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A case study of the desegregation experience of a white state high school in South Africa McAlister, Wendy Royal 1994

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A CASE STUDY OF THE DESEGREGATION EXPERIENCE OF A WHITE STATE HIGH SCHOOL IN SOUTH AFRICA by WENDY R O Y A L MCALISTER B.A., The University of Natal, 1972  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF M A S T E R O F ARTS in THE  F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES Department of Educational Studies  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  N o v e m b e r , 1995 © Wendy Royal M c A l i s t e r ,  1995  In  presenting  degree at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  /If l)acEMBe£,  ms",  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Date  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  11  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study i s t o analyze the ways i n which educators,  s o c i a l i z e d w i t h i n an entrenched  racist  system, i n t e g r a t e c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l groups i n t h e i r school. The  study o f f e r s an in-depth look a t a f o r m e r l y white  g i r l s ' high s c h o o l i n a low socio-economic South A f r i c a .  area of Durban,  The r e s e a r c h was undertaken i n August,  18 months a f t e r the admission  1993,  of p u p i l s of a l l races and  nine months p r i o r t o the n a t i o n a l f r e e e l e c t i o n s . To date t h e r e has been l i t t l e  systematic documentation  of the desegregation of white s t a t e schools i n South A f r i c a . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n t h a t i t c o n t r i b u t e t o the accumulation  of b a s i c data from which t o  c a r r y out f u r t h e r in-depth s t u d i e s . I t i s a f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e t h a t the r e s u l t s of t h i s study might i n f o r m educators and policy-makers  i n t h e i r nascent  attempts  t o e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e South A f r i c a n s c h o o l s . While Canadian schools have been m u l t i r a c i a l f o r many y e a r s , the a n a l y s i s of a South A f r i c a n s c h o o l j u s t embarking on i n t e g r a t i o n may p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s on new and o l d t h e o r i e s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l  practices.  A q u a l i t a t i v e approach was chosen, u s i n g a case based on the ethnographic  study  t r a d i t i o n . T h i s was deemed the  most a p p r o p r i a t e way of p e e l i n g back the m u l t i p l e l a y e r s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t govern b l a c k and white i n t e r a c t i o n s i n  Ill  South A f r i c a .  I t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be the most  e f f e c t i v e way of c a p t u r i n g the f u l l r i c h n e s s of the data •from a s i t u a t i o n t h a t was new and t u r b u l e n t . The primary t o o l s f o r data c o l l e c t i o n were d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s and interviews. The nuances i n the data r e v e a l many  paradoxes,  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and u n p r e d i c t a b l e outcomes. The r o l e of c l a s s as a mechanism of e x c l u s i o n emerges as a predominant theme i n the study.  I t h i g h l i g h t s the way  i n which both race and c l a s s i n t e r a c t i n South A f r i c a i n an i n t e n s e s t r u g g l e over power and p r i v i l e g e . The oppressed  study a l s o o f f e r s i n s i g h t s i n t o the reasons an group seeks access t o a world language and  F i r s t World l i f e s t y l e  sometimes a t the expense of t h e i r own  own c u l t u r e and e t h n i c i t y . Another theme t h a t emerges i s the n e c e s s i t y i n South A f r i c a of b u i l d i n g a n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y w h i l e recognizing  still  diversity.  The r e s e a r c h concludes w i t h some suggestions f o r facilitating  e f f e c t i v e d e s e g r e g a t i o n , b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t  the c o m p l e x i t i e s and uniqueness  of the South A f r i c a n  n e c e s s i t a t e a dynamic, f l e x i b l e and h o l i s t i c  terrain  approach.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Chapter I  viii  INTRODUCTION  1  PURPOSE  8  DEFINITIONS  11  RATIONALE  13  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  14  Chapter I I AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF EDUCATION UNDER APARTHEID  17  BANTU EDUCATION  17  BLACK SCHOOLING AND VIOLENCE  19  EDUCATIONAL REFORMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS THE  .  DEVELOPMENT OF OPEN SCHOOLS  THE ANC'S POLICY ON EDUCATION Chapter I I I LITERATURE REVIEW  22 25 30 32  AN OVERVIEW OF DESEGREGATION LITERATURE Equal S t a t u s . . Co-operation versus Competition Support by Relevant A u t h o r i t i e s P a r e n t a l & Community Involvement Teachers & Teacher T r a i n i n g H o l i s t i c Approach.... SOUTH AFRICAN DESEGREGATION THEORISTS.  32 33 41 43 43 44 48 48  CONCLUSION  56  V  Chapter IV  Chapter V  METHODOLOGY  61  BIAS & SUBJECTIVITY  64  DESIGN  68  DATA COLLECTION: SELECTION  69  DATA COLLECTION: PROCEDURES  72  VALIDITY & RELIABILITY  76  ANALYSIS  78  FINDINGS  80  CONTEXT  81  S o c i a l Context  81  P o l i t i c a l Context  84  THE SCHOOL  87  Admission P o l i c y  87  School Ethos  88  THE PARTICIPANTS  91  Teachers' P e r c e p t i o n s Students' P e r c e p t i o n s  91 94  Emerging Generation Gap  97  RACISM  98  Segregation Racist Incidents  98 103  Student P e r c e p t i o n s of the Other  105  PEDAGOGICAL  108  ISSUES  Teaching Methods P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n School L i f e Behaviour Academic Standards A b i l i t y Groupings C u r r i c u l u m Changes FUTURE CONCERNS  109 113 115 119 121 124 130  vi Chapter VI  DISCUSSION  136  INTEGRATION  136  EQUAL STATUS  142  ASSIMILATION and ACCOMMODATION  144  TEACHERS' EXPECTATIONS  148  PEDAGOGICAL CHANGES  151  MULTICULTURAL / ANTI-RACIST EDUCATION...  157  CONCLUSION  166  RECOMMENDATIONS  171  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  174  IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  175  IMPLICATIONS FOR CANADIAN PRACTICE  177  REFERENCES  179  APPENDIX A  185  APPENDIX B  187  APPENDIX C  189  APPENDIX D  191  LIST OF TABLES  vii page  TABLE 1 COMPARATIVE EDUCATION STATISTICS,1989  18  TABLE 2 RACIAL MIX OF 5 STATE HIGH SCHOOLS  69  viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  With g r a t e f u l thanks t o the t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s t a f f and students of "Valour High', without whom t h i s p r o j e c t would not have been p o s s i b l e . Thanks a l s o t o Wendy N i c h o l s o n , John P a m p a l l i s , Khosi Mpanza and S t e l l a Hortop for a l l their assistance. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my committee, K o g i l a AdamMoodley, Jane G a s k e l l and Thelma Cook f o r t h e i r guidance and v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s . A s p e c i a l thanks, p a r t i c u l a r l y , t o my a d v i s e r , K o g i l a , f o r s h a r i n g my enthusiasm of the s u b j e c t . My f a m i l y and f r i e n d s have s u s t a i n e d me along t h e way with their encouragement and support, particularly my c h i l d r e n , Sean and Lauren. Without t h e i r l o v e , c a r i n g and p a t i e n c e I would have been unable t o f i n i s h t h i s work.  1  Chapter I  INTRODUCTION P r i o r t o the h i s t o r i c f r e e e l e c t i o n s i n A p r i l  1994  which ushered i n a n o n - r a c i a l , democratic government, South A f r i c a was  a s o c i e t y s t r i c t l y s t r a t i f i e d along r a c i a l  lines.  With the e l e c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l P a r t y t o p o l i t i c a l power i n 1948,  t h i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n became l e g i s l a t e d and  as an i d e o l o g y was  born.  The  Group Areas Act  determined where each r a c i a l group c o u l d l i v e , A f r i c a n s b e i n g c o n f i n e d tp p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n  Apartheid  (1950) rural  "homelands',  urban b l a c k s g h e t t o i z e d i n bleak townships, f a r enough away t o a v o i d c o n t a m i n a t i n g the white c i t i e s , c l o s e enough t o contribute t h e i r indispensable  labour.  I n f l u x C o n t r o l laws  ensured t h a t o n l y working b l a c k s c o u l d stay i n urban areas f o r longer than 72 hours. Keeping c i t i e s  "white' r e s u l t e d i n  p e r i o d i c f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n s of e n t i r e non-white communities. The  P o p u l a t i o n R e g i s t r a t i o n Act  person a c c o r d i n g Coloured  (1967) c l a s s i f i e d  every  t o four r a c i a l c a t e g o r i e s , A f r i c a n , I n d i a n ,  and White. The Mixed Marriages A c t made s e x u a l  r e l a t i o n s a c r o s s r a c i a l groups i l l e g a l . Consequently, 1994,  South A f r i c a was  until  an anomaly f o r  "While the concept of race had been thoroughly d i s c r e d i t e d by the r e s t of the world, as a meaningful b i o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, ( i n South A f r i c a ) i t a c q u i r e d a p s e u d o - r e a l i t y because of i t s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l consequences."(Burman,1986:5)  2  Many r e s e a r c h e r s (Kallaway,1991; Wolpe,1991; Unterhalter,1991;  Adam and Moodley,1993.)have p o i n t e d t o the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s and r a c e i n South A f r i c a . Christie  (1990) contends t h a t South A f r i c a may  understood  best  be  as a c a p i t a l i s t and c l a s s - b a s e d s o c i e t y , where  r a c i a l p r a c t i c e s were i n t e g r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  and  where h i s t o r y has been shaped by i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l  and  i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e s over i s s u e s of both race and  class.  W i t h i n t h i s context of a s o c i e t y d i v i d e d along and c l a s s l i n e s , education has been used as a instrument  racial  powerful  by which the regime has t r i e d t o reproduce  the  e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . ( U n t e r h a l t e r & Wolpe,1991.) "The success of a p a r t h e i d depends i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e on e d u c a t i o n . " (Report on N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 5 , c i t e d i n Callinicos,1990.) With the Bantu Education A c t  (1953), the purpose of  e d u c a t i o n i n p r e p a r i n g students t o f i l l r o l e became more e x p l i c i t .  For whites  t h e i r predestined t h i s meant  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e i n the dominant s o c i e t y ; f o r b l a c k s i t meant i n c u l c a t i n g acceptance (Maree,in  of an i n f e r i o r  position.  Kallaway,1991.)  "The A f r i c a n c h i l d should be schooled f o r s e r v i l i t y s i n c e t h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r him i n the European community above c e r t a i n forms of l a b o u r . " (Prime M i n i s t e r Verwoerd,1953 c i t e d i n C a l l i n i c o s , 1 9 9 0 . ) During t h i s p e r i o d , b l a c k e d u c a t i o n passed m i s s i o n s c h o o l s and was  from t h e  c e n t r a l i s e d under the Department of  3 Bantu E d u c a t i o n .  The i n t e n t i o n was  not t o deny education t o  a l l b l a c k s but t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the b l a c k p o p u l a t i o n w i t h a small urban working c l a s s , w i t h some access t o e d u c a t i o n , and a l a r g e , m i n i m a l l y educated migrant (Kallaway,1984; Unterhalter,Wolpe  labour f o r c e .  et a l  1991;  Hartshorne,1992.) While  l i t t l e was  done t o promote education d u r i n g the  '50s, e q u a l l y l i t t l e was  done t o o b s t r u c t those w i t h the  means from p r o g r e s s i n g through the education system.  This  group of p u p i l s p r o v i d e d the p o o l from which the v e r y r a p i d l y growing number of s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y would be drawn i n the next decade. The  (Unterhalter,1991.)  f o l l o w i n g decade from 1963-1973 was  by s i g n i f i c a n t expansion  students  accompanied  of b l a c k s c h o o l enrolments  expenditure on b l a c k education, w h i l e s t i l l i n f e r i o r t o white e d u c a t i o n .  The reasons  and  remaining  vastly  f o r t h i s were both  p o l i t i c a l and economic. Faced w i t h massive popular u p r i s i n g s , the regime r e a c t e d w i t h more r e p r e s s i o n , banning people such as the ANC Bantustans, wherein was  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  and Nelson Mandela, and  "independent  homelands based on  creating  ethnicity'  b l a c k s had l i m i t e d p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s . The  rationale  t o d e f l e c t from demands i n a u n i t a r y South A f r i c a .  Education expanded i n order t o meet the needs f o r a t r a i n e d black c i v i l  s e r v i c e i n the Bantustan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  4  P o l i t i c a l u n r e s t and r e p r e s s i v e government r e s u l t e d i n the f l i g h t of much f o r e i g n c a p i t a l , f o r economic growth. mechanisation  retaliation essential  In a d d i t i o n , the development of  i n mining, manufacture and  n e c e s s i t a t e d a more educated  and s k i l l e d  agriculture workforce.  (Unterhalter,1991). However, the i n t e n t i o n s of b l a c k e d u c a t i o n  failed  miserably. " The system's attempt t o d e p o l i t i c i z e and disempower b l a c k s t u d e n t s through an e d u c a t i o n geared towards a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e i r i n f e r i o r i t y and submission, i n s t e a d r e s u l t e d i n c h i l d r e n who completely d i s a b l e d a system of mass s t a t e s c h o o l i n g , - a phenomenon unprecedented i n h i s t o r y . " Nasson,1986:113.) The  1976  Soweto r i o t s ushered  i n an e r a of r e b e l l i o n  a g a i n s t the b l a c k e d u c a t i o n system which took the form of nation-wide  s c h o o l b o y c o t t s , stayaways, d e s t r u c t i o n of  school f a c i l i t i e s and a t t a c k s on s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Black s t u d e n t s sometimes a c t e d independently, sometimes i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s , parents and community organizations.(Nasson,1986;  U n t e r h a l t e r , 1 9 9 1 ; Hofmeyer and  Buckland,1992.) The p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y , c o u p l e d w i t h a d e c l i n i n g economy, due  t o the f l i g h t of f o r e i g n c a p i t a l , unemployment  and f a l l i n g wages, l e d t o attempted  reforms  i n black  e d u c a t i o n i n order t o broaden the regime's support among t h e dominated c l a s s e s . The De Lange Commission (1981) and government's response  the  i n the White Paper (1983), recommended  expanding and reforming b l a c k e d u c a t i o n , the r a t i o n a l e t h a t a more educated  workforce  being  would not only p r o v i d e  higher  l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i v i t y and economic growth but would be politically  submissive because workers would have a g r e a t e r  stake i n the system. (Nasson,1986; U n t e r h a l t e r , Hofmeyer and  1991;  Buckland,1992.)  T h i s f a i l e d i n both r e s p e c t s . The  following five  y e a r s , from 1983-1989 were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the paradox of both reform and r e p r e s s i o n .  The  government's attempt t o  e n t i c e m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s through m a t e r i a l rewards l e d t o a deeper sense of a l i e n a t i o n as economie b e n e f i t s were not l i n k e d t o p o l i t i c a l and Slabbert,1989;  social rights,  still  (van Z y l  Adam andMoodley,1986.).  Country-wide u p r i s i n g s c o n t i n u e d i n the form of s c h o o l b o y c o t t s , s t r i k e s , mass meetings, demonstrations  and armed  a t t a c k s on s p e c i f i c t a r g e t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the regime. T h i s p e r i o d saw  the growth of o r g a n i z a t i o n s among the  dominated c l a s s e s , such as the U n i t e d Democratic F r o n t (UDF), the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) E d u c a t i o n C r i s i s Committee (NECC).  The  and the N a t i o n a l l a t t e r arose out of  the b l a c k p a r e n t s ' and community concern w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g u n a c c o u n t a b i l i t y of b l a c k student p r o t e s t . attempt t o s h i f t the concept  encapsulated  I t was  an  i n the s l o g a n "rib  e d u c a t i o n u n t i l l i b e r a t i o n ' towards "a people's  education  f o r people's power' which c o u l d l a y the f o u n d a t i o n of a r a c i a l , u n i t a r y and  democratic  e d u c a t i o n system. T h i s  non-  6 c o n s t i t u t e d a d e c i s i v e strategy i n that i t linked the education  s t r u g g l e t o the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the whole  p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l system. The to  (Unterhalter,1991.)  economy d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d c o n t i n u e d t o d e c l i n e due  i n c r e a s e d l a b o u r unrest and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a n c t i o n s . The  regime's response was t o impose r e p r e s s i v e S t a t e of  Emergency l e g i s l a t i o n which enabled  them t o ban student  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , d e t a i n l e a d i n g a c t i v i s t s i n the NECC and other democratic  groups and i n s t a l l the m i l i t a r y i n many  b l a c k s c h o o l s and townships. At t h e same time,,however, enrolments i n b l a c k i n c r e a s e d , p e r c a p i t a expenditure s t a t e doubled  schools  on b l a c k education by t h e  and t h e r e was huge investment  i n black  e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s , from c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s . 1986 f r e e e d u c a t i o n compulsory primary 1992.  ( U n t e r h a l t e r , B a d a t , e t a l 1991.) In  f o r whites was withdrawn w h i l e education  f o r b l a c k s was l e g i s l a t e d i n  (McGregor e t al,1992) In 1990, South A f r i c a ' s S t a t e P r e s i d e n t F.W.de K l e r k  announced t h e b i r t h o f a "new" South A f r i c a . In the f o l l o w i n g two y e a r s Nelson  Mandela was r e l e a s e d from  d e t e n t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e ANC, PAC, SACP, were unbanned and s i g n i f i c a n t a p a r t h e i d l e g i s l a t i o n such as t h e Group Areas A c t , Separate  Amenities  A c t , and P o p u l a t i o n  R e g i s t r a t i o n A c t were revoked, thus paving the way f o r t h e  7 d e s e g r e g a t i o n o f white s c h o o l s . (Hofmeyer and Buckland,1992; Freer,1992;  Christie,1990.)  S u p e r f i c i a l l y , t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e change by the government s i n c e i t had been only f o u r years p r e v i o u s l y t h a t de K l e r k , as m i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , had s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t as long as the N a t i o n a l P a r t y was i n power, they would be committed t o separate i n s t a t e s c h o o l s . (Penny,Appel,et  education  al,1992.)  A 1989 survey showed 55% o f white respondents s e l e c t i v e or complete i n t e g r a t i o n of s t a t e s c h o o l s  favoured although  t h i s was s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower amongst A f r i k a a n s - s p e a k e r s o r those who supported the r i g h t - w i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e Party.(Bot,1992)  In 1992* the government announced t h a t a l l  s t a t e schools would have t o desegregate the parents voted otherwise.  u n l e s s t w o - t h i r d s of  The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  was t h a t white p a r e n t s , through  ruling  the s c h o o l ' s  governing body, c o u l d manage and c o n t r o l many f a c e t s o f t h e s c h o o l , i n c l u d i n g t h e appointment of t e a c h e r s a t e n t r y l e v e l and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e s c h o o l ' s admission Consequently,  white schools s t i l l  r e t a i n e d t h e power t o  entrench or r e v e r s e the t r a d i t i o n of segregated (Freer,1992;  policy.  schooling.  Coutts,1992).  However, the c r i s i s f a c i n g white education i n f l u e n c e d the f u r t h e r desegregation of many white s t a t e s c h o o l s . F a l l i n g b i r t h r a t e s and e m i g r a t i o n l e d t o a d e c l i n e i n t h e white p o p u l a t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n t h e r e was a growing  decrease  8 i n teacher  morale, c r i t i c i s m of t h e e u r o c e n t r i c  curriculum  and c l o s e d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e white e d u c a t i o n  system.  (Hofmeyer & Spence,1989, c i t e d i n Hofmeyer & Auckland,1992.) In A p r i l  1994, f r e e e l e c t i o n s i n South A f r i c a brought  t o power Nelson Mandela and t h e ANC, thus ending c e n t u r i e s of o p p r e s s i o n  and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and h e r a l d i n g t h e  b i r t h o f a new, democratic nation..  PURPOSE The  purpose o f t h i s study i s t o e x p l o r e and analyze t h e  ways i n which teachers  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d e a l w i t h t h e  p r a c t i c a l i t i e s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of i n t e g r a t i n g c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l groups i n t h e i r s c h o o l . examine how the t e a c h e r s  T would l i k e t o  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  socialized  w i t h i n an entrenched r a c i s t system, v a l i d a t e d by t h e S t a t e , Church and Court,  face the c h a l l e n g i n g task of f a c i l i t a t i n g  e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g among c h i l d r e n who have e s s e n t i a l l y i n separate  worlds,; a l b e i t w i t h i n one n a t i o n .  Although a p a r t h e i d was i n t h e process dismantled  lived  of being  a t t h e time o f t h e study, t h e legacy o f such  s o c i a l engineering  has f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s both i n  terms o f d e p r i v a t i o n i n a l l a s p e c t s  o f l i f e - home, s c h o o l  and work- s u f f e r e d by t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d groups, and t h e entrenched a t t i t u d e s and behavidurs o f t h e people. "Generations o f c h i l d r e n have now grown up w i t h i n , t h i s system, w i t h u n i q u e l y d i f f e r e n t experiences and a t t i t u d e s  9 from and about each other, d e s p i t e being members of one n a t i o n . " (Burman,1986.) T h i s study o f f e r s an in-depth look a t a f o r m e r l y white g i r l s ' high s c h o o l i n a low socio-economic South A f r i c a .  The year i s August, 1993.  area of Durban, I t has been 18  months s i n c e the s c h o o l f i r s t opened i t s gates, i n January 1991,  t o p u p i l s of a l l r a c e s .  I t i s nine months b e f o r e the  n a t i o n a l f r e e e l e c t i o n s of A p r i l 1994. The g u i d i n g f o c i of the study which i n d i c a t e how t h i n g s are working a t the s c h o o l a r e : - What i s the s o c i a l context of the school? - What i s the philosophy of the P r i n c i p a l and how s u p p o r t i v e of i n t e g r a t i o n a r e the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , parents and community? - What s e l e c t i o n procedures white  a r e used f o r a d m i t t i n g b l a c k and  students?  - How does the school promote p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t among a l l i t s pupils? - How a r e s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s reproduced  w i t h i n the s c h o o l and  classroom? - What r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s e x i s t between the s t a f f and students and among the students themselves? - What a r e the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n and how a r e these manifested  i n the classroom?  - What k i n d of pedagogy does the teacher use and how does t h i s a f f e c t performance and a t t i t u d e s i n the classroom?  10 - Whose c u l t u r e i s r e f l e c t e d i n the curriculum?  Has the  c u r r i c u l u m changed i n order t o accommodate the new  student  clientele? In order t o f i n d answers t o the above broad q u e s t i o n s I w i l l look a t the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t o r s : - The p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the immediate community. Is i t a s o l i d l y white r e s i d e n t i a l area o r r a c i a l l y mixed?  What i s  i t s socio-economic s t a t u s ? What i s the p r o x i m i t y of the school t o p u p i l s ' homes. - Is t h e r e a parent  association?  Is i t m u l t i - r a c i a l ?  What  kinds of a c t i v i t i e s does i t p a r t i c i p a t e i n ? - School's  ethos. What a r e the school songs, l o g o s ,  "houses", d e c o r a t i o n s , mascots and c e l e b r a t i o n s ? - Examine admission  t e s t s and i n t e r v i e w P r i n c i p a l about  c r i t e r i a used f o r s e l e c t i o n . - Who a r e the school p r e f e c t s , s p o r t s c a p t a i n s , house c a p t a i n s , c l a s s c a p t a i n s and c l u b p r e s i d e n t s ? - Which students infringements?  get punished more o f t e n and f o r what What i s the nature  of the punishment?  Does  of the c o n t a c t amongst students?  What  i t a f f e c t a l l students - What i s the nature  equally?  are t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of each other? What i s the p h y s i c a l arrangement of the desks?  What c o n s t i t u t e s the c l u b and  team memberships, and the playground a s s o c i a t i o n s ? - What i s the nature students?  of the c o n t a c t between teachers and  What r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s do the t e a c h e r s g i v e the  11 b l a c k and white students?  How much a t t e n t i o n do they  give  t o t h e i r answers, q u e s t i o n s , problems? - Who i n i t i a t e s classroom responses,  discussions?  students do the teachers c a l l upon t o respond  Which  to questions,  model answers, g i v e o p i n i o n s ? - Is there a co-operative or competitive environment? and  Is there a b i l i t y  / o r classroom?  classroom  streaming w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l  What k i n d o f support i s t h e r e f o r  c h i l d r e n w i t h language o r l e a r n i n g l i m i t a t i o n s ? given?  How important  a r e grades?  When i s i t  Are they p u b l i c i z e d ?  What a r e the academic r e s u l t s ?  -  - To what extent does t h e h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m r e f l e c t t h e h i s t o r i e s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a l l r a c i a l groups?  To what  extent does i t d e a l w i t h the h i s t o r y o f a p a r t h e i d , t h e b l a c k s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y , b l a c k l e a d e r s and heroes? - I s the a r t , music, drama and l i t e r a t u r e o f non-Anglo c u l t u r e s s t u d i e d i n these c l a s s e s ? - What languages a r e taught i n t h e school? - An examination  o f s c h o o l textbooks  and c l a s s r o o m  o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l p r o v i d e answers t o these c u r r i c u l u m concerns.  DEFINITIONS S e v e r a l key terms have been used throughout The  this  study.  f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s have been p r o v i d e d t o i n d i c a t e how  these terms have been used i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s  study:  12 Apartheid:  The l e g i s l a t e d p o l i c y of r a c i a l  segregation  i n s t i t u t e d i n South A f r i c a by the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y i n 1948. Black: Coloured  Used t o r e f e r t o people c l a s s i f i e d as A f r i c a n , (mixed race) and I n d i a n .  These terms, as w e l l as  the term, White, as used i n t h i s study, do not r e f e r t o a b i o l o g i c a l concept of r a c e , but t o the p o l i t i c a l system of r a c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n under A p a r t h e i d laws. "Open' s c h o o l s :  T h i s term was used p r i o r t o t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n of A p a r t h e i d i n t o u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1959 t o denote r a c i a l l y mixed u n i v e r s i t i e s .  I t has become the  common term of p r e f e r e n c e t o d e s c r i b e r a c i a l l y  mixed  schools. Streaming:  Grouping a c c o r d i n g t o p e r c e i v e d academic  a b i l i t y , e i t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l , o r i n d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n c l a s s e s .  Each c l a s s i s l a b e l l e d  A,B,C,D e t c . a c c o r d i n g t o achievement u s u a l l y determined by examinations. Integration:  The i n c l u s i o n of people of a l l groups, marking  the end of r a c i a l Assimilation:  segregation.  Absorption  i n t o the dominant c u l t u r e , so as  t o become i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the dominant Houses:  group.  Each s c h o o l i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e o r f o u r houses,  or teams, u s u a l l y named a f t e r a somewhat obscure B r i t i s h o r White South A f r i c a n h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e .  Each student i s  assigned a "house' a t s c h o o l e n t r y . Standard: Grade. Grade 3 = S t d . l ; Grade 12 = S t d . 10.  13 M a t r i c u l a t i o n / M a t r i c : S t d . 10 s c h o o l - l e a v i n g P r e f e c t s : Students and  i n S t d . 10 who  examination.  are e l e c t e d by  s t a f f t o be l e a d e r s , e n f o r c e d i s c i p l i n e and  students school r u l e s  and model c o r r e c t behaviour.  RATIONALE T h i s study i s important little  because t o date t h e r e has been  s y s t e m a t i c documentation on the d e s e g r e g a t i o n  of  white government s c h o o l s i n South A f r i c a , a h i t h e r t o u n a n t i c i p a t e d event i n a u n i q u e l y aberrant s o c i a l (Penny, Appel, et a l 1992).  setting.  I t i s the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  i n t e n t i o n t h a t i t c o n t r i b u t e t o the accumulation  of b a s i c  data from which i t would be p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y out f u r t h e r in-depth studies. Moreover, i t i s at t h i s e a r l y stage of s c h o o l i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t c r i t i c a l c h o i c e s need t o be made.  I t i s an  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study, t h a t i t add t o the knowledge which might i n f o r m and guide educators  and policy-makers  in their  e a r l y attempts t o f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n i n South A f r i c a n schools. Because of the i d e o l o g y of a p a r t h e i d , r a c i a l  divisions  have h i s t o r i c a l l y overshadowed c l a s s antagonisms w i t h i n South A f r i c a n s o c i e t y .  The removal of race as a c r i t e r i o n  w i t h i n the education system, may  crystallize class  and p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r understanding  of the way  c l a s s and race a r t i c u l a t e i n the South A f r i c a n  divisions  i n which arena.  14 While Canadian s c h o o l s have been m u l t i - r a c i a l f o r many y e a r s , t h e a n a l y s i s of a South A f r i c a n s c h o o l j u s t  embarking  on i n t e g r a t i o n , c o u l d p r o v i d e some v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s oh new and o l d t h e o r i e s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . T h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d o f f e r f r e s h p e r s p e c t i v e s on the sometimes p l a t i t u d e - l a d e n d i s c o u r s e  surrounding  m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n Canada.  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The  f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e broad  of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n .  The d e s e g r e g a t i o n  area  literature  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r a c e r e l a t i o n s l i t e r a t u r e i n the U n i t e d Kingdom and m u l t i c u l t u r a l - a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n i n Canada w i l l  serve as an o r i e n t i n g framework f o r t h i s  study.  These t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w i l l be a p p l i e d t o examine education w i t h i n the r a p i d l y desegregating African  c o n t e x t o f South  schools.  Desegregation  l i t e r a t u r e i s f a i r l y consistent i n i t s  d e s c r i p t i o n of c r u c i a l f a c t o r s f o r e f f e c t i v e integration.  In broad  school  terms, these a r e the c r e a t i o n o f an  equal s t a t u s l e a r n i n g environment i n which a l l students  have  equal access t o e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and equal power w i t h i n t h e c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n ; c o - o p e r a t i v e r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i v e pedagogy; and t h e support authorities.  of relevant  The l a t t e r n e c e s s i t a t e s p o s i t i v e support o f  i n t e g r a t i o n by parents and t h e community and p a r e n t a l  15 involvement  i n school a c t i v i t i e s .  I t a l s o depends on  teachers being prepared p e r s o n a l l y and through  professionally,  i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , t o cope w i t h students  d i v e r s e backgrounds. (Verma&Bagley,1979; Hawley,Crain,1983; Slavin,1987;  from  Schofield,1982;  McGroarty,1992; Oakes,1992.)  E a r l y i n t e g r a t i o n attempts were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s s i m i l a t i o n , whereby b l a c k or m i n o r i t y students were expected  t o a c q u i r e the " c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l ' necessary t o f i t  i n t o white s o c i e t y .  Attempts t o r e d r e s s t h i s and c r e a t e  "equal s t a t u s ' l e d Western t h e o r i s t s and educators  from an  a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t model of i n t e g r a t i o n , t o a m u l t i c u l t u r a l standpoint.  M u l t i c u l t u r a l education t r i e d t o v a l i d a t e b l a c k  and m i n o r i t y students' c u l t u r e and i n s t i l l amongst a l l p u p i l s a t o l e r a n c e of other r a c e s , r e l i g i o n s and ways of life.  The o b j e c t i v e was  t o promote harmonious group  r e l a t i o n s and i n c r e a s e b l a c k and m i n o r i t y academic achievement. all  The  f a i l u r e of m u l t i c u l t u r a l education t o meet  i t s o b j e c t i v e s has l e d t o an e x p l i c i t  anti-racist  education p o l i c y wherein r a c i s m as a mechanism f o r p e r p e t u a t i n g s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , i s s t r o n g l y c o n t e s t e d i n the s c h o o l environment.(Ogbu,1978; Cummins,1987,1988; McCarthy,1990; Solomon,1994) Research (Slavin,1978; Hawley, C r a i n e t al,1983.) i n d i c a t e s the n e c e s s i t y f o r c u r r i c u l a r and  pedagogical  changes f o r a l e a r n i n g environment conducive integration.  to successful  C u r r i c u l a r reform, which v a l i d a t e s  16 the b l a c k students* c u l t u r e and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , l e a d s t o improved s e l f - e s t e e m , b e t t e r r a c e - r e l a t i o n s and improved academic performance by the low-status  group.  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been o b t a i n e d u t i l i z i n g  co-operative  r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  (Schofield,  1982;  Slavin,1987;  Mcgroarty,1992.)  Scholars( Schofield 1982; r  Hawley,Crain,1983) i n d i c a t e  the importance of support by r e l e v a n t a u t h o r i t i e s ,  including  the community, p a r e n t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s , i n successful school i n t e g r a t i o n experiences.  Their  evidence  shows t h a t t e a c h e r s are c r u c i a l by, among other t h i n g s , modeling the d e s i r e d behaviour i n f l u e n c e students' behaviour  and a t t i t u d e s , which s t r o n g l y and a t t i t u d e s .  Because  t e a c h e r s are i l l - p r e p a r e d t o cope w i t h r a c i a l l y d i v e r s e c l a s s e s , these r e s e a r c h e r s recommend e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g f o r both t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . I w i l l approach my  own  research within t h i s  theoretical  framework. However, i n d e t e r m i n i n g the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e t o the South A f r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o l o c a t e i t w i t h i n the unique s o c i o p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t of South A f r i c a .  17 Chapter  II  AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF EDUCATION UNDER APARTHEID  BANTU EDUCATION Decades of a p a r t h e i d education have r e s u l t e d i n gross i n e q u a l i t i e s between b l a c k s and whites t h a t w i l l have r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r y e a r s t o come, d e s p i t e the g r a d u a l i n t e g r a t i o n of  schools s i n c e 1991.  (Hartshorne, i n  McGregor,1992). T h i s i s exacerbated by the f a c t t h a t South A f r i c a c o n t a i n s elements of both the F i r s t and T h i r d Worlds The e d u c a t i o n p r o f i l e of b l a c k South A f r i c a n s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s : T h i r t y percent has no e d u c a t i o n ; 36%  has primary education; 31% has secondary  has degrees falling,  or diplomas.  education;  3%  While the white b i r t h r a t e i s  i t i s r i s i n g amongst the b l a c k p o p u l a t i o n .  Within  f i v e years t h e r e w i l l be one m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n r e a c h i n g s c h o o l age each y e a r .  (Hartshorne, Hofymeyer, Buckland,  in  McGregor, 1992.) The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c i e s  between b l a c k and white education w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e a c h e r / p u p i l r a t i o s , u n d e r - q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , per c a p i t a expenditure and s c h o o l - l e a v i n g pass r a t e s . 1986,  education was  Moreover, u n t i l  f r e e and compulsory u n t i l the age of 16  f o r whites o n l y . (Kallaway,  1991;  Nasson, 1986;  Buckland,1992; Adam & Moodley,1993)  Hofmeyer &  18 " A f r i c a n e d u c a t i o n i s s h o r t of e v e r y t h i n g except (Dhlomo, 1981,  pupils."  c i t e d i n Hofmeyer, i n McGregor,1992.) TABLE I  Comparative education s t a t i s t i c s  pupilteacher ratio underqualifi ed t e a c h e r s ( l e s s than s t d . 10 p l u s a 3-year teacher•s certificate per c a p i t a expenditure s t d . 10 pass rate  (Sources: DET,1989; The  1989  White education 17:1  Indian education 20:1  Coloured 23:1  African (DET) 38:1  0%  2%  45%  52%  R3 082.00  R2 227.01  R l 359.78  R764.73  96%  93,6%  72,7%  40,7%  DuPlessis et a l 1990  SAIRR,1990  i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f o r f u t u r e i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l i n g  i n South A f r i c a i s t h a t i n order f o r b l a c k c h i l d r e n t o proceed way  on an equal f o o t i n g w i t h whites, t h e r e has t o be a  of undoing the past and compensating f o r the p r e v i o u s  i n j u s t i c e s . Otherwise i t w i l l s t i l l w i l l f a i l even i n a democratic 1991;  be b l a c k c h i l d r e n  South A f r i c a .  who  (Kallaway,1984-  C h r i s t i e & C o l l i n s , 1 9 9 1 ; Adam & Moodley,1993). Not only was  Bantu Education s t r u c t u r a l l y i n f e r i o r , i t s  i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e n t , as r e f l e c t e d i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m and textbooks, was  t o s c h o o l the students f o r s e r v i l i t y .  T h i s process has been c a l l e d a " c u l t u r e of s i l e n c e ' , where  s c h o o l i n g attempts t o s i l e n c e , t o negate the h i s t o r y o f the i n d i g e n e , t o r a t i o n a l i z e the i r r a t i o n a l and g a i n acceptance f o r s t r u c t u r e s which a r e o p p r e s s i v e .  (Kallaway,  1984-1991).  Adam and Moodley (1993) e x p l a i n t h a t u n t i l the '70s, t h e r e was l i t t l e emphasis i n e i t h e r the white o r b l a c k c u r r i c u l u m on p r e - c o l o n i a l A f r i c a , b l a c k l e a d e r s , p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of b l a c k s i n the development of the c o u n t r y .  The u n d e r l y i n g message was t h a t  w h i t e s s e t t l e d the l a n d , and the b l a c k s on c o n t a c t were u n f r i e n d l y and t r e a c h e r o u s .  "The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t b l a c k underdevelopment i s t h e i r own f a u l t and whites a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g South A f r i c a t o i t s p r e s e n t F i r s t World s t a t u s and t h e r e f o r e are j u s t i f i e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo." (Adam & Moodley, 1993:235) The d e n i a l t h a t b l a c k South A f r i c a n s have a h i s t o r y was a d i s t o r t i o n of the t r u t h both i n b l a c k and white and needs t o be r e c t i f i e d i n a new e d u c a t i o n  education  system.  However, the e f f e c t t h a t t h i s has had, and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o have , on b l a c k s i s f a r more i n s i d i o u s and p e r v a s i v e as i t has p l a c e d them i n a " c u l t u r a l vacuum.' "Not only i s t h i s bad h i s t o r y , i t i s d i s a b l i n g h i s t o r y . To deny people t h e i r h i s t o r y i s t o c r i p p l e them i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and maim them p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . " (Bundy,1989 i n Polley,1989) BLACK SCHOOLING AND VIOLENCE S c h o o l i n g f o r b l a c k c h i l d r e n i n South A f r i c a has been permeated by v i o l e n c e .  In 1976 t h e Soweto r i o t s broke o u t .  20 Using  t h e schools as t h e p o i n t of p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n ,  students  from e i g h t t o 18, p r o t e s t e d not only t h e obvious  inadequacies  and i n e q u a l i t i e s of t h e system but a g a i n s t t h e  o r d e r as a whole. They p e r c e i v e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l c o u l d not take p l a c e without  reform  a r a d i c a l transformation  of the  e n t i r e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . (Nasson, 1986;  C h r i s t i e , 1 9 9 1 ; Coutts,1992; Adam & Moodley,1993).  "The moment the e d u c a t i o n system itself„becomes t h e major source of c o n f o r m i t y and an o b s t a c l e t o change, i t becomes a c o l l a b o r a t o r i n e x p l o i t a t i o n and r e p r e s s i o n . " ( v a n Z y l Slabbert,1989.) From 1976 u n t i l t h e announcement of t h e b i r t h o f a "new' South A f r i c a by P r e s i d e n t de K l e r k i n 1990, b l a c k s c h o o l i n g was v i r t u a l l y p a r a l y z e d by s c h o o l  boycotts,  stayaways, t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s ,  a t t a c k s on  s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e presence of t h e m i l i t a r y . ( U n t e r h a l t e r e t a l , 1991.) T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n almost an e n t i r e g e n e r a t i o n of b l a c k c h i l d r e n being deschooled  or i n e f f e c t i v e l y  schooled.  "Resistance t o t h e government's Bantu E d u c a t i o n was i n t e n d e d t o promote e d u c a t i o n f o r l i b e r a t i o n , but was subverted i n t o l i b e r a t i o n b e f o r e e d u c a t i o n . Schools were p r o c l a i m e d " s i t e s of s t r u g g l e . " (Adam & Moodley, 1993:163) M a t r i c u l a t i o n pass r a t e s i n 1991 were 39% f o r b l a c k students  i n c o n t r a s t t o 95% i n other communities. The  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s massive f a i l u r e r a t e a r e t h a t i t w i l l aggravate y o u t h f u l rage, A f r i c a ' s desperate 1993.)  i n c i t e r a c i a l envy and worsen South  shortage  o f s k i l l s . ( A d a m & Moodley,  21 A d r a f t of the ANC's p o l i c y on education d e s c r i b e s the present deep-rooted c r i s i s i n r e s u l t i n g from a p a r t h e i d  (1992:2). education  policies.  "In the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Bantu education, thousands of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n l o s t t h e i r l i v e s , many more s t a y i n g away from s c h o o l f o r long p e r i o d s , engaged i n b a t t l e s w i t h the p o l i c e and army. T h i s has l e d t o the g r a d u a l but d e f i n i t e e r o s i o n of the need t o l e a r n . Thus a whole g e n e r a t i o n of our youth has grown up b e l i e v i n g t h a t e d u c a t i o n and l e a r n i n g have no v a l u e . " The  i n c r e a s i n g concern over students'  lack of  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , d e t e r i o r a t i n g student-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and  absence of a " c u l t u r e of e d u c a t i o n ' ,  founding  of the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n  the o b j e c t i v e s of the NECC was l e a r n i n g i n the students  r e s u l t e d i n the  C r i s i s Committee.  of  to restore a d e s i r e f o r  i n o r d e r t o prepare them f o r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a democratic s o c i e t y . r e p r e s s i o n of the NECC a f t e r 1986  However the  seriously diluted'the  c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n of a "people's e d u c a t i o n power.' ( U n t e r h a l t e r , Wolpe e t  f o r people's  al,1991).  With the move towards a democracy i n the s c h o o l c o n f l i c t subsided  One  throughout the c o u n t r y  "90s,  the  except i n  N a t a l where i t emerged as a b i t t e r c o n f r o n t a t i o n between the UDF/COSATU f o r c e s and  Zulu c h i e f B u t h e l e z i ' s Inkatha P a r t y .  Nzimande (1993) maintains  t h a t almost no b l a c k areas  communities i n N a t a l were u n a f f e c t e d by the v i o l e n c e .  or  22 ' L i f e f o r e n t i r e communities has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e n d l e s s k i l l i n g s , burnings, kidnappings, d i s a p p e a r a n c e s , d i s p l a c e m e n t s , d e t e n t i o n s and s h o o t i n g s . " (Nzimande,1993.) Thus s c h o o l i n g f o r these c h i l d r e n has taken p l a c e i n an atmosphere of f e a r , h o s t i l i t y and s u s p i c i o n .  Teachers  i n a p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n as they were compelled  were  t o belong t o  NATU, a f f i l i a t e d t o Inkatha and were expected t o t e a c h an Inkatha s y l l a b u s .  T h i s brought  w i t h many students who  them on a c o l l i s i o n  course  supported the mounting mass  democratic movements of the time.  ( G u l t i g and H a r t ,  1991;  Nzimande 1993.) The e f f e c t s of t h i s l i f e s t y l e on c h i l d r e n i s l i k e l y t o be f e l t  f o r years t o come and has s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  the development of an a l t e r n a t i v e pedagogy. I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t o cause d i v i s i o n s between those b l a c k s t u d e n t s remained i n s c h o o l d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and those who  who  were  deschooled.  EDUCATIONAL REFORMS AND  THEIR IMPLICATIONS  The d i s a r r a y i n b l a c k e d u c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h desperate need f o r s k i l l e d instability  throughout  labour and the g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l  the country, l e d t o attempted  reforms  i n the 1980s. As a r e s u l t of the De Lange Commission, y  and t h e government's response  i n i t s White Paper, 1983,  budget f o r b l a c k e d u c a t i o n r o s e 600%, e x p e n d i t u r e r o s e from R42  t o R192.  1981 the  w h i l e per c a p i t a  (Nasson,  1986).  Racially  segregated e d u c a t i o n departments were amalgamated under a  23 s i n g l e new Teachers  m i n i s t r y w i t h a r a c i a l l y mixed a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l .  s a l a r i e s were e q u a l i z e d . C u r r i c u l u m changes  i n c l u d e d t e a c h i n g an A f r i c a n language i n white s c h o o l s a l l o c a t i n g e t h n i c groups t h e i r "own'  h i s t o r y which  h i s t o r i c a l b l a c k h e r o i c f i g u r e s and emphasized p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o white South A f r i c a . Hofmeyer & Buckland, Coutts,  1991;  and  idealized  their  (Nasson,  1986;  E n g e l b r e c h t , i n McGregor,1991;  1992) Many c r i t i c s  al,1991.)claimed  (Nasson,1986; Lemon,1987; U n t e r h a l t e r e t  t h a t w h i l e these reforms  served  middle-  c l a s s b l a c k s , they d i d l i t t l e t o a m e l i o r a t e the e d u c a t i o n a l disadvantage  of c h i l d r e n from impoverished  backgrounds.  "This gradual e q u a l i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y s e r v e s more t o p r o t e c t white hegemony and attempts t o i n c o r p o r a t e m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s i n t o p o s i t i o n s of p r i v i l e g e c l o s e r t o t h a t of whites." (Lemon,1987.) D i s c r e p a n c i e s between white and b l a c k e d u c a t i o n remained v a s t . school-aged  still  D e s p i t e compulsory e d u c a t i o n , 27,000 b l a c k  c h i l d r e n had not been p l a c e d i n s c h o o l s ,  a c c o r d i n g t o a 1991  NECC survey.  t e a c h e r s were s t i l l  i n a d e q u a t e l y q u a l i f i e d ; t h e r e was  of  s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s ; 50% of b l a c k  r e m e d i a l and ESL  F i f t y per c e n t o f b l a c k a lack  students and 80% of white students o b t a i n e d s c h o o l - l e a v i n g passes.  ( D r i v e r % O'Riordan,  1992)  T h i s p e r i o d saw massive investment  in technical  and  v o c a t i o n a l schools by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n o r d e r t o ease the c r i t i c a l manpower shortage.  However, c r i t i c s  (Nasson,  24 1986;  Swainson,in U n t e r h a l t e r , 1991) saw i t as  d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h i l d r e n a t the s c h o o l s i t e i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r r o l e s i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t economy. "In p r a c t i s e , w h i l e m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n w i l l monopolize access t o formal secondary s c h o o l i n g , i t w i l l be working c l a s s , overwhelmingly b l a c k c h i l d r e n who f i n d themselves being shunted i n t o narrow, non-formal work t r a i n i n g , h e a v i l y f i n a n c e d by p r i v a t e c a p i t a l . " (Nasson, 1986) Critics  (Nasson,1986; Lemon,1987; U n t e r h a l t e r , Wplpe e t  a.1,1991; C h r i s t i e , 1992 ; P a m p a l l i s , 1993. ) c l a i m t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l reforms of t h e '80s f a i l e d on two f r o n t s . the h i s t o r i c disadvantages  o f b l a c k c h i l d r e n a r e addressed  by massive r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth schooling f o r a l l '  Unless  becomes simply  and p r i v i l e g e ,  "equal  rhetoric.  "The utmost emphasis i s not simply on more "equal' o r " b e t t e r ' s c h o o l i n g but i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n of an e d u c a t i o n f o r a more democratic c u l t u r e . " (Nasson,1986.) The  aim of c o - o p t i n g a b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s which would  have a g r e a t e r stake i n m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo i n s t e a d i n c r e a s e d b l a c k awareness of i n j u s t i c e and i n e q u a l i t y and l e d t o f u r t h e r r e s i s t a n c e and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n accompanied by mounting v i o l e n c e and s t a t e r e p r e s s i o n u n t i l t h e end o f the decade. N e v e r t h e l e s s , when r e a l reforms o c c u r r e d i n the '90s c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e f r e e e l e c t i o n s o f 1994, i t was these m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s who stood p o i s e d t o f i r s t access t h e p o l i t i c a l power s t r u c t u r e o f the "new* South A f r i c a and t o share i n her economic r e s o u r c e s .  25  THE  DEVELOPMENT OF "OPEN' SCHOOLS While the reforms  i n the e a r l y  '80s r e s u l t e d i n minor  changes, they d i d not i n c l u d e t h e abandonment o f r a c i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s c h o o l i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , white church and other p r i v a t e schools decided t o challenge educational s e g r e g a t i o n and admit students o f a l l r a c e s t o t h e i r in  1976.  schools  F o r t h e next decade t h e "open s c h o o l movement' was  politically  controversial.  On the one hand t h e government remained committed t o segregated  s c h o o l i n g throughout t h i s p e r i o d , open s c h o o l s  b e i n g t h e e x c e p t i o n t o s t a t e p o l i c y , r a t h e r than a trend within i t .  changing  On the o t h e r hand, open s c h o o l s were  ambiguously regarded  by t h e p o l i t i c a l  political  i n c l u d i n g members of t h e e d u c a t i o n  activists,  left.  While many  movement, sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o open s c h o o l s , t h e s c h o o l s were c r i t i c i z e d  f o r being economically  b e i n g i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e broader democratic  and s o c i a l l y  elitist,  struggle f o r non-racial  e d u c a t i o n , and f o r i s o l a t i n g b l a c k  students  from t h e i r communities and t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e . ( C h r i s t i e , 1 9 9 2 ; Gaganakis,1992 i n F r e e r , 1 9 9 2 ; 1992;  Pampallis,  Freer,1992) A f t e r t e n y e a r s o f ambiguous l e g a l s t a t u s and i n t e n s e  n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h t h e government, open s c h o o l s f i n a l l y won l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n and s t a t e s u b s i d i e s i n 1986. h i g h f e e s and s t r i n g e n t admission  requirements  However, meant t h a t  26 o n l y b l a c k p u p i l s who a c c e p t a b l e ' were  were " s o c i a l l y and  admitted.  Research ( C h r i s t i e , Gaganakis,in  academically  1990;  Coutts,  1992;  Freer,1992;  Freer,1992; F r e d e r i k s e , 1992.) has  w h i l e r a c i a l mixing  at these s c h o o l s has been  the acceptance of b l a c k students  shown t h a t unproblematic,  seems premised on  degree t o which they approximate the white norm.  the Moreover,  white students had no c l e a r i d e a of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h e i r s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e political  and the i n e q u i t i e s of the  system. They were unable t o grasp t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l  reform c o u l d o n l y be meaningful i n the c o n t e x t of major s o c i o p o l i t i c a l reforms,  from the b a s i c r i g h t of u n i v e r s a l  s u f f r a g e t o a r e a l l o c a t i o n of resources and  privileges.  While b l a c k students d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e i r white c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o a p a r t h e i d , they a l s o d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h e i r b l a c k township p e e r s . These s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were o f t e n engaged i n o v e r t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n - s c h o o l b o y c o t t s , p r o t e s t s , v i o l e n t b a t t l e s w i t h the and army - d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Researchers  police  (Christie,  Gaganakis i n F r e e r , P a m p a l l i s , F r e d e r i k s e e t a l ,  1992)  d e s c r i b e the a l i e n a t i o n of m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k students  from  t h e i r l o w e r - c l a s s b r e t h r e n i n the townships as one of t h e most n e g a t i v e consequences of p r i v a t e s c h o o l They contend t h a t t h e r e was s c h o o l s t h a t white e d u c a t i o n was c h i l d r e n were expected  desegregation.  an assumption i n these open the norm which b l a c k  t o match. T h i s was  expressed  in  s t a f f i n g p r a c t i c e s , s p o r t i n g and other  extra-curricular  a c t i v i t i e s , a s w e l l as i n the c u l t u r a l l y and b i a s e d admission  t e s t s . Few  linguistically-  s c h o o l s had made any  curricular  changes, the assumption being t h a t b l a c k s t u d e n t s would a u t o m a t i c a l l y be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g s c h o o l p r a c t i s e s . In a d d i t i o n , the s c h o o l s were o f t e n l o c a t e d i n communities t h a t were unsupportive  o f , or even h o s t i l e t o ,  s o c i a l change. B l a c k students had a l s o absorbed these s c h o o l s which was e d u c a t i o n alone was  the p e r v a d i n g credo of  an a b i d i n g f a i t h i n t h e  meritocracy:  capable of b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l change,  the u n d e r l y i n g assumption being t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n e n t e r the c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p l a c e s on more or l e s s equal terms. The must simply "work harder"  t o improve t h e i r l o t .  poor  (Gaganakis,  i n Freer,1992:90) While these students d e f i n e d themselves as " b l a c k ' hence a p a r t of the s u b o r d i n a t e m a j o r i t y ) , and  (and  recognized  t h e p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l c r i s i s i n b l a c k s c h o o l s , they d i d not g e n e r a l l y m o b i l i z e f o r any p o l i t i c a l Rather  purpose.  they a s p i r e d t o become p a r t of the white  d e s i r i n g the same kinds of c i v i l and  elite,  social privileges  as  those h e l d by w h i t e s . ( C h r i s t i e , F r e d e r i k s e , P a m p a l l i s , Gaganakis, i n F r e e r , e t a l ,  1992)  "They not o n l y a n t i c i p a t e s h a r i n g an economic l o c a t i o n w i t h whites i n the f u t u r e , but a l s o hope t o be "rich', " s u c c e s s f u l " , or " t o l i v e i n a white suburb'." (Gaganakis, in Freer,1992:84).,  28 These f i n d i n g s support Adam & Moodley's  (1993)contention  t h a t the s t r u g g l e i n South A f r i c a i s not so much over as access t o "power and Frederikse desegregated  privilege'.  (1992) d e s c r i b e d the same t r e n d i n  Zimbabwean schools d u r i n g the f i r s t  a f t e r independence. expressed  "race'  Many b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s  decade  students  a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o a n g l i c i z e , which they  themselves i n t e r p r e t e d as an awareness of c l a s s . T h i s would seem t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n of McCarthy (1990) and Cummins' (1987, 1988,  1992)  a n a l y s i s of the  dynamics of r a c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In t h e i r view, the power r e l a t i o n s of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y are reproduced environment.  Yet i n post-independent  i n the  school  Zimbabwe, b l a c k s h o l d  p o l i t i c a l power and white students have become the m i n o r i t y i n most suburban s t a t e s c h o o l s . Frederikse,1992)  Nzimande and P a m p a l l i s ( i n  however, contend i t i s a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d  form of racism, reproducing  the c u l t u r a l s u b j u g a t i o n of  b l a c k students d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l e r a . As the b l a c k students move towards " e l i t e '  s t a t u s , they  i n c r e a s i n g l y a l i e n a t e themselves from t h e i r township peers. Researchers al,  1992)  ( C h r i s t i e , F r e d e r i k s e , Gaganakis, i n F r e e r , e t  have r e v e a l e d an alarming degree of p r e j u d i c e  a g a i n s t the l o w e r - c l a s s b l a c k students by both t h e i r b l a c k . and white c o l l e a g u e s . T h i s was c a l l i n g , derogatory  expressed  s t e r e o t y p e s and  through name-  social  avoidance.  29 Language p r o v i d e d an e f f e c t i v e means by which b l a c k i s o l a t e d themselves from t h e i r l o c a l  students  communities.  " E n g l i s h i s p e r c e i v e d as the language of e d u c a t i o n and of the upwardly mobile. The p u b l i c use of f l u e n t E n g l i s h ensures t h e i r immediate v i s i b i l i t y as a h i g h s t a t u s group and t o s i g n a l s o c i a l d i s t a n c e between themselves and t h e i r peers i n s t a t e s c h o o l s . " (Gaganakis, i n Freer,1992:87 ) Gaganakis e t a l (1992),  a l s o r e p o r t t h a t white  p e r c e i v e the m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k students as b e i n g  students  "white-  black' . "More than simply a r a c i a l s l u r , i t i m p l i e s access t o c r e d e n t i a l s and power, p a r t i c u l a r access t o the k i n d of empowering s t r u c t u r e s a p r i v a t e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n ensures, w h i l e the wider b l a c k m a j o r i t y remains disempowered i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y and p o l i t i c a l access." (Gaganakis, i n Freer,1992:89) However, i n the eyes of t h e i r peers i n the b l a c k s t a t e s c h o o l s , they have l o s t t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y ; they  are  c o n s i d e r e d " s e l l o u t s ' or " t r a i t o r s ' , l e a d i n g o s t e n s i b l y normal s c h o o l l i v e s w h i l e the r e s t of b l a c k remains i n t u r m o i l .  education  Black p r i v a t e school p u p i l s reported  v a r i o u s forms of i n t i m i d a t i o n by t h e i r township peers, o f t e n b e i n g f o r c e d t o absent  themselves from s c h o o l d u r i n g  b o y c o t t s , change out of s c h o o l uniform b e f o r e a r r i v i n g home and a v o i d i n g speaking E n g l i s h i n order t o " c o n c e a l affiliation.* Christie  (1990,) p o i n t s out t h a t , g i v e n the  c o n s t r a i n t s of a p a r t h e i d w i t h i n which these s c h o o l s at  the time, one  pathbreakers,  s h o u l d not underestimate  paving the way  their role  operated as  f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of white  30 state schools four years l a t e r . researchers 1992)  (Christie,  1991;  N e v e r t h e l e s s , most  Gaganakis, 1992;  concur t h a t these s c h o o l s were f a i l i n g  Pampallis, to a l l e v i a t e  the d i f f e r e n t power r e l a t i o n s , both economic and  political,  which form p a r t of the f a b r i c of South A f r i c a n s o c i e t y .  On  the c o n t r a r y , they probably served t o e n t r e n c h present s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  structures  r a t h e r than p r o v i d e the  i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s f o r a democratic  and n o n - r a c i a l  e d u c a t i o n a l system. THE  ANC'S POLICY ON EDUCATION As f a r back as 1949,  b l a c k i n t e l l e c t u a l s have  a r t i c u l a t e d what A f r i c a n s want from e d u c a t i o n : " We want i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the democratic s t r u c t u r e and i n s t i t u t i o n s of the c o u n t r y . The most e f f e c t i v e way of a c h i e v i n g t h i s i s by e d u c a t i o n - an e d u c a t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y i n no way d i f f e r e n t or i n f e r i o r t o t h a t of o t h e r s e c t i o n s of the community." (D.G.S. Mtimkulu,1949 i n Kallaway,1991) The ANC  p o l i c y on e d u c a t i o n  e d u c a t i o n system w i l l be guided  (1992) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i r by  "the g o a l s of democracy, e q u a l i t y , l i b e r t y and j u s t i c e w i t h i n a n o n - r a c i a l , n o n - s e x i s t framework, p r o v i d i n g equal o p p o r t u n i t y and the r e d r e s s of imbalances." I t proposes  f r e e and compulsory e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l f o r a  minimum of 10 y e a r s .  T h i s w i l l be based  on e q u a l i z i n g the  per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e between b l a c k and white  students  w i t h i n a framework which ensures t h a t r e s o u r c e s are r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o the most disadvantaged  s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y .  31 The ANC b e l i e v e s t h e r e should be a n a t i o n a l core c u r r i c u l u m which a l l o w s  f o r c u l t u r a l and r e g i o n a l  d i f f e r e n c e s , and which p r o v i d e s . a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t e g r a t i n g academic and v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s .  The l a t t e r i s  i n response t o the t r e n d i n South A f r i c a n s s c h o o l s t r a c k s students  a t a young age i n t o d i f f e r e n t  based on  which  educational  streams, l e a d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p a t h s . ensures t h a t access t o h i g h e r - l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n s  This remain the  domain of the wealthy and predominantly white s e c t i o n s of the  population. Commenting on t h e ANC's p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g  education,  McGurk ( i n Polley,1989) s t a t e s : "A t o t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i o economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s necessary f o r t h e implementation of the e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s . T h i s would take the form of demographic development, adequate l a n d a l l o c a t i o n and s e r v i c e s , compensatory and c u l t u r a l enrichment programs i n o r d e r t o address disadvantage, d e p r i v a t i o n and c u l t u r a l dislocation."  32  Chapter I I I LITERATURE REVIEW AN OVERVIEW OF DESEGREGATION THEORY I t has been almost i n Schofield,1982)  40 years s i n c e A l l p o r t  contended  (1954: c i t e d  t h a t c o n t a c t between two  p r e v i o u s l y h o s t i l e groups per se may do l i t t l e improve r e l a t i o n s between them.  o r nothing t o  Indeed, such c o n t a c t may  exacerbate p r e - e x i s t i n g t e n s i o n s and p r e j u d i c e . L i t e r a t u r e on d e s e g r e g a t i o n s i n c e t h a t time has c o n s i s t e n t l y Researchers  concurred.  ( P e t t i g r e w , 1969; Cook, 1975; Amir 1976;  c i t e d i n S c h o f i e l d , 1 9 8 2 ) , have argued  that the s p e c i f i c  nature of the c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n i s c r u c i a l i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e e f f e c t s of c o n t a c t on i n t e r g r o u p relations.  Hawley, e t a l (1983), conclude t h a t i n t e r r a c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e not an automatic  outcome o f s c h o o l  d e s e g r e g a t i o n but must be promoted through  s p e c i f i c programs  and a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s c h o o l . , P e t t i g r e w ( i n Schofield,1982) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between "mere mixing o f s t u d e n t s " which he c a l l s " i n t e g r a t i o n " which he,regards  "desegregation" and  as mixing under  circumstances  t h a t a r e conducive t o p o s i t i v e outcomes. These c o n d i t i o n s , d e l i n e a t e d by A l l p o r t  ( i n Schofield,1982) a r e :  - equal s t a t u s f o r both groups i n the c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n - a c o - o p e r a t i v e r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i v e atmosphere  33 - the support of the r e l e v a n t a u t h o r i t i e s This perspective  remains the b a s i c o r i e n t i n g framework  used by most d e s e g r e g a t i o n t h e o r i s t s today. Equal  status Scholars  disagree,  however, oyer what c o n s t i t u t e s  "equal s t a t u s ' . A l l p o r t (1954,cited  i n Schofield,1982)  contends t h a t i t means equal access t o opportunities while Pettigrew 1982)  educational  (1969, c i t e d i n S c h o f i e l d ,  s t a t e s t h a t i t means equal s t a t u s and  contact  s i t u a t i o n . Pettigrew  maintains t h a t  power w i t h i n  the  desegregation  t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s sending b l a c k c h i l d r e n t o p r e v i o u s l y a l l white s c h o o l s .  T h i s immediately puts b l a c k c h i l d r e n at a.  disadvantage because they are o u t s i d e r s i n the community newcomers i n an a l r e a d y (1972) and  established school  system.  St.John(1975) ( c i t e d i n Hawley, 1983)  t h a t i n e q u a l i t i e s due  and mascots can be r a c i a l l y i n s u l t i n g . She even w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n a t e  resegregated  believe and  s e r i o u s problems.  S c h o f i e l d ( 1 9 8 2 ) p o i n t s out t h a t s c h o o l  schools,  Armor  t o d i f f e r e n t socio-economic s t a t u s  academic performance are l i k e l y t o c r e a t e  and  songs,  cheers,  also explains  r a c i a l mix,  how  can become  through the s o r t i n g of students i n t o s p e c i f i c  c l a s s e s or homogeneous a b i l i t y groups w i t h i n classrooms.  For  a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , such as the c u l t u r a l b i a s of placement t e s t s , l a c k of a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t or socio-economic  34 background, or low t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s , b l a c k s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y represented  are  i n the l e s s advanced c l a s s e s  and groupings . (Schof i e l d , 1982 ; Troyna, 199.1) . McCarthy (1990) e x p l a i n s how  the need t o  c o u n t e r a c t t h i s imbalance and e s t a b l i s h a s i t u a t i o n of more e q u a l i t y w i t h i n the s c h o o l s , l e d t o v a r i o u s compensatory remedial programs, such as O p e r a t i o n 1960s.  Head S t a r t i n the  These measures were l a r g e l y designed  t o make up f o r  the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l d e f i c i t s t h a t were presumed t o be b l a c k underachievement by those  skills  and  " r e s o c i a l i z i n g blacks to  causing  develop  e s s e n t i a l f o r success i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . "  He m a i n t a i n s  t h a t d e s p i t e some gains from these programs,  t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o r e v e r s e b l a c k underachievement s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i s p r e d i c a t e d on mainstream  educators  u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y "blaming the v i c t i m ' f o r b e i n g deprived'.  "culturally  Hence the n e c e s s i t y f o r programs t h a t h e l p  m i n o r i t y students  " c a t c h up' t o the w h i t e s .  He sees these  programs as e s s e n t i a l l y a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t . They focus e n a b l i n g b l a c k students t o access the "hidden t h e r e b y , a l l o w i n g them t o a c q u i r e the " c u l t u r a l necessary  on  curriculum' capital'  t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o white s o c i e t y .  While these programs brought success t o some middlec l a s s b l a c k s , the v a s t mass of l o w e r - c l a s s b l a c k s were untouched by them. (Ogbu,1978). A danger of compensatory programs was entrenched  t h a t placement d e c i s i o n s a r e made e a r l y , become  and  self-fulfilling  prophecies.  35  McCarthy (1990) concludes  t h a t t h e reason  these  programs f a i l e d t o improve t h e s c h o o l performance of disadvantaged  students was t h a t they d i d n o t h i n g t o o v e r t u r n  t h e i r unequal s t a t u s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , unequal s t a t u s was s o l i d i f i e d , w i t h whites  t e n d i n g t o dominate  interracial  interactions.(Schofield,1982). Attempts t o remedy t h i s imbalance i n t h e hope t h a t i t would l e a d t o b e t t e r race r e l a t i o n s and s c h o o l performance, found e x p r e s s i o n i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l and a n t i - r a c i s t  education  theories. Tomlinson (1989) observed t h a t many immigrant had come t o B r i t a i n w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t t h e i r would a c q u i r e , through  children  educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,  and o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y .  parents  social  They d i d not wish t o see t h e i r  c h i l d r e n as a p a r t o f a permanently disadvantaged  minority.  T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n c o u l d e q u a l l y a p p l y t o immigrant parents i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . was a worldwide debate through  Moreover, t h e r e  the '70s about t h e m e r i t s o f  a s s i m i l a t i o n versus p l u r a l i s t i c c o - e x i s t e n c e i n a l l s o c i e t i e s t h a t had absorbed (Tomlinson,1989).  immigrant m i n o r i t y groups.  W i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n systems o f these  c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e was a growing awareness t h a t t e a c h i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l society necessitated i n s t i l l i n g tolerance of o t h e r r a c e s , r e l i g i o n s and ways of l i f e .  (Tomlinson,1989).  In most major western E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g n a t i o n s , t h i s philosophy evolved i n t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l education  (MCE). The  36 essence of MCE minority  i s the v a l i d a t i o n of the b l a c k and  students'  own  other  c u l t u r e , with the o b j e c t i v e of  promoting harmonious group r e l a t i o n s and  increasing  achievement.(Verma&Bagley,1982; Craft,1984; SkutnabbKangas,1988; Cummins,1988; Tomlinson,1989; Esling,1990) E x p l i c i t reform s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e d changing curriculum studies. and  i n order t o emphasize d i v e r s i t y and Increasing minority  administrative  s t a f f and  representation  ethnic  on the  student committees, was  promoted as w e l l as the need f o r p r e - s e r v i c e and teacher  the  t r a i n i n g f o r education  teaching also  in-service  in a m u l t i r a c i a l society.  Hawley, C r a i n e t a l (1983), c i t e numerous s t u d i e s ( S l a v i n , 1979;  Doherty, 1981;  etc.) which s t r e s s the  importance of the l i n k between m u l t i - e t h n i c c u r r i c u l a and p o s i t i v e race r e l a t i o n s . should  not be c o n f i n e d  i n many a s p e c t s of the  They add  t h a t c u r r i c u l a changes  t o textbooks but  should be r e f l e c t e d  school- wall displays, l i b r a r y ,  of m i n o r i t y community i n the classroom, r e c o g n i t i o n of c u l t u r e s ' s i g n i f i c a n t dates and  leaders.  such programs b e g i n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n race may  be  m u l t i c u l t u r a l and  because a t t i t u d e s t o  p r o j e c t on t e a c h e r s ' a n t i - r a c i s t education,  the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t student performance.  other  They suggest t h a t  s i g n i f i c a n t l y shaped by the age  In a r e s e a r c h  use  of  10.  responses t o Solomon  (1994)cites  m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t can have on  37 "I have an East Indian boy i n my c l a s s . . . . A f t e r we c e l e b r a t e d D i w a l i , he j u s t took o f f . A b s o l u t e l y l i k e n i g h t and day. He's now p a r t of the s c h o o l . He s t a r t e d t o l e a r n , he s t a r t e d t o read, he s t a r t e d t o be i n v o l v e d i n math, p a r t i c i p a t i n g . " (Solomon,1994:23) Another t e a c h e r ' s response r e i n f o r c e d t h i s view: "I have a Metis i n my c l a s s . . . . He's got so much p r e s t i g e out of ( t a l k i n g about) a l l t h e t h i n g s he does over the summer w i t h h i s Dad who's a f u l l - b l o o d Algonquin. He's never been a b l e t o t a l k about i t b e f o r e . . . H i s mother's so happy t o see h i s improvement a t s c h o o l . " (Solomon,1994:29) Jim Cummins (1987,1988,1992) and McCarthy (1990) s t r e s s the importance of the s o c i a l context i n understanding t h e dynamics of race r e l a t i o n s . take i n t o account  They argue t h a t reforms  t h a t do  the p o l i t i c a l and economic s t r u c t u r e s of  s o c i e t y a r e bound t o be inadequate.  T h i s i s because t h e  s c h o o l r e f l e c t s t h e unequal power r e l a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t between t h e dominant group and m a r g i n a l i z e d m i n o r i t i e s i n the  society. A c c o r d i n g t o Cummins(1988), m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n has  not, t o date, given r i s e t o dramatic  changes i n the  classroom, where conformity t o the anglo-hegemony i s s t i l l the norm.  T h i s cannot be overcome u n t i l  government and policy-makers  education,  acknowledge t h e e x i s t e n c e of  i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m w i t h i n the s c h o o l system and a c t i v e l y seek t o r e d r e s s t h i s through  explicit anti-racist  T h i s should empower disadvantaged  education.  students t o c h a l l e n g e  s o c i e t a l power s t r u c t u r e s and the p r i o r i t i e s of t h e dominant group. To achieve t h i s , he advocates  the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  m i n o r i t y students' language and/or c u l t u r e i n t o t h e core  38 curriculum.  The disadvantaged  community should be  encouraged t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h the t e a c h e r s i n the a c t i v i t i e s . Students s e t t i n g t h e i r own meaningful  classroom  should be g i v e n more c o n t r o l i n  g o a l s and a c h i e v i n g them  through  i n t e r a c t i o n s which promote c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and  independence. McCarthy (1990) proposes  the i n v e r s i o n of the dominant  anglo-hegemony by, among other s t r a t e g i e s , g i v i n g b l a c k and other disadvantaged teacher time. the oppressed  students f i r s t access t o r e s o u r c e s  He recommends mainstreaming  and  the h i s t o r y of  i n the "core' c u r r i c u l u m , r a t h e r than  relegating i t to "ethnic studies' courses.  The  history  should then be l i n k e d t o the s t r u g g l e s and experiences of the disadvantaged  i n society.  S i m i l a r l y , Moodley (1983) argues t h a t m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n as i t was  e n v i s i o n e d i n the  i n e f f e c t u a l and meaningless  i n the  '70s has become  '90s, masking the  i n e q u a l i t y of power and a n g l o - f r a n c o - e t h n o c e n t r i s m endemic i n Canadian s o c i e t y .  Echoing Troyna's  the Three S's approach t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l  real  still  c r i t i c i s m of  education,  "Saris,Samosas and S t e e l bands," (Troyna and W i l l i a m s , 1986:24), Moodley s t a t e s : "As clothes, contrary economic  l o n g as c u l t u r a l p e r s i s t e n c e i s c o n f i n e d t o food, dance and m u s i c , . . . i t proves no t h r e a t , but on t h e t r i v i a l i z e s , n e u t r a l i z e s and absorbs s o c i a l and i n e q u a l i t i e s . " (Moodley,1983:326)  39 She  advocates  r e p l a c i n g the i d e a o f a "mainstream'  c u l t u r e w i t h a common Canadian c u l t u r e t h a t has l e a r n e d and i n t e r n a l i z e d o t h e r ways of l i f e .  A c c u l t u r a t i o n would then  imply s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y , members of which would be capable of o p e r a t i n g w i t h g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n a g l o b a l economy. The t r e n d towards e x p l i c i t a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n (ARE) p o l i c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Troyna  & Williams  (1986),  a benign form o f r a c i a l i z a t i o n i n t h a t t h e p o l i c i e s r e f l e c t e d a growing awareness o f , and i n d i g n a t i o n a t , r a c i a l i n j u s t i c e . Thomas ( 1984)  and, Brandt  (1986) ( c i t e d i n  Solomon,1994) o u t l i n e f o u r o b j e c t i v e s o f a n t i - r a c i s t education: - t o e x p l o r e t h e u n d e r l y i n g causes  o f r a c i s m and i t s  t i e s t o p r a c t i c e s and h i s t o r y t h a t support s t e r e o t y p e s and p r e j u d i c e s by c r i t i c a l examination  of t h e accuracy and  sources o f m i s i n f o r m a t i o n about d i f f e r e n c e - t o o f f e r an approach t o c u l t u r e t h a t i s dynamic not static - t o support t h e e f f e c t i v e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f " s c h o o l knowledge' t o g e t h e r w i t h the l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r  families  - t o l i n k t h e ongoing  and d a i l y s t r u g g l e s of people  a g a i n s t r a c i s t a c t i v i t i e s on t h e l o c a l and g l o b a l Reactions t o t h e implementation  level.  and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n have been mixed. Reasons f o r  40 r e s i s t a n c e t o these p o l i c i e s range from "too c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l , accusatory 1991); r e v e r s e racism  political,  and g u i l t - i n d u c i n g "  (Troyna,  (Thomas,1986; Obiakor,1992, c i t e d i n  Solomon, 1994),to more p r a c t i c a l concerns t h a t the are too vague and  imprecise,lack  (Singh,1988; F o s t e r , 1 9 9 0 ; c i t e d educators i n t e r p r e t ARE  s t r u c t u r e and  policies  uniformity  i n Solomon,1994.) Some  as a t o o l f o r d e a l i n g with  overt  a c t s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t r a t h e r than a means of understanding social  injustice.(Solomon,1994)  In the U.K.  and Canada, s t u d i e s r e p o r t t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s  have concerns about f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r c u r r i c u l a r o b l i g a t i o n s towards exam p r e p a r a t i o n .  (Manchester LEA,1989 c i t e d i n  Solomon,1994). Solomon (1994) s t a t e s t h a t the most o v e r t r e s i s t a n c e t o MCE/ARE i s the b e l i e f t h a t a s s i m i l a t i o n i s the t r u e purpose of schools and the a p p r o p r i a t e  destiny f o r school  clientele.  "The d e n i a l and r e l u c t a n c e t o name the problem of racism and thus the need f o r an a n t i - r a c i s t pedagogy remains a most tenacious o b s t a c l e . " Solomon (1994) argues t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms of racism,  ethnocentrism  p e r c e i v e d by teachers  and monoculturalism are r a r e l y as domains t o be c h a l l e n g e d  transformed. For them, schools  f u n c t i o n as m e r i t o c r a t i c  i n s t i t u t i o n s where i n d i v i d u a l success of p o t e n t i a l and  and  or f a i l u r e i s a r e s u l t  e f f o r t . T h i s emphasizes the need,  t o Solomon, f o r the implementation of ARE  according  because i t i s o n l y  41 through  these p o l i c i e s t h a t r a c i s m and power d i f f e r e n t i a l s  w i l l be  contested.  The r e s i s t a n c e t o MCE/ARE by t e a c h e r s does not  indicate  t h a t these p o l i c i e s are i n a p p r o p r i a t e but r a t h e r t h a t educators  need t o t r a n s f o r m t h e i r practice.(Solomon,1994)  T h e r e f o r e , f a c u l t i e s of e d u c a t i o n need t o develop i n teachers a " c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y *  (Wood, 1985  cited in  Solomon,1994) i n order f o r them t o r e c o g n i z e and p o l i t i c a l and economic s t r u c t u r e s t h a t oppress groups.(Solomon, 1994)  marginalized  Only then w i l l they i n t u r n be able,  to teach students so they can debate and necessary  criticize  l e a r n the  t o l i v e i n a " c r i t i c a l democracy".  1988:201 c i t e d i n Solomon)  skills  (Giroux,  A n t i - r a c i s t education implies  fundamental s o c i a l change, and can o n l y be enacted i f p a r t i c i p a n t s have an adequate understanding works.(Solomon,  of how  society  1994)  Cooperation v e r s u s  Competition  Research i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t  pedagogical  s t r a t e g i e s w i l l r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t degrees of i n t e r r a c i a l communication.(Schofield,1982;Hawley e t  al,1983;Slavin,1987)  According to S c h o f i e l d , competition r e i n f o r c e s tensions  and  produces d i s l i k e and n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o one's competitors.  C o o p e r a t i v e classroom a c t i v i t i e s , on the  other  hand, r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r t r u s t and i n c r e a s e d communication and g r e a t e r f e e l i n g s of s i m i l a r i t y .  Research on c o o p e r a t i v e  42 l e a r n i n g by S l a v i n  ('1987) i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e  l e a r n i n g not o n l y improves race r e l a t i o n s , but leads t o improvement of performance by slower  students,  without  impeding t h a t of the advanced l e a r n e r s . He  found t h a t t e a c h e r s who  t r a d i t i o n a l way, format,  i n a teacher-fronted, lecture, question  or those who  o r g a n i z e d groups homogeneously,  a c c o r d i n g t o a b i l i t y , tended atmosphere i n the c l a s s . segregated  taught i n a more  t o have a poor i n t e r r a c i a l  T h e i r c l a s s e s had w e l l - d e f i n e d  groups, w i t h l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n f o r slow l e a r n e r s .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n h i g h l i g h t e d academic d i f f e r e n c e s , c r e a t e d unequal s t a t u s , and confirmed Heterogeneous groupings,  racial  stereotypes.  on the o t h e r hand, w i t h the  teacher  a c t i n g as a r e s o u r c e , f a c i l i t a t o r or guide, promoted r e l a x e d , f r i e n d l y and r e l a t i v e l y equal s t a t u s i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and decreased  boredom and  f r u s t r a t i o n . These f i n d i n g s have been c o r r o b o r a t e d by theorists.  ( S c h o f i e l d , 1 9 8 2 ; Hawley, C r a i n e t  other  al,1983;  McGroarty,1992). Hawley, C r a i n , S c h o f i e l d e t a l suggest  other  strategies  t o promote f r i e n d l y , e q u a l - s t a t u s c o n t a c t among s t u d e n t s , more conducive disadvantaged  t o a b e t t e r l e a r n i n g environment f o r groups.  They recommend s m a l l e r s c h o o l s , o r  d i v i d i n g l a r g e r s c h o o l s i n t o u n i t s , houses o r c l u s t e r s ^  to  f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n . s i t u a t i o n s where students know  43 each o t h e r .  They m a i n t a i n i t a l s o makes m i n o r i t y parents  more c o m f o r t a b l e .  In a d d i t i o n , i t helps m a i n t a i n order and  d i s c i p l i n e , the b i g g e s t problem i n desegregated  schools,  t h e i r s t u d i e s have found, a c c o r d i n g t o p a r e n t s .  Similarly,  c l a s s e s should be s m a l l e r , e n a b l i n g teachers t o a t t e n d t o i n d i v i d u a l needs more e a s i l y and d e c r e a s i n g the n e c e s s i t y f o r homogeneous a b i l i t y Support  groupings.  by Relevant A u t h o r i t i e s  P a r e n t a l and Community Involvement Evidence  shows (Slavin,1979;  Schofield,1982)  Crain,1981;  t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s c h o o l  desegregation depends, t o a l a r g e extent, on the p r e p a r a t i o n and involvement  o f t h e community b e f o r e  implementation.  Hawley (1983) s t a t e s t h a t many parents f e a r the p e r c e i v e d l o s s of c o n t r o l over t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s t h a t they t h i n k desegregation brings. C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process helps a l l a y these f e a r s and u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t s i n a g r e a t e r commitment t o s o c i a l change. These r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o a s s e r t t h a t p a r e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n classrooms  and s c h o o l s , a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s  d e s e g r e g a t i o n . M i n o r i t y p a r e n t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , should be encouraged t o a s s i s t i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s , a t t e n d s c h o o l s p o r t i n g or c u l t u r a l events and become resource persons  and r o l e models. A c c o r d i n g t o the  r e s e a r c h e r s , the b e n e f i t s are m a n i f o l d - more i n t e r r a c i a l c o n t a c t , improved s e l f - e s t e e m f o r b l a c k students,  44 compensation f o r s t a f f shortages and an e n r i c h e d ethnic  multi-  curriculum.  Teachers and  Teacher-Training  Evidence shows t h a t t e a c h e r s  are c r u c i a l i n successful  i n t e g r a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , by, among other t h i n g s ,  modelling  the d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s , which s t r o n g l y the s t u d e n t s '  b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s .  Rist,(1979)(cited i n  Schofield,1982) describes the " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g phenomenon. Teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s  influence  prophecy'  a r e powerful determinants  of c h i l d r e n ' s performance. They can s e t o f f a c h a i n of events which s t a r t s w i t h t h e i r n e g a t i v e children.  