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Town and gown : the early history of the Vancouver Institute Damer, Eric John 1995

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TOWN AND GOWN: THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE VANCOUVER INSTITUTE by ERIC JOHN DAMER B.A., The University of Victoria, 1989 Diploma in Education, The University of British Columbia, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1995 © Eric John Darner, 1995  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University  of  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for  permission for extensive  copying of  this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the  department  or  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date I W ^ L -  DE-6 (2/88)  IH  /fqS"  advanced  British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that by  an  head of my copying  or  my written  A B S T R A C T  T o w n the  a n d  G o w n : The Early History of The Vancouver  e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d first twenty-three years  institution. Vancouver until  It e x p l o r e s t h e Institute  1939.  i n  compatible interests promoters  were  argues  follows  that the  to  decide not  its administrative  growth of the  only o n the  location, but  its symbolic association as well.  some  a  extent,  Vancouver  political victory for those  Institute's  proper  social  location.  ii  creation of The development mutually  institution, but  Institute's  later  physical  T h e final decision was,  w h o held  about  education  initial promoters held  that encouraged the  forced  of that adult  social roots that help explain the  1916, a n d  T h e thesis  Institute" is  to  a particular view of The  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  List of Tables  v  Preface  vi  Acknowledgements  xiii  Chapter One  Preparing for The Vancouver Institute Historical Currents Mutual Enlightenment The University of British Columbia Rising Professionalization Key Leaders Robertson Wesbrook Conclusion  1 3 3 7 10 16 17 21 26  Chapter Two  Town and Gown: Stability, 1916-1925 Creating The Vancouver Institute Affiliates The University of British Columbia Mutual Enlightenment Affiliates Professional Affiliates Growth Conclusion  28 29 35 37 40 52 56 59  Chapter Three  Left in Town: 1925-1929 A Town-Oriented Vancouver Institute Council Homelessness and Dwindling Support Affiliated Organizations Back to UBC Conclusion  61 62 62 69 74 78 83  iii  Chapter F o u r  Return  to  Gown:  Location Changes, The  1929-1939 Service Continues  Move  Service as U s u a l  8 8  Affiliated  91  Societies  University Takes  W o r k s  Notice  1  103 105  Social Pressures  105  R e m a k i n g The V a n c o u v e r Institute  107  Syllabus Reorientation  113  Increased  1 1 6  Attendance  Conclusion  118  Surnmary  1 1 9  Cited  A p p e n d i x  8 6 8 7  Popularity rise  Chapter Five  8 6  1 2 5  Lectures,  1916-1939  iv  131  LIST O F  T A B L E S  Table  Page  1. P l a n n e r s  and  Institute,  spring  2. First C o u n c i l  3. Longest The  First Supporters  of The  1916  13  of T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute,  Vancouver  Institute,  Types,  1916-1925  Lecture  5.  M u t u a l Enlightenment  6.  Professional A s s o c i a t i o n Affiliates,  7.  M e m b e r s h i p  8.  Longest  9.  3 2  3 3  3 5  Affiliates,  Attendance,  pre-1925  pre-1925  1916-1925  41  5 2  5 7  Serving Councillors of  Institute,  Types,  10.  M e m b e r s h i p  11.  Longest  The  1916-1925  and  Vancouver  Lecture  1916  Serving Councillors of  4.  The  Vancouver  1925-1929  1925-1929  and  6 3  6 8  Attendance,  1925-1929  71  Serving Councillors of  Vancouver  Types,  Institute,  1929-1933  1925-1933  8 9  12.  Lecture  9 0  13.  Attendance,  14.  Longest  Serving Councillors, 1929-1939  112  15.  Lecture  Types,  114  16.  M e m b e r s h i p  1929-1933  104  1933-1939  and  Attendance,  1933-1939  v  117  P R E F A C E  For there was B o t h  specialists a n d  supplied were  also a good deal of lecturing... intellectual  middle-class citizens of the  still deeply attached  culture,  a l t h o u g h it h a d  of its former meaning) lectures.  H e r m a n n  Hesse  a n d well i n the  farthest  been  with  reaches  of the  the wars h o m e  A c a d e m y of Science, Alpine Club,  traditions  status of the  Vancouver,  of organizations  local Art, Historical,  a n d  British that  Scientific  the  most  m a n y more.  prestigious of its  n e w provincial university with the  (VI) w a s  alive  C a n a d i a n Club, Archaeological Society,  of existing societies, T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute  efforts  of  to learn that lectures were  D i c k e n s Society, a n d  stands out as  T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute the  robbed  large n u m b e r s  to a n u m b e r  the  leading institutionalized academic  unite  of  British Empire.  Association, University Women's Club,  C o m b i n i n g the  notion  (who  long since been  reassured  regularly provided public lectures:  institution, however,  to the  age  1  m a y have  Columbia was between  privateers  lecture  One  kind. airs  became  the  and city's  series.  established i n  of local societies i n providing a  1916 as  lecture  a n  series,  organization hosted  b y  Hermann Hesse, Magister Ludl. trans. Richard and Clara Winston (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1969), 13. 1  vi  to the  fledgling University of British C o l u m b i a VI  h a s long been  a n d  about  that would  prove to have  to provide the lectures,  interesting implications.  societies)  a  This  thesis  the combination of town a n d gown, a n d h o w the V I grew from  1 9 1 6 to a stable  W h a t provide  makes  the V I especially interesting is that it continues  Saturday  regularly draws location.  evening lectures, mass  a n average  despite  activities. audience  Prominent academics,  ranging from  a n  is  idea  organization b y 1939.  television a n d other  L a m a  A popular description of the  it c o m b i n e d "town" (local citizens a n d their  "gown" (university representatives)  distinction  in  that  (UBC).  h a s attracted  competition  During its September of seven hundred  artists,  science a n d literature,  considerable  today  to April  to politics a n d painting.  people packed into several lecture halls!  to date, w i t h  from  season,  it  to lectures at its U B C  a n d public figures address  the largest audience  to  some  topics  T h e Dalai  twelve  Y e tthe VI, a product  hundred  of its history,  is still directed b y councillors from b o t h the U B C a n d V a n c o u v e r communities,  a n d h a s never charged  There h a s not yet been  a n admission  a systematic  fee.  study of the organization.  Tlppett, i n h e r survey of cultural institutions, touches social events  linked  2  to the VI, b u t does  o n several bodies  n o t identify the Institute  Various popular histories ofVancouver a n d British C o l u m b i a overlook  2  the V I .  4  Maria  itself.  a n d 3  similarly  If P a t r i c i a R o y Is r i g h t t o s e e t h e V I a s i n t e g r a l t o t h e  Much of this information can be found on The Vancouver Institute annual program.  Maria Tlppett. Making Culture: English-Canadian Institutions and the Arts before the Massev Commission (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990). 3  For example, no mention can be found in Alan Morley. Vancouver (Vancouver: Mitchell Press, 1961). Nor is the VI referred to in Eric Nicol, Vancouver (Toronto: Doubleday, 4  vii  cultural and educational leadership offered by the new University of British Columbia, then historians of province and city might want to reconsider its significance.  5  Curiously, The Vancouver Institute" is located on a map in  Vancouver: A Visual History, with essentially no explanation.  6  Harry Logan's popular history of UBC does make several references to the VI, but without elaboration. It also receives passing mention in the early 7  UBC Alumni Chronicle and Peter Waite's biography of Larry MacKenzie. A 8  number of prominent Vancouver residents who worked to support or to govern the VI also mention the Institute. M.Y. Williams, a UBC faculty member who worked for a number of years as a VI councillor, wrote a brief history of the VTs first two decades. It summarizes significant events in the VTs early life, but offers little explanation as to why these events occurred, and virtually no reference to the social setting. It does, however, reveal Williams's attitudes about the VI.  9  The founding of the VI is listed in Gordon Selman's chronology of adult education in British Columbia, and Ian Hunt considers the VTs influence in  1978) or Jean Barman, The West Bevond the West (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991). Patricia Roy, Vancouver: An Illustrated History (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1980), 121. 5  Bruce MacDonald, Vancouver: A Visual History (Vancouver Talon Books, 1992), 34. The VI is placed correctly on a street map but with an incorrect date and no explanation. 6  7  Harry Logan, Tuum Est (VancouvenThe University of British Columbia, 1958).  "Makers of the University—Frank Fairchild Wesbrook," UBC Alumni Chronicle (Autumn 1955), 17. Peter Waite. Lord of Point Grev: Larrv MacKenzie of UBC. (Vancouver: The University of British Columbia Press, 1987), 107. 8  M.Y. Williams, "The History of the Vancouver Institute." Vancouver, University of British Columbia.Special Collections, Vancouver Institute Collection, Box 1-2. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled as VI Collection.) 9  viii  his study of mutual enlightenment in Vancouver.  10  Since the VI grew out of  the adult education traditions of certain local "learned" societies and later became inextricably linked to UBC's extension efforts, a study of the VI would form a kind of bridge between Hunt's work on mutual enlightenment and Selman's history of UBC Extension.  11  Whether in the perspective of  Vancouver, UBC or adult education history, the VI is a noteworthy but unexamined entity. The VI deserves attention not just because it was the leading organization of its kind, but also for its active role in the evolution of several movements of the day: self improvement through mutual enlightenment, the development of adult education, UBC's growing influence, social issues (including labour, public health, and women's issues), and economic promotion. The VI attracted the support of people who were working to advance these social causes, and became itself a factor in their development. On the other hand, the VI embodied the educational efforts and interests of a wealthy and influential segment of Vancouver's population, and so became a part of the story of this group's contribution to the local society. The Vancouver Institute is integral to Vancouver's social and cultural history, and forms an impressive thread in the historical tapestry of adult education.  Gordon Selman, A Chronology of Adult Education In British Columbia.. Occasional Papers in Continuing Education, no. 14 {Vancouver: Centre for Continuing Education, The University of British Columbia, 1977), 14. Ian Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment in Vancouver, 1886-1916* (Ed.D. thesis, University of British Columbia. 1987),43. Hunt suggests that "the fragmentation of intellectual and cultural leadership was finally resolved In 1916 by the foundation of the Vancouver Institute." 10  Gordon Selman, "History of Extension Department University of British Columbia" (MA. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1963). 1 1  ix  My study is limited in several respects. It is but one of many possible perspectives on the institution, offering an adrninistrative/political account of the VI between 1916 and 1939, and on occasion referring to the social context for explanation. I wanted primarily to know what happened, and who worked to promote and to direct the VI and why. I ended by seeing the two main categories of supporter as town (citizens who had no strong UBC affiliation and their societies) and gown (those with strong UBC connections, primarily as faculty members). This thesis is not about the learning or motivation of VI audiences. It is not primarily about the economic life or significance of associated players, nor does it examine the aesthetic or intellectual implications inherent in the lectures themselves. It describes neither the psychological outlooks of those involved nor the demographic patterns of those who participated. Race, gender, and class matters could each be examined in relation to the VI, but remain for some future writer to consider. This history is largely based on primary sources located in archival collections. The Vancouver Institute Collection at UBC Special Collections contains five boxes of material, including minutes, membership lists, treasurer reports, programs, scrapbooks, and correspondence. These materials are particularly suited to an administrative and political history of the VI, but admit of some social questions. The UBC Board of Governors, Senate, and Department of Extension collections (also at UBC Special Collections) document UBC's reasons to be interested in the VI. The records of several Vancouver societies that participated in the VI can be found in the Vancouver City Archives, and family papers are found both in the Vancouver and UBC archives. Finally, newspaper articles provide another source of VI information. Many of these are found as clippings  x  within the VI collection, whereas others are found in newspaper collections or microfiche files. Newspaper articles report on VI activities and provide biographical information. These primary sources, although not reliably representative and complete (particularly in the case of the Institute minutes), provide useful evidence as to what transpired in the VI and how the organization related to its world.  12  Secondary sources are used where necessary to describe the VTs social setting. Several well regarded histories of Vancouver are supplemented with broader histories of British Columbia, and some national and international research is also included. These sources help to show the relation of the VI with other social developments occurring prior to and during the period of this study. Chapter 1, Preparing for The Vancouver Institute, examines social currents prior to 1916 that helped give birth to the VI. Vancouver's mutual enlightenment and university movements, together with a rising educated population, provided the background for the VTs establishment and leadership. This leadership grew out of prior social circumstances, but came to have a character of its own. Chapter 2 deals with the period from 1916 to 1925, arguing this was a period of political balance between town and gown in VI affairs and thus a time of stability and increasing popularity. Chapter 3 describes the period from 1925 to 1929 as a moment when the VI became more town-oriented. Chapter 4, in contrast, describes an increasingly strong gown presence from 1929 to 1939. This evolution  One conspicuous limitation in the VI minutes is that they rarely say much about debate in the VI. This was an amateur organization, and the voluntary secretary only wrote down what seemed interesting to him or her. The secretary for 1920-21 did not record any minutes at all. 12  xi  began with the VTs symbolically important move to UBC's Point Grey campus, but became a predorriinant feature of the Institute after 1933. Town and Gown is a first look at a long-standing Vancouver institution of adult education; at the time of writing. The Vancouver Institute remains a popular lecture series. If this study adds to an understanding of adult education in British Columbia, or encourages further studies of the VI or its role in the historical development of adult education in British Columbia, then it will have served a useful purpose.  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  As with other works, the author's name does not identify all who contributed to the thesis. I would like to thank the many people who, directly or indirectly, helped with this project. My committee members were especially helpful. Professor William Bruneau worked tirelessly yet gently with his green-inked scalpel to draw from me a better thesis, demonstrating that sharp cuts are indeed painless and heal without scars. It was my good fortune to have him as my research supervisor. To Professor William S. Griffith goes considerable thanks, not only for his careful and thoughtful suggestions on the thesis, but for planting the seed that started the project. His on-going support throughout my recent studies is greatly appreciated. The knowledge and careful eye of Professor Neil Sutherland brought additional insight to the form and content of this thesis, and his contributions were highly valued. Above all, I would like to thank my committee members for their wise counsel, and for helping to make writing this thesis an enjoyable and enriching experience. I would also like to thank friends, colleagues, and other faculty members for their encouragement. My family has been particularly supportive, and my parents deserve special recognition for their unwavering support. Despite the efforts of those who have been involved with this thesis, any remaining errors are my own responsibility.  xiii  C H A P T E R P R E P A R I N G  F O R T H E V A N C O U V E R  F e w i n s t i t u t i o n s are b o r n b y fiat a n d unannounced.  1  thrust  T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute,  INSTITUTE  into the world  like other  adult  completely  educational  institutions, w a s not created i n a social v a c u u m b u t grew out of its time  and  place.  the  A s G o r d o n S e l m a n m i g h t suggest,  society within w h i c h h o w  it b e c a m e  it f u n c t i o n e d .  important  to those  1  To understand  w h o  grown  Vancouver  rose  h a d  Pacific C o a s t .  2  population, but British  century's  V T s establishment  first decade;  considerably, and  become  the  the  local  population nearly  undisputed  nature of  promoted i n  early 1900s was i n m a n y ways a n unstable  quickly i n the  development  to the  h o w the V I began  organized a n d  e x a m i n e V a n c o u v e r society prior to the  Vancouver i n the  it responded  it, o n e  city.  economy  metropolitan centre  seeking wealth jostled with  suffragists  tested and  each other  It  had  boomed,  quadrupled. for  a strong British and American population was social attitudes  must  1916.  Canada's  N a t i v e - b o r n C a n a d i a n s a c c o u n t e d for n e a r l y h a l f of  and American  and  other.  4  also  Civic  reformers.  5  the present.  3  boosters  Socialists  Gordon Selman, "The Canadian Movement in Context," The Foundations of Adult Education in Canada (Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 1993), 35. 1  Patricia Roy, Vancouver: An Illustrated History (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company), 51. 2  Norbert MacDonald, Distant Neighbours: A Comparative History of Seattle & Vancouver. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987) chapter 4. 3  4  N . MacDonald, Neighbours. 43.  Roy, Vancouver. 51; Jean Barman, The West Bevond the West: A History of British Columbia. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991), 210. 5  1  challenged churches  the developing economic order,  a n d churchmen," h a d a  a n d Vancouver, a  "city o f  disturbing "immoral underside."  6  V a n c o u v e r w a s dominated b y eager y o u n g m e n o n a n "untrammeled for  individual  The the  economic  1 9 1 2 depression  betterment."  shook  7  the confidence  of the previous  F i r s t W o r l d W a r h a d a d i r e c t effect o n a l l a s p e c t s o f life  British  C o l u m b i a .  8  E c o n o m i c a n d social progress  Vancouverites, b u t the methods less  accessible.  some career  hungry,  to achieve t h e m  Well-organized financial  of the leaders  of those  whereas  cultural betterment.  interests  others  were  H o wcould  seemed became  decade,  available to less secure  m a n y a n d  competed;  strictly self-serving a n d profit or  concerned  with  public welfare  realize their aspirations?  to be aware  the V I b e useful to achieve goals, whether  a n d  throughout  a n d political interests  were  people  considering the VI, it is important  quest  of this sentiment:  for oneself,  one's  or  In h o w might  group,  or  one's  cause?  Three the  aspects of early Vancouver society h a d a direct influence o n the V I  m u t u a l  and  enlightenment  their traditions  movement,  of public lectures;  recognition of a n d support  professionals, w h o promoted arose  i n the presence  gave  rise to learned  the university movement,  societies providing  for a n institution of higher education i n British  C o l u m b i a ; a n d a rise i n the n u m b e r  VI  w h i c h  a n d kinds of formally  a particular range  o f these forces.  educated  of tastes a n d interests.  T h e founders  T h e  of the V I were  Robert A.J. McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver, 1886-1914: Urbanism and Class in British Columbia," B.C. Studies 69-70 (Spring-Summer 1986), 34; Roy, Vancouver. 82. 6  RA.J. McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver," 65.  7  Roy, Vancouver. 87; Barman, The West. 198.  8  2.  arguably products Vancouver  of these forces.  for s o m e  Fairchild Wesbrook  time  preceding  k n e w  and  were  play i n E d w a r d i a n Vancouver. background Robertson  to the  a n d  Lemuel Robertson,  formation  the  sensitive  This chapter  were  m u t u a l three  preceding separately, VI.  distinct but  these  interrelated  they  grew  alongside  demonstrated  movements  and  phenomenal  accompanied some,  b y the  became  growth  foster  of the  appeared,  "mutual  of self-interest  at  historical w o r k  of  city.  and  Some 9  almost  Currents  other  professionalization  a n d  early V I  were  be  decades examined  d r a w n  (or h a d  together in been)  active  the i n  Enlightenment  to the  century  Vancouver  was  sort of city V a n c o u v e r should be.  population  growth were  took very seriously the  immediately A s  movements  promoters.  To that end, various  enlightenment."  of the  can  those w h o were  of early twentieth  prosperity  m a d e Vancouver worthy.  societies  the  F r a n k  significance of the  Although they  each  b y various views as  economic  improvement  newcomer  forms  social currents  M u t u a l  The  the  university, a n d  V T s establishment.  This was  to the  i n  Wesbrook.  enlightenment,  the  relative  explores  of the V I , a n d  Historical  The  VI, and  a resident  after  "learned"  only part of social and  cultural a n d  what  cultural  learned  Vancouver's incorporation, societies,  they  For  were  to  largely  N . MacDonald. Neighbours. 33. MacDonald argues that early Vancouverites were citybuilders as well as profiteers. 9  3  concerned M a n y  with amateur  research and  study  of those involved were prosperous and  British ideals city."  Ian  1  of high culture,  helped  has  described  the  enlightenment i n Vancouver of organizations,  attended  only to  of the  n u m b e r  first w e r e learned  emergence and at the  participants  turn  their  o w n  members,  "unenlightened  works.  inspired "an  b y  ugly,  smelly  the  C o l u m b i a  C o l u m b i a Mountaineering  University Women's  others turned  the  attention  and  to  the  the  T h e y were soon joined b y the  1  The  1  British  Section).  Natural The  Labour Council  activities, although  groups became  British  Vancouver  (Vancouver  oldest  British  Natural History Section of the  the V a n c o u v e r Trades a n d  both  V I .  Scientific Association, Vancouver's  Alpine C l u b of C a n a d a  interests, a n d  n u m b e r  organizations  their  Club, w h i c h w o u l d b e c o m e the  C l u b and  a  cultural, aesthetic,  Although some  also engaged i n similar voluntary educational particular  the  Through  V a n c o u v e r Archaeological Society; a n d  Society of Fine Arts; the  History Society; a n d  century.  mutual  b y H u n t w o u l d affiliate w i t h the  Art, Historical, and  society;  of the  of  masses."  of groups discussed  the  growth  s o u g h t to i m p r o v e  C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y of Science.  o w n  influential and,  temper what began as  social condition of Vancouver residents.  A  scientific  0  H u n t  plight  of literary or  each  were  had  early supporters of the  its VI.  Ian Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment in Vancouver: 1886-1916," (Ed.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1987); Roy, Vancouver. 29. 10  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. Data from this collection are sketchy and generally biased to promote the merits of the VI. Few records describe the debates that transpired, although the recorded outcomes can be given some credibility. Inferences based solely on VI records are tentative at best. 11  4  It w a s the  typical  general  These  other  m u t u a l  analogous  enlightenment  C a n a d i a n schools.  science  (particularly through and  hygiene),  interpreted programmes The  varying  to their  as  and  A m o n g nature  m a n u a l  of at least some and  the  "new  study),  training.  1  education"  2  A l t h o u g h the they  can  voluntary scientific a n d  be  science  (for e x a m p l e ,  the  (for e x a m p l e ,  physical recreation  hygiene  British  V I : lecture  topics  mountaineering, complicated  4  were  found  i n  often  were  interests  would  included science,  i n turn health,  The educational ideas championed  civics,  Others,  1 3  the  associations.  the  Alpine  (the A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e i n c l u d e d  These  or nature.  movement  (including  to  Columbia  p h y s i c i a n s ) , o r m a n u a l t r a i n i n g (the V a n c o u v e r A r t s a n d 1  civics,  Archaeological Society,  Mountaineering Club),  Society of Fine Arts).  turn-of-the-  topics  literary  coloured b y imperial sensibility.  promoted  and  i n  physical education  the  the  or  a n d  education" topics were  British Columbia A c a d e m y of Science, and  health  ideas  Scientific Association certainly promoted  high culture  degrees,  Canada),  membership  dealt with  "new  to fit specific V a n c o u v e r interests,  Art, Historical,  advanced  groups  to those i n f o r m i n g the  century  health  to provide lectures  public.  a n d  problems  of these groups  Club  of  several  Crafts Association,  be  expressed  through  patriotism,  at large i n  b y Sir William  this  M a c d o n a l d as  part  Neil Sutherland, Children In English-Canadian Society. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976), chapter 12. 12  13  Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment." 41.  Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," passim; Lawrence Ranta, "British Columbia Academy of Science," Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, British Columbia Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-1. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "Academy of Science Collection.") 14  5  of  the  "Macdonald/Robertson M o v e m e n t . "  helped  to finance M c G i l l  1  Macdonald,  5  University College of British  interestingly,  C o l u m b i a  i n  Isolated as V a n c o u v e r m a y have been, it w a s not w i t h o u t contact educational ideas elsewhere i n  The  first participants  Association A c a d e m y federate  (AHSA),  1  V I were  T h e Institute  7  coordinate  the Art, Historical,  was  a n d  a n d the  proposed as  existing societies, to  related lines of endeavor,  1  6  with  Canada.  the Archaeological Institute,  of Science. a n d  i n the  1906.  enhance  cultivate n e w fields."  1 8  a n d  Scientific  British  "a means each, S u c h  Columbia to  loosely  harmonize a  cooperative  effort is s i g n i f i c a n t i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f H u n t ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t m a n y o f t h e s e groups  (his "exemplars")  enlightenment  groups  ignored each  previously mentioned  within a couple of months, joined  a y e a r later.  interests  of the  other.  1  The  other  petitioned for  a n d the Alpine C l u b a n d  The V T s appeal was based  affiliating  9  m u t u a l membership  Society of Fine  Arts  o n its potential to further  the  societies.  Sutherland, Children. Chapter 12.  15  16  Harry Logan. Tuum Est (Vancouver: The University of British Columbia. 1958). 18.  Vancouver City Archives, Art, Historical, and Scientific Association Collection, Add. Mss. 336, Volume 2-10, Minutes, 23 March, 1916. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "AHSA Collection.") 17  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, Department of University Extension Collection, Box 3-1,Correspondence, 29 March, 1916. This statement was on the invitation to join the VI. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "UBC Extension Collection.") 18  19  Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment." 271. 6  The  The  V I was  University of British  indirectly yet  British C o l u m b i a (UBC). early as  location  constitution.  the  themes  w o u l d  also  of the find  Control of the argued  for a  to locate  the  established  McGill  proposed  university.  High  1870s,  Not only did U B C ' s  2 0  i n the  Before  U B C on  the  i n the  w h o  locally controlled  a  the  2  2  was  a  function  its  s p a r k the V I ,  of the  a popular  but  university  i s s u e for those  provincial government  McGill  decided  came  to  education  a  and  b y a  concern  and  1906, higher  few upset  Although  i n British C o l u m b i a , the  clearly dominated  i n  dominate  University of Toronto 2 3  1910  Victoria College  annoyed  university.  i n had  College), and,  McGill's dominance  indigenous  w h o  University  Initially through  2 1  loyalties to the  crucial role i n higher  university movement  University of  VI.  province.  w h o  a  n e w  existence  School (which became Vancouver  had  the  tip of Point Grey, M c G i l l  Vancouverites  the  control and  university was  i n British C o l u m b i a .  wished  b y  took twenty-five y e a r s to agree o n  University College i n Vancouver,  education  played  but  debates over the  affiliates  Vancouver  the  expression  n e w  powerfully influenced  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a residents first considered  university as and  C o l u m b i a  those  McGill  ethos  for local  of and  Logan, Tuum Est. 2; R Cole Harris "Locating the University of British Columbia" B.C. Studies 32 (Winter 1976-77), 107. 20  2 1  22  Harris. "Locating the University," 108-109.  Logan. Tuum Est. 23.  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, President's Office/Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-5, Minutes, 1906. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "Wesbrook Collection.") The unknown author recorded the notes at a public meeting to discuss the 1906 legislation concerning McGill's role in higher education in British Columbia. 23  7  public  control, a n d the movement  independent keen  o f McGill  continued.  o n a n independent  Furthermore,  to create a provincial university 2  4  T h e V I w o u l d attract people  a n d locally controlled educational  the V I w o u l d explicitly be a n independent  institution, whereas U B C h a d to be shared Columbia.  cause some  The This  with the Province of British  of the university were  is unsurprising  clashing immigrant  i n a province cultures.  related  2  5  a n d controversial  experiencing tremendous  C u l t u r a l differences,  practical  of a university.  2 6  development  w a s useless,"  "character-building" role of a university. Minister  perspectives  of Education, w a s sympathetic  2 7  because  a n d  between o n the  A l t h o u g h m a n y felt t h a t U B C s h o u l d b e  university for economic  all a b o u t classics o r literature  matters.  growth  particularly  a n d A m e r i c a n ideals, w o u l d i n f o r m different  importance  University a n d the  the institutional presence of U B C w o u l d  to fear that V I a u t o n o m y w a s w a n i n g .  functions  British  Later, even  organization.  Vancouver  Civic boosters mixed with graduates of McGill  University of Toronto.  w h o were  a  "the m a n w h o  others stressed  Henry E s s e n Young,  k n e w  the as  Provincial  to the former view yet declared  that  Logan, Tuum Est. 31.  24  W.R. Dunlop to P.T. Tiinms, 17 October 1933, VI Collection Box 2-15. Dunlop stressed the separation between UBC and the VI. 25  Harrls, "Locating the University," 125; Jean Barman, The West Bevond the West (Toronto: The University of Toronto Press. 1991), 137 ff. Among the middle-class, Barman suggests a division between leisurely, class-conscious Britons and more industrious AngloCanadians. N. MacDonald, Neighbours. 