content Analysis" In . Aronson, ed. The Handbook of  Social Psychology, Vol. II., Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1968. Holsti, 0. Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and  Humanities. Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1969. Ijaz, M.A. "Ethnic Attitudes of Elementary School Children toward Blacks and East Indians and the Effect of a Cultural Program on These Attitudes" Phd. Thesis, University of Toronto, 1980. - 4 9 -I j a z , A . & I j a z , I . " A C u l t u r a l P r o g r a m f o r C h a n g i n g R a c i a l A t t i t u d e s " H i s t o r y a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 1 9 8 1 , 1 7 ( 1 ) , p . p . 1 7 - 2 0 . J a n i s , E d . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d P e r s u a d a b i l i t y , N e w H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . K e h o e , J . G r o u p U n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d H u m a n R i g h t s , V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 9 . K e h o e , J . E t h n i c P r e j u d i c e a n d t h e R o l e o f t h e S c h o o l . V a n c o u v e r : a u t h o r , 1 9 7 9 . K l e g , M . " R a c e , C a s t e a n d P r e j u d i c e - t h e I n f l u e n c e o f C h a n g e i n K n o w l e d g e o n C h a n g e i n A t t i t u d e " P h d T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a , A t h e n s , G a . 1 9 7 0 . L a m a r c h e , L . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e l f E s t e e m a s I n d i c a t o r o f C h a n g i n g V a l u e s " P s y c h o l o g y J o u r n a l 1 9 7 6 , 2 9 ( 1 4 ) , p . p . 7 1 6 - 7 2 3 . L e f r o y , M . " T h e E f f e c t o f t h e U n i t : " I n d i a n s i n T r a n s i t i o n , " u p o n t h e A t t i t u d e s o f W h i t e H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s T o w a r d s I n d i a n s " M . E d . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 9 7 3 . N a c h m i a s , D . , a n d N a c h m i a s , C . R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s i n t h e S o c i a l  S c i e n c e s , L o n d o n : S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 . : N e w c o m b , T . A D i c t i o n a r y o f S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , L o n d o n : T a v i s t o c k , 1 9 6 4 . O s g o o d , C , S a p o r t a , S . , & N u n n a l l y , J . " E v a l u a t i o n A s s e r t i o n A n a l y s i s . " L i t e r a , I I I 1 9 5 6 , p . p . 4 7 - 1 0 2 . O s g o o d , C . " T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l m o d e l a n d r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s " I n I . P o o l ( E d . ) T r e n d s i n C o n t a c t A n a l y s i s , U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . P r a t t , D . " T h e S o c i a l R o l e o f S c h o o l T e x t b o o k s i n C a n a d a , " i n E . Z u r e i k a n d P . P i k e ( E d s . ) S o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d V a l u e s i n  C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y , I , T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1 9 7 5 . P r a w a t , P . " T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n s o f S t u d e n t A f f e c t " A m e r i c a n  E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l - 1 9 8 0 , 1 7 ( 1 ) . R o k e a c h , M , T h e N a t u r e o f H u m a n V a l u e s , N e w Y o r k : T h e F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 . R o s e n b e r g , M . " A n a n a l y s i s o f a f f e c t i v e - c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y " . I n M . R o s e n b e r g a n d C . H o u l a n d ( E d s . ) A t t i t u d e o r g a n i z a t i o n  a n d c h a n g e . N e w H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 , p . p . 1 5 - 6 4 . R o s s , D . ( E d . ) R o b e r t F . K e n n e d y : - A p o s t l e o f C h a n g e . N e w Y o r k : P o c k e t B o o k s , 1 9 6 8 . -50-Rousseau, J. The Social Contract. Translated by M. Cranston. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1968. Scott, W. Introduction to Psychological Research. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1962. Siegel, S. Non-parametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956. Stempel, G. "Increasing Reli a b i l i t y in Content Analysis" Journalism Quarterly, 1956, 32(4) Tawney, R. Equality New York: Bannes & Nobles, 1965. Taylor, P. Normative Discourse. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall, 1961. Thurstone, L. "The Method of Paired Comparisons for Social Values" Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1927, 21. Thurstone, L., and Chave, T. The Measurement of Attitude. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929. Tomkins, G. "Taking the Bladness out of Canadian History" U.B.C. Reports 1972, 18(1), p.9. Vancouver School Board, "The Evaluation of the Experimental Anthropology Program at Magee Secondary", Vancouver, 1973. Werner, W. "Curriculum Guidelines for Multicultural Education" Social Education, 1976, 4(). Werner, W., Connors, B., Aoki, T., & Dahlie, J. Whose Culture?  Whose Heritage? Vancouver: Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, 1977. Westley, J. "The news magazines and 1960 conventions" in Journalism Quarterly, 1963, 42^  p.p. 591-595. Wright, I. and Coombs, J. The Cogency of Multicultural Education, Vancouver: Centre for the Study of Curriculum, and Instruction, University of British Columbia, 1981. Zimbardo, P. & Ebbesen, E. Influencing Attitudes and Behavior Change, Reading, Mass: Addison.Wesley, 1969. -51-A P P E N D I X A Instructions for Coders Based on Osgood,C, Saporta, C , and Nunnally, J. "Evaluative Assertion Analysis". Litera. Vol. 3, 1956. Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s Press. Step 1; - I n i t i a l step is to translate a l l sentences into one of three common thematic structures. (a) Attitude object: - Definition: "Attitude objects are signs whose meaning or significance (particularly evaluative) depends upon and varies with the l i f e history of the source or receiver e.g. the evaluative significance of socialism clearly depends upon the past experiences, sociological, educational, and so forth, of the individual encoding or decoding i t " . (p.47). Attitude objects are usually capitalized. (b) Common meaning terms - Def inition, "They are signs upon whose meaning or significance a l l users of the English language must agree upon i f they are able to communicate with one another e.g. a l l users of English must agree that atrocity is something bad, that people of good  w i l l is something good, etc. (c) Verbal connector: - Definition. An assertion is a linguistic construction in which an a c t o r ( A . O . ) i s associated or dissociated from a complement (CM.) by a verbal connector, e.g. the Geneva Conference (A.O.) is (V.C.) a failure (CM.). Verbal connectors are usually in the form of verbs. Step 2: - Be able to identify those classifications e.g. 1. /The Geneva Conference/ / i s / /a failure/ / A.O. / /V.C/ / CM. ,/ 2. /Bostonians/ /like/ /baked beans/ / A.O. / /V.C./ / CM. / 3. /Ceasar/ /did not like / /Brutus/ / A.0.1/ / V.C / /A.0.2/ 4. /Humility/ / is / /a fine t r a i t / / C.M.I, / /V.C./ / CM.2 / In evaluative assertion analysis, statements 2^ and 4_ would not be  counted, or analyzed. In other words, in this kind of analysis only assertions involving both objects of attitude and some sort of  evaluation are counted. The following paragraph w i l l serve as an example. "Soviet rulers are ruthless, atheistic despots. Yet there now appears some possibility that they w i l l agree to some measures designed to relax tensions. \ -52-Perhaps they w i l l be more willing to forego aggressive designs." The paragraph can be broken down as follows: A.O. V.C. CM. Soviet rulers are ruthless Soviet rulers are atheistic Soviet rulers are despots Soviet rulers have in the ev i l past pursued goals Soviet rulers may now some measures possibly agree to relax world to tensions Soviet rulers perhaps w i l l forego be more willing to aggressive designs NOTE:- (a) Attitude object remained Soviet rulers (in given data, i t wi l l probably be French Canadians) for entire paragraph. (b) Attitude object remained assertive noun which is always referred to by V.C. or CM. (c) Common meaning terms are always statements of definite meaning whose measure w i l l usually be agreed upon. (d) Verbal connectors are verbs, or verb phrases, often accompanied by other common meaning material which serve to associate or dissociate the A.O. from the CM. Step 3: - Assigning Directions and Intensities to Connectors and Evaluators. In the sample paragraph given above, A.O. w i l l not be measured for intensity, as (V.C.) and (CM.) w i l l define the intensity of A.O. Thus, only (V.C.) and (CM.) are measured. This is done as follows: -1. Measuring Connectors Connectors (V.C.) have direction of intensity because they either serve to associate ( + ') or dissassociate ( - ) A.O.'s from another A.O. or CM. 