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"Scarcely yet a people": State policy in citizenship education, 1947-1982 Sears, Alan Murray 1996

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"SCARCELY YET A PEOPLE" STATE POLICY IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION,  1947-1982  by A l a n Murray Sears B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick, 1977 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1996 ® A l a n Murray Sears, 1996  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  thesis by  this  his  partial  British Columbia, and study.  or  her  the  Belt*. cc\l'ov\Qr[  requirements  I agree  that the  I further agree  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  of  for scholarly purposes  permission.  Department of  fulfilment  that  advanced  Library shall make it  by the  understood be  an  permission for extensive  granted  is  for  allowed  that without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  11  Abstract The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l authority spite  of  to  the  this,  authority activity  federal  to a c t  i n p u b l i c education at  citizens.  This  to  thesis  e d u c a t i o n b e t w e e n 1947  Branch,  S e c r e t a r y of  the  examines  three  2)  How d i d t h e  a n d 3)  What means  policy  of  this  state  e d u c a t i o n of  focuses  Canadian  citizenship  on t h e  Department  1)  What c o n c e p t i o n  federal that  of  citizenship  formulate c i t i z e n s h i p  d i d the  s t a t e use  education is  to  education implement  an a r e a  of  e d u c a t i o n was  a national ideal  identity  as  citizens.  c o n c e p t i o n of  Canadians  from the p r o c e s s  and r e l e g a t e d  s t a t e was p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h  n a t i o n a l u n i t y and t h e r e f o r e  an e l i t i s t  voluntary  It  substantial  One a r e a o f  for state policy i n  p e r i o d the  in citizenship  their  justify  jurisdiction?  p r o p a g a t i o n of find  to  In  constitutional  state policy i n  education p o l i c y given  Throughout questions  the  questions:  education?  provincial  education.  no  p a r t i c u l a r l y the C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p  formed the b a s i s  citizenship  area of  levels.  is  and 1982.  State,  and a d d r e s s e s  all  state  citizenship  policy?  i n the  i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t  interest  the  state  i n Canada a s s i g n s  t h e C a n a d i a n s t a t e has u s e d i t s  particular  of  d i v i s i o n o f powers  focus  of  its  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  i n which a l l Canadians c o u l d The p o l i c y was  citizenship of  the  the  i n that  constructing  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n to  it  the  largely  consistent excluded  national  most identity  apolitical  activities.  A l t h o u g h the Department of  the  S e c r e t a r y of  State  with  was  Ill  rhetorically was  committed to  d r i v e n not by s o c i a l  secure  scientific  the  the  process  s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h but by attempts  and e x t e n d b u r e a u c r a t i c t e r r i t o r y i n r e l a t i o n t o  o t h e r government departments in  p o l i c y making,  citizenship  interested  parties  sector.  means w h i c h b y p a s s e d p r o v i n c i a l  t r a i n i n g programs f o r t e a c h e r s ,  surrogates  for  and a t t e m p t s the  implemented  as w e l l  authorities.  as more  and  through direct  Bilingualism in  the  former,  t h e p r o d u c t i o n and  while  dissemination  to use v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s  s t a t e a r e examples  of  the  process.  E d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s a r e t h e b e s t example o f  of m a t e r i a l s ,  i n t e r p l a y among  e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y was  agreements w i t h the p r o v i n c e s  working  sometimes a l e a d e r  i n the p o l i c y making  State c i t i z e n s h i p official  complex  t h e D e p a r t m e n t was  sometimes a f o l l o w e r  both  and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s I n the  to  the  latter.  as  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract T a b l e of List  of  i i Contents Tables  vi  Acknowledgement  vii  C h a p t e r One:  Introduction T h i s Study Citizenship Education The S t a t e Overview Conclusion Notes  C h a p t e r Two:  C o n c e p t i o n s o f C i t i z e n s h i p and C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n i n Canada The R o o t s o f Modern D e m o c r a t i c C i t i z e n s h i p The C o n t e s t e d N a t u r e o f C i t i z e n s h i p Modern C o n c e p t i o n s o f C i t i z e n s h i p and C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n i n Canada Conclusion Notes  Chapter Three: Unique Challenges f o r Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p The Common F e a t u r e s o f D e m o c r a t i c C i t i z e n s h i p Unique A s p e c t s of Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p The C o n t e x t o f C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p The S e a r c h f o r an E l u s i v e N a t i o n a l I d e n t i t y The U n i q u e I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Canadian State Conclusion Notes Chapter Four:  iv  C r e a t i n g C a n a d i a n s : The S t a t e ' s V i s i o n Of C i t i z e n s h i p Constructing a National Identity C a n a d a : The L a n d o f C o n q u e r i n g P i o n e e r s C a n a d a : The B i l i n g u a l / B i c u l t u r a l R e a l i t y C a n a d a : The P l u r a l i s t I d e a l Constructing Appropriate Attitudes for Citizenship A s s i m i l a t i o n and A c c o m m o d a t i o n : The S u b s t a n c e Of G e t t i n g A l o n g C o n t a c t and I n t e r c e s s i o n : The M e c h a n i s m Of G e t t i n g A l o n g C o n s t r u c t i n g an A p p r o a c h t o C i t i z e n A c t i o n  1 6 9 12 15 20 21 27 27 30 34 44 63 65 77 77 79 80 87 93 98 101  107 108 114 124 133 144 149 161 172  c  v TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter Four  (Continued)  (Continued) Community S e r v i c e : The H i g h e s t O r d e r o f Citizen Action V o l u n t a r i s m : The V e h i c l e f o r C i t i z e n Participation Conclusion Notes  Chapter F i v e :  Chapter Six:  C h a p t e r Seven:  1  S c i e n c e and S u r v i v a l : How t h e S t a t e Made C i t i z e n s h i p P o l i c y S c i e n t i f i c I l l u s i o n s : The P r e t e n c e Of P o l i c y M a k i n g P o l i t i c s and S u r v i v a l : The R e a l i t y Of P o l i c y M a k i n g Conclusion Notes I n s t r u m e n t s o f P o l i c y : How t h e S t a t e I n f l u e n c e s E d u c a t i o n i n Canada In the N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t : J u s t i f y i n g State Intervention The I n s t r u m e n t s o f S t a t e P o l i c y In Canadian Education B u y i n g F a v o u r s : The O f f i c i a l E x e r c i s e o f S t a t e Power Ways A r o u n d : The U n o f f i c i a l E x e r c i s e o f S t a t e Power Conclusion Notes Conclusion Summary The P o l i c y The P r o c e s s The I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Implications The F o c u s o f C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n P o l i c y The P r o c e s s o f M a k i n g C i t i z e n s h i p Education Policy The N a t u r e o f M a k i n g P o l i c y C l a r i f y i n g the S t a t e ' s R o l e Future Research Notes  Bibliography: Books and J o u r n a l A r t i c l e s Government P u b l i c a t i o n s and R e p o r t s A r c h i v a l Sources  174 177 184 187 208 209 223 260 261 276 278 282 283 294 303 304 313 313 314 319 322 326 327 330 332 334 335 337 342 342 354 358  vi  LIST OF TABLES T a b l e One:  Conceptions  of  Citizenship  T a b l e Two:  Conceptions  of  Citizenship  36 Education  40  Vll  Acknowledgment No  one  c o m p l e t e s an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e on t h e i r  no e x c e p t i o n . offer  thanks  A t the  c l o s e of  the p r o c e s s  to b o t h i n s t i t u t i o n s  U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k f o r fellowship  money.  the U n i v e r s i t y of in  teaching  to  s p e n d two y e a r s  the  leave of  To t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r  but  i n Vancouver.  individuals  special  cohorts  who o f t e n you  all,  Peter  and in  t h a n k s go  to:  at  and f r i e n d s  at U . B . C . ,  is  special  at  appointment  Studies  f o r me in  S a i n t Thomas U n i v e r s i t y  due a r e  my c o l l e a g u e s  carry  out  always  J a n e Ann who has  twenty y e a r s , thank God.  particularly  mate  Penny  at U . B . C . ,  improve;  to  members  r e a d and commented  on  to my c h i l d r e n , M a t t h e w  their  lives  country,  to be  accomplishment.  r a i s e my E b e n e z e r ,  disrupted  and e s p e c i a l l y  l o v e d and s u p p o r t e d me f o r more  an i m p r e s s i v e  Here I ' l l  the  Clarke thanks  my a d v i s o r Don F i s h e r and c o m m i t t e e  p u s h i n g me to  name,  G e r r y C l a r k e and Andrew H u g h e s ;  e n d u r e d my r a m b l i n g s ; my t e a c h e r s especially  t o o many t o  at U . N . B . ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y my o f f i c e  o r d e r f o r me t o move a c r o s s  come.  the  to Ottawa to  to whom t h a n k s  R e b e k a h , who w i l l i n g l y a l l o w e d  wife  with  Educational Studies  S e i x a s and I a n W r i g h t who d i l i g e n t l y  my w o r k ,  the  absence a l o n g  To t h e C h a i r o f  travel  to  work.  my a c a d e m i c m e n t o r s my  To  and d o c t o r a l s t u d i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e means  which p r o v i d e d funding f o r  The  I am c o m p e l l e d  and i n d i v i d u a l s .  C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p and Human R i g h t s  archival  own and I am  Finally,  t o my  than I want  h i t h e r by thy h e l p  to I'm  1  Chapter 1 Introduction  The n i n e t e e n t h states.  F o r the  territorial building;  c e n t u r y saw t h e b i r t h  r u l e r s of  those s t a t e s  and p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y  citizens  of  was n o t  of  now we must make I t a l i a n s . "  public  schooling  c r e a t i n g among o f t e n  from a l l o t h e r  Curtis  examines  argues  was  diverse  end o f  nation  essential  tools  people  for  schools,  contested  o f b e i n g one p e o p l e  to  take  of  process  of  c o n t r o l of  communities  so  the  of  different  Canada W e s t .  1836-1871,  of  elites  schooling  3  He documents  contending  e d u c a t i o n a l m a r k e t " was  that  i n Canada West a t  4  and a c h i e v e d , this  long over  this effort  and l o c a l  c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e  who p u s h e d f o r ,  the  a deliberate  e d u c a t i o n away f r o m p a r e n t s state  the  centralizing state control  education for p o l i t i c a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . the  of  " p u b l i c c o n s t r u c t i o n " w h i c h he  i n the o r i g i n a l ) . process  "the  states  2  c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h e r s ,  disciplining  and  a sense  i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g and " p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f  and o f t e n  well.  "We h a v e made  concerned w i t h the o v e r l a p p i n g f u n c t i o n s  population"(emphasis  a  Education i n general  the E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t e : this  the  groups of  o r "a f e e l i n g  people."  In B u i l d i n g  1  i n p a r t i c u l a r were  identity  c r e a t i o n of  the p e r i o d put i t ,  Italy;  national  the  t h e new s t a t e h a d t o b e c r e a t e d as  As an I t a l i a n n a t i o n a l i s t  in  o f many modern n a t i o n  in  According  to  using Curtis,  universal public  t i m e were  concerned about  "the  2 creation  i n the p o p u l a t i o n of  new h a b i t s ,  desires"  t h a t were  with  including a  "respect  'collective'  for legitimate  morality."  In Canada, process.  consistent  orientations,  "the b o u r g e o i s  [and]  social  order"  a u t h o r i t y and f o r s t a n d a r d s  5  the p r o c e s s  of  state  I n g e o g r a p h i c and p o l i t i c a l  formation i s terms  this  a  continuous  can be  seen  in  N e w f o u n d l a n d j o i n i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1949,  the p a t r i a t i o n of  the  to  constitution  political attempts changes create  recent  Nunavut,  t o amend t h e  agreements  constitution.  During  the years  Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p identity;  citizens; w i t h the Canada,  by the n a t i o n a l  1947-1982 t h e p o l i c y o f  general  that  a set  to  of  p o l i c y was  i n p u t from the  appropriate values  A l t h o u g h i n Canada t h e  becoming  area of  n a t u r e of  citizens  it  was  t h e government federal  education,  state  a  shared  and a t t i t u d e s  for  Consistent  state building i n without  designed  "good c i t i z e n s h i p  s u p p o r t i v e b e h a v i o u r towards  i n the  to  Canadian  and p r o p a g a t e  c o n c e i v e d and i m p l e m e n t e d  the p o l i c y d e f i n e d  authority  construct  the  included: a universally  traditionally elitist  significant  state  "habits,  and a m o d e l f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  this  several  desires."  to use p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n  national  and  a new  Alongside these s t r u c t u r a l  a Canadian c i t i z e n r y with a p p r o p r i a t e and  establish  i n the E a s t e r n A r c t i c ,  have been ongoing e f f o r t s  orientations,  was  i n 1982,  entity,  of  as in  s t a t e has  to  shape.  deferent office."  no  Grant argues  In  and  6  constitutional that  it  is  3 i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious t h a t the n a t i o n a l government i s c u r r e n t l y a c t i n g on t h e p e r c e p t i o n n o t o f t h r e e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r f e d e r a l involvement i n education, [ t r a d i t i o n a l l y : e d u c a t i o n and employment; e d u c a t i o n a n d c u l t u r e ; and e d u c a t i o n and l a n g u a g e ] b u t f o u r . The f o u r t h i s o v e r r i d i n g , has e x i s t e d f o r some t i m e , and has b e e n b a s i c t o many f e d e r a l a c t i o n s . This j u s t i f i c a t i o n , ever increasingly present, is education for national u n i t y , for "Canadianization", for developing a national consciousness, and i s i n f a c t c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , o r the s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f c i t i z e n s , e s p e c i a l l y young p e o p l e , t o t h e n a t i o n a l as opposed to the p r o v i n c i a l s t a t e . 7  Indeed,  as  Grant points  interested the  in citizenship  constitutional  involvement to use  out,  the  constraints  schools  as  employ t h e  tactics  of p r e s s u r e  lobbies  advance  the  to  directly of  affect  instruction  the m a t e r i a l s - the  One way t o  groups, of  or p r a c t i c e s , of  teachers."  direct  the n a t i o n - s t a t e  the  convince ministers  particular policies  groups,  state."  Such  of  as w e l l  education as  efforts  of  education  inducements  to adopt p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m s .  see  in this  because  large  provinces the  the  sums o f  and s c h o o l  adopt  "to  education is  of  f o r example,  districts  to  offer As we  has  largely occurred  who i m p l e m e n t e d them.  influenced  shall  French immersion  t h r o u g h The C a n a d i a n  (CIDA),  vehicles  along  f e d e r a l money were made a v a i l a b l e  f e d e r a l government,  Development Agency  explosion  country,  to  t o go  financial  programs a c r o s s  or  8  i n any a r e a o f  the  to  tactics  i n s t r u c t i o n a n d / o r the  influence ministers  work,  and  interest  with federal policies  later  of  has h a d "to work i n d i r e c t l y  the agents of  interest  been  time b u t because  p l a c e d upon i t s  i n p u b l i c education i t  i n c l u d e attempts  s t a t e has  education a long  the  to  federal  to  Recently  International  s c h o o l programs  in  4 almost  all  education  the p r o v i n c e s by i t s projects.  F o r some t i m e  federal used at  the  that  f e d e r a l government h a s b e e n  least  "some 66 d e p a r t m e n t s  studies  i n the  recently  the  coordinator  global  overt  heavily  educational materials.  In  and a g e n c i e s o f  government p r o d u c e e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s  in social  that  sense,  Department of  usually  the  takes p l a c e .  Secretary of  the  education,  More  1 0  State  1983  c o u l d be  i n s t r u c t i o n " where c i t i z e n s h i p  acted  as  f o r an I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l W o r k i n g Group on  Educational Materials consisting federal  provincial  9  i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of Anderson wrote  f u n d i n g of  departments  from  "50  and a g e n c i e s w h i c h p r o d u c e m a t e r i a l s  for  p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l  of  representatives  s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . "  Many o f  1 1  these departments  are e x p l i c i t l y  i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of  materials  to  education.  that  related  these developers  authorities, available enter  ought  i n many c a s e s  free  of  classrooms  and o t h e r  citizenship  charge without  t o work w i t h p r o v i n c i a l these m a t e r i a l s  to  Curtis  key a s p e c t  of  century and,  directly thereby  the p r o v i n c i a l  scrutiny that  textbooks  usually  undergo.  v e r y i n v o l v e d i n the argues  educational  These r e s o u r c e s  In a d d i t i o n to p r o d u c i n g m a t e r i a l s ,  teachers.  are  that  c o n t r o l of  these departments in-service teacher  Grant points  out,  it  continues  as  and  t r a i n i n g of  t r a i n i n g was  s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n i n the as  direction  teachers.  approved m a t e r i a l s  agencies are often  Despite  a  nineteenth  an i m p o r t a n t  5 aspect of the  federal  area of  attempts  citizenship.  Beyond d i r e c t federal its  influence  funding of  Council,  involvement  in citizenship  influence  i n the  field.  from the  is  t i e s w i t h the  e a r l y 1940s t o  The Canada S t u d i e s  Current  examples  I call  that  citizenship  education  destructive  forces  the  late  state 1960s.  development  A more  provincial  responsibility,  about  means  citizenship  l a c k of  its  not  explicit  recent  federal  t o a p p e a r t o be the  federal  recent  b e t w e e n 1970  involvement  and  Canadian  It  1 3  as  make i t  complex n a t u r e of  s t a t e has the  scattered  state  of  that  not  also  public  nature of  receive  in citizenship  of  been  to b e g i n to u n d e r s t a n d  involvement  the  Possibly  and a g e n c i e s o f  the p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e s very d i f f i c u l t  has  objectives  e d u c a t i o n i n and o u t s i d e  a c l e a r p o l i c y and t h e  as w e l l  in  t r e a d i n g on an a r e a  p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d to  a r e a among t h e v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s  funding,  its  w h i c h was  The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r  a t t a c k i n g Canadian u n i t y . "  a desire  state,  across  "has grown i n some p r o p o r t i o n t o m a t c h  because of  the  surrogates,  throughout  grown i n an u n c o o r d i n a t e d and unexamined f a s h i o n .  This  through  education  Foundation (CSF),  include:  the  Forum f o r Young C a n a d i a n s , and The T e r r y Fox C e n t r e .  