UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An expose of the general literature in development planning and the applicability to West Africa Blell, Joseph C. 1979

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EXPOSE OF THE GENERAL LITERATURE IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND THE APPLICABILITY TO WEST AFRICA by JOSEPH C. BLELL B.A. (Hons.) S t . Mary's C o l l e g e o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1972 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1978 (c) Joseph C. B l e l l , 1971 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department "Of C o f ^ y r t u N t i r y / M O tCbto+ttKU P U ^ ^ U M <* The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 3-b - l - l c< ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o show t h e r e i s no s p e c i a l economic o r g e n e r a l development t h e o r y t a i l o r - m a d e f o r West A f r i c a . Maybe, when a l l g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s are v a l i d , some are more v a l i d than o t h e r s . The r e c e n t emergence o f "development t h e o r i e s " from academics i n the " T h i r d and F o u r t h World" c o u n t r i e s i s b o t h an e x p r e s s i o n o f s e r i o u s doubts w i t h o r t h o d o x development t h e o r i e s , as w e l l as a s e r i o u s s e a r c h f o r s e l f - a s s e r t i o n . These attem p t s t o d e v i s e an a p p r o p r i a t e t h e o r e t i c a l c oncept geared towards the . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e development p r o c e s s i n t h e s e r e g i o n s a r e , a t bottom, a l s o a response t o t h e dynamics o f economic and s o c i a l change. The growing awareness of t h e s e views r e f l e c t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e p r o c e s s e s o f change are a t work. As we s h a l l soon o b s e r v e , the a t t e m p t s by the v a r i o u s o r t h o d o x a u t h o r s o f development t h e o r i e s t o d i a g n o s e t h e u n d e r l y i n g causes of development, th e l i n k w i t h the w o r l d systems and t h e proposed f u t u r e s t r a t e g i e s , have v e r y l i t t l e i n common. Take, f o r example, the economic system of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t g e n e r a t e d modern i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m . T h i s system was made up o f t h r e e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p a r t s : a d e v e l o p e d c o r e i n Western Europe, a p a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d s e m i p e r i p h e r y i n s o u t h e r n and e a s t e r n Europe, and an underdeveloped p e r i p h e r y o f t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . From t h i s , one can see, w i t h some p e r s u a s i o n , t h a t t h e dynamic of capitalism (or of a f u l l y developed market economy) i s based on the s t r u c t u r a l imbalance created by integrating the West A f r i c a economies at d i f f e r e n t levels of development i n what Prof. Wallerstein c a l l e d a "world-system." There are probably few who would quarrel with t h i s part of the formulation - although i t s neglect as a serious theory of economic development by economists, i s , to t h i s author, c e r t a i n l y one of the more in t e r e s t i n g occurrences i n modern history. The question that i s open to debate i s the degree to which th i s imbalance (in West Africa) tends toward permanence - the degree to which "underdevelopment" develops along with development to become a r e l a t i v e l y stable economic adjustment. None of the development theories reviewed i n the thesis has s u f f i c i e n t time depth to assess the question of permanence with empirical data, nor do they attempt to do so. Instead, the problem i s tackled as follows. The nonindustrial nations of the world have not developed because they have f a i l e d the preconditions for i t - a market mentality, l o c a l economic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , "modern" soc i o - c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s receptive to economic development (entrepreneurship). But none of these holds i n the indigeneous societ i e s of West A f r i c a where there i s no lack of entrepreneurship and l i t t l e i n the way of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l impediments to growth. The most common alternative explanation i s that the "surplus" necessary to endogenous growth i s being drained i n export-import trade with the developed systems. i v T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the dime n s i o n s o f development i n the economies l i k e t h o s e o f West A f r i c a w h ich are i n a p e r i o d o f d r a s t i c change and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l paradigms. S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h i s s t u d y has been d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s . The i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r d e f i n e s t h e uniqueness o f t h e West A f r i c a n c a s e . T h i s uniqueness a r i s e s from uncensured acceptance o f Western norms and models and r e l i a n c e on growth - th r o u g h c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e i m p o r t e d t e c h n o l o g y . Coupled w i t h t h i s i s a l s o t h e i d e a o f measuring the s u c c e s s e s ( i f any) and the f a i l u r e s w i t h the y a r d s t i c k s a c c e p t e d and a p p l i c a b l e i n the West, Chapter two w i l l r e v i e w the g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e i n development (D u a l i s m , S t r a t e g i c a l , F o r e i g n Trade, S o c i o l o g i c a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l , and M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s ) and th e n p r e s c r i b e an i n d i g e n o u s model, S e l f - R e l i a n c e , as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e r e v i e w e d t h e o r i e s . Chapter t h r e e examines the p h y s i c a l environment and economy of the r e g i o n . Chapter f o u r d e a l s w i t h the ac c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i s , when a l l g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s a re v a l i d , some are more v a l i d t h a n o t h e r s and Chapter f i v e d e a l s w i t h t h e p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Scope o f the Problem 2 Development , 4 CHAPTER I I Review o f Development T h e o r i e s 9 Du a l i s m Theory 10 I The Urban I n d u s t r i a l v s . R u r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l B i a s . . . . . . . H S t r a t e g i c a l T h e o r i e s . . . . 14 F o r e i g n Trade T h e o r i e s . . . 17-' S o c i o l o g i c a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l T h e o r i e s 1 9 M a r x i s t s T h e o r i e s 21. Can P o v e r t y be Understood by t h e A f f l u e n t ? . " . 2 8 How R e l e v a n t a re These T h e o r i e s , . . . 32-Fundamental O b s t a c l e s 3'4 E x p o r t and A i d 4 3 Unemployment and F o r e i g n ( Investment 4 7 P l a n n i n g f o r L o c a l S e l f - R e l i a n c e . 5.1 P l a n n i n g f o r P e r s o n a l i t y Enhancement 51 Grass - R o o t s P a r t i c i p a t i o n 5 2 P a r t i c i p a t o r y M o b i l i z a t i o n 5 3: CHAPTER I I I C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A r e a 5 4 West A f r i c a ' s Legacy 7 5 v i CHAPTER IV West Af r i c a ' s Development at the Cross Roads 82 Development for Whom? 82' Development Misconstrued.. 83^  Planning and Development from Within 90 Self-Reliance: a Choice or a Challenge? 101 CHAPTER V Policy Implications. 108 Conclusions 115 FOOTNOTES 12 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 134 v i i LIST OF TABLES 1.1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Labour F o r c e i n E a s t e r n A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s ;6 2.1 E x p o r t s o f S e l e c t e d A f r i c a n N a t i o n s , 1969, 41 3.1 P o p u l a t i o n E s t i m a t e s o f West A f r i c a , 1970 -j-.^ 3.2 Growth o f S e l e c t e d P r i m a t e C i t i e s 66 3.3 S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C a p i t a l C i t i e s 67 3.4 S e c t o r i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Stock o f P r i v a t e Investment i n the D e v e l o p i n g R e g i o n s , 1967 73' • v i l - i LIST OF FIGURES I R e g i o n a l Economic Map o f West A f r i c a i x AC KNOWLE DGMENT S An acknowledgment i s always a welcome chance t o thank mentors and f r i e n d s w i t h o u t whom i t c o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e t o complete t h i s work. My de b t s t o mentors a re numerous t h a t I cannot p o s s i b l y l i s t them w i t h f a i r n e s s . Those who have been k i n d enough t o r e a d the d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i t h a c r i t i c a l v i e w include'. Edward Greene o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e West I n d i e s , I am g r a t e f u l f o r h i s comments t o thos e who t y p e d and e d i t e d i t I owe a s i m i l a r d e b t . I would l i k e t o thank Brahm Wiesman t h e D i r e c t o r o f t he S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , H i s encouragement th r o u g h o u t h e l p e d me s u s t a i n t he d e l u s i o n o f those so s h o r t - s i g h t e d i n t h e s c h o o l o f t h e problems o f T h i r d World Development. I e s p e c i a l l y want t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o my Mother and my Aunty Salma, w i t h o u t them i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e t o be her e . THE DEVELOPMENT SET Excuse me, friends, I must catch my j e t I'm off to j o i n the Development Set; My bags are packed, and I've had a l l my shots I have t r a v e l l e r ' s cheques and p i l l s for the trots!; The Development Set i s bright and noble; Our thoughts are deep and our v i s i o n global; Although we move with the better classes, Our thoughts are always with the masses. In Sheraton hotels i n scattered nations We damn multi-national corporations; Injustice seems easy to protest In such seething hotbeds of s o c i a l r e s t . We discuss malnutrition over steaks And plan hunger talks during coffee breaks. Whether Asian floods of African drought, We face each issue with an open mouth. We bring i n consultants whose circumlocution Raises d i f f i c u l t i e s for every solution -Thus guaranteeing continued good eating By showing the need for another meeting. The language of the Development Set Stretches the English alphabet; We use swell words l i k e 'epigenetic' 'Micro, 1 'Macro,' and 'logarithmetic 1. It pleasures us to be esoteric -It's so i n t e l l e c t u a l l y atmospheric! And though establishments may be unmoved, Our vocabularies are much improved. When the talk gets deep and you're f e e l i n g dumb You can keep your shame to a minimum: To show that you, too, are i n t e l l i g e n t Smugly ask, "Is i t r e a l l y development? 1 Or say, "That's fine i n practise, but don't you see: I t doesn't work out i n theory!" A few may f i n d this incomprehensible, But most w i l l admire you as deep and sensible. Development Set homes are extremely chick, F u l l of carvings, curious, and draped with batik. Eye-level photographs subtly assure That your host i s at home with the great and the poor. Enough of these verses - on the mission! Our task i s as broad as the human condition'. Just pray God the b i b l i c a l promise i s true: The poor ye s h a l l always have with you. Ross Coggins source: A f r i c a , 77 (January 1978). - 1 -CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The p r e s e n c e and s t u b b o r n p e r s i s t e n c e o f economic and s o c i a l d i s p a r i t i e s i n any s o c i e t y ( p a r t i c u l a r l y of.West. A f r i c a ) a t the d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f economic development have been i d e n t i f i e d as a p e c u l i a r f a c e t o f the p r o c e s s o f economic and s o c i a l change. G e n e r a l l y , i t would n ot be r a t i o n a l t o e x p e c t economic development t o t a k e p l a c e e q u a l l y i n a l l p a r t s of a c o u n t r y a t the same t i m e . R a t h e r , w i t h i n any n a t i o n , t h e r e a re some p l a c e s where economic and s o c i a l change t a k e s p l a c e much f a s t e r t h a n i n o t h e r s . Such a r e a s may, u s u a l l y , have a good n a t u r a l and human r e s o u r c e b a se, w e l l i n t e g r a t e d communications, a v a i l a b i l i t y o f power and a p a r t i c u l a r advantage."^ I n a d d i t i o n , u nequal r a t e s o f economic and. s o c i a l development may o c c u r because p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s become a t t r a c t e d t o more dynamic a r e a s o f a n a t i o n i n the e x p e c t a t i o n o f e x p l o i t i n g the p o t e n t i a l o f e x t e r n a l economies. As a consequence o f the above, t h e development p r o c e s s can l e a d t o p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s because o f economic and s o c i a l d i s p a r i t i e s between v a r i o u s r e g i o n s and groups w i t h i n a s o c i e t y . These d i s p a r i t i e s may r e i n f o r c e g e o g r a p h i c and l i n g u i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s . Such growing d i s p a r i t i e s i n economic and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s o f the d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s and groups w i t h i n one n a t i o n can cause a s e v e r e s t r a i n on a - 2 -nation's p o l i t i c a l framework. To avoid t h i s s i t u a t i o n , appropriate action w i l l have to be taken to ensure that regional economic and s o c i a l d i s p a r i t i e s are reduced over time. One example of a p o l i t i c a l system that tends to give sharp focus to tensions a r i s i n g from these d i s p a r i t i e s i s a federal system (such as, for example, that of Nigeria) which consists of economic and p o l i t i c a l units with varying s o c i a l and economic d i s p a r i t i e s . However, as we s h a l l demonstrate, economic development since independence i n the West African States has not u t i l i z e d the available developmental resources to reduce d i s p a r i t i e s within the various regions of the d i f f e r e n t States. It w i l l be increasingly d i f f i c u l t for a nation to function smoothly unless development programmes e n t a i l a p o s i t i v e and continuous e f f o r t on the part of the National Governments to change the pattern of resource flows and shares of the various regions (provinces) i n national 2 income. Unfortunately, the theories of development do not go far enough i n providing a framework which can guide national decisions regarding such an a l l o c a t i o n of both public and private resources, and the organization of 3 economic a c t i v i t y i n the West African States, Scope of the Problem In view of the conditions spelled out i n the preceding section, the problems which ( w i l l be dealt with) i n th i s study have two dimensions: - 3 -a) The th e o r e t i c a l aspect which has arisen from the fact that the theory of economic development planning up t i l l now has not f u l l y come to grips with the problems of planning i n West A f r i c a and b) The applied dimension, which w i l l be s p e c i f i c a l l y focused on explaining the f a i l u r e s of development planning i n the region of West A f r i c a . F i r s t , an attempt w i l l be made to carry out a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the concept of 'development' with a view to building a t h e o r e t i c a l framework of planning for development i n the region of West A f r i c a , Second, a review w i l l be made of the development theories with a view to indicating where they f a i l e d to interpret West Af r i c a ' s history. Are they s u f f i c i e n t to give answers to today's events and also give guidelines for constructive action? To begin, the bundling of a l l so c i e t i e s into the same crudely linear concept of developmental process ignores the bulk of human history. To argue that West Africans were underdeveloped or undeveloped peoples was tantamount to saying that they had no history of th e i r own, Whereas, i n fact, i t l i e s beyond any serious question that they were i n no way underdeveloped or undeveloped i n terms of t h e i r own 4 frameworks. Third, an attempt w i l l be made to show the policy implications of the region's experience and to suggest some complementary p o l i c i e s for sustaining the objective of 'development', and for pursuing i t . With regard to the t h e o r e t i c a l dimensions of the study, i t should be noted that development planning models and general frameworks for the a l l o c a t i o n of both public and p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e s f o r economic development i n b o t h u n i t a r y and f e d e r a l s t a t e s i n West A f r i c a , have so f a r tended t o emphasize the s i n g u l a r o b j e c t i v e o f m a x i m i z i n g g r o s s n a t i o n a l . 5 income. T h i s narrow f o c u s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n a r e g i o n as d i v e r s e as West A f r i c a where i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o a t t a i n the a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e o f t h e e q u i t a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s segments of s o c i e t y i n the p r o c e s s o f development. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the o u t p u t m a x i m i z a t i o n emphasis n e i t h e r t a k e s i n t o account the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on the p a t h o f 'development' i n the n a t i o n s t a t e ; t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n the economic and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n t e n t i t i e s i n the n a t i o n s t a t e ; nor the f a c t t h a t the v e r y s u r v i v a l o f t h e n a t i o n s t a t e depends on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the d i v e r s e r e g i o n a l ( p r o v i n c i a l ) e n t i t i e s i n the development p r o c e s s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r s h a r i n g o f b e n e f i t s g e n e r a t e d from development. T h i s s t u d y w i l l attempt t o p r o v i d e a b r o a d e r c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r development p l a n n i n g i n r e g i o n s as d i v e r s e as West A f r i c a . Development I t w i l l p r o b a b l y not a l a r m t h e development p l a n n e r t o r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g i v e a p r e c i s e meaning o f 'development'. T h i s i s because t h e r e are many d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h i s c o ncept w h i c h have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e . F o r some, economic development i s o n l y one a s p e c t o r d i m e n s t i o n o f g e n e r a l development,^ because a l t h o u g h the n a t i o n s t a t e i s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d as a u n i t f o r development, ' n a t i o n a l development' i s a term w h i c h s h o u l d -5-i n c l u d e a t l e a s t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l changes as w e l l as economic changes. To some, 'development' i m p l i e s growth accompanied by change, s i n c e t h e r e are e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s i n the p r o c e s s o f development t h a t are o f t e n a b s e nt i n the 7 q u a n t i t a t i v e growth o r e x p a n s i o n o f an economy, Some of t h e s e q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s a r e improved e f f i c i e n c y of f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e development o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a change i n t h e s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t o some e c o n o m i s t s , 'development' means i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . But the e n t i r e gamut of t h e s o c i e t y may not be a f f e c t e d , and i n d e e d , as i n most o f t h e r e g i o n s o f A f r i c a , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has o n l y a f f e c t e d a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n (see T a b l e 1.1). A l t e r n a t i v e l y , 'development' has a l s o been viewed as t h e achievement o f a number of i d e a l s o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n . Such i d e a l s i n c l u d e : a r i s e i n p r o d u c t i v i t y , s o c i a l and economic e q u a l i z a t i o n , modern knowledge, improved i n s t i t u t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s , and a r a t i o n a l l y c o - o r d i n a t e d system o f p o l i c y measures t h a t can remove the h o s t o f u n d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s o f the s o c i a l system t h a t p e r p e t u a t e a s t a t e o f under-development,8 F i n a l l y , development has a l s o been seen as 'economic independence' w h i c h i s u s u a l l y echoed by l e a d e r s o f the p r e s e n t - d a y d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s o r by the d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s whose economies are dominated by f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t . The 'dependence' o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s on e x p o r t TABLE 1.1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Labour F o r c e i n E a s t e r n A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s ( p e r c e n t ) M a n u f a c t u r i n g C o u n t r i e s A q r i c u l t u r e and M i n i n g S e r v i c e T o t a l E t h i o p i a 88 4.5 7.5 100 T a n z a n i a 89 . 4 3.8 6.8. 100 Kenya 85.8 5.1 9.1 100 Malawi ;•  92.4 2 . 8 4.8 100 Sudan 85.7 6.2 8.1 100 Zambia 7 8.6 7.0 14.4 100 Source: Labour F o r c e P r o j e c t i o n s 1965-1985, P a r t I I , A f r i c a , Geneva, I.L.O., 1971. markets and f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i s o f t e n r e g a r d e d as " f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n " o r " e x p l o i t a t i o n " w h i c h , as the argument goes, must be p r e v e n t e d by a d o p t i n g i m p o r t s u b s t i t u t i o n p o l i c i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s on the f l o w o f e x t e r n a l p r i v a t e c a p i t a l . However, th e emphasis on n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and independence t h r o u g h i n w a r d - l o o k i n g p o l i c i e s may impede r a t h e r t h a n s t i m u l a t e 'development', n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d . The v a r i o u s meanings of 'development' r e v i e w e d above would seem t o i m p l y change i n the economic s t r u c t u r e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework of the s o c i e t y c o n c e rned. T h i s change t a k e s t h e form o f r i s i n g incomes and i n c r e a s e s i n t h e volume of goods and s e r v i c e s , t h a t are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s y s t e m a t i c and p r e d i c t a b l e v a r i a t i o n s i n such f e a t u r e s o f t h e economic s t r u c t u r e a s : o u t p u t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e g r o s s d o m e s t i c product> r a t e s o f s a v i n g s and i n v e s t m e n t , income d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n , p e r c a p i t a . i n c o m e s , consumption l e v e l s , u t i l i z a t i o n o f c a p i t a l and l a b o u r , c a p i t a l - o u t p u t and l a b o u r - o u t p u t r a t i o s , and t h e p a t t e r n o f t r a d e . Any d e v i a t i o n from the normal p a t h o f development o f t h e West A f r i c a n economy can be made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h the c r e a t i o n o f new i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e p a t t e r n s ; by c h a n g i n g the t a s t e s o f s o c i e t y ; by making new demands and problems r e s u l t i n g from t h e p r o c e s s o f change; o r t h r o u g h an economic i n t e g r a t i o n o r u n i o n o f f o r m e r l y autonomous economic u n i t s . The above view o f 'development' does n o t , however, c o n s i d e r t h e u n s o l v e d problem o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e , -8-p a r t i c u l a r l y as n o t h i n g p r e c i s e can be s a i d r e g a r d i n g the e x t e n t of the improvements i n i n d i v i d u a l w e l f a r e as a consequence of development and t h e problem o f making comparisons between the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s i s n e x t t o i m p o s s i b l e . For example, the extended f a m i l y system may be h i g h on t h e l i s t o f s o c i a l v a l u e s of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y . What i s the impact of development and of European c i v i l i z a t i o n on t h e A f r i c a n f a m i l y w h i c h i s deemed v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n the e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f A f r i c a n l i f e ? The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e f a m i l y has been i n d i c a t e d by t h e l a r g e amount o f s t u d y which has been devoted t o the a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f European c o n t a c t s and c o n t r o l i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n i n g under changing c o n d i t i o n s . I n f a c t , the s t u d y of t h e f a m i l y p r o v i d e s the most f r u i t f u l approach t o the s t u d y of development i n West A f r i c a , " * " ^ D i s l o c a t i o n s i n any p a r t o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e are r e f l e c t e d i n the f a m i l y , w h i l e the d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y system a f f e c t s the e n t i r e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . -9-CHAPTER I I Review o f Development T h e o r i e s There i s a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g number of t h e o r i e s o f economic development. The o b j e c t o f development t h e o r y , t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s c a l l e d development, has been e x p l o r e d much more t h o r o u g h l y d u r i n g the l a s t decade. S t r a n g e l y enough, t h i s has not l e d t o a b a s i c a l l y new t h e o r y o r t o d e f i n i t e answers t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o r e t i c a l approaches d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . To what e x t e n t do t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l approaches p l a y a r o l e i n the r e a l development of an a r e a such as West A f r i c a ? The response t o t h i s q u e s t i o n p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r c e r t a i n i n f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g the u s e f u l n e s s o f the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches w h i c h up t i l l now have been employed. In the f o l l o w i n g , some of the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches c u r r e n t l y p l a y i n g a r o l e i n the d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e problems o f the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , o f w h i c h West A f r i c a i s a p a r t , w i l l be e x p l o r e d . Each o f t h e s e approaches r e p r e s e n t s p a r t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s which a n a l y z e a l i m i t e d a s p e c t o f t h e p o s s i b l e causes o f p o v e r t y and w h i c h i n c r e a s e the e x t e r n a l dependence of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . The i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s i n t o a g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f development i n the image o f ' S e l f - R e l i a n c e * w i l l be e x p l a i n e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s o f development are grouped below a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o n t e n t s . Some o f the t h e o r i e s might a l s o have been c l a s s i f i e d under more than one h e a d i n g . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f development t h e o r i e s i s u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o make i t e a s i e r t o r e v i e w the v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l approaches. Du a l i s m T h e o r i e s The t h e o r y o f economic and s o c i a l d u a l i s m o f B o e k e . ^ 12 The t h e o r y o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l d u a l i s m o f Eckaus. 13 The t h e o r y o f r e g i o n a l d u a l i s m o f Gaunage. The d u a l i s m t h e o r i e s p r o c e e d from the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d u a l economic and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . The i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r s emphasize d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s . Economic d u a l i s m l i e s i n the e x i s t e n c e o f an u n i n t e g r a t e d s u b s i s t e n c e s e c t o r and a market s e c t o r . T e c h n o l o g i c a l d u a l i s m r e f e r s t o t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e economy i n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r , i n w h i c h l a b o u r - e x t e n s i v e t e c h n i q u e s p redominate; and a modern s e c t o r , f o r ' w h i c h modern c a p i t a l -i n t e n s i v e p r o d u c t i o n methods are t y p i c a l . R e g i o n a l d u a l i s m d e s c r i b e s the s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s o f a c o u n t r y are connected by i n a d e q u a t e means o f communications, so t h a t l i t t l e o r no i n t e r r e g i o n a l t r a d e w i t h i n the economy t a k e s p l a c e . The c a p i t a l o f the c o u n t r y , f r e q u e n t l y l o c a t e d on t h e c o a s t , i s an e n c l a v e from w h i c h no i m p u l s e s emanate. G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , i t b e l o n g s t o the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y ; but e c o n o m i c a l l y , t o t h e m e t r o p o l i s . These economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and r e g i o n a l d u a l i s m i s o f t e n the consequence o f s o c i a l d u a l i s m , t h a t i s , the l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n between d i f f e r e n t groups o f t h e popu-r l a t i o n a r i s i n g from r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , c l a s s , e t h n i c , o r l i n g u i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s . Such d u a l i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n a -11-s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t d e c i s i v e l y i m p o r t a n t b a r r i e r s t o development. Overcoming the d u a l i s m by c r e a t i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e and t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a t e s l e a d i n g t o an i n t e g r a t e d economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e ( n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g ) i s t h e r e f o r e a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r economic development. The Urban I n d u s t r i a l v s . R u r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l B i a s I n t h e f i e l d o f development, d u a l i s m i s a v a l u e -l o a d e d s u b j e c t , b u t t h e problem o f a l l o c a t i n g development e f f o r t between the s e c t o r s i s d i s c u s s i b l e i n n e u t r a l terms. T h i s i s h a r d l y , s o , however, f o r t h e r e are c l o s e l i n k s between the two d e b a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y when the d i s c u s s i o n i s c a r r i e d on a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e s i m p l e s t - o r p r i n c i p a l - dichotomy: t h a t between a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y . U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , i t has been an a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l a ssumption t h a t a c o u n t r y , dependent m a i n l y on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , as i t i s w i t h most o f t h e West A f r i c a n S t a t e s , and w i t h a v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i s 'backward'; and t h a t t h e p a t h o f p r o g r e s s i s t o g e t p e o p l e , c a p i t a l and a f a r g r e a t e r s hare o f t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n i n t o i n d u s t r y and t h e towns. T h i s argument f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y from th e h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e of Europe and N o r t h A m e r i c a ; i t f o l l o w s e q u a l l y from t h e hothouse p a t t e r n o f development f o l l o w e d by t h e S o v i e t U nion. I t i s o n l y i n the most r e c e n t p e r i o d , and e s p e c i a l l y so i n C h i n a , t h a t a v i a b l e , and perhaps even p r e f e r a b l e , a l t e r n a t i v e has emerged i n t o t h e v iew of p l a n n e r s and 14 w r i t e r s o f development. There are m u l t i p l e reasons f o r t h e u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l -12-b i a s w h i c h grew and f l o u r i s h e d d e s p i t e the c o n s t a n t s n i p p i n g of a m i n o r i t y o f c r i t i c s . I t i s a h i s t o r i c a l f a c t t h a t the p o w e r f u l n a t i o n s o f the l a s t 150 y e a r s have been t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s ; t h e p o l i c y - m a k e r s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have seen i n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a means o f c a t c h i n g up and o f r e d u c i n g t h e i r s t a t e o f dependency. Such t h i n k i n g g a i n e d enormously from the e x p e r i e n c e o f the l a t e i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g n a t i o n s : Japan,-and the S o v i e t U n i o n . I t g a i n e d , a l s o , from an e m b i t t e r e d b e l i e f t h a t any s o r t o f ' e x p e r t ' p e r s u a s i o n t o c o n c e n t r a t e on improvements i n p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g was m o t i v a t e d by a w i s h t o keep d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n a s t a t e o f economic s u b s e r v i e n c e , K. Nkrumah i n one o f h i s works quoted: "There are ,'"-however, i m p e r i a l i s t s p e c i a l i s t s and a p o l o g i s t s who urge t h e l e s s d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on a g r i c u l t u r e and l e a v e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n f o r some l a t e r t ime when t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s s h a l l be w e l l f e d . . . . But even t o make a g r i c u l t u r e y i e l d more t h e a i d o f i n d u s t r i a l o u t p u t i s needed; and t h e underdeveloped w o r l d cannot f o r e v e r be p l a c e d a t t he mercy o f the more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d . . . w e are c o n v i n c e d t h a t we s h a l l be a b l e t o a d j u s t the b a l a n c e i n our f a v o u r o n l y be d e v e l o p i n g an a g r i c u l t u r e a t t u n e d t o our needs and s u p p o r i n g i t w i t h a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n t h a t w i l l break the neo-c o l o n i a l i s t p a t t e r n o f which a t p r e s e n t o p e r a t e s . " 1 5 The c o i n c i d e n c e o f such p o l i t i c a l arguments w i t h the p e r s u a s i o n o f an economic growth t h e o r y has pr o v e d d e c i s i v e . We r e c a l l t he emphasis g i v e n t o t h e emergence o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r s i n Rostow's s t a g e s and the whole t h r u s t of t he t h e o r y o f economic d u a l i s m . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t growth t a r g e t s and t h e s u p p o r t i n g development -13-p l a n s o f the West A f r i c a n n a t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r independence has p l a c e d heavy w e i g h t on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , the p r o - i n d u s t r y argument i s s t i l l p r e f e r r e d , though disenchantment w i t h the r e s u l t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s have l e d t o a s t r o n g r e v i v a l o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l t h e s i s . A l t h o u g h a f u l l e r e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s d isenchantment b e l o n g s f u r t h e r i n t h e argument, when we come t o d i s c u s s the q u e s t i o n of i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t development and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , some of the r e a s o n s can most u s e f u l l y be p r e s e n t e d h e r e . A f t e r an i n i t i a l b u r s t , t h e pace of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has s l a c k e n e d i n a g r e a t many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , The e a s i e s t r o a d t o i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n has v e r y o f t e n been th r o u g h i m p o r t - s u b s t i t u t i o n i n d u s t r i e s : t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s have not always l e d t o a d i m i n u t i o n of f o r e i g n exchange s p e n d i n g , because many p r o c e s s o r assemble i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o d u c t , r e q u i r e i m p o r t e d f u e l f o r power, and i n v o l v e l a r g e f o r e i g n payments f o r l i c e n c e f e e s and e x p a t r i a t e d p r o f i t s t o f o r e i g n owners o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . Once an i n i t i a l range of ' s i m p l e r ' i n d u s t r i e s i s e s t a b l i s h e d , f u r t h e r growth w i l l move i n t o a more complex rang e , r e q u i r i n g h e a v i e r c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t and l a r g e r s c a l e ; t h e y may be u n a b l e t o o p e r a t e e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o l a r g e r m a r k e t s . Many secondary i n d u s t r i e s do not g e n e r a t e v e r y l a r g e employment and t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r growth has f a i l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o check the r i s e i n unemployment l e v e l s , e f f e c t i v e demand i n t h e i n t e r n a l economy i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c r e a s e d , and the a g r i c u l t u r e s e c t o r r s not g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d . Lack o f - I n -adequate m a r k e t s , and o f t h e e x t e r n a l economies of mass, have a g g r a v a t e d a t r e n d toward i n e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n ; c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e new c a p i t a l i s , t h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the growth of h i g h l y - c a p i t a l i z e d i n d u s t r y has o f t e n tended t o e l i m i n a t e l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e manufacture i n s m a l l p l a n t s and h o u s e h o l d s . I n Havana, Cuba, t o c i t e o n l y one example from a d e v e l o p i n g a r e a , t h e n e t e f f e c t o f 'modern' i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has been t o reduce t o t a l 16 i n d u s t r i a l employment i n the c i t y . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have l e d t o t h e ' i n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n o l o g y ' t h e s i s advanced i n r e c e n t y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r c i b l y e x p r e s s e d i n the Cambridge volume by E.F. Schumacher. H i s argument has s p a t i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , b u t i t a c c o r d s c l o s e l y w i t h S i n g e r ' s v i e w t h a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g u n s u i t a b i l i t y o f modern t e c h n o l o g y f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y c o n d i t i o n s i s c r e a t i n g a new and more 17 d e a d l y form of d u a l i s m . I t i s easy t o s a y , as many do, t h a t no i n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n o l o g y e x i s t s , b u t t h i s i s s i m p l y t o say t h a t no e x p r e s s e d demand has b r o u g h t i t i n t o e x i s t e n c e i n t h e c o u n t r i e s o f West A f r i c a . S t r a t e g i c a l t h e o r i e s 18 The t a k e - o f f t h e o r y o f Rostow. 