view o f some b l a c k  T h i s i n t u r n leads them t o teach  unstimulating  i n an  f a s h i o n , which r e s u l t s i n t h e student  behind, c a u s i n g  falling  the student t o r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y t o h i s / h e r  f a i l u r e . Consequently, the t e a c h e r  reacts negatively t o the  student's b e h a v i o r . Hawley,Crain, e t a l , (1983) argue t h a t t e a c h e r s prepared p e r s o n a l l y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y f o r teaching from d i v e r s e backgrounds.  many t e a c h e r s consider  students  They recommend t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s  are g i v e n p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r t h i s r o l e . (1982) i s c r i t i c a l  a r e not  Schofield  o f the " c o l o r - b l i n d ' p e r s p e c t i v e  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  adhere t o . Many  that  teachers  i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e and i r r e l e v a n t t o r a i s e t h e i s s u e  of race i n a desegregated s e t t i n g .  S c h o f i e l d argues t h a t  t h i s i s i n h e r e n t l y a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t i n nature because i t i s based on t h e b e l i e f t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i s achieved  when groups  45  can no l o n g e r be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of b e h a v i o r , economic s t a t u s or e d u c a t i o n .  She maintains  socio-  the  acknowledgement of d i f f e r e n c e s and the c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the u n d e r l y i n g r a c i a l t e n s i o n s can b e t t e r meet the needs of a l l the s t u d e n t s .  She recommends a d m i n i s t r a t o r s m o t i v a t e  s t a f f t o adopt new  p r a c t i c e s , and p r o v i d e them w i t h the  t r a i n i n g and r e s o u r c e s necessary t o e f f e c t i v e l y  implement  d e s i r e d changes. Hawley (1983) found t h a t a d d r e s s i n g r a c i a l i s s u e s more e f f e c t i v e i f i t was  not i d e n t i f i e d as d i s t i n c t but  was was  w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d as a normal p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m , and instructional practices. Slavin  (1987) advocated  involvement  of students themselves  significant  issues.  the  i n the c h o i c e of  Hawley, C r a i n , e t a l , (1983) p r o v i d e  racially  explicit  suggestions f o r i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g t o enable them t o cope w i t h a c u l t u r a l l y and r a c i a l l y d i v e r s e c l a s s .  The  g o a l s of such t r a i n i n g should be t o promote student achievement, improve c l a s s r o o m management and  discipline,  encourage p o s i t i v e r a c e r e l a t i o n s and t e a c h r e l e v a n t curricula.  T r a i n i n g should be on a continuous  basis,  p r a c t i c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y and f o r immediate a p p l i c a t i o n . c l a s s e v a l u a t i o n s should be done p e r i o d i c a l l y t o  determine  whether the i n s t r u c t o r has s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d the knowledge.  In-  hew  The authors warn a g a i n s t o v e r t l y attempting  to  change t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s . They b e l i e v e t h i s should be a  46 more g r a d u a l , long-term  g o a l , a r i s i n g out o f success  with  new s t r a t e g i e s and subsequent changed behavior w i t h i n the classrooms. The  r e s e a r c h e r s d e s c r i b e f i v e areas of focus t o h e l p  t e a c h e r s c r e a t e a more e f f e c t i v e m u l t i c u l t u r a l  class:  T r a i n i n g should p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l o p t i o n s t o outmoded i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques.  T h i s would i n c l u d e the use of  a l t e r n a t i v e assessment procedures  t o reduce r e l i a n c e on  c u l t u r a l l y - b i a s e d standardized i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . with l i m i t e d E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y mother-tongue.  Students  should be t e s t e d i n t h e i r  I t would a l s o i n c l u d e t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s i n  e f f e c t i v e use of c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Teachers  should a l s o be t r a i n e d i n t e a c h i n g a new, more  r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m from a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , andexamining the ethnocentrism w i t h i n textbooks. R i s t  i n t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s and  (1979 c i t e d i n Schofield,1982)  out t h a t c h i l d r e n are taught  r a c i s m through  points  the b i a s e d  t e a c h i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r y which i s presented as "objective'  history.  Because r e s e a r c h ( S c h o f i e l d , c i t e d i n Hawley,1983) has shown t h e importance of c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s , need  t o be t r a i n e d i n how t o r e l a t e t o c u l t u r a l l y  p a r e n t s . Teachers  need t o understand  teachers different  d i f f e r e n c e s i n behavior  and v a l u e s , and be s e n s i t i v e towards power and s t a t u s differentials.  Teachers  a l s o need t o be g i v e n  specific  47 advice on how  best t o u t i l i z e parents i n the classrooms  and  schools. D i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and  standards of behaviour  have  sometimes r e s u l t e d i n c o n f u s i o n and h o s t i l i t y i n desegregated  s c h o o l s . T h i s has  l e d t o an o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of b l a c k students w i t h b e h a v i o r a l problems.  (Schofield,  1982;Hawley,1983) e x p l a i n t h a t t h i s c o u l d be due  t o the  g r e a t e r number of b l a c k students moving t o white s c h o o l s . Consequently,  the onus i s on them t o make the a p p r o p r i a t e  c u l t u r a l and b e h a v i o r a l adjustments.  Hawley b e l i e v e s  t e a c h e r s need t o be g i v e n a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the  traditional  p u n i t i v e methods which have o f t e n l e d t o f u r t h e r s e g r e g a t i o n and reinforcement  of n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e s .  Hawley c i t e s evidence t h a t the use of new  (King,1980; Carney & Hyman,1979)  i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, a more r e l e v a n t  c u r r i c u l u m , as w e l l as a more p o s i t i v e t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e b e h a v i o r , c r e a t e s a more p o s i t i v e classroom T h i s i n t u r n reduces  hostility,  c o n f i d e n c e and consequently disruptive \  The  and  environment.  improves s t u d e n t s '  self-  lowers the i n c i d e n c e of  behavior.  researchers advise s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g f o r  administrators.  The  emphasis should be on engendering  commitment t o e d u c a t i o n a l change and t e a c h e r s who  supporting  must d e a l w i t h the i n e v i t a b l e s t r e s s of a  d y n a m i c a l l y new  classroom  environment.  a  48 Holistic  Approach  Banks (1986) condemns s i n g l e - f a c t o r attempts t o complex problems. western n a t i o n s  He  contends t h a t the  s i n c e the  l a t e '60s  has  e x p e r i e n c e of major shown t h a t  academic achievement problems of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y are too complex t o be believes ethnic  s o l v e d by  solve  the  students  single strategies.  He  t h a t programs which address c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n ,  a d d i t i v e s t o c u r r i c u l a , b i l i n g u a l i s m or  e d u c a t i o n , are  anti-racist  inadequate when a p p l i e d i n i s o l a t i o n .  However, he does acknowledge t h e i r r o l e i n s e n s i t i z i n g v  -  "  educators, t o the needs of d e p r i v e d  students and  awareness of some l i m i t a t i o n s of f o r m a l He total  f a v o u r s a h o l i s t i c approach.  school  environment must be  of both the dominant c u l t u r e and  creating  schooling.  He contends t h a t  reformed, w i t h subcultures.  p r o c e s s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e , d u r i n g  the  recognition He  believes  which sub-  c u l t u r e s become m o d i f i e d , w h i l e accommodation t o  the  s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t i e s are m a i n t a i n e d . " E t h n i c m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s can a s s i m i l a t e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of the mainstream c u l t u r e without s u r r e n d e r i n g the most important a s p e c t s of t h e i r f i r s t c u l t u r e or becoming a l i e n a t e d from i t . The s c h o o l s h o u l d h e l p s t u d e n t s t o develop knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s needed t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r community c u l t u r e , i n the mainstream n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and w i t h i n and between o t h e r e t h n i c c u l t u r e s and s u b s o c i e t i e s . " (Banks,1986:24) SOUTH AFRICAN DESEGREGATION THEORISTS The  work of South A f r i c a n t h e o r i s t s (Coutts,  Christie,1990;  F r e e r , 1 9 9 2 ; Gaganakis,1992 c i t e d i n  1989;  a  49 r e g a r d i n g d e s e g r e g a t i o n and the management of m u l t i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s , has been l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o p r i v a t e o r a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s . These t h e o r i s t s concur t h a t w h i l e these s c h o o l s p r o v i d e d an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the l a r g e l y e t h n o c e n t r i c educational structures,  state  because o f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l and  s o c i a l i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , they are u n l i k e l y t o become models per  se f o r the desegregation of a l l schools i n South A f r i c a .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e are l e s s o n s t o be l e a r n t from t h e i r experiences. The and  differences  between the South A f r i c a n  t h a t of other major western c o u n t r i e s  experience  mitigate  the wholesale a p p l i c a t i o n of d e s e g r e g a t i o n t h e o r i e s South A f r i c a n  against t o the  context.  " A c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r implementing n o n - r a c i a l , m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n should be made, so the apparent problems encountered i n the U.S. are not repeated." (Coutts,1989) One of the main d i f f e r e n c e s other western c o u n t r i e s  between South A f r i c a and  d e a l i n g with m u l t i c u l t u r a l  education, i s the presence of both the F i r s t and T h i r d World within  South A f r i c a . (Coutts,1989; Hofmeyer and Buckland,  c i t e d i n McGregor,1992) "South A f r i c a i s a complex s o c i e t y comprised of two c l o s e l y interdependent y e t d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e worlds - a modernising, urban, F i r s t World m e l t i n g p o t , comprised of members of a l l races, with i n c r e a s i n g access t o technology and a T h i r d World comprising a r i s i n g t i d e of humanity l i v i n g i n d e t e r i o r a t i n g r u r a l and urban environments. Demographic t r e n d s d i c t a t e t h a t most w i l l be b l a c k . " (Coutts,1989:411)  50 The predominantly wealthy, white m i n o r i t y , numbering f i v e m i l l i o n , c o n t r o l s most of the country's economic r e s o u r c e s .  The  remainder of the p o p u l a t i o n ,  numbering 31 m i l l i o n , are predominantly illiterate,(SAIRR,1989:149 South A f r i c a one  b l a c k , poor  and  c i t e d i n Hofmeyer,1992) making  of the most unequal c o u n t r i e s i n the  (Wilson,1990:234 c i t e d i n Hofmeyer, 1992)  According  world. to  Hofmeyer, attempts t o e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n at the l e v e l of the white norm are u n a t t a i n a b l e , even i n ten y e a r s , because of competing demands on the budget. (Hofmeyer, 1992:35) South A f r i c a n t h e o r i s t s 1990;  F r e d e r i k s e , 1992;  (Coutts,1989,1992; C h r i s t i e ,  Pampallis,1992)have p o i n t e d t o  the r o l e c l a s s p l a y s i n South A f r i c a , i n t e r a c t i n g with as a mechanism of e x c l u s i o n .  Not  race  only are t h e r e c l a s s  d i f f e r e n t i a l s between whites and b l a c k s , but  research  (Coutts, 1989,1992; C h r i s t i e , 1 9 9 0 e t a l ) i s c o n s i s t e n t i n i n d i c a t i n g the c l a s s d i f f e r e n t i a l s w i t h i n the b l a c k community. Many m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s a l i g n w i t h white s o c i e t y and a l i e n a t e themselves from, or are a l i e n a t e d by, m a j o r i t y of b l a c k s , who  the  are working c l a s s . F r e d e r i k s e ' s  (1992) r e s e a r c h i n Zimbabwean s t a t e schools has  shown a  d i s t u r b i n g t r e n d , namely the " f l i g h t ' not o n l y of  whites,  but a l s o m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s and b e t t e r - t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s . T h i s has l e d t o the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of s t a t e s c h o o l s , i n c l u d i n g the former white,  suburban s c h o o l s . ( Bot,  1992;  51 Frederikse,1992;  P a m p a l l i s , 1992)  T h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  South A f r i c a n p r i v a t e and s t a t e s c h o o l s , where the maintenance of "standards', both academic and behaviour, major  are  concerns. N e v e r t h e l e s s , race s t i l l  p l a y s an important  role  as  the white working c l a s s and b l a c k working c l a s s tend t o be 'encamped a t opposing  p o l e s of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum' as  they compete f o r l i m i t e d resources and T h i s i s l i k e l y t o have important  i m p l i c a t i o n s on s c h o o l  p o l i c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the lower b o r d e r i n g areas of l a r g e b l a c k  j o b s . ( C o u t t s , 1989).  socio-economic  schools  populations.(Coutts,1989)  "Considerable d i s p a r i t i e s i n wealth between s e c t o r s of the p o p u l a t i o n of South A f r i c a c o u l d render any attempt t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r p u p i l s from d i f f e r e n t socio-economic backgrounds very p r o b l e m a t i c . In a m u l t i c u l t u r a l system, such d i s p a r i t i e s c o u l d c r e a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t compounding of the p o t e n t i a l l y d i v i s i v e elements a l r e a d y present." (Coutts,1989:141) As the d i s c u s s i o n i n the p r e v i o u s chapter i n d i c a t e d , the legacy of a p a r t h e i d a l s o has f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l desegregation The  theories.  r e s u l t of years of a poor e d u c a t i o n system i s  l i k e l y t o s e v e r e l y disadvantage students.(Kallaway,1991;  the m a j o r i t y of b l a c k  Coutts,1989,1992 e t a l )  P a r t of the mandate of a p a r t h e i d was  t o separate  along r a c i a l and e t h n i c l i n e s , emphasizing the d i f f e r e n c e s and e t h n i c i t y .  T h i s was  and  people  exaggerating  p a r t l y to "divide  52 and r u l e ' , p a r t l y t o exclude b l a c k s from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a modern, F i r s t World " c u l t u r e ' .  (Coutts,1989)  A p a r t h e i d attempted t o s o c i a l i z e a l l segments of the s o c i e t y i n t o i n t e r n a l i z i n g a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of a b i l i t y , w i t h whites a t the t o p and b l a c k s a t the bottom. Racism, when i t o c c u r s i n a desegregated s c h o o l i n South A f r i c a , i s thus more l i k e l y to. be p o l a r i z e d , v o l a t i l e accusatory.  (Coutts, 1989,  and  1992)  Due t o the unique and complex  nature of South A f r i c a ,  as o u t l i n e d above, South A f r i c a n t h e o r i s t s ,  (Coutts,  1989,1992; Christie,1990,1992; Bot,1992) recommend a more holistic  approach, which eschews tokenism and populism, but  promotes  a t o t a l r e f o r m a t i o n of the s c h o o l environment,  and  p r o v i d e s a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t approaches t o accommodate South A f r i c a ' s d i v e r s e s c h o o l i n g p o p u l a t i o n . "Such m u l t i - f a c t o r paradigms (as suggested by Banks, (1986)) appear t o be e s s e n t i a l t o the e f f e c t i v e implementation of ( i n t e g r a t e d ) e d u c a t i o n i n the complex m i l i e u of South A f r i c a . " (Coutts,1989) A fundamental c h a l l e n g e f o r s c h o o l s w i l l be b a l a n c i n g the  needs of the F i r s t World w i t h the needs of the T h i r d  World, c r e a t i n g a s i n g l e n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y without denying the  l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s or s e l f - d e f i n e d groups.  "For any f u t u r e system of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n t o c o n f i n e i t s e l f t o the needs of the F i r s t World a l o n e , i s t o condemn i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o t h e p e r p e t u a l f u r y of those who have been d e n i e d a c c e s s . I t w i l l a l s o deny t h e excluded s e c t o r o f the p o p u l a t i o n the o p p o r t u n i t y o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n . " (Coutts,1989) To accommodate socio-economic c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n  53 s c h o o l s , Coutts(1989),  C h r i s t i e ( 1 9 9 0 ) , and Bot(1992)  recommend the implementation  of s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s t o d e a l  with the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : - m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e entrance c r i t e r i a which favour  First  World students - f i n a n c i a l support v i a b u r s a r i e s - a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n programs which e s t a b l i s h r a c i a l  quotas  - long-term academic support and b r i d g i n g programs t o address p r e v i o u s d e p r i v a t i o n Coutts e t a l (1989 - 1992) a l s o emphasize t h a t s t a f f development should be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l l desegregated s c h o o l s . T h i s should i n c l u d e r e g u l a r i n - s e r v i c e workshops, seminars  and l e c t u r e s which w i l l a s s i s t t e a c h e r s i n a d a p t i n g  t h e i r pedagogy t o a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l a s s , and encourage competence i n h a n d l i n g r a c i a l  incidents.  They a l s o recommend a f u r t h e r A f r i c a n i s a t i o n of t h e c u r r i c u l u m while r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h i s i s a " h o t l y c o n t e s t e d terrain'.  (Coutts, 1989) I t i s l i k e l y t o be r e s i s t e d by both  whites and m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s who seek access t o a F i r s t World c u l t u r e . I t a l s o resounds w i t h t h e e t h n i c i t y t h a t was promoted d u r i n g t h e a p a r t h e i d e r a . "In South A f r i c a , c u r r i c u l a are extremely v u l n e r a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t i o n f o r purposes o t h e r than e d u c a t i o n . " (Coutts,1989:110) Thus Coutts  (1989) suggests t h e need f o r more d e t a i l e d  r e s e a r c h t h a t would take i n t o account t h e wide range o f needs and p e r s p e c t i v e s i n a country t h a t i s s t r u g g l i n g t o  b u i l d a common, F i r s t World i d e n t i t y w h i l e s t i l l  54 embracing  diversity. Christie  (1988-1992) advocates  the  conscious  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of race as a f a c t o r and recommends the implementation  of s t r u c t u r a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h  r a c e . Coutts(1992) contends t h a t a d d r e s s i n g "race' d i r e c t l y through  e x p l i c i t ARE  would be too e x p l o s i v e g i v e n the  h i s t o r i c p o l a r i z a t i o n of r a c e s i n South A f r i c a . f a v o u r s a MCE  Instead  he  approach which would c r e a t e a t o l e r a n c e and  r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r r a c i a l groups and an awareness amongst students of the p o l i t i c a l and  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t promote  racism. One  of the o b j e c t i v e s of MCE  and ARE  o f m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - e s t e e m through  i s the promotion the v a l i d a t i o n  and  acknowledgement of t h e i r c u l t u r e and c o n t r i b u t i o n and through  an understanding  disadvantaged  them.  f a c t o r s , i s expected achievement.  of how  Higher  r a c i s t p r a c t i c e s have  s e l f - e s t e e m , among o t h e r  t o l e a d t o g r e a t e r academic  In South A f r i c a , however, d e s p i t e the  fact  t h a t the c u l t u r e of the b l a c k m a j o r i t y tends t o be d e n i g r a t e d by adherents (Coutts,1989),  of the more powerful western norm  C o u t t s d i d not f i n d a s i m i l a r l a c k o f  academic success among b l a c k students i n i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s . " R e s u l t s i n p u b l i c examinations over a p e r i o d of two t o t h r e e years suggest a c h i e v e r s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l r a c e s . " (Coutts,1989:383) Coutts  (1989,1992) advocates  a wide range of s c h o o l i n g  55 o p t i o n s i n order t o accommodate the complex i d e o l o g i e s t h a t e x i s t i n South A f r i c a .  political  T h i s would i n c l u d e  m o n o - c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s t h a t i n s i s t on e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r s of the same c u l t u r e ; t o a s s i m i l a t o r y models, such as p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , whereby e n t r a n c e  criteria  has enabled s e l e c t i o n t h a t has p r e s e r v e d the ethos; t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s wherein disadvantaged g i v e n an equal s t a r t through a f f i r m a t i v e Some t h e o r i s t s  ( C o u t t s , 1989  s t u d e n t s are  action.  -1992; B o t , c i t e d i n  McGregor,1992) a l s o acknowledge t h a t e n t r y t e s t s t h a t a c t as " s i f t i n g mechanisms' w h i l e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d i n i t i a l l y i n s c h o o l s t h a t are u n w i l l i n g or unable t o o f f e r support t o disadvantaged  students.  "The r a p i d e n t r y of r a d i c a l l y disadvantaged p u p i l s c o u l d l e a d t o poor academic r e s u l t s , l o s s of c o n f i d e n c e , w i t h r e s u l t i n g d i s r u p t i v e behaviour and l i t t l e b e n e f i t t o anyone." (Coutts, 1992:45) Moreover, many r e s e a r c h e r s (Coutts,1992;  Bot,1992; Adam  and Moodley,1993) p o i n t t o the f e a r of whites l o s i n g  their  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n a c o u n t r y where they c o n s t i t u t e f i v e of the 36 m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s (SAIRR ,1989). "The s e c u r i n g of m i n o r i t y r i g h t s in" the f a c e of an overwhelmingly numerical s u p e r i o r i t y of b l a c k s , cannot be summarily d i s r e g a r d e d . I t i s a p e r v a s i v e f e a r f e d by p e r c e p t i o n s of a d e t e r i o r a t i n g s o c i a l and economic s i t u a t i o n i n A f r i c a as a whole." ( C o u t t s , 1992:416) T h i s i s more l i k e l y t o happen i n s c h o o l s i n white working c l a s s areas because they u s u a l l y border b l a c k townships  and so are more a c c e s s i b l e .  This situation could  be exacerbated i n these s c h o o l s because of the  hostility  56 between the b l a c k and white working c l a s s e s as they compete for  s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . Thus, w h i l e i n t e g r a t i o n has been  r e l a t i v e l y unproblematic  i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , t h i s may  not  be  the case i n s t a t e s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n low s o c i o economic a r e a s . Any  desegregation  take t h i s i n t o account.  p o l i c y needs t o  (Coutts,1992)  CONCLUSION Western d e s e g r e g a t i o n  literature i s f a i r l y consistent  i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n of c r u c i a l f a c t o r s f o r e f f e c t i v e  school  i n t e g r a t i o n . In broad terms these are the c r e a t i o n of an e q u a l s t a t u s l e a r n i n g - environment, c o o p e r a t i v e r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i v e pedagogy and the support authorities.  of r e l e v a n t  While t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l  framework f o r my  own  study,  serve as an o r i e n t i n g  i t i s c r u c i a l to locate i t  w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t of South A f r i c a n s o c i e t y . S c h o o l i n g f o r b l a c k c h i l d r e n i n South A f r i c a has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by immense v i o l e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n N a t a l where the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h takes p l a c e .  This represents a c r u c i a l  f a c t o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i t from white e d u c a t i o n which has been elitist,  p r i v i l e g e d and  s h e l t e r e d from the massive upheavals  i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  arenas.  Most of the b l a c k c h i l d r e n now  enrolled i n previously  white government h i g h s c h o o l s w i l l have spent the m a j o r i t y of  t h e i r school l i f e ,  a t l e a s t seven y e a r s , under the Bantu  57 E d u c a t i o n system.  In a d d i t i o n , w h i l e t h e r e i s some evidence  of r e s i d e n t i a l desegregation,  f o r the most p a r t , t h i s i s  beyond the f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y of most b l a c k f a m i l i e s ,  who  must t h e r e f o r e continue t o r e s i d e i n b l a c k townships, o f t e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n N a t a l , d e v a s t a t e d by v i o l e n c e and  political  dissension. It  i s c r u c i a l t o take cognizance of the  contradictions  t h a t must e x i s t f o r the b l a c k c h i l d , newly i n t e g r a t e d i n a p r e v i o u s l y white s c h o o l , between her present schools,  and  between her community and  and  home l i f e ,  former and  that  of her i n s u l a t e d white schoolmates. Attempts t o c r e a t e  an equal s t a t u s  learning  environment i n which a l l students have equal a c c e s s t o educational  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  equal power w i t h i n the  contact  s i t u a t i o n have l e d western d e s e g r e g a t i o n t h e o r i s t s and educators away from an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t model of i n t e g r a t i o n wherein the b l a c k or disadvantaged m i n o r i t i e s were expected t o a c q u i r e the c u l t u r e of the dominant group. to  m u l t i c u l t u r a l education  which has  T h i s has  led  attempted t o v a l i d a t e  the c u l t u r e of disadvantaged students and  instill  amongst  a l l p u p i l s a t o l e r a n c e of other r a c i a l groups, r e l i g i o n s and ways of l i f e . The  o b j e c t i v e of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n  been t o promote i n t e r - g r o u p  r e l a t i o n s and  m i n o r i t y academic achievement. meeting these o b j e c t i v e s has  has  increase black  and  I t s l a c k of success i n f u l l y  i n turn led to  anti-racist  58 e d u c a t i o n which d i r e c t l y c o n t e s t s r a c i s m and  racist  practices. From the r e s e a r c h a v a i l a b l e on South A f r i c a n s c h o o l desegregation,  i t would appear t h a t educators  are caught i n  the a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t phase, w i t h what S c h o f i e l d (1982) d e s c r i b e s as "the c o l o u r - b l i n d ' p e r s p e c t i v e predominant. Although and  t h i s i s u n l i k e l y t o impede the academic performance  f u t u r e prospects  of m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s , i t has  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l o w e r - c l a s s b l a c k s who the b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s due  serious  are unable t o  t o the b i a s e d  access  admission  tests. C l a s s appears as a more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n South A f r i c a than i n North America and i n t e r a c t s w i t h race i n complex combinations.  South A f r i c a n r e s e a r c h e r s have  found  t h a t m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s tend t o a l i g n w i t h the dominant white western c u l t u r e and d i s t a n c e themselves from the working c l a s s "masses'.  On the other hand, however, t h e r e  are deep antagonisms between the white and b l a c k working c l a s s as they compete f o r s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s .  Thus w h i l e  i n t e g r a t i o n has been r e l a t i v e l y unproblematic  i n private  s c h o o l s , t h i s i s u n l i k e l y t o be the case i n working c l a s s areas. North American l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s ample examples of the c u r r i c u l a r and p e d a g o g i c a l  changes necessary  c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g environment conducive integration.  for a  to successful  South A f r i c a n r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t  little  59 e f f o r t has been made by educators  t o a d j u s t t o t h e i r new  student c l i e n t e l e . However, t h i s i s due, i n p a r t , not o n l y to  r e s i s t a n c e by white students  and parents but a l s o by t h e  m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s who seek access t o white c u l t u r e , i t s power and i t s p r i v i l e g e s . S c h o l a r s i n d i c a t e t h e importance of community involvement  i n p l a n n i n g f o r desegregated  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e classroom for  schools. Parental  as w e l l as e x t e n s i v e  training  t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e a l s o c i t e d as c r u c i a l  f a c t o r s f o r e f f e c t i v e desegregation.  South A f r i c a n  r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t communities a r e o f t e n h o s t i l e t o s o c i a l change and s c h o o l s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have received l i t t l e  o r no i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o f a c i l i t a t e  r a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . F r e d e r i k s e (1990) i n d i c a t e s t h a t in  desegregated  involvement to  Zimbabwean schools t h e r e i s l i t t l e  by b l a c k l o w e r - c l a s s p a r e n t s . They u s u a l l y have  work l o n g e r hours,  a r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e white s c h o o l  system and a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by language and s t a t u s differentials. South A f r i c a n t h e o r i s t s warn a g a i n s t t h e wholesale a p p l i c a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l desegregation  theories t o the  South A f r i c a n s i t u a t i o n . I n South A f r i c a , t h e needs o f a s m a l l , predominantly  white,  though i n c r e a s i n g l y b l a c k ,  First  World, have t o be b a l a n c e d w i t h t h e needs o f a s e v e r e l y d e p r i v e d , predominantly  b l a c k , T h i r d World. In a d d i t i o n , t h e  g o a l o f c r e a t i n g a common, n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y has t o be  60 balanced  w i t h a r e s p e c t f o r , and t o l e r a n c e o f , d i v e r s i t y .  Because of the uniqueness and c o m p l e x i t i e s of the South A f r i c a n context,  South A f r i c a n t h e o r i s t s contend t h a t  considerable adaptations  i n every  f a c e t of s c h o o l  practice  w i l l be e s s e n t i a l . This l i t e r a t u r e w i l l  f u r n i s h me w i t h a framework w i t h i n  which t o approach my own r e s e a r c h ; i t w i l l  provide  i n d i c a t o r s of what i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n my data g a t h e r i n g and guide and i n f o r m my  analysis.  61  Chapter IV METHODOLOGY T h i s study o f f e r s an i n - d e p t h look a t a f o r m e r l y only s t a t e - c o n t r o l l e d , g i r l s '  whites  high s c h o o l i n a low s o c i o -  economic area of Durban, South A f r i c a .  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n  took p l a c e d u r i n g J u l y and August, 1993. T h i s was 18 months a f t e r t h e a p a r t h e i d government had l e g i s l a t e d t h e opening o f white s t a t e schools t o p u p i l s of a l l r a c e s  and nine months  p r i o r t o t h e f r e e e l e c t i o n s of A p r i l 1994. The  purpose of t h e study i s t o understand  how these  t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , themselves s o c i a l i s e d w i t h i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l r a c i s t system, a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e r a p i d l y d e s e g r e g a t i n g c o n t e x t of t h e i r s c h o o l . With t h i s purpose i n mind, a q u a l i t a t i v e approach was chosen, u s i n g a case d e s i g n and borrowing While Wolcott  from the ethnographic  study  tradition.  (1990) maintains t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e  r e s e a r c h no l o n g e r needs t o be e x h a u s t i v e l y defended as i t has become w i d e l y known and accepted over t h e l a s t two decades, t h e f o l l o w i n g quote from Schumacher and M c M i l l a n (1993) s u c c i n t l y c a p t u r e s t h e b e n e f i t s of q u a l i t a t i v e research. "The impact o f q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n a l i n q u i r y i s a dynamic one, because t h e d e s i g n a l l o w s r e s e a r c h e r s t o d i s c o v e r what a r e t h e important q u e s t i o n s t o ask o f a t o p i c and what a r e t h e important t o p i c s i n e d u c a t i o n t o pursue e m p i r i c a l l y . Without t h e c o n t i n u a l s t i m u l a t i o n of new i d e a s , e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h c o u l d become stagnant and f i l l e d w i t h r h e t o r i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s . " (Schumacher and M c M i l l a n , 1993:375)  62 Modern ethnography o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Malinowski  who  attempted t o "grasp the n a t i v e ' s p o i n t of view, h i s r e l a t i o n to l i f e ,  t o r e a l i z e h i s v e r s i o n of h i s world."  i n Schumacher and McMillan,1993:373)  (1922  cited  S i n c e then ethnography  has moved i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l arena i n order t o g a i n an understanding  of e d u c a t i o n - r e l a t e d phenomena from the  p e r s p e c t i v e s of the participants'•, namely the students  and  the t e a c h e r s . (Schumacher and McMillan,1993) Case study d e s i g n i n v o l v e s the i n - d e p t h  investigation  of a s i n g l e phenomenon, such as a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , as a means of g a i n i n g i n s i g h t s and b u i l d i n g t h e o r y . Schumacher and McMillan(1993) argue t h a t "case study d e s i g n , because of its  f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y t o a range of c o n t e x t s ,  p r o c e s s e s , people and f o c i , p r o v i d e s some of the most u s e f u l methods a v a i l a b l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . " Mirriam  (1988) s p e l l s out these methods i n more d e t a i l :  "Armed w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon and perhaps some n o t i o n s about what one might f i n d , case study i n v e s t i g a t o r s immerse themselves i n the t o t a l i t y of the c a s e . As the s e t t i n g becomes more f a m i l i a r , and as the data are being c o l l e c t e d , the r e s e a r c h e r l o o k s f o r u n d e r l y i n g patterns. The i n s i g h t s t h a t form the b a s i s of new theory can come from one's i m a g i n a t i o n , p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , the e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r s , and e x i s t i n g t h e o r y . The p r o c e s s i s one of f l e x i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n between phenomena and t h e o r y . " Wolcott  (1985)makes the d i s t i n c t i o n between  ethnography and borrowing  ethnographic  techniques.  former he d e c r i b e s as an e s s e n t i a l l y academic t h e aim of understanding product  in itself.  The  "pure'  pursuit with  the s c h o o l c u l t u r e as an l a t t e r , however, l i n k s  The  end-  descriptive  63 r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s t o change and improvement w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l realm. Thus a q u a l i t a t i v e approach, u s i n g a case study d e s i g n and ethnographic techniques, seemed the most a p p r o p r i a t e way of c u t t i n g  through the m u l t i t u d e l a y e r s of s o c i a l i s a t i o n  t h a t govern b l a c k and white i n t e r a c t i o n s i n South and " g e t t i n g a t '  what was r e a l l y happening  Africa,  i n the  classrooms and on the p l a y i n g f i e l d s . However, i t was the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n t h a t the study be more than a d e s c r i p t i v e account; a f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e was t h a t i t i n f o r m and guide educators and policy-makers i n t h e i r  nascent  attempts t o e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e South A f r i c a n s c h o o l s . C e n t r a l t o the ethnographic case study i s the b e l i e f t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r not predetermine responses by a s t r i c t adherence t o a c l e a r l y - d e f i n e d r e s e a r c h problem and accompanying q u e s t i o n s . Instead, s c h o l a r s ,  (Burgess, 1984;  E r i k s o n , 1986; Hammersley and A t k i n s o n , 1983) suggest t h a t a great d e a l of f l e x i b i l i t y i n the way the o r i g i n a l  problem  was c o n c e p t u a l i s e d , i s p e r m i t t e d so as "to g i v e space f o r the u n f o l d i n g of knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n i n i t s most n a t u r a l form."  (Spindler,1987)  The p e r i o d d u r i n g which the i n v e s t i g a t i o n took p l a c e was a time of enormous s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic upheaval i n South A f r i c a , balanced as i t was beween the announcement by P r e s i d e n t de K l e r k of the b i r t h of a  "new'  e r a and the p o s s i b i l i t y of f u t u r e b l a c k , m a j o r i t y r u l e .  I  64 b e l i e v e d that while  foreshadowed problems c o u l d be t e s t e d i n  the f i e l d , t h e very newness and t u r b u l e n c e  of t h e s i t u a t i o n  would l i k e l y y i e l d paradoxes, c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and u n p r e d i c t a b l e outcomes. study,  u s i n g ethnographic  I concluded tools,  t h a t a q u a l i t a t i v e case  would be the most  e f f e c t i v e method of c a p t u r i n g t h e f u l l r i c h n e s s and nuances of t h e data i n t h i s  situation.  "Because people c o n s t u c t meaning i n i n t r i c a t e and k n o t t y ways, understanding meaning r e q u i r e s engagement w i t h complexity." (Ayars,1989:16) BIAS AND SUBJECTIVITY Agar (1980,cited  i n Ayars,1989:13) d i s c u s s e s t h e  problem of b i a s , another concern with -the tradition.  ethnographic  He contends t h a t t h e problem l i e s not so much i n  the r e s e a r c h e r b e i n g b i a s e d , but r a t h e r i n what k i n d of b i a s and  how i t can be documented.  consciousness,  By b r i n g i n g i t t o  t h e ethnographer can d e a l w i t h i t as p a r t of  methodology and can acknowledge i t when drawing d u r i n g a n a l y s i s . Delamont (1992) concurs, preconceptions  conclusions  stating that  and p r e j u d i c e s a r e o n l y dangerous and c o u l d  i n f l u e n c e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e study  i fleft  implicit,  unacknowledged and unexamined. Sarah Lawrence L i g h t f o o t (1983,cited i n Ayars,1989:13) goes f u r t h e r by saying t h a t t h e v e r y success r e s e a r c h depends on t h e r e s e a r c h e r b e i n g  of such  s u b j e c t i v e and  human f o r o n l y then c a n c o n c l u s i o n s be d e r i v e d from t h e  65 meaning between the l i n e s , the nuances and the  inflections  of  experience.  " I t i s not t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h uses the person as a r e s e a r c h t o o l , and one must always guard a g a i n s t d i s t o r t i o n s of b i a s and p r e j u d i c e ; i t i s a l s o t h a t one's p e r s o n a l s t y l e , temperament and modes of i n t e r a c t i o n are c e n t r a l i n g r e d i e n t s of s u c c e s s f u l work. Phenomenologists o f t e n r e f e r t o the " i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v i t y " r e q u i r e d i n q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y - the need t o experience and r e f l e c t upon one's own f e e l i n g s i n order t o s u c c e s f u l l y i d e n t i f y w i t h another's p e r s p e c t i v e . Empathetic r e g a r d , t h e r e f o r e , i s key t o good data c o l l e c t i o n . " (Sarah Lawrence L i g h i t f o o t , 1983:370, c i t e d i n Ayars,1989:13) With t h i s i n mind, I b e l i e v e i t i s p e r t i n e n t f o r me unpack my  own  background, b i a s e s and  to  beliefs.  I was born and r a i s e d i n South A f r i c a , educated a t a . . . ^ white g i r l s ' s t a t e s c h o o l hot u n l i k e the one i n the study. From adulthood, I became an a c t i v e supporter  of the  anti-  a p a r t h e i d movements of the time and c r i t i c a l of institutions  , such as the a u t h o r i t a r i a n white s t a t e  s c h o o l s , t h a t r e i n f o r c e d the s t a t u s quo. my  core b e l i e f s and  homeland, South A f r i c a and  taught a t a p r i v a t e  school f o r A f r i c a n g i r l s .  experience  my  Canada.  In South A f r i c a I l i v e d and boarding  of  l i f e ' s work, has been as advocate of  s o c i a l j u s t i c e both w i t h i n my adopted country,  S i n c e then one  a t the time f o r I was  T h i s was  one  a unique  of o n l y f o u r white  s t a f f members and c o u l d engage i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  my  black colleagues,  s u p e r i o r s and  usual  c o n s t r i c t i o n s and  impositions  experience  students  f r e e o f the  of a p a r t h e i d .  I developed deep and  From t h i s  l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s with  my  66 b l a c k c o l l e a g u e s and students into African culture.  and gained v a l u a b l e  insights  As a white South A f r i c a n , I a l s o  earned a c e r t a i n amount of c r e d i b i l i t y amongst b l a c k and white a n t i - a p a r t h e i d a c t i v i s t s . S i n c e e m i g r a t i n g t o Canada, I have been i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l education.  I  have a l s o worked as a r e s e a r c h  a s s i s t a n t i n a n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t t o determine t e a c h e r s ' response t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l and a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n i n Canadian s c h o o l s .  In a d d i t i o n t o broadening  t h i s a r e a , and g i v i n g me experience  my knowledge i n  i n conducting  i n t e r v i e w s , i t p r o v i d e d me w i t h h e l p f u l p e r s p e c t i v e s on "teacher c u l t u r e ' .  The c h o i c e of r e s e a r c h t o p i c was a  l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n of my i n t e r e s t s and b e l i e f s . While my experiences  have g i v e n me an i n t i m a t e  knowledge of the f i e l d , t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y i n my background needs t o be c a r e f u l l y examined.  personal  C o n t r a r y t o the  s t e r e o t y p e of a white South A f r i c a n , I am aware t h a t my b i a s was more l i k e l y t o be o v e r l y - c r i t i c a l of the white s c h o o l system and perhaps o v e r l y - s y m p a t h e t i c  towards the b l a c k  s t u d e n t s . To ensure f a i r n e s s and accuracy both i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s , I had t o c o n s t a n t l y r e f l e c t on my b i a s e s as I s c r u t i n i z e d t h e f i n d i n g s . Hammersley  and A t k i n s o n  (1983) p o i n t out the importance  of b e i n g a s u p p o r t i v e c o l l e a g u e r a t h e r than a c r i t i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l w h i l e Burgess (1984) m a i n t a i n s  t h a t r a p p o r t and  67  t r u s t w i t h one's s u b j e c t s are c o n s i d e r e d c r i t i c a l successful f i e l d I was  to  research.  