Grant concludes  of  in  The C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p  i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h e r  Studies,  what  an o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o m o t i n g c i t i z e n s h i p  existence  1986.  education,  i n d i r e c t involvement  "private" organizations,  country, maintained close  example  educational p o l i c y  1 2  s t a t e has had c o n s i d e r a b l e  t h a t have  the  to  and schools. work  in  the federal the  education.  6 T h i s Study This  study  citizenship  seeks  to  c l a r i f y the  e d u c a t i o n b e t w e e n 1947  related questions:  and 1982  What c o n c e p t i o n o f  basis  for state policy i n citizenship  state  formulate c i t i z e n s h i p  the  federal  given  that  s t a t e use  Resnick points  inclusive  to  education is  what c o n s t i t u t e s  the  education?  disagreement  state but i t  of  is  includes  t h a t b u t a l s o would take  He a r g u e s  institutions."  of  the  this  that  and "* s t a t e a p p a r a t u s e s '  the  the  day,  policy  literature  is  while  often  over  the  taken  study I w i l l state consists  use  state  a r e i n c l u d e d as  the  government  financed  officially  "state apparatuses" but  see  accountable later,  like  the  to  the CSF, which ostensibly  to government,  state often  t h e CSF as  for  f e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c y a n d t h e CBC  b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f u n d i n g and was o r g a n i z a t i o n not  the  Dale's  of  publicly  to  former  i n the b u r e a u c r a c y ,  - specifically  T h e r e f o r e the  did  jurisdiction?  By p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d he means w h o l l y p a i d  15  organizations  How d i d  g e n e r a l l y h e l d t o b e a more  f r o m t h e p u b l i c p u r s e and " a c c o u n t a b l e  As we s h a l l  the  and i n some c a s e s p r i v a t e g r o u p s w o r k i n g w i t h  F o r the purposes  government."  three  formed  education  i n the  The l a t t e r  14  e l e c t e d government  definition.  citizenship  implement c i t i z e n s h i p  mean t h e  state.  in  by a d d r e s s i n g  an a r e a o f p r o v i n c i a l  out  the  involvement  e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y ? a n d What means  term than government.  institutions,  state's  surrogates  to  a private  would be  attempted  to  received  excluded. coopt  c a r r y out  state  policy  in citizenship  organizations  were v i e w e d as  As a window i n t o study w i l l State  examine  law,  it.  s e e n b y many,  out,  the  as  the C h a r t e r of  a turning point  C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p and t h e r e f o r e for  ending t h i s  study.  of  a c k n o w l e d g e d as example,  that  S e c r e t a r y of  " i n some r e s p e c t s  1 8  the  evolution  of  a s u i t a b l e marker  been education  for  State  Education."  1 9  is Of  of  concerned w i t h the  subject  Between  1950  of  agency  citizenship  and 1966  i n the Department of  in  extensively  the o n l y f e d e r a l  directly  located  is  for  w h i c h one  described  B r a n c h was  and Freedoms  responsible i n the  for  citizenship  the C i t i z e n s h i p B r a n c h ,  official  2 0  Rights  S e c r e t a r y of  is  aspects."  the  in  Hodgson c o n t e n d s ,  particular  legal  a n d Freedoms  Department i s  f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of  its  Rights  and i n c i t i z e n s h i p  Canada's u n o f f i c i a l  "as  of  t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was  the passage of  provides  State's  t h e most a c t i v e .  interest  Secretary  the Canadian s t a t e have  involved i n education generally, the  this  1 7  A l t h o u g h many p a r t s  particular,  the  f e d e r a l government  including state o f f i c i a l s  policy,  education  b o t h a new b e g i n n i n g and a r e a s o n  of  Similarly,  1 , 1 6  provinces.  Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p A c t  the y e a r  As G r a n t p o i n t s  growing involvement  citizenship  first  f r o m B r i t a i n and t h e C h a r t e r o f  added to  education.  the Department of  and 19 82  C i t i z e n s h i p A c t "mark[ed] the  by the  these  state policy in citizenship  the y e a r the  was p r o c l a i m e d i n t o  was  autonomous  in detail  b e t w e e n 1947,  repatriated  education p r e c i s e l y because  senior  government i n other  the C i t i z e n s h i p  C i t i z e n s h i p and  than  I m m i g r a t i o n so  for  t h a t p e r i o d the  beyond the Department of The d a t a f o r evidence State  from the  located  files,  this  the  S e c r e t a r y of  files  of  i n the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s .  contain  the  most v a l u a b l e  of  t h e s e were t h e  active  b e t w e e n 19 70 and 1986.  source  because the Department's  Although there the  role  of  states  Canadian s t a t e education  its  to  of  of  Secretary  of  dealings  the  not been  "fundamental  questions  a federal  procedures  and f i s c a l  several The  a p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable  with  the  included a  state. interest  i n general  role  of  sparse  in  examining  and i n  the n a t i o n a l  examined v e r y  the state  thoroughly.  in In  2 2  1981 book F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s :  involvement  context of  detail.  t h e CSF w h i c h was  Foundation papers  in particular,  federal  these  the Department.  E d u c a t i o n Canada I v a n y and M a n l e y - C a s i m i r l a m e n t study of  of  own d o c u m e n t a r y r e c o r d i s  i n shaping s o c i e t y  their  documentary  examined i n  has b e e n an i n c r e a s i n g  i n Canada has  the p r e f a c e  files  T h i s was  1970s and t h e  r e c o r d of  the  records  w h i c h were k e y s u r r o g a t e s  substantial  2 1  In a d d i t i o n to  was  organizations  early  extends  the D e p a r t m e n t i n c l u d i n g a n n u a l  and d e p a r t m e n t a l p u b l i c a t i o n s  the  study  State.  the Department of  The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s a l s o  after  the  s t u d y a r e l a r g e l y made up o f  the p u b l i c r e c o r d of  reports  scope of  i n education.  F o r the  regarding educational  state,  and the  arrangements  the  attendant  goals  remain unanswered.  Indeed,  Some u s e f u l  work has b e e n done s i n c e  they  that  of  authors in  the  the  administrative  a p p r o p r i a t e to  achievement  lack  their  remain unasked."  time,  particularly  2 3  9 Hodgson's update of Education that Involvement an  his  1976  a p p e a r e d i n 1988  ideas  education but that  details  shape  of  detailed provide  how i t  such  given  to  Intervention  one  in Public  title  Federal  These i m p o r t a n t books  provide  federal  revised  state's  growing r o l e  t h e y do n o t p r o v i d e much i n s i g h t  is  how t h a t p o l i c y  implemented.  This  small p a r t of  the  is  into  made o r  study provides state  in the the  a more  i n an a t t e m p t  to  insight.  T h i s work i s citizenship  the  state policy,  look at  reviewing  under the  i n Public Education.  o v e r a l l d e s c r i p t i o n of  public  book F e d e r a l  set  i n the  context  e d u c a t i o n and t h e  the that  of b o t h the  l i t e r a t u r e on t h e  l i t e r a t u r e i n these areas, d e a l i n g w i t h the  s t a t e a n d how t h a t  state.  on  In  particular attention  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  relationship is  literature  citizens  worked out o v e r  to  is  the  time.  C i t i z e n s h i p Education Training  f o r c i t i z e n s h i p has  sometimes u n s t a t e d , education is to  train  makes always As  the p o i n t  well,  schools.  and has b e e n  citizens,  had to  of  Conley w r i t e s ,  inevitably p o l i t i c a l .  i n the w i d e s t  that  always been a f u n c t i o n ,  i n o r d e r to  e n s u r e new c i t i z e n s  "public Its  mandate  sense of  the  survive,  nation-states  had c e r t a i n  albeit  term."  2 4  Pratte have  competencies.  2 5  some w o u l d a r g u e p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g h a s b e e n u s e d b y  emerging n a t i o n s , immigration, one-people  to  especially  create  different  during periods  in their citizens  from a l l o t h e r  of  significant  "a f e e l i n g  people."  2 6  of  being  is  10 During  this  century i n North America  educating  for citizenship,  primarily  assigned  studies  is  most  to  the  often  over  the p a s t  educating role  analysis  for  subject  of  the  100 y e a r s ,  school  i n the  of  as  social  makes is  a whole,  studies.  the p o i n t  that,  in social  studies,  Tomkins e x p r e s s e d much t h e C a n a d a when he w r o t e comes c l o s e r  that  an e x p l i c i t  Canadians have u s u a l l y b e l i e v e d serve,  even  e d u c a t i o n documents  citizenship  of  3 0  social  In s o c i a l  it  focus  that  is  studies,  the  social  citizenship  shows up  the  2 9  field  surveys  of  in  probably  studies  on what a  "good'  that should citizen  department  Canada c o n f i r m t h a t  r h e t o r i c a l l y at  in particular. however,  States  the purposes  for p u b l i c education generally studies  on  central.  about  identifying  from a c r o s s  his  although  * citizenship'  More r e c e n t  education remains,  important goal focus  of  though they might not agree  (or a good Canadian) i s . " of  and t h e r e  "the g o a l to  in  t o u t e d as b e i n g a n i m p o r t a n t  same s e n t i m e n t  t h a n any o t h e r  been  concerned  i n the U n i t e d  i n academic l i t e r a t u r e ' a n d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s principally  has  in  Social  2 7  Jenness,  2 8  role  sense,  fundamentally  studies  often  school's  overt  social  for citizenship.  for citizenship the  least  d e f i n e d as b e i n g  with preparing students historical  at  the  least, and t h e  an primary  3 1  as M a r k e r and M e h l i n g e r p o i n t  out, t h e a p p a r e n t c o n s e n s u s on b e h a l f o f c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n i s almost meaningless. Behind t h a t totem to which n e a r l y a l l s o c i a l s t u d i e s r e s e a r c h e r s p a y homage l i e s c o n t i n u o u s and r a n c o r o u s debate about the p u r p o s e s of s o c i a l studies. 3 2  11 This it  debate  is  continues,  used i n the The i d e a o f  premise  that  inevitably  field,  the p e o p l e  is  least,  t h e r e a r e some  contested "concepts  endless disputes  their users".  the  perfectly  genuine:  which,  any k i n d ,  are nevertheless  a r g u m e n t s and e v i d e n c e " . using  the  same e l e m e n t s ,  participation" and r e l a t i v e citizenship people  it  3 5  ,  "knowledge,  all".  on  because  concepts  to  but because that  the "are  to  respectable  citizenship  values, about  and the  but also  defy p r e c i s e they  better  d e f i n i t i o n of  good c i t i z e n s h i p .  role  As K a p l a n p o i n t s  out,  everyone,  some  and to  3 6  because  it  is  it  d e f i n i t i o n because  they  and b e s t .  is  an  a normative  "describe from a moral  f o r c i t i z e n s h i p we a r e n o t  narrow l e g a l sense of  exists  They a r e a p p r a i s i v e b e c a u s e a b o u t what i s  which  arise  about c i t i z e n s h i p a r i s e not o n l y because  c o m p l e x i t y and b e c a u s e  educating  skills,  something d i f f e r e n t  complex c o n c e p t ,  3 7  define  each element.  their  judgements  same name,  Most w r i t e r s  3 4  Normative concepts  view."  do n o t  s u s t a i n e d by p e r f e c t l y  one.  of  the  a l t h o u g h not r e s o l v a b l e by argument of  means n o t h i n g a t  internally  of  c o n c e p t makes f o r d i s p u t e s  importance of  Disputes  rooted i n  about t h e i r p r o p e r uses  y e t wide disagreement  "means  is  as  concept.  the p r o p e r use  i n v o l v e d are a r g u i n g about d i f f e r e n t  c o m p l e x i t y of  citizenship,  contested  concepts  These d i s p u t e s  3 3  which they have m i s t a k e n l y g i v e n the internal  because  an e s s e n t i a l l y  essentially  involves  the p a r t of  i n part at  of point  i n v o l v e making  When we s p e a k  of  so much c o n c e r n e d w i t h  the  c i t i z e n s h i p as w i t h some n o r m a t i v e 3 8  C i t i z e n s h i p i n the v i t a l  sense  is  12 f a r more t h a n a p e r s o n ' s rather  that person's  citizens  in it.  give  take:  and  legal  status  relationship  F o r Woyach,  to  this  i n a country; the  it  s t a t e and t h e  relationship  reflects other  involves  both  W i t h i n d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l systems c i t i z e n s h i p i n v o l v e s complex c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e a n d t h e community ( i n c l u d i n g p r o t e c t i o n , p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s a n d r e s p e c t ) and assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h e community ( i n c l u d i n g l o y a l t y , obedience to laws, r e s p e c t f o r o f f i c i a l s , s e l f c o n t r o l i n p u b l i c m a t t e r s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o m m u n i t y ) .  a  3 9  Misunderstandings often e d u c a t i o n because different  people.  "responsible of  are  Phrases  education,  "systematically  s u c h as often  within this  their  the  s u c h s l o g a n s as that  " a p p l i c a t i o n to  to  "delimit"  the  citizenship  and c i t i z e n s h i p  conceptions  formed the b a s i s  educated  40  the  and o f t e n  until  range of  to  citizen,"  or  outcomes  slogans  in  that  Komisar and  4 1  until  42  they  someone d e l i m i t s  some l i m i t e d s e t 4 3  things  represent  "meaningless" is  citizenship  desired  educational  interests.  l a r g e r amorphous c l a s s . "  work i s  The S t a t e  as  ambiguous"  a r e g i v e n an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; restricts  "the  of  different  t o u t e d as  operate  p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l McClellan describe  in discussions  same l a n g u a g e means  citizenship,"  citizenship  they  the  arise  of  proposals  A c e n t r a l purpose conceptions  e d u c a t i o n and t o for state policy  or  of  of  show w h i c h i n the  area.  13 In recent for  years  the  s t a t e has  i n c r e a s i n g l y become  s c h o l a r l y e x a m i n a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  historical sociology  sociology. is  the  study of  work a n d c h a n g e . " how s o c i e t i e s example,  the  A t the  simplest  the p a s t  A major focus  4 4  experience  to  of  the  s t a t e as  reflects the  class  s t a t e as  that  the  scholars  field.  economic d i s p u t e s  in civil  and have  influence  is  for  i n this  of  led researchers to  societies  s t a t e has no l i f e society,  a key a c t o r i n s o c i a l  which s t a t e s act  o u t how  have l a r g e l y r e j e c t e d b o t h l i b e r a l  struggles  r e c o g n i t i o n has  "historical  transformation,  a n e u t r a l a r b i t e r of  Marxist notions  of  i n d u s t r i a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m h a s  b e e n a m a j o r c o n c e r n i n t h e work o f Contemporary s c h o l a r s  find  focus  for h i s t o r i c a l sociology  significant  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n to  level  field  the  to  its  study  society  the  notions  and neo-  own b u t  transformation.  4 5  come  simply to  see  This  c o m p l e x ways  and f u r t h e r t h e i r  in  own  46  cause. The p e r i o d o f  this  t h e C a n a d i a n s t a t e as areas.  The f i r s t  an i n d e p e n d e n t British begin  to  and t h a t  is  state  the  experiences ongoing  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  transformation i n  "shift this  to  t h a t was begun i n 1867.  the U n i t e d S t a t e s  p r e c i p i t a t e d changes 4 7  Over t h i s  e d u c a t i o n was g r e a t l y  study  several  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from a c o l o n y The d e c l i n e  E m p i r e a f t e r W o r l d War Two, f o r e x a m p l e ,  and c i t i z e n s h i p .  identity  it  study provides  i n our approach to  period state policy in to  t h a t was n e i t h e r B r i t i s h n o r A m e r i c a n .  the  saw C a n a d a  from the B r i t i s h  i n f l u e n c e d by e f f o r t s  of  to  create  sphere" government citizenship a Canadian  14 Another a r e a of  significant  w i t h other Western n a t i o n s , role  of  the  this  s t a b i l i z a t i o n of  move t o  as much o f  c a p i t a l i s m as fiscal  is  capitalistic  the  capitalism.  f o r the  intelligent  development"  sociology.  out  establish  its  conditions It  also  within  own b u r e a u c r a t i c t u r f  f a v o u r a b l e to a l i b e r a l  explores the  the n a t u r e of  state  itself  Modern m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  of  s t a t e and i t s  of monetary  5 1  democratic market  democracies  demands.  On t h e  52  pressure which  to  live  "are o f t e n  the  capital, up t o at  social  economy.  50  both  h a v e moved  relationship out  in his  state  between study  in  faced with c o n t r a d i c t o r y  is  under p r e s s u r e  c a p i t a l i s t mode o f  to  democratic notions  odds w i t h c a p i t a l i s t  create  a  p r o d u c t i o n and  and on t h e o t h e r h a n d i t  liberal  both  outside.  As D a l e p o i n t s  often  one h a n d i t  c l i m a t e which supports accumulation of  is  for  policy  to  that p o l i c y  e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n under T h a t c h e r i s m , the  capitalist  and  and the  of h i s t o r i c a l s o c i o l o g y  citizens.  or  examination  (statemaking)  to  this  of  how c i t i z e n s h i p  beyond M a r x i s t determinism i n e x p l o r i n g the the  for  the Canadian s t a t e  resistance  and f r o m  argues  cohesion  of  the  accomplished  "statemaking,  T h i s work examines  in  as  the  Resnick  4 8  have b e e n k e y a r e a s  and p r a c t i c e was u s e d b y one p a r t o f  to  stabilization  management  As S k o c p o l p o i n t s  4 9  relationship  to b r i n g about s o c i a l  a prerequisite  policy."  historical  "enormous e x p a n s i o n  " o r g a n i z e d c a p i t a l i s m " has been  i n p a r t through e f f o r t s "is  the  state" p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s  economy and t h e that  was  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r Canada,  the  is  under  of  citizenship  rationality."  5 3  Carnoy  15 and L e v i n r e f e r state."  to  T h e y see  5 4  this the  class having a large that  "the  class.  d o m i n a n t and t h e some as  the  "recognizes society  It  system is  purposeful, original). turf  is  that  to  conflict  c a r r y out  its  as  action,  s t a t e and t h e  citizens  the the  d e s c r i b e d by which  that h i s t o r y  and  however  (emphasis  in  the  w i t h i n the  state  complex and d i a l e c t i c a l surrogate  policy objectives.  on t h e p a r t o f  argue  purposeful  both c o n f l i c t s the  the  middle  between  is  and more o r l e s s  individual  and p o l i c y as w e l l  resistance  conflict  made b y h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y "  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the used  n o t an i n s t r u m e n t o f  and i n e q u a l m e a s u r e  T h i s work examines  5 6  c a p i t a l i s m and the  on e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y b u t  This  5 5  theory of  between s t r u c t u r e and a g e n c y  simultaneously  a c t i o n and  is  of  conflict  the p r o d u c t of  dominated."  dialectic  "social  structures  a r e made b y c o n s t a n t  individual  over  the  influence  educational  capitalist  as  It  organizations  also  to a s p e c t s  of  examines state  policy.  