19 The t h e o r y o f the ' b i g push' by Rosenstein-Rodan. The t h e o r y o f c r i t i c a l minimum e f f o r t o f L e i b e n s t e i n . 21 The t h e o r y o f b a l a n c e d growth o f Nurske. 22 The t h e o r y o f unbalanced growth o f Hirschman, 23 The t h e o r y o f p o l e s o f development of P e r r o u x . 24 The t h e o r y o f c i r c u l a r c a u s a t i o n o f M y r d a l . -15-The ' t a k e - o f f i s t h a t phase o f economic development i n w hich our economy becomes c a p a b l e o f s e l f - s u s t a i n e d growth. The concept i s analogous t o t h e t a k e - o f f o f an a e r o p l a n e . I n o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e ' t a k e - o f f ' phase, two c o n d i t i o n s must be f u l f i l l e d : n e t p r o d u c t i v e i n v e s t m e n t must i n c r e a s e i n a s h o r t space o f time from 5% t o 10% o f n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t ; and c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r growth must be met. A c c o r d i n g t o Rostow, the ' t a k e - o f f i s the c r i t i c a l s t a g e o f the f i v e s t a g e s o f economic growth: t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y , s o c i e t y i n t r a n s i t i o n , t a k e - o f f , the d r i v e t o m a t u r i t y , t h e age o f mass-consumption. The t h e o r y o f the ' b i g push' a t t e m p t s t o f o r m u l a t e the c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e t a k e - o f f more p r e c i s e l y . Here, an i n v e s t m e n t t h e o r y i s propounded w h i c h proceeds from the t h e s i s , t h a t , t h e g r o s s s o c i a l r e t u r n s ( i e . p r i v a t e r e t u r n p l u s e x t e r n a l economies) o f a l a r g e i n v e s t m e n t i s g r e a t e r t h a n the g r o s s s o c i a l c o s t o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t ( p r i v a t e c o s t p l u s e x t e r a l d i s e c o n o m i e s ) . The c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h must be f u l f i l l e d f o r t h i s t h e o r y t o h o l d a r e : ( i ) t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y o f funds from the p r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r i n v e s t m e n t and, ( i i ) a s i m u l t a n e o u s demand f o r t h e s e funds f o r i n v e s t m e n t p u r p o s e s . The proponents o f the t h e o r y o f c r i t i c a l minimum e f f o r t argue s i m i l a r l y . Here, a c r i t i c a l minimum e f f o r t i s supposed t o be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t the c o n c e n t r a t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c e r t a i n q u a n t i t y o f c a p i t a l s h o u l d l e a d t o a r a t e o f growth e x c e e d i n g the r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n , i n c r e a s e , Only by e x c e e d i n g t h e r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i s i t p o s s i b l e t o -16-p r e v e n t t h e development p r o c e s s from r e t r o g r e s s i n g t o and beyond the i n i t i a l l e v e l . The t h e o r i e s o f b a l a n c e d and unbalanced growth l a y down t h e s t r a t e g i e s t o be f o l l o w e d i n overcoming p o v e r t y . The b a l a n c e d growth s t r a t e g y argues t h a t i s o l a t e d i n v e s t m e n t s are i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f overcoming p o v e r t y , and t h a t a s e t o f complementary i n v e s t m e n t s chosen w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r mutual e f f e c t s must be p l a n n e d . I n c a r r y i n g out t h e s e i n v e s t m e n t s , t h e demand n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n and make e f f e c t i v e t h e s e i n v e s t m e n t s i s c r e a t e d . The s t r a t e g y o f unbalanced growth, on t h e o t h e r hand, assumes t h a t c a p i t a l and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l t a l e n t a re s c a r c e . T h e r e f o r e , the s e l e c t i v e p r o m o t i o n o f some i n d u s t r i e s i s recommended. In t h i s way, b o t t l e - n e c k s i n s u p p l i e r s ' o r p u r c h a s e r s ' s e c t o r s n e c e s s a r i l y appear w h i c h a t t r a c t t h e p r i v a t e and p u b l i c e n t r e p r e n e u r s ' a t t e n t i o n . Investment a c t i v i t y r e s u l t s w h i c h i n t u r n c r e a t e s new b o t t l e - n e c k s and p o t e n t i a l l y p r o f i t a b l e s i t u a t i o n s i n o t h e r s e c t o r s . The l i n k a g e e f f e c t i n p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , as w e l l as i n t h e g e n e r a t i n g o f income and demand, i n d u c e s a c t i v i t y i n t h e s u p p l y i n g as w e l l as i n the consuming s e c t o r s . A c l a i m o f d i s e q u i l i b r i a s h o u l d p r o p e l the development p r o c e s s f o r w a r d . P e r r o u x ' s t h e o r y o f p o l e s r e s t s on a s i m i l a r argument, On the o t h e r hand, t h e t h e o r y o f c i r c u l a r c a u s a t i o n p o i n t s t o t h e danger o f f o r m i n g p o l e s . M y r d a l , t h e c h i e f proponent o f t h i s t h e o r y , a t t e m p t s t o demonstrate t h a t w i t h i n a n a t i o n a l a r e a t h e r e i s an o b s e r v a b l e tendency f o r t h e w e a l t h i e r r e g i o n s t o become r i c h e r and the p o o r e r r e g i o n s more -17-i m p r o v e r i s h e d . M y r d a l d i s t i n g u i s h e s between s p r e a d e f f e c t s 25 and back-wash e f f e c t s . U s i n g O h l i n ' s a n a l y s i s o f t r a d e between d i s t i n c t r e g i o n s , he shows t h a t c e r t a i n r e g i o n s e x p e r i e n c e c u l m u l a t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n . I n the p o o r e r r e g i o n s c o n t r a c t i v e p r o c e s s e s o c c u r s i n c e c a p i t a l , l a b o u r and p o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s m i g r a t e t o the more p r o s p e r o u s r e g i o n s ( N o r t h e r n S i e r r a Leone i s an example of t h i s ) . F o r e i g n Trade T h e o r i e s 26 The t h e o r y o f the dominant economy o f P e r r o u x . The t h e o r y o f the s e c u l a r d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the terms of 27 2 8 t r a d e o f P r e b i s c h and the "two s e c t o r s " model of L e w i s . 29 The t h e o r y o f growth by B a g w a t i . The t h e o r y o f the dominant economy has been d e v e l o p e d by P e r r o u x . E x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t , h i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e r e i s no tendency towards e q u a l i z a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n growth. However, a c c o r d i n g t o P e r r o u x ' s t h e s i s , t h i s i s t o be e x p l a i n e d by the i n t e n t i o n a l o r u n i n t e n t i o n a l d o m i n a t i o n o f p o o r e r c o u n t r i e s by the d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Peroux, t h i s dominance i s due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n n e g o t i a t i n g s t r e n g t h b o t h i n the s i z e o f the c o u n t r i e s i n v o l v e d , and i n t h e t y p e s o f economic a c t i v i t y w hich they p u r s u e . T h i s dominance e n a b l e s the dominant c o u n t r y t o t a k e advantage of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , w h i l s t t h e dominated l a n d c o n t i n u e s t o be c o n f i n e d t o u n p r o d u c t i v e a r e a s o f p r o d u c t i o n , The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e dominated c o u n t r y i s adapted t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f raw m a t e r i a l s . The a t t e m p t s o f the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a r e , be i t c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , -18-f r u s t r a t e d . Thus, the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s c o n t i n u e t o be s o u r c e s o f i n e x p e n s i v e raw m a t e r i a l s f o r the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s , j u s t as t h e y were d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l t i m e s . The t h e o r y o f t h e s e c u l a r d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e terms o f t r a d e a l s o b u i l d s on the i d e a l s c o n t a i n e d i n P e r r o u x ' s t h e o r y . The e x p r e s s i o n "terms of t r a d e " (commodity) r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c o u n t r y ' s e x p o r t p r i c e s and t h e p r i c e s i t pays f o r i t s i m p o r t s . I n t h e l o n g r u n , t h e p r i c e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market d e c l i n e , w h i l s t t h e p r i c e s o f manufactured goods r i s e , r e s u l t i n g i n a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the t r a d e s i t u a t i o n f o r the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y . From t h i s tendency t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s d e r i v e a m o r a l b a s i s f o r i n c r e a s e d economic a i d , The t h e o r y o f unequal p r o p e l l a n t growth i s a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h e terms of t r a d e argument. U n d e r l y i n g t h i s t h e o r y i s the assumption t h a t as a consequence of a one-s i d e d p r o m o t i o n of a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y ' s e x p o r t s e c t o r , t h e i n c r e a s e d o u t p u t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l and raw m a t e r i a l s w i l l cause a f u r t h e r drop i n t h e i r p l a c e s and a c o n t i n u e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the terms of t r a d e . The r e a l p r o f i t s i n the e x p o r t s e c t o r w i l l be b r o u g h t t o n o t h i n g by a t r a n s f e r o f income abroad. Thus, th e e x p a n s i o n of the e x p o r t s e c t o r w i l l / m a y h i n d e r economic development due t o a m i s a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . T h i s t h e s i s appears v a l i d f o r c o u n t r i e s w i t h a m o n o c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e p r o d u c i n g m a i n l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p o r t (Gambia and S e n e g a l ) . -1'9-S o c i o l o q i c a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l T h e o r i e s - The t h e o r y o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n o f M c C l e l l a n d . 3 ^ 31 - The t h e o r y o f S o c i a l Change of Hagen. 32 - The e v o l u t i o n model of Levy.,.,. 33 - The a l t e r n a t i v e model o f A p t e r . 34 - The a c c u l t u r a t i o n model of Almond & Coleman. In M c C l e l l a n d ' s view, the cause o f underdevelopment i s t o be sought i n the absence o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n , which he d e f i n e s as t h e d e s i r e t o do w e l l , not so much f o r the sake o f s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o r p r e s t i g e b u t t o a t t a i n an i n n e r f e e l i n g o f p e r s o n a l accomplishment. From each o f the 40 d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s he i n v e s t i g a t e d , 2 1 s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s and f a i r y t a l e s w i t h a v i e w towards d e t e r m i n i n g t h e presence o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n . He t h e n compared the i n d e x thus o b t a i n e d f o r each c o u n t r y w i t h i t s growth r a t e . T h i s compa-r i s o n r e v e a l e d a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y provokes the q u e s t i o n : What d e t e r m i n e s the d i f f e r e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n ? Hagen has p r o v i d e d an approach towards answering t h i s q u e s t i o n . He has d e v e l o p e d a s o c i a l -p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y o f s o c i a l change w h i c h d e p a r t s from the t h e s i s t h a t a s o c i e t y ' s s t a b i l i t y depends upon i t s a b i l i t y t o s a t i s f y t h e problems o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l members d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d h o o d . I n d u c i n g change i n the s o c i a l system can have the r e s u l t t h a t a group w h i c h was 'formerly c o n t e n t becomes f r u s t r a t e d . The r e s u l t i n g b e h a v i o r a l ' response, w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e c h i l d r e n ' s environment ( f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ) , so t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e an i m p r e s s i o n o f d i s c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y w h i c h l e a d s them t o adopt an a l i e n t v a l u e system. The f r u s t r a t e d c h i l d r e n become p o t e n t i a l i n n o v a t o r s , from whom an i m p u l s e towards s o c i a l change and economic p r o g r e s s i s t o be e x p e c t e d . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , the r o l e o f m i n o r i t i e s d e s e r v e s m e n t i o n : g i v e n a dynamic s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n m i n o r i t i e s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y behave i n the manner j u s t d e s c r i b e d . T h i s t h e s i s i s s u p p o r t e d i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t by e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e r o l e o f t h e C a l v i n i s t s i n Europe and N o r t h A m e r i c a , o f the r o l e o f the Jews i n a number of c o u n t r i e s , and o f t h e r o l e o f t h e Lebanese i n West A f r i c a . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above enumerated a n a l y t i c a l approaches t o some a s p e c t s o f t h e problem, a t t e m p t s have been made t o a n a l y s e s o c i o e c o n o m i c development w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e s o - c a l l e d ' m o d e r n i z a t i o n ' t h e o r i e s . A t the r i s k o f e x c e s s i v e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , the b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h e o r i e s may be f o r m u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : i f one s u b t r a c t s t h e "underdeveloped s o c i e t i e s " from t h e " i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s " t h e remainder r e p r e s e n t s a programme of development. That i s t o say, the c e n t r a l aim o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h e o r i e s i s the a t t a i n m e n t o f the c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s . . I n Levy's e v o l u t i o n model, m o d e r n i z a t i o n i s c o n c e i v e d as an e v o l u t i o n a r y change l e a d i n g t o t h e a s c r i b e d g o a l o f becoming a modern s o c i e t y . T h i s change i s b r o u g h t about by i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h n e c e s s a r i l y causes a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e independence e n j o y e d by - 2 1 -the members o f t h e s o c i e t y a f f e c t e d . A p t e r u n d e r s t a n d s s o c i o e c o n o m i c development t o be a change t a k i n g p l a c e i n q u a l i t a t i v e f o r w a r d l e a p s , H i s a l t e r n a t i v e model assumes d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n the t r a n s i t i o n from the t r a d i t i o n a l t o the modern, l i b e r a l s o c i e t y . Almond and Coleman, i n t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t i o n model, d e s c r i b e the p r o c e s s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n as t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l framework o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t o modern s t r u c t u r e s . W h i l s t i n the f i r s t s t a g e s , t r a d i t i o n a l and • modern s t r u c t u r e s e x i s t u n i n t e g r a t e d , s i d e by s i d e ; i n t h e l a t e r s t a g e s , t h e modern s t r u c t u r e s dominate. Communications d a t a may s e r v e as a s t a n d a r d o f measurement ( l i t e r a r y r a t e , number o f newspapers, w i r e l e s s e s , p o r t d e l i v e r i e s per 1,000 i n h a b i t a n t s ) . These m o d e r n i z i n g t h e o r i e s s u ggest a p o l i t i c a l programme f o r development which, on the one hand, promotes s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and on the o t h e r , i n t e g r a t i o n . An o r i e n t a t i o n towards i n d i v i d u a l i s m and achievement m o t i v a t i o n accompanies a p r o c e s s w h i c h , i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere,has a tendency towards d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . M a r x i s t s t h e o r i e s A s e r i e s o f M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s have been d e v e l o p e d which proceed from the b a s i c t h e s i s • t h a t p o v e r t y i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s a consequence of the c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n and the n e o c o l o n i a l p o l i c y o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s . The most i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l approaches a r e : - The theory of the three worlds of Horowitz. 3 6 - The theory of Lenin. - The theory of the n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n movements (r e v o l u t i o n a r y warfare) of Frantz Fanon and E. Che Guevara. 3 8 - The theory of 'dependencia' of Andre Gunder Frank. - The theory of A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m of Kwame Nkrumah and 39 J u l i u s Nyerere. Underlying Horowitz's theory of three worlds isi the f o l l o w i n g thought: the f i r s t world i n c l u d e s the market economies of the Western world, the second world the c e n t r a l planning economies of the East. The t h i r d world i s made up of the s o - c a l l e d non-aligned c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America. The f i r s t and second world are overdeveloped, that i s to say, they possess the necessary productive c a p a c i t y to a t t a i n p r o s p e r i t y but t h e i r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e impedes an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the n a t i o n a l product. The t h i r d world i s not faced w i t h a mutually e x c l u s i v e choice between s o c i a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m , but r a t h e r should develop mixed forms (syntheses between p r i v a t e and c o l l e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the economy, combinations between freedom and coercion i n economics and p o l i t i c s ) . These new mixed forms would r e q u i r e the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e l i m i n a t i o n of the f e u d a l and bourgeois s t r u c t u r e of power p r e v a i l i n g i n developing c o u n t r i e s . A side e f f e c t of mixed economic and p o l i t i c a l systems i n the t h i r d world would be a c o n t r i b u t i o n towards reducing the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l a r i z a t i o n around two b l o c k s . The theory of mixed form i s r e j e c t e d by L e n i n i s t s . -23-L e n i n argues t h a t the backward c o u n t r i e s r e p r e s e n t a r e a s of e x p l o i t a t i o n w h i c h are n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f the c a p i t a l i s t i c system. The danger of o v e r p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t economy can o n l y be e l i m i n a t e d i f t h e e x c e s s goods can be e x p o r t e d t o t h e backward c o u n t r i e s . I n t h i s way t h e unemployment i n the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s i s e x p o r t e d t o the backward c o u n t r i e s . He f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s t h e o r y by a d d i n g th e t h e s i s t h a t t h e c a p i t a l i s t system i s under c o m p u l s i o n t o e x p o r t c a p i t a l , s i n c e t h e r a t e o f p r o f i t has a tendency t o f a l l , t hus r e d u c i n g t h e i n v e s t m e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The p r o f i t s o b t a i n e d from th e d i r e c t i n v e s t m e n t s made w i t h t h e c a p i t a l e x p o r t e d f l o w back t o the d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s - a f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of e x p l o i t a t i o n . A t t h e c o r e o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s i s t h e t h e s i s t h a t the p o v e r t y i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s a consequence of t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n by the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s . T h i s p o v e r t y can o n l y be e l i m i n a t e d by c r e a t i n g a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s s i n c e t hey r e p r e s e n t markets and t h e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s of raw m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e i m p e r i a l i s t i c powers. The c r e a t i o n o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o i n c r e a s i n g t h e c a p i t a l i s t i c economies' s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o economic c r i s i s . T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y t h e f u n c t i o n a s s i g n e d t o t h e a n t i c o l o n i a l movements of n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements, the c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n w e s t e r n c a p i t a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s would become apparent and the e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s , i n d i g e n o u s o r f o r e i g n , would be so weakened by the l o s s o f i t s i m p e r i a l i s t i c p r i v i l e g e s t h a t i t would no l o n g e r be a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i t s -24-p r e v i o u s r u l i n g p o s i t i o n . The l i b e r a t i o n o f the t h i r d w o r l d would l e a d t o the c o l l a p s e o f the i m p e r i a l i s t - c a p i t a l i s t i c system. S i n c e the g r e a t e s t p a r t o f t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n c o u n t r i e s making up the t h i r d w o r l d , i t i s t h e r e t h a t r e s i s t a n c e on a g l o b a l s c a l e has i t s g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y . With t h i s i n mind, Che Guevara p r e d i c t e d a phase o f n a t i o n a l g u e r r i l l a w a r f a r e which s h o u l d p r o c e e d from t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d where "the g r e a t e s t number o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s " , "the w o r s t s u f f e r i n g p r e v a i l s " and a t t a c k s "can b e s t be mounted". I n t h e s p e c i f i c a l l y C h i n e s e concept o f t h e n a t i o n a l war, which goes f o r w a r d i n t h r e e s t a g e s ( r e t r e a t - d e a d l o c k - a t t a c k ) , t h e c r e a t i o n o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n a l s o proceeds from t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d , f i n a l l y c o n q u e r i n g t h e c i t i e s i n t h e u l t i m a t e s t a g e . The s t r a t e g y o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c development i s i d e n t i c a l t o the s t r u g g l e o f the v i l l a g e and the c i t y . T h i s t h e o r y i s a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n C h i n a , A l g e r i a and Cuba. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , F r a n t z Fanon's concept o f the A l g e r i a n R e v o l u t i o n i s a case i n p o i n t . The i d e a o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d , w h i c h c u t s o f f t h e c i t i e s from t h e i r s o u r c e o f s u b s i s t e n c e and so s t a r v e s them i n t o s u b m i s s i o n , i s extended f u r t h e r t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system. N o r t h A m e r i c a and Europe a r e c o n s i d e r e d as urban c u l t u r e s whereas, A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a r e p r e s e n t the w o r l d ' s ( r u r a l c u l t u r e s ) . T h i s w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s the e n c i r c l e m e n t o f t h e c i t i e s as a consequence of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y o f t h e v i l l a g e s - t h i s b e i n g t h e o n l y way t o overcome th e e x i s t i n g g l o b a l e x p l o i t a t i o n and p o v e r t y . -25-Andre Gunder Frank c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as one o f t h e p i o n e e r s o f the 'dependencia' c o n c e p t . H i s 'metropole-s a t e l l i t e ' model o f underdevelopment a l r e a d y c a r r i e d most of 40 the b a s i c i d e a s o f the 'dependencia' c o n c e p t . Most 'dependen-c i a ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s however, s e p a r a t e t hemselves from F r a n k ' s s t r o n g v e r t i c a l ( h e i r a r c h i c a l ) scheme t h a t runs from t h e c e n t r e 41 o f the m e t r o p o l e t o the h i n t e r l a n d o f the p e r i p h e r y , A c c o r d i n g t o Havelock B r e w s t e r , a n o t h e r member o f t h e 'dependencia' s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t , economic dependence r e f l e c t s a l a c k o f c a p a c i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e the o p e r a t i v e elements o f an economic system because t h e dynamism o f the system i s o f e x t e r n a l o r i g i n . The term i s a p p l i e d "most g e n e r a l l y t o a s i t u a t i o n where the growth o f income o f a c o u n t r y i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y , i f not e n t i r e l y , dependent on e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y e x p o r t s , i m p o r t s and e x t e r n a l f i n a n c e and t e c h n o l o g y . The l e v e l o f dependence i s assumed t o be h i g h e r 42 the g r e a t e r t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e economy. To v i e w development problems from t h i s s t a n d - p o i n t , c o n t i n u e s B r e w s t e r , has the advantage o f h i g h - l i g h t i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have been d e v e l o p i n g backwards i n as much as t h e i r own t e c h n o l o g i c a l knowledge and powers o f i n v e n t i o n are c o n t i n u o u s l y outpaced by the t e c h n o l o g y i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n and i n as much as t h e economic s t r u c t u r e s has c o n t r i b u t e d t o a growing s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n c o h e s i v e n e s s . I n t h e same v i e w , the a d m o n i t i o n o f the i n c i d e n c e o f dependence and t h e a d v o c a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l i z i n g t he development p r o c e s s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i m p l y a s t r o n g c o n n o t a t i o n of s e l f - r e l i a n c e . These f e a t u r e s permeate the -26-A f r , i c a n s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t . I n a l l h i s works, the l a t e Kwame Nkrumah i d e n t i f i e d and l i n k e d A f r i c a ' s underdevelopment t o the c o l o n i a l 43 s i t u a t i o n . C o l o n i a l d o m i n a t i o n , argued Nkrumah, c o n d i t i o n e d the immediate l i f e o f e v e r y c o l o n i z e d A f r i c a n and, not i n f r e q u e n t l y , even the e n l i g h t e n e d A f r i c a n s e r v a n t s of t h e c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l o s t c o n t a c t e a r l y i n l i f e w i t h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l background. These p e o p l e became p r o o f t o a c c e p t some vague t h e o r y of u n i v e r s a l i s m , assumed a t t i t u d e s e n t i r e l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the r e a l i t y o f t h e i r p e o p l e and e nvironment, and began, i n s t e a d , t o f u l f i l l t h e hopes and e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r g u i d e s and g u a r d i a n s th e c o l o n i a l i s t s p a t r o n s . Nkrumah m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h form the b a s i s o f c a p i t a l i s m are i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s o c i a l -i s t e g a l i t a r i a n i s m o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t y . The p h i l o s o p h y of the e m a n c i p a t i o n of man must f i n d i t s weapons i n the environment and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e A f r i c a n p e o p l e . T h i s r e q u i r e s two aims: f i r s t the r e s t i t u t i o n o f the e g a l i t a r i a n i s m o f human s o c i e t y ( i n A f r i c a ) , and, second, the l o g i s t i c m o b i l i z a t i o n o f a l l r e s o u r c e s towards the 44 a t t a i n m e n t of t h a t r e s t i t u t i o n . The p h i l o s o p h y which must s t a n d b e h i n d such a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Nkrumah advocated mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n , not j u s t i n the s t r i c t d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s , bu t a l s o i n t h e p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n because p e o p l e are the r e a l i t y o f n a t i o n a l g r e a t n e s s . The A f r i c a n p e o p l e need a s t r o n g c o n t i n u i n g l i n k w i t h t h e i r p a s t and an a s s u r e d bond w i t h t h e i r f u t u r e ; but t h a t f u t u r e must be s o c i a l i s t i n form and c o n t e n t . He e x t o l l e d and expounded the i d e a o f p o l i t i c a l and economic i n t e g r a t i o n i n A f r i c a as a b u f f e r a g a i n s t f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n . T a l k i n g about s o c i a l i s m , J u l i u s N y e r e r e 1 s emphasis i s on development from t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f l i v i n g i n 45 o r d e r t o c r e a t e something t h a t i s u n i q u e l y A f r i c a n . Man, a c c o r d i n g t o him, s h o u l d be the purpose and j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . H i m s e l f a s t r i c t e g a l i t a r i a n , N y e r e r e p o s t u l a t e s t h a t s o c i a l i s m , as a system, i s i n f a c t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f men's i n e q u a l i t i e s t o s e r v e t h e i r e q u a l i t y . W h i l e p a y i n g due r e s p e c t t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Marx and L e n i n , Nyerere r e j e c t s the u n i v e r s a l i t y o f Marxism. " I t i s no p a r t o f the j o b o f a s o c i a l i s t i n 1968 t o worry about whether o r not h i s a c t i o n s or p r o p o s a l s a r e i n 46 accordance w i t h what Marx o r L e n i n w r o t e . " I f Marx "had l i v e d i n Sukumaland o r M a s a i l a n d . . . h e would have w r i t t e n a d i f f e r e n t book than, Das K a p i t a l , but he c o u l d have been j u s t 47 as s c i e n t i f i c and j u s t as s o c i a l i s t . " Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o N y e r e r e , t h e r e i s n e i t h e r a W e s t m i n i s t e r model nor a Moscow - P e k i n g model f o r A f r i c a , n e i t h e r does A f r i c a need a c e r t i f i c a t e o f a p p r o v a l from the g u a r d i a n s o f t h e s e models. A f r i c a can l e a r n from the r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e s of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , b u t the a t t i t u d e s h o u l d be t o l e a r n and not copy, and a l l e f f o r t s s h o u l d be geared towards s e l f - r e l i a n c e . A f r i c a ' s t a s k i s t o l o o k f i r s t a t her p o s i t i o n and needs, t h e n t o c o n s i d e r o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s and s u g g e s t i o n s i n the l i g h t of her r e q u i r e m e n t s ; but she has t o t h i n k , not i m i t a t e . -28-F o l l o w i n g t h i s s h o r t enumeration o f the t h e o r i e s o f development, we t u r n now t o t h e q u e s t i o n : What r o l e do t h e s e t h e o r i e s p l a y i n p r a c t i c e ? One would o b v i o u s l y e x p e c t t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n West A f r i c a would be d i r e c t e d towards f u r t h e r development o f the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches a l r e a d y s u b m i t t e d t o s u i t l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . S i n c e r e s e a r c h i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n West A f r i c a i s p o l i c y o r i e n t e d , t h a t i s , i t s t a s k i s t o e x p l a i n the causes o f p o v e r t y and t o s e r v e as an a u x i l i a r y t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f s o c i a l and economic p l a n n i n g , i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o observe t h a t the t h e o r e t i c a l approaches , which have .been de v e l o p e d t o date, p l a y but an i n s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e f o r the p o l i t i c i a n s and l o c a l p l a n n e r s . A l t h o u g h t h i s v iew r e s t s on e x p e r i e n c e i n S i e r r a Leone, the i n s i g h t o b t a i n e d here i s v a l i d f o r a l l o f former B r i t i s h West A f r i c a , The v a r i o u s f o r e i g n t r a d e t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g the s e c u l a r d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the terms o f t r a d e which have p e n e t r a t e d the p u b l i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s a re an e x c e p t i o n (UNCTAD i n New D e l h i ) as are some a s p e c t s o f the M a r x i s t t h e o r y o f development. The r e s e a r c h e r i n West A f r i c a g e n e r a l l y p r o c e e d s i n d u c t i v e l y : h i s t a s k i s t o d e s c r i b e r e a l i t y . P ut n e g a t i v e l y , one c o u l d d e s c r i b e t h i s a c t i v i t y as random r e s e a r c h c o n c e n t r a t e d on i s o l a t e d p roblems. Can P o v e r t y be u n d e r s t o o d by t h e a f f l u e n t ? Need f o r c o n t r o l over development used t o be, ": and t o many i s today s e l f - e v i d e n t , A s t a t e , s o c i e t y o r economy i s i n need o f development. C o n s e q u e n t l y an e x p e r t , agency, government, t a k e s a c t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h i s economy o r s o c i e t y so as t o cause i t t o d e v e l o p . I n so d o i n g , the agent o f development w i l l a ttempt t o a c h i e v e c e r t a i n g o a l s he has s e t w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s o b j e c t o f development. Both f o r purpose o f g o a l - s e t t i n g and o f d e c i d i n g upon t h e a p p r o p r i a t e means towards th o s e g o a l s a l r e a d y s e t , t h e agent employs a g i v e n body of- knowledge on whi c h h i s e x p e r t s t a t u s i s founded. What..is rem a r k a b l e i n t h e s e a t t e m p t s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e as many 48 d e f i n i t i o n s o f development as t h e r e a re 1 d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s t s , ' Moreover, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e how Western o r E a s t e r n E c o n o m i s t s , w o r k i n g under c o n d i t i o n s o f a f f l u e n c e , can f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e the i n c i d e n c e o f p o v e r t y and under-development t o the e x t e n t t h a t they can propose the d e s i r e d s o l u t i o n s . T e s t i f y i n g b e f o r e the U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate's S e l e c t Committee on Human Needs, Norman B o r l o n g , 1970 Nobel P r i z e Winner, suggested t h a t "we might have b e t t e r a g r i c u l t u r e and f o o d p r o d u c t i o n p o l i c i e s i f a l l t h o s e government o f f i c i a l s who were i n v o l v e d would q u i t e a t i n g f o r 14 days b e f o r e they were g o i n g t o make d e c i s i o n s on p o l i c i e s on p r i c i n g f o r food and p r i o r i t i e s f o r i n v e s t m e n t i n a g r i c u l t u r e , and then a l s o d u r i n g the l a s t t h r e e days go w i t h o u t w a t e r , Maybe th e y would not o n l y l e a r n something about t h e v a l u e o f f o o d from a b i o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t but a l s o something, t o t h e i r d i s t r e s s , about t h e b e h a v i o u r o f human b e i n g s under s h o r t a g e o f food 49 and under famine." One cannot r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e the problem o f p o v e r t y , l e t a l o n e o f f e r i t s t h e r a p y , w i t h o u t l i t e r a l l y becoming a p a r t of i t , and f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d , f o r t h a t m a t t e r . F o r one -30-t h i n g , t h e y e a r s o f s t u d y and work t h a t t h e s e 1 d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s t s ; have d e v o t e d . . . u s i n g models d e v i s e d t o e x p l a i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l economies, makes i t a l r e a d y h a r d , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , f o r them t o g r a s p t h e mechanism o f a v e r y d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f economy. These economists are n a t u r a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n w i t h t h e i r b u i l t - i n v a l u e systems. T h e i r backgrounds, models and e x p e r i e n c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y o f t h e i r own immediate m i l i e u . Armed w i t h t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievements and d r i v e n by t h e i r c u l t u r a l a r r o g a n c e , t h e y view and i n t e r p r e t t h e ' p r e - i n d u s t r i a l 1 50 s o c x e t i e s from i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s t a n d - p o i n t s . Underdevelopment f o r them, t h e n , i s t h a t l a c u n a between t h e i r s t a n d a r d s and any o t h e r s t a n d a r d , and development c o n s e q u e n t l y i s tantamount t o c a t c h i n g up w i t h t h e i r s t a n d a r d , w h i c h , i n e f f e c t , c o n f i r m s t h e i r o r i g i n a l p r e j u d i c e . The i d e a o f p o l a r i z i n g t h e w o r l d i n t o t h e 'developed' and the ' d e v e l o p i n g ' c a r r i e s the b i a s a l r e a d y a n a l y s e d . T h i s d i v i s i o n i s based on the s i m p l i s t i c assumption t h a t the 'underdeveloped' r e g i o n s , of which West A f r i c a i s a p a r t , a r e m e r e l y i n e f f i c i e n t v e r s i o n s o f t h e more de v e l o p e d ones, i n h a b i t e d by p e o p l e who have somehow f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e a n y t h i n g b e t t e r . There i s no doubt t h a t a l l c o u n t r i e s are d e v e l o p i n g , none of them i s s t a g n a n t ; some may be p r o g r e s s i n g s l o w l y , some more q u i c k l y , o t h e r s might be r e t r o g r e s s i n g , b u t t h e y are a l l d e v e l o p i n g . Z e y l s t r a has suggested t h a t t h e i d e a o f t h i s 51 d i v i s i o n was m e r e l y t o promote a i d . I n West A f r i c a , a c c o r d i n g t o Samir Amin, th e c u l m i n a t i o n o f the c o l o n i a l t r a d e system was b a l k a n i z a t i o n , -31-i n w hich the " r e c i p i e n t " m i c r o - r e g i o n s had no " i n t e r e s t " i n " s h a r i n g " t h e crumbs of t h e c o l o n i a l cake w i t h t h e i r l a b o u r 52 r e s e r v e s . Moreover, c o n t i n u e s Amin, the c o l o n i a l system o r g a n i z e d t h e s o c i e t y so t h a t i t produced on t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e terms from t h e p o i n t o f view of t h e mother c o u n t r y , e x p o r t s which merely p r o v i d e d a v e r y low and s t a g n a t i n g r e t u r n t o l a b o u r . T h i s g o a l