c o n s c i o u s of the ways i n which I c o u l d be  perceived, by the white t e a c h e r s - they might see me " i n s i d e r ' who as an emigrant  understood  as an  the c o m p l e x i t i e s of South A f r i c a or  and t h e r e f o r e a  " s e l l o u t * , p a r t of what they  d e r o g a t o r i l y r e f e r r e d t o as the "chicken run'.  Or, i n the  l i g h t of world condemnation of a p a r t h e i d d u r i n g t h i s they c o u l d be v e r y d e f e n s i v e and r e s e n t f u l of a e x p e r t ' coming t o t e l l them what t o do. I was  time,  foreign  c o n s c i o u s of  having t o t r e a d a f i n e balance as I n e g o t i a t e d my  way  amongst these p o s s i b l e p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . As a c r i t i c a l p a r t of t h i s study has t o do w i t h how  b l a c k students p e r c e i v e t h e i r experience i n a f o r m e r l y  whites o n l y s c h o o l , a word has t o be s a i d about the of  attempting t o understand  validity  the l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s of the  dominated from the s t a n d p o i n t of the dominant c l a s s , b e l l hooks (1988) and o t h e r s contend t h a t t h i s i s " c u l t u r a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n ' and hence u n e t h i c a l . "A dimension of the oppressor/oppressed r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t those who dominate are seen as s u b j e c t s and those dominated as o b j e c t s . As o b j e c t s , one's r e a l i t y i s d e f i n e d by o t h e r s , one's i d e n t i t y c r e a t e d by o t h e r s , one's h i s t o r y d e f i n e d by those who a r e . s u b j e c t s . " ( b e l l hooks,1988:42) She contends  t h a t members of the dominant group t e n d t o  be taken more s e r i o u s l y , become "the a u t h o r i t i e s ' , r e i n f o r c i n g and p r o t e c t i n g domination.  thus  68 While t h i s p o i n t i s a v a l i d one , the weakness i n the argument l i e s i n the o v e r g e n e r a l i s a t i o r i and homogenisation of t h e " o p p r e s s o r s . '  I m a i n t a i n t h a t disadvantage can be  e x p e r i e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t people on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s .  For  example, as a white South A f r i c a n I u n c o n s c i o u s l y o r c o n s c i o u s l y imbibed t h e " p r i v i l e g e " o f t h i s  position.  However, as a white l i b e r a l who r e j e c t e d a p a r t h e i d , I was i n t u r n a l i e n a t e d from my f a m i l y , my c u l t u r e and f i n a l l y my country.  A t t h e same time, white l i b e r a l s were never wholly  embraced by t h e b l a c k cause.  Moreover, I have been t r e a t e d  w i t h s u s p i c i o n and h o s t i l i t y by. some Canadians,  particularly  i n t h e f i e l d i n which I work, because of t h e i r p r e j u d i c e towards white South A f r i c a n s .  Thus, w h i l e I was  " p r i v i l e g e d ' i n some r e s p e c t s , not having a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d group i d e n t i t y i s a v e r y i s o l a t i n g , and a l i e n a t i n g  position.  C o n v e r s e l y , w h i l e t h e d e p r i v a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by b l a c k South A f r i c a n s should i n no way be minimized,  the s o l i d a r i t y o f  the oppressed can be an empowering p o s i t i o n .  Consequently,  I b e l i e v e I have the necessary knowledge, understanding and empathy t o i n t e r a c t w i t h informants f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s study. DESIGN In keeping w i t h t h e ethnographic t r a d i t i o n ,  the-primary  t o o l s f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n used i n t h i s study were d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w s . r e v o l v e d around  The o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n t e r v i e w s  foreshadowed problems.  However, they were  69 open-ended t o ensure the f l e x i b i l i t y  necessary t o g i v e  p r e f e r e n c e t o the "voice* and a c t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves.  T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o p i n i o n of s c h o l a r s  (Hammersley and A t k i n s o n ,  1983; Burgess,  1984) who  recommend  t h a t w h i l e a l i s t of i s s u e s t o be covered should be drawn up, r e s e a r c h e r s should not have q u e s t i o n s w i t h answers i n mind.  T h i s apparent  i n f o r m a l i t y i n f a c t needs t o be  c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d , d e l i b e r a t e and p u r p o s e f u l i n order t o prompt open-ended  responses.  DATA COLLECTION; SELECTION The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the r a c i a l mix of f i v e p r e v i o u s l y white g i r l s '  high schools i n Durban:  TABLE 2 RACIAL MIX OF 5 STATE HIGH SCHOOLS  Schools:  1  2  3  4  5  African:  28  62  28  47  86  Indian:  0  10  59  0  0  6  24  0  0  R a c i a l Group:  Coloured: White:  365  379  458  866  unav.  % Black:  5.6  17  19.5  5  unav.  A fax was sent t o the P r i n c i p a l of each of the above s c h o o l s , o u t l i n i n g the study and r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o  70 r a t h e r than broad,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , one  s c h o o l , s c h o o l #2,  was  s e l e c t e d on the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a ; - the w i l l i n g n e s s of the s c h o o l t o p a r t i c i p a t e - the s i z e of the B l a c k student p o p u l a t i o n , the e x p e c t a t i o n b e i n g t h a t the l a r g e r the number of B l a c k p u p i l s , the r i c h e r the data i s l i k e l y t o be. - the s c h o o l was  l o c a t e d i n a white w o r k i n g - c l a s s area,  c l o s e t o t h e b l a c k townships. observe how  T h i s would enable me  to  race and c l a s s a r t i c u l a t e d i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  setting. In order t o ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , psuedonyms.have been used f o r the s c h o o l , and a l l the informants i n t h i s study.  P r i o r t o e n t e r i n g the f i e l d , I met w i t h the V i c e  P r i n c i p a l of School #2,  V a l o u r High, t o i n t r o d u c e myself,  e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t and review my w i t h her. my  data c o l l e c t i o n  procedures  Miss Cane i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s c h o o l had  accepted  r e s e a r c h request because the t e a c h e r s were "fumbling i n  t h e dark" over the i n t e g r a t i o n i s s u e and she hoped I might be a b l e t o p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t s and  recommendations.  During t h i s f i r s t week i n Durban, I a l s o p i l o t e d the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s (Appendix  (Appendix  A) and o b s e r v a t i o n markers  B)with a P r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r of two  other  i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s , r e q u e s t i n g comment on the f o l l o w i n g : - Could they be o f f e n s i v e t o t e a c h e r s o r p r i n c i p a l ? - Do they show a l a c k of understanding context?  of the South A f r i c a n  71 - Have I overlooked  anything?  Mrs Thorton acknowledged f e e l i n g d e f e n s i v e about q u e s t i o n # 1, r e g a r d i n g the Admissions  p o l i c y as i t was  so a r b i t r a r y .  Because no o f f i c i a l c r i t e r i a had been l a i d out, s c h o o l s a t t h a t time made the d e c i s i o n .  T h i s was  a potentially  s e n s i t i v e i s s u e because, i f a b l a c k student was  t u r n e d down,  i t c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as r a c i s t , even i f t h e r e were o t h e r legitimate  reasons.  Ms Evans made the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i n her experience,white black parents.  t e a c h e r s had t r o u b l e d e a l i n g w i t h  educated  She remarked t h a t they were more c o m f o r t a b l e  i f the parents were s u b s e r v i e n t and agreed w i t h e v e r y t h i n g the t e a c h e r s s a i d .  However, they r e a c t e d n e g a t i v e l y i f the  b l a c k parents c o n f r o n t e d them as e q u a l s , o f f e r i n g s u g g e s t i o n s or a s k i n g s p e c i f i c , informed q u e s t i o n s . Both t e a c h e r s , however, f e l t the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s and o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s should remain unchanged, t h e i r comments s e r v i n g r a t h e r t o s e n s i t i s e me t o t h e s e On my  f i r s t day  i n the f i e l d ,  I met  issues.  i n f o r m a l l y w i t h the  P r i n c i p a l of V a l o u r High, Mrs Todd, and w i t h her a s s i s t a n c e , I i d e n t i f i e d c l a s s e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s and t e a c h e r s f o r interviews.  Standard  t h e c l a s s e s t o observe  7 C and Standard  9 B were t a r g e t t e d as  as they were the two most m u l t i -  r a c i a l c l a s s e s i n the s c h o o l , each c o m p r i s i n g 30% students. list  Black  Mrs Todd p r o v i d e d me w i t h a t i m e t a b l e and  class  f o r both these c l a s s e s , as w e l l as the names of a l l  72 t h e i r t e a c h e r s and the s u b j e c t s taught. been b r i e f e d about my  r e s e a r c h and my  The t e a c h e r s  presence  had  i n the s c h o o l  over the next f o u r weeks. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Burgess (1984) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t while r e q u i r i n g e x t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g , some c r i t e r i a of s e l e c t i o n t o narrow the focus of t h e i r work i s needed i n f i e l d r e s e a r c h . As the r e s e a r c h progressed, informants l i n k e d me w i t h o t h e r s , a procedure  r e f e r r e d t o as "snowball'  up  sampling.  DATA COLLECTION; PROCEDURES: Observations: During the f i r s t two weeks I accompanied Std. 7 C t o most of t h e i r c l a s s e s .  I observed them f o r a t o t a l of 23  hours i n the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s : - E n g l i s h , A f r i k a a n s , Zulu, Math, General S c i e n c e , P h y s i c a l Education, Speech and Drama, R e l i g i o u s Education  and  V o c a t i o n a l Guidance. During the t h i r d and f o u r t h weeks, I accompanied 9 B t o many of t h e i r c l a s s e s . of  Std.  I observed them f o r a t o t a l  12 hours i n the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s :  - E n g l i s h , A f r i k a a n s , Speech and Drama, B i o l o g y , Geography, Math, V o c a t i o n a l Guidance. The t e a c h e r s d i d not r e q u i r e me  t o g i v e them advance  warning but openly and warmly allowed me f r e e l y i n t h e i r classrooms.  t o come and  go  They went out of t h e i r way  to  73  make a v a i l a b l e anything about t h e i r c l a s s .  f u r t h e r I 'wished t o see o r know  They a l s o encouraged me  b l a c k and white s t u d e n t s .  t o t a l k t o the  T h i s c o n t r a d i c t e d my  expectations  of t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards r e s e a r c h e r s which, based on my  l i m i t e d experience  i n Canada, i s t y p i c a l l y one  of  s k e p t i c i s m and d e f e n s i v e n e s s .  I t a l s o c o n t r a d i c t e d my  concerns about how  perceived.  I would be  I took notes and made w r i t t e n comments d u r i n g  this  time, guided by, but not t i e d t o , the OBSERVATION GUIDELINES (Appendix A)  .  I a l s o v a r i e d my  type of o b s e r v a t i o n ,  sometimes s i t t i n g u n o b t r u s i v e l y i n the back of classroom,  other times i n the f r o n t  the  , and o c c a s i o n a l l y b e i n g  drawn i n t o the c l a s s as a p a r t i c i p a n t  observer.  . In order t o b u i l d r a p p o r t with students and  teachers,  observe c a s u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of students and t e a c h e r s , develop  a sense of the s c h o o l ethos,  assemblies,  I attended  accompanied p u p i l s t o the playground  and  morning during  r e c e s s and lunch break, and t e a c h e r s t o the s t a f f room.  I  a l s o attended  No  t h r e e c l u b meetings and one  s t a f f meeting.  notes were taken d u r i n g t h i s time, although  I attempted t o  w r i t e them up as soon a f t e r as p o s s i b l e . Interviews Interviews  took p l a c e d u r i n g the second and  weeks, d u r i n g r e c e s s or t e a c h e r s *  third  f r e e p e r i o d s . Informants  were asked i f the i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be taped i n o r d e r t o a n a l y s e the data more c l o s e l y .  C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was  assured  74 and consent  forms s i g n e d . The  P r i n c i p a l , Vice P r i n c i p a l  seven t e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d ; the S t d . 7 C and  and  They were the t e a c h e r s  of  9 B c l a s s e s , and i n c l u d e d two E n g l i s h  t e a c h e r s , A f r i k a a n s , Z u l u , Drama and Math, Geography, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and B i o l o g y t e a c h e r s .  Two  t e a c h e r s were  s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d because I had observed, suggested  t o me  and  had  by other t e a c h e r s , t h a t they might be more  r e s i s t a n t to integration. Interviews taped and  took between 45 - 60 minutes and were a l l  l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d by the r e s e a r c h e r .  i n t e r v i e w s roughly f o l l o w e d the  The  INTERVIEW GUIDELINES,  (Appendix B ) . In a d d i t i o n t o f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w i n g the t e a c h e r s , spent many hours i n i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s t i o n w i t h these o t h e r s t a f f members, on the way  t o and  I  and  from s c h o o l , d u r i n g  r e c e s s and l u n c h break. I a l s o i n f o r m a l l y conversed of b l a c k and white students arranged  , separately,, w i t h groups  from S t d . 7C and S t d . 9B.  I  a meeting p l a c e d u r i n g lunch break and s a i d I would  wait  f o r them t h e r e i f anyone was  interested i n t a l k i n g to  me.  I purposely; made the arrangement as l o o s e and  voluntary  as p o s s i b l e so they would not f e e l p r e s s u r e d t o t a l k t o  me.  I a l s o made the d e c i s i o n t o t a l k t o them i n a group as I b e l i e v e d they would f e e l l e s s i n t i m i d a t e d and Each time an i n t e r v i e w ended I informed  identifiable. them t h a t I  would be at the same p l a c e , a t the same time, the f o l l o w i n g  75 day,  i f anyone s t i l l wanted t o t a l k , t o me,  The number of  student informants changed, ranging from t h r e e t o 12 d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w .  I spent a t o t a l of 12 hours on  student  i n t e r v i e w s , p l u s f u r t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n i n the h a l l w a y s w h i l e walking to c l a s s e s . Sometimes I took notes d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s ; a t o t h e r times I j u s t l i s t e n e d and wrote down t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n immediately  a f t e r , and a t y e t other times I p l a c e d a  r e c o r d e r i n the middle of the group and taped  the  discussions. I had entered the f i e l d not i n t e n d i n g t o i n t e r v i e w students because I was  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t e a c h e r s '  responses,  but i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious t h a t the d a t a would be incomplete without the students* s t o r i e s . moreover, be a way  I t would,  of c o r r o b o r a t i n g or c o n t r a d i c t i n g  t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s and t e s t i n g the b l a c k and white  the  students*  views a g a i n s t each o t h e r . Consequently,  I d i d not have an i n t e r v i e w g u i d e l i n e as  I d i d f o r the t e a c h e r s but r a t h e r a broad framework of issues- t h a t I wanted t o c o v e r .  With the b l a c k students  these were: - F a m i l y background; where d i d they l i v e , how to  s c h o o l , township l i f e ,  parents' jobs, t h e i r  d i d they get job  aspirations. - School l i f e ; predominantly  how  d i d they f e e l about being i n a  white s c h o o l , what d i d they l i k e / d i s l i k e about  76 it, of  why  d i d they choose t o come t o a white  school, attitudes  o t h e r s t u d e n t s / t e a c h e r s towards them.  - The  f u t u r e ; what changes would they l i k e t o see, how  did  they f e e l about the i n t a k e of more b l a c k students the following  year?  Because of the r a d i c a l l y  different  and white  students l i v e d ,  i t was  different  i s s u e s w i t h each group.  worlds  i n which the b l a c k  necessary t o  address  The broad q u e s t i o n s f o r the white students were: - How  d i d they f e e l about having b l a c k students i n the  school? - Had  the s c h o o l changed because of the new  s t u d e n t s , i f so,  i n what ways? - Did they s o c i a l i s e  i n / o u t s i d e school?  - D i d they know a n y t h i n g about t h e i r  lives/backgrounds?  During the t h i r d and f o u r t h weeks of o b s e r v a t i o n s , I attempted  to test  t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r  a g a i n s t observed b e h a v i o u r s . verify  situation  I also t r i e d to follow-up  and  p r o p o s i t i o n s , t h e o r i e s and assumptions t h a t I had  tentatively  b u i l t up d u r i n g the p r e c e e d i n g t h r e e weeks by  a s k i n g t e a c h e r s and students f o r f u r t h e r commentaries, o p i n i o n s or c l a r i f i c a t i o n s .  VALIDITY AMD  RELIABILITY  In g e n e r a l , I have i n c o r p o r a t e d the f o l l o w i n g measures i n t o the study t o i n c r e a s e v a l i d i t y :  77 - Evidence was observations, v  five  obtained  from classroom  and  casual  as w e l l as i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the P r i n c i p a l  and  teachers.  - Interviews  were taped  and t r a n s c r i b e d by the  researcher  herself. - A c h a i n of evidence v  was  e s t a b l i s h e d , a r i s i n g out of , and  r e f e r r i n g back t o , the o r i g i n a l focus - A d r a f t of the case study was  questions.  d i s c u s s e d w i t h two  local  experts. - The  I n t e r v i e w G u i d e l i n e s was  P r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r - The  informants  had  be p i l o t e d w i t h a l o c a l  from o t h e r flexibility  schools. i n shaping  and  i n p u t i n t o the v e r i f i c a t i o n  and  determining  the t o p i c s of the d i s c u s s i o n . - They a l s o had  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n and Scholars  assumptions.  ( M a r s h a l l & Rossman,1989, L a t h e r , 1 9 9 1 ,  Schumacher and McMillan,1993) agree t h a t t r i a n g u l a t i o n , i s e s s e n t i a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s of d a t a i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h . T h i s i n v o l v e s the use of d a t a different  sources  from  i n order to "corroborate, elaborate  i l l u m i n a t e the r e s e a r c h i n q u e s t i o n ' ( M a r s h a l l Rossman,1989). L a t h e r  (1991)  &  s t r e s s e s t h a t the  researcher  must c o n s c i o u s l y u t i l i z e designs which seek counter as w e l l as convergence i f data i s t o be c r e d i b l e . In r e s e a r c h t r i a n g u l a t i o n was  achieved  formal i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e a c h e r s ,  by u s i n g  and  patterns my  observations,  informal conversations  in  78 the s t a f f room, attendance  a t s t a f f and c l u b meetings as  w e l l as i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h both b l a c k and white students. Schumacher and M c M i l l a n  (1993) s t a t e t h a t i n most  q u a l i t a t i v e case s t u d i e s , the r e s e a r c h e r does not aim a t the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of r e s u l t s but understandings, understand  " i n the e x t e n s i o n of the  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t enable o t h e r s t o  s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s and extend  understandings  i n subsequent r e s e a r c h . "  these R e l i a b i l i t y , on  o t h e r hand, i s achieved through r e p l i c a t i o n . In t h i s r e p l i c a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the documentation d e s c r i p t i o n of procedures,  s t e p by s t e p .  the  study,  and  Because the  r e s e a r c h e r u l t i m a t e l y has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  interpreting  the r e s u l t s and p r e s e n t i n g her p e r c e p t i o n s of the phenomenon, e x t e n s i v e q u o t a t i o n s , from taped i n t e r v i e w s have been i n c l u d e d i n the f i n a l r e p o r t , as a way  of empowering  informants t o "speak i n t h e i r own v o i c e s ' .  ANALYSIS In o r d e r f o r the ethnographic  case study t o be more  than simply a c o l l e c t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e and m a t e r i a l , the r e s e a r c h e r has  anecdotal  "to b r i n g data under c o n t r o l ,  t o c r e a t e a framework through which i n f o r m a t i o n can understood."  (Ayars,1989).  The a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study i s a  s p i r a l p r o c e s s and has been i n c o r p o r a t e d throughout study.  be  F o r example, the i n f o r m a t i o n and  the  interpretations,  79 d e r i v e d from Week 1 o b s e r v a t i o n s , p r o v i d e d t h e impetus f o r what t o f o c u s on i n Week 2, and so on. The a n a l y s i s  took  p l a c e w i t h i n the broad, l o o s e framework o f t h e o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n s , and c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r s back t o them. p r o c e s s , t h e data was examined t o determine  During  this  emergent  p a t t e r n s , c o n s i s t e n c i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . While f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e and p e r s o n a l grounding p r o v i d e d me w i t h an o r i e n t i n g framework, s i n c e my r e t u r n from the f i e l d I have been able t o t e s t evidence and emerging  themes by r e f e r r i n g  t o current l i t e r a t u r e .  As t h i s i s an e x p l o r a t o r y case study,the data was a n a l y z e d not o n l y t o t e s t e s t a b l i s h e d d e s e g r e g a t i o n hypotheses, but a l s o t o generate hypotheses  and develop  concepts f o r f u r t h e r study, i n an a r e a t h a t i s new, and t o date, underresearched and documented.  80 Chapter V FINDINGS  An a n a l y s i s of t h e t r a n s c r i p t s and f i e l d notes s i x broad  revealed  themes: the CONTEXT i n which t h e study took p l a c e ;  the SCHOOL i t s e l f ;  the PARTICIPANTS a t t h e s c h o o l ; RACISM;  PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES and FUTURE CONCERNS. W i t h i n each major c a t e g o r y ,  s e v e r a l minor themes  emerged. The CONTEXT d e s c r i b e s the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i o economic m i l i e u of the s c h o o l . The SCHOOL s e c t i o n e x p l a i n s the admission  p o l i c y and ethos.  The PARTICIPANTS s e c t i o n  d e s c r i b e s t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f the t e a c h e r s and students towards each other and t h e i r n e w l y - i n t e g r a t e d  school. I t  a l s o b r i e f l y touches on. the emerging g e n e r a t i o n gap between the white students and t h e i r p a r e n t s . The s e c t i o n on RACISM i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s u b - s e c t i o n s which d e a l w i t h s e g r e g a t i o n w i t h i n the s c h o o l , r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s and student p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Other.  The s e c t i o n on PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES  d e s c r i b e s t h e t e a c h i n g methods a t the s c h o o l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n school l i f e ,  student behaviour,  a b i l i t y groupings  academic  and c u r r i c u l u m changes.  standards, The f i n a l s e c t i o n  d e a l s w i t h t e a c h e r s ' and s t u d e n t s ' concerns f o r t h e FUTURE. Although  these themes a r e d i v i d e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t  s e c t i o n s f o r the sake of c l a r i t y and t o enhance t h e d e t a i l , many o f them o v e r l a p and interweave  w i t h one another. The  81 ways i n which they a r e connected and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V I . These f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e form o f a d e s c r i p t i v e n a r r a t i v e and i n c l u d e many d i r e c t quotes by t h e i n f o r m a n t s themselves, so t h a t ""the r e a d e r c a n see through my eyes, what I have s e e n . "  (Wolcott,1990)  CONTEXT S o c i a l Context V a l o u r G i r l s ' High i s l o c a t e d i n t h e white w o r k i n g - c l a s s neighbourhood o f W o o d s v i l l e .  I t s s m a l l , b o x - l i k e houses a r e  w i t h i n s i g h t of a h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i s e d zone. Densely p o p u l a t e d b l a c k townships sprawl nearby.  This  setting  i n d i c a t e s how r i g i d l y c l a s s , as w e l l as r a c i a l l y ,  divided  South A f r i c a n s o c i e t y i s . However, because white e d u c a t i o n has h i s t o r i c a l l y been h e a v i l y s u b s i d i s e d by government, the s c h o o l i t s e l f was v e r y s i m i l a r t o s c h o o l s i n more a f f l u e n t a r e a s .  The t h r e e - s t o r e y  b r i c k b u i l d i n g was i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n and t h e classrooms were w e l l - e q u i p p e d w i t h t y p e w r i t e r s , computers, biology  s c i e n c e and  laboratories.  Although t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e Group Areas A c t i n 1992 had l e g a l i s e d r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , economic  deprivation  p r o h i b i t e d much movement o f b l a c k s i n t o white a r e a s . However, because o f i t s l o c a t i o n near t o t h e b l a c k townships and the lower c o s t o f housing, W o o d s v i l l e was a t t r a c t i n g  82 some upwardly mobile m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k f a m i l i e s . P r i n c i p a l , Mrs  Todd, s a i d about 10% of the b l a c k  l i v e d i n the v i c i n i t y ,  The students  w h i l e the m a j o r i t y commuted by  from the o u t l y i n g b l a c k townships  Two  black f a m i l i e s  bus had  chosen t o move i n t o more p r e s t i g i o u s white areas because Woodsville Mrs  "wasn't good enough".  Todd s a i d the white parents were i n b l u e - c o l l a r  jobs or low-management p o s i t i o n s , w i t h amongst them."  "riot one p r o f e s s i o n a l  The white students i n d i c a t e d , t h a t t h e i r  p a r e n t s were " r a i l w a y workers, clerks> s a l e s l a d i e s typists." mobile,  and  Many of the b l a c k p a r e n t s , however, were upwardly  lower m i d d l e - c l a s s ; businessmen, r e a l t o r s , h e a l t h  i n s p e c t o r s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l s such as nurses, t e a c h e r s ,  and  school P r i n c i p a l s . C l a s s a f f i l i a t i o n s were a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the a s p i r a t i o n s and the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s .  students'  Most of the  t e a c h e r s , from the p r o f e s s i o n a l , m i d d l e - c l a s s , f r e q u e n t l y and openly expressed  d i s d a i n f o r the lower  class.  "The white p a r e n t s , you know, they go t o work, they come home, they s i t down and d r i n k t h e i r beer and they watch t h e i r " s o a p i e s ' (soap o p e r a s ) . There's "no c u l t u r e . So you c a n ' t expect much from the k i d s . " (white teacher) The b l a c k g i r l s s a i d they wanted t o be d o c t o r s , t e a c h e r s , a h i s t o r y p r o f e s s o r , and a  lawyers,  journalist  w h i l e the white g i r l s a s p i r e d t o b e i n g s e c r e t a r i e s , s a l e s c l e r k s and h a i r d r e s s e r s .  83 Although many t e a c h e r s expressed a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the b l a c k students and d i s d a i n f o r the l a c k of ambition of t h e whites, t h e r e was a sense t h a t the b l a c k a s p i r a t i o n s were sometimes u n r e a l i s t i c . " T h e b l a c k c h i l d r e n have enormous e x p e c t a t i o n s which the white c h i l d r e n don't have. The white c h i l d r e n would h a p p i l y be h a i r d r e s s e r s and l i s t e n t o pop music a l l day and cut h a i r s t y l e s . But the b l a c k c h i l d r e n want t o be d o c t o r s and lawyers. Sometimes you've got t o take them and p r i c k the bubble, t h i s u n n a t u r a l , present d e s i r e t o do law, whether they have t h e w h e r e w i t h a l l a c a d e m i c a l l y o r n o t . " (teacher) Not  only i s t h e r e an emerging d i v i s i o n between t h e  upwardly mobile  b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s , and the entrenched  lower  c l a s s whites, t h e r e i s a growing a l i e n a t i o n between t h e b l a c k students a t t e n d i n g "white'  s c h o o l s , and those who  remain a t b l a c k s c h o o l s i n the townships.  A c c o r d i n g t o Mrs  Todd, the b l a c k students going back home t o t h e townships are sometimes t h r e a t e n e d o r a t t a c k e d , t h e i r uniforms  c u t up  because t h e township r e s i d e n t s r e s e n t t h e i r attendance white s c h o o l .  A b l a c k student d e s c r i b e d t h e i r  at a  treatment:  "When t h e r e ' s s t r i k e s o r stayaways we t r y t o come t o s c h o o l but the township people h i t us and ask us why we don't go t o a b l a c k s c h o o l . Some o f the k i d s would l i k e t o come t o a white s c h o o l but t h e i r p a r e n t s don't want them t o or they can't a f f o r d i t . Even the maids i n t h i s s c h o o l hate us because we go t o a white s c h o o l . I t h i n k t h e y ' r e j e a l o u s of us." The  socio-economic  s t a t u s o f some o f t h e b l a c k and  white students a t V a l o u r High was. a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n of t h e s t e r e o t y p e i n a p a r t h e i d South A f r i c a where whites  84 were always assumed t o be more a f f l u e n t than b l a c k s . did  not go u n n o t i c e d  among the b l a c k  This  students.  "The white k i d s t h i n k we are so poor, we're from the townships and l i v e i n the slums. One day I was t a l k i n g about t h i s show on T.V. and t h i s white g i r l says, "Oh, you've got a T.V.I' She c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e i t l But some b l a c k k i d s are f a r r i c h e r than white k i d s e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s area, the white k i d s are so poor." ( b l a c k student) Political  Context  T h i s r e s e a r c h was poised  for i t s f i r s t  undertaken as t h e country  stood  f r e e e l e c t i o n s which would l i k e l y usher  i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y change.  Consequently, i t was  i n a s t a t e of  tremendous upheaval, w i t h crime e s c a l a t i n g , v i o l e n c e p o l i t i c a l c l a s h e s common events. permeated everyday l i f e .  One  Fear and  teacher  and  uncertainty  v o i c e d the  opinions  of many: "The whole country i s i n a s t a t e of nervousness. I t ' s the u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t ' s hard to take. This waiting, waiting, w a i t i n g f o r what's going t o happen i s t a k i n g up a l o t of energy, i s r e a l l y making people t e n s e . " So e f f e c t i v e l y had  a p a r t h e i d c r e a t e d separate  which b l a c k s and whites l i v e d , t h a t each group the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e of the time completely While the white students'  experienced  differently.  l i v e s were d i s r u p t e d by the  crime r a t e , the media exposure of the v i o l e n c e and general anxiety,  i t was  the upheaval d i r e c t l y . had  worlds i n  the b l a c k students  high  the  who  experienced  A l l the b l a c k students  interviewed  l o s t r e l a t i v e s i n the v i o l e n c e , k i l l e d by the  army or i n ANC/Inkatha c l a s h e s .  police,  •: ••' 85 "There are c e r t a i n areas i n the township f o r the ANC and o t h e r s f o r Inkatha and i f you a r e seen where you a r e not supposed t o be, you j u s t get k i l l e d . " (black student) Mrs Todd r e l a t e d a b l a c k p a r e n t ' s r e a c t i o n t o the news t h a t her daughter was  i n v o l v e d i n the Peace Movement, a  n a t i o n a l , m u l t i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n aimed a t ending the current violence. " I f my c h i l d went t o the Peace Conference, the next t h i n g i s my house i s going t o be bombed." ( b l a c k parent) The b l a c k and white students were l o c k e d i n t o . t h e i r worlds w i t h l i t t l e the  other.  embarrassed  attempt made t o understand the l i f e  own  of  The b l a c k s t u d e n t s s a i d they were too to t e l l  t h e i r white c o l l e a g u e s how  sometimes f e l t i n the townships.  s c a r e d they  They a l s o s a i d they d i d n ' t  want t o d i s c u s s i t because i t would make the white  girls  a f r a i d o r angry. "The white g i r l s never went i n t o a l o c a t i o n (township) i n t h e i r whole l i f e . They don't understand what k i n d of p l a c e we're brought up i n . There's so much n o i s e , n o i s e i s something we're used t o . I t ' s so cramped, t h e r e ' s l o t s of people l i v i n g on top of each o t h e r . They t h i n k we j u s t k i l l each o t h e r f o r n o t h i n g . But t h e r e ' s something pushing us t o do t h i s t h i n g . " (black student) "You c a n ' t r e l y on the policemen i n the townships but i n the white areas, I heard, the policemen walk around, d r i v e around, j u s t t o make sure e v e r y t h i n g i s f i n e . " ( b l a c k student) Because the white working c l a s s has the most t o l o s e from r i s i n g b l a c k a s p i r a t i o n s and the removal of laws t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y p r i v i l e g e d them , they tend t o be amongst the most c o n s e r v a t i v e and r a c i s t w h i t e s .  T h i s seemed t o be the  :  ' -V':'  ;  s i t u a t i o n i n Woodsville,  86  •  a c c o r d i n g t o the t e a c h e r s arid  administrators. "This i s a v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e area, almost C P . (a r i g h t - w i n g white Party.) The g i r l s ' parents are much more c o n s e r v a t i v e than they a r e . They are from backgrounds where you don't speak t o a b l a c k person or h e l p a b l a c k person." (white teacher) The  p o l i t i c a l nature of the area, i n a d d i t i o n t o s o c i o -  economic s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l s , c o u l d account f o r the i n c r e a s i n g a l i e n a t i o n between b l a c k s a t t e n d i n g township s c h o o l s and those a t white s c h o o l s . "The people i n the township hate us. They're always s a y i n g we're t r a i t o r s . They say now we are C o n s e r v a t i v e and we've been i n f l u e n c e d by the A f r i k a n e r . They say the A f r i k a n e r took our l a n d and now we're going t o t h e i r school." The  reasons  the b l a c k students gave f o r coming t o  W o o d s v i l l e were the poor c o n d i t i o n s of the b l a c k s c h o o l s , the poor q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g and the p o l i t i c a l  instability  i n .the b l a c k s c h o o l s which were o f t e n a s i t e of m o b i l i z a t i o n a g a i n s t the a p a r t h e i d regime. A white student d e s c r i b e d the c o n d i t i o n s i n b l a c k schools: " F o r t y i n a c l a s s , 100 p u p i l s i n a classroom. They would a l l be squashed, uncomfortable, t h r e e t o a desk." The b l a c k students  e x p l a i n e d t h a t the s c h o o l was  always  d i s r u p t e d by s t r i k e s , r i o t s or p r o t e s t s . "There's a l o t of f i g h t i n g and i f they don't l i k e t e a c h e r s , they j u s t k i c k them out." ( b l a c k student)  the  87 THE SCHOOL Admission  Policy  V a l o u r High had f i r s t r a c i a l groups, i n January present r e s e a r c h . staff.  accepted  students from o t h e r  1992, 18 months p r i o r t o t h e  T h i s had r e q u i r e d a vote by p a r e n t s and  Because of the c o n s e r v a t i v e nature of t h e community  and i n o r d e r t o ensure a "yes' v o t e , t h e r e was a 10% c e i l i n g on b l a c k enrolments. teacher,  When p a r e n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o one  "saw no d i s a s t r o u s t h i n g happening", t h e Board of  Governors r a i s e d the quota t o 20%. At t h e time of the r e s e a r c h i t had become i m p e r a t i v e t o i n c r e a s e the student base as the white p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e area was s t a t i c and t h e s c h o o l , equipped o n l y had 450. to  f o r 1,000  students,  At a s t a f f meeting i t was unanimously d e c i d e d  request the removal o f the 20% w h i l e s t i l l  being aware  t h a t 30% was g e n e r a l l y accepted as t h e " c r i t i c a l mass' a f t e r which the s c h o o l ethos changed.  However, Miss P e t e r s was  s k e p t i c a l o f t h i s a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t i n g a change i n t e a c h e r s ' attitudes: " There were some t e a c h e r s who d i d n ' t want t o take i n more b l a c k students but now t h e i r jobs are t h r e a t e n e d , t h e y ' r e prepared t o take b l a c k , white, y e l l o w , s t r i p e d r a t h e r than have no j o b . But i t ' s not going t o change t h e i r attitude. They're s t a y i n g f o r t h e wrong reasons. I don't know how t h i s i s going t o work." While a c c e p t i n g t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y of an i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l , t e a c h e r s and parents appeared determined  to cling to  a white ethos f o r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e w h i l e they s t i l l  had a  88 c h o i c e over admissions. t o a t t r a c t the  Mrs  Todd e x p l a i n e d t h a t they wanted  "best p o s s i b l e b l a c k  students".  " U n t i l we have t o , we don't want t o f l o o d the s c h o o l . We want t h i s t o remain a C h r i s t i a n s c h o o l . We s t i l l want t o have people coming i n who are of the q u a l i t y who w i l l b e n e f i t from the s c h o o l , whose E n g l i s h i s good enough. But I'm a l s o l o o k i n g f o r p o t e n t i a l i n the c h i l d , not n e c e s s a r i l y p e r f e c t E n g l i s h but a spark t h a t I t h i n k c o u l d be developed." (Mrs Todd) P r o s p e c t i v e students were r e q u i r e d t o s i t a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t , developed by the t e a c h e r s which Mrs admitted  was  outdated  and  Todd  e t h n o c e n t r i c . I t o f t e n used  language t h a t t e s t e d t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c not  conceptual  ability. Mrs  Todd s a i d she wanted t o change the Admissions  test,  t o put more emphasis on c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g so they c o u l d w r i t e about t h e i r own  f a m i l i e s , t h e i r own  t h e y ' r e at i n t h e i r own however, the admission  lives."  backgrounds, "where  Despite t h i s i n t e n t i o n ,  c r i t e r i a seemed based p r i m a r i l y on  s e l e c t i n g those b l a c k students who  most c l o s e l y approximated  the white western C h r i s t i a n norm. School  Ethos  The  s c h o o l ethos seemed l i t t l e changed by the presence  of the 90 B l a c k s t u d e n t s .  The  s u b j e c t of a l o t of c o n t r o v e r s y symbolic hall.  South A f r i c a n f l a g ,  the  at t h a t time because of i t s  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a p a r t h e i d , hung i n the  entrance  7  A l l the t e a c h i n g and a d m i n i s t a t i v e s t a f f were white females,  a l l the j a n i t o r i a l s t a f f b l a c k , and t h e r e was  a  89 male I n d i a n c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n t .  The  s c h o o l body was d i v i d e d  i n t o "Houses" t o which each student was  a s s i g n e d and r e g u l a r  inter-House  They were named  s p o r t i n g events were h e l d .  a f t e r famous western s c i e n t i s t s , namely C u r i e , Newton, D a l t o n and Mendel. Morning assemblies  were formal, C h r i s t i a n - b a s e d , w i t h  hymns, p r a y e r s and B i b l e r e a d i n g s .  E i g h t white p r e f e c t s  stood along the w a l l , m o n i t o r i n g the behaviour students.  During my  were punished  of the  f o u r weeks of o b s e r v a t i o n , seven g i r l s  f o r t a l k i n g and made t o stand u n t i l  P r i n c i p a l ' s entrance.  the  A l l were white.  Each week a d i f f e r e n t c l a s s took a t u r n t o l e a d the assembley, d r a m a t i s i n g a theme.  I observed  by the S t d . 7B c l a s s on " b e a r i n g grudges'. students i n S t d . 9B  a presentation The o l d e r b l a c k  complained:  "Did you see how they dominate us? They have a l l the main p a r t s and the b l a c k g i r l s are j u s t i n the chorus." However, they added t h a t when t h e i r c l a s s had l e d the assembley, because they were a s t r o n g and c o h e s i v e group, t h e i r i d e a s had been  accepted.  In common w i t h a l l s t a t e schools i n South A f r i c a a t the time, the C h r i s t i a n e t h i c was break a week was  devoted  Teachers  During  t o p r e s e n t a t i o n s by the  C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n which was students.  pervasive.  w e l l - a t t e n d e d by  Student the  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were i n s i s t e n t  keeping the s c h o o l C h r i s t i a n .  lunch  The P r i n c i p a l was  on  emphatic:  90 "This has always been a s c h o o l w i t h a C h r i s t i a n e t h i c . I f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y about t h i s . Although we have Moslems, Hindus and Jewish s t u d e n t s , most of the b l a c k g i r l s a r e Christian. They were t o l d they were coming t o a s c h o o l w i t h a C h r i s t i a n e t h i c b e f o r e they were admitted." There was some evidence At the predominantly  t h a t the ethos was  changing.  white i n t e r - s c h o o l A t h l e t i c s Day,  Nonku, a very b r i g h t , outgoing S t d . 9 b l a c k g i r l had l e d t h e c h e e r l e a d i n g squad, t w o - t h i r d s of whom were b l a c k , i n an exuberant r e n d i t i o n o f "Shosholozo",  a traditional  Zulu  chant. Mrs Todd v o i c e d t h e response  of many of t h e t e a c h e r s  and p u p i l s t o the performance: \ "There was a s p i r i t t h a t pervaded a t t h a t time t h a t you w i l l never ever r e c a p t u r e . I've had phone c a l l s from grandparents s a y i n g t h i s was the best t h i n g they'd ever seen." N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e were a few d i s g r u n t l e d remarks from some of t h e white c h e e r l e a d e r s : "The b l a c k g i r l s don't want t o do what we want t o do. They want t o take over and do t h e i r own t h i n g . " C e l e b r a t i o n s and heroes s t i l l  remained grounded i n  B r i t i s h and white South A f r i c a n h e r i t a g e .  The e x c l u s i o n o f  Zulu songs, c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l heroes and s p e c i a l days from t h e s c h o o l r i t u a l and t h e ignorance of t h e white students p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s e , were f e l t by the b l a c k students: "When we stayed away on June 16 ( a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e Soweto R i o t s , 1 9 7 6 ) , one o f t h e white g i r l s asked us why we had stayed away. I c o u l d not b e l i e v e she d i d n ' t know about t h i s day and what i t means t o us b l a c k people."  Most t e a c h e r s were e n t h u s i a s t i c about i n t e g r a t i n g some n o n - p o l i t i c a l aspects of Zulu c u l t u r e i n t o t h e s c h o o l and the p r i n c i p a l admitted t h a t she had e r r e d i n not i n c l u d i n g Zulu hymns i n the songbook she had j u s t THE  revised.  PARTICIPANTS  Teachers'  Perceptions  Some t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h e s c h o o l had an o b l i g a t i o n t o t o change i n order t o accommodate t h e new b l a c k s t u d e n t s , w h i l e o t h e r s f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h e b l a c k students should be a s s i m i l a t e d . Mrs J o r y summed up these views: "Some t e a c h e r s here f e e l we should be more f l e x i b l e now t h a t we a r e m u l t i r a c i a l but I t h i n k t h e B l a c k students have come i n t o our s c h o o l so they must f i t i n . " The  " a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t s ' main concern was w i t h .  " m a i n t a i n i n g standards'.  These t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d i t t h e i r  mandate t o not o n l y t e a c h t h e i r s u b j e c t , but g i v e t h e students t h e c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l t o succeed i n t h e o u t s i d e world.  Mrs J o r y c o n t i n u e d :  "They (black students) need to be t o l d how t o behave a p p r o p r i a t e l y , t o keep t h e i r v o i c e s down and n o t shout, t o look people i n t h e eye when t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g t o them. Otherwise how w i l l they g e t on i n t h e o u t s i d e world? How w i l l they be a b l e t o g e t j o b s ? " r  These t e a c h e r s were v e r y proud o f t h e i r " c o l o u r b l i n d ' p e r s p e c t i v e , o f t r e a t i n g everyone e q u a l l y . " We t r y t o m a i n t a i n what we had b e f o r e , t h e same s t r u c t u r e of behaviour , t h e way t h e students conduct themselves. I do t r y t o make them f i t t h e mold. I don't t r e a t them any d i f f e r e n t l y . I f they came here they understood what was ahead of them and they must r e a c h a l e v e l i n t h e i r g e n e r a l behaviour t h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e t o u s .  I'm not i n t e r e s t e d what c o l o u r you are, as l o n g as you behave i n a c e r t a i n way because t o be s u c c e s s f u l you need those t h i n g s . " Miss K e l l y r e i n f o r c e d t h i s p o s i t i o n :  92  '  "At t h e moment they have t o f i t i n because t h e y ' r e a d i s t i n c t m i n o r i t y so i t s been easy t o have them a d j u s t t o our way. I t e n d t o t r e a t them a l l l i k e a c l a s s and I haven't thought o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e y ' r e j u s t a l l my pupils. But I suppose i n t h a t way you expect t h e b l a c k p u p i l s t o adapt t o t h e white way of doing t h i n g s . " However, d e s p i t e t h e frankness of t h e i r comments, these t e a c h e r s a l s o expressed u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e way they were c o p i n g w i t h a m u l t i r a c i a l classroom and many asked me f o r advice or suggestions.  They a l s o r e c o g n i s e d t h e  i n e v i t a b i l i t y of a change i n ethos as t h e number of b l a c k students i n c r e a s e d . "I t h i n k i t ' s i n e v i t a b l e and i t ' s going t o be necessary t o accommodate and we a r e going t o have to" make an e f f o r t t o change , otherwise t h e r e w i l l be a problem." (white t e a c h e r ) Miss Young, whom I had t a r g e t e d as one o f t h e most outspoken  i n t h e " a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t camp' e x p l a i n e d :  "I thought j u s t t o be a good t e a c h e r I,must go on browbeating these people i n t o l i n e . That's why I t r i e d my hardest t o make them f i t i n because I thought t h a t ' s what we were supposed t o do." She had been t o a m u l t i c u l t u r a l seminar our i n t e r v i e w and appeared  t h e day b e f o r e  t o have undergone a complete  a t t i t u d e change which she admitted w i t h candour and s e l f reflection. "In t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l seminar y e s t e r d a y I heard people s a y i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n was white e d u c a t i o n w i t h b l a c k c h i l d r e n  93  whom you had allowed t o e n t e r your s c h o o l because they appeared white t o you. Suddenly my whole focus changed. I now see t h a t we had got i t a l l wrong. Who are we t o t h i n k we a r e so s u p e r i o r and what we a r e o f f e r i n g i s so c o r r e c t . We have been imposing white standards on new p u p i l s because we thought we were s u p e r i o r . Because o f t h e l a c k o f s t a f f development, l a c k o f p r e p a r a t i o n , we were going the "white' route. So a f t e r a l l my good i n t e n t i o n s , t h e i n t e n t i o n s were good, i n f a c t I was doing them harm." She blamed t h e E d u c a t i o n Department f o r a v o i d i n g g i v i n g d i r e c t i v e s , knowing t e a c h e r s would c o n t i n u e w i t h what was f a m i l i a r t o them. "I'm sure i t was t h e i r (Education Department) i n t e n t i o n not t o p r o p e r l y i n f o r m us because they know we t e a c h e r s have been t a u g h t t o be obedient throughout our whole s c h o o l i n g . And now I'm f e e l i n g g u i l t y because they succeeded i n t h e i r intention." On t h e o t h e r hand, however, w h i l e some t e a c h e r s expressed the  need t o accommodate t h e new b l a c k s t u d e n t s ,  they d i d v e r y l i t t l e  i n terms o f c l a s s r o o m p r a x i s o r  curriculum modification.  Accommodation was more an a t t i t u d e  some t e a c h e r s h e l d and was evidenced most by t h e i r a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n i n favour o f b l a c k students whom they p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g disadvantaged because o f background, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems, expressed t h e s e  and p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t .  Miss P e t e r s  views:  " I f a white c h i l d makes an excuse f o r not doing h e r homework, I p r o b a b l y wouldn't accept i t b u t i f a b l a c k student s a i d she was unable t o do h e r homework because t h e i r had been t r o u b l e i n the township the n i g h t b e f o r e , I would take i t s e r i o u s l y . " The P r i n c i p a l had a l s o a c t i v e l y i n t e r v e n e d and bent t h e r u l e s i n o r d e r t o accommodate a b l a c k student who wanted t o  94 r e t u r n t o s c h o o l a f t e r a pregnancy.  T h i s contravened  school  policy. "She i s a v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t student and a good r o l e model f o r the o t h e r students so I r e a l l y went out t o bat f o r her. I had a humdinger of a s t a f f meeting but I f i n a l l y succeeded i n g e t t i n g her back i n t o the s c h o o l . " On the other hand, some t e a c h e r s r e a l i s e d t h e r e was f i n e l i n e between compensating because of r e a l  a  disadvantage  and compensating out of g u i l t . "We a l s o need t o know when g u i l t i s i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h our d e c i s i o n and when i t should not i n t e r f e r e . Sometimes the g i r l s stand a t the bottom of the h i l l t a l k i n g t o t h e i r b o y f r i e n d s and then come i n l a t e and expect t o use " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems' as t h e i r excuse." Students'  Perceptions  P a r a d o x i c a l l y i t was  the b l a c k students themselves  r e s i s t e d being t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y . themselves  I t seemed t h a t they  wanted t o approximate the white western  d i s t a n c e themselves  who  norm and  from the b l a c k mass.  "The t e a c h e r s must make the b l a c k students r e a l i s e t h a t the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s , the more e f f o r t we must put i n t o it. We came t o the white s c h o o l because we l i k e t o be i n t h i s white s c h o o l so we must obey the r u l e s . " ( b l a c k student) Some b l a c k s t u d e n t s seemed t o i n t e r p r e t  the teachers  e f f o r t s on t h e i r b e h a l f as p a t r o n i s i n g . "They always f e e l p i t y f o r us. They say, "Oh, poor, poor b l a c k people. I f a b l a c k g i r l doesn't do her homework, they won't do a n y t h i n g but i f a white g i r l doesn't do i t , she's i n d e t e n t i o n . They must t r e a t us l i k e a l l o t h e r people i n the s c h o o l . We want t o show them t h a t we are a l s o human b e i n g s . We don't need t h e i r p i t y . " ( b l a c k student)  95 N e v e r t h e l e s s , they d i d a l s o b e l i e v e they warranted s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n because of t h e i r  some  lifestyle.  "Because most o f us l i v e i n t h e townships, we only g e t home a t 4.30 o r 5.30 p.m. and we s t i l l have t o do housework and then homework. Sometimes we're so t i r e d we j u s t f a l l a s l e e p on our books." (black student) While many o f t h e white students d i s p l a y e d a genuine d e s i r e t o embrace t h e b l a c k students, they were r e s e n t f u l o f the " s p e c i a l  treatment.'  "They can g e t away w i t h t h i n g s t h a t we c a n ' t . I f they don't do t h e i r homework, i t doesn't matter but i f we don't, we're jumped on. The teachers a r e s c a r e d o f them. Except Mrs. G u t h r i e t o l d them not t o expect p r i v i l e g e s because they're black. I t h i n k a l l the t e a c h e r s s h o u l d take a stand and put them i n t h e i r p l a c e i n s t e a d o f t r e a t i n g them t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t . " (white student) "One t h i n g t h a t r e a l l y h i t s me t h a t I ' l l never f o r g e t . A white student was pregnant and so she was k i c k e d o u t o f the s c h o o l . But they allowed a b l a c k student t o come back a f t e r she had a baby. She c o u l d c a r r y on w i t h her s t u d i e s a t home, they even sent her books. They do g e t e x t r a privileges. I t ' s not f a i r , t h e r e ' s f a v o u r i t i s m . " (white student) The  language p o l i c y caused the most debate.  While a l l  the t e a c h e r s acknowledged t h a t t e a c h i n g students whose mother tongue was n o t E n g l i s h , was t h e most p r o b l e m a t i c ^part of an i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l , t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n over whether E n g l i s h o n l y should be- e n f o r c e d .  The P r i n c i p a l  f e l t t h i s would n o t o n l y be i m p o s s i b l e b u t u n f a i r on t h e new students.  z  "I don't see t h a t I can a c t u a l l y f o r c e c h i l d r e n t o speak a language t h a t i s n ' t t h e i r home language. I c e r t a i n l y wouldn't f o r c e them t o speak E n g l i s h t o each o t h e r  96 a l l t h e time. I a l s o o b j e c t e d when some s t a f f wanted me t o e n f o r c e E n g l i s h o n l y i n the classroom. I think i t ' s r i d i c u l o u s when they c o u l d be h e l p i n g each other understand the s u b j e c t . " (Mrs. Todd) I r o n i c a l l y , t h e s e views c l a s h e d w i t h many b l a c k p a r e n t s ' and b l a c k students' views. "Mrs. Todd a l l o w s us t o speak Z u l u because she says we are e x p r e s s i n g o u r s e l v e s . She's wrong. She should f o r b i d it. T h i s i s an E n g l i s h s c h o o l so we must t a l k E n g l i s h . " ( b l a c k student) The b l a c k students d i d not form a homogeneous group, w i t h one view on i s s u e s ;  a d i v i s i o n was emerging between  those who had been accepted the p r e v i o u s y e a r and the new i n t a k e t h a t year.  Miss Campbell e x p l a i n e d the growing  d i v i s i o n amongst the b l a c k students over t h e language i s s u e . "Last year they a l l wanted t o speak E n g l i s h and wouldn't speak Zulu but t h i s year t h e r e ' s been almost a m i l i t a n t movement - we w i l l speak Z u l u , we a r e Zulu and you can't t e l l us t o speak E n g l i s h . Some o f them a r e even s t a r t i n g t o b u l l y t h e other b l a c k k i d s when they hear them speaking E n g l i s h , t e l l i n g them they must speak Z u l u . The b l a c k g i r l s i n S t d 9B disapprove o f . t h i s and a r e v e r y c r i t i c a l o f t h e younger, new b l a c k g i r l s . They're almost ashamed of them, they want them t o l i v e up t o t h e i r standards." T h e i r alignment  w i t h the white c u l t u r e seemed t o a r i s e  out of a thorough i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the hegemony of the dominant group. "I always wanted t o come t o a white s c h o o l s i n c e I knew t h a t people do go t o white s c h o o l s . I was s c a r e d o f white people b e f o r e , not t h a t they t e r r i f i e d me but I looked up t o them and t r e a t e d them l i k e gods." ( b l a c k student) The approximation w i t h a simultaneous  t o the white standards was o c c u r r i n g  d i s t a n c i n g from t h e b l a c k mass as can be  97 seen i n the comments of these b l a c k students when asked  how  they would f e e l about having more b l a c k students i n the s c h o o l the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . "It  w i l l be bad.  I t w i l l be  terrible."  " T h e r e ' l l be chaos. Black students are rude and n o i s y . They don't know how t o behave." P a r t of t h e i r ambivalence t h a t i t was  towards t h e i r own  culture  was  i n a s t a t e of extreme f l u x , h o v e r i n g somewhere  between r u r a l and urban, A f r i c a n and Western, t r a d i t i o n a l and post-modern, i n d u s t r i a l .  Mrs. G u t h r i e , the Zulu t e a c h e r  perceived i t thus: "The Zulu students come from a changing s o c i e t y . They don't have a c u l t u r e of t h e i r own a t t h e moment because t h e y ' r e very w e s t e r n i z e d . They l i v e i n townships, they don't have t h e i r own c u l t u r e , i t ' s more a township c u l t u r e than a Zulu c u l t u r e . I don't t h i n k they a c t u a l l y know what t h e i r c u l t u r e i s a t the moment. Some of them have never come a c r o s s t r a d i t i o n a l r i t e s . " Emerging G e n e r a t i o n  Gap  A p o t e n t i a l i s s u e was more p r o g r e s s i v e white parents.  the widening  g u l f between the  students and t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i v e  The c o n t r a s t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g two  quotes:  "I d i d n ' t want b l a c k s i n the s c h o o l a t f i r s t but I t h i n k now they s h o u l d have equal r i g h t s , i t ' s the o n l y way t h i n g s are going t o get b e t t e r . Our g e n e r a t i o n ' s seen what they are r e a l l y l i k e . Our parents don't r e a l l y understand b l a c k people the way we understand them." "When I t r y t o t e l l my f a m i l y about my b l a c k classmates or what we've done i n c l a s s , my r e l a t i v e s say, Oh, you're f r i e n d s w i t h B l a c k s . How d i s g u s t i n g 1 "  98 Miss P e t e r s v a l i d a t e d t h i s : " I t ' s tough on the white g i r l s . They j u s t run s t r a i g h t i n t o a b r i c k w a l l when they get home. They don't t e l l t h e i r parents they have b l a c k f r i e n d s because they know they'd get into trouble." RACISM Segregation There was v e r y l i t t l e i n the school. classrooms,  evidence  of p h y s i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n  I n Assembly, i n t h e playgrounds  the black g i r l s  sat together.  F o r example, i n  the A f r i k a a n s c l a s s , t h e desks were arranged f o u r long rows. two  s i d e by s i d e i n  The b l a c k students s a t next t o each other,  i n the f r o n t , t h e other seven i n t h e middle  classroom,  and i n t h e  s i d e by s i d e .  of the  T h i s s e a t i n g p a t t e r n was t h e norm  i n a l l the c l a s s e s I observed.  I t was r e i n f o r c e d by. t h e  t e a c h i n g methods which were g e n e r a l l y t e a c h e r - f r o n t e d , lecture  format.  In c l a s s e s where group work was done, t h e r e was some evidence of i n t e g r a t e d groups.  In t h e Zulu c l a s s t h e  t e a c h e r s a i d she f o r c e d them t o mix d u r i n g o r a l work so t h e b l a c k students c o u l d h e l p t h e white students w i t h t h e language. little  In c o n t r a s t t o the other c l a s s e s where v e r y  i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d between t h e r a c e s , t h e r e was a  l o t o f easy-going  r a p p o r t and involvement  with the task.  None of t h e t e a c h e r s o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s saw s e g r e g a t i o n as a problem.  •  •  I n s t e a d they saw i t as " n a t u r a l * and  •  •  ^  99 something t h a t would e v o l v e over time as they got t o know each other b e t t e r o r entered high s c h o o l from i n t e g r a t e d primary  schools.  There was a d i s t i n c t a v e r s i o n t o  i n t e r v e n i n g i n any way i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e  integration.  The P r i n c i p a l e x p l a i n e d : " I f you f o r c e i t , i t ' s going t o be seen as something imposed l i k e a p a r t h e i d was imposed - now we're imposing integration." Many t e a c h e r s f e l t t h e r e were advantages as t h e b l a c k students c o u l d h e l p one another,  e s p e c i a l l y i f i t was a  language problem as they were r e l u c t a n t t o seek help from the white s t u d e n t s .  One t e a c h e r  said:  "When t h e b l a c k g i r l s s i t t o g e t h e r they h e l p each o t h e r but i f they a r e a p a r t they would r a t h e r shout t o t h e i r f r i e n d a c r o s s t h e room than ask a white student s i t t i n g nearby." Some t e a c h e r s a l s o b e l i e v e d t h e b l a c k students produced b e t t e r work i n t h e i r own groups because they were not overshadowed by t h e w h i t e s .  T h i s seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y the  case i n s u b j e c t s where they c o u l d draw on t h e i r own c u l t u r a l backgrounds and e x p e r i e n c e s , such as c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g o r Drama. "They're on t h e i r own wavelength,, n o t shy o r i n h i b i t e d by t h e whites." (Teacher) T h i s o p i n i o n was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e b l a c k students who s a i d they would not have been a b l e t o choose t h e p l a y "Bula", w r i t t e n by a Sotho, d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s f a c i n g b l a c k s , had they been working w i t h a white group.  100 Another teacher d i s a g r e e d , however. "When t h e y ' r e mixed they tend t o f o l l o w t h e white students but when t h e y ' r e t o g e t h e r they don't always produce anything because they don't always know what t h e y ' r e d o i n g . They're very h e s i t a n t . " A l l the t e a c h e r s agreed t h a t when they d i d mix, t h e r e was no a n i m o s i t y . "They don't seem t o mind being i n mixed groups, no r e s i s t a n c e . " While t h e white  there's  students s a i d they d i d n ' t want t o be  f o r c e d t o mix, nor d i d they v o l u n t a r i l y i n t e g r a t e , admitted t o a deeper understanding  they  of t h e b l a c k students  when they were i n i n t e g r a t e d groups. "When we have them i n our groups i n c l a s s , we get t o know them b e t t e r and we l e a r n how t o work w i t h them and g e t a l o n g w i t h them." (white student) "Once I had t o do a p r o j e c t on a township and I had t o speak t o a bunch o f t h e b l a c k s t u d e n t s . I n o t i c e d t h a t when I showed i n t e r e s t i n them, a l l o f a sudden they were a l l f r i e n d s . They opened up t o me, I c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e t h e change. The atmosphere was so much b e t t e r , not n e a r l y so t e n s e , l i k e our white group and t h e i r b l a c k group." (white student) While r a c i s m i s u s u a l l y m a n i f e s t as e x c l u s i o n by t h e dominant group, a t V a l o u r High i t seemed t h a t i t was o f t e n the p o l i t i c a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e group who i n i t i a t e d t h e separation. " I t ' s not t h a t t h e white k i d s don't want t o s i t w i t h us, i t i s we who don't want t o s i t w i t h them." ( b l a c k student) There were numerous reasons f e l t dominated i n a white  group.  forthis.  Firstly  they  101 "You know how we b l a c k people a r e when we mix w i t h o t h e r r a c e s . We always f e e l i n f e r i o r so we s t i c k t o g e t h e r , we were born w i t h t h a t t h i n g ( i n f e r i o r i t y complex)." ( b l a c k student) Sometimes they were h u r t by a r a c i s t  remark.  "I used t o s i t w i t h t h i s white group but one day t h i s g i r l s a i d something about " k a f f i r s ' . I j u s t kept q u i e t and a f t e r a w h i l e they asked me what was wrong but I j u s t kept q u i e t . A f t e r she r e a l i z e d she had s a i d something wrong she gave me a c h o c o l a t e . " (black student) However, t h e most common complaint was t h a t backgrounds,  their  world views and experiences were so remote from  one another t h a t t h e r e was no p o s s i b i l i t y f o r d i a l o g u e .  The  white students seemed t o t a l l y i g n o r a n t of how p o l i t i c s determined every a s p e c t of b l a c k l i v e s . "We never s i t t o g e t h e r d u r i n g breaks o r c l a s s e s because we have d i f f e r e n t backgrounds and t h a t cannot be changed i n a y e a r o r two. We l i k e d i s c u s s i n g p o l i t i c s b u t t h e white g i r l s know n o t h i n g about t h i s . They get angry w i t h us because they t h i n k we're blaming them." ( b l a c k student) T h i s was v a l i d a t e d by the white s t u d e n t s . "I'm t o o s c a r e d t o t a l k about t h e i r l i v e s . I don't know i f they want t o t a l k about i t . Once I asked Thembi about the stayaways and she s a i d she d i d n ' t want t o t a l k about i t because we'd g e t mad." (white student) "The whole t h i n g of mixing t h e r a c e s i s t o t r y and g e t r i d o f t h i s p o l i t i c a l t h i n g and do away w i t h a p a r t h e i d . But everytime we have a f r e e t o p i c t h e b l a c k g i r l s w i l l b r i n g r i o t i n g o r some p o l i t i c a l t o p i c . The b l a c k students a r e t r y i n g t o make us f e e l g u i l t y by t a l k i n g p o l i t i c s a l l t h e time." (white student) The f o l l o w i n g quote by a b l a c k student, expresses t h e v a s t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r c e p t i o n o f each o t h e r s ' l i v e s , and d r a m a t i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t s the stereotype.  102 " The white k i d s l i v e s are so b a r r e n . We t a l k about p o l i t i c s , and t h i n g s t h a t happen i n the l o c a t i o n (township). They t a l k about boys and then they f i g h t . We can't r e l a t e t o them." (black student) Although  they b e l i e v e d the g o a l of the s c h o o l was  to  i n t e g r a t e them, l i k e the white s t u d e n t s , they d i d not want it  f o r c e d on them.  "We're supposed t o be a m u l t i - r a c i a l s c h o o l but we're not. I t h i n k i t ' s t h e g o a l of the s c h o o l t o i n t e g r a t e us but you can't f o r c e us t o mix." ( b l a c k student) Miss Campbell saw  r e s e g r e g a t i o n as a necessary  b e f o r e t r u e i n t e g r a t i o n on an equal f o o t i n g c o u l d  phase  take  place. "I t h i n k the b l a c k students are doing t h e i r b i t t o create i s o l a t i o n . Maybe they need t o get t h e i r i d e n t i t y f i r s t and then say, Here we are, now we're ready t o mix w i t h you on our terms because i n i t i a l l y they were mixing on t h e whites' terms. Now t h e y ' r e c r e a t i n g t h e i r own t u r f . " There was  even l e s s mixing  after school.  b l a c k students had v i s i t e d the white g i r l s '  A few of the  homes but  because of the v i o l e n c e i n the townships, t h i s had not been reciprocated.  Not  o n l y was  t h i s due  t o the f a c t t h a t most  of the b l a c k p u p i l s had t o leave d i r e c t l y a f t e r s c h o o l t o c a t c h buses t o the townships, but a l o t of o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the bus friendships.  The  socialising  t r i p which s o l i d i f i e d  their  P r i n c i p a l s a i d t h e r e were some f r i e n d s h i p s  among the f i v e b l a c k students who  l i v e d i n the  Woodsville  area. "They have i n t e g r a t e d more than the b l a c k p u p i l s who come i n a body on the bus from the o u t l y i n g townships."  103 • Racist Incidents R a c i s t i n c i d e n t s , when they o c c u r r e d , were crude and b l a t a n t , p e r p e t r a t e d g e n e r a l l y by o t h e r s t u d e n t s , and c o n s i s t i n g of i n s u l t s and demeaning b e h a v i o u r .  Miss P e t e r s  explained: "Racism m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f w i t h d e r o g a t o r y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s because we're a l l brought up w i t h t h i s k i n d of a t t i t u d e . " One  of the most v o l a t i l e i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a  debate i n S t d 9B between the very outspoken and i n t e l l i g e n t Nonku and a white  student, Karen whom t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d as  a "rabid r a c i s t ' .  Karen had asked why t h e townships were so  filthy.  students t o l d h e r not t o say such  The white  "stupid  t h i n g s ' w h i l e t h e b l a c k students swarmed around Nonku i n support of h e r . Miss Campbell,  who was t e a c h i n g them, s a i d t h e c l a s s  had been p o l a r i z e d ever s i n c e , with a p a l p a b l e undercurrent of  tension.  As a r e s u l t she had t o t r e a d v e r y c a r e f u l l y and  not t a l k p o l i t i c s as i t was t o o inflammatory.  She s a i d she  would have l i k e t o have a i r e d t h e problem b u t t h e white g i r l s had begged h e r not t o b r i n g i t up w h i l e t h e b l a c k g i r l s had j u s t "simmered". Consequently  i t had never been  mentioned again a l t h o u g h many t e a c h e r s , and both t h e b l a c k and white s t u d e n t s , had t a l k e d about i t t o me - i t had o b v i o u s l y l e f t deep s c a r s .  us.  Nonku d e s c r i b e d i t t h u s :  "I t h i n k Karen hates us; she can't even pretend t o l i k e When she asked us why i t was always d i r t y i n t h e  104 l o c a t i o n s , we c o u l d n ' t answer her because we were so angry, some of us were even c r y i n g . We would have t o l d her t h a t garbage i s p i c k e d up from the white areas and dumped i n the l o c a t i o n s (townships)". Karen expressed  her p o s i t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g  way:  "I'm k i n d of l i k e the odd one out i n the c l a s s . I've been brought up i n a r a c i s t background. I'd r a t h e r j u s t not a s s o c i a t e with b l a c k s . I've been spoken t o by the P r i n c i p a l and the teachers so now I j u s t keep i t t o myself i f t h e y ' r e g e t t i n g on my nerves. The other white g i r l s don't n e c e s s a r i l y d i s a g r e e w i t h me - they mainly keep out of i t . " Another r a c i s t i n c i d e n t r e v o l v e d around a number of t h e f t s which were blamed on a b l a c k student even though the teachers t o l d me "opened'.  t h i e v i n g had o c c u r r e d b e f o r e the s c h o o l  Even the b l a c k j a n i t o r i a l s t a f f accused the b l a c k  students. "When we had only white k i d s i n the s c h o o l t h e r e were no problems but now we have these l i t t l e b l a c k s and we. have problems." (black j a n i t o r i a l s t a f f ) T h i s comment probably r e i n f o r c e s the b l a c k  students  p r i o r o p i n i o n t h a t the j a n i t o r i a l s t a f f were " j e a l o u s of them' and a l s o serves t o h i g h l i g h t the extent t o which b l a c k people were s o c i a l i z e d i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h e i r own L a c k i n g any c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding  inferiority.  and  training  or knowledge of a n t i - r a c i s t education, t e a c h e r s were equipped  ill-  t o d e a l w i t h these i n c i d e n t s and responded t o them  on a s i m p l i s t i c ad hoc b a s i s . Miss P e t e r s , one  of the most l i b e r a l and w e l l - r e s p e c t e d  t e a c h e r s , d e s c r i b e d how  she had handled  a s i t u a t i o n when a  white c h i l d had accused  b l a c k s of being d i r t y and  untidy.  "I t o l d her t o open her because she's a proper l i t t l e b l a c k g i r l s t o open her desk pin. So I s a i d t o the white She was very embarrassed."  105 desk and t h e r e was a mess p i g . Then I asked one of the and i t was b e a u t i f u l , neat as a c h i l d , How can you say t h a t ?  A l l the b l a c k students p r a i s e d t h e i r t e a c h e r s f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s t o be t o l e r a n t and n o n - r a c i s t .  However, an  Indian  student complained  about a t e a c h e r ' s i n t o l e r a n c e towards her  Hindu r e l i g i o n and  culture.  "My t e a c h e r makes me f e e l bad about my c u l t u r e . She t o l d me t o take o f f the s t r i n g around my w r i s t which Hindus wear f o r p r o t e c t i o n . My mother had t o speak t o the P r i n c i p a l who gave me p e r m i s s i o n t o wear i t . " Some t e a c h e r s f a i l e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r a c t i o n s as racist,  saying,  children."  "How  can I be r a c i s t when I t e a c h b l a c k  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s same t e a c h e r had t o l d  c l a s s she p e r s o n a l l y thought  miscegenation  quoted the B i b l e t o support her Student  was  her  unnatural  and  viewpoint.  P e r c e p t i o n s of the Other  A constant theme amongst the white students was  a  r e j e c t i o n of any attempt t o t a l k p o l i t i c s or take responsibility for apartheid. "Some of the g i r l s r e a l l y have an a t t i t u d e , l i k e we owe them something. I t h i n k i t was the g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e us t h a t imposed a p a r t h e i d . I don't t h i n k we should bear the consequences of what p e o p l e d i d i n t h e p a s t . " (white student) On the o t h e r hand, g i v e n the r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time s c h o o l had been "open' and the thoroughness of t h e i r u p b r i n g i n g , many of the white students  expressed  s u r p r i s i n g l y s e n s i t i v e and p r o g r e s s i v e views.  the  racist  106 " I f a s m a l l group of white c h i l d r e n were going t o a b l a c k s c h o o l , we'd a l s o s t i c k t o g e t h e r and s t i c k up f o r our r i g h t s because i t ' s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f o r them t o go i n t o a s c h o o l f o r the f i r s t time and be accepted. I put myself i n t h e i r shoes a l l t h e time." (white student) "They've had a hard l i f e , l i k e t h e way they've been t r e a t e d by us. I t ' s hard f o r them t o come t o a s c h o o l l i k e t h i s and they don't know how t h e y ' r e going t o be t r e a t e d by us."(white student) . s  They a l s o p r a i s e d t h e way the b l a c k students i n t e r a c t e d w i t h each other i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r own behaviour. "They always have a game t o p l a y , t h e y ' r e never bored. And i f they l o s e , they j u s t laugh i t o f f . Not l i k e us, when we p l a y games we always f i g h t . " ( w h i t e student) "They spend time w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s and r e s p e c t them more, not l i k e us." (white student) . "They never s c a n d a l about anyone l i k e we do. There was t h i s b l a c k g i r l t h a t they a l l hated but they d i d n ' t l e a v e her out, they would always i n c l u d e her. I f we don't l i k e someone,, t h a t ' s i t , they can go and do what they want."(white student) r  The white students d i s t i n g u i s h e d between t h e i r b l a c k schoolmates  and t h e b l a c k p o p u l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l .  Consequently,  when they made derogatory remarks, they were  s u r p r i s e d when t h e b l a c k students took o f f e n c e . "These g i r l s a r e not your average b l a c k on t h e s t r e e t . Some g i r l s i n s u l t them but not i n t e n t i o n a l l y . You would be t a l k i n g and say something about b l a c k people and t h e y ' l l be behind you and take i t t h e wrong way;" (white student) The b l a c k students a l s o had entrenched  racial  s t e r e o t y p e s o f t h e white s t u d e n t s . "They (the whites) can't even p i c k up a p i e c e o f paper. We a r e d i f f e r e n t . We're taught t o be c l e a n . When I touch a white person, they say, "Oh, don't touch me," but I t h i n k the b l a c k maid j u s t washed t h e i r c l o t h e s and cooked f o r them." (black student)  107 While t h e b l a c k students i n 9B, who had been i n t h e s c h o o l f o r 18 months, had formed a s e l f - c o n f i d e n t and cohesive group,  they r e c a l l e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y  when they f i r s t a r r i v e d .  They a l s o c r i t i c i z e d t h e new b l a c k  students f o r t h e i r obsequiousness themselves  and f o r a l l o w i n g  t o be debased by some of t h e white s t u d e n t s .  "Remember they used t o make us s i n g . Come and s i n g f o r us. They were making us s t u p i d and we'd come and s i n g and they'd laugh and laugh. And they'd always g r i n a t us. I j u s t hated t h a t . " (black student) "I hate the way the young b l a c k g i r l s run a f t e r t h e white g i r l s t o t r y t o be f r i e n d s . They say t h e y ' l l buy them c h o c o l a t e s and sew t h e i r d r e s s e s . " Miss Campbell  acknowledged t h a t some of the new, young  b l a c k students had i n t e r n a l i z e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e . "In my S t d . 6 c l a s s , they were doing a p l a y t h a t c a l l e d f o r a s e r v a n t . There's o n l y one b l a c k g i r l i n the group so guess who had t o be the servant! They were angels and c a r o l s i n g e r s and she was t h e s e r v a n t . And she was q u i t e happy j u s t as l o n g as she had a p a r t i n t h e p l a y . " The r e a c t i o n s o f t h e b l a c k students t o t h i s k i n d o f treatment v a r i e d .  Some were e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p a t i e n t and  understanding, such as Conise, who s a i d she d i d n ' t f e e l angry when her white neighbours put up a c o n c r e t e fence around t h e i r p r o p e r t y .  She s a i d she understood i t wasn't  easy f o r some people t o accept b l a c k s . " I t ' l l take time. I'm sure a f t e r 10 years t h e y ' l l to us." The most common r e a c t i o n o f t h e b l a c k students t o r a c i s m was p a s s i v e aquiescence.  speak  108 "We  don't say a n y t h i n g , we  just, i g n o r e i t . "  (black  student) Some of the more c o n f i d e n t students were r e a c t i n g more b o l d l y and r e f u s i n g t o a l l o w the white s t u d e n t s t o push them around. "So we t o l d them when they ordered us t o r e t u r n the t e n n i s b a l l s , " I f i t ' s going t o take us two minutes t o do, then i t must take you two m i n u t e s ! " and we j u s t l e f t . They c a l l e d a f t e r us, "You l a z y bums!" ( b l a c k student) One  f o r t h r i g h t and v o l a t i l e  unique way  of h a n d l i n g the  b l a c k student had her  own  situation:  "The whites b e l i e v e we b l a c k s are a g g r e s s i v e because they see most of the v i o l e n c e and k i l l i n g s done by b l a c k s and so they are a f r a i d of us. I myself am v e r y a g g r e s s i v e towards them, so I say, " I ' l l k i l l you," j u s t t o make them afraid. They t h i n k I'm r a c i s t but the way they t r e a t us makes us a g g r e s s i v e towards them." Conise summed up the a t t i t u d e s of the white  students.  towards them: "You get t h r e e d i f f e r e n t groups - those who p r e t e n d they l i k e you, those who hate you and those who are v e r y s i n c e r e i n l o v i n g you. Those ones don't mind you coming t o t h e i r house or t h e i r mom s h a r i n g her c a r , o r even h a v i n g p a r t i e s together." PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES According to desegregation t h e o r i s t s , pedagogical i s s u e s are connected t o e f f e c t i v e race r e l a t i o n s academic'performance .  and  In t h i s s e c t i o n I w i l l examine what  t h e t e a c h e r s a t V a l o u r G i r l s ' High are d o i n g i n t h e i r classrooms  i n o r d e r t o determine  i n the South A f r i c a n c o n t e x t .  i f t h i s assumption  i s valid  109 Teaching Methods Most of the c l a s s e s were grounded i n t r a d i t i o n a l pedagogy: they were t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d , w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s t a n d i n g a t the f r o n t of t h e c l a s s , i m p a r t i n g knowledge i n lecture-format.  Desks were arranged i n p a i r s , i n l o n g rows,  f a c i n g the teacher.  B l a c k students s a t t o g e t h e r e i t h e r i n a  s o l i d b l o c k o r i n clumps o f twos and f o u r s amongst t h e white s t u d e n t s .  T h i s was t h e p a t t e r n i n a l l t h e c l a s s e s I  observed u n l e s s they were s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o mixed groups as was the case i n Zulu d u r i n g o r a l work when a n a t i v e - s p e a k e r was p a i r e d w i t h a non-native The  speaker.  students f o r t h e most p a r t s a t p a s s i v e l y and  l i s t e n e d w i t h no t a l k i n g t o l e r a t e d .  Miss Young:  "You may not t a l k . T h i s i s a waste o f human time. I t i n d i c a t e s t o me t h a t you know t h e work and I know t h a t i s n ' t the case." I n f o r m a t i o n was m a i n l y l e a r n e d by r o t e through r e p e t i t i o n , d r i l l i n g and m o d e l l i n g c o r r e c t answers. Comprehension was checked through question/answer open-ended q u e s t i o n s , such as Miss P i e n a a r  format o r  asked.  "I ask i f t h e r e was anyone who d i d n ' t understand. No one puts up t h e i r hands b u t I can see (by) them frowning t h a t they d i d n ' t understand." The s t u d e n t s ' r e l u c t a n c e t o v e r b a l i z e i s e v i d e n t from t h e f o l l o w i n g quotes from t h e b l a c k s t u d e n t s : " I f you t h i n k everyone knows t h e answer except you, you become a f r a i d . That's why when t h e t e a c h e r asks i f we understand we a l l say y e s ' . " v  "You can't ask a n y t h i n g when you don't know what a n y t h i n g means." The whole system was  110  exam d r i v e n , w i t h the s c h o o l -  l e a v i n g m a t r i c u l a t i o n exam determining  pedagogy.  "There's no time t o teach, no time t o prepare c r e a t i v e l e s s o n s . The m a t r i c exam i s what r u l e s us a l l . You hear t e a c h e r s s a y i n g , "I got 5As" as i f they'd w r i t t e n the exam themselves. I n s p e c t o r s s c o l d you i f t h e marks are low. I know our t e a c h i n g methods are inadequate but everyone w i l l t e l l you i t ' s the o n l y way t o get through the s y l l a b u s . " (teacher) Formal exams were h e l d i n the second and f o u r t h terms, w i t h r e g u l a r t e s t i n g i n the f i r s t and t h i r d terms. E n t i r e 40 minute l e s s o n s were spent r e v i e w i n g t e s t s ; students were s c o l d e d f o r poor marks and t o l d t o study harder. two  Sometimes the students had t o r e p e a t the same t e s t  or t h r e e times u n t i l they a t t a i n e d  100%.  None of the t e a c h e r s had changed t h e i r t e a c h i n g methods, except t o go more s l o w l y , which i n v o l v e d u s i n g s i m p l e r vocabulary or e x p l a i n i n g the v o c a b u l a r y .  They  saw  language p r o f i c i e n c y as the s i n g l e f a c t o r impeding b l a c k students' progress.  Miss Young:  "I've always thought I was a good t e a c h e r but I can't n e c e s s a r i l y say the same w i t h b l a c k c h i l d r e n . . A l o t i s because of the language d i f f i c u l t y . I don't know how t o t e a c h language because I'm unable t o t e a c h geographic v o c a b u l a r y i n a way they would understand." T h i s was  a l s o e v i d e n t i n c l a s s e s such as B i o l o g y , where  the v o c a b u l a r y was  very s p e c i f i c .  f o r s p e l l i n g mistakes  , such as l i t  Students  were p e n a l i z e d  f o r l i t m u s , even though  1  111 the t e a c h e r acknowledged the student had  understood  conceptually. A l o t of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r language development f e l l on the E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s not r e c o g n i z i n g i t as p a r t of t h e i r new Miss  t e a c h i n g mandate.  Kelly:  "In c l a s s you've got t o work t o get through and you've o n l y got a f r a c t i o n of time t o spend on p u p i l s who a r e b a t t l i n g so you c a n ' t spend too many l e s s o n s on r e m e d i a l work where the o t h e r people are r o a r i n g ahead and you've got t o g i v e them t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y . " The onus was  a l s o on the b l a c k students t o " c a t c h up'  r a t h e r than on the t e a c h e r s t r y i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e learning.  Mrs.  their  Gory:  "I might ask them i f they understand or g i v e them e x t r a a t t e n t i o n because you can see t h e y ' r e not c o p i n g but p r e t t y soon they must c a t c h up and see what's expected of them." Some e f f o r t had been made t o g i v e e x t r a h e l p but i t had not been v e r y  successful.  "They t r i e d g i v i n g us e x t r a l e s s o n s but i t d i d n ' t h e l p . The more the t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s the more i t gets c o m p l i c a t e d . We need something p r a c t i c a l ; do t h i s , do t h a t . " ( b l a c k student) A few t e a c h e r s were beginning t o r e a l i s e t h a t t h e i r  new  student c l i e n t e l e would n e c e s s i t a t e a r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n of pedagogy. Mrs.  Henry:  "The b i o l o g y s y l l a b u s i s completely out of touch w i t h the needs of the b l a c k c h i l d r e n . Why should they have t o know 30 new terms every time we teach an animal or p l a n t ? We s h o u l d j u s t t e a c h p r i n c i p a l s and f o r g e t a l l these labels."  112  Some t e a c h e r s used a more s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d approach. F o r example Miss Wood's V o c a t i o n a l Guidance  c l a s s , was  g e n e r a l l y used t o d i s c u s s and guide students i n t h e i r c h o i c e of s u b j e c t s , c a r e e r s and t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n .  I t could also  be used as a forum f o r d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l behaviour, r a n g i n g from manners and e t i q u e t t e t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l  interactions.  As such t h i s s u b j e c t had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o encourage  cross-  c u l t u r a l awareness and understanding o r be a means t o s o c i a l i z e b l a c k students i n t o " a p p r o p r i a t e ' behaviour. Miss Wood was one of the few t e a c h e r s d o i n g any k i n d of p r o f e s s i o n a l development; she was t a k i n g a course on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m a t t h e Teachers' T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e i n o r d e r t o upgrade her t e a c h i n g diploma. The c l a s s I observed was d i s c u s s i n g  "relationships'  Miss Wood brainstormed t h e meaning of t h e word. l o t of response from t h e whole c l a s s .  There was a  Four b l a c k students  and two whites were asked t o share t h e i r views.  She then  asked them t o w r i t e down any i n c i d e n t s when they d i d n ' t get on w i t h f a m i l y members, f r i e n d s , peers, t e a c h e r s and b o y f r i e n d s and then t o express what they would have l i k e t o happen.  She gave them about  10 minutes  wanted t o share t h e i r s t o r i e s .  and then asked who  Again t h e r e was an  e n t h u s i a s t i c response from the whole c l a s s . white students and two b l a c k t o share t h e i r  She chose two stories.  The whole c l a s s was v e r y a t t e n t i v e and i n t e r e s t e d d u r i n g the t e l l i n g o f t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s ; they s m i l e d a l o t ,  113 laughed,  nodded, and l e n t over t o comment t o t h e i r  neighbour.  T h i s seemed t o suggest  t o me t h a t not o n l y were  the s t o r i e s e n t e r t a i n i n g but they c o u l d a l s o i d e n t i f y them.  with  They seemed t o have a common t h r e a d - they a l l had  chosen f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h r e e of t h e f o u r s t o r i e s d e a l t w i t h p e r c e i v e d u n f a i r n e s s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , who had f o c u s s e d on a n e g a t i v e aspect of t h e i r  behaviour,  overlooking t h e i r p o s i t i v e actions. I had been warned t h a t t h i s c l a s s was v e r y p o l a r i z e d and v o l a t i l e y e t t h i s a c t i v i t y seemed t o f i n d common ground amongst them a l l .  I t h i g h l i g h t e d the s i m i l a r i t i e s between  the r a c e s , e s p e c i a l l y among teenagers, p a r e n t a l problems.  