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Town and gown : the early history of the Vancouver Institute 1995

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TOWN AND GOWN: THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE VANCOUVER INSTITUTE by ERIC JOHN DAMER B.A., The University of Victoria, 1989 Diploma in Education, The University of British Columbia, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1995 © Eric John Darner, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date I W ^ L - IH /fqS" DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T T o w n a n d G o w n : T h e E a r l y H i s t o r y o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e " i s a b o u t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d f i r s t t w e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s o f t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n . I t e x p l o r e s t h e s o c i a l r o o t s t h a t h e l p e x p l a i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e i n 1 9 1 6 , a n d f o l l o w s i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t u n t i l 1 9 3 9 . T h e t h e s i s a r g u e s t h a t t h e i n i t i a l p r o m o t e r s h e l d m u t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e i n t e r e s t s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d t h e g r o w t h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , b u t l a t e r p r o m o t e r s w e r e f o r c e d t o d e c i d e n o t o n l y o n t h e I n s t i t u t e ' s p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n , b u t i t s s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n a s w e l l . T h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n w a s , t o s o m e e x t e n t , a p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y f o r t h o s e w h o h e l d a p a r t i c u l a r v i e w o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e ' s p r o p e r s o c i a l l o c a t i o n . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables v Preface vi Acknowledgements xiii Chapter One Preparing for The Vancouver Institute 1 Historical Currents 3 Mutual Enlightenment 3 The University of British Columbia 7 Rising Professionalization 10 Key Leaders 16 Robertson 17 Wesbrook 21 Conclusion 26 Chapter Two Town and Gown: Stability, 1916-1925 28 Creating The Vancouver Institute 29 Affiliates 35 The University of British Columbia 37 Mutual Enlightenment Affiliates 40 Professional Affiliates 52 Growth 56 Conclusion 59 Chapter Three Left in Town: 1925-1929 61 A Town-Oriented Vancouver Institute 62 Council 62 Homelessness and Dwindling Support 69 Affiliated Organizations 74 Back to UBC 78 Conclusion 83 iii C h a p t e r F o u r R e t u r n t o G o w n : 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 9 8 6 L o c a t i o n C h a n g e s , S e r v i c e C o n t i n u e s 8 6 T h e M o v e 8 7 S e r v i c e a s U s u a l 8 8 A f f i l i a t e d S o c i e t i e s 9 1 P o p u l a r i t y r i s e 1 0 3 U n i v e r s i t y T a k e s N o t i c e 1 0 5 S o c i a l P r e s s u r e s 1 0 5 R e m a k i n g T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e 1 0 7 S y l l a b u s R e o r i e n t a t i o n 1 1 3 I n c r e a s e d A t t e n d a n c e 1 1 6 C o n c l u s i o n 1 1 8 C h a p t e r F i v e S u r n m a r y 1 1 9 W o r k s C i t e d 1 2 5 A p p e n d i x 1 L e c t u r e s , 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 3 9 1 3 1 i v L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e P a g e 1 . P l a n n e r s a n d F i r s t S u p p o r t e r s o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e , s p r i n g 1 9 1 6 1 3 2 . F i r s t C o u n c i l o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 1 6 3 2 3 . L o n g e s t S e r v i n g C o u n c i l l o r s o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 3 3 4 . L e c t u r e T y p e s , 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 3 5 5 . M u t u a l E n l i g h t e n m e n t A f f i l i a t e s , p r e - 1 9 2 5 4 1 6 . P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n A f f i l i a t e s , p r e - 1 9 2 5 5 2 7 . M e m b e r s h i p a n d A t t e n d a n c e , 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 5 7 8 . L o n g e s t S e r v i n g C o u n c i l l o r s o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 6 3 9 . L e c t u r e T y p e s , 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 6 8 1 0 . M e m b e r s h i p a n d A t t e n d a n c e , 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 7 1 1 1 . L o n g e s t S e r v i n g C o u n c i l l o r s o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 3 8 9 1 2 . L e c t u r e T y p e s , 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 3 3 9 0 1 3 . A t t e n d a n c e , 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 3 1 0 4 1 4 . L o n g e s t S e r v i n g C o u n c i l l o r s , 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 9 1 1 2 1 5 . L e c t u r e T y p e s , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 1 1 4 1 6 . M e m b e r s h i p a n d A t t e n d a n c e , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 1 1 7 v P R E F A C E F o r t h e r e w a s a l s o a g o o d d e a l o f l e c t u r i n g . . . B o t h s p e c i a l i s t s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l p r i v a t e e r s s u p p l i e d m i d d l e - c l a s s c i t i z e n s o f t h e a g e ( w h o w e r e s t i l l d e e p l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e n o t i o n o f c u l t u r e , a l t h o u g h i t h a d l o n g s i n c e b e e n r o b b e d o f i t s f o r m e r m e a n i n g ) w i t h l a r g e n u m b e r s o f l e c t u r e s . 1 H e r m a n n H e s s e m a y h a v e b e e n r e a s s u r e d t o l e a r n t h a t l e c t u r e s w e r e a l i v e a n d w e l l i n t h e f a r t h e s t r e a c h e s o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a s b e t w e e n t h e w a r s h o m e t o a n u m b e r o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t r e g u l a r l y p r o v i d e d p u b l i c l e c t u r e s : t h e l o c a l A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b , C a n a d i a n C l u b , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , A l p i n e C l u b , D i c k e n s S o c i e t y , a n d m a n y m o r e . O n e i n s t i t u t i o n , h o w e v e r , s t a n d s o u t a s t h e m o s t p r e s t i g i o u s o f i t s k i n d . C o m b i n i n g t h e s t a t u s o f t h e n e w p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y w i t h t h e a i r s a n d t r a d i t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g s o c i e t i e s , T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e b e c a m e t h e c i t y ' s l e a d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a c a d e m i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s . T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e ( V I ) w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 1 6 a s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o u n i t e t h e e f f o r t s o f l o c a l s o c i e t i e s i n p r o v i d i n g a l e c t u r e s e r i e s , h o s t e d b y t h e 1 Hermann Hesse, Magister Ludl. trans. Richard and Clara Winston (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1969), 13. v i f l e d g l i n g U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( U B C ) . A p o p u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e V I h a s l o n g b e e n t h a t i t c o m b i n e d " t o w n " ( l o c a l c i t i z e n s a n d t h e i r s o c i e t i e s ) a n d " g o w n " ( u n i v e r s i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ) t o p r o v i d e t h e l e c t u r e s , a d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t w o u l d p r o v e t o h a v e i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s i s a b o u t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t o w n a n d g o w n , a n d h o w t h e V I g r e w f r o m a n i d e a i n 1 9 1 6 t o a s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n b y 1 9 3 9 . W h a t m a k e s t h e V I e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h a t i t c o n t i n u e s t o d a y t o p r o v i d e S a t u r d a y e v e n i n g l e c t u r e s , d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m t e l e v i s i o n a n d o t h e r m a s s a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g i t s S e p t e m b e r t o A p r i l s e a s o n , i t r e g u l a r l y d r a w s a n a v e r a g e a u d i e n c e o f s e v e n h u n d r e d t o l e c t u r e s a t i t s U B C l o c a t i o n . P r o m i n e n t a c a d e m i c s , a r t i s t s , a n d p u b l i c f i g u r e s a d d r e s s t o p i c s r a n g i n g f r o m s c i e n c e a n d l i t e r a t u r e , t o p o l i t i c s a n d p a i n t i n g . T h e D a l a i L a m a h a s a t t r a c t e d t h e l a r g e s t a u d i e n c e t o d a t e , w i t h s o m e t w e l v e h u n d r e d p e o p l e p a c k e d i n t o s e v e r a l l e c t u r e h a l l s ! Y e t t h e V I , a p r o d u c t o f i t s h i s t o r y , i s s t i l l d i r e c t e d b y c o u n c i l l o r s f r o m b o t h t h e U B C a n d V a n c o u v e r c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d h a s n e v e r c h a r g e d a n a d m i s s i o n f e e . 2 T h e r e h a s n o t y e t b e e n a s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . M a r i a T l p p e t t , i n h e r s u r v e y o f c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o u c h e s o n s e v e r a l b o d i e s a n d s o c i a l e v e n t s l i n k e d t o t h e V I , b u t d o e s n o t i d e n t i f y t h e I n s t i t u t e i t s e l f . 3 V a r i o u s p o p u l a r h i s t o r i e s o f V a n c o u v e r a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i m i l a r l y o v e r l o o k t h e V I . 4 I f P a t r i c i a R o y I s r i g h t t o s e e t h e V I a s i n t e g r a l t o t h e 2Much of this information can be found on The Vancouver Institute annual program. 3Maria Tlppett. Making Culture: English-Canadian Institutions and the Arts before the Massev Commission (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990). 4For example, no mention can be found in Alan Morley. Vancouver (Vancouver: Mitchell Press, 1961). Nor is the VI referred to in Eric Nicol, Vancouver (Toronto: Doubleday, v i i cultural and educational leadership offered by the new University of British Columbia, then historians of province and city might want to reconsider its significance.5 Curiously, The Vancouver Institute" is located on a map in Vancouver: A Visual History, with essentially no explanation.6 Harry Logan's popular history of UBC does make several references to the VI, but without elaboration.7 It also receives passing mention in the early UBC Alumni Chronicle and Peter Waite's biography of Larry MacKenzie.8 A number of prominent Vancouver residents who worked to support or to govern the VI also mention the Institute. M.Y. Williams, a UBC faculty member who worked for a number of years as a VI councillor, wrote a brief history of the VTs first two decades. It summarizes significant events in the VTs early life, but offers little explanation as to why these events occurred, and virtually no reference to the social setting. It does, however, reveal Williams's attitudes about the VI.9 The founding of the VI is listed in Gordon Selman's chronology of adult education in British Columbia, and Ian Hunt considers the VTs influence in 1978) or Jean Barman, The West Bevond the West (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991). 5Patricia Roy, Vancouver: An Illustrated History (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1980), 121. 6 Bruce MacDonald, Vancouver: A Visual History (Vancouver Talon Books, 1992), 34. The VI is placed correctly on a street map but with an incorrect date and no explanation. 7Harry Logan, Tuum Est (VancouvenThe University of British Columbia, 1958). 8"Makers of the University—Frank Fairchild Wesbrook," UBC Alumni Chronicle (Autumn 1955), 17. Peter Waite. Lord of Point Grev: Larrv MacKenzie of UBC. (Vancouver: The University of British Columbia Press, 1987), 107. 9M.Y. Williams, "The History of the Vancouver Institute." Vancouver, University of British Columbia.Special Collections, Vancouver Institute Collection, Box 1-2. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled as VI Collection.) viii his study of mutual enlightenment in Vancouver.10 Since the VI grew out of the adult education traditions of certain local "learned" societies and later became inextricably linked to UBC's extension efforts, a study of the VI would form a kind of bridge between Hunt's work on mutual enlightenment and Selman's history of UBC Extension.11 Whether in the perspective of Vancouver, UBC or adult education history, the VI is a noteworthy but unexamined entity. The VI deserves attention not just because it was the leading organization of its kind, but also for its active role in the evolution of several movements of the day: self improvement through mutual enlightenment, the development of adult education, UBC's growing influence, social issues (including labour, public health, and women's issues), and economic promotion. The VI attracted the support of people who were working to advance these social causes, and became itself a factor in their development. On the other hand, the VI embodied the educational efforts and interests of a wealthy and influential segment of Vancouver's population, and so became a part of the story of this group's contribution to the local society. The Vancouver Institute is integral to Vancouver's social and cultural history, and forms an impressive thread in the historical tapestry of adult education. 10Gordon Selman, A Chronology of Adult Education In British Columbia.. Occasional Papers in Continuing Education, no. 14 {Vancouver: Centre for Continuing Education, The University of British Columbia, 1977), 14. Ian Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment in Vancouver, 1886-1916* (Ed.D. thesis, University of British Columbia. 1987),43. Hunt suggests that "the fragmentation of intellectual and cultural leadership was finally resolved In 1916 by the foundation of the Vancouver Institute." 1 1 Gordon Selman, "History of Extension Department University of British Columbia" (MA. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1963). ix My study is limited in several respects. It is but one of many possible perspectives on the institution, offering an adrninistrative/political account of the VI between 1916 and 1939, and on occasion referring to the social context for explanation. I wanted primarily to know what happened, and who worked to promote and to direct the VI and why. I ended by seeing the two main categories of supporter as town (citizens who had no strong UBC affiliation and their societies) and gown (those with strong UBC connections, primarily as faculty members). This thesis is not about the learning or motivation of VI audiences. It is not primarily about the economic life or significance of associated players, nor does it examine the aesthetic or intellectual implications inherent in the lectures themselves. It describes neither the psychological outlooks of those involved nor the demographic patterns of those who participated. Race, gender, and class matters could each be examined in relation to the VI, but remain for some future writer to consider. This history is largely based on primary sources located in archival collections. The Vancouver Institute Collection at UBC Special Collections contains five boxes of material, including minutes, membership lists, treasurer reports, programs, scrapbooks, and correspondence. These materials are particularly suited to an administrative and political history of the VI, but admit of some social questions. The UBC Board of Governors, Senate, and Department of Extension collections (also at UBC Special Collections) document UBC's reasons to be interested in the VI. The records of several Vancouver societies that participated in the VI can be found in the Vancouver City Archives, and family papers are found both in the Vancouver and UBC archives. Finally, newspaper articles provide another source of VI information. Many of these are found as clippings x within the VI collection, whereas others are found in newspaper collections or microfiche files. Newspaper articles report on VI activities and provide biographical information. These primary sources, although not reliably representative and complete (particularly in the case of the Institute minutes), provide useful evidence as to what transpired in the VI and how the organization related to its world.12 Secondary sources are used where necessary to describe the VTs social setting. Several well regarded histories of Vancouver are supplemented with broader histories of British Columbia, and some national and international research is also included. These sources help to show the relation of the VI with other social developments occurring prior to and during the period of this study. Chapter 1, Preparing for The Vancouver Institute, examines social currents prior to 1916 that helped give birth to the VI. Vancouver's mutual enlightenment and university movements, together with a rising educated population, provided the background for the VTs establishment and leadership. This leadership grew out of prior social circumstances, but came to have a character of its own. Chapter 2 deals with the period from 1916 to 1925, arguing this was a period of political balance between town and gown in VI affairs and thus a time of stability and increasing popularity. Chapter 3 describes the period from 1925 to 1929 as a moment when the VI became more town-oriented. Chapter 4, in contrast, describes an increasingly strong gown presence from 1929 to 1939. This evolution 12One conspicuous limitation in the VI minutes is that they rarely say much about debate in the VI. This was an amateur organization, and the voluntary secretary only wrote down what seemed interesting to him or her. The secretary for 1920-21 did not record any minutes at all. xi began with the VTs symbolically important move to UBC's Point Grey campus, but became a predorriinant feature of the Institute after 1933. Town and Gown is a first look at a long-standing Vancouver institution of adult education; at the time of writing. The Vancouver Institute remains a popular lecture series. If this study adds to an understanding of adult education in British Columbia, or encourages further studies of the VI or its role in the historical development of adult education in British Columbia, then it will have served a useful purpose. xii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS As with other works, the author's name does not identify all who contributed to the thesis. I would like to thank the many people who, directly or indirectly, helped with this project. My committee members were especially helpful. Professor William Bruneau worked tirelessly yet gently with his green-inked scalpel to draw from me a better thesis, demonstrating that sharp cuts are indeed painless and heal without scars. It was my good fortune to have him as my research supervisor. To Professor William S. Griffith goes considerable thanks, not only for his careful and thoughtful suggestions on the thesis, but for planting the seed that started the project. His on-going support throughout my recent studies is greatly appreciated. The knowledge and careful eye of Professor Neil Sutherland brought additional insight to the form and content of this thesis, and his contributions were highly valued. Above all, I would like to thank my committee members for their wise counsel, and for helping to make writing this thesis an enjoyable and enriching experience. I would also like to thank friends, colleagues, and other faculty members for their encouragement. My family has been particularly supportive, and my parents deserve special recognition for their unwavering support. Despite the efforts of those who have been involved with this thesis, any remaining errors are my own responsibility. xiii C H A P T E R 1 P R E P A R I N G F O R T H E V A N C O U V E R I N S T I T U T E F e w i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e b o r n b y f i a t a n d t h r u s t i n t o t h e w o r l d c o m p l e t e l y u n a n n o u n c e d . T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e , l i k e o t h e r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , w a s n o t c r e a t e d i n a s o c i a l v a c u u m b u t g r e w o u t o f i t s t i m e a n d p l a c e . A s G o r d o n S e l m a n m i g h t s u g g e s t , i t r e s p o n d e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y w i t h i n w h i c h i t f u n c t i o n e d . 1 T o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e V I b e g a n a n d h o w i t b e c a m e i m p o r t a n t t o t h o s e w h o o r g a n i z e d a n d p r o m o t e d i t , o n e m u s t e x a m i n e V a n c o u v e r s o c i e t y p r i o r t o t h e V T s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1 9 1 6 . V a n c o u v e r i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 0 0 s w a s i n m a n y w a y s a n u n s t a b l e c i t y . I t h a d g r o w n q u i c k l y i n t h e c e n t u r y ' s f i r s t d e c a d e ; t h e l o c a l e c o n o m y b o o m e d , d e v e l o p m e n t r o s e c o n s i d e r a b l y , a n d p o p u l a t i o n n e a r l y q u a d r u p l e d . V a n c o u v e r h a d b e c o m e t h e u n d i s p u t e d m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e f o r C a n a d a ' s P a c i f i c C o a s t . 2 N a t i v e - b o r n C a n a d i a n s a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y h a l f o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , b u t a s t r o n g B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n w a s a l s o p r e s e n t . 3 B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t e s t e d e a c h o t h e r . 4 C i v i c b o o s t e r s s e e k i n g w e a l t h j o s t l e d w i t h s u f f r a g i s t s a n d o t h e r r e f o r m e r s . 5 S o c i a l i s t s 1 Gordon Selman, "The Canadian Movement in Context," The Foundations of Adult Education in Canada (Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 1993), 35. 2Patricia Roy, Vancouver: An Illustrated History (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company), 51. 3Norbert MacDonald, Distant Neighbours: A Comparative History of Seattle & Vancouver. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987) chapter 4. 4 N . MacDonald, Neighbours. 43. 5Roy, Vancouver. 51; Jean Barman, The West Bevond the West: A History of British Columbia. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991), 210. 1 c h a l l e n g e d t h e d e v e l o p i n g e c o n o m i c o r d e r , a n d V a n c o u v e r , a " c i t y o f c h u r c h e s a n d c h u r c h m e n , " h a d a d i s t u r b i n g " i m m o r a l u n d e r s i d e . " 6 V a n c o u v e r w a s d o m i n a t e d b y e a g e r y o u n g m e n o n a n " u n t r a m m e l e d q u e s t f o r i n d i v i d u a l e c o n o m i c b e t t e r m e n t . " 7 T h e 1 9 1 2 d e p r e s s i o n s h o o k t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e p r e v i o u s d e c a d e , a n d t h e F i r s t W o r l d W a r h a d a d i r e c t e f f e c t o n a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 8 E c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l p r o g r e s s s e e m e d a v a i l a b l e t o m a n y V a n c o u v e r i t e s , b u t t h e m e t h o d s t o a c h i e v e t h e m b e c a m e l e s s s e c u r e a n d l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . W e l l - o r g a n i z e d f i n a n c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s c o m p e t e d ; s o m e o f t h e l e a d e r s o f t h o s e i n t e r e s t s w e r e s t r i c t l y s e l f - s e r v i n g a n d p r o f i t o r c a r e e r h u n g r y , w h e r e a s o t h e r s w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h p u b l i c w e l f a r e o r c u l t u r a l b e t t e r m e n t . H o w c o u l d p e o p l e r e a l i z e t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s ? I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e V I , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a w a r e o f t h i s s e n t i m e n t : h o w m i g h t t h e V I b e u s e f u l t o a c h i e v e g o a l s , w h e t h e r f o r o n e s e l f , o n e ' s g r o u p , o r o n e ' s c a u s e ? T h r e e a s p e c t s o f e a r l y V a n c o u v e r s o c i e t y h a d a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n t h e V I t h e m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t m o v e m e n t , w h i c h g a v e r i s e t o l e a r n e d s o c i e t i e s a n d t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s o f p u b l i c l e c t u r e s ; t h e u n i v e r s i t y m o v e m e n t , p r o v i d i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n d s u p p o r t f o r a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; a n d a r i s e i n t h e n u m b e r a n d k i n d s o f f o r m a l l y e d u c a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w h o p r o m o t e d a p a r t i c u l a r r a n g e o f t a s t e s a n d i n t e r e s t s . T h e V I a r o s e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e f o r c e s . T h e f o u n d e r s o f t h e V I w e r e 6Robert A.J. McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver, 1886-1914: Urbanism and Class in British Columbia," B.C. Studies 69-70 (Spring-Summer 1986), 34; Roy, Vancouver. 82. 7 RA.J. McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver," 65. 8Roy, Vancouver. 87; Barman, The West. 198. 2 . a r g u a b l y p r o d u c t s o f t h e s e f o r c e s . L e m u e l R o b e r t s o n , a r e s i d e n t i n V a n c o u v e r f o r s o m e t i m e p r e c e d i n g t h e V I , a n d r e l a t i v e n e w c o m e r F r a n k F a i r c h i l d W e s b r o o k k n e w a n d w e r e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e f o r m s o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t a t p l a y i n E d w a r d i a n V a n c o u v e r . T h i s c h a p t e r e x p l o r e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e V I , a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e w o r k o f R o b e r t s o n a n d W e s b r o o k . H i s t o r i c a l C u r r e n t s T h e m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t , u n i v e r s i t y , a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n m o v e m e n t s w e r e t h r e e d i s t i n c t b u t i n t e r r e l a t e d s o c i a l c u r r e n t s o f t h e d e c a d e s p r e c e d i n g t h e V T s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e y c a n b e e x a m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y , t h e y g r e w a l o n g s i d e e a c h o t h e r a n d w e r e d r a w n t o g e t h e r i n t h e V I . T h i s w a s d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e t h o s e w h o w e r e ( o r h a d b e e n ) a c t i v e i n t h e s e m o v e m e n t s a n d b e c a m e e a r l y V I p r o m o t e r s . M u t u a l E n l i g h t e n m e n t T h e p h e n o m e n a l g r o w t h o f e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y V a n c o u v e r w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y v a r i o u s v i e w s a s t o t h e s o r t o f c i t y V a n c o u v e r s h o u l d b e . F o r s o m e , e c o n o m i c p r o s p e r i t y a n d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h w e r e o n l y p a r t o f w h a t m a d e V a n c o u v e r w o r t h y . S o m e t o o k v e r y s e r i o u s l y t h e s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e c i t y . 9 T o t h a t e n d , v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l a n d l e a r n e d s o c i e t i e s a p p e a r e d , a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r V a n c o u v e r ' s i n c o r p o r a t i o n , t o f o s t e r " m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t . " A s " l e a r n e d " s o c i e t i e s , t h e y w e r e l a r g e l y 9 N . MacDonald. Neighbours. 33. MacDonald argues that early Vancouverites were city- builders as well as profiteers. 3 c o n c e r n e d w i t h a m a t e u r r e s e a r c h a n d s t u d y o f l i t e r a r y o r s c i e n t i f i c w o r k s . M a n y o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d w e r e p r o s p e r o u s a n d i n f l u e n t i a l a n d , i n s p i r e d b y B r i t i s h i d e a l s o f h i g h c u l t u r e , h e l p e d t e m p e r w h a t b e g a n a s " a n u g l y , s m e l l y c i t y . " 1 0 I a n H u n t h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e e m e r g e n c e a n d g r o w t h o f m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n V a n c o u v e r a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . T h r o u g h a n u m b e r o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p a r t i c i p a n t s s o u g h t t o i m p r o v e t h e c u l t u r a l , a e s t h e t i c , a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r r e s i d e n t s . A l t h o u g h s o m e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t t e n d e d o n l y t o t h e i r o w n m e m b e r s , o t h e r s t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p l i g h t o f t h e " u n e n l i g h t e n e d m a s s e s . " A n u m b e r o f g r o u p s d i s c u s s e d b y H u n t w o u l d a f f i l i a t e w i t h t h e V I . 1 1 T h e f i r s t w e r e t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r ' s o l d e s t l e a r n e d s o c i e t y ; t h e V a n c o u v e r A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y ; a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e . T h e y w e r e s o o n j o i n e d b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s ; t h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S e c t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M o u n t a i n e e r i n g C l u b , w h i c h w o u l d b e c o m e t h e V a n c o u v e r N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y ; a n d t h e A l p i n e C l u b o f C a n a d a ( V a n c o u v e r S e c t i o n ) . T h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r T r a d e s a n d L a b o u r C o u n c i l w e r e a l s o e n g a g e d i n s i m i l a r v o l u n t a r y e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , a l t h o u g h e a c h h a d i t s o w n p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s , a n d b o t h g r o u p s b e c a m e e a r l y s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e V I . 10Ian Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment in Vancouver: 1886-1916," (Ed.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1987); Roy, Vancouver. 29. 1 1VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. Data from this collection are sketchy and generally biased to promote the merits of the VI. Few records describe the debates that transpired, although the recorded outcomes can be given some credibility. Inferences based solely on VI records are tentative at best. 4 I t w a s t y p i c a l o f t h e s e g r o u p s t o p r o v i d e l e c t u r e s t o t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h e s e a n d o t h e r m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t g r o u p s d e a l t w i t h i d e a s a n d p r o b l e m s a n a l o g o u s t o t h o s e i n f o r m i n g t h e " n e w e d u c a t i o n " i n t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s . A m o n g t h e " n e w e d u c a t i o n " t o p i c s w e r e c i v i c s , s c i e n c e ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h n a t u r e s t u d y ) , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g h e a l t h a n d h y g i e n e ) , a n d m a n u a l t r a i n i n g . 1 2 A l t h o u g h t h e t o p i c s w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o f i t s p e c i f i c V a n c o u v e r i n t e r e s t s , t h e y c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e p r o g r a m m e s o f a t l e a s t s o m e v o l u n t a r y s c i e n t i f i c a n d l i t e r a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n c e r t a i n l y p r o m o t e d c i v i c s , a d v a n c e d a s h i g h c u l t u r e c o l o u r e d b y i m p e r i a l s e n s i b i l i t y . 1 3 O t h e r s , t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , p r o m o t e d s c i e n c e ( f o r e x a m p l e , t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M o u n t a i n e e r i n g C l u b ) , p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n ( f o r e x a m p l e , t h e A l p i n e C l u b o f C a n a d a ) , h e a l t h a n d h y g i e n e ( t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l p h y s i c i a n s ) , o r m a n u a l t r a i n i n g ( t h e V a n c o u v e r A r t s a n d C r a f t s A s s o c i a t i o n , S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s ) . 1 4 T h e s e i n t e r e s t s w o u l d i n t u r n b e e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e V I : l e c t u r e t o p i c s o f t e n i n c l u d e d s c i e n c e , h e a l t h , p a t r i o t i s m , m o u n t a i n e e r i n g , o r n a t u r e . T h e e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s a t l a r g e i n t h i s c o m p l i c a t e d m o v e m e n t w e r e c h a m p i o n e d b y S i r W i l l i a m M a c d o n a l d a s p a r t 12Neil Sutherland, Children In English-Canadian Society. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976), chapter 12. 13Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment." 41. 14Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," passim; Lawrence Ranta, "British Columbia Academy of Science," Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, British Columbia Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-1. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "Academy of Science Collection.") 5 o f t h e " M a c d o n a l d / R o b e r t s o n M o v e m e n t . " 1 5 M a c d o n a l d , i n t e r e s t i n g l y , h e l p e d t o f i n a n c e M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 9 0 6 . 1 6 I s o l a t e d a s V a n c o u v e r m a y h a v e b e e n , i t w a s n o t w i t h o u t c o n t a c t w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s e l s e w h e r e i n C a n a d a . T h e f i r s t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e V I w e r e t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n ( A H S A ) , t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e . 1 7 T h e I n s t i t u t e w a s p r o p o s e d a s " a m e a n s t o l o o s e l y f e d e r a t e a n d c o o r d i n a t e e x i s t i n g s o c i e t i e s , t o e n h a n c e e a c h , h a r m o n i z e r e l a t e d l i n e s o f e n d e a v o r , a n d c u l t i v a t e n e w f i e l d s . " 1 8 S u c h a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f H u n t ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t m a n y o f t h e s e g r o u p s ( h i s " e x e m p l a r s " ) i g n o r e d e a c h o t h e r . 1 9 T h e o t h e r m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t g r o u p s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d p e t i t i o n e d f o r m e m b e r s h i p w i t h i n a c o u p l e o f m o n t h s , a n d t h e A l p i n e C l u b a n d S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s j o i n e d a y e a r l a t e r . T h e V T s a p p e a l w a s b a s e d o n i t s p o t e n t i a l t o f u r t h e r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e a f f i l i a t i n g s o c i e t i e s . 15Sutherland, Children. Chapter 12. 16Harry Logan. Tuum Est (Vancouver: The University of British Columbia. 1958). 18. 17Vancouver City Archives, Art, Historical, and Scientific Association Collection, Add. Mss. 336, Volume 2-10, Minutes, 23 March, 1916. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "AHSA Collection.") 18Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, Department of University Extension Collection, Box 3-1,Correspondence, 29 March, 1916. This statement was on the invitation to join the VI. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "UBC Extension Collection.") 19Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment." 271. 6 T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T h e V I w a s i n d i r e c t l y y e t p o w e r f u l l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e n e w U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( U B C ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t s f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d a u n i v e r s i t y a s e a r l y a s t h e 1 8 7 0 s , b u t t o o k t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s t o a g r e e o n i t s l o c a t i o n a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n . 2 0 N o t o n l y d i d U B C ' s e x i s t e n c e s p a r k t h e V I , b u t t h e t h e m e s o f t h e d e b a t e s o v e r t h e c o n t r o l a n d f u n c t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y w o u l d a l s o f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e V I . C o n t r o l o f t h e p r o p o s e d u n i v e r s i t y w a s a p o p u l a r i s s u e f o r t h o s e w h o a r g u e d f o r a u n i v e r s i t y . B e f o r e t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d i n 1 9 1 0 t o l o c a t e t h e n e w U B C o n t h e t i p o f P o i n t G r e y , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y h a d e s t a b l i s h e d a f f i l i a t e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 2 1 I n i t i a l l y t h r o u g h V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e a n d V a n c o u v e r H i g h S c h o o l ( w h i c h b e c a m e V a n c o u v e r C o l l e g e ) , a n d , i n 1 9 0 6 , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e i n V a n c o u v e r , M c G i l l c a m e t o d o m i n a t e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2 2 M c G i l l ' s d o m i n a n c e a n n o y e d a f e w V a n c o u v e r i t e s w h o h a d l o y a l t i e s t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o a n d u p s e t t h o s e w h o w i s h e d a l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n d i g e n o u s u n i v e r s i t y . 2 3 A l t h o u g h M c G i l l p l a y e d a c r u c i a l r o l e i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e e t h o s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y m o v e m e n t w a s c l e a r l y d o m i n a t e d b y a c o n c e r n f o r l o c a l a n d 20Logan, Tuum Est. 2; R Cole Harris "Locating the University of British Columbia" B.C. Studies 32 (Winter 1976-77), 107. 2 1 Harris. "Locating the University," 108-109. 22Logan. Tuum Est. 23. 23Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, President's Office/Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-5, Minutes, 1906. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "Wesbrook Collection.") The unknown author recorded the notes at a public meeting to discuss the 1906 legislation concerning McGill's role in higher education in British Columbia. 7 p u b l i c c o n t r o l , a n d t h e m o v e m e n t t o c r e a t e a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y i n d e p e n d e n t o f M c G i l l c o n t i n u e d . 2 4 T h e V I w o u l d a t t r a c t p e o p l e w h o w e r e k e e n o n a n i n d e p e n d e n t a n d l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e V I w o u l d e x p l i c i t l y b e a n i n d e p e n d e n t V a n c o u v e r i n s t i t u t i o n , w h e r e a s U B C h a d t o b e s h a r e d w i t h t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C i v i c b o o s t e r s m i x e d w i t h g r a d u a t e s o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o . L a t e r , e v e n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s e n c e o f U B C w o u l d c a u s e s o m e t o f e a r t h a t V I a u t o n o m y w a s w a n i n g . 2 5 T h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y w e r e r e l a t e d a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l m a t t e r s . T h i s i s u n s u r p r i s i n g i n a p r o v i n c e e x p e r i e n c i n g t r e m e n d o u s g r o w t h a n d c l a s h i n g i m m i g r a n t c u l t u r e s . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e t w e e n B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n i d e a l s , w o u l d i n f o r m d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a u n i v e r s i t y . 2 6 A l t h o u g h m a n y f e l t t h a t U B C s h o u l d b e a p r a c t i c a l u n i v e r s i t y f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t b e c a u s e " t h e m a n w h o k n e w a l l a b o u t c l a s s i c s o r l i t e r a t u r e w a s u s e l e s s , " 2 7 o t h e r s s t r e s s e d t h e " c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g " r o l e o f a u n i v e r s i t y . H e n r y E s s e n Y o u n g , a s P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , w a s s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e f o r m e r v i e w y e t d e c l a r e d t h a t 24Logan, Tuum Est. 31. 2 5W.R. Dunlop to P.T. Tiinms, 17 October 1933, VI Collection Box 2-15. Dunlop stressed the separation between UBC and the VI. 26Harrls, "Locating the University," 125; Jean Barman, The West Bevond the West (Toronto: The University of Toronto Press. 1991), 137 ff. Among the middle-class, Barman suggests a division between leisurely, class-conscious Britons and more industrious Anglo- Canadians. N. MacDonald, Neighbours. 43, suggests, particularly in Vancouver, a clash between British and American social values. The division between British and Anglo- Canadian Vancouverites is also described by Roy, Vancouver. 60. 27Daily Province. 4 February, 1908. Cited in Harris, "Locating the University," 113. 8 " c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g w a s t h e g r e a t d u t y o f a u n i v e r s i t y . " 2 8 A l t h o u g h t h e d e s i r e f o r a p r a c t i c a l a n d s c i e n t i f i c u n i v e r s i t y p r e d o m i n a t e d ( a m a j o r r e a s o n w h y U B C w a s l o c a t e d n e a r c o m m e r c i a l V a n c o u v e r ) , i t w a s b a l a n c e d b y t h e c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g g o a l , h o w e v e r d e f i n e d . 2 9 V a n c o u v e r i t e s f e l t t h e i r c i t y t o b e t h e b e s t u n i v e r s i t y l o c a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l a n d c u l t u r a l r e a s o n s . 3 0 B o t h t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s w o u l d b e e x p r e s s e d i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f U B C . W h e n U B C f i n a l l y w e l c o m e d s t u d e n t s i n 1 9 1 5 , i t w a s u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n i n a n u m b e r o f p r a c t i c a l f i e l d s , w h e r e a s t h e b u d g e t f o r C l a s s i c s ( a s t a p l e o f l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n ) r e m a i n e d a m p l e . 3 1 T h e V I a t t r a c t e d s u p p o r t f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l f u n c t i o n o f U B C ( f o r e x a m p l e , t h e C h a m b e r o f M i n e s ) a s w e l l a s t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c u l t u r a l , c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n ( f o r e x a m p l e , m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t g r o u p s ) . T h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e V I e m b o d i e d t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f U B C . L i k e t h e U n i v e r s i t y , t h e V I w a s c o n t r o l l e d b y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c i t i z e n s a n d n o t " f o r e i g n e r s . " M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , i t w a s c o n t r o l l e d b y p r o u d V a n c o u v e r i t e s i n t e r e s t e d i n b o t h t h e c o m m e r c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l 28Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, Convocation Records, Box 1-2, Daily News Advertiser. 22 August 1912. 29Logan, Tuum Est. 37; Harris, "Locating the University," 115,116, also notes the American influence behind the practical and scientific views. 30Harris, "Locating the University." 115. 3 1 Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, UBC Board of Governors Collection, Box 1, Reel 1, Minutes, 11 January 1916. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "UBC Board of Governors Collection. ")The social and occupational status conferred through knowledge of classics is discussed in Robert Gidney and Winnifred Millar Professional Gentlemen: The Professions in Nineteenth-Century Ontario (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994), 5. 9 v i r t u e s o f e d u c a t i o n . 3 2 T h e l e c t u r e s y l l a b u s i t s e l f b l e n d e d p r a c t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l t o p i c s . E a r l y t i t l e s r a n g e d f r o m T h e E v o l u t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e " t o T h e R o m a n t i c P e r i o d o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . " 3 3 R i s i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n A t h i r d e l e m e n t i n e a r l y V a n c o u v e r w a s a n i n c r e a s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y , a " p r o f e s s i o n " h e r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s a n o c c u p a t i o n r e q u i r i n g a k n o w l e d g e b a s e l e a r n e d t h r o u g h a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f e d u c a t i o n , a n d c a r r y i n g c e r t a i n s o c i a l s t a t u s a n d i n f l u e n c e . 