h a v i n g been a c h i e v e d , one can h a r d l y t a l k o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i n modern West A f r i c a ; r a t h e r t h o s e - w h i c h e x i s t in-We'st A f r i c a today, are dependent, - p e r i p h e r a l s o c i e t i e s . Amin p l a c e s the e v o l u t i o n of t h e "dependency" system i n West A f r i c a on a time a x i s i n o r d e r t o accomodate i t s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e n t . From the p r e m e r c a n t i l i s t p e r i o d p r i -o r t o the 17th c e n t u r y , t h r o u g h t h e m e r c a n t i l i s t p e r i o d o f 1600-1800 and the a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e f u l l c a p i t a l i s t system, of t h e 19th c e n t u r y , and t o f i n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , "the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y . . .was completed as a.:' dependent s o c i e t y , a p e r i p h e r a l one and hence a dead-end. I t . . . r e t a i n e d c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l appearances w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d i t s o n l y means of s u r v i v a l . The c o l o n i a l t y p e t r a d e c o v e r e d a l l the s u b o r d i n a t i o n ^ d o m i n a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h i s . t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e w o r l d system and t h e c e n t r a l 53 c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y which shaped and dominated i t . " Amin emphasizes t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e s t a g n a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e (the main v e h i c l e b e h i n d West A f r i c a ' s development) was p a r t and p a r c e l o f t h i s dependent system. A f i r s t s t e p , t h e r e f o r e , t o a u t h e n t i c development f o r West A f r i c a , s h o u l d be the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e r i g h t from t h e s u b s i s t e n c e , -32-non-raonetary s e c t o r , b u t such an approach s h o u l d be geared towards i m p r o v i n g the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e of t h e r u r a l a r e a s . How r e l e v a n t are t h e s e T h e o r i e s My attempt t o reduce a l l t h e s e t h e o r i e s t o one s i n g l e scheme by e x t r a c t i n g o n l y what seem t o be t h e i r e s s e n t i a l elements may g i v e r i s e t o a number of c r i t i c i s m s , b u t i t i s a l e g i t i m a t e p r o c e d u r e i n s o f a r as i t d i s c u s s e s c e r t a i n e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g p o s i t i o n s w h i c h , when seen from a n o t h e r p o i n t o f view, appear c o m p l e t e l y d i v e r g e n t . These p r i n c i p l e s can be summed up as f o l l o w s : ( i ) Development means advancement towards c e r t a i n w e l l - d e f i n e d g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s which c o r r e s p o n d t o the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n o f man and s o c i e t y t o be found i n the most advanced s o c i e t i e s o f the modern w o r l d . The model i s known by d i f f e r e n t names (modern s o c i e t y , i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , mass s o c i e t y and so on.) ( i i ) Underdeveloped s o c i e t i e s w i l l p r o g r e s s towards t h i s model as soon as they have e l i m i n a t e d c e r t a i n s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l o b s t a c l e s . These o b s t a c l e s are r e p r e s e n t e d by ' t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , ' ' f e u d a l ' systems, o r ' f e u d a l r e s i d u e s ' , depending on the p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t . ( i i i ) C e r t a i n economic, p o l i t i c a l and 54 p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s can be s i n g l e d out as a l l o w i n g t h e most r a t i o n a l m o b i l i z a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and t h e s e can be c a t e g o r i z e d f o r the~~use of economic p l a n n e r s . ( i v ) To a l l o f the above i s added t h e need t o c o o r d i n a t e c e r t a i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s i n s u p p o r t o f a development p o l i c y and t o d e v i s e an i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s w h i c h o r g a n i z e s the w i l l o f v a r i o u s n a t i o n s (the West A f r i c a n n a t i o n s i n t h i s instance.) i n t h e ' t a s k s ' o f development. To c r i t i c i z e t h e s e assumptions i s t o c r i t i c i z e i n i t s essence a t h e o r y o f development w h i c h seeks t o become a d i s c i p l i n e o f i t s own as a l l development t h e o r i e s have become. In the f i r s t p l a c e , t h e model of a d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t y w hich most development t h e o r i e s use i s f o r m a l and a h i s t o r i c and, t h e r e f o r e , an i d e o l o g i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n . What i s a d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t y ? The b e s t known models are t h o s e o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Europe, Japan and the S o v i e t U n i o n , and i t i s thought t h a t t h e c e n t r a l problem i s how t o " a r r i v e " a t a s t a g e s i m i l a r t o t h a t which they r e p r e s e n t . I t i s a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t the h i s t o r i c e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s must be r e p e a t e d o r , a t l e a s t , t h a t development must l e a d t o a s o c i e t y 55 c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g them. I t i s g e n e r a l l y t hought t h a t one can reduce development t o a f o r m a l model, whose c o n t e n t would be s u b j e c t t o h i s t o r i c a l v a r i a t i o n . F o r example, i t i s supposed t h a t development r e q u i r e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r agent of change w h i c h might as w e l l be t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r ( i n t h e case of c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s ) o r the S t a t e ( i n S o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s ) , The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two s o c i a l systems a r e seen as v a r i a b l e s w hich f u l f i l l t h e same f u n c t i o n w h i l e assuming d i f f e r e n t forms. Such a s s u m p t i o n s , however, l a c k s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y because o f t h e i r a h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r . H i s t o r i c a l t i m e i s not u n i - l i n e a r and f u t u r e s o c i e t i e s , such as t h o s e o f We -34-A f r i c a , w i l l n o t be a b l e t o a t t a i n s t a g e s r e a c h e d by the d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t i e s a t a p r e v i o u s t i m e . A l l s o c i e t i e s move t o g e t h e r towards the f u t u r e and towards new forms of modern s o c i e t y . The h i s t o r i c e x p e r i e n c e o f d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s has been c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s c e n d e d ; t h e i r b a s i c s o u r c e of p r i v a t e c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n i n f o r e i g n t r a d e , the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of v a s t masses of workers i n i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n , t h e i r i n d i g e n o u s t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, c o n s t i t u t e o p t i o n s no l o n g e r open t o West A f r i c a and the o t h e r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s o f t o d a y . The h i s t o r y o f the d e v e l o p e d s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i s n oted i n the e x p e r i e n c e o f ' s o c i a l i s m i n one b l o c , ' of ' p r i m i t i v e s o c i a l i s t a c c u m u l a t i o n ' a t t h e expense of p e a s a n t a g r i c u l t u r e , o f the a u t a r k i c . ; e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a heavy i n d u s t r y , and o f the c l o s i n g o f f o f f o r e i g n t r a d e and t h e ' i r o n - c u r t a i n . ' The t h e o r i e s o f development i n e x i s t e n c e are, there.^ f o r e , not "to be r e p e a t e d , nor can 'models' of d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t i e s be t a k e n as a c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f aims t o be a c h i e v e d by t h e West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . Fundamental O b s t a c l e s Another fundamental e r r o r o f approach l i e s i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the s t u d y o f development towards t h e r e s i s t a n c e which t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s may o f f e r t o change. West A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y f a c e an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n t o . t h o s e f a c e d by t h e d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s i n the e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e i r development. F o r example, they do not have e x t e r n a l c o l o n i e s t o . e x p l o i t - and they ^are faced w i t h - p r e - e x i s t i n g -35-i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e s which have t h e power and the w i l l t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s . C l e a r l y , t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f c o l o n i a l i s m and p r i m a r y e x p o r t s has a v e r y g r e a t c a p a c i t y f o r r e s i s t a n c e and s u r v i v a l . However, t h i s i s due, f u n d a m e n t a l l y , not t o t h o s e s t r u c t u r e s t h e m s e l v e s , but r a t h e r t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o c e s s of development i n dependent c o u n t r i e s . To r e s t r i c t t h e problem t o the economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d by the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y i s t o i m p a i r i r r e m e d i a b l y our a b i l i t y t o g i v e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the West A f r i c a n c r i s i s . A n a l y s i s s h o u l d not c o n c e n t r a t e on an a b s t r a c t and f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between two s t a g e s o f a system ( t r a d i t i o n a l i s m - m o d e r n i s m , c a p i t a l i s m - f e u d a l i s m ) . R a t h e r , i t s h o u l d seek out the c o n c r e t e r e l a t i o n s h i p p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e s e s o - b a i l e d - u n d e r d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t i e s w h i c h , as we s h a l l show, are b e t t e r - t e r m e d dependent s o c i e t i e s . Development cannot, t h e r e f o r e , be the passage from a s t a t e w hich i s r e l a t i v e l y unknown towards a s t a t e w h i c h w i l l n ever e x i s t . I n o t h e r words, t h e t h e o r i e s o f development must be concerned w i t h the laws o f development o f t h o s e s o c i e t i e s w h ich we seek t o u n d e r s t a n d . We must d i s c o v e r t o what e x t e n t one can a l s o i d e n t i f y them w i t h the laws o f development o f advanced s o c i e t i e s , be they c a p i t a l i s t o r s o c i a l i s t , ^ The c r i s i s o f the t h e o r i e s o f development, w h i c h has dominated development models, i n West A f r i c a , has thrown the s c i e n c e i t s e l f , i n t o a c r i s i s . The v e r y n o t i o n s o f development and underdevelopment and the e x p l a n a t o r y power of t h e s e c o n c e p t s have l o s t c r e d i b i l i t y . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the concept o f dependence has appeared t o o f f e r a p o s s i b l e , i f p a r t i a l , e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e p a r a d o x e s , s e e k i n g t o e x p l a i n why West A f r i c a n development has d i f f e r e d from t h a t o f t o d a y ' s advanced c o u n t r i e s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w hich have c o n d i t i o n e d development can be d e f i n e d as r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f dependence whose e f f e c t i s governed by c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c laws 57 w h i c h a l l o w us t o speak of dependent development. As West A f r i c a i s a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y , t h e development t h e o r i e s f a i l t o e x p l a i n , as w i l l be seen i n Chapter t h r e e , the d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e o f development between a r e a s . There i s a g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n such i n d i c e s o f economic development as per c a p i t a income, g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t and, i m p o r t a n t i n West A f r i c a , o v e r s e a s t r a d e p e r head o f p o p u l a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l i t i s the l a r g e r c o u n t r i e s and fcher/coastal" c o u n t r i e s w h i c h s t a n d put.: U s i n g t h e s e i n d i c e s , I v o r y C o a s t , Senegal and Ghana a r e t h e most d e v e l o p e d . The i n l a n d c o u n t r i e s show a much l e s s e r development, as do the s m a l l e r c o a s t a l c o u n t r i e s . W i t h i n each' of . t h e s e c o u n t r i e s however, " t h e r e i s - : a wi< gap between v a r i o u s p a r t s : t h e c i t i e s a re more de v e l o p e d t h a n the r u r a l a r e a s , the c o a s t l a n d s than the i n t e r i o r s and so on. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e a p a t t e r n o f d i f f e r e n t i a , - . w h i c h i s g e n e r a l and i r r e s p e c t i v e o f n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s b u t w hich remains u n e x p l a i n e d by"the development t h e o r i e s . Under any development s t r a t e g y , g r e a t a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n t o the e d u c a t i o n o f the masses, s p e c i a l i s t s , and t h e d u t i e s o f s o l i d a r i t y . Y et one must ask: S o l i d a r i t y f o r what? A t times, s o l i d a r i t y aims a t h a r n e s s i n g the e n e r g i e s o f a l l i n o r d e r t o a b o l i s h a b s o l u t e p o v e r t y and s c a n d a l o u s i n -e q u a l i t i e s among per s o n s and s o c i a l c l a s s e s . Recent s t u d i e s show t h a t few c o u n t r i e s have adopted t h i s as t h e i r p r i o r i t y o r 5 8 have a c h i e v e d g r e a t s u c c e s s . A g a i n , one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s t he P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , w h i c h has d e l i b e r a t e l y .set o u t t o meet the b a s i c needs o f a l l the pop u l a c e in' a h i g h l y 59 e g a l i t a r i a n manner. Not o n l y does t h a t s t a t e g u a r a n t e e employment t o everyone who seeks i t , i t a l s o p r o v i d e s h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o a l l a t nominal c o s t s . An .income p o l i c y d e l i b e r a t e l y m i n i m i z e s d i f f e r e n c e s i n wages. Most v i s i t o r s , i n c l u d i n g even t h o s e who are u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o Ch i n a ' s i d e o l o g y , have r e p o r t e d t h a t no one i s hungry, unemployed, o r 6 G b e r e f t o f b a s i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n t h a t l a n d . The e l i m i n a t i o n o f mass famine, endemic d i s e a s e , and unemployment i n C h i n a would have been i m p o s s i b l e i n the absence o f an o v e r -a r c h i n g •-.'•;,. i n c e n t i v e system anchored i n m o r a l s o l i d a r i t y and 61 r e q u i r i n g a l l t o c o n t r i b u t e f o r the b e n e f i t o f a l l . The i d e a l i s t o a c h i e v e what one a u t h o r c a l l s "a modest.but f a i r 6 2 l i v e l i h o o d . " P e r s o n a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i s condemned as b o u r g o i s s e l f i s h n e s s and, though much s t r e s s i s p l a c e d on w o r k i n g p r o d u c t i v e l y and r a p i d l y ( t o i n c r e a s e ) t h e a v a i l a b l e s t o c k o f goods and s e r v i c e s , e q u a l i n s i s t e n c e i s p l a c e d on p r o d u c i n g more f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f a l l , e s p e c i a l l y o f t h o s e i n d i r e c t need. Nowhere i s s o c i a l s t r u g g l e so f r e q u e n t l y and so p r o m i n e n t l y i n v o k e d as p e d o g o g i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y as i n C h i n a ; the n a t i o n o f " w a l k i n g on two l e g s " as a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need t o l i v e i n t e n s i o n between c o n f l i c t i n g demands. The c h o i c e o f a m o r a l i n c e n t i v e system t o l e n d dynamism t o i t s development e f f o r t c o n t r i b u t e s , t h e r e f o r e , a b a s i c o p t i o n t a k e n -38-by C h i n a which e f f e c t i v e l y commands development s t r a t e g i e s i n domains o f i n v e s t m e n t p r i o r i t i e s , l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , and modes o f e n t e r p r i s e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A S u c c e s s f u l p o l i c y i n domains such as h e a l t h , p o p u l a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n , on the other-hand--,-'is . c o n d i t i o n e d by the i n c e n t i v e system which p r e s i d e s o v er m o b i l i z a t i o n e f f o r t s made by t h e n a t i o n s t r u g g l i n g t o a c h i e v e development. C e r t a i n f i n a n c i a l , m a t e r i a l , and l a b o u r i n p u t become p o s s i b l e o n l y i f m o r a l i n c e n t i v e systems p r e v a i l . C o n v e r s e l y , and i n o t h e r s o c i e t i e s , c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s can be adopted o n l y where t h e o v e r - a r c h i n g i n c e n t i v e system a l l o w s market c o m p e t i t i o n t o f a v o u r i n d i v i d u a l o r c o r p o r a t e e n t e r p r e n e u r s and consumers. As noted e a r l i e r , no i n c e n t i v e system can t o t a l l y d i s p e n s e w i t h some m i x t u r e o f m a t e r i a l and m o r a l g o a l s . Even w i t h i n market c a p i t a l i s m the assumption i s u s u a l l y made t h a t i n e q u i t i e s w i l l be o f f s e t e i t h e r by mechanisms o f c o r r e c t i v e s t a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n , by f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l p o l i c i e s c o n s t i t u t i n g some form o f c h a r i t y , o r , more f r e q u e n t l y , by the p u t a t i v e " t r i c k l i n g down" o f b e n e f i t s from t h e "haves" t o the '•have-nots" .This i s g e n e r a l l y the case even where p o l i c y - m a k e r s a c c e p t K u z n e t 1 s .view vtha't an -' -.• i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f development 64 produce w i d e r income d i s p a r i t i e s t h a n p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d . One d i f f i c u l t y w i t h any " t r i c k l e - d o w n " v i s i o n i s t h a t i n c e n t i v e systems, l i k e o t h e r s o c i e t a l mechanisms, a r e s e l f - r e i n f o r c i n g ; t h ey d e v e l o p i n e r t i a and a momentum of t h e i r own, u s u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g i n i t i a l t r e n d s . M y r d a l l o n g ago a c q u a i n t e d s t u d e n t s of development w i t h t h e ' v i c i o u s c i r c l e ' o f p o v e r t y , an image wh i c h r e a p p e a r s i n h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g s . There e x i s t s , a n a l o g o u -_ 3 Q -s l y , a v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s a t work i n o v e r a l l i n c e n t i v e systems. Once an economy i s o r g a n i z e d i n r esponse t o the s t i m u l i o f i n d i v i d u a l achievement, i t becomes e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o i n t r o d u c e a new c a t a l y s t i n t o t h e system w i t h o u t h a v i n g i t n e u t r a l i z e d . C l e a r l y governments may a c t as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between the p r o f i t - m a k e r and t h e needy consumarberef t o f b u y i n g power. Yet, even e q u i t a b l e s o c i a l - w e l f a r e p o l i c i e s must overcome the dominant i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d on s e c t o r a l p o l i c y by the b a s i c i n c e n t i v e systems. Wealthier'' t a x p a y e r s , who p r o v i d e the funds governments use t o pay t h e i r w e l f a r e r o l e , must a t the v e r y l e a s t p e r c e i v e the g a i n t o t hemselves as w o r t h th e c o s t . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , p o w e r l e s s t n e e d y groups a r e n e g l e c t e d w h i l e p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous ones are appeased. The p e r d u r a b i l i t y , w i t h i n i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s , not o n l y o f "pockets of p o v e r t y " but a l s o o f numerous s o c i a l groups " l e f t o u t " o f t h e p u t a t i v e b e n e f i t s of development s u g g e s t s t h a t n e i t h e r t r i c k l e - d o w n nor governmental c o r r e c t i v e s t o the " i n v i s i b l e hand" of the p r o f i t i n c e n t i v e can a b o l i s h poverty.-. Champions o f c a p i t a l i s m u s u a l l y c l a i m t h a t m o r a l i n c e n t i v e s l e a d t o e x c e s s i v e s a c r i f i c e s i n e f f i c i e n c y . ^ There i s d o u b t l e s s some t r u t h t o the c l a i m . Yet, no development s t r a t e g y can a v o i d making a b a s i c c h o i c e : e i t h e r t o " d e v e l o p " f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h o s e who a r e a l r e a d y p r i v i l e g e d o r who c o n s t i t u t e : p r o m i s i n g p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s f o r "modernity" o r t o embrace a p a t t e r n o f "development" aimed a t a b o l i s h i n g dehumanizing m i s e r y f o r a l l i t s c i t i z e n s and t o c r e a t e an i n c e n t i v e system of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g t h i s p r i o r i t y . Some form of " w a l k i n g on two l e g s " i s i n e v i t a b l e . The a l m o s t - 4 0 -u n i v e r s a l f a i l u r e o f " t r i c k l e - d o w n and w e l f a r e s t a t i s m s u g g e s t s , a t l e a s t t e n t a t i v e l y , t h e g r e a t e r promise l y i n g i n g r a n t i n g p r i v a c y t o m o r a l i n c e n t i v e s . A l l s t r a t e g i e s , however, w i l l f a i l w i t h o u t s u i t a b l e doses of imposed a u s t e r i t y . A u s t e r i t y , as u n d e r s t o o d as " S e l f - R e l i a n c e " , i s the o n l y p a t h which can d i r e c t l y a t t a c k the p o v e r t y o f the p o o r e s t m a j o r i t y i n West A f r i c a . A l l o t h e r measures can have b u t p a l l i a t i v e e f f e c t s a t b e s t . T h i s v i e w f o r m a l l y r e p u d i a t e s a l l v e r s i o n s o f t h e " t r i c k l e - d o w n " t h e o r y , a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h the m a t e r i a l improvement of the p o o r e s t can come o n l y from a growth i n w e a l t h . I t i s a l s o opposed t o c o n v e n t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n -t h e o r i e s w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e m a i n l y on r e a p p o r t i o n i n g w e a l t h downstream, t h a t i s , w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g b a s i c ground r u l e s g o v e r n i n g a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s upstream ( b e f o r e t h e y have been e x p l o i t e d o r p r o c e s s e d . ) The d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e s u l t s o f e n d l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a new regime of t h e seas and of seabed r e s o u r c e s s u g g e s t t h e near i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p p l y i n g t e c h n o l o g y t o c r e a t i n g new systems o f r e s o u r c e e q u i t y w i t h o u t a p r i o r commitment t o the p r i n c i p l e o f s u f f i c i e n c y f o r a l l as a . . •.. 66 p r i o r i t y . Why s h o u l d s e l f - r e l i a n c e p o l i c y not be a p p l i e d a b s o l u t e l y ? Because even c o u n t r i e s w i t h a dearth o f r e s o u r c e s w i l l need advance t e c h n o l o g y o r even r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d ; they need a j u d i c i o u s c h o i c e i n whatever r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e y e n t e r . Not e v e r y c o u n t r y w i t h a s m a l l -market can be s e l f - r e l i a n t even i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f modest consumer goods; much more so A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s w i t h s i n g l e c r o p (see T a b l e 2.1). However, i f 1 - t h e s e s o c i e t i e s , p l a c e h i g h premium on -41-TABLE 2.1 E x p o r t s o f S e l e c t e d A f r i c a n N a t i o n s , 1969 C o u n t r i e s E x p o r t % o f T o t a l V a l u e B u r u n d i C o f f e e 80% Chad C o f f e e 90% Ghana Cacao 68% I v o r y Coast C o f f e e , Cacao 50% Wood 30% Kenya C o f f e e and Tea 50% Malawi- Tabacco and Tea 50% N i g e r Groundnut 74% Senegal Groundnut and O i l 87% Togo Cacao and C o f f e e 50% Gambia Groundnut 90% Source: I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c i a l S t a t i s t i c s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C, J a n . 1971. -42-the t w i n freedom from e x t e r n a l dependence and from t h e d e t e r m i n i s m t i e d t o c o m p e t i t i o n i n the e v e r - s h i f t i n g r a c e a f t e r new goods, s e l f - r e l i a n c e becomes u n a v o i d a b l e . The message i s not t h a t s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s d e s i r a b l e but t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y i f n a t i o n a l freedom i s v a l u e d . S e l f - R e l i a n c e c o n s t i t u t e s one o f t h o s e b a s i c o p i t i o n s w h i c h , i f pursued c o h e r e n t l y , sets l i m i t s t o development s t r a t e g i e s and t o s p e c i f i c s e c t o r p o l i c i e s . T h i s i s why we need t o c h a l l e n g e the s e v e r a l c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e o r i e s o f development, The development models d e r i v e d from the t h e o r i e s d e s i g n e d d u r i n g t h e l a t e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d and i n h e r i t e d by most independent p l a n n e r s i n anglophone West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s assumed t h a t : ( i ) development occurred o n l y w i t h c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l , and the day-to-day d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s , o f p e a s a n t s was v e r y much of a t r a d i t i o n a l m e a n i n g l e s s merry-go-round ; ( i i ) i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and e x p a n s i o n o f a "modern s e c t o r " was the o n l y means l e a d i n g t o development. T h i s meant t h a t one f o l l o w e d a development p a t h t h a t o v e r - c o n c e n t r a t e d r e s o u r c e s i n urban area s o f t e n a t the expenses of r u r a l a r e a s ; ( i i i ) t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e , one must i n c r e a s e c o n t r o l over f o r e i g n c a p i t a l t o e n a b l e a c o u n t r y t o purchase the r e q u i s i t e c a p i t a l equipment f o r development. To c o n t r o l f o r e i g n c a p i t a l , one had t o r e l y on f o r e i g n a i d and an e x a n d i n g e x p o r t t r a d e . ^ Both e x p o r t s and a i d were seen as n e c e s s a r y t o b r i d g e the "... .' . gap c r e a t e d by i n c r e a s e d i m p o r t s and l i m i t e d -43-e a r n i n g s from e x p o r t s . E x p o r t s and a i d The r u r a l development approach, d e r i v e d from the above r a t i o n a l e , was t o expand cash crops, f o r e x p o r t i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t the f i n a n c i n g o f n a t i o n a l development. F o r example, I v o r y C o a s t , independent s i n c e 1960, e x p e r i e n c e d a boom t h a t was comparable i n magnitude t o no o t h e r West A f r i c a n N a t i o n . I n c i d e n t a l y t h i s boom began b e f o r e t h e coming o f independence: t h a t i s , i t was n o t , a p r o d u c t o f independence. A p p r o x i m a t e l y between 1950 and 1965, the I v o r y C o a s t ' s r a t e of economic growth i s s a i d t o have run a t an an n u a l average of 9 p e r c e n t , i n c r e a s i n g , from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p e r i o d . Once a g a i n , t h e r e was p r i m a r i l y an e x p o r t boom: e x p o r t s quadruped - not o f m i n e r a l s , as was the case w i t h h er nei g h b o u r L i b e r i a , b u t o f f a r m i n g p r o d u c t s , c o f f e e e x p o r t q u i n t u p l e d ; cocoa e x p o r t s more than d o u b l e d ; o t h e r s a l s o r o s e .,,and they a re s t i l l r i s i n g . A t f i r s t s i g h t , a v i s i t o r t o I v o r y Coast may w e l l t h i n k t h a t he i s s e e i n g t h e b i r t h o f a system w h i c h , w h i l e modeled on t h a t o f F r a n c e , i s becoming independent o f F r a n c e : s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g , autonomous, i n c r e a s i n g l y i n command o f i t s own d e s t i n y . The c a p i t a l c i t y o f A b i d j a n e r u p t s w i t h sky--s c r a p e r s ; i t s l u x u r y shops a r e , i n d e e d , f u l l o f l u x u r i e s ; i t s s t r e e t s encumbered w i t h p r i v a t e c a r s . Moreover, b e h i n d t h e s e s i g n s o f consumer p r o s p e r i t y a re o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s o f a c a p i t a l i s t - t y p e e x p a n s i o n Perhaps more c o n v i n c i n g l y , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e f o r a s h i f t t o a monetary economy. P r o d u c t i o n o f the main foo d i t e m s has n e a r l y d o u b l e d , however, as r i s i n g f o o d i m p o r t s show, even t h i s i n c r e a s e has not been s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o p r o v i d e f o r the new urban d w e l l e r s . T h i s i s due t o t h e heavy emphasis p l a c e d on e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . Food i m p o r t s , o f m a i n l y wheat and r i c e , r o s e from 27,000 t o n s i n 1950 t o 92,000 i n 1965, the l a t t e r p r o v i d i n g f o o d not o n l y f o r about t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a l l urban consumers, but a l s o f o r 14 p e r c e n t of r u r a l consumers. I n o t h e r words, e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f the p o p u l a t i o n have been p a y i n g cash f o r t h e i r f o o d . G i v e n the mechanisms of the market, t h i s means a s t e a d y t r a n s f e r o f w e a l t h from r u r a l consumers t o urban t r a d e r s , and t h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s a n o t h e r way i n which one would e x p e c t a g r e a t e r c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t o appear, and, w i t h t h a t , a . . 67 b o u r g e o i s i e . Y e t , what does one f i n d when v i e w i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h have r e s u l t e d from the boom? F o r one t h i n g , t h e r e are many more A f r i c a n p l a n t a t i o n owners than b e f o r e , some of whom are l a r g e p r o p e r t y - h o l d e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n towns, t h e r e are c e r t a i n l y a number of p e o p l e who e n j o y a b o u r g e o i s l i f e - s t y l e and, w i t h i t , the " a p p r o p r i a t e v a l u e s s y s t e m " / However, i t would appear t h a t t h i s e l i t e b a r e l y forms even the s k e l e t o n o f a c l a s s c a p a b l e o f p r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d s , much l e s s e x e r c i s i n g , a d o m e s t i c c a p i t a l i s t hegemony i n I v o r y C o a s t , There has c o n c e i v a b l y been an e x t e n s i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m i n the c o u n t r y . However, as Samin. Amin remarks " t h e r e i s no ground f o r s a y i n g t h a t ( t h i s ) i s the development of an I v o r y C o a s t c a p i t a l i s m . T h i s s o c i e t y " . . , o f . . . m i d d l e c l a s s -45-p r e t e n s i o n s . . . " has no autonomy of i t s own; i t has no b e i n g w i t h o u t the European s o c i e t y which dominates i t . Here, th e w orkers are A f r i c a n s . But the t r u e b o u r g e o i s i e i s a b s e n t , d o m i c i l e d i n Europe, w h i c h p r o v i d e s c a p i t a l and t h e men who • 4. II 6 8 use i t . On one hand, the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the s a l a r i e s p a i d out a t h i g h l e v e l s goes t o Europeans, On the o t h e r hand, e x p o r t s o f w e a l t h by t r a n s f e r o f s a v i n g s , d i v i d e n d s , and o t h e r means has meant, we are t o l d , t h a t t h e whole c a p i t a l s u r p l u s a n n u a l l y g e n e r a t e d i n I v o r y Coast has been f i n d i n g , and c o n t i n u e s t o f i n d , i t s way abroad. Once a g a i n , t h i s i s , u n d o u b t e d l y , growth, but i t i s growth w i t h o u t development: and growth, p r i m a r i l y , f o r the b e n e f i t o f an a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d c a p i t a l i s t systems, m a i n l y t h a t o f F r a n c e . What, f o r example, w i l l West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s do i n t h e f u t u r e when the abundant n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s have e n t i r e l y d i s a p p e a r e d ? I f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s cannot d e v e l o p the k i n d o f a g r i c u l t u r e , how w i l l t h e y f e e d t h e r a p i d l y - g r o w i n g urban p o p u l a t i o n s w h i c h the d o c t r i n e o f s u r v i v a l - b y - g r o w t h i n c e s s a n t l y demands? To pose such q u e s t i o n s , as you see, i s not t o make an i d e o l o g i c a l p o i n t , though an i d e o l o g i c a l p o i n t c o u l d no doubt be made. S u r v i v a l by g r o w t h - o f - w h a t - e x i s t s as p r e s e n t e d t o us by t h e case of an e v o l v i n g c a p i t a l i s m i n West A f r i c a - appears g e n e r a l l y t o p r o v i d e l i t t l e hope, and i n most cases no hope a t a l l , o f l e a d i n g t o " t a k e - o f f , " "development," o r any o t h e r o f i t s proposed o b j e c t i v e s . The case f o r b e l i e v i n g t h i s does not r e s t e n t i r e l y on p r e c o n c e i v e d o b j e c t i o n s o f a -46-t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e ; the p o i n t here i s t h a t i t r e s t s on the a s c e r t a i n a b l e f a c t s o f t h e m a t t e r s , To u n d e r s t a n d t h i s 69 s i t u a t i o n , i s t o l o o k a t t h e problems f a c i n g N i g e r i a t o d a y . Are a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s o f p o l i c y and a c t i o n p o s s i b l e ? C l e a r l y , t hey must be: t h a t West A f r i c a w i l l e v e n t u a l l y f i n d t h e means not o n l y o f s a f e s u r v i v a l , b u t a l s o o f a l l - r o u n d p r o g r e s s , may appear more th a n p o s s i b l e . However, dependence on the e x p o r t o f raw m a t e r i a l s from a g r i c u l t u r e and m i n i n g , supplemented w i t h e x t e r n a l a i d t o f i n a n c e n a t i o n a l development, has f a i l e d t o b r i d g e t h e gap between d e v e l o p e d and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . The gap keeps w i d e n i n g . Though d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e o b v i o u s l y l o s i n g the r a c e , even i n aggregate terms, t h e i r r e l i a n c e on the above approach keeps p u s h i n g p l a n n e r s t o urge f o r more e x p o r t s and more a i d t h e r e b y compounding t h e i r dependence on f o r e i g n s o u r c e s o f f i n a n c e f o r development, A dependence on f o r e i g n c a p i t a l l e a d s t o r e q u e s t s f o r l o a n s , the repayment o f which t h r e a t e n s t o choke any f u t u r e development. Moreover, dependence on the e x p o r t o f raw m a t e r i a l s , as shown by s t u d i e s ; i s f r u s t r a t e d by a r e l a t i v e l y d e c r e a s i n g demand f o r e x c l u s i v e l y t r o p i c a l p r o d u c t s such as s i s a l , p yrethorum, c o t t o n . A l s o , such e x p o r t t r a d e does not g e n e r a t e enough l o c a l m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t and d o m e s t i c i n v e s t m e n t . Many p l a n n e r s o f A f r i c a n development a r e , growing more and more s k e p t i c a l o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t i n c r e a s e d f o r e i g n a i d i s the s o l e means t o a c c e l e r a t e d n a t i o n a l development. They a r e , p a r t i c u l a r i l y , q u e s t i o n i n g t h i s b e l i e f , when i t appears t o aim p r i m a r i l y a t c r e a t i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s and markets f o r machinery d e a l e r s from d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . The f a c t t h a t most p r o j e c t s are funded o n l y a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out by " u n b i a s e d " , " o b j e c t i v e " f o r e i g n c o n s u l t a n t s , s e l e c t e d because of t h e i r low i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the a f f a i r s of t h e a i d - r e c e i v i n g c o u n t r y and t h e r e f o r e v e r y u n i n f o r m e d , 69 i s i t s e l f a growing s o u r c e of d i s c o n t e n t . Unemployment and F o r e i g n Investment The f a i l u r e o f f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t i n most West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s t o g e n e r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t employment, o r even t o i n d i c a t e a w i l l i n g n e s s t o do so t h r o u g h the c h o i c e of l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e t e c h n o l o g y , has l e d p o l i c y - m a k e r s t o l o o k f o r a l t e r n a t i v e development s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h would 70 i n v o l v e the m a j o r i t y r a t h e r t h a n the v e r y few. The p r e s e n t growth r a t e o f unemployment, r a n g i n g from 15 t o 40 p e r c e n t i n 71 most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i s not l i k e l y t o be r e l i e v e d by the c r e a t i o n o f more j o b s i n the a r e a of i n d u s t r y , s e r v i c e , o r the m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r s . I n Kenya, f o r example, the employment growth r a t e i s between 0,5 p e r c e n t and 2.5 p e r c e n t , 72 i n s p i t e o f h i g h e r r a t e s o f c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . The c o n t i n u e d i m p o r t of knowledge from t h e o u t s i d e must be e v a l u a t e d c a r e f u l l y . On an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l we have a v e r y i m p e r f e c t knowledge o f human systems, b e h a v i o u r , r u l e r s h i p , n a t i o n a l g uidance and o f what t y p e o f s o c i e t y we s h o u l d aim f o r . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , e x t r e m e l y n a i v e t o b e l i e v e t h a t some e x t e r n a l "expert", 'has the answer t o the problems o f n a t i o n a l s o c i a l development f o r a West A f r i c a n C o u n t r y . He may have t e n t a t i v e models t o o f f e r , models w h i c h have proved 73 s u c c e s s f u l i n Europe, o r " p o rt-models" which are u n r e l i a b l e . Dependency on such knowledge systems s h o u l d be accompanied by the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l n a t u r e and of t h e i r p o s s i b l e i r r e l e v a n c e t o dynamic n a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s , t h a t i s , n o n - d i r e c t i v e change. E x t e r n a l knowledge can i n c a p a c i t a t e a c o u n t r y by g e n e r a t i n g v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s w h i c h l e a d t o consumer demand t h a t cannot be met and t o heavy i m p o r t s of consumer goods. Such v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s can a l s o l e a d t o l e v e l s o f a s p i r a t i o n s and j o b s e l e c t i v e n e s s w h i c h can p a r a l y z e huge s e c t i o n s o f the e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h i n d u c e d unemployment. 