's. A - Connectors also vary in intensity, from complete and definite association or dissassociation ( + , - 3). Through probable or partial association or dissassociation (+ 2) to only possible or weak association ordissbciation (+ 1). Occasionally there may be a connector which neither associates nor dissociates, and therefore should be coded 0. -53-B - Direction of connection. (i) The direction is associative (+) when the two members of the assertion (e.g. A.O. and CM.) are tied to each other, brought closer together, shown to be similar and so forth. ( i i ) The direction is dissociative ( - ) when the other two members of the assertion are separated, made less related, shown to be different, and so forth. ( i i i ) Associative examples: - condones, commits, loves. Dissociative examples: - runs away from, condemns, confuses. C - Intensity of connection. General rules governing intensity of connectors are as follows. (a) Strong intensity of connection (+3). Connectors which imply either complete identification, of A.O., with CM. or another A.O., or complete separation would be cla s s i f i e d +3, or -3 respectively. e.g. The verb "to be" (a) X is a drunkard. V.C. = is = +3. (b) X is not a drunkard. V.C. = is not = -3. "To be" as in " i s " or " i s not" completely identifies X as either a drunkard (a) or not being one at a l l (b). (b) Moderate itensity of connectors (+ 2). Connectors which imply probable, partial, increasing associations of A.O. and CM. or probable, partial, immanent dissociation are classified +2 or -2 respectively. e.g. (i) X tried to protect the nation. V.C. = tried to = +2 ( i i ) X planned to confuse the enemy. V.C. = planned to = -2 In example (i) a definite tendency of association is implied, where in example ( i i ) a definite tendency toward dissociation of X from the enemy, but not completely executed. (c) Weak intensity of connection ( 1). Connectors which imply only possible or hypothetical relation between A.O., and CM. at the second A.O. but s t i l l a positive direction, or imply only possible or hypothetical separation between A.O., and CM., but s t i l l a negative direction are classified as +1 or -1, respectively, e.g. (i) X (may be friendly = V.C. = maybe = +1. ( i i ) X may not be friendly = V.C = may not be = -1. - only a possible association or dissociation is expressed by the connectors, thus the slight measurement of intensity. -54-Samples of Connectors. - Intensities. Intensity Example + 3 Simple, unqualified verb, love, hate, to be devoted to, denounced, confused, commits, serves, evades, to be, to have, to do. Adverbs e.g. vigorously, mightily, forcefully. + 2 Verb constructions involving the use of auxiliary verbs implying possible change in status over time e.g. has evaded, has been seen, used to l i v e , try to divide, seek to confuse, want to join. Adverbs e.g. naturally, normally, reasonably, typically. + 1 Verb forms indicating possibility, obligation, future possibility e.g. may commit, might agree, ought to join. Adverbs e.g. slightly, casually, possibly, partially, minimally, somewhat. 2. Measuring Evaluators (contained in Comon Meaning Terms). (a) Quite simply the degree of interests toward good (+) or bad (-). As the concept is of an evaluative nature, i t would follow somewhere in the 7 point continuum (+3). (b) - Intensity of evaluator - Having f i r s t judged the direction of an item (+ or - ) , coder w i l l then judge the value, as follows: +3 - extremely favourable or unfavorable +2 - quite favourable or unfavorable +1 - slightly favorable or unfavorable. Examples Intensity Sample + . 3 atrocity, fair-play, extremely, perfectly, completely, absolutely, maximally, remarkably, very, definitely. + 2 quite, considerably, f a i r l y , reasonably, ordinarily, normally + 1 slightly, barely, minimally, a l i t t l e , a b i t , somewhat -55-3. Placing intensities of connectors, evaluators on chart. To use the sample shown on pp. 2, 3, a chart is then drawn up as follows: - (see next page). -56-A P P E N D I X B M e a s u r e m e n t C h a r t s C l a s s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : -S t a g e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : -S t u d e n t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : -(1) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 5 ) ( 6 ) A t t i t u d e O b j e c t V e r b a l C o m m . V a l u e 1 C o m m o n M e a n i n g T e r m . V a l u e 2 P r o d . V I X V 2 T o t N u m b e r o f t h e n I n d a l : -l e s : -e x : -F I N A L S T E P : - I n c o l u m n ( 6 ) t h e p r o d u c t i s a s k e d f o r ; t h a t i s t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f c o l u m n ( 3 ) b y c o l u m n ( 5 ) . T h i s w i l l a l w a y s b e p l a c e d i n c o l u m n 6 . A t t h e e n d , t h e c o l u m n i s a d d e d u p ( e n s u r e + - r e c o g n i t i o n , a n d t h e n t h e t o t a l i s d i v i d e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f t h e m e s ( y i n t h e s a m p l e p a r a g r a p h ) f o r a n i n d e x n u m b e r . -57-A P P E N D I X C SOCIAL STUDIES II EXAMPLE NO. 1 Sample Paragraph - Pre Experimental Class Student: - Linda F. How much of french culture should be allowed to survive in Canada? If the french can learn to handle their own problems and stop complaining, let as much of culture survive as their wish. Let their language and their customs remain, just don't ram i t down the