Overview The s t u d y i s set  a context  divided into  from the  and c i t i z e n s h i p  two p a r t s :  literature for discussions  the  e d u c a t i o n as  S e c r e t a r y of  State  Chapter 2 begins conceptions  of  2 and 3 w h i c h of  citizenship  e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y i n Canada a n d c h a p t e r s  w h i c h p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n citizenship  chapters  reflected  of  state policy  i n t h e work o f  b e t w e e n 1947 by t r a c i n g the  and  in  Department of  1982.  development  democratic c i t i z e n s h i p ,  4 to 6  o f modern  p a r t i c u l a r l y the  16 e v o l u t i o n of  various  and s o c i a l .  As p a r t o f  citizenship various  is  types of this  discussed,  groups of p e o p l e  D r a w i n g on t h e  rights:  background, the  to a t t a i n f u l l I  of  then develop citizenship  education.  conceptions  of  citizenship  and c i t i z e n s h i p  conflicting  beliefs  a v e r y l i m i t e d one,  substantial the  role  research  us a b o u t p a s t  e d u c a t i o n i n Canada a r g u i n g t h a t w i t h more c o n s e r v a t i v e Chapter 3 begins features as  of  some o f  what  it  and e l i t i s t  common c h a l l e n g e s  has  to  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t ;  s t r u c t u r e of important policy  the Canadian s t a t e .  insight  nature of  education.  the Canadian s t a t e ,  a what  of  citizenship. the  I  common as  then  well  outline  which have including:  the p e r s i s t e n t  and t h e u n i q u e A l l of  role  consistent  modern s t a t e s  search  discussions  F o r example,  the for  institutional  these f a c t o r s  into understanding l a t e r  in citizenship  of  Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p  identity;  that  citizenship  citizenship.  historical  from in a  I discuss  l a r g e l y been  across  the  national  in  discussion  influenced  a distinctive  citizens  Finally,  the unique f e a t u r e s  e v o l u t i o n of  different  education derive  conceptions  with a brief  I a r g u e a r e some o f  that  view which advocates  practice  democratic c i t i z e n s h i p the  I argue  for ordinary citizens.  tells  of  v i e w w h i c h w o u l d see  t o an a c t i v i s t  by  citizenship.  a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e of  d e m o c r a c y r a n g i n g f r o m an e l i t i s t  of  and c o r r e s p o n d i n g  citizenship  as  of  nature  struggles  a typology  of  the  political,  contested  rights  conceptions  about  civil,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the ongoing  literature,  contemporary conceptions  citizen  the  and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e  provide of  federal  state  17 constitutional  designation  responsibility, s t a t e attempts  greatly to  citizenship the  to  "to  lack of  the  of  state  the  that  or,  foremost  i n other words,  p o l i t i c a l order."  saw t h e b i g g e s t  put the  To c o u n t e r  5 7  threat  ideals  in  concerns identity  to use  for and  citizenship  In the  case of  to  legitimacy  its  and  the in  i n the  continued e x i s t e n c e of  this  the  view  the  t h r e a t p o l i c y makers  to promulgate a s e r i e s  of  which they hoped would be a d o p t e d by  C a n a d i a n s and f o r m t h e b a s i s of  the  an o v e r a r c h i n g n a t i o n a l  c o n s t r u c t e d and a t t e m p t e d national  informed s t a t e p o l i c y  the  f o r m a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l n a t i o n a l i t y  those making p o l i c y , risk.  federal  policy.  a widely accepted n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y which,  nation at  provincial  e m p i r i c a l work b y e x a m i n i n g  cohesion,  serve  an a r e a o f  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e  I argue t h a t  create  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of former  the  education.  maintain social education  affects  citizenship  s t a t e were  e d u c a t i o n as  implement e d u c a t i o n a l  Chapter 4 begins c o n c e p t i o n of  of  for a lasting  t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s was a r e s p o n s e  three all  national unity.  Each  to p a r t i c u l a r  c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l contexts.  F o r example,  conquering pioneers, flood  of  was  first  developed  ideal:  Canada:  to b e t t e r  the  l a n d of  assimilate  the  i m m i g r a n t s coming t o Canada f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War Two.  Further, cohesion  the  I show t h a t  the  led state o f f i c i a l s  and a c c o m m o d a t i o n as p r o g r a m s were  a way  designed  concern to m a i n t a i n to d e v e l o p  of  to get  social  a p o l i c y of  ensuring s o c i a l  assimilation  stability.  t h o s e who were n o t p a r t o f  State the  18 majority  culture  to  take  q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e already  contact  while  encouraging  controlled  and h e l p  The p r i n c i p l e mechanisms  and i n t e r c e s s i o n .  b r i n g people  the  (assimilate),  i n the main s t r e a m  i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m t o be p a t i e n t  (accommodate). were  their place  from d i f f e r e n t  circumstances  accomplishments  That  groups  o r to  act  the  is,  the  together as  and a s p i r a t i o n s  A n o t h e r p o l i c y outcome o f  to  involvement.  Although state r h e t o r i c c a l l e d in public affairs,  steer people  into volunteer  endorsed i t  provincial there  is  was a l w a y s  levels  and n e v e r a t  evidence  regraded c i t i z e n inappropriate. conservative citizenship  that  opposition  the  to  I contend that  and e l i t i s t  explaining another. social  the  the n a t i o n a l  less  the upshot  to  and  action  often,  level.  Indeed,  and p o l i c y makers  initiatives  c o n c e p t i o n of  citizens  s t a t e p r o g r a m s were  local or,  state  for a l l  citizen  of  to  be  these p o l i c i e s  citizenship  is  a  and  education.  state arguing that  political  carefully  Where p o l i t i c a l  state p o l i t i c i a n s  I n c h a p t e r 5 I examine  scientific  at  to  community a c t i v i t i e s  away f r o m any d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . was  policy  support f o r a very l i m i t e d n o t i o n of  participants to  process  sought  concern to m a i n t a i n  state  designed  this  one g r o u p t o  s t a b i l i t y was  be a c t i v e  state  interpreter,  of  those  i n the  foster  in  as  in spite  the p o l i c y making p r o c e s s of  a r h e t o r i c a l commitment  p o l i c y making the p r o c e s s expediency.  S e c r e t a r y of  State  within  The d r i v i n g generally,  was  force  l a r g e l y one for  the  to  of  the Department of  and t h e C i t i z e n s h i p B r a n c h  in  19 particular, areas  was  to  secure  and e x t e n d  of b u r e a u c r a t i c t u r f .  The B r a n c h s t r u g g l e d  low v i s i b i l i t y and e s t e e m w i t h i n t h e effective  in attaching  policy  a whole  areas  as of  c o n t r o l over p a r t i c u l a r  itself  to  s t a t e b u t was p a r t i c u l a r l y  emerging trends w i t h i n  and r e a p i n g t h e  resulting benefits  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l .  organizations,  like  of  social  this  the  state policy.  structure  the  through both a c t i v e  in  state its  influence  to  implement i t s  ostensibly concept official  coopt  so  to attempted  t h a t p o l i c y was b e i n g  surrogates,  these  and  set  organizations  and p o l i t i c a l s a v v y were a b l e  on s t a t e p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s .  e m e r g i n g p u b l i c c o n c e r n as  by  to  This  out the  ahead of CSF was  years.  Chapter 6 looks years  to  c a s e when t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was  i n an a r e a o f  early  attempted  explored  state  A l t h o u g h s t a t e p o l i c y makers  resistance  was p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e the  which i t  these r e l a t i o n s h i p s  considerable  the  the p o l i c y making p r o c e s s  s t a t e and i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e  have  Royal  than by  complex i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n t h e  the p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s  to  key  science.  chapter is  implement  new  with  t h e C e n t e n n i a l C o m m i s s i o n and t h e  A n o t h e r k e y component o f in  of  relationships  C o m m i s s i o n on B i l i n g u a l i s m and B i c u l t u r a l i s m , insights  state  C i t i z e n s h i p p o l i c y making  d r i v e n more b y t h e n e e d x t o d e v e l o p  was  e a r l y on w i t h  at  t h e means  s t a t e used d u r i n g  policy in citizenship  an a r e a o f p r o v i n c i a l  of p o l i c y instruments (financial  the  to  inducements  education,  jurisdiction. show t h a t  these  the  I use  the  s t a t e used  and b i l a t e r a l a g r e e m e n t s )  both and  20 unofficial policy.  (surrogates  D r a w i n g on o t h e r r e s e a r c h on f e d e r a l  education, of  and d i r e c t p r o g r a m s ) means  I argue that  overriding national  constitutional Canadian  interest  niceties  involvement  to use  the  in  argument  to v i r t u a l l y o v e r r i d e  and t r a n s f o r m v a r i o u s a s p e c t s  i n c h a p t e r 7 I summarize my f i n d i n g s  in citizenship  o t h e r work i n t h e that  s t a t e was a b l e  implement  of  education.  Finally, policy  the  to  e d u c a t i o n and s e t  field.  As w e l l ,  t h e s e f i n d i n g s m i g h t have  suggestions  about  them i n t h e  I explore  the  state  context  of  implications  f o r p o l i c y makers and make some  f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n the  area.  Conclusion Many p o l i c y r e s e a r c h e r s reification  of  purposes  s o c i a l problem s o l v i n g w i l l  of  specialized  h a v e become  social  s c i e n c e knowledge  d e l i b e r a t i o n on p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e s experts.  "scientific resource." that of the  5 9  expertise"  w h i c h she n o t e s  She a r g u e s  that  policies  affecting  them."  r e l i a n c e on s c i e n t i f i c  may b e a t h r e a t  to  these concerns,  this  polity"  60  about "is  the  abuse  a critical  of  of  political  require  f o r m a t i o n and d e t e r m i n a t i o n  to  that  the  inform p o l i c y  such democratic p r i n c i p l e s . focused  the  excludes non-  Her c o n c e r n i s  knowledge  work i s  for  "democratic p r i n c i p l e s  i n d i v i d u a l s be i n v o l v e d i n t h e  the  l e a d to a p r o c e s s  that  Nelkin i n p a r t i c u l a r worries  5 8  concerned that  rise  in  decisions  In l i g h t  of  on " a d d r e s s i n g a d e m o c r a t i c  b y o p e n i n g up f o r w i d e r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n  a  largely  21 h i d d e n a r e a of significant  government  concern  to  all  policy  and one  citizens.  t h a t ought  t o be  of  6 1  Notes to Chapter 1 1.  Q u o t e d i n E r i c Hobsbawm & T e r r a n c e R a n g e r , e d s . , The I n v e n t i o n of T r a d i t i o n (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) , 267.  2.  K e i t h McLeod, " E x p l o r i n g C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n : E d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p , " i n Canada and C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n , e d . K e i t h McLeod ( T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 9 ) , 6.  3.  B r u c e C u r t i s , B u i l d i n g The E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t e : C a n a d a W e s t , 1836-1871 (London, O n t a r i o : The A l t h o u s e P r e s s , 1 9 8 8 ) , 111.  4.  Ibid.,  55.  5.  Ibid.,  366.  6.  D e r e k H e a t e r , C i t i z e n s h i p : The C i v i c I d e a l i n W o r l d H i s t o r y , P o l i t i c s and E d u c a t i o n ( L o n d o n : Longman, 1 9 9 0 ) , 200.  7.  J o h n G r a n t , " C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n From a C a n a d i a n Perspective: P r e s s u r e Groups and F e d e r a l Intervention". P a p e r p r e s e n t e d and the N o r t h A m e r i c a n S o c i a l S t u d i e s C o n f e r e n c e j o i n t l y sponsored by the C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s and t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Studies ( D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n , November, 1 9 9 2 ) : 2 9 .  8.  Ibid.:  9.  CIDA f u n d i n g  10.  R . M . A n d e r s o n , " I n t e r e s t Groups i n S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , " T h e H i s t o r y and S o c i a l S c i e n c e T e a c h e r . 18, 4 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 2 0 5 .  11.  S. Swanson, G e t t i n g Our Message A c r o s s : A G u i d e f o r F e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t s and A g e n c i e s D e v e l o p i n g E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s F o r Use i n t h e C l a s s r o o m (Ottawa: C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s a n d S p e c i a l Projects D i r e c t o r a t e , Education Support Branch, D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , no d a t e ) , 16.  12.  C u r t i s , B u i l d i n g ; Grant,  13.  Whether o r not t h e s e " d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s " i n f a c t grown i s open t o d e b a t e . What i s  5-6. for  these p r o j e c t s  ended  "Citizenship  in  1985.  Education". are r e a l clear is  o r have t h a t the  22 c r i t i c a l need f o r c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n to a d d r e s s the p r o b l e m o f a l a c k o f u n i t y i n Canada h a s b e e n a p e r s i s t e n t theme o v e r many y e a r s . I t was a d d r e s s e d b y James K i d d i n h i s o u t l i n i n g o f a p l a n f o r t h e p o s t W o r l d war I I work o f the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l . I t was a l s o c e n t r a l t o t h e work o f t h e Canada S t u d i e s F o u n d a t i o n and a p p e a r s i n r e c e n t b a c k g r o u n d documents p r e p a r e d f o r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and C i t i z e n s h i p Canada. See, f o r e x a m p l e , J . R . K i d d , "A S t u d y t o F o r m u l a t e a P l a n f o r t h e Work o f t h e C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l (Ed.D. d i s s . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1947) ; A . B . H o d g e t t s & P. G a l l a g h e r , T e a c h i n g C a n a d a f o r t h e E i g h t i e s ( T o r o n t o : OISE P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) ; and W i l l K y m l i c k a , "Recent Work i n C i t i z e n s h i p T h e o r y , " ( O t t a w a : C o r p o r a t e P o l i c y and R e s e a r c h , M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and C i t i z e n s h i p Canada, 1992). 14.  P h i l i p R e s n i c k , The Masks o f P r o t e u s : R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e Canadian State (Montreal: McGill-Queens U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1990)  15.  R o g e r D a l e , The S t a t e and E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y P r e s s , 1 9 8 9 ) , 54.  16.  G r a n t , " C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n " : 18. See a l s o , G . Lewe, "The D e p a r t m e n t o f S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e : An H i s t o r i c a l O v e r v i e w " (Ottawa: Department of the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , 1984) .  17.  See, p a r t i c u l a r l y , Lewe, "The D e p a r t m e n t o f S e c r e t a r y o f State." The e v o l u t i o n o f C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s h i p w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n c h a p t e r s two and t h r e e .  18.  "Long Term F e d e r a l E d u c a t i o n P o l i c y A f t e r 1 9 8 4 , " D r a f t Memorandum t o C a b i n e t , November 8, 1971, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada ( h e r e a f t e r PAC), Records of the Department of the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , RG 6 ACC 8 6 - 8 7 / 3 1 9 , v o l . 20, f i l e 1-712 p t . 2.  19.  E . Hodgson, F e d e r a l Involvement i n P u b l i c (Toronto: Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n ,  20.  W. H . Agnew, "The C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p B r a n c h 1947 A u g u s t , 1966, PAC, R e c o r d s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , RG 6 / 6 6 2 / 2 - 1 3 - 1 .  21.  When I r e f e r t o s t a t e p o l i c y i n c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s I e s s e n t i a l l y mean t h e p o l i c y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e and r e l a t e d a g e n c i e s s u c h as t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d and t h e C B C . I r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n S t a t e i s f a r more d i f f u s e t h a n t h i s a n d e x i s t s a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s , f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l , f o r e x a m p l e . As I p o i n t o u t i n t h i s c h a p t e r and e l s e w h e r e , o t h e r s t a t e  (Toronto:  OISE  Education 1 9 8 8 ) , 71. 1966,"  23 a g e n c i e s were i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y a n d c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r and sometimes t h e r e was c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n the s t a t e i t s e l f f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l o f p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s and p r o g r a m s . The D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e as t h e a g e n c y c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n does p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p o l i c i e s of the f e d e r a l s t a t e i n c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , however, and t h a t i s why t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on t h a t d e p a r t m e n t . 22.  F o r d i s c u s s i o n s of the Canadian S t a t e i n p a r t i c u l a r see R e s n i c k , The Masks o f P r o t e u s ; and L . P a n i t c h , e d . , The C a n a d i a n S t a t e : P o l i t i c a l Economy and P o l i t i c a l Power (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1977).  23.  J . W . G . Ivany, & M. M a n l e y - C a s i m i r , F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s : E d u c a t i o n Canada ( T o r o n t o : OISE P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) ,  v.  24.  M a r s h a l l C o n l e y , " T h e o r i e s and A t t i t u d e s Towards P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n " i n Canada and C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n , e d . K e i t h McLeod ( T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1989), 137.  25.  Richard Pratte, The C i v i c I m p e r a t i v e : E x a m i n i n g t h e Need F o r C i v i c E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1988) .  26.  K . A . McLeod, " E x p l o r i n g C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n : E d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p , " i n Canada and C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n (Toronto: Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 9 ) , 6.  27.  N o t a l l p r o v i n c e s use t h e t e r m s o c i a l s t u d i e s t h e same way. I i n t e n d i t t o r e f e r to t h e s c h o o l s u b j e c t s o f h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , c i v i c s , and s o c i a l s t u d i e s .  28.  