43, suggests, particularly in Vancouver, a clash between British and American social values. The division between British and AngloCanadian Vancouverites is also described by Roy, Vancouver. 60. 26  27  Daily Province. 4 February, 1908. Cited in Harris, "Locating the University," 113. 8  "character  building was  desire for a  the great  practical a n d  w h y U B C w a s  goal,  however  would be  finally w e l c o m e d students n u m b e r  defined.  a n d  remained  groups  C h a m b e r building  The  expressed  2  ample.  interested  of Mines)  i n the  i n 1915, it w a s  o f p r a c t i c a l fields, w h e r e a s  education)  9  3  i n the  as well as  establishment C o l u m b i a  of the  of U B C .  citizens a n d  the  operation of U B C .  reason  3  budget  for Classics support  W h e n U B C  (a s t a p l e  from  interested  i n the  cultural,  Like the  University, the V I was  "foreigners."  b y p r o u d Vancouverites interested  More  i n both the  to  Both  0  a  of liberal  individuals  i n d u s t r i a l f u n c t i o n o f U B C (for e x a m p l e , those  the  u n a b l e to provide education i n  T h e V I attracted  1  cultural reasons.  V I embodied these sentiments  not  (a m a j o r  V a n c o u v e r i t e s felt t h e i r city  f u n c t i o n (for e x a m p l e , m u t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t  structure  the  c o m m e r c i a l V a n c o u v e r ) , it w a s b a l a n c e d b y  be the best u n i v e r s i t y location for i n d u s t r i a l a n d these sentiments  Although  2 8  scientific university p r e d o m i n a t e d  located near  character-building  duty of a university."  the  character-  groups).  surrounding  the  controlled b y  importantly, it w a s commercial a n d  British  controlled  cultural  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, Convocation Records, Box 1-2, Daily News Advertiser. 22 August 1912. 28  Logan, Tuum Est. 37; Harris, "Locating the University," 115,116, also notes the American influence behind the practical and scientific views. 29  30  Harris, "Locating the University." 115.  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, UBC Board of Governors Collection, Box 1, Reel 1, Minutes, 11 January 1916. (Subsequent references to this collection are labelled "UBC Board of Governors Collection. ")The social and occupational status conferred through knowledge of classics is discussed in Robert Gidney and Winnifred Millar Professional Gentlemen: The Professions in Nineteenth-Century Ontario (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994), 5. 3 1  9  virtues  of education.  cultural T h e  topics.  Romantic  The  lecture  syllabus itself blended  E a r l y titles  ranged  from  3  2  Period  of English  Rising  A  difficult  occupations. to  requiring  identify, a  education,  Professionalization  "profession"  social leadership not  base  from  professionals  professions  through  professions  becoming  s u c h  as  as  engineering,  as  prolonged  a n  influence.  during the  3 4  also occupational  Vancouver's as  S u c h  did  the  people  concerns.  l i n k e d to university education, 3  are  of  1890s, 3 5  of  occupation  period  (particularly lawyers).  social mobility.  s u c h  a  to increase  only their educated tastes, but  also l e a d to e n h a n c e d  Traditional  increasing professionalization  social status and  population began  Professionalization was could  an  here is characterized  learned  carrying certain  formally educated  brought  a  to  3 3  A l t h o u g h defining features of professionalization  knowledge and  and  Evolution of Agriculture"  Literature."  third element i n early Vancouver was  certain  T h e  practical  w h i c h  6  law, medicine, architecture,  and  clergy,  and  scientific research,  emerging and  Harris, "Locating the University," passim. Harris stresses the point that British Columbia communities—particularly Vancouver—promoted their local interests vigourously. 32  33  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs.  See Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 3, for a broader consideration of the difficulties in defining professions. 34  Robert A.J. McDonald, "Business Leaders iii Early Vancouver 1886-1914," (Ph.D. thesis. University of British Columbia, 1977). 244. 35  Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 354; R.A.J. MacDonald, "Business Leaders." 230. 36  10  education  were  growing i n Vancouver with  employ s u c h people. education  The  particularly those  provided i n a British Columbia university.  curriculum  associations as  it related  British Columbia, gain access  took interest  for example,  sought  were (often  sympathetic as  m u t u a l with  leaders)  to  m u t u a l  and  n u m b e r  a  U B C  as  desire  3 9  A n u m b e r  of  A s it attracted  These  for occupational control a n d  i n the  movement  university movements,  a n institution to educate  several  the  people  status.  3  to  8  occupational educated  professionals and  participated  those of  the  V I also attracted also brought  enhancement,  of  curriculum), or  of narrowly  of persons  enlightenment  certain occupational backgrounds.  them  be  (the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Institute  w i t h it a set  i n various local societies.  enlightenment  scientific,  enhance occupational  certain cultural tastes. the  to  that  It i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t  3 7  to influence U B C ' s  to a p u b l i c f o r u m t h a t w o u l d  promoted  fields d e e m e d  to their o c c u p a t i o n s  it also indicated g r o w t h i n the  class w h o  capacity  i n the V I , p e r h a p s to influence U B C  Although professionalization brought aims,  city's increased  debates over U B C included arguments  for professions,  professional  the  and  a n  those  with  interest  i n  professionals.  Harris, "Locating the University," 115. The Interest in science was popular in Vancouver as elsewhere. See also Wesbrook papers. Box 1-4/5. 37  Vancouver, City Archives, British Columbia Institute of Architecture Collection, Add. Mss. 326, Vol. 1-2, Personal note, ca. 1914. (Because of organizational name changes, subsequent references to this collection are labelled "Architectural Institute Collection.") This note described suggestions for university courses in architecture. The charters of other VI affiliated professional associations explicitly stated an objective to enhance (or claim) the professional status, e.g. Vancouver, City Archives, Vancouver Teachers Association, Add. Mss. 994; B.C. Society of Fine Arts, Add. Mss. 171. 38  3 9  R A J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," 244.  11  B y VI  providing expert,  attracted  the  interests  organizations, the those w h o were months,  a n d  first c o n s u l t e d  movements Tout,  under  learned  about  the  societies,  or supported  m a n y  Howay, Twizell,  been  m u t u a l  those  local societies  strong Reid,  involved i n the  support w o u l d  for the  become  they  shared  represented.  h o w the  Robertson,  to the V I n o t o n l y their o w n tastes a n d  been  V I i n its first  three  Scott,  enlightenment enthusiasms  Wesbrook,  establishment  active w i t h  of U B C .  V I the  but  They brought  following year.)  W a d e  to the V I  Wesbrook,  of  professionalization. only represented  the  The  people  m u t u a l  w h o  met  concerned to p l a n the  enlightenment,  professionalization movements, all  those  but  m a n y  three.  12  with  of them  aspects  V I i n early  university,  a  Robie  Jamieson,  a m o n g  also  Robertson,  B .  Klinck were  Hill-  leaders,  (Another early U B C supporter,  the  social  Bryan,  Scott, Hill-Tout, Farris, H o w a y , Hall a n d  University.  the  similar  Robertson, Bryan, Twizell, Davidson, Hall, Matheson, Fripp, A n n a a n d  few  question.  Fripp h a d  Davidson, both Jamiesons,  shows  described i n  affiliations held i n c o m m o n a n d  and  1  M o t i v e s for affiliation will be  a n d brought  h a d  the  Table  professional  three areas in  the  professional  Here, it is adequate to note that they  i n the  of U B C ,  university, or  combined i n early V I promoters.  of the  auspices  individual citizens.  enlightenment,  affiliations.  1 shows  lectures  U n i v e r s i t y itself, a n d  following chapter.  Table  of local  their m u t u a l  (occupational)  backgrounds  high-status  1916  not  and  simultaneously  embodied  TABLE 1 PLANNERS AND FIRST SUPPORTERS OF THE VANCOUVER INSTITUTE, SPRING 1916 Name Occupation/Affiliations prior to VI establishment Frank F. Wesbrook UBC President Lemuel Robertson UBC Professor, Archaeological Institute, Kennerly Bryan Architect, Architectural Institute, AHSA James G. Davidson UBC Professor, British Columbia Academy of Science RF. Hayward Businessman Charles Hill-Tout Archaeological Institute, B.C. Academy of Science, AHSA Frederick W. Howay Judge, AHSA, UBC Senate Anna B. Jamieson Teacher, University Women's Club, UBC James H. McVety Labour Organizer, Trades and Labour Council, UBC W.P. OBoyle Catholic Priest, Local Societies S. Dunn Scott Editor News-Advertiser, Archaeological Inst., UBC Gover. H.C. Shaw Lawyer Rev. E. Thomas Methodist Minister Sir Charles H. Tupper Lawyer, AHSA R.P.S. Twizell Architect, AHSA, Architectural Institute, Frederick C. Wade Lawyer, AHSA, UBC Senate G-A. Laing High School Principal J.W. de B./Evelyn Farris Lawyer, AHSA/University Women's Club A. Buckley Assistant, Public Library T.Proctor Hall Physician, British Columbia Academy of Science E.G. Matheson UBC Professor, Architect/Civil Engineering L.S. Klinck UBC Dean, B.C. Academy of Science R Mackay Fripp Architect, Architectural Institute, Arts and Crafts Assoc. H. McLatchy Businessman, B.C. Mountaineering Club, UBC Convocation RS. Sherman Teacher, B.C. Mountaineering Club, Helena Gutteridge Tailor, Vancouver Trades & Labour Council J.E. Wilton Vancouver Trades & Labour Council J.G. Lister Educator, Vancouver Teachers Association J. Fee Educator, Vancouver Teachers Association (Mrs.) J.S. Jamieson University Women's Club; Alpine Club; (lawyer husband) S.P. Judge Commercial Artist, British Columbia Fine Arts Society G.H. Hawkins British Columbia Fine Arts Society J. Ashworth British Columbia Chamber of Mines N. Thompson Engineer, Businessman, B.C. Chamber of Mines Source: a) VI Minutes; b) Harry Logan, Tuum Est: c) Membership lists, AHSA Collection; d) British Columbia Academy of Science Collection; e) Ian Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment in Vancouver 1886-1916"; f) UBC Convocation Collection, Special Collections, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, g) Henderson's Vancouver Directory, 1912-1920; h) Vancouver Social Register and Club Directory (Vancouver: Welch & Gibbs, 1914).  13  "Other  personal  members w o u l d  British  likely have  support a  of the  associations  for U B C .  role i n the  been 4  0  were  forged  indirectly.  others.  allied with U B C personnel  through  University Movement, and  (The V a n c o u v e r T r a d e s  the  Normal  Labour  project  were  and  Fee, as  familiar with  are  the  association with M a n y were  the  the  Vancouver  Labour Council also h a d  a n  historical  likely did not  k n o w m a n y M a n y  University, V I members governors,  K l i n c k to w o r k o n  However, the  4 2  of the  Trades  other  group. no  were  V I the  O f particular  explicit or  or just  note  formal  clearly interested  senators,  a n  a n d  of these people became  with U B C ; although there was  U B C faculty members,  become  the  constituting a fairly h o m o g e n e o u s  connections  played  of  o n a congenial social basis.)  first V I C o u n c i l ,  h a d  m a n y  for r e t u r n i n g veterans.  Council members  supporters  Academy's  School h a d  connection with U B C that lead McVety, Wesbrook a n d educational  the  Similarly, since the V a n c o u v e r School B o a r d  Association representatives,  4 1  other  C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y of Science, i n supporting the V I ,  affiliated w i t h U B C , it s e e m s probable that Lister a n d Teachers  F o r example,  i n U B C .  supportive  citizens.  The  homogeneity  occupations. lawyers  of the  This included academics  (Howay, Wade,  Hill-Tout,  Hall),  clergy  Matheson), journalists  40  initial V I promoters  Farris, and (O'Boyle, (Scott),  was  also indicated b y  (Robertson,  Wesbrook,  Tupper), scientists  Thomas),  architects  school teachers  or  (Klinck, (Fripp,  their  Klinck), Davidson,  Twizell,  administrators  (Lister,  Ranta, "Academy of Science," 3.  4 1  Logan, Tuum Est. 16, 37.  Wesbrook Collection, Box 6-2, Joint Meeting of the Returned Soldiers and Committee on education and training. Minutes, 30 June, 1916. McVety, Wesbrook, and Klinck were named on the committee. 42  14  F e e , A . B .J a m i e s o n ) , also be  counted  a n d  a m o n g  artists  the  Hawkins).  city's b u s i n e s s  were  not  already accepted  were  a m o n g  This  occupational orientation  the  (Judge,  as  professions  aspiring professions  leaders. (such as  (such  reinforced  Tupper a n d W a d e  as  the  If t h e s e  4 3  occupations  l a w or the  teaching  or  homogeneity  could  clergy),  they  architecture). of the  early V I  supporters.  The  University Women's  supporters.  Although with  university educated through w o m e n  husbands  to  homogeneous  W i t h  Wilton this  further  group  43  were  a  those  other  4 4  however,  presence  the of  The  only  ethnically  Vancouver Trades  background  V I still d r e w  from  m a n y  chiefly  from  and  Gutteridge, others. a n  4 5  upper  professionals.  of Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper,  social standing i n early  the  or  status  of organized labour, McVety,  different  socio-economic group  social leader  for higher  V I  also  personally  social activities.  representing  other  they were  either  trend  the  socially well positioned, a n d  somewhat  noting the  political agenda,  reflected the  A s representatives  illustrates the  pre-eminent  and  i n clubs and  exception noted,  It i s w o r t h  different  also belonged with  socially well connected,  or fathers,  reflected  middle-class  a  members  this well-educated,  Labour Council. and  and  to participate  exceptions  C l u b  of the  1900s  w h i c h  initial V I membership.  Vancouver, his presence  A s  the  would  R A . J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," 495, 500.  Barman, The West. 217, 225. A number of middle class women, notably Helen Gregory McGill, a UWC member, were socially and politically active; women's suffrage was a popular issue. See also RA.J. McDonald, "Business Leaders," 249. 44  McVety was not adverse to participating with UBC personnel on special projects of an educational nature. 45  15  help  establish the V I as  a  socially prestigious  University's establishment, most  prestigious  prestigious  4  Tupper's  presence  drawing on  spontaneously.  It t o o k t h e  gather support setting, b u t  these  for the  n e w  provided the  that was  social  U B C  figures  stand  out  faculty member  president,  were  efforts  as  To understand  necessary  examine  earlier.  Robertson,  the  attracted  with  a  V T s  class  the  V I did not  emerge  leaders  also  the  "fit" the  and  social  institution.  Leaders  of the V I .  Lemuel Robertson,  F r a n k Fairchild Wesbrook, U B C ' s V I and  h o w these two m e n  a Vancouver resident b y each  arriving i n Vancouver i n 1913, brought compatible  of  particular  upper-middle  to f o u n d  for initiating the  shaped  hope  city's  to the V I .  These  impetus  their relation to the  participated i n and was  the  the  of certain k e y i n d i v i d u a l s to establish  prime movers  i n 1916, and  responsible  educated,  organization.  essential  enthusiasm. to  a m o n g  T h e V I offered the  movements,  Kev  Two  Prior to  6  not particularly active i n m a n a g i n g the  indicated the  Anglo-Canadian leadership  Despite  been  4  university airs but without requiring  Although he was  7  University Club h a d  exclusive social clubs.  "club" with  credentials. affairs,  and  the  organization.  came  generating to s u c h  social features  a n d  since early i n the  of these features.  them.  46  R A . J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," 240.  4 7  R A J . McDonald. "Business Leaders," 226. 16  first  early  actions it "forces"  is  listed  century, Wesbrook,  with h i m values a n d  a  sensibilities  Robertson  Lemuel Robertson w a s widely k n o w n i n early Vancouver  educational  circles as a Classics scholar a n d instructor i n Greek a n d Latin.  H e also  worked  higher  i n various administrative roles to advance  education  i n British C o l u m b i a .  4  8  Less well known, however, w a s his  influence o n British Columbia education. illustrated  Robertson's  Robertson h a d been  become  a teacher at Vancouver High  British Columbia. in  1906.  5  0  negotiations "McGill  School.  B.C.,"  Robertson became  to teach  T o advance  a n d earn  h i s career,  a n M . A .degree.  to establish M c G i l l as it became  after  he  took  While  constituted  of McGill B . C .  of McGill  B . C . ,although,  h i m of acting o n behalf of his o w n a n d McGill  "Makers of the University—Lemuel Robertson." U.B.C. 1955. 48  4 9  University College of  k n o w n , w a s legally  a faculty member  Robertson w a s a well k n o w n supporter accused  acumen.  affiliated V a n c o u v e r College i n 1 9 0 1 , a n d i n  to his a l m a mater  he began  that  University i n 1899, moved to Vancouver to  teaching positions at McGill  McGill,  project  a teacher i n Prince E d w a r d Island i n 1891 and,  a degree at McGill  at  T h e V I w a s another  influence a n d administrative  earning  1904 returned  a n d support  some  University's  Alumni  Chronicle. Spring  Vancouver City Archives, Newspaper biography of Lemuel Robertson, 8 July, 1941, Microfiche 8023; "Makers of the University—Lemuel Robertson," 18. 49  50  Logan, Tuum Est. 18-20. 17  interests. status  5 1  There is some truth i n these  a n d material rewards from  accusations; Robertson would  a position i n the n e w institution.  F o r  first few years, h e w a s the registrar a n d b u r s a r for M c G i l l  B . C . before  resuming  controlled  his teaching duties.  5  2  T h e desire for a locally  provincial university w a s certainly not extinguished b y McGill presence,  however, a n d Robertson played  University of British C o l u m b i a . Robertson became  Robertson w a s the Vancouver  a faculty  5  3  B.C.'s  W h e n U B Cw a s finally established,  member.  also active i n m u t u a l enlightenment societies, particularly  Society of the Archaeological Institute of A m e r i c a .  of the Art, Historical,  well k n o w n  the  a part i n establishing the  he w a s a prominent m e m b e r of that group. members  gain  lecturer for that  5  5  H e w a s also familiar  a n d Scientific Association; b y  g r o u p .  5  6  5  O n e c a n presume  he  4  B y  1916  with  1916 he w a s fraternized  a  with  other m u t u a l enlightenment figures w h o shared his academic interests,  as  Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-5, Notes, Public Meeting, ca. 1906. An unidentified audience member suggested that Robertson had played a major role in a "conspiracy" to create McGill B.C. 51  Vancouver City Archives, Newspaper biography of Lemuel Robertson, 8 July, 1941, Microfiche 8023. 52  Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-4. Robertson, as a member of the University Graduates Association, helped lobby for UBC. Also described in "Makers of the University—Lemuel Robertson," 18. 53  ^What began as the Vancouver Archaeological Society in 1911 became referred to as the Archaeological Institute in VI records after affiliation with the American organization. See Hunt, Mutual Enlightenment. 42, and the letterhead of correspondence Robertson to Wesbrook, Wesbrook Collection, Box 6-2. 23 June. 1916. Correspondence, Lemuel Robertson to Frank Wesbrook. 23 June, 1916, Wesbrook Collection, Box 6-2. 55  56  AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 1916 passim. 18  well as others  i n the University Graduates Association.  5  7  Robertson's  interest i n education went beyond the confines of a formal institution.  There  w a s , however, a n important link between  his m u t u a l enlightenment interests. he  lived at a time w h e n some  interest be  to stimulate support  hallmarks of a gentleman's  a n d  H i s field o f expertise w a s classics, a n d  argued that "the m a n w h o k n e w a l l about  classics or literature w a s useless." or character-building function  Robertson's career  5 8  In the debates  between the  of universities, it would  be i n Robertson's  for classics, considered i n British liberal education.  provincial university that included  5  classics would  9  utilitarian  traditions  to  Popular support for a help ensure  Robertson  a  career.  A s a n educator, Robertson would teachers  also be acutely aware of the attempts  to claim professional status for their occupation.  Formal  teacher  t r a i n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r ' s N o r m a l S c h o o l b e g a n i n 1 9 0 1 ,b u t d i d n o t find place i n U B C until teachers). teachers  6 0  a  1 9 2 0 (and only then as a s u m m e r session for elementary  A s university education became  (particularly high  professional status.  b y  6 1  school teachers)  a m a r k of a professional, were  looking to universities for  T h e British Columbia university movement w a s aided  Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-4, List of Members, University Graduates Association.  57  58  59  Dally Province. 4 February, 1908. Cited In Harris. "Locating the University," 113.  Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 5.  John Calam, "Teaching Teachers: Initial Moves and the Search for UBC's First Professor of Education," Historical Studies In Education/Revue d'HlstoIre de l'Educatlon 6, no. 2 (Fall 1994): 178; Nancy M. Sheehan and J. Donald Wilson. "From Normal School to the University to the College of Teachers: Teacher Education in British Columbia In the 20th century," Journal of Education for Teaching 20, no. 1 (1994): 25. 60  61  Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 354. 19  considerably b y the (notably A n n a were  University Women's Club,  B . Jamieson,  also involved i n the  familiar with enhanced  s u c h  mentioned  as  people and  would  above) were  university movement. their concerns,  teaching profession.  enhanced,  institutions that  6  his role i n higher  employed h i m .  teachers;  and  V a n c o u v e r College, M c G i l l B.C., policy at behind  the  the  Ministry level.  throne  and  several  purposeful  decades."  6 4  status would  scholar, but  educational  Robertson was participants  participate  a n d U B C ,b u t  be a n  be  as  a supporter  highly influential  i n the  politics  he later influenced  L a t e r i n life, h e as  was one  described as  seen  as  part  of  general i n  of educational "the  power  of three Prince E d w a r d  "virtually controlled E d u c a t i o n i n British The V I can be  teachers  also w o r k e d to influence the  i n education i n B.C." and  Island immigrants w h o for  6 3  other  education.  H e  Not only did he  w h i c h  stood to benefit f r o m  status of education i n British Columbia, and became provincial education.  of  Robertson would  2  His o w n academic  Robertson w o r k e d not only as a teacher the  several members  of  Columbia  Robertson's  influence.  credited with  the  idea for the  VI, a n d  like  combined i n himself m u t u a l enlightenment,  other  early  university,  and  Wesbrook Collection, Box 1-5, Minutes, Public Meeting ca. 1906. A high school teacher is identified as favouring the "McGill project." 62  Valerie Giles, "Historical Evolution of the Office of Deputy Minister in British Columbia Education Policy Making 1919-1945: The Career of Samuel John Willis" (Ph.D. thesis. University of British Columbia, 1993), 10. Robertson, almost single handedly it seems, was able to promote Willis's career in the upper levels of educational administration. 63  ^Vancouver City Archives, Newspaper Clipping, 16 August, 1941, Microfiche 8023; Peter Lawson Smith, cited tn Giles, "Historical Evolution," 10. 20  professional three, as  interests.  his career  depended  Classics professor. educational a n d  aims  the V I w a s  H e had  6 5  as  conceived as  Although  w o u l d serve  (and  o n  the  influence was invited to  first  President,  participate.  u n i o n of  idea was,  twice) a n d  interests and  unified educational  then,  and  the  provide  a  between  6 6  H i s first step w a s  Fairchild  inspired. 1916  of the  to enlist the  his  various  few V I lectures,  significant i n his conception  a  presence,  stabilize  somewhat  o n the V I Council each year  executive  F r a n k  and  a vehicle to help b l e n d  Robertson's  perhaps most  was  stake i n the  o n professional status i n a university as  arising from a stable  elements.  1925  considerable  Robertson likely saw his personal  educational he  a  help  a n d  his  V I a n d of  w h o  U B C ' s  Wesbrook.  Wesbrook  F r a n k 1 9 1 3 . the  6  7  Fairchild Wesbrook came Although he  previous  themes a n d  decade,  i n question.  professional  leader  of the  new  h a d  to V a n c o u v e r as  not been  his background  first president  part of Vancouver's development and  He, like Robertson,  concerns  U B C ' s  sympathies embodied  fit w e l l w i t h  the  cultural,  that united i n the V I , a n d w a s  an  i n  during  the  industrial,  ideal public  institution.  Wesbrook Collection, Box 5-11, Correspondence, Howay to Wesbrook, 9 March, 1916; Howay acknowledged receiving a "statement from Professor Robertson" regarding the founding of the VI. 65  Programs, VI Collection, Box 4-5. Council and Executive were listed on the programs. Robertson provided his first two lectures in 1920. 66  Logan, Tuum Est. 45.  67  21  Wesbrook h a d been  raised i n Winnipeg,  University of M a n i t o b a i n medicine. accident  resulted  i n a n amputated  medical research research  penchant  finger, s o h e t u r n e d  Between  his talents  after  a n  to  1 8 9 0 a n d 1895,h e h a d various at  Cambridge "open  to demonstrate the Pathological Laboratory, he revealed  a  a n d took to teaching i n addition to h i s  a n d publication w o r k .  6  9  In 1895, the University of Minnesota  a position for a scholar w h o w a s also a teacher, a n d Wesbrook got  Minnesota, Wesbrook addressed  problems the  development  of n e w medical research  H i sappointment  diplomatic talent.  a m o n g  projects,  other  amalgamated  physician  In 1 9 0 6 he became  established  H e also  statesmanship, 7  H e became  pathology  of Health brought D e a n  well regarded  a state-wide  for his  a n d well k n o w n for h i s emphasis  out a  of Medicine a n d ,  three previously existing medical departments,  support.  encouraged  a university hospital, a nursing  of continuing medical education with  university.  a n d epidemiology  facilities a n d r a n the  to the Minnesota Board  considerable  program  various public health  as Professor of Bacteriology a n d Pathology.  laboratory.  a  H i ssurgery career w a s halted  the  appointment.  At  a  from  In 1893,as part of a n ambitious Cambridge  for public education  advertised the  England.  event  research  8  positions at the University of M a n i t o b a a n d then  University, house"  i n pathology.  6  a n d i n 1890 graduated  a n d  program, instituted  network of  administrative  o n the teaching function of  0  William C. Gibson, Wesbrook and his University. (Vancouver The Library of The University of British Columbia, 1973). Much of the summary of Wesbrook's career is taken from Gibson. 68  69  70  See also: Wesbrook Collection, Box 2-1, Memorabilia.  Gibson, Wesbrook. 28. describes incidents of his statesmanship. 22  B y  1908, Wesbrook h a d  to c h a m p i o n i n g the universities h a d  W h e n ,  i n  President, movements movement  7  he  maintained, important  and was  probably encouraged  1913, Wesbrook accepted his sensibilities would i n Vancouver.  by, the  that  State  i n the  (secular)  State.  S u c h  University of Minnesota,  the  7  3  offer to b e c o m e  state sponsored  and  first  various i n the  social  university  higher education as w h o  supported  However, his familiarity with  concerned with  In selecting W e s b r o o k as  Provincial Minister of Education, chose 7 4  the  a p p e a l i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y to those  to those  U B C ' s  be welcomed b y those  of secular,  appeal  of education.  "noble character."  7 1  investments  h e l p h i m to fit i n w i t h  H e would  for his support  culture would  Young,  maintained  2  commercial/industrial function of U B C .  function  In addition  7 1  university with a strong teaching history  tool for "nation building,"  high  a leading educator.  teaching role of a university, he  a n American land-grant extension.  as  a n i m p o r t a n t role to p l a y i n n a t i o n building.  universities were, a v i e w fit w i t h ,  a reputation  the  the  British  character-building  U B C ' s  someone  a  first w h o  President, portrayed  A s a University of Manitoba alumnus, Wesbrook  a  would  Gibson, Wesbrook. 43.  James Gray, The University of Minnesota. (Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1951). 72  Gibson, Wesbrook. 35, describes his views on state education; Telegram, Wesbrook to [Young?], Wesbrook Collection, Box 2-2, describes Wesbrook's views on nation building. During Wesbrook's Cambridge days he was in touch with a number of social leaders; see Memorabilia, Wesbrook Collection, Box 2-1. While in London, England, he fraternized with high-status individuals; see Gibson, Wesbrook. 8. Gibson, p. 19, also suggests that Wesbrook's educational philosophy grew out of his stimulating Cambridge days. 73  Gibson, Wesbrook. 46, suggests Young's critical role in selecting Wesbrook; Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, Convocation Records, Minutes, 21 August, 1912, describe Young's speech concerning the need for a "noble" UBC president. 74  2 3  not  upset graduates  perceptions  of a  h a d  or McGill  university's proper  Wesbrook would he  of Toronto  dealt with  also appeal  and,  to professional interests.  through  education.  7  teachers,  health-care  career,  workers,  and  his w o r k i n tieing these professions  Wesbrook would  5  their  During his  university, participated i n a trans-Atlantic c a m p a i g n to have provide professional  of  function.  physicians, scientists,  public administrators,  Universities regardless  appeal  to  a  universities  to those  seeking  professional sanction from U B C .  Although features  a Vancouver newcomer,  of V a n c o u v e r society a n d  Wesbrook was  the  politics that led Into  addition to this awareness,  Wesbrook was  administratively  H e appealed  astute.  7  6  was a  qualities.  U B C administrator,  apposite  T h e  Wesbrook's support  People's  University."  In a n d  but  only  also because of his  a guest lecturer.  7 7  Wesbrook  role i n providing extension services.  given his views of universities as  of U B C as  VI.  three  to c o n c e r n e d V a n c o u v e r i t e s not  M a n y welcomed h i m as  also favorably disposed to U B C ' s  the  of the  remarkably charismatic  because of a b a c k g r o u n d of compatible interests, personal  well aware  7  8  for the V I s e e m s  particularly  teaching institutions and  H e came  to see  A s  the V I as  his  vision  a n  Konrad Jarausch (Ed.). The Transformation of Higher Learning. 1860-1930: expansion, social opening, and professlonaHzation in England. Germany. Russia, and the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1983). 75  F o r testimonials of Wesbrook's personality, see, e.g. Isobel Harvey. "Frank Fairchild Wesbrook," The University of British Columbia Graduate Chronicle. (May 1932): Gibson, Wesbrook. 28, describes incidents of his statesmanship. 76  Wesbrook Collection, Box 5 (unfiled). Day-book entries. 1916. His entries revealed a large number of public lectures for local societies, many that could be considered "mutual enlightenment." 77  78  Wesbrook Collection, Box 2-2. 24  extension the  service i n a  democratic vein.  7  S u c h views were  9  modestly progressive educational ideas expressed b y the  School  B o a r d .  8  initially active i n the V I as  associate w a s  the  C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y of Science, but would President  L . S . Klinck.  representative  of the  8  2  Klinck,  with  Institute  a n d  8 3  H e would  8  1  British support  as  support of the  also encourage U B C support of  provide m a n y lectures, often speaking of the  in adult education.  8  prior involvement  in adult education, became a long-standing symbol of U B C ' s other projects.  way.  provide even greater  of U B C after W e s b r o o k ' s d e a t h .  