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African labour in South Central Africa, 1890-1914 and nineteenth cneutry colonial labour theory MacKenzie, John MacDonald 1969

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AFRICAN LABOUR I N SOUTH CENTRAL AFRICA, 1890-1914 AND NINETEENTH CENTURY COLONIAL LABOUR THEORY  by  . JOHN MACDONALD MACKENZIE .. M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Glasgow, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  i n t h e Department of History  We .accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further for  shall  the  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  University  of  make i t f r e e l y  agree tha  permission  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  his  of  this  written  representatives.  be  available  granted  gain  permission.  Department  Date  for  for extensive by  the  It i s understood  thesis for financial  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada  British  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  that  not  the  that  study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ii ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h the m o b i l i s a t i o n o f A f r i c a n l a b o u r i n South C e n t r a l A f r i c a and the c r e a t i o n o f a d u a l economy t h e r e .  The problem i t seeks to examine i s why a  p u r e l y migrant l a b o u r system was c r e a t e d ,  i n which A f r i c a n s  spent o n l y s h o r t p e r i o d s i n the cash economy i n t e r s p e r s e d l o n g e r p e r i o d s i n t h e i r own s u b s i s t e n c e  one.  with  T h i s problem i s  c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the w i d e r i s s u e s o f l a n d p o l i c y ,  native  policy,  century.  and c o l o n i a l l a b o u r t h e o r y i n the n i n e t e e n t h  U s i n g the r e c o r d s o f the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and o f the  British  South A f r i c a Company's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n N o r t h e r n and Southern R h o d e s i a , t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r contemporary m a t e r i a l , an attempt i s made to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between developments i n the Rhodesias and w i d e r c o l o n i a l e x p e r i e n c e , between the Company's aims i n i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e ' s c o n t r o l of  it. C o l o n i a l l a b o u r t h e o r y i n the n i n e t e e n t h  c e n t u r y i s found  to have emerged as a response to the end o f the s l a v e t r a d e and the emancipation o f the s l a v e s , f o r c e both s t i m u l a n t s  as a need to s u b s t i t u t e  (like taxation)  for  to overcome s o - c a l l e d  t r o p i c a l i n d o l e n c e and a modicum o f l a n d hunger to overcome e x c e s s i v e dependence  on s u b s i s t e n c e .  however, by the need to p r o t e c t  T h i s had to be b a l a n c e d ,  the i n t e r e s t s  and r i g h t s o f  i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s i n the face o f h u m a n i t a r i a n concern and international opinion.  These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  coupled w i t h  iii a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expediency and the d e s i r e of European  settler  communities f o r the s e c u r i t y of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  segreg-  a t i o n , l e d to the c r e a t i o n of a r e s e r v e s p o l i c y . In Southern Rhodesia, the absence of a genuine r e s e r v e s p o l i c y during the f i r s t to  years of settlement  appeared to l e a d  d i s a s t r o u s r e l a t i o n s with the n a t i v e peoples.  The C o l o n i a l  O f f i c e i n s i s t e d upon the c r e a t i o n of r e s e r v e s , and the  effect,  i f not the i n t e n t i o n , of subsequent Company n a t i v e p o l i c y  was  to move A f r i c a n s i n c r e a s i n g l y on to the r e s e r v e s , away from European c e n t r e s of employment, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r marketing produce and stock, and p r i n c i p a l l i n e s of communication. As a r e s u l t , A f r i c a n s ' c a p a c i t y to respond r a t i o n a l l y to the cash economy a c t u a l l y d e c l i n e d as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p l o r i n g the v a r i o u s avenues i n t o i t were withdrawn with isolation. experience  In consequence labour became a p u r e l y  migratory  which e n t a i l e d b r i e f p e r i o d s i n the essentially a l i e n  environment (accentuated by ordinance) ation.  geographical  T h i s was  accentuated  of the town or mine l o c -  a l s o by the migration of labour  i n t o Southern Rhodesia from throughout South C e n t r a l A f r i c a the import  of indentured labour from overseas,  by an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n convinced l a b o u r supply. of  p o l i c i e s pursued  of the inadequacy of the i n t e r n a l  Thus C o l o n i a l O f f i c e concern  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n  the n a t i v e i n t e r e s t l e d to the perpetuation of an  and,  and  inefficient  to the A f r i c a n , d i s t u r b i n g system, which u l t i m a t e l y f a c i l i t -  ated the mortgaging of A f r i c a n s ' s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  development.  CONTENTS page. Preface  v  1  Introduction C h a p t e r 1:  The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e  and Labour i n t h e  Nineteenth Century  12  C h a p t e r 2:  The S o u t h A f r i c a n B a c k g r o u n d  57  C h a p t e r 3:  The M o b i l i s a t i o n  C h a p t e r k'.  Labour  from t h e D i s t r i c t s , Mashonaland  C h a p t e r 5:  Labour  from t h e D i s t r i c t s , M a t a b e l e l a n d  C h a p t e r 6:  Labour  f r o m O u t s i d e , I n d i a n Ocean and 2^1  C h a p t e r 7:  N o r t h e r n Zambezia L a b o u r f r o m O u t s i d e , N y a s a l a n d , Mozambique and  29A-  C h a p t e r 8:  o f Labour w i t h i n  the Transvaal  Labour  R h o d e s i a .. ......  10k 159 205  329  and t h e A f r i c a n  Conclusion  361  A N o t e on T r i b e s a n d t h e i r N o m e n c l a t u r e  368  Bibliography  ,  MAPS  Southern Rhodesia:  D i s t r i c t s and Mines  Northern Rhodesia:  Tribal  Areas  Labour Routes i n South C e n t r a l  Africa  369  PREFACE There i s no more o b v i o u s phenomenon i n A f r i c a than  labour  m i g r a t i o n , and i t has r e c e i v e d a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e amount o f a t t e n t i o n from b o t h a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s .  Historians  o f C e n t r a l A f r i c a have however merely glanced a t l a b o u r m i g r a t i o n . They have seen i t as an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of European p o l i t i c a l p e n e t r a t i o n , but i t s o r i g i n s have not yet been s t u d i e d on  the  s c a l e o f S h e i l a van der H o r s t ' s N a t i v e Labour i n South A f r i c a (1942).  The r e s e a r c h t h a t has been done i s e i t h e r i n the form  of r a t h e r sketchy a r t i c l e s or unpublished  t h e s e s , and t h e r e  has  been no attempt to s e t the c o l o n i a l l a b o u r e x p e r i e n c e i n t o the wider context of c o l o n i a l labour theory. T h i s t h e s i s cannot f u l l y f i l l  t h i s gap.  I t i s intended  as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the problem o f the o r i g i n s and  develop-  ment o f a t t i t u d e s towards l a b o u r i n both the c o l o n i a l and  the  t r i b a l s i t u a t i o n s , and the a p p l i c a t i o n o f those a t t i t u d e s i n the growth o f a d u a l economy and the f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c y . An e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t problem i n t h i s p a r t o f A f r i c a i s terminology.  South C e n t r a l A f r i c a i s a term o f convenience  i n t e n d e d to i n c l u d e s e v e r a l modern c o u n t r i e s and to draw the mind away from the European-created in African history.  boundaries  so o f t e n i r r e l e v a n t  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s a term based p u r e l y on  p r e v i o u s European s c h o l a r s h i p .  R e c e n t l y , another term has been  c o i n e d t h a t has perhaps b e t t e r h i s t o r i c a l precedents, (e.g. i n Stokes and Brown, The  Zambesian P a s t , 1966).  Zambesia I t also  s u f f e r s from b e i n g o f European c r e a t i o n and i n s t a n t l y produces  vi the  u n f o r t u n a t e q u a l i f y i n g phrases Southern Zamhesia and N o r t h e r n  Zambesia.  F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , South C e n t r a l A f r i c a  may be d e f i n e d as t h a t a r e a from which R h o d e s i a s e c u r e d i t s A f r i c a n l a b o u r s u p p l y between 1890 and 1914, t h a t i s R h o d e s i a i t s e l f , most o f Zambia and Malawi, and p a r t s o f Mozambique, t h e N o r t h e r n T r a n s v a a l and Botswana. A second d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t c o u n t r i e s have changed names, sometimes s e v e r a l t i m e s . the  modern terms r e t r o - a c t i v e ;  each p e r i o d .  their  Some s c h o l a r s appear t o make o t h e r s use t h e name c u r r e n t i n  I n t h i s t h e s i s the modern term w i l l be used i n  any g e n e r a l c o n t e x t - as i n the above paragraph - and t h e h i s t o r i c a l term where a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f time i s concerned. Yet a n o t h e r problem o f t e r m i n o l o g y i s t h a t so many words t h a t have p e r f e c t l y l e g i t i m a t e meanings have developed p e j o r a t i v e o v e r t o n e s through a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . the  Perhaps  most o b v i o u s example i s t h e word n a t i v e , a word t h a t i s  v i r t u a l l y a compliment when used o f Wales, A l s a c e , New England and so on, b u t i s now t o be a v o i d e d i n an A f r i c a n c o n t e x t .  It  i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t h i s t o r i a n s have t o a v o i d such a word, s i m p l y because o f p a s t misuse, f o r t h e r e i s no r e a l s u b s t i t u t e f o r i t . I t has proved n e c e s s a r y t o use i t s p a r i n g l y i n t h i s t h e s i s , f o r a t o t a l ban seems f o o l i s h .  An even more obvious example o f  misuse i s t h e word "boy" i n v a r i a b l y used i n t h e c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n i n C e n t r a l A f r i c a as a synoniym o f " l a b o u r e r " o r " s e r v a n t " o r even of  s i m p l y "male A f r i c a n " .  I n t h i s t h e s i s t h e word i s o f course  used o n l y t o mean a male a d o l e s c e n t o r c h i l d .  I t s h o u l d be  vii recognised, however, that when i t occurs i n a quotation i t very o f t e n i n v o l v e s the much wider meaning! Labour m i g r a t i o n i s of course a c o n t i n u i n g process a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b i l i s e d A f r i c a n urban i n d u s t r i a l i s s t i l l the exception r a t h e r than the r u l e .  population  I t should a l s o  be remembered that i n the case of Rhodesia, current problems are c o l o u r e d by labour m i g r a t i o n . little  -  political  There can  be  doubt that the present regime i s d e l i g h t e d that a t r u l y  permanent A f r i c a n urban p o p u l a t i o n has never been created, that the r e s e r v e s e x i s t as a massive system of outdoor r e l i e f a p e r i o d o f high A f r i c a n unemployment. viewed by me i n Rhodesia regarded  during  Several Africans i n t e r -  t h e i r reserves, t h e i r  villages,  t h e i r l a n d , however small and poor, as an insurance a g a i n s t the v a g a r i e s of the European economic c l i m a t e .  Thus A f r i c a n s i n  Rhodesia regard i n s t i t u t i o n s that are undoubtedly a bar to p o l i t i c a l progress as necessary  their  to t h e i r day-to-day needs.  To v i s i t a Rhodesian reserve - p a r t i c u l a r l y one  near  S a l i s b u r y - i s to see the c o n d i t i o n s so o f t e n d e s c r i b e d by Native Commissioners f i f t y years ago,  a community o f women and  c h i l d r e n with an o l d headman and o c c a s i o n a l l y an unemployed male or an o l d e r c h i l d on h o l i d a y from s c h o o l .  Almost  daily  examples o f l a b o u r m i g r a t i o n appear to the t r a v e l l e r or r e s e a r c h worker i n south c e n t r a l A f r i c a :  the y o u t h f u l employee i n a  *Hortense Powdermaker i n her Copper Town; Changing A f r i c a (New York, 1962), pp. 92-93 has an e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s problem. One of her r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s r e f e r r e d to two ten year o l d boys as "gentlemen", so aware was he of the debasing of the word "boy".  viii h o t e l s a v i n g t o buy a team o f oxen to h e l p farm the a n c e s t r a l l a n d i n Inyanga;  the young men on the Malawian bus b o i s t e r -  o u s l y r e t u r n i n g home a f t e r a s p e l l i n the Johannesburg  mines;  the depot o f the W i t w a t e r s r a n d N a t i v e Labour A s s o c i a t i o n nearby the B l a n t y r e m i s s i o n o f the Church of C e n t r a l A f r i c a P r e s b y t e r i a n on l a n d a c t u a l l y l e a s e d from the m i s s i o n ;  the crowded bus t h a t  l e a v e s Harare township, S a l i s b u r y , f o r B l a n t y r e every n i g h t , v i a the Mozambique e n c l a v e ,  f u l l o f r e t u r n i n g m i g r a n t s u s i n g an o l d  r o u t e by modern means;  the Rhodesian farmer annoyed t h a t the  l a b o u r e r s u p p l i e d by the government agency had "run away";  and,  most i n t e r e s t i n g l y o f a l l , the A f r i c a n s from the s o u t h e r n end o f the c o u n t r y w a i t i n g f o r work on the Mazoe Mine i n R h o d e s i a who took temporary employment as a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l a b o u r e r s on an excavation  on the Portuguese s i t e o f Dambarare w i t h i n s i g h t o f  the mine - as work became a v a i l a b l e , the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e r s m e l t e d awayj  labour-  These are j u s t a few p e r s o n a l examples  an extended v i s i t to R h o d e s i a , Zambia and Malawi i n  from  1967.  A l l m a n u s c r i p t r e f e r e n c e s i n the t h e s i s apply t o the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f R h o d e s i a i n S a l i s b u r y , and are p r e f i x e d by the a b b r e v i a t i o n NA.  A l l references  p r e f i x e d C.O.  are  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f i l e s i n the P u b l i c Record O f f i c e , London. A f u l l e r account o f the s o u r c e s can be found i n the b i b l i o graphy. T h i s t h e s i s has been prepared w i t h the h e l p o f the resources  o f a number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , the u n i v e r s i t i e s o f  B r i t i s h Columbia, Glasgow and L a n c a s t e r ,  the ''University C o l l e g e  ix o f R h o d e s i a , t h e B r i t i s h Museum, t h e P u b l i c Record O f f i c e , the N a t i o n a l R e g i s t e r o f A r c h i v e s , the I n s t i t u t e of H i s t o r i c a l R e s e a r c h , t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Rhodesia, the former Church o f S c o t l a n d m i s s i o n i n B l a n t y r e , Malawi, and my thanks a r e due to t h e v a r i o u s s t a f f s o f l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v e s who have eased my passage.  My thanks a r e a l s o due t o my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. R.V.  K u b i c e k , who r e a d and e f f e c t i v e l y c r i t i c i s e d each c h a p t e r a s t o n i s h i n g l y promptly, t o t h e b e l e a g u e r e d h i s t o r y  department  of t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f Rhodesia, whose seminars proved so i n f o r m a t i v e , t o Mrs. P.E.N. T i n d a l l and the Rev. Kenneth P a t t i s o n , who p r o v i d e d much-needed h o s p i t a l i t y i n R h o d e s i a and M a l a w i , and t o C a l l i s t o K a p i p i r o and A l e x J a n a , w i t h whom I e x p l o r e d Rhodesian r e s e r v e s and up-country Malawi r e s p e c t i v e l y .  INTRODUCTION M i g r a t i o n and l a b o u r are e x p r e s s i o n s o f one o f the b a s i c i n s t i n c t s o f a l l l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s , the i n s t i n c t f o r s u r v i v a l . I n human h i s t o r y they have been transformed  from mere s u r v i v a l  mechanisms to the motive power and the b r a i n o f the modern economic system.  M i g r a t i o n has changed from a group to an  individual activity;  i t has a c q u i r e d i d e o l o g i c a l ,  religious  and p e r s o n a l m o t i v e s , but has remained b a s i c a l l y economic. Labour on the o t h e r hand has been transformed  from a p e r s o n a l  to a group a c t i v i t y and i n the p r o c e s s has accumulated immense ideological accretions. T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned  w i t h the meeting o f two  different  types o f m i g r a t i o n , and the l a b o u r which became a f u n c t i o n o f that clash. Europe;  One  m i g r a t i o n formed p a r t o f the expansion  the o t h e r was  of  the c o n t i n u i n g ebb and f l o w o f Bantu  m i g r a t i o n which had been going on a c r o s s A f r i c a f o r many c e n t u r i e s . The m i g r a t i o n o f Europeans was one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . momentum f o r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s .  I t had been g a t h e r i n g  The c r u s a d i n g z e a l o f P r i n c e  Henry the N a v i g a t o r i n h i s d e s i r e to o u t f l a n k I s l a m had  turned  i n t o an a c q u i s i t i v e d r i v e f o r the m i n e r a l w e a l t h o f South A m e r i c a and the l u x u r y t r a f f i c o f the O r i e n t .  These mining  and t r a d i n g c o n t a c t s were t u r n e d by m e r c a n t i l i s m i n t o an economic system t h a t European n a t i o n s c o u l d opt out o f o n l y a t t h e i r peril.  So f o r the f i r s t time Europeans came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h  o t h e r peoples on a g l o b a l s c a l e .  The S p a n i s h i n South America  2  were the f i r s t to e x p e r i e n c e the problems o f i n d i g e n o u s l a b o u r , and the i d e o l o g i c a l b a t t l e was j o i n e d .  The  conquistadores  a c t e d as conquerors e x a c t i n g from t h e i r t r i b u t a r y peoples the r i g h t s t h a t conquerors had demanded s i n c e the e a r l i e s t days o f tribalism.  As l a t e r i n A f r i c a , the c o l o n i a l power caught  w i t h t h e i r own  c o l o n i a l conquerors.  Their brutality  answered by the c l e r i c a l p a t e r n a l i s m o f Las Casas,  up  was  colonial  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the I n d i a n s by the a m e l i o r a t i v e e f f o r t s o f the S p a n i s h Crown.  