R . D . B a r r ; J . L . B a r t h ; & S . S . Shermis, D e f i n i n g the S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( A r l i n g t o n : The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s , 1 9 7 7 ) ; R . D . B a r r ; J . L . B a r t h ; & S . S . S h e r m i s , The N a t u r e o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s (Palm S p r i n g s : ETC P u b l i c a t i o n , 1978); G. Marker & H . M e h l i n g e r , "Social S t u d i e s , " i n Handbook o f R e s e a r c h on C u r r i c u l u m , e d . P . W . J a c k s o n (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 9 2 ) : 8 3 - - 8 5 1 ; K. Osborne, " ' T o t h e S c h o o l s We Must Look F o r Good C a n a d i a n s ' : D e v e l o p m e n t s I n The T e a c h i n g o f H i s t o r y I n S c h o o l s S i n c e 1960" J o u r n a l o f C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s . 22, 3 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 1 0 4 - 1 2 5 .  29.  D . J e n n e s s , M a k i n g Sense o f M a c M i l l a n , 1990).  30.  G . S . T o m k i n s , "The S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n C a n a d a , " i n A C a n a d i a n S o c i a l S t u d i e s , e d . J . P a r s o n s , G . M i l b u r n , & M . v a n Manen (Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 8 3 ) , 1 5 .  Social  Studies  (New  York:  24 31.  See, V . Masemann, "The C u r r e n t S t a t u s o f T e a c h i n g A b o u t C i t i z e n s h i p i n C a n a d i a n E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , " i n Canada and C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n , e d . K e i t h M c L e o d ( T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1989); and A. S e a r s & A . S . Hughes, " C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n a n d C u r r e n t E d u c a t i o n a l Reform," Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n ( i n press).  32.  Marker & Mehlinger,  33.  W . B . G a l l i e , P h i l o s o p h y and H i s t o r i c a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g (London: C h a t t o and W i n d u s , 1 9 6 4 ) , 158.  34.  Ibid.,  35.  M a r k e r & M e h l i n g e r , " S o c i a l S t u d i e s , " 835. F o r a more complex m o d e l o f c i t i z e n s h i p t h a t c o n t a i n s t h e s e e l e m e n t s b u t adds s e v e r a l o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s see H e a t e r , Citizenship, c h a p t e r 9.  36.  W. K a p l a n , "Who B e l o n g s ? Changing Concepts of C i t i z e n s h i p and N a t i o n a l i t y , " i n B e l o n g i n g ; The M e a n i n g a n d F u t u r e o f C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p , e d . W. K a p l a n ( M o n t r e a l & K i n g s t o n : M c G i l l - Q u e e n s P r e s s , 1 9 9 3 ) , 260.  37.  W . E . C o n n o l l y , The Terms o f KY: D . C . H e a t h , 1 9 7 4 ) , 24.  38.  A . S . Hughes, " U n d e r s t a n d i n g C i t i z e n s h i p : A D e l p h i S t u d y , " C a n a d i a n and I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , 23 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 1 3 - 2 6 .  39.  R . B . Woyach, "The P o l i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e : C i v i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e P u b l i c G o o d , " i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e P e r s p e c t i v e s on C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n , e d . R . E . G r o s s & T . L . Dynneson, (New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1 9 9 1 ) , 43.  40.  P . K o m i s a r & J . M c C l e l l a n , "The L o g i c o f S l o g a n s , " i n Language and C o n c e p t s i n E d u c a t i o n , e d . B . O . S m i t h & R . B . E n n i s ( C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1 9 6 1 ) , 200.  41.  T . Popkewitz, " G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as a S l o g a n C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 10 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 3 0 3 - 3 1 6 .  42.  Komisar & M c C l e l l a n ,  43.  Ibid.,  44.  D e n n i s S m i t h , The R i s e o f H i s t o r i c a l S o c i o l o g y ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Temple U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 9 1 ) , 3 .  "Social  Studies,"  832.  158.  Political  "The L o g i c o f  Discourse  Slogans,"  (Lexington,  System,"  200.  201.  25 45.  See, f o r e x a m p l e , P . Abrams, H i s t o r i c a l S o c i o l o g y ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) ; T . S k o c p o l , " S o c i o l o g y ' s H i s t o r i c a l I m a g i n a t i o n , " i n V i s i o n and Method i n H i s t o r i c a l S o c i o l o g y , e d . T . S k o c p o l (New Y o r k : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , r e p r i n t 1 9 9 1 ) ; and S m i t h , The R i s e of H i s t o r i c a l S o c i o l o g y .  46.  T h e d a S k o c p o l , " B r i n g i n g t h e S t a t e Back I n : S t r a t e g i e s of A n a l y s i s i n C u r r e n t R e s e a r c h , " i n B r i n g i n g the S t a t e Back I n , e d . P e t e r E v a n s , D i e t r i c h Rueschemyer and T h e d a S k o c p o l (New Y o r k : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1985, Reprint, 1993), 3-43.  47.  R e s n i c k , The Masks o f P r o t e u s , 85. See a l s o , H . T r o p e r , " N a t i o n a l i t y and H i s t o r y E d u c a t i o n : N a t i o n a l i s m a n d t h e H i s t o r y C u r r i c u l u m i n C a n a d a , " The H i s t o r y T e a c h e r , 12 (1978): 11-27.  48.  Resnick,  49.  Ibid.,  50.  Skocpol,  "Sociology's H i s t o r i c a l  51.  Skocpol,  " B r i n g i n g the  52.  Dale,  53.  S t a n l e y Aronowitz & Henry A . G i r o u x , E d u c a t i o n Under ( M a s s a c h u s e t t s : B e r g i n and G a r v e y , 1 9 8 5 ) , 9 4 .  54.  M . C a r n o y & H . L e v i n , S c h o o l i n g and Work i n State (Stanford: Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press,  55.  Ibid.,  56.  Abrams, H i s t o r i c a l S o c i o l o g y , x i i i . See a l s o , C . L l o y d , "The M e t h o d o l o g i e s o f S o c i a l H i s t o r y : A C r i t i c a l S u r v e y a n d D e f e n c e o f S t r u c t u r a l i s m , " H i s t o r y and T h e o r y , S t u d i e s i n t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f H i s t o r y . 30, 2 ( 1 9 9 1 ) : 1 8 0 - 2 1 9 .  57.  R o n a l d M a n z e r , P u b l i c S c h o o l s and P o l i t i c a l I d e a s : C a n a d i a n Educational Policy in H i s t o r i c a l Perspective (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 9 4 ) , 96.  58.  See, f o r e x a m p l e , R. B e l l a h , R. M a d s e n , W. S u l l i v a n , W. S w i n d l e r , & S. T i p t o n , H a b i t s o f t h e H e a r t : Individualism a n d Commitment i n A m e r i c a n L i f e (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1 9 8 6 ) ; J a n e G a s k e l l , " P o l i c y R e s e a r c h and P o l i t i c s , " The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 34, 4 ( 1 9 8 8 ) : 403417; and D . N e l k i n , " S c i e n t i f i c K n o w l e d g e , " Knowledge: C r e a t i o n , D i f f u s i o n , U t i l i z a t i o n . 1, 1 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 1 0 6 - 1 2 2 .  The Masks o f  Proteus,  153.  170.  The  S t a t e Back  Imagination,"  6.  In."  State. Seige  the D e m o c r a t i c 1985), 46.  50.  26 59.  Nelkin,  "Scientific  60.  Ibid.,  61.  Gaskell,  Knowledge,"  106.  108. "Policy research  and P o l i t i c s , "  413.  27  Chapter 2 "Something D i f f e r e n t t o Everyone": Conceptions of C i t i z e n s h i p and C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n In Canada  The Roots of Modern Democratic Most w r i t e r s  argue  1  t h a t modern i d e a s a b o u t  b e g a n w i t h t h e G r e e k s "where c u l t u r a l membership become political  philosophy  Aristotle." in  the  the n o t i o n of  o p e r a t i o n of  - that  is  origins is  common a f f a i r s ,  b o u n d up w i t h  modern" and i t s the  key event i n the citizenship especially Turner,  It and  development the  of  three  of  articulate  Plato  and  sense of  underlies  "the  development  "seems  of  citizen  inextricably A  4  of  The R e v o l u t i o n , of  of  its  conditions."  o f modern c o n c e p t i o n s  the R i g h t s  belonging  had  concept  o f modern s o c i a l  "sharing  r i c h e r views  citizenship  today  and  and  Man, a c c o r d i n g  to  the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s  of  modern  citizen  equality  citizenship:  l i n k e d the n o t i o n of "allied citizenship  principle  still  French Revolution.  the D e c l a r a t i o n of  established  conceptions  1.  was  development  and t h e  i d e a of  w i t h Greek p h i l o s o p h e r s ,  essentially  i n an  the A t h e n i a n p r i n c i p l e o f  A l t h o u g h the  3  citizenship  city-state  i n t h e works o f  which such s h a r i n g can engender, citizenship."  the  clearly identified  C l a r k e contends  2  Citizenship  of  social  with  rights  w i t h human  the n o t i o n of  fraternity."  community i n  the  28 2.  It  enhanced the  was 3.  It  located  i d e a of  i n the  about c i t i z e n s h i p  do r e c o g n i z e of  Clarke,  to  the  do n o t so  quest  their  f o r example,  tie  closely  t h e modern age has  individuals,  sovereignty  for p o l i t i c a l  5  While other writers ideas  as  nation.  "joined c i t i z e n s h i p  liberation."  national citizenship  the  emergence  t o one h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t ,  given r i s e  relationship  o f modern  to  t o new  they  understandings  each o t h e r and the  state.  argues  "the i n d i v i d u a l , u n d e r s t o o d as an autonomous b e i n g h a v i n g a n i n h e r e n t v a l u e , emerged as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f , on t h e one h a n d , t h e breakdown o f t h e g r e a t c h a i n o f b e i n g , t h e f e u d a l o r d e r , a n d , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r i s e o f p r o t e s t a n t t h i n k i n g w i t h i t s d i r e c t a p p e a l to G o d . " 6  Similarly,  T a y l o r contends  "the  fall  of  social  hierarchy"  one modern phenomenon t h a t has p l a y e d a k e y r o l e conceptions  of  citizenship.  He a r g u e s  i n contemporary  t h e r e has b e e n a move  away f r o m h o n o u r i n t h e  "ancien regime sense i n which i t  intrinsically  inequalities,"  l i n k e d to  toward the n o t i o n of e g a l i t a r i a n way so political  w o r l d have  contend that  and  content  influential  - or a l l  of  this  politics  the  - in  the  He g o e s o n  come a p o l i t i c s  equal d i g n i t y of has b e e n  or  citizens  i n t r i n s i c or equal d i g n i t y .  emphasizing the  entitlements." British  a l l humans  is  and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g move  " w i t h t h e move t o d i g n i t y has  universalism, the  8  d i g n i t y used i n a u n i v e r s a l i s t  that  is  7  all  of  citizens,  e q u a l i z a t i o n of  to  and  rights  9  theorist  T . H . Marshall,  i n modern c o n c e p t i o n s  of  whose i d e a s  have been  citizenship,  1 0  argues  very the  29 central the  p r i n c i p l e separating  e q u a l i t y of  individuals.  t h e modern e r a f r o m f e u d a l i s m This  1 1  equality,  not a r i s e  overnight,  nor f o r  t h a t m a t t e r has  achieved,  but i t  evolved  through d i s t i n c t  divides into  the  three  extended several of  the  rights  to  citizens  rights  freedom of  Those c l a s s e s  elector  consisting  t h e members o f of  "the w h o l e  economic w e l f a r e social to  Marshall,  basic  in place  for a l l  political population  the  civil  continuous  past  rights,  "composed  t o own p r o p e r t y a n d  of  including  the to  "the  w i t h p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y o r as  an  s u c h a b o d y " ; and s o c i a l range from the to  the  live  right  right  the  t o a modicum o f  to  life  by the  end o f  share  of  social  the  a  rights,  to  the  full  a civilized  society."  being For  1 2  as we know them t o d a y were eighteenth  largely century,  to  the whole  adult  and e a r l y  twentieth  centuries  equality  an e v o l u t i o n o f  progress  the  as  through the n i n e t e e n t h  of  citizenship  f r e e d o m - l i b e r t y of  r i g h t s were g r a d u a l l y e x t e n d e d  l a t e s t phase  Marshall  p o l i t i c a l power,  rights  and "the modern d r i v e t o  in  right  exercise  and t o  citizens  fully  stages.  over  standards p r e v a i l i n g i n the civil  been  did  have g r a d u a l l y been  political rights,  and s e c u r i t y  heritage  according  the  the  contracts";  a body i n v e s t e d  of  are:  for individual  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  member o f  the  he c o n t e n d s ,  speech,  it  w i t h modern d e m o c r a t i c  i n Western democracies  necessary  conclude v a l i d  in  associated  classes which,  centuries.  person,  right  has  he a s s e r t s ,  is  [social  rights]  is  c i t i z e n s h i p which has  f o r some 250 y e a r s . "  1 3  While  a c k n o w l e d g i n g some s t a t e s h a v e gone f u r t h e r t h a n o t h e r s  in  ...  been  30 r e c o g n i z i n g and g r a n t i n g s o c i a l  rights,  principle  requires  that  entitlement  the  orthodox view  people  of  i n western  identifies  the  rights  democracies  process.  The c i v i l  French Revolution i s  M a r s h a l l who w r o t e o f  i n most W e s t e r n  full  of  citizenship  rights  and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s  of  l o n g and o f t e n  violent  c e r t a i n l y an example o f  the  "continuous  citizenship  over  the p a s t  " c a u t i o u s l y . . . . down t h e  the  extended  at war."  of  social  citizenship 1 7  The h i s t o r y o f  principle".  it  granted c i t i z e n citizen  rights  is  that  capitalist  to p e o p l e  scale"  that  class  1 6  " a g a i n and a g a i n i t  it  is  people because  t h e y become  equal  granting was  by  and,  i n regard twentieth  system have  of  been  rights  necessity  the h i s t o r y  emerges w i t h  are equal people  not  political  " i n the  on t h e b a s i s  1 5  Even  the  that  an e s s a y r e v i e w i n g  not because  rights;  argues  struggle.  c i t i z e n s h i p has b e e n one o f  Clarke concludes  c i t i z e n s h i p by n o t i n g , that  rights,  and t h e  b e i n g g r a d u a l l y extended  clarity  He a c k n o w l e d g e s  c e n t u r y p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c e l i t e s  extension  century,  of  that  or  twentieth  250 y e a r s ,  rights  were  range  Marshall  this.  progress"  progress.  nineteenth  to a w i d e r  has b y no means b e e n a n e a s y  implying uncontested  to  welfare  as b e i n g l a r g e l y i n p l a c e b y e a r l y i n t h e  c e n t u r y were won o n l y a f t e r  of  of  "the  1 4  extension  uncontested  The  some s o r t  out  Contested Nature of C i t i z e n s h i p The  of  citizenship  has become  democracies. "  The  full  Kymlicka points  not of  some  they  are  demand a n d o b t a i n  persons."  1 8  31 The c o n t e s t citizenship Bottomore,  to d e t e r m i n e  a n d how w i d e l y while  the  rights  these are shared i s  M a r s h a l l was o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c  social  rights  " i n 1949  i n the  twentieth  in Britain,  o p t i m i s t i c view of  during  2 0  "providing welfare  has  from the  services  of  Charter  the  a welfare  the  struggle.  of  citizens'  rights in  its  seventies  system  concerned  areas,  r a t h e r than w i t h  extension  rights,  of  in  capitalism  of  this  with  system"  social  called  s u c h as  constitutionally  a r e examples  and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s  rights,  Social by  the  right  to  equivalent  continuing  i n most w e s t e r n to  and,  democracies,  full  access  e l u d e women and m i n o r i t i e s .  Bottomore,  i n a more  have l o n g been e s t a b l i s h e d  c i t i z e n s h i p have o n l y r e l a t i v e l y this.  fairly  take a  2 2  sense s o c i a l  continue  to  and o n g o i n g a t t e m p t s  r e c o g n i z e d as  rights  While c i v i l  males  contends  t o a d d a so  o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r to have c o l l e c t i v e  of  Bottomore  economic and s o c i a l  i n the  to Canada's c o n s t i t u t i o n  with individual  expansion  through the mid  in specific  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  b a r g a i n and s t r i k e ,  the  r e v i v a l of  fifties  The f a i l u r e o f p r o p o s a l s  2 1  1 9  was p o s s i b l e  l a r g e l y d e r a i l e d progress  rights.  century.  B u t , he c o n t i n u e s ,  the development  any r a d i c a l  ongoing.  t h a t was b e c o m i n g more s o c i a l i s t  t h e boom y e a r s  along with  it  about  the g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n  a democratic society structure."  of  c o n c u r r i n g w i t h much o f M a r s h a l l ' s a n a l y s i s ,  argues  that  and o b l i g a t i o n s  f o r example,  for adult, to  Scholars  r e c e n t l y begun to  points  out  that  limited  those  white  rights  of recognize  Marshall  32 neglected  to  rights  citizenship  of  c o n s i d e r gender o r r a c e i n h i s  those r i g h t s  racial  i n B r i t a i n and c o n c l u d e s  are s t i l l  While f u l l  legally  that  quite unequally d i s t r i b u t e d .  rights  of  citizenship  or ethnic minorities  most w e s t e r n  analysis  democrcies,  of  "some o f 1 , 2 3  f o r women as w e l l  there  is  often  a difference to  exercise  the  remedy.  a w o r k e r who has b e e n u n f a i r l y  discriminated against to  court  to  her l e g a l needed has  no way t o  r i g h t was  there,  of  2 5  but  the  the  there  is  to  the  take  financial  no e f f e c t i v e  remedy.  in effect  second  d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth, further  analysis,  from the  and  f o r example,  into  and  remedies  from c l a s s p r e j u d i c e and  automatic e f f e c t s  remedies.  outlines  this  out  not  of  the  unequal  w o r k i n g through the p r i c e s y s t e m . "  C a n a d i a n women t o o b t a i n c i v i l , well  do  many w o u l d add g e n d e r and e t h n i c i t y  b a r r i e r s between r i g h t s O'Neil,  arose  to be  2 6  the  first  or  "the  remedy m i g h t f r e q u e n t l y p r o v e rights  his  the worker  As M a r s h a l l w r i t e s ,  of  the  employer  resources  are p r o h i b i t i v e l y h i g h ,  "the b a r r i e r s b e t w e e n r i g h t s  two k i n d s :  the  i g n o r a n t of  For M a r s h a l l ,  partiality,  Until  right  or i f  right.  it  between r i g h t and  the worker i s  Some w o u l d a r g u e t h a t  e x i s t where  were  challenge  exercise  the  but i f  i n the m a t t e r ,  for a legal  reach."  might have  seek j u s t i c e  rights  difference  in  between  - what has b e e n c a l l e d F o r example,  as  a r e c u r r e n t l y e n s h r i n e d i n law  h a v i n g a r i g h t and p r a c t i c a l l y b e i n g a b l e  2 4  the  as  2 7  On  other  2 8  the  ongoing s t r u g g l e  p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l  c e n t u r y women i n Canada were  of  rights.  denied  the  2 9  33 most  fundamental of  persons the  under the  right  law,  to v o t e .  employment  civil  rights  - the  and t h e most b a s i c  What many see  as  at  this  i n the p u b l i c r e a l m ,  still  relegated  largely  family  leisure  or s o c i a l  time  a consequence, lawmakers. "  of  imprisonment of community o f  that  32  rights  such  as  of  are  very  full t h a t women  as  they  do n o t  are  generally  get  partner,  t o move away f r o m some in public affairs.  " r a c i s m as  of  the murder of Donald M a r s h a l l  petitioners,  dominance o f  known examples  race  As  not  s u c h as  the  and t h e  i n H a l i f a x as  r e f e r r e d to however,  those of  as  of  the  British  Regenstreif  argues  M o s a i c b y P o r t e r i n 1965  of  Canadians  There  and is  and  in English  French ancestry  exclusionary  nature  the p u b l i c a t i o n of  exposed  the  political  ancestry  wrongful  a tolerant  a "mosaic".  those of  essentially  the  destruction  of p e r s i s t e n t  the  botched  illustrations.  