7 4 The c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a g r i c u l t u r e i n West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s r e f l e c t s a v e r y s m a l l urban base and, i n d i r e c t l y , i n d i c a t e s a v e r y l i m i t e d i n d u s t r i a l base, as t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e i s not b e i n g reduced by any s i g n i f i c a n t development of r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n are c l e a r : ( i ) The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d i n s m a l l - s c a l e f a r m i n g p r a c t i c e s where t h e y , as farm f a m i l i e s o r as s m a l l communities, are the major d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and where governments and development a g e n c i e s have v e r y l i m i t e d c o n t r o l s ; ( i i ) West A f r i c a n e c o l o g y , p h y s i c a l and s o c i o -economic, i s e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d and complex. There i s a l s o -49-v e r y l i m i t e d knowledge about m i c r o - l e v e l e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w hich a f f e c t p r o d u c t i o n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g - T h e r e f o r e , p l a n n e r s have c o n t i n u e d t o s u f f e r from l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and t o c o n t i n u e t o make p l a n s o f dubious r e l i a b i l i t y . A c c e s s t o r e l i a b l e l o c a l - l e v e l knowledge i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h r e l i a n c e on l o c a l - l e v e l c a p a c i t y and i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s ; ( i i i ) A g r i c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s among West A f r i c a n c u l t i v a t o r s are complex and cannot be reduced t o the s i m p l e p r i n c i p l e s upon which a commercial f i r m o p e r a t e s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r government t o i n t r o d u c e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l mechanisms, They f i n d i t more r e a l i s t i c t o r e l y on l o c a l - l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as c o o p e r a t i v e s and v i l l a g e communities. Such dependency on a g r i c u l t u r e , i n w h i c h governments and development a g e n c i e s have l i m i t e d c o n t r o l , i s a problem o n l y so l o n g as the myth t h a t a l l development o c c u r s under c e n t r a l guidance i s s t i l l v a l i d . As l o n g as t h i s myth i s k e p t a l i v e , t h e n t h e a b i l i t i e s o f n a t i o n a l governments t o g u i d e s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , f o o d p r o d u c t i o n p o l i c y and r u r a l income i n c r e a s e w i l l be v e r y l i m i t e d . I n t h e s y n t h e s i s o f economic t h e o r i e s , t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e i s s l o w l y b e i n g met. As t o some form of development t h e r a p y f o r A f r i c a , t h e r e are t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f s o c i a l i s m , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , i n s t i t u t i o n a l 75 changes and so on. We are concerned here w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l element of how t o g i v e t h i s development p r o c e s s a r e a l i s t i c and a p p r o p r i a t e meaning f o r the p e o p l e i t s e r v e s . W h i l e f o r e i g n a i d can be h e l p f u l , i t must not be the b a s i s f o r -50-economic development. As N y e r e r e wrote i n t h e A rusha 7 6 D e c l a r a t i o n , "A poor man does not use money as a weapon," He t o l d T anzanians f l a t l y : "The o n l y p e o p l e we can r e l y upon 77 are o u r s e l v e s . " S e l f - r e l i a n c e i s not m e r e l y a development 7 8 s t r a t e g y ; i t has t o become a way o f l i f e , I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a r e t u r n t o t h e A f r i c a n h e r i t a g e t h a t forms th e b a s i s " f o r s o c i a l i s t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Work cannot l e a d t o s e l f - r e l i a n c e u n l e s s i t i s o r g a n i z e d . L e a d e r s h i p i s c r u c i a l . N y e r e r e o u t l i n e s a humane n o n a u t h o r i t a r i a n l e a d e r s h i p c o n s i s t e n t w i t h A f r i c a n " f a m i l y -hood." A c c o r d i n g t o N y e r e r e , Ujaama-: c a l l s f o r l e a d e r s h i p , b u t not f o r o r d e r s t o be g i v e n ; i t d i r e c t s t h e p e o p l e a l o n g t h e s o c i a l i s t p a t h , b u t e x c l u d e s a t t e m p t s t o whip them i n t o i t - s a y i n g c l e a r l y t h a t you cannot f o r c e p e o p l e t o l e a d s o c i a l i s t l i v e s . 7 9 N e v e r t h e l e s s good l e a d e r s h i p and a c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d programme are i m p e r a t i v e . A t one p o i n t , N y e r e r e s t a t e d b l u n t l y t h a t " P r o g r e s s i n s o c i a l i s t r u r a l development does 8 i n f a c t depend a l m o s t e n t i r e l y on l e a d e r s h i p a t a l l l e v e l s . " However, l e a d e r s h i p must be based on communication and e d u c a t i o n , not on c o e r c i o n . N y e r e r e t o l d an audience of f u t u r e l e a d e r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Dar es Salaam: L e t me emphasize t h a t t h i s l e a d e r s h i p I am now t a l k i n g about does not i m p l y c o n t r o l any more than i t i m p l i e s b u l l y i n g o r i n t i m i d a t i n g p e o p l e . A good l e a d e r w i l l e x p l a i n , t e a c h and i n s p i r e . I n an Ujaama v i l l a g e he w i l l do more. He w i l l l e a d by d o i n g . He i s i n f r o n t o f t h e p e o p l e , showing them what can be done, g u i d i n g them, and e n c o u r a g i n g them. But he i s w i t h them. You do not l e a d p e o p l e by b e i n g so f a r i n f r o n t , o r so t h e o r e t i c a l i n y o u r t e a c h i n g t h a t t h e p e o p l e cannot see what you are d o i n g o r s a y i n g . -51-You do n o t l e a d p e o p l e by y a p p i n g a t t h e i r h e e l s l i k e a dog h e a r d i n g c a t t l e . You can l e a d the p e o p l e o n l y by b e i n g one o f them, b u t j u s t b e i n g more a c t i v e as w e l l as more w i l l i n g t o l e a r n - f r o m them and o t h e r s , 8 0 Such a concept o f l e a d e r s h i p i s f a i r l y easy t o e n v i s a g e and even t o implement a t t h e l o c a l - l e v e l , where l e a d e r s a re l o c a l men and women s e l e c t e d by and i n d a i l y c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r p e e r s . Planning; f o r l o c a l - s e l f - r e l i a n c e Many s o c i o l o g i s t s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have argued t h a t s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - h e l p i n c r e a s e a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , e l i m i n a t e s u s p i c i o n and a l i e n a t i o n , and a l s o enhance c r e a t i v e n e s s , T h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s a r e based on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t b e h a v i o u r i s always d i r e c t e d by the way p e o p l e d e f i n e t h e i r common w o r l d , 82 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s p a t t e r n e d by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . S e l f - r e l i a n c e i s enhanced when p l a n n e r s and d e v e l o p e r s u t i l i z e and i n t e g r a t e l o c a l knowledge, systems and o p e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s i n t o t h e i r programmes. L o c a l d e c i s i o n -making frameworks s h o u l d be s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , s o c i o - t e c h n i c a l knowledge models which a re s p e c i f i c t o l o c a l i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , w h i c h a re r e a l , and whi c h a re a b l e t o det e r m i n e l o c a l a c t i o n . Some o f the a p p r o p r i a t e ways of enhancing s e l f - r e l i a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e : P l a n n i n g f o r p e r s o n a l i t y enhancement S o c i a l p l a n n e r s a r e agreed t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s and communities have p e r s o n a l i t y . They a l s o agree t h a t the e a s i e s t -52-way t o g a i n commitment and s e l f - i n v o l v e m e n t i s t o choose themes, a c t i v i t i e s and symbols w h i c h r e i n f o r c e t h e i r s e l f - i m a g e . The change s t r a t e g y w h i c h r i d i c u l e s f a r mers as i l l i t e r a t e , i g n o r a n t o r c o n s e r v a t i v e , s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by one which s e a r c h e s f o r l o c a l i n s i g h t s , l o c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f needs, l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s , e t c . , and one which b u i l d s on t h e s e . G r a s s - R o o t s P a r t i c i p a t i o n The e s s e n t i a l s t a g e s o f p r o j e c t development i n c l u d e , p r e - p l a n n i n g , need i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , assessment of f e a s i b i l i t y , p l a n n i n g i n c l u d i n g the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f d i mensions of problems, r e s o u r c e assessment, g o a l c h o i c e ( p r i o r i t i e s ) programme d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n , o p e r a t i o n s and management; f i n a l l y , e v a l u a t i o n and r e assessment. A l l t h e s e s t a g e s s h o u l d be i n i t i a t e d a t the l o c a l community l e v e l where p o p u l a t i o n s are c l e a r about t h e i r g o a l s b u t not n e c e s s a r i l y agreed on t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s . A t t h i s l e v e l , l o c a l p e o p l e c o n t r o l i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p , l o c a l i n c e n t i v e p a t t e r n s and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s and 8 3 are more f a m i l i a r w i t h l o c a l c o n s t r a i n t s . The system o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e d i v i s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n t o s m a l l neighbourhood group and t h r o u g h the use o f government r e s o u r c e s and e x p e r t s as a d v i s e r s and c a t a l y s t s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n can a l s o be r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n v i l l a g e and d i s t r i c t committees where e x p e r t s and l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s work t o g e t h e r . The most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i a l o g u e ; t h a t i s , the d i s c u s s i o n o f i s s u e s a t a l l l e v e l s i n o r d e r t h a t the p e o p l e may educate themselves and may e v e n t u a l l y d e f i n e t h e i r own c h o i c e s , t h e i r own i d e n t i t y and t h a t t hey may agree on n a t i o n a l and l o c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t e c h n i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , n a t i o n -a l g u i d e l i n e s and i d e n t i f i a b l e c o n s t r a i n t s , P a r t i c i p a t o r y M o b i l i z a t i o n Many s c h o l a r s o f r u r a l development a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t many farm and community r e s o u r c e s a re p a r a l y z e d due t o the dependency problem and t h e c o n t i n u e d s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e 84 s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s o f t h e r u r a l communities, So l o n g as farmers must r e l y on government a g e n t s , they w i l l n o t e x p l o i t t h e i r farm p r o d u c t i o n i s s u e s , They w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y l e s s i m a g i n a t i v e and more w i l l i n g t o go on u s i n g the same o l d t o o l s , f o l l o w i n g the same p r a c t i c e s , y e a r i n and y e a r o u t . However, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h ey w i l l n o t n o r m a l l y r e l e a s e t h o s e r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l as f a m i l y l a b o u r , l e a d e r s h i p , s o c i a l c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e . To i n c r e a s e m o b i l i z a t i o n , more e d u c a t i o n of t h e masses i s n e c e s s a r y as w e l l as among the members o f t h e community and t h e 'agents 8 5 of change'. A sense o f o b l i g a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r i s e s o n l y when communication exposes a l l r e l e v a n t i s s u e s and i n d i c a t e s n e c e s s a r y p a t t e r n s o f d e c i s i o n s . CHAPTER I I I C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A r e a In my o p i n i o n no s i n g l e g e o r g r a p h i c a r e a o f t h e w o r l d has s u f f e r e d so much m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i g n o r a n t o u t s i d e r s as West A f r i c a . I n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t s p e o p l e were r e g a r d e d as savages, f i t o n l y t o be s l a v e s . I n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y West A f r i c a became "the White Man's Grave," one o f t h e d a r k e s t p a r t s o f the Dark C o n t i n e n t " , a l a n d o f h i d e o u s pagan p r a c t i c e s . A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , a f t e r b e i n g made the s u b j e c t s o f t h e c o l o n i a l powers of Europe, the p e o p l e s o f West A f r i c a found themselves r e g a r d e d as i n c a p a b l e o f managing t h e i r own a f f a i r s . Only d u r i n g the p a s t two decades, w i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y growth o f A f r i c a n n a t i o n a l i s m , have the c o u n t r i e s and p e o p l e s o f West A f r i c a come t o be a c c e p t e d i n t o the community of n a t i o n s . West A f r i c a i s a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e g i o n o f c o n t i n e n t a l s c a l e . I t i s about 2,000 m i l e s as the crow f l i e s from Dakar t o Lake Chad and 800 m i l e s from A c c r a northward t o t h e bend o f the R i v e r N i g e r a t Bourem. T h i s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o an a r e a e n c l o s e d by the q u a d r i l a t e r a l London - t h e C a s p i a n Sea -B a s r a - B a r c e l o n a - London, o r t h e whole o f t h e U.S.A. e a s t of t h e R o c k i e s . W i t h i n such a l a r g e a r e a t h e r e w i l l o b v i o u s l y be g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , the economy and t h e s o c i e t y . West A f r i c a , however, l a c k s the extreme v a r i e t y and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n -55-e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e a r e a between s o u t h e r n England and the C a s p i a n Sea. A l t h o u g h the whole of the a r e a i s r e g a r d e d as b e i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y u n d e r d e v e l o p e d , t h e p r o g r e s s towards a modern market economy i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , and commerce does v a r y w i d e l y from p l a c e t o p l a c e . S o c i a l homogeneity i s l e s s pronounced, though o v e r t h e l a s t c e n t u r y a t l e a s t i t s p r i n c i p a l e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s have been Western i n g e n e r a l and B r i t i s h and F r e n c h i n p a r t i c u l a r . These have been a d i s t i n c t u n i f y i n g f a c t o r , even i f a somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l one. I n s h o r t , w h i l e i t i s easy t o over-emphasize the monotony of t h e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , i t i s e q u a l l y easy t o over-emphasize the r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h are minor i f viewed on a w o r l d s c a l e . The A t l a n t i c Ocean extends westward and southward c l e a r l y s e p a r a t i n g West A f r i c a from the o u t s i d e w o r l d and i n the p a s t a major f a c t o r i n i t s i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . T h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e c o a s t , w h i c h f u n c t i o n s more as a b a r r i e r , s e p a r a t i n g l a n d and sea by s c r e e n s o f s u r f and mangrove swamp and by l a c k of n a t u r a l h a r b o u r s , t h a n as the zone o f c o n t a c t i n the N o r t h Sea b a s i n o r i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n . To the N o r t h l i e s t h e b r o a d b a r r i e r o f t h e Sahara D e s e r t . I t was so l o n g an impediment t o c i r c u l a t i o n t h a t i t has become a c u l t u r a l d i v i d e s e p a r a t i n g T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ( L'Afrque N o i r e o f the F r e n c h w r i t e r s ) from the M e d i t e r r a n e a n l a n d s ( L ' A f r i q u e B l a n c h e ) . The s o u t h e r n s h o r e s o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n have more a f f i n i t y i n t h e i r l a n d s c a p e , c u l t u r e and economy w i t h t h e n o r t h e r n s h o r e s t h a n w i t h T r o p i c a l A f r i c a . There i s a s t r o n g case f o r r e g a r d i n g t h e Sahara r a t h e r t h a n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n as the n o r t h e r n l i m i t o f A f r i c a . Even today t h e r e are o n l y two m o t o r a b l e r o u t e s northward from West A f r i c a , the M a u r i t a n i a n r o u t e from S t . L o u i s de Senegal t o A g a d i r and the Hoggar r o u t e from Agades t o G h a r d a i a i n . 1 . 8 6 A l g e r i a . Only t o t h e E a s t i s t h e r e a p o s s i b i l i t y o f q u e s t i o n i n g 8 7 t h e l i m i t s o f West A f r i c a . G a u t i e r r e g a r d e d t h e Benue Trough as t h e boundary. But a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s t r u c t u r a l t r o u g h i s the s e r i e s o f p l a t e a u x d e s c e n d i n g n o r t h eastward from t h e 4,069 metre v o l c a n o o f Mount Cameroon t o the low l y i n g and swampy b a s i n o f Lake Chad. These p l a t e a u x are s p a r s e l y p e o p l e d and i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t a t l e a s t , i n h a b i t e d by the Bantu p e o p l e s , who are c u l t u r a l l y and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h o s e o f Guinea and the Sudan. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e communications a c r o s s t h i s b a r r i e r a r e v e r y p o o r . South of Lake Chad i s a good r o a d from M a i d u g u r i i n n o r t h e a s t N i g e r i a t o F o r t Lany, c a p i t a l o f t h e Chad R e p u b l i c . But t h e o n l y a c c e s s i b l e c r o s s i n g s are i n the extreme s o u t h , a v e r y bad one a c r o s s the Ba^enda P l a t e a u and one w h i c h i s s t i l l v e r y poor i n p l a c e s from Manfe t o D o r e a l a . P r i o r t o 1960, when the B r i t i s h Cameroons were a d m i n i s t e r e d by N i g e r i a , t h e e a s t e r n f l a n k s o f Mount Cameroon were drawn i n t o t h e ambit o f N i g e r i a , b u t t h i s a r e a , t o g e t h e r w i t h the Bamenda P l a t e a u , became i n 1962 p a r t o f the F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f Cameroon. Thus West A f r i c a i s c u t o f f by l a n d from t h e o u t s i d e world,, and f o r p a s s e n g e r s o r f r e i g h t West A f r i c a i s l i n k e d w i t h o t h e r p a r t s o f the w o r l d by sea and a i r . None of t h e s e b a r r i e r s , however, i s complete. The Sahara was c r o s s e d r e g u l a r l y and f r e q u e n t l y a f t e r the d o m e s t i c a t i o n o f the camel about th e 8 8 s e v e n t h c e n t u r y . The d e s e r t , t o o was o u t f l a n k e d by s e a , a f t e r the p e r i o d o f P o r t u g u e s e e x p l o r a t i o n s i n the l a t t e r 89 h a l f o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . But t h e s e b a r r i e r s were d i f f i c u l t and s t i l l a r e c o s t l y t o c r o s s . They were the cause of the i s o l a t i o n o f West A f r i c a t h a t ':• i s i t s f i r s t n o t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , though d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y t h i s was b roken down more and more. Wh i l e i t was t r u e t h a t t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a d e a c r o s s the d e s e r t , g o l d , s l a v e s and 'morocco' l e a t h e r moving northward i n exchange f o r s a l t , weapons and armour, and w h i l e M u s l i n c u l t u r e f o l l o w e d i n the wake of t h i s t r a d e t o t h e Sudan, i t i s as w e l l t o remember t h a t such b a s i c i n v e n t i o n s as the wheel and t h e p l o u g h were unknown t o t h e i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e s o f West A f r i c a . I t was t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e " l a t t e i s t o make any s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance. I n c o n t r a s t , however, the use o f i r o n was w i d e l y though n o t u n i v e r s a l l y known. I t i s a l s o w e l l t o r e c a l l how many of t h e p r e s e n t day s t a p l e foods a r e e x o t i c s . C a s s a va, M a i z e , and r i c e , a l l s t a p l e s o f the Guinea C o a s t , were i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g o r a f t e r 90 t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s i s o l a t i o n from e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e i s matched by i n t e r n a l i s o l a t i o n , and t h i s i n s p i t e o f monotonously l e v e l r e l i e f and l a c k o f mountain b a r r i e r s . I t i s the r e s u l t o f a c o m b i n a t i o n of sheer d i s t a n c e and l a c k o f n a v i g a b l e r i v e r s w i t h e x t e n s i v e f o r e s t s and woodland, and t h e w i d e s p r e a d occurance of t r y p a n o s o m i a s i s , t r a n s m i t t e d by the t s e t s e , f l y , w hich p r e c l u d e t h e use o f d r a u g h t or r i d i n g a n i m a l s . Only i n -58-t h e Sudan zone, s o u t h o f the S a h e l zone c o u l d h o r s e or camel be used. Even t o d a y , w i t h an even e x t e n d i n g r o a d network and expanding v e h i c l e f l e e t , t h i s i n t e r n a l i s o l a t i o n s t i l l p e r s i s t s . I n some a r e a s , such as w e s t e r n N i g e r i a , S o u t h e r n Ghana and ..south, e a s t e r n I v o r y C o a s t , t h e r o a d network i s r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e meshed and the t r a f f i c f l o w heavy. But i n o t h e r a r e a s t h e r o a d network i s r u d i m e n t a r y and c i r c u l a t i o n l i m i t e d . Even where r o a d networks a r e d e v e l o p e d , t h e y a r e i n t e r n a l and do n o t e x t e n d o v e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r even p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s . I n 1960 t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e m o t o r a b l e roads a c r o s s the 650 m i l e u . (1,165 k i l o m e t r e s ) w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r o f N i g e r i a and o n l y 8 roads a c r o s s the 1,200 m i l e s (1,930 k i l o m e t r e s ) o f Ghana's l a n d f r o n t i e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , t r u n k r o a d s and r a i l w a y s t e n d t o r u n n o r t h and s o u t h r a t h e r t h a n e a s t and west or more c o r r e c t l y from the s e a p o r t s ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s ) (see T a b l e 3.1) i n l a n d . T h i s i s p a r t l y because, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , most of the c a s h c r o p p i n g was f o r e x p o r t t o o v e r s e a s m a r k e t s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f p o l i t i c a l independence has tended t o i n c r e a s e i s o l a t i o n by s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e e x i s t i n g f r o n t i e r s . Independence i n g e n e r a l and t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n of the F e d e r a t i o n o f F r e n c h West A f r i c a i n p a r t i c u l a r have l e d t o the e r e c t i o n o f customs b a r r i e r s and i m m i g r a t i o n c o n t r o l where none e x i s t e d b e f o r e . On o c c a s i o n f r o n t i e r s have been c l o s e d f o r l o n g p e r i o d s , as t h o s e between Senegal and M a l i , between Ghana and Togo and between Guinea and S i e r r a Leone. W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e s e f r o n t i e r s have l i t t l e or no. meaning from t h e v i e w p o i n t of l o c a l c i r c u l a t i o n , and w h i l e smuggling i s on a l a r g e s c a l e , TABLE 3.1 P o p u l a t i o n E s t i m a t e s West A f r i c a , 1970 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n Urban Cou n t r y ( M i l l i o n s ) P o p u l a t i o n ( M i l l i o n s ) Urban West A f r i c a 111. 9 15.8 14 N i g e r i a 66.1 10.1 15 Ghana 9.0 1.6 18 Upper V o l t a 5.3 0.2 4 M a l i 5.1 0.4 8 I v o r y C o a s t 4.3 0.8 19 Guinea 3.9 0.4 10 S enegal 3.9 1.1 26 N i g e r 3.8 0.2 5 Dahomey 2.7 0.3 11 S i e r r a Leone 2.6 0.4 13 Togo 1.8 0.2 11 L i b e r i a 1.2 0.2 17 M a u r i t a n i a 1.2 0.02 2 G u i n e a - B i s s a u .6 0.02 3 Gambia .4 0.03 7 Source: U r b a n i z a t i o n i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a : a demographic i n t f o d u c t i o n . ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l U r b a n i z a t i o n Survey, The F o r d F o u n d a t i o n ) , p. 15. -60-they have a f f e c t e d l a r g e - s c a l e movement a l o n g t h e t r u n k r o a d s , w h i c h can be e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d . I s o l a t i o n , b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , i s t h e r e f o r e t h e f i r s t e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f West A f r i c a . The b r e a k i n g down of t h i s i s o l a t i o n i s the e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e o f economic development. But t h i s i n v o l v e s heavy c o s t , e s p e c i a l l y where t h e r e are the p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s such as c o a s t l i n e s and f o r e s t t o be overcome. S e c o n d l y , t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f p r o v i d i n g t h e whole of West A f r i c a w i t h a t r a n s p o r t system of u n i f o r m q u a l i t y and u n i v e r s a l e x t e n t has been a b a s i c cause of d i f f e r e n t i a l development between and w i t h i n the v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s . T h i r d l y , i t has p u t a premium on development o f the i n t e r i o r . F o r h i g h t r a n s p o r t c o s t e f f e c t i v e l y reduces th e revenue from e x p o r t s and i n c r e a s e s the p r i c e o f i m p o r t s . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p r i c e r e c e i v e d on w o r l d markets of e x p o r t c r o p s i s absorbed by t r a n s p o r t c o s t . H i g h e r t r a n s p o r t c o s t s r a i s e the p r i c e o f e s s e n t i a l i m p o r t s such as p e t r o l e u m , m e t a l goods and cement i n the i n t e r i o r compared w i t h the c o a s t . The second major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e low o v e r a l l d e n s i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n and i t s uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h i s v e r y l a r g e r e g i o n had o n l y j u s t o v er 111 m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n 1970(see T a b l e 3.1). The e x a c t number i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a -t e , because of the u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f many censuses and t h e d i f f -e r e n t d a t e s on which they were h e l d . There i s t h u s an approximate d e n s i t y o f 35 per square m i l e (13.5 per square k i l o m e t r e s ) , v e r y low by t h e s t a n d a r d s o f many monsoon l a n d s , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s , West A f r i c a i s on the whole more d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d than i s t r o p i c a l A f r i c a i n g e n e r a l . Data on t h e s i z e -61-and s t r u c t u r e of a g r i c u l t u r a l h o l d i n g s are w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l , a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e , where the r e s u l t s o f innumberable case s t u d i e s have been r e p o r t e d . ^  A t the n a t i o n a l s c a l e , d a t a on s i z e o f ho l d i n g s a r e u s u a l l y based on sample s u r v e y s and a r e s u b j e c t t o l a r g e s a m p l i n g e r r o r s . H o l d i n g s a r e , however, smalL v a r y i n g i n s i z e from l e s s than h a l f an a c r e t o o v e r 20 a c r e s , a l t h o u g h the e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y a r e between one and f i v e a c r e s i n e x t e n t . V a r i a t i o n s i n s i z e o f h o l d i n g s i s as much a f e a t u r e o f d e n s e l y as o f s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d a r e a s . F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a n d , the a r e a t h a t can be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y c u l t i v a t e d g i v e n the t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s and, i n d e n s e l y s e t t l e d a r e a s where l a n d can be p u r c h a s e d , t h e w e a l t h o f the c u l t i v a t o r s . A s u b s i s t e n c e a r e a o f h a l f an a c r e p e r head o f p o p u l a t i o n i s u s u a l i n the f o r e s t r e g i o n s . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e d t o t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f an a c r e o r more i n the Savanna r e g i o n s f o r the r o o t c r o p s t y p i c a l o f t h e f o r e s t y i e l d more h e a v i l y than c e r e a l s , the t a s k o f c l e a r a n c e i n the f o r e s t i s more burdensome, and f a l l o w p e r i o d s are s h o r t e r t h e r e . H o l d i n g s c o n s i s t o f s m a l l p l o t s ('farms') w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h the v i l l a g e l a n d s . F r a g m e n t a t i o n r e s u l t s from the p r o c e s s o f a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d s t o the c u l t i v a t o r . I t i s l e a s t where l a n d i s abundant and f a l l o w s are l o n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y where s e t t l e m e n t s are d i s p e r s e d i n s m a l l compound u n i t s . I t i s most marked where s e t t l e m e n t s a r e l a r g e , where t h e r e i s p r e s s u r e on l a n d r e s o u r c e s . W i t h i n t h i s broad framework t h e r e -62-i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l communities. In Kumbaw, a v i l l a g e i n t h e Bamenda H i g h l a n d s o f West Cameroon, t h e average acreage c u l t i v a b l e by each woman i s 1.3 4 a c r e s i n an average o f e i g h t farms. A t one extreme i s a woman w i t h a h o l d i n g o f f o u r farms t o t a l l i n g 1.04 a c r e s , a l l w i t h i n t e n minutes walk o f her hu t . On t h e o t h e r hand, i s a woman c u l t i v a t i n g 1.8 a c r e s i n f o u r t e e n p l o t s , t h e l a r g e s t o f which i s some n i n e t y m i n u t e s 1 walk from t h e hut over two 92 s t e e p h i l l s . " Amongst the L o b i B i r i f o r o f Western Gonja i n C e n t r a l Ghana, most o f the h o l d i n g i s made up o f the f a m i l y farm c u l t i v a t e d by t h e f a r m i n g group t o s u p p l y f o o d s t u f f s . 93 More s c a t t e r e d bush farms a re used t o p r o v i d e cash c r o p s . S i m i l a r l y , a t Wum i n t h e Bamenda H i g h l a n d s one l a r g e b l o c k o f l a n d i s c u l t i v a t e d by the women, who grow t h e f o o d s t u f f s , and t h e c u l t i v a t e d p o r t i o n i s r o t a t e d around t h e v i l l a g e a r e a , as f a l l o w f o l l o w s c r o p p i n g i n the c u l t i v a t i o n c y c l e . West A f r i c a has t h e h i g h e s t average p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n t r o p i c a l A f r i c a , y e t i t s p o p u l a t i o n p a t t e r n has no s i m p l e e x p l a n a t i o n . I t c o n c e a l s i n r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s as t h o s e of I b o l a n d , South E a s t e r n I v o r y C o a s t , and the Kano C l o s e S e t t l e d Zone, where f i g u r e s may l o c a l l y r e a c h o r exceed 500 persons p e r square m i l e (195 p e r square k i l o m e t r e s ) on the one hand, and wide areas such as the M i d d l e B e l t o f N i g e r i a , the f o r e s t o f southwest I v o r y Coast and Western Gonja i n t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f Dagomba D i s t r i c t i n Ghana's N o r t h e r n R e g i o n , where p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s nowhere above 49 persons per square m i l e . There i s e v i d e n c e t o suggest a c o n n e c t i o n between p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e , and t h a t the p r a c t i c e becomes m o d i f i e d as d e n s i t y changes. S h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n i s found o n l y where p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s a re low, u s u a l l y l e s s than 25 pe r s o n s p e r square m i l e . G e n e r a l l y r o t a t i o n a l bush f a l l o w i n g i s p r a c t i s e d where p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s a re h i g h e r . But i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y (or t h e spre a d o f cash c r o p p i n g ) e v e n t u a l l y r educes the l e n g t h o f the fallow p e r i o d s u n t i l t h e p r a c t i c e must be c l a s s i f i e d as 94 semi-permanent o r permanent. " O b v i o u s l y no a b s o l u t e r u l e can be e s t a b l i s h e d . Even though p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s a re v e r y low, the Konkomba-; o f Ghana m a i n t a i n i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s o v e r t h e f a l l o w s f o r l i m i t e d p e r i o d s . Bush f a l l o w i n g i s p r a c t i s e d i n p a r t s o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n N i g e r i a where d e n s i t i e s exceed 600 p e r square m i l e and e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h by West A f r i c a n s t a n d a r d s . However, t h i s suggested d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e may be o f fundamental importance f o r development p l a n n i n g , A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e i s the c o n t r a s t between areas w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s and c o n t i g u o u s a r e a s o f v e r y low d e n s i t y . To some e x t e n t the p o p u l a t i o n can be s a i d t o be ar r a n g e d z o n a l l y , f o l l o w i n g t h o s e o f c l i m a t e and v e g e t a t i o n . Thus i n g e n e r a l t h e c o a s t l a n d s and t h e f o r e s t s are the most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d . The Sudan zone f a i r l y heavy, t h e Guinea Savannah s p a r s e l y i n h a b i t e d and t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e S a h e l i s v e r y low i n d e e d . The t r u e p i c t u r e , however i s not so s i m p l e . P o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n i n West A f r i c a tends t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n t o d i s c o n t i n u o u s ' i s l a n d s ' s e p a r a t e d by areas o f much lower d e n s i t i e s . The l a r g e s t s and most i m p o r t a n t ' i s l a n d s ' , such as t h e cocoa b e l t s o f Ghana and o f Western N i g e r i a , I b o l a n d i n E a s t e r n N i g e r i a and the t i m b e r zone of the I v o r y C o a s t are t o be found i n the f o r e s t . But here a l s o are the s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s of s o u t h - w e s t e r n I v o r y C o a s t , of s o u t h - w e s t e r n Ghana and the C r o s s R i v e r B a s i n o f N i g e r i a . There a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t ' i s l a n d s ' i n t h e Sudan zone, n o t a b l y t h e M o s s i a r e a o f Upper V o l t a and the Sokoto and Kano r e g i o n o f N o r t h e r n N i g e r i a . I n t h e M i d d l e B e l t , w hich H a r r i s o n Church equates w i t h the Guinea Savannah woodlands, such ' i s l a n d s ' are fewer 95 and l e s s i m p o r t a n t . They are c o n f i n e d t o t h o s e a r e a s around Korhogo and Bouake i n I v o r y C o a s t , t o t h e Yomba, Nupe and T i v l a n d s i n N i g e r i a and t o some mountainous area s such as the C e n t r a l A t a c o r a and J o s P l a t e a u w h i c h a c t as r e f u g e s i n t r o u b l e d t i m e s . The p o p u l a t i o n i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y r u r a l . Even i n the i n d i g e n o u s Yoruba towns the m a j o r i t y o f the i n h a b i t a n t s a r e f a r m e r s . U r b a n i z a t i o n , though p r o c e e d i n g w i t h i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c o a s t l a n d s and f o r e s t s , has not y e t a f f e c t e d the m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n any r e g i o n (see T a b l e 3.1). Though urban development a n t e - d a t e d the European p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o West A f r i c a , and the urban component of the p o p u l a t i o n had become s i z e a b l e , f u r t h e r u r b a n i z a t i o n proceeded a t an i m p r e s s i v e r a t e i n the c o u r s e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h 96 c e n t u r y . I n g e n e r a l , urban l a n d use i n t h e West A f r i c a n Savannah i s r a t h e r space-consuming s i n c e h o u s i n g d e n s i t i e s t e n d t o be f a i r l y low. U r b a n i z a t i o n thus i n v o l v e d s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c -t i o n s o f c u l t i v a t e d o r p o t e n t i a l l y c u l t i v a b l e l a n d . But of g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e p r e s e n t argument i s t h a t -6 5-u r b a n i z a t i o n produced a r i s i n g demand f o r f o o d . W h i l e t h e r e are o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s i z e and growth o f urban c e n t r e s , i n t h e w e a l t h and o c c u p a t i o n s o f the urban p o p u l a t i o n , and i n the q u a l i t y of h o u s i n g and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e are i m p o r t a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s from one c o u n t r y t o a n o t h e r . F i r s t , most growth o c c u r s i n the r e s p e c t i v e p r i v a t e c i t i e s , T a b l e 3.2 shows th i s . p h e n o m e n a l growth i n a b s o l u t e terms o v e r the l a s t f o u r decades. Almost a l l p r i m a t e c i t i e s i n West A f r i c a have do u b l e d t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s i n the l a s t decade. Second, m i g r a t i o n i s a major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h i s growth. P o p u l a t i o n s from the s u r r o u n d i n g r u r a l a r e a s and s m a l l e r towns are a t t r a c t e d by the economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( r e a l o r p e r c e i v e d ) o f t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s major i n d u s t r i a l - commercial - p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e . T h i r d , much o f the economic growth, c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , and p o l i t i c o -economic f o u n d a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e p r i v a t e c i t i e s , l a r g e l y a c a r r y - o v e r from c o l o n i a l t i m e s (see T a b l e 3.3). The p r i m a t e c i t i e s a re the m e e t i n g ground between t h e n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l economies, and are s i t u a t e d i n s t r a t e g i c and c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n s . F o u r t h , i n a l l b ut a h a n d f u l o f s t a t e s , the p r i m a t e c i t i e s a c count f o r more th a n h a l f o f t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n s : Conakry 59%, B a n j u l 100%. F i f t h , a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f the urban p o p u l a t i o n i s l o c a t e d i n c i t i e s o f 100,000 and more, and t h e r e i s a l a r g e d i s p a r i t y between t h e p r i m a t e c i t i e s and the s m a l l e r towns. The r a n k - s i z e •- r u l e a p p l i e s v e r y p o o r l y , which means the h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement of towns and c i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s i s g e n e r a l l y absent and the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h and -66-TABLE 3.2 Growth o f S e l e c t e d P r i m a t e C i t i e s ( E s t i m a t e s , i n Thousands). 