The systems of encomiendas and r e p a r t i m i e n t o s  were e s s e n t i a l l y designed to a v o i d s l a v e r y .  They gave the  c o l o n i a l s r i g h t s over t r i b u t e and l a b o u r , but not over the persons o f the I n d i a n s , and under p u b l i c r a t h e r than p r i v a t e control. The p r o c e s s o f the conquerors brought under the c o n t r o l of a c o l o n i a l power a n x i o u s f o r i t s own i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e was  t o be r e p e a t e d i n A f r i c a i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  But t h e r e were i m p o r t a n t elements o f the S p a n i s h e x p e r i e n c e the e a r l y c r e a t i o n o f a l a r g e "poor w h i t e " p o p u l a t i o n and the r a p i d predominance o f the mestizo o r h a l f - c a s t e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t were not r e p e a t e d .  Moreover, i n the i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d  the European c o n s c i e n c e towards A f r i c a s u f f e r e d a prolonged and d i s a s t r o u s l a p s e .  The e a r l y r e s p e c t o f the  Portuguese  f o r the K i n g o f the Congo, o r i n a l e s s f o r m a l i s e d way  f o r the  Monomotapa o f the Rozwi Empire i n Rhodesia, i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y proved s h o r t - l i v e d .  The Arabs o f the E a s t Coast  had  a l r e a d y s o l v e d t h e i r s l i g h t l a b o u r d i f f i c u l t i e s by a combination  3 o f f o r c e d m i g r a t i o n and f o r c e d u n f r e e l a b o u r which f i t t e d veryw e l l i n t o the Moslem t r a d i t i o n :  slavery.  Europeans t u r n e d  s l a v e r y i n t o a system o f e x p l o i t a t i o n t h a t has never ceased t o d i s t u r b the h i s t o r i c a l c o n s c i e n c e , however much h i s t o r i a n s have sought e x p i a t i o n i n i n c r e a s i n g l y shocked and l u r i d  description.  S l a v e r y was the most i m p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n e r o f n i n e t e e n t h century labour p o l i c y .  I t produced i n B r i t a i n a h u m a n i t a r i a n  r e a c t i o n t h a t was as Tory as i t was Whig and as Whig as i t was Tory:  the most ardent a n t i - s l a v e r y gentlemen were a l s o the  most a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c .  The contemporary j i b e t h a t they were  more i n t e r e s t e d i n s l a v e s whom they had never seen than the v e r y r e a l and apparent* s u f f e r i n g s o f the domestic c l a s s e s - was a p o i n t e d one.  T h e i r humanitarianism,  working with a  few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , was o f t e n more a k i n t o the b e n e v o l 2 ence o f a n t i - v i v i s e c t i o n i s t s .  They were however z e a l o u s  i n d e v o t i n g t h e i r l i v e s t o the e r a d i c a t i o n o f a g r e a t and they founded a crusade ramifications.  evil,  t h a t was t o have f a r - r e a c h i n g  Many f a l s e comparisons have been made between  the h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m  o f the a b o l i t i o n i s t s and the s e v e r i t y o f •z  l a t e nineteenth century i m p e r i a l i s m . those concerned  C u r t i n has shown^ how  f o r the w e l f a r e o f s l a v e s c o u l d support f o r c e d  l a b o u r as a n e c e s s a r y a l t e r n a t i v e .  I t i s thus not t r u e t o  say t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e v o l u t i o n i n thought l a b o u r - from benevolence t o harshness,  on c o l o n i a l  based on a d e v e l o p i n g  r a c i s m - o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . :; The a n t i s l a v e r y movement produced two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s o f  thought.  I t was the p r o g e n i t o r o f both a benevolent  and a  h a r s h - p a t e r n a l i s m , o f b o t h the A n t i - S l a v e r y and A b o r i g i n e s ' P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t i e s o f t h e l a t e r c e n t u r y and o f t h e c o l o n i a l paternalists. I t was n o t o f course t h e s o l e p r o g e n i t o r o f these attitudes.  Nor i s i t t r u e t h a t advancing European  technology  was t h e o n l y o t h e r parent o f t h e V i c t o r i a n c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y complex.  When an A f r i c a n i s t l i k e S i r Harry Johnston made t h e  g r o s s e r r o r o f c h a r a c t e r i s i n g A f r i c a n peoples as Stone Age,^ he was n o t j u s t i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r a c i s m o f h i s day.  He d i d  so as t h e b e a r e r o f a s t r a n g e m i x t u r e o f thought and i m p r e s s i o n s t h a t were the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n h e r i t a n c e .  I t was a  m i x t u r e o f H e g e l i a n Euroce.ntrism, o f t h e r a t h e r a r r o g a n t  brand  of u t i l i t a r i a n i s m dispensed at Haileybury e a r l i e r i n the century f o r I n d i a n consumption, o f t h e o b i t e r d i c t a o f "armchair a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s " seeking to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r science w i t h a f u l l blown t h e o r y o f r a c i s m , o f s o c i o l o g i s t s c o n v e r t i n g e v o l u t i o n i s m t o t h e i r own ends,^ o f t r a v e l l e r s ( a t r u l y i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e h e r e ) c o n v e y i n g as heightened a c o n t r a s t as p o s s i b l e t o t h e i r l a r g e and a v i d r e a d i n g p u b l i c , o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l p a t e r n a l i s m p r o c e e d i n g from t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r from Oxford, and f i n a l l y o f the V i c t o r i a n ion  obsess-  w i t h v i s u a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievement i n which they them-  s e l v e s had so e x c e l l e d . The c e n t u r y - l o n g a n t i - s l a v e r y crusade was accompanied by a g r e a t debate which c e n t r e d on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f r e e l a b o u r  t h a t was t o take i t s p l a c e . the  The debate was c o n d i t i o n e d by  v a r i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a n d s enumerated above, t o g e t h e r  w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a d e v e l o p i n g c a p i t a l i s m t h a t had outgrown  the need f o r s l a v e r y , but had not developed a r e a l  l a b o u r t h e o r y o r p o l i c y e i t h e r a t home o r abroad. these problems were s t i l l  Both  f a r from s o l u t i o n when Europeans,  f i r s t p e n e t r a t e d C e n t r a l A f r i c a i n a p p r e c i a b l e numbers. T h e i r r e a c t i o n s were based, however u n w i t t i n g l y , p a r t l y on t h i s debate, p a r t l y on South A f r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e , and p a r t l y on the n a t u r e o f the s o c i e t i e s they found i n C e n t r a l A f r i c a . They found s l a v e t r a d i n g and i n d i g e n o u s s l a v e r y ;  they  found an unconcern f o r l i f e which, f o r g e t t i n g t h e i r not so remote a n c e s t o r s and the n a t u r e o f the A f r i c a n  environment,  they c h a r a c t e r i s e d as b a r b a r i s m and savagery;  they found  s o c i e t i e s p u r s u i n g f i r s t l y the economic m i g r a t i o n o f s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n , p r e s s e d on r e l e n t l e s s l y by a poor s o i l ,  and  s e c o n d l y the p o l i t i c a l m i g r a t i o n o f f i s s i o n and coherence so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Bantu t r i b a l o r g a n i s a t i o n .  The  political  sway o f the Rozwi, the c u l t u r e o f the Empire o f the Monomotapa which the Portuguese had encountered and r e s p e c t e d , had d e c l i n e d and fragmented. the  O f f s h o o t s o f two g r e a t Bantu p e o p l e s ,  Z u l u s from the South and the Luba-Lunda from the N o r t h , had  become the o v e r l o r d s o f the r e g i o n .  J u s t as the Roman towns  i n England had been i g n o r e d by the i n v a d i n g Saxons, so the stone zimbabwes were abandoned. The study o f the v a r i e d n a t u r e o f the response o f C e n t r a l  A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s t o t h e whole s e r i e s o f i n f l u e n c e s t h a t came to bear upon them i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y has proved one o f the most f r u i t f u l approaches t o the h i s t o r y o f t h e p r e - c o l o n i a l period.  They faced the i n c u r s i o n s o f o t h e r t r i b e s , and were  a s s i m i l a t e d , r a i d e d o r compelled t o o f f e r t r i b u t e .  Superior  and s u b j e c t t r i b e s faced t h e Arab s l a v e t r a d e r s as f i t f u l c o l l a b o r a t o r s o r v i c t i m s as the case might be. ' I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f European p e n e t r a t i o n , i t was soon c l e a r t h a t t h e b a l a n c e o f power would change a g a i n .  Missionaries revealed  t h i s b e t t e r than any o t h e r e a r l y group, s i m p l y because they tended t o s e t t l e permanently. at t h e s o u t h e r n and n o r t h e r n  I n Malawi i n p a r t i c u l a r , b o t h ends o f t h e Lake, they took up  r e s i d e n c e w i t h the r a i d e d and then s e t about h a l t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s of the r a i d e r s .  The m i s s i o n a r i e s i n v a r i a b l y  p r o v i d e d a f i l l i p t o c o l o n i a l c o n t r o l , though w i t h m i l i t a n t Cape Company c o l o n i a l i s m from the South and m i l i t a n t O f f i c e d i p l o m a t i c i m p e r i a l i s m from t h e E a s t , l i t t l e necessary.  Foreign f i l l i p was  The r u l e r s o f C e n t r a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s almost a l l  f e l t Lobengula's c e l e b r a t e d s e n s a t i o n o f the Chameleon and the Fly.^  They soon became aware o f t h e dangers o f the European  i n c u r s i o n s and t h e t r i b u t e t h a t would be exacted i n d e f e a t t a x e s , l a b o u r and c o n t r o l .  The Europeans o s t e n s i b l y wished  to save them from themselves, from savagery and s l a v e r y , b u t the s u f f e r i n g o f the merely p r o b a b l e was i n f i n i t e l y to t h e s y s t e m a t i c  preferable  s u f f e r i n g o f t h e European t a x - g a t h e r e r  and o f  7 1  c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e drawing l a b o u r i n t o i t s i n s a t i a b l e T h i s European p e n e t r a t i o n was  a c h i e v e d by a remarkable  combination of endemic diplomacy and w a r f a r e . p r o f f e r e d , a c c e p t e d and revoked.  T r e a t i e s were  V a r i o u s excuses were  t e n d e r e d f o r the f o r c i b l e d e s t r u c t i o n o f w a r l i k e t r i b e s , which r a i d i n g , s l a v e o r o t h e r w i s e ,  maw.  was  of  the most common.  Few  e v e n t s r e v e a l more about A f r i c a n t r i b e s o r t h e i r c o l o n i a l r u l e r s than the p e a c e f u l - as w i t h the Bemba and the L o z i o r the w a r l i k e - as w i t h the Ndebele, s e c t i o n s of the Ngoni and  the Yao  - establishment  m i g r a t i o n was  of c o l o n i a l hegemony.  then seen by C h a r t e r e d  Labour  Company magnates and 7  c o l o n i s t s as the c a t a l y s t o f t r i b a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n the e r o s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y .  Taxation  and  of  was i n t r o d -  uced to speed t h i s p r o c e s s ( i n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g revenue) and r e s e r v e s r e l u c t a n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d at the behest of imperial authorities.  The  acceptance of r e s e r v e s  r e l u c t a n t u n t i l European c o l o n i s t s awakened to the dangers of a l a n d l e s s A f r i c a n p r o l e t a r i a t .  the  remained political  I n Rhodesia,  Europeans have b a l a n c e d p o l i c y on the k n i f e - e d g e between the needs of c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n conscious working c l a s s . unfortunate  and the f e a r of a p o l i t i c a l l y  S e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n began as  an  n e c e s s i t y - l i k e t h a t o f another conquered people,  the I r i s h , to England - but what made economic sense d i d not make p o l i t i c a l sense.  The  formed an urban s u b - c u l t u r e .  I r i s h had e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d and Given the p o p u l a t i o n  imbalance,  8 A f r i c a n s c o u l d not be p e r m i t t e d to do the same. The m i s s i o n a r i e s had sought i m p e r i a l c o n t r o l , but c o n t r o l imposed was  seldom to t h e i r l i k i n g .  the  While i t was  o n l y w i t h i n i t s framework t h a t they c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y pursue t h e i r r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t s , they u s u a l l y o b j e c t e d to the c o l o n i a l s ' methods, and t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f the r e c r u i t i n g of labour. While approving  They faced a very r e a l dilemma here.  the end,  c i v i l i z a t i o n through the medium o f  the d i g n i t y o f l a b o u r , they d i s a p p r o v e d  of the means.  During  the p e n e t r a t i o n p e r i o d , the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d c h i e f s l i k e Lobengula or Lewanika had been educated - o f t e n by the missionary  local  - to an awareness of the e x i s t e n c e o f a moderating  i n f l u e n c e , to them the Great White Queen, to us the C o l o n i a l Q  Office.  C h i e f s and m i s s i o n a r i e s a l i k e c o n t i n u e d  to London t o curb the worst excesses of the "man I n the S p a n i s h Empire the Church had w i t h one i m p o r t a n t  on the  B r i t i s h Church was  spot".  succeeded i n doing  d i f f e r e n c e - the S p a n i s h Church was  monolithic establishment The  to t u r n  this a  i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w i t h the S t a t e . fragmented and i m p o r t a n t  only i n s o f a r  as the adherents of each branch at home c o u l d i n f l u e n c e p o l i c y . What d i s t i n g u i s h e s B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l church h i s t o r y i n South C e n t r a l A f r i c a i s the f a s h i o n i n which i t r a p i d l y l o s t c o n t r o l o f b o t h the A f r i c a n and the European s i t u a t i o n i n the c o l o n i a l q period. C h i e f s and Church t u r n e d to a C o l o n i a l O f f i c e which i n a  sense owed i t s modern development  to labour.  S i r Henry-  T a y l o r d e s c r i b e s i n h i s Autobiography"*"^ how inadequate the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was d u r i n g the t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y to cope w i t h the move towards the a b o l i t i o n o f s l a v e r y , how some new and b r i g h t c l e r k s were a p p o i n t e d of whom he was one.  S i r James Stephen emerged through emancip-  a t i o n as the f i r s t g r e a t Permanent Under S e c r e t a r y .  After  him the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e never l o s t i t s h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m , but d u r i n g the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i t - l i k e the Church - l o s t c o n t r o l o f the Southern A f r i c a n s i t u a t i o n . Declaration  The Devonshire  and the P a s s f i e l d Memorandum o n l y j u s t saved i t  from l o s i n g . c o n t r o l o f E a s t A f r i c a n developments.  The  c r e a t i o n o f the Union o f South A f r i c a was a t r i u m p h f o r the devolutionists;  the development  o f the c o n c e p t i o n o f i n d i r e c t  r u l e marked the t r i u m p h o f an a n a c h r o n i s t i c  Whiggism.  Both  e v e n t s were f a t a l to the growth o f a c o l o n i a l l a b o u r p o l i c y p a r a l l e l t o the domestic one.  The C e n t r a l A f r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n  was a l a s t c l u t c h i n g a t s t r a w s , a chimera o f r a c i a l p a r t n e r s h i p and p o l i t i c a l  advance.  T h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt t o approach l a b o u r from a number of a n g l e s :  f i r s t l y from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n the n i n e t e e n t h  c e n t u r y , though what i s s a i d i s merely a g e n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n , so much remains t o be w i n k l e d from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e A r c h i v e s s e c o n d l y from the South A f r i c a t h a t produced the C h a r t e r e d Company and so many o f the e a r l y s e t t l e r s ;  t h i r d l y from the  10 t r i b a l environment.  T h i s p r o v i d e s the background.  The  t h e s i s goes on t o examine t h e mechanism o f migrant l a b o u r , the t e c h n i q u e s  o f m o b i l i s a t i o n a t work, and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f a corpus o f i d e a s on A f r i c a n l a b o u r t h a t has proved l o n g lived.  There a r e a number o f i n c i d e n t a l problems, t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e w i t h the Company, o f t h e Company w i t h t h e s e t t l e r s , o f t h e s e t t l e r s w i t h the A f r i c a n s , of t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s w i t h t h e s e t t l e r s , o f t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e w i t h i t s o p p o s i t i o n a t home, and p e r m u t a t i o n s o f a l l f i v e . W h i l e p r o v i d i n g c o n s t a n t and i r r i t a t i n g c o n s t r a i n t , t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e not s u r p r i s i n g l y f a i l e d i n t h i s period to e s t a b l i s h t h e groundwork f o r a p r o g r e s s i v e l a b o u r p o l i c y which was the s i n a qua non o f a p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i t i c a l  policy.  Having l o s t t h e i n i t i a t i v e t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was never a b l e to r e g a i n i t .  11 FOOTNOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 1  See f o r example the r e c e n t work o f J . Pope-Hennessy, S i n s of the F a t h e r s . ( L o n d o n , 19671  2  T h i s c o n t e n t i o n i s not as remarkable as i t seems. Sir Henry T a y l o r ( v i d . i n f . ) , who was an o f f i c i a l i n the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f o r almost f i f t y y e a r s from 1824, opposed s l a v e r y , s u p p o r t e d Governor Eyre a f t e r h i s b r u t a l suppr e s s i o n o f t h e Jamaican u p r i s i n g , and a t t a c k e d v i v i s e c t i o n . For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see Chapter 1.  -3  P h i l i p D. C u r t i n , The Image o f A f r i c a , (Madison, 196k), pp.- 273-4.  4  S i r H a r r y H. J o h n s t o n , paper r e a d b e f o r e the R o y a l C o l o n i a l I n s t i t u t e , January 15, 1889, quoted i n S t o k e s & Brown, op. c i t . , p. 356.  5  Thomas Huxley i n h i s Romanes L e c t u r e o f 1893 d i s c l a i m e d the i d e a t h a t b i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f e v o l u t i o n p r o v i d e d any i n d i c a t i o n o f human s o c i a l p r o g r e s s , E v o l u t i o n and E t h i c s and Other E s s a y s , (New York, 1898} p. "ET.  6  P h i l i p Mason, The B i r t h o f a Dilemma (London, 1958) r e c o u n t s the K i n g o f the Matabele's own d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s f e e l i n g s as the c o n c e s s i o n : s e e k e r s c l o s e d i n .  7  E r i c Stokes & (liondon, 1966} Ndebele. The to the War o f  R i c h a r d Brown, ( e d s . ) , The Zambesian P a s t , p. 93, f o r the Company's hope r e g a r d i n g the f a c t t h a t the t r i b e d i d not fragment l e d  1893.  8  There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g example o f the monarch e x p r e s s i n g h i s p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n i n 1911. D u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the t r a n s f e r o f Bechuanaland t o South A f r i c a i n 1911, the c h i e f s p e t i t i o n e d George V i n the t r a d i t i o n a l way. He p e r s o n a l l y wrote on a C o l o n i a l O f f i c e minute t h a t h i s sympathies were w i t h the c h i e f s . C.O. 417/499.  9  Terence 0. Ranger, "State and Church i n Southern Rhodesia, - 1919 - 39." H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f R h o d e s i a and Nyasaland pamphlet, n.d.  10  Henry T a y l o r , Autobiography, (London, 1885}  p.  64.  12 CHAPTER 1 THE COLONIAL OFFICE AND LABOUR IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY C o l o n i a l labour p o l i c y i n the nineteenth century as a response t o e m a n c i p a t i o n . o f ways:  I t was c o n d i t i o n e d i n a number  by t h e t e n t a t i v e i d e a s o f t r u s t e e s h i p t h a t had emerged  from t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and Burke i n p a r t i c u l a r ; a t t i t u d e s towards the l a b o u r i n g poor; "armchair"  by domestic  by the r a c i a l views o f  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s and o f t r a v e l l e r s ;  by t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f a r i s t o c r a t i c H i s t o r i a n s have seen the b e g i n n i n g s  o f course no one i s more e m i n e n t l y  and  rule.  o f t r u s t e e s h i p i n the  g r e a t speeches o f Burke on t h e impeachment o f Warren And  developed  quotable  than Burke: i t  i s v e r y easy t o be b l i n d e d t o t h e ambivalence o f h i s He used such words as " t r u s t " and "accountable""'"  Hastings.  philosophy.  and a s s e r t e d  There i s b u t one l a w f o r a l l , namely, t h a t law which governs a l l l a w , the l a w o f o u r C r e a t o r , the l a w o f humanity, j u s t i c e , e q u i t y the l a w o f n a t u r e , and o f n a t i o n s . But he was a l s o t h e f a t h e r o f the c o l o n i a l d e v o l u t i o n i s t s who were t o d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e l a w o f n a t u r e was n o t the l a w o f humanity, j u s t i c e , e q u i t y .  A l t h o u g h he b r i e f l y took up the  m i t i g a t i o n and u l t i m a t e s u p p r e s s i o n 1780,  o f the s l a v e t r a d e i n  he dropped t h e i s s u e f o r , as John M o r l e y w r y l y put i t ,  " h i s sympathy was too s t r o n g l y under the c o n t r o l o f t h e p o l i t i c a l reason".^  Humanity and j u s t i c e f o r t h e s l a v e s was  13 tempered by the need f o r j u s t i c e f o r the owners. Another f a v o u r i t e q u o t a t i o n from t h i s p e r i o d o f i n c i p i e n t t r u s t e e s h i p i s t h a t from the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on the E a s t I n d i a Company C h a r t e r o f 1833: I t i s r e c o g n i s e d as an i n d i s p u t a b l e p r i n c i p l e t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f the n a t i v e s u b j e c t s a r e to be c o n s u l t e d i n p r e f e r e n c e t o those o f . Europeans whenever the two come i n t o c o n f l i c t . But no c o n f l i c t was r e c o g n i s e d where Europeans s e t out t o d e c i d e what was good f o r t h e i r I n d i a n s u b j e c t s , whether t h e s u b j e c t s l i k e d i t o r not. statement  Moreover, no such  unequivocal  was ever made f o r A u s t r a l a s i a o r N o r t h America, and  not u n t i l t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y f o r A f r i c a .  G.R. M e l l o r ' s  5  a t t e m p t ^ t o f i n d a f u l l y r e v e a l e d and adopted p o l i c y o f t r u s t e e s h i p i n the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century i s unconvincing.  The s e n t i m e n t s undoubtedly  e x i s t e d and r e c e i v e d  mention i n p o l i c y statements, b u t f o r most o f t h e i r h i s t o r y they were i n v a r i a b l y i n e f f e c t u a l and o f t e n i n t e r m i t t e n t .  After  S i r James Stephen^ t h e r e was never again so g r e a t a h u m a n i t a r i a n a t t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , b u t the i d e a o f i m p e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s u r v i v e d even when h i g h o f f i c i a l s i n the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e were i n league w i t h t h e g r e a t c a p i t a l i s t s o f the day, as Edward F a i r f i e l d 7 was.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the High Commission t e r r i t o r i e s i n  South A f r i c a i s evidence o f t h i s , a l t h o u g h t h e i r subsequent p e r i l o u s h i s t o r y i s e q u a l l y evidence o f the tenuous n a t u r e o f that trusteeship.  Ik  I n short-, B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l p o l i c y has always been, l i k e Janus, two headed.  I t was not j u s t t h a t t h e r e was  admini-  s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n - the I n d i a O f f i c e , the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and the F o r e i g n O f f i c e f o r p r o t e c t o r a t e s - nor was i t j u s t t h a t t h e r e was  an a l t e r n a t i o n o f two d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s  i n power.  I t was  the d u a l nature of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  s t r a n d s t h a t made up the a t t i t u d e s to the c o l o n i a l The  possessions.  C o l o n i a l Reformers had taken over Burke's concept o f the  n e c e s s i t y of d e v o l u t i o n and a l l i e d i t w i t h t h e i r own Systematic sales.  i d e a s on  C o l o n i z a t i o n , ' o r g a n i s e d e m i g r a t i o n f i n a n c e d by l a n d  The  humanitarians  d i s t r u s t e d them because they rode  roughshod over the r i g h t s o f i n d i g e n o u s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r u s t .  p e o p l e s which were p a r t  I n d i f f e r e n t ways they b o t h  denied  l a i s s e r a l l e r , the f i r s t on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , the second on a collective basis.  L a t e r i n the century., Herbert  Spencer's  s o c i o l o g y r e v e a l s e x c e l l e n t l y the i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t i n B r i t i s h n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y thought.  He attempted to u n i t e the' u t i l -  i t a r i a n concept o f the g r e a t e s t happiness o f the g r e a t e s t number w i t h the d o c t r i n e of l a i s s e r f a i r e and Lamarckian e v o l u t i o n , supplemented l a t e r by Darwin's t h e o r i e s of n a t u r a l selection.  H i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the i n t e r e s t of each i n d i v i d u a l  a u t o m a t i c a l l y complies w i t h the i n t e r e s t of the aggregate of i n d i v i d u a l s h a r d l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h the u t i l i t a r i a n f a i t h i n the power of b e n e f i c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n imposed from above. it  Nor d i d  f i t the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s when the aggregate i n c l u d e d  15 d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l classes or d i f f e r e n t races.  J u s t when s o c i a l  Darwinism appeared to be t u r n i n g l a i s s e r f a i r e i n t o something more than j u s t a commercial p o l i c y , i t was overtaken by German metaphysics  - C a r l y l e , t h e i r a p o s t l e , ' d e s c r i b e d Spencer as  "the most immeasurable ass i n  Christendom".  C a r l y l e provides a magnificent l i n k i n nineteenth century c o l o n i a l thought, by h i s l o n g e v i t y and by the scope o f h i s influence.  I n P a s t and P r e s e n t he argued the e f f i c a c y o f  s y s t e m a t i c e m i g r a t i o n as a s a f e t y v a l v e f o r democratic  agit-  a t o r s - " i n s t e a d o f s t a y i n g here to be a P h y s i c a l - F o r c e Q  C h a r t i s t , u n b l e s s e d and no b l e s s i n g j " - as Rhodes was l a t e r i n an o f t - q u o t e d i n c i d e n t . ^  Remove the  and ease p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e a t one blow.  to do  malcontents  His Occasional  D i s c o u r s e on the N i g g e r Q u e s t i o n " ^ r e v e a l e d the e x t e n t o f h i s contempt f o r " i n f e r i o r p e o p l e s " and f o r " E x e t e r H a l l P h i l a n thropy".  I n the d i s c o u r s e , he a t t a c k e d the West I n d i a n negroes  f o r t h e i r t r o p i c a l i n d o l e n c e ( a f a m i l i a r theme i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o l o n i a l l a b o u r t h e o r y ) , t h e i r r e f u s a l to adhere to h i s d o c t r i n e o f work, which he so e x a l t e d i n Past and  Present.  I n h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the hero i n h i s t o r y , from Cromwell to F r e d e r i c k the G r e a t , and w i t h German p h i l o s o p h y , he c r e a t e d the antecedents  f o r the h e r o i c l a b o u r s of the g r e a t i m p e r i a l -  i s t s o f the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y . The d i f f e r e n c e t h a t has been observed i n r a c i a l  attitudes  between the f i r s t and second h a l v e s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  16 has  f r e q u e n t l y been e x p r e s s e d i n a f a r too s i m p l i s t i c way.  The  p r o c e s s was e x t r e m e l y s u b t l e .  The r a c i s m o f the second  h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y d i d n o t i n v o l v e any r e a l change i n the a t t i t u d e o f the European t o the non-European:  i t involved  a change i n a t t i t u d e o f t h e European's - and i n p a r t i c u l a r the N o r t h e r n European's - a t t i t u d e towards h i m s e l f .  The  terminology  o f "savage s o c i e t i e s " , "lower s o c i e t i e s " ,  "barbarism"  and so on was as p r e v a l e n t a t the b e g i n n i n g o f  the c e n t u r y as i t was a t the end.  D a r w i n i a n concepts o f  e v o l u t i o n a p p l i e d s o c i a l l y p r o v i d e d an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n t " l e v e l s " o f s o c i e t y and c i v i l i z a t i o n , and tended t o f a v o u r the more l i b e r a l monogenesis arguments over the p p l y g e n e s i s i d e a t h a t had e x e r c i s e d the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n  11 debate f o r most o f the c e n t u r y .  The n o t i o n t h a t an  "advanced" c i v i l i z a t i o n would a u t o m a t i c a l l y wipe out the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a more backward c i v i l i z a t i o n was as common b e f o r e Darwin as a f t e r him.  In h i s celebrated  12 inaugural lecture  o f 1841  Thomas A r n o l d , f o r example,  a p p l i e d i n e f f e c t a s u r v i v a l o f t h e f i t t e s t argument t o the g l o r y and u l t i m a t e d e s t i n y o f the Saxon r a c e . T h i s concept reached i t s h e i g h t l a t e r i n the c e n t u r y when S o c i a l Darwinism took on what has been d e s c r i b e d as i t s external or c o l l e c t i v i s t  guise"*"^ ( a s opposed t o S o c i a l Darwin-  ism a p p l i e d t o an i n t e r n a l economic l a i s s e r - f a i r e The  situation).  i d e a s o f Benjamin K i d d " ^ and even more so the e x t r a o r d i n a r y  15 eugenics o f K a r l Pearson ' e n t e r e d i n t o the f a b r i c o f i m p e r i a l i d e a s , and g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d n o t i o n s o f c o l o n i a l l a b o u r , Pearson wrote both o f t h e replacement o f " d a r k - s k i n n e d  tribes"  by " a capable and s t a l w a r t r a c e o f white men" and o f t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f c o l o n i e s by the use o f i n d i g e n o u s  labour.  However, e x t e r n a l S o c i a l Darwinism was d i r e c t e d n o t so much a g a i n s t t h e c o l o n i e s as a g a i n s t o t h e r powers.  Hence, f o r  example, the L a t i n s were l o o k e d down on w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e distaste.  When the U n i t e d S t a t e s was s e i z i n g Puerto R i c o ,  Cuba and the P h i l i p p i n e s from a jaded, i n f e r i o r people, t h e S p a n i s h , Anglo-Saxon s u p e r i o r i t y was expressed i n J o s e p h Chamberlain's panteutonism.  There was a new h i g h " r e s p e c t  f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o the e x t e n t t h a t B r i t a i n was w i l l i n g to g i v e h e r support i n t h e war w i t h Spain and was w i l l i n g t o kow-tow t o h e r over boundary d i s p u t e s , even when t h e d i s p u t e i n v o l v e d one o f B r i t a i n ' s own c o l o n i e s , as i n t h e case o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia d i s p u t e . But even more i m p o r t a n t was t h e changed a t t i t u d e towards Germany. Bismarckian  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e German Empire and o f s t a t e s o c i a l i s m had a profound  effect i n Britain.  F a s h i o n a b l e i n t e l l e c t u a l s f o l l o w e d now i n the f o o t s t e p s o f C a r l y l e i n h i s a d o r a t i o n o f German p h i l o s o p h y and s t a t e c r a f t r a t h e r than i n t h e f o o t s t e p s o f Bentham and u t i l i t a r i a n i s m . The  F a b i a n s i n t h e i r concern  f o r s o c i a l i s m by e x i s t i n g means  and t h e i r d i s l i k e o f t h e muddle o f t h e House o f Commons  18  reflected this, was  (and i t must be remembered t h a t S i d n e y Webb  t o some e x t e n t a f o l l o w e r of P e a r s o n ) .  concern f o r the E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1902,  So d i d the  s t a t e s o c i a l i s m passed  by an u n w i t t i n g B a l f o u r , prompted by a j u s t i f i a b l e r e s p e c t German e d u c a t i o n  and t e c h n i c a l advance.  So too d i d A l f r e d  M i l n e r ^ w i t h h i s German background and e a r l y  education.  Thomas A r n o l d ' s Saxon d e s t i n y reached i t s c l i m a x at end o f the c e n t u r y  - i t was  forms an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n n e c t i o n and  f i n de s i e c l e i m p e r i a l i s m .  for  more H e l l e n i s m  A r n o l d ' s son, Matthew,  between h i s f a t h e r ' s  generation  W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t he c a l l e d  r a t h e r than Romanism i n p u b l i c l i f e ,  e x p r e s s e d contempt f o r the " b a r b a r i a n s ,  he  p h i l i s t i n e s and  populace"  f a m i l i a r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with l a i s s e r f a i r e 17 He was  the  behind t h a t whole s e r i e s of  remarkable w i l l s o f C e c i l John Rhodes.  and the now  for  laisser aller.  '  i n f a c t one  meritocracy.  Thomas A r n o l d ' s Saxon, C a r l y l e ' s hero  and  of the a p o s t l e s o f  the  and  Matthew A r n o l d ' s m e r i t o c r a t combined i n the i m p e r i a l i d e a l i s t s . Both Rhodes and M i l n e r d e d i c a t e d  themselves to a l i f e o f p u b l i c  u t i l i t y i n s u r p r i s i n g l y s i m i l a r phrases.  Rhodes wrote  w i s h came to r e n d e r m y s e l f u s e f u l to my c o u n t r y " ; d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f ready f o r a l i f e o f p u b l i c  Milner 18  usefulness.  There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t Rhodes's "mystic much more i m p o r t a n t to him  "The  duty"  than e i t h e r money-making o r  was politics.  H i s f i r s t w i l l expounding h i s i d e a o f a s e c r e t s o c i e t y t o f u r t h e r the ends of the Anglo-Saxon race was  w r i t t e n when h i s f o r t u n e  was  19 s t i l l unmade.  The Oxford o f Benjamin Jowett and James^-"  Anthony Froude - the b i o g r a p h e r o f C a r l y l e - had c r e a t e d a sense o f d i v i n e r i g h t , d i v i n e r i g h t i n b e i n g E n g l i s h , d i v i n e r i g h t i n b e i n g a member o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  It  was a view espoused by Lansdowne, A s q u i t h , S i r Edward Grey, and reached i t s a p o t h e o s i s i n Curzon.  Given t h i s d i v i n e  r i g h t and the o b s e s s i o n w i t h h e r o i c p e r s o n a l l a b o u r s , i t was n a t u r a l t h a t c o l o n i a l l a b o u r p o l i c y s h o u l d be based on the v i e w t h a t i n d i g e n o u s peoples must be t h e handmaidens o f that divine w i l l . I m p e r i a l s t a t e c r a f t was Germanic:  t h e Germanic t r a d i t i o n  o f t h e m a i l e d f i s t i n t h e v e l v e t glove e n t e r e d c o l o n i a l l a b o u r IQ p o l i c y while the humanitarian were s t i l l remembered.  i d e a l s o f Stephen and M e r i v a l e  I t was a l s o Roman.  y  Not o n l y were the  i m p e r i a l i s t s educated i n the c l a s s i c s , they c o n s c i o u s l y adopted and took p r i d e i n Roman a t t i t u d e s . ent example o f t h i s : around w i t h him, to  Again Rhodes i s an e x c e l l -  he c a r r i e d t h e Thoughts o f Marcus A u r e l i u s  and was g r e a t l y f l a t t e r e d when l i k e n e d i n l o o k s  a Roman Emperor.  He had an i l l - c o n c e a l e d contempt f o r the  L a t i n peoples - w i t n e s s h i s b u l l y i n g t a c t i c s w i t h the Portuguese 20 j u s t as Romans and Saxons a l i k e had swept a s i d e t h e C e l t s . I f r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s emerged from a grand design o f European d e s t i n y , they f e d on f e a r .  The f e a r o f replacement dominates  much o f human a c t i v i t y - i t s most b a s i c and p e r e n n i a l e x p r e s s i o n i s i n the f e a r o f the o l d e r f o r t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n .  