f a c e d w i t h common  They r e a l l y seemed t o l i s t e n t o each  o t h e r ' s s t o r i e s w i t h understanding  and good-natured  sympathy. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n School Classroom  Life  p a r t i c i p a t i o n g e n e r a l l y took t h e form o f  students r a i s i n g t h e i r hands i n response question. response  t o a teacher's  There was no d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e from b l a c k and white s t u d e n t s .  However t e a c h e r s  tended t o ask d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more b l a c k than white students. An example was i n t h e General S c i e n c e c l a s s , where b l a c k s made up o n l y 30% o f t h e c l a s s , y e t t h e t e a c h e r s i x b l a c k students and f o u r white s t u d e n t s .  asked  Similarly i n  t h e 9B E n g l i s h c l a s s , w h i l e many hands were r a i s e d t o g i v e  114 examples o f i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , the t e a c h e r c a l l e d upon t h r e e b l a c k and two white p u p i l s . One reason, a c c o r d i n g t o t e a c h e r s , was t o encourage more b l a c k p a r t i c i p a t i o n as t e a c h e r s found t h e b l a c k students i n the lower grades shy and r e t i c e n t i n c l a s s . Another reason c o u l d have been my presence t e a c h e r s t o behave i n a way they thought third  which i n f l u e n c e d  I wanted t o see.  reason c o u l d have been an unconscious  A  attempt t o  compensate f o r p r e v i o u s n e g l e c t . N e i t h e r b l a c k nor white students i n i t i a t e d many q u e s t i o n s , but when they d i d , t h e r e was l i t t l e difference.  racial  When t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i t was u s u a l l y  because of b l a c k r a t h e r than white i n i t i a t i v e . For example a t a t a l k on A i d s d u r i n g r e c e s s , where t h e r e were 80 s t u d e n t s , o n l y t h r e e of whom were b l a c k , t h e o n l y person who i n i t i a t e d a q u e s t i o n was a b l a c k  student.  While t r a n s p o r t m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t much p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a f t e r n o o n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r events, b l a c k participated actively i n activities  students  scheduled a t r e c e s s ,  e s p e c i a l l y those t h a t i n v o l v e d p o l i t i c s o r community projects. Miss P e t e r s s a i d t h e b l a c k parents were f a r more s u p p o r t i v e o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s than t h e white parents.  She e x p l a i n e d how t h e b l a c k mothers had c a r -  p o o l e d t o b r i n g t h e i r daughters  t o r e h e a r s a l s every n i g h t  115 for  a T a l e n t Night, had remained t o watch and encourage them  and taken them back home t o the townships a f t e r w a r d s .  (who  " I t was a tremendous c o n t r i b u t i o n . The white parents l i v e d nearby) would never have dreamed of doing t h a t . " The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r , Miss W i l l i a m s , s a i d the  b l a c k students were keen on p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p o r t when they c o u l d and were v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of team c o m p e t i t i o n s . " I f a house c a p t a i n t e l l s them t o support a match, the b l a c k g i r l s w i l l , whereas the whites w i l l say "What f o r ? ' and l e a v e . " Netball  ( b a s k e t b a l l ) was  the most p o p u l a r s p o r t w i t h  one b l a c k student on the A team and 3 on the B team. o n l y reason t h e r e weren't more on the A team was  The  because  they had t o c a t c h buses home and because of t h e i r involvement  in political  groups,  such as the Durban Youth  I n t e r a c t i o n Committee (DYIC), a c c o r d i n g t o Miss W i l l i a m s . She  f e l t t h a t b e i n g on mixed teams helped them t o  i n t e r a c t more n a t u r a l l y  .  On the other hand, one of the  b l a c k students s a i d i t a l s o brought the c o n s e r v a t i v e white p a r e n t s who d i f f e r e n t events.  them i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t r a n s p o r t e d the teams t o  These parents sometimes used  and d e r o g a t o r y language which was  insensitive  very h u r t f u l t o the b l a c k  students. Behaviour B e h a v i o u r a l problems amongst b l a c k students have o f t e n been c i t e d i n d e s e g r e g a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e due mainly the g r e a t e r number of b l a c k s moving i n t o white  to  s c h d b l s than  116 v i c e - v e r s a ; hence t h e onus i s always on them t o make t h e a p p r o p r i a t e adjustment  t o d i f f e r e n t sets of r u l e s ,  cultural  and b e h a v i o u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . One of the g r e a t e s t f e a r s of parents and t e a c h e r s when V a l o u r High admitted b l a c k students was an a n t i c i p a t e d i n standards of behaviour.  drop  However a l l t h e t e a c h e r s agreed  t h a t these f e a r s had not m a t e r i a l i z e d .  Mrs. G u t h r i e :  "We expected major b e h a v i o u r a l problems. But they've (black students) had t o come i n t o t h e s i t u a t i o n , handle t h e boundaries, l e a r n what they c a n and c a n ' t do whereas our g i r l s (whites) a r e expected t o know what they do o r don't do." On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e i r c h i e f complaint was t h a t t h e b l a c k students were o f t e n shy, l a c k e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , were not used t o speaking up i n c l a s s o r a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . misunderstandings  d i d occur such as i n a t e s t i n g  Some  situation  where b l a c k students were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e " r u l e o f s i l e n t , independent  work' a c c o r d i n g t o Mrs G u t h r i e .  One of the problems was t h a t the t e a c h e r s knew o n l y the C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n system and were i g n o r a n t o f the k i n d o f s c h o o l i n g t h e b l a c k students had been through. Consequently,  they were a t a l o s s as t o how t o modify  teaching or expectations.  their  Mrs G u t h r i e :  "We a r e used t o g e t t i n g p u p i l s who came through a s c h o o l system we a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h . Now we a r e g e t t i n g p u p i l s and we don't know what s c h o o l i n g they've had. We c a n ' t expect them t o behave i n ways t h a t we a r e used t o because we don't know what standards were s e t i n t h e i r schools." The South A f r i c a n s c h o o l system promotes d i s c i p l i n e and encourages  p a s s i v e , obedient and a t t e n t i v e  117 students.  Mrs J o r y :  " I t ' s c r i t i c a l t h a t I have a p e a c e f u l and r e l a x e d environment, t h a t w h i l e I'm t a l k i n g the p u p i l s w i l l be a b s o l u t e l y s t i l l , they won't even f i d d l e o r touch a book; t h e y ' l l j u s t s i t and l i s t e n . " Teachers,  l i k e s t u d e n t s , were expected  t o obey  u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y and a c c e p t t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y . Miss Young: "Teachers have t y p i c a l l y gone along w i t h t h e system and been l i t t l e puppets. We've grown up through a v e r y s t r i c t C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n and even as t e a c h e r s , we've been taught t o be good and obedient." j Consequently, up-heaval,  i n t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l  v e r y few o f them took the i n i t i a t i v e i n  i n t r o d u c i n g change i n t h e i r classrooms. . However, they were eager t o l e a r n and many asked me f o r a d v i c e and suggestions t o h e l p them teach i n a m u l t i r a c i a l c l a s s .  Miss Cane:  "The t e a c h e r s r e a l l y don't know how t o cope w i t h b l a c k ESL students i n t h e i r c l a s s ; t h e y ' r e j u s t fumbling i n t h e dark. I hope you can g i v e us some advice and s u g g e s t i o n s . " D e s p i t e the emphasis on d i s c i p l i n e , and q u i e t , a t t e n t i v e students, most of t h e teachers lenient,  usually setting  were q u i t e  students work and l e t t i n g them g e t  on w i t h i t , only i n t e r v e n i n g i f t h e n o i s e l e v e l got t o o high.  A l a i s s e z f a i r e a t t i t u d e predominated w i t h i n a  framework o f g e n e r a l acquiescence, behaviour.  and moderate, p a s s i v e  I t seemed as i f t h e students knew t h e l i m i t s and  had i n t e r n a l i z e d t h e r u l e s .  118 T h i s a t t i t u d e promoted a s u p e r f i c i a l atmosphere o f harmony although Miss Campbell f e l t t h a t i t masked underlying r a c i a l tensions. " I t keeps some c o n t r o l but maybe i n t h e l o n g run i t ' l l take l o n g e r f o r us t o overcome o b s t a c l e s because we're not d e a l i n g w i t h them. People look a t my c l a s s (9 B) and t h i n k t h e y ' r e marvellous because they're doing w e l l a c a d e m i c a l l y and t h e y ' r e such fun but I can f e e l the t e n s i o n i n t h e c l a s s every day." Punishment, mostly occur, tended  i n t h e form o f s c o l d i n g , when i t d i d  t o be d i r e c t and harsh but was meted out t o  b l a c k and white students a l i k e ; t e a c h e r threatened  F o r example, t h e A f r i k a a n s  " t o break a b l a c k c h i l d ' s f i n g e r s " i f she  s c r i b b l e d i n her t e x t book again  .  She a l s o y e l l e d a t seven  b l a c k students who came i n t o c l a s s l a t e . did  not modify t h i s behaviour  The f a c t t h a t she  i n f r o n t o f me i n d i c a t e d t o me  t h a t she probably would have r e a c t e d i n the same way t o white  students. Another t e a c h e r p u b l i c l y c r i t i c i z e d one o f t h e white  s t u d e n t s , c a u s i n g t h e student t o b u r s t i n t o t e a r s and f l e e the room. - , Teachers  were f a i r l y  s e n s i t i v e t o the f a c t t h a t some  punishment would have a h a r s h e r e f f e c t on t h e b l a c k  girls,  e s p e c i a l l y d e t e n t i o n because of t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems.  T h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d as f a v o u r i t i s m by t h e white  students.  Mrs. G u t h r i e :  "I sometimes g i v e d e t e n t i o n s but i f they say they s t a y because they have buses t o c a t c h , I l e t them come l u n c h break. But I don't r e a l l y b e l i e v e i n punishment t h i s p o i n t i n time. You're going t o be p u n i s h i n g them  can't at at daily  119 bewildered  f o r t h i n g s they're not used t o or j u s t t o t a l l y by." White students:  "The b l a c k students get away w i t h murder. I f we a n y t h i n g wrong, we're jumped on, but they never get detentions." Most t e a c h e r s f e l t  t h a t t h e r e was  little  impact  behaviour because the b l a c k students were s t i l l  do  on  a small  m i n o r i t y and f e l t i n s e c u r e about t h e i r s t a t u s so adapted t o the white model and s c h o o l r u l e s . were concerned  However, some t e a c h e r s  t h a t t h i s would not be p o s s i b l e w i t h  i n f l u x of b l a c k s t u d e n t s .  Mrs.  an  Jory:  " I f we had a whole c l a s s of b l a c k c h i l d r e n , how would I survive? I say f i t the mould otherwise I can't cope." I r o n i c a l l y , the b l a c k students themselves f e l t the same way  and were unanimously adamant t h a t more b l a c k  would have a negative e f f e c t on  students  behaviour.  "There would be chaos i f more b l a c k s came i n t o the s c h o o l . The b l a c k s t u d e n t s are rude; they don't know how t o behave." Academic  Standards  Another f e a r of i n t e g r a t i o n at V a l o u r High was i n academic standards.  a drop  However, based on c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h  the t e a c h e r s and students about student performance, o b s e r v i n g the a b i l i t y groupings  both between c l a s s e s and  w i t h i n c l a s s e s and l o o k i n g a t some t e s t s c o r e s , i t appeared t h a t t h i s f e a r had not m a t e r i a l i s e d .  Teachers  indicated  t h a t t h e b l a c k s t u d e n t s ' l i m i t e d language p r o f i c i e n c y  was  120 l i k e l y t o be the b i g g e s t impediment t o b l a c k s t u d e n t s ' progress.  Mrs  Jory:  "I don't want t h e r e t o be a drop i n academic standards, t h a t ' s why I'm keen t o take o n l y the k i d s t h a t speak good E n g l i s h . As l o n g as you can understand E n g l i s h , t h e r e ' s no d i f f e r e n c e between b l a c k and white s t u d e n t s . " While the b l a c k students d i d p o o r l y i n A f r i k a a n s which was  t h e i r t h i r d language and e x c e l l e d i n Zulu, t h e i r  first  language, most t e a c h e r s f e l t i n the o t h e r s u b j e c t s , t h e y " s l o t t e d i n ' , some a t the top, some a t the bottom and r e s t i n t e r s p e r s e d amongst the white They were a t a disadvantage  students.  in scientific  because of the s p e c i a l i s e d v o c a b u l a r y penalised  .  Miss  the  subjects  f o r which they were  Kelly:  "I sometimes, very r a r e l y , g i v e them a mark i f I can see what t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g about but 1 cannot normally because they w i l l have t o the w r i t e m a t r i c . exam and t h e y ' l l be penalized for spelling errors." "Status i n s e c u r i t y ' c o u l d account  f o r the academic  success of the b l a c k students and c o n v e r s e l y the l a c k of ambition of t h e white students. "I wanted t o show the white people t h a t we c o u l d a l s o do i t . A l l of us i n t h i s c l a s s (9B) are i n the top t e n p o s i t i o n s . And S i k o s e here, she's number one or number two i n the c l a s s . " ( b l a c k student) The white students had i n i t i a l l y  r e a c t e d w i t h shock and  anger a t the academic success of the b l a c k students as s t r u g g l e d t o r e c o n c i l e t h i s image w i t h the  they  negative  s t e r e o t y p e of b l a c k i n f e r i o r i t y w i t h which they had been raised.  Miss  Campbell:  121 "Miss P e t e r s used t o c a l l out t h e t e s t marks of t h e t o p f i v e students i n E n g l i s h and t h r e e o u t o f t h e f i v e would be b l a c k . The white g i r l s were stunned." T h i s a t t i t u d e d i d not go u n n o t i c e d by the b l a c k students. "At f i r s t , l a s t y e a r , they (white students) were so angry w i t h us but now t h e y ' r e used t o us, they r e c o g n i z e us and we a r e proud of o u r s e l v e s . " S i k o s e p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e white s t u d e n t s ' o r i g i n a l f r i e n d l i n e s s a r o s e o u t o f complacency, " s t a t u s s e c u r i t y ' which gave way t o anger once t h e i r s t a t u s was t h r e a t e n e d . "I t h i n k i t was good f o r t h e whites when we came here because they l e a r n t t o accept t h a t b l a c k s have t h e a b i l i t y t o do a n y t h i n g . When we came here they thought we'd be below them and t h e y ' d be on t o p . That's why they d i d n ' t worry. They were v e r y f r i e n d l y but as t h e days went on they s t a r t e d not being f r i e n d l y . " T h i s a t t i t u d e was v e r i f i e d by t h e white students who said: " I f a b l a c k student does b e t t e r , t h e o t h e r k i d s g e t mad. My mom a l s o g e t s mad. She says i f b l a c k s can do i t why can't you." However, some white students seemed t o be coming t o terms w i t h t h e concept of b l a c k achievement. "I expected them t o be a b i t c l e v e r e r than t h e w h i t e s . We've b a s i c a l l y g o t , e v e r y t h i n g and they d i d n ' t have much, so when they g e t t h e advantage o f a s c h o o l l i k e t h i s , I don't t h i n k they'd miss t h e o p p o r t u n i t y . " (white student) Ability  Groupings  A b i l i t y groupings a r e endemic t o t h e South A f r i c a n e d u c a t i o n system.  Each standard i s d i v i d e d i n t o A,B,C,D  c l a s s based on academic a b i l i t y determined by examination results.  There i s a f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between h i g h e r  122 grade and standard grade w i t h t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g a m o d i f i e d s y l l a b u s w i t h s i m p l i f i e d q u e s t i o n s i n the standard  grade.  The q u e s t i o n i s whether t h i s model can be maintained i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l a s s and what a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a b i l i t y groupings  i n t r y i n g t o provide a l l the students with  e f f e c t i v e education. In  f o u r of t h e c l a s s e s I observed,  students had t o c a l l  out t h e i r marks which were recorded by t h e t e a c h e r . Math c l a s s they were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r  Inthe  test  r e s u l t s , w i t h t h e weakest i n t h e f r o n t row, so t h e t e a c h e r c o u l d "keep an eye on them'.  The non-white students were  evenly r e p r e s e n t e d i n both t h e "weak' and " s t r o n g ' rows. the two c l a s s e s I observed,  In  f i v e whites, three black  students and one Indian, s a t i n t h e f r o n t row, nine  whites  and f o u r b l a c k students s a t i n t h e back row (the h i g h e s t achievers).  The t e a c h e r commented t h a t t h e students worked  hard t o move back and the students who improved were praised.  The s t u d e n t s , b l a c k and white,  seemed c o m p l e t e l y  c o m f o r t a b l e and unembarrassed by t h i s r o u t i n e . There was a h i g h e r percentage  o f b l a c k students i n t h e  C and D c l a s s e s , mainly due t o l i m i t e d language p r o f i c i e n c y . At t h e time o f t h e study l i t t l e o r no language support was a v a i l a b l e and most t e a c h e r s saw i t as an " E n g l i s h Department problem'.  The P r i n c i p a l p o i n t e d out t h a t once t h e language  improved t h e b l a c k students made r a p i d p r o g r e s s and were o f t e n promoted i n t o h i g h e r a b i l i t y  classes.  123 However, t h e b l a c k students were not c o n s i s t e n t l y i n the a c a d e m i c a l l y lower c l a s s e s .  F o r example S t d . 9B, t h e  second h i g h e s t grouping, had one o f t h e l a r g e s t numbers o f black students. A b i l i t y groupings d i d , however, j e o p a r d i z e b l a c k students when they were put i n an A c l a s s .  Because t h e r e  were few b l a c k students i n t h e A c l a s s e s , t h e ones who d i d "make i t ' , o f t e n f e l t uncomfortable  and asked t o be demoted.  "I am t h e o n l y b l a c k i n t h e A c l a s s . I don't f e e l comfortable. When the c l a s s d i v i d e s i n t o groups, they i g n o r e me and I have t o go and ask i f I can be i n t h e i r group." ( b l a c k student) Teachers  a t V a l o u r High had an, extremely  low ,  d i s r e s p e c t f u l a t t i t u d e towards s t u d e n t s , white and b l a c k , i n the lower a b i l i t y c l a s s e s .  Derogatory  remarks were  f r e q u e n t l y made d i r e c t l y t o me o r openly amongst t h e t e a c h e r s themselves "You  .  c a n ' t do much with these dummies."  "You c a n ' t do much with t h i s c l a s s - t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t h e r e . They're h o p e l e s s . They don't have the background." Connected t o a b i l i t y groups was t h e power s t r u c t u r e as most o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s went t o students i n t h e A class.  T h i s impacted  n e g a t i v e l y on t h e b l a c k students as  they were underrepresented  i n the A c l a s s .  While t h e  P r i n c i p a l f e l t t h i s d i d u n f a i r l y exclude b l a c k s from  certain  l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s , she f e l t t h e e x c l u s i o n o f whites i n lower a b i l i t y c l a s s e s from l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s was j u s t i f i e d .  i.Z.'i  "This q u e s t i o n of the As d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g , I t h i n k i t ' s the nature of the beast. Those are the c h i l d r e n who are i n t o e v e r y t h i n g and want t o do t h i n g s . The o t h e r s come from f a m i l i e s where you only s i t w i t h your beer and watch TV Some of the f a m i l i e s have no background, no c u l t u r e , n o t h i n g and so the c h i l d r e n come through wondering why they s h o u l d bother t o t r y . " (Mrs. Todd) W i t h i n each c l a s s , however, the b l a c k students were i n l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s such as c l a s s c a p t a i n s , arid were sent leadership courses.  They were a l s o g i v e n  on  equal  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by the t e a c h e r s , such as running errands d e l i v e r i n g messages.  Mrs.  or  Jory:  "The b l a c k students take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y more seriously. They make sure they have the c o r r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n s b e f o r e c a r r y i n g out my r e q u e s t . " C u r r i c u l u m Changes There had been l i t t l e c u r r i c u l u m change s i n c e the admission  of b l a c k s t u d e n t s .  t e a c h e r s , was  The main reason, a c c o r d i n g t o  because the m a t r i c u l a t i o n exam determined  should be taught and t h i s had t o be changed f i r s t . s a i d they had been g i v e n no d i r e c t i v e s from the Department, so assumed they were expected usual.  what  Teachers  Education  to continue  as  Moreover, the V i c e - P r i n c i p a l p o i n t e d out t h a t the  t e a c h e r s had taught the same c u r r i c u l u m f o r y e a r s so were v e r y f a m i l i a r and comfortable w i t h i t and r e l u c t a n t t o throw it  a l l out.  " I t ' s q u i t e a c o n f l i c t f o r those t e a c h e r s who have t h i s body of knowledge which they've enjoyed t e a c h i n g and then t o leave i t . But I t h i n k the whole p r o c e s s , as p a i n f u l and d i f f i c u l t , i n v o l v i n g change and more work, w i l l be r e v i t a l i z i n g f o r everybody. We have t o t r y t o h e l p t e a c h e r s change t h e i r a n g l o c e n t r i c p e r s p e c t i v e . " (Miss Cane)  125 Some o f the c l a s s e s had v e r y l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f b l a c k and white s t u d e n t s f o r a new, m u l t i c u l t u r a l South A f r i c a . most redundant.  democratic  R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n seemed t h e  While most o f t h e A f r i c a n students were  C h r i s t i a n , t h e C h r i s t i a n e t h i c t h a t permeated the s c h o o l a l i e n a t e d t h e h a n d f u l of Indian s t u d e n t s .  Steeped  ina  homogeneous C h r i s t i a n o u t l o o k , t e a c h e r s were unaware o f i t s e f f e c t on students o f other r e l i g i o n s , such as the Hindu students. "They were t a l k i n g about some s t o r y from t h e B i b l e we d i d n ' t know about, some whale s t o r y , so we thought , what's t h i s now?" ( I n d i a n students) A f r i k a a n s was another  s u b j e c t t h a t appeared t o be  i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e b l a c k students although t h e r e was a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t they would have t h e o p t i o n i n the f u t u r e o f t a k i n g i t as a t h i r d r a t h e r than second language. Mrs.  Young, t h e Geography t e a c h e r , admitted t h a t i t was  o n l y a f t e r she had attended a m u l t i c u l t u r a l workshop t h a t she r e a l i z e d how t h e present c u r r i c u l u m perpetuated t h e r a c i s t stereotype.  \  '  "When you t a l k about b l a c k r u r a l s u b s i s t e n c e farmers who c a n ' t produce a s u r p l u s , you don't add t h e word "backward' but t h a t ' s what you mean. And when you t a l k about t h e commercial farmers , t h e y ' r e always white and successful. So i n j u s t one s e c t i o n on economic geography you've emphasized t h e i n f e r i o r i t y o f the b l a c k s and t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e whites." (Mrs. Young) While exams were always used as an excuse f o r n o t changing,  Mrs Young p o i n t e d out t h a t i n the j u n i o r program,  the focus was not on m a t r i c s u b j e c t s .  126 "We stand i n the classroom and teach how r i v e r s erode. I t ' s completely i r r e l e v a n t . We should be d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s such as the upgrading of the s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s . " The E n g l i s h and Drama Departments were t r y i n g t o use more b l a c k and white South A f r i c a n w r i t e r s and themes but were hampered by l a c k of funds f o r new Consequently,  textbooks.  they were stuck w i t h the B r i t i s h c l a s s i c s  but  were g r a d u a l l y phasing them out. Miss P e t e r s s a i d t h a t she encouraged  the students i n  her 7C c l a s s t o r e l a t e the i s s u e s i n t h e i r setbooks t o t h e i r own  l i v e s and s a i d the whole c l a s s b e n e f i t t e d from t h i s .  " I t ' s time t o speak about these t h i n g s (apartheid) i n s t e a d of t i p t o e i n g around and p r e t e n d i n g . When we d i s c u s s e d v i o l e n c e i n the townships, the white students were wide-eyed; they had no i d e a of the horrendous home circumstances of t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s . I t d i d them good t o hear the s t o r i e s and made them more sympathetic and r e s p e c t f u l of the b l a c k students who had endured so much and c o u l d r i s e above i t . " On the o t h e r hand, Miss Campbell  s a i d t h a t although  she  wanted t o d i s c u s s r e l e v a n t i s s u e s i n her 9B c l a s s , they were too p o l a r i z e d and  volatile.  " I r o n i c a l l y , I used t o t a l k more openly about a p a r t h e i d b e f o r e the b l a c k students came t o the s c h o o l . But now I c a n ' t because I get t h i s h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n or they'd be t e a r i n g each o t h e r a p a r t or t h e r e ' d be t h i s q u i e t s i l e n c e . We d i d O t h e l l o which would be p e r f e c t f o r r e l a t i n g i t t o t h e i r own~experiences but as soon as they f e e l i t coming c l o s e t o home and you're going t o t a l k about t h i n g s t h a t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t them, they won't say a word. I t ' s l i k e a s e c r e t agreement - l e t ' s not say a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s g o i n g t o i n f u r i a t e anybody e l s e because otherwise i t ' s going t o blow up. I t ' s very threatening." Sometimes the b l a c k students themselves  resisted  m a t e r i a l t h a t r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r c u l t u r e or t o p o l i t i c s . Miss  Campbell:  127 "We were s t u d y i n g "Things F a l l Apart" by Chinua Achebe which d e a l t w i t h t r i b a l l i f e i n N i g e r i a . The b l a c k g i r l s were q u i t e r e l u c t a n t t o d i s c u s s t h e i r wonderful myths and legends. I t h i n k they f e l t q u i t e f o o l i s h . They want t o g e t away from t h e i r r o o t s , pretend they come from t h e same s o r t of homes as t h e white s t u d e n t s . " Miss Wood, t h e Drama t e a c h e r e x p l a i n e d how she had tried  t o encourage the b l a c k students t o use b l a c k w r i t e r s  and p e r t i n e n t themes i n t h e i r Drama program but had met w i t h r e s i s t a n c e because she f e l t the b l a c k g i r l s d i d n ' t want t o look c o n s p i c u o u s .  One b l a c k student chose t h e theme o f  "Unnatural Death", u s i n g poems and prose t h a t d e a l t w i t h World War I I , which seemed t o Miss Wood s t r a n g e l y  -  i n a p p r o p r i a t e and o u t s i d e the s t u d e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e s . Miss Wood a t t r i b u t e d  this rejection  of t h e i r c u l t u r e t o  the f a c t t h a t t h e i r were o n l y a few b l a c k students i n t h i s c l a s s and b e l i e v e d a l a r g e r group would have more c o n f i d e n c e to express t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The b l a c k students i n 9B f e l t i t was important t o d i s c u s s modern problems because t h e whites d i d n ' t understand why t h e r e were always s t r i k e s , b o y c o t t s and v i o l e n c e i n the townships. "The white g i r l s know n o t h i n g about these t h i n g s . They t h i n k we j u s t don't want t o go t o s c h o o l o r t h a t we j u s t k i l l each o t h e r . I f we t r y t o e x p l a i n they get angry w i t h us. They t h i n k we a r e blaming them." ( b l a c k students) While t h e white students wanted t o l e a r n about t h e black students' personal l i v e s , non-controversial.  they i n s i s t e d t h a t i t be  128 "I l i k e t o hear about the r e a l l i f e , the familyt r a d i t i o n s , r i g h t down t o t h e c o r e of t h e i r l i v e s . But they (black students) b r i n g p o l i t i c s i n t o e v e r y t h i n g . As c h i l d r e n we hear so much about p o l i t i c s t h a t I don't even want t o watch the news anymore." (white student) The being  l i b r a r i a n s a i d t h a t r e l e v a n t t e x t s were  introduced  i n t o the l i b r a r y .  slowly  A number o f books  w r i t t e n by b l a c k w r i t e r s about b l a c k c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s , such as t h e J u n i o r A f r i c a n W r i t e r s  S e r i e s , were  on d i s p l a y and she was t r y i n g t o encourage the students t o read  them. There was a l s o a s e l e c t i o n o f ESL books which  included  A f r i c a n themes and p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g both modern and t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s , b l a c k p r o f e s s i o n a l s , such as businessmen, as w e l l as l a b o u r e r s ,  such as maids.  Some s i g n i f i c a n t changes were t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e History curriculum. explained  The H i s t o r y t e a c h e r ,  Miss Moran  i t thus:  "There's a m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t b l a c k people weren't here when the Europeans a r r i v e d so I always s t a r t w i t h South A f r i c a n H i s t o r y . When we t a l k about diamonds, I t e l l them about m i g r a t o r y labour, b l a c k workers, compounds, b l a c k s who fought and d i e d i n t h e Wars." She s a i d she a l s o t r i e d t o r e l a t e other themes t o t h e South A f r i c a n c o n t e x t .  F o r example, t h e Nuremberg Laws  p r o h i b i t e d marriage between Jews and Germans - many o f t h e white g i r l s had no i d e a mixed marriages were p r o h i b i t e d i n South A f r i c a u n t i l r e c e n t l y . ""They need t o know t h e s e things."  129 In t h e c l a s s I observed,  she drew a Human Rights  on t h e board and asked them what r i g h t s they f e l t  Tree  they  s h o u l d have. "The g i r l s o f t e n don't make t h e c o n n e c t i o n between h i s t o r y and t h e i r contemporary l i v e s . I avoid dealing with i t directly because I don't want them t o get overburdened with g u i l t . " Even though t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s a i d she had not changed her c u r r i c u l u m much, t h e r e was some evidence o f accommodation.  For example, i n one c l a s s the students had  to make up t h e i r own games and t e a c h the c l a s s .  The b l a c k  students p l a y e d a game u s i n g t i n cans and t e n n i s b a l l s . f i r s t t h e white p u p i l s were u n r e c e p t i v e .  At  Miss W i l l i a m s :  "I had t o g i v e them a speech about i t being a new c u l t u r e f o r the b l a c k students who had t o adapt t o the white c u l t u r e and t h e white g i r l s s h o u l d t r y t o do t h e same f o r them. " Miss W i l l i a m s s a i d i t proved  t o be a b i g s u c c e s s .  The  white g i r l s a l s o commented on i t : " I t was such f u n . The b l a c k g i r l s can make up games out of n o t h i n g . They're never bored. They're much more c r e a t i v e i n t h a t way than we a r e . " Miss Cane, the V i c e - P r i n c i p a l , s a i d t h a t one of t h e main problems i n c u r r i c u l u m reform was t h a t everyone had been l e f t t o do t h e i r own t h i n g . "There's no d i r e c t i o n , so nobody r e a l l y knows what t o do." The P r i n c i p a l i d e n t i f i e d another  position.  "I r e a l l y don't t h i n k i t ' s a case of Euro- v e r s u s A f r o c e n t r i c . We have a m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k i n t a k e where t h e parents j u s t want the best f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They want t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o do b e t t e r than them . I f t h e y ' r e nurses,  J_  \J  they want t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be d o c t o r s . They weren't b e i n g g i v e n what they wanted i n the b l a c k s c h o o l s and they see themselves a c q u i r i n g t h a t through our e d u c a t i o n , a western e d u c a t i o n through the medium of E n g l i s h . " FUTURE CONCERNS The predominant f e e l i n g was of  one  of u n c e r t a i n t y and  lack  direction.  " I f we knew the d i r e c t i o n we were going i n , we b e g i n p r e p a r i n g f o r i t . " (Miss Cane)  could  N e v e r t h e l e s s , g i v e n the t u r b u l e n c e of the times, t h e r e a l s o an e x t r a o r d i n a r y amount of i n i t i a t i v e and  "I can't imagine how the f u t u r e .  was  optimism.  the changes w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n  I suppose t h i n g s w i l l a r i s e and w e ' l l d e a l w i t h  them and t h a t ' s what we've done so f a r .  We  taught what t o do. We've j u s t p i t c h e d i n and  haven't been looked a t the  k i d s and s a i d "Let's g o l " (Miss Campbell) " I c a n ' t w a i t ( f o r the e l e c t i o n s ) I I c a n ' t w a i t ! They ( b l a c k students) must j u s t come nowl " (Miss Young) At a time of massive e d u c a t i o n a l changes, t h e r e  was  l i t t l e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development o r i n service teacher t r a i n i n g . it.  Teachers  were f l o u n d e r i n g without  Miss Young a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l  workshop: " U n t i l the workshop , I d i d not know we c o u l d do a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t l y i n the s y l l a b u s so we j u s t c a r r i e d on i n the same way. But i n the workshop, they suggested l o t s of ways t h a t we c o u l d change the c u r r i c u l u m t o make i t l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c and p a t e r n a l i s t i c . "  131 S i m i l a r l y t h e r e was  very l i t t l e  support  s t u d e n t s , although a " b r i d g i n g " c l a s s was wherein students would " c a t c h up'  f o r ESL  t a l k e d about  t o students i n r e g u l a r  classes. The  f e a r of a l o s s of white c u l t u r e was  a common theme  among t e a c h e r s , b l a c k and white p a r e n t s and b l a c k s t u d e n t s . With the s c h o o l o p e r a t i n g w e l l under c a p a c i t y , an i n f l u x of more b l a c k students was  a reality.  "Because we have space, the parents r e a l i z e we c o u l d have a complete t i d a l wave (of b l a c k s t u d e n t s ) . They would l i k e i t t o happen more g r a d u a l l y so t h a t people c o u l d get used t o i t . There's a f e a r among people because they've seen o t h e r people's c h i l d r e n go through a white ethos and they want t h a t f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They know t h e y ' r e not going t o get i t and t h e r e ' s f e e l i n g of f e a r and f r u s t r a t i o n . " (Mrs. Todd) Miss W i l l i a m s expressed  the doubts of many o t h e r t e a c h e r s :  "My b i g g e s t f e a r i s t h a t what was predominantly white , w i l l p r o b a b l y become predominantly b l a c k so w e ' l l l o s e our t r a d i t i o n s and c u l t u r e and a c t u a l l y have t o change. We know the ethos i s going t o have t o change but we wouldn't l i k e t o see i t change t o t a l l y . " P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t was parents who  the b l a c k students and  most r e s i s t e d the admission  their  of more b l a c k  students i n t o t h e s c h o o l . "I'm  "You must r e a l i z e they a r e e l i t i s t and i t ' s a case o f aboard Jack so p u l l up the l a d d e r . " (Mrs.Todd) There was  a g e n e r a l o u t c r y amongst the b l a c k  over e l i m i n a t i n g t h e 20%  students  ceiling:  "They cause t r o u b l e . I know myself. I know them. W e ' l l be speaking Zulu and the t e a c h e r w i l l say something and they w i l l answer back i n Zulu and laugh and joke and the t e a c h e r won't know what's happening." ( b l a c k students)  132 A b l a c k student  explained:  "One of the dangers of h a v i n g more b l a c k s i n the s c h o o l i s t h a t you might l o s e some of the w h i t e s . Then w e ' l l have more b l a c k s than whites and then w e ' l l have t o f i n d another school. I s t a r t e d i n a c o l o u r e d s c h o o l and i t became b l a c k so I l e f t and came here." The b l a c k students b e l i e v e d r a c i s m would be exacerbated.  The whites would not be a b l e t o ignore them;  they would be f o r c e d t o acknowledge t h e i r presence,  have  them i n t h e i r groups and t h i s would provoke more; t e n s i o n . As s e n i o r students the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , the b l a c k  girls  i n 9B s a i d they intended t o be much s t r i c t e r with the young black  girls.  ""These b l a c k k i d s are bad; t h e y ' r e rude. We must c o n t r o l them. There must be a r u l e about o n l y E n g l i s h , no Zulu. I t ' s e a s i e r t o s o c i a l i z e and w e ' l l be more accepted i f we speak E n g l i s h b e t t e r . " ( b l a c k students) The  t e a c h e r s a l s o f e a r e d some s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the  f u t u r e ; s t a f f c o u l d be r e t r e n c h e d , o l d e r t e a c h e r s  forced  i n t o e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t , some s u b j e c t s such as R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n and A f r i k a a n s might be e l i m i n a t e d , c l a s s would i n c r e a s e .  There was  a l s o the e v e r - p r e s e n t  with m a i n t a i n i n g the standard The  of behaviour  and  sizes concern  academics.  t e a c h e r s a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d the c u r r e n t u n r e s t i n  b l a c k e d u c a t i o n as a l a c k of the work e t h i c r a t h e r than having i t s r o o t s i n the h i s t o r i c a l o p p r e s s i o n of t h e apartheid society. "I wouldn't l i k e t o see what happens i n b l a c k s c h o o l s where t e a c h e r s can s t r i k e a l l the time, ever happen i n our  school. I think pupils w i l l s t i l l t o teach them." (Miss W i l l i a m s )  133 r e s p e c t t h a t we a r e here  T h i s o p i n i o n was r e i n f o r c e d by the b l a c k  students  themselves:/ "Another t h i n g t h a t you might f i n d i f we get more b l a c k students i n t h e s c h o o l i s t h a t they w i l l be more p o l i t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d and t h e y ' l l t e l l us we have t o s t r i k e . I f we don't s t r i k e t h e y ' l l do something t o us when we take the bus home so we might be f o r c e d t o do t h i n g s t h a t we might not agree with." A b l a c k student  recommended t h a t i n the f u t u r e  should be some b l a c k t e a c h e r s , The their  b l a c k students  there  e s p e c i a l l y f o r Zulu.  a l s o recommended i n t r o d u c i n g some o f  own a c t i v i t i e s , such as drum m a j o r e t t e s and i n v i t i n g  the township s c h o o l s t o p l a y s p o r t so t h a t "the white k i d s c o u l d see how much t a l e n t b l a c k k i d s had." Most of t h e teachers t o have b l a c k students the b l a c k students  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were determined  as p r e f e c t s t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r but  themselves d i d n ' t f e e l so o p t i m i s t i c .  "I don't t h i n k t h e r e ' l l be any b l a c k g i r l s as p r e f e c t s next year because the white g i r l s don't r e a l l y know them and i t ' s by v o t e . Even though w e ' l l be i n m a t r i c , they won't r e a l l y r e s p e c t us. When we t e l l them t o do something, t h e y ' l l j u s t l o o k a t us." (black student) There were mixed f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e imminent e l e c t i o n s and f u t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y .  Some o f t h e students  were very p e s s i m i s t i c . "South A f r i c a doesn't have a f u t u r e . The o n l y time t h e r e i s n ' t a k i l l i n g i s on Peace Day. My p a r e n t s want t o emigrate because t h e r e ' s t o o much v i o l e n c e here." ( I n d i a n student)  134 "As f a r as I'm concerned t h e r e ' s no hope. I t h i n k t h e problem has grown from so f a r back t h a t i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e a l l of a sudden." (white student) The  t e a c h e r s were more c a u t i o u s l y o p t i m i s t i c once t h e  present t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d was  over.  "We a l l hope we get through t h i s d i f f i c u l t stage where t h e s c h o o l becomes more mixed, where t h e r a t i o s change, as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e so we can get back t o a normal l e v e l where you know what standards t o expect."(teacher) "As we get more b l a c k students, i t ' s j u s t going t o become a normal s c h o o l where t h e r e ' s not going t o be "you're t h i s c o l o u r and I'm t h a t c o l o u r . ' I t ' l l a l l j u s t d i s a p p e a r and ( t h e y ' l l ) j u s t become p u p i l s , p a r t of the s c h o o l . " (Mrs. Guthrie) Some o f t h e most p o s i t i v e comments came from t h e white students: "In t h i s country e v e r y t h i n g ' s changing. I t h i n k the way b l a c k s are a c t i n g i s because we've always suppressed them. They've never had a chance t o see how the world c o u l d be f o r them i f they t r i e d i t by themselves because we always shouted them down o r beat them o r t r e a t e d them b a d l y . Now t h e y ' r e g e t t i n g t h e chance t o come out of t h e i r s h e l l . " " I f we can't get on now, we won't be a b l e t o get on i n t h e workplace. So i t ' s b e t t e r i f we g e t a l o n g w i t h them now. We have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o see what b l a c k people a r e r e a l l y l i k e , not from T.V. o r what we've heard." Miss Campbell s a i d t h a t the p r e s e n t b l a c k 9B c l a s s was an e x c e p t i o n a l group, not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e average b l a c k o r white student.  The f u t u r e i n t a k e of b l a c k  students  would be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . "The 9B B l a c k g i r l s a r e q u i t e e x c e p t i o n a l , t h e y ' r e n o t your average k i d of any d e s c r i p t i o n . The new k i d s coming i n are a more r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l because some a r e l a z y , some take e v e r y t h i n g f o r granted, o t h e r s work hard, j u s t as i n the white group. To expect them a l l t o work hard and be h i g h a c h i e v e r s and h i g h l y motivated l i k e t h e 9Bs i s r a c i s t  135 in i t s e l f . There was a huge m o t i v a t i o n t o prove themselves because they were t h e f i r s t but the ones coming i n now don't need t o do so . T h e i r a t t i t u d e i s more " j u s t accept us f o r what we a r e ' - the 9 Bs have a l r e a d y broken the ground f o r them. But they have a l s o s e t v e r y h i g h standards. They want t o be proud o f the b l a c k s as a group, they want everyone t o be l i k e them. They don't want what they c o n s i d e r the " r i f f - r a f f d r i f t i n g about embarrassing them." (Miss Campbell) She went on t o e x p l a i n t h a t t h e f i r s t  i n t a k e were a l s o  g i v e n every o p p o r t u n i t y by the t e a c h e r s because i t was a new experience  f o r everybody but t h i s would not be necessary o r  p o s s i b l e i n the f u t u r e . "Every door was opened f o r them i n a way t h a t wasn't o f f e r e d t o whites. The t e a c h e r s t r e a t e d them as a s p e c i a l group; they were q u i t e f o r t u n a t e as they were g i v e n a l o t of chances. With more b l a c k s coming i n , i t won't be p o s s i b l e nor d e s i r a b l e t o i s o l a t e a p a r t i c u l a r group and say t h e y ' r e s p e c i a l . But t h a t ' l l be more r e a l i s t i c anyway." (Miss Campbell)  136 Chapter  VI  DISCUSSION INTEGRATION While the l i t e r a t u r e i s r e p l e t e w i t h the ways i n which r a c i a l p r a c t i c e s were i n t e g r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n South A f r i c a , shaping every i n t e r a c t i o n between r a c e s (Burman,1986; Kallaway,1991; C h r i s t i e , 1 9 9 0 ) , the i n t e g r a t i o n of V a l o u r High School o c c u r r e d r e l a t i v e l y smoothly.  