1930's 1950's 1960's 1970's C i t y Year Pop Year Pop Year Pop Year Pop A b i d j a n 30 10 50 69 68 500 70 650 Conakry 31 7 50 39 67 197 72 526 Dakar 31 54 55 300 68 600 74 714 Lagos 31 127 52 267 63 665 75 1400 M o n r o v i a 34 10 53 27 67 100 74 180 N'Djamena 36 8 51 21 67 150 73 195 Source: Hance, 1975, pp. 2 41-42; V a r i o u s N a t i o n a l S u r v e y s . TABLE 3.3 Selected C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of C a p i t a l C i t i e s West A f r i c a C a p i t a l s Benin Porto Novo Chad N'Djamena Gambia Banjul Ghana Accra Guinea Conakry Guinea-Bissau Bissau Ivory Coast .Abidjan L i b e r i a Monrovia Mali Bamako Mauritania Nouakchott Niger Niamey Nigeria Lagos Senegal Dakar S i e r r a Leone Freetown Togo Lone Upper V o l t a Ouagadougou Indigenous C i t y Ex-Colonial C a p i t a l New Postindependence C a p i t a l Primate Cit y x X ' ' X X X X X X Sources Alan C.C. Best and Ram J . de B11J., A f r i c a n Survey, •John HI ley t Sons, New York, 1977, pp. 108-109. Only Major Main Seaport Lake c i t v River Port x X X x x x * X X X X * x * x X X X X X Main Main Main A i r p o r t R a i l Bead Manufacturing C i t y * x * X x X X X x * X X X X « X X * * x X * x x x : X • * x x X X x * x x -68-development i s h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d . S i x t h , the major urban a r e a s a re w i t n e s s i n g a c u t e s h o r t a g e s o f h o u s i n g and r i s i n g unemployment as m i g r a t i o n adds t o the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . M i g r a t i o n can be b o t h t h e causes and consequences of p o p u l a t i o n growth. I n West A f r i c a t h e y p l a y an e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n urban g r o w t h , t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f income, t h e d i f f u s i o n o f i d e a s and v a l u e s , and have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y , economic growth, and p o l i t i c a l power i n r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l areas a t t h e expense o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s . W h i l e i m p o r t a n t i n the development p r o c e s s o f contemporary West A f r i c a , m i g r a t i o n has o c c u r e d t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y and has.: c o n t r i b u t e d t o the contemporary p a t t e r n s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n s , d e n s i t i e s , and economies. They can be v o l u n t a r y o r i n v o l u n t a r y , permanent o r temporary, w i t h i n o r between s t a t e s , r u r a l - u r b a n , u r b a n - r u r a l , r u r a l - r u r a l , u r b a n - u r b a n , i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups. They are the response t o charges ( e i t h e r r e a l o r p e r c e i v e d ) i n the n a t u r a l e nvironment, and s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic systems i n e i t h e r the m i g r a n t ' s p l a c e o f o r i g i n o r p l a c e o f d e s t i n a t i o n o r b o t h . W h i l e t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i s u n d e r g o i n g s o c i a l and economic changes, e x t r e m e l y r a p i d i n some a r e a s , v e r y slow i n o t h e r s , the economy i s s t i l l l a r g e l y s u b s i s t e n c e based. A v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n , over 90% i n some a r e a s , o f t h e o u t p u t from f a r m i n g , h e r d i n g , c o l l e c t i n g and h u n t i n g i s consumed by t h e f a m i l y p r o d u c i n g i t . A s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d economy i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s slow r a t e o f change, though i t i s never s t a t i c , because o f i t s low l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y and o f c a p i t a l equipment. Even i n a s u b s i s t e n c e economy t h a t l a c k s major -69-monetary exchange, however, some forms o f c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n 97; are p o s s i b l e . I n t he c l a s s i c a l A f r i c a n s u b s i s t e n c e economy t h e r e i s p l e n t y o f l a n d f o r e v e r y c u l t i v a t o r i n t h e community. Eve r y c u l t i v a t o r , however, has a r i g h t t o as much l a n d as he can c u l t i v a t e , and t h i s depends on t h e s i z e o f h i s / h e r f a m i l y . Wives are t h e r e f o r e a v a l u a b l e economic r e s o u r c e and may be l o o k e d on as c a p i t a l . I n a d d i t i o n the c u l t i v a t o r has a few s i m p l e t o o l s , hoes, c u t l a s s e s (machetes) and f i s h - n e t s . T rees may a l s o be re g a r d e d as c a p i t a l . Customary law p r e s e r v e s h a r v e s t r i g h t s t o t h e p e r s o n p l a n t i n g t r e e s , even when t h e s e a re on f a l l o w 98 l a n d which has r e v e r t e d t o the t r i b e o r c l a n . Members o f t h i s l a r g e group a l s o e n j o y r i g h t s o f c o l l e c t i o n from w i l d t r e e s as w e l l as h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s . O b v i o u s l y a s u b s i s t e n c e economy was everywhere the o r i g i n a l b a s i s , though some form o f exchange would have e v o l v e d a t an e a r l y d a t e . I t i s , however, p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h a number o f s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o f economic development w h i c h o v e r l a i d t h e s u b s i s t e n c e b a s i s as a s o r t o f p a l i m s e s t . Q u i c k e n i n g economic development was as much a f e a t u r e o f l a t e r c o l o n i a l t i m e s as o f the Independence E r a . The s u b s i s t e n c e stage can be c a l l e d the Indigenous Economy, the second s t a g e t h e P r o t o - C o l o n i a l , w h i c h spans the p e r i o d 1450 t o 1885. W h i l e t h e r e were c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v e l o p -ments o f Trans-SaharaA t r a d e d u r i n g the m e d i e v a l p e r i o d and up t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w h i c h were p a r t o f a g e n e r a l f l o w e r i n g o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n the Sudan, g e n e r a l economic development cannot be s a i d t o have b e g u n , u n t i l the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y and then as a consequence of European p e n e t r a t i o n . The f i r s t permanent European t r a d i n g s t a t i o n s were s e t up on Goree I s l a n d ( o f f Dakar) i n 1445 and a t E l m i n a (Ghana) i n 1482. But though numerous ' f a c t o r i e s ' were s e t up a l l a l o n g t h e c o a s t by a t l e a s t h a l f a dozen European n a t i o n s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e remained v e r y l i m i t e d f o r f o u r c e n t u r i e s . I t was not u n t i l the second h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y by e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s l e d t o the p a r t i t i o n of West A f r i c a , i n the p e r i o d a f t e r t h e B e r l i n Agreement (1885) c h i e f l y by France and G r e a t B r i t a i n . There were, Por t u g u e s e and S p a n i s h i n f l u e n c e were even more l i m i t e d , w h i l e from t h e f i r s t L i b e r i a was n o m i n a l l y independent. I n 1821 t h e A m e r i c a l C o l o n i z a t i o n s o c i e t y o b t a i n e d l a n d a t Cape Mesurado w h i c h become the s i t e o f Monrovia-. and p l a n t e d t h e r e and a t o t h e r p l a c e s on the c o a s t numbers of f r e e d s l a v e s from t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a . The R e p u b l i c was c o n s t i t u t e d i n 1847. The t h i r d s t a g e , t h e C o l o n i a l P e r i o d began w i t h the B e r l i n Agreement of 188 5 and l a s t u n t i l about two decades ago. P a r t i t i o n of West A f r i c a among the c o l o n i a l powers l e d t o the i m p o s i t i o n o f European law and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the way thus b e i n g c l e a r e d f o r economic e x p l o i t a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l form t h i s took was t h e encouragement of e x p o r t c r o p p i n g by p e a s a n t s f a r m e r s . The f l o w o f e x p o r t c r o p s and o f i m p o r t e d t r a d e goods was eased and extended by r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n from 1885 onwards and by the r a p i d s p r e a d o f l o r r y haulage a f t e r World War I . A t f i r s t t h e r e f o r e the main c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t was i n t r a n s p o r t . To a l e s s e r e x t e n t i t went i n t o m i n i n g and l u m b e r i n g , a c t i v i t i e s w hich themselves l e d t o f u r t h e r t r a n s p o r t development. The -71-o t h e r p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e o f i n v e s t m e n t was i n commercial e n t e r p r i s e s such as the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i m p o r t goods and t h e b u y i n g o f e x p o r t c r o p s . The i n t e r - w a r y e a r s saw g r e a t e x p a n s i o n i n ca s h c r o p p i n g and some development i n i n d u s t r i e s p r o c e s s i n g c r o p s , m i n e r a l s and t i m b e r f o r e x p o r t . The d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s o f t h e 1930's were a c o n s i d e r a b l e s e t b a c k , e s p e c i a l l y i n c a p i t a l works, but e x p e r t s e n j o y e d some p r e f e r e n c e i n the r e s p e c t i v e 99* m e t r o p o l x t a n c o u n t r i e s . The f o u r t h s t a g e , c a l l e d here the Independence E r a , though most c o u n t r i e s d i d not become independent u n t i l t h e 1960's i t began i n the y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r World War I I when the pace o f development q u i c k e n e d , b o t h t h e cause and the consequence o f v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . T h i s came i n the form o f a i d from the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r i e s and, a f t e r independence, from b i l a t e r a l and m u l t i l a t e r a l a g e n c i e s . C a p i t a l was i n v e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g an i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e o f p o r t s , r o a d s , r a i l w a y s , e l e c t r i c power and wa t e r s u p p l i e s . M i n e r a l s were a l s o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d f o r f u t u r e e x p l o r a t i o n s , e x p l o r a t i o n f o r o i l and the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f i r o n o re p a r t i c u l a r l y . L o c a l c a p i t a l went m a i n l y i n t o r o a d t r a n s p o r t , i n t o houses f o r r e n t i n t h e c i t i e s and l a r g e r towns, and i n t o s m a l l workshop i n d u s t r i e s and r e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s . I n a l l t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s employment and o u t p u t r o s e r a p i d l y . But th r o u g h a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d , i t was more t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n and some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f peasant p r o d u c t i o n t h a n t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f c a p i t a l and t e c h n o l o g y . Compared w i t h the o t h e r s , the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r tended t o s t a g n a t e . Though employing the m a j o r i t y o f the a c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n , i t remains b a s i c a l l y u n a f f e c t e d by i n v e s t m e n t and i n n o v a t i o n , i n s p i t e o f c o n s t a n t governmental e f f o r t s t o remedy the s i t u a t i o n (see T a b l e 3.4). The o b j e c t i v e s o f governments, c o l o n i a l and independent s i n c e 1945 may be summed up, as f a r as t h e economy i s c o n c e r n e d , as b e i n g t o i n c r e a s e e x p o r t s t o g a i n f o r e i g n c u r r e n c y and make West A f r i c a more dependent on the m e t r o p o l i t a n economy. They are a l s o concerned t o m a i n t a i n a f l o w o f a i d funds and f o r e i g n c a p i t a l t o supplement o v e r s e a s e a r n i n g s . A l l t h i s i s i n an e f f o r t t o r e a c h t h e s t a g e o f ' t a k e -o f f , 1 when i t i s s a i d , economic growth w i l l be s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . ^ T h i s development, has however, been v e r y uneven, v a r y i n g from c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y and from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n w i t h i n each c o u n t r y . The main growth p o i n t s have been t h e l a r g e r c o a s t a l c i t i e s . A b i d j a n , A c c r a , Freetown, Dakar and Lagos have reached a s i z e and an employment s t r u c t u r e i n ( s e e map) commerce, s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s and even m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h a t p u t some of them i n t o t h e w o r l d c l a s s o f major c i t i e s . The r u r a l a r e a s , however, v a r y g r e a t l y among t h e m s e l v e s . I n terms o f i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e , numbers of motor v e h i c l e s , development of s m a l l market towns and growth of p u r c h a s i n g power, the s o u t h e a s t e r n I v o r y Coast and t h e cocoa b e l t s are as e c o n o m i c a l l y advanced as any r u r a l a r e a o f t r o p i c a l A f r i c a . "^ '^  But o t h e r p o i n t s , such as t h e E a s t C r o s s R i v e r B a s i n o f N i g e r i a and t h a t o f I v o r y Coast west of Bandama r i v e r , have s c a r c e l y begun t o be d e v e l o p e d e x c e p t perhaps f o r t i m b e r e x p l o i t a t i o n . On t h e whole, TABLE 3.4 S e c t o r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Stock of P r i v a t e Investment i n the Developing Regions, 1967. Petroleum Manufactur-i n g Mining Trade A g r i c u l t u r e P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Others A f r i c a $M %_ 2,597.6 39.4 1,236.4 18.8 1,279.8 19.4 398.2 6.0 496.8 7.5 66.3 1.0 516.1 8.9 Western Hemisphere $M %_ 4.485.5 24.3 6,652.7 36.1 2,016.1 10.9 1,668.3 9.0 607.4 3.3 1,370.7 7.4 1.648.6 9.0 A s i a $M %_ 1,102.3 22.1 1,547.7 31.0 252.5 5.1 504.4 10.1 939.1 18.1 123.0 2.4 522.5 10.5 Middle East . $M %_ 2,776.4 89.5 190.3 6.1 6.0 0.2 30.0 1.0 2.5 0.1 10.5 0.3 87.0 2.8 T o t a l 6,591.1 100.0 18,449.3 100.0 4,991.5 100.0 3,102.7 100.0 Source: M u l t i n a t i o n a l C o rporations i n World Development, New York: U n i t e d Nations, 1973, p. 177. -73a-B a s i c industry and p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r y m e t a l l u r g y c o n s t r u c t i o n c h e m i s t r y o i l S a h f h a n tont m i l l e t s and livestock S a v a n n a h mnt miltets a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o m m e r c i a l p l a n t s i p e a n u t s cotton) and l i v e s t o c k E i p o r t routes ot a n i m a l s on the hoof S o u t h u v a n n a h zone muMi crop s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g t s o r g n u m peas b e a n s ' Indian D U I I F and c o m m e r c i a l c r o p s I cotton p e a n u t s ! S u b e o u a i o n a i /one c o m m e r c i a l p l a n t a t i o n s t o i l p a l m s b a n a n a s rubber trees cotiee c o c o a etc i e n d s u b s i s t e n c e crops <nee m a m o c maize y a m s p l a n t a i n s ' T e m i e and leathei Food i n d u s t r y Timber industry D e t a i l s oi b a s i c industry and p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r y are s h o w n on the i n d i v i d u a l m a p o' t e c h country The w i d t h o i the i t r o w is p r o p o r t i o n a l to the i m o u n t ot t r a f f i c 1 m m = 2 m i l l i o n tons o OAKAR Centre o l i n d u s t n a l f i s h i n g P r i n c i p a l f u l l i n g / o n t s U m r m i m c a t i o n tr art a p o n a I r o n I n t t r n a t i o n a l road 1 • R a i l w a y N a v i g a b l e w a t e r w a y S c a l e 1(20 000 000 other areas haye not evolved as far as has the Coast i n i t s economic and s o c i a l development. The Guinea Savannah and the Sahel zones are only moderately affected by modern development. But these zones i l l u s t r a t e p l a i n l y the f a c t that economic progress inland tends to be concentrated into corridors along trunk l i n e s of communcation, for there i s to be found what l i t t l e development has taken place. As a general r u l e , countries with a higher proportion of t h e i r area within the Forest, which includes the greatest concentration of natural resources, are the most advanced i n terms of per capita income. These are notably Ivory Coast and Ghana. In 197 3 the former's per capita income of $380 was the highest of a l l West African states. For Ghana the figure was $300. Otherwise, only Cameroon and Nigeria exceeded $200 per head, while the land-locked countries of Mali and Upper Volta achieved only $7 0 per head i 102 respectively. On the whole, while economic development i s as rapid as i n most t r o p i c a l areas, per capita figures for gross national product and for export trade remain very low. To t h i s d i f f i c u l t y may be added p o l i t i c a l fragmentation. Only Nigeria with a population of over 70 m i l l i o n , i s large by world standards. Thus the purchasing power and pot e n t i a l markets within each country, with the possible exception of Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria are ve,ry li m i t e d . This i n h i b i t s the establishment of a large scale manufacturing industry, at least on a competitive basis. It must be concluded that i n spite of,the rapid pace of development s i n c e 1945 i n t h e former c o l o n i e s , much of the i n d i g e n o u s economy remains more o r l e s s m o d i f i e d , but e s s e n t i a l l y u n i m p a i r e d and the income gap between the d e v e l o p e d (former m e t r o p o l i t a n powers) and the d e v e l o p i n g (former c o l o n i e s ) i s i n c r e a s i n g (much t o the f a v o u r o f the f a r m e r ) . West A f r i c a ' s Legacy By c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e , 24,000,000 s l a v e s were e x p o r t e d from West A f r i c a and A n g o l a a l o n e and about 50,000,000 from A f r i c a as a whole. L e a d i n g s l a v e r s i n c l u d e d t h e P o r t u g u e s e , the E n g l i s h , t h e Dutch, th e F r e n c h and t h e Danes. As i n any o t h e r commodity r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e s l a v e - d e a l e r s were n a t u r a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e b e s t commodity - t h e a b l e - b o d i e d men, women and c h i l d r e n . Enough has been r e c o r d e d i n h i s t o r y oh* t h e d e v a s t a t i n g impact of s l a v e r y and C o l o n i a l i s m i n West A f r i c a , y e t one f i n d s t h a t t h e r e a r e s t i l l some s c h o l a r s l i k e P r o f e s s o r P.T,; Bauer who d e i g n t o make a case i n i t s d e f e n c e . I n h i s book D i s s e n t on Development, Bauer c l a i m s he know the e x - c o l o n i a l c o u n t r i e s even b e t t e r t h a n th e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s (a c rime o f t e n committed by some Development P l a n n e r s , when d e a l i n g w i t h 3rd World C o u n t r i e s ) , a n d t h e n proceeds t o a t t a c k t h o s e A f r i c a n s who are v o i c i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the whole n o t i o n o f c o l o n i a l r u l e . Bauer p o s t u l a t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t h i s " . . . f a m i l a r i t y w i t h s e v e r a l o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e know l i t t l e about such m a t t e r s . . . and do n o t a s c r i b e any o f t h e i r problems t o p r e s e n t o r p a s t a c t i o n s o f w e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s . . . t h a t i t i s u n t r u e t h a t -76-c o l o n i a l s t a t u s i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m a t e r i a l advancement... t h a t i t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t o v er t h e l a s t c e n t u r y o r so the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o l o n i a l r u l e i n A f r i c a and A s i a has promoted, and not r e t a r d e d m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s . . . t h a t t h e c o l o n i a l government e s t a b l i s h e d law and o r d e r , s afeguarded p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . . . o r g a n i z e d b a s i c t r a n s p o r t and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . These c o n t a c t s a l s o a c q u a i n t e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h new wants...and commodities... and t h e changes engendered a new o u t l o o k on m a t e r i a l advance and on the means s e c u r i n g i t : f o r good o r e v i l , t h e s e c o n t a c t s promoted the e r o s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , o b j e c t i v e s , a t t i t u d e s and customs o b s t r u c t i n g m a t e r i a l advance. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t i n t h e absence o f c o l o n i a l r u l e the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic environment i n C o l o n i a l A f r i c a and A s i a would have been more c o n g e n i a l t o m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s . " Then i n a l a s t g e s t u r e o f i n s u l t , c l i n g i n g t o Barzun's ' d e s i r e s t a t u s o f v i c t i m , " Bauer says t h a t " I t i s e m o t i o n a l l y c o m f o r t i n g t o be t o l d t h a t e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s e x p l a i n t h e f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e 104* s p e c i f i c g o a l s , i n c l u d i n g m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y , Bauer even su g g e s t s t h a t A f r i c a n r e s o u r c e s c o u l d have remained untapped, were i t n o t f o r Europeans, and t h a t A f r i c a n s a l l o w e d t h e i n f l u x o f f o r e i g n c a p i t a l . Whose and What m a t e r i a l advancement he r e f e r s t o i s not v e r y c l e a r ; because, t h e West A f r i c a n s i n t r a d i t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s were w i s e l y i r r e s p o n s i v e t o ' m a t e r i a l advance,' t h e type t h a t has become a nightmare t o contemporary Europe, i n c l u d i n g Bauer's E n g l a n d , G a l l o p i n g a l i e n a t i o n i s t h e p r i c e e x a c t e d o f s o c i e t i e s (as Bauer's) which pursue ' m a t e r i a l advance' t h r o u g h t e c h n o l o g y . Thus p u r s u e d , t e c h n o l o g y reduces t h e t o t a l i t y o f human meaning t o t h o s e o f i t s elements w h i c h a r e amenable t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Widespread a l i e n t a t i o n i s an e l o q u e n t s i g n t h a t the meaning o f l i f e h i t h e r t o s u p p l i e d by c u l t u r a l b e l i e f systems cannot be r e p l a c e d by t e c h n o l o g y . P s y c h o l o g i s t E r i c h Fromme p o i n t s t o the e q u a l l y dehumanizing -e f f e c t s o f " a l i e n a t i o n i n a f f l u e n c e " and " a l i e n a t i o n i n m i s e r y . H i s p e r c e p t i o n s t a n d s v a l i d even i n t h e f a c e o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e t o r t t h a t " i t ' s b e t t e r t o be r i c h and m i s e r a b l e than poor and m i s e r a b l e . " What p s y c h o l o g i s t s have l e a r n e d of r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t even i f poor i n d i v i d u a l s harbour no hope f o r p e r s o n a l improvement, th e mere v i s i o n o f a " b e t t e r " m a t e r i a l l i f e on t h e h o r i z o n g i v e s them grounds f o r escape i n f a n t a s y . The form o f r e l i e f i s no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e , however t o t h o s e whose m a t e r i a l f a n t a s i e s have nowhere e l s e t o go. N e v e r t h e l e s s , v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h " s u c c e s s f u l " p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who have c l i m b e d the l a d d e r from one' own s o c i a l o r i g i n s , p r o v i d e s an a l t e r n a t i v e o u t l e t t o - . 106 f a n t a s y . There was law and o r d e r i n West A f r i c a b e f o r e the c o l o n i a l i s t s a r r i v e d and t h e r e were g r e a t A f r i c a n Kingdoms such as M a l i , S o n g h a i , who had t r a d e d ' w i t h the p e o p l e o f N o r t h A f r i c a , e x c h a n g i n g s a l t from t h e mines of Taghaza, Taodeni and Tastek f o r g o l d and o t h e r goods. T h i s t r a d e was c a r r i e d by camel-caravan a l o n g r e c o g n i z e d t r a d e r o u t e s r u n n i n g from t h e c i t i e s o f N o r t h A f r i c a t h r o u g h t h e oases and the s a l t mines t o the towns on t h e s o u t h e r n edge of t h e 107" d e s e r t . " The t r a d e t h e y c a r r i e d f l o u r i s h e d down the c e n t u r i e s u n t i l the a r r i v a l o f European t r a d e r s on t h e West Coast and anarchy by I s l a m i n the w e s t e r n Sudan combined t o t u r n the d i r e c t i o n o f t r a d e s o u t h towards th e sea and commerce w i t h t h e n o r t h d e c l i n e d . W i t h the advent o f the B r i t i s h , F r e n c h , German and P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n i a l r u l e , t h e t r a d e o p e r a t i n g on the West A f r i c a n Coast and the v o l u n t a r y l a b o u r o f t h e h i n t e r l a n d were b o t h r e p l a c e d by wage l a b o u r . A l l c o l o n i a l governments introduced some form of head t a x t h a t had t o be p a i d i n c a s h , f o r c i n g the A f r i c a n s i n t o new r e g i o n s and i n t o new l i f e - s t y l e s . One o f t h e consequences from th e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a money economy and from u r b a n i z a t i o n i n West A f r i c a , i s the d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e j o i n t f a m i l y , a u n i v e r s a l i n s t i t u t i o n , more u n i v e r s a l t h a n the n u c l e a r f a m i l y o f contemporary Western s o c i e t y . F a c t o r s o f such change, whose d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s are g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d , i n c l u d e the d i s p e r s a l o f k i n , 108 c o n t a c t s w i t h s t r a n g e r s , and p r e v a l e n c e of market v a l u e s . The c o l o n i a l s e t up s h i f t e d the economic b a s i s and the p o l i t i c a l s u p e r - s t r u c t u r e from West A f r i c a ' s own environment t o t h e d i s t a n t c o l o n i a l m e t r o p o l i s . I n s t i t u t i o n s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e needs o f an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y were s l o w l y undermined, and t h e extended f a m i l y broke up t h e more e a s i l y (as) European s o c i e t i e s had a m i l l e n a r y t r a d i t i o n o f s i m p l e k i n s h i p 109' s t r u c t u r e s . Today, the West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s a r e a l l o f a sudden p r o v i d e d w i t h modern p l a n t s o f t h e l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e s c a l e , w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e need f o r i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s (an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the growth of an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c m i d d l e c l a s s ) , so t h a t a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e Western p r o c e s s s h o u l d by no means be e x p e c t e d . When economic changes a r e o c c u r r i n g i n many areas and i n s e v e r a l s p h e r e s , the t o t a l impact on the s o c i e t y i s g r e a t e r . The d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i s b u t the b e g i n n i n g o f a l a r g e r problem. S i x r o l e s have been u p s e t , t h e d i v i s i o n o f f u n c t i o n s has been d i s t u r b e d , and the e q u i l i b r i u m o f the f a m i l y p a t t e r n has been superseded by a s i t u a t i o n i n which new b a l a n c e s have t o be s t r u c k w i t h t h e emergence o f a v i g o r o u s i n d i v i d u a l i s m . The o l d s t a t u s e s based on age a r e g i v i n g way t o new s t a t u s e s based on e d u c a t i o n and a f f l u e n c e . 1 1 " ' ' West A f r i c a n s o c i e t y had f o r m e r l y been d e v e l o p e d on the b a s i s o f a s t r o n g f a m i l y l i n k . Some o f t h i s l i n k r e mains. The b a s i s has not been s t a t i c but i t has been s t a b l e . The changes i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e s o c i a l e c o l o g y by the changes i n t e c h n i q u e s and the accompanying a t t i t u d e s c a l l f o r a r e - a d j u s t m e n t o f s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the development o f th o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h w i l l m i n i m i z e the c o s t o f t r a n s f e r t o the new o r d e r . Economic development means e x t e n s i o n o f the means of p r o d u c t i o n and i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e v e l o f l i v i n g . So l o n g as the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g o a l s were d e s i g n e d t o meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f mere s u b s i s t e n c e , the demands o f t h e aged, th e p o o r , and t h e i n f i r m were r u d i m e n t a r y . The s o c i a l u n i t c o u l d , w i t h o u t g r a v e l y d e p r e s s i n g t h e consumption l e v e l , meet t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t . But the l e v e l o f l i v i n g has been r i s i n g a t a v e r y f a s t pace. The needs o f t h e unemployed, the d i s a b l e d , and t h e o l d has r i s e n w i t h t h e needs o f t h e w e a l t h y , and the o b l i g a t i o n s t o meet the needs o f the i n d i g e n t and n o n - p r o d u c t i v e members o f t h e h o u s e h o l d has become i n c r e a s i n g l y onerous. Even t h e expense of f e e d i n g t h e unemployed has become burdensome. E v a s i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e , t h e r e f o r e , more f r e q u e n t now t h a t t h e y were two decades ago. I t would appear t h a t i n d i g e n o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e maintenance of s o c i a l c o h e s i o n a r e b r e a k i n g down and something ought t o be done t o r e p l a c e them i f the s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s t h u s exposed i s t o be remedied. I f we were asked what has been t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t change i n West A f r i c a n s o c i e t y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , the answer would r e a d i l y be found i n the i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y w h i c h seem t o have t a k e n f i r m 112 r o o t i n most a r e a s of A f r i c a n s o c i e t y . - Some o b s e r v e r s have 113 viewed th e s o c i a l change w i t h a l a r m . I t has been d e s c r i b e d as an unhappy development l e a d i n g t o s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and chaos. Underneath t h i s a l a r m i s t note i s a n o s t a l g i c c r y f o r a r e t u r n t o t h e good o l d days and a b e l i e f t h a t the s o c i a l c o s t o f economic development has been e x o r b i t a n t . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e p r e - e x i s t i n g s o c i a l system s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o b reak down. I t i s e a s i l y f o r g o t t e n t h a t no s o c i a l system i s i n v a r i e n t i n t h e f a c e o f e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , f u r t h e r development i n the p r e s e n t and n e x t decades w i l l p l a c e g r e a t e r s t r a i n on the i n d i g e n o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The problems t h a t w i l l be f a c e d w i l l c a l l f o r more th a n a mere lament over the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f p r e - e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . What i s r e q u i r e d i s t h a t t h e West A f r i c a n n a t i o n s f i n d i n the new s o c i e t y some of what they have l o s t from the 114 o l d . T h i s r e q u i r e s , as A l p o r t has p o i n t e d o u t , t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t i e s whereby he can r e s t a b l i s h some communion w i t h h i s s o u r r o u n d i n g s , f i n d a s t a t u s i n h i s new p o s i t i o n as a wage e a r n e r , and f i n d some room f o r h i s a m b i t i o n v i s - a - v i s ' n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g ' . Develop-ment p o l i c i e s has, t h e r e f o r e , t o a s s u r e t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i n l o o s i n g b o t h t h e b e n e f i t s and the burdens o f the o l d s o c i e t y a c q u i r e no w e i g h t i e r burdens and a t l e a s t as many b e n e f i t s as he had i n h i s p r e v i o u s s t a t i o n . I f t h i s a s s u r a n c e can be g i v e n t h r o u g h t h e development o f i n s t i t u t i o n s based on t h e concept o f " S e l f - R e l i a n c e 1 , so much t h e b e t t e r ; i f n o t , the emergence o f a p o s i t i v e w e l f a r e s t a t e i n the v a r i o u s West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s w i l l be i n e s c a p a b l e . -82-CHAPTER IV WEST AFRICA'S DEVELOPMENT AT THE CROSS-ROADS Development f o r Whom? F u t u r e h i s t o r i a n s may w e l l l o o k back on the m i d - t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y and p i c k o u t development as the g r e a t o b s e s s i o n o f t h e t i m e s . Most o f the w o r l d remains u n d e r d e v e l o p e d , p o v e r t y and d e p r i v a t i o n a r e u b i q u i t o u s and 114 not j u s t i n the t h i r d w o r l d and the problem may be g e t t i n g worse. 1"'" 5 One commentator has c a l l e d development the g r e a t e s t f a i l u r e of t h e c e n t u r y and t h e r e i s a growing p e s s i m i s m i n the development a g e n c i e s t h e m s e l v e s . 1 1 ^ What are the re a s o n s f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? Many e x p l a n a t i o n s have t u r n e d on r e l a t i v e l y d i s c r e t e ( i n some senses a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e ) c a u s e s , e x p l o d i n g p o p u l a t i o n s and ina d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e s , i n f l a t i o n and commodity p r i c e s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . But much blame has a l s o a t t a c h e d t o the p l a n s of development and t o the p l a n n e r s . For a l o n g p e r i o d a f t e r World War I I the econ o m i s t s were a dominant i n f l u e n c e i n development p l a n n i n g . As c r i t i c i s m s a g a i n s t , f o r example, the F i r s t Development Decade mounted t h e r e was an a t t a c k on c o n v e n t i o n a l economic approaches l e d 117 i n i t i a l l y by r e b e l l i o u s e c o n o m i s t s and s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . The t h r u s t o f t h e a t t a c k was b a s i c a l l y t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g o p e r a t e d under assumptions t h a t were n ot v a l i d , w i t h o u t enough r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e nvironment. P l a n n i n g c o u l d n o t be based on l o n g -8 3-term c e r t a i n t i e s , and t h e comprehensive master p l a n came t o be r e p l a c e d by a n n u a l programmes. There are a t t a c k s t o o on the h i g h l y economic n a t u r e and c o s t b e n e f i t b i a s o f p l a n n i n g . Development M i s c o n s t r u e d Many s e c t o r s o f the und e r d e v e l o p e d w o r l d have a l s o a c h i e v e d some measures o f development d e f i n e d i n t h e Western sense. T h i s development i s o f t e n o b s c u r e d by in a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n , a ggregated s t a t i s t i c a l averages o r 118 119 p o o r l y d e f i n e d i n d i c a t o r s . A l s o , as McGranah^n has p o i n t e d o u t , i n d i c a t o r s r e f l e c t c o n c e p t i o n s o f development as much as r e a l c o n d i t i o n s , and v i t a l s o c i a l f a c t o r s a r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o measure. I n most T h i r d World r e g i o n s t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e w e a l t h o f v i l l a g e s , f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . I n many a r e a s t h i s w e a l t h i s d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n c e a l e d , because o f f e a r s o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n by o f f i c i a l d o m , j e a l o u s y , w i t c h c r a f t . But as o f t e n i t seems t h a t the image of p e a s a n t s o r p r o l e t a - r i a t as p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n i s ( s e l f -f u l f i l l i n g , even a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c y ) , There are good examples o f t h i s p r o c e s s i n the T h i r d World slum l i t e r a t u r e . 