3 4 V a n c o u v e r ' s f o r m a l l y e d u c a t e d p o p u l a t i o n b e g a n t o i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e 1 8 9 0 s , a s d i d t h e s o c i a l l e a d e r s h i p f r o m p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y l a w y e r s ) . 3 5 S u c h p e o p l e b r o u g h t n o t o n l y t h e i r e d u c a t e d t a s t e s , b u t a l s o o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n w a s b e c o m i n g l i n k e d t o u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h c o u l d a l s o l e a d t o e n h a n c e d s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . 3 6 T r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s s u c h a s l a w , m e d i c i n e , a n d c l e r g y , a n d e m e r g i n g p r o f e s s i o n s s u c h a s e n g i n e e r i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , a n d 32Harris, "Locating the University," passim. Harris stresses the point that British Columbia communities—particularly Vancouver—promoted their local interests vigourously. 3 3 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 34See Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 3, for a broader consideration of the difficulties in defining professions. 35Robert A.J. McDonald, "Business Leaders iii Early Vancouver 1886-1914," (Ph.D. thesis. University of British Columbia, 1977). 244. 36Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 354; R.A.J. MacDonald, "Business Leaders." 230. 1 0 e d u c a t i o n w e r e g r o w i n g i n V a n c o u v e r w i t h t h e c i t y ' s i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y t o e m p l o y s u c h p e o p l e . T h e d e b a t e s o v e r U B C i n c l u d e d a r g u m e n t s t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e f i e l d s d e e m e d s c i e n t i f i c , b e p r o v i d e d i n a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n i v e r s i t y . 3 7 I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s e v e r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t o o k i n t e r e s t i n t h e V I , p e r h a p s t o i n f l u e n c e U B C c u r r i c u l u m a s i t r e l a t e d t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s ( t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r e x a m p l e , s o u g h t t o i n f l u e n c e U B C ' s c u r r i c u l u m ) , o r t o g a i n a c c e s s t o a p u b l i c f o r u m t h a t w o u l d e n h a n c e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . 3 8 A l t h o u g h p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n b r o u g h t w i t h i t a s e t o f n a r r o w l y o c c u p a t i o n a l a i m s , i t a l s o i n d i c a t e d g r o w t h i n t h e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s i n t h e e d u c a t e d c l a s s w h o p r o m o t e d c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l t a s t e s . 3 9 A n u m b e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s w e r e s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t m o v e m e n t a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d ( o f t e n a s l e a d e r s ) i n v a r i o u s l o c a l s o c i e t i e s . A s i t a t t r a c t e d t h o s e o f t h e m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t a n d u n i v e r s i t y m o v e m e n t s , t h e V I a l s o a t t r a c t e d t h o s e w i t h c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s . T h e s e p e o p l e a l s o b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m a d e s i r e f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t r o l a n d e n h a n c e m e n t , a n d a n i n t e r e s t i n U B C a s a n i n s t i t u t i o n t o e d u c a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s . 37Harris, "Locating the University," 115. The Interest in science was popular in Vancouver as elsewhere. See also Wesbrook papers. Box 1-4/5. 38Vancouver, City Archives, British Columbia Institute of Architecture Collection, Add. Mss. 326, Vol. 1-2, Personal note, ca. 1914. (Because of organizational name changes, subsequent references to this collection are labelled "Architectural Institute Collection.") This note described suggestions for university courses in architecture. The charters of other VI affiliated professional associations explicitly stated an objective to enhance (or claim) the professional status, e.g. Vancouver, City Archives, Vancouver Teachers Association, Add. Mss. 994; B.C. Society of Fine Arts, Add. Mss. 171. 3 9 R A J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," 244. 11 B y p r o v i d i n g e x p e r t , h i g h - s t a t u s l e c t u r e s u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f U B C , t h e V I a t t r a c t e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f l o c a l l e a r n e d s o c i e t i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y i t s e l f , a n d i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s . T a b l e 1 s h o w s t h o s e w h o w e r e f i r s t c o n s u l t e d a b o u t o r s u p p o r t e d t h e V I i n i t s f i r s t f e w m o n t h s , a n d t h e i r m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t , u n i v e r s i t y , o r p r o f e s s i o n a l ( o c c u p a t i o n a l ) a f f i l i a t i o n s . M o t i v e s f o r a f f i l i a t i o n w i l l b e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . H e r e , i t i s a d e q u a t e t o n o t e t h a t t h e y s h a r e d s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d s i n t h e t h r e e a r e a s i n q u e s t i o n . T a b l e 1 s h o w s m a n y a f f i l i a t i o n s h e l d i n c o m m o n a n d h o w t h e t h r e e s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s c o m b i n e d i n e a r l y V I p r o m o t e r s . R o b e r t s o n , S c o t t , B r y a n , H i l l - T o u t , H o w a y , T w i z e l l , a n d F r i p p h a d b e e n m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t l e a d e r s , a n d b r o u g h t t o t h e V I n o t o n l y t h e i r o w n t a s t e s a n d e n t h u s i a s m s b u t a l s o t h o s e o f t h e l o c a l s o c i e t i e s t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d . W e s b r o o k , R o b e r t s o n , D a v i d s o n , b o t h J a m i e s o n s , S c o t t , H i l l - T o u t , F a r r i s , H o w a y , H a l l a n d W a d e h a d b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f U B C . T h e y b r o u g h t t o t h e V I a s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y . ( A n o t h e r e a r l y U B C s u p p o r t e r , R o b i e R e i d , w o u l d b e c o m e a c t i v e w i t h t h e V I t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . ) W e s b r o o k , R o b e r t s o n , B r y a n , T w i z e l l , D a v i d s o n , H a l l , M a t h e s o n , F r i p p , A n n a B . J a m i e s o n , a n d K l i n c k w e r e a m o n g t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a s p e c t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . T h e p e o p l e w h o m e t t o p l a n t h e V I i n e a r l y 1 9 1 6 n o t o n l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t , u n i v e r s i t y , a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n m o v e m e n t s , b u t m a n y o f t h e m s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e m b o d i e d a l l t h r e e . 1 2 TABLE 1 PLANNERS AND FIRST SUPPORTERS OF THE VANCOUVER INSTITUTE, SPRING 1916 Name Occupation/Affiliations prior to VI establishment Frank F. Wesbrook UBC President Lemuel Robertson UBC Professor, Archaeological Institute, Kennerly Bryan Architect, Architectural Institute, AHSA James G. Davidson UBC Professor, British Columbia Academy of Science RF. Hayward Businessman Charles Hill-Tout Archaeological Institute, B.C. Academy of Science, AHSA Frederick W. Howay Judge, AHSA, UBC Senate Anna B. Jamieson Teacher, University Women's Club, UBC James H. McVety Labour Organizer, Trades and Labour Council, UBC W.P. OBoyle Catholic Priest, Local Societies S. Dunn Scott Editor News-Advertiser, Archaeological Inst., UBC Gover. H.C. Shaw Lawyer Rev. E. Thomas Methodist Minister Sir Charles H. Tupper Lawyer, AHSA R.P.S. Twizell Architect, AHSA, Architectural Institute, Frederick C. Wade Lawyer, AHSA, UBC Senate G-A. Laing High School Principal J.W. de B./Evelyn Farris Lawyer, AHSA/University Women's Club A. Buckley Assistant, Public Library T.Proctor Hall Physician, British Columbia Academy of Science E.G. Matheson UBC Professor, Architect/Civil Engineering L.S. Klinck UBC Dean, B.C. Academy of Science R Mackay Fripp Architect, Architectural Institute, Arts and Crafts Assoc. H. McLatchy Businessman, B.C. Mountaineering Club, UBC Convocation RS. Sherman Teacher, B.C. Mountaineering Club, Helena Gutteridge Tailor, Vancouver Trades & Labour Council J.E. Wilton Vancouver Trades & Labour Council J.G. Lister Educator, Vancouver Teachers Association J. Fee Educator, Vancouver Teachers Association (Mrs.) J.S. Jamieson University Women's Club; Alpine Club; (lawyer husband) S.P. Judge Commercial Artist, British Columbia Fine Arts Society G.H. Hawkins British Columbia Fine Arts Society J. Ashworth British Columbia Chamber of Mines N. Thompson Engineer, Businessman, B.C. Chamber of Mines Source: a) VI Minutes; b) Harry Logan, Tuum Est: c) Membership lists, AHSA Collection; d) British Columbia Academy of Science Collection; e) Ian Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment in Vancouver 1886-1916"; f) UBC Convocation Collection, Special Collections, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, g) Henderson's Vancouver Directory, 1912-1920; h) Vancouver Social Register and Club Directory (Vancouver: Welch & Gibbs, 1914). 13 " O t h e r p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w e r e f o r g e d i n d i r e c t l y . F o r e x a m p l e , o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e V I , w o u l d l i k e l y h a v e b e e n a l l i e d w i t h U B C p e r s o n n e l t h r o u g h t h e A c a d e m y ' s s u p p o r t f o r U B C . 4 0 S i m i l a r l y , s i n c e t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d h a d p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y M o v e m e n t , a n d t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l h a d b e c o m e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h U B C , i t s e e m s p r o b a b l e t h a t L i s t e r a n d F e e , a s t h e V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h m a n y o f t h e o t h e r s . 4 1 ( T h e V a n c o u v e r T r a d e s a n d L a b o u r C o u n c i l a l s o h a d a n h i s t o r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h U B C t h a t l e a d M c V e t y , W e s b r o o k a n d K l i n c k t o w o r k o n a n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t f o r r e t u r n i n g v e t e r a n s . 4 2 H o w e v e r , t h e T r a d e s a n d L a b o u r C o u n c i l m e m b e r s l i k e l y d i d n o t k n o w m a n y o f t h e o t h e r V I s u p p o r t e r s o n a c o n g e n i a l s o c i a l b a s i s . ) M a n y o f t h e s e p e o p l e b e c a m e t h e f i r s t V I C o u n c i l , c o n s t i t u t i n g a f a i r l y h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p . O f p a r t i c u l a r n o t e a r e t h e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h U B C ; a l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s n o e x p l i c i t o r f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y , V I m e m b e r s w e r e c l e a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n U B C . M a n y w e r e U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s , g o v e r n o r s , s e n a t o r s , o r j u s t s u p p o r t i v e c i t i z e n s . T h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e i n i t i a l V I p r o m o t e r s w a s a l s o i n d i c a t e d b y t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s i n c l u d e d a c a d e m i c s ( R o b e r t s o n , W e s b r o o k , K l i n c k ) , l a w y e r s ( H o w a y , W a d e , F a r r i s , a n d T u p p e r ) , s c i e n t i s t s ( K l i n c k , D a v i d s o n , H i l l - T o u t , H a l l ) , c l e r g y ( O ' B o y l e , T h o m a s ) , a r c h i t e c t s ( F r i p p , T w i z e l l , M a t h e s o n ) , j o u r n a l i s t s ( S c o t t ) , s c h o o l t e a c h e r s o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( L i s t e r , 40Ranta, "Academy of Science," 3. 4 1 Logan, Tuum Est. 16, 37. 42Wesbrook Collection, Box 6-2, Joint Meeting of the Returned Soldiers and Committee on education and training. Minutes, 30 June, 1916. McVety, Wesbrook, and Klinck were named on the committee. 14 F e e , A . B . J a m i e s o n ) , a n d a r t i s t s ( J u d g e , H a w k i n s ) . T u p p e r a n d W a d e c o u l d a l s o b e c o u n t e d a m o n g t h e c i t y ' s b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s . 4 3 I f t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e n o t a l r e a d y a c c e p t e d a s p r o f e s s i o n s ( s u c h a s l a w o r t h e c l e r g y ) , t h e y w e r e a m o n g t h e a s p i r i n g p r o f e s s i o n s ( s u c h a s t e a c h i n g o r a r c h i t e c t u r e ) . T h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n r e i n f o r c e d t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e e a r l y V I s u p p o r t e r s . T h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b m e m b e r s a l s o b e l o n g e d w i t h t h e o t h e r V I s u p p o r t e r s . A l t h o u g h w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l a g e n d a , t h e y w e r e a l s o u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t e d a n d s o c i a l l y w e l l c o n n e c t e d , e i t h e r p e r s o n a l l y o r t h r o u g h h u s b a n d s o r f a t h e r s , a n d r e f l e c t e d t h e t r e n d f o r h i g h e r s t a t u s w o m e n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c l u b s a n d o t h e r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . 4 4 T h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s w e l l - e d u c a t e d , s o c i a l l y w e l l p o s i t i o n e d , a n d e t h n i c a l l y h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p w e r e t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e V a n c o u v e r T r a d e s a n d L a b o u r C o u n c i l . A s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r , M c V e t y , G u t t e r i d g e , a n d W i l t o n r e f l e c t e d a s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d f r o m m a n y o t h e r s . 4 5 W i t h t h i s e x c e p t i o n n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h e V I s t i l l d r e w c h i e f l y f r o m a n u p p e r m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f S i r C h a r l e s H i b b e r t T u p p e r , w h i c h f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s o c i a l s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n i t i a l V I m e m b e r s h i p . A s t h e p r e - e m i n e n t s o c i a l l e a d e r i n e a r l y 1 9 0 0 s V a n c o u v e r , h i s p r e s e n c e w o u l d 4 3 RA.J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," 495, 500. 44Barman, The West. 217, 225. A number of middle class women, notably Helen Gregory McGill, a UWC member, were socially and politically active; women's suffrage was a popular issue. See also RA.J. McDonald, "Business Leaders," 249. 45McVety was not adverse to participating with UBC personnel on special projects of an educational nature. 1 5 h e l p e s t a b l i s h t h e V I a s a s o c i a l l y p r e s t i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4 6 P r i o r t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , t h e U n i v e r s i t y C l u b h a d b e e n a m o n g t h e c i t y ' s m o s t p r e s t i g i o u s a n d e x c l u s i v e s o c i a l c l u b s . T h e V I o f f e r e d t h e h o p e o f a p r e s t i g i o u s " c l u b " w i t h u n i v e r s i t y a i r s b u t w i t h o u t r e q u i r i n g p a r t i c u l a r c r e d e n t i a l s . 4 7 A l t h o u g h h e w a s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n m a n a g i n g t h e V T s a f f a i r s , T u p p e r ' s p r e s e n c e i n d i c a t e d t h e e d u c a t e d , u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s A n g l o - C a n a d i a n l e a d e r s h i p t h a t w a s a t t r a c t e d t o t h e V I . D e s p i t e d r a w i n g o n t h e s e s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s , t h e V I d i d n o t e m e r g e s p o n t a n e o u s l y . I t t o o k t h e e f f o r t s o f c e r t a i n k e y i n d i v i d u a l s t o e s t a b l i s h a n d g a t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e s e l e a d e r s a l s o " f i t " t h e s o c i a l s e t t i n g , b u t p r o v i d e d t h e e s s e n t i a l i m p e t u s t o f o u n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . K e v L e a d e r s T w o f i g u r e s s t a n d o u t a s t h e p r i m e m o v e r s o f t h e V I . L e m u e l R o b e r t s o n , a U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r i n 1 9 1 6 , a n d F r a n k F a i r c h i l d W e s b r o o k , U B C ' s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g t h e V I a n d g e n e r a t i n g e a r l y e n t h u s i a s m . T o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e s e t w o m e n c a m e t o s u c h a c t i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l f e a t u r e s a n d " f o r c e s " l i s t e d e a r l i e r . R o b e r t s o n , a V a n c o u v e r r e s i d e n t s i n c e e a r l y i n t h e c e n t u r y , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a n d w a s s h a p e d b y e a c h o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s . W e s b r o o k , a r r i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r i n 1 9 1 3 , b r o u g h t w i t h h i m v a l u e s a n d s e n s i b i l i t i e s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e m . 4 6 RA.J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," 240. 4 7 R A J . McDonald. "Business Leaders," 226. 1 6 R o b e r t s o n L e m u e l R o b e r t s o n w a s w i d e l y k n o w n i n e a r l y V a n c o u v e r e d u c a t i o n a l c i r c l e s a s a C l a s s i c s s c h o l a r a n d i n s t r u c t o r i n G r e e k a n d L a t i n . H e a l s o w o r k e d i n v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s t o a d v a n c e a n d s u p p o r t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 4 8 L e s s w e l l k n o w n , h o w e v e r , w a s h i s i n f l u e n c e o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e d u c a t i o n . T h e V I w a s a n o t h e r p r o j e c t t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d R o b e r t s o n ' s i n f l u e n c e a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c u m e n . R o b e r t s o n h a d b e e n a t e a c h e r i n P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d i n 1 8 9 1 a n d , a f t e r e a r n i n g a d e g r e e a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1 8 9 9 , m o v e d t o V a n c o u v e r t o b e c o m e a t e a c h e r a t V a n c o u v e r H i g h S c h o o l . T o a d v a n c e h i s c a r e e r , h e t o o k t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s a t M c G i l l a f f i l i a t e d V a n c o u v e r C o l l e g e i n 1 9 0 1 , a n d i n 1 9 0 4 r e t u r n e d t o h i s a l m a m a t e r t o t e a c h a n d e a r n a n M . A . d e g r e e . 4 9 W h i l e a t M c G i l l , h e b e g a n n e g o t i a t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " M c G i l l B . C . , " a s i t b e c a m e k n o w n , w a s l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d i n 1 9 0 6 . 5 0 R o b e r t s o n b e c a m e a f a c u l t y m e m b e r o f M c G i l l B . C . R o b e r t s o n w a s a w e l l k n o w n s u p p o r t e r o f M c G i l l B . C . , a l t h o u g h , s o m e a c c u s e d h i m o f a c t i n g o n b e h a l f o f h i s o w n a n d M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y ' s 48"Makers of the University—Lemuel Robertson." U.B.C. A l u m n i Chronicle. Spring 1955. 49Vancouver City Archives, Newspaper biography of Lemuel Robertson, 8 July, 1941, Microfiche 8023; "Makers of the University—Lemuel Robertson," 18. 50Logan, Tuum Est. 18-20. 1 7 i n t e r e s t s . 5 1 T h e r e i s s o m e t r u t h i n t h e s e a c c u s a t i o n s ; R o b e r t s o n w o u l d g a i n s t a t u s a n d m a t e r i a l r e w a r d s f r o m a p o s i t i o n i n t h e n e w i n s t i t u t i o n . F o r t h e f i r s t f e w y e a r s , h e w a s t h e r e g i s t r a r a n d b u r s a r f o r M c G i l l B . C . b e f o r e r e s u m i n g h i s t e a c h i n g d u t i e s . 5 2 T h e d e s i r e f o r a l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y w a s c e r t a i n l y n o t e x t i n g u i s h e d b y M c G i l l B . C . ' s p r e s e n c e , h o w e v e r , a n d R o b e r t s o n p l a y e d a p a r t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 5 3 W h e n U B C w a s f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , R o b e r t s o n b e c a m e a f a c u l t y m e m b e r . R o b e r t s o n w a s a l s o a c t i v e i n m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t s o c i e t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e V a n c o u v e r S o c i e t y o f t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e o f A m e r i c a . 5 4 B y 1 9 1 6 h e w a s a p r o m i n e n t m e m b e r o f t h a t g r o u p . 5 5 H e w a s a l s o f a m i l i a r w i t h m e m b e r s o f t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n ; b y 1 9 1 6 h e w a s a w e l l k n o w n l e c t u r e r f o r t h a t g r o u p . 5 6 O n e c a n p r e s u m e h e f r a t e r n i z e d w i t h o t h e r m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t f i g u r e s w h o s h a r e d h i s a c a d e m i c i n t e r e s t s , a s 51Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-5, Notes, Public Meeting, ca. 1906. An unidentified audience member suggested that Robertson had played a major role in a "conspiracy" to create McGill B.C. 52Vancouver City Archives, Newspaper biography of Lemuel Robertson, 8 July, 1941, Microfiche 8023. 53Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-4. Robertson, as a member of the University Graduates Association, helped lobby for UBC. Also described in "Makers of the University—Lemuel Robertson," 18. ^What began as the Vancouver Archaeological Society in 1911 became referred to as the Archaeological Institute in VI records after affiliation with the American organization. See Hunt, Mutual Enlightenment. 42, and the letterhead of correspondence Robertson to Wesbrook, Wesbrook Collection, Box 6-2. 23 June. 1916. 55Correspondence, Lemuel Robertson to Frank Wesbrook. 23 June, 1916, Wesbrook Collection, Box 6-2. 5 6AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 1916 passim. 1 8 w e l l a s o t h e r s i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y G r a d u a t e s A s s o c i a t i o n . 5 7 R o b e r t s o n ' s i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n w e n t b e y o n d t h e c o n f i n e s o f a f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n . T h e r e w a s , h o w e v e r , a n i m p o r t a n t l i n k b e t w e e n R o b e r t s o n ' s c a r e e r a n d h i s m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n t e r e s t s . H i s f i e l d o f e x p e r t i s e w a s c l a s s i c s , a n d h e l i v e d a t a t i m e w h e n s o m e a r g u e d t h a t " t h e m a n w h o k n e w a l l a b o u t c l a s s i c s o r l i t e r a t u r e w a s u s e l e s s . " 5 8 I n t h e d e b a t e s b e t w e e n t h e u t i l i t a r i a n o r c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t w o u l d b e i n R o b e r t s o n ' s i n t e r e s t t o s t i m u l a t e s u p p o r t f o r c l a s s i c s , c o n s i d e r e d i n B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s t o b e h a l l m a r k s o f a g e n t l e m a n ' s l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n . 5 9 P o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y t h a t i n c l u d e d c l a s s i c s w o u l d h e l p e n s u r e R o b e r t s o n a c a r e e r . A s a n e d u c a t o r , R o b e r t s o n w o u l d a l s o b e a c u t e l y a w a r e o f t h e a t t e m p t s b y t e a c h e r s t o c l a i m p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s f o r t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n . F o r m a l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r ' s N o r m a l S c h o o l b e g a n i n 1 9 0 1 , b u t d i d n o t f i n d a p l a c e i n U B C u n t i l 1 9 2 0 ( a n d o n l y t h e n a s a s u m m e r s e s s i o n f o r e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s ) . 6 0 A s u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n b e c a m e a m a r k o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e a c h e r s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ) w e r e l o o k i n g t o u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . 6 1 T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n i v e r s i t y m o v e m e n t w a s a i d e d 57Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-4, List of Members, University Graduates Association. 58Dally Province. 4 February, 1908. Cited In Harris. "Locating the University," 113. 59Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 5. 6 0John Calam, "Teaching Teachers: Initial Moves and the Search for UBC's First Professor of Education," Historical Studies In Education/Revue d'HlstoIre de l'Educatlon 6, no. 2 (Fall 1994): 178; Nancy M. Sheehan and J. Donald Wilson. "From Normal School to the University to the College of Teachers: Teacher Education in British Columbia In the 20th century," Journal of Education for Teaching 20, no. 1 (1994): 25. 61Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 354. 1 9 c o n s i d e r a b l y b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b , s e v e r a l m e m b e r s o f w h i c h ( n o t a b l y A n n a B . J a m i e s o n , m e n t i o n e d a b o v e ) w e r e t e a c h e r s ; o t h e r t e a c h e r s w e r e a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y m o v e m e n t . 6 2 R o b e r t s o n w o u l d b e f a m i l i a r w i t h s u c h p e o p l e a n d t h e i r c o n c e r n s , a n d s t o o d t o b e n e f i t f r o m a n e n h a n c e d t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . H i s o w n a c a d e m i c s t a t u s w o u l d b e e n h a n c e d , a s w o u l d h i s r o l e i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . R o b e r t s o n w o r k e d n o t o n l y a s a t e a c h e r a n d s c h o l a r , b u t a s a s u p p o r t e r o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t e m p l o y e d h i m . H e a l s o w o r k e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e g e n e r a l s t a t u s o f e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d b e c a m e h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n . N o t o n l y d i d h e p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f V a n c o u v e r C o l l e g e , M c G i l l B . C . , a n d U B C , b u t h e l a t e r i n f l u e n c e d e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y a t t h e M i n i s t r y l e v e l . 6 3 L a t e r i n l i f e , h e w a s d e s c r i b e d a s " t h e p o w e r b e h i n d t h e t h r o n e i n e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . " a n d a s o n e o f t h r e e P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d i m m i g r a n t s w h o " v i r t u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s . " 6 4 T h e V I c a n b e s e e n a s p a r t o f R o b e r t s o n ' s p u r p o s e f u l e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e . R o b e r t s o n w a s c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e i d e a f o r t h e V I , a n d l i k e o t h e r e a r l y p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m b i n e d i n h i m s e l f m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t , u n i v e r s i t y , a n d 62Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-5, Minutes, Public Meeting ca. 1906. A high school teacher is identified as favouring the "McGill project." 63Valerie Giles, "Historical Evolution of the Office of Deputy Minister in British Columbia Education Policy Making 1919-1945: The Career of Samuel John Willis" (Ph.D. thesis. University of British Columbia, 1993), 10. Robertson, almost single handedly it seems, was able to promote Willis's career in the upper levels of educational administration. ^Vancouver City Archives, Newspaper Clipping, 16 August, 1941, Microfiche 8023; Peter Lawson Smith, cited tn Giles, "Historical Evolution," 10. 2 0 p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . 6 5 H e h a d a c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a k e i n t h e u n i o n o f t h e t h r e e , a s h i s c a r e e r d e p e n d e d o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s i n a u n i v e r s i t y a s a C l a s s i c s p r o f e s s o r . R o b e r t s o n l i k e l y s a w h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s a n d h i s e d u c a t i o n a l a i m s a s a r i s i n g f r o m a s t a b l e a n d u n i f i e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r e s e n c e , a n d t h e V I w a s c o n c e i v e d a s a v e h i c l e t o h e l p b l e n d a n d s t a b i l i z e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s . R o b e r t s o n ' s i d e a w a s , t h e n , s o m e w h a t i n s p i r e d . A l t h o u g h h e w o u l d s e r v e o n t h e V I C o u n c i l e a c h y e a r b e t w e e n 1 9 1 6 a n d 1 9 2 5 ( a n d o n t h e e x e c u t i v e t w i c e ) a n d p r o v i d e a f e w V I l e c t u r e s , h i s i n f l u e n c e w a s p e r h a p s m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e V I a n d w h o w a s i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 6 6 H i s f i r s t s t e p w a s t o e n l i s t t h e h e l p o f U B C ' s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t , F r a n k F a i r c h i l d W e s b r o o k . W e s b r o o k F r a n k F a i r c h i l d W e s b r o o k c a m e t o V a n c o u v e r a s U B C ' s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t i n 1 9 1 3 . 6 7 A l t h o u g h h e h a d n o t b e e n p a r t o f V a n c o u v e r ' s d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s d e c a d e , h i s b a c k g r o u n d a n d s y m p a t h i e s f i t w e l l w i t h t h e t h e m e s i n q u e s t i o n . H e , l i k e R o b e r t s o n , e m b o d i e d t h e c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n s t h a t u n i t e d i n t h e V I , a n d w a s a n i d e a l p u b l i c l e a d e r o f t h e n e w i n s t i t u t i o n . 65Wesbrook Collection, Box 5-11, Correspondence, Howay to Wesbrook, 9 March, 1916; Howay acknowledged receiving a "statement from Professor Robertson" regarding the founding of the VI. 66Programs, VI Collection, Box 4-5. Council and Executive were listed on the programs. Robertson provided his first two lectures in 1920. 67Logan, Tuum Est. 45. 2 1 W e s b r o o k h a d b e e n r a i s e d i n W i n n i p e g , a n d i n 1 8 9 0 g r a d u a t e d from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a i n m e d i c i n e . 6 8 H i s s u r g e r y c a r e e r w a s h a l t e d a f t e r a n a c c i d e n t r e s u l t e d i n a n a m p u t a t e d f i n g e r , s o h e t u r n e d h i s t a l e n t s t o m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h i n p a t h o l o g y . B e t w e e n 1 8 9 0 a n d 1 8 9 5 , h e h a d v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h p o s i t i o n s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a a n d t h e n a t C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y , E n g l a n d . I n 1 8 9 3 , a s p a r t o f a n a m b i t i o u s C a m b r i d g e " o p e n h o u s e " e v e n t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e P a t h o l o g i c a l L a b o r a t o r y , h e r e v e a l e d a p e n c h a n t f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a n d t o o k t o t e a c h i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s r e s e a r c h a n d p u b l i c a t i o n w o r k . 6 9 I n 1 8 9 5 , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a a d v e r t i s e d a p o s i t i o n f o r a s c h o l a r w h o w a s a l s o a t e a c h e r , a n d W e s b r o o k g o t t h e a p p o i n t m e n t . A t M i n n e s o t a , W e s b r o o k a d d r e s s e d v a r i o u s p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d e p i d e m i o l o g y p r o b l e m s a s P r o f e s s o r o f B a c t e r i o l o g y a n d P a t h o l o g y . H e a l s o e n c o u r a g e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s a n d r a n t h e p a t h o l o g y l a b o r a t o r y . H i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e M i n n e s o t a B o a r d o f H e a l t h b r o u g h t o u t a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i p l o m a t i c t a l e n t . I n 1 9 0 6 h e b e c a m e D e a n o f M e d i c i n e a n d , a m o n g o t h e r p r o j e c t s , e s t a b l i s h e d a u n i v e r s i t y h o s p i t a l , a n u r s i n g p r o g r a m , a m a l g a m a t e d t h r e e p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g m e d i c a l d e p a r t m e n t s , a n d i n s t i t u t e d a p r o g r a m o f c o n t i n u i n g m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h a s t a t e - w i d e n e t w o r k o f p h y s i c i a n s u p p o r t . H e b e c a m e w e l l r e g a r d e d f o r h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a t e s m a n s h i p , a n d w e l l k n o w n f o r h i s e m p h a s i s o n t h e t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n o f a u n i v e r s i t y . 7 0 68William C. Gibson, Wesbrook and his University. (Vancouver The Library of The University of British Columbia, 1973). Much of the summary of Wesbrook's career is taken from Gibson. 69See also: Wesbrook Collection, Box 2-1, Memorabilia. 70Gibson, Wesbrook. 28. describes incidents of his statesmanship. 22 B y 1 9 0 8 , W e s b r o o k h a d a r e p u t a t i o n a s a l e a d i n g e d u c a t o r . 7 1 I n a d d i t i o n t o c h a m p i o n i n g t h e t e a c h i n g r o l e o f a u n i v e r s i t y , h e m a i n t a i n e d t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s h a d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n n a t i o n b u i l d i n g . S t a t e ( s e c u l a r ) u n i v e r s i t i e s w e r e , h e m a i n t a i n e d , i m p o r t a n t i n v e s t m e n t s i n t h e S t a t e . S u c h a v i e w f i t w i t h , a n d w a s p r o b a b l y e n c o u r a g e d b y , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , a n A m e r i c a n l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t y w i t h a s t r o n g t e a c h i n g h i s t o r y a n d e x t e n s i o n . 7 2 W h e n , i n 1 9 1 3 , W e s b r o o k a c c e p t e d t h e o f f e r t o b e c o m e U B C ' s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t , h i s s e n s i b i l i t i e s w o u l d h e l p h i m t o f i t i n w i t h t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r . H e w o u l d b e w e l c o m e d b y t h o s e i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y m o v e m e n t f o r h i s s u p p o r t o f s e c u l a r , s t a t e s p o n s o r e d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a s a t o o l f o r " n a t i o n b u i l d i n g , " a p p e a l i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h o s e w h o s u p p o r t e d t h e c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l f u n c t i o n o f U B C . H o w e v e r , h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h B r i t i s h h i g h c u l t u r e w o u l d a p p e a l t o t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . 7 3 I n s e l e c t i n g W e s b r o o k a s U B C ' s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t , Y o u n g , P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , c h o s e s o m e o n e w h o p o r t r a y e d a " n o b l e c h a r a c t e r . " 7 4 A s a U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a a l u m n u s , W e s b r o o k w o u l d 7 1 Gibson, Wesbrook. 43. 72James Gray, The University of Minnesota. (Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1951). 73Gibson, Wesbrook. 35, describes his views on state education; Telegram, Wesbrook to [Young?], Wesbrook Collection, Box 2-2, describes Wesbrook's views on nation building. During Wesbrook's Cambridge days he was in touch with a number of social leaders; see Memorabilia, Wesbrook Collection, Box 2-1. While in London, England, he fraternized with high-status individuals; see Gibson, Wesbrook. 8. Gibson, p. 19, also suggests that Wesbrook's educational philosophy grew out of his stimulating Cambridge days. 74Gibson, Wesbrook. 46, suggests Young's critical role in selecting Wesbrook; Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, Convocation Records, Minutes, 21 August, 1912, describe Young's speech concerning the need for a "noble" UBC president. 2 3 n o t u p s e t g r a d u a t e s o f T o r o n t o o r M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t i e s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f a u n i v e r s i t y ' s p r o p e r f u n c t i o n . W e s b r o o k w o u l d a l s o a p p e a l t o p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . D u r i n g h i s c a r e e r , h e h a d d e a l t w i t h p h y s i c i a n s , s c i e n t i s t s , t e a c h e r s , h e a l t h - c a r e w o r k e r s , a n d p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a n d , t h r o u g h h i s w o r k i n t i e i n g t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n s t o a u n i v e r s i t y , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t r a n s - A t l a n t i c c a m p a i g n t o h a v e u n i v e r s i t i e s p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . 7 5 W e s b r o o k w o u l d a p p e a l t o t h o s e s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n c t i o n f r o m U B C . A l t h o u g h a V a n c o u v e r n e w c o m e r , W e s b r o o k w a s w e l l a w a r e o f t h e t h r e e f e a t u r e s o f V a n c o u v e r s o c i e t y a n d t h e p o l i t i c s t h a t l e d I n t o t h e V I . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s a w a r e n e s s , W e s b r o o k w a s r e m a r k a b l y c h a r i s m a t i c a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y a s t u t e . 7 6 H e a p p e a l e d t o c o n c e r n e d V a n c o u v e r i t e s n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f a b a c k g r o u n d o f c o m p a t i b l e i n t e r e s t s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e o f h i s p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . M a n y w e l c o m e d h i m a s a g u e s t l e c t u r e r . 7 7 W e s b r o o k w a s a l s o f a v o r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o U B C ' s r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . A s a U B C a d m i n i s t r a t o r , W e s b r o o k ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h e V I s e e m s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p o s i t e g i v e n h i s v i e w s o f u n i v e r s i t i e s a s t e a c h i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d h i s v i s i o n o f U B C a s T h e P e o p l e ' s U n i v e r s i t y . " 7 8 H e c a m e t o s e e t h e V I a s a n 7 5Konrad Jarausch (Ed.). The Transformation of Higher Learning. 1860-1930: expansion, social opening, and professlonaHzation in England. Germany. Russia, and the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1983). 7 6 For testimonials of Wesbrook's personality, see, e.g. Isobel Harvey. "Frank Fairchild Wesbrook," The University of British Columbia Graduate Chronicle. (May 1932): Gibson, Wesbrook. 28, describes incidents of his statesmanship. 77Wesbrook Collection, Box 5 (unfiled). Day-book entries. 1916. His entries revealed a large number of public lectures for local societies, many that could be considered "mutual enlightenment." 78Wesbrook Collection, Box 2-2. 2 4 e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n a d e m o c r a t i c v e i n . 7 9 S u c h v i e w s w e r e c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e m o d e s t l y p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . 8 0 W e s b r o o k c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e V T s f u t u r e s t a b i l i t y i n a n o t h e r w a y . W e s b r o o k ' s f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y a p p o i n t e e a n d a s s o c i a t e w a s L . S . K l i n c k . 8 1 K l i n c k w a s i n i t i a l l y a c t i v e i n t h e V I a s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , b u t w o u l d p r o v i d e e v e n g r e a t e r s u p p o r t a s P r e s i d e n t o f U B C a f t e r W e s b r o o k ' s d e a t h . 8 2 K l i n c k , w i t h p r i o r i n v o l v e m e n t i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , b e c a m e a l o n g - s t a n d i n g s y m b o l o f U B C ' s s u p p o r t o f t h e V I a s w e l l a s o t h e r p r o j e c t s . 8 3 H e w o u l d a l s o e n c o u r a g e U B C s u p p o r t o f t h e I n s t i t u t e a n d p r o v i d e m a n y l e c t u r e s , o f t e n s p e a k i n g o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s r o l e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 8 4 79Wesbrook Collection, Box 3-1, Report to Ministry of Education. 8 0Jean Barman, "'Knowledge is Essential for Universal Progress but Fatal to Class Privilege,: Working People and The Schools in Vancouver During The 1920s," Labour/Le Travail. 22 (1988). 81Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, President's Ofilce/L.S. Klinck Collection, Box 10-1, Autobiographical notes, 5 November, 1959. (Subsequent references to this collection are referred to as "Klinck Collection.") 8 2 VI Collection, Box 1-5, Minutes, 16 March, 1916. (Subsequent references to the minutes of The Vancouver Institute are referred to as "VI Minutes.") 83KLinck Collection, Box 10-1 passim. Klinck had been active in agricultural extension at the University of Minnesota and Macdonald College (McGill University). He also had some "social gospel" experience through the YMCA and Student Christian Movement. VI Collection Box 5-6, Vancouver Natural History Society Program. Klinck Is listed as the Honourary President of that organization. ^Klinck Collection, Box 1-2 passim. Biographical notes; Klinck's autobiographical note in Gordon Selman, "A History of the Extension and Adult Education Services of the University of British Columbia 1915 to 1955," unpublished MA thesis. University of British Columbia, 1963, 24. Klinck's support of the VI and his professed commitment to adult education are described. 25 W e s b r o o k w a s a n a t u r a l c h o i c e a s l e a d e r o f t h e V I . H e a p p e a l e d t o v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r , a n d h a d t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s t o u n i t e t h e m . H e b e c a m e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e V I , a n d i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e i n i t i a t e d i t , a l t h o u g h h i s r o l e w a s n o t , a n d p e r h a p s c o u l d n o t b e s u b s t a n t i v e . 8 5 H o w e v e r , t h e r o l e o f W e s b r o o k c a n n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h o u t a l s o c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t o f R o b e r t s o n . W e s b r o o k w a s a c o n v e n i e n t c a t a l y s t i n f o r m i n g t h e V I , b u t R o b e r t s o n p r o v i d e d t h e v i s i o n a n d i n i t i a t i v e t o b r i n g t h e V I i n t o e x i s t e n c e . W e s b r o o k w o u l d h a v e v e r y l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e V I , b u t R o b e r t s o n r e m a i n e d w i t h i t f o r n i n e y e a r s . 8 6 C o n c l u s i o n T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e f i t t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h i t w a s b o r n . I t a t t r a c t e d t h r e e s o c i a l e l e m e n t s i n a c i t y t h a t h a d y e t t o s t a b i l i z e s o c i a l p a t t e r n s . T h e V I a p p e a l e d t o v a r i o u s p r o m o t e r s n o t o n l y b e c a u s e i t w a s a w o r k a b l e i d e a , b u t b e c a u s e i t w o u l d a l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o a d v a n c e c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s , w h e t h e r f o r p u b l i c b e t t e r m e n t , p r i v a t e p r o f i t , o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . C o u l d i t s a t i s f y a l l t h o s e i n v o l v e d ? W a s i t a v e h i c l e f o r s o c i a l r e f o r m ? U n i v e r s i t y s u p p o r t ? P u b l i c e n l i g h t e n m e n t ? O c c u p a t i o n a l 85Roy, Vancouver. 121; "Makers of the University—Frank Fairchild Wesbrook," U.B.C. Alumni Chronicle (Autumn, 1955), 17. Both works credit the VI to Wesbrook. VI Minutes, passim. Wesbrook helped launch the VI, but soon held only an honourary position and was rarely present at meetings. 8 6 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. Robertson was an "at large" Counsellor for nine years. 