Teachers, and white students,  themselves  s o c i a l i z e d w i t h i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l r a c i s t system, d i s p l a y e d , f o r the most p a r t , s u r p r i s i n g l y t o l e r a n t and  inclusive  behaviour. ""I put myself i n t h e i r t i m e . " (white student)  ( b l a c k students') shoes a l l the ,  However, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e a t t h i s stage t o the extent t o which t h i s r e f l e c t e d a genuine change i n the t e a c h e r s , or was,  determine  attitudinal  as one t e a c h e r  suggested,  because of job i n s e c u r i t y . A l l the b l a c k students I spoke t o p r a i s e d t e a c h e r s f o r being " f a i r ' and " h e l p f u l ' .  their  Many of the  comments made by the some of the white students i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had a t l e a s t some understanding of the i n j u s t i c e under which the b l a c k s had been f o r c e d t o l i v e . seemed t o grasp t h a t " g e t t i n g along' was  They a l s o  i m p e r a t i v e f o r the  f u t u r e and t h i s p r e d i c a t e d on understanding each other through p e r s o n a l , d a i l y c o n t a c t .  137 ""We have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o see what t h e y ' r e r e a l l y l i k e , not from TV or what we've heard.'' (white student) Not o n l y d i d these views c o n t r a d i c t how s o c i a l i z e d , but i t brought  they'd been  them i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h  their  right-wing parents. ""Our parents don't want us t o mix w i t h b l a c k s . They don't t h i n k l i k e us. Our parents are too s c a r e d t o change t h e i r o l d ways.*' (white student) In f a c t , even the parents had changed somewhat "when they saw  no d i s a s t r o u s t h i n g happening'; i n 18 months the  10% c e i l i n g on b l a c k enrollment had r i s e n t o 20%, w i t h a p r o p o s a l a f o o t t o remove i t completely. While mixed groups i n the classrooms  and d u r i n g r e c e s s  were v e r y l i m i t e d , when they d i d occur, t h e r e was  no  animosity. ""They don't seem t o mind being i n mixed t h e r e ' s no animosity.'' (teachers)  groups,  These f i n d i n g s concur w i t h r e s e a r c h ( C h r i s t i e , 1 9 9 0 ; Coutts,1992; Freer,1992;  Gaganakis,1992;  Frederikse,1992)  i n p r i v a t e or a l t e r n a t i v e schools i n South A f r i c a which showed t h a t r a c i a l mixing had been  unproblematic.  However, d e s e g r e g a t i o n t h e o r i s t s Schofield,1982;Pettigrew,1969  (Allport,1954 i n  i n Schofield,1982; Hawley,1983  et a l ) agree t h a t mere mixing does not n e c e s s a r i l y improved race r e l a t i o n s .  imply  For t h i s t o occur t h e r e needs t o  be equal access t o e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and equal power w i t h i n the c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n .  138 ADMISSION POLICY V a l o u r High had a s t r i n g e n t admissions  p o l i c y which the  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were determined t o invoke u n t i l they were f o r c e d "to take i n anybody,' an outcome they b e l i e v e d t o be i n e v i t a b l e i n the f u t u r e .  The P r i n c i p a l admitted  admissions  t e s t was  p u p i l s who  spoke good E n g l i s h .  a n g l o c e n t r i c and b i a s e d i n favour of They wanted t o a t t r a c t  "best p o s s i b l e b l a c k students', namely those b l a c k s who  t h a t the  the  middle-class  most c l o s e l y approximated the white western  C h r i s t i a n norm. Because of the d e c l i n i n g white p o p u l a t i o n i n the area, a l l the white students were a u t o m a t i c a l l y accommodated i n t h e i r area s c h o o l . Competition remaining  p l a c e s was  f o r the  not, t h e r e f o r e , between white and  black  students, but between the m i d d l e - c l a s s and working c l a s s blacks. In most f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s e t h n i c or f o r e i g n m i n o r i t i e s but i n South A f r i c a the r e v e r s e i s true.  Hence the f e a r of being "swamped' by a  of b l a c k students was  t i d a l wave'  a very r e a l and l e g i t i m a t e concern  of  t e a c h e r s . Coutts(1992) and Adam & Moodley (1993) a l s o acknowledge t h i s  concern.  ""The s e c u r i n g of m i n o r i t y r i g h t s i n the face of an overwhelmingly numerical s u p e r i o r i t y of b l a c k s , cannot be summarily d i s r e g a r d e d . I t i s a p e r v a s i v e f e a r f e d by p e r c e p t i o n s of a d e t e r i o r a t i n g s o c i a l and economic s i t u a t i o n i n A f r i c a as a w h o l e . " (Coutts,1992:416) Two  of the reasons  students was  f o r the smooth i n t e g r a t i o n of b l a c k  t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d drop i n academic  b e h a v i o r a l standards  had not m a t e r i a l i z e d .  and  However, these  ,  139  were u n l i k e l y t o be maintained w i t h an open admission because many of the excluded been deschooled  policy  students would be those who had  during the p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s ;  they l a c k e d a  " c u l t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n ' and had l o s t r e s p e c t f o r t e a c h e r s and discipline.  ( U n t e r h a l t e r , Wolpe , G u l t i g , Hart,1991).  At f i r s t glance i t seems p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t i t was t h e b l a c k students and t h e i r parents who were most r e s i s t a n t t o changing  the admission p o l i c y , denouncing t h e i r township  peers f o r b e i n g "rude'  , and "causing chaos'.  But t h i s  supports t h e f i n d i n g s i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s where C h r i s t i e , F r e d e r i k s e , Gaganakis e t a l (1991) r e v e a l e d an a l a r m i n g degree o f p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t l o w e r - c l a s s b l a c k s t u d e n t s . f a c t these r e s e a r c h e r s contend  that  In  ""the a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e  b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s from t h e i r b r e t h r e n i n t h e townships was one o f t h e most n e g a t i v e consequences of p r i v a t e s c h o o l , desegregation.'' I t would appear t h a t t h i s phenomenon i s being  continued  i n i n t e g r a t e d s t a t e schools as w e l l . Far from being p a r a d o x i c a l , however, t h i s phenomenon i s a l o g i c a l consequence of a p a r t h e i d and emphasizes t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f Adam and Moodley, C h r i s t i e , P a m p a l l i s , Nasson e t a l t h a t i n South A f r i c a race and c l a s s a r t i c u l a t e i n an i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e over power and privilege. In a t w i s t on t h e "white f l i g h t ' phenomenon t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the e a r l y stages o f d e s e g r e g a t i o n  i n the  140 U n i t e d S t a t e s , a b l a c k student at V a l o u r High commented: ""One of the dangers of having more b l a c k s i n the s c h o o l i s t h a t you might l o s e some of the w h i t e s . Then w e ' l l have more b l a c k s than whites and we'11 have t o f i n d another school. I s t a r t e d i n a c o l o u r e d s c h o o l and i t became b l a c k so I l e f t and came h e r e . " ( b l a c k student) The  literature  (Kallaway,  U n t e r h a l t e r , Wolpe,  Nasson e t a l ) has made i t abundantly c l e a r t h a t a p a r t h e i d never excluded resources. who  a l l b l a c k s from a c c e s s i n g the economic  Rather, r a c e was  c o u l d e n t e r and who  was  used as a mechanism t o c o n t r o l excluded.  During p e r i o d s of  i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l upheaval and economic i n s t a b i l i t y , i t was a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y t o co-opt extending  a black middle-class  educational p r i v i l e g e s .  Reform, however,was o f t e n  accompanied by r e p r e s s i o n , w i t h student and t r a d e a c t i v i s t s amongst the f i r s t t o be The  union  detained.  student r e b e l l i o n s from 1976  f a c t o r i n the expansion  by  were a  of b l a c k e d u c a t i o n  significant  (De Lange  Commission,1981 and the White Paper,1983 recommendations) as w e l l as t h e g r a d u a l d e s e g r e g a t i o n state schools.  of p r i v a t e and  later  While t h i s b e n e f i t t e d many m i d d l e - c l a s s  b l a c k s , i t a l s o c r e a t e d a whole g e n e r a t i o n of students  who  l o s t the o p p o r t u n i t y t o be educated. ( U n t e r h a l t e r , Wolpe, 1992) I r o n i c a l l y , when r e a l reforms o c c u r r e d i n the "90s  the  very a c t i o n s which had p r o p e l l e d some b l a c k s t o the f r o n t of the l i n e and enabled  them t o access  "good' s c h o o l s because  they were the " b l a c k cream', j e o p a r d i z e d the chances of the  others who  141  had s a c r i f i c e d education f o r p o l i t i c a l  mobi.lizat.ion. " T h e s e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were o f t e n engaged i n o v e r t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n - school boycotts, p r o t e s t s , v i o l e n t b a t t l e s with the p o l i c e and army - d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . " ( D r a f t E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y of the ANC,1992) T h i s c o u l d account students, manifested  f o r the resentment and  j e a l o u s y of  i n t h r e a t s and a t t a c k s on those  attended  "white'  in s t i l l  i n f e r i o r and t r o u b l e d township s c h o o l s .  who  s c h o o l s , w h i l e they c o n t i n u e d t o l a n g u i s h  ""The township people h i t . u s and ask us why we don't go to a b l a c k s c h o o l . I t h i n k they're j e a l o u s of u s . " (black student) ""The students)  people i n the township hate u s . "  Inherent educators  (black  i n the a t t i t u d e of both b l a c k students  a t V a l o u r High,  and  i s what Gaganakis (1992) r e f e r s t o  as ""an a b i d i n g f a i t h i n the m e r i t o c r a c y , "  the u n d e r l y i n g  assumption being t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n e n t e r the c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p l a c e s on more or l e s s equal terms.  The poor must simply  "work harder.' T h i s echoes Solomon's (1994) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Canadian t e a c h e r s ' r e l u c t a n c e t o teach a n t i - r a c i s t education  arises  from t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t ""schools f u n c t i o n as m e r i t o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s where i n d i v i d u a l success or f a i l u r e i s a r e s u l t of  p o t e n t i a l and e f f o r t . "  As we  have seen, t h i s j u s t  isn't  so. T h i s presents a r e a l dilemma f o r both educators policy-makers  who  wish t o teach f o r a democratic  and  and non-  142 r a c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l system. While C o u t t s  (1992) recommends  t h a t admission p o l i c i e s should not use c u l t u r a l l y b i a s e d placement t e s t s i n open s t a t e s c h o o l s , he  simultaneously  suggests t h a t some form of admission p o l i c y may  be' d e s i r a b l e  i n the e a r l y phases of d e s e g r e g a t i o n because s t a t e s c h o o l s do not have the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o l a r g e numbers of disadvantaged  students.  EQUAL STATUS Researchers  (Pettigrew 1969  Schofield,1982;McCarthy,1990; for  cited i n Schofield;  Cummins, 1988)  maintain that  e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n t o occur t h e r e should be  equal  s t a t u s and power w i t h i n the c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n . In the d e s e g r e g a t i o n experiences i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , r e s e g r e g a t i o n o f t e n o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n , w i t h disadvantaged  students d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the  lower c l a s s e s and groupings. They much as white  d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e  as  s t u d e n t s , were o f t e n excluded from the s c h o o l  power s t r u c t u r e and o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d amongst those w i t h b e h a v i o u r a l problems. T h i s was  c o n s i d e r e d by r e s e a r c h e r s t o  be due t o , among o t h e r t h i n g s , a low s e l f - c o n c e p t and t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s , premised  on t h e  low  "self-fulfilling  prophecy'. T h i s d i d not seem t o be the case a t V a l o u r High. There was  no d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n c l a s s r o o m  participation  and the expected b e h a v i o u r a l problems had not m a t e r i a l i z e d .  143 ""We expected major b e h a v i o u r a l problems. But they've had t o come i n t o the s i t u a t i o n , handle the boundaries, l e a r n what they can and can't d o " . (Teacher) However, some t e a c h e r s and most b l a c k students were concerned t h a t an i n f l u x of b l a c k township impact n e g a t i v e l y on  students would  behaviour.  " " I f we had a whole c l a s s of b l a c k c h i l d r e n , how would I s u r v i v e ? I say f i t the mould otherwise I can't c o p e . " (Mrs Jory) ""There would be chaos i f more b l a c k students came i n t o the s c h o o l . The b l a c k students are rude; they don't know how t o b e h a v e . " ( b l a c k students) A c a d e m i c a l l y b l a c k students " s l o t t e d i n ' , a few a t the top,  some a t the bottom and the r e s t i n t e r s p e r s e d amongst  the white s t u d e n t s .  In terms of the s c h o o l power s t r u c t u r e ,  b l a c k students were underrepresented i n s c h o o l l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s s i n c e those went t o s t u d e n t s i n the A c l a s s .  While  t h i s j e o p a r d i z e d the chances of the b l a c k students who  were  underrepresented i n t h i s c l a s s , i t a l s o p e n a l i z e d white students i n the lower a b i l i t y  groupings.  W i t h i n each c l a s s , however, b l a c k students were i n l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s and were g i v e n equal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the t e a c h e r s who  by  f e l t they "took t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s more  s e r i o u s l y than the white s t u d e n t s ' Teachers a t t r i b u t e d the l a c k of problems i n t h e s e areas to  the f a c t t h a t they were s t i l l  a m i n o r i t y and  felt  i n s e c u r e about t h e i r s t a t u s so adapted t o the white model and s c h o o l r u l e s .  144  ASSIMILATION versus ACCOMMODATION While  t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d themselves  as those who  b e l i e v e d t h e b l a c k students must " f i t i n ' and those who f e l t the s c h o o l had an o b l i g a t i o n t o change t o meet t h e needs o f i t s new c l i e n t e l e , i n terms of s c h o o l ethos,  classroom  p r a x i s and c u r r i c u l u m m o d i f i c a t i o n , a s s i m i l a t i o n was t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e outcome. The norm was an a n g l o - C h r i s t i a n m i d d l e - c l a s s model t o which a l l students should a s p i r e . ""They ( b l a c k students) were t o l d they were coming t o a s c h o o l w i t h a C h r i s t i a n e t h i c b e f o r e they were a d m i t t e d . " (Principal) , Rather than a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y of a s s i m i l a t i o n , i t appeared  t h a t these t e a c h e r s were t r y i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h e  s t a t u s quo f o r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e i n t h e f a c e of tremendous upheaval, making the strange f a m i l i a r and c o n t r o l l a b l e .  In  the absence o f any d i r e c t i v e from t h e E d u c a t i o n Department, they a c t e d out o f ignorance of any a l t e r n a t i v e ; they  carried  on as u s u a l . I t was o n l y a f t e r one t e a c h e r had been t o a m u l t i c u l t u r a l seminar t h a t she r e a l i s e d t h a t her e f f o r t s t o a s s i m i l a t e h e r b l a c k students were a form of r a c i s m i n t h a t she was " " t r y i n g t o impose white standards on b l a c k students because we thought (our ways) were s u p e r i o r . " (Miss Young) Again, i t was t h e b l a c k students themselves t o want t o approximate t h e white western themselves  from t h e b l a c k mass.  who seemed  norm and d i s t a n c e  They were adamant t h a t t h e  E n g l i s h o n l y p o l i c y be s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d ; t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t b l a c k s t u d e n t s were sometimes r e l u c t a n t t o d i s c u s s  145 t h e i r c u l t u r a l backgrounds or l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . ""They want t o get away from t h e i r r o o t s , pretend they come from the same s o r t of homes as the white students.'' T h i s supports r e s e a r c h e r s ( C h r i s t i e , 1 9 9 0 ; P a m p a l l i s , 1991;  Frederikse,1992;  Gaganakis,1992) f i n d i n g s i n p r i v a t e  schools: ""They (the b l a c k students) a s p i r e d t o become p a r t of the white e l i t e , d e s i r i n g the same kinds of c i v i l and s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e s as those h e l d by w h i t e s . " Adam and Moodley's (1993) e x p l a i n t h i s i n terms of the s t r u g g l e i n South A f r i c a being not so much over "race' as access t o "power and p r i v i l e g e ' . Nzimande and (in  Pampallis  F r e d e r i k s e , 1 9 9 2 ) , however, argue t h a t t h i s same  phenomenon i n Zimbabwe i s a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d form of racism, r e p r o d u c i n g the c u l t u r a l s u b j u g a t i o n of b l a c k students d u r i n g the colonial era." I maintain i t i s a combination (Kallaway,1991; how  Burman, 1986  of both.  The  literature  e t a l ) h a s many examples of  Bantu education schooled the A f r i c a f o r i n f e r i o r i t y .  Adam & Moodley, (1986,1993) and Bundy, ( i n Polley,1989) describe i t s disabling  effects  on b l a c k people.  ""To deny people t h e i r h i s t o r y i s t o c r i p p l e them i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and maim them p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . " (Bundy, i n Polley,1989) Coutts  (1989)  e x p l a i n s how  a particular  1989  world view  becomes disseminated and p a r t of the c u l t u r a l content of the minds of the people. He does t h i s i n terms of the Gramscian theory of hegemony. ""The purpose of the r u l i n g groups i n p o p u l a r i s i n g t h e i r philosophy and c u l t u r e i s t o perpetuate t h e i r power, wealth and s t a t u s . Hence schools present the p h i l o s o p h y of the dominant groups as the " o f f i c i a l ' view of the world,  146 w h i l e a t t h e same time g i v i n g t h e appearance of r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y as a whole. (Coutts,1989:93,94) I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t b l a c k students c o n t i n u e t o t h o r o u g h l y i n t e r n a l i z e the anglo-hegemony. " I always wanted t o come t o a white s c h o o l . I was s c a r e d of white people b e f o r e , not t h a t they t e r r i f i e d me but I looked up t o them and t r e a t e d them l i k e g o d s . " ( b l a c k student) On t h e o t h e r hand, however, e t h n i c i t y and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n were t o o l s o f a p a r t h e i d f o r keeping b l a c k s underdeveloped.  There i s a genuine d e s i r e t o develop an  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , u s i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l language so A f r i c a n s can p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the " g l o b a l  village'.  E n g l i s h and t h e anglo c u l t u r e a r e seen as q u i c k e s t and e a s i e s t means of doing so. " " A l l (black) parents want t h e empowerment of t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o compete e q u a l l y w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e j o b m a r k e t . " (Coutts,1992:44) T h i s s t a n d p o i n t i s echoed by some of the t e a c h e r s a t V a l o u r High who c o n s i d e r e d i t t h e i r mandate t o g i v e students the c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l t o succeed i n the o u t s i d e w o r l d . ""They ( b l a c k students) need t o be t o l d how t o behave appropriately Otherwise how w i l l they g e t on i n t h e o u t s i d e world? How w i l l they be a b l e t o get j o b s ? " (Mrs Jory) T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s most western m u l t i c u l t u r a l  theorists  who seek t o promote and c e l e b r a t e e t h n i c i t y as a means o f empowering disadvantaged  minority students.  however, would seem t o , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , Jory's standpoint.  Banks,(1986) support Mrs.  147 " M i n o r i t y students can a s s i m i l a t e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of the mainstream c u l t u r e without s u r r e n d e r i n g the most important aspects of t h e i r f i r s t c u l t u r e or becoming a l i e n a t e d from i t . The s c h o o l should h e l p students t o develop knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s needed t o (do t h i s ) . " (Banks,1986:24) Nor d i d the b l a c k students a t V a l o u r High want a pure anglo c u l t u r e .  necessarily  A l l of them s a i d they would  like  t o A f r i c a n i s e the s c h o o l somewhat by s i n g i n g Zulu hymns, c e l e b r a t i n g A f r i c a n h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l heroes e t c . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e emphasizes Bot(1992) and  Coutts'  (1992) p o i n t t h a t the complexity of South A f r i c a ' s environment n e c e s s i t a t e s b a l a n c i n g two  social  seemingly  c o n t r a d i c t o r y g o a l s , namely b u i l d i n g a common i d e n t i t y w h i l e still  recognizing diversity. T h i s would account  " s p e c i a l treatment'  f o r the b l a c k students r e s i s t a n c e t o  by some t e a c h e r s who  t r i e d t o make up •  f o r p e r c e i v e d disadvantage. They seemed t o i n t e r p r e t  the  t e a c h e r s e f f o r t s on t h e i r b e h a l f as p a t r o n i s i n g . Having always been t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , what they seemed t o want most was  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o be t r e a t e d the same.  ""They must t r e a t us a l l the same. We  don't need t h e i r  pity.  ""The t e a c h e r s must make the b l a c k students r e a l i s e , the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s , the more e f f o r t we must put i n t o i t . " ( b l a c k students) T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s Cummins (1987,1988) and McCarthy's (1990) t h e o r i e s of p r i o r i t i z i n g the needs of the disadvantaged  but r a t h e r than c o m p l e t e l y n e g a t i n g  their  theory i t i n d i c a t e s r a t h e r t h a t these students l a c k the  148  •  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how the l e g a c y o f a p a r t h e i d can p e r p e t u a t e disadvantage.  Moreover, as one o f t h e t e a c h e r s e x p l a i n e d ,  the s t u d e n t s , from S t d . 9B, who expressed these views, were "an e x c e p t i o n a l l o t , not your average k i d of any description.'  Because they were t h e f i r s t i n t a k e , t h e r e was  "a huge m o t i v a t i o n t o prove  themselves.'  But an e d u c a t i o n a l system has t o be f a i r  for a l l  s t u d e n t s , most o f whom are not e x c e p t i o n a l . Indeed,  d e s p i t e p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t the " s p e c i a l  treatment', they n e v e r t h e l e s s , r e c o g n i s e d t h a t they warranted  some s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n because o f t h e i r  lifestyle. ""Because most of us l i v e i n t h e townships, we o n l y g e t home a t 4 . 3 0 p.m. o r 5.30 p.m. and we s t i l l have t o do housework and homework. Sometimes we're so t i r e d we f a l l a s l e e p on our books.'' ( b l a c k student) TEACHERS'  EXPECTATIONS ( S c h o f i e l d , 1 9 8 2 ; Hawley e t a l 1983)has shown  Evidence  t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e c r u c i a l i n s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n by modeling  t h e d e s i r e d behaviours and a t t i t u d e s . R i s t  (1979,  c i t e d i n Schofield,1982^describes the " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy  " whereby t h e t e a c h e r s low e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  s t u d e n t s , u s u a l l y b l a c k o r m i n o r i t y , causes s t u d e n t s t o r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y i n r e t u r n , thus c o n f i r m i n g t h e o r i g i n a l low opinion.  /  A t V a l o u r High, the r e v e r s e was o c c u r r i n g .  The middle-  c l a s s white t e a c h e r s h e l d v e r y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards  J  149 the b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s students but had v e r y  low  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the l o w e r - c l a s s white s t u d e n t s . " T h e b l a c k c h i l d r e n have enormous e x p e c t a t i o n s which the white c h i l d r e n don't have. The white c h i l d r e n would h a p p i l y be h a i r d r e s s e r s and l i s t e n t o pop music a l l day. But the b l a c k c h i l d r e n want t o be d o c t o r s and lawyers.'' (teacher) ""There's no c u l t u r e (amongst the white p a r e n t s ) . S o you c a n ' t expect much from the k i d s . " (teacher) Teachers  o f t e n made derogatory  remarks d i r e c t l y t o  or t o each o t h e r about students i n the lower a b i l i t y ""You  me  groups.  can't do much w i t h these dummies."  ""You can't do much w i t h t h i s c l a s s - t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t h e r e . They're h o p e l e s s . They don't have the b a c k g r o u n d . " (teachers) Teachers involvement  p r a i s e d the b l a c k p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r  i n extra-curricular activities,  Night, d e s p i t e the long way ""The (teacher)  such as a T a l e n t  they had t o t r a v e l .  white parents would never dream of doing  While t e a c h e r s may  that."  have been c a u t i o u s about t h e i r  a t t i t u d e s towards b l a c k students because of my they were l e s s l i k e l y t o be on t h e i r guard  presence,  regarding  a t t i t u d e s t o white s t u d e n t s . Moreover, w h i l e r a c i s m has been e l e v a t e d t o monstrous p r o p o r t i o n s on the South A f r i c a n scene, c l a s s a t t i t u d e s have been absorbed i n t o people's  everyday  unreflectively  l i f e and i n t e r a c t i o n . Racism  has  always been known t o be abnormal; e l i t i s m , on the o t h e r hand, i s accepted  practice. s  Hence the comments made by these t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e  an  honest  arid i n t r i g u i n g  i n s i g h t i n t o how race and c l a s s  i n t e r a c t i n South A f r i c a and p l a y themselves out w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system. While t h e r e has been some documentation of i n t e g r a t i o n o f m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s i n t o e l i t i s t p r i v a t e or a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l s i n South A f r i c a , t o my knowledge t h e r e has been no study on the i n t e g r a t i o n o f m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k students i n l o w e r - c l a s s white schools.,:, Coutts(1992) makes the p o i n t t h a t w h i l e t h e mixing o f r a c e s i n p r i v a t e o r m i d d l e - c l a s s s c h o o l s , has been g e n e r a l l y unproblematic,  i t i s more, l i k e l y t o be v o l a t i l e i n working  c l a s s areas as communities compete f o r s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . While t h i s has not been the case y e t a t V a l o u r probably due t o t h e s m a l l percentage mostly  High,  of b l a c k s t u d e n t s ,  from t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s , w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n  numbers, t h i s c o u l d w e l l be t h e c a s e . White students b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d t e a c h e r s attempts t o compensate f o r p e r c e i v e d  disadvantage.  " " I f a white c h i l d makes an excuse f o r not doing h e r homework, I p r o b a b l y wouldn\t accept i t . But i f a b l a c k students s a i d she was unable t o do her homework because t h e i r had been t r o u b l e i n the township the n i g h t b e f o r e , I would take i t s e r i o u s l y . ' * (white teacher) ""They can get away w i t h t h i n g s t h a t we c a n ' t . I f they don't dp t h e i r homework, i t doesn't matter but i f we don't we're jumped on.'' (white student) ""They dp g e t e x t r a p r i v i l e g e s . f a v o u r i t i s m . " (white student)  I t ' s not f a i r ,  there's  While t e a c h e r s a r e o f t e n j u s t i f i e d i n compensating f o r b l a c k students disadvantage, explicit.  t h e reasons  need t o be made  In t h e above s i t u a t i o n t h e t e a c h e r c o u l d perhaps  151 have encouraged t h e student t o e x p l a i n the Inkatha/ANC v i o l e n c e t h a t was r o c k i n g the townships p r i o r t o t h e elections.  However, t h i s i s a d e l i c a t e s i t u a t i o n because  white students have s t a t e d they don't want t o t a l k  politics.  "The b l a c k students a r e t r y i n g t o make us f e e l by t a l k i n g p o l i t i c s a l l t h e t i m e . " (white student)  guilty  B l a c k students, on t h e o t h e r hand, o f t e n f e e l embarrassed, knowing t h e white  students r e a l l y don't understand  their  lives. " T h e white g i r l s have never been i n t o a l o c a t i o n (township) i n t h e i r l i v e s . They t h i n k we a r e j u s t k i l l i n g each other a l l the t i m e . " ( b l a c k student) But by not s a y i n g anything, i t i s easy t o see how t h e t e a c h e r s ' well-meaning " a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n ' i s i n t e r p r e t e d as " f a v o u r i t i s m . '  This a t t i t u d e , together with  the low t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n of w o r k i n g - c l a s s whites and low a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s , and exacerbated by t h e i r numbers, c o u l d w e l l l e a d t h e white  declining  students a t V a l o u r  High  t o f e e l a l i e n a t e d and disempowered; t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they c o u l d w e l l become the disadvantaged m i n o r i t y o f the f u t u r e . PEDAGOGICAL CHANGES Research  ( S c h o f i e l d , 1983; Hawley e t a l , 1983; S l a v i n ,  McGroarty 1992) i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t  pedagogical  s t r a t e g i e s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g and r a c e relations.  1987;  152 " I n t e r r a c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s are not an automatic outcome of s c h o o l d e s e g r e g a t i o n but must be promoted through s p e c i f i c programs and a c t i v i t i e s i n the s c h o o l . " (Hawley e t al 1983) F i n d i n g s have r e v e a l e d t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l , t e a c h e r f r o n t e d classrooms, where l e a r n i n g occurs  N  through  the t r a n s m i s s i o n of knowledge i n l e c t u r e ,  question/answer  format, tended t o have poor i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s , w i t h l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n f o r slow l e a r n e r s .  On the o t h e r hand,  v  heterogeneous groupings, c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g t a s k s , w i t h the t e a c h e r a c t i n g as f a c i l i t a t o r or guide, promoted equal s t a t u s i n t e r a c t i o n s and f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g . 1983;  Hawley e t al,1983: S l a v i n , Coutts(1992)  and Bot  1987;  (Schofield,  McGroarty,1992)  (1992) recommend i n c o r p o r a t i n g the  l a t t e r s t r a t e g i e s i n South A f r i c a n m u l t i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s , where the t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g s t y l e , d r i v e n by a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t e s t i n g and examinations, T h i s was t e a c h i n g was system was  prevails.  c e r t a i n l y the case a t V a l o u r High, where grounded i n t r a d i t i o n a l pedagogy and the whole  exam-driven.  ""There's no time t o teach, no time t o prepare c r e a t i v e l e s s o n s . The m a t r i c exam i s what r u l e s us a l l . I know our t e a c h i n g methods are inadequate but everyone w i l l t e l l you i t ' s the o n l y way t o get through t h e s y l l a b u s . " (teacher) While t h e s e methods d i d not g e n e r a l l y , a t t h i s p o i n t i n the d e s e g r e g a t i o n of V a l o u r High,  seem t o a f f e c t  academic performance of b l a c k s t u d e n t s , who  the  "slotted i n '  w i t h the white students and were not o v e r l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n  153 the lower a b i l i t y groups,  i t d i d impact  n e g a t i v e l y on i n t e r -  group r e l a t i o n s . There was l i t t l e evidence of p h y s i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n the s c h o o l . While most t e a c h e r s and students b e l i e v e d t h e g o a l of t h e s c h o o l should be t o i n t e g r a t e s t u d e n t s , nobody saw  the d e s e g r e g a t i o n w i t h i n the s c h o o l as a problem. Rather  t h e r e was a d i s t i n c t a v e r s i o n by students and educators t o "forced  integration.'  " " I f you f o r c e i t , i t ' s going t o be seen as something imposed l i k e a p a r t h e i d was imposed - now we're imposing integration.'' (Principal) Miss Campbell saw r e s e g r e g a t i o n - a s a necessary phase b e f o r e t r u e i n t e g r a t i o n on an e q u a l f o o t i n g c o u l d take place. ""Maybe they need t o get t h e i r i d e n t i t y f i r s t and then say, "Here we are, now we're ready t o mix w i t h you on our terms because i n i t i a l l y they were mixing on t h e whites terms. " T h i s view was supported by some o t h e r t e a c h e r s who homogeneous groups o f t e n b e n e f i t t e d b l a c k s t u d e n t s .  felt  They  c o u l d h e l p each o t h e r w i t h language d i f f i c u l t i e s , they were not dominated by the whites and they c o u l d draw on t h e i r own backgrounds and e x p e r i e n c e s . Using heterogeneous groupings, and c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , however, would be a way of i n t e g r a t i n g " n a t u r a l l y ' , as a p a r t of c l a s s r o o m procedure. i n terms o f a deeper understanding  The b e n e f i t s  o f the o t h e r ' s c u l t u r e  are e v i d e n t from the f o l l o w i n g comment by a white  student:  . 1 5 4 ""When we have them i n our groups i n c l a s s , we g e t t o know them b e t t e r and we l e a r n how t o work w i t h them and g e t a l o n g w i t h them.'' Developing a deeper a p p r e c i a t i o n and awareness o f each o t h e r ' s l i v e s , would a l s o h e l p overcome one o f t h e i r main reasons  f o r not i n t e g r a t i n g , namely t h e l a c k of,any common  ground, world views o r e x p e r i e n c e s . ""The white g i r l s l i v e s a r e so b a r r e n . We t a l k about p o l i t i c s and t h e t h i n g s t h a t happen i n t h e l o c a t i o n (township). they t a l k about boys and then they f i g h t . We can't r e l a t e t o them" ( b l a c k students) T h i s comment a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o n t r a r y t o t h e common n o t i o n t h a t r a c i s m m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f as e x c l u s i o n by t h e •  'j  '  dominant group, a t V a l o u r High i t appeared  •  -  t o o f t e n be t h e  s u b o r d i n a t e group t h a t i n i t i a t e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n . " " I t ' s not t h a t t h e white k i d s don't want t o s i t w i t h us, i t i s we who don't want t o s i t w i t h them. " ( b l a c k student) There i s a tendency  i n s i t u a t i o n s o f change t o  o v e r g e n e r a l i s e new approaches and s t r a t e g i e s r a t h e r than a p p l y i n g a v a r i e t y o f s o l u t i o n s t o a complex problem. Consequently,  a t V a l o u r High, i t would p r o b a b l y be more  e f f e c t i v e t o sometimes use heterogeneous groupings  and c o -  o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , and a t o t h e r times homogeneous groups and c o m p e t i t i v e p r a c t i c e s . S i m i l a r l y , u n t i l t h e whole examination  system i s overhauled,  t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g s t y l e s c o u l d be i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h a more s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d  approach.  155 T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the approach of Banks (1986) who  favours a more h o l i s t i c approach i n s o l v i n g the problems  of m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s . I t a l s o supports C o u t t s '  (1989,1992)  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a wide range of o p t i o n s are necessary accommodate the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the South A f r i c a n Language was  to  context.  i d e n t i f i e d by the t e a c h e r s as the most  problematic area i n teaching i n Integrated c l a s s e s . the c u r r e n t admission  While  p o l i c y managed t o s i f t out those  black  students w i t h poor E n g l i s h a b i l i t y , t h i s would become more d i f f i c u l t because of the i n c r e a s i n g number of a v a i l a b l e spaces  f o r b l a c k s t u d e n t s , and a growing awareness t h a t the  p r a c t i c e i t s e l f was d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . Teachers  saw  language p r o f i c i e n c y as the s i n g l e  factor  impeding b l a c k students' p r o g r e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , none had changed t h e i r t e a c h i n g methods t o accommodate t h i s ,  "except  t o go more s l o w l y ' , which i n v o l v e d u s i n g s i m p l e r words o r e x p l a i n i n g the  vocabulary.  Some t e a c h e r s admitted p e n a l i s i n g the students f o r s p e l l i n g mistakes  even though the student had  understood  c o g n i t i v e l y because they d i d not want t o j e o p a r d i s e t h e i r chances i n the examinations. . ""I don't know i f I should be t a k i n g marks o f f i n such cases but I need a d i r e c t i v e from the e d u c a t i o n department otherwise what happen when these g i r l s w r i t e t h e i r m a t r i c exam?" (teacher) There were no support programs f o r second-language l e a r n e r s e i t h e r w i t h i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s nor i n s p e c i a l  c l a s s e s . Nor were t e a c h e r s , who  had spent t h e i r  156  entire  c a r e e r s t e a c h i n g i n homogeneous , u n i - l i n g u a l c l a s s e s , g i v e n any t r a i n i n g t o cope w i t h t h e i r new  s i t u a t i o n . Moreover, the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r language development f e l l on E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , w i t h other s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s not r e c o g n i z i n g i t as p a r t of t h e i r new Research  t e a c h i n g mandate.  on second-language a c q u i s i t i o n  (Brown,1984;  Mohan,1986; Nunan,1988;) shows the c r u c i a l need f o r a l l t e a c h e r s t o develop methods f o r t e a c h i n g ESL  students.  Cummins (1988) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between b a s i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication  (BICS) , which takes two years t o a c q u i r e , and  c o g n i t i v e academic language p r o f i c i e n c y 5-7  years t o a c q u i r e .  (CALP) which takes  Rather than have ESL  students  stagnate f o r years i n " s p e c i a l ' c l a s s e s u n t i l t h e i r CALP l e v e l has caught America,  up t o n a t i v e speakers, the t r e n d i n North  B r i t a i n and A u s t r a l i a has been t o mainstream them  i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . T h i s avoids m a r g i n a l i z i n g them and denying them the o p p o r t u n i t y of l e a r n i n g a t a c o n c e p t u a l l y higher  level.  However, t o implement t h i s r e q u i r e s f i n a n c i a l  support  and t r a i n i n g f o r a l l t e a c h e r s . They need t o l e a r n how  to  r e v i s e c u r r i c u l a , r e t a i n i n g the concepts but s i m p l i f y i n g language;  they need t o learn.how t o help ESL students  the content d e s p i t e t h e i r l a c k of l i n g u i s t i c  the  access  proficiency.  A few t e a c h e r s a t V a l o u r High were beginning t o r e a l i z e the need f o r a r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n of pedagogy:  157 " T h e b i o l o g y s y l l a b u s i s completely out o f touch w i t h the needs of b l a c k c h i l d r e n . Why should they have t o l e a r n 30 new terms every time we t e a c h an animal o r p l a n t ? We should j u s t t e a c h p r i n c i p l e s and f o r g e t a l l these l a b e l s . " (teacher) However, a t the time o f t h e study, t h e r e was v e r y little  i n t h e way o f i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r  Desegregation  i n s t a t e s c h o o l s had o c c u r r e d  q u i c k l y . Teachers my e x p e r t i s e , department.  training.  were "fumbling  anxious  relatively  i n t h e dark',  eager t o t a p  f o r d i r e c t i v e s from t h e e d u c a t i o n  When some t e a c h e r s d i d go t o workshops, t h e  r e s u l t was i n s t a n t and overwhelming. As one t e a c h e r expressed i t : ""Suddenly my whole focus changed i n one d a y . " Under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , remarkably  t h e t e a c h e r s were c o p i n g  w e l l i n what must have been an extremely  c h a l l e n g i n g and s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n  . L e a r n i n g was o c c u r r i n g  and race r e l a t i o n s were r e l a t i v e l y unproblematic.  As one  t e a c h e r put i t : ""Things a r i s e and we d e a l w i t h them and t h a t ' s what we've done so f a r . We haven't been taught what t o do. We've j u s t p i t c h e d i n and looked a t t h e k i d s and s a i d ""Let's go!" MULTICULTURAL /ANTI-RACIST EDUCATION The 1988;  l i t e r a t u r e ( T o m l i n s o n , 1989; Moodley, 1983; Cummins,  McCarthy, 1990) shows t h a t i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s attempts  t o r e v e r s e a s s i m i l a t i o n and address  t h e i s s u e of unequal  s t a t u s w i t h i n s c h o o l s found e x p r e s s i o n i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l and  anti-racist  158  education.  M u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n has enjoyed p r e p a r i n g people  for l i f e  some success i n  in a pluralistic  society; for  i n s t i l l i n g t o l e r a n c e of r a c e s , r e l i g i o n s and other ways of life  (Tomlinson,  1989); of v a l i d a t i n g b l a c k and m i n o r i t y  students' c u l t u r e , i n order t o improve race r e l a t i o n s improve the academic achievement of disadvantaged (Verma & Bagley,  1982;  Skutnabb-Kangas, 1988  Hawley , C r a i n e t a l (1983),  and  students.  et a l )  Solomon (1994) c i t e  numerous examples of the l i n k between m u l t i - c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and p o s i t i v e race r e l a t i o n s and performance. C o u t t s  improved  (1992) sees m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n  meeting the o b j e c t i v e s of a new,  democratic  as  South A f r i c a n  s o c i e t y . T h i s would i n c l u d e a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n and b r i d g i n g programs t o r e v e r s e disadvantage.  He a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t  by t r a n s m i t t i n g knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and  MCE,  understandings  about r a c i a l i s s u e s , would c r e a t e a c r i t i c a l awareness i n students of the p o l i t i c a l and  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t promote  racism. He warns, however, t h a t many b l a c k parents would r e j e c t the focus on unique a s p e c t s o f t h e i r own  c u l t u r e as  they  seek access t o the dominant f i r s t world economy, s o c i e t y and lifestyle.  