The  20 Anglo-Indians  d i s c o v e r e d f e a r a f t e r the M u t i n y , as have  c o l o n i a l s o f t h e growth o f A f r i c a n n a t i o n a l i s m produced by t h e i r own c a p i t a l i s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s s i o n . The A l i e n s A c t o f 1905 was a U n i o n i s t sop to t h e f e a r o f t h e B r i t i s h working c l a s s towards immigrants. o r g a n i s e d l a b o u r towards i n d i g e n o u s have above a l l expressed  it.  The a t t i t u d e s o f  peoples i n Southern A f r i c a  I n nineteenth century  Britain  f e a r was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t t i t u d e s towards the domestic w o r k i n g c l a s s e s ( p l u r a l a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y , s i n g u l a r by the end).  And t h a t f e a r was as g r e a t b e f o r e the  F i r s t World War as i t had been i m m e d i a t e l y By 1914  Wars.  a f t e r the Napoleonic  the l a b o u r movement had r e v e r s e d the s e t b a c k s  o f t h e T a f f V a l e and Osborne d e c i s i o n s and the p r o s p e c t o f t h e " t r i p l e a l l i a n c e " r e v e a l e d the g r e a t e s t o b s t r u c t i v e power the u n i o n s had y e t e x h i b i t e d . u n i o n s had gone.  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that c o l o n i a l  p o l i c i e s s h o u l d envisage situation i t s e l f ,  The s a f e image o f t h e l i b e r a l  s t r i c t control.  labour  I n the c o l o n i a l  f e a r was n a t u r a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d  by t h e "man on the s p o t " .  elite  more i n t e n s e l y  I t was one o f t h e causes o f f r i c t i o n  between c o l o n i a l s and the i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Working c l a s s phobias were s t r o n g t o o .  Their r a d i c a l  s u p p o r t e r s were o f t e n t h e l o u d e s t proponents o f the t h e o r y o f the d e s t r u c t i o n o f i n f e r i o r r a c e s .  The r a d i c a l s f r e q u e n t l y  a t t a c k e d concerns w i t h c o l o n i a l l a b o u r as d i s t r a c t i n g a t t e n t i o n from t h e p l i g h t o f those a t home - o f t e n w i t h complete ication.  justif-  The f e a r t h a t has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d had ample  21 e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e domestic s i t u a t i o n - i n i n t e r - u n i o n r i v a l r i e s , h a t r e d o f I r i s h - C a t h o l i c i m m i g r a n t s and so on. I t was t h u s r i p e f o r t u r n i n g i n t o J i n g o i s m and Racism a t the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y .  There was v e r y l i t t l e  identification  of t h e oppressed a t home w i t h the oppressed i n the c o l o n i e s . Between the days when the L a n c a s h i r e c o t t o n workers c o u l d s a c r i f i c e themselves f o r t h e s l a v e s o f t h e American South o r a working men s meeting i n C l e r k e n w e l l burn Governor Eyre 1  21 i n e f f i g y i n 1866  and t h e days when the i m p e r i a l p a r t y  became i d e n t i f i e d w i t h d e a r e r bread and Chinese " s l a v e r y " , the working c l a s s e s were wooed by t h e i d e a s o f s o c i a l imperialism.  The " C r i t i c s o f Empire" were e i t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l  22 r a d i c a l s or j o u r n a l i s t s pandering to a minority t a s t e .  The  Independent Labour P a r t y , as e x e m p l i f i e d by Ramsay MacDonald, advocated not so much a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m as e t h i c a l i m p e r i a l i s m . I n 1897,  i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d a working c l a s s  meeting t h a t would burn Rhodes o r Jameson i n e f f i g y a f t e r t h e f i a s c o s o f t h e R a i d and t h e Ndebele and Shona r e b e l l i o n s i n Rhodesia.  L i b e r a l I m p e r i a l i s m had a l r e a d y c r e a t e d t h e  atmosphere i n which Chamberlain c o u l d p l a y t h e tune o f a "forward" c o l o n i a l p o l i c y to considerable p u b l i c acclaim. He o f course was t h e p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s t p a r e x c e l l e n c e . A t home he, t h e a l o o f , humane c a p i t a l i s t r a d i c a l , imagined he c o u l d s p i k e t h e guns o f the s o c i a l i s t s ; i n the c o l o n i a l s e t t i n g he thought he c o u l d s p i k e t h e guns o f the h u m a n i t a r i a n s  22 by p r o v i d i n g a p o p u l a r i m p e r i a l i s m and a benevolent c a p i t a l i s m . H i s i d e a of t r a i n i n g h i s son, N e v i l l e , was  to send him to a  remote West I n d i a n i s l a n d to e s t a b l i s h a p l a n t a t i o n and manhood i n t o i l and the c o n t r o l of negroes.  v  find  Even a f t e r the  f a i l u r e o f Chamberlain and the r e t u r n of the L i b e r a l s to power, the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e r e t a i n e d i t s combination Hegelian  statecraft.  of l i b e r a l i s m  and  They were fused i n a p a t e r n a l i s m t h a t  would take t o i t s e l f the supreme arrogance o f the Dual Mandate, which Hobson exposed even b e f o r e i t was The  properly  formulated.^  Governor Eyre c o n t r o v e r s y i n the 1860's had produced  f a c t i o n s - the J a m a i c a Committee o f John S t u a r t M i l l , Spencer, T.H. Ruskin  two  Herbert  Huxley and o t h e r s , and t h e i r opponents i n C a r l y l e , 25  and Tennyson. ^  I n the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e bequeathed by  Chamberlain, b o t h f a c t i o n s would have found some  sentiments  w i t h which to sympathise. The  r i c h e s t v e i n of i n f l u e n c e on c o l o n i a l l a b o u r p o l i c y  i s paternalism.  So p e r v a s i v e i s i t t h a t i t has a l r e a d y been  touched on a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s .  P a t e r n a l i s m i n i t s v a r i o u s forms  i s q u i t e c l e a r l y not unique to the B a l l i o l s c h o o l o f the l a t e c e n t u r y .  and Toynbee H a l l  P a t e r n a l i s m has been an  extremely  s t r o n g t h r e a d throughout the past few thousand years of h i s t o r y . I t i s a deeply p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s t i n c t t h a t has not wanted f o r s o c i a l expression.  I t has v a r i e d o n l y i n q u a l i t y , from  s e v e r i t y to benevolence. bound up w i t h r e l i g i o n .  I t has always been i n e x t r i c a b l y I t was  c l e a r l y a most e x t r a o r d i n a r y  23 type o f p a t e r n a l i s m t h a t produced the Pyramids o f Egypt o r S i l b u r y H i l l i n England o r the g r e a t s h i p b u r i a l s o f S c a n d i n a v i a , and i n c i d e n t a l l y these examples a r e amongst the e a r l y i n s t a n c e s o f o r g a n i s e d l a b o u r on a l a r g e s c a l e . P a t e r n a l i s m i s e v i d e n t i n P l a t o ' s R e p u b l i c , the p a t e r n a l i s m o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r r u l e r , the p a t e r n a l i s m o f the i d e a - which the E x i s t e n t i a l i s t s have s t r u g g l e d t o escape.  The p a t e r n a l -  i s m o f the m e d i e v a l church and f e u d a l a r i s t o c r a c y has given way i n t u r n t o t h e p a t e r n a l i s m o f the monarchy, o f the army, o f the a r i s t o c r a c y , o f the middle c l a s s e s , and o f the p a r t y and the s t a t e .  The l i b e r a l i d e a l has never achieved  fulfil-  ment. P a t e r n a l i s m i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f A f r i c a n c u l t u r e s the p a t e r n a l i s m o f the t r i b e as embodied i n the c h i e f and above a l l as disembodied i n the departed  ancestors.  I n the  c o l o n i a l s e t t i n g we see a severe p a t e r n a l i s m , the t r i b a l , i n c o n f l i c t w i t h a p a t e r n a l i s m t h a t was i n f a c t a r u n n i n g a c t i o n between the severe and the benevolent. i a l anger and A f r i c a n c o n f u s i o n .  The r e s u l t was c o l o n -  A f r i c a n paternalism ran  r i g h t through s o c i a l and k i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The A f r i c a n male  when he m a r r i e d r e t a i n e d h i s dependence w h i l e a c c e p t i n g new o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t f i t t e d him more a c t i v e l y i n t o the p a t e r n a l istic  framework.  but w i t h i m p o r t a n t  The V i c t o r i a n f a m i l y was a l s o p a t e r n a l i s t i c , differences.  F o r one t h i n g i t was the  n u c l e a r f a m i l y r a t h e r than the extended, and f o r another i t s  24  components on m a t u r i t y were h u r l e d o f f t o make t h e i r own way in  the world.  The N a t i v e Cornmissioner from such a background  o f t e n succeeded i n f i n d i n g  a place i n t r i b a l paternalism,  u s u a l l y t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f the c h i e f . paternalistic  He i n t e r p r e t e d h i s  duty as b e i n g t o a d v i s e o r coerce the A f r i c a n s  to e n t e r by means o f t h e i r l a b o u r the European economic system and adopt t h e cash c r i t e r i o n o f s o c i a l a c c e p t i b i l i t y . words he s e t out t o f o r c e on them t h e i n d i v i d u a l  I n other  fragmentation  and t r a u m a t i c break w i t h f a m i l y l i f e which was such a f e a t u r e o f h i s own s o c i e t y . The Emancipation and benevolence,  the negroes'  a t e r r i b l e lesson. Victorian century.  s t r u g g l e had been a c o n f l i c t o f s e v e r i t y subsequent s o - c a l l e d i n d o l e n c e  I n d o l e n c e was a f e a r f u l word t o the  mind, as i t i s i n a d i f f e r e n t  way i n the t w e n t i e t h  Tennyson was f a s c i n a t e d by U l y s s e s ' encounter  the L o t o s - E a t e r s and the s a i l o r s ' a t t r a c t i o n "Should l i f e a l l l a b o u r be? sweet than t o i l " .  with  to t h e i r l i f e -  S u r e l y , s u r e l y , slumber i s more  But h i s sonorous sentiment i n the l a s t  l i n e o f the poem U l y s s e s - "To s t r i v e ' , t o seek, t o f i n d , and not t o y i e l d " - i s much more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  There i s t h e  same c o n f l i c t i n W i l l i a m G o l d i n g ' s L o r d o f t h e F l i e s : one group o f boys w i s h t o o r g a n i s e t h e c o l l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f food w h i l e t h e o t h e r s s e t o f f f o r a l i f e o f i n d o l e n c e and s p o r t a t t h e o t h e r end o f the i s l a n d .  The problem c o u l d be '  seen as man's f a l l from grace - t h e p r i m e v a l a n c e s t o r s c a s t  25  out from Eden and f o r c e d t o work by t h e sweat o f t h e i r brows; o r more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y as proto-man's emergence from t h e f o r e s t s t o t h e harder l i f e o f t h e p l a i n s . d i s t i n c t i o n between work and l a b o u r .  Some have seen a  Lewis Mumford i n h i s  r e c e n t The Myth o f t h e Machine p r e s e n t s a p i c t u r e o f n e o l i t h i c 26  l i f e where a l l had t o work and none had t o l a b o u r .  The  V i c t o r i a n s t u r n e d work i n t o a moral i m p e r a t i v e , and i t so happened t h a t work meant l a b o u r t o s a t i s f y t h e needs o f c a p i t a l i s t production.  I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the  r e a c t i o n was t h e w o r s h i p o f t h e romantic  r u r a l i d y l l , by  M o r r i s i n h i s d i s t i n c t i v e brand o f s o c i a l i s m , by Voysey i n his  a r c h i t e c t u r e and by Hardy i n h i s n o v e l s .  I n A f r i c a the  c o n t r a s t was immediate and unromantic - between i r o n age t r i b e s w i t h t h e i r v i l l a g e a g r i c u l t u r e and v i l l a g e " i n d u s t r y " ( p o t t e r y and s m e l t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y ) and the l a b o u r o f European farm o r mine. To t h e V i c t o r i a n s t h e end was n o t i n doubt: work and work e q u a l l e d l a b o u r .  man must  The o r i g i n s o f t h i s moral  i m p e r a t i v e have been seen i n the P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m a t i o n , but it  s h o u l d be remembered t h a t the i d e a l o f m e d i e v a l monastic  l i f e was hard work as w e l l as c o n t e m p l a t i o n in  - the C i s t e r c i a n s  p a r t i c u l a r pursued the i d e a l o f l a b o r a r e e s t o r a r e .  The  moral need was e n s h r i n e d i n B r i t i s h poor l a w enactment from Tudor times and r e c e i v e d i t s a p o t h e o s i s i n the Poor Law o f 1834.  I d l e n e s s must be made u n a t t r a c t i v e .  The m e r c a n t i l i s t s  26  had espoused t h e need f o r reasons o f s t a t e .  I t was a t the  bottom o f the i d e a s o f t h e c o l o n i a l r e f o r m e r s , t h e s y s t e m a t i c colonists.  The V i c t o r i a n s t u r n e d i t i n t o an i n d i v i d u a l moral  need, but i t was n o n e t h e l e s s a reason o f s t a t e , and nowhere was  t h i s more e v i d e n t than i n the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n .  removal o f t h e p h y s i c a l compulsion need i m p e r a t i v e .  The  o f s l a v e r y made the moral  The n o t i o n t h a t l a b o u r was i n v i o l a b l e  p r o p e r t y t o be d i s p o s e d o f o n l y a t t h e owners' wish f e l l  before  the p a t e r n a l i s t i c o n s l a u g h t t h a t l a b o u r was n o t p r o p e r t y , but a s o c i a l duty, a moral o b l i g a t i o n .  The f a c t t h a t West I n d i a n  negroes had been p e r m i t t e d t o l a p s e i n t o s l o t h was a moral crime t h a t had t o be avoided i n t h e f u t u r e .  I n the i m p e r i a l -  ism o f the l a t e c e n t u r y l a b o u r had t h e c o n t i n u i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f b e i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the domestic  s l a v e r y and e x t e r n a l  s l a v e t r a d e found everywhere i n t h e advance o f e x p l o r e r s , m i s s i o n a r i e s and p i o n e e r s .  I t was transformed i n t o a moral  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n t o s a t i s f y t h e most f e r v e n t c a p i t a l i s t , the most romantic p i o n e e r , the most " i m p r o v i n g " missionary. P a t e r n a l i s m was p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e because i t s a t i s f i e d two p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r l d s . ministic. otherwise.  B a s i c a l l y i t was d e t e r -  Given the r e l i g i o u s content i t c o u l d h a r d l y be Y e t the s e v e r i t y - b e n e v o l e n c e debate r e v e a l e d a  c o n s i d e r a b l e scope f o r human t i n k e r i n g - f r e e w i l l w i t h i n a d e t e r m i n i s t i c framework.  Moreover, i t was a tremendous,  27 though almost u n w i t t i n g , make-weight t o the l a i s s e r economists.  faire  W h i l e they were expounding t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y  d e t e r m i n i s t i c view o f the f r e e market, the l e g i s l a t o r s were r e f u s i n g t o permit the s o c i a l market t o be f r e e .  Nowhere  was t h i s more t r u e than i n the realm o f c o l o n i a l l a b o u r . W h i l e f r e e t r a d e was o n l y approaching c o n s t a n t attempts  i t s z e n i t h t h e r e were  to c o n t r o l c o l o n i a l labour - l a i s s e r  was d e s t r o y e d l o n g b e f o r e l a i s s e r f a i r e .  aller  I t s h o u l d be noted  t h a t i n the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n t h e r e i s a two-pronged a t t a c k on the c o l o n i a l l a b o u r market.  I t i s a t t a c k e d by the c o l o n -  i s t s because i t does not produce - they w i s h t o f o r c e l a b o u r . I t i s a t t a c k e d by the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e under p r e s s u r e from the humanitarians  because i t c r e a t e s abuses.  We have d i s t i n g u i s h e d p a t e r n a l i s m as i m p o r t a n t it  forms the megastructure  of a l l nineteenth century  because colonial  (and domestic) l a b o u r t h i n k i n g , because i t i s a vantage p o i n t from which t o view V i c t o r i a n c o n c e p t i o n s , c o n s c i o u s and subc o n s c i o u s , and from which t o see the a t t a c k on the r a n k s o f laisser faire.  On the i n d i v i d u a l p l a n e , p a t e r n a l i s m c o u l d  take a v a r i e t y o f forms. 27  The p a t e r n a l i s m o f the t h i r d E a r l  Grey, 'the f i r s t great c o l o n i a l f o r m u l a t o r a f t e r was the benevolent  Emancipation,  p a t e r n a l i s m o f a r i s t o c r a t i c o b l i g a t i o n ; the  p a t e r n a l i s m o f L o r d M i l n e r the more arrogant p a t e r n a l i s m o f t h e meritocracy;  t h a t o f Sydney O l i v i e r °the p a t e r n a l i s m o f t h e  i n t e l l e c t u a l F a b i a n , more b e n e v o l e n t ,  more s y m p a t h e t i c , but  28 no l e s s p a t e r n a l i s t i c .  So f a r , the g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l framework i n which a c o l o n i a l l a b o u r p o l i c y was I t i s now  necessary  c o n s t r u c t e d has been  to examine t h a t p o l i c y  reviewed.  itself.  I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to separate out l a b o u r p o l i c y from more g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s t o i n d i g e n o u s peoples.  F o r t h i s reason i t  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to begin w i t h a comparison o f two statements  o f 1841  influential  - Herman M e r i v a l e ' s l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d at  Oxford as P r o f e s s o r o f P o l i t i c a l Economy and Thomas A r n o l d ' s i n a u g u r a l l e c t u r e as P r o f e s s o r o f Modern H i s t o r y .  Merivale  p r o v i d e s a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t because he became the Permanent Under S e c r e t a r y a t the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e d u r i n g one o f the most s e m i n a l p e r i o d s f o r c o l o n i a l l a b o u r p o l i c y , the s e c r e t a r y s h i p o f s t a t e of L o r d Grey.  A f t e r the inadequacy o f Robert W i l l i a m  29 Hay,  7  S i r James Stephen had f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d the power of the  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e ' s p r i n c i p a l executive o f f i c e r . the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f an o l d e r s t r a i n . e n t e r e d the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e he was T h i s was h i s l i f e ' s work. a g a i n s t him.  But Stephen  was  From the moment he  d e d i c a t e d to A b o l i t i o n .  Once accomplished,  events  ran  He was i m p l a c a b l y opposed to i n d e n t u r e d  labour,  s e e i n g i t r i g h t l y as c o n t r o l l e d s l a v e r y under another name. I n i n s i s t i n g on the most r i g i d c o n t r o l s on i n d e n t u r e d he f i r m l y l a i d down the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e humanitarian  labour tradition.  