as  to  of  Helen B e t t y Osborne,  i n a more l i m i t e d s e n s e ,  as w e l l  a barrier  p r i d e d t h e m s e l v e s on h a v i n g b u i l t  evidence,  dominance.  Vertical  on t h e b a s i s  society often  considerable  Quebec  sphere  active  and u s e s w e l l  3 1  Africville  have g e n e r a l l y  Canada a n d ,  -  argues  "women a r e s t i l l  Simms i d e n t i f i e s  rights  investigation  economic  to become  political  3 0  Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p "  inclusive  the p r i v a t e  s u p p o r t when t h e y want  she w r i t e s ,  Similarly,  of  to  as  equal value  I n terms O'Neil  to be r e c o g n i z e d  rights  t h a n men do and o f t e n  family responsibilities  denial  social  time.  participation  less  of  e q u i t y and e q u a l p a y f o r work o f  much c o n t e s t e d i s s u e s  have  right  in  of  The  the m y t h i c a l mosaic  as  34 "a  facade  for systematic  elite positions."  A l t h o u g h the  3 3  democratic s o c i e t i e s scope over areas  of  e x c l u s i o n of  the p a s t  have  non c h a r t e r g r o u p s  rights  of  citizenship  several  centuries,  it  is  clear  s i m i l a r expansion of  rights  does n o t  c o n c e p t i o n of  democratic c i t i z e n ,  i m p l y the  e x i s t e n c e of  to p a r t i c i p a t e different  extent c i t i z e n s  i n the a f f a i r s  conceptions  complex continuum of "populist." can  3 5  a  are expected,  the  role  of  shown,  of  state.  role."  exist  "citizenship  These d i f f e r e n t  3 6  a c i t i z e n a r e n o t new b u t , have developed  Resnick  these  philosophy of these  out of  discusses  w h i c h he a r g u e s labels  citizen  are present  "(1)  theories  (4)  theories  state.  of  the  along  "a  to  orientations a broad views of  writers  the  have  traditions.  state,  that  aspects  3 7  of  i n modern W e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s .  liberal,  includes  several  long p h i l o s o p h i c a l  aristocratic,  order,  r o l e w i t h i n the  five  as  (2)  republican,  and  a view of  (5) the  Resnick points  (3)  citizen's  He  the  democratic."  out h i s  is  and e n a b l e d ,  o p i n i o n " r a n g i n g from " e l i t i s t " for Ichilov  involves  Woyach a r g u e s  democratic c i t i z e n s h i p  Similarly,  the  single  Citizenship  be a r r a n g e d a l o n g a continuum from a narrow to  definition  of  of  of  34  i n modern  for citizenship  more t h a n s i m p l y b e i n g a c c o r d e d c e r t a i n r i g h t s . d e f i n e d by the  Education  and e n t i t l e m e n t s  democratic states  also  significant  persist.  Modern Conceptions o f C i t i z e n s h i p and C i t i z e n s h i p  the  in  expanded g r e a t l y b o t h i n k i n d a n d  i n e q u a l i t y and s t r u g g l e  The  from  3 8  place  Each and  constructions  are  35 "ideal  types"  and t h a t  3 9  there  t h e b o r d e r s b e t w e e n them. he  refers  to  theorists  is  considerable  Indeed,  overlap  as he d e v e l o p s  across  his  theories  who combine a s p e c t s o f more t h a n  one  type. Abrams d e s c r i b e s constructions particularly can j u d g e  as  the  to  'ideal  are not  that  tools  "ideal  He w r i t e s  to  represent  Rather they  R e s n i c k and o t h e r s ,  The e l i t i s t  elitists,  is  is  the  moralist  conception  what a c t u a l l y  especially  fit  for  is  not  a typology  'mobocracy'  not  human b e i n g . "  4 5  (see "is  that,  it  democracy."  of  or  what  precise  citizenship  table one  of  1).  that  by reason  the b u s i n e s s  only undesirable,  They  D r a w i n g on t h e work o f  4 1  citizenship people  exists  assumes  of  rule."  by o r d i n a r y  4 2  birth For  4 3  citizens  is  dangerous  and  4 4  As H e a t e r p u t s  a low and gloomy o p i n i o n o f  Barber argues  it  Abrams  4 0  and f o r m a l l y  to a c t i v i s t  of  the  t y p i c a l nor i d e a l .  I have c o n s t r u c t e d  n a t u r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e has  C l o s i n g of  as  construct."  participation in public affairs  "could l e a d to  average  "just  sciences and  a c t u a l world by r e l a t i n g  relationships."  a s m a l l group of  beyond v o t i n g  "the  such  social  are l o g i c a l l y  a l o n g a continuum from e l i t i s t  training,  using  a unified analytical  statements of p o s s i b l e  or  that  types are n e i t h e r  constructed  there  i n the  c a n a p p r e h e n d the  type',  should e x i s t .  that  of  a c t u a l w o r l d b y comparing i t t o U t o p i a so  scientist  argues  long h i s t o r y  analytical  sociology.  social the  the  t h e p o p u l a r book T h e  the American Mind by A l l a n Bloom i s  a  recent  it,  the  expression  of  democratic  society  without  this  p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and i s that  a murmur o f  receives  protest."  these  Aspect of Citizenship  aristocratic  at  a  strictures  4 6  TABLE Conceptions  "astonished  1  of  Citizenship  Elitist Conception  Activist Conception  Sovereignty  • resides in parliament.  • resides in the people  Government  • made up of elected individuals with appropriate backgrounds and training.  • made up of free and equal citizens (equality is emphasized in three areas - before the law, in the opportunity and ability to participate, and in relative access to material resources) who exercise power in more direct ways than voting.  Citizens  • are loyal to the national state and its institutions. • have a common body of knowledge about the history and political structures of the country. • participate in a common national culture and set of traditions. • obey the law. • inform themselves about the policies of the various political parties. • vote.  • are committed to participating infreeand equal discourse where all voices are heard and power is relatively equally distributed. • are knowledgeable about the ways in which institutions and structures privilege some people and groups while discriminating against others and are skilled at challenging them. • are open to multiple understandings of national citizenship (e.g. it is possible to consider oneself a citizen of an Aboriginal nation as well as Canada). • are committed to wide citizen participation in both the "public" sphere of politics and the "private" sphere of community, home, and family.  The  good  knowledgable well  as  the  function. and well  knows as  citizen  in  elitist  conception  about mainstream v e r s i o n s technical  He o r  she  details is  (and b e l i e v e s  the  the  loyal in)  n a t i o n a l myths,  of  how p u b l i c  to  the  what  state,  is  as  institutions defers  symbols  Hirsch  citizenship  national history  of  patriotic  of  refers  to  authority,  and ceremonies to  as  the  as  "civil  37 religion." become as this  The h i g h e s t  4 7  i n f o r m e d as p o s s i b l e  information,  election At  duty of  to v o t e  citizenship  in this  about p u b l i c i s s u e s  view  is  to  and, based  for appropriate representatives  on  at  time. the  conception  o t h e r end o f of  continuum i s  the  activist  c i t i z e n s h i p w h i c h assumes a s i g n i f i c a n t  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l would p o s i t  the  citizens.  T h e o r i s t s of  a s t a t e containing three  this  essential  level  of  conception  elements:  F i r s t i t r e c o g n i z e s the e q u a l i t y of l e g a l r i g h t s of c i t i z e n s h i p , d i s d a i n i n g s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o r powers f o r some, w h e t h e r b a s e d on h e r e d i t y , w e a l t h , and s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . Second, i t r e c o g n i z e s f u r t h e r the need f o r c i t i z e n s t o be a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n some o n g o i n g manner i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . That such a c o n d i t i o n can be f u l l y s a t i s f i e d through the c a s t i n g of a b a l l o t i n e l e c t i o n s e v e r y f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s , when c o m p e t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s p r e s e n t t h e i r programs to a l a r g e l y a t o m i z e d e l e c t o r a t e i s h i g h l y d u b i o u s . "The r i g h t t o s p e a k i n t h e a s s e m b l y ' s u g g e s t s t h e n e e d f o r some more a c t i v e e x e r c i s e of c i t i z e n s h i p than v o t i n g a l o n e a l l o w s . Third, a n d no l e s s i m p o r t a n t , i t s e e s e q u a l i t y o f c o n d i t i o n ( o r s o m e t h i n g a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s ) as t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e p r a c t i c e of democratic c i t i z e n s h i p . " 4 8  Recognizing size  "the  i n e v i t a b i l i t y of  representation,  and s c a l e o f modern n a t i o n s t a t e s , "  believes  that  it  is  possible  sphere,  i.e.  an o p e n ,  face  face  structures  to  to  4 9  construct  Resnick  5 0  W h i l e he has  s e e n no e v i d e n c e  structures  at  the  the  of  of  d e m o c r a c y c a n be s e e n i n  student  revolts  of  the  of  s t a t e he a r g u e s  " r a d i c a l movements  1960s,  still  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  economic  democracy."  level  the  "a d e m o c r a t i c p u b l i c  communicative s o c i e t y , and s i g n i f i c a n t  given  and p o l i t i c a l  these kinds this  of  conception  s u c h as  o r i n new phenomena l i k e  the feminism,  38 the  Greens,  argues this  o r the  that  the  a n t i - n u c l e a r movement."  "politics  of  the  Similarly,  51  ecological  left"  k i n d of  significant  citizen participation.  In t h i s  conception,  good c i t i z e n s  Taylor  demonstrates  5 2  participate actively  in  community o r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s .  They h a v e a deep commitment  to  democratic values  equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  citizens  i n d i s c o u r s e where a l l v o i c e s  (political,  e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l )  distributed.  These c i t i z e n s  institutions while  i n c l u d i n g the  discriminating against  As I p o i n t e d o u t concept with several considerably. elitist  will of  use  this  others  about  some p e o p l e  of  at  them.  this  citizenship  complexity,  conceptions  a way o f  is  that  a  i l l u s t r a t i n g the  c i t i z e n s h i p which informed s t a t e p o l i c y i n  extremes  possible  In l a t e r  5 3  complex  can v a r y  between the  a r e numerous  democratic c i t i z e n s h i p .  c o n t i n u u m as  how  and groups  and a r e s k i l l e d  i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g dimensions  and a c t i v i s t of  equally  are knowledgeable  i n c h a p t e r one,  Because  manifestations  c a n b e h e a r d a n d power  relatively  and s t r u c t u r e s , p r i v i l e g e  u n c o v e r i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g  of  is  all  chapters  I  conception  citizenship  education. Different  understandings  have g i v e n r i s e education. use  the n a t u r e o f  conceptions  of  citizenship  i n t h e work o f  and c i t i z e n s h i p  a committee  of  good  citizenship  citizenship  The n e e d f o r c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n o f  i n r e g a r d to  illustrated  to d i f f e r e n t  of  the  concepts  education  is  the A u s t r a l i a n  we well  Senate.  39 I n a f o l l o w up t o a s t u d y o f found i t elitist  was  essential  and a c t i v i s t  participatory)  to  c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n the  clarify  (their  they stood  where on t h e  A review of different Shermis  models  the of  f o r t h e i r recommendations  l i t e r a t u r e i n the citizenship  D y n n e s o n and G r o s s t w e l v e , this  (see  citizenship knowledge,  table  i n table values,  be g o o d c i t i z e n s of  identify  and H e a t e r f i v e .  2)  one.  from the p e r s p e c t i v e  of  Studies  models,  of  purposes  citizenship  conceptions  a view of  s t u d e n t s need to  several  Social  F o r the  the  Each i l l u s t r a t e s  and s k i l l s  be  B a r t h and  three  5 5  which c o r r e s p o n d to  of  the  learn i n order  the p a r a l l e l  to  conception  citizenship. Consistent with a passive,  citizenship, homogenize, not  Barr,  s t u d y I h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d two c o n c e p t i o n s  education  to  f i e l d presents  education.  S o c i a l Studies  and  5 4  i n t h e i r i n f l u e n t i a l books D e f i n i n g the  a n d The M a t u r e Of t h e  of  continuum between  terms were p r o t e c t i o n i s t  u n d e r s t o o d and i m p l e m e n t e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y .  committee  o n l y the  an e l i t i s t  model of  t o make a l l c i t i z e n s  conservative citizenship the  same b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e ,  message f r o m t h a t k n o w l e d g e .  If  b e p r e s e r v e d and s o c i e t y  writes  the B r i t i s h  civic  about  education is  d i s c r e d i t e d k i n d of  experience,  mentioned,  e d u c a t i o n seeks  same b y e n s u r i n g t h e y but also  schools  country w i l l  understanding of  get  the  have  same  can a c c o m p l i s h t h i s  will  be s t a b l e .  to  the  As L a w t o n  "In t h e U . K . when c i v i c s  we t e n d t o a s s o c i a t e  it  s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r c o n f o r m i t y and  with a obedience  or  40 rather  than p o l i t i c a l ,  beyond n a t i o n a l  economic,  consciousness."  and  social  awareness  going  far  5 6  TABLE 2 Conceptions  of  Citizenship  Education  Elitist Conception  Aspect of Citizenship Education  Activist Conception  Knowledge  • students are taught a common body of knowledge about the history and political structures of the nation. • political/military history is emphasized and is presented as a narrative of continuous progress. • political institutions are presented as operating in a lock step fashion (eg. how a bill is passed). • teaching styles and techniques may vary but are focused on students arriving at common answers on matters of fact and/or value.  • students are taught how to uncover the ways in which institutions and structures support certain, potentially oppressive, forms of social organization (eg. capitalism and patriarchy). • curricula and school structures are examined to find the ways in which they have discriminated against certain groups and changed to be more democratic and inclusive.  Values  • students are taught a particular set of national values and norms (eg. that current political structures are the best ones possible).  • students are taught to develop a commitment to the equal participation of all individuals and groups in society as well as a commitment to participate on this basis and to challenge any manifestations of privilege and inequality.  Skills/ Participation  • informed voting is presented as the general level of participation in government by the average citizen; students therefore need information gathering skills to allow them to vote in an informed manner.  • students develop critical/reflective problem solving skills and cross cultural skills so that they can participate with a wide variety of people in making the world more just and human activity more environmentally sustainable.  This  approach  exemplified Every  in  to  E.D Hirsch's  A m e r i c a n Needs  attention  in  citizenship  both  the  to  1988  Know,  United  education book,  and  perhaps  Cultural  which garnered States  is  best  Literacy:  What  significant  Canada.  5 7  Hirsch  claims  41 the  fund of  s h a r e d knowledge  q u i c k l y because of fuzziness  the  diversity  is  making i t  Americans  to  fabric  American s o c i e t y .  of  centralized  ought  mythological uncritical religion."  t o be  He has  in a list  of  about.  what was  the  to  The s e n s e t h a t  Canadians need  common h i s t o r i c a l memory c a n b e G l o b e and M a i l w h i c h l a m e n t e d , Canadians versions  do n o t know t h e i r  literate  of  their past."  prominent h i s t o r i a n s Canada's  students  U n i v e r s i t y of  the  s e e n i n a 1992  at  the  i n Canadian schools.  core  Americans the  i n an the  "civil  and C a n a d a the  same k i n d article  "the p r o b l e m r e m a i n s  goes on t o  feet  of  A t about  several  the blame  social the  same,  different  quote  p a r t of  of  i n The  the  and a r e l e a r n i n g  The a r t i c l e  crisis  (factual  5 9  who l a y a s u b s t a n t i a l  ongoing u n i t y  studies  6 0  highly  teaching  e a r l i e r as  to have  country,  a  that  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  countries.  very  r e t u r n to  t e r m " c u l t u r a l l i t e r a c y " has become p a r t o f jargon i n both  the  low l e v e l  items  r e f e r r e d to  for  and t h r e a t e n s  i d e n t i f i e d what  5000  the  s h r i n k i n g fund of  H i r s c h advocates  The book s o l d w e l l  5 8  and  more and more d i f f i c u l t  aspects of American h i s t o r y  fashion,  educational  social  This  He a d v o c a t e s  knowledge.  shrinking  curricula  c u r r i c u l u m emphasizing a c o r e of  t o know s o m e t h i n g  and the  school  communicate w i t h e a c h o t h e r  and s u p e r f i c i a l )  ought  of  o f modern t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s .  s h a r e d knowledge  material  among A m e r i c a n s i s  history  same  for and  time  T o r o n t o H i s t o r i a n M i c h a e l B l i s s made a s p e e c h  in  42 w h i c h he l a m e n t e d h i s history" At  and,the the  activist are to  consequent  o t h e r end o f  c o n c e p t i o n of  "mechanisms  of  structure.  s c h o o l knowledge relationships fact,  of  the  educators  studies  legitimate  present  as  the  this  conception of  other  not  of  they have school  knowledge  failed  subjects  changing oppressive  social  they  in  are  the  to  citizenship of  see  6 5  how  has been  social  an  Wexler and education  i n support of  Proponents  of  e d u c a t i o n are committed  can p a r t i c i p a t e i n c h a l l e n g i n g  the to and  structures.  important i n this  to  elitist  the  and  reproduction.  to c r i t i q u e i t .  citizenship  so  knowledge  act  n a t u r a l and o b j e c t i v e ,  conception c r i t i c i z e other  empowering s t u d e n t s  relationships  that  6 2  and  contend that h i s t o r i c a l l y c i t i z e n s h i p  dominant i d e o l o g y ,  is  schools  dominant i d e o l o g y  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has b e e n an i n s t r u m e n t u s e d  It  that  c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n .  instrument for c u l t u r a l  colleagues  a more  and s u p p o r t a n  The knowledge  constructions  a l o n g w i t h the  activist  of  education argue  relationships  I n o t h e r words  1 1 6 4  ideological  the  6 1  f o r having a " t e c h n i c a l a h i s t o r i c a l view  schooling.  Canadian  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n society"  Schools  middle class  Proponents of  in  citizenship  schools  Canada."  continuum, advocates  and s t r u c t u r e s .  that  relationships  his  the  cultural  6 3  "sundering of  "sundering of  reproduce unequal s o c i a l  social  in  own p a r t i n t h e  conception  and i n s t i t u t i o n s  as w e l l  i n t e r r o g a t i o n i n o r d e r to  t o open up a l l as  a l l accepted  discover  the  social forms  inherent  of  43 values  they promote.  w o u l d h a v e us as  a concept  privileging women.  consider (either  forms o f  For Vickers,  66  cohesion  Feminist writers the  idea,  elitist social  f o r example,  or a c t i v i s t ) organization  are nation states  sustain  the v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n s  of  work w i t h i n . emphasis  of  highlight 'public' sphere, as  citizenship  of  scale  A variety citizenship "feminist  studies  t h a t more  and c i t i z e n s h i p  citizenship social of  as  action.  