2 6 enhancement? These questions awaited those who supported and promoted the VI. 27 C H A P T E R 2 T O W N A N D G O W N : S T A B I L I T Y 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y m a y n o t b e g o o d f o r s t o r i e s o f p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e , b u t i t d o e s h e l p a n i n s t i t u t i o n a c h i e v e i t s g o a l s . T h e p e r i o d 1 9 1 6 t o 1 9 2 5 m a r k s t h e t i m e f r o m t h e V T s e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f U B C t o i t s P o i n t G r e y l o c a t i o n , a n d w a s a p e r i o d o f s t a b i l i t y f o r t h e V I . A s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r 1, t h e V I b e g a n w i t h a p l a n t h a t b l e n d e d t h r e e c o n t r i b u t i n g s o c i a l f o r c e s n o t o n l y b y i n v o l v i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e a c h , b u t b y b l e n d i n g t h e s e f o r c e s i n k e y i n d i v i d u a l s t h e m s e l v e s . V a r i o u s l o c a l s o c i e t i e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e V I t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d a n d , w i t h o n e e x c e p t i o n , m a i n t a i n e d l i m i t e d b u t s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t . W i t h s u c h a s t a b l e b a c k g r o u n d , t h e V I w a s s l o w l y a b l e t o i n c r e a s e i t s m e m b e r s h i p a n d l e c t u r e a t t e n d a n c e , t w o o f i t s g o a l s . T h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f s t a b i l i t y e n d e d w h e n U B C , t h e V T s h o s t , f i n a l l y m o v e d t o P o i n t G r e y i n 1 9 2 5 . L e m u e l R o b e r t s o n a n d F r a n k W e s b r o o k , a n d t h e c o u n c i l t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d , w e r e c e n t r a l t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a u n i f i e d t o w n a n d g o w n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t r e t a i n e d i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d c u r r i c u l a r f o r m a c r o s s n i n e y e a r s . T h e c o u n c i l i n t u r n a t t r a c t e d a n d h e l d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f v a r i o u s s o c i e t i e s , a n d t h e y a r e e x a m i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . F i n a l l y , t h e g r a d u a l g r o w t h o f t h e V I , a s m e a s u r e d i n m e m b e r s h i p a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t e n d a n c e , i s a l s o n o t e d . T h i s g r o w t h w a s a i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l y b y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y t h a t t h e V I e n j o y e d . 2 8 C r e a t i n g T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e A l t h o u g h t h e V I a r o s e f r o m t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f e x i s t i n g s o c i a l f e a t u r e s , i t o w e d a g r e a t d e a l t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e s o f a f e w k e e n s u p p o r t e r s . T h e V I w a s l e s s a r e s p o n s e t o t h e d e m a n d s o f a p o t e n t i a l a u d i e n c e t h a n i t w a s a p r o m o t i o n b y t h e V I c o u n c i l , a n d t h e c o u n c i l ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e e x e c u t i v e ) w a s t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 A c o m m e n t b y S . D . S c o t t , a c h a r t e r m e m b e r r e g u l a r l y o n t h e c o u n c i l , s e e m s t o c a p t u r e t h i s s e n t i m e n t : " b y g a t h e r i n g t o g e t h e r l a r g e a u d i e n c e s a n i n t e r e s t w i l l b e a w a k e n e d a n d t h e r e s t w i l l f o l l o w . " 2 T h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s c o m m e n t i m p l i e s t h a t " t h e r e s t " i n c l u d e d a c o n c e r n f o r m e m b e r s h i p a n d r e v e n u e t o s u s t a i n t h e W s a c t i v i t i e s . S c o t t ' s w o r d s u n d e r l i n e t h e r o l e p l a y e d b y t h e V I c o u n c i l ; t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e V I w o u l d r e l y o n t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e c o u n c i l t o " m a k e i t w o r k . " T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s e e h o w t h e c o u n c i l w a s e s t a b l i s h e d , a n d w h o w a s o n i t . R o b e r t s o n , W e s b r o o k , a n d e i g h t e e n u n i d e n t i f i e d p e o p l e m e t o n 2 5 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 6 , t o c o n s i d e r t h e V I . F i f t e e n p e o p l e w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y i n v i t e d t o a m e e t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g m o n t h , 1 6 M a r c h , t o s e r v e o n a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o m m i t t e e t o d i s c u s s a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e V I t h a t w o u l d l e a d t o i n c o r p o r a t i o n u n d e r t h e B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t i e s A c t . W e s b r o o k p e r s o n a l l y i n v i t e d s o m e o f t h o s e p e o p l e w h o p l a n n e d t h e V I o n t h a t o c c a s i o n . 3 O v e r t h e c o u r s e o f s e v e r a l m o r e m e e t i n g s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 1 6 , T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e w a s b o r n . 1VI Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. The VI constitution awarded council the power to make most decisions. 2VI Minutes, 21 October, 1916. 3VI Collection, Box 1-5, frontpiece; Wesbrook Collection, Box 5-11, Correspondence, Howay to Wesbrook. 9 March, 1916: Hill-Tout to Wesbrook, 10 March, 1916. 2 9 T h e i n i t i a l l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h e V I c a m e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f r o m U B C p e r s o n n e l a n d l o c a l s o c i e t i e s , i n - a s - m u c h a s R o b e r t s o n a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y W e s b r o o k w e r e s e e n t o r e p r e s e n t b o t h . W e s b r o o k w a s p e r c e i v e d a s t h e i n s t i g a t o r " a c t i n g u p o n s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n . " 4 W e s b r o o k w a s q u i c k t o p o r t r a y t h e V I s i m p l y a s a m e a n s t o f e d e r a t e a n d c o o r d i n a t e e x i s t i n g s o c i e t i e s , a l t h o u g h h e a l s o h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e w e l f a r e o f U B C . 5 T h e V I w a s i m m e d i a t e l y p o p u l a r w i t h c e r t a i n v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e . B u s i n e s s m a n a n d a m a t e u r s c i e n t i s t C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t w a s " g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e m a t t e r " a n d J u d g e F . W . H o w a y , a l e a d e r i n a c a d e m i c c i r c l e s , w a s " h e a r t i l y i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e m o v e m e n t . " 6 M e m b e r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b " e a g e r l y m o v e d t o e n d o r s e D r . W e s b r o o k ' s s c h e m e f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n i n s t i t u t i o n , t o b e k n o w n a s T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e , " a n d t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y m e m b e r s q u i c k l y p l e d g e d t h e i r 4VI Minutes. 25 February, or 16 March, 1916. Recorded by Judge Howay of the AHSA. This illustrates the sense of control town interests had. 5UBC Extension Collection, Box 3, Correspondence, Wesbrook to local societies, 29 March, 1916. Wesbrook Collection, Box 5-11, Correspondence, Howay to Wesbrook, 9 March, 1916; Hill-Tout to Wesbrook, 10 March, 1916. Howay was a leading academic not only In the Vancouver area, but in Canada as well. Over his career, he was known as an educator, lawyer, judge, and historian. He had executive roles in a number of national academic societies, so his involvement with the VI was significant. See William Kaye Lamb, "A Bibliography of the Printed Works of Frederic William Howay." B.C. Historical Quarterly. 8, 1 (January, 1944): 27-51. Hill-Tout was similarly regarded. See James E. Hill-Tout. "The Abbotsfford Hill-Touts," (Vancouver: Unpublished, 1976). 3 0 s u p p o r t . 7 O t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e t i t i o n e d f o r a n d g a i n e d a f f i l i a t i o n i n J u n e o f 1 9 1 6 . 8 E v i d e n t l y t h e V I a p p e a l e d t o c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s . T h e f i r s t c o u n c i l i n 1 9 1 6 c o m b i n e d t o w n a n d g o w n i n t e r e s t s ( s e e T a b l e 2 ) . T h e c o u n c i l e l e c t e d f r o m i t s e l f a n e x e c u t i v e ; a l l s i x w e r e i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y e i t h e r a s f a c u l t y m e m b e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , o r g o v e r n o r s . T w o o f t h e s e v e n c o u n c i l l o r s a t l a r g e a l s o h a d i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h U B C , a n d t w o m o r e , a s c l e r g y , w e r e p r o b a b l y s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y . 9 T h e i n i t i a l l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e V I h e l d i n t e r e s t s i n p r o f e s s i o n s , U B C , a n d l o c a l s o c i e t i e s . T h i s b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t o w n a n d g o w n b e c a m e a n o t a b l e f e a t u r e o f t h e V I f o r i t s f i r s t n i n e y e a r s , a n d c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a b i l i t y . T h i s m i x o f U B C a n d c o m m u n i t y i n t e r e s t s w o u l d c o n t i n u e f o r t h e 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 p e r i o d . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t n i n e y e a r s , s e v e r a l n a m e s r e p e a t e d l y m a d e t h e c o u n c i l . R o b e r t s o n r e m a i n e d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n v o l v e d d u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s , a s d i d s e v e n o t h e r s ( s e e T a b l e 3 ) . T h i s s t a b l e c o r e o f c o u n c i l l o r s a l s o h a d i n t e r e s t s i n p r o f e s s i o n s , U B C , a n d l o c a l s o c i e t i e s . 7Phyllis Reeve. History of the University Women's Club of Vancouver (Vancouver: The University Women's Club of Vancouver, 1982), 5. AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 28 March, 1916. 8VI Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. Council was empowered to admit affiliates. VI Minutes, 22 June, 1916. 9The Anglican and Presbyterian (and to some extent the Methodist) Churches had a history of supporting universities, particularly affiliated theological colleges. A "liberal education" was considered by many clergy as an important part of preparation for the clergy. See also Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 153, 268ff. Clergy listed in the local Westminster Hall and Farthest West Review. Vancouver Public Library, Special Collections, generally had university degrees. 3 1 T A B L E 2 : F I R S T C O U N C I L O F T H E V A N C O U V E R I N S T I T U T E , 1 9 1 6 Name Occupation/Affiliations Charles Hill-Tout (Exec) Businessman; Local Societies; Proposed to UBC Senate F.F. Wesbrook (Exec) President UBC F.W. Howay (Exec) Judge; Local Societies; UBC Senate Mrs. J . Jamieson (Exec) University Women's Club; Education T. Proctor Hall (Exec) Physician; Local Societies; UBC Senate Lemuel Robertson (Exec) UBC Faculty Member; Local Societies A. Buckley Public Library Assistant Evelyn F arris University Women's Club; UBC Senate; Lawyer husband Anna B. Jamieson University Women's Club; Educator; (Future UBC Governor) G A Laing School Principal E.G. Matheson UBC Faculty Member; Architectural Institute; Local Societies Father W.P. OBoyle Catholic Priest Rev. E. Thomas Methodist Minister Sources: a) VI Minutes b) Henderson's Vancouver Directory, 1917-25; c) Wesbrook Collection, UBC Special Collections, Box 1-3; d) Academy of Science Collection, UBC Special Collections; e) University Women's Club Collection, Vancouver City Archives; f) Architectural Institute Collection, Vancouver City Archives; g) Logan. Tuum Est. H o w e v e r , t h e c o u n c i l o f 1 9 2 5 w a s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f 1 9 1 6 . T h e n u m b e r o f U B C a f f i l i a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d e c l i n e d o v e r t h e y e a r s , s u c h t h a t b y 1 9 2 5 t h e c o u n c i l o n l y h a d o n e U B C r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o n t h e E x e c u t i v e . 1 0 F o u r o f t h e n i n e r e m a i n i n g a t - l a r g e c o u n c i l l o r s h a d t i e s w i t h U B C , b u t m a n y w e r e n o t v e r y a c t i v e w i t h t h e V I . 1 1 S u c h a s h i f t , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t h a v e m u c h i n f l u e n c e o n t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e V I d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 1 0 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 1 1 VI Minutes, passim. 3 2 T A B L E 3 : L O N G E S T S E R V I N G C O U N C I L L O R S O F T H E V A N C O U V E R I N S T I T U T E , 1916-1925 Name Number of seasons serving VI Council, 1916-1925 Occupation/Affiliations L. Robertson 9 UBC Professor, Local Societies Robie Reid 5 Lawyer/Businessman; UBC Governor S.D. Scott 5, Editor: UBC Governor, Societies; John Davidson 4 UBC Professor; Local Societies W. Plowden 4 (Husband businessman) W.E. Banton 4 Lawyer J.G. Davidson 4 UBC Professor; Academy of Science Judge F.W. Howay 4 Judge: UBC Senate, Local Societies Anna B. Jamieson 4 Educator, University Women's Club Source: a) VI Minutes; (note: incomplete data for 1919-1920); b) Henderson's Vancouver Directory 1917-25; c) RAJ. MacDonald, "Business Leaders in Early Vancouver. C o u n c i l l o r s n e v e r h a d t o p r o m o t e o n e i n t e r e s t a b o v e a n o t h e r d u r i n g t h e f i r s t n i n e y e a r s ; w h a t e v e r d i f f e r i n g v i e w s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e V I t h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n w e r e o f l i t t l e c o n s e q u e n c e . T h i s s t a b i l i t y a r o s e p a r t l y from t h e f a c t t h a t U B C , t h e n a t i t s F a i r v i e w l o c a t i o n , w a s v e r y m u c h a p a r t o f V a n c o u v e r . T h e r e w a s n o g e o g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n t o w n a n d g o w n . T h e s t a b i l i t y w a s a l s o p a r t l y d u e t o a s e n s e t h a t e a c h e l e m e n t n e e d e d t h e o t h e r i n s o m e w a y . E v e n i f R o b e r t s o n h a d n o t h i m s e l f b e e n i n v o l v e d w i t h i s s u e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , e s t a b l i s h i n g a u n i v e r s i t y , o r m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t , t h e s e t h r e e r e i n f o r c e d e a c h o t h e r . A s w e s h a l l s e e , U B C r e q u i r e d p o p u l a r s u p p o r t , c e r t a i n l o c a l s o c i e t i e s s o u g h t e n h a n c e d s t a t u s , a n d s e l f - i d e n t i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n s l o o k e d f o r w a y s t o e d u c a t e t h e i r o w n a n d t o e n h a n c e t h e i r s t a t u s . 1 2 T h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f p e o p l e a n d i n t e r e s t s i n t h e V I 12Selman, "A History of Extension," 25, notes the precarious nature of public support for UBC. Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 140, describes the waning vitality of the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association. 3 3 w a s m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o a c c i d e n t t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s c o m b i n e d t o m a k e a s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . B y 2 2 J u n e , 1 9 1 6 , c o u n c i l h a d p r e p a r e d a s y l l a b u s o f l e c t u r e s f o r t h e 1 9 1 6 - 1 7 s e a s o n . 1 3 I t f e a t u r e d t w e n t y - t w o l e c t u r e s s p o n s o r e d e i t h e r b y a n a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t y o r t h e I n s t i t u t e i t s e l f , a l l l e c t u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A s s e m b l y H a l l o f U B C a t T e n t h A v e n u e a n d W i l l o w S t r e e t , V a n c o u v e r . L e c t u r e s w e r e h e l d T h u r s d a y e v e n i n g s a t 8 : 1 5 a n d u s e d " l a n t e r n i l l u s t r a t i o n s " ( s l i d e s ) o r o t h e r m e d i a w h e n a p p r o p r i a t e . T h e f o r m a t w o u l d n o t c h a n g e f o r n i n e y e a r s , e x c e p t t o c h a n g e l e c t u r e h a l l s o n t h e s a m e U B C s i t e , n o r w o u l d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l e c t u r e t o p i c s v a r y a p p r e c i a b l y ( s e e T a b l e 4 ) . 1 4 T h e l e c t u r e s d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h p o p u l a r i z e d a c a d e m i c " a r t s a n d s c i e n c e s " t o p i c s , a s o p p o s e d t o p o p u l a r o r p r a c t i c a l t o p i c s . T h i s f i t s w i t h t h e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f U B C a s a n " a r t s a n d s c i e n c e s " u n i v e r s i t y , f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i n g , p e r h a p s , t h e i n f l u e n t i a l i f u n s p o k e n r o l e U B C h a d o n t h e V I . 1 5 N o t a l l p l a n n e d l e c t u r e s w e r e d e l i v e r e d ; o n e o r t w o c a n c e l l a t i o n s e a c h s e a s o n w e r e n o t u n c o m m o n , a n d t h e r e w e r e e i g h t c a n c e l l a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 1 8 - 1 9 s e a s o n , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i n f l u e n z a e p i d e m i c . 1 6 E x t r a l e c t u r e s w e r e , a t t i m e s , a d d e d , b u t t h e s e a r e n o t w e l l d o c u m e n t e d . 1 3VI Minutes, 22 June, 1916. 1 4VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 15WIlliam Bruneau, Toward a New Collective Biography: The University of British Columbia Professoriate, 1915-1945," Canadian Journal of Education 19, no. 1 (1994), 74. 16Logan, Tuum Est. 73. A number of UBC activities were cancelled that year. 3 4 T A B L E 4 : L E C T U R E T Y P E S : 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 Season Science Arts Social Fine Arts Other Unknown 1916-17 7 8 3 3 0 1 1917-18 6 8 7 2 1 1 1918-19 7 9 2 3 1 2 1920-21 6 11 2 1 0 1 1921-22 6 9 5 0 1 0 1922-23 1 9 6 1 2 2 1923-24 5 10 1 2 3 0 1924-25 7 10 4 1 1 0 Totals 45 72 30 13 9 8 Source: VI Programs; see Appendix 1 for categorization guide Note: Insufficient data for 1919-20; data reflects planned lectures Notes on categories: "Science" denotes lectures dealing with aspects of natural and applied science (physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture); "Arts" denotes lectures dealing with other academic topics (philosophy, history, biography, geography, literature); "Social" indicates lectures concerned with public social concerns (education, politics, economics, racism); "Fine Arts" denotes artistic performances or illustrations, or lectures on artistic topics other than literature (music or painting appreciation); "Other" includes topics of travel, mountaineering, industry, professions. T h e i n i t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e V I a n d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s f i r s t n i n e y e a r s w a s m a r k e d b y s t a b i l i t y . T h e c o u n c i l b e g a n a n d c o n t i n u e d a s a f a i r l y h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d a t t r a c t e d c o m p a t i b l e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s . A n o t h e r s t a b l e e l e m e n t w a s t h e s e r v i c e i t s e l f . T h e f o r m a t a n d c o n t e n t o f t h e l e c t u r e s v a r i e d l i t t l e f r o m a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f e v e n i n g l e c t u r e s o n a c a d e m i c t o p i c s . A f f i l i a t e s T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e b e g a n a s a u n i o n o f t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d 3 5 the British Columbia Academy of Science.17 The unspoken (and never official) affiliate was, of course, the University of British Columbia. The affiliated societies had two explicit functions. One was to pool resources to provide high-quality lectures, and each affiliate was obligated to arrange at least one lecture each season; the other was to encourage members of the various societies to attend lectures and join the Institute.18 Other local societies were encouraged to affiliate under the same conditions, and some eighteen did so during the first nine years of the VI. Societies desiring affiliation had to petition for acceptance, although there is no record of any being denied membership.19 Why did the VI appeal to these local societies? Although a fully contextualized answer goes beyond the limits of this study, three tentative explanations deserve mention. One has to do with the interests of UBC. Although a "silent partner," UBC would gain from a project that would enhance the status of the University and its perceived relevance to the general public. Another was the desire of mutual enlightenment groups to acquire status and legitimacy, and to solidify both membership and economic base. They also stood to gain new audiences for their educational missions. Finally, professional groups affiliated to enhance the status of certain occupations, and also to raise (or control) the educational requirements of their occupations. As universities across Canada began playing a greater role in education for the professions, practitioners perhaps 17AHSA Collection, Vol.2-10, Minutes. 28 March, 1916. 18AHSA Collection, Minutes. 23 November, 1916; VI Minutes, 21 October. June 1916. 1 9VI Minutes, 18 April, 1916. The "founding" three societies were themselves "granted" affiliation by VI councillors. 3 6 f e l t t h a t t h e V I w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e a g o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U B C . 2 0 T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s m i g h t o v e r l a p f o r c e r t a i n p e o p l e , a s s e v e r a l c o u n c i l l o r s w o r k e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , h a d m e m b e r s h i p s i n l o c a l s o c i e t i e s , a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n U B C a f f a i r s . T h e o n l y n o t e d e x c e p t i o n i s t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , w h i c h h a d b o t h m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . 2 1 T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a U B C a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i d n o t c l a i m a f o r m a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y . 2 2 U B C w a s n e v e r l i s t e d o n t h e p r o g r a m s a s a n a f f i l i a t e , b u t w a s a k e y p a r t o f t h e I n s t i t u t e i f o n l y b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e d f r e e s p a c e f o r m o s t o f t h e l e c t u r e s a n d g a v e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s a p p r o v a l . U B C d i d , h o w e v e r , h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e I n s t i t u t e , s o d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n t i n u e d U B C p r e s e n c e w a s i n f o r m a l , i t w a s d e l i b e r a t e . O n W e d n e s d a y , 1 1 O c t o b e r , 1 9 1 6 , t h e U B C S e n a t e a p p r o v e d a m o t i o n t o c r e a t e a c o m m i t t e e t o d e a l w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y t o l e a r n e d S o c i e t i e s a n d t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g s s o 20Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 355. By 1900, many of the traditional professions in Ontario were based on university education. 2 1The Academy of Science began primarily to share knowledge and improve communication between local and international scientists. In this sense it is a mutual enlightenment organization, and Hunt identifies it as such (Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment." 42). However, it began to advance the career status of scientists by, for example, encouraging science education in schools and criticizing "semi-scientific periodicals." Ranta, "British Columbia Academy of Science," 2; Minutes, 1932, 1934, Academy of Science Collection Box 1-13. 22Such a claim cannot be found in VI materials, UBC Board of Governors, or UBC Senate minutes. 37 a s t o m a k e t h e U n i v e r s i t y a f o c a l i z i n g p o i n t f o r a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e t h e U n i v e r s i t y s c o p e . 2 3 T h r e e o f t h e f i v e m e m b e r s o f t h a t c o m m i t t e e , C l a s s i c s P r o f e s s o r L e m u e l R o b e r t s o n , P h y s i c s P r o f e s s o r J a m e s G . D a v i d s o n , a n d B o t a n y P r o f e s s o r J o h n D a v i d s o n ( u n r e l a t e d ) , b e c a m e l o n g - s e r v i n g t h e V I s u p p o r t e r s ( s e e T a b l e 3 ) . 2 4 T h i s s u g g e s t s a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e v a l u e i n m a i n t a i n i n g a n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e V I , a n d i s r e i n f o r c e d b y a p a s s a g e o n t h e e a r l y I n s t i t u t e p r o g r a m s s t a t i n g t h a t U n i v e r s i t y v i s i t o r s m i g h t b e c o m e s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y . 2 5 F u r t h e r m o r e , U B C c l a i m e d t h e V I a s a n e x t e n s i o n p r o j e c t i n t h e 1 9 1 6 r e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , a n d U B C a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o m o t e d R o b e r t s o n a s t h e " U n p a i d H o n o u r a r y S e c r e t a r y & O r g a n i z e r o f ( t h e ) V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e . " 2 6 T h e U B C E x t e n s i o n L e c t u r e s C o m m i t t e e , f o r m e d i n 1 9 1 8 , c l a i m e d a n y l e c t u r e p r o v i d e d v o l u n t a r i l y b y U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s a s a " U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n L e c t u r e . " 2 7 T h e V I l e c t u r e s , p r o v i d i n g t h e y r e m a i n e d f r e e , t h u s q u a l i f i e d a s e x t e n s i o n l e c t u r e s . A t a t i m e w h e n t h e f l e d g l i n g U n i v e r s i t y w a n t e d p u b l i c a p p r o v a l , 2 8 U B C a n d i t s f a c u l t y h a d a s e l f - s e r v i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e V I . H o w e v e r , W e s b r o o k , R o b e r t s o n , K l i n c k , a n d m a n y o f t h e U B C P r o f e s s o r s w h o p r o v i d e d l e c t u r e s 23Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia Senate Collection, Minutes, 11 October, 1916. 2 4John and James G. Davidson continued to play important roles in the VI after 1925. See VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs; VI Minutes, passim. 2 5 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 26Wesbrook Collection, Box 3-1, Report to Minister of Education, 1916. 2 7 UBC Extension Collection, Box 1-2, Report of the Extension Lecture Committee, 1923- 24. 28Selman, "A History of Extension," 25. 3 8 w e r e n o t e d e d u c a t o r s . W e s b r o o k o f t e n s t a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s h e b e l i e v e d w o u l d h e l p b u i l d a c u l t u r e d , c i v i l i z e d , a n d p r o s p e r o u s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2 9 U B C P r o f e s s o r s s u c h a s R o b e r t s o n , G . G . S e d g e w i c k a n d J . G . D a v i d s o n , w e r e i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e V I a s c o u n c i l l o r s o r l e c t u r e r s , a n d w e r e f o n d l y r e g a r d e d a s g e n e r o u s e d u c a t o r s . 3 0 J o h n D a v i d s o n , U B C b o t a n i s t a n d f o r m e r P r o v i n c i a l B o t a n i s t , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s w o r k a s a V I c o u n c i l l o r a n d l e c t u r e r , h e e n g a g e d i n a n a c t i v e s c h e d u l e o f p u b l i c l e c t u r e s t o p r o m o t e a m e s s a g e o f n a t u r a l t h e o l o g y . 3 1 D u r i n g a s p e e c h t o t h e V a n c o u v e r N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y 2 8 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 8 , D a v i d s o n c o m m e n t e d o n c i v i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e n c o u r a g e d S o c i e t y m e m b e r s t o r e p l a c e a " p r i m i t i v e " m o t i v e o f p e r s o n a l g a i n w i t h a " h i g h e r " m o t i v e o f g e n e r o u s g i v i n g . 3 2 I f U B C a s a n i n s t i t u t i o n s t o o d t o b e n e f i t f r o m p u b l i c i t y g e n e r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e V I , t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s f a c u l t y m e m b e r s , a d v e r t i s e d i n I n s t i t u t e p r o g r a m s a s U B C r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w e r e o f t e n m o t i v a t e d b y a s e n s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l m i s s i o n . 29Wesbrook Collection, Box 3-2, Correspondence, UBC Board of Governors to Premier of British Columbia, 27 May, 1914. The Board (of which Wesbrook was then Chairman) suggested that UBC had a role in "destroying sectionalism and abohshing class prejudice" in the province. 30"Makers of the University—Lemuel Robertson." Robertson is described as an enthusiastic and popular educator. Gordon Shrum, Gordon Shrum: An Autobiography, eds. Peter Stursberg and Clive Cocking (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1986), 51. Shrum described Sedgewick as a highly appealing, if not famous, English teacher. Vancouver City Archives, Obituary, 25 August, 1948, Microfiche 2338. The author described J.G. Davidson with humanitarian superlatives. 3 1 Vancouver City Archives, Transcripts, John Davidson Collection. Add. Mss 505, Box 1- 1. (This collection Is subsequently referred to as "Davidson Collection.") Davidson often spoke on the divinity of Nature, and the plan of the Architect of the Universe; for a discussion of natural theology, see Carl Berger, Science. God, and Nature in Victorian Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1983). 32Davldson Collection, Vol. 1-2, Lecture Transcript. 3 9 M u t u a l E n l i g h t e n m e n t A f f i l i a t e s A l l o f t h e f o u n d i n g s o c i e t i e s o f t h e V I a r e m e n t i o n e d b y H u n t a s m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 3 3 T h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n ( A H S A ) , t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e . M u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d h e r e , e x i s t f o r t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g c u l t u r a l o r a c a d e m i c e d u c a t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l a n d / o r c i v i c i m p r o v e m e n t . U n l i k e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e y a r e n o t e x p r e s s l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l i s s u e s o f c o n t r o l , s t a t u s , o r e x p e r t i s e . T h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r T r a d e s a n d L a b o u r C o u n c i l a r e s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t e a c h h a d e x p l i c i t p o l i t i c a l g o a l s , b u t r e m a i n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y b e c a u s e t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e V I c a n b e s e e n a s e d u c a t i o n f o r g e n e r a l s o c i a l w e l f a r e , r a t h e r t h a n n a r r o w o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . F o r a c o m p l e t e l i s t o f m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t a f f i l i a t e s b e f o r e 1 9 2 5 , s e e T a b l e 5 . T a b l e 5 s h o w s t h e M u t u a l E n l i g h t e n m e n t s p c i e i t i e s t h a t a f f i l i a t e d b e f o r e 1 9 2 5 . T h e i r r e l a t i v e i n t e r e s t i n a n d s u p p o r t f o r t h e V I i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e d u r a t i o n o f a f f i l i a t i o n a n d n u m b e r o f l e c t u r e s p r o v i d e d . 3 3 Hunt , "Mutual Enlightenment," 42. 4 0 T A B L E 5 M U T U A L E N L I G H T E N M E N T A F F I L I A T E S , p r e - 1 9 2 5 Affiliate Name First Season Last Season No. of Lectures Art, Historical, and Scientific Association 1916-17 1932-33 24 Archaeological Institute 1916-17 1927-28 3*** B.C. Academy of Science 1916-17 1932-33 28 Vancouver Natural History Society* 1916-17 1932-33 24 Vancouver Trades and Labour Council** 1916-17 1920-21 6 University Women's Club** 1916-17 1931-32 13 British Columbia Society of Fine Arts 1916-17 1927-28 6 Alpine Club of Canada 1917-18 1932-33 15 Dickens Fellowship 1923-24 1932-33 6 Shakespeare Society 1923-24 1932-33 5 Vancouver Musical Council 1924-25 1928-29 4 British Columbia Institute of Authors 1924-25 1925-26 2 Women's Methodist Education Club 1924-25 1924-25 0 Sources: a) Institute programs. VI Collection Box 4-5. Dates are those printed on the programs, and do not necessarily indicate exact date of affiliation or standing. Data incomplete for 1919-1920. b) VI Minutes * Formerly the Natural History Section of the British Columbia Mountaineering Club "Separate discussions follow ***Archaeological Institute co-sponsored unlisted lectures from time to time V a r i o u s m o t i v e s m a y h a v e e n c o u r a g e d t h e s e s o c i e t i e s t o a f f i l i a t e w i t h t h e V I . O n e w a s a m o t i v e o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e . T h e A H S A w a s i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h a m i s s i o n o f s u c h s e r v i c e , e v e n i f i t w a s d e f i n e d i n e l i t i s t t e r m s . 3 4 T h e A H S A a n d t h e S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s c o o p e r a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a m u s e u m a n d a r t g a l l e r y . 3 5 T h e V a n c o u v e r N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y , t h r o u g h J o h n D a v i d s o n ' s i n f l u e n c e , h a d a n e l e m e n t o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e . 3 6 S i m i l a r l y , t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b h a d a m o d e r a t e p o l i t i c a l a g e n d a a n d w a s a c t i v e i n v a r i o u s c i v i c 3 4Journal of the Art. Historical, and Scientific Association of Vancouver. B.C. (Vancouver, Trythall & Son, 1917); Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment,"41. 3 5 AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, President's Report, 1916. 3 6 V I Collection, Box 5-6. Vancouver Natural History Society program. Davidson was the Society's founder and frequent president. 4 1 a c t i v i t i e s , f r o m U B C a n d A r b o r D a y s u p p o r t t o p r o v i d i n g l e c t u r e s t o W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e s . 3 7 E v e n t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , a l t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l l y c a t e r i n g t o i t s m e m b e r s , w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o m o t i n g a p u b l i c l i b r a r y a n d m u s e u m . 3 8 I f t h e r e w e r e m o t i v e s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e , t h e r e w e r e a l s o m o t i v e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e n h a n c e m e n t o r s u r v i v a l . T h e V I m a y h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d b y g r o u p l e a d e r s a s u s e f u l t o b o o s t t h e s t a t u s a n d m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . H u n t h a s a r g u e d t h a t m a n y m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t g r o u p s w e r e i n t r o v e r t e d , n o t a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g t o e n g a g e t h o s e o u t s i d e t h e g r o u p , b u t s t i l l i n n e e d o f m e m b e r s . 3 9 T h e V I m a y h a v e a d d r e s s e d t h e s e s e l f - s e r v i n g m o t i v e s i n t w o w a y s . B y a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h U B C , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o c i e t i e s s t o o d t o e n h a n c e t h e i r s t a t u s ; a n d b y c o n t a c t i n g V I m e m b e r s h i p a n d a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e t h e y s t o o d t o b o o s t t h e i r o w n m e m b e r s h i p . S t a t u s e n h a n c e m e n t w a s a s t a t e d m i s s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s , b u t m a y h a v e b e e n i m p l i c i t l y p r o m i n e n t i n t h e c a s e o f o t h e r s o c i e t i e s . 4 0 T h e A H S A h a d i n 1 8 9 4 b e e n t h e o n l y " l e a r n e d s o c i e t y " i n V a n c o u v e r , b u t s l o w l y l o s t p r e - e m i n e n c e t o o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s ; i t s f u t u r e , b y 1 9 1 3 , w a s u n c e r t a i n . 4 1 T h e A H S A a p p e a l e d t o V a n c o u v e r ' s s o c i a l l y p r o m i n e n t c i t i z e n s , b u t b y t h e t i m e T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e w a s 37Reeves, University Women's Club. 4; Vancouver City Archives, University Women's Club Collection, Add. Mss. 872. Vol. 1-1. Minutes, passim. VI Collection. Box 3-8. Correspondence. The UWC often provided lectures for the Women's Institutes. 38Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-2, Constitution. 39Hunt. "Mutual Enlightenment," 260. 40Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia Society of Fine Arts Collection, Add. Mss. 171, Vol. 1-9, Constitution. 41Hunt. "Mutual Enlightenment," 42,140. 4 2 c r e a t e d , t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s h a d c h a n g e d . 4 2 V a n c o u v e r ' s b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s p r i o r t o W o r l d W a r I w e r e n o l o n g e r B r i t i s h , b u t A n g l o - C a n a d i a n , a n d m a n y o f t h e m s u p p o r t e d t h e n e w U n i v e r s i t y . 4 3 A l t h o u g h t h e B r i t i s h p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c i t y m i g h t b e r e c e p t i v e t o t h e p a t r i o t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e A H S A , i t s e l i t e n a t u r e m i g h t b e c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s a p p e a l i n g . S o c i a l s t a t u s a m o n g s t t h e b u s i n e s s e l i t e c o u l d a l s o b e e n h a n c e d s l i g h t l y b y u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , n o t m e m b e r s h i p i n a l o c a l s o c i e t y . 4 4 M e m b e r s h i p i n t h e A H S A i n i t s e l f n o l o n g e r h e l d t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l o r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e i t o n c e d i d , e v e n i f m a n y m e m b e r s r e m a i n e d s o c i a l l y p r o m i n e n t . I n a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h a c l a i m t o c u l t u r a l o r i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s h i p — p a r t i c u l a r l y U B C — t h e A H S A m i g h t h o p e t o r e m a i n p r o m i n e n t a n d r e c l a i m l o s t s t a t u s . 4 5 T h e A H S A c e r t a i n l y d i d p r o m o t e t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e V I , p r o v i d i n g m e m b e r s w i t h t h e V I s y l l a b u s a n d r e p o r t i n g o n t h e i r I n s t i t u t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n s e p a r a t e j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . 4 6 T h e a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e V I w a s a p r o u d o n e t h a t , e v e n i f i t d i d n o t i n c r e a s e p o p u l a r r e g a r d f o r t h e A s s o c i a t i o n , m a y h a v e i n c r e a s e d m e m b e r s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r o w n o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e A H S A w a s i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e c l a i m l o s t p r e s t i g e ( o r a t l e a s t h a l t f u r t h e r l o s s e s ) , o t h e r s o c i e t i e s c o u l d l i k e w i s e b e n e f i t from a n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h U B C . T h e l o c a l c h a p t e r o f t h e A l p i n e C l u b o f C a n a d a w a s r a t h e r e l i t i s t b e f o r e W o r l d W a r I , a n d m a y h a v e f e l t c h a l l e n g e d b y t h e 42Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 35. 4 3 RA.J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," ilia, 278. 4 4 RA.J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," 230. 45Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 140, argues that the AHSA by 1916 was seeking public assistance for its activities, and the VT (along with the public museum) provided it. 4 6AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 23 November, 1916. 4 3 p r e s e n c e o f t h e m o r e l o c a l a n d a c c e s s i b l e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M o u n t a i n e e r i n g C l u b o n t h e I n s t i t u t e p r o g r a m . 4 7 ( T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S e c t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M o u n t a i n e e r i n g C l u b w a s t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e V a n c o u v e r N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y a n d a n e a r l y a f f i l i a t e o f t h e V I . ) T h e A l p i n e C l u b w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o p r o m o t e i t s i n t e r e s t i n a l p i n i s m t h r o u g h t h e V I , flavoured b y B r i t i s h s e n s i b i l i t i e s r e c a l l i n g t h e " G o l d e n A g e " o f B r i t i s h m o u n t a i n e e r i n g . 4 8 S e v e r a l a f f i l i a t e s w e r e w o r r i e d a b o u t d e c l i n i n g m e m b e r s h i p , a n d w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r u i t i n g n e w m e m b e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e A H S A w a s i n d e c l i n e ; 4 9 o n e w o u l d i m a g i n e a w i s h t o r e c r u i t . T h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b w a n t e d a l i s t o f I n s t i t u t e m e m b e r s ' n a m e s , w i t h t h e i m p l i e d p u r p o s e o f r e c r u i t m e n t t o U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b m e m b e r s h i p . 5 0 S e v e r a l m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t s o c i e t i e s w e r e l o o k i n g f o r m e m b e r s , a n d h o p i n g t o k e e p t h e i r o l d o n e s , a s H u n t a r g u e s f o r i n t h e p r e - w a r p e r i o d . 5 1 T h e r e w a s a l s o a w e b o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t b e h i n d t h e a f f i l i a t i o n o f m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t s o c i e t i e s w i t h V I ; a f e w e x a m p l e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e r o l e c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s p l a y e d i n " t i e i n g t o g e t h e r " t h e I n s t i t u t e . P e r s o n a l c o n c e r n s o f t e n t o u c h e d o n o c c u p a t i o n a l a s w e l l a s r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , 47Hunt, "Mutual Enllghtenment,"42, 157. The Alpine Club was also listed In the Vancouver Social Registry and Club Directory (Vancouver: Welch & Glbb, 1914). 4 8John Cleare, Mountains (London: Macmillan, 1975), 16. 4 9AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 1916 passim. 50Vancouver City Archives* University Women's Club Collection, Vol. 1-1, Minutes, 18 September, 1916. The agenda for that meeting reads: "3. Names for membership, 4. Vancouver Institute ask for list of members names." 5 1 Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 255. 44 a n d , o f c o u r s e , U B C p l a y s a c o n t i n u i n g r o l e . O c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , h o w e v e r , w i l l b e d i s c u s e d m o r e d e e p l y i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . J u d g e H o w a y , f o r e x a m p l e , w a s a U B C S e n a t o r a n d a n A H S A d i r e c t o r . H e w a s a l s o w e l l k n o w n a s a h i s t o r i a n . H o w a y a d v o c a t e d a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e A H S A w i t h t h e V I . 5 2 R . P . S . T w i z e l l w a s a l s o a n A H S A d i r e c t o r , a n d , a s a p r a c t i s i n g a r c h i t e c t , h a d a n o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n U B C a s h e h e l p e d a f f i l i a t e t h e A H S A w i t h t h e V I . 5 3 R o b e r t s o n , a s d i s c u s s e d , w a s a U B C p r o f e s s o r a n d A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e e x e c u t i v e m e m b e r . V a r i o u s m e m b e r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b — A n n a B . J a m i e s o n , f o r e x a m p l e — h a d i n t e r e s t s i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d i n t e a c h i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . 5 4 A r c h i t e c t R . M a c k a y F r i p p w a s a k e e n c i v i c d e v e l o p e r , m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t l e a d e r , a n d w a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s e c u r i n g t h e I n s t i t u t e a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s . 