120 There i s a w i d e s p r e a d a t t i t u d e amongst d e v e l o p e r s t h a t the p r o l e t a r i a t e s p e c i a l l y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n t r a c t a b l e 121 c u l t u r e o f p o v e r t y as Lewis c a l l e d i t , i n w h i c h s o c i a l and economic problems are l i n k e d i n a v i c i o u s c i r c l e i n d e g r a d i n g slums. Some pe o p l e l i v i n g i n s q u a t t e r s s e t t l e m e n t s may be much w e a l t h i e r t h a n t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t h i n k , and may be a b l e t o a f f o r d t o move o u t , but p r e f e r t o remain f o r s o c i a l r e a s o n s 122 i n what they f e e l t o be a f a r from r e p u l s i v e s e t t i n g . Shame o n l y e n t e r s t h e i r a t t i t u d e s as a r e f l e c t i o n o f f e e l i n g s . I n any case the new g e n e r a t i o n s seem t o move out of the slums i f t h e y w i s h w i t h o u t many c o n s t r a i n t s . Once a g a i n the c u l t u r e of p o v e r t y i s an e t h n o c e n t r i c o r r a t h e r a c l a s s c e n t r i c 123 c o n c e p t . C e r t a i n l y , t o o , t h e r e have r e c e n t l y been v e r y s e r i o u s f o o d problems caused by c l i m a t i c changes d r o u g h t ( n o t a b l y i n t h e S a h e l i a n r e g i o n ) o r f l o o d s (eg. i n B a n g l a d e s h ) . The I n d i a n s u b - c o n t i n e n t t o o has l o n g been r e g a r d e d by Western o b s e r v e r s as an a r e a o f c o n s t a n t g r i n d i n g hunger. Apathy and even a complete breakdown o f s o c i e t y were 124 t h e apparent r e s u l t s o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n . But i n some cases a t l e a s t t h e S a h e l i a n d r o u g h t o n l y caused t h e hunger because o u t s i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had removed t r a d i t i o n a l d e f e n c e s a g a i n s t such c a l a m i t i e s , n o t a b l y nomadism, by making p e o p l e s e d e n t a r y f a r m e r s and a l s o because o f i n c r e a s e i n the p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s r e g i o n . A good case s t u d y o f t h e problems o f i n t e r p r e t i n g the average o r making m i s l e a d i n g e t h n o c e n t r i c assumptions i s 125 c o n t a i n e d i n P o l l y H i l l ' s a n a l y s i s o f Hausa v i l l a g e s i n N o r t h e r n N i g e r i a and her _ , c r i t i c i s m o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l approach by e c o n o m i s t s . H i l l argues t h a t i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s income because i t was v e r y n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o m o n i t o r a l l s a l e s and pu r c h a s e s and i n p a r t i c u l a r p r i c e s , because o f the r e t i c e n c e o f the p e o p l e , because the groups break up d u r i n g t h e y e a r , e t c . H i l l ' s c o n c l u s i o n was i n f a c t t h a t r u r a l i n e q u a l i t y c o u l d be b e t t e r r e l a t e d (and t h i s i n d e e d was the p e o p l e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) n o t t o o v e r a l l income but the a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d h a r d s h i p s and hunger (and not h a v i n g t o beg o r borrow) d u r i n g t h e l a t e r s t a g e s of t h e f a r m i n g season. The "poor" were t h o s e t h e n who s u f f e r e d i n t h e p r e - h a r v e s t p e r i o d . The v i l l a g e c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f degrees of p o v e r t y w i t h some b e i n g " r i c h " and some b e i n g poor but most b e i n g i n the m i d d l e . R e l a t i v e w e a l t h was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e number of s i z e o f h o l d i n g s , t r a d i n g , e t c . , b u t a l s o w i t h key f a c t o r s o f w o r k i n g as a garden u n i t s ( i e . a two g e n e r a t i o n a l farm where f a t h e r and son worked t o g e t h e r ) . Up t o the s i x t i e s i t was argued t h a t a major r e a s o n f o r underdevelopment was t h a t A f r i c a n wants were r e s t r i c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by f a t a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . T h i s was p a r t o f a more g e n e r a l argument t h a t economic m o t i v a t i o n was low i n 126 the A f r i c a n ( T h i r d World) c o n t e x t o f e t h n o c e n t r i c a l l y t h a t p e o p l e do n o t want what they need. Farmers i n t h e T h i r d World were seen as " i r r a t i o n a l " g e n e r a l l y u n r e s p o n s i v e (or l e s s 127 r e s p o n s i v e than farmers i n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s ) t o c h a n g i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , , e s p e c i a l l y c ommercial o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y demands f o r income o r wages were h e l d t o be s t a t i c . There was i n t h e w e l l known phase; a backward s l o p i n g s u p p l y c u r v e of 128 l a b o u r . H i g h e r p r i c e s r e s u l t e d i n l e s s , not more, e f f o r t and s u p p l y . To some e x t e n t low demand was seen as stemming from s o c i a l o r c u l t u r a l d i s i n c e n t i v e s because the i n d i v i d u a l was caught i n the web o f h i s community or a s c r i p t i v e systems. The argument was a l s o extended t o c o n s t r a i n t s o v er l a b o u r . From Marx, Weber, and Sombart came the i d e a , p u t f o r w a r d f o r example by Macpherson, ' t h a t i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l o r r u r a l s o c i e t i e s i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d not a l i e n a t e t h e i r l a b o u r , not o n l y p r e v e n t i n g a market economy d e v e l o p i n g , b u t a l s o c o m p e t i t i o n f o r goods, s t a t u s and power t h a t g i v e the dynamic t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e d •12 9 s o c i e t i e s . More s i m p l y S c h u l t z and o t h e r s argue t h a t the problem was b a s i c a l l y t e c h n i c a l , t h a t p e a s a n t s o c i e t i e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an image o f l i m i t e d goods, i e . where the d e s i r e d t h i n g s o f l i f e appear l i m i t e d i n s u p p l y and beyond g r a s p . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s apathy, f a t a l i s m o r s e l f i s h n e s s . 13 0 M c C l e l l a n d and h i s f o l l o w e r s have c l a i m e d t h a t t h e t r o u b l e i s t h a t t h e r e are v e r y few n a t i v e s t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s m a i n l y because th e dynamics which o p e r a t e d i n t h e Weberian P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c s i t u a t i o n are l a c k i n g o r weakly d e v e l o p e d . Upward m o b i l i t y , a c h i e v e d not a s c r i b e d s t a t u s , i s seen as t h e development 13 1 key. C e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s 13 2 t h e s i s n o t a b l y from the M e d i t e r r a n e a n and L a t i n A m e r i c a , • 13 3'' though a l s o c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e , n o t j u s t R e d f i e l d ' s 13 4 (eg. P i t t - R i v e r s ). C e r t a i n l y t o o t h e r e may be s i t u a t i o n s where demand i s low; f o r example, bad h e a l t h and m a l n u t r i t i o n may l e a d t o apathy. Some v e r y d e p r e s s e d r u r a l a r e a s o r slums p r o b a b l y f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . Here development may f i r s t o f a l l be a m e d i c a l problem. C e r t a i n l y i n o t h e r a r e a s t o o t h e r e a r e endemic d i s e a s e s which sap t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o v e r a l l , and reduce t h e e x p e c t a n c y o f l i f e . V a r i o u s s o c i a l mechanisms, n o t a b l y the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , may h e l p t o m i n i m i z e the e f f e c t s o f t h e h e a l t h environment. C e r t a i n l y t o o i n some ar e a s c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s a f f e c t demand and m o t i v a t i o n , b u t a g a i n g e n e r a l l y the s o c i a l c a l e n d e r has accomodations f o r t h e s e f a c t s o f l i f e . Work a c t i v i t y i s b u i l t round the harmattan and the s i e s t a i s u n i v e r s a l . From about th e m i d - s i x t i e s the pendulum swung the o t h e r way. The emphasis was now on t h e " r a t i o n a l i t y " o f the t r a d i t i o n a l West A f r i c a n farmer and h i s g r e a t knowledge of the environment and e v i d e n c e was p u t f o r w a r d o f the o b v i o u s 135 w i l l x g n e s s of t r a d i t i o n a l f a r m ers t o a c c e p t i n n o v a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g many new c r o p s . The blame was p u t on the o u t s i d e r ' s approach o f i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e o u t p u t o f t h e l a n d w i t h o u t adequate e v i r o n m e n t a l knowledge, o r i g n o r i n g key f a c t o i s such as l a b o u r b o t t l e n e c k s , communications, e t c . The backward s l o p i n g s u p p l y c u r v e of l a b o u r was r e p l a c e d by the v e r y o p p o s i t e r e v o l u t i o n o f r i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s . The p e o p l e o f West A f r i c a aware t h r o u g h t h e mass communciations o f t h e Western World's w e a l t h , 136 ' i n s t a n t l y t r i e d t o a c h i e v e s i m i l a r l e v e l s . Much o f t h i s was p r o b a b l y t r u e ( c e r t a i n l y t r u e r t h a n t h e n e g a t i v e m o d e l ) , b u t t h e argument was s t i l l p u t up i n an economic frame. The q u e s t i o n o f p e a s a n t r a t i o n a l i t y was i n many senses i f not i r r e l e v a n t t h e n c e r t a i n l y l e s s 137 i m p o r t a n t i n peasant a c t i o n t h a n o t h e r f a c t o r s . N a i r , f o r example, has shown how farmers i n h i g h l y c o m m e r c i a l i z e d U.S. f a r m i n g may show a l l t h e a n t i t h e t i c a l development t r a i t s w h i c h were sup p o s e d l y t y p i c a l o f A f r o - A s i a n farmers -" t r a d i t i o n a l bound i r r a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e t o l i f e and work, s t r o n g l y r e s i s t a n t t o changes." S i m i l a r l y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n made between economic and " c u l t u r a l " o b s t a c l e s was i n many senses a r t i f i c i a l , There were 138 c e r t a i n l y cases where economic f a c t o r s were i m p o r t a n t , -88-e s p e c i a l l y i n tim e s when t h e r e were d r a m a t i c economic movements up o r down, and t h e r e were o t h e r t i m e s and p l a c e s where c u l t u r a l o r s o c i a l f a c t o r s were s i g n i f i c a n t , and 1 3 9 sometimes the two were c o n f u s e d not o n l y because o f t h e b i a s o f t h e o b s e r v e r , b u t a l s o t h e p e o p l e themselves used 140 one as an excuse o r a c l o a k f o r the o t h e r . How much e x p e c t a t i o n s r o s e r e f l e c t e d many o t h e r f a c t o r s . An example of. t h i s has been work and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r goods and w e a l t h . Many Western (and w e s t e r n t r a i n e d ) o b s e r v e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f development, have p o i n t e d t o low work l e v e l s as a major r e a s o n f o r underdevelopment, 14 im-p a r t o f the " u n c a p i t a l i s t i c " e t h i c . A g a i n e t h n o c e n t r i c models have p r e v e n t e d a p r o p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f work p a t t e r n s . Sometimes o b s e r v e r s i n v i l l a g e s i t u a t i o n s have s i m p l y o b s e r v e d t h e s i e s t a , the c l o s e l i n k between work and l e i s u r e , t h e l o n g p e r i o d s o f apparent i n a c t i v i t y and c o n c l u d e d t h a t the pe o p l e a re l a z y o r a p a t h e t i c . The p o i n t , however, i s t h a t work e f f o r t i s d i f f e r e n t b u t not n e c e s s a r i l y l e s s e f f i c i e n t i n terms o f l o c a l needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . Work i s i n t e n s i v e r a t h e r t h a n c o n t i n u o u s , b u i l t around the c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . Once a g a i n the g r e a t e s t i n t e n s i t y o f work a c t i v i t y o c c u r s o f t e n i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c e r e m o n i a l s , the key r i t u a l s i n the system. A t t h i s t i m e s t h e r e i s f e v e r i s h work a c t i v i t y . L e i s u r e may be i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h work, but t h i s i s o f t e n an i n c e n t i v e , l i g h t e n i n g heavy tasks w i t h a s l e e p o r a j o k e . I n some d i s c u s s i o n s o f underdevelopment t h e c r i t i q u e o f work o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t a k e n f a r t h e r and r e l a t e d t o t h e 14.2 c o n c e p t i o n o f t i m e . Rezsohazy has argued t h a t t h e manage--89-ment and c o n t r o l o f time i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r development. T h i s a l l o w e d a c t i v i t i e s t o be v a l u e d , r a t i o n a l i z e d , and s y n c h r o n i z e d and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r p r o g r e s s i v e p l a n s and f o r e c a s t s t o be made. T r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s a re o f t e n p i c t u r e d as l a c k i n g time p e r s p e c t i v e s and a p p r e c i a t i o n , l a c k i n g a h i s t o r y , or n o t i o n s o f t h e f u t u r e . L e a v i n g a s i d e the d e b a t a b l e q u e s t i o n o f time o r g a n i z a t i o n and development, there,' i s much e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t time i s measured, u t i l i z e d and p l a n n e d i n underdeveloped s o c i e t i e s . U s u a l l y , however, t h i s i s because the economic a c t i v i t y , even w h e n - c o m m e r c i a l i z e d , does n ot r e q u i r e a f i n e r g rade. Morning and a f t e r n o o n and e v e n i n g may be good enough d i v i s i o n s f o r t h e farmers i n S i e r r a Leone. A f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m has been t h a t whenever o r wherever p o s s i b l e the i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d ( e s p e c i a l l y A s i a ) ha/e an a v e r s i o n t o and contempt f o r 143' manual.." work o r d i r t y work o f any k i n d . But t h i s i s f a r two sweeping a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . W h i l s t i t i s perhaps t i m e t h a t landowners o f t h e upper c r u s t i n I n d i a , f o r example, do not work on farms, t h i s i s l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f s t a t u s and e v a l u a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r t a s k s , n o t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t . I n even the most mechanized o r c o m m e r c i a l i z e d f a r m i n g systems l o w l y r e g a r d e d r u r a l t a s k s a re a s s i g n e d t o low r a n k i n g s o c i a l g r o u p s , sometimes non-European (eg. t h e Bantu i n r a c i s t South A f r i c a ) , sometimes European (eg. t h e I t a l i a n m i g r a n t s i n Anglo dominated A u s t r a l i a ) o r sometimes o c c u p a t i o n a l groups (eg. the s h a r e m i l k e r s o r s h e a r e r s i n New Z e a l a n d ) . I n a l l f a r m i n g communities s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s emerge and l a b o u r l i k e any o t h e r -90-f a c e t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s ranked r e l a t i v e l y . T h i s e x i s t s whether o r not t h e r e i s a t r a d i t i o n a l system o f 144. a s c r j p t i v e s t a t u s . N a i r has even argued t h a t the a b o l i t i o n o f C aste has n o t changed t h e s i t u a t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y and what i s n e c e s s a r y i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r i c e o f l a b o u r . Even t h i s e x p e d i e n t may hot work; my own o b s e r v a t i o n i n West A f r i c a has i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s t e n d t o emerge d e s p i t e (perhaps because o f ) at t e m p t s a t i n c r e a s i n g wages. A v e r s i o n t o , o r p r e f e r e n c e f o r , c e r t a i n k i n d s o f work i s o f t e n c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i d e n t i t y f a t h e r t h a n any 14 c-. o t h e r f a c t o r . Smock • has p r o v i d e d a good example from E a s t e r n N i g e r i a . When p e o p l e i n one o f t h e s e communities were asked why they do not c l i m b palms, they s a i d i t i s not because t h e y a r e a f r a i d t o c l i m b b u t t h a t i t i s not t h e i r " n a t u r e " t o be c l i m b e r s . I t was not the work o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s , so i t cannot be t h e i r work. I n an o t h e r community p e o p l e s a i d t hey c o n s i d e r c l i m b i n g t o be d i r t y and s m e l l y t a s k and thus beneath t h e i r d i g n i t y . S i m i l a r comments were made about f i s h i n g , b u t o t h e r v i l l a g e s o r groups a re e q u a l l y proud t o be f i s h e r m e n o r c l i m b e r s . What t h e n i s our answer t o a v e r t t h i s backwardness and s t a g n a t i o n d i l e m n a o f development? P l a n n i n g and Development from W i t h i n West A f r i c a and the o t h e r ' c o m r a d e s - i n - p o v e r t y ' have the unprecedented advantag?. t o l e a r n from t h e tremendous s u c c e s s e s of t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s . But i s i t f a r - f e t c h e d t o assume t h a t we can l e a r n more from the f a i l u r e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e -9:1-s u c c e s s e s of the West? H i s t o r y i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , how one v i e w s i t , how one e n v i s i o n s i t and how one i n t e r p r e t s i t . I f we i n s i s t on c l i n g i n g t o t h e p a s t , t h i s w i l l n o t o n l y r e f l e c t our e s c a p i s t a t t i t u d e but a l s o g e t consumed i n a l l i t s i n t r i c a c i e s ; l e t us g i v e the h i s t o r i a n s t h e i r dues. But i f we c o n v e r t t h i s p a s t i n t o a c h a l l e n g e , t h e n the f i r s t d i r e c t i o n would be t o a v o i d , as much as p o s s i b l e , t h o s e elements t h a t have made our e x p e r i e n c e , b o t h p a s t and p r e s e n t , so f r u s t r a t i n g . Supposing t h e n , f o r t h e purposes of r e a l i z i n g t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , we assume t h a t t h e r e was no c o l o n i a l i s m and the o t h e r "isms", how c o u l d our f o r f a t h e r s have developed? What c o u l d t h e y have handed over t o us. T h i s assumption c a r r i e s one advantage, namely t h a t w i t h our f r u s t r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f i n i t i a t i v e development, our c h o i c e l i e s i n g o i n g back t o f u n d a m e n t a l s , l i n k i n g up w i t h our p a s t by p u t t i n g much more emphasise on ' R u r a l - P l a n n i n g ' and a l s o humanizing the whole p r o c e s s o f development. F o r e i g n economics (both E a s t and West) we have i n h e r i t e d from th e c o l o n i a l e r a embody the wisdom o f n a t i v e b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y , and t h o s e a g g r e g a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h w hich we now work (such as l a b o u r , f u l l employment, s a v i n g s , e t c . ) are i n c o m p a t i b l e t o t h e way i n w h i c h the n o n - i n d u s t r i a l economies o p e r a t e . A l s o , such p o l i c y t o o l s as n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s , l a n d r e f o r m s , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , are absent from the e n t i r e framework of p r e s e n t - d a y economics and t h e o r i e s o f development. On t h e c o n t r a r y , modern (Keynesian) economics i n f a c t assumes i n s t i t u t i o n s as g i v e n , whereas one of the main problems we f a c e i n West A f r i c a i s p r e c i s e l y w h i c h i n s t i t u t i o n s t o change and how. T h i s means t h a t t h e t h e o r i e s we i n h e r i t e d and p r o f e s s t o work w i t h were b u i l t f o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and h a r d l y t a k e i n t o account t h e h i s t o r y and p e r s u a s i o n s o f our environment. Joan Robinson has noted t h a t " E n g l i s h e c o n o m i s t s from R i c a r d o t o Keynes, have been accustomed t o assume as a t a c i t l y a c c e p t e d background the i n s t i t u t i o n s and problems of the England each of h i s own day; when t h e i r works are s t u d i e d i n o t h e r c l i m e s and o t h e r p e r i o d s by r e a d e r s who i m p o r t o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n s , a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n and 146< argument a t c r o s s - p u r p o s e a r x s e s i n consequence, • and the c o n f u s i o n g e n e r a t e d by t h i s t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n seems t o be g r e a t i n West A f r i c a , I f economics i s the s t u d y o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s and laws a f f e c t i n g the p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and consumption of the n a t i o n a l w e a l t h , t h i s would mean t h a t the case f o r i n d i g e n o u s economics f o r West A f r i c a becomes e x c e e d i n g l y u r g e n t ; a problem postponed i s a problem u n s o l v e d . Such i n d i g e n o u s economics s h o u l d be concerned w i t h the b a s i c and a u t h e n t i c f a b r i c o f the economic l i f e of the West A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s . I t s h o u l d address i t s e l f t o such a c t i v i t i e s as the i n d i g e n o u s systems of i n t e r n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n d i g e n o u s y a r d s t i c k f o r measuring our p r o g r e s s and f a i l u r e s , s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g , c a t t l e r a i s i n g , i n t e r n a l t r a d i n g , d o m e s t i c c r e d i t systems, i n d u c e d m i g r a t i o n s , t h e i n c e n t i v e s t o save and i n v e s t i n a g r i c u l t u r e where farmers are bound by t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e , p r o d u c t i o n f o r e x p o r t , e t c . I f the p o s t - i n d e p e n d e n t West A f r i c a n p e r s o n a l i t y i s shaped by the i n d i g e n o u s a s p i r a t i o n s t o r e g a i n h i s p e r s o n a l -9.3-i n t e g r i t y , autonomy and d i g n i t y , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why t h e y >should not be extended t o t h i s s c i e n c e o f s e l f - a s s e r t i o n - i n d i g e n o u s economics. T h i s i s i n t e l l e c t u a l independence. I n the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s Stone Age Economics, S a h l i n has suggested t h a t "Formalism v e r s u s s u b s t a n t i v i s m amounts t o the f o l l o w i n g o p t i o n s : between the ready-made models o f o r t h o d o x economics, e s p e c i a l l y the "microeconomics," t a k e n as u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d and a p p l i c a b l e 1 G r o s s o Modo' t o the p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s ; and the n e c e s s i t y .. s u p p o s i n g t h i s f o r m a l i s t p o s i t i o n unfounded .-. o f d e v e l o p i n g a new a n a l y s i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s i n q u e s t i o n and t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , i t i s a c h o i c e between the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f b u s i n e s s , f o r the f o r m a l i s t method must c o n s i d e r t h e p r i m i t i v e economies as underdeveloped v e r s i o n s o f t h e i r own, and c u l t u r a l i s t s t u d y t h a t as a m a t t e r o f p r i n c i p l e does honour t o d i f f e r e n t 1 4 7 s o c i e t i e s f o r what t h e y a r e . " ' As Chairman Mao s a i d : "Go t o the p r a c t i c a l p e o p l e , and l e a r n from them; th e n s y n t h e s i z e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n t o p r i n c i p l e s and t h e o r i e s ; and t h e n r e t u r n t o t h e p r a c t i c a l p e o p l e and c a l l upon them t o p u t t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s and methods i n t o p r a c t i c e so as t o s o l v e t h e i r 14 8 problems and a c h i e v e freedom and h a p p i n e s s . " The i n t e l l e c t u a l and i n d i g e n o u s c h a l l e g e i s t o e x p l o r e t h i s nexus. The emphasis here on modern c a p i t a l i s t economics does not i m p l y an a c c e p t a n c e o f M a r x i s t economics. The work o f Marx i s an i n s p i r a t i o n , but not a s o l u t i o n because Marx never o f f e r e d one. "What Marx bequeathed t o p r o s p e r i t y , " a c c o r d i n g t o C a r r , "was...not an economic p r o s p e c t u s of s o c i a l i s m , b u t an economic a n a l y s i s o f c a p i t a l i s m ; h i s economic t o o l s were t h o s e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t system. ' P o l i t i c a l Economy,' w i t h i t s f a m i l i a r c a t e g o r i e s o f v a l u e , p r i c e , p r o f i t , was something t h a t b e l o n ged e s s e n t i a l l y t o c a p i t a l i s m and would be superceded w i t h 149 s i t . " "• I n t h e s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , the economic p o l i c i e s o f the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e r e v o l u t i o n must pass i n t h e s t r u g g l e t o c r e a t e the s o c i a l i s t o r d e r had t o be worked o ut e m p i r i c a l l y by the workers t h e m s e l v e s . That was i n t e l l e c t u a l e m a n c i p a t i o n . I n our r e v i e w o f development t h e o r i e s , t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e i s s l o w l y b e i n g met by i n d i v i d u a l s (Samir Amin, F r a n t z Fanon, J u l i u s N y e r e r e , T e r r y McGee Onyemelukwe, W a l t e r Rodney, Rweyemamu, Nkrumah, Denis G o u l e t and C l i v e Thomas amongst o t h e r s ) . As t o f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s t o t h e problems o f underdevelopment, t h e r e a re s u g g e s t i o n s o f s o c i a l i s m , s e l f -r e l i a n c e , i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes f a v o u r i n g t h e r u r a l a r e a s , e t c . These a r e a l l n e c e s s a r y e n t r y p o i n t s i n t o t h e r e a l i t y o f our development p r o c e s s . We are concerned here w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l element o f how t o g i v e t h i s development p r o c e s s a r u r a l emphasis. What our f o r e f a t h e r s ceded t o us was a sense o f community, a sense o f common d e s t i n y , a c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , t h e l o v e f o r and t h e c r e a t i o n o f b e a u t y , the r e s p e c t f o r l i f e . The u n d e r l y i n g i d e a i n the h u m a n i s t i c and c o m m u n a l i s t i c s o c i e t y o f our f o r e f a t h e r s has been e q u a l i t y -9 5-and b r o t h e r h o o d i n "Commune-ism." Our c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t we a r e n o t i n need o f the c r e d o s o f Marx or' L e n i n i n o r d e r t o r e s t o r e a j u s t and e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y . A c o n s c i e n t i o u s r e v i v a l o f t h i s h e r i t a g e , o f the West A f r i c a n p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s s e l f -image, w i t h i t s h u m a n i s t i c t r a i t s , a f a l c r u m o f s o c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n , t h e s e are what we need. A f t e r a l l , development economics, more so i t s development, i s a p a r t o f c u l t u r e . " C u l t u r e c o n s i s t s o f p a t t e r n s , e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t , o f and f o r b e h a v i o u r a c q u i r e d and t r a n s m i t t e d by symbols c o n s t i t u t i n g the d i s t i n c t i v e achievement o f human g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r embodiments i n a r t i f a c t s : t h e e s s e n t i a l c o r e o f c u l t u r e c o n s i s t s o f t r a d i t i o n s ( i e . h i s t o r i c a l l y d e r i v e d and s e l e c t e d ) i d e a s and e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r a t t a c h e d v a l u e s , c u l t u r e systems may, on the one hand, be c o n s i d e r e d as p r o d u c t s o f a c t i o n , on the o t h e r as c o n d i t i o n i n g element o f f u r t h e r a c t i o n . " 1 5 0 ' But the r e s t o r a t i o n "of t h e s e elements becomes m e a n i n g l e s s u n l e s s we remove t h o s e b a n e f u l i n f l u e n c e s t h a t have opp r e s s e d them from a l l s i d e s and t h e n s e c u r e f o r them c o n d i t i o n s f o r independent and a u t h e n t i c ( i d i g e n o u s ) development. There was no e v i d e n c e of p o v e r t y i n the days of our f o r e f a t h e r s ; t h e i r s , i n f a c t , ' w a s the ' a u t h e n t i c a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y . ' R e j e c t i n g i n t o t o what i s a t hand may be s h o r t -s i g h t e d . As M c L o u g h l i n s t a t e d " , however, t h a t the dynamics of r u r a l change are a l r e a d y p r e s e n t , v e r y s t r o n g l y 1-5 i i n some a r e a s . " The c h a l l e n g e i s t o u t i l i z e what i s a t hand as j u d i c i o u s l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the e n t i r e s o c i e t y . T h i s g i v e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n a p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t and e l e v a t e s i t t o a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y t h a t would h e l p c r e a t e the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n needed f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e , and p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e o p l e s t o a n a l y z e p o s s i b l e models o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s . But one a l s o has t o a v o i d t h e a l l - t o o - p o s s i b l e chance o f ready-made c o n c e p t s of p e o p l e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n becoming a t o o l i n the hands o f an e l i t e w a n t i n g the p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the development e f f o r t , b u t on t h e i r own e l i t i s t terms. Onyemelukwe has noted t h a t "...people everywhere adopt changes s l o w l y , b u t can adapt more e a s i l y i f t h e i r new s i t u a t i o n has some l i n k w i t h t h e p a s t . B r i n g i n g t r a d i t i o n a l p e o p l e i n t o l i n e w i t h a development s t r a t e g y i s not a s i m p l e s o c i a l p r o c e s s . The c l a i m e d s c a r c i t y o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n the underdeveloped ar e a s o f West A f r i c a a r i s e s from t h e use of t e c h n o l o g i e s and i d e a s w h i c h a r e out o f t h e r e a c h o f t h e i r P s y c h o l o g i c a l scope. F r u s t r a t i o n s r e s u l t from a development p r o c e s s w h i c h i s imposed on p e o p l e s unprepared f o r a major 152 break w i t h t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g . " What we a r e s a y i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t the development o f the West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e a l i t i e s o f t h e West A f r i c a n environment. No T h i r d World c o u n t r y can s u c c e s s f u l l y pursue a f u l l y a u t a r c h y , c o u r s e . Even C h i n a , i n s p i t e o f i t s c o n t i n e n t a l s i z e and a h i g h degree o f economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , . -153 c o u l d n o t e x c l u d e a l l c o n t a c t s w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d . v S i m i l a r l y , a l t h o u g h Burma i n t h e 1960's adopted a p o l i c y of e x c l u d i n g f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r s and t o u r i s t s > t h e c o u n t r y s t i l l needed t o e x p o r t r i c e and o i l t o o u t s i d e m a r k e t s . J"J 4 B e s i d e s , n a t i o n s l i k e T a n z a n i a and S i r Lanka have not i n t e r p r e t e d the d o c t r i n e o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e t o mean e x c l u s i o n o f t i e s t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , o r even t o w o r l d m a r k e t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o f degree are d i s c e r n i b l e among n a t i o n s ; some are more h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o u t s i d e systems than o t h e r s . A t t i m e s , l i n k s are one-s i d e d , as i n t h e case of Cuba and i t s t i e s w i t h the S o v i e t Union and E a s t e r n European s o c i a l i s t n a t i o n s . A l g e r i a , on the c o n t r a r y , p r o v i d e s an example of wide d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , d e l i b e r a t e l y sought, i n i t l i n k a g e s w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and r e g i o n s . I n B r a z i l , the p r i m a r y i n t e g r a t i o n sought i s w i t h the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market, not w i t h a s i n g l e n a t i o n or r e g i o n . P r e f e r e n c e s as. t o k i n d , d e gree, and f o c u s of i n t e g r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e a s t r a t e g i c development o p t i o n f r a u g h t w i t h consequences f o r t e c h n o l o g y p o l i c y . Indeed one major t h e s i s 155 propounded by L a t i n American dependencia t h e o r i s t s s t a t e s t h a t d o m e s t i c c o n s t r a i n t s on s u c c e s s f u l development are m a i n l y due t o s t r u c t u r e s o f dependency imposed by o u t s i d e f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g i n s y m b i o s i s w i t h i n t e r e s t groups r e p r e s e n t i n g the '155 • • s o c i a l f o r c e s o f " i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m . " ' Once B r a z i l ' s p l a n n e r s d e c i d e d t o compete i n the w o r l d market's own t erms, t h e y were a u t o m a t i c a l l y g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s t o t h e i r s t r a t e g y on o t h e r f r o n t s and f o r e c l o s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s . By t y i n g development f o r t u n e s t o an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d power or by s t r i v i n g t o a c h i e v e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s i n w o r l d m a r k e t s , a n a t i o n commits i t s e l f , o f t e n i r r e v e r s i b l y , t o - a s -c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l p r i o r i t i e s o r t o l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e o v e r and a g a i n s t o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s , t o c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s o f consumer-goods p r o d u c t i o n f a v o u r i n g the p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s e s , t o s u p p l y i n g e x p o r t needs over m e e t i n g i n t e r n a l demands, and t o o t h e r p o l i c i e s h a v i n g g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r impact on t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h o i c e s . T h i s i s so because the " r u l e s o f the game" s e t by the w o r l d market o r by t h e hegemonic b i g powers are b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f o b t a i n i n g development b e n e f i t s i n modes o f l a r g e - s c a l e c o m p e t i t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n toward h i g h e r p u r c h a s i n g power, and of a s h i f t i n g " c o m p e t i t i v e edge" on the s t r e n g t h o f c h a n g i n g t e c h n o l o g y . More i m p o r t a n t l y , the d e c i s i o n t o seek such i n t e g r a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y r e l e g a t e s t h e c o n c e r n f o r s o c i a l e q u a l i t y t o second ra n k . That th e i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic o r d e r was d e s i g n e d t o f a v o u r the a l r e a d y p r o s p e r o u s i s conceded by no l e s s moderate an o b s e r v e r than Gunnar M y r d a l , who w r i t e s t h a t : the t h e o r y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e was not worked out t o e x p l a i n the r e a l i t y o f underdevelopment and t h e need f o r development. One might say, r a t h e r , t h a t t h i s i m p o s i n g s t r u c t u r e o f a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g i m p l i c i t l y had almost the o p p o s i n g p u r p o s e , t h a t o f e x p l a i n i n g away the i n t e r n a t i o n a l e q u a l i t y problem. The e x i s t i n g g l o b a l economic o r d e r i s u n c o n g e n i a l t o the p u r s u i t o f e q u i t y and e q u a l i t y because i t wheels a r e l u b r i c a t e d by forms of c o m p e t i t i o n founded on c o m p a r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . And u s i n g the c a p i t a l i s t , n e o c a p i t a l i s t , and even s o c i a l i s t c a l c u l u s o f e f f i c i e n c y ( t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t the l a t t e r "competes" i n t h e w o r l d a r e n a ) , such v a l u e s as -99-e q u i t y and e q u a l i t y are n e c e s s a r i l y t r e a t e d as " e x t e r n a l i t i e s " not t o be " i n t e r n a l i z e d . " T h e r e f o r e , whenever a n a t i o n a l development p l a n i n any o f the West A f r i c a n n a t i o n s r e q u i r e s a h i g h degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the g l o b a l o r r e g i o n a l e x p o r t market, a whole gamut of s u p p o r t i v e i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e i n v e s t m e n t s i s i p s o f a c t o r e n d e r e d n e c e s s a r y so as t o a s s u r e c o m p e t i t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . C hoosing i n t e g r a t i o n i m p l i e s s e l e c t i n g t e c h n o l o g y which i s c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e and o f s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l q u a l i t y . I t a l s o s i g n i f i e s p l a n t s c a l e s opposed t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s of s m a l l and medium i n d u s t r y as w e l l as an a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y which f a v o u r s s m a l l m i n o r i t e s w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r t o t h e d e t r i m e n t of the p o o r e s t and l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e . I m p l i e d a l s o are an employment p o l i c y w h i c h p r o v i d e s t r a i n i n g and s u b s i d i e s t o s m a l l numbers of s k i l l e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l - t o the n e g l e c t (at l e a s t r e l a t i v e ) o f l a r g e numbers w i t h l e s s e r s k i l l s - and monetary and f i s c a l p o l i c i e s i l l - s u i t e d t o produce e q u i t a b l e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n inasmuch as s u b s i d i e s f a v o u r " e f f i c i e n t " e x p o r t s e c t o r s . For t h e s e r e a s o n s d e v e l o p m e n t a l e f f o r t s aimed a t i n t e g r a t i o n t o b i g powers o r t o the w o r l d market s e t l i m i t s t o s t r a t e g i e s which can e f f e c t i v e l y be adopted. The r e c o g n i t i o n by T h i r d World l e a d e r s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic o r d e r i s b i a s e d i n f a v o u r of such i n t e g r a t i o n h e l p s e x p l a i n t h e i r i n s i s t e n t demands f o r 15 8 a new o r d e r . T h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r i s d i c t a t e d by a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the enormous impact t h e i r l i n k s t o t h e w o r l d system have on t h e i r own d o m e s t i c economies and p o l i c i e s . That i s t o say t h a t t h e i r t e c h n o l o g y -100-p o l i c i e s are d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by b a s i c o p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the degree and n a t u r e o f t h e s e t i e s . I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h o u t s i d e systems o f t e n means r e l i a n c e on f o r e i g n " a i d " as w e l l as a commitment t o produce f o r w o r l d - e x p o r t m a r k e t s . And l i n k a g e s t h r o u g h " a i d " a r e as 15 9 '' ' ' c r u c i a l t o t e c h n o l o g y p o l i c y as l i n k a g e s t h r o u g h t r a d e . I n a speech t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e on Trade and Development 1972, Robert McNamara urged the a d o p t i o n o f development s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h make a f r o n t a l a t t a c k on the poor of the T h i r d World who have not b e n e f i t e d from Or 6 0 1 " p a s t d e v e l o p m e n t a l growth o r p r o g r e s s . World Bank l o a n s , he argued, s h o u l d be g r a n t e d i f t h e / r e a c h t h i s s t r a t e g i c p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f the poor c o u n t r i e s . Dudley Seers l a t e r r a i s e d the s p e c t r e o f r a i s i n g unemployment as a f u r t h e r d i m e n s i o n o f " f a i l e d " development. 