as well as  Vancouver  stability i n another  W e s b r o o k ' s first university appointee a n d Klinck was  with  0  W e s b r o o k c o n t r i b u t e d to the V T s future  VI  consonant  University's  the role  4  Wesbrook Collection, Box 3-1, Report to Ministry of Education.  79  Jean Barman, "'Knowledge is Essential for Universal Progress but Fatal to Class Privilege: Working People and The Schools in Vancouver During The 1920s," Labour/Le Travail. 22 (1988). 80  ,  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, President's Ofilce/L.S. Klinck Collection, Box 10-1, Autobiographical notes, 5 November, 1959. (Subsequent references to this collection are referred to as "Klinck Collection.") 81  VI Collection, Box 1-5, Minutes, 16 March, 1916. (Subsequent references to the minutes of The Vancouver Institute are referred to as "VI Minutes.") 82  KLinck Collection, Box 10-1 passim. Klinck had been active in agricultural extension at the University of Minnesota and Macdonald College (McGill University). He also had some "social gospel" experience through the YMCA and Student Christian Movement. VI Collection Box 5-6, Vancouver Natural History Society Program. Klinck Is listed as the Honourary President of that organization. 83  ^Klinck Collection, Box 1-2 passim. Biographical notes; Klinck's autobiographical note in Gordon Selman, "A History of the Extension and Adult Education Services of the University of British Columbia 1915 to 1955," unpublished MA thesis. University of British Columbia, 1963, 24. Klinck's support of the VI and his professed commitment to adult education are described. 25  Wesbrook was  a natural  choice as leader  elements i n Vancouver, and  h a d  became  VI, and  associated  although the  w i t h the  his role w a s  role of W e s b r o o k  Robertson.  provided the  Wesbrook w o u l d have  and  cannot  Wesbrook was  Robertson  remained  not,  the  personal is often  considered  a convenient and  H e appealed  qualities to unite  considered  perhaps could not be  be  vision  of the V I .  without  to  have  years.  8  H e  initiated  it,  However,  8 5  considering that  catalyst i n forming the V I ,  initiative to b r i n g the  V I into  v e r y little practical influence o n the  w i t h it for n i n e  various  them.  substantive. also  to  VI, but  of  but  existence. Robertson  6  Conclusion  T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e fit t h e three social elements i n a VI appealed but  society i n w h i c h it w a s  city that h a d  to various promoters  not  a n  whether  for p u b l i c betterment,  stability.  C o u l d it satisfy all those involved? University support?  attracted  a workable  o p p o r t u n i t y to a d v a n c e  interests,  reform?  It  yet to stabilize social patterns.  only because it w a s  b e c a u s e it w o u l d a l l o w participants  born.  private  profit,  or  The  idea,  certain  occupational  W a s it a vehicle for social  Public enlightenment?  Occupational  Roy, Vancouver. 121; "Makers of the University—Frank Fairchild Wesbrook," U.B.C. Alumni Chronicle (Autumn, 1955), 17. Both works credit the VI to Wesbrook. VI Minutes, passim. Wesbrook helped launch the VI, but soon held only an honourary position and was rarely present at meetings. 85  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. Robertson was an "at large" Counsellor for nine years. 86  2 6  enhancement? These questions awaited those who supported and promoted the VI.  27  C H A P T E R T O W N  A N D G O W N :  2  STABILITY  1916-1925  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l stability m a y n o t be g o o d for stories it d o e s h e l p m a r k s  the  a n  institution achieve  time  from the  was  chapter  with a  V I began  forces  i n key individuals themselves.  V I throughout  but  sustained  this  interest.  to increase  period and,  its m e m b e r s h i p  central to the  and  are  examined  measured  and  construction  attracted and  i n this chapter.  i n membership  growth was  w h e n  exception,  background,  lecture  F r a n k Wesbrook,  1925  U B C , the  its  A s described  i n  social  b y blending  these  affiliated w i t h  maintained  limited  the V I w a s  attendance, two of its V T s host,  and  and  the  slowly goals.  finally  council they  of a unified town a n d  its organizational a n d  council i n turn  but  but  moved  1925.  Lemuel Robertson  that retained  with one  to  three contributing  V a r i o u s local societies  W i t h s u c h a stable  This initial period of stability ended Point Grey i n  1916  relocation of U B C to  only b y involving representatives of each,  the  were  to the  plan that blended  not  to  period  a p e r i o d of stability for the V I .  forces  able  The  V T s establishment  Point Grey location, a n d 1, t h e  its goals.  of political intrigue,  gown  curricular form across  held the  interests of various  Finally, the  established,  organization  nine years. societies,  and  gradual growth of the V I ,  particularly attendance, is also noted.  aided considerably b y the  organizational stability that the  enjoyed.  2 8  The they  as This V I  Creating The Vancouver  Although the V I arose owed  a great d e a l to the  less a response  to the  promotion b y the the  large  rest will  follow."  The  included  a  of the  o n  V I would  a n  of this  and  underline the  to see  c o m m e n t revenue  awakened  implies that to s u s t a i n  role played b y the  efforts  h o w the  of the  executive)  a n d  the  rest"  W s  V I council;  council to  council was  "by  "the  the  was  charter  this sentiment:  will be  was  a  b y S.D. Scott, a  to capture  interest  it w a s  (especially the  A comment  1  seems  rely o n the  Wesbrook,  1916, to  to a  and  meeting the  to incorporation u n d e r some  course  Institute  following  "make  established,  the  it work." and  w h o  of those  unidentified people Fifteen people were  month,  16 M a r c h ,  met  o n  25  subsequently  to serve  o n  a n  to d i s c u s s a c o n s t i t u t i o n for the V I that w o u l d  the  Benevolent Societies Act.  people w h o  of several more  was  eighteen  consider the V I .  organizational committee  the  council  than  The V I  it  it.  February,  invited  council,  context  it is i m p o r t a n t  Robertson,  invited  the  audiences  Scott's words  Therefore,  and  c o n c e r n for m e m b e r s h i p  activities. success  2  supporters.  of a potential audience  organization.  the  gathering together  confluence of existing social features,  initiatives of a few keen  V I council,  regularly on  the  demands  driving force of the  m e m b e r  was  from  Institute  planned  meetings  i n the  Wesbrook  personally  the V I o n that occasion. spring of 1916, The  lead  3  Over  Vancouver  born.  VI Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. The VI constitution awarded council the power to make most decisions. 1  2  VI Minutes, 21 October, 1916.  VI Collection, Box 1-5, frontpiece; Wesbrook Collection, Box 5-11, Correspondence, Howay to Wesbrook. 9 March, 1916: Hill-Tout to Wesbrook, 10 March, 1916. 3  2 9  The a n d  initial leadership  local societies,  seen  to  u p o n  suggestions  a n d  interest  i n the  of the  V I was  B u s i n e s s m a n  matter" and  "heartily i n accord Women's formation the  Robertson  C l u b of a n  U B C .  a n d  the  instigator  Art, Historical,  he  Scientific  a means  also h a d  were  "acting  a n d  the V I s i m p l y as  Charles Hill-Tout was  movement."  moved  as  although  F . W . Howay, a leader  w i t h the  particularly Wesbrook  with certain very influential  amateur scientist Judge  personnel  to  considerable  5  to  institution, to be  Art, Historical,  perceived  existing societies,  of  "eagerly  a n d  q u i c k to portray  immediately popular a n d  simultaneously from U B C  representatives of the  coordinate welfare  as  Wesbrook was  Wesbrook was  4  federate  in the  in-as-much  represent both.  Association."  The  for the V I c a m e  6  "greatly  i n academic  M e m b e r s  of the  endorse Dr. Wesbrook's  people. interested  circles,  University  scheme  for  k n o w n as T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute,"  Scientific Society members  quickly  was  pledged  the and their  VI Minutes. 25 February, or 16 March, 1916. Recorded by Judge Howay of the AHSA. This illustrates the sense of control town interests had. 4  UBC Extension Collection, Box 3, Correspondence, Wesbrook to local societies, 29 March, 1916. 5  Wesbrook Collection, Box 5-11, Correspondence, Howay to Wesbrook, 9 March, 1916; Hill-Tout to Wesbrook, 10 March, 1916. Howay was a leading academic not only In the Vancouver area, but in Canada as well. Over his career, he was known as an educator, lawyer, judge, and historian. He had executive roles in a number of national academic societies, so his involvement with the VI was significant. See William Kaye Lamb, "A Bibliography of the Printed Works of Frederic William Howay." B.C. Historical Quarterly. 8, 1 (January, 1944): 27-51. Hill-Tout was similarly regarded. See James E. Hill-Tout. "The Abbotsfford Hill-Touts," (Vancouver: Unpublished, 1976).  3 0  support. 1 9 1 6 .  The 2).  Other organizations  7  Evidently the V I appealed  8  first council  with  governors.  became  the University either  9  its administrative  This 1925 the as  as clergy, were  T h e initial leadership  council. d i d seven  interests  intimately  This balance  or  intimate  probably supporters  of the V I held interests between  feature o f the V I for its first n i n e years,  of  i n  town a n d  gown  a n d contributed  to  stability.  m i x of U B C a n d c o m m u n i t y interests period.  of  (see T a b l e  administrators,  councillors at large also h a d  U B C , a n d local societies.  a notable  a n d g o w n interests  as faculty members,  with U B C , a n d two more,  University.  professions,  town  i n J u n e  interests.  f r o m itself a n executive; a l l s i x were  T w o of the seven  connections  to certain  i n 1916 combined  T h e council elected  connected  the  petitioned for a n d gained affiliation  D u r i n g t h e first n i n e years, Robertson remained others  (see T a b l e 3).  i n professions,  would  continue  several n a m e s  consistently involved T h i s stable  U B C , a n d local  core  for the 1916-  repeatedly  during those  of councillors also  made years, h a d  societies.  Phyllis Reeve. History of the University Women's Club of Vancouver (Vancouver: The University Women's Club of Vancouver, 1982), 5. AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 28 March, 1916. 7  VI Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. Council was empowered to admit affiliates. VI Minutes, 22 June, 1916. 8  The Anglican and Presbyterian (and to some extent the Methodist) Churches had a history of supporting universities, particularly affiliated theological colleges. A "liberal education" was considered by many clergy as an important part of preparation for the clergy. See also Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 153, 268ff. Clergy listed in the local Westminster Hall and Farthest West Review. Vancouver Public Library, Special Collections, generally had university degrees. 9  31  T A B L E FIRST  C O U N C I L  2:  O F T H E V A N C O U V E R INSTITUTE,  1916  Name Occupation/Affiliations Charles Hill-Tout (Exec) Businessman; Local Societies; Proposed to UBC Senate F.F. Wesbrook (Exec) President UBC F.W. Howay (Exec) Judge; Local Societies; UBC Senate Mrs. J . Jamieson (Exec) University Women's Club; Education T. Proctor Hall (Exec) Physician; Local Societies; UBC Senate Lemuel Robertson (Exec) UBC Faculty Member; Local Societies A. Buckley Public Library Assistant Evelyn Farris University Women's Club; UBC Senate; Lawyer husband Anna B. Jamieson University Women's Club; Educator; (Future UBC Governor) G A Laing School Principal E.G. Matheson UBC Faculty Member; Architectural Institute; Local Societies Father W.P. OBoyle Catholic Priest Rev. E. Thomas Methodist Minister Sources: a) VI Minutes b) Henderson's Vancouver Directory, 1917-25; c) Wesbrook Collection, UBC Special Collections, Box 1-3; d) Academy of Science Collection, UBC Special Collections; e) University Women's Club Collection, Vancouver City Archives; f) Architectural Institute Collection, Vancouver City Archives; g) Logan. Tuum Est.  However, n u m b e r by  the  council  of 1925 w a s  of U B C affiliated  different  from  that  of 1916.  representatives declined over the years, s u c h  1925 the council only h a d one U B C representative o n the  Four  influence  o n the  1  1  S u c h  a shift,  however, did not  operations of the V I during this  10  V I Collection, Box 4-5, Programs.  11  VI Minutes, passim. 32  that  Executive.  of the n i n e r e m a i n i n g at-large councillors h a d ties w i t h U B C , b u t  were not very active w i t h the V I . m u c h  T h e  period.  1  0  m a n y  have  T A B L E L O N G E S T  S E R V I N G  C O U N C I L L O R S  3:  O F T H E V A N C O U V E R  INSTITUTE,  1916-1925 Name  Number of seasons serving Occupation/Affiliations VI Council, 1916-1925 L. Robertson 9 UBC Professor, Local Societies Robie Reid 5 Lawyer/Businessman; UBC Governor S.D. Scott 5, Editor: UBC Governor, Societies; John Davidson 4 UBC Professor; Local Societies W. Plowden 4 (Husband businessman) W.E. Banton 4 Lawyer J.G. Davidson 4 UBC Professor; Academy of Science Judge F.W. Howay 4 Judge: UBC Senate, Local Societies Anna B. Jamieson 4 Educator, University Women's Club Source: a) VI Minutes; (note: incomplete data for 1919-1920); b) Henderson's Vancouver Directory 1917-25; c) RAJ. MacDonald, "Business Leaders in Early Vancouver.  Councillors first  never h a d  nine years;  there  whatever  one  interest  differing views  m a y have been were  from  gown.  There w a s  T h e stability w a s  other  i n some way.  above  o f little c o n s e q u e n c e .  no  another  concerning the  the fact that U B C , t h e n at its Fairview  of Vancouver.  the  to promote  This  to a  stability arose  E v e n if Robertson h a d not himself been  these three  required popular support, and  self-identified  enhance  reinforced each  1  2  A s we  certain local societies sought  professions looked  their status.  other.  needed  involved  m u t u a l shall  see, U B C  enhanced  for w a y s to educate  part  a n d  that each element  with issues of professionalism, establishing a university, or enlightenment,  town  V I  partly  location, w a s very m u c h a  sense  the  objectives of the  geographical separation between  also partly due  during  status,  their o w n a n d  The combination of people a n d interests  to  i n the V I  Selman, "A History of Extension," 25, notes the precarious nature of public support for UBC. Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 140, describes the waning vitality of the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association. 12  3 3  w a s  m u t u a l l y beneficial.  interests  It i s , therefore,  c o m b i n e d to m a k e  B y 2 2 June,  a stable  n o accident that these  organization.  1916,council h a d prepared  1916-17  season.  affiliated  society or the Institute  1  3  It f e a t u r e d  particular  a syllabus of lectures for the  twenty-two lectures itself, a l l l e c t u r e s  sponsored presented  either b y a n i n the  A s s e m b l y H a l l o f U B C at T e n t h A v e n u e a n d W i l l o w Street, V a n c o u v e r . Lectures were held T h u r s d a y evenings at 8:15 a n d used  "lantern  illustrations"  T h e format  not  change  (slides) o r o t h e r  for nine years,  site, n o r w o u l d 4).  1  the nature  appropriate.  except to change  lecture halls o n the same U B C  o f t h e l e c t u r e t o p i c s v a r y a p p r e c i a b l y (see T a b l e  lectures  dealt primarily with  sciences" topics, as opposed  popularized academic  "arts  to popular o r practical topics.  a n d  T h i s fits  general orientation o f U B C as a n "arts a n d sciences" university,  illustrating, perhaps, Not  would  4  The  the  media w h e n  all planned  season  were  lectures  were,  further  the influential i f u n s p o k e n role U B C h a d o n the V I .  lectures  were  delivered; one or two cancellations  not u n c o m m o n , a n d there were  1918-19 season,  with  probably because  at times,  added,  13  VI Minutes, 22 June, 1916.  14  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs.  5  each  eight cancellations during the  of the influenza epidemic.  b u t these  1  are not well  1  6  Extra  documented.  WIlliam Bruneau, Toward a New Collective Biography: The University of British Columbia Professoriate, 1915-1945," Canadian Journal of Education 19, no. 1 (1994), 74. 15  Logan, Tuum Est. 73. A number of UBC activities were cancelled that year.  16  3 4  T A B L E L E C T U R E  4:  T Y P E S :  1916-1925  Season Other Unknown Science Arts Social Fine Arts 1916-17 7 1 8 3 3 0 1917-18 6 8 7 2 1 1 1918-19 7 9 2 3 1 2 1920-21 6 11 2 1 0 1 1921-22 6 9 5 0 1 0 1922-23 1 9 6 1 2 2 1923-24 5 10 1 2 3 0 1924-25 7 10 4 1 1 0 72 Totals 45 30 13 9 8 Source: VI Programs; see Appendix 1 for categorization guide Note: Insufficient data for 1919-20; data reflects planned lectures Notes on categories: "Science" denotes lectures dealing with aspects of natural and applied science (physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture); "Arts" denotes lectures dealing with other academic topics (philosophy, history, biography, geography, literature); "Social" indicates lectures concerned with public social concerns (education, politics, economics, racism); "Fine Arts" denotes artistic performances or illustrations, or lectures on artistic topics other than literature (music or painting appreciation); "Other" includes topics of travel, mountaineering, industry, professions.  The  initial organization  w a s m a r k e d b y stability.  of the V I a n d the organization's first n i n e T h e council began a n d continued as a  homogeneous group of individuals, societies.  Another  stable e l e m e n t w a s t h e service itself.  content of the lectures varied lectures  a n d attracted compatible  o n academic  little f r o m  a  years  fairly  affiliated  T h e format  general pattern of  a n d  evening  topics.  Affiliates  The Vancouver Institute began as a union of the Art, Historical, Scientific Association,  a n d  the Archaeological Institute of British Columbia,  3 5  a n d  the British Columbia Academy of Science.  17  The unspoken (and never  official) affiliate was, of course, the University of British Columbia. The affiliated societies had two explicit functions. One was to pool resources to provide high-quality lectures, and each affiliate was obligated to arrange at least one lecture each season; the other was to encourage members of the various societies to attend lectures and join the Institute.  18  Other local  societies were encouraged to affiliate under the same conditions, and some eighteen did so during the first nine years of the VI. Societies desiring affiliation had to petition for acceptance, although there is no record of any being denied membership.  19  Why did the VI appeal to these local societies? Although a fully contextualized answer goes beyond the limits of this study, three tentative explanations deserve mention. One has to do with the interests of UBC. Although a "silent partner," UBC would gain from a project that would enhance the status of the University and its perceived relevance to the general public. Another was the desire of mutual enlightenment groups to acquire status and legitimacy, and to solidify both membership and economic base. They also stood to gain new audiences for their educational missions. Finally, professional groups affiliated to enhance the status of certain occupations, and also to raise (or control) the educational requirements of their occupations. As universities across Canada began playing a greater role in education for the professions, practitioners perhaps  17  AHSA Collection, Vol.2-10, Minutes. 28 March, 1916.  18  AHSA Collection, Minutes. 23 November, 1916; VI Minutes, 21 October. June 1916.  VI Minutes, 18 April, 1916. The "founding" three societies were themselves "granted" affiliation by VI councillors. 19  36  felt t h a t t h e V I w o u l d categories  facilitate a good relationship w i t h  m i g h t overlap for certain people,  professional occupations, h a d participated i n U B C affairs.  memberships  status.  exception is the  University.  w a s  a key part  of the have  lectures  2  Wednesday,  11  a n d British  h a d both m u t u a l enlightenment  claim  a formal  U B C w a s never listed o n the  of the  Institute  a n d gave the  considerable interest  Although the  a  2  i n  and  2 1  administration did not  the  These  0  several councillors w o r k e d  The University of British  U B C  2  i n local societies,  The only noted  C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y of Science, which professional  as  U B C .  if only because  connection between programs  i n the  Institute,  1916, the  as  so deserves  was informal,  U B C Senate  the V I  a n affiliate,  it p r o v i d e d free  organization its approval.  continued U B C presence October,  C o l u m b i a  space  a n d  but  for  most  U B C did, however, special  it w a s  attention.  deliberate.  a p p r o v e d a m o t i o n to  O n  create  committee to deal w i t h the Societies a n d  the  relations of the  University to  utilization of the  learned  University buildings  so  Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 355. By 1900, many of the traditional professions in Ontario were based on university education. 20  The Academy of Science began primarily to share knowledge and improve communication between local and international scientists. In this sense it is a mutual enlightenment organization, and Hunt identifies it as such (Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment." 42). However, it began to advance the career status of scientists by, for example, encouraging science education in schools and criticizing "semi-scientific periodicals." Ranta, "British Columbia Academy of Science," 2; Minutes, 1932, 1934, Academy of Science Collection Box 1-13. 21  Such a claim cannot be found in VI materials, UBC Board of Governors, or UBC Senate minutes. 22  37  as  to m a k e  the  Three  of the  Robertson,  2  4  stating  VI, a n d  At  of that  became  2  3  committee,  Classics Professor  long-serving the  Furthermore,  5  to the  Robertson  i n  1918, as  a  remained  Robertson,  become  U B C claimed the  sympathetic V I as  as  the  "Unpaid Honourary 2 6  The  thus  the  qualified as  and  m a n y  U B C  of the  J o h n  Table  association programs  the  extension  project  in  administration  Secretary  &  Organizer  of  Committee,  provided voluntarily by U B C faculty 2  extension  fledgling University wanted  a self-serving interest  Klinck,  a n  to  U B C Extension Lectures  "University Extension Lecture." free,  (see  early Institute  Minister of Education, a n d  claimed any lecture  a time w h e n  its faculty h a d  V I supporters  is reinforced b y a passage o n the  L e m u e l  Botany Professor  awareness of the value i n maintaining a n  V a n c o u v e r Institute."  members they  2  report  promoted  formed  scope.  that University visitors might  1916  (the)  five m e m b e r s  (unrelated),  University. the  University  This suggests a n  with the  U n i v e r s i t y a focalizing point for activities of  Physics Professor J a m e s G . Davidson, a n d  Davidson 3).  the  the  i n the V I .  7  T h e V I lectures,  providing  lectures.  public approval, However,  U B C Professors  w h o  2  8  U B C  and  Wesbrook, provided  lectures  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia Senate Collection, Minutes, 11 October, 1916. 23  John and James G. Davidson continued to play important roles in the VI after 1925. See VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs; VI Minutes, passim. 24  25  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs.  Wesbrook Collection, Box 3-1, Report to Minister of Education, 1916.  26  27  24. 28  UBC Extension Collection, Box 1-2, Report of the Extension Lecture Committee, 1923-  Selman, "A History of Extension," 25. 3 8  were  noted  would U B C  educators.  help build a  W e s b r o o k often stated  cultured, civilized, a n d prosperous  Professors s u c h as  involved with generous  the V I as  educators.  3  0  lecturer,  a message History  councillors or lecturers,  as  a n  the  engaged  Society 28 a n d  i n an  September, encouraged  of personal gain with  active schedule  1918, Davidson Society members  a  2  9  were  fondly regarded  as  Provincial  a V I councillor  of public lectures  to  promote  D u r i n g a s p e e c h to the V a n c o u v e r N a t u r a l  3 1  commented to  replace  "higher" motive of generous  university's faculty members, were  a n d were  In addition to his w o r k as  institution stood to benefit from  representatives,  C o l u m b i a .  J o h n Davidson, U B C botanist a n d former  of natural theology.  development motive  he  British  believed  Robertson, G . G . Sedgewick a n d J . G . Davidson,  Botanist, is particularly notable. a n d  educational goals he  publicity generated  advertised i n Institute  often motivated b y a  o n a  civic  "primitive"  giving.  3  2  If U B C  through the V I ,  programs  sense of educational  as U B C  mission.  Wesbrook Collection, Box 3-2, Correspondence, UBC Board of Governors to Premier of British Columbia, 27 May, 1914. The Board (of which Wesbrook was then Chairman) suggested that UBC had a role in "destroying sectionalism and abohshing class prejudice" in the province. 29  "Makers of the University—Lemuel Robertson." Robertson is described as an enthusiastic and popular educator. Gordon Shrum, Gordon Shrum: An Autobiography, eds. Peter Stursberg and Clive Cocking (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1986), 51. Shrum described Sedgewick as a highly appealing, if not famous, English teacher. Vancouver City Archives, Obituary, 25 August, 1948, Microfiche 2338. The author described J.G. Davidson with humanitarian superlatives. 30  Vancouver City Archives, Transcripts, John Davidson Collection. Add. Mss 505, Box 11. (This collection Is subsequently referred to as "Davidson Collection.") Davidson often spoke on the divinity of Nature, and the plan of the Architect of the Universe; for a discussion of natural theology, see Carl Berger, Science. God, and Nature in Victorian Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1983). 3 1  Davldson Collection, Vol. 1-2, Lecture Transcript.  32  3 9  M u t u a l  All of the  Enlightenment  founding societies of the V I are organizations.  Historical,  Scientific Association (AHSA),  a n d  British Columbia, a n d the enlightenment purpose  expertise.  The  Unlike  Table 1925.  here,  Club  and  they  are  of control, status,  express and/or not or  the V a n c o u v e r Trades  different i n that e a c h  h a d  explicit  seen  as  education  before  shows  1925,  the  see  Table  M u t u a l  Their relative interest and  for general For a  social welfare, rather  complete  list of m u t u a l  of  M u t u a l  exist for the  education for personal  occupational issues  somewhat  d u r a t i o n of affiliation  33  Art,  Archaeological Institute  professional organizations,  occupational interests.  5  the  m u t u a l  a n d  political  remain included i n this category because their involvement  V I can be  affiliates  the  characterized  University Women's  C o u n c i l are  goals, b u t  narrow  as  of providing cultural or academic  expressly concerned with  the  organizations were  British Columbia A c a d e m y of Science.  organizations,  civic improvement.  Labour  3  These  mentioned b y H u n t as  enlightenment  3  Affiliates  with  than  enlightenment  5.  Enlightenment i n and  n u m b e r  spcieities that  support  of lectures  H u n t , "Mutual Enlightenment," 42.  4 0  for the  affiliated  V I is suggested  provided.  before b y  the  T A B L E M U T U A L  E N L I G H T E N M E N T  5 A F F I L I A T E S ,  pre-1925  First Season Last Season No. of Lectures Affiliate Name Art, Historical, and Scientific Association 1916-17 24 1932-33 1916-17 Archaeological Institute 1927-28 3*** B.C. Academy of Science 1916-17 1932-33 28 Vancouver Natural History Society* 1916-17 24 1932-33 Vancouver Trades and Labour Council** 1916-17 1920-21 6 University Women's Club** 1916-17 1931-32 13 British Columbia Society of Fine Arts 1916-17 1927-28 6 Alpine Club of Canada 1917-18 1932-33 15 Dickens Fellowship 1923-24 1932-33 6 Shakespeare Society 1923-24 1932-33 5 Vancouver Musical Council 1924-25 1928-29 4 2 British Columbia Institute of Authors 1924-25 1925-26 Women's Methodist Education Club 1924-25 1924-25 0 Sources: a) Institute programs. VI Collection Box 4-5. Dates are those printed on the programs, and do not necessarily indicate exact date of affiliation or standing. Data incomplete for 1919-1920. b) VI Minutes * Formerly the Natural History Section of the British Columbia Mountaineering Club "Separate discussions follow ***Archaeological Institute co-sponsored unlisted lectures from time to time  Various motives m a y have VI.  O n e w a s  e n c o u r a g e d t h e s e societies to affiliate w i t h  a motive of public service.  The A H S A was incorporated with  mission  of s u c h service, even i f it w a s  and  Society of F i n e A r t s cooperated to establish a m u s e u m  the  gallery.  3 5  influence,  defined i n elitist t e r m s .  3  4  The  and  a  A H S A  art  T h e V a n c o u v e r Natural History Society, t h r o u g h J o h n Davidson's h a d  a n  element of public service.  Women's Club h a d a moderate  3  6  Similarly,  the  University  political agenda a n d w a s active i n various  Journal of the Art. Historical, and Scientific Association of Vancouver. B.C. Trythall & Son, 1917); Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment,"41. 34  35  the  civic  (Vancouver,  A H S A Collection, Vol. 2-10, President's Report, 1916.  V I Collection, Box 5-6. Vancouver Natural History Society program. Davidson was the Society's founder and frequent president. 36  41  activities, from Institutes. its  E v e n  3 7  members,  If t h e r e  U B C a n d A r b o r D a y support to providing lectures to the A c a d e m y  of Science, although essentially catering  was interested i n promoting a public library a n d  were  motives of public  organizational enhancement  service, there  or survival.  g r o u p leaders as useful to boost the organization. introverted, in  need  H u n t has not  3  motives i n two ways.  attendance  they stood to boost their o w n  enhancement  of F i n e A r t s ,  but  societies.  The A H S A  0  Vancouver, future,  b y  but  outside the  addressed  B y associating with U B C ,  their status;  4  those  respective  the individual societies  slowly lost pre-eminence  1913, was uncertain.  4  1  the  audience  case  of  Society other  only "learned society" i n  to other  The A H S A  socially p r o m i n e n t citizens, b u t b y the  stood  membership.  m a y have been implicitly prominent i n the 1894 been  still  these self-serving  w a s a stated mission of the British C o l u m b i a  i n  were  group, but  a n d b y contacting V I membership a n d  h a d  8  b y  argued that m a n y m u t u a l enlightenment groups  to e n h a n c e  Status  3  also motives of  status a n d membership of the  The V I m a y have  9  were  m u s e u m .  to  T h e V I m a y have been regarded  actively s e e k i n g to engage  of m e m b e r s .  Women's  specialized  societies;  its  a p p e a l e d to V a n c o u v e r ' s  time The Vancouver  Institute  was  Reeves, University Women's Club. 4; Vancouver City Archives, University Women's Club Collection, Add. Mss. 872. Vol. 1-1. Minutes, passim. VI Collection. Box 3-8. Correspondence. The UWC often provided lectures for the Women's Institutes. 37  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-2, Constitution.  38  39  Hunt. "Mutual Enlightenment," 260.  Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia Society of Fine Arts Collection, Add. Mss. 171, Vol. 1-9, Constitution. 40  41  Hunt. "Mutual Enlightenment," 42,140. 42  created,  the  demographics  h a d  changed.  4  Vancouver's business  2  leaders  prior to W o r l d W a r I were n o longer British, b u t A n g l o - C a n a d i a n , a n d of t h e m the  supported  city might be  nature might be business  i n a  local society.  in  A H S A  might hope  the  V I syllabus and  members'  Although halt  further  the  elite the  i n itself  did, even  if  not  no  m a n y  other  4 6  losses),  other  and  reclaim lost  association with  the  T h e affiliation w i t h the V I w a s popular regard their  could  W o r l d W a r I, a n d  have  organization.  likewise benefit  from  (or at  least  a n  of the Alpine C l u b of C a n a d a  m a y have  5  one  for the Association, m a y  o w n  4  contributions  a proud  i n a position to r e c l a i m lost prestige societies  status.  