English throats. EXAMPLES OF MEASUREMENT - Using Above Sample CLASS IDENTIFICATION: - Social Studies STAGE IDENTIFICATION: - Pre-Experiment STUDENT IDENTIFICATION: - Linda F. Attitude Object Verbal Comm. Value Common Value Prod. 1 Meaning Term. 2 V x V The French The French language complain ram be forced -3 about their - 3 problems - 3 their culture - 3 down English throats + 9 + 9 Total: Number of Themes: Index: + 18 2 - 9 FINAL STEP: In column (6) the product is asked for. That is the multiplication of column (3) by column (5). This w i l l always be placed in column 6. At the end, the column is added up (ensure|+|-recognition, and then the total is divided by the number of themes (6 in the sample paragraph) for an index number. -58-EXAMPLE NO. 2 Sample Paragraph - Post Experimental - Control Group - Student1 _ Fyson I s t i l l think the French should be kept in Quebec where they can keep their language and culture as I do not think i t is necessary for us (English) to learn French in school or for the French to learn English in school, i t should be optional. French culture should survive as long as i t doesn't take over and is kept within Quebec, then i t ' s fine. EXAMPLES OF MEASUREMENT" Using Above Sample CLASS IDENTIFICATION: - Social Studies STAGE IDENTIFICATION: - Post-Exp. - Control Group STUDENT IDENTIFICATION: - M. Fyson Attitude Verbal Value Common Value Prod. Object Comm. 1 Meaning Term. 2 V x V 1. French should be +2 kept in Que. - 2 -4 2. French should not -2 have to learn - 2 +4 English 3. Fr. culture should +2 surive +2 +4 4. Fr. culture should not -2 take over - 3 +6 Total: + 10 Number of Themes: 4 Index: - 2.5 FINAL STEP: In column (6) the product is asked for. That is the multiplication of column (3) by column (5). This w i l l always be placed in column 6. At the end, the column is added up (ensure I + |-recoghition, and then the total is divided by the number of themes (6 in the sample paragraph) for an index number. - 5 9 -A P P E N D I X COMMON UNIT FOR EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL GROUPS * FRENCH - ENGLISH RELATIONS CURRICULUM OUTLINE BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVE (a) Background to attitudes and interpretations (b) Historical background The student w i l l be able to: 1. identify his/her own preconceived notions about French-English relations through the completion of a survey. The student w i l l be able to: 1. identify contrasting interpretations of French and English viewpoints towards the following events: (a) to Confederation (i) the development of New France ( i i ) the Conquest ( i i i ) the Quebec Act (iv) The Durham Report and the Act of Union (v) the drive for Confederation (c) the question of Special Status and Separatism of Quebec (b) post Confederation (i) the Red River Rebellion ( i i ) the Saskatchewan Rebellion ( i i i ) The Manitoba Schools Act (iv) Ontario Regulation 17 (v) The Naval Services B i l l (vi) The Firs t Conscription Crisis (vii) The Second Conscription Crisis ( v i i i ) The Duplessis Era (ix) The Quiet Revolution (x) The Bi. and Bi. Commission (xi) The O f f i c i a l Languages Act (xii) The Constitutional Conferences ( x i i i ) The Election of the Parti Quebecois The student w i l l be able to 1. discuss the interpretations of, and reactions to, the following contrasting opinions regarding the status of Quebec in Canada: -60-(a) the federalism argument as advanced by P.E. Trudeau (b) the no-privileges argument as advanced by Donald Creighton (c) the special status argument as advanced by Maurice Duplessis, Daniel Johnson, and Claude Ryan (d) The sovereignty association argument as presented by Rene Levesque (e) The radical separatist argument as presented by the F.L.Q. and the R.I.N. 2. describe those historical events which have contributed to the development of each of these opinions. From North Vancouver School Dis t r i c t Social Studies Curriculum, Grade 11, 1981. -61-Lesson Plans The Quebec Plan (Common Unit) - Day by Day Plans Day One Objective -Enable students to understand the differing perceptions, and point of view between French and English historians toward French-English Relations Strategies - Use two readings of contrasting viewpoints - Discussion of arguments used by each Resources Creighton, D. "Canada's F i r s t Century" excerpt Guay, Y.F. "Argument from Pequiste." Day Two Strategies - use chronology of French English Relations to 1867 to guide student readings on background of history - Show filmstrip on French-English Relations - Students discuss events Resources 1. Evans, Canada's  Century 2. Prentice Hall See Hear Now Filmstrip on French-English Relations. Day Three - Analyze BNA Act - Discuss federal vs. provincial powers - Discuss English vs. French views Day Four - set up reports Assignment on four topics of crises - break up groups into French and English viewpoint research teams for each Canada's Century Bliss, J. Canadian History  in Documents, 1763-1966. 