1^" S i n c e t h e n many s t r a t e g i s t s speak as though r e d u c i n g p o v e r t y and c r e a t i n g j o b s s h o u l d be t h e c a r e o f t h e i r development s t r a t e g i e s . Among t h o s e who most i n s i s t e n t l y p l e a d f o r such s t r a t e g i e s i s Mahbub u l Haq. R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t even expanding "modern s e c t o r s " cannot absorb a t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r whose a b s o l u t e numbers grow even more r a p i d l y , Haq c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s g e n e r a t e d by m o d e r n i z a t i o n s t r a i n "the l i m i t s o f t o l e r a n c e o f many s o c i e t i e s . " He t h e n asks why, i f a d u a l economy e x i s t s , a d u a l development s t r a t e g y s h o u l d n o t l i k e w i s e be f o r m u l a t e d . H i s recommended s t r a t e g y o p e r a t e s i n two a r e a s : On the one hand, a modern s e c t o r w h i c h grows f a s t and e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h a l l k i n d s o f p r i c e i n c e n t i v e s and t o l e r a t e s t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f -IOI-i n e q u a l i t i e s f o r some t i m e . On the o t h e r , a l a r g e t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r where o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework overcome t h e s c a r c i t y o f c a p i t a l and development i s t a k e n t o m a r g i n a l men t h r o u g h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r u r a l and urban works programmes. 16*2 Haq wants g r e a t e r s e l f - r e l i a n c e by poor n a t i o n s i n c h o o s i n g development paradigms. H i s emphasis i s v a l i d because the n a t i o n s w h i c h adopt an autonomous model o f development, founded on o p t i m a l degrees of s e l f - r e l i a n c e , a r e a l s o the ones most l i k e l y t o i n s i s t on a l t e r n a t i v e approaches t o t e c h n o l o g y . S e l f - R e l i a n c e a c h o i c e o r c h a l l e n g e The chances o f our i n d i g e n o u s t e c h n o l o g y s u r v i v i n g and s u c c e e d i n g w i l l be g r e a t e r i f t h e concept of s e l f -r e l i a n c e becomes a t once a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y and a development s t r a t e g y . The advocancy o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e does n ot o f t e n go beyond waxing e l o q u e n t about t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f Western t e c h n o l o g i e s . a n d t h e need t o d e v e l o p l a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e t e c h n i q u e s . There i s a good d e a l o f t a l k about d e v e l o p i n g ' i n t e r m e d i a t e ' t e c h n o l o g i e s - i n t e r m e d i a t e i n t h e sense t h a t i t i n v o l v e s t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f p r o d u c t i o n and l e s s o f Western methods. I t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h o s e p a r t s of modern t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h are o f v a l u e and developments 163 o r i e n t e d i n a l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e n a t u r e . T a n z a n i a t a k e s p r i d e among A f r i c a n n a t i o n s a d v o c a t i n g s e l f - r e l i a n c e as a s t r a t e g y f o r development. One c o n s t a n t p r i n c i p l e i s the thought of P r e s i d e n t N y e r e r e i s t h a t " t h e r e i s no model f o r us t o copy." He w r i t e s t h a t : -102-i n 1965 T a n z a n i a adopted i t s own form o f democracy - we r e j e c t e d the Western model and s a i d i t was n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r our c i r c u m s t a n c e s d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t a l l our c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development had u n t i l t h e n been based on i t . . . . When we i n t r o d u c e d t h i s new system, we were c r i t i c i z e d f o r 'abandoning democracy'....In response t o t h i s c r i t i c i s m we t r i e d t o e x p l a i n what we were t r y i n g t o do and why we thought our new system was b o t h d e m o c r a t i c and s u i t a b l e f o r our c o n d i t i o n s . But h a v i n g done t h a t we d i d not worry about what t h e Western c o u n t r i e s s a i d o r what d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s s a i d . F o r i n r e j e c t i n g the i d e a t h a t we had t o f o l l o w the 'Westminster Model' i f we wanted t o be d e m o c r a t i c , we had a l s o overcome the p s y c h o l o g i c a l need t o have a c e r t i f i c a t e o f a p p r o v a l from t h e West i n r e l a t i o n t o our p o l i t i c a l system, l ^ 4 What Nyerere c l a i m s f o r a p o l i t i c a l system - freedom from s e r v i l i t y : t o p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g models - he l i k e w i s e urges upon h i s n a t i o n i n i t s approach t o development problems: We have d e l i b e r a t e l y d e c i d e d t o grow, as a s o c i e t y , o u t o f our own r o o t s , b u t i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n and towards a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f o b j e c t i v e . We are d o i n g t h i s by em p h a s i z i n g c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f our t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and e x t e n d i n g them, so t h a t t hey can embrace t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of modern t e c h n o l o g y and en a b l e us t o meet the c h a l l e n g e o f l i f e i n the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y world.165 The economy must be o r g a n i z e d so as t o f r e e p e o p l e from m a n i p u l a t i o n by the market; "the f i r s t p r i o r i t y of p r o d u c t i o n must be the manufacture and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f such goods as w i l l a l l o w e v e r y member o f s o c i e t y t o have s u f f i c i e n t f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r , t o s u s t a i n a decent l i f e . " 1 ^ A bond i s f o r g e d between s e l f - r e l i a n c e - i n d e f i n i n g g o a l s and s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s - and development s t r a t e g y . A t a s t a t e -103-banquet h o n o u r i n g Chou E n - l a i on 4 t h June 1964 N y e r e r e d e c l a r e d t h a t b o t h C h i n a and T a n z a n i a are engaged i n a r e v o l u t i o n a r y b a t t l e a g a i n s t p o v e r t y and economic backwardness. He added t h a t f o r T a n z a n i a the " l o n g march" i s economic. Other n a t i o n s may l e a r n from C h i n a t h a t s u c c e s s r e q u i r e s n o t o n l y c o u r a g e , e n t h u s i a s m , and endurance but a l s o d i s c i p l i n e and as w e l l t h e i n t e l l i g e n t a d a p t a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s t o the needs and c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f each c o u n t r y a t a g i v e n t i m e . T h i s i s t h e h e a r t o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e " : t h e commitment t o c r e a t i v e i n n o v a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n i n the l i g h t o f l o c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , v a l u e s , p r i o r i t e s and h e r i t a g e . Any n a t i o n p u r s u i n g a s e l f - r e l i a n t s t r a t e g y of development must adopt a c r i t e r i a f o r c h o o s i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s and modes of t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n drawn from o u t s i d e the t e c h n o l o g i c a l market p l a c e . F o r e i g n t e c h n o l o g i e s a r e not e x c l u d e d on p r i n c i p l e , but i m p o r t e d w i l l be o n l y t h o s e t y p e s of t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h f o s t e r l o c a l l y d e f i n e d g o a l s . Schumacher c o n t r a s t s t h e " s e l f - b a l a n c i n g , s e l f - a d j u s t i n g , s e l f - c l e a n i n g " a t t r i b u t e s o f n a t u r e w i t h t e c h n o l o g y which r e c o g n i z e s no s e l f - l i m i t i n g p r i n c i p l e s as t o s i z e , speed, or v i o l e n c e . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t " i n the s u b t l e system of n a t u r e , t e c h n o l o g y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r the s u p e r - t e c h n o l o g y of t h e modern w o r l d , a c t s l i k e a f o r e i g n body, and t h e r e are now numerous s i g n s ' 16 7 o f r e j e c t i o n s . " C r i t i c s v i ew i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s as no 16 8 model f o r e x p o r t ; a c c o r d i n g l y , they e x p e r i m e n t w i t h new models of s m a l l - s c a l e "community t e c h n o l o g i e s " w h i c h enhance 169 s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n s m a l l l o c a l groups. They t e a c h t h a t a b a s i c o p t i o n f o r s e l f - r e l i a n c e imfringes on one's s t a n c e ( i f one i s c o n s i s t e n t ! ) toward t e c h n o l o g y . -10 4-The q u e s t f o r g r e a t e r s e l f - r e l i a n c e a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l i s the e x c l u s i v e P f r o g a t i v e n e i t h e r o f n a t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g o f the West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s nor o f tho s e w h i c h have chosen s o c i a l i s m . Even c o u n t r i e s as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s sounds t h e i r w i s h e s t o be s e l f - r e l i a n t i n meeting t h e i r energy needs w i t h i n a few y e a r s . T h e i r d e s i r e s are prompted by the need t o reduce the k i n d o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y any c o u n t r y e x p e r i e n c e s as a r e s u l t o f i t s i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h v o u t s i d e maike t f o r c e s . To be more p r e c i s e , t h e a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n development models, i n s o u r c e s o f c a p i t a l o r of t e c h n o l o g y , i s m o t i v a t e d by the d e s i r e t o reduce u n a c c e p t a b l e forms o f dependency, i f t h e p r e v a i l i n g mode o f exchange w i t h o t h e r s i f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e w i t h h i g h r e c i p r o c i t y , t h e r e i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y l e s s "need" t o be s e l f - r e l i a n t . But i f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r e n t i a l s t r e n g t h o r b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n ( t h a t i s , by law m u t u a l i t y o r r e c i p r o c i t y ) t h e n a h i g h e r degree o f s e l f -r e l i a n c e becomes d e s i r a b l e . One i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e , however, d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e s e l f - r e l i a n c e sought by groups w i t h i n the de v e l o p e d n a t i o n s ( U n i t e d S t a t e s ) from the b a s i c o p t i o n t o pursue s e l f -r e l i a n c e as a major mode o f o b t a i n i n g development i n West A f r i c a . I n the l a t t e r ' s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , emphasis i s p l a c e d on s m a l l - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g i e s geared t o r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . The C hinese example appears t o be a f a r c r y f o r most o f the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a p a r t , t h e i r c u r r e n t e f f o r t s a t r e s e a r c h and development a t such t e c h n o l o g i e s e x h i b i t l i t t l e o f the C hinese v i g o r and o r i e n t a t i o n . Whether o r not i t i s a consequence o f low l e v e l o f income, i n v e s t m e n t i n r e s e a r c h and development i s m i n i s c u l e . I t ranges from 0.2 t o 0.5 p e r c e n t of GNP f o r most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n c o n t r a s t t o the r e p o r t e d 1.5 p e r c e n t f i g u r e f o r C h i n a . More d i s c o n c e r t i n g t han th e q u a n t i t a t i v e d i m e n s i o n a r e t h e p a t t e r n and n a t u r e of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . Even t h e s e low l e v e l s o f e x p e n d i t u r e , as Hans S i n g e r has o b s e r v e d , are d i r e c t e d a t m a r g i n a l l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o 'pushing the f r o n t i e r s o f knowledge' i n ways and d i r e c t i o n s a u t o m a t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by the c o n d i t i o n s and •170 f a c t o r p r o p o r t i o n s o f the r i c h e r c o u n t r i e s , a phenomenon l a b e l l e d by t h e Sussex I n s t i t u t e of Developmental S t u d i e s e conomists as the ' i n t e r n a l b r a i n d r a i n ' as opposed t o the ' e x t e r n a l b r a i n d r a i n ' o r t h e mass movement of q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l t o the d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . C h i n a s e r v e s as an e x c e p t i o n a l example o f a n a t i o n a d o p t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t r a t e g y which emphasizes s e l f - r e l i a n c e not o n l y a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l but a l s o w i t h i n r e g i o n a l , l o c a l , and p r o d u c t i v e - u n i t l e v e l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , even s e l f - r e l i a n c e cannot be an a b s o l u t e p r i n c i p l e , and i t must not be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean e x c l u d i n g o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s . Moreover, even when n a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s do not choose s e l f -r e l i a n c e as t h e i r p r i m a r y p o l i c y , i t i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n l i m i t e d s e c t o r s ( i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , o r housing) t o champion a s e l f - r e l i a n t approach w h i c h w i l l have i m p o r t a n t r e p e r c u s s i o n s on c h o i c e s and modes o f t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s seems t o be t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h I n d i a has encouraged l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p t o 171 c r e a t e s m a l l t e c h n o l o g i e s i n i n d u s t r , --106-S e l f - R e l i a n c e d o u b t l e s s has t o be p a i d f o r by s a c r i f i c e s i n e f f i c i e n c y (at t h e b e g i n n i n g ) ; c o n v e r s e l y , h i g h e r i n t e g r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t may improve e f f i c i e n c y , may e x a c t s a c r i f i c e s i n terms of s o c i a l j u s t i c e and l e a d t o e x c e s s i v e i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n or v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s over w h i c h n a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s have l i t t l e c o n t r o l . Other t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , i f a West A f r i c a n C ountry s u b s c r i b e s t o the image o f a p r o c e s s i o n o f n a t i o n s s t r u g g l i n g t o "catch-up" t o t h e d e v e l o p e d , i t w i l l i p s o f a c t o be i n f l u e n c e d by a p o w e r f u l b i a s i n f a v o u r o f c h o o s i n g i n t e g r a t i o n ( v i a a i d , t r a d e , i m p o r t e d c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e t e c h n o l o g y , and t h e a d o p t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s ) as i t s b a s i c o p t i o n s . I f , on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e p r i m a r y image i t adopts i s one o f an i d e o l o g i c a l p l a t f o r m , the chance e x i s t s t h a t s e l f - r e l i a n c e w i l l h o l d an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n i t s b a s i c development s t r a t e g y ( T a n z a n i a ) , P r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f a m i l i t a r y , economic, o r p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e may sometimes o v e r r u l e t h i s p r e f e r e n c e , as i n t h e case of Cuba, which chose t o become h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d - m i l i t a r i l y , f i n a n c i a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y and t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , S e l f - r e l i a n c e i s not synonymous w i t h i s o l a t i o n o f the r e j e c t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i o n . I t h i g h l i g h t s t h e need f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the d e v e l o p e d and t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s w h i c h do not t h r e a t e n the " s e l f " o r p e r p e t u a t e the " r e l i a n c e " on o u t s i d e n a t i o n s . I t a l s o means the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f economic and p o l i t i c a l power, an i n v o l v e m e n t of the p e o p l e i n the d e c i s i o n --107/-making p r o c e s s , an awareness o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a r e s p o n s i b l e and c r e a t i v e b e i n g , " f o r when the i n d i v i d u a l becomes aware of h i m s e l f and h i s p l a c e i n h i s s o c i e t y , he demands t h e power t o 172 c h a l l e n g e the i n j u s t i c e s he s e e s . " -108-CHAPTER V P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s and Conclusions There i s no all - p u r p o s e formula f o r development p o l i c y h a n d i l y a p p l i c a b l e to a l l the co u n t r i e s of West A f r i c a . But there are p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s of a general s o r t suggesting an a l t e r n a t e mode i n place of present day conventional t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s . Development i n conventional theory and p r a c t i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y comes from above, e x t e r n a l l y imposed by governments or bureaucracies, whether conceptualized as a l t r u -i s t i c or e x p l o i t a t i v e . Knowledge of and l i n k s w i t h the r e c i p i e n t s i s ofte n minimal. Development plans r e f l e c t e t h n o c e n t r i c tendencies or s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l features 173 i n development agencies or donor su b c u l t u r e s . In West A f r i c a , as w i t h many developing c o u n t r i e s , the o b j e c t i v e s s p e c i f i e d i n the development plans are s o c i a l i s t i n character. The o b j e c t i v e s i n the T h i r d N a t i o n a l Development Plan of N i g e r i a 1975-80, are as f o l l o w s : 1 To e s t a b l i s h N i g e r i a f i r m l y as (a) a u n i t e d , s t r o n g , and s e l f - r e l i a n t n a t i o n ; (b) a great and dynamic economy; (c) a j u s t and e g a l i t e r i a n s o c i e t y ; (d) a land of b r i g h t and f u l l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l c i t i z e n s ; and (e) a fre e and democratic s o c i e t y . Recognizing t h a t these " f i v e n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s " are not o p e r a t i o n a l magnitudes against which the success of the plan could be unambiguously measured, the p o l i c y makers considered -109-t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s however p r o v i d e "a b road view of t h e 175 u l t i m a t e a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i e t y . " U n l i k e t h e second p l a n , t h e t h i r d p l a n gave the s p e c i f i c s h o r t - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s w hich w i l l be used t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s a s : ( a ) i n c r e a s e i n p e r c a p i t a income; (b) more even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income; (c) r e d u c t i o n i n t h e l e v e l o f unemployment; (d) i n c r e a s e i n t h e s u p p l y o f h i g h l e v e l manpower; (e) d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f economy; (f) b a l a n c e d 176 development, and (g) i n d i g e n i z a t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t i e s . I n S i e r r a Leone, the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Development P l a n , 1974/75 - 1978-79, have a p a r t i c u l a r .importance f o r t h e development of S i e r r a Leone because the P l a n i s e x p e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t the 1973 E l e c t i o n M a n i f e s t o o f the r u l i n g p a r t y , t h e A l l P e o p l e ' s Congress. I t may be 177 summarized as f o l l o w s : (1) P r e s e r v e p o l i t i c a l and economic s t a b i l i t y as one o f t h e main p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r u n i n t e r r u p t e d and c o n t i n u o u s economic and s o c i a l advancement; (2) A t t a i n a h i g h e r degree of economic s e l f - s u s t a i n e d growth, s i n c e p o l i t i c a l independence can be made m e a n i n g f u l by a c h i e v i n g economic e m a n c i p a t i o n ; (3) I n c r e a s e the w e l f a r e o f the broad mass of p o p u l a t i o n as the u l t i m a t e aim o f development, and t o t h a t end a c h i e v e more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h and income; (4) A c h i e v e r a p i d e x p a n s i o n of p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f t h e economy t o c r e a t e t h e b a s i s f o r an a c c e l e r a t e d pace of economic and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s ; (5) C o n t i n u e and i n t e n s i f y economic c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r -110-A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . N i g e r i a and S i e r r a Leone are s i m i l a r i n many ways t o t h e o t h e r n a t i o n s i n t h i s r e g i o n e s p e c i a l l y when d e a l i n g w i t h development problems. The o b j e c t i v e s a r e s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e but t h e outcome may d i f f e r i n many i n s t a n c e s . We would l i k e t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s are not mere r e h e t o r i c - t h a t t h e r e i s i n s t e a d a s e r i o u s i n t e n t i o n t o r e a l i z e the o b j e c t i v e s and i t i s i n t h i s frame of mind t h a t what f o l l o w s i s w r i t t e n . To many, the o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be r e g a r d e d as d e s i r a b l e . By e m p h a s i z i n g the need i n b o t h p l a n s t o reduce s o c i a l and economic i n e q u a l i t y , the o b j e c t i v e s draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t development s h o u l d n o t be c o n cerned w i t h j u s t one s t a t i s t i c - h i g h r a t e o f growth of the economy as i m p l i e d i n the t h e o r i e s o f development, but s h o u l d a l s o be concerned w i t h s e c u r i n g an o v e r a l l improvement i n s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g and 17 8 w e l l - b e i n g o f the masses. The o b j e c t i v e s go a l o n g way t o g i v i n g " f e e l " t o development p l a n n i n g and i n a p p e a l i n g t o t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s of t h e p e o p l e . To t h e e x t e n t the o b j e c t i v e s are found a c c e p t a b l e by a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l s , t h e y can g e n e r a t e some en t h u s i a s m f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g the p l a n . But o b j e c t i v e s however n o b l e , l i k e t h e p l a n documents t h e m s e l v e s , remain words on paper u n t i l t h ey are r e a l i z e d . F o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s one needs a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c i e s . But a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c i e s can o n l y be framed i f the o b j e c t i v e s a r e w e l l c o n c e i v e d , c l e a r and m e a n i n g f u l i n o p e r a t i o r e l t e r m s t h a t w i l l i n v o l v e d t h e e n t i r e - I l l -mass p o p u l a t i o n not j u s t the urban e l i t e . An i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n making a case f o r development p l a n n i n g i s whether i m b a l a n c e s and i n e q u a l i t i e s w i l l be r e s t o r e d by the u n h i n d e r e d o p e r a t i o n o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and economic f o r c e s as e x p l a i n e d by the t h e o r i e s o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y , whether s o c i e t i e s d i s p l a y an i n h e r e n t tendency towards c o n t i n u e d p o l a r i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g d i s p a r i t i e s i n f a v o u r o f t h e urban c e n t r e s i f l e f t t o t a k e t h e i r c o u r s e . As 179 has been demonstrated by a g r e a t many development a n a l y s t s , the e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i e t i e s a re r e m a r k a b l y p e r s i s t e n t i n p o l a r i z i n g power and development. But even i f one were t o argue t h a t i t i s t o o e a r l y t o judge whether d i s p a r i t i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s w i l l s o r t t h e m s e l v e s o ut or n o t , t h i s would n ot negate a need f o r p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n and p l a n n i n g . I t i s f o r t h e v e r y r e a s o n t h a t p l a n n i n g and p l a n n e r s have a r o l e as c a t a l y s t s and a m p l i f i e r s o f the spontaneous f o r c e s o f s o c i e t y and can be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n developments and t h e s l o w i n g down o f o t h e r s , t h a t t h e i r r a i s o n d ' e t r e seems beyond d e b a t e . What i s the g e n e r a l s t a t e o f p l a n n i n g f o r r u r a l development i n West A f r i c a ? Of r e l e v a n c e t o the p r e s e n t t h e s i s ar e t h e systems t h a t had come about t o make t h e r u r a l p e o p l e respond t o t h e produce and demands o f w e s t e r n economies. The i n i t i a l p i v o t o f t h e s e systems b e i n g a l i e n s i n c o l o n i a l government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i z e who r e s i d e d a t and o p e r a t e d from major shipments p o i n t s ( p r i m a t e c i t i e s ) , t he s t r u c t u r e s t h a t e v o l v e d d i s p l a y from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g a s t r o n g element of f o r e i g n c o n t r o l and dependence, a h i g h degree o f (See Map) -112-c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and an emphasis upon the c ommercial l i n k a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l r u r a l p r o d u c t i o n s i t e s w i t h i n t e r n a l and o u t s i d e m a r kets. S e t t i n g o n l y l i m i t e d o b j e c t i v e s and e s p e c i a l l y geared t o t h e e f f i c i e n t t a p p i n g o f l a b o u r and l a n d r e s o u r c e s , the f o r m u l a t i o n of r u r a l development programmes and t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery and c ommercial network down t o t h e s c a l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t i o n s i t e , tended t o be dominated by t h o s e e c o n o m i c a l l y and t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - minded p e o p l e i n government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e who s u p p o s e d l y knew the more i m p o r t a n t i n s and o u t s of r a i s i n g r u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . There seems l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r emphasis i n o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t were s e t up f o r w o r k i n g towards i t were w e l l -f i t t e d t o the o b j e c t i v e s o f the t i m e s . T a k i n g r e g u l a r r e c o u r s e t o s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i r e c t i v e s • a n d , where need be, t o d i s g u i s e d or o u t r i g h t c o e r c i o n , t hey were f a i r l y e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g the l i m i t e d purposes f o r w h i c h they were p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d , i e . the enhancement of commercial p r o d u c t i o n and the i n c r e a s e o f f o r e i g n - t r a d e . But i t has been r e a l i z e d i n some of t h e West A f r i c a n n a t i o n s and e s p e c i a l l y N i g e r i a , f o r q u i t e some time t h a t the ' c o l o n i a l ' arrangement f o r m o b i l i z i n g l a b o u r and r u r a l produce w i l l n ot s e r v e t o b r i n g about a genuine i n t e g r a t i o n o f r u r a l groups i n t o t h e main-stream of N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y , and t h a t a new approach i s needed. Of p a r t i c u l a r p romise i s b e l i e v e d t o be t h e p r e s e n t i n s i s t e n c e on ( S e l f - R e l i a n c e ) and a l s o , t h a t more subst a n c e s h o u l d be g i v e n t o s u b n a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f p o l i c y 180 making and s t r a t e g y f o r m u l a t i o n s . Whether s u b n a t i o n a l -113-p l a n n i n g used as a t o o l f o r n a t i o n a l development w i l l succeed where h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g f a i l e d remains t o be seen and s h o u l d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t depend on the form o f p l a n n i n g t h a t i s adopted and on the e x p e r t i s e a v a i l a b l e . D i s a g g r e g a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g has been compared t o a ' t r a n s l a t i o n ' o f c e n t r a l l y - s e t o b j e c t i v e s i n t o down-to-earth a c t i o n . T h i s i s v e r y a p t and emphasises a main d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The p r i v i l e g e d few who make up the r e g i o n a l or l o c a l a u t h o r i t y a re e x p e c t e d t o i n i t i a t e a c t i o n w h i c h t a k e s a ccount o f n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and y e t a l l o w s f o r c o n d i t i o n s p e c u l i a r t o t h e r e g i o n and l o c a l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e v i e w i n g g u i d e l i n e s and d i r e c t i v e s from h i g h e r l e v e l s and g a t h e r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g o t h e r r e g i o n s and t h e c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s o f the t e r r i t o r y under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n , each a u t h o r i t y i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y engaged i n c o n s t a n t compromising between paper a b s t r a c t i o n and r e a l l i f e c o n d i t i o n s and i n r e c o n c i l i n g i m p u l s e s from b o t h above and below. T h i s asymmetric s i t u a t i o n o f d e e p l y committed j a c k -o f - a l l - t r a d e s a t the s u b n a t i o n a l l e v e l s and r e l a t i v e l y u n b i a s e d s p e c i a l i s t s a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l may seem o v e r s i m p l i -f i e d , b u t i t i s b e l i e v e d t o be f a i r l y t y p i c a l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g i n s e v e r a l d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . The breakdown i n communication which w i l l o c c u r as a r e s u l t w i l l l e a v e t h e s u b n a t i o n a l component l i t t l e c h o i c e b u t t o i m p r o v i s e and t o 181 t h i n k i n terms o f t h e immediate f u t u r e o n l y . By showing t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n and f o r m u l a t i o n o f a programme o f a c t i o n a t s u b n a t i o n a l l e v e l s i s more th a n d i s a g g r e g a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l and s e c t o r a l g u i d e l i n e s and -114-aggregation of, f o r example, l o c a l r e a l i t i e s , a s p i r a t i o n s , and needs and t h a t subnational s p e c i a l i s t e x p e r t i s e i s o f t e n i n low supply, the s e t t i n g has been completed to make a case f o r an adjusted type of planning and s p e c i a l i s t group of planners. In t h i s context, some r e s e r v a t i o n should f i r s t be expressed "with regard to the view t h a t r e g i o n a l and l o c a l subsystems 18 2 would be lower l e v e l s of s y n t h e s i s . N a t i o n a l and s e c t o r a l planners need counterparts outside the c a p i t a l w i t h equal s p e c i a l i s t e x p e r t i s e . This i s to say that f o r r u r a l development to.transcend the phase of short-term i m p r o v i s a t i o n , people are u r g e n t l y needed who have made subnational l e v e l s of synthesis t h e i r s p e c i a l trade and t h a t a mere t r a n s f e r of c e n t r a l planners from the c a p i t a l w i l l not s u f f i c e . This p e c u l i a r c o n d i t i o n of subnational e n t i t i e s and the s t r u c t u r a l nature of most r u r a l problems, whereby the s o l u t i o n s l i e s as much outside as w i t h i n the r u r a l sphere, demand s p e c i a l s k i l l s . To be e f f e c t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , many i n i t i a t i v e s intended to promote r u r a l development should be a f u n c t i o n of a d i s t i n c t s o r t of planning and planners, the i d e n t i t y of which w i l l be i n a u n i f i c a t i o n of r u r a l people and t h e i r h a b i t a t , urban settlement and c o u n t r y s i d e , urban and r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , dominant and dependent groups, and micro t a r g e t and micro r e a l i t i e s i n a s i n g l e framework of a n a l y s i s and i n an 183 i n t e g r a t e d and c o n s i s t e n t programme of a c t i o n . Although r e g i o n a l planning and r e g i o n a l planners can be expected to play an i n c r e a s i n g l y prominent r o l e i n t h i s due to t h e i r comprehensive and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n , i t should be -115-remembered t h a t s u f f i c i e n t l y complete e x p e r t i s e t o cope w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y w i l l o n l y be found i n m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y teams c o n s i s t i n g o f s t u d e n t s o f v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s , each c o n c e n t r a t i n g upon a p a r t i c u l a r domain o f e n q u i r y . I t i s i n such teams t h a t a p l a c e s h o u l d be r e s e r v e d f o r a n a l y s t s who combine c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f r u r a l l i f e w i t h a s p e c i a l r e g i o n a l o u t l o o k and who a r e w i l l i n g t o a d j u s t t h e scope o f t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e s p e c i a l i s t s i n p u t s t o a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e f f o r t . Summing up, my argument i s s i m p l y t h a t t h e r e a re many roads t o development and many d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s o f development. F a r more a t t e n t i o n needs t o be p a i d t o the d i f f e r r i n g s o c i a l c o n t e x t s o f development, e s p e c i a l l y a t th e g r a s s - r o o t s l e v e l , and t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e exchange o f goods and s e r v i c e s . M u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches a r e needed f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s (as the economist has so f a r f a i l e d ) . But a l t h o u g h t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s need t o be broadened and t o be made more f l e x i b l e , a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e l o c a l c u l t u r e s i s v e r y much needed. C o n c l u s i o n s The major c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e even i f t h e problem i s complex. F i r s t , t h e r e have been much m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s w i t h a v e r y s t r o n g urban b i a s on t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e s p e c i a l l y West A f r i c a , I n the mid-60's i n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y a t 184 the l o c a l l e v e l took on a new i m p o r t a n c e . I n many s i t u a t i o n s and s u b c u l t u r e s development i n one sense o r a n o t h e r has been t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h i s r e g i o n o f t e n w i t h i n t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t s u s u a l l y u n r e c o g n i z e d o r u n a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e development a g e n c i e s and d e v e l o p e r s , the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the p o o r e r n a t i o n s and t h e v a r i e t y i n the h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h r o u g h w h i c h they have been b r o u g h t i n t o the o r b i t o f the r i c h n a t i o n s would seem t o i n v a l i d a t e t h e development o f a t h e o r y w h i c h o u t l i n e d a u n i f o r m p r o c e s s of change. Yet t h e common g o a l s o f t h e s e n a t i o n s and t h e growing p e i a i a s i v e n e s s o f a s t y l e o f l i f e among th e e l i t e o f t h e w o r l d have encouraged the f o r m u l a t i o n o f such t h e o r i e s . Though the t e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s may d i f f e r we must c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between economic growth and development, and between change i n economic and s o c i a l s p h e re. Growth i m p l i e s a r i s i n g n a t i o n a l income w i t h o u t any c o n c o m i t a n t change i n t h e economic s t r u c t u r e ; t h u s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a g i v e n e x p o r t commodity may r i s e - more l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s may be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t i n g the dominance of f o r e i g n c a p i t a l , the dependence upon the i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s , the economic i n b a l a n c e between p r i m a r y , secondary and t e r t i a r y , s e c t o r s , Development o c c u r s when t h e s e and o t h e r s i m i l a r f a c t o r s a re a l t e r e d . Growth and development are c l e a r l y r e l a t e d ; economic growth may p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development; development may be a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r c o n t i n u e d growth. But the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , not i n e v i t a b l e . Leonard Barnes has compared the economies o f Guinea and t h e I v o r y 184 Coast (two former F r e n c h West A f r i c a n C o l o n i e s ) . The The l a t t e r has r e t a i n e d c l o s e t i e s w i t h F r a n c e and thus has f a c i l i t a t e d p r i v a t e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t ; t h e economy has grown but not d e v e l o p e d . The e x p e r i e n c e o f the I v o r y Coast i n the l a s t twenty y e a r s has many l e s s o n s t o o f f e r . I t can be summed up i n t h e phrase '.growth w i t h o u t development' - growth g e n e r a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d from o u t s i d e , w i t h o u t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e c a p a b l e o f b r i n g i n g about an a u t o m a t i c t r a n s i t i o n t o the f u r t h e r s t a g e , t h a t o f i n t e r n a l l y c e n t r e d and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g growth. Andre Gunder 185 Frank has c a l l e d t h i s 'the development o f underdevelopment.' The I v o r y Coast i s c e r t a i n l y no l o n g e r t h e p r i m i t i v e c o u n t r y t h a t i t was i n 1950. But i t has become w e l l i n t e g r a t e d , l i k e i n e i g h b o u r , S e n e g a l , i n t o t h e World C a p i t a l i s t system. On 28 September 1958 Gu i n e a , a l o n e among the t e r r i t o r i e s o f the former F r e n c h C o l o n i a l empire i n b l a c k A f r i c a , d e c l a r e d f o r immediate independence. Guinea's 'Noh' t o t h e F r e n c h A f r i c a n Community saw a massive p u l l o u t by F r a n c e ; t h e F r e n c h withdrew p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r a d i c a l changes^were made i n the c o u n t r y ' s economic and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . As s t a t e d by Amin i t may be s a i d t h a t Guinea' p e r f o r m a n c e , i n g e n e r a l growth r a t e s , i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n d u s t r i e s , and i n e d u c a t i o n , has not been worse than t h a t o f many o t h e r A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s ; and t h a t t h i s performance has been a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t t h e massive ' t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e ' i n v o l v e d e l s e w h e r e . T h i s l a s t may be a fundamental p o i n t . I n 1958 i t was reckoned t h a t an A f r i c a n s t a t e c o u l d n o t s u r v i v e w i t h o u t t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e ; and a r a p i d c o l l a p s e was e x p e c t e d a f t e r t h e massive d e p a r t u r e o f c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s -113-from Guinea." T h i s was p r o v e d f a l s e as Guinea k e p t a l l t he i n s t i t u t i o n s o f government i n f a c t a f t e r the massive p u l l o u t by the F r e n c h . The c r i t i q u e o f development t h e o r i e s draws h e a v i l y 187 upon t h e s e m i n a l e s s a y o f Andre Gunder F r a n k ; i n w h i c h t h e emphasis i s p l a c e d on the r o l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n a l t e r i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , a t t h e expense o f t h e v a l u e s which m a i n t a i n i t . The v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s o f development e v i d e n t l y d i f f e r w i d e l y i n t h e i r approach, and have e v o l v e d towards new forms i n r e c e n t y e a r s . T h i s e v o l u t i o n has i t s e l f r e f l e c t e d o t h e r changes; i n the i n t e r e s t o f the v a r i o u s f o r c e s s e e k i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o o r r e t a r d development, and i n d e e d the v e r y d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h have a r i s e n from v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n underdevelopment and development. My attempt t o reduce a l l j t h e s e t h e o r i e s t o one s i n g l e scheme by e x t r a c t i n g o n l y what seem t o be t h e i r e s s e n t i a l elements may g i v e r i s e t o a number of c r i t i c i s m s , but i t i s a l e g i t i m a t e p r o c e d u r e i n s o f a r as i t d i s c u s s e s c e r t a i n e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g p o s i t i o n s w h i c h when seen from a n o t h e r p o i n t o f v i e w appear c o m p l e t e l y d i v e r g e n t . The d i s c u s s i o n may be summed up as f o l l o w s : (a) The t h e o r y o f development must a n a l y s e t h e p r o c e s s o f development i n i t s v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . (b) I t must e x t r a c t , t h r o u g h such a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s , the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f development o f the s o c i e t i e s i t chooses t o i n v e s t i g a t e . (c) I n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s , development t h e o r y must -119-t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e s s , abandoning any f o r m a l i s t i c a t t empt t o reduce i t t o a u n i l i n e a r t r a n s i t i o n from one type o f s o c i e t y t o a n o t h e r . R a t h e r the t h e o r y would have t o show how t h r o u g h t h e s e v e r y c o n t r a d i c t i o n s s o c i e t y as a whole can r e a c h h i g h e r forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . These f a c t o r s , and the s o c i a l forms t h e y i m p l y , are b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d as s o c i a l t r e n d s t h a n as models o f a f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n t o wh i c h we s h o u l d a s p i r e . The o b j e c t i v e - as i t was i n the a n a l y s i s o f t h e assumptions o f development t h e o r i e s - i s t o show how t h e s e schemata and t h e s e c o n c e p t s can be reduced from p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e o f t e n a p p a r e n t l y opposed t o one a n o t h e r , t o an adequate model o f development f o r West A f r i c a w h i c h from our p o i n t o f v i e w has u n d e r l a i n , and t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , s t i l l u n d e r l i e s s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , government p o l i c i e s and t h e programmes o f p a r t i e s and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . -12 0-FOOTNOTES 1. A.O. Hirschman,.'