5 5 W . R . D u n l o p w o u l d a l s o b e c o m e a k e y p l a y e r i n t h e I n s t i t u t e ; h e w a s a l o c a l d i r e c t o r o f D i n g w a l l , C o t t s , & C o . , a p r e s t i g i o u s s h i p p i n g f i r m , a n d h e l d l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n t h e A H S A a n d S h a k e s p e a r e S o c i e t y , b o t h a f f i l i a t e s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e . 5 6 M a n y U B C s c i e n t i s t s w e r e i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , i n c l u d i n g J o h n D a v i d s o n w h o a l s o h a d 5 2AHSA Collection. Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 23 March, 1916. 5 3AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 28 March, 1916. Occupational interests are described in the next section. 5 4UWC members often had professional spouses (e.g. Evelyn Farris was wife of a prestigious lawyer), or were aspiring professionals themselves (e.g. Anna B. Jamieson was a teacher with administrative and political aspirations). 55Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 1617, Vancouver Daily World. Biographical sketch of R Mackay Fripp, Spring 1891. Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 32. Fripp was prominent in the Vancouver Arts and Crafts Association as well as the Society of Fine Arts. Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia Society of Fine Arts Collection, Vol. 1-1, Add. Mss. 171, Minutes. 56Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2667, Obituary, Vancouver Sun. W.RDunlop, 6 January, 1941. 45 a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o n t h e V a n c o u v e r N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y a n d s o m e i n f l u e n c e o n t h e A l p i n e C l u b o f C a n a d a . 5 7 T h e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s s h a r e d a n u m b e r o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h e a c h o t h e r . T h e s e p e o p l e w e r e i n v o l v e d n o t o n l y w i t h v a r i o u s m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t s o c i e t i e s , b u t a l s o a s p e c t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n a n d t h e r o l e U B C m i g h t p l a y i n t h a t r e g a r d . A n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e V I c o u l d b e u s e d f o r p e r s o n a l s t a t u s e n h a n c e m e n t c o m e s f r o m A . B . J a m i e s o n . J a m i e s o n w a s o f t e n a n I n s t i t u t e c o u n c i l l o r , a n d w h e n s h e s o u g h t p u b l i c o f f i c e i n t h e 1 9 3 0 s , a b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h l i s t e d h e r a s " o n e o f t h e r e g u l a r s p e a k e r s f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e . " 5 8 S i m i l a r l y , J . G . D a v i d s o n ' s a n d D u n l o p ' s o b i t u a r i e s b o t h n o t e t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e V I . 59 N o t e v e r y o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i n d i v i d u a l t h a t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e V I fit, d e s p i t e t h e i n c l u s i v e s e n t i m e n t s o f t h e V I c o n s t i t u t i o n . 6 0 T h e V a n c o u v e r T r a d e s a n d L a b o u r C o u n c i l ( V T L C ) w a s a s h o r t - l i v e d a n o m a l y . I t w a s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t r a d e u n i o n a c t i v i s t s , t h a t , i n t h e V I , f o u n d i t s e l f a m o n g l o c a l c a p i t a l i s t s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s . 6 1 T h e V T L C ' s i n i t i a l p r e s e n c e c a n b e e x p l a i n e d o n a 57Ranta. "British Columbia Academy of Science." Davidson Collection, Vol. 3-2, Correspondence, Davidson to Alpine Club President Munday. Davidson and Munday corresponded frequently. ^Vancouver City Archives, Major Mathews Collection, Add. Mss. 54, Vol. 13, Microfiche 02322. Biographical sketch (possibly press release) of Anna B. Jamieson. 59Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2667, Obituary, Vancouver Sun. W.RDunlop, 6 January, 1941. Obituary, J.G. Davidson, 25 August, 1948, Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2338. 6 0 VI Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. The constitution offered affiliation to any group that claimed to support the objects of the VI. 6 1 Long-serving VI councillor Robie Reld, for example, was at one time considered among the city's business leaders; Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper, present during the VI organizational meetings, was the city's quintessential social and business leader In Vancouver in the early 1900s. See RA.J. McDonald, Business Leaders. 240, 495. Early 46 n u m b e r o f a c c o u n t s . O r g a n i z e d l a b o u r w a s g e n e r a l l y a m o d e r a t e f o r c e i n V a n c o u v e r , r e f o r m i s t r a t h e r t h a n r e v o l u t i o n a r y . 6 2 I t s m o d e r a t i o n w a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e w i s h t o r e f o r m s c h o o l s ; e d u c a t i o n a n d s c h o o l i n g w e r e g e n e r a l l y w e l c o m e d b y w o r k i n g p e o p l e , a n d e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d ( v a r i o u s l a b o u r l e a d e r s t h o u g h t ) b e f r e e a n d a c c e s s i b l e t o w o r k i n g p e o p l e . S c h o o l s o f f e r e d t h e p r o m i s e o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . 6 3 U B C w a s y e t a n o t h e r s c h o o l i n g i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t m i g h t h a v e h a d r o o m f o r w o r k i n g p e o p l e , a n d l e a d e r s o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r , o n c e o p p o s e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . w e r e n o t a v e r s e t o c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h U n i v e r s i t y p e r s o n n e l . 6 4 J . H . M c V e t y , a s o c i a l i s t w h o d o m i n a t e d t h e V T L C f r o m 1 9 0 5 t o W o r l d W a r I , w a s , a s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , a p a r t o f a n e d u c a t i o n a l a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e f o r r e t u r n i n g W W I v e t e r a n s w i t h W e s b r o o k a n d K l i n c k . 6 5 W e s b r o o k a n d M c V e t y a l s o h a d o t h e r u n s p e c i f i e d d e a l i n g s , a n d M c V e t y w a s i n v i t e d t o t h e e a r l y I n s t i t u t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s . 6 6 O r g a n i z e d l a b o u r w a s a l s o councillors Howay, Wesbrook, Robertson, Jamieson, Farris, OT4oyle, Thomas, and others were all "professionals," either by occupational status, university education, marriage, or a combination. 6 2 R^AJ. McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver." Despite some increase in union activity during WWI and the strikes of 1918, as described in Roy, Vancouver. 93, this moderate status continued Into the 1920s, as described by Jean Barman in "Knowledge is Essential for Universal Progress but Fatal to Class Privilege: Working People and The Schools in Vancouver During the 1920s," in Labour/Le Travail. 22 (Fall 1988): 9. 6 3 R A . J . McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver," 63; Barman, "Knowledge," 14, 50. 6 4Barman, "Knowledge," 50. Harris, "Locating the University," 122. The VTLC in 1904 opposed UBC as a class institution. 6 5 R A . J . McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver," 61. 66Wesbrook Collection, Box 3-2, Engagement diary entry; Wesbrook Collection, Box 5 (unfiled). Diary entry, Wednesday. 26 April, 1916, . VI Minutes. 25 February, 1916; 47 a c c u s t o m e d t o p r e s e n t i n g r e g u l a r S u n d a y s p e e c h e s . 6 7 I t w a s t h e r e f o r e n o t o d d t h a t t h e V T L C w o u l d a s s o c i a t e w i t h w h a t a p p e a r e d t o b e a u n i v e r s i t y i n i t i a t i v e t o p r o v i d e a f a m i l i a r s e r v i c e . T h e V I a p p e a r e d a s a p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l v e h i c l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f L a b o u r ' s m e s s a g e s . A n o t h e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n w a s m a d e t h r o u g h H e l e n a G u t t e r i d g e , f o r m e r p r e s i d e n t o f t h e T a i l o r ' s I n d u s t r i a l U n i o n a n d p r o m i n e n t m e m b e r o f t h e V T L C . 6 8 G u t t e r i d g e w a s a l s o a c q u a i n t e d w i t h v a r i o u s m e m b e r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b a n d o t h e r s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s t h r o u g h h e r w o r k f o r w o m e n ' s s u f f r a g e . 6 9 G u t t e r i d g e b e c a m e o n e o f t h e V T L C ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e V I . G u t t e r i d g e , h o w e v e r , m a y h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e V T L C a n d T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e m e m b e r s . A s t h e V T L C r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , G u t t e r i d g e i m m e d i a t e l y i n t r o d u c e d h e r s u f f r a g e v i e w s t o I n s t i t u t e c o u n c i l l o r s w h e n s h e s u g g e s t e d i n 1 9 1 6 t h a t " l a d i e s b e a d d e d t o t h e S y l l a b u s . " A l t h o u g h t h i s m o t i o n w a s c a r r i e d , M r s . J a m i e s o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b c o u n t e r e d t h a t s u b j e c t s , n o t l e c t u r e r s , s h o u l d d e c i d e t h e s y l l a b u s , a n d t h i s s u g g e s t i o n m e t w i t h c o u n c i l a p p r o v a l . 7 0 H a d G u t t e r i d g e n o t p r e v i o u s l y f a l l e n o u t w i t h o t h e r m i d d l e - c l a s s Wesbrook Collection. Box 5-15. McVety to Wesbrook, 31 March, 1916. McVety acknowledged Wesbrook's invitation to help plan the VI. 67Vancouver, University of British Columbia. Special Collections, Microfilm AW1 R2594, Article, B.C. Federationist, 1918. Throughout 1918 there were such speeches, and no indication is given that this was a new practice. ^Irene Howard, The Struggle for Social Justice in British Columbia (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1992), 107, 129. 69Howard, Struggle. 61, 64. 7 0 VI Minutes, 22 June, 1916. Judge Howay recorded this exchange. 48 s u f f r a g i s t s ( s u c h a s c o u l d b e f o u n d I n t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b ) , h e r v i e w s m i g h t h a v e f o u n d m o r e s u p p o r t f r o m V I c o u n c i l l o r s . 7 1 S e v e r a l y e a r s e a r l i e r , s h e h a d a l s o w r i t t e n a n a n g r y e d i t o r i a l d e n o u n c i n g t h e v i e w s o f F a t h e r W . P . O ' B o y l e , w h o h a d s p o k e n o n t h e t o p i c o f w o m e n ' s s u f f r a g e . 7 2 O ' B o y l e w a s a n I n s t i t u t e c o u n c i l l o r i n 1 9 1 6 , a n d h e a n d h i s s u p p o r t e r s p r o b a b l y d i d n o t w o r k w e l l w i t h G u t t e r i d g e . G u t t e r i d g e ' s c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e s e m e m b e r s o f V a n c o u v e r s o c i e t y a n d h e r a c t i v i t i e s a s a t r a d e u n i o n i s t m e a n t t h a t s h e w a s n o t g e n e r a l l y a m o n g s t s u p p o r t e r s i n t h e V I , a n d t h a t m a y h a v e h a m p e r e d t h e V T L C ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e V I . I n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 9 , V I e x e c u t i v e d i s c u s s e d w a y s o f i n s u r i n g t h a t a f f i l i a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w o u l d b e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e i n s t i t u t e , g i v i n g t h e e x e c u t i v e " t h e p o w e r t o r e j e c t t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n t e n t i o u s o r o t h e r w i s e u n s u i t a b l e t o p i c s . " 7 3 T h e V T L C p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h a t y e a r — " A W o r k i n g M a n ' s V i e w p o i n t o f H i s t o r y " a n d " W o m e n ' s R e l a t i o n t o t h e L a b o r M o v e m e n t " ( p r e s e n t e d b y G u t t e r i d g e h e r s e l f ) — a p p e a r a s t h e m o s t l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e s f o r " c o n t e n t i o u s o r o t h e r w i s e u n s u i t a b l e " l e c t u r e s . 7 4 N o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e V T L C w e r e a t t h a t m e e t i n g t o d e b a t e t h e i s s u e . I n F e b r u a r y 1 9 2 2 , t h e c o u n c i l d i s c u s s e d w h e t h e r u n r e p r e s e n t e d a f f i l i a t e s s h o u l d b e s t r i p p e d o f m e m b e r s h i p ; t h e V T L C w a s t h e o n l y g r o u p a t t h a t 7 1 Howard, Struggle. 64. Gutteridge mixed socialism and unionism with her suffrage activism, resulting in severed connections with middle-class suffragists. 72Howard, Struggle. 75. 7 3 VI Minutes, February 1919. (John Davidson recorded the minutes.) 7 4 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. The VTLC lectures were the only overtly political lectures that season. See Appendix 1 for a comparison of lectures for the 1918-19 season. 4 9 t i m e w h o s e n a m e d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m t h e l i s t o f a f f i l i a t e s . 7 5 G i v e n t h e t e n s i o n s b e t w e e n o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r a n d c a p i t a l i n V a n c o u v e r a t t h e t i m e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t V T C L r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w o u l d f i t p o o r l y w i t h o t h e r V I a f f i l i a t e s , a n d i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t t h e o t h e r I n s t i t u t e m e m b e r s d i d n o t w e l c o m e l a b o u r a c t i v i s t s i n t o t h e i r m i d s t s . 7 6 I n r e t u r n , t h e V T L C p r o b a b l y f o u n d t h e V I t o b e o f l i t t l e u s e t o i t s c a u s e . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c a s e o f t h e V T L C ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e V I , i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t t h e r e c o r d i n g s e c r e t a r y f o r m o s t o f t h e m e e t i n g s i n w h i c h t h e i s s u e a r o s e w a s J o h n D a v i d s o n . 7 7 D a v i d s o n h a d a p e c u l i a r b a c k g r o u n d f o r a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r . H i s p a r e n t s c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o p r o v i d e a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n f o r h i m , s o h e h a d n o a c a d e m i c d e g r e e s a t a l l . H e l e a r n e d b o t a n y a s a y o u n g m a n w o r k i n g a t S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d e a r n e d a p o s i t i o n i n t h e R o y a l L i n n e a n S o c i e t y . T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f o t h e r s h a d s e c u r e d h i m a p o s i t i o n a s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s P r o v i n c i a l B o t a n i s t i n 1 9 1 1 , a n d i n 1 9 1 6 h e w a s " t a k e n o v e r " b y U B C w h e n t h a t p o s i t i o n w a s t e r m i n a t e d . 7 8 D a v i d s o n , a s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , o f t e n p r o m o t e d a r e l i g i o u s m e s s a g e . 7 9 H e a l s o p r o f e s s e d a d i s d a i n f o r p r o f i t e e r s , d e v e l o p e r s , m o n e y m a k e r s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s . 8 0 T h e b a c k g r o u n d a n d a s p i r a t i o n s o f D a v i d s o n 7 5 VI Minutes, 23 February, 1922; VI Collection Box 4-5, Programs. The VTLC was not listed on the 1920-21 program; records for 1919-20 are missing. 76Roy, Vancouver. 93, 94; Barman, West. 220. 7 7 VI Minutes, passim. 78Davidson Collection, Vol. 3-5, Autobiographical notes for UBC employment application; Wesbrook Collection, Box 6-3, Note. 79See note 31. 80Davidson Collection, Vol. 1-2, Personal notes. 5 0 s u g g e s t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t h e m a y h a v e b e e n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e l i v e s o f w o r k i n g p e o p l e , a n d l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s m e n a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s . A s r e c o r d i n g s e c r e t a r y , h e p e r h a p s w r o t e w i t h l e s s c l a s s a n t a g o n i s m t h a n m i g h t h a v e b e e n t h e c a s e w i t h a n o t h e r r e c o r d i n g s e c r e t a r y . H i s o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e V T L C , t h e n , h a v e a c e r t a i n a d d e d c r e d i b i l i t y . L o c a l " m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t " s o c i e t i e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e V I f o r s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s . T h e s e i n c l u d e d a g e n u i n e m i s s i o n o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e , b u t a l s o a d e s i r e f o r e n h a n c e d p u b l i c i m a g e , m e m b e r s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d r e c r u i t m e n t , a n d t h e s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f k e y i n d i v i d u a l s . M u c h o f t h e a n t i c i p a t e d s t a t u s b o o s t w o u l d c o m e f r o m U B C ' s p r e s e n c e . M a n y y e a r s l a t e r , o n r e f l e c t i n g u p o n t h e V T s l o c a t i o n i n U B C f a c i l i t i e s , a n G e o r g e W i n t e r c l a i m e d t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y c o n f e r s a " s t a n d i n g ( a n d ) s u g g e s t i o n o f a c o n n e c t i o n w h i c h w e c o u l d n o t h a v e i f w e m e t e l s e w h e r e . " 8 1 G r o u p s i n t e r e s t e d i n l i t e r a r y t o p i c s m i x e d w i t h t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n t i f i c t o p i c s . E v e n g r o u p s w h o s e e n l i g h t e n m e n t o b j e c t i v e s w e r e m o r e o p e n l y p o l i t i c a l w e r e w e l c o m e , a l t h o u g h t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b w a s c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e w e l c o m e t h a n t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s V a n c o u v e r T r a d e s a n d L a b o u r C o u n c i l . O f c o u r s e , m a n y w h o s u p p o r t e d t h e a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e i r s o c i e t y w i t h t h e V I h a d i n t e r e s t s i n o t h e r a r e a s , m o s t n o t a b l y i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . I t b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r w h y p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s m i g h t w i s h t o a f f i l i a t e . 8 1 V I Collection. Box 3-8. Correspondence, G. Winter, to ? [19351. Winter was then President of the VI. 51 P r o f e s s i o n a l A f f i l i a t e s D e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o b l e m s i n d e f i n i n g " p r o f e s s i o n a l , " i t w i l l h e r e b e c o n s i d e r e d ( a f t e r t h e m a n n e r o f G i d n e y a n d M i l l a r ) a s a r e s t r i c t i v e t e r m d e n o t i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f c e r t a i n p r e s t i g i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h e f i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a f f i l i a t e w i t h t h e V I b e f o r e 1 9 2 5 ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) , o n e c a n , a s w i t h t h e o t h e r a f f i l i a t e s , e x a m i n e p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . B u t a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m e a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n m a y h a v e b e e n m o t i v a t e d b y p u b l i c s e r v i c e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t p u b l i c s e r v i c e w a s a p r i m e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e , a s d e s c r i b e d b y t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n s , w e r e s t r i c t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e i r m e m b e r s . 8 2 T h e C h a m b e r o f M i n e s e x i s t e d t o p r o m o t e a n d t o s u p p o r t m i n i n g . 8 3 T A B L E 6 : P R O F E S S I O N A L A S S O C I A T I O N A F F I L I A T E S , p r e - 1 9 2 5 Name First Season Last Season No. of Lectures B.C. Academy of Science 1916- 17 1934-35 28 Architectural Institute of British Columbia 1916- 17 1931-32 4 Vancouver Teachers Association 1916- 17 1934-35 7 British Columbia Chamber of Mines 1916- 17 1934-35 11 Institute of Mines and Metallurgy 1924- 25 1927-28 3 Sources: a) Programs, VI Collection Box 4-5. Dates are those printed on the programs, and do not indicate whether the society was in good standing or not. Data incomplete for 1919-1920. b) VI Minutes 82Architectural Institute Collection, Constitution (1914); Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver Teachers' Association, Add. Mss. 994, Constitution (1916). 83Academy of Science Collection, Box 2-28, British Columbia Chamber of Mines Brochure. The Chamber of Mines was not a professional association such as the Architectural Institute, but it did tie in with the "professional" status of engineers and metallurgists. 5 2 T h e m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a f f i l i a t e w i t h t h e V I w e r e m o r e d u e t o t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t . O n e o f t h e i r c o n c e r n s w a s e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . T h e o c c u p a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d h a d p a r t i c u l a r b u t s o m e t i m e s c h a n g i n g e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . 8 4 B y 1 9 0 0 , i t w a s e v i d e n t t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s i n O n t a r i o — a n d b y e x t e n s i o n , m u c h o f E n g l i s h C a n a d a — w e r e p l a y i n g a n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g r o l e i n p r e p a r i n g m e n ( u s u a l l y ) f o r p r o f e s s i o n s . N o t o n l y w e r e u n i v e r s i t i e s u s e d b y t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s ( s u c h a s l a w , m e d i c i n e , o r c l e r g y ) , b u t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s a s p i r i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s ( s u c h a s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d t e a c h i n g ) s o u g h t u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . 8 5 I n t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h a t i n c l u d e d r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h a s m i n i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , a n d f o r e s t r y . 8 6 U B C w a s d e s t i n e d t o p l a y a r o l e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e V I a t t r a c t e d a n u m b e r o f o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s t h a t l o o k e d t o U B C f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . T h e V I m a y h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d a s u s e f u l t o t h e s e g r o u p s i n s e c u r i n g a c o n g e n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U B C a s n e g o t i a t i o n s o v e r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s c o n t i n u e d . T h e y o u n g U B C h a d f e w p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n i t s e a r l i e s t y e a r s , a n d s o m e l o c a l o c c u p a t i o n s w i s h e d t o i n f l u e n c e h o w t h e p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d . 8 7 T h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e w a s o n e o f t h e s e . O n e m e m b e r ^Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen, xi. 85Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 345. 86Harris, "Locating the University," 113. UBC was established with considerable sentiment that expert resource developers rather than lawyers and doctors were to be trained. 87Logan, Tuum Est. 66, 67. 5 3 wrote of the development of architect training programs in Canadian universities, and noted his suggestions for appropriate courses at UBC.88 Later, the Architectural Institute would make recommendations to the UBC Senate.89 Teachers were likewise interested in how teacher training would develop at UBC. The trend across Canada was for teacher education to move from normal school to university or college control.90 UBC had, by 1923, made preliminary arrangements for teacher training.91 The presence, over the years, of Anna B. Jamieson in the Vancouver Teachers' Association, The Vancouver Institute, the University Women's Club, and UBC governance also suggests a connection. If the VI could in any way help occupational groups form a beneficial relationship with UBC, it seems likely it would be done. The mining industry had little need to worry about whether UBC would cater to their needs. Like its predecessor, McGill University College, UBC provided programs in mining and related technologies from its beginning.92 It continued to do so, and UBC faculty members were often active in local industry organizations; some were active in the Chamber of Mines.93 ^Architectural Institute Collection. Vol. 1- 2, Personal note. The author is unidentified, and the date can be inferred to be 1914 as it also discusses the proposed re-incorporation of the Architectural Institute that took place that year. 89Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia Senate Records, Box 1-1 Minutes, 17 December, 1924. 90Sheehan and Wilson, "From Normal School to the University," 33. 9 1 John Calam, "Some Historic Trends in British Columbia Teacher Education" (Unpublished. 1991). 1. 92Logan, Tuum Est. 66. UBC Board of Governors Collection, Minutes, 11 January, 1916. 9 3 V I Collection, Box 2-13, Correspondence. The Chamber of Mines' letterhead names several UBC faculty members as vice-presidents. 54 S e v e r a l o f t h e s e a f f i l i a t e s h a d , a s p a r t o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n , a n a i m t o e l e v a t e t h e s t a t u s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n e x p l i c i t l y s o u g h t t o e n h a n c e t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . 9 4 T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , c o m p r i s e d l a r g e l y o f c a r e e r s c i e n t i s t s , i n d i r e c t l y s o u g h t s t a t u s e n h a n c e m e n t t h r o u g h s u p p o r t f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y , a p u b l i c l i b r a r y a n d m u s e u m , b u t , a s a g r o u p , w a s n o t u n i f i e d i n i t s d e s i r e f o r g e n e r a l p u b l i c i t y . 9 5 T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h a m b e r o f M i n e s s e e m e d l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l s t a t u s t h a n i t d i d i n p r o m o t i n g t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . 9 6 I f t h e V I c o u l d h e l p w i t h s u c h o b j e c t i v e s , t h e n i t w o u l d b e w o r t h a f f i l i a t i o n . S o m e , l i k e t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e , e v i d e n t l y t h o u g h t i t w o r t h w h i l e t o m a i n t a i n a f f i l i a t i o n d e s p i t e c o n t r i b u t i n g f e w l e c t u r e s t o t h e s y l l a b u s . 9 7 H o w e v e r , t h e V I a l s o p l a y e d t o a n o l d e r , p e r h a p s m o r e B r i t i s h , c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e " p r o f e s s i o n a l g e n t l e m e n . " I n t h i s v i e w , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a r n e d t h e p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n t h r o u g h s o m e m e t h o d o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , y e t p o s s e s s e d o t h e r q u a l i t i e s o f " g e n t e e l e d u c a t i o n a n d s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . " 9 8 A n u m b e r o f " p r o f e s s i o n a l g e n t l e m e n " w e r e a t t r a c t e d t o t h e V I . " P r o f e s s o r " C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , P r o f e s s o r J o h n D a v i d s o n , a n d W . R . D u n l o p ( a l l B r i t i s h b o r n ) a r e t h r e e e x a m p l e s o f I n s t i t u t e s u p p o r t e r s w h o ^Architectural Institute Collection, Constitution (1914); Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver Teachers' Association Collection, Add. Mss. 994, Constitution (1916). 95Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-2, Constitution; Box 1-13, Minutes, describe discussions as to the necessity of the Academy at all with UBC present. 96Academy of Science Collection, Box 2-28, British Columbia Chamber of Mines Brochure. 9 7 In considering the Architectural Institute, the lucrative contracts for designing the University cannot be overlooked. 98Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 153, 206. 55 l a c k e d u n i v e r s i t y c r e d e n t i a l s , y e t t h e r e i s n o i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y s a w t h e m s e l v e s a s a n y l e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l t h a n p e e r s w i t h u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e s . " F o r t h e s e " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " a n d o t h e r s , t h e v a l u e o f t h e V I w a s l e s s i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f U B C a s s o c i a t i o n , a n d m o r e i n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x h i b i t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t t r u l y m a d e t h e m " p r o f e s s i o n a l g e n t l e m e n . " O n e e a r l y a n d c o n t i n u i n g p r o b l e m I n s t i t u t e p r o m o t e r s f a c e d w a s t h a t o f g e t t i n g t h e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s — w h e t h e r m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r p r o f e s s i o n a l — t o o r g a n i z e a l e c t u r e . 1 0 0 I n t h e f i r s t f o u r s e a s o n s , t h e V I i t s e l f s p o n s o r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e q u a r t e r o f t h e l e c t u r e s a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r w e r e s p o n s o r e d b y t h e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s . H o w e v e r , from t h e f i f t h s e a s o n o n (1920-21), t h e I n s t i t u t e s p o n s o r e d h a l f o r m o r e o f t h e s e a s o n ' s l e c t u r e s . T h i s r e i n f o r c e s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e t h e c o u n c i l , r a t h e r t h a n t h e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s , l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d t h e l e c t u r e s . M i n u t e s o f t h e m e e t i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t a f f i l i a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r a r e l y a t t e n d e d , a n d t h e a t - l a r g e c o u n c i l l o r s c a m e a s i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r t h a n a s e n v o y s o f a n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . G r o w t h T h e I n s t i t u t e m i n u t e s r e c o r d m e m b e r s h i p a n d a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e a t l e c t u r e s . T h i s , i t s e e m s , w a s r e g a r d e d a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f g r o w t h a n d s u c c e s s . A l t h o u g h r e c o r d s w e r e p o o r l y k e p t , t h e r e i s e n o u g h t o s u g g e s t a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t . "Robinson, "The Great Fraser Midden," in The Great Fraser Midden, by the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association (Vancouver: Art, Historical and Scientific Association, 1948); Davidson Collection Vol. 3-5, Autobiography; Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2667. Obituary, W.R. Dunlop, Vancouver Sun, January 6, 1941. These sources list academic standing (they were all Fellows of noted academic societies), but no university degrees. lOOvi Minutes, 22 September, 1921; 16 March, 1922. Letters in Box 1 contain frequent requests to provide lectures. 5 6 M e m b e r s h i p a n d a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s s u g g e s t t h e V I g r e w s l o w l y b e t w e e n 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 ( s e e T a b l e 7 ) . M e m b e r s h i p w a s k e e n l y s o u g h t , a s t h i s w o u l d i n c r e a s e r e v e n u e t h r o u g h a n o m i n a l m e m b e r s h i p f e e . G o o d a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e w a s a l s o i m p o r t a n t , p a r t l y b e c a u s e i t e n h a n c e d t h e l e c t u r e s ( a t l e a s t o n e l e c t u r e r c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t p o o r t u r n - o u t ) , a n d p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t a t t e n d a n c e p r e c e d e d m e m b e r s h i p . 1 0 1 T A B L E 7 M E M B E R S H I P A N D A T T E N D A N C E , 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 Season Membership Annual Attendance 1916/17 56 - 1917/18 64 1746 1918/19 56 1234 1919/20 60 2084 1920/21 41 - 1921/22 37 - 1922/23 104; 155* 3360 1923/24 - 3850 1924/25 82 4200 Sources: a) Membership lists, VI Collection Box 4-11 b) VI Minutes c) Secretary's report, 1925, VI Collection Box 1-4. note: these numbers are largely estimates and approximations. * these conflicting numbers are found In VI Minutes, p. 123. T h e m e m b e r s h i p r o s t e r s u g g e s t s s o m e o f t h e g r o w t h o f t h e V I , a l t h o u g h i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t g r o w t h w a s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y o v e r w h e l m i n g . W h i l e r e c o r d s d i s a g r e e i n e x a c t n u m b e r s , t h e V I b e g a n w i t h s o m e f i f t y - s i x m e m b e r s , a n d , f o r t h e y e a r s r e c o r d s w e r e k e p t , r e a c h e d a h e i g h t o f o n e h u n d r e d a n d f o u r 1 0 1 VI Minutes, 16 March 1922. In her Secretary's Report, Winnifred Plowden told of an unidentified lecturer who described the VI as "the worst run thing" in Vancouver after his poorly attended lecture. VI Minutes, 21 October, 1916. 5 7 m e m b e r s i n t h e 1 9 2 2 - 2 3 s e a s o n . 1 0 2 M e m b e r s h i p r o s e a n d f e l l , s u g g e s t i n g a f a i r l y s m a l l n u m b e r m a i n t a i n e d t h e m e a g r e f i n a n c e s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e . B y 1 9 2 5 , h o w e v e r , m e m b e r s h i p h a d i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y . M o r e t e l l i n g a r e t h e r e c o r d e d a t t e n d a n c e n u m b e r s . A p p r o x i m a t e a n n u a l a t t e n d a n c e s t e a d i l y r o s e f r o m 1 , 7 4 6 i n 1 9 1 7 - 1 8 t o 4 , 2 0 0 i n 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 . 1 0 3 I n 1 9 2 2 , t h e V I s e c r e t a r y w r o t e T h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g i n h e r e n t l y w o r t h w h i l e a b o u t t h e I n s t i t u t e t h e a t t e n d a n c e t h i s y e a r p r o v e s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r o o m h a s b e e n c o m f o r t a b l y f i l l e d , w h i l e i n s e v e r a l c a s e s ' s t a n d i n g r o o m o n l y ' t e s t i f i e d t o t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e l e c t u r e s . " 1 0 4 A v e r a g e a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e t h a t r o s e f r o m s e v e n t y - f i v e t o o n e h u n d r e d a n d s e v e n t y - f i v e s u g g e s t s a n i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e I n s t i t u t e l e c t u r e s . I n t h e V T s s e c o n d y e a r , o n e o b s e r v e r s u g g e s t e d a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e s p o n s o r i n g s o c i e t y a n d t h e l e c t u r e : " t h e s i z e o f t h e a u d i e n c e a p p e a r s t o v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o m e a s u r e o f l i f e a n d a c t i v i t y o f e a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . " 1 0 5 T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a f f i l i a t e s d i d a n i m p o r t a n t j o b i n p r o m o t i n g t h e I n s t i t u t e l e c t u r e s a n d b u i l d i n g a s u p p o r t b a s e d u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s . 102Membership lists and secretary reports vary a little. See VI Collection, Box 4-11, and VI Minutes, passim. 1 0 3 VI Minutes, Secretary's Annual Report, 1917-18; 27 April, 1925. I04vi Minutes, 16 March. 1922. Secretary Plowden often wrote flatteringly of the VI. 1 0 5 VI Minutes. Secretary's Annual Report, 1917-18. 5 8 Conclusion The first nine years of The Vancouver Institute saw the Institute's beginnings and first efforts to carve for it a secure niche in Vancouver society. Robertson, acting from a position allied with the new provincial university (UBC), proposed a project that built on several educational currents in Vancouver, and that fit its social mood. Robertson found support for his idea from social leaders who felt that The Vancouver Institute would be useful in a variety of ways: to provide a public educational service, to enhance personal or group status, to promote the new university, or to secure an educational alliance with UBC. These people were in a good social position to arrange for different aspects of the VTs operation, from creating a syllabus of lectures and enlisting speakers, to rousing public support and handling meagre finances. The key to initial success, however, was that all these interests were simultaneously present and not generally contradictory. The distinctive feature of the VI during this early period was organizational stability and a primary concern for the success of the VI as defined by membership, attendance, and the presence of distinguished lecturers. There was little internal debate or argument, and VI leaders busied themselves with the tasks needed to make the Institute successful. With the exception of the Vancouver Trades and Labour Council, affiliated bodies were content with VI organization and the perquisites of association evenif they did not contribute greatly. No one debated relative benefit. Although UBC was never formally affiliated, it claimed the VI as an extension project. The VI council felt this to be no threat to the organization or themselves. Neither did council worry 59 a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t a i m s o f m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P a r t o f t h i s s u c c e s s l a y i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y o f t o w n a n d g o w n . B o u n d a r i e s w e r e n o t e a s i l y d e f i n e d i n p h y s i c a l o r s y m b o l i c t e r m s . W i t h t h e r e m o v a l o f U B C t o P o i n t G r e y , h o w e v e r , a n e w c h a p t e r b e g a n i n t h e l i f e o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e . I t w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y i n t e r n a l d i s a g r e e m e n t b r o u g h t o n b y U B C ' s m o v e , a n d r e s u l t e d i n f o u r y e a r s o f i n s t a b i l i t y a n d d w i n d l i n g s u p p o r t . 6 0 C H A P T E R 3 L E F T I N T O W N : 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 U B C ' s m o v e t o P o i n t G r e y i n 1 9 2 5 w a s p r a c t i c a l l y a n d s y m b o l i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e . B e c a u s e U B C h a d p r o v i d e d a f r e e l o c a t i o n f o r t h e V I , I n s t i t u t e c o u n c i l l o r s f a c e d a c h o i c e b e t w e e n f o l l o w i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y o r f i n d i n g a n e w , p e r h a p s e x p e n s i v e , l o c a t i o n f o r t h e l e c t u r e s . T h e u n i o n o f t o w n a n d g o w n h a d e a r l i e r p r e s e n t e d n o p r o b l e m s , s i n c e t h e g o w n w a s p h y s i c a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e t o w n . U B C ' s 1 9 2 5 m o v e h a d a s y m b o l i c a s w e l l a s a n e c o n o m i c a n d g e o g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e ; t h e U n i v e r s i t y h a d a p p e a r e d a s t h e " n a t u r a l " h o s t o f t h e V I , a n d s e p a r a t i o n f r o m U B C w o u l d s e v e r t h i s s y m b o l i c c o n n e c t i o n . W i t h U B C ' s m o v e , d i f f e r e n t v i e w s b e c a m e a p p a r e n t r e g a r d i n g w h o w o u l d s y m b o l i c a l l y c l a i m t h e V I , t o w n o r g o w n . T h e s e c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w s w e r e n o t o v e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e V T s s e r v i c e , w h i c h r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y u n c h a n g e d , b u t o v e r w h o w o u l d a p p e a r a s t h e p r o v i d e r o f t h e s e r v i c e . T h e f o u r y e a r s 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 w e r e m a r k e d b y a s t r o n g t o w n i n f l u e n c e . T h i s i s i m p l i e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e m a i n i n V a n c o u v e r , r a t h e r t h a n r e l o c a t e t o P o i n t G r e y , a n d i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e V I c o u n c i l a n d t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s o m e o f t h o s e c o u n c i l l o r s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , t h e V I w a s w i t h o u t a r e g u l a r l e c t u r e h a l l a n d , w i t h e x c e p t for o n e s e a s o n , s u f f e r e d d e c r e a s e d m e m b e r s h i p a n d a t t e n d a n c e . B e c a u s e o f t o w n i n f l u e n c e , i t w a s a l s o a t i m e w h e n U B C r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t r i e d t o d r a w t h e V I " b a c k " t o U B C . T h e q u e s t i o n o f l o c a t i o n w a s e v e n t u a l l y d e c i d e d i n f a v o u r o f U B C n o m i n a l l y f o r r e a s o n s o f e c o n o m i c a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u r v i v a l , b u t i n a n o t h e r a n d m o r e 6 1 e x p l a n a t o r y s e n s e w a s a p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y t o r e g a i n t h e s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d U B C . A T o w n - O r i e n t e d V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e A s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r 2 , o n e o f t h e n o t i c e a b l e c h a n g e s i n t h e V I c o u n c i l i n t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o 1 9 2 5 w a s t h e g r a d u a l r e d u c t i o n i n t h e n u m b e r o f U B C p e r s o n n e l i n e x e c u t i v e r o l e s a n d o n t h e V I c o u n c i l . T h i s m a y h a v e b e e n a f a c t o r i n k e e p i n g t h e V I l o c a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r p r o p e r . A t t h e 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , P r o f e s s o r J o h n D a v i d s o n i n d i c a t e d U B C ' s o f f e r t o h o u s e t h e V I a t P o i n t G r e y , a n d h o p e d t h a t t h e o f f e r w o u l d b e a c c e p t e d . O u t g o i n g V I P r e s i d e n t W i l l i a m R . D u n l o p , a n a c c o u n t a n t , c o u n t e r e d w i t h a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t o a c c e p t a n o f f e r f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . T h i s w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y m o v e d b y l a w y e r C a p t . A . J . B . M e l l i s h , s e c o n d e d b y l a w y e r W . E . B a n t o n , a n d t h e m o t i o n w a s c a r r i e d b y t h o s e i n a t t e n d a n c e . 1 T h e V I w o u l d n o t m o v e t o P o i n t G r e y . T h e c h o i c e t o r e m a i n i n V a n c o u v e r m e a n t w e a k e n i n g t h e s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U B C , a n d f o r c e d t h e V I t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e a u d i t o r i u m f o r i t s l e c t u r e s . T h e V I d i d n o t f a r e w e l l u n d e r t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t , a s a d e c l i n e i n m e m b e r s h i p a n d l e c t u r e a t t e n d a n c e i n d i c a t e s , b u t w a s s t i l l a b l e t o a t t r a c t n e w a f f i l i a t e s . C o u n c i l D u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 p e r i o d , t h e m o s t p e r s i s t e n t c o u n c i l m e m b e r s w e r e t o w n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . O n l y p r o f e s s o r s J . D a v i d s o n a n d J . G . D a v i d s o n p r o v i d e d a n o n g o i n g d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h U B C , a l t h o u g h o t h e r U B C iVI Minutes, 3 April, 1925. Minutes of the 1924-25 Annual General Meeting. 6 2 f a c u l t y m e m b e r s h e l d i n t e r m i t t e n t p o s i t i o n s o n t h e V I c o u n c i l . R o b e r t s o n , a c o n s t a n t p r e s e n c e s i n c e t h e V I ' s b e g i n n i n g , w a s g o n e . K l i n c k r e m a i n e d a s H o n o u r a r y P r e s i d e n t , b u t h a d l i t t l e t o d o w i t h r u n n i n g t h e V T . 2 T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s t h o s e w h o h a d a p e r s i s t e n t p r e s e n c e i n t h e V I d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . T A B L E 8 L O N G E S T S E R V I N G C O U N C I L L O R S O F T H E V A N C O U V E R I N S T I T U T E , 1925-1929 Name Number of seasons serving VI Executive, 1925-1929 Occupation/Affiliations Samuel Petersky 4 Medicine: B.C. Medical Assoc. J.G. Davidson 4 UBC Professor, Academy of Science CO. Scott 4 Newspapers Cpt. A.J.B. Mellish 4 Law, Local Societies G.A. McGuire 4 Dentistry J. Davidson 3 UBC Professor, Van. Nat. History Soc. W.R Dunlop 3 Accountant/Businessman, Local Societies Norcross 3 Newspapers Rev. F. Maccaud 3 Anglican Clergy Anna B. Jamieson 3 University Women's Club; Educator Edith Idle 3 B.C. Music Teachers Assoc. Source: a) Councillor lists on programs, VI Collection, Box 4-5 b) Wrigley's Vancouver Directory, 1925 c) Art, Historical, and Scientific Association Collection I t w o u l d b e e a s y f o r a t o w n - o r i e n t e d c o u n c i l i n a t i m e o f c i v i c p r o m o t i o n t o r e m a i n i n V a n c o u v e r . 