VI, providing  reporting o n their Institute  association with U B C . The local chapter  42  it once  A H S A  In associating with  their  satisfaction with  A H S A was  rather elitist before  its  Social status amongst  to r e m a i n p r o m i n e n t  even if it d i d not increase  increased  A H S A ,  of  a c l a i m to c u l t u r a l or intellectual leadership—particularly  certainly did promote  with  of the  M e m b e r s h i p i n the  socially prominent.  separate journal entries.  that,  4 4  British population  slightly b y university education,  intellectual or social prestige  organizations with  members  A l t h o u g h the  3  patriotic aspects  also be enhanced  remained  The A H S A  to the  4  considerably less appealing.  longer held the  U B C — t h e  n e w University.  receptive  elite c o u l d  membership  members  the  m a n y  felt c h a l l e n g e d b y  was  the  Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 35.  43  R A . J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," ilia, 278.  44  R A . J . McDonald, "Business Leaders," 230.  Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 140, argues that the AHSA by 1916 was seeking public assistance for its activities, and the VT (along with the public museum) provided it. 45  46  AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 23 November, 1916. 4 3  presence Club  of the  o n the  more  Institute  local a n d  accessible British Columbia  program.  4  (The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S e c t i o n of the  7  Columbia Mountaineering Club was History Society a n d continue British  to p r o m o t e  a n  sensibilities recalling the  Several  affiliates were  interested the A H S A  i n decline;  4  9  the  implied  purpose  m e m b e r s h i p . members, w a r  5  a n d  period.  There w a s  5  "Golden Age" of British  F o r example,  one would  imagine a wish  a list of Institute  of recruitment  Several m u t u a l h o p i n g to keep  flavoured  the  their old ones,  to recruit.  members'  also a web  societies w i t h V I ; a  few examples  of  The  names,  with  looking  often  touched  affiliation of  demonstrate  the  o n occupational as well as  Institute.  for pre-  the  m u t u a l role  Personal  recreational  interests,  Hunt, "Mutual Enllghtenment,"42, 157. The Alpine Club was also listed In the Vancouver Social Registry and Club Directory (Vancouver: Welch & Glbb, 1914). 47  48  John Cleare, Mountains (London: Macmillan, 1975), 16.  49  AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 1916 passim.  Vancouver City Archives* University Women's Club Collection, Vol. 1-1, Minutes, 18 September, 1916. The agenda for that meeting reads: "3. Names for membership, 4. Vancouver Institute ask for list of members names." 50  5 1  Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 255. 44  8  were  H u n t argues for i n the  of personal interest b e h i n d the  4  Club  societies were  as  and  membership  to University W o m e n ' s  enlightenment  b y  mountaineering.  declining membership,  i n d i v i d u a l s played i n "tieing together"  concerns  the V I ,  would  1  enlightenment certain  0  The Alpine Club  members.  University Women's Club wanted  British  of the V a n c o u v e r Natural  i n alpinism through  worried about  i n recruiting n e w was  the forerunner  early affiliate of the VI.)  its interest  Mountaineering  and,  of course,  however,  Judge was  U B C plays a c o n t i n u i n g role.  will be  discused  also well k n o w n as  architect,  V I .  5  h a d  a n  Archaeological  Robertson, as  3  Institute  University Women's University a n d a keen  C l u b — A n n a i n teaching  i n securing the  Society of Fine Arts. Institute;  he  was  shipping firm, Society, both  5  5  affiliation of the  helped  5  4  affiliation  held leadership  affiliates of the  Institute.  5 6  of  of the  and  British  A H S A  A H S A  the and  the  interests  Architect R. M a c k a y leader,  H e  practising  a U B C professor  also become  roles i n the  a  affiliate  a n d  was Columbia the  prestigious  Shakespeare  M a n y U B C scientists were i n  the  British C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y of Science, including J o h n D a v i d s o n w h o also  52  in  Fripp  a key player i n  a local director of Dingwall, Cotts, & Co., a  and  as  for e x a m p l e — h a d  enlightenment  W . R . D u n l o p would  he  director.  Various members  occupations.  Institute  a n A H S A  director, and,  discussed, was  B . Jamieson,  m u t u a l  and  i n U B C as  executive member.  civic developer,  instrumental  also a n A H S A  interests,  section.  H o w a y advocated  occupational interest 5  next  a U B C Senator  a historian.  R.P.S. Twizell was  2  A H S A with the V I .  was  deeply i n the  H o w a y , for example, w a s  with the  the  more  Occupational  had  AHSA Collection. Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 23 March, 1916.  AHSA Collection, Vol. 2-10, Minutes, 28 March, 1916. Occupational interests are described in the next section. 53  UWC members often had professional spouses (e.g. Evelyn Farris was wife of a prestigious lawyer), or were aspiring professionals themselves (e.g. Anna B. Jamieson was a teacher with administrative and political aspirations). 54  Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 1617, Vancouver Daily World. Biographical sketch of R Mackay Fripp, Spring 1891. Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 32. Fripp was prominent in the Vancouver Arts and Crafts Association as well as the Society of Fine Arts. Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia Society of Fine Arts Collection, Vol. 1-1, Add. Mss. 171, Minutes. 55  Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2667, Obituary, Vancouver Sun. W.RDunlop, 6 January, 1941. 56  45  a  strong influence o n the V a n c o u v e r Natural History Society a n d  influence n u m b e r not  o n the Alpine C l u b of C a n a d a . of personal  with  each  7  T h e affiliated societies shared  other.  only with various m u t u a l enlightenment  professionalization  A n  w h e n  VI.  and  societies, b u t  role U B C m i g h t play i n that  from A . B . Jamieson.  often a n  she  sought  of the  Jamieson was  p u b l i c office i n the  regular  Davidson's and  speakers  1930s,  for the  were  involved  also aspects  of  regard.  status  Institute  enhancement  councillor,  and  a biographical sketch listed  Vancouver Institute."  5 8  her  Similarly,  Dunlop's obituaries both note their involvement with  every organization or individual that affiliated w i t h the V I  inclusive sentiments  of the  L a b o u r C o u n c i l (VTLC) w a s  V I constitution.  6  0  professionals.  6 1  a short-lived anomaly.  The VTLC's  initial presence  fit,  The Vancouver It w a s  a n  of trade u n i o n activists, that, i n the V I , f o u n d itself a m o n g local a n d  a  the  59  Not the  the  people  for personal  "one  J.G.  and  These  indication that the V I could be used  comes  as  contacts  5  some  can be  despite Trades  organization capitalists  explained on  a  Ranta. "British Columbia Academy of Science." Davidson Collection, Vol. 3-2, Correspondence, Davidson to Alpine Club President Munday. Davidson and Munday corresponded frequently. 57  ^Vancouver City Archives, Major Mathews Collection, Add. Mss. 54, Vol. 13, Microfiche 02322. Biographical sketch (possibly press release) of Anna B. Jamieson. Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2667, Obituary, Vancouver Sun. W.RDunlop, 6 January, 1941. Obituary, J.G. Davidson, 25 August, 1948, Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2338. 59  VI Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. The constitution offered affiliation to any group that claimed to support the objects of the VI. 60  Long-serving VI councillor Robie Reld, for example, was at one time considered among the city's business leaders; Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper, present during the VI organizational meetings, was the city's quintessential social and business leader In Vancouver in the early 1900s. See RA.J. McDonald, Business Leaders. 240, 495. Early 6 1  46  n u m b e r  of accounts.  Vancouver, expressed  Organized labour was  reformist i n the  rather than  wish  to reform  revolutionary.  the  thought)  promise  U B C  was  be  of social  and  institution.were  not  as  a  accessible 6  a n d  education  averse  to w o r k i n g people.  of organized labour, to  cooperating with  dominated  the V T L C  once  (various  Schools  from  educational  1905  labour offered  McVety also h a d  a n d  organizational meetings.  6 6  opposed  r o o m to  6  5  for  the 6  4  t o W o r l d W a r I,  advisory committee Klinck.  unspecified dealings,  h a d  University personnel.  returning W W I veterans with Wesbrook and  early Institute  were  3  earlier, a part of a n  other  should  i n  was  schooling  schooling institution that might have  leaders  socialist w h o  described  a n d  mobility.  yet another  w o r k i n g people,  McVety,  free  and  force  Its m o d e r a t i o n  6 2  schools; education  generally w e l c o m e d b y w o r k i n g people, leaders  generally a moderate  and  invited to  Organized labour was  was,  for  Wesbrook  McVety was  J . H .  the  also  councillors Howay, Wesbrook, Robertson, Jamieson, Farris, OT4oyle, Thomas, and others were all "professionals," either by occupational status, university education, marriage, or a combination. R ^ A J . McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver." Despite some increase in union activity during WWI and the strikes of 1918, as described in Roy, Vancouver. 93, this moderate status continued Into the 1920s, as described by Jean Barman in "Knowledge is Essential for Universal Progress but Fatal to Class Privilege: Working People and The Schools in Vancouver During the 1920s," in Labour/Le Travail. 22 (Fall 1988): 9. 62  6 3  R A . J . McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver," 63; Barman, "Knowledge," 14, 50.  Barman, "Knowledge," 50. Harris, "Locating the University," 122. The VTLC in 1904 opposed UBC as a class institution. 64  6 5  R A . J . McDonald, "Working Class Vancouver," 61.  Wesbrook Collection, Box 3-2, Engagement diary entry; Wesbrook Collection, Box 5 (unfiled). Diary entry, Wednesday. 26 April, 1916, . VI Minutes. 25 February, 1916; 66  47  accustomed odd  to presenting  that the V T L C  regular  S u n d a y  w o u l d associate  initiative to provide a familiar useful vehicle to increase  with what  service.  the  president  the V T L C .  6  8  of the  University Women's Club women's to the  suffrage.  VI.  6 9  A s  the  suffrage  V T L C  made  and  other  the  V T L C  representative,  m a y have and  university  potentially  and  Gutteridge,  prominent  m e m b e r  one  of the  through V T L C ' s  to the  Syllabus."  Jamieson  of the  University Women's Club  lecturers,  s h o u l d decide the  she  suggested  syllabus, and  H a d Gutteridge not previously fallen  out with  for  members.  i n  1916  her that  carried, M r s .  that subjects,  this suggestion  the  strained  Although this motion was countered  of  representatives  contributed to a  councillors w h e n  of  her w o r k  Gutteridge immediately introduced  added  0  a  not  messages.  T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute  "ladies be  7  a  Helena  social reformers  Gutteridge became  v i e w s to Institute  approval.  through  as  therefore  also acquainted with various members  Gutteridge, however,  relationship between  to be  The V I appeared  Tailor's Industrial U n i o n  Gutteridge was  It w a s  6 7  appeared  legitimacy of Labour's  Another personal connection was former  speeches.  met with other  not council  middle-class  Wesbrook Collection. Box 5-15. McVety to Wesbrook, 31 March, 1916. McVety acknowledged Wesbrook's invitation to help plan the VI. Vancouver, University of British Columbia. Special Collections, Microfilm AW1 R2594, Article, B.C. Federationist, 1918. Throughout 1918 there were such speeches, and no indication is given that this was a new practice. 67  ^Irene Howard, The Struggle for Social Justice in British Columbia (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1992), 107, 129. Howard, Struggle. 61, 64.  69  70  VI Minutes, 22 June, 1916. Judge Howay recorded this exchange.  48  suffragists  (such as  views might have earlier, she  had  could be found In the  found more  also written a n  Father W . P . O'Boyle, w h o had O'Boyle was  an  support  Institute  meant  spoken o n the  In  February,  presentations  the VTLC's  would  be  otherwise  unsuitable  p o w e r to reject  topics."  Movement"  (presented  candidates  for "contentious  should be  his  her activities as supporters  with  7 3  b y Gutteridge  of the V T L C  1922, the  views of suffrage.  7 2  supporters  conflicts a trade  with  unionist  i n the V I , a n d  objects  of the  that  affiliate  institute,  discussion of contentious  or  of that y e a r —  " A  presentations  " W o m e n ' s R e l a t i o n to the  unsuitable"  as  the  lectures.  at that meeting to debate the  council discussed whether  stripped of membership;  years  the V I .  herself)— appear  or otherwise were  the  the  The V T L C  M a n ' s Viewpoint of History" and  February  and  Gutteridge's  relationship with  i n accordance  executive "the  representatives  he  her  Several  1  1919, V I executive discussed ways of insuring that  giving the  Working  Gutteridge.  not generally amongst  hampered  7  topic of women's  councillor i n 1916, and  of Vancouver society a n d  that she was  m a y have  from V I councillors.  angry editorial d e n o u n c i n g the  probably did not w o r k well with these members  University Women's Club),  unrepresented  the V T L C w a s  the  Labor  most  likely  No  7 4  issue.  In  affiliates  only group  at  that  Howard, Struggle. 64. Gutteridge mixed socialism and unionism with her suffrage activism, resulting in severed connections with middle-class suffragists. 7 1  Howard, Struggle. 75.  72  73  VI Minutes, February 1919. (John Davidson recorded the minutes.)  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. The VTLC lectures were the only overtly political lectures that season. See Appendix 1 for a comparison of lectures for the 1918-19 season. 74  4 9  time whose tensions not  n a m e  between  disappeared  found  In  labour  activists into their midsts.  t h e V I to b e o f little u s e to its  considering the case  noting that  the recording secretary  university professor.  as  7  7  Institute members 7  In return,  6  d i d not  the V T L C  involvement i n the V I , it is  for most  of the meetings  worth  i n w h i c h  the  Davidson h a d a peculiar background for a  H i s parents c o u l d n o t afford to provide a  for h i m ,so he h a d n o academic  degrees at all.  T h e recommendations  university  H e learned  a y o u n g m a n working at Scottish universities a n d earned  Royal L i n n e a n Society.  probably  cause.  of the VTLC's  issue arose w a s J o h n Davidson.  education  the  representatives w o u l d fit p o o r l y w i t h other V I  a n d it seems likely that the other  welcome  Given  7 5  organized labour a n d capital i n Vancouver at the time, it is  surprising that V T C L  affiliates,  from the list o f affiliates.  botany  a position i n the  of others h a d secured  h i m a  position as British Columbia's Provincial Botanist i n 1911,a n d i n 1 9 1 6 he was  "taken  Davidson, He  also  over" b y U B C w h e n  that position w a s  as previously mentioned,  professed  often  a d i s d a i n for profiteers,  especially real estate agents.  8  0  terminated.  promoted developers,  T h e background  7  8  a religious  message.  moneymakers,  a n d aspirations  7  9  a n d  of Davidson  VI Minutes, 23 February, 1922; VI Collection Box 4-5, Programs. The VTLC was not listed on the 1920-21 program; records for 1919-20 are missing. 75  Roy, Vancouver. 93, 94; Barman, West. 220.  76  77  VI Minutes, passim.  Davidson Collection, Vol. 3-5, Autobiographical notes for UBC employment application; Wesbrook Collection, Box 6-3, Note. 78  79  See note 31.  Davidson Collection, Vol. 1-2, Personal notes.  80  5 0  suggest,  therefore,  working people, a n d  that he  a n d  professionals.  antagonism than secretary. added  H i s observations  the  aspirations  he  perhaps  case with  lives  of  businessmen  wrote with less  then,  desire for e n h a n c e d  individuals.  M u c h  presence. facilities,  the  class  recording have  of the  elsewhere." interested  8  1  a  certain  that the  G r o u p s interested topics.  University W o m e n ' s Club was  satisfaction  whose  considerably more  notably i n professional education.  the V I h a d It b e c o m e s  associations might wish  to  a n d of key  come from  not have  U B C ' s  if w e with  a  "standing met  those  enlightenment  welcome, although the  of their society with  but  the V T s location i n U B C  could  groups  several  service,  University confers  class Vancouver Trades and Labour Council.  professional  of public  i n literary topics mixed  E v e n  V I for  occupational interests  later, o n reflecting u p o n  openly political were  affiliation  the  anticipated status boost would  connection w h i c h we  i n scientific  more  public image, m e m b e r  George Winter claimed  suggestion of a  with  a genuine mission  social, intellectual, a n d  M a n y years a n  societies affiliated  These included  a n d  the  of  another  concerning the V T L C ,  "mutual enlightenment"  recruitment,  were  the  A s recording secretary,  might have been  possible reasons.  (and)  less concerned with  sympathetic to the  credibility.  Local  also a  m a y have been  middle-class  welcome than  the  O f course, m a n y w h o interests  i n other  necessary  objectives  workingsupported  areas,  to consider  most  w h y  affiliate.  V I Collection. Box 3-8. Correspondence, G. Winter, to ? [19351. Winter was then President of the VI. 81  51  Professional  Despite  considerable  considered denoting the  (after  the  manner  practitioners  motivations of the  before  1925  public and m a y have public  problems  of certain  prestigious  Millar)  as  can,  as  with  a  the  other  here  restrictive  occupations.  five p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  private interests.  In  a  prime  Teachers' Association a n d  considering  to affiliate w i t h the affiliates,  B u t although individuals from each  constitutions,  were  The  of Mines  objective of these organizations. the  Architectural Institute,  strictly interested  i n the  existed to promote  T A B L E P R O F E S S I O N A L  welfare  and  be  term  as  The  organization  to s u p p o r t  that  Vancouver  described b y  of their  V I  examine  motivated b y p u b l i c service, there is little to suggest  service w a s  C h a m b e r  i n defining "professional," it will  of Gidney and  (see T a b l e 6), o n e  been  Affiliates  their  m e m b e r s .  m i n i n g .  8  8  2  3  6:  A S S O C I A T I O N  AFFILIATES,  pre-1925  First Season Last Season No. of Lectures Name 1916- 17 1934-35 28 B.C. Academy of Science Architectural Institute of British Columbia 1916- 17 1931-32 4 Vancouver Teachers Association 1916- 17 1934-35 7 British Columbia Chamber of Mines 1916- 17 1934-35 11 Institute of Mines and Metallurgy 1924- 25 1927-28 3 Sources: a) Programs, VI Collection Box 4-5. Dates are those printed on the programs, and do not indicate whether the society was in good standing or not. Data incomplete for 1919-1920. b) VI Minutes  Architectural Institute Collection, Constitution (1914); Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver Teachers' Association, Add. Mss. 994, Constitution (1916). 82  Academy of Science Collection, Box 2-28, British Columbia Chamber of Mines Brochure. The Chamber of Mines was not a professional association such as the Architectural Institute, but it did tie in with the "professional" status of engineers and metallurgists. 83  5 2  The due  motivations  of these  to their self-interest.  professions. changing  The  organizations One  occupations  educational  to affiliate w i t h  of their concerns represented  requirements.  8  4  h a d  was  the  education  particular but  B y 1900, it w a s  ever-increasing role i n preparing m e n  Not only were medicine, (such  as  universities used  or clergy), b u t  occupational groups  engineering and  teaching)  case of British Columbia, s u c h  as  mining,  in professional  a n u m b e r  programs  The y o u n g U B C had a n d  developed.  some 8  7  (such as  university education.  8 6  exploitation  U B C was  law,  8  5  In  status the  occupations  destined  of occupational groups  to p l a y a  The V I m a y have been  regarded  as  u s e f u l to  negotiations  these over  continued.  few professional education  local occupations  programs  i n its  w i s h e d to influence h o w the  T h e Architectural Institute  was  one  of these.  One  earliest programs member  ^Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen, xi. 85  Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 345.  Harris, "Locating the University," 113. UBC was established with considerable sentiment that expert resource developers rather than lawyers and doctors were to be trained. 86  87  role  t h a t l o o k e d to U B C for  i n securing a congenial relationship with U B C as  educational  professions.  education.  educational preparation.  years,  forestry.  that  a s p i r i n g to professional  that included resource  agriculture, and  T h e V I attracted  groups  sought  the  Canada—were  (usually) for  b y traditional professions  for  more  sometimes  evident  universities i n Ontario—and b y extension, m u c h of English playing a n  V I were  Logan, Tuum Est. 66, 67. 5 3  wrote of the development of architect training programs in Canadian universities, and noted his suggestions for appropriate courses at UBC.  88  Later, the Architectural Institute would make recommendations to the UBC Senate.  89  Teachers were likewise interested in how teacher training would  develop at UBC. The trend across Canada was for teacher education to move from normal school to university or college control.  90  made preliminary arrangements for teacher training.  UBC had, by 1923, 91  The presence, over  the years, of Anna B. Jamieson in the Vancouver Teachers' Association, The Vancouver Institute, the University Women's Club, and UBC governance also suggests a connection. If the VI could in any way help occupational groups form a beneficial relationship with UBC, it seems likely it would be done. The mining industry had little need to worry about whether UBC would cater to their needs. Like its predecessor, McGill University College, UBC provided programs in mining and related technologies from its beginning.  92  It continued to do so, and UBC faculty members were often active in local industry organizations; some were active in the Chamber of Mines.  93  ^Architectural Institute Collection. Vol. 1- 2, Personal note. The author is unidentified, and the date can be inferred to be 1914 as it also discusses the proposed re-incorporation of the Architectural Institute that took place that year. Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia Senate Records, Box 1-1 Minutes, 17 December, 1924. 89  90  Sheehan and Wilson, "From Normal School to the University," 33.  John Calam, "Some Historic Trends in British Columbia Teacher Education" (Unpublished. 1991). 1. 9 1  92  Logan, Tuum Est. 66. UBC Board of Governors Collection, Minutes, 11 January, 1916.  V I Collection, Box 2-13, Correspondence. The Chamber of Mines' letterhead names several UBC faculty members as vice-presidents. 93  54  Several of these affiliates h a d , elevate the  status of the  as part of their constitution, a n  occupation.  Institute  a n d  enhance  their occupational status.  Science,  comprised largely of career  The  but,  British  s u c h  despite  the  of Mines  influence."  9  8  other A  seemed  a n  6  In this view, some  the  Professor J o h n  three examples  publicity.  Some,  like  and  help  the  maintain 9  7  British,  of  conception the  apprenticeship,  social  were  or  political  attracted  Davidson,  of Institute  to  the  and W . R .  supporters  w h o  ^Architectural Institute Collection, Constitution (1914); Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver Teachers' Association Collection, Add. Mss. 994, Constitution (1916). Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-2, Constitution; Box 1-13, Minutes, describe discussions as to the necessity of the Academy at all with UBC present. 95  Academy of Science Collection, Box 2-28, British Columbia Chamber of Mines Brochure. 96  In considering the Architectural Institute, the lucrative contracts for designing the University cannot be overlooked. 97  98  Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 153, 206. 55  9 5  social  professional learned  method  education  a n d  If t h e V I c o u l d  more  of "professional gentlemen"  are  9  syllabus.  older, perhaps  qualities of "genteel  (all B r i t i s h born)  to the  status  concerned with  it w o r t h w h i l e to  occupation through  n u m b e r  less  be w o r t h affiliation.  evidently thought  "Professor" Charles Hill-Tout,  D u n l o p  i n its desire for general  mining industry.  it w o u l d  V I also p l a y e d to  indirectly sought  University, a public library  contributing few lectures  skills of the  possessed  VI.  Institute,  scientists,  not unified  C h a m b e r  to  The British Columbia A c a d e m y of  4  for the  "professional gentlemen."  practical yet  a group, was  objectives, then  However, of the  support  it did i n promoting the  Architectural affiliation  as  C o l u m b i a  status than with  through  9  to  The British Columbia Architectural  the V a n c o u v e r Teachers' Association explicitly sought  enhancement m u s e u m ,  a i m  lacked  university credentials, yet there is n o  themselves  as  a n y less professional than  For these "professionals" a n d  others,  possibility of U B C association, and characteristics  O n e  that  early a n d  getting the  were on  (1920-21),  organize a  b y the  the  This reinforces the societies,  came  t h e m  value of the V I w a s  Institute  1  0  0  societies.  sponsored  idea that the  representatives  m u t u a l  of the  the  the  the  However,  from  of the  rather  than  M i n u t e s of the a n d  the  as envoys of another  the  the the  that  the V I itself  remainder fifth  season  season's the  lectures.  affiliated  meetings  at-large  of  or  first four seasons, a n d  rarely attended,  as individuals rather than  enlightenment  half or more  lectures.  less i n  faced was  lectures  council,  degrees."  gentlemen."  promoters  In the  saw  opportunity to exhibit  "professional  quarter  affiliated  with university  more i n the  lecture.  largely determined  t h a t affiliate  the  societies—whether  approximately one  sponsored  peers  continuing p r o b l e m Institute  affiliated  professional—to sponsored  truly made  indication that they  suggest  councillors  organization.  G r o w t h  The  Institute  minutes  lectures.  This,  success.  Although  general  pattern  it seems,  of  record membership was  regarded  as  a n  a n d  audience  attendance  indication of growth  records were poorly kept, there is enough  at  a n d  to suggest  a  development.  "Robinson, "The Great Fraser Midden," in The Great Fraser Midden, by the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association (Vancouver: Art, Historical and Scientific Association, 1948); Davidson Collection Vol. 3-5, Autobiography; Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2667. Obituary, W.R. Dunlop, Vancouver Sun, January 6, 1941. These sources list academic standing (they were all Fellows of noted academic societies), but no university degrees. lOOvi Minutes, 22 September, 1921; 16 March, 1922. Letters in Box 1 contain frequent requests to provide lectures. 5 6  Membership 1916-1925  a n d attendance  (see T a b l e 7).  increase revenue attendance  figures suggest  the V I grew slowly  M e m b e r s h i p w a s keenly sought,  through a nominal  m e m b e r s h i p fee.  w a s also important, partly because  Good  it enhanced  between  as this  would  audience the lectures  (at  least one lecturer complained about poor turn-out), a n d partly because of the  belief  that  attendance  preceded  m e m b e r s h i p .  T A B L E M E M B E R S H I P  1  0  1  7  A N D A T T E N D A N C E ,  1916-1925  Season Membership 1916/17 56 1917/18 64 1918/19 56 1919/20 60 1920/21 41 1921/22 37 1922/23 104; 155* 1923/24 1924/25 82 Sources: a) Membership lists, VI Collection Box 4-11 b) VI Minutes c) Secretary's report, 1925, VI Collection Box 1-4. note: these numbers are largely estimates and approximations. * these conflicting numbers are found In VI Minutes, p. 123.  The  membership roster  suggests  some  Annual Attendance  for  i n exact numbers,  the years  the V I began with  records were kept, reached  1746 1234 2084 -  3360 3850 4200  of the growth of the V I , although it  also indicates that growth w a s not particularly overwhelming. disagree  -  While  records  s o m e fifty-six m e m b e r s , a n d ,  a height of one h u n d r e d  a n d four  V I Minutes, 16 March 1922. In her Secretary's Report, Winnifred Plowden told of an unidentified lecturer who described the VI as "the worst run thing" in Vancouver after his poorly attended lecture. VI Minutes, 21 October, 1916. 101  57  m e m b e r s  i n the  1922-23 season.  fairly s m a l l n u m b e r 1925,  however,  More  1922,  membership  steadily rose  the V I secretary  That  M e m b e r s h i p rose  2  h a d increased  from  attendance  a n d fell,  speaking,  numbers.  this year proves.  the r o o m h a s been  Approximate  i n 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 .  c o m f o r t a b l y filled, w h i l e  0  In  3  lectures."  i n  the  1 0 4  that rose from  seventy-five to one h u n d r e d  one observer  suggested  o f life a n d a c t i v i t y o f e a c h  the  appears  organization."  t h a t affiliates d i d a n i m p o r t a n t j o b i n p r o m o t i n g t h e  lectures a n d building a support base during these early  a n d  lectures.  a link between  sponsoring society a n d the lecture: "the size of the audience  suggests  1  the  a n increasing popularity of the Institute  In the V T ssecond year,  according to measure  annual  Generally  'standing r o o m only' testified to  attendance  suggests  B y  wrote  popularity of the  Average audience  a  slightly.  1,746 i n 1917-18 to 4,200  the attendance  several cases  suggesting  finances o f the Institute.  there is something inherently worthwhile about  Institute  seventy-five  0  maintained the meagre  telling are the recorded  attendance  1  1  0  5  to vary  This  Institute  years.  Membership lists and secretary reports vary a little. See VI Collection, Box 4-11, and VI Minutes, passim. 102  103  V I Minutes, Secretary's Annual Report, 1917-18; 27 April, 1925.  I04vi 105  Minutes, 16 March. 1922. Secretary Plowden often wroteflatteringlyof the VI.  V I Minutes. Secretary's Annual Report, 1917-18. 5 8  Conclusion The first nine years of The Vancouver Institute saw the Institute's beginnings and first efforts to carve for it a secure niche in Vancouver society. Robertson, acting from a position allied with the new provincial university (UBC), proposed a project that built on several educational currents in Vancouver, and that fit its social mood. Robertson found support for his idea from social leaders who felt that The Vancouver Institute would be useful in a variety of ways: to provide a public educational service, to enhance personal or group status, to promote the new university, or to secure an educational alliance with UBC. These people were in a good social position to arrange for different aspects of the VTs operation, from creating a syllabus of lectures and enlisting speakers, to rousing public support and handling meagre finances. The key to initial success, however, was that all these interests were simultaneously present and not generally contradictory. The distinctive feature of the VI during this early period was organizational stability and a primary concern for the success of the VI as defined by membership, attendance, and the presence of distinguished lecturers. There was little internal debate or argument, and VI leaders busied themselves with the tasks needed to make the Institute successful. With the exception of the Vancouver Trades and Labour Council, affiliated bodies were content with VI organization and the perquisites of association evenif they did not contribute greatly. No one debated relative benefit. Although UBC was never formally affiliated, it claimed the VI as an extension project. The VI council felt this to be no threat to the organization or themselves. Neither did council worry  59  about  the  different a i m s of m u t u a l enlightenment  or  professional  organizations.  Part of this success Boundaries were  not  lay i n the  geographic proximity of town and  easily defined i n physical or symbolic terms.  