I t f e l l to M e r i v a l e to m a i n t a i n t h a t t r a d i t i o n and y e t l i v e w i t h  29 the p o l i t i c a l f a c t o f i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r . Merivale's lectures^  a r e remarkable b o t h f o r t h e i r  b r e a d t h o f view and f o r t h e i r l i b e r a l i t y o f o u t l o o k .  In  some o f h i s views the w o r l d has h a r d l y caught up w i t h him to-day.  He b e l i e v e d i n complete amalgamation o f the r a c e s ,  though he e x p r e s s e d i t i n the language o f h i s time, " t h e o n l y 31 p o s s i b l e E u t h a n a s i a o f savage communities". He had no o b j e c t i o n whatever t o m i s c e g e n a t i o n - i n d e e d he a s s e r t e d the 32 " s u p e r i o r energy" o f h a l f - c a s t e s .  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that  he a d m i t t e d t h a t h i s "views must undoubtedly appear somewhat w i l d and c h i m e r i c a l " .  I n the same y e a r t h a t M e r i v a l e ' s  L e c t u r e s were p u b l i s h e d , Thomas A r n o l d d e l i v e r e d h i s i n a u g u r a l lecture.  He dated t h e b e g i n n i n g o f E n g l i s h h i s t o r y from the  Saxon i n v a s i o n s and not b e f o r e ;  he regarded the supremacy o f  the Germanic r a c e as the u l t i m a t e i n w o r l d h i s t o r y .  H i s was  the most i n f l u e n t i a l statement y e t o f the disappearance t h e o r y : ...the mass o f mankind have no such power; they e i t h e r r e c e i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f f o r e i g n elements so c o m p l e t e l y t h a t t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s absorbed, and they take t h e i r whole b e i n g from w i t h o u t ; o r b e i n g i n c a p a b l e o f t a k i n g i n h i g h e r elements, they dwindle away when brought i n t o the presence o f a more p o w e r f u l l i f e , and become a t l a s t extinct altogether.-^ When Herman M e r i v a l e became Stephen's s u c c e s s o r a t the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e he a f f i r m e d a t r a d i t i o n o f h u m a n i t a r i a n w a t c h f u l n e s s t h a t the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e never gave up, even when the c h i l d r e n o f t h e Oxford t h a t A r n o l d had h e l p e d t o c r e a t e r u l e d the Empire  30 and the g r e a t c a p i t a l i s t i c e n t e r p r i s e s s e t up as new monopolies i n the age o f t h e s o - c a l l e d New I m p e r i a l i s m , the C h a r t e r e d Companies.  I t i s p o s s i b l e to t r a c e M e r i v a l e ' s  views r i g h t through the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y debate.  His  v i g o r o u s and o p t i m i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f t r u s t e e s h i p w i t h a l l i t s o b l i g a t i o n s becomes the warp t o the woof o f the c o l o n i a l r e f o r m e r s ' and a l l t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s ' hopes f o r an orgy o f d e v o l u t i o n and a d i s p l a c e d t r u s t .  Three main themes r u n through the c o l o n i a l l a b o u r debate o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y - t r o p i c a l i n d o l e n c e , l a n d and artificial  stimulants (usually taxation).  c l e a r l y c l o s e l y connected.  The t h r e e are  An excess o f the second c o u l d  produce t h e f i r s t , and c o u l d l i k e w i s e c a n c e l out the e f f e c t s of the t h i r d . developed  Ideas about t r o p i c a l i n d o l e n c e and l a n d  from West I n d i a n e x p e r i e n c e , but as the f r o n t i e r s  o f c o l o n i s e d , A f r i c a were pushed inwards - i n the e a r l i e r p e r i o d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n South A f r i c a o f course - A f r i c a drew increasing attention.  O p i n i o n s d e r i v e d from the West I n d i a n s  tended t o be passed over t o A f r i c a . i b l e , f o r s l a v e r y had atomised  C l e a r l y t h i s was i n a d m i s s -  t r i b a l society i n transplantation,  whereas the t r i b e s i n South A f r i c a were o f course intact.  largely  I t was not u n t i l the end o f the c e n t u r y t h a t more  sympathetic  o b s e r v e r s began t o p o i n t out two f a c t s  —firstly  t h a t the p o s i t i o n o f the male i n t r i b a l s o c i e t y was l a r g e l y a  31 d e f e n s i v e and r i t u a l i s t i c one, and secondly t h a t A f r i c a n a g r i c u l t u r e was even more s e a s o n a l than elsewhere w i t h a r a t h e r o b v i o u s l y " s l a c k " season. M e r i v a l e accepted  the n o t i o n o f t r o p i c a l i n d o l e n c e ,  35 as d i d most subsequent commentators, i n c l u d i n g J.A. Hobson-^ 36 and Sydney O l i v i e r ,  a l t h o u g h O l i v i e r d i d p o i n t out t h a t  " l o a f i n g " i s b o t h more p l e a s a n t and more n o t i c e a b l e i n the tropics.  The b a s i c q u e s t i o n then was how was t h i s i n d o l e n c e  to be overcome.  M e r i v a l e ' s answer was s i m p l e and t o t a l -  t h e r e had t o be complete amalgamation, promoted above a l l by e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g o f course r e l i g i o u s and moral i n s t r u c t i o n . E d u c a t i o n ought t o be a government concern ance might be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  so t h a t i t s i m p o r t -  Here M e r i v a l e was c l e a r l y  f a r i n advance o f domestic p o l i c y , and e q u a l l y c l e a r l y r e v e a l s his  debt t o t h e u t i l i t a r i a n s . The  o b v i o u s c o r o l l a r y o f t h i s view was t h a t r e s e r v e s  c o u l d not be p e r m i t t e d .  To c r e a t e r e s e r v e s was t o commit  the same e r r o r t h a t had been committed i n N o r t h A m e r i c a the a b d i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Reserves s i m p l y postponed  the e v i l day. The c o l o n i s t s w i l l complain, and w i t h p e r f e c t t r u t h , o f the economical disadvantages which a t t e n d the i n t e r p o s i t i o n o f u n c u l t i v a t e d o r h a l f c u l t i v a t e d t r a c t s between populous d i s t r i c t s ; o f t h e i r own s u f f e r i n g by the p r o x i m i t y o f the n a t i v e s , and o f the p o l i t i c a l m i s c h i e f s produced by these l i t t l e i n e r t r e p u b l i c s , stagnant i n t h e v e r y c e n t r e o f s o c i e t y . And government w i l l f i n d i t s e l f , as i t has  32 always done, unable t o r e s i s t these i m p o r t u n i t i e s , and c a j o l e d by the thousand i m p l a u s i b i l i t i e s advanced i n f a v o u r o f removing these u n f o r t u n a t e s a f u r t h e r stage i n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s , i t w i l l comply w i t h the e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e times, and the n a t i v e s w i l l be t r a n s p o r t e d t o some o t h e r r e g i o n , to be f o l l o w e d t h e r e again w i t h sure and r a p i d s t e p s by t h e e n c r o a c h i n g t i d e o f European p o p u l a t i o n . 3 ° I t might be argued t h a t M e r i v a l e was i n f a c t a d v o c a t i n g  a  d i f f e r e n t form o f e x t e r m i n a t i o n , t h a t l i k e t h e u t i l i t a r i a n s he had l i t t l e r e s p e c t f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f o t h e r This i s not s t r i c t l y  t h e case.  peoples.  He p o i n t e d out t h a t c e r t a i n  i n s t i t u t i o n s were h i g h l y amenable t o advancement i n t o western c i v i l i z a t i o n - again an e t h n o c e n t r i c view, but a p r o p h e t i c one.  He saw t h e i r r e s i s t i b i l i t y o f western  commerce and t e c h n o l o g y , e n t a l l y prophesied Rhodesia.  and i n t h e above passage he i n c i d -  almost p r e c i s e l y what was to happen i n  (The Land Commission o f 191.6 t h a t had been  expected t o i n c r e a s e A f r i c a n r e s e r v e s i n R h o d e s i a i n f a c t decreased them). M e r i v a l e ' s c o n c l u s i o n was an extremely  o p t i m i s t i c one.  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o d i s c o v e r whether i t remained so a f t e r he became Permanent Under S e c r e t a r y . .....we may be s a t i s f i e d w i t h the improved p r o s p e c t o f our r e l a t i o n s w i t h those much abused members o f t h e human f a m i l y , t h a t t h e r e i s now l i t t l e f e a r o f t h e i r b e i n g t r e a t e d w i t h i n j u s t i c e and o p p r e s s i o n by the founders o f c o l o n i e s , armed w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y o f governments. We have a t a l l e v e n t s o u t l i v e d . t h e days i n which they were c o n s i d e r e d a l a w f u l prey f o r the f e r o c i t y o f the z e a l o t , o r the c u p i d i t y o f the adventurer.  ,  7  q  33  W h i l e n o t so p r o p h e t i c  here, M e r i v a l e does r e v e a l t h e t o t a l  absence o f r e a l r a c i s t thought i n h i s p o s i t i o n .  I n t h i s he  f o l l o w e d Stephen o f whom Knaplund w r i t e s t h a t "the humani t a r i a n i s m and e g a l i t a r i a n i s m c r o p p i n g up so f r e q u e n t l y i n his  o f f i c i a l minutes and memoranda were r o o t e d i n t h e r e l i g -  i o u s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t b e f o r e God a l l men a r e e q u a l " . ^ The in  same c o u l d n o t be s a i d o f another i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e  t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e whom we must now examine.  T a y l o r had a most remarkable c a r e e r . ^  S i r Henry  He served i n t h e  "commonplace b r i c k house a t t h e end o f Downing S t r e e t " ^ t h a t was  t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f o r almost h a l f a c e n t u r y ,  On t h e r e t i r e m e n t  1824 - 1872.  o f Stephen, he was o f f e r e d the Permanent  Under S e c r e t a r y s h i p by Grey, b u t d e c l i n e d on t h e grounds t h a t the p o s t was c o m p a t i b l e n e i t h e r w i t h h e a l t h n o r w i t h h i s a r y p u r s u i t s (he was an i n d i f f e r e n t poet and p l a y w r i g h t f r i e n d o f many o f t h e l e a d i n g l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s o f h i s  literand t h e  day).  H i s r a c i s t f e e l i n g i s r e v e a l e d a t t h e time o f the Jamaican u p r i s i n g and Governor Eyre c o n t r o v e r s y .  I n a l e t t e r to S i r  C h a r l e s E l l i o t t he argued t h a t he c o u l d not  agree  . . . . t h a t t h e v a l u e o f human l i f e i s i d e n t i c a l i n a l l r a c e s , c i v i l i z e d and b a r b a r o u s . ....The d e s t r u c t i o n o f l i f e of a h i g h o r d e r produces great sorrow and d i s t r e s s amongst r e l a t i v e s and friends. B u t as you descend the s c a l e , the s u f f e r i n g o c c a s i o n e d i s more l i g h t and t r a n s i t o r y . ^ To r e v e r t t o the E m a n c i p a t i o n p e r i o d , we f i n d t h a t he took up the i n d o l e n c e  view i n i t s most extreme form:  3k But to apply what i s c a l l e d 'the v o l u n t a r y system' to the negro p o p u l a t i o n s i s about as r e a s o n a b l e as i t would be to c a l l upon a f l o c k o f sheep to f i n d themselves a shepherd. He produced a most e x t r a o r d i n a r y i d e a f o r m i t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s o f immediate emancipation.  I t was based on h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l  b e l i e f i n the i n v i o l a b l e nature of p r o p e r t y ( i t was he proposed the twenty m i l l i o n pounds c o m p e n s a t i o n ^ ) . suggested  who He  t h a t each s l a v e ought to be a b l e to buy h i m s e l f out  by i n s t a l m e n t s .  He c o u l d be g i v e n enough to buy h i m s e l f f o r  Monday and Tuesday.  He c o u l d then work on Monday and Tuesday  to buy Wednesday f o r h i m s e l f , and so on!  I n t h i s way  eman-  c i p a t i o n would be a c h i e v e d and the v i r t u e o f work i n c u l c a t e d at one and the same time. t h a t h i s p r o p o s a l was  Taylor i n s i s t s i n h i s  Autobiography  t u r n e d down f o r p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l  reasons,^  but the mind can h a r d l y grasp the chaos and abuses t h a t would have r e s u l t e d from such a scheme.  I t certainly reveals Taylor  f o r the a r c h e t y p i c a l p a t e r n a l i s t t h a t he And y e t T a y l o r was  was.  completely unequivocal i n h i s conception  of the nature o f the t r u s t the i m p e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y conveyed. I n t h i s , l i k e Stephen, he was  e n t i r e l y opposed to the  reformers' devolutionary ideas. May  6, 1852,  colonial  I n a l e t t e r to Grey, dated  he defended Grey's p o l i c y o f meddling w h i l e a t  the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , f o r ....even where the w e l f a r e o f i g n o r a n t and u n r e p r e s e n t e d p o p u l a t i o n s does not r e q u i r e the Home Government to c o n t r o l the l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e s , t h e r e i s another  35 c o n s i d e r a t i o n which may r e q u i r e i t , which c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e honour o f t h e Crown ( h i s i t a l i c s ) and t h a t so l o n g as the Crown i s a branch o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e s - t h a t i s so. l o n g as -the C o l o n i e s a r e C o l o n i e s - i t must be the duty o f t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e Crown t o prevent the C^own from becoming a p a r t y to a c t s o f i n j u s t i c e and d i s h o n e s t y and bad f a i t h . 4 8 And  again i n h i s Autobiography he wrote W i t h r e g a r d to t h e Cape which has h i t h e r t o been t h e extreme case o f m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f a colony, I t h i n k the question should be r e g a r d e d as p u r e l y p h i l a n t h r o p i c a q u e s t i o n whether t h i s c o u n t r y t h i n k s i t h e r duty t o save and c i v i l i z e barbarous t r i b e s , whatever be the c o s t , o r i s prepared to l e t l o o s e upon them t h e barbarous p a s s i o n s o f c i v i l i z e d men. I f t h e former, w a r f a r e must be conducted a t t h e Cape by B r i t i s h t r o o p s under B r i t i s h c o n t r o l and a t the c o s t o f t h e B r i t i s h Treasury. I f the l a t t e r , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to t h i s c o u n t r y ' s good name t h a t i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d by s e p a r a t i o n . ^  T h i s was a t t h e same time the essence o f t r u s t e e s h i p and o f paternalism.  The sentiment came from a man who c o u l d w r i t e 50  " I do n o t l i k e t h e American people o r any o t h e r people", t h a t o f a s e r i e s o f dangerous c o u r s e s the 1832 Reform B i l l was t h e l e a s t dangerous,-^" and t h a t t h e American C i v i l War 52 was a l e s s o n t o a l l i n t h e e v i l s o f democracy.  I t betrays  the p a t e r n a l i s t dilemma t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n b u t not respect. The  importance o f T a y l o r i n t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e has  on c r e had t a r i ae sc,o nStephen, f r e qt hu re en et l ypermanent been i g n ounder r e d . s e He s i d e r a b l eM e riinvfalluee nand ce  36 Rogers,  and a much l a r g e r number o f s e c r e t a r i e s o f s t a t e ,  as w e l l as h e l p i n g i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f two f u t u r e permanent under s e c r e t a r i e s , H e r b e r t5k^ and Meade,55 and an i m p o r t a n t y  p r i n c i p a l a s s i s t a n t under s e c r e t a r y ,  Edward F a i r f i e l d .  W h i l e the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o f f i c i a l s had a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e influence  on t h e day-to-day r u n n i n g o f t h e O f f i c e and on the  c o n t i n u i t y o f p o l i c y over a l o n g p e r i o d , and  a truly effective  d o c t r i n a i r e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y l i k e the t h i r d E a r l Grey  could  have a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e  policy.  on the d i r e c t i o n o f f u t u r e  The e x a m i n a t i o n o f Grey must a l s o b e g i n  Emancipation.  with  J u s t b e f o r e E m a n c i p a t i o n , Grey, then V i s c o u n t  Howick, was p a r l i a m e n t a r y under s e c r e t a r y  to Lord Goderich  at t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n h i s f a t h e r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . was  It  then he f i r s t produced the i d e a t h a t was t o have most  e f f e c t on c o l o n i a l l a b o u r p o l i c y - the i d e a o f the d i r e c t tax.  He proposed t h e i m p o s i t i o n  o f a l a n d t a x on t h e  56 emancipated negroes.  When h i s view f a i l e d t o f i n d f a v o u r  (and T a y l o r f o r one opposed i t ) ,  he r e s i g n e d .  When he became  C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y i n 18^-6 h i s chance o f p u t t i n g h i s i d e a s on d i r e c t t a x a t i o n i n t o p r a c t i c e had a r r i v e d .  H i s c r e e d was  based on f a m i l i a r p r i n c i p l e s - t h e . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h imperium, the need f o r l a b o u r based on t a x a t i o n , the Pax B r i t a n n i c a , p u b l i c works, and t h e need f o r a t o t a l amalgamation o f t h e r a c e s . T a x a t i o n was f o r him the g r e a t s o l u t i o n , "the  motive  37  to e x e r t i o n " , ^ the s t i m u l a n t t h a t t r o p i c a l i n d o l e n c e  required  When Governor S i r W i l l i a m W i n n i e t t o f the Gold Coast e x p a t i a t e 58 i n a despatch o f May 22, 1 8 5 0 ,  y  on the n e c e s s i t y o f f o r c e d  l a b o u r , Grey's r e a c t i o n was one o f s u s p i c i o n . to i t t h a t W i n n i e t t ' s s u c c e s s o r  secured  I n s t e a d he saw  the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f  the c h i e f s o f the Gold Coast t o a p o l l t a x o f one s h i l l i n g on every man, woman and c h i l d .  This symbolizes  Grey's p o l i c y  But b e f o r e the Gold Coast case arose he had a l r e a d y begun the a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s i d e a s i n Ceylon and N a t a l . H i s concept o f t h e s t i m u l a n t was an o l d one.  