1. Canada's  Century. 2. Culture and  Country 3. Challenge &  Survival 4. Basic  Documents jn Canadian History -62-Day Five - Preparation for Presentation Day Six - Presentations of Reports - Class discussion of different viewpoints Day Seven - Reading and Discussion of Events during (a) Duplessis Era Same as above (b) Quiet Revolution Day Eight & Nine' - Reading and discussion of , (a) Birth of FLQ (b) the events of 1960's Same as above (c) the alternatives of the 1970 election (d) the Language B i l l . Day Ten & Eleven The October Crisis Film "October - discussion of background C r i s i s " - events - National Film - effects, the Board results Day Twelve, Thirteen and Fourteen - Discussion of 1976 elections - Read out principal issues during election campaign - Break class into groups representings three key figures of 1980 Referendum Debate, Trudeau, Ryan, Leyesque -- Discussion of viewpoints - Collect essay assignment on personal viewpoint, based on history. - give test of knowledge of facts. - give out question for content analysis to "control" group. -63-FRENCH-ENGLISH RELATIONS Curriculum Outline - Cultural Component - Experimental Group Only Curriculum Outline (a) Background to understanding one's own cultural identity (b) French Canadian identity (c) French Canadian Heritage Behavioral Objective The student w i l l be able to 1. identify his/her own value systems 2. identify key value systems of other cultures. 3. recognize the origins and explanations for differences of value systems among cultures. The student w i l l be able to 1. identify French Canadian attitudes toward their traditions. 2. identify French Canadian attitudes toward their historical development 3. identify French Canadian views toward Canada. 4. identify French Canadian views toward themselves and their role in society. The student w i l l be able to 1. recognize individual examples of French Canadian music 2. recognize individual examples of French Canadian art, architecture and view of their land. 3. identify the individuality of French Canadian l i f e s t y l e . -64-Quebec Unit Daily Lessons Day 1 Day 2 STRATEGY Conduct attitude discussion among class members on their own ethnic background and awareness Read and discuss sheet of quotes on attitudes toward French Canadians by English Canadians Read and discuss sheet of quotes on attitudes toward English Canadians by French. - Read and discuss readings translated from the OISE Micro Series on French Canadian youth's attitudes toward their culture, and i t s place -Ask students to question themselves based on questions posed in reading. - Compare answers of English Canadian youths to French-Canadian youths. Day 3 & 4 & 5 - Have students prepare reports on different aspects of Quebec culture a. b. c. d. Art Literature Music Traditions RESOURCES Readings obtained from from variety of sources Micro-Transcripts OISE Series 1. Culture and Country H. Doughty, D. Skidmore A. King, I. Munro. 2. Stories from Quebec P. Stratford, M. Thomas 3. Voices from Quebec P. Stratford, M. Thomas 4. Forces Magazine (Quebec Hydro) 5. Filmstrip: -"The French" from Moreland & Latchford 6. Video: - The French (CTV) Films, National Film Board (1) September Fire at St. Henri (2) What is the Big Complaint? (3) Bilingual ism (4) Why I Sing? (6) Quebec in Silence (7) Wake Up Mes Bon Amis. -66-BIBLIOGRAPHY - APPENDICES Bliss, J. Canadian History in Documents 1763 - 1966. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1966. Doughty, H., Skidmore, D., King A., and Munro, I. Canadian Studies:  Culture and Country. Toronto: Wiley, 1976. Evans, A., and Martinello, I. Canada's Century, Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1978. Hodgins, B., Bowles, R., Hamley, J., and Rawly, K. Canadiens, Canadians and Quebecois. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1974. Kirbyson, R- In Search of Canada. Volume II. Scarborough: Prentice Hall, 1977. Stratford, P. Stories From Quebec. Toronto: Van Norstrand Reinhold, 1974. Stratford, P. & Thomas, M. Voices from Quebec. Toronto: Van Norstrand-Reinhold, 1977. Thomson, D. (Ed.) Quebec Society and P o l i t i c s . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1973. Media Kit. The Canadian Mosaic. Toronto: Moreland-Latchford Series No. 58-3. Media Kit. The Hard Times of Louis Riel See-Hear Now Series: Toronto: Prentice-Hall. Media Kit. French-English Relations See-Hears Now Series. Toronto: Prentice-Hall. Media Kit. Devant Le Micro. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Modern Language Centure. Serials: Forces: Montreal: Relations publiques de Hydro-Quebec 1967 - 1982. V.I. - Gl. 

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