r e m o v a l of U B C to P o i n t Grey, however, a n e w chapter T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute. brought  gown.  It w a s  began  characterized b y internal  i n the  With life  support.  6 0  of  disagreement  o n b y U B C ' s move, and resulted i n four years of instability a n d  dwindling  the  C H A P T E R L E F T  U B C ' s  move  to P o i n t G r e y i n  IN T O W N :  1925 was  significant to T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute. location for the the  VI, Institute  university or finding a  The  u n i o n  of town  and  new,  gown h a d  a n  appeared sever  as  this  the  These  contrasting  remained of the  choice between  With  views were  not  U B C ' s  over the  but  no  significance;  VI, and  nature  following  problems,  the  separation move,  free  location for the  1925 move  w o u l d symbolically claim  relatively unchanged,  four years  implied  i n the  1925-29  is suggested  attitudes of some regular  lecture  membership  were  since a  the  symbolic had  from U B C w o u l d views  VI, town  of the  lectures.  University  different  the  had  or  became gown.  V T s service,  over w h o w o u l d appear as  marked  decision to r e m a i n  Point Grey, a n d  w h e n  U B C ' s  provided a  the  w h i c h  provider  service.  The  a  geographic  symbolic connection.  a  U B C h a d  expensive,  town.  "natural" host of the  apparent regarding w h o  Because  earlier presented  as  and  practically and symbolically  perhaps  physically located i n the economic  1925-1929  councillors faced  gown was well as  3  and  strong  town influence.  i n Vancouver, rather than  b y the  relocate  D u r i n g this time, the for  attendance.  of t o w n influence, it w a s  Because  reasons of economic  and  draw  one  the  season,  V I was  hall and, w i t h except  of location was  This  suffered  V I "back" to U B C .  the  without  decreased also a  time  The  eventually decided i n favour of U B C n o m i n a l l y for administrative  survival, but  61  is  to  composition of the V I council a n d  of those councillors.  U B C representatives tried to  question  by a  in another and  more  explanatory  sense was  a political victory to regain  between the  V I and U B C .  A  A s  described  i n the  factor  the  roles  the  V I at  Point Grey, and  Banton, not  suitable  and  move  weakening  the  accept  was  the  to  an  J o h n  hoped  offer  motion was  a  The  for its lectures. decline  the  have been  A t the  accountant, Vancouver  The V I did not and  offer  countered  with  School Board. b y 1  the  This  The  V I  meant  V I to find  fare well u n d e r  lecture  a  lawyer  i n Vancouver forced  to  accepted.  Mellish, seconded  with U B C , and  a  1924-25  U B C ' s  offer w o u l d b e  choice to r e m a i n  i n membership  still able to attract n e w  This m a y  proper.  V I council  n u m b e r of U B C  carried by those i n attendance.  symbolic relationship  as  that the  from  i n the  Davidson indicated  by lawyer Capt. A.J.B.  Point Grey.  auditorium  arrangement, but  to  V I council.  i n Vancouver  association  changes i n the  reduction  William R. Dunlop, an  subsequently moved  would  o n the  symbolic  Institute  noticeable  gradual  General Meeting, Professor  recommendation  W . E .  and  Vancouver  of the  the  V I located  Outgoing V I President  was  one  1925 was  i n executive  i n keeping  A n n u a l house  i n chapter 2,  years prior to  personnel  Town-Oriented  the  attendance  a  that indicates,  affiliates.  Council  D u r i n g  the  1925-29  town representatives. provided  a n  ongoing  period,  the  most  persistent  council members  O n l y professors J . Davidson and direct  connection  J . G . Davidson  with U B C , although  other U B C  iVI Minutes, 3 April, 1925. Minutes of the 1924-25 Annual General Meeting. 6 2  were  faculty m e m b e r s  held  constant presence Honourary presents  intermittent positions o n the V I council.  since the VI's beginning, w a s gone.  Klinck  P r e s i d e n t , b u t h a d little to d o w i t h r u n n i n g t h e V T .  those w h o h a d  a  persistent presence  T A B L E L O N G E S T  S E R V I N G  C O U N C I L L O R S  Robertson, remained 2  Table  i n the V I during this  a  as  8  time.  8  O F T H E V A N C O U V E R  INSTITUTE,  1925-1929 Number of seasons serving Occupation/Affiliations VI Executive, 1925-1929 Samuel Petersky 4 Medicine: B.C. Medical Assoc. J.G. Davidson 4 UBC Professor, Academy of Science CO. Scott 4 Newspapers Cpt. A.J.B. Mellish 4 Law, Local Societies G.A. McGuire 4 Dentistry J. Davidson 3 UBC Professor, Van. Nat. History Soc. W.R Dunlop 3 Accountant/Businessman, Local Societies Norcross 3 Newspapers Rev. F. Maccaud 3 Anglican Clergy Anna B. Jamieson 3 University Women's Club; Educator Edith Idle 3 B.C. Music Teachers Assoc. Source: a) Councillor lists on programs, VI Collection, Box 4-5 b) Wrigley's Vancouver Directory, 1925 c) Art, Historical, and Scientific Association Collection Name  It w o u l d to r e m a i n was  be  easy for a town-oriented council i n a time of civic  i n Vancouver.  3  U B C ' s  promotion  Point Grey c a m p u s w a s poorly developed,  i n a less populated area with poor public transportation, a n d w a s  i n  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. Klinck provided the occasional lecture, but otherwise is not recorded in the minutes as being present at meetings, nor is he named on any committees. However, his relationship with UBC faculty and Academy of Science members who participated with the VI Council suggests a possible indirect influence. 2  Roy, Vancouver. 92.  3  6 3  effect  "a mudhole."  lecture  hall,  then  view of U B C as have  town's  people  was  a n d  the  V I minutes  attitudes of the  served  o n  president  a n d  was  V I council  twice.  7  served  for several years,  interests  particularly  council executive,  recording the  H e had  the  Cotts, & Co., a n  very active i n local learned Art, Historical,  executive  several  active and  enthusiasm  and  international  societies.  times  since  1923,  U B C . A s early as  auspices  of the  to h o s t  6  H e  Scientific Association  lectures  held and  becoming  a history of supporting public lectures,  Wesbrook with a suggestion  Shackleton under  o n the  promoting  with business  medical doctor, were  loyalties were to V a n c o u v e r rather t h a n approached  i n  1925-29.  council.  positions i n the the  Both  This  symbolic role U B C m a y  particularly active accountant  free  worthwhile.  councillors between  a local director of Dingwall,  shipping company, leadership  5  a  seem  overlooks the  W . R Dunlop, a n  S a m u e l Petersky,  merely to donate a  might not  b y some  period were  V I during this period.  D u n l o p was  campus  o f a free v e n u e  promoted  claim o n the V I .  Petersky kept  role i n the V I w a s  to the  during this  shipping a n d  in the  move  a source  played, a n d  T w o  in  a  If U B C ' s  4  but  his  1916, Dunlop b y Sir  Mayor, City Council,  the  had  Ernest  School  Board,  Logan. Tuum Est. 95; Roy, Vancouver. 103. 110, 168; Shrum. Shrum. 49.  4  These occupations are confirmed by personal letterheads. Vancouver Institute Collection, Box 2-4. 5  Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2667, Vancouver Sun. Obituary, W.R Dunlop, 6 January, 1941. Dunlop was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and involved with the Shakespeare Society, Fellowships of Arts of New Westminster, Pacific Northwest Academy of Arts, and Arts and Letters Club among others. There is no indication that he held a university degree. AHSA Collection, Minutes, 25 January 1927; VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs.  7  6 4  a n d  U B C .  This suggests an  8  i n c l i n a t i o n to p r o m o t e  Vancouver and  its  cultural virtues rather than U B C .  D u n l o p was institution. town  and  a n d  the  support  he  about promoting the V I as a  after  all, been  the  m o v i n g to Point Grey.  minutes  discussions  official accolades  it deserved.  for the V I , a n d the  V I moved  over the  did not  see  maintained to  the V I as  mid-twenties.  w a y to increased  economic  shipping interests, industries  and  m a y  enjoyed  1  0  gown  post-war  growth  business,  V I  Presidency  role i n the  for t o w n locations  H e later  expressed  discriminated service.  early  i n the  city  press m a n y  considerable  against  the  town;  1 1  social climate of Vancouver  depression  have joined those w h o  stimulating tourism and  V T s valuable  fits w i t h the  activity i n the the  second  V I i n  D u n l o p actively encouraged  9  a U B C extension  The  keeping the  of his  about the  Point G r e y .  Dunlop's promotional enthusiasm during the  year  enthusiasm  possibility that the  Vancouver  first to propose  In the  record  y e a r s after concern  H e had,  not  (1926-7),  enthusiastic  a n d  1920s.  1  labour 2  logging a n d  played an  unrest  gave  Dunlop, with shipping  active role  helping Vancouver become  i n  a proud  and  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia Senate Collection, Box 1-1, Minutes, 11 October, 1916. 8  VI Minutes. 8 April, 1927. Petersky, another town supporter, recorded these sentiments. 9  VI Collection Box 2-4, Correspondence, Dunlop to Banton, 23 February, 1925; Dunlop to Timms, 3 October, 1929. Dunlop wrote to colleagues of the need for better publicity through newspapers. VI Minutes, 4 April 1932; 1 April, 1933. Dunlop suggested relocating to the new Art Gallery, and later raised again the "place of meeting question." 10  11  12  VI Collection, Box 2-15, Correespondence, Dunlop to Timms, 17 October, 1933.  Roy, Vancouver. 88. 6 5  leading  city.  1  The  3  c o m p l i m e n t a r y reference  progressive  mayor,  comes  time w h e n Taylor a n d  at  Western  a  C a n a d a Unity and  interests for  M r . L . D .Taylor"  i n the  booster  as  i n the  providing "moral support"  other business  Development League.  V I council might regard  interests 1  the V I as  also prominent during the W s  graduated  i n medicine from  practice i n several small Vancouver,  he  the  party.  Liberal  He  w a s  1  a  independent  13  the town  McGill  H e was  a  raised i n Vancouver.  University a n d  returned  U p o n  In  to  relocating to  a leader i n the J e w i s h cornmunity a n d  H e records  a n  attitude  i n s t i t u t i o n t h a n k f u l for, b u t  note  support  executive twice.  active i n  8 April,  not  1927, for example,  that the V I w a s  dependent  expresses  of several influential bodies, U B C a m o n g  for  A s V I secretary for  i n a p o s i t i o n to influence w h i c h V I actions were to  two  be a n  on, U B C support.  council's thanks t h e m .  1  for  6  Roy, Vancouver. 88, 92,93; Barman, The West. 236.  VI Minutes, 8 April, 1927. Roy, Vancouver. 92.  Such views are recorded by town supporter Petersky.  Vancouver Public library. Vancouver Province. Obituary. Samuel Petersky. 17 February,  1934. 16  forming  accomplishment  1925-29 period.  i n British Columbia.  serving o n the  14  1  civic  V I  5  considered noteworthy.  the  to the  o n the V I council each year during this period (and continued  he w a s  Petersky's  centres  h a d become  several more years), years,  were  "our  It s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t  4  local physician w h o h a d been born i n Winnipeg but he  to  purposes.  Petersky w a s  1906  V I minutes  V I Minutes, 8 April 1927. 6 6  Petersky was  also a proponent  civic subsidies VI,  rather  noted  the  would be  for p r o m o t i n g t o u r i s m were  than  m o v i n g to  economic  U B C .  (1928-29)  asking that the  series,  V I "be  recognized  not  as  keen  Wesbrook  U B C  no  Furthermore, divided medical  17  an  a link between  to  the  the  t h a t "the  mayor  important  1927-28, only  he  solution  of Vancouver  m e m b e r  V I as  of  society."  Vancouver's  1926.  2  0  B u t as  a n d  the  1 9  premier  British C o l u m b i a  a physician, Petersky was  for the  medical profession. and  h a d  been  Chancellor R E . McKechnie,  Vancouver medical community,  i n its v i e w regarding training i n hospitals  the  the  Although U B C  both  by  medical  doctors,  1920s.  like others i n C a n a d a ,  role of universities.  under  not  influenced  facilities for training p h y s i c i a n s d u r i n g the the  for  D u r i n g his year as V I  1 8  the V I a n d  to grant m e d i c a l degrees,  president h a d  as  to p r o m o t e  necessarily seeking U B C support power  to write  financed-starved  report  concluded  (numerous  a U B C service.  a physician, he was  the  V I and  council moved  Medical Association i n  h a d  In his Secretary's  7  stresses of the  Like Dunlop, Petersky was  A s  1  available) for a  a civic a u d i t o r i u m i n a central location."  President  lecture  of finding alternate funding  2 1  One view  control of local doctors,  was  kept  the  other  Roy, Vancouver. 93; VI Minutes, 30 March, 1928.  18  VI Minutes, 30 March, 1928.  19  VI Minutes. September 24. 1928.  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. The BCMA Isfirstlisted as an affiliate in 1926. Petersky was the BCMA representative and appears to have been the only physician to become active with the VI (unlike businessmen, scientists, and lawyers). 20  If control of the medical profession In British Columbia resembled that of tum-of-thecentury Ontario, then problems of quackery, lay conveyancing, unprofessional conduct, and poor internal solidarity troubled British Columbia doctors. In other words, occupational control was minimal. See Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 302, 336. 2 1  invited  universities to participate.  away from  2 2  With  U B C ' s  move to Point Grey,  far  its one time neighbour V a n c o u v e r General Hospital, it w o u l d  very easy for s o m e physicians to lose interest i n U B C , medical c o m m u n i t y h a d long discussed Petersky could  well  have promoted  a n  be  a l t h o u g h U B Ca n d  plans for medical  education.  independent V I without  2  the  3  considering  its potential role i n U B C negotiations.  T A B L E L E C T U R E  T Y P E S ,  9 1925-1929  Other Unknown Season Fine Arts Science Arts Social 1925-26 1 13 4 3 2 0 1926-27 11 5 6 1 0 1 1927-28 5 9 3 5 1 1 1928-29 7 4 3 4 1 3 24 4 Totals 31 16 13 5 Source: a) VI Minutes b) VI Collection, Box 4-5. Programs: see Appendix 1 for categorization guide note: data reflect planned lectures Notes on categories: "Science" denotes lectures dealing with aspects of natural and applied science (physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture): "Arts" denotes lectures dealing with other academic topics (philosophy, history, biography, geography, literature and others); "Social" indicates lectures concerned with popular social concerns (education, politics, economics, racism and others); "Fine Arts" denotes artistic performances or Illustrations, or lectures on artistic topics other than literature (music or painting appreciation); "Other" includes topics of travel, mountaineering, industry, professions.  Peter Walte, Lord of Point Grey. (Vancouver. University of British Columbia Press, 1987). 130. 22  UBC Senate had early discussed plans for medical facilities, and the local medical association had sought UBC's sanction for their training programs. See Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia, Senate Records, Box 1. Minutes, 14 May, 1919, 17 December, 1919. 18 February. 1920. 23  6 8  If t h e period,  nature the  1925  composition of the  service did not.  to earlier ones. Sciences"  and  Table 9  lectures  still  were  similar  since the  i n format  that popularized academic  dominated  similarity between  during this time was oriented VI.  i n proportions  a n d  "Arts  comparable  1916-25 topic  and  to  the  1916-  syllabi suggests that the  U B C ' s physical and  major  change  i n the  symbolic move, leaving a  A n y consideration of popular support  m u s t  take  this  V I  town change  account.  The town the  shows  lectures  changed  period.  The  into  The  council  attitude  of council between  1925-29 was  growth  of these promoters  i n the V T s popular support.  decreased  for all b u t  one  season  d e c i s i o n to r e m a i n  accommodation appreciated  for the  U B C ' s  connection.  not  Instead,  a n d  academic  membership  Dwindling  but  T h e place for lectures w a s , former  a n d  for  a  However, the  slow  attendance  period.  Support  problem of finding  A s described earlier, the  resources  The  Petersky.  sufficient to c o n t i n u e  "in town" raised the  lectures.  geographically significant. public,  was  during this  Homelessness  to the  of enthusiasm  oriented VI, influenced particularly b y D u n l o p a n d  enthusiasm  The  one  V I  downplayed the  however,  council  symbolic  financially  U B C facilities were  suitable  and  free,  conspicuous  centrally located, a n d very accessible b y public transit.  2 4  S u c h  B . MacDonald, Vancouver: A Visual History. 34, shows a major electric railway line running past UBC. N. MacDonald, Neighbours. I l l , describes the slow rise in automobile ownership and continuing patronage of the electric railway system. 24  6 9  S u c h  a n ideal location was  different  T h e  a n d  unsatisfactory  1925-26 lectures  Avenue  a n d  were  previous year  a n d  (see T a b l e  of the  h a d  i n previous years been  the  2  Normal  location.  2  7  F r o m  attendance 2  2  5  distance  Provincial  was  Normal  d o w n somewhat  Council b l a m e d this o n the a n d  the  removed from  a  not very far from  hall where extent  the  from  at  Tenth  the  n e w site:  "the  lectures i n  the  account  Normal  for  this  of the  was  appears  feeble e x c u s e t h a t the T h u r s d a y e v e n i n g  regular meeting time of some  but  Willow  School  council's judgement  a  lectures  attendance,  former Tenth a n d  strictly geographical perspective, the  with  four  year)  holding of the  the  U B C ' s  School  (22.00 for the  delivered will to s o m e  C o u n c i l also gave the  societies.  the  good choice for relocation so the  slot conflicted  1925-29 the V I h a d  T h e m o v e itself n o d o u b t influenced audience  School was  probably a w e a k .  6  at  University to P o i n t Grey,  auditorium some  situation."  held  A s m a l l r e n t a l fee  10).  n e w  F r o m  homes.  C a m b i e Street.  increased V I expenses,  removal  h a r d to replace.  time  affiliated  8  25  VI Collection. Box 3-13. Treasurer's statement. 15 April. 1926.  26  VI Minutes, 29 April, 1926. Banton, a lawyer, records this sentiment.  The Normal School was only a few blocks awayfromthe former UBC site, and just as accessible by electric railway. See B. MacDonald, Vancouver: A Visual History. 34. 27  28  VI Minutes, 29 April, 1926. 7 0  T A B L E M E M B E R S H I P  10  A N D A T T E N D A N C E ,  1925-1929  Membership Annual Attendance Season 78 'lower than previous year" 1925/26 1926/27 134 "greatest in VI history" 1927/28 104 1920 1928/29 1625:1383* Source: a) VI Collection, Box 4-11, Membership lists b) VI Minutes 'conflicting numbers are given In VI Minutes note: these numbers are largely estimates and approximations.  S u c h from  comments  reinforce the view that U B C ' s  its willingness to donate  a meeting place, a n d contrasts  that U B C provided certain prestige w a s  seen  not otherwise attainable.  as location, not symbolic association.  dominant attitudes  influence came  of the V I council,  primarily  with 2 9  the  belief  T h e problem  T h i s v i e w fits w i t h  the  a council comprised largely of local  V a n c o u v e r b u s i n e s s m e n a n d professionals w h o h a d n o strong ties to U B C .  Having rationalized circumstances thus, Vancouver  the VTcouncil chose  a n d m o v e d d o w n t o w n to the V a n c o u v e r Technical School  D u n s m u i r A v e n u e a n d H o m e r Street for 1926-27. been  to remain i n  encouraged  b y J . G . Lister,  lecturer a n d representative  principal  at  This choice m a y have  of the school a n d sometime V I  for the V a n c o u v e r Teachers'  Association.  3  0  Council changed the lecture night from T h u r s d a y s to Fridays to accommodate  29  t h e w i s h e s o f affiliated  societies a n d proposed  "an  aggressive  VI Collection, Box 3-8, Correspondence, Winter to ?, ca. 1935.  VI Minutes, 22 June, 1916. Lister is identified as the Teachers' Association representative. VI Collection, Box 4-8. A note describing the 1926 syllabus describes Lister's forthcoming lecture and identifies him as Principal of Vancouver Technical School. 30  71  effort... The  to  enlarge  result was  the  membership"  that the  1926-27 season  history of T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute, membership...  A s  attendance  s h o w n o n Table  most  of 4200.  season  noted  the  members,"  city."  3  This season  the  the  "most  the  lectures."  and  Mayor,  have  about  other  31  1  moral support the  press,  the  the  provided the speakers  support  as  evidence that the  and  the  of  134.  exceeded success  V I b y  A s  the  "the  1924-25  of the  1926-  V a n c o u v e r  U B C faculty members.  V I "fulfilled  a  and  "distinguished  themselves,  *wanf i n the  Council life o f  the  3  success  was  not  of the V I w a s  to be  housed  repeated  the  following year.  at $4.00 per  have  exceeded  The  1927-28  d o w n t o w n at A b e r d e e n S c h o o l at B u r r a r d  A l t h o u g h it r e m a i n s u n c e r t a i n w h y the V I d i d  r e m a i n at V a n c o u v e r Technical School, m o n e y m a y have  m a y  3  2  for the year w a s  U B C President Klinck,  a n d Barclay Avenue.  began  rental.  successful year i n  point of view 3  attendance would  of hall  d o w n t o w n location of the V a n c o u v e r Technical School  financial  School Trustees, took s u c h  was  costs  The Executive Secretary attributed  to the  the  at  extra  both from  10, m e m b e r s h i p  successful year," a n n u a l  count 27  and  to offset  session, and one  hundred  rose  to $ 8 . 0 0 p e r  not  played a role.  session.  3  4  Street  A n n u a l  dollars, e n c o u r a g i n g V I executive to  Rent rent choose  facilities.  VI Minutes, 29 April, 1926, 18 October 1926. Petersky recording.  VI Minutes. 18 October, 1926; 8 April, 1927. Petersky recorded the enthusiasm. In the absence of a credible attendance figure, this description is suspect. 32  33  V I Minutes, 8 April, 1927. Petersky recording.  34  VI Collection, Box 3-10, Invoice.  The  following season  location.  Rent remained  attendance attended 10). a  a n d  the  lectures,  The n e w  elevator.  financial  In  fairly h i g h at $ 8 4 . 0 0 for the  membership a n d  the  membership  meant  t r a d i t i o n o f free the V I u p o n  solution  to the  without  charging audience  proposed  promote  t o u r i s m .  discussed,  final  Unitarian  to  about  to the  each  Hence,  7  1900  104  (see  people  Table  lecture hall was  faced  t i m e .  V T s rental  several executive  approached  via was  with  for a n  h e l d at  the  belief  proposed expenses  members operating  a larger m e m b e r s h i p  season's two lectures 3  continuing  service, the  M o v i n g to U B C i n P o i n t G r e y w a s  grant:  would  city, p r i m a r i l y  not  to  seriously  U B C drew  record  8  " i n t o w n " location for the  C h u r c h  the  G r a n t s were fairly available from  3 6  3  and  the  V I for  near Tenth Avenue and  accessible location, and  1928-29 was  Granville Street.  the  V I Collection, Box 3-13. Treasurer's Report, 1928.  36  V I Minutes, 30 March, 1928.  Vancouver  Although  despite a syllabus of lectures  35  38  Only about  5  to the  to r e d u c e  a large attendance a n d  although the  attendance  fees.  lectures,  City of Vancouver be  insure  naturally follow."  37  a n d  that the V I w a s  exposure  location problem was  that the  "that w o u l d  a n  dropped  season,  popular  strains.  that people would join  was  membership  3  a less  andi unlike the V a n c o u v e r Technical School, there  The reduced  keeping with  The  declined markedly.  facilities were b l a m e d , since access  long flight of stairs  no  at A b e r d e e n School proved to be  comparable  Roy, Vancouver. 92. V I Minutes, 30 March, 1928.  These lectures required scientific apparatus.  73  this to  previous years  and  some  records  are  lectures  that season,  ever.  contradictory,  Because  membership, Since  a  the  the  unfixed  m a k i n g it one  fee  of $4.00 with  years  measured  a  attendance declined.  between of the  1400  most  considered to be  decline i n attendance  season  The vagrant the V I , as  perhaps  attendance was  rental  finished  press coverage,  $6.00  deficit.  of 1925-29 were i n membership  location likely accounted  was  been  charged  reduced for the  was  and,  to m o v e to P o i n t G r e y a n d  relationship between  largely unchanged joined  the  continued the  VI, but to raise  syllabus (and  during  the  facilities,  of this decline, but  of the  the  1925-1929.  V I  role;  the  was  for  The loss  of  U B C ' s  first n i n e years.  change  needed.  The V I That  Organizations  most  affiliated organizations  However, four n e w  six revoked their affiliations.  o n l y after  membership.  reunite with U B C .  V I and  difficulties for the  voluntary  particularly, attendance.  success  Affiliated  The  seasons  not particularly successful years  facing financial indications that a major  change  the  4 0  for m u c h  a part of the  attended  a catalyst for the  symbolic association with U B C m a y have played some participation had  1600  Although  9  poorly attended  implies a  per week was  a n d  3  V I as  considerable  they  4 1  Affiliate  organizations participation  contributed  encouragement  was  few lectures  b y V I council)  to and  V I Collection, Box 5-3, Newspaper clippings. Several newspapers ran a list of the season's lectures. The change from a school to a church (particularly a non-mainstream church) may also have played a role in attendance decline. 39  40  V I Minutes.  41  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. 7 4  often failed  to p a y affiliation  dues.  4  T h e benefit of the  2  topic of occasional discussion i n the V I council. also suggested disaffiliate  support  a  m u t u a l enlightenment  Most of those  T h e latter were  r e v o k e d its affiliation,  m u c h practical support.  its existence w a s  probably tenuous  close relationship to the p e r s o n a l affiliations  Arts,  In  at best.  Historical,  m a y have remained.  to  two of the  not  likely  n e w  to  but  1922 it w a s 4 4  a n d  it h a d  never  been  not even meeting,  speakers  o n lecture  tours.  British Columbia  4  Scientific  Association,  T h e Archaeological Institute  organization, it u s e d  h a d  participated with  a n  the  the V I to  the  host  5  Society of F i n e A r t s also r e v o k e d its affiliation.  surprising, since Society members  The Society wanted  so  However, since it existed i n  a n intermittent contributor to the V I lecture s y l l a b u s , a l t h o u g h , as  local b r a n c h of a n American parent  is not  support  strictly t o w n oriented V I .  able to m u s t e r  The  the  H o w e v e r , affiliate  organizations, while  professional associations.  T h e Archaeological Institute  been  3  w h i c h organizations s a w the V I as useful.  were  affiliates w e r e  4  affiliates w a s  art gallery as  Art, Historical,  showed  little interest  i n the  a public f o r u m for their w o r k , a n d  Scientific Association  to  This V I .  4  6  and that  AHSA Collection, Minutes. 17 February, 1927. Dunlop explained the difficulty the VI had in getting an early commitment for affiliate sponsored lectures. VI Collection, Box 1-6 to 1-9, and Box 2-1 to 2-12, contains many letters requesting affiliates' dues. 42  43  V I Minutes, 24 September, 1928.  VI Minutes, 23 February, 1922. As described by the Archaeological Institute representative. 44  V I Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. The programs from the early period of the VI occasionally listed special lectures sponsored by the Archaeological Institute. 45  Very little mention of it in Society minutes. Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia Society of Fine Arts Collection, Add. Mss. 171, Box 1-1, Minutes. 1917-1928, passim. 4 6  7 5  participated with e n d .  4  The  7  the  Fripp,  of the  affiliation.  4  4 9  with  the  regret"  the  achieve t h e m  the  appear  architect, i n b o t h the i n 1 9 1 7 left n o  resignation of the  Institute  In  the  1928,  VI, a n d  Society.  5  Society  one  Society of Fine Arts  organization retire from  that  initial involvement of R. and  to  sponsored Society V I  councillors  0  of Mines a n d Metallurgy, B . C .  affiliation  during this period.  None of these  particularly strong or long-standing supporters  their contributions to audience of T h e a t r i c a l A r t left t w o y e a r s denied  to  of Authors, a n d the Royal Society of Theatrical A r t also  relinquished been  Perhaps  8  Fripp's death  The Vancouver Musical Council, Institute  to  during their ten year involvement.  m o v e d that the  "accepted  V I .  Scientific Association  methods  involvement i n the V I , a n d  only six lectures members  those  a n d  a prominent developer a n d  V I prompted  encourage  Art, Historical,  Society's objectives a n d  incompatible with M a c k a y  the  reimbursement  presumed  affiliation  for a V I presentation.  that V I affiliation w a s  The Royal  i n 1925, a n d 5 1  Society  after h a v i n g  In these cases,  o f little v a l u e to the  h a d  of the V I , although  recruitment is u n k n o w n . after  organizations  it c a n  organizations, and  been  be their  AHSA Collection, File 2-10, Correspondence, Art, Historical, and Scientific Society to British Columbia Society of Fine Arts, 24 February, 1917. 47  AHSA Collection, File 2-10, Correspondence, Society of Fine Arts to Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, 24 February, 1917. The Society primarily wanted a gallery, not a lecture series. In co-operation with the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, the Society was probably after public (City) assistance. See Hunt, Mutual Enlightenment. 140. However, once established, public lectures were held at the Art Gallery. See Tippett, Making Culture. 52. 48  Vancouver City Archives. Microfiche 01617, Biography of R Mackay Fripp.  49  V I Minutes, 24 September. 1928. Despite their "regret," VI councillors did not encourage the Society of Fine Arts to reconsider. 50  VI Minutes. 8 April, 1927. The stipulation that affiliates cover their own expenses was usually upheld by council. 51  7 6  departures prompted Affiliated a n d  the  organizations were,  p r o m o t i n g its p r o g r a m ,  The  VI.  to  consider  however, so  they  independent  town  the  remained  described.  enthusiasm,  would  5  this both  British  period.  U B C ' s  appeal to the  opportunity for status  The  3  education  5  5  that  The  2  support  5  and  VI,  1926, to  the  supported  considerable  It a l s o h a d  a  history  for U B C a n d eclipsed b y  Medical Association as would  the  town  the  4  Federation  to attract a n o t h e r  Music Teachers'  extended  5  also affiliated  f r o m its b e g i n n i n g w e l c o m e d s u c h  to diversify its p r o g r a m  population.  the  Medical Association h a d  C o l u m b i a Music Teachers' The V I had  to  role i n the V I , although  enhancement.  status  status enhancement  Association's representative  oriented V I , the  V P s  a n e w affiliate i n  i n a U B C m e d i c a l s c h o o l for m e d i c a l t r a i n i n g .  been  affiliates.  welcome.  of fraternity w i t h the A c a d e m y of Science, whose has  role of the  still useful i n b u i l d i n g the  of occupational control and  A l t h o u g h Petersky,  interest  VI  the  British Columbia Medical Association became  b r i n g i n g its concerns  a n  V I council  segment  Federation also h a d  to U B C . T h e Federation h a d  a n  during  artistic  groups,  of Vancouver's interest  recommended  in to U B C  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia.Senate Collection, Box 1, Minutes, 14 May. 1919, 17 December, 1919, 18 February, 1920. 52  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-17, Executive Minutes, 9 April, 1921.  53  ^Physicians had long been accorded "professional" status, but status and occupational control were not entirely secure in British Columbia in the 1920s. Universities were playing an increasing role in medical training, but UBC was not yet able to provide such services. Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 3; Waite, Lord of Point Grev. 130. The VI was nominally open to any society that wished to join, but musical groups might attract the support of influential Vancouverites. For example, Mrs. B.T. Rogers financed the Vancouver Symphony during the 1920s and later became involved with the VI. Roy, Vancouver. 121; VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs . 55  ^7  Senate VI  the  establishment  council a  desire  "to s e e  A s m u s i c teachers sought to e n h a n c e connections  and  also helped  form  5  established  occupational control.  and  a  link  between  the  U B C suggests that the despite  foreshadowed  the  University."  5 6  a possible vehicle personal  V I , M u s i c  dues were  difficult  Teachers'  to collect a n d  discussed  from  T h e y were  time  still valuable to the  the  of two n e w groups  that h a d  University's presence enthusiasm  h a d  merits  time.  VI.  8  Some  considerable  not  5  of  encouraging  v a l u a b l e to  their interest  completely  of "town" promoters.  m o v e to P o i n t G r e y a n d  the  to  VI, and  evidently d i d n o t feel t h a t the V I w a s  T h e affiliation  disappeared  the  the  7  attendance.  however,  at  Various  affiliates also p l a y e d a role i n p r o m o t i n g the  purposes. in  U B C .  of M u s i c  affiliate relationships w e r e  membership affiliates,  Chair  later revealed to  professional status, the V I w a s  contributions and  maintaining However,  a  public regard  Federation, a n d  Affiliate  of a Faculty of Fine Arts, and  This  U B C sponsorship.  B a c k to U B C  Although period,  town h a d  a  certain influence i n the  several U B C personnel  remained  and  council during this  the  tie w i t h  the  time  University  was  VI Minutes, 7 April. 1930; Vancouver. University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia.Senate Collection, Box 1, Minutes, 17 December, 1924. 56  VI Minutes, 7 April, 1930. Mrs. W. Coulthard represented the Federation to the VI and was related to UBC faculty member W. Coulthard. 57  VI Collection, Box 1-6 to 1-9. and Box 2-1 to 2-12, contains many letters requesting affiliates' dues. VI Minutes, 23 June 1925; 4 September, 1928; 4 March 1929. 58  7 8  never  entirely severed.  maintained Science; a n d  5 9  Professors J o h n  long-standing membership.  H.T.J.  G . Davidson  Coleman, D e a n of Arts  F . M .Clement, D e a n of Agriculture; W . Sage,  M.Y. Williams,  Professor of Geology were  Scott a n d A . B . J a m i e s o n were the retained  membership  management, S o m e  and J a m e s  as  on  the  suggested  home  suffered  the  prompted location.  at U B C .  6  lowest annual  keep  U B C became  2  but  alive the end of the  their role i n the  a  idea that the 1928-29  attendance ever a n d  a s p e c i a l m e e t i n g to d i s c u s s 6  or two.  only figures i n U B C administration  V I council,  B y the  1  of History;  active for a s e a s o n  b y their absence i n V I minutes,  of these people would  suitable  Professor  and  serious  the  a  future  w h o  V I  was  modest.  V I would  season,  find  the V I  V I and  consideration for the  6  0  a  had  deficit of s i x dollars. of the  S.D.  This  its  first time i n  four  years.  O n the  M a r c h  V I .  4,  1929, a n  This meeting was  Klinck who, meetings.  6  3  although S o m e  present) remained  the  of the  executive meeting w a s distinguished b y the  presence  executive  (perhaps Petersky;  i n pursuing a  city grant  long-time U B C supporters  the  of U B C  perennial Honourary President,  interested  ironically, appointed  h e l d to d i s c u s s  rarely  of  President attended  D u n l o p was and,  future  not  perhaps  Hill-Tout, J . G . Davidson  and  VI Minutes, (late 1925), Newspaper Clipping. The clipping advertised that the Institute's "connection with UBC will be maintained." 59  VI Minutes, 13 September, 1927. Jamieson was on the lecture committee, but rarely enters the minutes otherwise. 60  VI Minutes, 30 March. 1928. Petersky briefly described a sustained offer of UBC facilities. 61  62  V I Minutes. 4 March. 1929.  VI Minutes, 4 March 1929. Klinck was rarely listed as attending VI meetings, and was clearly identified on this occasion. 63  7 9  J .  D a v i d s o n to a c o m m i t t e e to secure s u c h a g r a n t .  General  Meeting  between  the V I a n d  at the  of 5 April  University.  Dairying,  moved  1929,  V I members  U B C ,especially whether  O n 22 April, that  a n  discussed the  6  W i t h  attendance  a n d  rejoin with  the  season. the  the  A n n u a l  relationship  hold  the  6  5  Klinck  U B C Board  for  University a n d  members  its meetings at  locate i n Point  h a d  the  of Governors  offer o f free U B C facilities a n d f a c e d w i t h  membership, council a n d  lectures  Sadler, a U B C Professor of  s u b s e q u e n t l y granted p e r m i s s i o n to the V I to h o l d 6  During the  interview with  p u r p o s e o f s e c u r i n g U B C facilities for the V I .  University.  4  the V I would  1929, Wilfrid  V I executive seek  6  the declining  little c h o i c e b u t  G r e y for the  to  forthcoming  T h u s t h e "VTsy e a r s w i t h o u t fixed l o c a t i o n e n d e d , a n d U B C b e c a m e  long-standing host.  This  decision to relocate at U B C w a s  various rental halls.  for other reasons.  U B C  Board  efforts  F o r example, Klinck  secured a mandate  from  of G o v e r n o r s to provide a location for the V I t h r o u g h a  moved b y Vancouver  Mayor  Malkin.  a n d between Malkin, deserves  costs  of  V a r i o u s interests s e e m e d to favour r e t u r n i n g the V I to  U B C  Klinck,  not entirely motivated b y the  additional  research.  motion  The relationship between Malkin  U B C ,l o c a l b u s i n e s s m e n , a n d 6  7  Perhaps Malkin  the  a n d  educational  thought the V I  ought  ^VI Minutes, 4 March 1929. Dunlop and Petersky had established reputations for seeking non-UBC solutions to VI problems so they are likely candidates to seek a civic grant. VI Minutes, 22 April 1929. Sadler (who was not listed as a VI Councillor) and J. Davidson became unofficial UBC contacts. 65  66  UBC Board of Governors Collection, Box 1-1 Minutes, 27 May, 1929.  Klinck and Malkin had similar religious backgrounds, particularly through the United Church; see Klinck Collection, Box 10-1, Autobiographical notes, and Roy, Vancouver. 123. Malkin had won the civic election on a platform that included 'civic morality,' suggesting he might not support the business community in all their promotional enthusiasms. 67  8 0  o u g h t to be  tied to U B C , rather t h a n  professionals;  or perhaps he  to local b u s i n e s s m e n  s i m p l y thought the  move  and  might  aspiring  save the  city  money.  Perhaps the the  strongest impetus  British C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y of Science.  U B C : the  "In order  strongest  decided the  to g u a r a n t e e t h a t the  scientific stimulus  provincial university." whether the  superfluous,  promoting  of the  the  In  establishing  university.  professional  science  the  V I and  The A c a d e m y of Science h a d a  c h a r t e r affiliate a n d  society.  1924  6  enthusiastic  as  and  the  develop located  and  to  i n fact,  the  important  been a regular  did not  V I , the A c a d e m y h a d  were,  except  particularly concerned  68  to p r o m o t e  A c a d e m y  n o w  role,  supported  supporter of the than  it.  any  It  scientific research  7 0  and  had  other public  by  (including Wesbrook, Sadler,  The  members.  VI.  long been dominated  also U B C faculty).  Klinck,  and  Hill-  The A c a d e m y publishing  of  Ranta, "British Columbia Academy of Science," 3.  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-1, Minutes, 19 November, 1924; Box 1-13.  69  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-2, Constitution.  70  81  the  well  encourage participation i n  V I supporters  for Hill-Tout,  was  housing  to A c a d e m y  lectures  with  to e n c o u r a g e  supporting  institution that  U B C was  it  m a d e the  University was i n a  contact  executive  its r a i s o n d'etre w a s  continue  from  early ally of  c o m m u n i t y  Davidson, J . G . Davidson, Coleman, Clement, Williams,  Tout w h o  a n  province,  1925, A c a d e m y  still provided m o r e  long standing  i n the  i n the  of U B C had,  and  A l t h o u g h its constitution  ventures s u c h  The A c a d e m y was  Since the  9  A c a d e m y decided  s y m b o l i c tie b e t w e e n  been  likely to  i m p l y i n g that part of the  establishment established,  6 8  V I with U B C came  A c a d e m y w o u l d maintain  t h a t its h e a d q u a r t e r s s h o u l d be  questioned  J.  for reuriiting the  was  "professional" periodicals" useful  scientists  a n d  the  a n d  later became  societies that  platform o n w h i c h  critical  produced  to promote  of "semi-scientific  t h e m .  7  T h e V I provided  1  their expertise  a n d  support  a  the  University.  In April,  1929, the A c a d e m y met  affiliation w i t h o n  a n d  the V a n c o u v e r Institute"  "either m a k i n g a  S c i e n c e felt t h a t there w a s a n d  t o w n .  7  o n a  the  past  "rather  unsatisfactory  few years,  a n d  institution b a c k to the  Clearly, members implied  decided  University  of the A c a d e m y of  association between  the  irony of placing Hill-Tout, J . a n d J . G .  coinmittee to investigate civic funding to keep  the V I i n  3  It i s c l e a r t h a t , accommodation. VI w a s claimed  part of the a n  at  least to some,  T h e  symbolic  official c o n n e c t i o n .  services from Teachers' the  U B C represented  relationship between  more the  than  merely  The University Women's Club  did those  h a d  g r o u p s w i s h i n g to secure  U B C : the Architectural Institute,  British Columbia  Federation, V a n c o u v e r Teachers' Association,  British Columbia Medical Association.  free  University a n d  r e a s o n for association, a l t h o u g h U B C adrninistration  standing interest i n U B C ,as  a n d  7 2  a benefit i n the  U B C . This underscores  Davidson  over the  r e a l effort to b r i n g the  or else ceasing o u r affiliation w i t h it."  VI  discussed the  a  never  long-  educational M u s i c  C h a m b e r of  Their interests  the  Mines,  i n advancing  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-2, Constitution. Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-13, Executive Minutes, 14 February, 1934. The Academy was, in particular, criticizing the AHSA and the Burrard Field Naturalists. J.G. Davidson suggested that experts from the Academy could join amateur scientific organizations to provide leadership suggesting Davidson's motivation for his continuing VI involvement. 7 1  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-13, Minutes, 11 April, 1929. The quotation is attributed to C. Hill-Tout. 72  73  VI Minutes, 4 March, 1929.  their occupations enhancement  have  a n d  been  U B C cooperation.  of individuals w h o were some,  the  see it as  The  from the  entitled  "Institute  little; lectures  "vagrant change  years"  to a n d  gown was  was  as  symbolic association w i t h the  tastes To  others continued  to  education.  public i n a  Assistance."  Institute.  they h a d  geographical, a more  m a n y V I leaders  made  b y U B C faculty were  educated  fond of a university ethos.  1929 7  The  4  provide not only a location, but  of 1925-1929  status  B u t it also involved the  Seeking U.B.C.  that U B C would  involving  p o p u l a t i o n at large, b u t  intellectual s t i m u l a t i o n to the  change  earlier as  a u x i l i a r y to a n institution of f o r m a l  suggested a n d  V I emerged  accustomed  reunion of town and  article  described  However, the as  newspaper article  add n e w service  well represented  ever b e e n .  significant change  University i n the  eyes  7  5  was  vigour would  during  A l t h o u g h the  the visible  to re-establish  of the  the  public, exactly  as  wanted.  Conclusion  T h e were  years  1925-1929  characterized  were  b y U B C ' s  a w k w a r d move  its traditional a c c o m m o d a t i o n as  to w h o  support  The a n d  provided the  for the  V I  service.  and  to  for T h e  Point Grey, w h i c h  left t h e  V I  led to c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w s i n the  During this time, popular appeal  They without  V I  council  a n d  declined.  d e p a r t u r e of U B C to P o i n t G r e y b r o u g h t  m o d u s  V a n c o u v e r Institute.  operandi of the V I .  One view was  to light t w o v i e w s of the that the V I w a s  merely  74  VI Collection. Box 5-3. Newspaper Clipping, 1929.  75  VI Collection, Box 4-5 Programs. Programs list speakers' origins or sponsor. 8 3  a  aims  convenient  vehicle to  this view, the  V I resulted  note... given i n the  The  a  the  i n "a  resources  first-rate  Assembly Hall of the  under the auspices merely played  combine  of the several  host's  other view was  that the  V I owed  link w i t h the  University i n "raising the  speakers  claimed as  separated. Judge town,  yet  not  situated  Furthermore,  H o w a y and  the  supporters,  support and  76  of the  service,  U B C  6  University. and  of  town  provided  taste."  (emphasis  and  7  a  peaceful  mine).  choice  to be  had  choice was  however,  the  two  i n town.  e n t h u s i a s t i c to p r o m o t e the  V I i n town  i n various  financial debt posed  serious  both  very m u c h  between  made between  to r e m a i n  embodied  Their Involvement  relationship  the  views  views:  V I  views. separate  them.  A town-oriented V I as  locations.  a  council  Vancouver  However,  dwindling  problems.  Klinck  V I Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. This is stated on VI programs pre-1925. 84  of  i n the two  8  easily  m e n  found  Kllnck Collection, Box 2-29, Lecture transcript, 25 November, 1922. described his views of the role of universities. 78  7  V I  U B C  AHSA Collection, Box 2-10, Minutes, 23 November, 1916.  77  a  The  7  gown were not  were both  In  society,"  national  of UBC  University.  and  kept the  the  intellectual face  i n Vancouver;  (1925),  that included members institution  7  of  needed reconciliation previously because  U B C move  F o r four years the  mine).  great d e b t to  "purifying the  of the a  a  R o b i e Reid, for example,  great supporters  time  (emphasis  V I councillors themselves  symbolically demonstrated A t  Columbia,  under the auspices  of note  geographically  University of British  a U B C extension  public mind," and  These two views had was  b y m e n  role.  V I was  hosted  In  Syllabus of Lectures  Societies"  this view, the  "cultivating the  of existing local societies.  T h e  "solution" to these p r o b l e m s  Grey.  This move  well as  h a d  of expenses  between  the V I a n d  never  formal, it w a s  i n  1929,  material consequences  symbolic consequences.  problem  was,  The  disappeared, U B C was a n  the  that the  latter w a s  re-established.  important  since facilities were  former was  and  to follow U B C to  Point  free,  as  immediate  that the  relationship  Although this relationship  s y m b o l i c relationship for s o m e  was  V I  supporters.  W i t h  the  move  to rejoin U B C , the V I w o u l d  relationship; gown would Proponents U B C  of a  D u n l o p , at least,  informal influence lasted  asserted  the  town-oriented V I accepted  reunion, but  U B C ' s  again appear as  several years  85  natural  the  remained  itself.  w o r k to reinforce host  the  for the  practical necessity  hopeful of a return until gown more  to  Informal  service. of  the  town.  formally  C H A P T E R R E T U R N  The be  third  historical period  s a i d to r u n  would  become  from  1929  to  T O  G O W N :  as  1939.  D u r i n g this  its p e r m a n e n t location o n the  m a n y  they h a d  judged  Some  aspects of the  been.  Despite  V I increased  U B C faculty members U B C ' s  1933 w i t h a between  role i n the  objections  and  and  gown.  council, w h i c h was  G o w n  together  attendance. a  Extension. unofficial  leading to  w i t h the  Some branch  slightly, assuaging  VI, and  considerable  recommendations  U B C faculty members of the  VI.  extension  It w a s  growth  was  remained Interest  those  fears.  especially active  a n e w  (as  in  i n  relationship  change i n  on  the  members.  syllabus  i n membership  a n d  establishing f o r m a l ties w i t h U B C , the V I played that led to  came  to regard  the  Department  the V I as  of  a n  department.  f r o m V a n c o u v e r to U B C ' s  c h a n g e for the  were  what  the  their w o r k culminated  coincided with a  Location Changes.  The move  popular  strongly influenced b y certain U B C faculty  Although never  role consistent  move,  1933  became very well represented  This change i n V I administration priorities,  to the  of  m a y  to  change i n location  provision until  constitutional revision that enshrined  town  V I moved  Point Grey c a m p u s  administrators  life o f t h e  development  period, the  A l t h o u g h the  V T s service  some  b y attendance) i n the  redefining  1929-1939  i n T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute's  University of British C o l u m b i a (UBC). significant,  4  Service  Continues  Point Grey campus  geographically a move  8 6  of some  was  a n  distance,  obvious and  the  VI  ceased  between  to be located i n Vancouver.  This provided a physical  1  connection  the V I a n d the University lacking the previous four years,  weakened  the physical  link with  the city.  Despite this change,  a n d  the W s  service, a s t o p r o v i d e r s a n d to s y l l a b u s , c h a n g e d little b e t w e e n  1929 a n d  1933.  audience  T h e n e t effect o f t h e V T s m o v e w a s a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e  attendance,  a n d a generally favourable response  i n  to the V T s leaders'  decision  to m o v e to a n e w home.  The  One  powerful reason  Move  the V I moved to Point Grey w a s economic.  described  i n chapter  affordable  facilities i n V a n c o u v e r proper  space costs U B C  3, decreased  t o o a p p e a l i n g to reject.  attendance  This  the University's  institution h a d lost m u c h of its support, 3  related  T h e V I President commented  n o t h i n g , " a n d t h e site w a s s o m e w h a t  accepted.  finding  offer o f free  improved since  In light of the economic incentive, the view of the V I as a U B C  generally  i n  offer a p p a r e n t l y c o v e r e d s u c h  as janitorial service a n d utilities. "charges  made  a n d the difficulty  A s  that 1925.  2  independent  a n d t h e closer ties w i t h U B C were  In 1 9 2 9 n o one strongly objected to the  move,  UBC, located on its endowment lands, was not part of the City of Vancouver. This had been a deliberate factor when the site was chosen in 1910. See Harris "Locating the University." 106-125. 1  VI Minutes, 1 April, 1933; comment made by VI President G. Shrum. Shrum, a forceful and influential physics Professor, likely favoured increased UBC influence. His role in the VI will be discussed in more detail later. 2  VI Minutes, 7 April. 1930. Dunlop continued to express the view that, although the VI was located at UBC, it was not a part of UBC. M.Y. Williams, "The History of the Vancouver Institute," VI Collection. Box 1-2. UBC Professor Williams saw the VI becoming an unofficial branch of the emerging Department of Extension. 3  87  whatever the  differences between  the  views.  E v e n  Dunlop  accepted  the  location at U B C ,  although he h a d not entirely abandoned the idea of finding  town  The V I council w a s  location.  4  necessity of the  The  not w i t h o u t its practical problems.  University c a m p u s  system i n 1929 used the  University,  B . C .  Electric  from  prompting V I councillors  Railway."  5  (This w a s  representative  suggested  U B C  6  the  not change  "take  u p  streetcar  service to connect the  matter  with  with  the  arrangement  society  discourage his members  long supporting society  Service as  Usual  from  regarded  7  a m a j o r one for the V I ,  f o r i t s life o n s o m a n y u n p r e d i c t a b l e f a c t o r s , y e t s o m e m u c h .  relative  The  of another  T h e m o v e to U B C w a s b y all appearances dependent  the  City of Vancouver.  A t least one affiliated  distance would  representatives  as inaccessible.  to  O n e was  later remedied b y a special  cater to V I lectures. )  a n d  the  a less reliable feeder m o t o r b u s  to h a v e b u s e s  attending,  economic  move.  move w a s  isolation of the  u n a n i m o u s i n recognizing the  T h e m e m b e r s h i p of the V I council of the  things  did  four U B C  VI Minutes do not record any objections to the move to UBC during the 1929-30 season.VI Minutes,4 April, 1932. Dunlop suggested relocation to the new Vancouver Art Gallery. 4  5  a  Roy. Vancouver. 110. VI Minutes. 29 September, 1930.  VI Collection Box 4-5, Programs. This service is advertised on the programs, and was first offered 1931-32. 6  VI Collection Box 2-4, Correspondence, Alpine Club of Canada to Vancouver Institute, 13 September, 1929. Vancouver City Archives, University Women's Club Collection, Add. Mss. 872, Box 4-44, Minutes, 24 September, 1931. 7  88  seasons The  1929-1933 resembled the V I council of the  council  contained names  Petersky, William  1929-30), w a s the  V I .  the  from  earlier times: Edith  R. Dunlop, J o h n Davidson, J a m e s  Francis W . Maccaud. printing business  familiar  Phillip  (which,  Timms,  a  incidentally,  began  Table  11 t h a t the  period, the  V I c o n t i n u e d to b e  T i m m s i n  long-term relationship  persistent  well  S a m u e l  V I programs  personnel o n the  council were largely employed i n non-university occupations. 1925-29  Idle,  the A . H .  printing the a  seasons.  G . Davidson, and Rev.  comptroller with  only n e w person w h o began  It i s e v i d e n t f r o m  previous few  represented  A s with  b y familiar  with V I  the town  interests.  T A B L E L O N G E S T  S E R V I N G  C O U N C I L L O R S  11 O F T H E V A N C O U V E R  INSTITUTE,  1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 3  Name , Years Occupation Phillip Timms 4 Comptroller Edith Idle 4 Music teacher Rev. F.W. Maccaud 4 Anglican Minister S. Petersky 4 Physician W.R. Dunlop 3 Accountant J. Davidson 4 UBC Faculty Member J.G. Davidson 4 UBC Faculty Member Sources: a) Program Brochures, VI Box 4-11 b) Wrigley's British Columbia Directory. 1931  The  s y l l a b u s for the  1925-29 with  (see  Table  1929-33 period was  12), e x c e p t  that  popular social issues than with  a  similar to the  few more  lectures  previous were  concerned  specialized academic interests.  shift w a s not as p r o n o u n c e d as it w o u l d later become, b u t suggests re-orientation to p o p u l a r concerns.  period  A s Vancouver  89  entered  the  This a  slight  first y e a r s  of  the Depression, lectures  s u c h  H u m a n i s m , " T h e  K i d d  as  it is n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e that the V I w o u l d T h e Menace  T h e Future Report."  of Business  of Civilization,"  Depressions,"  respond T h e  with  N e w  or the very popular critique of  8  T A B L E L E C T U R E  12  T Y P E S ,  1925-1933  Unknown Other Season Social Fine Arts Science Arts 1 4 3 2 0 13 1925-26 1926-27 11 5 6 1 0 1 1927-28 5 9 3 5 1 1 1928-29 7 4 3 4 1 3 4 24 13 5 Totals 31 16 5 2 1 1929-30 6 5 5 1930-31 7 4 7 2 1 2 1931-32 5 4 4 4 2 4 1932-33 6 4 6 3 2 1 14 7 24 17 22 8 Totals Source: Programs, VI Collection, Box 4-5. These were the lectures as planned. See Appendix 1 for categorization guide Notes on categories: "Science" denotes lectures dealing with aspects of natural and applied science (physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture); "Arts" denotes lectures dealing with other academic topics (philosophy, history, biography, geography, literature); "Social" indicates lectures concerned with public social concerns (education, politics, economics, international affairs); "Fine Arts" denotes artistic performances or illustrations, or lectures on artistic topics other than literature (music or painting appreciation); "Other" includes topics of travel, mountaineering, industry, professions.  Table was  12 compares the syllabus  from  the  1925-29 period, w h e n  located i n Vancouver, with the syllabus from  the  the V I  1929-33 period  after  Lectures, January 19, 1931; January 26. 1931; December 7, 1931; 15 October, 1932. VI Collection, Box 4-5. Programs. UBC Professor Angus provided a detailed critique of the Kidd Report. Logan, Tuum Est. 119, described the event as a "brilliant dissection of the report." The Kidd Report was drafted by Vancouver businessmen to recommend drastic revenue cuts to the provincial government. One recommendation was to close UBC, if necessary. 8  9 0  relocation to Point G r e y (UBC). lectures,  there is no  increase  i n Fine Arts and  the  n u m b e r  sixteen to  other  of C a n a d a problems  considerable The  lecture  situation; but of any  promoted the  early  topics,  there is no  particular  o n  concern  effects  of the  ways,  v e r y little. connections,  the  a n d  the  nature  (from  syllabus  is  m u c h  end  of  mainly single men,  did not  d i d reflect V I records  transfrom  milder coastal  "jungles"  rest  unique  the climate  caused  influence the V I very the  current  that these  The V I was  still  social problems  generally  local population that was  i m m u n e  Depression.  Societies  relationship w i t h affiliated organizations  However, several  to  tells  some  location at the  VI.  Affiliated  In some  of the  that  suffering along w i t h the  Vancouver h a d  i n the  to the  slight  increases  its persistence  that of their  occasion,  mention  lectures  flocked to the  b y a particular segment of the worst  and  H o w e v e r , these affairs  9  a  dominant.  climate and  C o l u m b i a Interior  and  (from thirty-one  orientation  1930s was  Indeed,  Their presence a n d alarm.  general  remain  planned  only significant change is  Social issue  U n e m p l o y e d transients,  British  of Vancouver.  of Science topics,  The  v e r y little,  depression.  railways.  Prairies and  from  changed  classification of  considerably  However, the  V a n c o u v e r i n the  from the  n u m b e r  of popular  b e c a u s e of its m i l d  Canadian  were  drops  n u m b e r  element  o n the  Other topics.  Academic topics  about the V I .  m u c h .  the  twenty-two).  little c h a n g e d .  O n e  change i n the  of Arts lectures  seventeen) a n d  Based  long-supporting of the  affiliates  severed  r e m a i n i n g affiliates shifted.  Roy, Vancouver. 95.  9  91  also  changed  their A s  formal  with  earlier periods, societies  both  council h a d to  Several societies "delinquent," affiliates' was  1  0  noiriinal a n d  effectively  provide lectures  the  Several others,  as  reasons,  decreased affiliates  a n d  (e.g. t h e  Women's  earned  label over  affiliation  of the V I  The Art, Historical, University Club, attendance at  the  cited  was  and "drastic  sponsored  lectures  1 1  of m a n y A H S A  fully explain  and  ongoing affiliation  given the  members.  also be  Architectural Institute  likely weighed i n the  affiliated  meetings.  the  operation  case of the A H S A  attendance m u s t  maintained  motives  suspend  affluence  audience  Association) Other  the  i n council  councillors h a d  although legitimate, m a y not  cost is hardly convincing i n the affiliation  connections.  affiliation.  of the  recognizing that their  i n their organization or poor  r e a s o n s to d i s c o n t i n u e  These  some  some  perhaps  a n d  support  participate  their active participation i n the  nil, formally severed  cuts"  and  frustration  Scientific Association (AHSA) revenue  securing the  let their affiliations lapse;  suggesting  role.  difficulty  1  2  l o o k e d at the  disaffiliation; low cost  The reason  of  carefully, since  Vancouver  despite  of  some  Teachers'  sponsoring  few  lectures.  several decisions to m a i n t a i n o r  to  affiliation.  VI Collection, Box 3-13, Treasurer's Records. 1 April. 1933. Six societies were not in good standing, 1932-33 season. VI Minutes, 30 March, 1931. Recorded by Rev. F. Maccaud, who, as a long-time VI supporter from "town," may have felt that affiliates had a duty to provide support. 10  VI Minutes, 1 April. 1933. VI Collection, Box 2-14, Correspondence. University Women's Club to The Vancouver Institute, 12 September, 1932. The University Women's Club did not feel adequately rewarded for their efforts by audience attendance. 11  VI Minutes, 5 October. 1931. Affiliate dues had been raised slightly from the traditional $2.00. Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment,"41,42. 12  92  T h e V I likely n o longer served discussed, status  the A H S A  membership  from  involvement with  i n status m a y not have  provided n o obvious leadership affiliation  of certain organizations.  A s  h a d a motive of public service b u t also stood to gain  a n d increased  promised increase  the purposes  m a y have been  i n the VI.  the V I .  materialized, as the Part  1  3  T h e  A H S A  of the initial motivation for  t o r e - a s s e r t a l o s t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l life  of V a n c o u v e r , b u t this w a s b e c o m i n g difficult i n t h e V I , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s t h e A c a d e m y Of  of Science w a s asserting  the twenty-two  the  A H S A  was  lectures  planned  disaffiliated), fourteen  credentials,  for the 1932-33 V I season  were  nature.  the A H S A ,  1  5  With  presented  scientists. (the  sponsoring a single academic  The  records  funds.  affiliation  1  6  of the A H S A  s u c h  fee i f V I affiliation  more  concerned  w h i c h  it w a s responsible, h a d become  season  n o t strictly academic  lecture, w a s unable  a n image through,  suggest that the Association w a s suffering  However, the Association d i dhave  m u c h  lectures  or promote  h a d been  a n d t h e effects  a m u c h  smaller  sufficient funds  considered  with the operation  important.  of the m u s e u m  1  to  the VI.  from  to p a y a l o w  T h e A H S A w a s  a n d art gallery, for  o f civic f u n d i n g cuts.  concern.  1 4  b y U B C faculty, a n d one  critical colleagues bearing strong  assert a place of authority within,  13  o f professional  b y a scientist from a n allied institution; several others were  of a n academic  low  the expertise  Public  7  Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment," 255, suggests this as well.  Hunt, "Mutual Enlightenment." 140, suggests that a changing sense of culture and the rise of specialized organizations by 1916 made the AHSA less influential than it had been. 14  15  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs.  16  AHSA Collection, Balance sheets in Minutes, 27 April, 1933 and 28 September 1933.  17  AHSA Collection, President's Report. 1933. 9 3  which  it w a s  lectures  h a d  responsible, become  a  and  m u c h  the  effects  smaller  of civic funding cuts.  concern.  1  7  Other societies that disaffiliated m a y likewise have in their cause. societies w a s  A s suggested the  Furthermore,  through  U W C h a d  that request was membership  Club  its affiliation.  of the  Institute  but  U W C h a d  it deliberately used  f o u n d their lecture to be  justify  was  would  not be  affiliated  Although  it m a y not have one  the  rather  a n d  of the  first  names.  1  9  If  meager  h e l p f u l to the U W C .  various political objectives ranging from equity issues.  O n one  occasion,  the V I to r e a c h  a Women's  poorly attended.  It u s e d  severing their affiliation w i t h b o t h  poor  achieved  for a list of m e m b e r s ' then  the  h i g h costs,  For example,  1 8  i n aid of U W C recruitment,  for p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n to w o m e n ' s example,  of the V I to  (UWC) cited l o w attendance,  the V I attracted the  found the V I unhelpful  members.  r e a s o n s to sever V I affiliation,  earlier objectives requests the  attraction  possibility to recruit n e w  University Women's accessibility as  earlier, one  Public  the  Women's  Institute  support  for audience  this o c c a s i o n to Institutes  and  help the  VI.20  17  AHSA Collection, President's Report, 1933.  VI Collection Box 2-14, Correspondence UWC to Timms, 10 September, 12 September. 1932. 18  Vancouver City Archives, Women's University Club Collection, Add. Mss. 872. Box 1-1, Minutes, 18 September, 1916. 19  Vancouver City Archives, Women's University Club, Add. Mss. 872, Box 4-44, Minutes, 24 September, 1931. 20  •94  A VI  similar story m a y be  did not  the V I w o u l d  sever affiliation w o u l d ,  The V T s move  to  Vancouver i n the unemployment,  status,  U B C coincided with  a n d  related to  those  one cannot assume  that attracted  If t h e  1  social  the  troubles.  