Hugh  Murray i n h i s E n q u i r i e s H i s t o r i c a l and M o r a l R e s p e c t i n g the Character  of Nations  and t h e P r o g r e s s  of Society  (Edinburgh,  1 8 0 8 ) ^ had p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the optimum c o n d i t i o n o f p r o g r e s s o c c u r s where t h e environment i s n e i t h e r too. hard n o r t o o easy and so s t i m u l a t e s the r i g h t q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r f o r t h e p u r s u i t o f the a r t s . pressure  He answered M a l t h u s by a r g u i n g t h a t  c o u l d present  a n e c e s s a r y and b e n e f i c i a l  population challenge  to l a b o u r . I n a c e l e b r a t e d despatch t o Governor T o r r i n g t o n i n Ceylon Grey expressed t h i s view i n terms o f t h e c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n : I n a l l European c o u n t r i e s , the n e c e s s i t y o f s u p p l y i n g t h e i r d a i l y wants i s , t o the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s , a s u f f i c i e n t motive t o e x e r t i o n ; indeed t h e d i f f i c u l t y which they experience i n o b t a i n i n g t h e means o f a c o m f o r t a b l e s u b s i s t e n c e i s so g r e a t t h a t i t has g e n e r a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d (as i t always ought t o be) t h e g r e a t o b j e c t f o r  38 the Governments o f these c o u n t r i e s , i n t h e i r f i n a n c i a l arrangements, to a v o i d a g g r a v a t i n g t h i s d i f f i c u l t y by the i m p o s i t i o n o f t a x e s c a l c u l a t e d to enhance the c o s t o f s u b s i s t e n c e . But the case i s very d i f f e r e n t i n t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e s , where the p o p u l a t i o n i s very s c a n t y i n p r o p o r t i o n to the extent of the t e r r i t o r y ; where the s o i l , as I have a l r e a d y observed, r e a d i l y y i e l d s a subs i s t e n c e i n r e t u r n f o r very l i t t l e labour and where c l o t h i n g , f u e l , and l o d g i n g , such as are r e q u i r e d , are o b t a i n e d v e r y easily. I n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e r e can be but l i t t l e motive t o e x e r t i o n , to men s a t i s f i e d w i t h an abundant supply of t h e i r mere p h y s i c a l wants; and a c c o r d i n g l y e x p e r i e n c e proves t h a t i t i s the d i s p o s i t i o n of the r a c e s o f men by which these c o u n t r i e s are g e n e r a l l y i n h a b i t e d , to s i n k i n t o an easy and l i s t l e s s mode of l i f e , q u i t e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h any h i g h degree of civilization. I n Ceylon too he promoted h i s i d e a of p u b l i c works i n the Road Ordinance of 1847.  I t enacted t h a t every male i n h a b i t -  ant o f the I s l a n d between the ages of eighteen  and  fifty-five  y e a r s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d to perform s i x days l a b o u r on r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance, or commute the s e r v i c e f o r a payment, the v a l u e o f which v a r i e d , but was three s h i l l i n g s .  nowhere more than  These roads were r e q u i r e d to enable the  p l a n t e r s to t r a n s p o r t t h e i r c o f f e e from the h i g h l a n d s Ceylon to the coast f o r e x p o r t . i n e f f e c t a d i r e c t tax. o p e r a t i o n i n 1849  The  of  Road Ordinance imposed  F e a r of i t s e f f e c t when i t came i n t o  c o n t r i b u t e d to the i n s u r r e c t i o n o f t h a t  year. But by f a r the most s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a f o r the  imposition  39  of  Grey's i d e a s was South A f r i c a .  N a t a l i n 1843  There the annexation  and o f B r i t i s h K a f f r a r i a to the Cape i n  of  1847  brought B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the Bantu on a s c a l e h i t h e r t o unknown i n Cape Colony.  S i r Harry  Smith was sent to pursue a s i m i l a r p o l i c y to t h a t e f f e c t e d i n New  Zealand, f o r . . . . a l t h o u g h no doubt t h e r e are some i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e i n the c h a r a c t e r o f the n a t i v e s o f New Zealand and o f the K a f i r s , y e t i n the main, human n a t u r e i s everywhere the same, and the l a t t e r are f a r l e s s c o m p l e t e l y barbarous than the former were f o r t y o r f i f t y y e a r s ago.°l  L i k e M e r i v a l e , and u n l i k e such r a d i c a l s as Roebuck, Grey r e g a r d e d the d e s t r u c t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s peoples as u n t h i n k a b l e , even i f i t were p o s s i b l e , which i n the case of the Bantu was soon o b v i o u s l y not the case. F o r my own p a r t I c o n f e s s I s h o u l d g r i e v e to t h i n k t h a t the u l t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n o f Southern A f r i c a by a c i v i l i z e d p o p u l a t i o n were o n l y to be accomplished, l i k e t h a t o f N o r t h America, by the g r a d u a l d e s t r u c t i o n of the n a t i v e r a c e s b e f o r e the advancing t i d e o f a white o c c u p a t i o n o f the s o i l . I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n s t e a d o f t h i s , the c i v i l i z a t i o n o f the B l a c k , and the u l t i m a t e amalgamation o f the two r a c e s , i s not i m p r a c t i c a b l e , i f the s u p e r i o r power of t h i s c o u n t r y i s w i s e l y and g e n e r o u s l y used to e n f o r c e on b o t h s i d e s a r e s p e c t f o r each o t h e r ' s r i g h t s and to f o s t e r a l l those germs-of improvement which are a l r e a d y showing themselves among the a b o r i g i n a l population."2 Amalgamation and r e s p e c t were i n d e e d an u n u s u a l l y i d e a l i s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n , doomed t o f a i l u r e when the t r u e s i z e of the A f r i c a n  p o p u l a t i o n became e v i d e n t , and when the diamonds o f K i m b e r l e y and the g o l d o f t h e Rand c r e a t e d t h e i r i n s a t i a b l e t h i r s t f o r A f r i c a n l a b o u r from a l l over Southern A f r i c a .  But g i v e n  t h i s v i e w i t was n a t u r a l t h a t Grey was opposed t o the i d e a o f reserves.  He proposed f o r the s e t t l e m e n t  of Natal a large  number o f l o c a t i o n s s c a t t e r e d amongst the European  population.  By t h i s means the Europeans would be s u p p l i e d w i t h l o c a l r e s e r v o i r s o f l a b o u r , w h i l e A f r i c a n s would be g r e a t l y and g e n t l y encouraged t o e n t e r t h e European economy and i n d e e d way o f l i f e .  L i k e M e r i v a l e he p r e s c r i b e d e d u c a t i o n  habits of c i v i l i z e d l i f e .  i n the  The r e s u l t he e n v i s a g e d was t o  become a f a m i l i a r s h i b b o l e t h o f the c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n s c h o o l the growing demand f o r the manufactured a r t i c l e s o f Europe which would i n c r e a s e t h e t r a d e and revenue o f the c o l o n y and the w e a l t h o f the Mother Country.  N e e d l e s s t o say, a d i r e c t  t a x completed the p i c t u r e o f the A f r i c a n i n h a b i t a n t s o f N a t a l b e i n g l e d a l o n g the road t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . Both the nature o f the t a x and the p r i n c i p l e o f the l o c a t i o n s began the debate between Grey and Shepstone, the d i p l o m a t i c agent who was t o become N a t a l ' s f i r s t Administrator.  Native  Shepstone i n s i s t e d t h a t the t a x o f seven  s h i l l i n g s which was f i r s t imposed i n 1849 s h o u l d be a hut t a x r a t h e r than Grey's p r e f e r e n c e  f o r a c a t t l e or land tax.  Moreover, Shepstone d i s a g r e e d w i t h Grey's l o c a t i o n p o l i c y . He d i s l i k e d the i d e a o f amalgamation, and h e l d t h a t A f r i c a n s  41  c o u l d o n l y be a d m i n i s t e r e d through t h e i r c h i e f s by an s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on r e s e r v e s . " i m p e r i a l f a c t o r " and the "man s t a n d i n g , was  The  entirely  c o n f l i c t o f the  on the s p o t " , a l r e a d y o f l o n g  c a r r i e d over i n t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n a t i v e  policy. Grey's c r e e d was i s m and i d e a l i s m . 30,  a s u r p r i s i n g m i x t u r e o f severe p a t e r n a l -  I n a despatch t o S i r H a r r y Smith, November  1 8 4 9 , ^ he r e g r e t t e d t h a t the N a t a l t a x was not h i g h enough;  had i t been imposed e a r l i e r , i t c o u l d then have been i n c r e a s e d . He went on to suggest  t h a t the compulsory l a b o u r l e v i e d i n l i e u  o f t a x s h o u l d be deployed on road works.  On the o t h e r hand he  a s s e r t e d t h a t he l o o k e d to the day when t h e r e would be i t y o f t a x a t i o n f o r both Europeans and A f r i c a n s . was,  uniform-  Such a hope  t o use M e r i v a l e ' s word, c h i m e r i c a l , but Grey's p r i n c i p l e  o f d i r e c t t a x a t i o n o f n a t i v e peoples became the norm i n most p a r t s o f the dependent empire. A f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f Grey's tax.was i n the M a u r i t i u s Labour Ordinance o f 1847,  designed to meet the problems c r e a t e d  by the i n f l u x o f i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s to the I s l a n d . . S i n c e Grey was a l s o i m p o r t a n t i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r on a r e g u l a r f o o t i n g , i t i s now n e c e s s a r y to survey  the  i n s t i t u t i o n o f i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r and i t s e f f e c t on l a b o u r attitudes. The.indentured  l a b o u r p r i n c i p l e developed  from the p r a c t i c e  o f i n d e n t u r i n g European s e r v a n t s f o r work i n the American  and  42  West I n d i a n c o l o n i e s i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t had l a r g e l y g i v e n way t o s l a v e r y - i t had been a t t a c k e d b o t h on the grounds o f expense and o f humanity.  I t was r e s u r r e c t e d now as p a r t o f the s l a v e r y  and f r e e l a b o u r debate.  As e a r l y as 1829  the French i s l a n d  o f Bourbon i n the I n d i a n Ocean had r e c e i v e d l a b o u r e r s from 65 India.  I n 1834  J  i m m i g r a t i o n began to M a u r i t i u s .  Later  B r i t i s h Guiana and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t Jamaica and T r i n i d a d were t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  I t became i n f a c t p a r t o f the g e n e r a l  upsurge o f m i g r a t i o n o f the p e r i o d - Portuguese from M a d e i r a , S c o t c h and I r i s h , Germans and M a l t e s e , l i b e r a t e d s l a v e s from the squadrons on the West A f r i c a n c o a s t , and Chinese t h r o u g h out the e n t i r e P a c i f i c a r e a . The Chinese i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r system r e v e a l s .very w e l l the f a s h i o n i n which i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r appeared as a s u b s t i t u t e for slavery.  I t began - l i k e s l a v e r y - s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y , from  s e v e r a l p o r t s , o f which Amoy was the most i m p o r t a n t .  The  first  f u l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s were undertaken by the F r e n c h f o r Bourbon i n 1845  and by the S p a n i s h f o r Cuba i n 1847.  Like slavery i t  s w i f t l y s e t up a l a r g e network o f v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s - B r i t i s h , American, F r e n c h , S p a n i s h and Dutch s h i p p i n g i n t e r e s t s ,  agents  i n the f o r e i g n communities o f Canton, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Macao, and Chinese b u s i n e s s men i n S i n g a p o r e , Penang, San Francisco.  I t c r e a t e d abuses - l i k e k i d n a p p i n g - which f o r c e d  the Chinese a u t h o r i t i e s t o r e c o g n i s e i t s e x i s t e n c e and attempt  to  r e g u l a t e i t from the 1850's ( i t had h i t h e r t o been  illegal).  The c r e d i t - t i c k e t system had a l r e a d y produced the widespread serfdom o f debt-peonage,  even more i n t o l e r a b l e than the  system t h a t had p r e v a i l e d i n South America.  Indentured  l a b o u r moreover h e l p e d to c r e a t e the Chinese xenophobia f o r Europeans, fanned by the communities i n Shanghai, Canton the of  and  o t h e r t r e a t y p o r t s , t h a t became such an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y Chinese h i s t o r y .  I t created a r e c i p r o c a l  xenophobia f i r s t l y i n A u s t r a l i a and l a t e r i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  and C a l i f o r n i a , t h a t produced f i r s t o f a l l c o n t r o l and then exclusion.  Chinese were s c a t t e r e d by i t throughout the P a c i f i c  a r e a (the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f an a g e - o l d m i g r a t i o n ) and i n t o such f a r - f l u n g p l a c e s as the s i l v e r mines o f Peru and the p l a n t a t i o n s o f Cuba and B r i t i s h Guiana. the  Many f e l l out o f s i g h t of  European c o n s c i e n c e , but t h a t c o n s c i e n c e was  powerfully  aroused by the Rand Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n ( o f which more i n Chapter 2) and the i n d e n t u r e d system i n Western Samoa as l a t e as the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t w e n t i e s . ^ But to r e t u r n to the I n d i a n i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r t h a t had a c t u a l l y preceded the C h i n e s e , the f i r s t b u r s t of i l l - c o n t r o l l e d m i g r a t i o n o f I n d i a n s , h i g h m o r t a l i t y r a t e s , and a c c u s a t i o n s o f i n h u m a n i t y not s u r p r i s i n g l y soon r a i s e d the c r y o f a new In the  1838  Brougham i n the L o r d s a t t a c k e d the t r a f f i c ,  Times f o l l o w e d s u i t .  was banned.  '  From 1839  t o 1843  slavery.  and s h o r t l y  the m i g r a t i o n  Meanwhile, e m i g r a t i o n from S i e r r a Leone was  p e r m i t t e d from 1840  and W a k e f i e l d produced a v a r i a n t on h i s  44 systematic c o l o n i z a t i o n ideas.  Immigration  from A f r i c a ought  to be encouraged, s u p e r v i s e d by a p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y , and f i n a n ced from a t a x on l a n d i n the West I n d i e s . I n e v i t a b l y , the l a b o u r q u e s t i o n became i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w i t h the q u e s t i o n of the West I n d i a n monopoly.  In  P e e l ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S t a n l e y at the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e began a g i t a t i n g f o r a renewal o f I n d i a n i m m i g r a t i o n .  R u s s e l l too  b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o l o n i e s ought to be b o l s t e r e d by i o n r a t h e r than p r o t e c t i o n .  By 1843,  immigrat-  West A f r i c a n , I n d i a n  and Chinese schemes under the s u p e r v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b l e government o f f i c e r s , were i n the a i r .  The West A f r i c a n  was  o n l y a p a r t i a l s u c c e s s , the Chinese a f a i l u r e , but the I n d i a n was  to become the p a t t e r n f o r the r e s t of the  century.  M a u r i t i u s became the symbol of the good and e v i l indentured labour. emancipation hand was  M a u r i t i u s was  helped through the  of post-  d i f f i c u l t i e s by the immigrants, but on the  p r o v i d e d w i t h a l a r g e vagrant  problem.  I t was  other to  combat t h i s , and the h a b i t o f employee and employer of f r e q u e n t l y changing j o b s and workers r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h a t Grey made h i s new  taxation proposals.  He suggested to the Gover-  nor t h a t t h e r e ought to be a t a x on immigrants not under cont r a c t and a stamp duty on c o n t r a c t s . i n Ordinance 22 of 1847, departures  These were i n c o r p o r a t e d  a l o n g w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r a duty on  o f l e s s than f i v e y e a r s ' r e s i d e n c e , and an i n c r e a s e r  i n the p e n a l t y f o r absence from work.  o  45  The  e q u a l i s a t i o n o f the sugar d u t i e s made the  conflict  between s l a v e and f r e e l a b o u r a genuine one, i n t h a t s l a v e grown sugar from Cuba and South A m e r i c a c o u l d now e q u a l l y w i t h West I n d i a n sugar. l o s e a l l round. distress;  The  The  compete  c o l o n i e s seemed to  absence of immigrants r a i s e d c r i e s of  the c o s t of the immigrants helped the c o l o n i e s to  the f i n a n c i a l c r a s h e s and b a n k r u p t c i e s o f 1 8 4 7 - 4 8 . i m p e r i a l a i d , ^ the c o l o n i e s , t h o r o u g h l y extremely  Despite  d i s i l l u s i o n e d , became  r e l u c t a n t to b e a r the c o s t of r e p a t r i a t i o n .  Grey  espoused the p r i n c i p l e o f permanent t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - of complete v i l l a g e communities i f need be - but t h i s was acceptable  to I n d i a House.  a t one time expressed 70 labour issue.  not  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h a t Stephen  himself "completely  What i s i m p o r t a n t  b a f f l e d " by,the whole  about the resurgence of  i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r i s the a t t i t u d e o f mind t h a t , even a f t e r the end of s l a v e r y , l a b o u r c o u l d be drawn on from a r e s e r v o i r and r e t u r n e d a t w i l l , s u b j e c t to r e s t r i c t i o n s and c o n t r o l s . From the time of Grey onwards the m i g r a t i o n was established.  I t was  extended to o t h e r n a t i o n s .  firmly  When the  P a l m e r s t o n government wished to s t o p the F r e n c h t a k i n g f r e e A f r i c a n l a b o u r from West A f r i c a i n 1858  - because i t l o o k e d  much l i k e s l a v e r y - S i r F r e d e r i c Ro-gers was negotiate f o r Indian indentured labour. s a i d , the charge of q u a s i - s l a v e r y was  sent to P a r i s to  As Rogers h i m s e l f  s i m p l y t r a n s f e i r e i d from 71 the F o r e i g n O f f i c e to the India:; O f f i c e . ' T h e r e a f t e r , as  too  46  w e l l as to French p o s s e s s i o n s , M a u r i t i u s , B r i t i s h Guiana,  and  the West I n d i e s , I n d i a n s would go to N a t a l and E a s t A f r i c a , Chinese t o the S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , Borneo and South A f r i c a . A whole range o f m i g r a t i o n s o f i n c r e a s i n g e c c e n t r i c i t y would 72 73 be proposed - Arabs to Rhodesia, A s s y r i a n s to Borneo, Jews t o U g a n d a ^ - b e f o r e i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r was d i s c r e d i t e d between the two w o r l d wars*  finally  The m i g r a n t s  who  s t a y e d c o n t r i b u t e d to the p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s t h a t R u s s e l l and Stephen i n the b e g i n n i n g had f e a r e d as one o f the r e s u l t s o f indentured labour.  