labels  education  'private'  skills  traditional  these approaches,  p r e v i o u s l y not  are used  everything,  to  as  of  describe  72  "pedagogy 74  f o r example:  c o v e r e d s u c h as  family l i f e ; "  the  the  whole to with  private  she  6 9  to  contrasted  of p o l i t i c a l  "critical  pedagogy."  women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of  students  argues,  are  organization  7 0  including:  socialist  6 7  that  education  life  and s k i l l s  approach to pedagogy;"  and "democratic overlap  institutions  " f a m i l y membership and homemaking, "  i m p o r t a n t to  or large  and the  The knowledge  6 8  oppressed  invisible."  f o r a r e t h i n k i n g of  "what we o n c e c a l l e d life."  citizenship  t h a t have  e d u c a t i o n would t r a i n  Noddings c a l l s social  that  has b e e n a way o f  t o be n e a r l y  Included here  conceptions  and Noddings  " p a t r i a r c h a l modes o f m a i n t a i n i n g g r o u p  a r e so d e e p l y b a s e d as  them,  like Vickers  7 5  and i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  teaching  approach  pedagogy;" of  to  71  possibility;"  7 3  Some common themes including  "discussions  fur trade,  this  content  o f women's  and t h e students  that which a l l  of  suffrage,  changing "to  question  us h a v e  learned  44 to  t h i n k of  as n o r m a l and n a t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ; "  reorganizing  the  structures  of  schools  students  i n t h e management  intellectual  The  methods.  examples  way o f 1947  over  citizenship  along  In subsequent  the  In the  context  of  p r o v i d i n g a common and e m p l o y i n g d i a l o g i c a l  the  Many s c h o l a r s  I will  use  in citizenship this  citizenship  this  Regenstreif  argues  individualism,  achievement,  founding  of  ideas  authority,  order,  c o n t i n u u m as  a  between  chapter I w i l l  examine  e d u c a t i o n i n Canada  in  78  have argued t h a t ,  t h a n i n many o t h e r d e m o c r a c i e s , 7 9  includes  to  education  traditionally,  C a n a d a has b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d i n more e l i t i s t  States.  the  continuum.  C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n i n Canada  in  integrating  continuum from e l i t i s t  remainder of  t h e p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e o f the  parents  e d u c a t i o n i n Canada and  chapters  framing state p r a c t i c e  and 1982.  involving  t i m e and i n p a r t i c u l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n s  which f a l l  activist.  students,  t o make  7 7  p r a c t i c e of  United States  to a l l  as  schools,  and p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  curriculum accessible teaching  of  and,  and c l a s s r o o m s  them more d e m o c r a t i c b y d o i n g s u c h t h i n g s and  7 6  citizenship  and p a s s i v e  terms  p a r t i c u l a r l y the U n i t e d  that  "instead of  liberty,  and o p t i m i s m , " t h a t were  the American s t a t e ,  "Canada  a s c r i p t i o n and a c e r t a i n  the  institutionalized  pessimism.  1 1 8 0  45 Resnick  supports  Fathers  of  this  v i e w and p o i n t s  out  Confederation c l e a r l y d i d not  w i d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t e n d s  that  that  the  so-called  s u p p o r t any n o t i o n s  t h e i r model  of  " c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g f r o m above" has b e e n a p e r s i s t e n t of  Canadian p o l i t i c s .  exclusion  of  ideal  the  for  popular sovereignty l a r g e p a r t of  There i s citizenship reinforced Curtis  considerable  as  he c o n t i n u e s ,  this  elitist  out  that  Canadian h i s t o r y . " evidence  to  c o n c e p t i o n of from the  i n Canada West  for  that  t h e most  democratic years  the  image o f  original)  an e a s i l y  education  elitist  conception.  Canada,  Hodgetts  history"  8 3  that  times  that  In h i s  centrally with  were n o t  (emphasis  is  have a l s o  largely consistent  the  seen  as  after in  the  type  focused  and m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s ,  civic  practice  with  studies  almost  in  of  classrooms.  exclusively  avoided matters  an  education  "bland consensus v e r s i o n  dominated Canadian s o c i a l this  described  landmark s t u d y of  wrote about  t e a c h i n g of  political  governed p o p u l a t i o n . "  past  public  t o b e made b y t h e i r g o v e r n o r s  o f more r e c e n t  citizenship  History  i n the  8 2  Studies in  They were  or  citizenship.  " e d u c a t i o n was  But these p o l i t i c a l s u b j e c t s  self-creating.  the  part,  of  c o n c e r n e d w i t h the making of p o l i t i c a l s u b j e c t s , subjectification.  "has b e e n  8 1  indicate  earliest  (Ontario)  feature  an o p e r a t i n g c o n s t r u c t  e d u c a t i o n i n Canada h a s ,  points  schooling  "The u p s h o t , "  of  of  on  controversy,  46 d i d n o t make any c o n n e c t i o n t o memorization of, parliament." curricula, before  among o t h e r  the p r e s e n t ,  things,  As O s b o r n e w r i t e s ,  8 4  examinations,  1968,  e v e n when i t  was  particularly  conservative  k i n d of  have  lent  s u p p o r t to  citizenship  w i t h the  elitist  curricula.  least  In recent  adjectives  used  activist  terms  inventive; problem  1 , 8 8  such as:  documents  solvers."  citizenship  participation."  studies  "adaptive, 8 9  of  8 6  of  i n recent years  from across  citizens  been  there  activist  the  include  country  the  "informed" and  w i t h more  but a l s o  conservative  i n c l u d e f a r more  enterprising,  and " s e l f - m o t i v a t e d ,  [and] self-directed  9 0  study,  Masemann f o u n d t h a t  education is 9 1  conception  o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and mandated  citizenship,  "effective;"  I n h e r 1987 of  of  studies  e d u c a t i o n i n Canada  c o n t i n u u m t o a more  to d e s c r i b e  notions  Other  8 7  " r e s p o n s i b l e " w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t and p a s s i v e  1 1 8 5  impose a n a r r o w v i e w  conception,  i n terms o f  of  that p r e v a i l e d  e d u c a t i o n i n Canada h a s g e n e r a l l y  has b e e n a move a l o n g t h e conception at  citizenship.  to  acts  served to produce a  citizenship  students.  Although c i t i z e n s h i p consistent  and p e d a g o g y  dominated Canadian s o c i a l  case that  c u l t u r e on a l l  little  the  combination of  successful,  o f t e n been used to attempt  national  neat  argument t h a t an e l i t i s t  e d u c a t i o n has  and s e v e r a l make t h e has  the  "nice,  "the  textbooks,  and emphasized  From c o a s t  the to  "the m a i n  importance of coast  to  coast  ideology  c i t i z e n a c t i o n and i n recent  years,  47 this  emphasis  emphasis  has p e r m e a t e d p o l i c y .  f r o m knowledge  comparing o l d e r description .  .  are  f a r as  " i n f o r m e d " and t h e  clearly  it  to  to p a r t i c i p a t e "  those of  newer document so  w i t h newer o n e s .  from Newfoundland r e f e r s  l i e s with being  in  t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n be  documents  w i l l i n g and a b l e  identified  I n some c a s e s  serves  9 2  the  the  in  seen by  A 1982  course  "an i n f o r m e d c i t i z e n r y but  the  emphasis  participation  .  clearly  skills  g r o u p l e a r n i n g and d e c i s i o n implies  shift  making.  that  information is  only  needs o f  participation.  It  A  useful states:  C o m p e t e n c i e s r e s t on a knowledge b a s e ( u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ) and a r e c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l to t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e learner in society. [There i s a] need f o r a s h i f t i n e m p h a s i s f r o m p a s s i v e l y l e a r n i n g knowledge i n f a v o u r o f a n a c t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e . 9 3  These are worth"  learnings  and enhance  9 4  meaningfully  i n the  Consistent jurisdictions in  itself  with  the  b u t as  that  are viewed  the  individual's  affairs the  a vehicle  that  a very e x p l i c i t  capacity  to  of  knowledge  One o f of  is  not  the  documents  ten  "basic  i n most  s e e n as  involve  an  students  end in  from Manitoba  features"  s t u d e n t s a r e expected to understand b e f o r e  school  participate  from Newfoundland,  through which to  list  "instrumental  society.  example  acquisition  p a s t and c u r r e n t i s s u e s . contains  of  as h a v i n g  of  leaving  Canada high  including:  Canada: •  i s a c o u n t r y i n which n a t i o n a l u n i t y cannot be taken for granted. I t i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l , w i t h many o f its v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l g r o u p s e x p e r i e n c i n g a new s e n s e o f identity. It is geographically diverse, officially  48 bilingual, forces.  and o f t e n  subject  to  severe  divergent  •  h a s a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m d e s c r i b e d as a p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y w i t h i n t h e framework o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarchy. I t i s f e d e r a l l y o r g a n i z e d and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l t e n s i o n s .  •  i s an e c o n o m i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d m i d d l e power w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l aims and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  various  9 5  The document a r g u e s the  r e a l i t y of  knowledge be a b l e possible  Canada"  about  to  96  them b u t  "these f e a t u r e s and t h a t  courses  of  s t u d e n t s need not  citizen  viewpoints action."  students  t o become  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i e t y . that  "the  concept  of  learners  developing  problem solvers  the  skills  identified  "skills  acquire,  that  education are  effective  decision  as  receivers  learners  as  "to  resolve  difference  A document f r o m O n t a r i o b r e a k s an " i n q u i r y model" t h a t  for learning."  and u s e  some o f  those makers  information  9 8  Skill  1 0 0  are areas  include:  i n f o r m a t i o n and  and c o n f l i c t s  requires  of  self-motivated,  "good c o m m u n i c a t i o n and d e c i s i o n m a k i n g s k i l l s , " skills  have  Alberta of  i n o t h e r A l b e r t a documents  evaluate  to  .  and d e c i s i o n makers who  necessary  specifically  only  i n v o l v e d and  One document f r o m  s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d w i t h a view of self-directed  9 7  issues  describe  on them a n d be aware  emphasized f o r c i t i z e n s h i p  t h a t would enable  states  essentially  to understand the  "frame d e f e n s i b l e  The s k i l l s  able  that  ideas,"  as w e l l  constructively."  t h e s e down f u r t h e r  the a b i l i t y  as  to:  "focus,  1 0 1  into  9 9  49 organize,  locate,  a p p l y and  communicate."  Citizenship to p a r t i c i p a t e expression  record,  evaluate/assess,  102  e d u c a t i o n aimed a t  and t h e  i n the  growth of  things  as:  skills  "identify  community s e r v i c e  environmental well  this  and p e r f o r m a s e r v i c e  i n an a c t i v i t y  involvement  moving from a c l a s s r o o m l e v e l other  students")  the  its  to  programs. to  up as  i n the  1 0 3  The  develop they  do  such  and  "develop  and/or  I n M a n i t o b a as  1 0 4  i n community s e r v i c e (eg.  found  school  a global  impact."  ability  recently  experience;"  related  i s s u e and e v a l u a t e  active  b o t h the  f o r students  from the p r i m a r y grades  community o r a t home and e v a l u a t e and p a r t i c i p a t e  fostering  i n c l i n a t i o n t o do so has  Common C u r r i c u l u m i n O n t a r i o c a l l s participation  synthesize/conclude,  is  seen  as  " h e l p i n g and w o r k i n g w i t h  to  participating actively in society, i e . , participation i n v o l u n t e e r work t h a t h e l p s young c h i l d r e n , t h e e l d e r l y , i l l , h a n d i c a p p e d ; p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n (or o b s e r v i n g ) efforts d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s o l v i n g some community p r o b l e m s ; c r i t i c i z i n g s o c i e t y c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and w o r k i n g t o i m p r o v e i t where n e c e s s a r y ; p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a p o l i t i c a l c a m p a i g n o f a c a n d i d a t e o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s own c h o i c e , w r i t i n g l e t t e r s to e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , etc." 1 0 5  Although recent  developments  education  i n Canada a p p e a r to  there  a l s o b e e n an e m e r g i n g  has  citizenship general  values  emphasize interest  or dispositions.  c o n s e n s u s among a g r o u p o f  good c i t i z e n s h i p  is  concerning  citizenship  an " i n f o r m e d a c t i o n , " i n the  A recent  r e a l m of  s t u d y documents  Canadians that  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s p o s i t i o n s  their  ideal  (what I  have  a of  50  c a l l e d values) respect,  willingness  generosity that  s u c h as  of  to  spirit,  "many o f  "open-mindedness, compromise,  and l o y a l t y . "  these i d e a l s  willingness  to  sake of  common g o o d . "  values at  the  and t h e  a number o f  across  the  "cultural society"  1 0 8  set  levels  the  of  interests  altruistic  viewed  and c i t i z e n s h i p  compassion,  The a u t h o r p o i n t s  1 0 6  These k i n d s  1 0 7  They a r e  pluralism" is  on a t t a i n i n g  tolerance,  out  for  dispositions  commitment i n the  to  community  documents  from  i n a country  as  force  "a p o s i t i v e  seems t o be  "multicultural ideal."  the  or  s e e n t o be k e y  education  be d e s c r i b e d b y t h e p r i n c i p l e  and c o n c e r n s  of  appear c o n s i s t e n t l y  country.  mindedness,  w o u l d seem to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a  aside private  importance  civic  where  in  largely  focused  That i d e a l would  best  that:  a l l s t u d e n t s r e g a r d l e s s of r a c e , c o l o u r , gender, language, cultural heritage, religion, ethnicity, physical c a p a b i l i t i e s o r i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l have a r i g h t to e q u a l and m e a n i n g f u l r o l e s i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . Education must, t h e r e f o r e , enable a l l s t u d e n t s to develop t h o s e a b i l i t i e s and c o m p e t e n c i e s w h i c h w i l l p r o m o t e e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e q u a l s t a t u s f o r t h e m s e l v e s a n d their ethnocultural groups. 1 0 9  Several  documents  changing nature of families,  i n the  nature  the  of  education change, the  is  from O n t a r i o emphasize  Canadian s o c i e t y  composition  economy." s e e n as  110  of  " i n the  the  structure  the p o p u l a t i o n ,  Part of  the  equipping students  role  of  that  diverse  cultures  and i n  of the  citizenship  t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d manage  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d to u n d e r s t a n d i n g  "role  rapidly  and  appreciating  have p l a y e d and c o n t i n u e  to  play  51 w i t h i n our c o u n t r y . " school  k n o w l e d g e has  achievements, society"  1 1 1  The c o n t e n t i o n  focused  excluded or d i s t o r t e d  of  the  students  case  that  experiences  government, "  1 1 3  should also  Among o t h e r  one who "[knows]  backgrounds,  •  to m a t e r i a l s  and  gender,  the  and  is  school,  class  seen to  contributions  i n the  of  be  people  socio-economic  community,  Canada,  1 , 1 1 4  for diversity,  of  these values  Canada.  of  respect  p r o g r a m s i n Human R i g h t s  E d u c a t i o n have been d e v e l o p e d The p r i n c i p l e s o f  a proposed  f o r example,  and  and  and i m p l e m e n t e d Intermediate  emphasize  that  there  be  system-wide  •  be e x p o s e d  and a b i l i t i e s ,  Program i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  • • •  structure make  religions,  To s u p p o r t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  should  are  consistently  races,  Multicultural  the  in  documents  cultures,  world.  appreciation  "about  a good c i t i z e n  [values]  of  other groups  Although students  cultural,  things,  a b o u t and  from a v a r i e t y of  across  the  from a wide v a r i e t y of  perspectives.  and t h e  1 1 2  past  experiences,  "those of  t o a c q u i r e t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge  and f u n c t i o n s  i n the  o f w h i t e - E u r o p e a n members  Canada and t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . " expected  made t h a t  on "the v a l u e s ,  and p e r s p e c t i v e s  and has  is  a d o p t i o n of p r a c t i c e s  that  promote gender e q u i t y p r o m o t e p o s i t i v e m u l t i c u l t u r a l and r a c e r e l a t i o n s respond to the p a r t i c u l a r r e q u i r e m e n t s of F i r s t Nations learners meet t h e needs o f l e a r n e r s f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a second language s e r v e young p e o p l e w i t h s p e c i a l n e e d s . 1 1 5  52 Although almost  all  of  the  these or s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n s , p r o v i d e d b y two i n The Y u k o n :  t e x t books  jurisdictions  t h e most  h a v e moved  interesting  c u r r e n t l y being used  Our L a n d T o o : Women o f  example  i n high  Canada and t h e  Julie  Oral  and W r i t t e n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  Cruikshank.  T h e s e books  women a n d A b o r i g i n a l historical challenge past  and a c t i v e l y  differ  often  argues, absent  that  history  present  it  as  is  constructed  C a r o l y n Moore,  t o l d from the p e r s p e c t i v e  "explains,  juxtaposes and t e l l s  two v e r s i o n s them  of  1 1 6  of  the h i s t o r y  of  the  that  of  the  which the  "history  customarily  Julie  of  overtly  o f men" a n d t h i s ,  i n p a r t why women h a v e  from the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . "  out  accounts  writes  by  that  version  and/or biases  f o r example,  Reading  idea  left  B o t h books  an o b j e c t i v e  d e p e n d i n g on t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  historian. most  the view  l a r g e l y been  i n schools.  schools  the Yukon's Past  a r e p r e m i s e d on t h e  p e o p l e s have  record studied  of  is  Northwest  1860-1914 b y C a r o l y n Moore and Dan Dha T s ' e d e n i n t t h ' e : Voices:  in  is  she been  Cruikshank  t h e Yukon f o r  students  that:  s c i e n c e and o r a l t r a d i t i o n p r e s e n t us w i t h d i f f e r e n t , b u t e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n e n v i r o n m e n t , a n i m a l s , and humans. T h e s e ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n ' t e a s i l y be c o m p a r e d , b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e different objectives. Both t r a d i t i o n s p r o v i d e s t i m u l a t i n g i d e a s as w e l l as p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n . The i s s u e i s n o t w h i c h one i s " b e t t e r " b u t r a t h e r t h a t k n o w i n g s o m e t h i n g a b o u t e a c h may b r o a d e n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human history. 