onset  2  owing  others were.  a  recruitment  T h e decision to  of the a  Depression.  depressed  economy,  If t h e V I c o u n c i l l o r s  2  to  secure  V I affiliates h a d a n u m b e r  societies that remained  The V I became,  at  the  end  to s o m e ,  of the  were  socio-economic  m o n e y to c a r r y o u t their activities to the  their attention.  the  reasonable.  suffering from  concerns,  claimed that  Fellowship h a d  not have been useful.  early 1930s was  i m m u n e  2  i n this light, s e e m  distractions, ranging from  The  Dickens Fellowship, w h i c h  provide fresh audiences.  or publicity agenda,  somewhat  for the  1932-33  less  of issues  important.  season  British Columbia A c a d e m y of Science, British Columbia Music  were  the  Teachers'  Federation, V a n c o u v e r Teacher's Association, British C o l u m b i a C h a m b e r of Mines, Society,  British Columbia Medical Association, Vancouver Natural History C a n a d i a n Authors Association, Shakespeare  Club of C a n a d a . its affiliation  2  after  3  T h e Architectural Institute a short lapse,  Society, a n d the  of British Columbia  a l t h o u g h it c o n t r i b u t e d few  Alpine  renewed  lectures.  2 4  VI Collection Box 2-14. Correspondence. 10 September. 1932. The Dickens Fellowship indicated that many in the audience werefromtheir own group. 21  22  Roy, Vancouver. 99.  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. The AHSA was still listed, although it had written a letter to dis-affiliate. 23  VI Collection, Box 2-14, Correspondence, 25 April, 1932, The Architectural Institute of British Columbia wrote to re-affiliate with the Institute. VI Collection Box 4-5, Programs. The brochures identify approximately four scheduled lectures sponsored by the Architectural Institute of British Columbia over the Institute's seventeen seasons. 24  9 5  C o m p a r e d different.  with  the  VI's earliest years,  Whereas  enlightenment  earlier the V I h a d  groups,  the  m i x of affiliated societies  largely attracted  it n o w attracted  professional  m u t u a l  associations.  The British Columbia A c a d e m y of Science, British Columbia Teachers'  Federation, Vancouver Teacher's  C h a m b e r  of Mines,  a n d  the  attraction  A s already proposed,  its potential utility i n developing or  cordial relations with  U B C to facilitate the  development  education  University education  h a d  professional address the h a d  s u c h a n  In  5  the  thought  of university representation.  25  M a n y  part  of  maintaining  professional  a m a r k  Occupations seeking s u c h status were  of the  of  compelled  to  r e m a i n i n g V I affiliates  British C o l u m b i a M u s i c Teachers*  V I council her  at the  University."  Federation's  helpful to  group's 2  6  continued  The  a m b i t i o n "to see  A s a Chair h a d not been affiliation w i t h the  achieve that end,  eruisting public support.  U B C  become  of  engaged  occupational interest U B C .  to the  established  b y  issue  2  1930, M a y J a m e s  described  1933,  status.  C o l u m b i a  British Columbia Medical Association were  of the V I was  programs.  Music  Association, British  with U B C concerning professional education.  was  either through  Federation h a d  Senate to establish a F a c u l t y of F i n e  Arts.  2  a  Chair  Federation of  Music  established  V I m a y  have  b y  been  direct U B C influence  even recommended  to  or the  7  Gidney and Millar, Professional Gentlemen. 355.  26  VI Minutes, 7 April. 1930; 30 March, 1931.  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, UBC Senate Records, Box 1, Minutes, 17 December, 1924. 27  9 6  Architects were no  doubt  broader British  the  similarly interested  contracts  for the  prospects  h a d  establish a  A member  earlier expressed  a Department  A r t s .  3  w h i c h had  teacher education the  s u m m e r the  desirable  was  had  i n  2  the  it w o u l d  1 9 5 1 .  for the  the  U B C would  8  2  9  of  not  only not  become  Until then,  a  Architectural  that U B C establish a Faculty of Fine  0  The V a n c o u v e r Teachers'  been  interest  1945, and  autonomy—until  also recommended  architects  particularly since U B C was  of Architecture until  congenial relationship with U B C was  attraction  Architectural Institute  to provide s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n .  School—a designation with more  Institute,  of the  considerable  for U B C to educate architects,  local body legally authorized  short-term  University's buildings, but  occupational concerns. C o l u m b i a  i n U B C . A  U B C ' s  role i n it.  a n  Teacher  responsibility of n o r m a l schools i n the s c h o o l for teachers w a s  minute  programs  and  Association h a d  at  D u r i n g the  Department  1920s,  interest h a d  province i n  formed.  1920,  i n  generally  1901. and  However, the  A b y  preparation.  3 1  a  university degree  T h i s m o v e reflected a  1925  U B C  for those already h o l d i n g baccalaureate  high school teachers required  additional professional  education  i n t r o d u c e d to U B C i n  of Education was  that time were  immediate  degrees. and  Canadian  Vancouver City Archives, Architectural Institute of British Columbia Collection, Add. Mss. 326, Vol. 1-2, Personal note. 28  29  Logan, Tuum Est. 192.  Vancouver, University of British Columbia. Special Collections. UBC Senate Records, Box 1, Minutes, 17 December, 1924. 30  John Calam, Teaching Teachers on Campus: Initial Moves and the Search for UBC's First Professor of Education," Historical Studies in Education/Revue d'Hlstolre de VEdttCatton 6 (2) (Fall 1994). 180. 3 1  9 7  pattern  that s a w teacher  moving  from  education—for high  n o r m a l school  The  at  to university or college c o n t r o l .  Vancouver Teachers' Association, continue to benefit from  school teachers  including high  school  3  least— The  2  teachers,  good U B C relations, aided, perhaps,  would  b y the  V I .  3  British Columbia C h a m b e r of Mines h a d a long relationship with U B C  in-as-much as U B C Faculty h a d been part of the Chamber's management a  n u m b e r  of years.  3  B y 1929 U B C w a s receiving scholarships for  4  science i n general, and C h a m b e r  of Mines was  that w o u l d  benefit from  C h a m b e r w a s supporter  The  3  acknowledge  the  mining industry i n particular.  a n enthusiastic promoter of the U B C ' s  mining  research  a n d  3  5  applied T h e  mining industry,  education.  3  6  one  The  also affiliated w i t h the A c a d e m y of Science, a c o n t i n u i n g  of the  British  from  for  V I .  3  7  C o l u m b i a Medical Association h a d U B C ' s  presence.  long been  compelled  The still-born University A c t of 1890,  to a n d  Sheehan and Wilson, "From Normal School to the University," 33.  32  Lister, a Teacher's Association representative, was also a science teacher as well as principal of Vancouver Technical School. Calam, "Teaching Teachers," 200, suggests that (high school) teachers actively pressed UBC for appropriate courses. 33  VI Collection, Box 2-13, Correspondence. Chamber of Mines stationery letterhead indicates several UBC faculty members were Vice Presidents. 34  Logan, Tuum Est. 107. The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy sponsored a scholarship, although that organization did not maintain its VI affiliation. The Institute of Mining and Metallurgy had a link with the Chamber of Mines and The Vancouver Institute through shared director Nicholas Thompson. Vancouver City Archives, Add. Mss. 334, File 18-8, Newspaper Biography. 18 September, 1930. 35  Academy of Science Collection, Box 2-28, British Columbia Chamber of Mines brochure, 1924. This brochure contains enthusiastic booster rhetoric to encourage investment in the mining industry. 36  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-13, Minutes, 6 April, 1925.  37  9 8  later in  successful legislation of 1907, specified that U B C could  medicine.  1930s,  and  advanced  However, m e d i c a l facilities were  nursing.  were  limited  to p r e - m e d  courses,  representatives  continued  to  negotiate  appeared  and  the  University; membership  professions, included  the  helpful i n those  including U B C researchers. a n d  physicists, chemists,  perhaps h a d  were  conspicuous:  valued work.  B u t what  were  unless,  38  unclear,  for  of more  perhaps,  basic  and  a  supporter  a wide variety  with  of  scientists—  meteorologists  w h o  industrial interests.  (such  as  engineers  of  membership  medicine  The  a n d  did recognized  scientific research?  science was  and  symbolically  agriculturists—applied  doctors  were  University would  A l t h o u g h its  occupations  early  discussions.  from  biologists, a n d  early  health  Physicians  9  long been  less status i n a city that emphasized  social referents for science-based engineering)  4 0  3  VI, reunited  included scientists  physicians, engineers,  others were  public  universities  role the  The British C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y of Science h a d the  a n d  i n providing medical education.  University, m a y have  b y the  to go elsewhere  s a n c t i o n for their training programs,  institutions  a n d  degrees  The Vancouver medical c o m m u n i t y h a d  play i n providing medical education, the  expensive,  M e d i c a l s t u d e n t s still h a d  medical training.  U B C ' s  important U B C  8  medical studies  studies,  sought  3  grant  Those  part of a legitimate a n d  a n d  referents valued  Logan. Tuum Est. 3, 34.  Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, University of British Columbia Senate Records, Box 1, 14 May, 1919. 17 December, 1919. 18 February, 1920. Waite, Lord of Point Grev. 129. 39  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-1, Minutes, passim.  40  institution of higher learning. A c a d e m y  A  of  the V I continued  executive  proposed  arranged  to  A c a d e m y was  to help  that a  the  "open  In  house"  described as  G . Davidson were  two such men.  a scientist with a n  a  a  keen  promoter  regular V I councillor.  guidance support a n d  4  3  H e  lecture.  4  2  maintain the  A c a d e m y  The V I  Various members of the V I .  The former has  m a n y years  of V I support.  patience  and  also believed that "experts"  association between  the  4  to the  Davidson  been natural J . G . Davidson  could 4  be  was  of  J o h n  benevolence  to a m a t e u r Organizations b y b e c o m i n g m e m b e r s . helped  4 1  almost evangelical mission of  of science whose  science,  allowing A c a d e m y members  i n their o w n circles.  theology that carried h i m through was  the  for h i g h s c h o o l students  A c a d e m y also c o n t i n u e d to be p e r s o n a l supporters a n d James.  and  professional  1932, for example,  A c a d e m y ' s Institute  science publicly,  technical science  to p r o m o t e  i n that way.  science  coincide with  still useful to promote pursue  a natural ally of scientists  Science.  continuing role of the  a n d  U B C was  made  h i m  provide  S u c h  A c a d e m y of  personal Science  the V I .  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-17, Executive Minutes, 20 October, 1932.  41  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-17, Executive Minutes, 14 November, 1931.  42  Vancouver City Archives, Microfiche 2338, Obituaries, 29 July, 1948; 25 August, 1948. J.G. Davidson had been a fellow of the American Physical Society, member of the American Association for Advancement of Science, and the American Association of Physics Teachers as well as one-time President of the Academy of Science and Vancouver Institute. The obituary of 25 August, 1948, describes his personal qualities of patient generosity. Davidson served on the VI council some twelve seasons, many in executive positions. 43  Academy of Science Collection. Box 1-17, Executive Minutes, 14 February, 1934.  44  1 0 0  The  other remaining  affiliates—The  Vancouver  Natural  History  Alpine C l u b of C a n a d a , Shakespeare Society, a n d C a n a d i a n Association—were the last of the m u t u a l  Society,  Authors'  e n l i g h t e n m e n t affiliates  (although  the latter conceivably h a d a n interest i n the business aspects of authorship). T h e appeal of the V I to these groups w a s waning,  although the  Natural  History Society w a s encouraged b y personal contacts.  The Natural History Society w a s no doubt influenced b y J o h n faith  that  "by moimtaineering with  b y the p u n y efforts o f m a n a s the  Universe"  others.  4  5  although, m u s t  a n d  a scientific perspective, one is  compared with those of the great Architect of  h i s determination to encourage this perspective i n  as  a U B C Professor a n d m e m b e r of the A c a d e m y of Science.he  have h a d professional preoccupations that influenced  1930s.  continued  h u m b l e d  D a v i d s o n h i m s e l f c o n t i n u e d to be highly supportive of the V I  The Alpine Club early  Davidson's  of C a n a d a  4  6  (ACC) also kept involved with the V I i n  Despite protests over the n e w U B C location,  to provide  h i m .  lectures i n keeping with  the  the A C C  their interests.  4 7  Similarly,  Davidson Collection, File 1-1, Address to St. John's Presbyterian Church Literary Society, 1914. In looking through this manuscript collection, one Is struck by the number of lectures Davidson provided to various local groups, and the consistency of his "natural theology*' message. 45  VI Collection, Box 4-5. John Davidson served at least fifteen seasons as VI councillor from 1916 to 1939, based on councillor listings on VI programs. Academy of Science Collection, Minutes, Box 1-13, passim. John Davidson was the "curator" in 1914-15, and continued to hold positions on the Academy Executive. 46  V I Collection Box 2-24, Correspondence, 13 September, 1929. An Alpine Club representative wrote to the VI Secretary that the University was "much too far away" for its members. VI Collection, Box 2-15, Correspondence, September, 1932. An Alpine Club representative wrote that the "present location is not sufficiently central." VI Collection, Box 4^5, Programs. Titles such as "Explorations in the Coast Range by Alpine Club Members" (February 4, 1933) were traditional favorites. 47  101  the  Canadian Authors' Association maintained  time, the  perhaps  encouraged  Art, Historical,  and  and  by  the  continuing  4  Neither group,  8  syllabus, contributing only one lecture  1933,  not  minimal—as  only was  it h a d  as well as  influence  on  relationship  influence  b y  at  Shakespeare  was  a large  still interested  interests,  interests that groups,  i n  Art, Historical,  1933,  the  V I lost the  between  the  V I and  the  support  the  a  With  and  part of  i n the  groups  losing interest. 1931  Society the  most.  M u t u a l enlightenment  Club  the  of affiliated societies  (professional)  VI, were  University Women's Association i n  the  to the V I .  the  (if s t r a i n e d ) p a r t i c i p a t i o n  however,  a year  always been—but the  those w i t h occupational U B C  this  Scientific Association a n d  Dickens Fellowship.  B y  its c o n t r i b u t i o n d u r i n g  of two  V I  were  largely  extended  to  founding  disaffiliation of and  the  Scientific  of its first affiliates.  other Vancouver organizations  The  h a d  changed.  These at  all.  losses If t h e  produced  V I h a d  immediate  crisis.  I n fact,  become  useless to  certain  societies,  of low value  to  constitution  formally excluded  VTs  the  no  management.  VI.  The  representatives from those  elected  that two  from  This was  affiliates  1933  w h e n  had  to be  The  hardly  they were the  mattered likewise  revised  significant participation specified that  affiliated society w o u l d b e c o m e  V I membership.  councillors were  i n  from  initial constitution  each  the  confirmed  they  revised  U B C appointees,  and  i n  councillors  with  specified  others were  to  VI Minutes, 31 May, 1927. The VI representative at that time for the Canadian Authors was also the representative for the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, Shakespeare Society, and Dickens Fellowship. 48  102  the  two  constitution the  V I  be  elected  from  that the a  the  V I m e m b e r s h i p .  elected council,  vehicle to unite  taken  not  The V I council  9  affiliates, r a n  local societies' efforts  o n a life o f i t s o w n , o n e  become  4  inextricably linked  that h a d  lectures  to h a v e  a different appeal.  the  been well attended  during the  during the  attributed  Attendance  the  recorded change  previous year b y some a  "sense  i n the  to carry o n as  49  before  second for the  six hundred  of encouragement''  1 9 2 9 / 3 0  V I was  it h a d  T h i s life  council judged  first half of the half.  The  season,  people,  over the  move  i n its n e w  location.  VI Minutes, 7 April. 1930. 103  (See T a b l e  first  decrease  b y  once 1933  would  the season, was  however, was  a n d  the  V I  to U B C .  syllabus format from previous years,  VI Collection. Box 1-3. Constitutions.  5 0  the  Rise  n e w location, the  although less well attended  from  Whereas  to U B C .  about  to p o o r weather.  acknowledged  to provide lectures,  Popularity  Despite reservations  the V I .  finally  13:  5  0  u p  Secretary With  the V I w a s  Attendance.)  little able  T A B L E  13  A T T E N D A N C E ,  1929-1933  Season Annual Attendance 1929/30 2262; 1927* 2,569 1930/31 1700 1931/32 1932/33 Source: a) VI Minutes. b) Correspondence, VI Collection Box 2-14 •conflicting numbers are given ln VI Minutes; the second number is the most quoted. note: these numbers are larger/ estimates and approximations.  The  s a t i s f a c t i o n felt b y V I c o u n c i l l o r s i n  next several years. the  n e w location  following season 1931-32 of  season  1928-29.  good year;  Attendance figures also improved.  saw a n  audience  saw a further was  come  In light of the  increase  the  5 1  some  of) i t s m o v e t o  people. low  "volumes i n  5  The  n u m b e r a this  audience members  U B C .  at  The  still considered  spoke  of the  the  U n i v e r s i t y c o m m u n i t y itself, it is a p p a r e n t  g r e w s l i g h t l y i n s p i t e o f (or b e c a u s e  51  still exceeded  recorded which  Although  people.  of three to s i x h u n d r e d but  the  T h e first season  of six hundred  e c o n o m i c situation, it w a s  surplus finances were  from  increase  less well attended,  fourth year of depression." have  1 9 3 0 likely c o n t i n u e d for  that the  m a y V I  2  VI Minutes, 4 April, 1932.  Logan, Tuum Est. 134. VI Collection Box 3-8. Correspondence. 1935?. G. Winter, long serving VI President, suggested that the University confers a "standing and connection which we could not have if we met elsewhere." Further research might reveal how, if at all, the audience changed. 52  104  The  life o f t h e V I b e t w e e n  change The  i n location, but  1929 a n d  minimal;  a n d  interests.  popularity.  for the  would  influence of affiliated  of them  h o w the  U B C professors  a watershed year i n the  m a r k e d increase  1932,  critique of the w a s  between  of University  politics, series.  Notice  In  University of British Columbia,  the V T s service w a s  i n attendance a n d  Kidd  became  a revitalized lecture  closely to itself.  Social  The  situation  life o f T h e V a n c o u v e r I n s t i t u t e .  to s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s felt b y t h e  "mouthpiece" for U B C , a n d a  its  the  T h i s fairly stable  i n the V I as judged b y accounts  U n i v e r s i t y m o v e d to tie the V I m o r e  w a s  To  a n d staff m e m b e r s  University Takes  response  the  the V I grew slightly i n p o p u l a r i t y a l t h o u g h it is  this led at last to a n e w V I c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d  1933 was  remained  service a n d  only slightly.  audience m a y have changed.  not last, however.  earlier  societies  i m p o r t to the  a  stasis.  formally severed n o m i n a l ties,  V I were without vast  council,  noticeably interested and  council—retained their  T h e syllabus of lectures changed  satisfaction of the not k n o w n  the  The  thus w h e n a n u m b e r  consequences  characterized largely b y  otherwise b y a noteworthy stability—if not  p r o v i d e r s — t h a t is to say,  composition  1933 was  the  T h e council became  rejuvenated.  membership  i n  T h e  a  upshot  1933-39.  Pressures  Report before  a V I audience  particularly significant i n view of the  o n  15  relationship, albeit  the V I a n d U B C . Drafted b y V a n c o u v e r businessmen,  105  October,  the  informal, Kidd  Report sought finances  d u r i n g the  closure  Kidd  The  nor would  provided  the  Kidd  against  been  operation  "scathing  its r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s time  report was  not  a n  U B C was  and  of Governors h a d  unconcerned  one  gone  that promoted 5  over the  Before a n  Report, the  V I  of w h o m was  unnoticed b y  the these  w h o  implications of  over-flow audience,  the  its  the  role of academics  the  A n g u s to  guard  U B C stood to benefit f r o m s u c h  4  Board  Klinck  isolated threat to the  cleaning up  h a d  even  several unrelated  been  faced  suffering both  from internal and  Concurrently, U B C began forerunner  The A l u m n i  of the  Public  University.  a  problems.  It c a m e  The  a vote  of non-confidence  from  problems.  attention  operation i n the  5  a n d Senate.  5  to its p u b l i c  Relations Committee was  Association also began  a  i n provincial funding, U B C was  external  to p a y m o r e  i n the  at  Senate  divided over university finances,  Faced with Depression-induced cut-backs  53  Kidd  was  U B C Economics Professor  propaganda.  time w h e n  The  of the  hardly have  of U B C .  speech"  should handle  statement from the V I .  Kidd  President  A t the  Report would  critique, have  s u c h dangerous  vigorous  The  a  A m o n g  H e n r y A n g u s , the  Report o n the  delivered  5 3  Provincial Government  comprised of four U B C faculty members,  President.  people,  Depression.  of U B C "if necessary."  council was VI  to influence h o w the  relations.  established  early  1930s,  i n  1932.  a n d  Logan, Tuum Est. 119, describes the reaction to the Kidd report.  ^Vancouver, University of British Columbia. Special Collections, "Professor Angus Flays Kidd Report," The Ubvssev. 15 October. 1932. 55  Logan, Tuum Est. 110-119. 106  preparation Barss,  for the  Extension Department  a U B C Professor  of Horticulture, wrote  relation of U n i v e r s i t y to the Extension  Service."  5  7  began  Province b y the  U B C began  i n  1 9 3 3 .  5  6  " A P r o p o s a l to  establishment  taking a very keen  In  1934, A . F .  Improve  of a University  interest  i n its  public  support.  U B C  h a d  certainly a n made U B C the  long thought outlet  for extension  "open  houses."  5  the V I remained  1933 w h e n  if not a n  activities.  b y Barss i n his proposal was  5 8  extension  A m o n g  dominated  housed  service,  the  b y U B C personnel  at U B C . T h i s w a s  the V I constitution w a s  then  recommendations  to c o n t i n u e p u b l i c lectures  The V I already provided both,  9  syllabus remained  a n d  of the V I as,  and  and  could  continue  (or affiliated  ensured  i n the  re-written i n favour of a n  encourage if  academics)  spring of increased  U B C  presence.  R e m a k i n g The Vancouver  The V I president appointed  56  to the  for  1932-33  was  Institute  G o r d o n S h r u m .  U B C faculty i n 1925 as  S h r u m  Professor of Physics.  h a d  been  H e was  widely  Logan, Tuum Est, 128.  Logan, Tuum Est. 69. UBC Extension Collection. Box 2-5. A.F. Barss. "A Proposal to Improve relation of University to the Province by the establishment of a University Extension Service." 57  UBC Extension Collection. Box 1-18, Report of Extension Lecture Committee 1923-24. The committee claimed any free lecture by UBC personnel as an extension lecture. Klinck also referred to the VI as an extension service. Klinck Collection, Box 1-20, Lecture, 8 October, 1932. 58  59  Barss, "A Proposal." 107  regarded second  as a very talented  a n d energetic  Director of Extension i n 1937.  6  h a d contributed lectures  on  the V I council.  lived  6  2  the V I lectures  to the V I as early as  S h r u m h a d also been  tradition of entertaining V I speakers  lectures.  To  6  involved i n the  i n U B C facilities.  1928, a n d b y 1931-32  responsible for initiating a a n d guests following  S h r u m w a s a superb  manager  6 1  w a s  short-  the  a n d charismatic teacher.  others  he w a s ambitious, occasionally ruthless,  M a n y  found h i m intimidating, if not terrifying.  contributed  to physics research  quick, a n d 6 6  of a young U B C .  skills a n d flair for m a n a g e m e n t ,  6  7  6  5  h a d  at the University of Toronto b y line,  T o  6 4  impatient.  Although he  a n d discovering the origin of the auroral green  lively atmosphere  60  the  3  some,  h e l i u m  a n d later became  S h r u m h a d been  0  m o v e b y the A c a d e m y of Science to hold H e  individual,  liquefying  he preferred  the  A t U B C ,he discovered his teaching  a n d participated i n a great m a n y  campus  Logan, Tuum Est. 129.  Academy of Science Collection, Box 1-13. Minutes. 11 April, 1929.  61  62  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs.  VI Collection, Box 1-2, M.Y. Williams. "A History of The Vancouver Institute." Williams was a geology professor at UBC who was involved for many years with the Institute. His "history" provides a useful if idiosyncratic chronology of Institute events. 63  ^Shrum. Shrum. xii. Peter. B. Walte, Lord of Point Grev (Vancouver University of British Columbia Press, 1987), 123. 65  66  Shrum, Shrum. xiii.  67  Shrum, Shrum. 42-43. 108  activities.  S u c h traits help  6 8  explain his involvement w i t h the  C o l u m b i a A c a d e m y of Science a n d  His involvement physics nature  background.  a n  science  outlet  H e had  been introduced during the  leadership  surprising,  1920s,  lead to  then,  to  see  a  S h r u m  as  enhanced  U B C presence  constitution, the  but  another  society).  apply and  pay  the  and  V I did not  encouraging change  other features  V I itself provided  did.  all lectures  M e m b e r s one  were  affiliated organization.  were  reduced.  Perhaps,  Shrum. Shrum.  69  Shrum, Shrum. 47.  7  more  value  i n  The V I initially  and  the  at  times  to  V T s  longer  propensity  management.  i n  1932-33, an t h e m .  provided  w i t h the  special class  gave  7  0  revised  membership  for decisions  most  his  accept  broadly welcomed.  no  his  promoting  that w o u l d favour  no  given  competitive  V I president  V I members  granted  Q u o r u m s  though,  the  Affiliates  1  d o l l a r fee w e r e  of a n  6 9  significantly i n the  (although  of election or approval b y council,  68  the  stronger role i n the  a m e n d m e n t s to the V I constitution  objects of the  and  highly  promotional interests, but  proposing  The  to the  stimulating young researchers.  for his lecturing a n d  for organizational  It i s n o t  and  the V I .  A c a d e m y of Science is hardly surprising,  of scientific research  C a n a d i a n h i m  i n the  British  lectures;  sponsorship  Those  willing  without  any  existed  for  that required  members a  significant changes were  vote to  the  V I Minutes. 1 April, 1933. Shrum led the initiative to revise the constitution. VI Collection, Box 2-15, Correspondence, Shrum to VI members, 28 March 1933. Shrum wrote to members of the need to approve the new constitution, and of the significance of the VI. 71  V I Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. 109  to  sort  146.  70  of  changes  were  comprised  to the  of nine  affiliated  society.  from  VI, a n d  the  nature  of the  U n d e r the  councillors were  two were  n e w  appointed  ten  days  p r i o r to the  was  a  annual  dramatic  b y the  or more  general  thus guaranteed  constitutional  constitution,  President  members  were  a certain influence, but to  backgrounds  garner  conducted b y mail i n April  of U B C personnel  (including the  that  Petersky was  "peeved  1933.  U B C President's  Petersky be brought b y S h r u m and both  election after and  his colleagues.  Davidsons, Klinck,  7  3  it h a d  These results  S h r u m  elected  Nominations  required  the  i n  writing  and  other  major  effect o f  7  2  The  appointees),  new  and  Petersky.  been  election  m a y have been  a n the  influx loss  D u n l o p  conducted, that both  the  concern)  The result was  alienated," suggesting  i n anyway.  each  little i m m e d i a t e  of several l o n g - s e r v i n g c o u n c i l l o r s , n o t a b l y Idle a n d of the  of U B C .  of councillors.  of councillors w a s  strongly disapproved  from  meeting.  revision (which seemed shift i n the  ten  two  was  a n d  councillors signed b y four  was  Previously, council  councillors from V I membership  for  U B C  council.  indicating  Idle  a n d  anticipated  key V I supporters  (including  and Williams—all A c a d e m y of Science members  and  VI Minutes, 1 April, 1933. No major objections to the revisions were recorded for that meeting, although perennial "town" supporters Dunlop and Petersky were present. Shrum's powerful personality may have kept them quiet. Given Dunlop's past, he would likely have insisted that any objections be recorded, and Cpt. Mellish recorded an Inconsequential objection. 72  VI Collection Box 2-15, Correspondence, Dunlop to Timms, 29 June. 1933. Dunlop wrote quite strongly of his disapproval (after the election) and of his fears that "gown" discriminated against "town." 73  110  U B C  scientists—and Rev. M a c c a u d ) d i d not vote for D u n l o p ; m a n y d i d  vote  for Petersky or  The  Idle  7 4  1933-34 V I council s a w S h r u m back as  five o t h e r U B C faculty; faculty. m a n y  either.  7  the  illustrates the  supporters.  the U B C faculty.  Table  not previously been involved were suddenly  In particular, Barrs,  Department,  cumbersome  continue until  procedure  w h o drafted  suddenly became set  out  i n the  a  n e w  the  became  self-pei^etuating.  7  with  14 1933;  frequent  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n for  long-serving councillor.  a n  The  constitution for electing  councillors m a y have helped maintain familiar people o n the council  1939,  s t r o n g representation U B C faculty h a d i n the V I after  m a n y w h o h a d  least  five r e m a i n i n g c o u n c i l l o r s w e r e n o t U B C  new, long-serving councillors from  Extension  President, a l o n g w i t h at  This strong U B C representation would  5  not  council,  a n d  6  V1 Collection, Box 5-5, Election Ballots. It is perhaps telling that, although Petersky voted for Dunlop, Mrs. Petersky did not. Dunlop may not have been particularly popular. His title (FRGS), to his annoyance, was omitted from that year's VI brochure. 74  VI Collection, Box 4-5. List of councillors as indicated on program for the year. There is no indication of who were the UBC appointees. 75  Williams, "History of The Vancouver Institute," 15.  76  Ill  T A B L E L O N G E S T  S E R V I N G  14  C O U N C I L L O R S ,  Years, Name Years, 1929—33 Phillip T. Timms 4 J.D.P. Malkin 0 Mrs. B.T. Rogers 0 George Winter 0 L. Anderson 1 John Davidson 4 Gordon Shrum 2 John Ridington 0 M.Y. Williams 2 F.H. Soward 0 V.W. Odium 0 A.F. Bares 0 A.C. Cooke 0 Source: a) Program Brochures, VI Collection Box 4-11 b) Wrigley's British Columbia Directory 1931  W i t h  the exception of the U B C appointees,  1929-1939  Occupation Comptroller Businessman Social leader Accountant Van. Nat. History Soc. UBC Faculty Member UBC Faculty Member UBC Faculty Member UBC Faculty Member UBC Faculty Member UBC Governor UBC Faculty Member UBC Faculty Member  1933—39 4 4 3 6 3 4 6 6 6 5 5 6 3  faculty members  a p p a r e n t l y u n d e r n o c o m p u l s i o n to m a i n t a i n V I affiliation. Williams would b r a n c h no  o f the extension department,"  formal  involved w a s  describe the Institute  would  i n 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 at, apparently, h i s o w n behest;  appointed b y U B C President Klinck. personal concerns typified  the  7  7  S h r u m w a s  the following year  of J o h n  Davidson.  Williams. "History of The Vancouver Institute," 14. VI Collection Box 2-15, Correspondence, 2 August 1934, Klinck to VI President G. Winter. 112  he  Concerns to promote U B C were  b y the ongoing support  77  senior  declare that there w a s  connection between the University a n d the V I .  