T h i s i s understandable  as the promotion of  e t h n i c i t y , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and t r i b a l i s m was a p a r t h e i d ' s " d i v i d e and r u l e ' T h i s was  p a r t of  policy.  e v i d e n t a t V a l o u r High a c c o r d i n g t o the  E n g l i s h t e a c h e r Miss  159  Campbell:  ""We were s t u d y i n g Chinua Achebe's ""Things F a l l A p a r t " which d e a l t w i t h t r i b a l l i f e i n N i g e r i a . The b l a c k g i r l s were q u i t e r e l u c t a n t t o d i s c u s s t h e i r wonderful myths and legends. " However, t h e p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e of MCE a t V a l o u r High was e v i d e n t a f t e r a teacher, Miss Young, had been t o a m u l t i c u l t u r a l workshop. As she d e s c r i b e s i t , i t made h e r aware t h a t t h e " " " a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t ' approach was but another form o f r a c i s m . " She was a l s o a b l e t o connect  what she had l e a r n t t o  changes she c o u l d make i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . ""Most of what we teach i s i r r e l e v a n t . (Instead of) t e a c h i n g how r i v e r s erode, we s h o u l d be d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s such as t h e upgrading o f t h e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s . " G e t t i n g b l a c k students t o t a l k about t h e i r experiences  a l s o seemed t o improve race  life  relations.  ""Once I had t o do a p r o j e c t on a township and I had t o t a l k t o a bunch o f b l a c k s t u d e n t s . I n o t i c e d t h a t when I showed i n t e r e s t i n them, a l l o f a sudden they were a l l friends. They opened up t o me, I c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e t h e change. The atmosphere was so much b e t t e r , not n e a r l y so tense, l i k e our white group and t h e i r b l a c k g r o u p . " (white student) Teaching  from an MCE p e r s p e c t i v e would l e a d t o a  g r e a t e r understanding  and r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r  religions  amongst s t a f f as w e l l as s t u d e n t s . ""The t e a c h e r s don't r e s p e c t my c u l t u r e . One t e a c h e r asked me t o take o f f t h e s t r i n g around my w r i s t . But i n Hindu r e l i g i o n i t s a p r o t e c t i o n f o r u s . " ( I n d i a n student) The main reason g i v e n by b l a c k and white students f o r segregated groups was t h a t t h e i r backgrounds, w o r l d views and e x p e r i e n c e s were so remote from one another  that there  was  160  no p o s s i b i l i t y f o r d i a l o g u e .  "We never s i t t o g e t h e r d u r i n g breaks or c l a s s e s because we have d i f f e r e n t backgrounds and t h a t cannot changed i n a y e a r or two." ( b l a c k student) MCE  be  would h e l p overcome t h i s e s p e c i a l l y i f i t were, as  Hawley, C r a i n e t a l (1983) recommend, not o n l y r e f l e c t e d i n c u r r i c u l a changes but i n many a s p e c t s of the s c h o o l , such  as  w a l l d i s p l a y s , l i b r a r y books, r e c o g n i t i o n of o t h e r c u l t u r e s ' s i g n i f i c a n t dates and l e a d e r s . There was  some evidence of t h i s happening a t V a l o u r  High. Some t e a c h e r s t r i e d t o encourage students t o use b l a c k w r i t e r s and p e r t i n e n t themes i n the Drama program, o t h e r t e a c h e r s t r i e d t o r e l a t e i s s u e s i n E n g l i s h setbooks own  l i v e s with p o s i t i v e  to t h e i r  results.  ""When we d i s c u s s e d v i o l e n c e i n the townships, the white students were-wide-eyed; they had no i d e a of the horrendous home circumstances of t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s . It did them good t o hear the s t o r i e s and made them more sympathetic and r e s p e c t f u l of the b l a c k students who had endured so much and c o u l d r i s e above i t . " (Miss P e t e r s ) The  l i b r a r i a n had i n t r o d u c e d a number of b l a c k w r i t e r s  i n t o the l i b r a r y , w h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t changes were t a k i n g p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m . The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r had i n s t r u c t e d students d u r i n g one c l a s s t o make up t h e i r own  games. Although the white  students had r e s i s t e d a t  f i r s t and she had had t o l e c t u r e them on t r y i n g t o adapt the b l a c k c u l t u r e f o r a change, the p r o j e c t had been v e r y successful. " " I t was such f u n . The b l a c k g i r l s can make up games out of n o t h i n g . " (white student)  to  161 In order t o c o u n t e r a c t f o c u s s i n g on d i v e r s i t y and  the r e s i s t a n c e of some b l a c k s c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , the  s i m i l a r i t i e s amongst d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s needs t o be  to  constantly  s t r e s s e d . T h i s a l s o teaches towards what Coutts  (1992)  r e f e r s t o as the seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y goals i n South A f r i c a , o f b u i l d i n g a common i d e n t i t y w h i l e s t i l l  respecting  diversity. The and  success which Miss Wood had  i n the most v o l a t i l e  p o l a r i z e d c l a s s when they d i s c u s s e d  p a r e n t a l problems,  an i s s u e both b l a c k and white students c o u l d i d e n t i f y supports t h i s  point.  Researchers  (Cummins, 1988;  McCarthy,  Moodley,1983 et a l ) argue t h a t the  1990;  f a i l u r e to  address the dynamics of race r e l a t i o n s has being  with,  directly  resulted i n  i n e f f e c t i v e i n c h a l l e n g i n g the anglo-hegemony and  power s t r u c t u r e t h a t e x i s t s between the dominant marginalised  groups i n the s o c i e t y . T h i s has  r a c i s t education  MCE the  and  led to  anti-  practices.  C o u t t s (1992) contends t h a t t h i s would be inflammatory i n the South A f r i c a n context  too  so would  u l t i m a t e l y be more damaging than e f f e c t i v e . Miss Campbell supports t h i s  contention:  " I can't t a l k openly about a p a r t h e i d because I get t h i s h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n or they'd be t e a r i n g each other a p a r t o r . t h e r e ' d be t h i s q u i e t s i l e n c e . I t ' s l i k e a s e c r e t agreement - l e t ' s not say anything t h a t ' s going t o i n f u r i a t e anybody e l s e because otherwise i t ' s going t o blow up. I t ' s very threatening. "  162 While white students wanted to l e a r n about the p e r s o n a l l i v e s of b l a c k students, they . i n s i s t e d t h a t i t be controversial; "talking them f e e l  non-  p o l i t i e s ' i m p l i e d "blame', "making  guilty.'  ""I l i k e to hear about t h e i r r e a l l i f e . . . . B u t (black.students) b r i n g p o l i t i c s i n t o e v e r y t h i n g . " student) Anti-racist  e d u c a t i o n has met  they (white -  with s i m i l a r r e s i s t a n c e  from t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n North America Britain.  (Solomon, 1994).  inflammatory, inducing."  The  reasons  and  g i v e n have been  too p o l i t i c a l , too c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l , t o o g u i l t Solomon contends t h a t r a t h e r than i n d i c a t e  i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of these p o l i c i e s , educators  need t o  transform t h e i r p r a c t i c e .  this  In o r d e r t o achieve  f a c u l t i e s of e d u c a t i o n need t o develop "critical  "too  i n teachers a  l i t e r a c y ' i n order f o r them ""to r e c o g n i z e  c r i t i c i z e p o l i t i c a l and economic s t r u c t u r e s t h a t marginalised groups." I contend  (Solomon,  that that  1994)  t e a c h i n g of  been dismantled,  and  oppress  anti-racist  e d u c a t i o n i s c r u c i a l i n the South A f r i c a n c o n t e x t . a p a r t h e i d has now  the  Although  i t s legacy i n terms of  d e p r i v a t i o n i n a l l a s p e c t s of l i f e - home, s c h o o l and workw i l l be f e l t  f o r decades t o come.  " " I t w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n programs, demographic development, adequate l a n d a l l o c a t i o n and s e r v i c e s , compensatory and c u l t u r a l enrichment programs i n o r d e r t o address disadvantage, d e p r i v a t i o n and c u l t u r a l dislocation." (McGurk, c i t e d i n P o l l e y , 1989). In the e d u c a t i o n a l arena, the aftermath  of  163 a p a r t h e i d has impacted  on many s c h o o l outcomes. Students and  t e a c h e r s need t o understand the r o o t causes t h a t have resulted i n certain  practices.  - B l a c k and white students need t o understand t h e reasons f o r t h e s o - c a l l e d " s p e c i a l treatment' of c e r t a i n groups.  Teachers need t o be a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between  r e a l disadvantage and p r o j e c t e d g u i l t . - B l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s students need t o understand t h e reasons why b l a c k working c l a s s c h i l d r e n a r e " r e s e n t f u l ' and " j e a l o u s ' ; why and how they a r e excluded from admission t o "white' s c h o o l s . - Students need t o understand how race and c l a s s i n t e r a c t as a means o f e x c l u s i o n i n t h e South  African  arena. - E d u c a t o r s , policymakers and students need t o understand why many b l a c k s want t o embrace t h e "white' c u l t u r e ; they need t o understand t h e c u l t u r a l e r o s i o n a p a r t h e i d wrought and t h e ways i n which t h e dominant has p r o j e c t e d i t s w o r l d  group  view.  Not t o e x p l o r e t h e u n d e r l y i n g cause of r a c i s m and how it  has been used as a mechanism of c o n t r o l through t h e  i d e o l o g y o f a p a r t h e i d , would be both d i s h o n e s t and a d i s t o r t i o n of h i s t o r y . However, i t i s important t o take i n t o account t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o ARE by t e a c h e r s and students both i n South A f r i c a and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .  Solomon (1994) f a v o u r s  164 "browbeating'  teachers during t h e i r pre-service,  t r a i n i n g into developing a " c r i t i c a l  .  l i t e r a c y ' i n order f o r  them t o r e c o g n i z e and c r i t i c i z e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t oppress m a r g i n a l i z e d groups.  Hawley, C r a i n e t a l (1983)  however, warn a g a i n s t o v e r l y attempting t o change t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s . They b e l i e v e t h i s should be a more g r a d u a l , l o n g term g o a l , a r i s i n g out of new changed behaviours  i n the  s t r a t e g i e s and  subsequent  classroom.  I would recommend r a t h e r , m o d i f y i n g the way taught, and changing  ARE  is  the name t o something l e s s u n i -  dimensional and a c c u s a t o r y . I t should be more i n c l u s i v e  and;  examine the m u l t i p l e ways i n which s o c i a l j u s t i c e i s subverted. A more h o l i s t i c approach i s needed t o w r e s t l e w i t h a complex and dynamic problem i n . a complex and dynamic world. S o c i a l i n j u s t i c e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y a world-wide phenomenon, i s the r e s u l t of some people m a n i p u l a t i n g t o power and p r i v i l e g e t o the b e n e f i t of themselves  access  and  the  e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r s . Racism, sexism and e l i t i s m have been the h i s t o r i c mechanisms of a c h i e v i n g t h i s , r e s u l t i n g i n the o p p r e s s i o n / disadvantage  of c e r t a i n r a c e s , Women and  the  working c l a s s . The p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of r a c i s m s h o u l d be l i n k e d t o the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s of sexism and e l i t i s m , these i n t u r n being l i n k e d t o i n j u s t i c e on a g l o b a l l e v e l . Nor  are  these c a t e g o r i e s s t a t i c - a s we move i n t o a h i g h l y complex  world, they may  a r t i c u l a t e with each other and  d i f f e r e n t combinations, or t h e r e may m a n i p u l a t i n g the  165  form  be new ways of  system.  By g l o b a l i z i n g the i s s u e of racism, l i n k i n g i t t o other forms of o p p r e s s i o n and embedding i t i n the "core* c u r r i c u l u m , say a H i s t o r y or S o c i a l s t u d i e s course, some of the inflammatory, a c c u s a t o r y and g u i l t - i n d u c i n g will  be removed w h i l e the problem,  elements  social injustice,  will  s t i l l be bared and examined. At  V a l o u r High a l l students may  experience disadvantage  i n d i f f e r e n t ways and t o d i f f e r e n t degrees.  Thus they can  share t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and r e l a t e them t o i s s u e s on a g l o b a l l e v e l , such as the Holocaust, Women's ' Emancipation movement, workers'  revolutions etc.  T h i s then  p r o v i d e s a b a s i s whereby they can u n i t e and e v a l u a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r overcoming  social  injustice.  V a l o u r High p r o v i d e d a glimpse of both the p o t e n t i a l f o r v i o l e n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n , i n the " f i l t h y township'  debate  as w e l l as the p o t e n t i a l f o r f r i e n d l y r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , as i n the d i s c u s s i o n over p a r e n t a l problems.  I t also revealed a  s u r p r i s i n g d e s i r e on the p a r t of the white students t o make i n t e g r a t i o n work, as w e l l as an obdurate r e s i s t a n c e t o b e i n g "blamed' f o r past i n j u s t i c e s . While I have argued f o r the need t o address r a c i s m d i r e c t l y , i t must be done i n an atmosphere t h a t permits the u l t i m a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s i m i l a r g o a l s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s .  166 In t h i s way they can " d e b a t e and l e a r n t h e - s k i l l s  necessary  t o l i v e i n a c r i t i c a l democracy"(Solomon, 1994), educated t o r e c o g n i z e and c o n t e s t power d i f f e r e n t i a l s . In South A f r i c a n jargon t h i s would t r a n s l a t e  into  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n o n - r a c i a l , nonsexist, non-elitist  s o c i e t y t h a t p r o v i d e s equal o p p o r t u n i t y  and the r e d r e s s o f imbalances. CONCLUSION The purpose o f t h i s study was t o examine ways i n which educators, themselves  socialized within a hierarchical  r a c i s t s o c i e t y , d e a l w i t h the t a s k of f a c i l i t a t i n g  effective  l e a r n i n g among c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t r a c e s . However, t h i s study goes beyond i t s o r i g i n a l purpose i n t h a t the r i c h n e s s o f the data r e v e a l e d many  paradoxes,  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and u n p r e d i c t a b l e outcomes i n t h e South A f r i c a n desegregating experience.  These w i l l be e x p l o r e d  below. Such i s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e ethnographic method! Teachers  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t V a l o u r High had been  g i v e n v i r t u a l l y no support, f i n a n c i a l l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l l y o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , t o cope w i t h i n t e g r a t i o n i n a s i t u a t i o n of extreme p o l a r i z a t i o n .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they were f a c i n g t h e  t a s k f a i r l y e f f e c t i v e l y - l e a r n i n g was o c c u r r i n g f o r a l l students and r a c i a l mixing was, a t l e a s t  superficially,  unproblematic. B l a c k students g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r  white  167 t e a c h e r s t o be  "fair"  and  " h e l p f u l ' and  indeed, t h e r e were  many examples of t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r i o r i t i z i n g the needs of the b l a c k s t u d e n t s .  \  While t h e r e were i n c i d e n t s  of a crude r a c i a l nature, on the whole white students showed some understanding  of the way  a p a r t h e i d oppressed  black  people. They a l s o seemed t o grasp t h a t " g e t t i n g along'  was  i m p e r a t i v e f o r the f u t u r e of t h e i r c o u n t r y . T h i s , however, brought them i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r own mainly working c l a s s whites.  p a r e n t s , who  were  Because of the c o m p e t i t i o n f o r  s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , the lower c l a s s whites  have h i s t o r i c a l l y  been the most r a c i s t and c o n s e r v a t i v e , s i n c e a p a r t h e i d p r i v i l e g e d them a t the expense of t h e i r b l a c k "comrades'. These f i n d i n g s c h a l l e n g e the s t e r e o t y p e of white South A f r i c a n s and are somewhat s u r p r i s i n g , g i v e n t h a t a l l whites were s o c i a l i z e d w i t h i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l , r a c i s t system, v a l i d a t e d by the S t a t e , Church and  Court.  However, t h i s study supports p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Adam & Moodley, C h r i s t i e e t a l 1992)  i n contending  A f r i c a may  as a c a p i t a l i s t and  b e s t be understood  t h a t South class-  based s o c i e t y , w h e r e i n race and c l a s s a r t i c u l a t e i n an i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e over power and privilege. Moreover, t r a d i t i o n a l d e s e g r e g a t i o n  literature  ( A l l p o r t , Pettigrew, c i t e d i n Schofield,1982; e t a l ) concurs  Hawley,1983  t h a t mere mixing does not imply improved race  168 r e l a t i o n s o r equal education f o r a l l groups.  For t h i s t o  occur, t h e r e needs t o be equal access and equal power w i t h i n the c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n . An examination  of t h e admissions' p o l i c y a t V a l o u r  High  p r o v i d e s a c l u e t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y smooth t r a n s i t i o n t o a r a c i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l . I t a c t s as a s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e e n a b l i n g t h e s c h o o l t o l i m i t t h e numbers of b l a c k students and accept o n l y t h e b e s t , namely the ones who spoke E n g l i s h w e l l and most c l o s e l y approximated  t h e white,  western  C h r i s t i a n norm - the ones who were most l i k e l y t o " f i t i n ' . However, t h i s was u n l i k e l y t o be maintained  f o r long.  The white p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e area was s t a t i c and t h e s c h o o l , equipped  f o r 1,000 students o n l y had 450. I t would e i t h e r  have t o c l o s e down o r f i l l  the remaining  spaces w i t h b l a c k  students. Teachers were concerned  about a drop i n academic and  b e h a v i o u r a l standards i f the entrance c r i t e r i a were loosened or removed completely.  T h i s was a l e g i t i m a t e concern due t o  the f a c t t h a t many of the b l a c k township students had sabotaged  t h e i r education because of p o l i t i c a l  mobilization.  There was a l s o the very r e a l f e a r of being outnumbered and completely s u r r e n d e r i n g the white ethos of t h e s c h o o l . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , however, the most v o c i f e r o u s r e s i s t a n c e was from t h e b l a c k students and t h e i r parents who were unanimous i n t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l of a d m i t t i n g more b l a c k s t u d e n t s . Again, t h i s b r i n g s i n t o focus t h a t w h i l e p r e v i o u s l y  169 race had overshadowed c l a s s as a mechanism of e x c l u s i o n , the d i s m a n t l i n g of a p a r t h e i d has begun t o c r y s t a l i s e  class  d i v i s i o n s . A l l the b l a c k students a t V a l o u r High were from the m i d d l e - c l a s s .  They were r a p i d l y a l i g n i n g themselves  with white c u l t u r e and d i s t a n c i n g themselves from the working-class  blacks.  T h i s study c o r r o b o r a t e s o t h e r r e s e a r c h C h r i s t i e , C o u t t s e t a l . 1992)  which has  (Adam & Moodley,  shown t h a t what  b l a c k s d e s i r e most i s access t o the power and p r i v i l e g e t h a t whites had monopolized.  T h i s e n t a i l e d access t o a world  language and a w o r l d c u l t u r e - E n g l i s h and anglo c u l t u r e has been p e r c e i v e d as the q u i c k e s t r o u t e t o achieve  this.  Moreover, a p a r t h e i d had robbed b l a c k s of a h i s t o r y a p r i d e i n t h e i r own terms, t h i s was  c u l t u r e and c o n t r i b u t i o n s . In Gramscian  r e p l a c e d by the p r o p a g a t i o n  world view by the dominant group.  It i s  of an  "official'  understandable  t h e r e f o r e t h a t the b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s i n t e r n a l i z e d hegemony. In a d d i t i o n , e t h n i c i t y and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e was  and  manipulated  this  black  by the a p a r t h e i d regime and  rather  than being a source of p r i d e and achievement, has i n s t e a d become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e p r i v a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n p r i m i t i v e n e s s by m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s .  A l l these  and  reasons  combine i n an attempt t o i l l u m i n a t e the seemingly u n n a t u r a l d e s i r e by m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s t o d i s t a n c e themselves from t h e i r black lower-class brethren. South A f r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e ,  (Kallaway,  Nasson, Burman e t  170 a l ) has  shown t h a t a p a r t h e i d d i d not exclude a l l b l a c k s from  education and p r i v i l e g e . On the c o n t r a r y , i t was aim t o co-opt  an  explicit  a b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s both t o meet the  changing  labour needs of the country and i n the hope t h a t they c o u l d s t a b i l i z e the p o l i t i c a l  situation.  measures were both a response  However, these  reform  t o the p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n  of student a c t i v i s t s , union members and the working c l a s s and were u s u a l l y accompanied by the r e p r e s s i o n of these people.  very  Thus, i r o n i c a l l y , the v e r y a c t i o n s t h a t p r o p e l l e d  the b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s i n t o a p o s i t i o n whereby they c o u l d e a s i l y access the "good" s c h o o l s , namely the former white s c h o o l s , i n t u r n j e o p a r d i z e d the l i f e chances of those had sabotaged  who  t h e i r education f o r p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n .  Thus i t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r any e d u c a t i o n system i n a  "new'  South A f r i c a t h a t p r o f e s s e s democracy and e q u a l i t y t o address  this issue.  T h i s study goes beyond c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d  by  exposing the p e r c e p t i o n s of white t e a c h e r s towards white working c l a s s s t u d e n t s . In doing so, i t h i g h l i g h t s a g a i n the r o l e of c l a s s i n South A f r i c a .  The  r e s e a r c h does not,  however, determine the extent t o which the b l a c k  middle-  c l a s s a l i g n s i t s e l f w i t h white c u l t u r e per se o r w i t h i n i t s social  class. My  hunch would be t h a t m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s p e r c e i v e d  white s o c i e t y as homogeneous, a l l p o s s e s s i n g the egg'.  "golden  However as more b l a c k s p e n e t r a t e the c i r c l e of power  171 that  and p r i v i l e g e , i t w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent white  s o c i e t y i s as s t r a t i f i e d  as t h e i r own.  Hence, I would  a n t i c i p a t e an i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c i n g from the white working class. There were a l r e a d y some i n d i c a t i o n s of t h i s a t V a l o u r High.  Two  b l a c k f a m i l i e s had chosen t o l i v e o u t s i d e the  W o o d s v i l l e catchment area because " i t wasn't good enough'. In a d d i t i o n the b l a c k s seemed t o be upwardly mobile i n c o n t r a s t t o the entrenched white c l a s s . T h i s can be deduced by the s t u d e n t s ' c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and t h e i r p a r e n t s ' positions.  While the b l a c k parents r e p r e s e n t e d the  lower  m i d d l e - c l a s s i n t h a t they were s m a l l b u s i n e s s people, p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s and nurses, t h e i r c h i l d r e n expected be lawyers, d o c t o r s and p r o f e s s o r s . c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s of the white  to  On the other hand, the  students r e f l e c t e d  their  parents' a s p i r a t i o n s - c l e r k s , secretaries-and h a i r d r e s s e r s . However, more r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s  area.  RECOMMENDATIONS In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e g r a t i o n a t V a l o u r  High,  p e d a g o g i c a l changes need t o be made, most i m p o r t a n t l y w i t h r e g a r d t o i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g . Teachers  need t o be  supported w i t h on-going  lectures.  They need t o l e a r n how  seminars, workshops and t o mediate r a c i a l  i n c i d e n t s , cope  w i t h students w i t h l i m i t e d language p r o f i c i e n c y and  adapt  t h e i r c u r r i c u l a so t h a t i t has more r e l e v a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g t h e i r students f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a democratic  society.  They need exposure t o new  teaching  techniques  which w i l l h e l p them teach i n a m u l t i r a c i a l c l a s s of n a t i v e and non-native techniques may  speakers  of E n g l i s h .  172  consisting  New  teaching  a l s o help break down the r e s e g r e g a t i o n t h a t  p r e v a i l e d a t the s c h o o l . The  study has r e v e a l e d the importance of t e a c h i n g from  a m u l t i c u l t u r a l standpoint t o f o s t e r a r e s p e c t , t o l e r a n c e and understanding historically  had  of other c u l t u r e s i n a s o c i e t y which little  knowledge of each o t h e r . T h i s s h o u l d  reduce the number of r a c i s t  incidents.  I t should a l s o  promote more i n t e g r a t i o n as one of the main reasons segregated  for  groups, a c c o r d i n g t o both b l a c k and white  s t u d e n t s , was  t h a t they knew so l i t t l e  o t h e r ' s l i v e s t h a t they had  about each  "nothing t o t a l k about.'  In t h i s study I have argued f o r the importance of t e a c h i n g e x p l i c i t l y about r a c i s m w h i l e acknowledging t h a t i t s "accusatory',  " g u i l t - i n d u c i n g ' and  tone i s o f t e n c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e . more i n c l u s i v e form of ARE  "inflammatory*  Hence I have advocated  which examines S o c i a l  and e x p l o r e s the many d i f f e r e n t ways, i n c l u d i n g that i t i s manifested.  Injustice racism,  In a s c h o o l such as V a l o u r  High,  which c o n t a i n s b l a c k and white s t u d e n t s , m i d d l e - c l a s s b l a c k s , w o r k i n g - c l a s s whites, and perhaps i n the f u t u r e , w o r k i n g - c l a s s b l a c k s , disadvantage  w i l l be p e r c e i v e d i n  d i f f e r e n t ways, i n d i f f e r e n t degrees. A l l these need t o be e x p l o r e d . But i n such a s i t u a t i o n of extreme p o l a r i z a t i o n ,  a  it  i s i m p e r a t i v e not only t o understand  173 and c r i t i q u e t h e  nature of o p p r e s s i o n , but a l s o t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s whereby students can u n i t e and e v a l u a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r overcoming social  injustice.  V a l o u r High i s i n an extremely v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n , g i v e n the low socio-economic  s t a t u s o f the surrounding  community, i t s p r o x i m i t y t o d e n s e l y populated b l a c k areas and i t s need t o a t t r a c t more students t o the s c h o o l . (1989,1992) has p o i n t e d out t h a t r a c i a l l i k e l y t o be p r o b l e m a t i c under such Frederikse  Coutts  mixing i s more  circumstances.  (1992) found t h a t former white, suburban s t a t e  s c h o o l s i n Zimbabwe have d e t e r i o r a t e d due t o white and middle-class black " f l i g h t '  and the l o s s of w e l l - q u a l i f i e d  teachers. To a v o i d such problems, Coutts recommends m a i n t a i n i n g some form o f entrance c r i t e r i a ,  at least i n i t i a l l y ,  i n those  s c h o o l s which do not have academic support and b r i d g i n g programs f o r s e v e r e l y disadvantaged  students.  While  acknowledging t h a t t h i s i s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , Coutts b e l i e v e s t h a t h a v i n g disadvantaged  students f l o u n d e r i n g without  a s s i s t a n c e i n such s c h o o l s would b e n e f i t nobody. B e a r i n g i n mind the t e a c h e r s ' , b l a c k p a r e n t s ' and s t u d e n t s ' concerns a t V a l o u r High, r e g a r d i n g a drop i n "standards', I would agree w i t h Coutts* p o s i t i o n t h a t some form o f s e l e c t i v e admission be maintained  initially.  However, t h e government and e d u c a t i o n department s h o u l d make  .174 the b o l s t e r i n g of b l a c k e d u c a t i o n i n the townships, e s p e c i a l l y a t the primary  level, a priority.  Massive  funding should a l s o be d i r e c t e d towards support programs a t former white suburban s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n areas such as W o o d s v i l l e ,  s i n c e s c h o o l s i n these areas w i l l be on  the f r o n t l i n e s of d e s e g r e g a t i o n en masse.  Extensive  t  academic and b r i d g i n g programs need t o be i n p l a c e p r i o r t o the i n f l u x of d e p r i v e d s t u d e n t s , so as t o make a v a i l a b l e t h e best p o s s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r these  children,  w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y not compromising t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r b l a c k and white s t u d e n t s . As V a l o u r High and o t h e r s t a t e s c h o o l s embark on new, u n c h a r t e r e d t e r r i t o r y , i t s h o u l d be borne i n mind t h a t i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n may combine i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  To  look a t s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e o n l y from the u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t of racism, without  t a k i n g cognizance  of o t h e r  f a c t o r s , such as c l a s s , w i l l no l o n g e r be adequate. ensure an equal e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l i n a democratic  To  South  A f r i c a , a dynamic, h o l i s t i c approach w i l l be needed. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY One  o f the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e p r e s e n t study i s t h a t i t  was an examination  o f one p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , namely a  f o r m e r l y white g i r l s ' h i g h s c h o o l i n a white working c l a s s area, b o r d e r i n g b l a c k townships.  Hence, t h e  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e f i n d i n g s may be l i m i t e d .  However,  because o f t h e i n - d e p t h focus o f t h e study and t h e  175 c o n s i s t e n c y of the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e r e i s a l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s may be a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r s c h o o l s i n s i m i l a r  situations.  Moreover, t h e f i n d i n g s c o n s i s t e n t l y support  previous  r e s e a r c h i n s i m i l a r i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s i n South A f r i c a . IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH One o f the purposes of t h i s study was t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the accumulation  o f b a s i c d a t a i n an a r e a which, because of  i t s newness, has been underresearched. s t u d i e s of o t h e r d e s e g r e g a t i n g  Further in-depth  schools could confirm or  c o n t e s t t h e themes t h a t have emerged from t h i s  study.  Another i n t e n t i o n was t o e x p l o r e the i n t e r p l a y between r a c e and c l a s s i n South A f r i c a .  T h i s has developed  i n t o one  of t h e main themes from t h i s study. A r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s study w i t h boys' s c h o o l s , elementary d i f f e r e n t socio-economic understanding  schools or schools i n  a r e a s , would p r o v i d e g r e a t e r  o f the i n t e r a c t i o n between c l a s s and r a c e i n  South A f r i c a . While some r e s e a r c h has been undertaken i n i n t e g r a t e d p r i v a t e o r a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s i n South A f r i c a , t h e r e has been l i t t l e documentation o f t h e d e s e g r e g a t i o n o f s t a t e schools.  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s a r e a .  One o f the themes t o have emerged from t h i s study o f a s t a t e s c h o o l , which t o my knowledge has never been i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , was t h e a t t i t u d e s o f white m i d d l e - c l a s s t e a c h e r s towards white working c l a s s  children.  176 Further research p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s area are v a s t . While t h i s study shows the way i n which t h e b l a c k m i d d l e - c l a s s i s approximating distancing i t s e l f  the white, western norm and  from the b l a c k w o r k i n g - c l a s s ,  i t does not  i n d i c a t e which white c l a s s , i f any, i t i s a l i g n i n g  itself  with.  W i l l the upwardly mobile  black middle-class distance  itself  from the white working c l a s s i n schools such as  V a l o u r High o r w i l l t h e r e be a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r common ground and u n i t y ?  Many f a s c i n a t i n g r e s e a r c h problems l i e i n t h i s  area. C o n t r a r y t o the North American experience, one  desegregation  i n V a l o u r High, t h e b l a c k students,  particularly  group, were a c h i e v i n g d e s p i t e t h e i r backgrounds of  disadvantage,  d e p r i v a t i o n and d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t .  In t h e  t r a d i t i o n of Maslow (1968) and Lawrence L i g h t f o o t (1988), a study of h i g h - f u n c t i o n i n g b l a c k students who  succeed  " d e s p i t e a l l odds', would be an i n t r i g u i n g and worthwhile undertaking. The  study took p l a c e b e f o r e the f i r s t  free elections i n  South A f r i c a when the e d u c a t i o n system was i n a s t a t e o f f l u x and c o n f u s i o n . S i n c e then the new government, t h e ANC, has implemented t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y .  Further  r e s e a r c h c o u l d examine whether s t a t e s c h o o l s a r e t e a c h i n g i n accordance  w i t h the ANC e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , namely  preparing children f o r active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a non-racial,  177 non-sexist,  democratic c o u n t r y , t h a t p r o v i d e s equal  education f o r a l l . IMPLICATIONS FOR  CANADIAN PRACTICE  A South A f r i c a n s c h o o l j u s t embarking on  integration,  p r o v i d e s Canadian t h e o r i s t s w i t h the unique o p p o r t u n i t y w i t n e s s an e d u c a t i o n system on the an a u t h o r i t a r i a n ,  cusp of t r a n s i t i o n from  homogeneous, u n i l i n g u a l e t h n o c e n t r i c  t o a democratic, m u l t i c u l t u r a l , m u l t i l i n g u a l and model.  The  model  global  ways i n which South A f r i c a n educators a t V a l o u r  High g r a p p l e d w i t h the v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s and - Trying  to  following  implications  t o balance the  building a national  issues could  provide  f o r Canadian p r a c t i c e .  seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y  i d e n t i t y while s t i l l  g o a l s of  recognizing  diversity. - The  ways i n which the  t o a w o r l d language and economy,  s o c i e t y and  oppressed group seeks t o g a i n access dominant, f i r s t  l i f e s t y l e , while s t i l l  unique a s p e c t s of t h e i r own - How  world.  c u l t u r e and  retaining  ethnicity.  t o develop p o s i t i v e i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s i n  c l a s s r o o m when each group has institutionalized  the  the  been r i g i d l y p o l a r i z e d  by  racism.  - The  ways i n which s o c i a l c l a s s a f f e c t s t h i s p r o c e s s .  - How  t o f a c i l i t a t e second language a c q u i s i t i o n i n a  traditionally unilingual class. - The  ongoing debate between m u l t i c u l t u r a l and a n t i - r a c i s t  e d u c a t i o n - whether t o implement them arid how  to  implement  178 them i n a s i t u a t i o n of extreme p o l a r i z a t i o n . - The extent t o which the admission  of a new  student  c l i e n t e l e n e c e s s i t a t e s c u r r i c u l u m and p e d a g o g i c a l change. - Contrary t o t r a d i t i o n a l desegregation l i t e r a t u r e ,  black  s t u d e n t s a t the s c h o o l were a c h i e v i n g a c a d e m i c a l l y . 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Multicultural Educational C a l i f . Sage.  Z e n i , Jane (1991)."Teaching E n g l i s h f o r the New South A f r i c a . " E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l . V o l 23 # Feb. U n t e r h a l t e r , E . , Wolpe,H.(ed.)(1991). Apartheid Education Popular Struggles. Johannesburg. Ravan P r e s s . Other  and  Sources  D r a f t E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y of the A f r i c a n N a t i o n a l Congress. South A f r i c a . 1992. Penney,A; Appel,S e t a l . (1991). "The Advent of R a c i a l I n t e g r a t i o n i n P i e t e r m a r i t z b u r g , South A f r i c a . " Report of a study f o r the Department of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of N a t a l , P i e t e r m a r i t z b u r g , South A f r i c a . Newsletter t o parents from Manor Gardens Primary S c h o o l . Durban, South A f r i c a . 16 March 1992. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Manual f o r S t a t e - A i d e d S c h o o l s . P u b l i s h e d by Dept. of E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e f o r House of Assembly. P r e t o r i a , South A f r i c a . 18 Feb.1992.  INTERVIEW GUIDELINES  These w i l l p a r a l l e l the Observation G u i d e l i n e s t o a l a r g e extent, as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e P r i n c i p a l and teachers to " t e l l t h e i r own s t o r i e s " . 1.  How do you s e l e c t only).  2.  What are the s c h o o l songs, l o g o s , symbols, mascots and celebrations? Have they changed as a r e s u l t o f opening the s c h o o l t o s t u d e n t s from other races?  B l a c k students f o r admission?  (Principal  Do you envisage any changes o c c u r r i n g i n the f u t u r e ? 3.  Is there a parent a s s o c i a t i o n ? Is i t m u l t i - r a c i a l ? a c t i v i t i e s does i t promote? (Principal only).  4.  Who are the s c h o o l p r e f e c t s , c a p t a i n s , c l u b p r e s i d e n t s ? are they chosen?  5.  Which students g e t punished more o f t e n ? What f o r ? What i s the nature of the punishment? Does i t a f f e c t a l l c h i l d r e n equally?  6.  How do you o r g a n i z e arrangements?  7.  What r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s do you g i v e B l a c k and White students? Do they r e q u i r e the same amount of a t t e n t i o n ? Who s t a y s a f t e r school/the l e s s o n t o d i s c u s s problems, q u e s t i o n s they might have?  8.  Who i n i t i a t e s c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s , answers q u e s t i o n s , questions, models c o r r e c t answers?  9.  How important a r e grades i n your c l a s s ? What a r e the academic r e s u l t s i n your c l a s s ? Have academic standards changed as a r e s u l t of opening the school to s t u d e n t s from o t h e r races? Do you envisage any changes o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s area? Explain. What k i n d o f support i s there f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h language o r learning d i f f i c u l t i e s ?  10.  What k i n d o f t e a c h i n g methods do you use?  your  classroom?  What How  Seating/grouping  asks  C o - o p e r a t i v e / c o m p e t i t i v e classroom? Lecture f o r m a t / d i s c u s s i o n , task-based? A b i l i t y grouping? T e a c h e r - f r o n t e d / t e a c h e r as f a c i l i t a t o r ? Have there been any-~e4ianc[es i n t h i s a r e a as a r e s u l t of r a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n ? Do you envisage any o c c u r r i n g i n the f u t u r e ?  Interview Guidelines Page Two 11.  Have you made any changes i n the c u r r i c u l u m as a r e s u l t of integration? Explain: Do you envisage doing so i n the future? E x p l a i n : Do you f e e l i t ' s important t o connect the p e r s o n a l experiences of your students w i t h classroom l e a r n i n g ? How do you do t h i s ?  12.  What a r e the problems t h a t a r i s e because of i n t e g r a t i o n ?  13.  Do you c o n s i d e r t h a t opening the s c h o o l s t o c h i l d r e n from a l l races has had a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on the s c h o o l / y o u r class? Please s p e c i f y i n what ways.  14.  What a r e your h o p e s / f e a r s / e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e i n terms of a r a c i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l .  15.  Any o t h e r comments you'd l i k e t o make?  i n your  class  (& school)  OBSERVATION GUIDELINES  1.  What i s the s o c i a l context o f the s c h o o l ? Physical d e s c r i p t i o n of immediate area - W h i t e / r a c i a l l y mixed; s o c i o economic s t a t u s ; p r o x i m i t y of s c h o o l t o p u p i l s ' homes.  2.  How supportive a r e the parents and community? Is t h e r e a parent a s s o c i a t i o n ; i s i t multi-racial; what k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s does i t p a r t i c i p a t e i n ?  3.  What i s the s c h o o l ethos? mascots and c e l e b r a t i o n s .  4.  How a r e s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s reproduced  5.  School  songs,  logos,  symbols,  i n school?  (a)  Who are the p r e f e c t s , s p o r t s c a p t a i n s , house c a p t a i n s , c l a s s c a p t a i n s and c l u b p r e s i d e n t s ?  (b)  Which students infringements?  g e t punished more o f t e n and f o r what What i s the nature of the punishment?  What r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s e x i s t amongst teachers and students, and amongst students themselves? (a) (b) (c) (d)  P h y s i c a l arrangement of desks. Club and team membership. Playground c o n t a c t and a s s o c i a t i o n s . A f t e r school a s s o c i a t i o n s .  6.  What are teachers expectations r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s do the t e a c h e r s students; how much a t t e n t i o n do answers, questions, problems?  of children? What g i v e B l a c k and White teachers g i v e t o t h e i r  7.  Who initiates classroom responses, discussions? Which students do the t e a c h e r s c a l l upon t o respond t o q u e s t i o n s , model answers, g i v e o p i n i o n s ?  8.  How does the s c h o o l promote p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t among i t s p u p i l s ? #3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 w i l l p r o v i d e i n d i c a t o r s f o r t h i s question.  9.  What k i n d of pedagogy does the teacher use? Co-operative versus competitive classroom environment? A b i l i t y streaming or grouping? Support f o r students with language o r l e a r n i n g l i m i t a t i o n s ? Does the teacher s t r e s s grades? How? What are the academic r e s u l t s ?  IS?  Observation Page Two 10.  Guidelines  To what extent does the curriculum accommodate A f r i c a n culture? Examine h i s t o r y textbooks, to see i f they r e f l e c t the h i s t o r i e s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a l l r a c i a l groups; does i t d e a l with the h i s t o r y of Apartheid, Black s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y , B l a c k l e a d e r s and heroes? Is the a r t , music, drama of non-Anglo c u l t u r e s i n c l u d e d i n these c l a s s e s ? What languages are taught?  

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