1 1 7  C o n s i s t e n t l y b o t h books history  is  a constructed  remind students account  that  reflecting  any v e r s i o n  of  particular cultural  values others. view of  and r e l y i n g on c e r t a i n t y p e s From t h e s e m a t e r i a l s  t h e Yukon D e p a r t m e n t o f  characteristics •  it  of  evidence  while  c o u l d be i n f e r r e d Education,  t h a t good c i t i z e n s  ought  there  are  •  representing or presenting  Knowledge a b o u t and r e s p e c t various peoples, the  •  groups,  their  for  in  the  particular such  as:  have  s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t ways o f v i e w i n g of  that  to p o s s e s s ,  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t v a r i o u s p e o p l e s  rejecting  the w o r l d and  views;  t h e ways  i n which  p a r t i c u l a r l y women and a b o r i g i n a l  h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d and c o n t i n u e  to  experience  world;  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t human k n o w l e d g e , historical  knowledge,  is  socially  particularly  c o n s t r u c t e d and  contingent; •  Knowledge a b o u t t h e ways historical  accounts  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of in  s h a p i n g the  kinds  of  the  i n which d i f f e r e n t  r o l e c u l t u r e and p e r s p e c t i v e  r e g a r d e d as  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are c o n s i s t e n t c o n c e p t i o n of Studies  as  w i t h those of  e d u c a t i o n i n Canada h a v e  fact  education is  fair  degree  of  the account;  important or  citizenship outlined i n table of  of  a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n c l u d i n g : an  i n q u i r y as w e l l  evidence  kinds  and  the  the  relevant.  the  activist  one.  shown t h a t ,  despite  a d m i n i s t e r e d p r o v i n c i a l l y , t h e r e has b e e n  s i m i l a r i t y across  play  different  systems."  E v i d e n c e f r o m p o l i c y and c u r r i c u l a r documents makes  it  1 1 8  clear  the "a  54 that  this  commonality of p e r s p e c t i v e  education.  There are c e r t a i n l y d i f f e r e n t  jurisdictions,  b u t u n i v e r s a l l y the  and c i t i z e n s h i p citizenship  fall  Officially  at  it  faces;  education  toward the least,  better  knowledgable disposed  levels  place  extent  the  today i s  citizenship  school  continuum.  are  s e e n as  analysis  people  and t h e  nation,  issues  a  and w o r l d a  and  d i r e c t e d toward a citizenship  o f f i c i a l l y prescribed curricula  classroom p r a c t i c e .  for  live.  attention  follow  citizenship  taking action at  t o make t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s ,  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  show t h e  of  various  common g o o d and b e  and s k i l l e d a t  c o n c e p t i o n of  e d u c a t i o n i n the  end o f  t o work t o w a r d t h e  to  in  c u r r e n t l y form the b a s i s  activist  f o r a l l people  more a c t i v i s t  in actual  conceptions  about contemporary s o c i e t y  While considerable  it  citizenship  nuances  good C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s  s u p p o r t i v e of p l u r a l i s m ; number o f  that  in  education i n E n g l i s h Canadian p u b l i c  curricula  who a r e :  persists  that  this  interest  Numerous examples  o f p o l i c y documents  across  does n o t  is  Canada,  borne  exist  which  determine  to which the programs d e s c r i b e d a c t u a l l y g u i d e  out  the  classroom  practice. I n a s t u d y o f p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n Canada c o n d u c t e d o v e r a decade school  ago,  courses  "traditional emphasis  C o n l e y and O s b o r n e f o u n d t h a t most  i n p o l i t i c a l science  civics"  1 1 9  was p u t on t h e  t o o k what  they  rote  high  called  approach to p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n  just  in  l e a r n i n g of p o l i t i c a l systems  a that and  55 debates about  i s s u e s were a v o i d e d .  M a n i t o b a w h i c h "appears courses  They d i d f i n d  to b e one o f  a v a i l a b l e w h i c h makes  an a c t i v e  "political  skills'."  found t h a t  "no s t u d e n t s a r e a c t u a l l y  is  an e l e c t i v e  o f f e r e d b y no s c h o o l  inhibit  the p r a c t i c e  Considerable evidence  educational  reform at  e d u c a t i o n " has  This  approach to  the p o l i c y  continued  --  active,  students  --  subordinate,  c u r r i c u l u m as  the  the  s t u d e n t s have  to  elitist  advocated  receives this  of  studies,  t h e most  is  explicit  c u r r i c u l u m development emphasize  an i s s u e s  It  or b u t s .  the  c u r r i c u l u m as  to  to  does n o t "that  see which  As a n  1 , 1 2 1  passive,  activist  ones  curricula.  e d u c a t i o n where has  view  classrooms.  r a t h e r as  citizenship  not been  immune  i n t e n d e d and  W h i l e modern s o c i a l  f o r more t h a n 70 y e a r s  centred,  of  "transmission  powerless."  attention,  d i s c r e p a n c y between the  c u r r i c u l u m as p r a c t i s e d .  in spite  f a r more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  a r e a of  that  citizenship  - - and a n o t h e r  p o l i c y and p r e s c r i b e d the  1 2 0  "one p a r t i c u l a r r o l e  than w i t h  which  only factor  that  issues but  they  course,  forms o f  the  w i t h no i f s  citizenship  in official  Social  level,  developing  province."  the  in  science  however,  dominate Canadian  docile,  learn, it  not  powerful  study of  education  notions  to  dominant,  the  i n the  exists  education assigns  teachers  approach to  at  this  o f more a c t i v i s t  education.  of  attempt  taking  programs i s  course  few p o l i t i c a l  On f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f might  the  one  studies have  to  the  theory  tended  c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g approach  to  to  and  56 citizenship of  education,  Canadian classrooms  content  and t h e  have a t t e n u a t e d  study of  rote  c i v i c education, between the  education.  F o r example,  Hodgetts  intent  found  the  of  "diametrically  the a d v i c e of  Education. need  of  E v e r y one o f  t o make  localized  to  "constant  study,  today."  them,  without  references  to  S u t h e r l a n d documents  1960s.  f o r most o f  T h i s was a t  theories  of  curricular  In h i s  1 , 1 2 3  this  citizenship  the  events of  he w r o t e ,  1 2 4  the  a t i m e when p r o g r e s s i v e  until  of  the p r o v i n c e .  1 2 5  at  student  f a c e d w i t h the  classroom retreat  f r o m t h e p r o g r e s s i v e methods  in university  ones and many o f  I n a more  in least  " r e a l i t y shock" o f  to v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e  they  the  Documents  i n a l l of  the  the d i s c u s s i o n  of  public  j u r i s d i c t i o n s advocate  that  the became  and c u s t o d i a l  them s t i c k w i t h t h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l  with p o l i c y is  the  centred  methods.  One p a r t i c u l a r a r e a where c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e may n o t consistent  the  Research i n d i c a t e s  many new t e a c h e r s  committed to  of  persistence  and l e a r n i n g  century,  to  emphasizes  the p r e s e n t ' . " in detail  we  is  a l l Departments exception,  of  classes  the p a s t  l e a r n i n g d o m i n a t e d c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y and documents  national  considerable  This,  f o r m a l i s t i c and t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g  Vancouver schools  traditional  (and v e r y few o f  to r e l a t e  formalism  "no p r e s c r i b e d c o u r s e  t h e p r o b l e m s and c o n c e r n s opposed  "the  l e a r n i n g of  he f o u n d t h a t  make any a t t e m p t  that  and p r a c t i c e o f  i n Canada and no t e x t b o o k  observed)  out  s u c h an a p p r o a c h .  differences  study  Tomkins p o i n t s  1 2 2  issues.  involving  1 2 6  be  57 students  i n the  analysis  s t u d e n t s be encouraged analysis. often  of  to  issues  and s e v e r a l  t a k e p u b l i c a c t i o n b a s e d on  Research would i n d i c a t e ,  reluctant  to  propose  however,  deal with p o t e n t i a l l y  c l a s s p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e y survey of Manitoba teachers  that  that their  teachers  controversial  issues  a r e c o n t e m p o r a r y and l o c a l . who h a d b e e n w o r k i n g w i t h  f o r upper elementary  teachers  designed  students  "a s e n s e o f p o l i t i c a l  efficacy  and a d i s p o s i t i o n  in  the  showed  1 2 7  abstract  dilemmas),  (e.g.,  they  students  lack  t i m e as  concerns  about  reaction." studies  1 2 8  follow  for  this  the p o s s i b i l i t y A more r e c e n t  of  issued  issue. but  negative  f o u n d them r e l u c t a n t  the  teaching  a p o l i c y document  that  of  to  space. issues,  issues  and m o r a l  The t e a c h e r s  they  "also  in  to  i n the m a t e r i a l  to cited  voiced  community  American study of  t h e y were f a r removed i n t i m e o r To s u p p o r t  stories  A  develop  l i k e d studying  suggestions  i n studying a l o c a l one r e a s o n  teachers  teachers  b a s e d on f i c t i o n a l  d i d not  involve of  that while  in  curriculum  materials  participate"  to  are  high school  social  deal with issues  unless  1 2 9  A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n has  states:  A l b e r t a Education believes that studying c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s i s i m p o r t a n t i n p r e p a r i n g s t u d e n t s to p a r t i c i p a t e r e s p o n s i b l y i n a d e m o c r a t i c and p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . Such s t u d y p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to d e v e l o p students' c a p a c i t i e s t o t h i n k c l e a r l y , to r e a s o n l o g i c a l l y , t o o p e n m i n d e d l y and r e s p e c t f u l l y examine d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w , and t o r e a c h sound j u d g e m e n t s . 1 3 0  The document goes on t o dealing with issues  outline  i n the  appropriate procedures  classroom.  for  S i m i l a r l y , O n t a r i o has  58 produced a p o l i c y potentially it  as  document  controversial  on t e a c h i n g topic)  an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f  a p p r o p r i a t e ways to these might help deal with practice  deal with  education it.  religion  which f i r s t  of  and t h e n  all  (a  establishes  outlines  P o l i c y statements  1 3 1  t e a c h e r s overcome  i s s u e s by a s s u r i n g  about  some o f  them o f  their  official  like  reluctance  support  for  to the  and p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a framework f o r p l a n n i n g a n d  i n s t r u c t i o n but  there  is  no way o f  knowing t h i s w i t h o u t  further  research. A n o t h e r domain o f demonstrates the  that  research  does n o t m i r r o r  these  away f r o m t h e m e c h a n i c s  trends  human r i g h t s ,  continue  but  ideals  regard  and g l o b a l  to  the  authors  system i s culture."  al.  treatment  concluded  that 1 3 3  perspectives  attempted  systems a r e  of  the  of  to uncover ethnic  the  groups  i n most p r o g r a m s dominant w h i t e  government  is  in  of over to  more  regional  awareness. called  Most of  1 3 2  into  question  t r u l y committed  s u c h as m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and g e n d e r  b y Werner e t  and e q u a l i t y  of  some r e s e a r c h has  degree to which e d u c a t i o n  rhetoric  i n c u r r i c u l a r focus  on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , b i l i n g u a l i s m ,  accommodation,  the  often  Masemann f o u n d a s h i f t  p a s t 20 y e a r s  emphasis  the  practice  c u r r i c u l u m where  a r e a s o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , human r i g h t s  opportunity. the  the  equity.  A 1977  to study  hidden c u r r i c u l u m with in social  "the  studies,  underlying  (and e v e n m i d d l e  and  value class)  They a r g u e d m a i n s t r e a m B r i t i s h and F r e n c h c u l t u r a l d o m i n a t e d most c u r r i c u l a and where  other  cultures  59 were p r e s e n t  they  these dominant Studies emphasis it  colleagues.  on a B r i t i s h  imperial identity  the  E m p i r e waned a f t e r  for  a new i c o n a r o u n d w h i c h t o new i c o n i s  multiculturalism is Canadian dilemma,  recent  root  construct  a permanent  may a t  least  of  instrument  for p o l i t i c a l  government-sponsored schools)  and a r g u e  multiculturalism  . . .  that is  c o n t i n u i n g underground r e a l i t y cite  research  to  show t h a t  that  is  manifest  He c o n t e n d s  i n things  that  He w r i t e s :  "If  to  this  and  classic respite." less  than an  1 3 7  programs  to  (both  i n and  out  of  at variance with  of Anglo - conf o r m i t y . "  "ethnic  1 3 6  a  1 3 8  the They  E n g l i s h and F r e n c h  "'celebratory multiculturalism'"  like  as  looked  identity  current rhetoric  Canadians of  background are s u p p o r t i v e of  Canadian  on  the p u b l i c response  frequently  that  situate  c u r r i c u l u m remains  language  "the  new  a national  solution  socialization."  heritage  to  in early  changes i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y  Cummins and D a n e s i examine  of  seeks  a f f o r d a temporary  "the h i s t o r y  reflection  the  Canadian educators  multiculturalism.  therefore,  of  d e s c r i b e d by  emphasis  context.  W o r l d War I I ,  not  it  situation  T r o p e r ' s study  1 3 5  m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n an i d e o l o g i c a l  For Troper,  or both  c u r r i c u l u m and c o n c l u d e  improve the  s t u d i e s p r o g r a m s and t h e  this  one  1 3 4  substantially  emphasis  that  of  b y T r o p e r and Cummins and D a n e s i examine  Werner and h i s  social  groups."  on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n t h e  does n o t  the  "are i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms  festivals,  community  1 3 9  60 centres,  etc.",  substantial languages and I j a z  that  t h e y were n o t  cultural initiatives  demonstrates been of  supportive  s u c h as  teaching  the  "celebratory"  type  focusing  deep r o o t e d ,  and l a r g e l y u n e x a m i n e d ,  that  this  more  Aoki  t h a t m u l t i c u l t u r a l programs i n  Cummins and D a n e s i c o n t e n d  1 4 1  of  heritage  The work o f  and m u s i c r a t h e r t h a n on more s u b s t a n t i a l  issues.  and  but  i n r e g u l a r school programs.  have o f t e n dress,  1 4 0  and  Ijaz  schools  on  food,  inter-cultural is  evidence  racism i n Canadian  of  a  society  write: w h i l e a s u p e r f i c i a l n o t i o n o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m h a s come t o b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y (at l e a s t o u t s i d e o f Quebec) as a v a l u e t h a t s e t s us a p a r t f r o m o u r A m e r i c a n n e i g h b o u r s , a more g r o u n d e d n o t i o n o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n v o l v i n g e q u a l a c c e s s t o power and r e s o u r c e s f o r a l l c u l t u r a l g r o u p s has y e t to t a k e r o o t i n t h e C a n a d i a n psyche. 1 4 2  A s i m i l a r theme i s  t a k e n up i n t h e work o f  and N o v o g r o d s k y and B r o o k e s w i t h r e s p e c t of  the  school  curriculum.  and k n o w l e d g e  asking  "the  to  ethnocentric about  of  the  excluded."  concerns  and g e n d e r e d ,  evidence  division  entire  that  the  " r e s e a r c h has  represented  of  curricula  some a u t h o r s  quite  nature  the  experience  and c a l l more  for  than  c u r r i c u l u m from  1 4 4  s t r u c t u r e of  established  gendered  curriculum" which i s  about  society along class  the  McLaren  t h a t women's  t h a t women be added to p a r t s  which they have been Adding  They argue  have not been a d e q u a t e l y  a reexamination of "just  1 4 3  to  Gaskell,  have  that  overly  expressed  schooling  lines.  are  supports  Osborne w r i t e s  conclusively  that  concern the that  middle-class  61 and w o r k i n g - c l a s s Curtis,  s t u d e n t s do n o t  Livingstone,  receive  and S m a l l e r examine  s t r e a m i n g s t u d e n t s by a b i l i t y l e v e l rise  of  that  this  in  the  the  same  the p r o c e s s  i n Ontario  original)  "is  a systemic  that  political  does v i o l e n c e  those from w o r k i n g - c l a s s ,  single  secondary hope o f  students  problem" * 1  into  three  especially  and m i n o r i t y  d e s c r i b e b o t h the  one o f  (emphasis  6  streams  their overt  streaming  which ended  of  unofficial,  social  streaming of  s u c h as  continues  to  jurisdictions  exist  at  and t h i s  citizenship  different  tracks.  As d i s c u s s e d addressed at  and t h e more s u b t l e ,  1 4 7  students  i n elementary  French immersion programs.  different  colleagues  selection"  the h i g h s c h o o l raises  the  some o f  a policy level.  r e p o r t e d i n 1977  p r o v i d e d to  these issues  F o r example,  through  tracking  i n some  q u e s t i o n whether  education is  above,  level  it  and  schools  Curricular  of  any  t h e h i g h s c h o o l p r o v i d i n g e q u a l i t y b u t i n s t e a d made  "an a g e n c y  things  The a u t h o r s  the  c e n t u r y and argue  backgrounds by l i m i t i n g r a t h e r than e q u a l i z i n g opportunities.  since  t o many s t u d e n t s ,  parent,  1 4 5  of  schools  p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n the mid n i n e t e e n t h process  education."  substantially  students  in  a r e now b e i n g  Werner a n d h i s  that  Some s o c i a l s t u d i e s p r o g r a m s n e i t h e r h a v e e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d r a t i o n a l e s on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m (whether f o r i n t e g r a t i o n , d i v e r s i t y , o r awareness) n o r d i s p l a y much e v i d e n c e i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d c o n t e n t and g o a l s o f e v e n an i m p l i c i t r a t i o n a l e . I n s u c h c a s e s , t h e n o t i o n o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m does n o t  62 a p p e a r t o b e an i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z i n g i d e a f o r Canadian s o c i e t y .  the  study  of  1 4 8  Today,  multiculturalism is  for  study of  the  explicit of  s e e n as  Canadian s o c i e t y  rationales  an i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z i n g i d e a  and d e t a i l e d p r o g r a m s w i t h  h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d and i m p l e m e n t e d .  the programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n Native Studies,  s u b s t a n t i a l m a t e r i a l from the p e r s p e c t i v e and c u l t u r a l  groups.  consultative  structures  different  ethnic  assessing  curricula  least  As w e l l ,  for citizenship  jurisdictions,  although i t  women's  direction. to  has  expressed  one example o f  seem t o h a v e r e a c h e d the  that  progress  is  the  development  c u r r i c u l a r movement developed  and p r o m o t i o n o f  the  an  several  A s t u d y b y T a r r o w c o m p a r i n g human r i g h t s  level,  heritage  e x p l i c i t l y a p p e a r s as  S e v e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s have a l s o  i n C a n a d a and t h e U . S . s u p p o r t s  and  The Yukon t e x t book d e a l i n g  ensure gender e q u i t y i n h i r i n g  policy  from  support f o r  education i n  does n o t  or m a t e r i a l s .  history is  developed  s c h o o l programs and a t  as m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n terms o f  courses  ethnic  communities i n d e s i g n i n g  Gender e q u i t y a l s o  important goal  specific  different  s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s have  and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f  one p r o v i n c e , M a n i t o b a ,  same l e v e l  include  for involving representatives  and c u l t u r a l  language programs.  