mixed with  Although  as b e c o m i n g "unofficially Klinck  were  Syllabus Reorientation  The V I council change from A  1916 to  1933  h a d  was  accompanied b y another  generally been  academic  small shift toward popular-interest topics w a s  period  (see  1933-39 those  Table  (see T a b l e  15).  s u c h  topics became  It w a s  Changing Education  S u c h  Order," "Some  i n B.C." were  ideas  about  lectures were  Institute's  a m o n g the  sciences"  i n the  to  topics.  1929-33  represented  between  outnumber  "Responsibility for  Peace  Nazi Revolution," "Education i n  Social Problems," a n d more  adult education.  given "under  a i m d u r i n g the  increase  the  then  p l a n worked.  the  the  Department  both  C o l u m b i a a n d  Extension,  " A Plan  provocative.  One newspaper  7  for  a  Adult  8  Klinck's  season."  1935  7  9  the  residents,  speech  i n  1937  to  University's  a n d 8  0  the  i n 1934  the  If p a r t  o n " A Plan  plan was  to b e c o m e  U B C ' s  "The Threat  to  Education  Extension  more  described residents'  Robert England,  to  concerns,  for A d u l t  desirability of a n  need  former  V I o n  of the  that  the  b y addressing popular  1934 report b y Barss o n the stressed  reported  adult education plan that is  programs  guided readings.  spoke  the  current  popularity of the  in B.C." a n d  lectures  the  as  Lectures  a shift w a s likely fully intentional, a n d m a y have b e e n influenced b y  current  British  apparent well  Titles s u c h  Pacific," "Hitler a n d  Social  "arts a n d  c o m m o n for these lectures  of special academic interest.  or W a r o n the  the  12), b u t  change.  relevant d e m a n d  first Director  of  Disinterested  VI Collection, Box 4-5, Programs. Lecture titles, 14 October, 1933; 18 November, 1933; 17 March, 1934; 12 January, 1935; 16 November 1935. 78  79  VI Collection, Box 4-9, Newspaper Clipping.  80  UBC Extension Collection, Box 2-5, Manuscript. 4  1  3  to for  Education: A Challenge."  England,  education thought, urged  a humanistic,  and  adult  education.  8  i n touch with contemporary socially concerned  adult  role for  academia  1  T A B L E L E C T U R E  T Y P E S ,  15 1933-1938  Other Unknown Social Fine Arts Season Science Arts 1933-34 5 11 1 1 0 3 1934-35 3 3 12 1 3 0 1935-36 4 6 7 0 3 0 1936-37 2 0 9 3 5 1 1937-38 5 3 8 0 4 0 1938-39 3 3 6 0 1 8 17 9 5 20 20 53 Totals Source: Lecture Programs, VI Collection Box 4-5. See Appendix A for categorization guide. Notes on categories: "Science" denotes lectures dealing with aspects of natural and applied science (physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture): "Arts" denotes lectures dealing with other academic topics (for example, philosophy, history, biography, geography, literature); "Social" indicates lectures concerned with popular social concerns (for example, education, politics, economics, international affairs); "Fine Arts" denotes artistic performances or illustrations, or lectures on artistic topics other than literature (for example, music or painting appreciation); "Other" includes topics of travel, mountaineering, industry, professions.  P o p u l a r n o t i o n s a b o u t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n h a d r e a c h e d U B Cb y the University faculty h a d asserted their presence i n the V I . speech  referred  to adult education influences  Report, Thorndike's  research o n adult  s u c h  learning,  as the  Klinck's  time 1935  Mansbridge  a n d the Antigonish  project  Robert England, The Threat to Disinterested Education: A Challenge (Toronto: MacMillan, 1937). SPAM 10138. Special Collections, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 8 1  1 1 4  of St. Francis Xavier University. role of universities i n adult functions  of a university.  Canadian Club, other  a  of the  Institute  "Some  The  Klinck 8  3  promoted  In his  1932  the  service.  8 4  as  publicly  one  of  1 9 2 5 a d d r e s s to the  the  the Vancouver  1932 radio address,  extension  (adult  address to T h e  Functions of a University," Klinck  lectures,  a good lecture.  and  education)  Vancouver  described  the  V I as  U B C administration was well aware  8 5  suggested  rather than  H u n t has were  of  of the  introverted  i n nature  a n d  only members  of its g r o u p .  enlightenment  affiliate support,  afford to appeal  reorientation  phenomenon.  In  a n d  1933,  6  B y 1933, the V I h a d and,  a  adult  considered  to publicity  mutual  typically  lost most  addressed  of its  mutual  influenced b y a public U B C university,  o n l y to a s m a l l core of loyal  c o n c e r n for social issues the  were  leaving public appeal u p that some  groups  8  that popular issues  argued  enlightenment  This  citing extension  For example, i n a  syllabus reorientation  could not  long promoted  developments.  in planning the a n d  Klinck had  education,  University.  valuable extension education  2  1926 article i n the E v e n i n g S u n , a  public addresses,  function  8  supporters.  reflected  a wider  social  Co-operative C o m m o n w e a l t h Federation (CCF)  UBC Extension Collection. Box 2-5, Transcript, L.S. Klinck "A Plan for Adult Education in B.C." 82  Klinck Collection, 1-10, 1-19, 2-29, Lectures, 19 June. 1925; 6 January, 1932; 25 September, 1926, Evening Sun. 83  84  Klinck Collection, 1-20, Transcript, 8 October, 1932.  VT Minutes, 21 October, 1916. S.D. Scott commented that the first step is to gather large audiences. 85  86  Hunt. "Mutual Enlightenment." 260. 115  became  the  percent  of the  reflected  official  opposition i n the  vote, a n d  seven  British C o l u m b i a legislature, with  members  i n local V a n c o u v e r politics as  i n the well.  8  8  legislature.  31.5  This  move  Helena Gutteridge,  once  8 7  was  alone w i t h h e r views i n the V I , m a y have f o u n d a different organization i n 1933, one of the  that was  Present  more wflling to sponsor  E c o n o m i c Policy"  or  T h e  lectures  s u c h as  "Labour's  Challenge of Socialism."  8  View  The  9  latter w a s p r e s u m a b l y supportive of socialism, as it w a s given b y b y C C F m e m b e r  Dorothy  Steeves.  Increased  Attendance  The result of this n e w orientation was attendance  (see  Table  16).  Despite the  relative inaccessibilityof U B C , been.  Although  audience, significant  the  some  lingering depression  the V I w a s  more popular than  of this might be attributed  enthusiastic  to the  a remarkable j u m p  press  coverage  i n  audience  a n d  the  it h a d  to U B C s t u d e n t s i n  suggests that the  larger c o m m u n i t y of V a n c o u v e r .  9  events  ever the were  0  Electoral History of British Columbia 1871-1986 (Victoria: Elections British Columbia, 1988). Cited ln Barman, West p. 362. 87  Morley, Vancouver. 226. Two socialist (CCF) politicians were on the Vancouver City Council in 1933. 88  89  V I Collection, Box 4-5, Programs.  Logan, Tuum Est. 134. VI Collection, Box 4-9, Newspaper Clippings. Lectures during the three seasons 1933-1936 attracted several articles each, some promoting upcoming lectures, and some describing past ones. 90  116  T A B L E M E M B E R S H I P  16  A N D A T T E N D A N C E ,  1933-1939  Season Membership Annual Attendance 1933/34 10,000 1934/35 9,000 1935/36 98 1936/37 173 1937/38 110 (60-800/lecture) 1938/39 95 (100-1200/lecture) Sources: a) Membership lists and applications, VI Collection Box 4-11 and Box 5-2; b) Minutes. VI Collection, Box 1-4; c) Newspaper clippings, VI Collection, Box 4-9. d) Receipts, VI Collection Box 4-1. note: these numbers are largely estimates and approximations.  Table  16 shows  a remarkable j u m p  i n V I support  a n d attendance.  T h e  1 9 3 7 - 3 8 a n d 1938-39 figures d o n o t indicate a n a n n u a l total, b u t give sense that the V I h a d become education. records is  accountant. the  M e m b e r s h i p figures were  provide conflicting  perhaps  1930s,  a m u c h more  the most These some  data.  systematic sources  nine  to U B C h a d e n h a n c e d  not well  91  through  n a m e d  attendance.  VI Collection. Box 4-11, Membership Lists. 117  paid  dues  experienced B y the e n d of as supporters  obviously not alli n good standing. the rejuvenated  of adult  different  of members'  membership.  a n d fifty p e o p l e w e r e  the V T s membership,  lecture  a n d  record a n d w a s kept b y a n  direction of the n e w council h a d brought support  recorded,  T h e receipt book  indicate a modest  hundred  the V I , although they were  widely patronized form  a  9  1  If the  program  considerable increase  of  move at the  i n popular  Conclusion  Following the that lasted attention  until  to the  "coup" of 1933, the 1939 w h e n  Second World War.  symbolic  the  V I was  connection between  niche.  swelled audience Local  without the  privileges they  n e w  h a d  place i n Vancouver  with  them.  In  invited to once  a  the  pattern  U B C i n  become  a  1929,  enjoyed.  re-establishing  the V I found a  9 2  carved for itself not  B y the  indeed end  syllabus  stable they  of the  of  social did),  but  1930s,  only a n e w identity, b u t  VI Collection, Box 1-3, Constitution. The new constitution still allowed for organizational affiliations. 118  the  members  society.  92  its  of relative  orientation to the  affiliate (and  operation  different  1933, U B C faculty  and  of  world turned  After four years  A n e w  attendance,  societies were  V a n c o u v e r Institute  The V I h a d  1916.  reunited  effectively t o o k over the V I council. lectures  into  U B C ,V a n c o u v e r , a n d  organization since its inception i n independence,  V I settled  The  also  a  C H A P T E R FIVE SUMMARY  S. D. Scott remarked during an early VI meeting in 1916 that "by gathering together large audiences an interest will be awakened and the rest will follow.'* The audiences were gathered, the rest followed, and the 1  VI has been in operation ever since. It continues today to attract audiences to its weekly lectures and supporters to its membership. The VI has not, however, been without change. During its first twenty-three years, the idea of the VI became an institution that underwent several shifts in the politics of its administrative structure. Growing out of Vancouver society, it blended several social currents into an initial stable organization. The relationship between these currents, however, changed to create various interpretations as to the VTs proper social place. The three social movements of an educational nature prior to 1916 that help to explain the VI were the mutual enlightenment movement, with its traditions of learned societies and public lectures; the university movement, which introduced a new institution of higher education to Vancouver; and a movement towards professionalization, wherein a number of people sought greater control and prestige for their occupations.  These movements met  in the VI. Many who have been identified as participating in these movements also participated in the establishment and early years of the VI.  i v i Minutes, 21 October,  1916. 119  T w o VI.  individuals were  One was  promoter a n  particularly notable  for their roles i n f o r m i n g  L e m u e l Robertson, a scholar, teacher, administrator,  of education  in British Columbia.  supporters.  Like  a n d  and  group  of those supporters  University of British Columbia and  worked i n occupations  as  b y influencing  able to attract a h o m o g e n e o u s  Robertson himself, m a n y  involved w i t h b o t h the societies,  was  and  Robertson conceived the V I  organization to join several educational currents,  choice of early participants  the  local  t h a t c l a i m e d (or s o u g h t )  the  of  were learned professional  status.  F r a n k Wesbrook was strong  public leader  also important i n establishing the V I , as he w a s  w h o  Wesbrook's background, made  the  fixed  Promoters  of the  w i t h o u t h a v i n g to choose  could  social  status as  U B C ' s  first a n  organization. President important  plan.  homogeneous  location at U B C encouraged  proper  together i n a n e w  H i s involvement with the V I was  stability that arose from the  lectures.  the  draw people  sensibilities, a n d  h i m a valuable asset.  part of Robertson's  The  could  a  V I were  one  above  location of the  nine years able  to  and  of V I supporters  of increasingly  m i x their  another,  V I were  group  different  different  popular interests  conceptions  easily reconciled.  and  T o w n  and  as  to  g o w n  easily be joined symbolically because they were joined physically.  Attendance,  a n d  to  some  degree  membership,  slowly increased  i n the  wake  period  i n  of this organizational stability.  U B C ' s the  move  life o f t h e  council,  the  to its P o i n t G r e y location i n VI.  Perhaps  V I remained  regarding the  aided b y a located  social place of the  1925 m a r k e d  a n e w  diminished U B C presence  i n Vancouver. V I surfaced.  *20  T w o differing  o n  the  conceptions  Several influential V I  supporters  of the  time were  particularly keen  organization without U B C ' s Point Grey thereby years  encouraged  independent the  The  Faced with the  w a s  however,  the  lectures  of a more  U B C representatives  lectures  became  m u c h  a n e w a n d stable  central questions  first years  were  U B C presence.  of the  were  more  The  In  guaranteed  social niche.  about  evolution of the  administrative structure,  of politics.  answer  began  as  a n  movements,  The  outgrowth and but  ever  the  the V I established,  i n a n  questions  the host  that guided this study asked about  a n  council.  stabilized, a n d  been  it c h a n g e the  V I constitution  U B C continue to host  membership  H o w was  little,  1933, the V I councillors  a place o n the  U B C has  for  Depression  able to re-write the  popular,  a t t e m p t to find  additional  Grey.  service changed  Not only would  organization.  four  the V I with U B C , a r e u n i o n that,  popular nature.  U B C faculty members  allow for a greater VI, but  V I m o v e d to P o i n t  to  and  a n d with  although Vancouver's social climate d u r i n g the  were  The  University,  symbolically very significant.  encouraged  found  organization's demise  m o v e to P o i n t G r e y r e u n i t e d  some,  move  m a m t a i n i n g a close relationship w i t h U B C . F o r  invitations to rejoin the  a n d  others  a n  the V I w a s w i t h o u t a fixed location a n d suffered financial  popularity losses.  who  facilities, b u t  to p r o m o t e  enduring status?  These  are  to the  The  the  V I  since.  beginnings and  h o w  did  questions  a n d invariably includes  to these questions  suggests that the  V I  continuation of several existing social  eventually became  closely associated with one  of  them  (UBC).  The  study also asked about w h o was  stages, V I supporters shared  were  certain interests  involved and why.  a homogeneous  group  i n education, whether  121  of m e n  D u r i n g the  initial  a n d w o m e n  for social a n d  personal  w h o  development, Whatever  professional enhancement,  differences i n purpose  largely because to find S o m e  a  they h a d  o f t h e "VTs l o c a t i o n .  n e w location,  V I promoters  or encouraging U B C support. for the V I were  W h e n  a n  t h a t arose f r o m V a n c o u v e r itself.  reconciled,  U B C m o v e d a n d the V I w a s  these different purposes  encouraged  easily  became  independent,  more  forced  apparent.  locally governed institution  Others encouraged a n institution that  m o r e closely tied to U B C . F i n a n c i a l considerations a n d s u p p o r t p r o m p t e d closer ties w i t h U B C ,b u t w a s  dwindling  was  popular  also a political victory  for  those w h o s a w the V I as useful to U B C interests.  A s a first e x p l a n a t o r y s t u d y of the V I , it leaves m a n y questions Limited  to the  happened  next.  response W h a t  to the  years, it invites the  T h e V I c o n t i n u e d to the  present,  but  Second World W a r or other changes  public  S u c h  a n inquiry could be from  what  h o w d i d it change  i n Vancouver  i n  society?  relations function  U B C ' s point of view, emphasizing  of the V I , or from  the  University participants i n the V I administration. remain dozen  attracted  to the V I ?  councillors i n the  programs? the  question of  2  relationship d i d it h a v e to U B C a n d to the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y following  this study? the  first twenty-three  unasked.  bulk  There is a n  W h a t explains the  1930s to s o m e  point of view of the  W h y do s u c h  change  seventy as  from  listed o n  o p p o r t u n i t y to b r i n g this s t u d y u p  of T h e V a n c o u v e r Institute  non-  people  a roster of  some  current  to the  archival collection is about  present;  the V I  after  1936.  This  study also did not inquire into other  particularly that of the  audiences.  dimensions of the V I ,  W h o were the  audiences  a n d  did  they  Williams's study is essentially a chronological summary, and adds little explanatory analysis. 122  change, were  particularly w h e n  they interested?  the V I m o v e d from V a n c o u v e r to Point G r e y ?  W h a t was  they learn anything, or was These  are  question There  difficult of w h o  are  some  influence of the V I i n their lives?  it merely a form  questions  the  the  to answer.  members  membership  were  Perhaps  and  records  of erudite  h o w the  that  D i d  entertainment?  more  accessible is  V I fit i n t o t h e i r  might help  W h y  to  the  lives.  answer  these  questions.  The  role the  question.  This  V I played i n other  social developments  study has  o n three aspects  professionalization, explored The  and  o n its o w n .  rise of science  touched  the  establishment  of w o m e n i n social a n d  science-based  social developments conjunction  There  with  administration  are  mteresting  the  i n the V I .  increasing  influence of  E a c h  could  presence upper-  three  be  other  explored  organizational questions.  "successful" educational enterprise of like-minded individuals.  benefits  This  from  A s the V I began with  significant assets of its o w n , this s t u d y  power of a good idea i n building a stable  highly speculative suggestions,  other  the  be  i n  the V I .  no money, and never h a d suggests the  each could  i n defining culture are b u t  that participated i n the V I .  also remain some  suggests that a  occupations,  intriguing  enlightenment,  also played a part  educational activities, a n d  middle class E u r o - C a n a d i a n actors  (mutual  of UBC), but  Other social movements  and  is another  but  could be used  organizational histories to b u i l d a n  argument  study  a n a n idea also  organization.  These  i n conjunction  to address  and  with  s u c h  questions.  Also  missing from  for example,  this  study  m i g h t the V I be  are  deeper  understood  123  theoretical considerations.  from  a theory of race,  class,  How, or  gender?  There  upper-middle very m u c h  is no  class  was  of the  used  there  that the  V I largely appealed  of European  councillors a n d i n this study  descent.  are  and  as  a n  occupation that required  carried certain status, but  educated  a n d  socially well-positioned people.  a n d  interested  G o w n  i n the  it is hoped,  administrative  It h a s  also argued  evolution as  a n d their social situations.  minority. M u c h  S u c h  of  a n d  It  whether other  theoretical  the  V I to the  reader  particularly i n Vancouver  for a particular u n d e r s t a n d i n g to the  interests  of its early  A l t h o u g h this study raises m a n y  be valuable i f it provides a useful starting-point  124  was  preparatory  question  "professionals"  introduced  linked  were  of the V I .  history of adult education,  British Columbia. W s  has,  between  study  considerable  this begs the  functional differences  r e m a i n for another  still a  and  this is also a slippery concept.  any  T o w n  they were  o p e n to s i m i l a r questions.  are  considerations  to m i d d l e  A l t h o u g h w o m e n  members,  notion of "professional," but  here defined  education  people  present as  Other categories made  question  of  the  promoters  questions,  i n finding their  or  it will  answers.  W O R K S  Primary  Art,  Sources  Historical, and Vancouver  Scientific Association  Scientific Association  Historical, and Trythall  &  Scientific Association  Son,  Federationist.  1918,  Vancouver  Institute of  B . C .  of the  Art.  Vancouver:  Special  Collections,  Collection, Special  Collections,  Vancouver.  Architecture  Collection, A d d . M s s .  326,  City Archives.  British C o l u m b i a Society City  of Vancouver.  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Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1987.  A P P E N D I X T H E  The  following  date, a n d  title.  categories. a n d  V A N C O U V E R  politics,  "Arts"  lectures  literature  Year  lectures  with  providing the  (music  or pamting  chemistry,  affairs);  o n  appreciation);  industry,  other  concerns  professions.  of  various natural  academic "Social"  (So)  (education,  (FA) denotes  artistic topics "Other"  into  engineering,  literature);  "Fine Arts"  speaker,  aspects  biology,  dealing with  geography,  or illustrations, or lectures  other  artistic  than  (Ot) i n c l u d e s  topics  U n k n o w n titles are  of  also  (?).  and  Programs,  V a n c o u v e r Institute  modified slightly b y information i n the  Date  1 9 1 6  Oct.  1 9 1 6  Oct. 21  12  Speaker  Title  Archibald, E . H .  Sc  The A t o m  Howard,  F A  O u r Architectural  Rossiter  Oct. 26  Sc  Archibald, E . H .  Collection,  V I Minutes.  T y p e  from 1 9 1 6  1916-1939  dealing with  public social  international  list is c o m p i l e d from the  4-5,  lectures  biography,  concerned  mountaineering,  indicated  The  (Ar) d e n o t e s  economics,  performances  1916-1939,  (physics, astronomy,  (philosophy, history,  indicates  travel,  list of V I lectures  L E C T U R E S  It a l s o p r e s e n t s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e l e c t u r e s  applied science  topics  INSTITUTE:  " S c i e n c e " (Sc) d e n o t e s  agriculture);  Box  is a  1  the  The A t o m  of the  Chemist Inheritance  Renaissance of the  Scientist  (Concluded) 1 9 1 6  Nov. 2  Eastman,  M a c k  A r  B r a n d y a n d the New  131  France,  F u r Trade  1610-1760  i n  1916  Nov. 9  Clark, R H .  S c  C a n W e Manufacture Chemicals in  1 9 1 6  Nov.  16  1 9 1 6  Nov. 23  Ashton, H .  A r  M a d a m e  Larsen,  A r  The  Thorlief  1 9 1 6  Nov.  30  Hall,  T.P.  So  Sevigne  Romantic  The  O w n  Canada?  de  English  O u r  Period  of  Literature  Present  Phase  of Social  Evolution 1916  Dec.  4  Boggs,  T . H .  So  The  High  Cost of Living.  Causes and 1 9 1 6  Dec.  7  Wesbrook,  1 9 1 6  Dec.  14  Tupper,  Frank F.  S c  Sir Charles  ?  Its  Remedies  Bacteria Subject  T.B.A.  H . English D r a m a 1917  Jan.  11  Wood, F.G.C.  A r  1917  Jan.  18  Davidson, J . G .  S c  1917  Jan.  25  Scholefield,  A r  1 9 1 7  Feb.  1  Haggen,  1917  Feb. 8  to  Present-day  The  So  Wade, F.C.  A r  of  Waste  Products Settlement  of British  Columbia The  E . A .  Relation  Problems  Conservation  Early E.O.S.  i n its  Relation  of  Precious  M e t a l s to F i n a n c e The of  United  and  Empire  Loyalists  Ontario  1917  Feb.  15  Klinck,  L.S.  S c  The  Evolution of  1 9 1 7  Feb.  22  MacBeth, Rev. R G .  A r  The  Early Settlements  Red  River  The  Evolution of  1 9 1 7  M a r . 1  Fripp, R  M a c K a y  F A  from  B a n k i n g  the  Agriculture of  the  Valley Architecture  P r i m i t i v e to  the  R o m a n e s q u e Mountains 1 9 1 7  Mar. 8  Hodge,  E.T.  S c  132  F o r m e d  and  H o w They  are  1917  M a r .  15  Weston,  W.P.  1 9 1 7  M a r .  22  Reid, R . L .  F A  The  Place  of A r t i n  A r  The  F r e n c h  Education  Settlement  of  Acadia 1 9 1 7  Oct.  5  Scott,  S.D.  So  Recollectionsof Parliamentary  1 9 1 7  Oct.  11  Fraser,  C.  M c L e a n  Sc  Adaptation S h o w n  b y  the  Press  Gallery.  to E n v i r o n m e n t Some  as  Marine  Animals. 1917  Oct.  18  Macbeth,  Rev. R . G .  A r  Pathfinders Alexander Robert  1 9 1 7  Oct.  2 5  Fripp, R.  M a c K a y  1 9 1 7  Nov.  1  Raymond, W . O .  to the  Coast  MacKenzie  and  Campbell.  F A  The  So  The W o m a n W h o Has and  —  Evolution of the  House. Gone  the W o m a n W h o  Has  Come. 1 9 1 7  Nov.  8  McConkey,  M r s ,  So  Proportional  Sc  The  Representation.  W A . 1 9 1 7  Nov.  15  Lister,  J . G .  Magnet  and  Its  M o d e r n  Application 1 9 1 7  Nov.  22  Hawkins,  1917  Nov.  29  McVety,  N o r m a n J . H .  F A  The  Pre-Raphaelites.  So  Industrial  Accidents  Workmen's 1917  Dec.  6  Davidson,  1917  Dec.  13  Reid, R . L .  J .  and  Compensation.  Sc  A Survey of O u r Native Flora.  A r  The  Coinage  of Gold  Coins  i n  B.C. 1 9 1 7  Dec.  ?  Kelsey, F . W .  S c F A  St. Peter a n d  St. P a u l i n  R o m e  (Archeology) 1 9 1 8  Jan.  10  Hutchinson, A . H .  S c  Growth,  Development  Evolution.  133  a n d  1918  Jan.  17  Jamieson,  Mrs. J.S.  So  Recent  Tendencies  i n  Socialism. 1918  Jan.  24  Ashton,  H .  A r  Balzac - The  1918  Jan.  31  Trotter,  W . R .  A r  Migration W i t h i n the  1918  Feb.  7  Wheeler,  Ot  The  Arthur  O.  Peaks and  Canadian 1918  Feb.  14  Shaw,  H . C .  1918  Feb.  1918  Feb.  27  Anderson,  1918  Feb.  28  1918  Mar.  7  A r ?  21  M a n .  The  Empire.  Passes of  Rockies.  Poets of  Today.  T B A  A r  Delphi — Ancient and  Clark, R . H .  Sc  W h a t is  Clement,  A r  The  State of C a n a d a  the  Quebec A c t and  L.F.  M r .  the  Today.  Combustion? Between 1838.  Justice 1918  Mar.  14  Kingsley,  E.T.  1918  Mar.  21  Sparling,  R.  So  Capital, Labor and  Sc  A Ramble  the  Through  Prehistoric Restoration  State.  the  W o r l d  ~  of Ancient  Life  Forms. 1918  Mar.  28  Boving, P A .  S c  Mendelism  and  Plant  Breeding. 1918  April  4  Thomas,  Rev.  ?  T B A  E r n e s t 1918  April  1918  M a r .  12  Gowen, Horta,  Rev. H . H . Victor  A r  Rabindranath  A r  The  Tagore  Cathedrals and  Buildings in Belgium Northern b y the 1918  Oct.  3  Howay, F.W.  A r  The  1918  Oct.  10  Mullin,  Sc  Saving  R . H .  134  France  as  Public and Affected  War.  S p a n i a r d s at Babies.  Nootka.  1 9 1 8  Oct.  17  1 9 1 8  Oct.  24  ? Pritchard. W . A .  So  T B A A  W o r k i n g Man's Viewpoint of  History. 1 9 1 8  Oct.  31  Hebb,  1918  Nov.  7  Ridington,  1 9 1 8  Nov.  14  Twizell,  T.C. J o h n  R.P.S.  Sc  Radiation and  A r  The  'New'  F A  H o w  to  Ether.  Poetry.  Recognize  Principal Styles  the  of  Architecture. 1 9 1 8  Nov.  21  Hill-Tout,  Charles  Sc  Recent U p o n Our  1918  Nov.  28  1918  Dec.  5  ? Sparling,  R.  Sc  Discoveries the  Bearing  Original Source  Alphabetic  of  Symbols.  T B A Through  the  Southern  Deserts. 1 9 1 8  Dec.  13  Gowen,  Rev. H . H .  1919  Jan.  9  Bursill, J .  1919  Jan.  16  McEvoy,  1919  Jan.  23  Gordon,  1919  Jan.  30  1919  Feb.  1 9 1 9  Feb.  A r  The  Francis  A r  Shakespeare  Bernard  F A  Art  Sc  Nature  Makovski, L.W.  A r  Where  6  Ridington,  A r  The  N e w  13  Hall,  Sc  The  Mathematical  J.S.  J o h n  T P .  W a r  and  Poetry of the  the  on  the  East  Stage.  Printing  Study i n  Bible  Press.  Schools.  Meets  West.  Poetry.  Psychological  and  Principles  of  Music. 1919  Feb.  20  Gutteridge,  Miss  H .  So  Women's  R e l a t i o n to the  M o v e m e n t . 1919  Feb.  27  Sedgewick,  1 9 1 9  Mar.  6  Sadler,  G . G .  Wilfred  135  A r  Joseph  Sc  A  Conrad.  City Milk  Supply.  Labor  1919  M a r .  13  Plaskett,  J.S.  S c  M o d e r n  V i e w s of  the  Universe. 1919  Mar. 20  Owen, V . Lloyd  Ot  Peace  1919  Mar. 27  Todd,  F A  The  O.J.  River  Opportunities.  Architecture  of  the  Athenian Acropolis. 1 9 1 9  n.d.  Twizell,  R.P.S.  F A  H o w  to  Recognize  Principal  Styles  the  of  Architecture. 1 9 1 9  n.d.  Hutchinson, A H .  S c  The  Romance  of  1 9 1 9  n.d.  M c K e c h n i e , R . E .  S c  The  Romance  of  Prehistoric  of  Astronomy.  Biology.  M a n . 1919  n.d.  Plaskett,  J.S.  1919  n.d.  McGregor, D o n a l d  S c  The  Romance  A r  The  Prospector  the 1 9 1 9  Oct.  3 0  1 9 1 9  Dec.  11  MacMillan. Reid, A  1 9 2 0  Jan.  22  H . R .  R L . ; Taylor,  S c  The  A r  S a m  A r  Matthew Arnold  Forest  12  Sedgewick,  G . G .  19  1 9 2 0  Feb. 26  Regions of B . C .  Davidson, J . G .  S c  as  M i d -  Critic of  Literature,  Poet.  Fuel as  a Determining Future  Western Feb.  Civilization.  Dunbar  in the  1 9 2 0  i n  Slick  and Feb.  a Factor  Expansion of  Victorian  1 9 2 0  as  Factor  History of  Canada.  Clark, R H .  S c  The  Boggs, T H .  So  Democracy: A Failure, A n  Romance  Achievement  of  or  1 9 2 0  n.d.  Macintosh, D . A  S c  T h e A g e of the  1 9 2 0  n.d.  Sadler,  S c  A  1 9 2 0  n.d.  Hill-Tout,  S c  The  Wilfred Charles  136  City Milk M i n d  Chemistry.  a  Hope.  Earth.  Supply. of Primitive  M a n .  1 9 2 0  n.d.  Sharpe,  1 9 2 0  n.d.  Foster,  Captain W .  A r  W a r  Photography.  So  National Parks as  a n  Investment. 1 9 2 0  n.d.  Robertson,  1 9 2 0  n.d.  Wicker,  1 9 2 0  n.d.  Wilson,  1 9 2 0  Mar.  1 9 2 0  Oct.  7  Robertson,  1 9 2 0  Oct.  14  Coleman,  11  Brock,  L e m u e l  A r  Cicero: M a n and  E .  A r  W i t h A l l e n b y at  Charles  A r  Reminiscences  A r  Bible  A r  Recent  So  The  R . W . Lemuel H.T.J.  Statesman. Armageddon.  of the  Cariboo  Lands. Excavations  Schoolmaster  i n  Crete.  and  Democracy. 1 9 2 0  Oct.  21  Jamieson,  1 9 2 0  Oct.  28  1 9 2 0  Nov.  1 9 2 0  M r s . J.S.  So  The  Howay, F.W.  A r  C a p t a i n C o o k at  4  McDonald, W . L .  A r  Robert  Nov.  11  (Alpine  Club)  1 9 2 0  Nov.  18  Gowen,  Rev. H . H .  1 9 2 0  Nov.  25  Buchanan,  1 9 2 0  Dec.  2  Ashton,  1 9 2 0  Dec.  9  Denison,  1921  Jan.  13  1921  Jan.  1921  ?  Fabian  Society.  Louis  Nootka.  Stevenson.  T B A  A r  W a r  Sc  Other Worlds T h a n  A r  Hotel  Sc  Earthquakes and  Archibald, E . H .  S c  Liquid  20  Brock,  Sc  Vancouver's Ancient History.  Jan.  27  Scott,  S.D.  A r  J o s e p h  1921  Feb.  3  Hebb, T . C .  Sc  The Aether  1921  Feb.  10  Davidson,  Sc  The  1921  Feb.  17  Todd,  A r  Herodotus.  D.  H . F.  Napier  R . W .  J.  O . J .  137  Poetry of the  World. Ours.  Rambouillet. Volcanoes  Gases.  Howe. and  Morality of  Relativity. Plants.  1921  Feb.  24  1921  Mar. 3  Schofield,  1921  Mar.  Fraser,  10  Sedgewick,  G . G .  A r  Poetry  S.J.  S c  The  C. M c L e a n  S c  Biological  of  Meredith.  Origin  of  Mountains.  Problems  of  the  Pacific. 1921  Mar.  17  1921  Mar. 24  Sedgewick, Musical  G . G .  A r  Poetry  Evening.  F A  Vancouver Women's  of  Hardy. Musical  Club. 1921  Oct.  6  Fraser,  C. M c L e a n  S c  Zoology i n Relation Everyday  1921  Oct.  13  Clark, A F . B .  A r  —  1321-  D a n t e ' s Life a n d  Times  1921  Oct.  20  Boving,  P.A.  S c  Turnips  1921  Oct.  27  Clark, A F . B .  A r  The  1921  Nov. 3  MacBeth, Rev. R . G .  So  Elements  1921  Nov.  Nov.  10  17  Eastman,  M a c k  Thompson,  So  N . W .  S c  Life.  In M e m o r y of Dante 1921  1921  of  and  Poetry  Immigration.  of  Dante.  of Nation Building  the  West  T w o  Revolutions:  and  Jacobins.  Smelting,  in  Bolshevists  Ancient  and  M o d e r n . 1921  Nov. 24  O'Boyle, Rev. W.P.  A r  St.  1921  Dec.  Foster,  Ot  W i t h the Alpine C l u b o n  1  W . W .  Augustine. M o u n t  Robson. 1921  Dec.  8  Klinck,  L.S.  So  Gleanings of the  from  the  Congress  Universities of  the  E m p i r e 1 9 2 2  Jan.  12  Buchanan, D.  S c  The  M a k i n g  1 9 2 2  Jan.  19  Gill, L . W .  So  The  Field  School.  138  of Worlds.  of the  Technical  1922  Jan.  26  1922  Feb. 2  Wood, F.G.C.  A r  The  Wade,  A r  Some  M . S .  Plays of Lord  Dunsany.  Pathfinders  of the  B . C .  Hinterland 1 9 2 2  Feb. 9  Denison,  F. Napier  Sc  Earthquakes and  Slow  Earth  Movements. 1922  Feb.  16  MacKay,  M r s . Isabel  A r  Glimpses  Sc  The  of Canadian  Writers.  E . 1922  Feb.  23  Clement,  F . M .  Economic  Development  Basis of  of  the  Agrarian  Movements. 1922  Mar. 2  Buell, W.F.  A r  Some  Events  War, 1922  Mar. 9  Eastham,  J.W.  Sc  Mar.  16  Uglow,  1 9 2 2  Mar.  23  Gowen,  W . L . Rev. H . H .  Great  1812-1815.  Fungi: Their Mode Importance  1922  of Canada's  Sc  Life i n the  A r  Literature  to  of Life  M a n .  Peruvian and  and  the  Andes. A n i m a l  World. 1922  Oct.  5  Davidson, J . G .  A r  Science,  Theology  and  Christianity. 1922  1922  Oct.  Oct.  12  19  Vance,  Principal  So  Brock, R . W .  So  The  Influence  the  Worker.  The  Situation  of Machinery  i n the  on  Near  East. 1922  Oct.  26  1922  Nov. 2  Walker, F . C .  F A  Artistic  Dunlop, W.R.  A r  The  Lying.  Periclean  Age  in  M o d e r n  Athens. 1922  Nov. 9  Schofield,  1922  Nov.  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