3 U B C ' s P o i n t G r e y c a m p u s w a s p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d , w a s i n a l e s s p o p u l a t e d a r e a w i t h p o o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d w a s i n 2VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. Klinck provided the occasional lecture, but otherwise is not recorded in the minutes as being present at meetings, nor is he named on any committees. However, his relationship with UBC faculty and Academy of Science members who participated with the VI Council suggests a possible indirect influence. 3Roy, Vancouver. 92. 6 3 e f f e c t " a m u d h o l e . " 4 I f U B C ' s r o l e i n t h e V I w a s m e r e l y t o d o n a t e a f r e e l e c t u r e h a l l , t h e n a m o v e t o t h e c a m p u s m i g h t n o t s e e m w o r t h w h i l e . T h i s v i e w o f U B C a s a s o u r c e o f a f r e e v e n u e o v e r l o o k s t h e s y m b o l i c r o l e U B C m a y h a v e p l a y e d , a n d w a s p r o m o t e d b y s o m e c o u n c i l l o r s b e t w e e n 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 . T w o p e o p l e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g t o w n ' s c l a i m o n t h e V I . W . R D u n l o p , a n a c c o u n t a n t w i t h b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s i n s h i p p i n g a n d S a m u e l P e t e r s k y , a m e d i c a l d o c t o r , w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n t h e V I d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 5 B o t h s e r v e d o n t h e c o u n c i l e x e c u t i v e , a n d P e t e r s k y k e p t t h e V I m i n u t e s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , r e c o r d i n g t h e e n t h u s i a s m a n d a t t i t u d e s o f t h e c o u n c i l . D u n l o p w a s a l o c a l d i r e c t o r o f D i n g w a l l , C o t t s , & C o . , a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s h i p p i n g c o m p a n y , a n d w a s v e r y a c t i v e i n l o c a l l e a r n e d s o c i e t i e s . 6 H e h e l d l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s i n t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n a n d s e r v e d o n t h e V I c o u n c i l e x e c u t i v e s e v e r a l t i m e s s i n c e 1 9 2 3 , b e c o m i n g p r e s i d e n t t w i c e . 7 H e h a d a h i s t o r y o f s u p p o r t i n g p u b l i c l e c t u r e s , b u t h i s l o y a l t i e s w e r e t o V a n c o u v e r r a t h e r t h a n U B C . A s e a r l y a s 1 9 1 6 , D u n l o p h a d a p p r o a c h e d W e s b r o o k w i t h a s u g g e s t i o n t o h o s t l e c t u r e s b y S i r E r n e s t S h a c k l e t o n u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e M a y o r , C i t y C o u n c i l , t h e S c h o o l B o a r d , 4Logan. Tuum Est. 95; Roy, Vancouver. 103. 110, 168; Shrum. Shrum. 49. 5These occupations are confirmed by personal letterheads. Vancouver Institute Collection, Box 2-4. Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2667, Vancouver Sun. Obituary, W.R Dunlop, 6 January, 1941. Dunlop was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and involved with the Shakespeare Society, Fellowships of Arts of New Westminster, Pacific Northwest Academy of Arts, and Arts and Letters Club among others. There is no indication that he held a university degree. 7AHSA Collection, Minutes, 25 January 1927; VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 6 4 a n d U B C . 8 T h i s s u g g e s t s a n i n c l i n a t i o n t o p r o m o t e V a n c o u v e r a n d i t s c u l t u r a l v i r t u e s r a t h e r t h a n U B C . D u n l o p w a s e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t p r o m o t i n g t h e V I a s a V a n c o u v e r i n s t i t u t i o n . H e h a d , a f t e r a l l , b e e n t h e f i r s t t o p r o p o s e k e e p i n g t h e V I i n t o w n a n d n o t m o v i n g t o P o i n t G r e y . I n t h e y e a r o f h i s s e c o n d V I P r e s i d e n c y ( 1 9 2 6 - 7 ) , m i n u t e s r e c o r d d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e V T s v a l u a b l e r o l e i n t h e c i t y a n d t h e o f f i c i a l a c c o l a d e s i t d e s e r v e d . 9 D u n l o p a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g e d p r e s s s u p p o r t f o r t h e V I , a n d m a i n t a i n e d e n t h u s i a s m f o r t o w n l o c a t i o n s m a n y y e a r s a f t e r t h e V I m o v e d t o P o i n t G r e y . 1 0 H e l a t e r e x p r e s s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n o v e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e g o w n d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t t h e t o w n ; h e d i d n o t s e e t h e V I a s a U B C e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . 1 1 D u n l o p ' s p r o m o t i o n a l e n t h u s i a s m f i t s w i t h t h e s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f V a n c o u v e r d u r i n g t h e m i d - t w e n t i e s . T h e p o s t - w a r d e p r e s s i o n a n d l a b o u r u n r e s t g a v e w a y t o i n c r e a s e d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 2 0 s . 1 2 D u n l o p , w i t h s h i p p i n g i n t e r e s t s , e n j o y e d t h e g r o w t h i n t h e l o g g i n g a n d s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r i e s a n d m a y h a v e j o i n e d t h o s e w h o p l a y e d a n a c t i v e r o l e i n s t i m u l a t i n g t o u r i s m a n d b u s i n e s s , h e l p i n g V a n c o u v e r b e c o m e a p r o u d a n d 8Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia Senate Collection, Box 1-1, Minutes, 11 October, 1916. 9VI Minutes. 8 April, 1927. Petersky, another town supporter, recorded these sentiments. 1 0VI Collection Box 2-4, Correspondence, Dunlop to Banton, 23 February, 1925; Dunlop to Timms, 3 October, 1929. Dunlop wrote to colleagues of the need for better publicity through newspapers. VI Minutes, 4 April 1932; 1 April, 1933. Dunlop suggested relocating to the new Art Gallery, and later raised again the "place of meeting question." 1 1VI Collection, Box 2-15, Correespondence, Dunlop to Timms, 17 October, 1933. 12Roy, Vancouver. 88. 6 5 l e a d i n g c i t y . 1 3 T h e c o m p l i m e n t a r y r e f e r e n c e i n t h e V I m i n u t e s t o " o u r p r o g r e s s i v e m a y o r , M r . L . D . T a y l o r " a s p r o v i d i n g " m o r a l s u p p o r t " t o t h e V I c o m e s a t a t i m e w h e n T a y l o r a n d o t h e r b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s w e r e f o r m i n g t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d a U n i t y a n d D e v e l o p m e n t L e a g u e . 1 4 I t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t t o w n i n t e r e s t s i n t h e V I c o u n c i l m i g h t r e g a r d t h e V I a s a c i v i c a c c o m p l i s h m e n t f o r b o o s t e r p u r p o s e s . P e t e r s k y w a s a l s o p r o m i n e n t d u r i n g t h e W s 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 p e r i o d . H e w a s a l o c a l p h y s i c i a n w h o h a d b e e n b o r n i n W i n n i p e g b u t r a i s e d i n V a n c o u v e r . I n 1 9 0 6 h e g r a d u a t e d i n m e d i c i n e f r o m M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y a n d r e t u r n e d t o p r a c t i c e i n s e v e r a l s m a l l c e n t r e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U p o n r e l o c a t i n g t o V a n c o u v e r , h e h a d b e c o m e a l e a d e r i n t h e J e w i s h c o r n m u n i t y a n d a c t i v e i n t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y . 1 5 H e w a s o n t h e V I c o u n c i l e a c h y e a r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d ( a n d c o n t i n u e d f o r s e v e r a l m o r e y e a r s ) , s e r v i n g o n t h e e x e c u t i v e t w i c e . A s V I s e c r e t a r y f o r t w o y e a r s , h e w a s i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e w h i c h V I a c t i o n s w e r e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d n o t e w o r t h y . H e r e c o r d s a n a t t i t u d e t h a t t h e V I w a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t i n s t i t u t i o n t h a n k f u l f o r , b u t n o t d e p e n d e n t o n , U B C s u p p o r t . P e t e r s k y ' s n o t e 8 A p r i l , 1 9 2 7 , f o r e x a m p l e , e x p r e s s e s c o u n c i l ' s t h a n k s f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f s e v e r a l i n f l u e n t i a l b o d i e s , U B C a m o n g t h e m . 1 6 1 3Roy, Vancouver. 88, 92,93; Barman, The West. 236. 1 4 VI Minutes, 8 April, 1927. Such views are recorded by town supporter Petersky. Roy, Vancouver. 92. 1 Vancouver Public library. Vancouver Province. Obituary. Samuel Petersky. 17 February, 1934. 1 6 VI Minutes, 8 April 1927. 6 6 P e t e r s k y w a s a l s o a p r o p o n e n t o f f i n d i n g a l t e r n a t e f u n d i n g ( n u m e r o u s c i v i c s u b s i d i e s f o r p r o m o t i n g t o u r i s m w e r e a v a i l a b l e ) f o r a f i n a n c e d - s t a r v e d V I , r a t h e r t h a n m o v i n g t o U B C . 1 7 I n h i s S e c r e t a r y ' s r e p o r t f o r 1 9 2 7 - 2 8 , h e n o t e d t h e e c o n o m i c s t r e s s e s o f t h e V I a n d c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n w o u l d b e a c i v i c a u d i t o r i u m i n a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . " 1 8 D u r i n g h i s y e a r a s V I P r e s i d e n t ( 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 ) c o u n c i l m o v e d t o w r i t e t o t h e m a y o r o f V a n c o u v e r a s k i n g t h a t t h e V I " b e r e c o g n i z e d a s a n i m p o r t a n t m e m b e r o f s o c i e t y . " 1 9 L i k e D u n l o p , P e t e r s k y w a s k e e n t o p r o m o t e t h e V I a s V a n c o u v e r ' s p r e m i e r l e c t u r e s e r i e s , n o t a s a U B C s e r v i c e . A s a p h y s i c i a n , h e w a s a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1 9 2 6 . 2 0 B u t a s a p h y s i c i a n , P e t e r s k y w a s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s e e k i n g U B C s u p p o r t f o r t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n . A l t h o u g h U B C h a d t h e p o w e r t o g r a n t m e d i c a l d e g r e e s , a n d h a d b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y p r e s i d e n t W e s b r o o k a n d C h a n c e l l o r R E . M c K e c h n i e , b o t h m e d i c a l d o c t o r s , U B C h a d n o f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g p h y s i c i a n s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e V a n c o u v e r m e d i c a l c o m m u n i t y , l i k e o t h e r s i n C a n a d a , w a s d i v i d e d i n i t s v i e w r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f u n i v e r s i t i e s . 2 1 O n e v i e w k e p t m e d i c a l t r a i n i n g i n h o s p i t a l s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f l o c a l d o c t o r s , t h e o t h e r 17Roy, Vancouver. 93; VI Minutes, 30 March, 1928. 1 8VI Minutes, 30 March, 1928. 1 9VI Minutes. September 24. 1928. 2 0 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. The BCMA Is first listed as an affiliate in 1926. Petersky was the BCMA representative and appears to have been the only physician to become active with the VI (unlike businessmen, scientists, and lawyers). 2 1 If control of the medical profession In British Columbia resembled that of tum-of-the- century Ontario, then problems of quackery, lay conveyancing, unprofessional conduct, and poor internal solidarity troubled British Columbia doctors. In other words, occupational control was minimal. See Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 302, 336. i n v i t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 2 2 W i t h U B C ' s m o v e t o P o i n t G r e y , f a r a w a y f r o m i t s o n e t i m e n e i g h b o u r V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , i t w o u l d b e v e r y e a s y f o r s o m e p h y s i c i a n s t o l o s e i n t e r e s t i n U B C , a l t h o u g h U B C a n d t h e m e d i c a l c o m m u n i t y h a d l o n g d i s c u s s e d p l a n s f o r m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 2 3 P e t e r s k y c o u l d w e l l h a v e p r o m o t e d a n i n d e p e n d e n t V I w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g i t s p o t e n t i a l r o l e i n U B C n e g o t i a t i o n s . T A B L E 9 L E C T U R E T Y P E S , 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 Season Science Arts Social Fine Arts Other Unknown 1925-26 1 13 4 3 2 0 1926-27 11 5 6 1 0 1 1927-28 5 9 3 5 1 1 1928-29 7 4 3 4 1 3 Totals 24 31 16 13 4 5 Source: a) VI Minutes b) VI Collection, Box 4-5. Programs: see Appendix 1 for categorization guide note: data reflect planned lectures Notes on categories: "Science" denotes lectures dealing with aspects of natural and applied science (physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture): "Arts" denotes lectures dealing with other academic topics (philosophy, history, biography, geography, literature and others); "Social" indicates lectures concerned with popular social concerns (education, politics, economics, racism and others); "Fine Arts" denotes artistic performances or Illustrations, or lectures on artistic topics other than literature (music or painting appreciation); "Other" includes topics of travel, mountaineering, industry, professions. 22Peter Walte, Lord of Point Grey. (Vancouver. University of British Columbia Press, 1987). 130. 2 3 UBC Senate had early discussed plans for medical facilities, and the local medical association had sought UBC's sanction for their training programs. See Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia, Senate Records, Box 1. Minutes, 14 May, 1919, 17 December, 1919. 18 February. 1920. 6 8 I f t h e n a t u r e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o u n c i l c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e 1 9 1 6 - 2 5 p e r i o d , t h e s e r v i c e d i d n o t . T h e l e c t u r e s w e r e s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t a n d t o p i c t o e a r l i e r o n e s . T a b l e 9 s h o w s t h a t p o p u l a r i z e d a c a d e m i c " A r t s a n d S c i e n c e s " l e c t u r e s s t i l l d o m i n a t e d i n p r o p o r t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 5 p e r i o d . T h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n s y l l a b i s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a j o r c h a n g e i n t h e V I d u r i n g t h i s t i m e w a s U B C ' s p h y s i c a l a n d s y m b o l i c m o v e , l e a v i n g a t o w n o r i e n t e d V I . A n y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o p u l a r s u p p o r t m u s t t a k e t h i s c h a n g e i n t o a c c o u n t . T h e a t t i t u d e o f c o u n c i l b e t w e e n 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 w a s o n e o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r a t o w n o r i e n t e d V I , i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c u l a r l y b y D u n l o p a n d P e t e r s k y . H o w e v e r , t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e s e p r o m o t e r s w a s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n t i n u e t h e s l o w g r o w t h i n t h e V T s p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . I n s t e a d , m e m b e r s h i p a n d a t t e n d a n c e d e c r e a s e d f o r a l l b u t o n e s e a s o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . H o m e l e s s n e s s a n d D w i n d l i n g S u p p o r t T h e d e c i s i o n t o r e m a i n " i n t o w n " r a i s e d t h e p r o b l e m o f f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r t h e l e c t u r e s . A s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , t h e V I c o u n c i l a p p r e c i a t e d U B C ' s a c a d e m i c r e s o u r c e s b u t d o w n p l a y e d t h e s y m b o l i c c o n n e c t i o n . T h e p l a c e f o r l e c t u r e s w a s , h o w e v e r , f i n a n c i a l l y a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e f o r m e r U B C f a c i l i t i e s w e r e f r e e , c o n s p i c u o u s t o t h e p u b l i c , c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , a n d v e r y a c c e s s i b l e b y p u b l i c t r a n s i t . 2 4 S u c h 2 4 B . MacDonald, Vancouver: A Visual History. 34, shows a major electric railway line running past UBC. N. MacDonald, Neighbours. Il l , describes the slow rise in automobile ownership and continuing patronage of the electric railway system. 6 9 S u c h a n i d e a l l o c a t i o n w a s h a r d t o r e p l a c e . F r o m 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 t h e V I h a d f o u r d i f f e r e n t a n d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y h o m e s . T h e 1 9 2 5 - 2 6 l e c t u r e s w e r e h e l d a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l N o r m a l S c h o o l a t T e n t h A v e n u e a n d C a m b i e S t r e e t . A s m a l l r e n t a l f e e ( 2 2 . 0 0 f o r t h e y e a r ) i n c r e a s e d V I e x p e n s e s , a n d a t t e n d a n c e w a s d o w n s o m e w h a t f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ( s e e T a b l e 1 0 ) . 2 5 C o u n c i l b l a m e d t h i s o n t h e n e w s i t e : " t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y t o P o i n t G r e y , a n d t h e h o l d i n g o f t h e l e c t u r e s i n a n e w a u d i t o r i u m s o m e d i s t a n c e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e h a l l w h e r e t h e l e c t u r e s h a d i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s b e e n d e l i v e r e d w i l l t o s o m e e x t e n t a c c o u n t f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n . " 2 6 T h e m o v e i t s e l f n o d o u b t i n f l u e n c e d a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e , b u t t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l w a s n o t v e r y f a r f r o m U B C ' s f o r m e r T e n t h a n d W i l l o w l o c a t i o n . F r o m a s t r i c t l y g e o g r a p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l w a s p r o b a b l y a g o o d c h o i c e f o r r e l o c a t i o n s o t h e c o u n c i l ' s j u d g e m e n t a p p e a r s w e a k . 2 7 C o u n c i l a l s o g a v e t h e f e e b l e e x c u s e t h a t t h e T h u r s d a y e v e n i n g t i m e s l o t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a r m e e t i n g t i m e o f s o m e o f t h e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s . 2 8 2 5 VI Collection. Box 3-13. Treasurer's statement. 15 April. 1926. 2 6 VI Minutes, 29 April, 1926. Banton, a lawyer, records this sentiment. 2 7The Normal School was only a few blocks away from the former UBC site, and just as accessible by electric railway. See B. MacDonald, Vancouver: A Visual History. 34. 2 8 VI Minutes, 29 April, 1926. 7 0 T A B L E 1 0 M E M B E R S H I P A N D A T T E N D A N C E , 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 Season Membership Annual Attendance 1925/26 78 'lower than previous year" 1926/27 134 "greatest in VI history" 1927/28 104 1920 1928/29 - 1625:1383* Source: a) VI Collection, Box 4-11, Membership lists b) VI Minutes 'conflicting numbers are given In VI Minutes note: these numbers are largely estimates and approximations. S u c h c o m m e n t s r e i n f o r c e t h e v i e w t h a t U B C ' s i n f l u e n c e c a m e p r i m a r i l y f r o m i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o d o n a t e a m e e t i n g p l a c e , a n d c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t U B C p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n p r e s t i g e n o t o t h e r w i s e a t t a i n a b l e . 2 9 T h e p r o b l e m w a s s e e n a s l o c a t i o n , n o t s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s v i e w f i t s w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t a t t i t u d e s o f t h e V I c o u n c i l , a c o u n c i l c o m p r i s e d l a r g e l y o f l o c a l V a n c o u v e r b u s i n e s s m e n a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h o h a d n o s t r o n g t i e s t o U B C . H a v i n g r a t i o n a l i z e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h u s , t h e V T c o u n c i l c h o s e t o r e m a i n i n V a n c o u v e r a n d m o v e d d o w n t o w n t o t h e V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l a t D u n s m u i r A v e n u e a n d H o m e r S t r e e t f o r 1 9 2 6 - 2 7 . T h i s c h o i c e m a y h a v e b e e n e n c o u r a g e d b y J . G . L i s t e r , p r i n c i p a l o f t h e s c h o o l a n d s o m e t i m e V I l e c t u r e r a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . 3 0 C o u n c i l c h a n g e d t h e l e c t u r e n i g h t f r o m T h u r s d a y s t o F r i d a y s t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e w i s h e s o f a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s a n d p r o p o s e d " a n a g g r e s s i v e 2 9 VI Collection, Box 3-8, Correspondence, Winter to ?, ca. 1935. 3 0 VI Minutes, 22 June, 1916. Lister is identified as the Teachers' Association representative. VI Collection, Box 4-8. A note describing the 1926 syllabus describes Lister's forthcoming lecture and identifies him as Principal of Vancouver Technical School. 7 1 e f f o r t . . . t o e n l a r g e t h e m e m b e r s h i p " t o o f f s e t e x t r a c o s t s o f h a l l r e n t a l . 3 1 T h e r e s u l t w a s t h a t t h e 1 9 2 6 - 2 7 s e a s o n w a s t h e " m o s t s u c c e s s f u l y e a r i n t h e h i s t o r y o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e , b o t h f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f m e m b e r s h i p . . . a n d a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e l e c t u r e s . " 3 2 A s s h o w n o n T a b l e 1 0 , m e m b e r s h i p f o r t h e y e a r w a s a b o u t 1 3 4 . A s " t h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l y e a r , " a n n u a l a t t e n d a n c e w o u l d h a v e e x c e e d e d t h e 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 c o u n t o f 4 2 0 0 . T h e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y a t t r i b u t e d t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e 1 9 2 6 - 2 7 s e a s o n t o t h e d o w n t o w n l o c a t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l a n d n o t e d t h e f i n a n c i a l a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d t h e V I b y " d i s t i n g u i s h e d m e m b e r s , " t h e M a y o r , t h e p r e s s , t h e s p e a k e r s t h e m s e l v e s , V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , U B C P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k , a n d U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s . C o u n c i l t o o k s u c h s u p p o r t a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e V I " f u l f i l l e d a * w a n f i n t h e l i f e o f t h e c i t y . " 3 3 T h i s s u c c e s s w a s n o t t o b e r e p e a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . T h e 1 9 2 7 - 2 8 s e a s o n o f t h e V I w a s h o u s e d d o w n t o w n a t A b e r d e e n S c h o o l a t B u r r a r d S t r e e t a n d B a r c l a y A v e n u e . A l t h o u g h i t r e m a i n s u n c e r t a i n w h y t h e V I d i d n o t r e m a i n a t V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l , m o n e y m a y h a v e p l a y e d a r o l e . R e n t b e g a n a t $ 4 . 0 0 p e r s e s s i o n , a n d r o s e t o $ 8 . 0 0 p e r s e s s i o n . 3 4 A n n u a l r e n t m a y h a v e e x c e e d e d o n e h u n d r e d d o l l a r s , e n c o u r a g i n g V I e x e c u t i v e t o c h o o s e o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s . 3 1 VI Minutes, 29 April, 1926, 18 October 1926. Petersky recording. 3 2 VI Minutes. 18 October, 1926; 8 April, 1927. Petersky recorded the enthusiasm. In the absence of a credible attendance figure, this description is suspect. 3 3 VI Minutes, 8 April, 1927. Petersky recording. 3 4 VI Collection, Box 3-10, Invoice. T h e f o l l o w i n g s e a s o n a t A b e r d e e n S c h o o l p r o v e d t o b e a l e s s p o p u l a r l o c a t i o n . R e n t r e m a i n e d f a i r l y h i g h a t $ 8 4 . 0 0 f o r t h e s e a s o n , a n d a t t e n d a n c e a n d m e m b e r s h i p d e c l i n e d m a r k e d l y . 3 5 O n l y a b o u t 1 9 0 0 p e o p l e a t t e n d e d t h e l e c t u r e s , a n d m e m b e r s h i p d r o p p e d t o a b o u t 1 0 4 ( s e e T a b l e 1 0 ) . T h e n e w f a c i l i t i e s w e r e b l a m e d , s i n c e a c c e s s t o t h e l e c t u r e h a l l w a s v i a a l o n g f l i g h t o f s t a i r s a n d i u n l i k e t h e V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l , t h e r e w a s n o e l e v a t o r . T h e r e d u c e d m e m b e r s h i p m e a n t t h a t t h e V I w a s f a c e d w i t h f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n o f f r e e l e c t u r e s , a n d t h e c o n t i n u i n g b e l i e f t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d j o i n t h e V I u p o n e x p o s u r e t o t h e s e r v i c e , t h e p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n t o t h e l o c a t i o n p r o b l e m w a s t o r e d u c e t h e V T s r e n t a l e x p e n s e s w i t h o u t c h a r g i n g a u d i e n c e f e e s . H e n c e , s e v e r a l e x e c u t i v e m e m b e r s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r b e a p p r o a c h e d f o r a n o p e r a t i n g g r a n t : " t h a t w o u l d i n s u r e a l a r g e a t t e n d a n c e a n d a l a r g e r m e m b e r s h i p w o u l d n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w . " 3 6 G r a n t s w e r e f a i r l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e c i t y , p r i m a r i l y t o p r o m o t e t o u r i s m . 3 7 M o v i n g t o U B C i n P o i n t G r e y w a s n o t s e r i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , a l t h o u g h t h e s e a s o n ' s t w o l e c t u r e s h e l d a t U B C d r e w r e c o r d a t t e n d a n c e e a c h t i m e . 3 8 T h e f i n a l " i n t o w n " l o c a t i o n f o r t h e V I f o r 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 w a s t h e V a n c o u v e r U n i t a r i a n C h u r c h n e a r T e n t h A v e n u e a n d G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t . A l t h o u g h t h i s w a s a n a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n , a n d d e s p i t e a s y l l a b u s o f l e c t u r e s c o m p a r a b l e t o 3 5 V I Collection, Box 3-13. Treasurer's Report, 1928. 3 6 V I Minutes, 30 March, 1928. 3 7Roy, Vancouver. 92. 3 8 V I Minutes, 30 March, 1928. These lectures required scientific apparatus. 73 p r e v i o u s y e a r s a n d s o m e p r e s s c o v e r a g e , a t t e n d a n c e d e c l i n e d . 3 9 A l t h o u g h r e c o r d s a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y , p e r h a p s b e t w e e n 1 4 0 0 a n d 1 6 0 0 a t t e n d e d t h e l e c t u r e s t h a t s e a s o n , m a k i n g i t o n e o f t h e m o s t p o o r l y a t t e n d e d s e a s o n s e v e r . B e c a u s e a t t e n d a n c e w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a c a t a l y s t f o r t h e v o l u n t a r y m e m b e r s h i p , t h e d e c l i n e i n a t t e n d a n c e i m p l i e s a r e d u c e d m e m b e r s h i p . S i n c e a r e n t a l f e e o f $ 4 . 0 0 p e r w e e k w a s c h a r g e d f o r t h e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e V I f i n i s h e d t h e s e a s o n w i t h a $ 6 . 0 0 d e f i c i t . 4 0 T h e v a g r a n t y e a r s o f 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 w e r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l y e a r s f o r t h e V I , a s m e a s u r e d i n m e m b e r s h i p a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , a t t e n d a n c e . T h e u n f i x e d l o c a t i o n l i k e l y a c c o u n t e d f o r m u c h o f t h i s d e c l i n e , b u t t h e l o s s o f s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h U B C m a y h a v e p l a y e d s o m e r o l e ; U B C ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a d b e e n a p a r t o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e f i r s t n i n e y e a r s . T h e V I w a s f a c i n g f i n a n c i a l i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t a m a j o r c h a n g e w a s n e e d e d . T h a t c h a n g e w a s t o m o v e t o P o i n t G r e y a n d r e u n i t e w i t h U B C . A f f i l i a t e d O r g a n i z a t i o n s T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d m o s t a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w a s l a r g e l y u n c h a n g e d d u r i n g 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 . H o w e v e r , f o u r n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n s j o i n e d t h e V I , b u t s i x r e v o k e d t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n s . 4 1 A f f i l i a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o r a i s e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e V I a s t h e y c o n t r i b u t e d f e w l e c t u r e s t o t h e s y l l a b u s ( a n d o n l y a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e e n c o u r a g e m e n t b y V I c o u n c i l ) a n d 3 9 VI Collection, Box 5-3, Newspaper clippings. Several newspapers ran a list of the season's lectures. The change from a school to a church (particularly a non-mainstream church) may also have played a role in attendance decline. 4 0 VI Minutes. 4 1 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 7 4 o f t e n f a i l e d t o p a y a f f i l i a t i o n d u e s . 4 2 T h e b e n e f i t o f t h e a f f i l i a t e s w a s t h e t o p i c o f o c c a s i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e V I c o u n c i l . 4 3 H o w e v e r , a f f i l i a t e s u p p o r t a l s o s u g g e s t e d w h i c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s s a w t h e V I a s u s e f u l . M o s t o f t h o s e t o d i s a f f i l i a t e w e r e m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h i l e t w o o f t h e n e w a f f i l i a t e s w e r e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e l a t t e r w e r e n o t l i k e l y t o s u p p o r t a s t r i c t l y t o w n o r i e n t e d V I . T h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e r e v o k e d i t s a f f i l i a t i o n , b u t i t h a d n e v e r b e e n a b l e t o m u s t e r m u c h p r a c t i c a l s u p p o r t . I n 1 9 2 2 i t w a s n o t e v e n m e e t i n g , s o i t s e x i s t e n c e w a s p r o b a b l y t e n u o u s a t b e s t . 4 4 H o w e v e r , s i n c e i t e x i s t e d i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e A r t s , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , p e r s o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s m a y h a v e r e m a i n e d . T h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e h a d b e e n a n i n t e r m i t t e n t c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e V I l e c t u r e s y l l a b u s , a l t h o u g h , a s t h e l o c a l b r a n c h o f a n A m e r i c a n p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t u s e d t h e V I t o h o s t s p e a k e r s o n l e c t u r e t o u r s . 4 5 T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s a l s o r e v o k e d i t s a f f i l i a t i o n . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e S o c i e t y m e m b e r s s h o w e d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e V I . 4 6 T h e S o c i e t y w a n t e d a n a r t g a l l e r y a s a p u b l i c f o r u m f o r t h e i r w o r k , a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n t o t h a t 4 2AHSA Collection, Minutes. 17 February, 1927. Dunlop explained the difficulty the VI had in getting an early commitment for affiliate sponsored lectures. VI Collection, Box 1-6 to 1-9, and Box 2-1 to 2-12, contains many letters requesting affiliates' dues. 4 3 VI Minutes, 24 September, 1928. 4 4 VI Minutes, 23 February, 1922. As described by the Archaeological Institute representative. 4 5 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. The programs from the early period of the VI occasionally listed special lectures sponsored by the Archaeological Institute. 4 6 Very little mention of it in Society minutes. Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia Society of Fine Arts Collection, Add. Mss. 171, Box 1-1, Minutes. 1917-1928, passim. 7 5 p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n t o t h a t e n d . 4 7 T h e S o c i e t y ' s o b j e c t i v e s a n d m e t h o d s t o a c h i e v e t h e m a p p e a r i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h o s e o f t h e V I . 4 8 P e r h a p s t h e i n i t i a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f R . M a c k a y F r i p p , a p r o m i n e n t d e v e l o p e r a n d a r c h i t e c t , i n b o t h t h e S o c i e t y a n d t h e V I p r o m p t e d a f f i l i a t i o n . 4 9 F r i p p ' s d e a t h i n 1 9 1 7 l e f t n o o n e t o e n c o u r a g e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e V I , a n d t h e S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s s p o n s o r e d o n l y s i x l e c t u r e s d u r i n g t h e i r t e n y e a r i n v o l v e m e n t . I n 1 9 2 8 , S o c i e t y m e m b e r s m o v e d t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e t i r e f r o m t h e V I , a n d V I c o u n c i l l o r s " a c c e p t e d w i t h r e g r e t " t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y . 5 0 T h e V a n c o u v e r M u s i c a l C o u n c i l , I n s t i t u t e o f M i n e s a n d M e t a l l u r g y , B . C . I n s t i t u t e o f A u t h o r s , a n d t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f T h e a t r i c a l A r t a l s o r e l i n q u i s h e d a f f i l i a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . N o n e o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a d b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g o r l o n g - s t a n d i n g s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e V I , a l t h o u g h t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a u d i e n c e r e c r u i t m e n t i s u n k n o w n . T h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f T h e a t r i c a l A r t l e f t t w o y e a r s a f t e r a f f i l i a t i o n i n 1 9 2 5 , a n d a f t e r h a v i n g b e e n d e n i e d r e i m b u r s e m e n t f o r a V I p r e s e n t a t i o n . 5 1 I n t h e s e c a s e s , i t c a n b e p r e s u m e d t h a t V I a f f i l i a t i o n w a s o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d t h e i r 4 7AHSA Collection, File 2-10, Correspondence, Art, Historical, and Scientific Society to British Columbia Society of Fine Arts, 24 February, 1917. 4 8AHSA Collection, File 2-10, Correspondence, Society of Fine Arts to Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, 24 February, 1917. The Society primarily wanted a gallery, not a lecture series. In co-operation with the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, the Society was probably after public (City) assistance. See Hunt, Mutual Enlightenment. 140. However, once established, public lectures were held at the Art Gallery. See Tippett, Making Culture. 52. 49Vancouver City Archives. Microfiche 01617, Biography of R Mackay Fripp. 5 0 VI Minutes, 24 September. 1928. Despite their "regret," VI councillors did not encourage the Society of Fine Arts to reconsider. 5 1 VI Minutes. 8 April, 1927. The stipulation that affiliates cover their own expenses was usually upheld by council. 7 6 d e p a r t u r e s p r o m p t e d t h e V I c o u n c i l t o c o n s i d e r t h e r o l e o f t h e a f f i l i a t e s . A f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e , h o w e v e r , s t i l l u s e f u l i n b u i l d i n g t h e V P s s t a t u s a n d p r o m o t i n g i t s p r o g r a m , s o t h e y r e m a i n e d w e l c o m e . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n b e c a m e a n e w a f f i l i a t e i n 1 9 2 6 , b r i n g i n g i t s c o n c e r n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t r o l a n d s t a t u s e n h a n c e m e n t t o t h e V I . A l t h o u g h P e t e r s k y , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o t h e V I , s u p p o r t e d a n i n d e p e n d e n t t o w n o r i e n t e d V I , t h e M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n a U B C m e d i c a l s c h o o l f o r m e d i c a l t r a i n i n g . 5 2 I t a l s o h a d a h i s t o r y o f f r a t e r n i t y w i t h t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , w h o s e s u p p o r t f o r U B C a n d t h e V I h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d . 5 3 U B C ' s r o l e i n t h e V I , a l t h o u g h e c l i p s e d b y t o w n e n t h u s i a s m , w o u l d a p p e a l t o t h e M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n a s w o u l d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t a t u s e n h a n c e m e n t . 5 4 T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s i c T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n a l s o a f f i l i a t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T h e V I h a d f r o m i t s b e g i n n i n g w e l c o m e d s u c h a r t i s t i c g r o u p s , b o t h t o d i v e r s i f y i t s p r o g r a m a n d t o a t t r a c t a n o t h e r s e g m e n t o f V a n c o u v e r ' s p o p u l a t i o n . 5 5 T h e M u s i c T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n a l s o h a d a n i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n t h a t e x t e n d e d t o U B C . T h e F e d e r a t i o n h a d r e c o m m e n d e d t o U B C 52Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia.Senate Collection, Box 1, Minutes, 14 May. 1919, 17 December, 1919, 18 February, 1920. 53Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-17, Executive Minutes, 9 April, 1921. ^Physicians had long been accorded "professional" status, but status and occupational control were not entirely secure in British Columbia in the 1920s. Universities were playing an increasing role in medical training, but UBC was not yet able to provide such services. Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 3; Waite, Lord of Point Grev. 130. 5 5The VI was nominally open to any society that wished to join, but musical groups might attract the support of influential Vancouverites. For example, Mrs. B.T. Rogers financed the Vancouver Symphony during the 1920s and later became involved with the VI. Roy, Vancouver. 121; VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs . ^ 7 S e n a t e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a F a c u l t y o f F i n e A r t s , a n d l a t e r r e v e a l e d t o t h e V I c o u n c i l a d e s i r e " t o s e e a C h a i r o f M u s i c e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . " 5 6 A s m u s i c t e a c h e r s s o u g h t p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , t h e V I w a s a p o s s i b l e v e h i c l e t o e n h a n c e p u b l i c r e g a r d a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t r o l . V a r i o u s p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s a l s o h e l p e d f o r m a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e V I , M u s i c T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , a n d U B C . 5 7 A f f i l i a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d d u e s w e r e d i f f i c u l t t o c o l l e c t a n d t h e m e r i t s o f m a i n t a i n i n g a f f i l i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e d i s c u s s e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . 5 8 H o w e v e r , a f f i l i a t e s a l s o p l a y e d a r o l e i n p r o m o t i n g t h e V I , a n d e n c o u r a g i n g m e m b e r s h i p a n d a t t e n d a n c e . T h e y w e r e s t i l l v a l u a b l e t o t h e V I . S o m e a f f i l i a t e s , h o w e v e r , e v i d e n t l y d i d n o t f e e l t h a t t h e V I w a s v a l u a b l e t o t h e i r p u r p o s e s . T h e a f f i l i a t i o n o f t w o n e w g r o u p s t h a t h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n U B C s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s p r e s e n c e h a d n o t c o m p l e t e l y d i s a p p e a r e d d e s p i t e t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f " t o w n " p r o m o t e r s . T h i s f o r e s h a d o w e d t h e m o v e t o P o i n t G r e y a n d U B C s p o n s o r s h i p . B a c k t o U B C A l t h o u g h t o w n h a d a c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c o u n c i l d u r i n g t h i s t i m e p e r i o d , s e v e r a l U B C p e r s o n n e l r e m a i n e d a n d t h e t i e w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y w a s 5 6 VI Minutes, 7 April. 1930; Vancouver. University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia.Senate Collection, Box 1, Minutes, 17 December, 1924. 5 7 VI Minutes, 7 April, 1930. Mrs. W. Coulthard represented the Federation to the VI and was related to UBC faculty member W. Coulthard. 5 8 VI Collection, Box 1-6 to 1-9. and Box 2-1 to 2-12, contains many letters requesting affiliates' dues. VI Minutes, 23 June 1925; 4 September, 1928; 4 March 1929. 7 8 n e v e r e n t i r e l y s e v e r e d . 5 9 P r o f e s s o r s J o h n a n d J a m e s G . D a v i d s o n m a i n t a i n e d l o n g - s t a n d i n g m e m b e r s h i p . H . T . J . C o l e m a n , D e a n o f A r t s a n d S c i e n c e ; F . M . C l e m e n t , D e a n o f A g r i c u l t u r e ; W . S a g e , P r o f e s s o r o f H i s t o r y ; a n d M . Y . W i l l i a m s , P r o f e s s o r o f G e o l o g y w e r e a c t i v e f o r a s e a s o n o r t w o . S . D . S c o t t a n d A . B . J a m i e s o n w e r e t h e o n l y f i g u r e s i n U B C a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h o r e t a i n e d m e m b e r s h i p o n t h e V I c o u n c i l , b u t t h e i r r o l e i n t h e V I m a n a g e m e n t , a s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e i r a b s e n c e i n V I m i n u t e s , w a s m o d e s t . 6 0 S o m e o f t h e s e p e o p l e w o u l d k e e p a l i v e t h e i d e a t h a t t h e V I w o u l d f i n d a s u i t a b l e h o m e a t U B C . 6 1 B y t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 s e a s o n , t h e V I h a d s u f f e r e d t h e l o w e s t a n n u a l a t t e n d a n c e e v e r a n d a d e f i c i t o f s i x d o l l a r s . T h i s p r o m p t e d a s p e c i a l m e e t i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e f u t u r e o f t h e V I a n d i t s l o c a t i o n . 6 2 U B C b e c a m e a s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n f o u r y e a r s . O n M a r c h 4 , 1 9 2 9 , a n e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g w a s h e l d t o d i s c u s s t h e f u t u r e o f t h e V I . T h i s m e e t i n g w a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f U B C P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k w h o , a l t h o u g h t h e p e r e n n i a l H o n o u r a r y P r e s i d e n t , r a r e l y a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g s . 6 3 S o m e o f t h e e x e c u t i v e ( p e r h a p s P e t e r s k y ; D u n l o p w a s n o t p r e s e n t ) r e m a i n e d i n t e r e s t e d i n p u r s u i n g a c i t y g r a n t a n d , p e r h a p s i r o n i c a l l y , a p p o i n t e d l o n g - t i m e U B C s u p p o r t e r s H i l l - T o u t , J . G . D a v i d s o n a n d 5 9 VI Minutes, (late 1925), Newspaper Clipping. The clipping advertised that the Institute's "connection with UBC will be maintained." 6 0 VI Minutes, 13 September, 1927. Jamieson was on the lecture committee, but rarely enters the minutes otherwise. 6 1 VI Minutes, 30 March. 1928. Petersky briefly described a sustained offer of UBC facilities. 6 2 VI Minutes. 4 March. 1929. 6 3 VI Minutes, 4 March 1929. Klinck was rarely listed as attending VI meetings, and was clearly identified on this occasion. 7 9 J . D a v i d s o n t o a c o m m i t t e e t o s e c u r e s u c h a g r a n t . 6 4 D u r i n g t h e A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g o f 5 A p r i l 1 9 2 9 , V I m e m b e r s d i s c u s s e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d U B C , e s p e c i a l l y w h e t h e r t h e V I w o u l d h o l d t h e l e c t u r e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . O n 2 2 A p r i l , 1 9 2 9 , W i l f r i d S a d l e r , a U B C P r o f e s s o r o f D a i r y i n g , m o v e d t h a t V I e x e c u t i v e s e e k a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h K l i n c k f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s e c u r i n g U B C f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e V I . 6 5 U B C B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s s u b s e q u e n t l y g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o t h e V I t o h o l d i t s m e e t i n g s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . 6 6 W i t h t h e o f f e r o f f r e e U B C f a c i l i t i e s a n d f a c e d w i t h d e c l i n i n g a t t e n d a n c e a n d m e m b e r s h i p , c o u n c i l a n d m e m b e r s h a d l i t t l e c h o i c e b u t t o r e j o i n w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d l o c a t e i n P o i n t G r e y f o r t h e f o r t h c o m i n g s e a s o n . T h u s t h e " V T s y e a r s w i t h o u t f i x e d l o c a t i o n e n d e d , a n d U B C b e c a m e t h e l o n g - s t a n d i n g h o s t . T h i s d e c i s i o n t o r e l o c a t e a t U B C w a s n o t e n t i r e l y m o t i v a t e d b y t h e c o s t s o f v a r i o u s r e n t a l h a l l s . V a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s s e e m e d t o f a v o u r r e t u r n i n g t h e V I t o U B C f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , K l i n c k s e c u r e d a m a n d a t e f r o m t h e U B C B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s t o p r o v i d e a l o c a t i o n f o r t h e V I t h r o u g h a m o t i o n m o v e d b y V a n c o u v e r M a y o r M a l k i n . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n M a l k i n a n d K l i n c k , a n d b e t w e e n M a l k i n , U B C , l o c a l b u s i n e s s m e n , a n d e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s d e s e r v e s a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . 6 7 P e r h a p s M a l k i n t h o u g h t t h e V I o u g h t ^VI Minutes, 4 March 1929. Dunlop and Petersky had established reputations for seeking non-UBC solutions to VI problems so they are likely candidates to seek a civic grant. 6 5 VI Minutes, 22 April 1929. Sadler (who was not listed as a VI Councillor) and J. Davidson became unofficial UBC contacts. 6 6 UBC Board of Governors Collection, Box 1-1 Minutes, 27 May, 1929. 67Klinck and Malkin had similar religious backgrounds, particularly through the United Church; see Klinck Collection, Box 10-1, Autobiographical notes, and Roy, Vancouver. 123. Malkin had won the civic election on a platform that included 'civic morality,' suggesting he might not support the business community in all their promotional enthusiasms. 8 0 o u g h t t o b e t i e d t o U B C , r a t h e r t h a n t o l o c a l b u s i n e s s m e n a n d a s p i r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; o r p e r h a p s h e s i m p l y t h o u g h t t h e m o v e m i g h t s a v e t h e c i t y m o n e y . P e r h a p s t h e s t r o n g e s t i m p e t u s f o r r e u r i i t i n g t h e V I w i t h U B C c a m e f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e . T h e A c a d e m y w a s a n e a r l y a l l y o f U B C : " I n o r d e r t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e A c a d e m y w o u l d m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t s c i e n t i f i c s t i m u l u s l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p i n t h e p r o v i n c e , i t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s s h o u l d b e l o c a t e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y h o u s i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . " 6 8 I n 1 9 2 4 a n d 1 9 2 5 , A c a d e m y e x e c u t i v e q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f U B C h a d , i n f a c t , m a d e t h e A c a d e m y s u p e r f l u o u s , i m p l y i n g t h a t p a r t o f t h e i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e w a s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . 6 9 S i n c e t h e U n i v e r s i t y w a s n o w w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e A c a d e m y d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e i n a s u p p o r t i n g r o l e , p r o m o t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n c e a n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t s u p p o r t e d i t . T h e s y m b o l i c t i e b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d U B C w a s i m p o r t a n t t o A c a d e m y m e m b e r s . T h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e h a d b e e n a r e g u l a r s u p p o r t e r o f t h e V I . I t h a d b e e n a c h a r t e r a f f i l i a t e a n d s t i l l p r o v i d e d m o r e l e c t u r e s t h a n a n y o t h e r s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n d i d n o t e n c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c v e n t u r e s s u c h a s t h e V I , t h e A c a d e m y h a d l o n g b e e n d o m i n a t e d b y e n t h u s i a s t i c a n d l o n g s t a n d i n g V I s u p p o r t e r s ( i n c l u d i n g W e s b r o o k , K l i n c k , J . D a v i d s o n , J . G . D a v i d s o n , C o l e m a n , C l e m e n t , W i l l i a m s , S a d l e r , a n d H i l l - T o u t w h o w e r e , e x c e p t f o r H i l l - T o u t , a l s o U B C f a c u l t y ) . 7 0 T h e A c a d e m y w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d t o p r o m o t e s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a n d p u b l i s h i n g o f 68Ranta, "British Columbia Academy of Science," 3. 69Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-1, Minutes, 19 November, 1924; Box 1-13. 70Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-2, Constitution. 8 1 " p r o f e s s i o n a l " s c i e n t i s t s a n d l a t e r b e c a m e c r i t i c a l o f " s e m i - s c i e n t i f i c p e r i o d i c a l s " a n d t h e s o c i e t i e s t h a t p r o d u c e d t h e m . 7 1 T h e V I p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l p l a t f o r m o n w h i c h t o p r o m o t e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e a n d s u p p o r t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . I n A p r i l , 1 9 2 9 , t h e A c a d e m y m e t a n d d i s c u s s e d t h e " r a t h e r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e " o v e r t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s , a n d d e c i d e d o n " e i t h e r m a k i n g a r e a l e f f o r t t o b r i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n b a c k t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o r e l s e c e a s i n g o u r a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h i t . " 7 2 C l e a r l y , m e m b e r s o f t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e f e l t t h a t t h e r e w a s a b e n e f i t i n t h e i m p l i e d a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d U B C . T h i s u n d e r s c o r e s t h e i r o n y o f p l a c i n g H i l l - T o u t , J . a n d J . G . D a v i d s o n o n a c o i n m i t t e e t o i n v e s t i g a t e c i v i c f u n d i n g t o k e e p t h e V I i n t o w n . 7 3 I t i s c l e a r t h a t , a t l e a s t t o s o m e , U B C r e p r e s e n t e d m o r e t h a n m e r e l y f r e e a c c o m m o d a t i o n . T h e s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e V I w a s p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r a s s o c i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h U B C a d r n i n i s t r a t i o n n e v e r c l a i m e d a n o f f i c i a l c o n n e c t i o n . T h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b h a d a l o n g - s t a n d i n g i n t e r e s t i n U B C , a s d i d t h o s e g r o u p s w i s h i n g t o s e c u r e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f r o m U B C : t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s i c T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , C h a m b e r o f M i n e s , a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . T h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n a d v a n c i n g 7 1 Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-2, Constitution. Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-13, Executive Minutes, 14 February, 1934. The Academy was, in particular, criticizing the AHSA and the Burrard Field Naturalists. J.G. Davidson suggested that experts from the Academy could join amateur scientific organizations to provide leadership suggesting Davidson's motivation for his continuing VI involvement. 72Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-13, Minutes, 11 April, 1929. The quotation is attributed to C. Hill-Tout. 7 3 VI Minutes, 4 March, 1929. t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r a s i n v o l v i n g s t a t u s e n h a n c e m e n t a n d U B C c o o p e r a t i o n . B u t i t a l s o i n v o l v e d t h e e d u c a t e d t a s t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s w h o w e r e a c c u s t o m e d t o a n d f o n d o f a u n i v e r s i t y e t h o s . T o s o m e , t h e V I e m e r g e d f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e , b u t o t h e r s c o n t i n u e d t o s e e i t a s a u x i l i a r y t o a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e u n i o n o f t o w n a n d g o w n w a s m a d e p u b l i c i n a 1 9 2 9 n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " I n s t i t u t e S e e k i n g U . B . C . A s s i s t a n c e . " 7 4 T h e a r t i c l e s u g g e s t e d t h a t U B C w o u l d p r o v i d e n o t o n l y a l o c a t i o n , b u t a d d n e w v i g o u r a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n t o t h e I n s t i t u t e . H o w e v e r , t h e s e r v i c e w o u l d c h a n g e l i t t l e ; l e c t u r e s b y U B C f a c u l t y w e r e a s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g t h e " v a g r a n t y e a r s " o f 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 a s t h e y h a d e v e r b e e n . 7 5 A l t h o u g h t h e v i s i b l e c h a n g e w a s g e o g r a p h i c a l , a m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e w a s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n t h e e y e s o f t h e p u b l i c , e x a c t l y a s m a n y V I l e a d e r s w a n t e d . C o n c l u s i o n T h e y e a r s 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 9 w e r e a w k w a r d f o r T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e . T h e y w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y U B C ' s m o v e t o P o i n t G r e y , w h i c h l e f t t h e V I w i t h o u t i t s t r a d i t i o n a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n a n d l e d t o c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w s i n t h e V I c o u n c i l a s t o w h o p r o v i d e d t h e s e r v i c e . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , p o p u l a r a p p e a l a n d s u p p o r t f o r t h e V I d e c l i n e d . T h e d e p a r t u r e o f U B C t o P o i n t G r e y b r o u g h t t o l i g h t t w o v i e w s o f t h e a i m s a n d m o d u s o p e r a n d i o f t h e V I . O n e v i e w w a s t h a t t h e V I w a s m e r e l y a 7 4 VI Collection. Box 5-3. Newspaper Clipping, 1929. 7 5 VI Collection, Box 4-5 Programs. Programs list speakers' origins or sponsor. 8 3 c o n v e n i e n t v e h i c l e t o c o m b i n e t h e r e s o u r c e s o f e x i s t i n g l o c a l s o c i e t i e s . I n t h i s v i e w , t h e V I r e s u l t e d i n " a first-rate S y l l a b u s o f L e c t u r e s b y m e n o f n o t e . . . g i v e n i n t h e A s s e m b l y H a l l o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , under the auspices of the several Societies" ( e m p h a s i s m i n e ) . 7 6 U B C m e r e l y p l a y e d a h o s t ' s r o l e . T h e o t h e r v i e w w a s t h a t t h e V I o w e d a g r e a t d e b t t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y . I n t h i s v i e w , t h e V I w a s c l a i m e d a s a U B C e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , a n d p r o v i d e d a l i n k w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n " r a i s i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c e o f s o c i e t y , " " c u l t i v a t i n g t h e p u b l i c m i n d , " a n d " p u r i f y i n g t h e n a t i o n a l t a s t e . " 7 7 T h e V I h o s t e d s p e a k e r s o f n o t e under the auspices of UBC ( e m p h a s i s m i n e ) . 7 8 T h e s e t w o v i e w s h a d n o t n e e d e d r e c o n c i l i a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y b e c a u s e U B C w a s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s i t u a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r ; t o w n a n d g o w n w e r e n o t e a s i l y s e p a r a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , V I c o u n c i l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s e m b o d i e d b o t h v i e w s : J u d g e H o w a y a n d R o b i e R e i d , f o r e x a m p l e , w e r e b o t h v e r y m u c h m e n o f t o w n , y e t g r e a t s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y . T h e i r I n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e V I s y m b o l i c a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d a p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o v i e w s . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e U B C m o v e ( 1 9 2 5 ) , h o w e v e r , t h e t w o v i e w s f o u n d s e p a r a t e s u p p o r t e r s , a n d a c h o i c e h a d t o b e m a d e b e t w e e n t h e m . F o r f o u r y e a r s t h e c h o i c e w a s t o r e m a i n i n t o w n . A t o w n - o r i e n t e d c o u n c i l t h a t i n c l u d e d m e m b e r s e n t h u s i a s t i c t o p r o m o t e t h e V I a s a V a n c o u v e r i n s t i t u t i o n k e p t t h e V I i n t o w n i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , d w i n d l i n g s u p p o r t a n d f i n a n c i a l d e b t p o s e d s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s . 7 6AHSA Collection, Box 2-10, Minutes, 23 November, 1916. 77Kllnck Collection, Box 2-29, Lecture transcript, 25 November, 1922. Klinck described his views of the role of universities. 7 8 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. This is stated on VI programs pre-1925. 84 T h e " s o l u t i o n " t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s w a s , i n 1 9 2 9 , t o f o l l o w U B C t o P o i n t G r e y . T h i s m o v e h a d m a t e r i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s s i n c e f a c i l i t i e s w e r e f r e e , a s w e l l a s s y m b o l i c c o n s e q u e n c e s . T h e f o r m e r w a s t h a t t h e i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m o f e x p e n s e s d i s a p p e a r e d , a n d t h e l a t t e r w a s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d U B C w a s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . A l t h o u g h t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s n e v e r f o r m a l , i t w a s a n i m p o r t a n t s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r s o m e V I s u p p o r t e r s . W i t h t h e m o v e t o r e j o i n U B C , t h e V I w o u l d w o r k t o r e i n f o r c e t h e I n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ; g o w n w o u l d a g a i n a p p e a r a s t h e n a t u r a l h o s t f o r t h e s e r v i c e . P r o p o n e n t s o f a t o w n - o r i e n t e d V I a c c e p t e d t h e p r a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t y o f t h e U B C r e u n i o n , b u t D u n l o p , a t l e a s t , r e m a i n e d h o p e f u l o f a r e t u r n t o t o w n . U B C ' s i n f o r m a l i n f l u e n c e l a s t e d s e v e r a l y e a r s u n t i l g o w n m o r e f o r m a l l y a s s e r t e d i t s e l f . 85 C H A P T E R 4 R E T U R N T O G O W N : 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 9 T h e t h i r d h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i n T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t m a y b e s a i d t o r u n f r o m 1 9 2 9 t o 1 9 3 9 . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e V I m o v e d t o w h a t w o u l d b e c o m e i t s p e r m a n e n t l o c a t i o n o n t h e P o i n t G r e y c a m p u s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( U B C ) . A l t h o u g h t h e c h a n g e i n l o c a t i o n w a s s i g n i f i c a n t , m a n y a s p e c t s o f t h e V T s s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n u n t i l 1 9 3 3 r e m a i n e d a s t h e y h a d b e e n . D e s p i t e s o m e o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e m o v e , p o p u l a r I n t e r e s t ( a s j u d g e d b y a t t e n d a n c e ) i n t h e V I i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y , a s s u a g i n g t h o s e f e a r s . S o m e U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w e r e e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n r e d e f i n i n g U B C ' s r o l e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e V I , a n d t h e i r w o r k c u l m i n a t e d i n 1 9 3 3 w i t h a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n t h a t e n s h r i n e d a n e w r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t o w n a n d g o w n . G o w n b e c a m e v e r y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e c o u n c i l , w h i c h w a s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d b y c e r t a i n U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s . T h i s c h a n g e i n V I a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o i n c i d e d w i t h a c h a n g e i n s y l l a b u s p r i o r i t i e s , t o g e t h e r l e a d i n g t o c o n s i d e r a b l e g r o w t h i n m e m b e r s h i p a n d a t t e n d a n c e . A l t h o u g h n e v e r e s t a b l i s h i n g f o r m a l t i e s w i t h U B C , t h e V I p l a y e d a r o l e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h a t l e d t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e n s i o n . S o m e U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s c a m e t o r e g a r d t h e V I a s a n u n o f f i c i a l b r a n c h o f t h e e x t e n s i o n d e p a r t m e n t . L o c a t i o n C h a n g e s . S e r v i c e C o n t i n u e s T h e m o v e f r o m V a n c o u v e r t o U B C ' s P o i n t G r e y c a m p u s w a s a n o b v i o u s c h a n g e f o r t h e V I . I t w a s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a m o v e o f s o m e d i s t a n c e , a n d t h e 8 6 V I c e a s e d t o b e l o c a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r . 1 T h i s p r o v i d e d a p h y s i c a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y l a c k i n g t h e p r e v i o u s f o u r y e a r s , a n d w e a k e n e d t h e p h y s i c a l l i n k w i t h t h e c i t y . D e s p i t e t h i s c h a n g e , t h e W s s e r v i c e , a s t o p r o v i d e r s a n d t o s y l l a b u s , c h a n g e d l i t t l e b e t w e e n 1 9 2 9 a n d 1 9 3 3 . T h e n e t e f f e c t o f t h e V T s m o v e w a s a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e , a n d a g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e r e s p o n s e t o t h e V T s l e a d e r s ' d e c i s i o n t o m o v e t o a n e w h o m e . T h e M o v e O n e p o w e r f u l r e a s o n t h e V I m o v e d t o P o i n t G r e y w a s e c o n o m i c . A s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r 3 , d e c r e a s e d a t t e n d a n c e a n d t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a f f o r d a b l e f a c i l i t i e s i n V a n c o u v e r p r o p e r m a d e t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s o f f e r o f f r e e s p a c e t o o a p p e a l i n g t o r e j e c t . T h i s o f f e r a p p a r e n t l y c o v e r e d s u c h r e l a t e d c o s t s a s j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e a n d u t i l i t i e s . T h e V I P r e s i d e n t c o m m e n t e d t h a t U B C " c h a r g e s n o t h i n g , " a n d t h e s i t e w a s s o m e w h a t i m p r o v e d s i n c e 1 9 2 5 . 2 I n l i g h t o f t h e e c o n o m i c i n c e n t i v e , t h e v i e w o f t h e V I a s a U B C i n d e p e n d e n t i n s t i t u t i o n h a d l o s t m u c h o f i t s s u p p o r t , a n d t h e c l o s e r t i e s w i t h U B C w e r e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d . 3 I n 1 9 2 9 n o o n e s t r o n g l y o b j e c t e d t o t h e m o v e , 1UBC, located on its endowment lands, was not part of the City of Vancouver. This had been a deliberate factor when the site was chosen in 1910. See Harris "Locating the University." 106-125. 2VI Minutes, 1 April, 1933; comment made by VI President G. Shrum. Shrum, a forceful and influential physics Professor, likely favoured increased UBC influence. His role in the VI will be discussed in more detail later. 3VI Minutes, 7 April. 1930. Dunlop continued to express the view that, although the VI was located at UBC, it was not a part of UBC. M.Y. Williams, "The History of the Vancouver Institute," VI Collection. Box 1-2. UBC Professor Williams saw the VI becoming an unofficial branch of the emerging Department of Extension. 87 w h a t e v e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e v i e w s . E v e n D u n l o p a c c e p t e d t h e l o c a t i o n a t U B C , a l t h o u g h h e h a d n o t e n t i r e l y a b a n d o n e d t h e i d e a o f f i n d i n g a t o w n l o c a t i o n . 4 T h e V I c o u n c i l w a s u n a n i m o u s i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e e c o n o m i c n e c e s s i t y o f t h e m o v e . T h e m o v e w a s n o t w i t h o u t i t s p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s . O n e w a s t h e r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y c a m p u s f r o m t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . T h e s t r e e t c a r s y s t e m i n 1 9 2 9 u s e d a l e s s r e l i a b l e f e e d e r m o t o r b u s s e r v i c e t o c o n n e c t w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y , p r o m p t i n g V I c o u n c i l l o r s t o " t a k e u p t h e m a t t e r w i t h t h e B . C . E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y . " 5 ( T h i s w a s l a t e r r e m e d i e d b y a s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t t o h a v e b u s e s c a t e r t o V I l e c t u r e s . 6 ) A t l e a s t o n e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s u g g e s t e d t h e d i s t a n c e w o u l d d i s c o u r a g e h i s m e m b e r s f r o m a t t e n d i n g , a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a n o t h e r l o n g s u p p o r t i n g s o c i e t y r e g a r d e d U B C a s i n a c c e s s i b l e . 7 S e r v i c e a s U s u a l T h e m o v e t o U B C w a s b y a l l a p p e a r a n c e s a m a j o r o n e f o r t h e V I , d e p e n d e n t f o r i t s l i f e o n s o m a n y u n p r e d i c t a b l e f a c t o r s , y e t s o m e t h i n g s d i d n o t c h a n g e m u c h . T h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e V I c o u n c i l o f t h e f o u r U B C 4VI Minutes do not record any objections to the move to UBC during the 1929-30 season.VI Minutes,4 April, 1932. Dunlop suggested relocation to the new Vancouver Art Gallery. 5Roy. Vancouver. 110. VI Minutes. 29 September, 1930. 6VI Collection Box 4-5, Programs. This service is advertised on the programs, and was first offered 1931-32. 7VI Collection Box 2-4, Correspondence, Alpine Club of Canada to Vancouver Institute, 13 September, 1929. Vancouver City Archives, University Women's Club Collection, Add. Mss. 872, Box 4-44, Minutes, 24 September, 1931. 88 s e a s o n s 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 3 r e s e m b l e d t h e V I c o u n c i l o f t h e p r e v i o u s f e w s e a s o n s . T h e c o u n c i l c o n t a i n e d n a m e s f a m i l i a r f r o m e a r l i e r t i m e s : E d i t h I d l e , S a m u e l P e t e r s k y , W i l l i a m R . D u n l o p , J o h n D a v i d s o n , J a m e s G . D a v i d s o n , a n d R e v . F r a n c i s W . M a c c a u d . P h i l l i p T i m m s , a c o m p t r o l l e r w i t h t h e A . H . T i m m s p r i n t i n g b u s i n e s s ( w h i c h , i n c i d e n t a l l y , b e g a n p r i n t i n g t h e V I p r o g r a m s i n 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 ) , w a s t h e o n l y n e w p e r s o n w h o b e g a n a l o n g - t e r m r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e V I . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m T a b l e 1 1 t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e n t p e r s o n n e l o n t h e V I c o u n c i l w e r e l a r g e l y e m p l o y e d i n n o n - u n i v e r s i t y o c c u p a t i o n s . A s w i t h t h e 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 p e r i o d , t h e V I c o n t i n u e d t o b e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d b y f a m i l i a r t o w n i n t e r e s t s . T A B L E 1 1 L O N G E S T S E R V I N G C O U N C I L L O R S O F T H E V A N C O U V E R I N S T I T U T E , 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 3 Name , Years Occupation Phillip Timms 4 Comptroller Edith Idle 4 Music teacher Rev. F.W. Maccaud 4 Anglican Minister S. Petersky 4 Physician W.R. Dunlop 3 Accountant J. Davidson 4 UBC Faculty Member J.G. Davidson 4 UBC Faculty Member Sources: a) Program Brochures, VI Box 4-11 b) Wrigley's British Columbia Directory. 1931 T h e s y l l a b u s f o r t h e 1 9 2 9 - 3 3 p e r i o d w a s s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e v i o u s p e r i o d 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 ( s e e T a b l e 1 2 ) , e x c e p t t h a t a f e w m o r e l e c t u r e s w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s s u e s t h a n w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d a c a d e m i c i n t e r e s t s . T h i s s h i f t w a s n o t a s p r o n o u n c e d a s i t w o u l d l a t e r b e c o m e , b u t s u g g e s t s a s l i g h t r e - o r i e n t a t i o n t o p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s . A s V a n c o u v e r e n t e r e d t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f 8 9 t h e D e p r e s s i o n , i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t h a t t h e V I w o u l d r e s p o n d w i t h l e c t u r e s s u c h a s T h e M e n a c e o f B u s i n e s s D e p r e s s i o n s , " T h e N e w H u m a n i s m , " T h e F u t u r e o f C i v i l i z a t i o n , " o r t h e v e r y p o p u l a r c r i t i q u e o f T h e K i d d R e p o r t . " 8 T A B L E 1 2 L E C T U R E T Y P E S , 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 3 3 Season Science Arts Social Fine Arts Other Unknown 1925-26 1 13 4 3 2 0 1926-27 11 5 6 1 0 1 1927-28 5 9 3 5 1 1 1928-29 7 4 3 4 1 3 Totals 24 31 16 13 4 5 1929-30 6 5 5 5 2 1 1930-31 7 4 7 2 1 2 1931-32 5 4 4 4 2 4 1932-33 6 4 6 3 2 1 Totals 24 17 22 14 7 8 Source: Programs, VI Collection, Box 4-5. These were the lectures as planned. See Appendix 1 for categorization guide Notes on categories: "Science" denotes lectures dealing with aspects of natural and applied science (physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture); "Arts" denotes lectures dealing with other academic topics (philosophy, history, biography, geography, literature); "Social" indicates lectures concerned with public social concerns (education, politics, economics, international affairs); "Fine Arts" denotes artistic performances or illustrations, or lectures on artistic topics other than literature (music or painting appreciation); "Other" includes topics of travel, mountaineering, industry, professions. T a b l e 1 2 c o m p a r e s t h e s y l l a b u s f r o m t h e 1 9 2 5 - 2 9 p e r i o d , w h e n t h e V I w a s l o c a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r , w i t h t h e s y l l a b u s f r o m t h e 1 9 2 9 - 3 3 p e r i o d a f t e r 8Lectures, January 19, 1931; January 26. 1931; December 7, 1931; 15 October, 1932. VI Collection, Box 4-5. Programs. UBC Professor Angus provided a detailed critique of the Kidd Report. Logan, Tuum Est. 119, described the event as a "brilliant dissection of the report." The Kidd Report was drafted by Vancouver businessmen to recommend drastic revenue cuts to the provincial government. One recommendation was to close UBC, if necessary. 9 0 r e l o c a t i o n t o P o i n t G r e y ( U B C ) . B a s e d o n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p l a n n e d l e c t u r e s , t h e r e i s n o c h a n g e i n t h e n u m b e r o f S c i e n c e t o p i c s , a n d a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n F i n e A r t s a n d O t h e r t o p i c s . T h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i s t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f A r t s l e c t u r e s d r o p s c o n s i d e r a b l y ( f r o m t h i r t y - o n e t o s e v e n t e e n ) a n d t h e n u m b e r o f p o p u l a r S o c i a l i s s u e l e c t u r e s i n c r e a s e s ( f r o m s i x t e e n t o t w e n t y - t w o ) . H o w e v e r , t h e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s y l l a b u s i s l i t t l e c h a n g e d . A c a d e m i c t o p i c s r e m a i n d o m i n a n t . O n e o t h e r e l e m e n t c h a n g e d v e r y l i t t l e , a n d i t s p e r s i s t e n c e t e l l s m u c h a b o u t t h e V I . V a n c o u v e r i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s w a s s u f f e r i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a f r o m t h e d e p r e s s i o n . I n d e e d , V a n c o u v e r h a d s o m e u n i q u e p r o b l e m s b e c a u s e o f i t s m i l d c l i m a t e a n d l o c a t i o n a t t h e e n d o f t r a n s - C a n a d i a n r a i l w a y s . U n e m p l o y e d t r a n s i e n t s , m a i n l y s i n g l e m e n , f r o m t h e P r a i r i e s a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n t e r i o r f l o c k e d t o t h e m i l d e r c o a s t a l c l i m a t e o f V a n c o u v e r . T h e i r p r e s e n c e a n d t h a t o f t h e i r " j u n g l e s " c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a l a r m . 9 H o w e v e r , t h e s e a f f a i r s d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e t h e V I v e r y m u c h . T h e l e c t u r e t o p i c s , o n o c c a s i o n , d i d r e f l e c t t h e c u r r e n t s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n ; b u t t h e r e i s n o m e n t i o n i n t h e V I r e c o r d s t h a t t h e s e p r o b l e m s w e r e o f a n y p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o t h e V I . T h e V I w a s s t i l l g e n e r a l l y p r o m o t e d b y a p a r t i c u l a r s e g m e n t o f t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n t h a t w a s i m m u n e f r o m t h e w o r s t e f f e c t s o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n . A f f i l i a t e d S o c i e t i e s I n s o m e w a y s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o c h a n g e d v e r y l i t t l e . H o w e v e r , s e v e r a l l o n g - s u p p o r t i n g a f f i l i a t e s s e v e r e d t h e i r f o r m a l c o n n e c t i o n s , a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g a f f i l i a t e s s h i f t e d . A s w i t h 9Roy, Vancouver. 95. 9 1 e a r l i e r p e r i o d s , c o u n c i l h a d d i f f i c u l t y s e c u r i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s b o t h t o p r o v i d e l e c t u r e s a n d p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s . S e v e r a l s o c i e t i e s l e t t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n s l a p s e ; s o m e e a r n e d t h e l a b e l " d e l i n q u e n t , " s u g g e s t i n g t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s o m e c o u n c i l l o r s h a d o v e r t h e a f f i l i a t e s ' r o l e . 1 0 S e v e r a l o t h e r s , p e r h a p s r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n w a s n o i r i i n a l a n d t h e i r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e V I w a s e f f e c t i v e l y n i l , f o r m a l l y s e v e r e d c o n n e c t i o n s . T h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n ( A H S A ) a n d W o m e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y C l u b , c i t e d " d r a s t i c r e v e n u e c u t s " i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n o r p o o r a t t e n d a n c e a t s p o n s o r e d l e c t u r e s a s r e a s o n s t o d i s c o n t i n u e a f f i l i a t i o n . 1 1 T h e s e r e a s o n s , a l t h o u g h l e g i t i m a t e , m a y n o t f u l l y e x p l a i n d i s a f f i l i a t i o n ; c o s t i s h a r d l y c o n v i n c i n g i n t h e c a s e o f t h e A H S A g i v e n t h e l o w c o s t o f a f f i l i a t i o n a n d t h e a f f l u e n c e o f m a n y A H S A m e m b e r s . 1 2 T h e r e a s o n o f d e c r e a s e d a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e m u s t a l s o b e l o o k e d a t c a r e f u l l y , s i n c e s o m e a f f i l i a t e s ( e . g . t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n ) m a i n t a i n e d o n g o i n g a f f i l i a t i o n d e s p i t e s p o n s o r i n g f e w l e c t u r e s . O t h e r m o t i v e s l i k e l y w e i g h e d i n t h e s e v e r a l d e c i s i o n s t o m a i n t a i n o r t o s u s p e n d a f f i l i a t i o n . 1 0VI Collection, Box 3-13, Treasurer's Records. 1 April. 1933. Six societies were not in good standing, 1932-33 season. VI Minutes, 30 March, 1931. Recorded by Rev. F. Maccaud, who, as a long-time VI supporter from "town," may have felt that affiliates had a duty to provide support. 1 1VI Minutes, 1 April. 1933. VI Collection, Box 2-14, Correspondence. University Women's Club to The Vancouver Institute, 12 September, 1932. The University Women's Club did not feel adequately rewarded for their efforts by audience attendance. 1 2VI Minutes, 5 October. 1931. Affiliate dues had been raised slightly from the traditional $2.00. Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment,"41,42. 9 2 T h e V I l i k e l y n o l o n g e r s e r v e d t h e p u r p o s e s o f c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s d i s c u s s e d , t h e A H S A h a d a m o t i v e o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e b u t a l s o s t o o d t o g a i n s t a t u s a n d i n c r e a s e d m e m b e r s h i p f r o m i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e V I . 1 3 T h e p r o m i s e d i n c r e a s e i n s t a t u s m a y n o t h a v e m a t e r i a l i z e d , a s t h e A H S A p r o v i d e d n o o b v i o u s l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e V I . P a r t o f t h e i n i t i a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r a f f i l i a t i o n m a y h a v e b e e n t o r e - a s s e r t a l o s t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f V a n c o u v e r , b u t t h i s w a s b e c o m i n g d i f f i c u l t i n t h e V I , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e w a s a s s e r t i n g t h e e x p e r t i s e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t s . 1 4 O f t h e t w e n t y - t w o l e c t u r e s p l a n n e d f o r t h e 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 V I s e a s o n ( t h e s e a s o n t h e A H S A d i s a f f i l i a t e d ) , f o u r t e e n w e r e p r e s e n t e d b y U B C f a c u l t y , a n d o n e w a s b y a s c i e n t i s t f r o m a n a l l i e d i n s t i t u t i o n ; s e v e r a l o t h e r s w e r e n o t s t r i c t l y o f a n a c a d e m i c n a t u r e . 1 5 W i t h c r i t i c a l c o l l e a g u e s b e a r i n g s t r o n g a c a d e m i c c r e d e n t i a l s , t h e A H S A , s p o n s o r i n g a s i n g l e a c a d e m i c l e c t u r e , w a s u n a b l e t o a s s e r t a p l a c e o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n , o r p r o m o t e s u c h a n i m a g e t h r o u g h , t h e V I . T h e r e c o r d s o f t h e A H S A s u g g e s t t h a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n w a s s u f f e r i n g f r o m l o w f u n d s . 1 6 H o w e v e r , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n d i d h a v e s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s t o p a y a l o w a f f i l i a t i o n f e e i f V I a f f i l i a t i o n h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t . T h e A H S A w a s m u c h m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e m u s e u m a n d a r t g a l l e r y , f o r w h i c h i t w a s r e s p o n s i b l e , a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f c i v i c f u n d i n g c u t s . P u b l i c l e c t u r e s h a d b e c o m e a m u c h s m a l l e r c o n c e r n . 1 7 13Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 255, suggests this as well. 14Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment." 140, suggests that a changing sense of culture and the rise of specialized organizations by 1916 made the AHSA less influential than it had been. 1 5VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 16AHSA Collection, Balance sheets in Minutes, 27 April, 1933 and 28 September 1933. 1 7AHSA Collection, President's Report. 1933. 9 3 w h i c h i t w a s r e s p o n s i b l e , a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f c i v i c f u n d i n g c u t s . P u b l i c l e c t u r e s h a d b e c o m e a m u c h s m a l l e r c o n c e r n . 1 7 O t h e r s o c i e t i e s t h a t d i s a f f i l i a t e d m a y l i k e w i s e h a v e f o u n d t h e V I u n h e l p f u l i n t h e i r c a u s e . A s s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , o n e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e V I t o a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s w a s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o r e c r u i t n e w m e m b e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b ( U W C ) c i t e d l o w a t t e n d a n c e , h i g h c o s t s , a n d p o o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y a s r e a s o n s t o s e v e r V I a f f i l i a t i o n , i t m a y n o t h a v e a c h i e v e d e a r l i e r o b j e c t i v e s t h r o u g h i t s a f f i l i a t i o n . 1 8 F o r e x a m p l e , o n e o f t h e f i r s t r e q u e s t s t h e U W C h a d o f t h e I n s t i t u t e w a s f o r a l i s t o f m e m b e r s ' n a m e s . 1 9 I f t h a t r e q u e s t w a s i n a i d o f U W C r e c r u i t m e n t , t h e n t h e r a t h e r m e a g e r m e m b e r s h i p t h e V I a t t r a c t e d w o u l d n o t b e h e l p f u l t o t h e U W C . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e U W C h a d v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s r a n g i n g f r o m s u p p o r t f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n t o w o m e n ' s e q u i t y i s s u e s . O n o n e o c c a s i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , i t d e l i b e r a t e l y u s e d t h e V I t o r e a c h a W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e a u d i e n c e b u t f o u n d t h e i r l e c t u r e t o b e p o o r l y a t t e n d e d . I t u s e d t h i s o c c a s i o n t o h e l p j u s t i f y s e v e r i n g t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h b o t h t h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e s a n d t h e V I . 2 0 1 7AHSA Collection, President's Report, 1933. 1 8VI Collection Box 2-14, Correspondence UWC to Timms, 10 September, 12 September. 1932. 19Vancouver City Archives, Women's University Club Collection, Add. Mss. 872. Box 1-1, Minutes, 18 September, 1916. 20Vancouver City Archives, Women's University Club, Add. Mss. 872, Box 4-44, Minutes, 24 September, 1931. •94 A s i m i l a r s t o r y m a y b e f o r t h e D i c k e n s F e l l o w s h i p , w h i c h c l a i m e d t h a t t h e V I d i d n o t p r o v i d e f r e s h a u d i e n c e s . 2 1 I f t h e F e l l o w s h i p h a d a r e c r u i t m e n t o r p u b l i c i t y a g e n d a , t h e V I w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n u s e f u l . T h e d e c i s i o n t o s e v e r a f f i l i a t i o n w o u l d , i n t h i s l i g h t , s e e m r e a s o n a b l e . T h e V T s m o v e t o U B C c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e o n s e t o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n . V a n c o u v e r i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s w a s s u f f e r i n g f r o m a d e p r e s s e d e c o n o m y , u n e m p l o y m e n t , a n d r e l a t e d s o c i a l t r o u b l e s . 2 2 I f t h e V I c o u n c i l l o r s w e r e s o m e w h a t i m m u n e t o t h o s e c o n c e r n s , o w i n g t o s e c u r e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , o n e c a n n o t a s s u m e o t h e r s w e r e . V I a f f i l i a t e s h a d a n u m b e r o f d i s t r a c t i o n s , r a n g i n g f r o m m o n e y t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e i s s u e s t h a t a t t r a c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . T h e V I b e c a m e , t o s o m e , l e s s i m p o r t a n t . T h e s o c i e t i e s t h a t r e m a i n e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 s e a s o n w e r e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s i c T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h a m b e r o f M i n e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y , C a n a d i a n A u t h o r s A s s o c i a t i o n , S h a k e s p e a r e S o c i e t y , a n d t h e A l p i n e C l u b o f C a n a d a . 2 3 T h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e n e w e d i t s a f f i l i a t i o n a f t e r a s h o r t l a p s e , a l t h o u g h i t c o n t r i b u t e d f e w l e c t u r e s . 2 4 2 1 VI Collection Box 2-14. Correspondence. 10 September. 1932. The Dickens Fellowship indicated that many in the audience were from their own group. 22Roy, Vancouver. 99. 2 3 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. The AHSA was still listed, although it had written a letter to dis-affiliate. 2 4 VI Collection, Box 2-14, Correspondence, 25 April, 1932, The Architectural Institute of British Columbia wrote to re-affiliate with the Institute. VI Collection Box 4-5, Programs. The brochures identify approximately four scheduled lectures sponsored by the Architectural Institute of British Columbia over the Institute's seventeen seasons. 9 5 C o m p a r e d w i t h t h e V I ' s e a r l i e s t y e a r s , t h e m i x o f a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s w a s d i f f e r e n t . W h e r e a s e a r l i e r t h e V I h a d l a r g e l y a t t r a c t e d m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t g r o u p s , i t n o w a t t r a c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s i c T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h a m b e r o f M i n e s , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n w e r e e n g a g e d w i t h U B C c o n c e r n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . A s a l r e a d y p r o p o s e d , p a r t o f t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e V I w a s i t s p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y i n d e v e l o p i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h U B C t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n h a d b e c o m e a m a r k o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . 2 5 O c c u p a t i o n s s e e k i n g s u c h s t a t u s w e r e c o m p e l l e d t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f u n i v e r s i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . M a n y r e m a i n i n g V I a f f i l i a t e s h a d s u c h a n o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t U B C . I n 1 9 3 0 , M a y J a m e s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s i c T e a c h e r s * F e d e r a t i o n d e s c r i b e d t o t h e V I c o u n c i l h e r g r o u p ' s a m b i t i o n " t o s e e a C h a i r o f M u s i c e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . " 2 6 A s a C h a i r h a d n o t b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y 1 9 3 3 , t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s c o n t i n u e d a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e V I m a y h a v e b e e n t h o u g h t h e l p f u l t o a c h i e v e t h a t e n d , e i t h e r t h r o u g h d i r e c t U B C i n f l u e n c e o r b y e r u i s t i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t . T h e F e d e r a t i o n h a d e v e n r e c o m m e n d e d t o t h e U B C S e n a t e t o e s t a b l i s h a F a c u l t y o f F i n e A r t s . 2 7 25Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 355. 2 6 VI Minutes, 7 April. 1930; 30 March, 1931. 27Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, UBC Senate Records, Box 1, Minutes, 17 December, 1924. 9 6 A r c h i t e c t s w e r e s i m i l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n U B C . A s h o r t - t e r m a t t r a c t i o n w a s n o d o u b t t h e c o n t r a c t s f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s b u i l d i n g s , b u t a r c h i t e c t s h a d b r o a d e r o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s . A m e m b e r o f t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d e a r l i e r e x p r e s s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r U B C t o e d u c a t e a r c h i t e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e U B C w a s t h e o n l y l o c a l b o d y l e g a l l y a u t h o r i z e d t o p r o v i d e s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n . 2 8 U B C w o u l d n o t e s t a b l i s h a D e p a r t m e n t o f A r c h i t e c t u r e u n t i l 1 9 4 5 , a n d i t w o u l d n o t b e c o m e a S c h o o l — a d e s i g n a t i o n w i t h m o r e a u t o n o m y — u n t i l 1 9 5 1 . 