of  Many  with  this  policies  staff.  e d u c a t i o n programs  contention  b e i n g made i n t h i s  in  of  that,  area.  at She  the argues  Canada i s . f u r t h e r ahead i n l a y i n g the groundwork f o r  programs  i n human r i g h t s  education  than the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  She  writes: I t i s c l e a r t h a t Canada's acceptance of the l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t accompany r a t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o v e n a n t s h a v e [ s i c ] p u t i n p l a c e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e more c o n d u c i v e t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f human r i g h t s e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h e s t r u c t u r e o p e r a t i v e i n t h e United States. 1 4 9  Her s t u d y useful  includes  no a n a l y s i s  f o r comparison at  t a k e n as  in'either  actual  school p r a c t i c e .  the p o l i c y l e v e l  an i n d i c a t i o n o f  classrooms  of  the  level  jurisdictions conceptions incline well  across  of  Canada o r t h e U n i t e d  earlier.  In a l l cases  developed  and p u t i n t o p l a c e  to  must b e remembered however  that  as  intended which i s  quite  as  taught.  citizenship as  exists  is  committed  to  education  that  the  continuum  programs have  support t h i s this  different  known a b o u t  the  t h a t more e l i t i s t  have been q u i t e  and  persistent.  1 5 0  discussed  been  commitment.  represents  It  the  curriculum  from the  curriculum  actual practice  education i n Canadian classrooms  suggests  conceptions  Conclusion  often  Very l i t t l e  end o f  some s p e c i f i c  in  educational  and c i t i z e n s h i p  toward the a c t i v i s t  education  be  States.  Canada a r e o f f i c i a l l y  citizenship  is  but should not  o f human r i g h t s  W i t h t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r emphases,  It  but  such  conservative  of  evidence  64 In t h i s  c h a p t e r I have argued a range of  democratic c i t i z e n s h i p about  the n a t u r e of  proponents  of  citizenship  good c i t i z e n s h i p .  the n a t u r e of  conceptions  t o be e x t e n d e d  naturalized adults, the  they  differ  citizen,  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the necessary  u n d e r p i n modern d i s c u s s i o n  the v a r i o u s  ought  t o make t h a t  level  the  c a p a c i t y of  limit  direct T h e y see  "experts" the  involvement of  and,  politics  every  o p p o r t u n i t y to  them.  Activists,  citizenship  reject  are  what  exist.  on t h e  other hand,  t h e y want  see the  as  They w i s h  to  decision  educated  to  this  citizens  represent view  of  They a r g u e  of  citizen's  "individual  t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s "  a d e p a r t u r e from c l a s s i c a l  in public life.  and  committed to wide p u b l i c  the b e s t judges they  have a dim  accord other  reject  ought  t o b e aware o f ,  a realm for well  experts  of  possible.  public issues.  i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s .  c i t i z e n s h i p where participate  choose the  or  conditions  f o r example,  years,  born  citizen  ordinary Citizens i n  four or f i v e  and a r e f i r m l y  participation citizens  as  and t h e  citizens  about,  native  1 5 1  i n t h e i r view  participation  individual  t o make judgements  making.  state,  cases  full  to w h i c h the  conceptions,  competent the  significantly  of of  would agree all  of  and d e b a t e s  While i n a l l  to almost  the degree  affairs  A d v o c a t e s o f more e l i t i s t view of  conceptions  highest  Within this  1 5 2  and  notions  o b l i g a t i o n was  of  to  r a n g e many v a r i a t i o n s  65 Corresponding above a r e m o d e l s  to  of  the  conceptions  citizenship  of  citizenship  education representing  t y p e s on a c o n t i n u u m r a n g i n g f r o m e l i t i s t  to  In o r d e r to b e g i n a p r o d u c t i v e d i a l o g u e  citizenship  education i t  rhetoric  educational slogans  of  essential  on  t o move b e y o n d  to a b e t t e r  ideal  activist  approaches.  is  discussed  the  understanding of  what we mean when we t a l k a b o u t c i t i z e n s h i p  and  citizenship  education. I n Canada t h e p r a c t i c e o f g e n e r a l l y been c o n s i s t e n t evidence v  activist  studies  classrooms  this  of  shift  is  elements of persist  end o f  manifest  it  the  is  education  conceptions.  and c u r r i c u l a  has Recent  suggest a  curriculum but without  impossible  in practice.  conservative  and e l i t i s t  to judge  shift further  t o what  Research suggests approaches  to  degree that  pedagogy  i n many c l a s s r o o m s .  In the next aspects  with e l i t i s t  f r o m p o l i c y documents  toward the  citizenship  of  challenges  chapter I w i l l  citizenship  c o n s i d e r the unique h i s t o r i c a l  i n Canada w h i c h r a i s e  for citizenship  education.  particular  In chapter f o u r I  examine m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c e d and p r o g r a m s s u p p o r t e d b y t h e government the b a s i s  t o d e t e r m i n e what c o n c e p t i o n o f for federal policy in citizenship  t h a t was m a n i f e s t  in federal  initiatives.  Notes f o r Chapter 2  citizenship  will federal  formed  e d u c a t i o n a n d how  66 1.  B . S . T u r n e r , C i t i z e n s h i p and C a p i t a l i s m : The D e b a t e O v e r R e f o r m i s m (London: A l l e n and U n w i n , 1 9 8 6 ) ; P . R e s n i c k , The Masks o f P r o t e u s : C a n a d i a n R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e S t a t e (Montreal & Kingston: M c G i l l - Q u e e n s P r e s s , 1990); C . T a y l o r , M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and "The P o l i t i c s o f R e c o g n i t i o n " ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1992) ; P. C l a r k e , C i t i z e n s h i p ( L o n d o n : P l u t o P r e s s , 1 9 9 4 ) ; D . H e a t e r , C i t i z e n s h i p : The C i v i c I d e a l i n W o r l d H i s t o r y , P o l i t i c s and E d u c a t i o n , (London: Longman, 1 9 9 0 ) .  2.  Turner,  Citizenship  3.  Clarke,  Citizenship,  4.  Turner,  Citizenship  5.  Turner,  Citizenship,  18.  6.  Clarke,  Citizenship,  4.  7.  Taylor, Multiculturalism,  8.  Ibid.,  9.  Ibid., 37. See also, Charles Taylor, Reconciling the S o l i t u d e s : E s s a y s on C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l i s m a n d N a t i o n a l i s m ( M o n t r e a l & K i n g s t o n : M c G i l l - Q u e e n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1993) .  10.  W. K y m l i c k a , "Recent Work i n C i t i z e n s h i p T h e o r y " ( C o r p o r a t e P o l i c y and R e s e a r c h , M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and C i t i z e n s h i p C a n a d a , 1992) .  11.  T.H. Marshall, "Citizenship and Social Class," in C i t i z e n s h i p and S o c i a l C l a s s , T . H . M a r s h a l l and T . B o t t o m o r e (London: P l u t o P r e s s , 1992).  12.  Ibid.,  8.  13.  Ibid.,  7.  14.  Kymlicka,  "Recent W o r k , "  15.  Marshall,  Citizenship  and S o c i a l  Class.  16.  Marshall,  Citizenship  and S o c i a l  Class,  17.  Ibid.,  18.  Clarke,  19.  T . B o t t o m o r e , " C i t i z e n s h i p and S o c i a l C l a s s , F o r t y Y e a r s On" i n C i t i z e n s h i p and S o c i a l C l a s s , T . H . M a r s h a l l and T .  and C a p i t a l i s m ,  13.  6. and C a p i t a l i s m ,  17-18.  26.  27.  3.  25.  19. Citizenship,  19.  67 Bottomore  (London:  Pluto  Press,  1992).  20.  Ibid.,  57.  21.  Ibid.,  61.  22.  D. Bean, " C i t i z e n s h i p and t h e T r a d e U n i o n Movement," in B e l o n g i n g : The M e a n i n g and F u t u r e o f C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p , e d . W. K a p l a n ( M o n t r e a l & K i n g s t o n : M c G i l l - Queens P r e s s , 1993), 303-313.  23.  Bottomore,  24.  M a r s h a l l , C i t i z e n s h i p and S o c i a l C l a s s ; and A . S. Hughes, "Understanding C i t i z e n s h i p : A D e l p h i S t u d y , " C a n a d i a n and I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . 23 (1994): 1 3 - 2 6 .  25.  Marshall,  26.  Hughes,  27.  Marshall,  28.  J. Vickers, "At H i s M o t h e r ' s Knee: Sex/Gender and the C o n s t r u c t i o n of N a t i o n a l Identities," i n Women a n d Men: I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Readings on Gender, e d . G . Hofman N e m i r o f f , (Montreal: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1987); Bottomore, C i t i z e n s h i p and S o c i a l C l a s s ; M . O ' N e i l , " C i t i z e n s h i p a n d S o c i a l Change: C a n a d i a n Women's S t r u g g l e F o r E q u a l i t y , " i n B e l o n g i n g ; The M e a n i n g and F u t u r e o f C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p , ed. W. K a p l a n ( M o n t r e a l & K i n g s t o n : M c G i l l - Queens P r e s s , 1993), 314-332.  29.  O'Neil,  30.  Ibid.,  31.  G . Simms, " R a c i s m As A B a r r i e r To C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p , " i n B e l o n g i n g ; The M e a n i n g and F u t u r e o f C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p , ed. W. K a p l a n ( M o n t r e a l & K i n g s t o n : M c G i l l - Queens P r e s s , 1993) : 333.  32.  I u s e t h e p h r a s e - i n a more l i m i t e d s e n s e - when r e f e r r i n g t o the dominance of Francophones i n Quebec b e c a u s e , as T a y l o r makes c l e a r , u n t i l a f t e r the Q u i e t R e v o l u t i o n f o r t h e 1960s the economy o f Quebec was d o m i n a t e d b y o u t s i d e r s . He w r i t e s t h a t i n b u s i n e s s "the power e l i t e was a f o r e i g n o n e , made up of E n g l i s h Canadians or Americans." T a y l o r , R e c o n c i l i n g , 8.  33.  P. R e g e n s t r e i f , "Some S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Obstacles to Canadian N a t i o n a l Consciousness," i n Canadian Consciousness and t h e C u r r i c u l u m , e d . G . M i l b u r n and J . H e r b e r t ( T o r o n t o :  Citizenship  Citizenship  and S o c i a l  "Understanding Citizenship  "Citizenship  and S o c i a l  Class,  Class.  68.  22.  Citizenship." and S o c i a l  and S o c i a l  Class.  22.  Change."  314.  68 OISE P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) , 54. H . T r o p e r , " N a t i o n a l i t y and H i s t o r y E d u c a t i o n : N a t i o n a l i s m and the H i s t o r y C u r r i c u l u m i n C a n a d a , " The H i s t o r y T e a c h e r . 12, 1 (1978) : 1 1 - 2 7 ; C . J . Jaenen, " M u t i l a t e d M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , " i n Canadian E d u c a t i o n i n the 1980s, e d . J . D . W i l s o n , ( C a l g a r y : D e t s e l i g , 1981); R e s n i c k , The Masks of Proteus; Taylor, Multiculturalism: J . L . Granatstein, "The " H a r d Obligations of C i t i z e n s h i p : The S e c o n d W o r l d War i n C a n a d a , " i n B e l o n g i n g ; The M e a n i n g a n d F u t u r e o f C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p , e d . W. K a p l a n ( M o n t r e a l & Kingston: M c G i l l - Queens P r e s s , 1 9 9 3 ) , 3 6 - 4 9 . 1  34.  The c o n c e p t i o n s p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e p u b l i s h e d i n a n o t h e r f o r m i n A . S e a r s & A . S . Hughes, " C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n a n d C u r r e n t E d u c a t i o n a l Reform," Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n (in press).  35.  R . B . Woyach, "The P o l i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e : C i v i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e P u b l i c G o o d , " i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e P e r s p e c t i v e s on C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n , e d . R . E . G r o s s and T . l . D y n n e s o n (New York: Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1991), 43-65.  36.  0 . I c h i l o v , "Dimensions and R o l e P a t t e r n s o f C i t i z e n s h i p i n Democracy," i n P o l i t i c a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n , C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n and Democracy, e d . 0. I c h i l o v (New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s College P r e s s , 1990), 20-21. O t h e r w r i t e r s u s e d i f f e r e n t terms t o d e s c r i b e the range of views about c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . For example, Derek H e a t e r w r i t e s of " e l i t i s t v . participative i d e a l s " of c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Heater, C i t i z e n s h i p , 214.  37.  M . C a r n o y , The S t a t e and P o l i t i c a l T h e o r y . (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1 9 8 4 ) ; R. P r a t t e , The C i v i c Imperative: E x a m i n i n g t h e Need f o r C i v i c E d u c a t i o n . (New York: Teachers College Press, 1988); R e s n i c k , The M a s k s : Woyach, "The Political Perspective"; B. Barber, An A r i s t o c r a c y o f E v e r y o n e : The P o l i t i c s o f E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e F u t u r e of America: (New Y o r k : Ballantine Books, 1992). Heater, C i t i z e n s h i p .  38.  Resnick,  39.  Ibid.,  40.  P. Abrams, H i s t o r i c a l S o c i o l o g y (New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1982), 78-79. See, also, Ronald Manzer, Public S c h o o l s and P o l i t i c a l I d e a s : C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y i n H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1994), i n t r o d u c t i o n .  41.  Ibid.,  The M a s k s .  13.  130.  79.  69 42.  I n a d d i t i o n to R e s n i c k chapter nine.  see  Heater,  Citizenship,  particularly  43.  Ibid.,  44.  Woyach,  "The P o l i t i c a l  45.  Heater.  Citizenship.  46.  Barber,  An A r i s t o c r a c y ,  47.  E . D . H i r s c h , C u l t u r a l L i t e r a c y : What E v e r y A m e r i c a n Needs Know (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1 9 8 8 ) , 98.  48.  Resnick,  49.  Ibid.,  36.  50.  Ibid.,  35.  51.  Ibid.,  34.  52.  Taylor, Reconciling.  53.  See, S e a r s & Hughes, " C i t i z e n s h i p " f o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f two o t h e r t y p e s . F o r an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h r e e i n t e r l o c k i n g dimension of c i t i z e n s h i p each w i t h s e v e r a l a s p e c t s see H e a t e r , C i t i z e n s h i p : c h a p t e r n i n e .  54.  A u s t r a l i a . Senate S t a n d i n g Committee on Employment, E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g , E d u c a t i o n f o r A c t i v e C i t i z e n s h i p i n A u s t r a l i a n Schools and Youth Organizations (Canberra: Australian Government P u b l i s h i n g S e r v i c e , 1989); A u s t r a l i a . Senate S t a n d i n g Committee on Employment, E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g , Active Citizenship Revisited (Canberra: P u b l i c a t i o n s U n i t , D e p a r t m e n t o f the S e n a t e , 1991) .  55.  R . D . B a r r , J . L . B a r t h , & S . S . Shermis, D e f i n i n g the S o c i a l Studies ( A r l i n g t o n : The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r the Social Studies, 1977); R . D . B a r r , J . B a r t h , & S . S . Shermis, The N a t u r e o f the S o c i a l S t u d i e s (Palm S p r i n g s : ETC P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978); T . L . Dynneson & R . E . Gross, "The Educational Perspective: C i t i z e n s h i p i n American S o c i e t y , " i n Social S c i e n c e P e r s p e c t i v e s on C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n , e d . R. G r o s s and T . Dynneson (New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1 9 9 1 ) , 142; H e a t e r , C i t i z e n s h i p .  56.  D. Lawton, "Response," i n C a n a d i a n C o n s c i o u s n e s s and the C u r r i c u l u m , e d . G . M i l b u r n and J . H e r b e r t ( T o r o n t o : O I S E P r e s s , 1974), 31.  57.  Hirsch,  14.  The M a s k s .  Cultural  Perspective,"  47.  214. 164. to  31.  91.  Literacy.  70 58.  Ibid.,  98.  59.  Kennedy W e l l s , "Cultural (March, 1988): 28-29.  60.  Graham F r a s e r , " S c h o o l s B l u r t h e I d e n t i t y B e i n g S o u g h t a t N a t i o n a l U n i t y C o n f e r e n c e , " The G l o b e a n d M a i l 6 F e b r u a r y 1992, A l .  61.  M i c h a e l B l i s s , " P r i v a t i z i n g the M i n d , " The S u n d e r i n g o f C a n a d i a n H i s t o r y , the Sundering of C a n a d a , " J o u r n a l of C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s , 26, 4 ( 1 9 9 1 - 9 2 ) : 5 - 1 7 . T h i s a r t i c l e was o r i g i n a l l y d e l i v e r e d as t h e C r e i g h t o n C e n t e n n i a l L e c t u r e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , O c t o b e r 18, 1991.  62.  M i c h a e l A p p l e , I d e o l o g y and C u r r i c u l u m (New Y o r k a n d L o n d o n : Routledge, 1 9 7 9 ) , 26.  63.  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H e n l e y & J . Young (Winnipeg: S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h e r s i n C a n a d a , 1990), 43.  75.  Gaskell  76.  Brookes,  77.  D. C l a n f i e l d , B u i l d i n g a P e o p l e ' s C o l l e c t i v e : The E x p e r i e n c e o f a Quebec T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e c t i v e ( T o r o n t o : Our S c h o o l s / O u r S e l v e s , 1 9 8 9 ) ; J . Cummins, & M . D a n e s i , H e r i t a g e Languages: The D e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s L i n g u i s t i c R e s o u r c e s (Toronto: Our S c h o o l s / O u r S e l v e s , 1990); Osborne, Teaching; Simon, T e a c h i n g A g a i n s t ; B . C u r t i s , D.W. L i v i n g s t o n e , & H . S m a l l e r , S t a c k i n g The Deck: S t r e a m i n g o f W o r k i n g - C l a s s K i d s i n O n t a r i o Schools. (Toronto: Our Schools/Our Selves Educational Foundation, 1992).  78.  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S u b j e c t s and C i t i z e n s i n C a n a d i a n H i s t o r y , " i n B e l o n g i n g : The M e a n i n g and F u t u r e o f C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s h i p , e d . W. Kaplan, ed., (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queens P r e s s , 1993), 25-35.  80.  Regenstreif,  et  al.,  Claiming,  Claiming (Toronto:  and Our  42.  "Teaching M a r g i n a l i t y , "  "Some S o c i a l , "  54.  28.  72 81.  Resnick,  The M a s k s .  92.  82.  Bruce C u r t i s , B u i l d i n g the 1836-1871 (London, O n t a r i o :  83.  A . B . H o d g e t t s , What C u l t u r e ? What H e r i t a g e ? A S t u d y o f C i v i c E d u c a t i o n i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : OISE P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) ,  E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t e : Canada West. The A l t h o u s e P r e s s , 1 9 8 8 ) , 9 2 . 24.  84.  Ibid.,  19.  85.  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J u l i e C r u i k s h a n k , Dan Dha T s ' e d e n i n t t h ' e : Reading V o i c e s : O r a l and W r i t t e n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e Y u k o n ' s P a s t ( V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s and M c l n t y r e , 1 9 9 1 ) , 4 1 .  118.  M a r s h a l l C o n l e y & Ken O s b o r n e , " P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d i a n S c h o o l s : An A s s e s s m e n t o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e s C o u r s e s and Pedagogy, International J o u r n a l Of P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 6 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 65. See a l s o G . T o m k i n s , A Common C o u n t e n a n c e : S t a b i l i t y and Change i n t h e Canadian C u r r i c u l u m (Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1986).  119.  C o n l e y and O s b o r n e ,  120.  Ibid.,  121.  Osborne,  122.  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