As an i n t e r e s t i n g f o o t n o t e to t r a n s p o r t  h i s t o r y , the movements o f l a r g e numbers o f i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s h e l p e d to keep s a i l i n g s h i p s a l i v e at a time when a l l o t h e r 75 passengers  were t r a v e l l i n g by steam.  y  On the i s s u e o f i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and the C o l o n i a l Reformers c o u l d f i n d some common ground. Moreover, both Grey and the r e f o r m e r s r e v e a l a b a s i c V i c t o r i a n dilemma.  Grey was a c o n v i n c e d f r e e t r a d e r a t the same time  as  he espoused m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s o c i a l c o n t r o l o f labour.  The C o l o n i a l Reformers on the o t h e r hand a t t a c k e d the  n o t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and demanded self-government ( s o c i a l freedom),  a l l round  w h i l e c r e a t i n g the s y s t e m a t i c c o l o n i z a t i o n  p l a n s which d e n i e d the f r e e market i n l a n d s a l e s . The C o l o n i a l Reformers have u s u a l l y r e c e i v e d a good p r e s s . They normally took up the u s u a l R a d i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e r e must be no more e x t e n s i o n s o f t e r r i t o r y and d e v o l u t i o n of e x i s t i n g  47  c o l o n i e s , b u t they drove t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s t o an absurd, i f l o g i c a l , conclusion.  They r e f u s e d t o see any d i f f e r e n c e  between the Cape and Canada.  Above a l l they i n s i s t e d t h a t  i t was an u n a v o i d a b l e l a w t h a t i n d i g e n o u s disappear.  p e o p l e s must  Roebuck a t t a c k e d t h e h u m a n i t a r i a n s f o r t h e i r  fear of colonial rule ( i . e . l o c a l rule).  The l e s s o n o f  h i s t o r y was t h a t the savage must d i s a p p e a r i n face o f t h e r e l e n t l e s s advance o f t h e s u p e r i o r r a c e , and i t was f u t i l e to t a l k o f j u s t i c e and humanity when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h such an immutable law.  They f a i l e d t o see t h a t t h e l e s s o n o f  h i s t o r y was no i r o n law, b u t s i m p l y M e r i v a l e ' s " f e r o c i t y o f the z e a l o t " and ' ' c u p i d i t y o f the adventurer".  The humanit-  a r i a n s d i d see t h i s and b e f o r e the arguments o f Cobden, G l a d stone, Roebuck, A d d e r l e y ,  W a k e f i e l d , Molesworth, and Hume,  they c l u n g t o t h e view t h a t was l a t e r to be r a t i o n a l i s e d i n t o a full-blown doctrine of trusteeship.  T h e i r tragedy  was t h a t  the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Boers on t h e " t u r b u l e n t f r o n t i e r " l e d them ever f u r t h e r i n t o commitments and w a r f a r e . S i x t e e n y e a r s a f t e r Grey's p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s C o l o n i a l P o l i c y , C B . Adderley  ( p a r l i a m e n t a r y under s e c r e t a r y a t t h e  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1866-68 and chairman o f the c e l e b r a t e d S e l e c t Committee o f 1865) p u b l i s h e d h i s Review o f the C o l o n i a l P o l i c y of L o r d John R u s s e l l ' s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n by E a r l Grey and o f Subsequent C o l o n i a l H i s t o r y .  N e e d l e s s t o say, he was h i g h l y  c r i t i c a l o f t h e i m p e r i a l government's p a t e r n a l i s t a t t i t u d e and  48 was  s c e p t i c a l of the c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e o f d i r e c t t a x a t i o n .  Of N a t a l he s a i d t h a t " b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the n a t i v e s cannot be expected w h i l e the Colony i s so k e p t i n c h i l d h o o d " . The  r e s t of h i s argument can be expressed  77  i n three basic  b e l i e f s - that E n g l i s h colonies could only t h r i v e with E n g l i s h 78  freedom;'  t h a t Crown c o l o n i e s were not e x t e n s i o n s of Empire,  but merely o c c u p a t i o n s  f o r use;  t h a t i t was n e i t h e r  necessary  nor p o s s i b l e t o attempt t o c i v i l i z e i n d i g e n o u s  peoples.  Adderley's  that h i s p o l i c y  most damaging c r i t i c i s m of Grey was  f a l t e r e d between the o n l y two p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n South A f r i c a c o n t r o l of n a t i v e p e o p l e s through t h e i r c h i e f s o r the d e s t r u c t ion is).  of the c h i e f s and t r i b e s a l t o g e t h e r , ^ ^ ( a s i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t Adderley  was  r i g h t - a l t h o u g h as we have seen Grey's  p o l i c y had been o b s t r u c t e d by Shepstone - and i t was t h a t was  to c o n t i n u e i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  work of a c o l o n i a l l a b o u r p o l i c y was  a faltering  The  formed i n the  shifting  sands o f the c o n f l i c t between the elements symbolized and  ground-  by Grey  Adderley. L a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o l o n i a l a t t i t u d e s towards l a b o u r  r e f l e c t e d a l l the c o n f l i c t s enumerated above:  humanitarianism  o r severe p a t e r n a l i s m , f o r c e d l a b o u r or f r e e l a b o u r supplemented by itomi grant i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r , d i r e c t s t i m u l a n t s or i n d i r e c t s t i m u l a n t s , r e s e r v e s or no r e s e r v e s , maintenance of t r i b e s or d e s t r u c t i o n of t r i b e s , i m p e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or c o l o n i a l freedom.  And  s u f f u s i n g a l l were n o t i o n s of the d i g n i t y of  l a b o u r , of l a b o u r as a g r e a t c i v i l i s i n g f o r c e , of l a b o u r  as  k9 the key t o economic p r o g r e s s , as the p r i n c i p a l prop o f an imperial policy.  These i d e a s and these c o n f l i c t s had  their  g r e a t e s t e x p r e s s i o n i n South A f r i c a , and were passed on, as w i l l be seen, i n p a r t i c u l a r l y acute form t o Rhodesia.  50  FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER 1. 1  I n h i s speech on Fox's E a s t I n d i a B i l l , Dec. 1, 1783? quoted i n G.R. M e l l o r , B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l T r u s t e e s h i p , 1 7 8 3 - 1 8 5 0 , (London, 1 9 5 D , p.22.  2  The impeachment o f Warren H a s t i n g s , May 2 8 , 1794.  3  John M o r l e y , Burke (London, 1 8 8 8 ) ,  4  Quoted i n I.M. Cumpston, I n d i a n s Overseas i n B r i t i s h T e r r i t o r i e s , 1 8 3 4 - 1 8 5 4 , (London, 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 2 .  5  Mellor,  6  S i r James Stephen, 1 7 8 9 - 1 8 5 9 , son o f James Stephen, a b o l i t i o n i s t but o t h e r w i s e Tory d i e - h a r d ; c a l l e d t o b a r , 1 8 1 1 ; l e g a l a d v i s e r t o the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1813-1836; Permanent Under S e c r e t a r y , 1 8 3 6 - 1 8 4 7 ; R e g i u s P r o f e s s o r o f Modern H i s t o r y a t Cambridge, 1849-  7  Edward F a i r f i e l d , 1 8 4 5 - 1 8 9 7 , a s s i s t a n t under s e c r e t a r y , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1 8 9 2 - 1 8 9 7 ; p r i n c i p a l a s s i s t a n t under s e c r e t a r y , 1897. H i s c o m p l i c i t y i n the Jameson R a i d i s w e l l known, and i s amply evidenced i n the s o - c a l l e d " m i s s i n g t e l e g r a m s " p r i n t e d i n J.G; L o c k h a r t & C M . Woodhouse, Rhodes (London, 1 9 6 3 ) , appendix.  8  E x t r a c t p r i n t e d i n George Bennett, The Concept o f Empire, Burke t o A t t l e e , 1774-1947 (London, 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 1 3 9 - 1 4 0 .  9  " I was i n the E a s t End o f London y e s t e r d a y and a t t e n d e d a meeting o f t h e unemployed. I l i s t e n e d t o the w i l d speeches, which were j u s t a c r y f o r 'breadi bread!' and on my way home I pondered over the scene and I became more than e v e r c o n v i n c e d o f the importance o f i m p e r i a l i s m . . . . My c h e r i s h e d i d e a i s a s o l u t i o n f o r the s o c i a l problem, i . e . , i n o r d e r t o save the 4 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom from a b l o o d y c i v i l war, we c o l o n i a l s t a t e smen must a c q u i r e new l a n d s t o s e t t l e the s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n , t o p r o v i d e new markets f o r the goods produced i n the f a c t o r i e s and mines. The Empire, as I have always s a i d , i s a bread and b u t t e r q u e s t i o n . I f you want t o a v o i d c i v i l war, you must become i m p e r i a l i s t s . " Quoted i n V . I . L e n i n ' s I m p e r i a l i s m , the H i g h e s t Stage o f C a p i t a l i s m (Moscow, 1968), p.74. A l s o i n Bernard Semmel",. I m p e r i a l i s m and S o c i a l Reform (London, i 9 6 0 ) , p.16.  p.187.  op.cit.  ;  10  F r a s e r ' s Magazine, December, 1 8 4 9 .  51  11  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e monogenesis and p o l y g e n e s i s arguments, see C u r t i n , o p . c i t .  12  Thomas A r n o l d , I n a u g u r a l L e c t u r e H i s t o r y , (Oxford, 1 8 4 1 ) .  13  See Semmel, o p . c i t . , c h a p t e r I I I f o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the S o c i a l Darwinism o f K i d d and Pearson.  14  See p a r t i c u l a r l y Benjamin Kidd's-The C o n t r o l o f t h e T r o p i c s , (New York, 1 8 9 8 ) .  15  K a r l Pearson's i d e a s on " S o c i a l i s m and N a t u r a l S e l e c t i o n " and on e u g e n i c s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n a l a r g e number o f works. See p a r t i c u l a r l y The Grammar o f S c i e n c e , (London, 1 9 0 0 ) .  16  A l f r e d M i l n e r , 1 8 5 4 - 1 9 2 5 , educ. Tubingen, K i n g ' s C o l l e g e , London, and B a l l i o l C o l l e g e , Oxford; c a l l e d t o bar, 1 8 8 1 ; a s s i s t a n t e d i t o r o f P a l l M a l l G a z e t t e under Stead, 1 8 8 3 ; j o i n t s e c r e t a r y o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n S o c i e t y i n Whitechapel; p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y o f Goschen, C h a n c e l l o r o f t h e Exchequer, 1 8 8 4 - 1 8 8 9 ; d i r e c t o r g e n e r a l o f accounts i n Egypt, l 8 o 9 - l 8 9 2 ; chairman o f Board o f I n l a n d Revenue, 1892-1897; High Commissioner i n South A f r i c a and Governor o f Cape ( L a t e r o f T r a n s v a a l ) , 1 8 9 7 - 1 9 0 5 ; Colonial Secretary, 1919-1921.  17  Matthew A r n o l d , C u l t u r e and Anarchy, (London, 1 8 6 9 ) .  18  L o c k h a r t & Woodhouse, o p . c i t . , p.68, the Rhodes q u o t a t i o n and t h e D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l Biography f o r the M i l n e r ( i t was a d i a r y e n t r y ) . See a l s o , C e c i l Headlam, The M i l n e r Papers (2 v o l s . , London, 1 9 3 3 ) .  19  Herman M e r i v a l e , 1806-1874, educ. O r i e l and T r i n i t y C o l l e g e s , Oxford; c a l l e d t o b a r , 1 8 3 2 ; P r o f e s s o r o f P o l i t i c a l Economy a t O x f o r d , 1837-1847; a s s i s t a n t under s e c r e t a r y , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1847; permanent under s e c r e t a r y , 1848-1859; permanent under s e c r e t a r y , I n d i a O f f i c e , 1859.  20  The r e c e n t upsurge i n i n t e r e s t i n C l t i c h i s t o r y and archaeology i s i n t e r e s t i n g h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l l y . It d a t e s e n t i r e l y from t h e d i s c r e d i t i n g o f t h e exaggerated views o f Saxon d e s t i n y .  21  T h i s i n c i d e n t i s mentioned i n t h e D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y e n t r y on E y r e .  on the Study o f Modern •  e  52 22  B e r n a r d P o r t e r , C r i t i c s o f Empire (London, 1 9 6 8 ) .  23  F o r t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n c i d e n t , see K e i t h F e l l i n g , L i f e o f N e v i l l e Chamberlain, (London, 1 9 4 4 ) , p p . 1 7 - 3 1 .  24  v i d . i n f . , Chapter 2 , pp.82-84.  25  E y r e ' s b r u t a l s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e Jamaican i n s u r r e c t i o n o f 1865 i s well-known. F o r y e a r s a f t e r h i s r e c a l l he was hounded by the h u m a n i t a r i a n J a m a i c a Committee, whom C a r l y l e c a l l e d "a k n o t o f n i g g e r p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s " .  26  L e w i s Mumford, The Myth o f t h e Machine  27  S i r Henry George Grey, V i s c o u n t Howick, t h i r d E a r l Grey, 1802-1894; educ. T r i n i t y , Cambridge; e n t e r e d House o f Commons as Whig, 1 8 2 6 ; p a r l i a m e n t a r y under s e c r e t a r y f o r the c o l o n i e s , 1831-1833; s e c r e t a r y f o r war, 1 8 3 5 - 1 8 3 9 ; s e c r e t a r y o f s t a t e f o r the c o l o n i e s , 1 8 4 6 - 1 8 5 2 .  28  Sydney O l i v i e r , f i r s t Baron, 1 8 5 9 - 1 9 4 3 ; educ. Corpus C h r i s t i , Oxford; entered C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1882; Fabian, 1885; • honourary s e c r e t a r y o f the F a b i a n s , 1 8 8 6 - 1 8 8 9 ; C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , B r i t i s h Honduras, 1 8 9 0 - 1 8 9 1 ; Auditor G e n e r a l , Leeward I s l a n d s , 1 8 9 5 - 1 8 9 6 ; Colonial Secretary, Jamaica, 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 0 4 ; Governor o f Jamaica, 1.907-1913; permanent under s e c r e t a r y t o t h e Board o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s , 1913-1917; a s s i s t a n t c o m p t r o l l e r and a u d i t o r of t h e exchequer, 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 2 0 ; Secretary of State f o r India, 1924.  29  F o r a comment on R o b e r t W i l l i a m Hay see t h e A u t o b i o g r a p h y o f S i r Henry T a y l o r , p.231.  30  Herman M e r i v a l e , L e c t u r e s on C o l o n i z a t i o n and C o l o n i e s , (London, 1 8 4 1 ) , 2 v o l s .  31  Merivale,.op.cit., Vol. I I , p . l 8 l .  32  i b i d . , p.201.  33  ibid.,  34  A r n o l d , o p . c i t . , p.39.  35  J.A. Hobson, I m p e r i a l i s m ; a Study,(London, 1 9 0 2 ) , Chapter 4 , I m p e r i a l i s m and Lower. Races.  36  Sydney O l i v i e r , White C a p i t a l and C o l o u r e d Labour, 1 9 0 6 ) , passim.  37  M e r i v a l e , L e c t u r e s X V I I I and XIX.  38  M e r i v a l e , L e c t u r e X V I I , p.176.  (New York, 1 9 6 7 ) .  p.l8l.  (London,  53 39  M e r i y a l e , Lecture X V I I I , pp.153-154.  40  P a u l Knaplund, S i r James Stephen and t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l System, (Madison, 1 9 5 3 ) , p.20.  41  S i r Henry T a y l o r , 1 8 0 0 - 1 8 8 6 ; educ. by h i s f a t h e r , an ardent a d m i r e r o f Godwin; e n t e r e d C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1824; r e f u s e d o f f e r t o succeed Staphen, 1 8 4 7 ; r e s p o n s i b l e to the s e c r e t a r y o f s t a t e a l o n e , 1 8 5 9 .  42  T a y l o r , o p . c i t . , p. 3if.  43  T a y l o r t o E l l i o t , June 1 2 , 1868 i n Edward Dowden ( e d . ) , The Correspondence o f S i r Henry T a y l o r (London, 1 8 8 8 ) , pp.284-285* Two more i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e mind o f T a y l o r - and i n d e e d i n t o t h e V i c t o r i a n mind - a r i s e i n two o t h e r l e t t e r s i n the same volume. I n one, p.302, he argues (1870) t h a t c o r p o r a l punishment does n o t b r u t a l i s e the p u b l i c mind, but i n s t e a d p r o v i d e s i t w i t h a sense of moral s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n another l e t t e r , p.396, he a t t a c k s vehemently ( 1 8 8 1 ) t h e p r a c t i c e o f v i v i s e c t i o n .  44  T a y l o r , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p.265.  45  ibid.,  46  i b i d . , pp.127-129.  47  But he wished t o throw o f f Canada, t h e damnosa h e r e d i t a s , a l t o g e t h e r , because o f the dangers o f war w i t h t h e U n i t e d States. i b i d . , p.234. See a l s o T a y l o r t o E a r l Grey, May 6, 1 8 5 2 , Correspondence, p p . 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 .  48  T a y l o r , Correspondence, p.199.  49  T a y l o r , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p.236.  50  i b i d . , p.231. T h i s was i n r e p l y t o a l e t t e r from M e r i v a l e who had e x p r e s s e d "American p a r t i a l i t i e s " , p r e f e r r i n g an o r g a n i s a t i o n c o n s t r u c t e d to an o r g a n i s a t i o n c o n s t r u c t i v e l y evolved.  51  ibid.,  p.222.  52  ibid.,  p.223.  53  S i r F r e d e r i c Rogers, L o r d B l a c h f o r d , 1 8 1 1 - 1 8 8 9 ; educ. a t O r i e l , O x f o r d ; f r i e n d and p u p i l o f Newman and H u r r e l l Froude; s y m p a t h e t i c t o t r a c t a r i a n movement; l e a d e r w r i t e r on the Times;. h e l p e d t o found t h e G u a r d i a n , 1 8 4 6 ; Commi s s i o n e r f o r Emigration,; mission to P a r i s re. indentured labour, 1858-1859; permanent under s e c r e t a r y a t t h e Colonial O f f i c e , 1860-1871.  p.127.  54  54  S i r Robert George Wyndham H e r b e r t , 1 8 3 1 - 1 9 0 5 , grandson of F i r s t E a r l o f Carnarvon; educ. B a l l i o l ; private-, s e c r e t a r y t o W.E. G l a d s t o n e , 1 8 5 5 ; Colonial Secretary, Queensland, 1 8 5 8 ; a s s i s t a n t s e c r e t a r y , Board o f Trade, 1868; a s s i s t a n t under s e c r e t a r y , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1870-; permanent under s e c r e t a r y , 1 8 7 1 - 1 8 9 2 .  55  S i r Robert Meade, 1 8 3 5 - 1 8 9 8 , Colonial O f f i c e , 1892-1897.  56  F o r h i s p r o p o s a l s on E m a n c i p a t i o n , see Henry George, t h i r d E a r l Grey, The C o l o n i a l P o l i c y o f L o r d John R u s s e l l ' s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (London, 1 8 5 3 ) , V o l . I , p.76, T a y l o r , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p.125, and W.P. M o r r e l l , The C o l o n i a l P o l i c y o f P e e l and R u s s e l l , (Oxford, 1 9 3 0 ) , p.201.  57  Grey, o p . c i t . , V o l . I I , p.260.  58  C.O. 9 6 / 1 8 .  59  I b i d . , p.248.  60  Grey, o p . c i t . , V o l . I , p . 8 l .  61  Grey, o p . c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 2 0 4 .  62  I b i d . , p.253.  63  P r i n t e d as an appendix t o Grey, o p . c i t . , V o l . I I , pp.494-  64  A good d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s i s i n E p i c W i l l i a m s , and S l a v e r y , (Chapel H i l l , 1 9 4 4 ) .  65  F o r I n d i a n i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r , see Cumpston, o p . c i t . , M e l l o r , o p . c i t . , and M o r r e l l , o p . c i t .  66  P.C. Campbell, Chinese C o o l i e ••Emigration t o C o u n t r i e s w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h Empire, (London, 1 9 2 3 ) . - •  67  Cumpston, o p . c i t . , p p . 1 9 & 2 2 .  68  Grey, o p . c i t . , V o l . I , p p . 