.. The S t r a t e g y o f Economic Development, (New haven, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1958) , p. 184 2. F o r example, The breakup of the P a k a s t a n i and West I n d i a n f e d e r a t i o n s and some of the problems p l a g u i n g the Canadian and N i g e r i a n F e d e r a t i o n s , were due t o l o p s i d e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s . 3. T h i s i s because the t h e o r y o f economic p l a n n i n g has so f a r i g n o r e d the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s by f e d e r a l and n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e c i s i o n making and economic development. F u r t h e r m o r e , the t h e o r y of p l a n n i n g has so f a r emphasized o n l y one major o b j e c t i v e - the m a x i m i z a t i o n o f g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t over t i m e , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s may be d i f f e r e n t as a r e s u l t o f d i s p a r i t i e s i n the growth r a t e s o f t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s i n a c o u n t r y . 4. See: E l l i o t t P. S k i n n e r "West A f r i c a n Economic Systems" i n P e o p l e s and C u l t u r e s o f A f r i c a ( e d ) . E l l i o t t P. S k i n n e r (The Doubleday, N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s , Garden C i t y , New York 1973) pp. 209-229. 5. For example, see Y o s k i t a k a O s h t s u k i , " R e g i o n a l A l l o c a t i o n o f P u b l i c Investment i n an N-Region Economy," J.R.S., V o l . I I , No. 2, 1971. 6. G.M. M e i e r , L e a d i n g I s s u e s i n Development Economics. (Oxford: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p. 5. 7. An example of an account of economic growth w i t h o u t development i n L i b e r i a i s g i v e n i n R.W. C l o w e r , e t . a l . , Growth W i t h o u t Development, (Evanston, N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966) . 8. C E . B l a c k , The Dynamics ,of M o d e r n i z a t i o n , (New Y ork: 1966), pp. 55-60. 9. Such e f f e c t s o f economic i n t e g r a t i o n are termed dynamic e f f e c t s w h i c h are absent from th e c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y o f customs urions d e v e l o p e d by: J . V i n e r , The Customs Union I s s u e . (New York: C a r n e g i e Endowment f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace, 1950), and J.E. Meade, The Theory o f Customs U n i o n , (Amsterdam, N o r t h -H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1955). 10. K.A. B u s i a , " S o c i a l Survey o f S e k o n d i - T a k o r a d i , S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and U r b a n i z a t i o n i n A f r i c a South of the Sahara, (UNESCO, P a r i s , 1964). -121-11. Boeke, J.H., Economics and Economic P o l i c y o f Dual  S o c i e t i e s , (New Y o r k , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1953). 12. Eckaus, R.S., "The F a c t o r p r o p o r t i o n s Problem i n Underdeveloped A r e a s , " i n ; American Economic Review, 1955. V o l . XLV, No. 4, Sept. 1955, pp. 539-565. 13. Gannege, E., Economic du Developpement, ( P a r i s , P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1962), 14. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was r e g a r d e d as t h e g o l d e n remedy f o r 'underdevelopment' f o r more th a n a g e n e r a t i o n . I n t h e e a r l y 1940's P.N. R o s e n s t e i n - Rodan argued t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s 'the way o f a c h i e v i n g a more e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f incomes between d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f t h e w o r l d by r a i s i n g incomes i n d e p r e s s e d a r e a s a t a h i g h e r r a t e than i n the r i c h a r e a s . L a t e r W.A. Lewis and P a u l P r e b r i c h c a l l e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f the C a r i b b e a n c o u n t r i e s and L a t i n A m e r i c a r e s p e c t i v e l y as by f a r t h e b e s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o c a p t u r e t h e advantages o f t e c h n i c a l p r o g r e s s . 15. K. Nkrumah, N e o - C o l o n i a l i s m , The L a s t Stage o f  I m p e r i a l i s m , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , New Y o r k , 1965, pp. 7-9. 16. See Speech by F i d e l C a s t r o d e l i v e r e d a t S a n t i a g o , Cuba, 26th J u l y 1973. R e p r i n t e d i n E n g l i s h i n Grama (Havana), 5 August 1973, p. 5. 17. H.W. S i n g e r , "Dualism R e v i s i t e d : A New Approach t o t h e Problems o f the Dual S o c i e t y i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s , " i n J o u r n a l o f Development S t u d i e s , V o l . 7, No. 1, Oct. 1970. pp. 6-75. 18. Rostow, W.W., The Stages o f Economic Growth, ( O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1960). 19. R o s e n s t e i n - Rodan, P.M., Notes on t h e Theory o f t h e  " B i g Push", (Cambridge, 1957). 20. L e i b e n s t e i n , H., Economic Backwardness and Economic  Growth, (New York, W i l e y , 1957). 21. Nurkse, R., Problems o f C a p i t a l F o r m a t i o n i n Under- d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r i e s (Cambridge, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953). 22. Hirschman, A.O. The S t r a t e g y o f Economic Development, Pfew Haven, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961). 23. P e r r o u x , F., "Les P o l e s de development e t 1'economie i n t e r n a t i o n a l e , " i n : The C h a l l e n g e , o f Development, A  Symposium. J e r u s a l e m , 1957, -122;-24. M y r d a l , G. , Economic Theory and Underdeveloped R e g i o n s . (London, G. Duckworth, 1957). A s i a n Drama, An I n q u i r t y i n t h e P o v e r t y o f N a t i o n s , V o l . I I I . (New York 1968) p. 1843 e t seq. 25. O h l i n , B., I n t e r r e g i o n a l and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933), pp. 215-218. 26. P e r r o u x , F. L' ec nam i.e.: des Jeunes N a t i o n s . ( P a r i s , P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1962). 27. P r e b i s c h , R. "The R o l e o f Commercial P o l i c i e s i n Under-d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r i e s , " i n : American Economic Review. V o l . 49 (1959). No. 2, pp. 251-273. 28. W.A. L e w i s , Economic Development w i t h U n l i m i t e d Supply  of Labour, (Manchester, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954.) 29. J . B a g w a t i , " I m m i s e r i z i n g Growth A G e o m e t r i c a l Note," i n : Review o f Economic S t u d i e s , June 1958, No. 68, pp. 201-205. 30. D.C. M c C l e l l a n d , The A c h i e v i n g S o c i e t y . ( P r i n c e t o n ) J . J . , Van N o r s t r a n d , 1961. 31. E.E. Hagen, On the t h e o r y o f S o c i a l Change: How Economic  Growth B e g i n s (Homewood, 111., Dorsey P r e s s 1962). 32. M.J. Levy, M o d e r n i z a t i o n and t h e S t r u c t u r e , o f S o c i e t i e s ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J. , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966). 33.. • D.E. A p t e r , P o l i t i c s o f M o d e r n i z a t i o n . ( C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1965). 34. G.A. Almond and J.S. Coleman, The P o l i t i c s o f t h e  D e v e l o p i n g A r e a s . ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J. , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960). 35. I.L. H o r o w i t z , Three Worlds o f Development, The Theory  arid P r a c t i c e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n . (New Y o r k , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966). 36. V . I . L e n i n , S e l e c t e d Works (Moscow, P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1970) . 37. F r a n t z Fanon, Toward the A f r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n (New Y o r k , Monthly Review P r e s s , 1967). , The Wretched o f the E a r t h (New Y o r k , Grove P r e s s , 1968). ., A D y i n g C o l o n i a l i s m (New Y o r k , Grove P r e s s , 1967). E. Che Guevara, Le S o c i a l i s m e e t 1'homme (Maspero, 1967). -12 3-38. Andre Gunder F r a n k , L a t i n A m e r i c a : Underdevelopment o r  R e v o l u t i o n (New York, M o n t h l y Review P r e s s 1969). C a p i t a l i s m and Underdevelopment i n L a t i n A m e r i c a (New York, M o n t h l y Review P r e s s , 1960. ' • Lumpenbourcreoisie , Lumpendevelopment, Dependence, C l a s s , and P o l i t i c s i n L a t i n A m e r i c a . (New Yo r k , M o n t h l y Review P r e s s , 1972). 39. Kwame Nkrumah, N e o - C o l o n i a l i s m : The L a s t Stage o f  I m p e r i a l i s m (New Yo r k , F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1963), ' A f r i c a must U n i t e (New Yo r k , F r e d e r i c k A, P r a e g e r , 1963). C o n s c i e n c i s m , P h i l o s o p h y and I d e o l o g y f o r D e c o l o n i z a t i o n and Development (London, Heineman, 1964.) J u l i u s N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m / U h u r u na Ujamaa. (Dar es Salaam: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), Ujamaa, Essays on S o c i a l i s m (Dar es Salaam: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 6 8 ) . 40. Andre Gunder F r a n k , Op. c i t . , 41. F o r a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e dependencia model, p l e a s e see works o f Andre Gunder Frank. 42. Havelock B r e w s t e r : "Economic Dependence: A Q u a n t i t a t i v e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " i n : S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s . V o l . 2 2 , No. 1, March 1973; I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l and Economic R e s e a r c h , U n i v e r s i t y o f the West I n d i e s ; p. 90. 43. Kwame Nkrumah, Op. c i t . 44. Nkrumah, C o n s c i e n c i s m , Op. c i t . , p. 78. 45. J u l i u s N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m / U h u r u na Ujamaa, Dar es Salaam: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968.) 46. i b i d , p. 15. 47. i b i d , p. 16. 48. See: The C r u e l C h o i c e : A New Concept i n t h e Theory o f  Development (New York: Athenbum, 1971); A New M o r a l Order:  Development E t h i c s and L i b e r a t i o n Theology ( M a r y k n o l l , N.Y. O r b i s Book, 1974); and w i t h M i c h a e l Hudson, The Myth o f A i d : The Hidden Agenda o f t h e Development R e p o r t s (New York: IDOC/ N o r t h A m e r i c a , 1971), 49. Norman B o r l a u g , S u r v e y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, ed. by, S o c i e t y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, May/June 1974, V o l . I I , No. 3. p. 14. 50. F r e d J . C a r r i e r , The T h i r d World R e v o l u t i o n . (B.R. Gruner B..V. Amsterdam, 1976) pp. 255-291. -12 4.-51. W.G. Z e y l s t r a , A i d o r Development ( S i j t h o f f / L e i d e n 1974) . 52. Samir 7Amin, "Underdevelopment and Dependence i n B l a c k A f r i c a - T h e i r H i s t o r i c a l O r i g i n s and Contemporary Forms," i n : S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s , Op. c i t . ( 5 2 ) , pp. 177-196. 53 . i b i d , p. 190. 54. I n many cases a d e c i s i v e r o l e has been a t t r i b u t e d t o one or t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h i s growing r i s e t o s o c i o l o g i s t i c , p s y c h o l o g i s t i c and o t h e r s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t . 55. There i s q u i t e a wide awareness i n t h e West A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s of r e p e a t i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f the d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . See: M. OKoye. P o i n t s o f D i s c o r d : S t u d i e s i n T e n s i o n and C o n f l i c t ( F r e d r i c k M u l l e r L t d . , London, 1973). 56. Some T h e o r e t i c i a n s have c l e a r l y been d i s c o n c e r t e d by the s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e Ch i n e s e and Cuban e x p e r i e n c e s o f development, and i n c r e a s i n g l y so by t h o s e o f N o r t h V i e t n a m , Rumania, A l b a n i a , a l l o f whi c h l i k e Y u g o s l a v i a b e f o r e them, demonstrated t h e h i s t o r i c a l s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e i r r o a d t o s o c i a l i s m . 57. See. C. Thomas. Dependence and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n : The  Economics o f the T r a n s i t i o n t o S o c i a l i s m (Monthly Review P r e s s , New York, 1974). 58. See H o l l i s Chenery e t a l . , R e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h Growth (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), e s p e c i a l l y C h apter 1 and annex. A l s o Roger D. Hansen, "The Emerging C h a l l e n g e G l o b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Income and Economic O p p o r t u n i t y , " i n The U.S. and World Development: Agenda f o r A c t i o n 1975 , ed. James W. Howe (New York: P r a e g e r , 1975), pp. 157-188. 59. See L l o y d G. R e y n o l d s , e t a l . , " O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e Chin e s e Economy" (New Haven, Conn., 1 December 1973); a l s o R e y n o l d s , "China's Economy: A View from t h e Grass Roots," C h a l l e n g e . v o l . 17, No. 1 ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1974), pp. 12-20. 60. F o r t h e op p o s i n g v i e w - t h a t t h e r e i s famine i n C h i n a -see M i r i a m and Ivan D. London, s e r i e s o f t h r e e a r t i c l e s on "The Other C h i n a " i n World View. V o l . 19, No. 5 (May 1976), pp. 4-11; No. 6 (June 1976), pp. 43-48; and nos. 7/8 ( J u l y / August 1976), pp. 25 f f . 61. As t h i s a p p l i e s t o h e a l t h , see P e t e r S. H e l l e r , "The S t r a t e g y o f H e a l t h S e c t o r P l a n n i n g , " i n P u b l i c H e a l t h i n the  Pe o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , ed. Myron E. Wegman (New York: J . Macy F o u n d a t i o n , 1973), pp. 62-107. -125-62. See D a v i d A. Robinson,"From C o n f u c i a n Gentlemen t o the New C h i n e s e ' P o l i t i c a l ' Man, i n No Man i s A l i e n , " ed. J . R o b e r t N e l s o n ( L e i d e n , The N e t h e r l a n d s : E . J . B r i l l , 1971), p. 159. 63. These have been examined i n s e v e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l communes by P r o f e s s o r N e v i l l e M a x w e l l and h i s C o l l e a g u e s a t the I n s t i t u t e o f Commonwealth ' S t u d i e s , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . Much v a l u e d i n f o r m a t i o n can be found i n Maxwell's f i e l d n o t e s and u n p u b l i s h e d seminar r e p o r t s t o t h e O x f o r d group. 64. Simon K u z n e t s , "Economic Growth and Income I n e q u a l i t y , " The American Economic Review, V o l . 45, No. 1 (March 1955), pp. 1-28. 65.. T h i s i s t h e theme of N e i l H, J a c o b y , C o r p o r a t e Power and  S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y (New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1973); a l s o See E l i z a b e t h Mann Borges e , "Report from C a r a c a s : The Law o f t h e Sea," The C e n t r e Magazine, V o l . 7, No. 6 (Nov/Dec. 1974), pp. 25-34. 66. C h e r y l P a y e r , "The P e r p e t u a t i o n of Dependence; th e IMF and the T h i r d W o r l d , " Monthly Review, S e p t . , 1971, p. 38. 67. Samir Amin, L ' A f r i q u e de 1'Quest Bloquee: L'Economie  p o l i t i q u e de l a C o l o n i s a t i o n , 1800-1970 ( P a r i s , E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1971); PP. 90-206. 68. i b i d , pp. 206-207 69. T i b o r Mende, From A i d t o R e - C o l o n i z a t i o n , Lessons o f a  F a i l u r e (New Y o r k , Pantheon Books, 1973) pp. 86-129. 70. i b i d , pp. 130-158 71. Mahbub u l Haq, 'Employment i n t h e 1970's: New P e r s p e c t i v e , ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Review, ( S o c i e t y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, Washington, D.C., Dec. 1971) pp. 10-11. 72. R.B. S u t c l i f f e , I n d u s t r y and Underdevelopment (London: Addison-Wesley, 1971) pp. 73. T i b o r Mende, Op, c i t . , pp. 133-138. 74. See P a u l o F r e i r e , Pedagogy of t h e Oppressed (New York: Herder and H e r d e r , 1970) C u l t u r a l A c t i o n f o r Freedom (Cambridge Mass. C e n t r e f o r the Study o f Development and S o c i a l Change, 197 0 ) ; and E d u c a t i o n f o r C r i t i c a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s (New York: The Seabury P r e s s , 1973). 75. T i b o r Mende, Op. C i t . , pp. 228-263. 76. J u l i u s N y e r e r e , "The A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i o n , " i n Ujamaa:  Essays on S o c i a l i s m , Op, c i t . , P. 18. -126-77. J u l i u s N y e r e r e , "The T a n z a n i a Economy," i n Freedom and  S o c i a l i s m , Op. c i t . , p. 167. 78. J u l i u s N y e r e r e , " E d u c a t i o n f o r S e l f - R e l i a n c e , " i n Uiamaa: Essays on S o c i a l i s m , Op. c i t . , pp. 44-75. 79. J u l i u s N y e r e r e , " P r o g r e s s i n t h e R u r a l A r e a s , " i b i d . , pp. 178-79. 80. i b i d . , p. 183. 81. i b i d . , pp. 183-84. 82. See: D a n i e l L e r n e r , The P a s s i n g o f T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i e t y (New York: The F r e e P r e s s , 1958); George D a l t o n , Economic A n t h r o p o l o g y and Development: E s s a y s on T r i b a l and P e a s a n t Economics (New York: B a s i c Book, 1971); Guy H u n t e r , M o d e r n i z i n g  Peasant S o c i e t i e s : A Comparative Study i n A f r i c a and A s i a . (London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969); Dean C. T i p p s , " M o d e r n i z a t i o n Theory and t h e Comparative Study o f S o c i e t i e s : A C r i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , " i n Comparative S t u d i e s i n S o c i e t y  and H i s t o r y 15, No. 2 (March 1973), pp. 199-226. 83. T.J. C a r t w r i g h t , "Problems, S o l u t i o n s and S t r a t e g i e s : A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e Theory and P r a c t i c e o f P l a n n i n g , " i n J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 39; No. 3, (May 1973), pp. 179-87. 84. See: C h a r l e s P. Loomis and J , A l l a n B e a g l e , A S t r a t e g y f o r R u r a l Change (New York, Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1975). 85. F o r an e x c e l l e n t s u r v e y o f the l i t e r a t u r e on Communication and development see: James P. Bebermeyer and E v e r e t t M. Rogers, "Mass Media and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Communication i n N a t i o n a l Development." Working Paper No. 16, Department o f Communication, ( M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , E a s t L a n s i n g , J a n . 1966). A l s o see W i l b u r Schramm, Mass Media and N a t i o n a l Development ( P a l o A l t o , S t a n f o r d d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1964). 86. I n 1960 T a n e z r o u f t r o u t e (Gas-Colomb Bechar) was t h e o n l y r o u t e i n use, b u t by 1970 t h e Hoggar r o u t e had r e g a i n e d i t s former i m p o r t a n c e . The b e s t a c c o u n t of modern r o u t e s : B.E., Thomas, "Trade r o u t e s o f A l g e r i a and the S a h a r a " , U n i v e r s i t y  o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Geography., 1957, o r "Modern Trans - Sahara Routes", Geog. Review, No. 42, 1955, pp. 267-82. 87. E.F. G a u t i e r , L ' A f r i q u e N o i r e O c c i d e n t a l e ( P a r i s , G a m i e r F r e r e s , 1958) pp. 11-15. 88. E.w. B o v r i l l , The Golden Trade Routes o f the Moors (London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), Chap. 3. - 1 2 7 -89. F o r c o l l e c t i o n o f a c c o u n t s o f e a r l y voyages, See: J.W. B l a k e , Europeans i n West A f r i c a 1450-1560 (London), H a c k l u y t S o c i e t y 1942)., See a l s o , W a l t e r Rodney, How Europe  Underdeveloped A f r i c a ( T a n z a n i a , T a n z a n i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1972) . 90. R. Mauny, "Notes h i s t o r i q u e s a u t o u r des p r i n c i p a l e s p l a n t e s C u t i v e e s de l ' A f r i q u e O c c i d e n t a l e - B u l l , d'IFAN, No. 15, 1953, pp. 684-730. 91. See P e t e r M c L o u g h l i n , A f r i c a n Food P r o d u c t i o n Systems:  Cases and Theory ( B a l t i m o r e , Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1970). 92. M.B. Gleave and H.P. W h i t e , " P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and a g r i c u l t u r a l problems i n West A f r i c a , " i n M.F. Thomas and G.W. W h i t t i n g t o n , eds. i n Environment and Land Use i n A f r i c a , (London, Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1969) pp. 273-300. 93. i b i d , pp. 282-83 94. R.J. H a r r i s o n , West A f r i c a . A study o f the environment  and o f man's use of i t . (London, Langmans Group L t d . , 7 t h ed., 1974) pp. 170-79. 95. A.L. Mabongunje, U r b a n i z a t i o n i n N i g e r i a , (London, U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1968). 96. F o r t h e o r y o f s u b s i s t e n c e economics see C. C l a r k , and M. H a s w e l l , The Economics o f S u b s i s t e n c e A g r i c u l t u r e (London, M a c m i l l a n , 4 t h ed., 1970). 97. C.K. Meek, Land Tenure and L o c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n  N i g e r i a and the Cameroons (London: O.H.M.O., 1957). 98. W.W. Rostow, The Stages o f Economic Growth: A Non-Communist  M a n i f e s t o (Cambridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 2nd ed., 1971). 99. B.W. Hodder, Economic Development i n the T r o p i c s , (London, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968) pp. 2-10. 100. World Bank A t l a s (Washington, D.C., 1975) p. 14. 101. M. C r o w t h e r , The S t o r y o f N i g e r i a , (London, Faber and F a b e r , 1966) p. 5. 102. Zdenek Cervenka "Development Research a t t h e Cross-Road" A f r i c a (London, A f r i c a J o u r n a l L t d . ) , No. 77, J a n . 78, p. 62. 103. P.T. Bauer, D i s s e n t on Development (London, W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1971) pp. 147-63. 104. E r i c Fromm, ed., S o c i a l i s t Humanism: An I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Symposium (New York: Doubleday, 1966), p. i x . -128-105. T h i s phenomenon i s s t u d i e d under t h e name of the " c o n f i d e n c e mechanism" i n C h a r l e s E l l i o t t , P a t t e r n s o f  P o v e r t y i n the T h i r d World (New Y o r k , P r a e g e r , 1975). 106. See: E.W. B o v i l l , op. c i t . , J.D. Fage, A H i s t o r y o f West  A f r i c a : an i n t r o d u c t o r y s u r v e y (Cambridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) . 107. D a n i e l F. M c C a l l , "Dynamics of U r b a n i z a t i o n i n A f r i c a , " The A n n a l s Qf the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  S c i e n c e , V o l . 298, March 1955, pp. 151-60. 108. Meyer F o r t e s , "The S t r u c t u r e of U n i l i n e a r Descent -Groups," American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , Vo. 55 (Jan,-March 1953), pp. 17-41. 109. B e r t F. H o s e l i t z (Ed.) The P r o g r e s s o f Underdeveloped A r e a s , (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1952). 110. Kenneth L i t t l e , " S t r u c t u r a l Change i n t h e S i e r r a Leone P r o t e c t o r a t e , " A f r i c a , V o l . 2 5 , No. 3 ( J u l y 1955), pp. 217-34. 111. D. Westermann, The A f r i c a n Today and Tomorrow(3rd ed., London and New York; P u b l i s h e d f o r The I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e by the O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949), pp. 46-47. 112. L o r e n z o D. T u r n e r , "The Impact o f Western E d u c a t i o n on the A f r i c a n ' s Way o f L i f e . " i n C. Grove Hines ( E d . ) , A f r i c a  Today ( B a l t i m o r e , Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1955), p. 157. 113. C.J.M, A l p o r t , Hope i n A f r i c a (London, G. R o u t l e d g e & Sons, 1952), p. 108. 114. F o r examples of backward r e g i o n s i n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s See: E.A.E. Robinson ( e d . ) , Backward Areas i n Advanced C o u n t r i e s (London, M a c M i l l a n , 1969). 115. F i g u r e s from t h e U.N. World Economic Survey show a d e c l i n i n g per c a p i t a growth r a t e from 1950. One a u t h o r e s t i m a t e s t h a t 60% o f t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n r e c e i v e d 13.2% o f t h e w o r l d ' s income i n 1950 compared t o 11.1% i n 1964. See M. Faber & D. S e e r s (eds.) The C r i s i s i n P l a n n i n g . (London, C h a t t o & Windus, 1972) p. 81, 116. See: R. A n t h o r p e . "The new g e n e r a l i s m : f o u r phases i n development s t u d i e s i n t h e f i r s t U.N, development decade." Development and Change, V o l . 1, 1971-72, pp. 62-73. 117. An e a r l y c r i t i c i s m has come from the "Sussex" s c h o o l , Faber and S e e r s , S t r e e t e n , Anthorpe o r American w r i t e r s l i k e Friedmann. C o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n e r s has o f c o u r s e i t s s t a u n c h dependants l i k e T i n b e r g e n and Papanek. -12.9-118. For a c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i c a t o r s see t h e papers i n the J o u r n a l of Development S t u d i e s , p. 8, No. 3 (1972) , s p e c i a l i s s u e . I f we compare the v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n d i c a t o r s u sed, t h e r e i s much d i s c r e p a n c y about what i s i n c l u d e d and what i s l e f t o u t (compare, f o r example, the UNRISD (1970) c a r e l i s t w i t h t h a t o f Adelman and M o r r i s i n J o u r n a l of  Development S t u d i e s (1971) V o l . 8, No. 1, pp. 91-105. 119. Donald McGranaham, Development I n d i c a t o r s and Development Models, J o u r n a l o f Development S t u d i e s . 1972, V o l . 8, No. 3, pp. 91-102. 120. See, f o r example, th e sweeping g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s by D. L e r n e r i n H. M i n e r , (ed.) The C i t y i n Modern A f r i c a (New Y o rk, P r a e g e r , 1967). 121. See the c u l t u r e o f p o v e r t y r e s u l t i n g from the breakdown of a h i g h l y s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by unemployment, v i o l e n c e , f a m i l i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . O. L e w i s , The C h i l d r e n o f Sanchez. (London: Seeker and Worburg, 1962) , and La V i d a . (New Y o r k , Random House, 1966) . 122. See: G. Breese (ed.) The C i t y i n Newly D e v e l o p i n g  C o u n t r i e s (Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1969) p. 528. 123. T h i s p o i n t was made as l o n g ago as 1943 by: W.F. Whyte, S t r e e t C o r n e r S o c i e t y . ( C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1943). A l s o see: C.A. V a l e n t i n e C u l t u r e and P o v e r t y ( C h i c a g o , C h i c a g o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968). 124. See: B. T u r r i b u l l . The Mountain P e o p l e . (London, Cape, 1973). 125. P. H i l l . The Myth o f the Amorphous.. P e a s a n t r y ( U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , Ann A r b o r , 1968). 126. W.A. L e w i s , The t h e o r y o f Economic Growth (London: A l l e n and Unwin 1955). 127. P. M c L o u g h l i n , op. c i t . pp. 11-39. Most of t h e s t u d i e s are on n o n - A f r i c a n a r e a s . 128. E . J . B e r g , "Backward S l o p i n g Supply f u n c t i o n s i n d u a l economies" Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f Economics, Vo. 75, 1961, pp. 468-92. 129. T.W. S c h u l t z , T r a n s f o r m i n g T r a d i t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r e , (New Haven, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964). 130. D.C. M c C l e l l a n d , The A c h i e v i n g S o c i e t y ( P r i n c e t o n , Van N o s t r a n d , 1961). 131. See p a r t i c u l a r l y the c o l l e c t i o n o f papers i n : N.J. S m elser, and S.M. L i p s e t . S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e and M o b i l i t y  i n Economic Development (C h i c a g o , A l d i n e , 1966), -13'.0-13 2. For example, R. and E. Blum, Health and H e a l i n g i n  Greece. (Stanford, S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965.) 133. R. R e d f i e l d . T e p o z t l a n : A Mexican V i l l a g e (Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1930). 13 4. J.A. P i t - R i v e r s " I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n peasant s o c i e t y : a comment", Human O r g a n i s a t i o n , V o l , 19, 1963, pp. 180-3. 135. See: D.R. Smock. " C u l t u r a l and A t t i t u d i n a l F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n E a s t e r n N i g e r i a . " Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change. V o l . 18, 1969, pp. 110-25. J . Wilde e t a l . A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a , (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1967). M. Yudelman. A f r i c a n s on the Land. (Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964). 136. See: E . J . Berg. "Backward s l o p i n g supply f u n c t i o n s i n d u a l economies" Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l of Economics, V o l , 75, 1961, pp. 468-92, See a l s o C.J. Fuchs and H.A. Landsberger. "Revolution of r i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e ways." Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change. V o l . 21, 1972, pp. 212-26. 137. See K. N a i r . The Lonely Furrow. (Ann Arbor, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s , 1969). See a l s o her "Asian Drama - a c r i t i q u e " Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change, V o l . 17, No. 4, 1969. pp. 449-59. 138. T.W. S c h u l t z . op. c i t . 139. For evidence of t h i s p o i n t see: Smock, op. c i t . ( N i g e r i a ) , J . M e l l o r and T.V. M o o r t i . "Farm Business A n a l y s i s a t 30 farms, Medhakur, Agra D i s t r i c t " . Research B u l l e t i n 1, Balwant Vidapeeth. 1960. ( I n d i a ) . 14 0. G. Myrdal. A s i a n Drama (Harmpndsworth, Penguin, 1968). pp. 1079 & 1242. 141. See, Chinua Achebe, Things F a l l Apart (New York: McDowell, Obslensky, 1959). 142. R. Rezsohazy. Temps s o c i a l e t development: Le r o l e of  f a c t e u r e s s o c i o - c u l t u r e l s dans l a c r o i s s a n c e . ( B r u x e l l e s , La Renaissance du L i v r e , 1970). 143. T h i s p o i n t i s r e p e a t e d l y made i n Myrdal. op. c i t , 144. K. N a i r . op. c i t . 145. Smock, op. c i t . -131-146. Joan R o b i n s o n , C o l l e c t e d Economic P a p e r s , V o l . 1, ( B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , O x f o r d , 1966). 147. M a r s h a l l S a h l i n . Stone Age Economics ( T a i r s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s , London, 1972) p. 11. 148. Chairman Mao-Tse-Tung, S e l e c t e d Works, V o l . 3, ( P e k i n g , F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1953). 149. H.E. C a r r , The H i s t o r y o f S o v i e t R u s s i a : The B o l s h e v i c  R e v o l u t i o n ( M a c M i l l a n , London, 1952) pp. 5-9. 150. A.L. K r o e b e r , and C. K l u c k h o h n , C u l t u r e : A C r i t i c a l  Review of Concepts and D e f i n i t i o n s (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1952). 151. P. M c L o u g h l i n , op. c i t . p. 26. 152. C.C. Onyer^Lukwe; ••:, Economic Underdevelopment - An  I n s i d e View "(London: LQngmarP Group, 1974), p. 21. 153. See N i c h o l a s S p u b l e r . " C o n t r a s t i n g Economic P a t t e r n s : C h i n e s e and S o v i e t Development S t r a t e g i e s , " S o v i e t S t u d i e s , V o l . 15, No. 1 ( J u l y 1963), p. 13. 15 4. E r r o l G. Rampersad, "Burma's Economy i s D e t e r i o r a t i n g , " The New York Times, 24, J a n . , 1972. A l s o S t a n l e y Johnson, "The Road t o Mandalay," VISTA (Magazine of t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n o f the U.S.A.), V o l . 7, No. 3 (Nov/Dec. 1971), pp. 22-29. 155. F o r an o v e r v i e w , see Frank B o n i l l a and R o b e r t G i r l i n g , e d s . , S t r u c t u r e s o f Dependency ( P a l o A l t o , C a l i f . , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973). 156. Pablo' G o n z a l e z - Casanova, " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and N a t i o n a l Development," i n L a t i n American R a d i c a l i s m , ed. I r v i n g L o u i s H a r o w i t z , Josue de C a s t r o , and John G e r a s s i (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1969), pp. 118-139. 157. . Gunnar M y r d a l , The C h a l l e n g e " o f World P o v e r t y (New York: Pantheon, 1970), p. 277. 158. R e s o l u t i o n adopted by t h e S i x t h S p e c i a l S e s s i o n o f the UN G e n e r a l Assembly, D e c l a r a t i o n on t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t  of a New I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic O r d e r , A p r i l 1974, 159. Gustav R a n i s , "Some O b s e r v a t i o n on t h e Economic Framework f o r Optimum LDC U t i l i z a t i o n o f Technology," i n Technology and Economics i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (Report o f a seminar sponsored by the Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, Washington, D.C., 23 May 1972), p. 36. 160. Address d e l i v e r e d i n S a n t i a g o , C h i l e , 14 A p r i l 1972. -132-161. Dudley Seers and Leonard J o y , eds., Development i n a  D i v i d e d World (Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n , 1971). 16 2. Mahbub u l Haq, " D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r y P e r s p e c t i v e , " i n Technology and Economics i n I n t e r n a t i o n Developments p. 42." • >-163. A.K. Sen, Employment, Technology and Development (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971) p. 12. J u l i u s K. N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m : A S e l e c t i o n o f  W r i t i n g s and Speeches (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), pp. 19-20. 16 4. i b i d . , p. 2. 165. i b i d . , p. 11. 166. E.F. Schumacher, S m a l l i s B e a u t i f u l : Economics as i f P e o p l e M a t t e r e d (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), p. 147. 167. See, f o r i n s t a n c e , Jacques Beaumont, "A S i c k S o c i e t y I s No Model f o r E x p o r t , " World C o u n c i l o f Churches N e w s l e t t e r , J u l y 1969, pp. 1-5. 168. On t h i s approach w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , see N i c h o l a s Wade, " K a r l Hess: Technology w i t h a Human Face," S c i e n c e , V o l . 187, No. 4174 (31 J a n u a r y , 1975) , pp. 332-334. 16 9. F o r a b r i e f o v e r v i e w see: E.F. Schumacher, "The Work of t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e Technology Development Group i n A f r i c a , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, V o l . 106, No. 1 ( J u l y 1972), pp. 3-20. 17 0. Hans W. S i n g e r . 'Employment Problems i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s , ' i n S i n g e r ( e d . ) , The S t r a t e g y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Development (London: M a c M i l l a n , 1973) p. 154. 171. See Government of I n d i a , M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, A p p r o p r i a t e Technology C e l l , A p p r o p r i a t e  Technology f o r Rapid Economic Growth (New D e l h i , 1972). 172. C h a r l e s E l l i o t , The Development Debate (London, M a c m i l l a n , 1971), p. 42. 173. A a r t J.M. van de L a a r . "The World Bank: Which Way?" Development and Change, 7 (1976), pp. 67-97. 174. N a t i o n a l Development P l a n , 1970-74 (Lagos: F e d e r a l Government P r i n t e r , 1970). Chapter 4. 175. 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