2 9 U n t i l t h e n , a c o n g e n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U B C w a s d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e , w h i c h h a d a l s o r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t U B C e s t a b l i s h a F a c u l t y o f F i n e A r t s . 3 0 T h e V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n h a d a n i m m e d i a t e i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n a n d U B C ' s r o l e i n i t . T e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n h a d g e n e r a l l y b e e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f n o r m a l s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1 9 0 1 . A s u m m e r s c h o o l f o r t e a c h e r s w a s i n t r o d u c e d t o U B C i n 1 9 2 0 , a n d b y 1 9 2 5 t h e m i n u t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n w a s f o r m e d . H o w e v e r , t h e U B C p r o g r a m s a t t h a t t i m e w e r e f o r t h o s e a l r e a d y h o l d i n g b a c c a l a u r e a t e d e g r e e s . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 s , h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e d a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e a n d a d d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . 3 1 T h i s m o v e r e f l e c t e d a C a n a d i a n 28Vancouver City Archives, Architectural Institute of British Columbia Collection, Add. Mss. 326, Vol. 1-2, Personal note. 29Logan, Tuum Est. 192. 30Vancouver, University of British Columbia. Special Collections. UBC Senate Records, Box 1, Minutes, 17 December, 1924. 3 1 John Calam, Teaching Teachers on Campus: Initial Moves and the Search for UBC's First Professor of Education," Historical Studies in Education/Revue d'Hlstolre de VEdttCatton 6 (2) (Fall 1994). 180. 9 7 p a t t e r n t h a t s a w t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n — f o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a t l e a s t — m o v i n g f r o m n o r m a l s c h o o l t o u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e c o n t r o l . 3 2 T h e V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o b e n e f i t f r o m g o o d U B C r e l a t i o n s , a i d e d , p e r h a p s , b y t h e V I . 3 3 T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h a m b e r o f M i n e s h a d a l o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U B C i n - a s - m u c h a s U B C F a c u l t y h a d b e e n p a r t o f t h e C h a m b e r ' s m a n a g e m e n t f o r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s . 3 4 B y 1 9 2 9 U B C w a s r e c e i v i n g s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r a p p l i e d s c i e n c e i n g e n e r a l , a n d f r o m t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i n p a r t i c u l a r . 3 5 T h e C h a m b e r o f M i n e s w a s a n e n t h u s i a s t i c p r o m o t e r o f t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , o n e t h a t w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m U B C ' s m i n i n g research a n d e d u c a t i o n . 3 6 T h e C h a m b e r w a s a l s o a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e , a c o n t i n u i n g s u p p o r t e r o f t h e V I . 3 7 T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n h a d l o n g b e e n c o m p e l l e d t o a c k n o w l e d g e U B C ' s p r e s e n c e . T h e s t i l l - b o r n U n i v e r s i t y A c t o f 1 8 9 0 , a n d 32Sheehan and Wilson, "From Normal School to the University," 33. 33Lister, a Teacher's Association representative, was also a science teacher as well as principal of Vancouver Technical School. Calam, "Teaching Teachers," 200, suggests that (high school) teachers actively pressed UBC for appropriate courses. 3 4 VI Collection, Box 2-13, Correspondence. Chamber of Mines stationery letterhead indicates several UBC faculty members were Vice Presidents. 35Logan, Tuum Est. 107. The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy sponsored a scholarship, although that organization did not maintain its VI affiliation. The Institute of Mining and Metallurgy had a link with the Chamber of Mines and The Vancouver Institute through shared director Nicholas Thompson. Vancouver City Archives, Add. Mss. 334, File 18-8, Newspaper Biography. 18 September, 1930. 36Academy of Science Collection, Box 2-28, British Columbia Chamber of Mines brochure, 1924. This brochure contains enthusiastic booster rhetoric to encourage investment in the mining industry. 37Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-13, Minutes, 6 April, 1925. 9 8 l a t e r s u c c e s s f u l l e g i s l a t i o n o f 1 9 0 7 , s p e c i f i e d t h a t U B C c o u l d g r a n t d e g r e e s i n m e d i c i n e . 3 8 H o w e v e r , m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s w e r e e x p e n s i v e , a n d b y t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s , m e d i c a l s t u d i e s w e r e l i m i t e d t o p r e - m e d c o u r s e s , p u b l i c h e a l t h s t u d i e s , a n d n u r s i n g . M e d i c a l s t u d e n t s s t i l l h a d t o g o e l s e w h e r e f o r a d v a n c e d m e d i c a l t r a i n i n g . T h e V a n c o u v e r m e d i c a l c o m m u n i t y h a d e a r l y s o u g h t U B C ' s s a n c t i o n f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s w e r e i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p r o v i d i n g m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 3 9 P h y s i c i a n s a n d U B C r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n t i n u e d t o n e g o t i a t e t h e r o l e t h e U n i v e r s i t y w o u l d p l a y i n p r o v i d i n g m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a n d t h e V I , r e u n i t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y , m a y h a v e a p p e a r e d h e l p f u l i n t h o s e d i s c u s s i o n s . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e h a d l o n g b e e n a s u p p o r t e r o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y ; m e m b e r s h i p i n c l u d e d s c i e n t i s t s f r o m a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p r o f e s s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g U B C r e s e a r c h e r s . 4 0 A l t h o u g h i t s m e m b e r s h i p i n c l u d e d p h y s i c i a n s , e n g i n e e r s , a n d a g r i c u l t u r i s t s — a p p l i e d s c i e n t i s t s — o t h e r s w e r e p h y s i c i s t s , c h e m i s t s , b i o l o g i s t s , a n d m e t e o r o l o g i s t s w h o p e r h a p s h a d l e s s s t a t u s i n a c i t y t h a t e m p h a s i z e d i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s . T h e s o c i a l r e f e r e n t s f o r s c i e n c e - b a s e d o c c u p a t i o n s ( s u c h a s m e d i c i n e a n d e n g i n e e r i n g ) w e r e c o n s p i c u o u s : d o c t o r s a n d e n g i n e e r s d i d r e c o g n i z e d a n d v a l u e d w o r k . B u t w h a t o f m o r e b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h ? T h o s e r e f e r e n t s w e r e u n c l e a r , u n l e s s , p e r h a p s , s c i e n c e w a s p a r t o f a l e g i t i m a t e a n d v a l u e d 38Logan. Tuum Est. 3, 34. 39Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia Senate Records, Box 1, 14 May, 1919. 17 December, 1919. 18 February, 1920. Waite, Lord of Point Grev. 129. 40Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-1, Minutes, passim. i n s t i t u t i o n o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . U B C w a s a n a t u r a l a l l y o f s c i e n t i s t s a n d t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e . A c o n t i n u i n g r o l e o f t h e A c a d e m y w a s t o p r o m o t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n c e , a n d t h e V I c o n t i n u e d t o h e l p i n t h a t w a y . I n 1 9 3 2 , f o r e x a m p l e , A c a d e m y e x e c u t i v e p r o p o s e d t h a t a s c i e n c e " o p e n h o u s e " f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s b e a r r a n g e d t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e A c a d e m y ' s I n s t i t u t e l e c t u r e . 4 1 T h e V I w a s s t i l l u s e f u l t o p r o m o t e s c i e n c e p u b l i c l y , a l l o w i n g A c a d e m y m e m b e r s t o p u r s u e t e c h n i c a l s c i e n c e i n t h e i r o w n c i r c l e s . 4 2 V a r i o u s m e m b e r s o f t h e A c a d e m y a l s o c o n t i n u e d t o b e p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e V I . J o h n D a v i d s o n a n d J a m e s . G . D a v i d s o n w e r e t w o s u c h m e n . T h e f o r m e r h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s a s c i e n t i s t w i t h a n a l m o s t e v a n g e l i c a l m i s s i o n o f n a t u r a l t h e o l o g y t h a t c a r r i e d h i m t h r o u g h m a n y y e a r s o f V I s u p p o r t . J . G . D a v i d s o n w a s a k e e n p r o m o t e r o f s c i e n c e w h o s e p a t i e n c e a n d b e n e v o l e n c e m a d e h i m a r e g u l a r V I c o u n c i l l o r . 4 3 H e a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t " e x p e r t s " c o u l d p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e t o a m a t e u r O r g a n i z a t i o n s b y b e c o m i n g m e m b e r s . 4 4 S u c h p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t h e l p e d m a i n t a i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e a n d t h e V I . 41Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-17, Executive Minutes, 20 October, 1932. 42Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-17, Executive Minutes, 14 November, 1931. 43Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2338, Obituaries, 29 July, 1948; 25 August, 1948. J.G. Davidson had been a fellow of the American Physical Society, member of the American Association for Advancement of Science, and the American Association of Physics Teachers as well as one-time President of the Academy of Science and Vancouver Institute. The obituary of 25 August, 1948, describes his personal qualities of patient generosity. Davidson served on the VI council some twelve seasons, many in executive positions. 44Academy of Science Collection. Box 1-17, Executive Minutes, 14 February, 1934. 1 0 0 T h e o t h e r r e m a i n i n g a f f i l i a t e s — T h e V a n c o u v e r N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y , A l p i n e C l u b o f C a n a d a , S h a k e s p e a r e S o c i e t y , a n d C a n a d i a n A u t h o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n — w e r e t h e l a s t o f t h e m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t a f f i l i a t e s ( a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r c o n c e i v a b l y h a d a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e b u s i n e s s a s p e c t s o f a u t h o r s h i p ) . T h e a p p e a l o f t h e V I t o t h e s e g r o u p s w a s w a n i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y w a s e n c o u r a g e d b y p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s . T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y w a s n o d o u b t i n f l u e n c e d b y J o h n D a v i d s o n ' s f a i t h t h a t " b y m o i m t a i n e e r i n g w i t h a s c i e n t i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e , o n e i s h u m b l e d b y t h e p u n y e f f o r t s o f m a n a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h o s e o f t h e g r e a t A r c h i t e c t o f t h e U n i v e r s e " a n d h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o e n c o u r a g e t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i n o t h e r s . 4 5 D a v i d s o n h i m s e l f c o n t i n u e d t o b e h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e V I a l t h o u g h , a s a U B C P r o f e s s o r a n d m e m b e r o f t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e . h e m u s t h a v e h a d p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d h i m . 4 6 T h e A l p i n e C l u b o f C a n a d a ( A C C ) a l s o k e p t i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e V I i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s . D e s p i t e p r o t e s t s o v e r t h e n e w U B C l o c a t i o n , t h e A C C c o n t i n u e d t o p r o v i d e l e c t u r e s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . 4 7 S i m i l a r l y , 45Davidson Collection, File 1-1, Address to St. John's Presbyterian Church Literary Society, 1914. In looking through this manuscript collection, one Is struck by the number of lectures Davidson provided to various local groups, and the consistency of his "natural theology*' message. 4 6 VI Collection, Box 4-5. John Davidson served at least fifteen seasons as VI councillor from 1916 to 1939, based on councillor listings on VI programs. Academy of Science Collection, Minutes, Box 1-13, passim. John Davidson was the "curator" in 1914-15, and continued to hold positions on the Academy Executive. 4 7 VI Collection Box 2-24, Correspondence, 13 September, 1929. An Alpine Club representative wrote to the VI Secretary that the University was "much too far away" for its members. VI Collection, Box 2-15, Correspondence, September, 1932. An Alpine Club representative wrote that the "present location is not sufficiently central." VI Collection, Box 4̂ 5, Programs. Titles such as "Explorations in the Coast Range by Alpine Club Members" (February 4, 1933) were traditional favorites. 1 0 1 t h e C a n a d i a n A u t h o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n m a i n t a i n e d i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , p e r h a p s e n c o u r a g e d b y t h e c o n t i n u i n g ( i f s t r a i n e d ) p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e S h a k e s p e a r e S o c i e t y a n d D i c k e n s F e l l o w s h i p . 4 8 N e i t h e r g r o u p , h o w e v e r , w a s a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e s y l l a b u s , c o n t r i b u t i n g o n l y o n e l e c t u r e a y e a r a t m o s t . B y 1 9 3 3 , n o t o n l y w a s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s i n t h e V I m i n i m a l — a s i t h a d a l w a y s b e e n — b u t t h e g r o u p s s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d w e r e l a r g e l y t h o s e w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l ( p r o f e s s i o n a l ) i n t e r e s t s , i n t e r e s t s t h a t e x t e n d e d t o U B C a s w e l l a s t o t h e V I . M u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t g r o u p s , a f o u n d i n g i n f l u e n c e o n t h e V I , w e r e l o s i n g i n t e r e s t . W i t h t h e d i s a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b i n 1 9 3 1 a n d t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1 9 3 3 , t h e V I l o s t t h e s u p p o r t o f t w o o f i t s f i r s t a f f i l i a t e s . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d o t h e r V a n c o u v e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a d c h a n g e d . T h e s e l o s s e s p r o d u c e d n o i m m e d i a t e c r i s i s . I n f a c t , t h e y h a r d l y m a t t e r e d a t a l l . I f t h e V I h a d b e c o m e u s e l e s s t o c e r t a i n s o c i e t i e s , t h e y w e r e l i k e w i s e o f l o w v a l u e t o t h e V I . T h i s w a s c o n f i r m e d i n 1 9 3 3 w h e n t h e r e v i s e d V I c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r m a l l y e x c l u d e d a f f i l i a t e s f r o m s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e V T s m a n a g e m e n t . T h e i n i t i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n h a d s p e c i f i e d t h a t t w o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m e a c h a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t y w o u l d b e c o m e c o u n c i l l o r s w i t h t h o s e e l e c t e d f r o m t h e V I m e m b e r s h i p . T h e r e v i s e d c o n s t i t u t i o n s p e c i f i e d t h a t t w o c o u n c i l l o r s w e r e t o b e U B C a p p o i n t e e s , a n d t h e o t h e r s w e r e t o b e 4 8 VI Minutes, 31 May, 1927. The VI representative at that time for the Canadian Authors was also the representative for the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, Shakespeare Society, and Dickens Fellowship. 1 0 2 e l e c t e d f r o m t h e V I m e m b e r s h i p . 4 9 T h e V I c o u n c i l f i n a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e e l e c t e d c o u n c i l , n o t a f f i l i a t e s , r a n t h e V I . W h e r e a s t h e V I w a s o n c e a v e h i c l e t o u n i t e l o c a l s o c i e t i e s ' e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e l e c t u r e s , i t h a d b y 1 9 3 3 t a k e n o n a l i f e o f i t s o w n , o n e t h a t h a d a d i f f e r e n t a p p e a l . T h i s l i f e w o u l d b e c o m e i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o U B C . P o p u l a r i t y R i s e D e s p i t e r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e n e w l o c a t i o n , t h e c o u n c i l j u d g e d t h e l e c t u r e s t o h a v e b e e n w e l l a t t e n d e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e f i r s t s e a s o n , a l t h o u g h l e s s w e l l a t t e n d e d d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f . T h e d e c r e a s e w a s a t t r i b u t e d t o p o o r w e a t h e r . A t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e s e a s o n , h o w e v e r , w a s u p f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r b y s o m e s i x h u n d r e d p e o p l e , a n d t h e V I S e c r e t a r y r e c o r d e d a " s e n s e o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t ' ' o v e r t h e m o v e t o U B C . 5 0 W i t h l i t t l e c h a n g e i n t h e 1 9 2 9 / 3 0 s y l l a b u s f o r m a t f r o m p r e v i o u s y e a r s , t h e V I w a s a b l e t o c a r r y o n a s b e f o r e i n i t s n e w l o c a t i o n . ( S e e T a b l e 1 3 : A t t e n d a n c e . ) 4 9 VI Collection. Box 1-3. Constitutions. 5 0 VI Minutes, 7 April. 1930. 1 0 3 T A B L E 1 3 A T T E N D A N C E , 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 3 Season Annual Attendance 1929/30 1930/31 1931/32 1932/33 2262; 1927* 2,569 1700 Source: a) VI Minutes. b) Correspondence, VI Collection Box 2-14 •conflicting numbers are given ln VI Minutes; the second number is the most quoted. note: these numbers are larger/ estimates and approximations. T h e s a t i s f a c t i o n f e l t b y V I c o u n c i l l o r s i n 1 9 3 0 l i k e l y c o n t i n u e d f o r t h e n e x t s e v e r a l y e a r s . A t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s a l s o i m p r o v e d . T h e f i r s t s e a s o n a t t h e n e w l o c a t i o n s a w a n a u d i e n c e i n c r e a s e o f s i x h u n d r e d p e o p l e . T h e f o l l o w i n g s e a s o n s a w a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e o f t h r e e t o s i x h u n d r e d p e o p l e . T h e 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 s e a s o n w a s l e s s w e l l a t t e n d e d , b u t s t i l l e x c e e d e d t h e l o w n u m b e r o f 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 . I n l i g h t o f t h e e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n , i t w a s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d a g o o d y e a r ; s u r p l u s f i n a n c e s w e r e r e c o r d e d w h i c h s p o k e " v o l u m e s i n t h i s f o u r t h y e a r o f d e p r e s s i o n . " 5 1 A l t h o u g h s o m e o f t h e a u d i e n c e m e m b e r s m a y h a v e c o m e f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y c o m m u n i t y i t s e l f , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e V I g r e w s l i g h t l y i n s p i t e o f ( o r b e c a u s e o f ) i t s m o v e t o U B C . 5 2 5 1 VI Minutes, 4 April, 1932. 52Logan, Tuum Est. 134. VI Collection Box 3-8. Correspondence. 1935?. G. Winter, long serving VI President, suggested that the University confers a "standing and connection which we could not have if we met elsewhere." Further research might reveal how, if at all, the audience changed. 104 T h e l i f e o f t h e V I b e t w e e n 1 9 2 9 a n d 1 9 3 3 w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d l a r g e l y b y a c h a n g e i n l o c a t i o n , b u t o t h e r w i s e b y a n o t e w o r t h y s t a b i l i t y — i f n o t s t a s i s . T h e p r o v i d e r s — t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e c o u n c i l — r e t a i n e d t h e i r e a r l i e r c o m p o s i t i o n a n d i n t e r e s t s . T h e i n f l u e n c e o f a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s r e m a i n e d m i n i m a l ; t h u s w h e n a n u m b e r o f t h e m f o r m a l l y s e v e r e d n o m i n a l t i e s , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e V I w e r e w i t h o u t v a s t i m p o r t t o t h e s e r v i c e a n d i t s p o p u l a r i t y . T h e s y l l a b u s o f l e c t u r e s c h a n g e d o n l y s l i g h t l y . T o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e c o u n c i l , t h e V I g r e w s l i g h t l y i n p o p u l a r i t y a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t k n o w n h o w t h e a u d i e n c e m a y h a v e c h a n g e d . T h i s f a i r l y s t a b l e s i t u a t i o n w o u l d n o t l a s t , h o w e v e r . U B C p r o f e s s o r s a n d s t a f f m e m b e r s b e c a m e n o t i c e a b l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e V I a s j u d g e d b y a c c o u n t s o f U n i v e r s i t y p o l i t i c s , a n d t h i s l e d a t l a s t t o a n e w V I c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d a r e v i t a l i z e d l e c t u r e s e r i e s . U n i v e r s i t y T a k e s N o t i c e 1 9 3 3 w a s a w a t e r s h e d y e a r i n t h e l i f e o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e . I n r e s p o n s e t o s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s f e l t b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e U n i v e r s i t y m o v e d t o t i e t h e V I m o r e c l o s e l y t o i t s e l f . T h e c o u n c i l b e c a m e a " m o u t h p i e c e " f o r U B C , a n d t h e V T s s e r v i c e w a s r e j u v e n a t e d . T h e u p s h o t w a s a m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n a t t e n d a n c e a n d m e m b e r s h i p i n 1 9 3 3 - 3 9 . S o c i a l P r e s s u r e s T h e c r i t i q u e o f t h e K i d d R e p o r t b e f o r e a V I a u d i e n c e o n 1 5 O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 2 , w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n v i e w o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l b e i t i n f o r m a l , b e t w e e n t h e V I a n d U B C . D r a f t e d b y V a n c o u v e r b u s i n e s s m e n , t h e K i d d 1 0 5 R e p o r t s o u g h t t o i n f l u e n c e h o w t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d h a n d l e i t s f i n a n c e s d u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n . A m o n g i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w a s t h e c l o s u r e o f U B C " i f n e c e s s a r y . " 5 3 A t t h e t i m e o f t h e K i d d R e p o r t , t h e V I c o u n c i l w a s c o m p r i s e d o f f o u r U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s , o n e o f w h o m w a s t h e V I P r e s i d e n t . T h e K i d d R e p o r t w o u l d h a r d l y h a v e g o n e u n n o t i c e d b y t h e s e p e o p l e , n o r w o u l d H e n r y A n g u s , t h e U B C E c o n o m i c s P r o f e s s o r w h o p r o v i d e d t h e c r i t i q u e , h a v e b e e n u n c o n c e r n e d o v e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e K i d d R e p o r t o n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f U B C . B e f o r e a n o v e r - f l o w a u d i e n c e , A n g u s d e l i v e r e d a " s c a t h i n g s p e e c h " t h a t p r o m o t e d t h e r o l e o f a c a d e m i c s t o g u a r d a g a i n s t s u c h d a n g e r o u s p r o p a g a n d a . 5 4 U B C s t o o d t o b e n e f i t f r o m s u c h a v i g o r o u s s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h e V I . T h e K i d d r e p o r t w a s n o t a n i s o l a t e d t h r e a t t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y . I t c a m e a t a t i m e w h e n U B C w a s c l e a n i n g u p s e v e r a l u n r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . T h e S e n a t e a n d B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s h a d b e e n d i v i d e d o v e r u n i v e r s i t y f i n a n c e s , a n d P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k h a d e v e n f a c e d a v o t e o f n o n - c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e S e n a t e . F a c e d w i t h D e p r e s s i o n - i n d u c e d c u t - b a c k s i n p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g , U B C w a s s u f f e r i n g b o t h f r o m i n t e r n a l a n d from e x t e r n a l p r o b l e m s . 5 5 C o n c u r r e n t l y , U B C b e g a n t o p a y m o r e a t t e n t i o n t o i t s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . T h e f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 2 . T h e A l u m n i A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o b e g a n o p e r a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s , a n d 53Logan, Tuum Est. 119, describes the reaction to the Kidd report. ^Vancouver, University of British Columbia. Special Collections, "Professor Angus Flays Kidd Report," The Ubvssev. 15 October. 1932. 55Logan, Tuum Est. 110-119. 1 0 6 p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t b e g a n i n 1 9 3 3 . 5 6 I n 1 9 3 4 , A . F . B a r s s , a U B C P r o f e s s o r o f H o r t i c u l t u r e , w r o t e " A P r o p o s a l t o I m p r o v e r e l a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y t o t h e P r o v i n c e b y t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . " 5 7 U B C b e g a n t a k i n g a v e r y k e e n i n t e r e s t i n i t s p u b l i c s u p p o r t . U B C h a d l o n g t h o u g h t o f t h e V I a s , i f n o t a n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , t h e n c e r t a i n l y a n o u t l e t f o r e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s . 5 8 A m o n g t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a d e b y B a r s s i n h i s p r o p o s a l w a s t o c o n t i n u e p u b l i c l e c t u r e s a n d e n c o u r a g e U B C " o p e n h o u s e s . " 5 9 T h e V I a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d b o t h , a n d c o u l d c o n t i n u e i f t h e s y l l a b u s r e m a i n e d d o m i n a t e d b y U B C p e r s o n n e l ( o r a f f i l i a t e d a c a d e m i c s ) a n d t h e V I r e m a i n e d h o u s e d a t U B C . T h i s w a s e n s u r e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 3 3 w h e n t h e V I c o n s t i t u t i o n w a s r e - w r i t t e n i n f a v o u r o f a n i n c r e a s e d U B C p r e s e n c e . R e m a k i n g T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e T h e V I p r e s i d e n t f o r 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 w a s G o r d o n S h r u m . S h r u m h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d t o t h e U B C f a c u l t y i n 1 9 2 5 a s P r o f e s s o r o f P h y s i c s . H e w a s w i d e l y 56Logan, Tuum Est, 128. 57Logan, Tuum Est. 69. UBC Extension Collection. Box 2-5. A.F. Barss. "A Proposal to Improve relation of University to the Province by the establishment of a University Extension Service." 5 8 UBC Extension Collection. Box 1-18, Report of Extension Lecture Committee 1923-24. The committee claimed any free lecture by UBC personnel as an extension lecture. Klinck also referred to the VI as an extension service. Klinck Collection, Box 1-20, Lecture, 8 October, 1932. 59Barss, "A Proposal." 1 0 7 r e g a r d e d a s a v e r y t a l e n t e d a n d e n e r g e t i c i n d i v i d u a l , a n d l a t e r b e c a m e t h e s e c o n d D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n i n 1 9 3 7 . 6 0 S h r u m h a d b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e m o v e b y t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e t o h o l d t h e V I l e c t u r e s i n U B C f a c i l i t i e s . 6 1 H e h a d c o n t r i b u t e d l e c t u r e s t o t h e V I a s e a r l y a s 1 9 2 8 , a n d b y 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 w a s o n t h e V I c o u n c i l . 6 2 S h r u m h a d a l s o b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g a s h o r t - l i v e d t r a d i t i o n o f e n t e r t a i n i n g V I s p e a k e r s a n d g u e s t s f o l l o w i n g t h e l e c t u r e s . 6 3 T o s o m e , S h r u m w a s a s u p e r b m a n a g e r a n d c h a r i s m a t i c t e a c h e r . 6 4 T o o t h e r s h e w a s a m b i t i o u s , o c c a s i o n a l l y r u t h l e s s , q u i c k , a n d i m p a t i e n t . 6 5 M a n y f o u n d h i m i n t i m i d a t i n g , i f n o t t e r r i f y i n g . 6 6 A l t h o u g h h e h a d c o n t r i b u t e d t o p h y s i c s r e s e a r c h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o b y l i q u e f y i n g h e l i u m a n d d i s c o v e r i n g t h e o r i g i n o f t h e a u r o r a l g r e e n l i n e , h e p r e f e r r e d t h e l i v e l y a t m o s p h e r e o f a y o u n g U B C . 6 7 A t U B C , h e d i s c o v e r e d h i s t e a c h i n g s k i l l s a n d f l a i r f o r m a n a g e m e n t , a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a g r e a t m a n y c a m p u s 60Logan, Tuum Est. 129. 61Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-13. Minutes. 11 April, 1929. 6 2 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 6 3 VI Collection, Box 1-2, M.Y. Williams. "A History of The Vancouver Institute." Williams was a geology professor at UBC who was involved for many years with the Institute. His "history" provides a useful if idiosyncratic chronology of Institute events. ^Shrum. Shrum. xii. 65Peter. B. Walte, Lord of Point Grev (Vancouver University of British Columbia Press, 1987), 123. 66Shrum, Shrum. xiii. 67Shrum, Shrum. 42-43. 1 0 8 a c t i v i t i e s . 6 8 S u c h t r a i t s h e l p e x p l a i n h i s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e a n d t h e V I . H i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , g i v e n h i s p h y s i c s b a c k g r o u n d . H e h a d b e e n i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h d u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 s , a n d t h e v a l u e i n p r o m o t i n g C a n a d i a n s c i e n c e a n d s t i m u l a t i n g y o u n g r e s e a r c h e r s . 6 9 T h e V I i n i t i a l l y g a v e h i m a n o u t l e t f o r h i s l e c t u r i n g a n d p r o m o t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , b u t h i s p r o p e n s i t y f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p l e a d t o a s t r o n g e r r o l e i n t h e V T s m a n a g e m e n t . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t o s e e S h r u m a s t h e V I p r e s i d e n t i n 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 , p r o p o s i n g a m e n d m e n t s t o t h e V I c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t w o u l d f a v o u r a n e n h a n c e d U B C p r e s e n c e a n d e n c o u r a g i n g V I m e m b e r s t o a c c e p t t h e m . 7 0 T h e o b j e c t s o f t h e V I d i d n o t c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e r e v i s e d c o n s t i t u t i o n , b u t o t h e r f e a t u r e s d i d . 7 1 A f f i l i a t e s n o l o n g e r p r o v i d e d l e c t u r e s ; t h e V I i t s e l f p r o v i d e d a l l l e c t u r e s ( a l t h o u g h a t t i m e s w i t h t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f a n o t h e r s o c i e t y ) . M e m b e r s w e r e m o r e b r o a d l y w e l c o m e d . T h o s e w i l l i n g t o a p p l y a n d p a y t h e o n e d o l l a r f e e w e r e g r a n t e d m e m b e r s h i p w i t h o u t a n y s o r t o f e l e c t i o n o r a p p r o v a l b y c o u n c i l , a n d n o s p e c i a l c l a s s e x i s t e d f o r m e m b e r s o f a n a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . Q u o r u m s f o r d e c i s i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e d a v o t e w e r e r e d u c e d . P e r h a p s , t h o u g h , t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s w e r e t o t h e 6 8Shrum. Shrum. 146. 6 9Shrum, Shrum. 47. 7 0 V I Minutes. 1 April, 1933. Shrum led the initiative to revise the constitution. VI Collection, Box 2-15, Correspondence, Shrum to VI members, 28 March 1933. Shrum wrote to members of the need to approve the new constitution, and of the significance of the VI. 7 1 V I Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. 109 c h a n g e s w e r e t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o u n c i l . P r e v i o u s l y , c o u n c i l w a s c o m p r i s e d o f n i n e c o u n c i l l o r s f r o m V I m e m b e r s h i p a n d t w o f r o m e a c h a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t y . U n d e r t h e n e w c o n s t i t u t i o n , t e n c o u n c i l l o r s w e r e e l e c t e d f r o m t h e V I , a n d t w o w e r e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e P r e s i d e n t o f U B C . N o m i n a t i o n s f o r c o u n c i l l o r s s i g n e d b y f o u r o r m o r e m e m b e r s w e r e r e q u i r e d i n w r i t i n g t e n d a y s p r i o r t o t h e a n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g . U B C w a s t h u s g u a r a n t e e d a c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e , b u t t h e m a j o r e f f e c t o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n ( w h i c h s e e m e d t o g a r n e r l i t t l e i m m e d i a t e c o n c e r n ) w a s a d r a m a t i c s h i f t i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d s o f c o u n c i l l o r s . 7 2 T h e n e w e l e c t i o n o f c o u n c i l l o r s w a s c o n d u c t e d b y m a i l i n A p r i l 1 9 3 3 . T h e r e s u l t w a s a n i n f l u x o f U B C p e r s o n n e l ( i n c l u d i n g t h e U B C P r e s i d e n t ' s a p p o i n t e e s ) , a n d t h e l o s s o f s e v e r a l l o n g - s e r v i n g c o u n c i l l o r s , n o t a b l y I d l e a n d P e t e r s k y . D u n l o p s t r o n g l y d i s a p p r o v e d o f t h e e l e c t i o n a f t e r i t h a d b e e n c o n d u c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t P e t e r s k y w a s " p e e v e d a n d a l i e n a t e d , " s u g g e s t i n g t h a t b o t h I d l e a n d P e t e r s k y b e b r o u g h t i n a n y w a y . 7 3 T h e s e r e s u l t s m a y h a v e b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d b y S h r u m a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s . S h r u m a n d o t h e r k e y V I s u p p o r t e r s ( i n c l u d i n g b o t h D a v i d s o n s , K l i n c k , a n d W i l l i a m s — a l l A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e m e m b e r s a n d 7 2 VI Minutes, 1 April, 1933. No major objections to the revisions were recorded for that meeting, although perennial "town" supporters Dunlop and Petersky were present. Shrum's powerful personality may have kept them quiet. Given Dunlop's past, he would likely have insisted that any objections be recorded, and Cpt. Mellish recorded an Inconsequential objection. 7 3 VI Collection Box 2-15, Correspondence, Dunlop to Timms, 29 June. 1933. Dunlop wrote quite strongly of his disapproval (after the election) and of his fears that "gown" discriminated against "town." 1 1 0 U B C s c i e n t i s t s — a n d R e v . M a c c a u d ) d i d n o t v o t e f o r D u n l o p ; m a n y d i d n o t v o t e f o r P e t e r s k y o r I d l e e i t h e r . 7 4 T h e 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 V I c o u n c i l s a w S h r u m b a c k a s P r e s i d e n t , a l o n g w i t h a t l e a s t f i v e o t h e r U B C f a c u l t y ; t h e f i v e r e m a i n i n g c o u n c i l l o r s w e r e n o t U B C f a c u l t y . 7 5 T h i s s t r o n g U B C r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w o u l d c o n t i n u e u n t i l 1 9 3 9 , w i t h m a n y n e w , l o n g - s e r v i n g c o u n c i l l o r s f r o m t h e U B C f a c u l t y . T a b l e 1 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s t r o n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n U B C f a c u l t y h a d i n t h e V I a f t e r 1 9 3 3 ; m a n y w h o h a d n o t p r e v i o u s l y b e e n i n v o l v e d w e r e s u d d e n l y f r e q u e n t s u p p o r t e r s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , B a r r s , w h o d r a f t e d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r a n E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t , s u d d e n l y b e c a m e a l o n g - s e r v i n g c o u n c i l l o r . T h e c u m b e r s o m e p r o c e d u r e s e t o u t i n t h e n e w c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r e l e c t i n g c o u n c i l l o r s m a y h a v e h e l p e d m a i n t a i n f a m i l i a r p e o p l e o n t h e c o u n c i l , a n d c o u n c i l b e c a m e s e l f - p e i ^ e t u a t i n g . 7 6 7 4V1 Collection, Box 5-5, Election Ballots. It is perhaps telling that, although Petersky voted for Dunlop, Mrs. Petersky did not. Dunlop may not have been particularly popular. His title (FRGS), to his annoyance, was omitted from that year's VI brochure. 7 5 VI Collection, Box 4-5. List of councillors as indicated on program for the year. There is no indication of who were the UBC appointees. 76Williams, "History of The Vancouver Institute," 15. I l l T A B L E 1 4 L O N G E S T S E R V I N G C O U N C I L L O R S , 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 9 Name Years, 1929—33 Years, 1933—39 Occupation Phillip T. Timms 4 4 Comptroller J.D.P. Malkin 0 4 Businessman Mrs. B.T. Rogers 0 3 Social leader George Winter 0 6 Accountant L. Anderson 1 3 Van. Nat. History Soc. John Davidson 4 4 UBC Faculty Member Gordon Shrum 2 6 UBC Faculty Member John Ridington 0 6 UBC Faculty Member M.Y. Williams 2 6 UBC Faculty Member F.H. Soward 0 5 UBC Faculty Member V.W. Odium 0 5 UBC Governor A.F. Bares 0 6 UBC Faculty Member A.C. Cooke 0 3 UBC Faculty Member Source: a) Program Brochures, VI Collection Box 4-11 b) Wrigley's British Columbia Directory 1931 W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e U B C a p p o i n t e e s , f a c u l t y m e m b e r s w e r e a p p a r e n t l y u n d e r n o c o m p u l s i o n t o m a i n t a i n V I a f f i l i a t i o n . A l t h o u g h W i l l i a m s w o u l d d e s c r i b e t h e I n s t i t u t e a s b e c o m i n g " u n o f f i c i a l l y t h e s e n i o r b r a n c h o f t h e e x t e n s i o n d e p a r t m e n t , " K l i n c k w o u l d d e c l a r e t h a t t h e r e w a s n o f o r m a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e V I . 7 7 S h r u m w a s i n v o l v e d i n 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 a t , a p p a r e n t l y , h i s o w n b e h e s t ; t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r h e w a s a p p o i n t e d b y U B C P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k . C o n c e r n s t o p r o m o t e U B C w e r e m i x e d w i t h p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n s t y p i f i e d b y t h e o n g o i n g s u p p o r t o f J o h n D a v i d s o n . 77Williams. "History of The Vancouver Institute," 14. VI Collection Box 2-15, Correspondence, 2 August 1934, Klinck to VI President G. Winter. 1 1 2 S y l l a b u s R e o r i e n t a t i o n T h e V I c o u n c i l c h a n g e w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n o t h e r c h a n g e . L e c t u r e s f r o m 1 9 1 6 t o 1 9 3 3 h a d g e n e r a l l y b e e n a c a d e m i c " a r t s a n d s c i e n c e s " t o p i c s . A s m a l l s h i f t t o w a r d p o p u l a r - i n t e r e s t t o p i c s w a s a p p a r e n t i n t h e 1 9 2 9 - 3 3 p e r i o d ( s e e T a b l e 1 2 ) , b u t s u c h t o p i c s b e c a m e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d b e t w e e n 1 9 3 3 - 3 9 ( s e e T a b l e 1 5 ) . I t w a s c o m m o n f o r t h e s e l e c t u r e s t o o u t n u m b e r t h o s e o f s p e c i a l a c a d e m i c i n t e r e s t . T i t l e s s u c h a s " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r P e a c e o r W a r o n t h e P a c i f i c , " " H i t l e r a n d t h e N a z i R e v o l u t i o n , " " E d u c a t i o n i n a C h a n g i n g S o c i a l O r d e r , " " S o m e S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , " a n d " A P l a n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n B . C . " w e r e a m o n g t h e m o r e p r o v o c a t i v e . 7 8 S u c h a s h i f t w a s l i k e l y f u l l y i n t e n t i o n a l , a n d m a y h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y c u r r e n t i d e a s a b o u t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . O n e n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e d i n 1 9 3 4 t h a t t h e l e c t u r e s w e r e g i v e n " u n d e r t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p l a n t h a t i s t h e I n s t i t u t e ' s a i m d u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t s e a s o n . " 7 9 I f p a r t o f t h e p l a n w a s t o i n c r e a s e t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e p r o g r a m s b y a d d r e s s i n g p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s , t h e n t h e p l a n w o r k e d . K l i n c k ' s 1 9 3 5 s p e e c h o n " A P l a n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n B . C . " a n d t h e 1 9 3 4 r e p o r t b y B a r s s o n t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a n E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t b o t h s t r e s s e d t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s n e e d t o b e c o m e m o r e r e l e v a n t t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t s , a n d t h e f o r m e r d e s c r i b e d r e s i d e n t s ' d e m a n d f o r l e c t u r e s a n d g u i d e d r e a d i n g s . 8 0 R o b e r t E n g l a n d , U B C ' s f i r s t D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n , s p o k e i n 1 9 3 7 t o t h e V I o n " T h e T h r e a t t o D i s i n t e r e s t e d 7 8 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. Lecture titles, 14 October, 1933; 18 November, 1933; 17 March, 1934; 12 January, 1935; 16 November 1935. 7 9 VI Collection, Box 4-9, Newspaper Clipping. 8 0 UBC Extension Collection, Box 2-5, Manuscript. 4 1 3 E d u c a t i o n : A C h a l l e n g e . " E n g l a n d , i n t o u c h w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h o u g h t , u r g e d a h u m a n i s t i c , s o c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d r o l e f o r a c a d e m i a a n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 8 1 T A B L E 1 5 L E C T U R E T Y P E S , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 Season Science Arts Social Fine Arts Other Unknown 1933-34 3 5 11 1 1 0 1934-35 3 3 12 1 3 0 1935-36 4 6 7 0 3 0 1936-37 2 0 9 3 5 1 1937-38 5 3 8 0 4 0 1938-39 3 3 6 0 1 8 Totals 20 20 53 5 17 9 Source: Lecture Programs, VI Collection Box 4-5. See Appendix A for categorization guide. Notes on categories: "Science" denotes lectures dealing with aspects of natural and applied science (physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture): "Arts" denotes lectures dealing with other academic topics (for example, philosophy, history, biography, geography, literature); "Social" indicates lectures concerned with popular social concerns (for example, education, politics, economics, international affairs); "Fine Arts" denotes artistic performances or illustrations, or lectures on artistic topics other than literature (for example, music or painting appreciation); "Other" includes topics of travel, mountaineering, industry, professions. P o p u l a r n o t i o n s a b o u t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n h a d r e a c h e d U B C b y t h e t i m e U n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y h a d a s s e r t e d t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n t h e V I . K l i n c k ' s 1 9 3 5 s p e e c h r e f e r r e d t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s s u c h a s t h e M a n s b r i d g e R e p o r t , T h o r n d i k e ' s r e s e a r c h o n a d u l t l e a r n i n g , a n d t h e A n t i g o n i s h p r o j e c t 8 1 Robert England, The Threat to Disinterested Education: A Challenge (Toronto: MacMillan, 1937). SPAM 10138. Special Collections, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 1 1 4 o f S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y . 8 2 K l i n c k h a d l o n g p r o m o t e d p u b l i c l y t h e r o l e o f u n i v e r s i t i e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , c i t i n g e x t e n s i o n a s o n e o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a u n i v e r s i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , i n a 1 9 2 5 a d d r e s s t o t h e V a n c o u v e r C a n a d i a n C l u b , a 1 9 2 6 a r t i c l e i n t h e E v e n i n g S u n , a 1 9 3 2 r a d i o a d d r e s s , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c a d d r e s s e s , K l i n c k p r o m o t e d t h e e x t e n s i o n ( a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ) f u n c t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y . 8 3 I n h i s 1 9 3 2 a d d r e s s t o T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e " S o m e F u n c t i o n s o f a U n i v e r s i t y , " K l i n c k d e s c r i b e d t h e V I a s a v a l u a b l e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . 8 4 U B C a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s w e l l a w a r e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s . T h e s y l l a b u s r e o r i e n t a t i o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t p o p u l a r i s s u e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n p l a n n i n g t h e l e c t u r e s , r a t h e r t h a n l e a v i n g p u b l i c a p p e a l u p t o p u b l i c i t y a n d a g o o d l e c t u r e . 8 5 H u n t h a s a r g u e d t h a t s o m e o f t h e m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t g r o u p s w e r e i n t r o v e r t e d i n n a t u r e a n d t y p i c a l l y a d d r e s s e d o n l y m e m b e r s o f i t s g r o u p . 8 6 B y 1 9 3 3 , t h e V I h a d l o s t m o s t o f i t s m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t a f f i l i a t e s u p p o r t , a n d , i n f l u e n c e d b y a p u b l i c U B C u n i v e r s i t y , c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o a p p e a l o n l y t o a s m a l l c o r e o f l o y a l s u p p o r t e r s . T h i s r e o r i e n t a t i o n a n d c o n c e r n f o r s o c i a l i s s u e s r e f l e c t e d a w i d e r s o c i a l p h e n o m e n o n . I n 1 9 3 3 , t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e C o m m o n w e a l t h F e d e r a t i o n ( C C F ) 8 2 UBC Extension Collection. Box 2-5, Transcript, L.S. Klinck "A Plan for Adult Education in B.C." 83Klinck Collection, 1-10, 1-19, 2-29, Lectures, 19 June. 1925; 6 January, 1932; 25 September, 1926, Evening Sun. 84Klinck Collection, 1-20, Transcript, 8 October, 1932. 8 5VT Minutes, 21 October, 1916. S.D. Scott commented that the first step is to gather large audiences. 86Hunt. "Mutual Enlightenment." 260. 1 1 5 b e c a m e t h e o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e , w i t h 3 1 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e , a n d s e v e n m e m b e r s i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e . 8 7 T h i s m o v e w a s r e f l e c t e d i n l o c a l V a n c o u v e r p o l i t i c s a s w e l l . 8 8 H e l e n a G u t t e r i d g e , o n c e a l o n e w i t h h e r v i e w s i n t h e V I , m a y h a v e f o u n d a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1 9 3 3 , o n e t h a t w a s m o r e w f l l i n g t o s p o n s o r l e c t u r e s s u c h a s " L a b o u r ' s V i e w o f t h e P r e s e n t E c o n o m i c P o l i c y " o r T h e C h a l l e n g e o f S o c i a l i s m . " 8 9 T h e l a t t e r w a s p r e s u m a b l y s u p p o r t i v e o f s o c i a l i s m , a s i t w a s g i v e n b y b y C C F m e m b e r D o r o t h y S t e e v e s . I n c r e a s e d A t t e n d a n c e T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s n e w o r i e n t a t i o n w a s a r e m a r k a b l e j u m p i n a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e ( s e e T a b l e 1 6 ) . D e s p i t e t h e l i n g e r i n g d e p r e s s i o n a n d t h e r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f U B C , t h e V I w a s m o r e p o p u l a r t h a n i t h a d e v e r b e e n . A l t h o u g h s o m e o f t h i s m i g h t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o U B C s t u d e n t s i n t h e a u d i e n c e , t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c p r e s s c o v e r a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e v e n t s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . 9 0 87Electoral History of British Columbia 1871-1986 (Victoria: Elections British Columbia, 1988). Cited ln Barman, West p. 362. 88Morley, Vancouver. 226. Two socialist (CCF) politicians were on the Vancouver City Council in 1933. 8 9 VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 90Logan, Tuum Est. 134. VI Collection, Box 4-9, Newspaper Clippings. Lectures during the three seasons 1933-1936 attracted several articles each, some promoting upcoming lectures, and some describing past ones. 1 1 6 T A B L E 1 6 M E M B E R S H I P A N D A T T E N D A N C E , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 Season Membership Annual Attendance 1933/34 - 10,000 1934/35 - 9,000 1935/36 98 - 1936/37 173 - 1937/38 110 (60-800/lecture) 1938/39 95 (100-1200/lecture) Sources: a) Membership lists and applications, VI Collection Box 4-11 and Box 5-2; b) Minutes. VI Collection, Box 1-4; c) Newspaper clippings, VI Collection, Box 4-9. d) Receipts, VI Collection Box 4-1. note: these numbers are largely estimates and approximations. T a b l e 1 6 s h o w s a r e m a r k a b l e j u m p i n V I s u p p o r t a n d a t t e n d a n c e . T h e 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 a n d 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 f i g u r e s d o n o t i n d i c a t e a n a n n u a l t o t a l , b u t g i v e a s e n s e t h a t t h e V I h a d b e c o m e a m u c h m o r e w i d e l y p a t r o n i z e d f o r m o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . M e m b e r s h i p f i g u r e s w e r e n o t w e l l r e c o r d e d , a n d d i f f e r e n t r e c o r d s p r o v i d e c o n f l i c t i n g d a t a . T h e r e c e i p t b o o k o f m e m b e r s ' p a i d d u e s i s p e r h a p s t h e m o s t s y s t e m a t i c r e c o r d a n d w a s k e p t b y a n e x p e r i e n c e d a c c o u n t a n t . T h e s e s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e a m o d e s t m e m b e r s h i p . B y t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 3 0 s , s o m e n i n e h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y p e o p l e w e r e n a m e d a s s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e V I , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e o b v i o u s l y n o t a l l i n g o o d s t a n d i n g . 9 1 I f t h e m o v e t o U B C h a d e n h a n c e d t h e V T s m e m b e r s h i p , t h e r e j u v e n a t e d p r o g r a m a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e n e w c o u n c i l h a d b r o u g h t c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a r s u p p o r t t h r o u g h l e c t u r e a t t e n d a n c e . 9 1 VI Collection. Box 4-11, Membership Lists. 1 1 7 C o n c l u s i o n F o l l o w i n g t h e " c o u p " o f 1 9 3 3 , t h e V I s e t t l e d i n t o a p a t t e r n o f o p e r a t i o n t h a t l a s t e d u n t i l 1 9 3 9 w h e n U B C , V a n c o u v e r , a n d t h e w o r l d t u r n e d i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . T h e V I h a d b e c o m e a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1 9 1 6 . A f t e r f o u r y e a r s o f r e l a t i v e i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e V I w a s r e u n i t e d w i t h U B C i n 1 9 2 9 , r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e s y m b o l i c c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m . I n 1 9 3 3 , U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s e f f e c t i v e l y t o o k o v e r t h e V I c o u n c i l . A n e w o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e s y l l a b u s o f l e c t u r e s s w e l l e d a u d i e n c e a t t e n d a n c e , a n d t h e V I f o u n d a s t a b l e s o c i a l n i c h e . L o c a l s o c i e t i e s w e r e i n v i t e d t o a f f i l i a t e ( a n d i n d e e d t h e y d i d ) , b u t w i t h o u t t h e p r i v i l e g e s t h e y o n c e e n j o y e d . 9 2 B y t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 3 0 s , T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e h a d c a r v e d f o r i t s e l f n o t o n l y a n e w i d e n t i t y , b u t a l s o a n e w p l a c e i n V a n c o u v e r s o c i e t y . 9 2 VI Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. The new constitution still allowed for organizational affiliations. 1 1 8 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY S. D. Scott remarked during an early VI meeting in 1916 that "by gathering together large audiences an interest will be awakened and the rest will follow.'*1 The audiences were gathered, the rest followed, and the VI has been in operation ever since. It continues today to attract audiences to its weekly lectures and supporters to its membership. The VI has not, however, been without change. During its first twenty-three years, the idea of the VI became an institution that underwent several shifts in the politics of its administrative structure. Growing out of Vancouver society, it blended several social currents into an initial stable organization. The relationship between these currents, however, changed to create various interpretations as to the VTs proper social place. The three social movements of an educational nature prior to 1916 that help to explain the VI were the mutual enlightenment movement, with its traditions of learned societies and public lectures; the university movement, which introduced a new institution of higher education to Vancouver; and a movement towards professionalization, wherein a number of people sought greater control and prestige for their occupations. These movements met in the VI. Many who have been identified as participating in these movements also participated in the establishment and early years of the VI. i v i Minutes, 21 October, 1916. 119 T w o i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e f o r t h e i r r o l e s i n f o r m i n g t h e V I . O n e w a s L e m u e l R o b e r t s o n , a s c h o l a r , t e a c h e r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r , a n d p r o m o t e r o f e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R o b e r t s o n c o n c e i v e d t h e V I a s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o j o i n s e v e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r e n t s , a n d b y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e c h o i c e o f e a r l y p a r t i c i p a n t s w a s a b l e t o a t t r a c t a h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p o f s u p p o r t e r s . L i k e R o b e r t s o n h i m s e l f , m a n y o f t h o s e s u p p o r t e r s w e r e i n v o l v e d w i t h b o t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d l o c a l l e a r n e d s o c i e t i e s , a n d w o r k e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t c l a i m e d ( o r s o u g h t ) p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . F r a n k W e s b r o o k w a s a l s o i m p o r t a n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e V I , a s h e w a s a s t r o n g p u b l i c l e a d e r w h o c o u l d d r a w p e o p l e t o g e t h e r i n a n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n . W e s b r o o k ' s b a c k g r o u n d , s e n s i b i l i t i e s , a n d s t a t u s a s U B C ' s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t m a d e h i m a v a l u a b l e a s s e t . H i s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e V I w a s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f R o b e r t s o n ' s p l a n . T h e s t a b i l i t y t h a t a r o s e f r o m t h e h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p o f V I s u p p o r t e r s a n d t h e f i x e d l o c a t i o n a t U B C e n c o u r a g e d n i n e y e a r s o f i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s . P r o m o t e r s o f t h e V I w e r e a b l e t o m i x t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o c h o o s e o n e a b o v e a n o t h e r , a n d d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s a s t o t h e p r o p e r s o c i a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e V I w e r e e a s i l y r e c o n c i l e d . T o w n a n d g o w n c o u l d e a s i l y b e j o i n e d s y m b o l i c a l l y b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e j o i n e d p h y s i c a l l y . A t t e n d a n c e , a n d t o s o m e d e g r e e m e m b e r s h i p , s l o w l y i n c r e a s e d i n t h e w a k e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . U B C ' s m o v e t o i t s P o i n t G r e y l o c a t i o n i n 1 9 2 5 m a r k e d a n e w p e r i o d i n t h e l i f e o f t h e V I . P e r h a p s a i d e d b y a d i m i n i s h e d U B C p r e s e n c e o n t h e c o u n c i l , t h e V I r e m a i n e d l o c a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r . T w o d i f f e r i n g c o n c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s o c i a l p l a c e o f t h e V I s u r f a c e d . S e v e r a l i n f l u e n t i a l V I *20 s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e t i m e w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y k e e n t o p r o m o t e a n i n d e p e n d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h o u t U B C ' s f a c i l i t i e s , b u t o t h e r s e n c o u r a g e d t h e m o v e t o P o i n t G r e y t h e r e b y m a m t a i n i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U B C . F o r f o u r y e a r s t h e V I w a s w i t h o u t a f i x e d l o c a t i o n a n d s u f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l a n d p o p u l a r i t y l o s s e s . F a c e d w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s d e m i s e a n d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l i n v i t a t i o n s t o r e j o i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y , t h e V I m o v e d t o P o i n t G r e y . T h e m o v e t o P o i n t G r e y r e u n i t e d t h e V I w i t h U B C , a r e u n i o n t h a t , f o r s o m e , w a s s y m b o l i c a l l y v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e s e r v i c e c h a n g e d l i t t l e , h o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h V a n c o u v e r ' s s o c i a l c l i m a t e d u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n e n c o u r a g e d l e c t u r e s o f a m o r e p o p u l a r n a t u r e . I n 1 9 3 3 , t h e V I c o u n c i l l o r s w h o w e r e U B C f a c u l t y m e m b e r s w e r e a b l e t o r e - w r i t e t h e V I c o n s t i t u t i o n t o a l l o w f o r a g r e a t e r U B C p r e s e n c e . N o t o n l y w o u l d U B C c o n t i n u e t o h o s t t h e V I , b u t U B C r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w e r e g u a r a n t e e d a p l a c e o n t h e c o u n c i l . T h e l e c t u r e s b e c a m e m u c h m o r e p o p u l a r , m e m b e r s h i p s t a b i l i z e d , a n d t h e V I f o u n d a n e w a n d s t a b l e s o c i a l n i c h e . U B C h a s b e e n t h e h o s t e v e r s i n c e . T h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t g u i d e d t h i s s t u d y a s k e d a b o u t t h e b e g i n n i n g s a n d f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . H o w w a s t h e V I e s t a b l i s h e d , a n d h o w d i d i t c h a n g e i n a n a t t e m p t t o f i n d a n e n d u r i n g s t a t u s ? T h e s e a r e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , a n d i n v a r i a b l y i n c l u d e s q u e s t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . T h e a n s w e r t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e V I b e g a n a s a n o u t g r o w t h a n d c o n t i n u a t i o n o f s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s , b u t e v e n t u a l l y b e c a m e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o n e o f t h e m ( U B C ) . T h e s t u d y a l s o a s k e d a b o u t w h o w a s i n v o l v e d a n d w h y . D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s , V I s u p p o r t e r s w e r e a h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p o f m e n a n d w o m e n w h o s h a r e d c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s i n e d u c a t i o n , w h e t h e r f o r s o c i a l a n d p e r s o n a l 1 2 1 d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o f e s s i o n a l e n h a n c e m e n t , o r e n c o u r a g i n g U B C s u p p o r t . W h a t e v e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p u r p o s e t h e y h a d f o r t h e V I w e r e e a s i l y r e c o n c i l e d , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e " V T s l o c a t i o n . W h e n U B C m o v e d a n d t h e V I w a s f o r c e d t o f i n d a n e w l o c a t i o n , t h e s e d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s b e c a m e m o r e a p p a r e n t . S o m e V I p r o m o t e r s e n c o u r a g e d a n i n d e p e n d e n t , l o c a l l y g o v e r n e d i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t a r o s e f r o m V a n c o u v e r i t s e l f . O t h e r s e n c o u r a g e d a n i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t w a s m o r e c l o s e l y t i e d t o U B C . F i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a n d d w i n d l i n g p o p u l a r s u p p o r t p r o m p t e d c l o s e r t i e s w i t h U B C , b u t w a s a l s o a p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y f o r t h o s e w h o s a w t h e V I a s u s e f u l t o U B C i n t e r e s t s . A s a f i r s t e x p l a n a t o r y s t u d y o f t h e V I , i t l e a v e s m a n y q u e s t i o n s u n a s k e d . 2 L i m i t e d t o t h e f i r s t t w e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s , i t i n v i t e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h a t h a p p e n e d n e x t . T h e V I c o n t i n u e d t o t h e p r e s e n t , b u t h o w d i d i t c h a n g e i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r o r o t h e r c h a n g e s i n V a n c o u v e r s o c i e t y ? W h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d i t h a v e t o U B C a n d t o t h e w i d e r c o m m u n i t y f o l l o w i n g t h i s s t u d y ? S u c h a n i n q u i r y c o u l d b e f r o m U B C ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f u n c t i o n o f t h e V I , o r f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e n o n - U n i v e r s i t y p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e V I a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W h y d o s u c h p e o p l e r e m a i n a t t r a c t e d t o t h e V I ? W h a t e x p l a i n s t h e c h a n g e f r o m a r o s t e r o f s o m e d o z e n c o u n c i l l o r s i n t h e 1 9 3 0 s t o s o m e s e v e n t y a s l i s t e d o n c u r r e n t p r o g r a m s ? T h e r e i s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r i n g t h i s s t u d y u p t o t h e p r e s e n t ; t h e b u l k o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n i s a b o u t t h e V I a f t e r 1 9 3 6 . T h i s s t u d y a l s o d i d n o t i n q u i r e i n t o o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e V I , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f t h e a u d i e n c e s . W h o w e r e t h e a u d i e n c e s a n d d i d t h e y Williams's study is essentially a chronological summary, and adds little explanatory analysis. 1 2 2 c h a n g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n t h e V I m o v e d f r o m V a n c o u v e r t o P o i n t G r e y ? W h y w e r e t h e y i n t e r e s t e d ? W h a t w a s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e V I i n t h e i r l i v e s ? D i d t h e y l e a r n a n y t h i n g , o r w a s i t m e r e l y a f o r m o f e r u d i t e e n t e r t a i n m e n t ? T h e s e a r e d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s t o a n s w e r . P e r h a p s m o r e a c c e s s i b l e i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h o t h e m e m b e r s w e r e a n d h o w t h e V I f i t i n t o t h e i r l i v e s . T h e r e a r e s o m e m e m b e r s h i p r e c o r d s t h a t m i g h t h e l p t o a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . T h e r o l e t h e V I p l a y e d i n o t h e r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s i s a n o t h e r i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n . T h i s s t u d y h a s t o u c h e d o n t h r e e a s p e c t s ( m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t , p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f U B C ) , b u t e a c h c o u l d b e e x p l o r e d o n i t s o w n . O t h e r s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s a l s o p l a y e d a p a r t i n t h e V I . T h e r i s e o f s c i e n c e a n d s c i e n c e - b a s e d o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r e s e n c e o f w o m e n i n s o c i a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s E u r o - C a n a d i a n a c t o r s i n d e f i n i n g c u l t u r e a r e b u t t h r e e o t h e r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e V I . E a c h c o u l d b e e x p l o r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e V I . T h e r e a l s o r e m a i n s o m e m t e r e s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s . T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t a " s u c c e s s f u l " e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e b e n e f i t s f r o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l i k e - m i n d e d i n d i v i d u a l s . A s t h e V I b e g a n w i t h a n i d e a a n d n o m o n e y , a n d n e v e r h a d s i g n i f i c a n t a s s e t s o f i t s o w n , t h i s s t u d y a l s o s u g g e s t s t h e p o w e r o f a g o o d i d e a i n b u i l d i n g a s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e s e a r e h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s , b u t c o u l d b e u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s t o b u i l d a n a r g u m e n t t o a d d r e s s s u c h q u e s t i o n s . A l s o m i s s i n g f r o m t h i s s t u d y a r e d e e p e r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . H o w , f o r e x a m p l e , m i g h t t h e V I b e u n d e r s t o o d f r o m a t h e o r y o f r a c e , c l a s s , o r 1 2 3 g e n d e r ? T h e r e i s n o q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e V I l a r g e l y a p p e a l e d t o m i d d l e a n d u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s p e o p l e o f E u r o p e a n d e s c e n t . A l t h o u g h w o m e n w e r e v e r y m u c h p r e s e n t a s c o u n c i l l o r s a n d m e m b e r s , t h e y w e r e s t i l l a m i n o r i t y . O t h e r c a t e g o r i e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e o p e n t o s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s . M u c h w a s m a d e o f t h e n o t i o n o f " p r o f e s s i o n a l , " b u t t h i s i s a l s o a s l i p p e r y c o n c e p t . I t w a s h e r e d e f i n e d a s a n o c c u p a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e p a r a t o r y e d u c a t i o n a n d c a r r i e d c e r t a i n s t a t u s , b u t t h i s b e g s t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e a n y f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " a n d o t h e r e d u c a t e d a n d s o c i a l l y w e l l - p o s i t i o n e d p e o p l e . S u c h t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e m a i n f o r a n o t h e r s t u d y o f t h e V I . T o w n a n d G o w n h a s , i t i s h o p e d , i n t r o d u c e d t h e V I t o t h e r e a d e r i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n V a n c o u v e r o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t h a s a l s o a r g u e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e W s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e v o l u t i o n a s l i n k e d t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f i t s e a r l y p r o m o t e r s a n d t h e i r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y r a i s e s m a n y q u e s t i o n s , i t w i l l b e v a l u a b l e i f i t p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g - p o i n t i n f i n d i n g t h e i r a n s w e r s . 124 W O R K S C I T E D P r i m a r y S o u r c e s A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n C o l l e c t i o n , A d d . M s s . 3 3 6 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r . J o u r n a l o f t h e A r t . H i s t o r i c a l , a n d S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r . B . C . V a n c o u v e r : T r y t h a l l & S o n , 1 9 1 7 . B . C . F e d e r a t i o n i s t . 1 9 1 8 , M i c r o f i l m A W 1 R 2 5 9 4 , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e C o l l e c t i o n , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f A r c h i t e c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n , A d d . M s s . 3 2 6 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o c i e t y o f F i n e A r t s C o l l e c t i o n , A d d . M s s . 1 7 1 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . D a v i d s o n , J . G . , O b i t u a r y , 2 5 A u g u s t , 1 9 4 8 , M i c r o f i c h e 2 3 3 8 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . D a v i d s o n , J o h n , C o l l e c t i o n , A d d . M s s 5 0 5 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . D u n l o p , W i l l i a m R , O b i t u a r y , 6 J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 1 , V a n c o u v e r S u n . M i c r o f i c h e 2 6 6 7 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . F r i p p , R M a c k a y , B i o g r a p h i c a l N o t e s , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y W o r l d . M i c r o f i c h e 0 1 6 1 7 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . H e n d e r s o n D i r e c t o r y C o . H e n d e r s o n ' s V a n c o u v e r D i r e c t o r y . V a n c o u v e r : H e n d e r s o n D i r e c t o r y C o . , 1 9 1 2 - 1 9 2 0 . M a t h e w s , J a m e s S k i t t , C o l l e c t i o n , A d d . M s s . 5 4 , V o l . 1 3 , M i c r o f i c h e 0 2 3 2 2 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . 125 P e t e r s k y , S a m u e l , O b i t u a r y , V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e . 1 7 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 4 , V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y . T h o m p s o n , N i c h o l a s , N e w s p a p e r B i o g r a p h y , 1 8 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 0 , M i c r o f i c h e 9 3 6 9 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . T h e U b y s s e y . V a n c o u v e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s C o l l e c t i o n , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o n v o c a t i o n R e c o r d s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n C o l l e c t i o n , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s i d e n t ' s O f f i c e , F . F . W e s b r o o k C o l l e c t i o n , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s i d e n t ' s O f f i c e , L . S . K l i n c k C o l l e c t i o n , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S e n a t e R e c o r d s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r U n i v e r s i t y W o m e n ' s C l u b C o l l e c t i o n , A d d . M s s . 8 7 2 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e C o l l e c t i o n , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n C o l l e c t i o n , A d d . M s s . 9 9 4 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . W e l c h & G i b b s , p u b l i s h e r s . V a n c o u v e r S o c i a l R e g i s t e r a n d C l u b D i r e c t o r y . V a n c o u v e r : W e l c h & G i b b s , 1 9 1 4 . W r i g l e y D i r e c t o r i e s L t d . W r i g l e v ' s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D i r e c t o r y . V a n c o u v e r : W r i g l e y D i r e c t o r i e s L t d . , 1 9 2 5 , 1 9 3 1 . 1 2 6 A r t i c l e s a n d U n p u b l i s h e d E s s a v s B a r m a n , J e a n . " ' K n o w l e d g e i s E s s e n t i a l f o r U n i v e r s a l P r o g r e s s b u t F a t a l t o C l a s s P r i v i l e g e ' : W o r k i n g P e o p l e a n d T h e S c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r D u r i n g T h e 1 9 2 0 s . " L a b o u r / L e T r a v a i l . 2 2 ( 1 9 8 8 ) : 9 - 6 6 . B r u n e a u , W i l l i a m . T o w a r d a N e w C o l l e c t i v e B i o g r a p h y : T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o f e s s o r i a t e , 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 4 5 . " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n . 1 9 , n o . 1 ( W i n t e r 1 9 9 4 ) : 6 5 - 7 9 . C a l a m , J o h n . " S o m e H i s t o r i c T r e n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n . " ( U n p u b l i s h e d , 1 9 9 1 ) . P e r s o n a l c o l l e c t i o n , W . B r u n e a u , V a n c o u v e r . C a l a m , J o h n . T e a c h i n g T e a c h e r s o n C a m p u s : I n i t i a l M o v e s a n d t h e S e a r c h f o r U B C ' s F i r s t P r o f e s s o r o f E d u c a t i o n . " H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n / R e v u e d ' H i s t o i r e d e l ' E d u c a t i o n . 6 , n o . 2 ( F a l l 1 9 9 4 ) : 1 7 7 - 2 0 0 . H a r r i s , R . C o l e . " L o c a t i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " B . C . S t u d i e s 3 2 ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ) : 1 0 6 - 1 2 5 . H a r v e y , I s o b e l . " F r a n k F a i r c h i l d W e s b r o o k . " T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G r a d u a t e C h r o n i c l e ( M a y 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 3 . H i l l - T o u t , J a m e s E . T h e A b b o t s f o r d H i l l - T o u t s . " ( U n p u b l i s h e d , 1 9 7 6 ) . S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y . L a m b , W i l l i a m K a y e . " A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h e P r i n t e d W o r k s o f F r e d e r i c W i l l i a m H o w a y . " B . C . H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . 8 , n o . 1 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 4 ) : 2 7 - 5 1 . " M a k e r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y — F r a n k F a i r c h i l d W e s b r o o k , " U B C A l u m n i C h r o n i c l e ( A u t u m n 1 9 5 5 ) : 1 6 - 1 7 . " M a k e r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y — L e m u e l R o b e r t s o n . " U . B . C . A l u m n i C h r o n i c l e . ( S p r i n g 1 9 5 5 ) : 1 8 - 1 9 . M c D o n a l d , R o b e r t A J . " W o r k i n g C l a s s V a n c o u v e r , 1 8 8 6 - 1 9 1 4 : U r b a n i s m a n d C l a s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " B . C . S t u d i e s 6 9 - 7 0 ( S p r i n g - S u m m e r 1 9 8 6 ) : 3 3 - 6 9 . R a n t a , L a w r e n c e . " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e . " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e C o l l e c t i o n , B o x 1 - 1 , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . 1 2 7 S h e e h a n , N a n c y M . a n d J . D o n a l d W i l s o n , " F r o m N o r m a l S c h o o l t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y t o t h e C o l l e g e o f T e a c h e r s : T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n f o r T e a c h i n g 2 0 , n o . 1 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 2 3 - 3 7 . W e s t m i n s t e r H a l l a n d F a r t h e s t W e s t R e v i e w . V a n c o u v e r . T h e s e s G i l e s , V a l e r i e . " H i s t o r i c a l E v o l u t i o n o f t h e O f f i c e o f D e p u t y M i n i s t e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E d u c a t i o n P o l i c y M a k i n g 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 4 5 : T h e C a r e e r o f S a m u e l J o h n W i l l i s . " P h . D . t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 9 3 . H u n t , I a n . " M u t u a l E n l i g h t e n m e n t i n V a n c o u v e r , 1 8 8 6 - 1 9 1 6 . " E d . D . t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 7 . M c D o n a l d , R o b e r t A . J . " B u s i n e s s L e a d e r s i n E a r l y V a n c o u v e r 1 8 8 6 - 1 9 1 4 . " P h . D . t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 . S e l m a n , G o r d o n . " A H i s t o r y o f t h e E x t e n s i o n a n d A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 9 1 5 t o 1 9 5 5 . " M . A . t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 3 . B o o k s B a r m a n , J e a n . T h e W e s t B e y o n d t h e W e s t : A H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 9 1 . B e r g e r , C a r l . S c i e n c e . G o d , a n d N a t u r e i n V i c t o r i a n C a n a d a . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 . C l e a r e , J o h n . M o u n t a i n s . L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 7 5 . E n g l a n d , R o b e r t . T h e T h r e a t t o D i s i n t e r e s t e d E d u c a t i o n : A C h a l l e n g e . ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 3 7 ) . G i b s o n , W i l l i a m C . 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A P P E N D I X 1 T H E V A N C O U V E R I N S T I T U T E : L E C T U R E S 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 3 9 T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f V I l e c t u r e s 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 3 9 , p r o v i d i n g t h e s p e a k e r , d a t e , a n d t i t l e . I t a l s o p r e s e n t s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e l e c t u r e s i n t o v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s . " S c i e n c e " ( S c ) d e n o t e s l e c t u r e s d e a l i n g w i t h a s p e c t s o f n a t u r a l a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e ( p h y s i c s , a s t r o n o m y , c h e m i s t r y , b i o l o g y , e n g i n e e r i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e ) ; " A r t s " ( A r ) d e n o t e s l e c t u r e s d e a l i n g w i t h o t h e r a c a d e m i c t o p i c s ( p h i l o s o p h y , h i s t o r y , b i o g r a p h y , g e o g r a p h y , l i t e r a t u r e ) ; " S o c i a l " ( S o ) i n d i c a t e s l e c t u r e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p u b l i c s o c i a l c o n c e r n s ( e d u c a t i o n , p o l i t i c s , e c o n o m i c s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s ) ; " F i n e A r t s " ( F A ) d e n o t e s a r t i s t i c p e r f o r m a n c e s o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s , o r l e c t u r e s o n a r t i s t i c t o p i c s o t h e r t h a n l i t e r a t u r e ( m u s i c o r p a m t i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n ) ; " O t h e r " ( O t ) i n c l u d e s t o p i c s o f t r a v e l , m o u n t a i n e e r i n g , i n d u s t r y , p r o f e s s i o n s . U n k n o w n t i t l e s a r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d ( ? ) . T h e l i s t i s c o m p i l e d f r o m t h e P r o g r a m s , V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e C o l l e c t i o n , B o x 4 - 5 , a n d m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y b y i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e V I M i n u t e s . Y e a r D a t e S p e a k e r 1 9 1 6 O c t . 1 2 A r c h i b a l d , E . H . 1 9 1 6 O c t . 2 1 H o w a r d , R o s s i t e r 1 9 1 6 O c t . 2 6 A r c h i b a l d , E . H . 1 9 1 6 N o v . 2 E a s t m a n , M a c k T y p e T i t l e S c T h e A t o m o f t h e C h e m i s t F A O u r A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n h e r i t a n c e f r o m t h e R e n a i s s a n c e S c T h e A t o m o f t h e S c i e n t i s t ( C o n c l u d e d ) A r B r a n d y a n d t h e F u r T r a d e i n N e w F r a n c e , 1 6 1 0 - 1 7 6 0 1 3 1 1 9 1 6 N o v . 9 C l a r k , R H . S c 1 9 1 6 N o v . 1 6 A s h t o n , H . A r 1 9 1 6 N o v . 2 3 L a r s e n , T h o r l i e f A r 1 9 1 6 N o v . 3 0 H a l l , T . P . S o 1 9 1 6 D e c . 4 B o g g s , T . H . S o 1 9 1 6 D e c . 7 W e s b r o o k , F r a n k F . S c 1 9 1 6 D e c . 1 4 T u p p e r , S i r C h a r l e s ? H . 1 9 1 7 J a n . 1 1 W o o d , F . G . C . A r 1 9 1 7 J a n . 1 8 D a v i d s o n , J . G . S c 1 9 1 7 J a n . 2 5 S c h o l e f i e l d , E . O . S . A r 1 9 1 7 F e b . 1 H a g g e n , E . A . S o 1 9 1 7 F e b . 8 W a d e , F . C . A r 1 9 1 7 F e b . 1 5 K l i n c k , L . S . S c 1 9 1 7 F e b . 2 2 M a c B e t h , R e v . R G . A r 1 9 1 7 M a r . 1 F r i p p , R M a c K a y F A 1 9 1 7 M a r . 8 H o d g e , E . T . S c 1 3 2 C a n W e M a n u f a c t u r e O u r O w n C h e m i c a l s i n C a n a d a ? M a d a m e d e S e v i g n e T h e R o m a n t i c P e r i o d o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e T h e P r e s e n t P h a s e o f S o c i a l E v o l u t i o n T h e H i g h C o s t o f L i v i n g . I t s C a u s e s a n d R e m e d i e s B a c t e r i a S u b j e c t T . B . A . E n g l i s h D r a m a i n i t s R e l a t i o n t o P r e s e n t - d a y P r o b l e m s T h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W a s t e P r o d u c t s E a r l y S e t t l e m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T h e R e l a t i o n o f P r e c i o u s M e t a l s t o F i n a n c e a n d B a n k i n g T h e U n i t e d E m p i r e L o y a l i s t s o f O n t a r i o T h e E v o l u t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e T h e E a r l y S e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e R e d R i v e r V a l l e y T h e E v o l u t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t u r e from t h e P r i m i t i v e t o t h e R o m a n e s q u e M o u n t a i n s a n d H o w T h e y a r e F o r m e d 1 9 1 7 M a r . 1 5 1 9 1 7 M a r . 2 2 1 9 1 7 O c t . 5 1 9 1 7 O c t . 1 1 1 9 1 7 O c t . 1 8 1 9 1 7 O c t . 2 5 1 9 1 7 N o v . 1 1 9 1 7 N o v . 8 1 9 1 7 N o v . 1 5 1 9 1 7 N o v . 2 2 1 9 1 7 N o v . 2 9 1 9 1 7 D e c . 6 1 9 1 7 D e c . 1 3 1 9 1 7 D e c . ? 1 9 1 8 J a n . 1 0 W e s t o n , W . P . R e i d , R . L . 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S c T h e M a g n e t a n d I t s M o d e r n A p p l i c a t i o n F A T h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s . S o I n d u s t r i a l A c c i d e n t s a n d W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n . S c A S u r v e y o f O u r N a t i v e F l o r a . A r T h e C o i n a g e o f G o l d C o i n s i n B . C . S c F A S t . P e t e r a n d S t . P a u l i n R o m e S c G r o w t h , D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E v o l u t i o n . 1 3 3 1 9 1 8 J a n . 1 7 J a m i e s o n , M r s . J . S . S o R e c e n t T e n d e n c i e s i n S o c i a l i s m . 1 9 1 8 J a n . 2 4 A s h t o n , H . 1 9 1 8 J a n . 3 1 T r o t t e r , W . R . 1 9 1 8 F e b . 7 W h e e l e r , A r t h u r O . 1 9 1 8 F e b . 1 4 S h a w , H . C . 1 9 1 8 F e b . 2 1 1 9 1 8 F e b . 2 7 A n d e r s o n , L . F . 1 9 1 8 F e b . 2 8 C l a r k , R . H . 1 9 1 8 M a r . 7 C l e m e n t , M r . J u s t i c e 1 9 1 8 M a r . 1 4 K i n g s l e y , E . 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T B A A r R a b i n d r a n a t h T a g o r e A r T h e C a t h e d r a l s a n d P u b l i c B u i l d i n g s i n B e l g i u m a n d N o r t h e r n F r a n c e a s A f f e c t e d b y t h e W a r . A r T h e S p a n i a r d s a t N o o t k a . S c S a v i n g B a b i e s . 1 3 4 1 9 1 8 O c t . 1 7 ? 1 9 1 8 O c t . 2 4 P r i t c h a r d . W . A . S o 1 9 1 8 O c t . 3 1 H e b b , T . C . S c 1 9 1 8 N o v . 7 R i d i n g t o n , J o h n A r 1 9 1 8 N o v . 1 4 T w i z e l l , R . P . S . F A 1 9 1 8 N o v . 2 1 H i l l - T o u t , C h a r l e s S c 1 9 1 8 N o v . 2 8 ? 1 9 1 8 D e c . 5 S p a r l i n g , R . S c 1 9 1 8 D e c . 1 3 G o w e n , R e v . H . H . A r 1 9 1 9 J a n . 9 B u r s i l l , J . F r a n c i s A r 1 9 1 9 J a n . 1 6 M c E v o y , B e r n a r d F A 1 9 1 9 J a n . 2 3 G o r d o n , J . S . S c 1 9 1 9 J a n . 3 0 M a k o v s k i , L . W . A r 1 9 1 9 F e b . 6 R i d i n g t o n , J o h n A r 1 9 1 9 F e b . 1 3 H a l l , T P . 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P e a c e R i v e r O p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e A t h e n i a n A c r o p o l i s . H o w t o R e c o g n i z e t h e P r i n c i p a l S t y l e s o f A r c h i t e c t u r e . T h e R o m a n c e o f B i o l o g y . T h e R o m a n c e o f P r e h i s t o r i c M a n . T h e R o m a n c e o f A s t r o n o m y . T h e P r o s p e c t o r a s a F a c t o r i n t h e E x p a n s i o n o f C i v i l i z a t i o n . T h e F o r e s t R e g i o n s o f B . C . S a m S l i c k M a t t h e w A r n o l d a s M i d - V i c t o r i a n C r i t i c o f L i t e r a t u r e , a n d P o e t . F u e l a s a D e t e r m i n i n g F a c t o r i n t h e F u t u r e H i s t o r y o f W e s t e r n C a n a d a . T h e R o m a n c e o f C h e m i s t r y . D e m o c r a c y : A F a i l u r e , A n A c h i e v e m e n t o r a H o p e . T h e A g e o f t h e E a r t h . A C i t y M i l k S u p p l y . T h e M i n d o f P r i m i t i v e M a n . 1 9 2 0 n . d . 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T h e D e s t r u c t i o n o f L a w b y L e g i s l a t i o n . D a v i d T h o m p s o n . N i a g a r a , t h e F i r s t C a p i t a l o f U p p e r C a n a d a . A n c i e n t E g y p t . S o m e G e o l o g i c a l D i s c o v e r i e s i n t h e N o r t h . E a r t h q u a k e s a n d h o w t h e y a r e R e c o r d e d . 1 4 0 1 9 2 3 N o v . 1 D u n l o p , W . R . A r 1 9 2 3 N o v . 8 R e e s - T h o m a s , M r s . F A 1 9 2 3 N o v . 1 5 F r a s e r , M i s s A . E r m a t i n g e r F A 1 9 2 3 N o v . 2 2 O u t r a m , S i r J a m e s O t 1 9 2 3 N o v . 2 9 C o l e m a n , H . T . J . A r 1 9 2 3 D e c . 6 T o d d , O . J . A r 1 9 2 4 J a n . 1 0 O d i u m , E . O t 1 9 2 4 J a n . 1 7 T u r n b u l l , J . M . S c 1 9 2 4 J a n . 2 4 S e d g e w i c k , G . G . A r 1 9 2 4 J a n . 3 1 S a d l e r , W i l f r e d A r 1 9 2 4 F e b . 7 P l a s k e t t , J . S . S c 1 9 2 4 F e b . 1 4 C l a r k , A F . B . A r 1 9 2 4 F e b . 2 1 B r o c k , R W . 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M y s t i c i s m i n C o m p a r a t i v e R e l i g i o n s . T h e L o n d o n o f C h a r l e s D i c k e n s . E d u c a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e O r i e n t . A s p e c t s o f I m p e r i a l F e d e r a t i o n . 1 4 1 1 9 2 4 O c t . 1 6 A n g u s , H . F . S o 1 9 2 4 O c t . 2 3 D a v i e s , K . C . J . A r 1 9 2 4 O c t . 3 0 M a c B e t h , R e v . R . G . A r 1 9 2 4 N o v . 6 R e i d , R . L . S o 1 9 2 4 N o v . 1 3 M c K i l l o p , A . L . A r 1 9 2 4 N o v . 2 0 D u c k e r i n g , W . E . A r 1 9 2 4 N o v . 2 7 M o r r i s o n , M r . S o J u s t i c e 1 9 2 4 D e c . 4 R o s s , R e v . J . J . A r 1 9 2 4 D e c . 1 1 B o v i n g , P . A . S c 1 9 2 5 J a n . 8 V i c k e r s , H . S c 1 9 2 5 J a n . 1 5 S o v e r e i g n , R e v . O t A . H . 1 9 2 5 J a n . 2 2 M a c l n n e s , I s a b e l O t 1 9 2 5 J a n . 2 9 H a r p e r , W . E . S c 1 9 2 5 F e b . 5 O g d e n , R e v . J . W . A r 1 9 2 5 F e b . 1 2 C h r i s t i e , H . R . S c 1 9 2 5 F e b . 1 9 C o u l t h a r d , M r s . F A W a l t e r 1 9 2 5 F e b . 2 6 C l e m e n s , W A S c T r a d e a n d U n e m p l o y m e n t i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . T h e C i t i e s o f t h e M o g u l s . T h e R o m a n c e o f t h e R o y a l M o u n t e d . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s . T h e T r u t h A b o u t E i n s t e i n . R e l i g i o n i n S c i e n c e , a n d S c i e n c e i n R e l i g i o n , b y a L a y m a n . J u d i c i a l T r i b u l a t i o n s . T h e L a n d o f t h e C a e s a r s . B r e e d i n g a n d t h e S t a t e R a d i o T e l e g r a p h y a n d T e l e p h o n y . M o u n t G a r i b a l d i . P i c t u r e s q u e B a v a r i a . S o m e F a m o u s O b s e r v a t o r i e s a n d t h e i r W o r k . A t h e n s , t h e G l o r y t h a t w a s G r e e c e . F o r e s t s a n d W a t e r S u p p l y . B r i t i s h M u s i c . L i f e i n I n l a n d W a t e r s . 1 4 2 1 9 2 5 M a r . 5 S e d g e w i c k , G . G . A r 1 9 2 5 M a r . 1 2 G u e r n s e y , F . W . S c 1 9 2 5 M a r . 1 9 D i c k s o n , F r a n k S c 1 9 2 5 M a r . 2 6 G o w e n , H . H . A r 1 9 2 5 A p r i l 3 W e i r , G . M . S o 1 9 2 5 O c t . 8 D a v i d s o n , J . A r 1 9 2 5 O c t . 2 2 H i l l - T o u t , C h a r l e s A r 1 9 2 5 O c t . 2 9 W e i r , G . M . S o 1 9 2 5 N o v . 5 W i l l i a m s , M . Y . A r 1 9 2 5 N o v . 1 2 S a g e , W . N . A r 1 9 2 5 N o v . 1 9 F o s t e r , W . W . O t 1 9 2 5 N o v . 2 6 M a c l n n e s , I s a b e l S o 1 9 2 5 D e c . 3 W a r d , R e v . H . L . A r 1 9 2 5 D e c . 1 0 J a m i e s o n , M i s s A B . S o 1 9 2 5 D e c . 1 7 H o o d , R o b e r t A . A r 1 9 2 6 J a n . 7 N e l s o n , M i s s B l a n c h e B . F A 1 9 2 6 J a n . 1 4 D u n l o p , W . R . A r 1 9 2 6 J a n . 2 1 R i d i n g t o n , J o h n A r 1 9 2 6 J a n . 2 8 S p e n c e r , G . J . 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S c T h e I n f l u e n c e o f t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e o n t h e A r t o f S i n g i n g . T h e E v o l u t i o n o f t h e S h a k e s p e a r e a n D r a m a . O r e D e p o s i t s o f B . C . C o n s t a n t i n o p l e a s I s a w i t , o r W h e r e E a s t m e e t s W e s t . A D a y o n t h e S a c r e d M o u n t a i n o f R o m e . T h e A l l e g e d P u b l i c H e a l t h o f t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t . T h e P a c i f i c O c e a n , i n H i s t o r y a n d i n V i s i o n . P u b l i c O p i n i o n . S o u t h A f r i c a a n d t h e E m p i r e . K i p l i n g a n d H i s P o e t r y . S t e l l a r E v o l u t i o n . E a r t h q u a k e s a s A f f e c t i n g t h i s C o n t i n e n t T h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e S t a t e A n H o u r w i t h a P e s s i m i s t . M e d i a e v a l M u s i c . I r o n ~ C o l d I r o n . G e o l o g i c a l F e a t u r e s o f t h e C o a s t R a n g e o f B . 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