7 1 - 7 5 . Grey t o Governor Gomm o f M a u r i t i u s , Sept. 2 9 , 1 8 4 6 . " I am o f o p i n i o n t h a t , i n s t e a d o f e n c o u r a g i n g the I n d i a n l a b o u r e r s t o e n t e r , b e f o r e they a r r i v e a t M a u r i t i u s , i n t o contracts of labour f o r several years f o r p a r t i c u l a r employers, and then endeavouring by s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s to e n f o r c e the performance o f these c o n t r a c t s , under  permanent under  secretary,  Quoted i n C u r t i n , o p . c i t . , p.454.  508.  Capitalism  55  c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n which i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t o f the i m m i g r a n t s t o break them; the t r u e p o l i c y would be to adopt r e g u l a t i o n s , o f which the e f f e c t would be, to make i t the d e c i d e d and o b v i o u s i n t e r e s t o f the i m m i g r a n t s t o work s t e a d i l y and i n d u s t r i o u s l y f o r the same employers f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time " He goes on to connect h i s i d e a s f o r M a u r i t i u s w i t h h i s p r o p o s a l s f o r immediate e m a n c i p a t i o n and t a x a t i o n o f the s l a v e s of 1 8 3 3 . 69  Two l o a n s were o f f e r e d by the i m p e r i a l government one o f £ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o B r i t i s h Guiana and T r i n i d a d i n 1846, and a n o t h e r o f £ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o the West I n d i e s i n 1848. Both Grey and R u s s e l l r e g a r d e d a i d e d immigra t i o n as a q u i d pro quo f o r the e q u a l i s a t i o n o f the sugar d u t i e s .  70  Cumpston, o p . c i t . ,  71  G.E. M a r i n d i n ( e d . ) , L e t t e r s o f F r e d e r i c Rogers, L o r d B l a c h f o r d , (London, 1 8 9 6 ) , p.171.  72  v i d . i n f . , pp. 2 4 5 - 2 5 2 .  73  K.G. Tregonning, Under C h a r t e r e d Company R u l e , N o r t h Borneo, 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 4 6 , ( S i n g a p o r e , 1 9 5 8 ) . P.154. The A s s y r i a n s e v e n t u a l l y went t o B r i t i s h GUiana. I am p u r p o s e l y b l u r r i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n between i n d e n t u r e d , l a b o u r and permanent m i g r a n t l a b o u r because i t was so often blurred i n practice. Only the T r a n s v a a l Chinese o p e r a t i o n was c a r r i e d out w i t h such thoroughness ( m a i n l y by c o n f i n i n g the Chinese to compounds) t h a t t h e r e was a hundred per cent r e t u r n .  74  I n 1903, Joseph Chamberlain suggested Uganda t o the J e w i s h l e a d e r , H e r z l , as a p l a c e of s e t t l e m e n t to which he c o u l d l e a d the Jews from the p e r s e c u t i o n o f E a s t e r n Europe.  75  E.H.H. A r c h i b a l d , T r a v e l l e r s by Sea, (London, H.M.S.O., 1 9 6 2 ) , p.27. Note t h a t m i g r a n t l a b o u r e r s were r e g a r d e d and p r i c e d as f r e i g h t .  76  Hansard, 3 r d . s e r i e s V o l . CXVI, 1851, pp.273-275. Roebuck advocated t h a t c o l o n i s t s o f s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e ought t o be p l a n t e d i n K a f f r a r i a . To c r i e s o f NOi NOJ from members he s a i d , " I t was absurd t o say you c o u l d a t t a i n the end w i t h o u t i n c u r r i n g the consequences...... The end j u s t i f i e s the means."  77  Adderley, o p . c i t . ,  p.89.  p.186.  P e e l i n 1849 had d e s c r i b e d t h i s reverence f o r the c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t u r e as "a h i g h and haughty s p i r i t o f l i b e r t y " . T a y l o r (Autobiography, p.269) d e s c r i b e d t h i s sentiment as p r e p o s t e r o u s . T a y l o r had no p a t i e n c e w i t h West Indian c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . See M o r r e l l , o p . c i t . , p.286. When P a l m e r s t o n t u r n e d out R u s s e l l ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1852, A d d e r l e y was w a i t i n g w i t h a motion o f censure on the government's c o l o n i a l p o l i c y and was c o n f i d e n t o f v i c t o r y . Palmers t o n f o r e s t a l l e d him. Grey was s o r r y he had no chance of defending himself.  57 CHAPTER 2 THE SOUTH AFRICAN BACKGROUND I t i s impossible to i n t e r p r e t nineteenth century  British  h i s t o r y i n terms o f an o s c i l l a t i o n i n p o l i c y o f two a l t e r n a t i n g p a r t i e s i n power.  C e r t a i n l y from the 1860s, i t i s n o t  p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r a p r o - i m p e r i a l p a r t y ranged a g a i n s t an a n t i - i m p e r i a l one.^  There were i m p o r t a n t  differences i n  p o l i c y , such as t h e s u c c e s s i v e attempts a t f e d e r a t i o n i n South A f r i c a , c u l m i n a t i n g i n K i m b e r l e y B o e r s ) r e v e r s i n g Carnarvon.  ( w i t h h e l p from t h e  I n I n d i a , the s u c c e s s i v e  v i c e r o y a l t i e s o f L y t t o n , Ripon, D u f f e r i n and Lansdowne exhibited considerable reversals of policy.  But what i s  more remarkable i s the accommodation between the p a r t i e s . Each c h a r t e r e d two i m p e r i a l companies.  N e i t h e r a Tory l i k e  Curzon n o r a Whig l i k e M i n t o c o u l d c o n s i d e r c e d i n g any r e a l power t o I n d i a n s .  I n South A f r i c a , Rhodes, w h i l e always  d i s t r u s t i n g " t h e i m p e r i a l f a c t o r " , found he c o u l d work almost equally happily with a L i b e r a l I m p e r i a l i s t or a Unionist government.  When Campbell-Bannerman s e t out t o r e v e r s e  U n i o n i s t p o l i c y i n South A f r i c a , he was not p u r s u i n g a l i t t l e E n g l a n d e r p o l i c y , but s i m p l y a d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f Empire. A l l t h i s s e r v e d t o obscure the importance o f the n a t i v e peoples.  I n I n d i a Congress was n o t g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t n o t i c e :  Curzon was prophesying  i t s t o t a l d o w n f a l l a t t h e opening o f  the c e n t u r y when h i s own a c t s - and p a r t i c u l a r l y the P a r t i t i o n  58  o f Bengal - would p r o v i d e i t w i t h e f f e c t i v e r a l l y i n g ground.^ I n South A f r i c a the problems of Bantu, Boer and B r i t o n e s c a l a t e d , but i t was  the B o e r - B r i t o n  exploded, and i n d o i n g so served problem.  The  confrontation  that  to obscure the Bantu  f a c t t h a t A f r i c a n s remained so d o c i l e w h i l e  Europeans fought each o t h e r , u n f o r t u n a t e l y  fostered  impression  unwillingness  - a i d e d too by t h e i r subsequent  to go to work  r  t h a t they were of l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l  the  import-  ance. •." The  L i b e r a l Government swept to power i n 1906  triumph of d e v o l u t i o n .  I n 1906  the  B a l f o u r r e v e a l e d once more  t h a t the o p p o s i t i o n to i m p e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y had cut a c r o s s p a r t y l i n e s .  saw  always  He argued t h a t  I f any one Colony i n s i s t e d upon e n s l a v i n g i t s hewers o f wood and drawers of water, i t would have a p e r f e c t r i g h t to do so, and to r e q u e s t Great B r i t a i n or the c o l o n i e s , i f they i n t e r f e r e d , to mind t h e i r own b u s i n e s s , as i t was o n l y ^ e x e r c i s i n g i t s r i g h t of self-government. B a l f o u r was  p r o v i d i n g a h y p o t h e t i c a l case t h a t few i n t h a t  p e r i o d b e l i e v e d would ever come about. w r i t i n g i n 1907,  J . Ramsay MacDonald,  argued i n f a v o u r o f South A f r i c a n  Federation  because he b e l i e v e d t h a t the Cape would never g i v e up i t s " n a t i v e p o l i c y " and white p o p u l a t i o n  t h a t w i t h f e d e r a t i o n , the s t a t e and i t s  would be more c i v i l i z e d , and would u l t i m a t e l y  extend the Cape p o l i c y to the r e s t o f the c o u n t r y . ^ h e l p s to e x p l a i n why  W.P.  This  S c h r e i n e r , no l e s s than a former  59  Cape p r e m i e r , who saw t h e dangers and l e d a d e l e g a t i o n t o 7 r e v e a l them, was i g n o r e d .  And so the L i b e r a l P a r t y , remem-  b e r i n g i t s p a s t c o l o n i a l r a d i c a l i s m , rushed i n t o South A f r i c a n devolution.  W h i l e i t s l e f t hand encouraged t h e r i s e o f  democracy and s o c i a l j u s t i c e a t home, i t s r i g h t hand d e n i e d them abroad. What t h e Boer War had obscured t o the L i b e r a l Government, to B a l f o u r and t o MacDonald,  was Adam Smith's concept o f t h e  c o n f l i c t between defence and opulence.  T h i s c o n f l i c t has  o  been seen  as t h e key t o a l l South A f r i c a n l a b o u r p o l i c y , and  i t has never been more o b v i o u s than i n the p r e s e n t day. f i r s t the problem o f defence was e x t e r n a l .  At  H o t t e n t o t s and  Bushmen were never seen as a r e a l defence problem.  They  s i m p l y p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r evidence f o r the " a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s " laws o f the disappearance o f the savage r a c e s .  I t i s ironic  t h a t t h e Cape 4 9 t h Ordinance o f 1828 p e r m i t t e d t h e e n t r y o f Bantu t o work, w h i l e the more c e l e b r a t e d 5 0 t h o f the same y e a r gave the H o t t e n t o t s e q u a l i t y b e f o r e the law.  The  a r r i v a l o f t h e Bantu to work combined w i t h t h e a n n e x a t i o n s of N a t a l and B r i t i s h K a f f r a r i a t u r n e d the e x t e r n a l defence o f the  Boer commandoes i n t o an i n t e r n a l one.  i t s magnitude  t o be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d , j u s t as the Ehodesian  p i o n e e r s a r r i v i n g i n Mashonaland the  I t took time f o r  i n 1890 g r o s s l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d  A f r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n because o f t h e s c a t t e r e d n a t u r e o f the  s m a l l Shoha s e t t l e m e n t s .  60  Grey's N a t a l p o l i c y has a l r e a d y been reviewed wider i m p e r i a l context.  in its  I t i s now p o s s i b l e t o add a  f r e s h c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e p o l i c y o f s m a l l r e s e r v e s and a s s i m i l a t i o n - defence.  S m a l l s c a t t e r e d l o c a t i o n s would  i n e v i t a b l y break up the t r i b e s .  I n the f u t u r e the p o l i c y  of a s s i m i l a t i o n would proceed s i d e - b y - s i d e w i t h measures.  defensive  I n 1855 S i r George Grey i n h i s opening address  to t h e Cape P a r l i a m e n t  announced t h a t the A f r i c a n s were to  become a p a r t o f o u r s e l v e s , w i t h a common f a i t h and common i n t e r e s t s , u s e f u l s e r v a n t s , consumers o f o u r goods, c o n t r i b u t o r s t o our revenue; i n s h o r t a source o f s t r e n g t h and w e a l t h t o t h i s c o l o n y , such as Providence designed them t o be.9 Yet a t t h e same time d e f e n s i v e r e s t r i c t i o n s were p l a c e d on the m o b i l i t y o f A f r i c a n l a b o u r .  I n 1853 t h e r i g h t o f t a k i n g  out a pass t o v i s i t a f r i e n d was withdrawn.  I n 1856 a  c e n t r a l o f f i c e .of r e g i s t r a t i o n was t o be s e t up a t K i n g williamstown. immigration.  I n 1838 s i x a c t s were passed t o c o n t r o l One v e r y r e v e a l i n g a c t was d e s c r i b e d as "An  a c t f o r p r e v e n t i n g C o l o n i a l F i n g o e s and c e r t a i n o t h e r  subjects  of h e r M a j e s t y / " t h e F i n g o e s were a Bantu t r i b e from t h e N o r t h E a s t Cape7 from b e i n g mistaken f o r K a f i r s , and thereby and a g g r i e v e d " .  As the T r a n s k e i a n  harassed  t e r r i t o r i e s were added t o  the Cape, t h e pass laws f o r immigrants ceased t o a p p l y , and i n s t e a d t h e i r A f r i c a n i n h a b i t a n t s came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n  61 o f t h e Masters  and S e r v a n t s Laws.  The t r a d i t i o n o f Masters  and S e r v a n t s l e g i s l a t i o n making breach o f c i v i l c o n t r a c t s a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 8 5 6 , based on an e a r l i e r M a s t e r s , S e r v a n t s and A p p r e n t i c e s Ordinance o f 1 8 4 1 . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h i s s o r t o f d e f e n s i v e  legis-  l a t i o n was a l s o t h e norm i n B r i t a i n f o r most o f the n i n e t e e n t h century. 1825,  The combination  laws may have been r e p e a l e d i n  b u t any a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e a narrow a r e a o f wage and hours  negotiations s t i l l carried criminal l i a b i l i t y . phrase M a s t e r s  The v e r y  and S e r v a n t s was n o t abandoned i n B r i t a i n  the 1875 Employers and Workmen A c t .  until  While t h e problems a r e  o b v i o u s l y v e r y d i f f e r e n t , t h e motives behind t h e l e g i s l a t i o n were by no means d i s s i m i l a r .  The f a c t t h a t domestic and  c o l o n i a l p o l i c y diverged widely i n the t w e n t i e t h century help to c o n f i r m t h e t h e s i s t h a t " I m p e r i a l i s m and t h e R i s e o f Labour" (to  quote the t i t l e o f H a l e v y ' s  W h i l e Labour sentiment  study) were i n c o m p a t i b l e .  was o f t e n i m p e r i a l i s t - w i t n e s s some  o f t h e F a b i a n s , and J.H. Thomas's c e l e b r a t e d remark t o the o f f i c i a l s o f t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , "I'm here t o see t h e r e ' s no mucking about w i t h t h e B r i t i s h Empire""^- i t p r o v i d e d an example a t home t h a t was not l o s t on the n a t i o n a l i s t s abroad. From t h e l 8 5 0 ' s onwards, as t h e demand f o r l a b o u r i n South A f r i c a i n c r e a s e d , l e g i s l a t i o n had t o be a compromise between defence and the "motive t o e x e r t i o n " . this well.  Natal reveals  I n 1854 t h e N a t a l N a t i v e A f f a i r s Commission  advocated  an i n c r e a s e i n t a x , r e d u c t i o n i n the s i z e of l o c a t i o n s  and exemptions from t a x f o r l a b o u r e r s .  I n 1855  an Ordinance  forbade A f r i c a n s from s q u a t t i n g on Crown o r p r i v a t e l a n d ; 1857  A f r i c a n s i n employment were made exempt from t a x ;  t a x was not r a i s e d from Grey's f i g u r e u n t i l 1875 up to f o u r t e e n s h i l l i n g s . between i 8 6 0 and 1866. 1874,  in  but the  when i t went  I n d e n t u r e d I n d i a n s were i n t r o d u c e d There was more I n d i a n i m m i g r a t i o n from  and I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s rose r a p i d l y u n t i l the  o f the c e n t u r y .  Meanwhile i n the T r a n s v a a l l a b o u r was  by the Boers as a t r i b u t e to conquerors.  end  regarded  Here i n the N a t a l  l e g i s l a t i o n and the T r a n s v a a l a t t i t u d e s we a l r e a d y have the precedents  f o r the Rhodesian e x p e r i e n c e .  And a l l t h i s b e f o r e  the appearance of the l a r g e c a p i t a l i s t u n d e r t a k i n g s o f the diamond and g o l d mines. The mines are o n l y o f i n t e r e s t to t h i s t h e s i s i n s o f a r as they p r o v i d e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r Rhodesia l a t e r i n the c e n t u r y . I n a sense the Rhodesian e x p e r i e n c e was more a k i n to t h a t i n South A f r i c a b e f o r e the d i s c o v e r i e s o f m i n e r a l w e a l t h , f o r l a b o u r deployment i n Rhodesia was always extremely s c a t t e r e d , and never h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d as i n -Kimberley o r on the Rand. With the growth of the mines however, we do have a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n the importance  of two f a c t o r s .  F i r s t l y , wants  became a g r e a t e r s t i m u l a n t to l a b o u r - c h i e f s sent out men  " t o earn a gun".  ever wider.  Secondly,  the r e c r u i t i n g net was  A t a b l e " ^ o f new r e g i s t r a t i o n s at the  their cast  Kimberley  63  and de Beers Mines i n 1884  best r e v e a l s t h i s :  Shangaans B r i t i s h Basutos Sekukuni Basutos Zulus Portuguese Z u l u s Bakhatlas Matabele Colonials Bakwenas Batlapings Swazis Bamangwatos Barolongs T r a n s v a a l Basutos Others  681 195 2215 813 446  36 120 375 33 277 11 56 115 47.  A l r e a d y the l a b o u r network s t r e t c h e d throughout Southern A f r i c a , i n t o the f u r t h e s t c o r n e r s of Bechuanaland, i n t o  the  South West o f what was  into  Mozambique.  The  to become Southern Rhodesia, and  opening of the g o l d mines c a s t the net even  f u r t h e r , and i n t r o d u c e d the p r a c t i c e of o r g a n i s e d  recruitment.  As the need f o r l a b o u r on r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n and  the  development o f towns i n c r e a s e d , i n c r e a s i n g l y severe measures were taken to ensure t h a t s q u a t t i n g on Crown l a n d was not comfortable  activity.  I n 1869> Cape Colony imposed a r e n t of  ten s h i l l i n g s per hut on Crown l a n d . pound per hut was was  designed  a  levied i n Natal.  I n 1884, The 1876  a r e n t of  one  Cape L o c a t i o n A c t  a g a i n s t the s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e on p r i v a t e l a n d .  A  t a x was imposed on landowners f o r t e n a n t s not i n bona f i d e employment.  . I n 1880,  the b r i e f B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the  T r a n s v a a l r e p e a l e d the d i f f e r e n t i a l Boer t a x a t i o n , and imposed a uniform  t a x of ten s h i l l i n g s .  These were the s t i m u l a n t s ,  but the c o n t i n u i n g need f o r defence i s r e v e a l e d i n the vagrancy law o f 1879  strict  at the Cape, which g r e a t l y d i s c o u r a g e d  the movement o f A f r i c a n s , and t h e r e f o r e impeded t h e i r  efforts  to f i n d work. I n the l 8 9 0 ' s the l a b o u r t h i r s t of the g o l d mines of the Rand saw the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  I n 1893  ment and d i s t r i b u t i o n . was  appointed;  s e t up;  i n 1895  in  I 8 9 6  a N a t i v e Labour Commissioner  a N a t i v e Labour Supply A s s o c i a t i o n was  r e c r u i t m e n t i n Portuguese E a s t A f r i c a  successfully centralised; combinations  of greater organisation i n r e c r u i t -  i n l889> 1896  and 1897  o f employers t o reduce wages;  was  t h e r e were  and the 1895  pass  law by which the employer kept the pass d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f s e r v i c e was  designed  to p l a y a v i t a l r o l e . 1895  against desertions.  Taxation  continued  A hut t a x l e v i e d i n the T r a n s v a a l i n I n I 8 9 8 t h e r e was  was i n e f f e c t a p o l l t a x .  a  new  d e p a r t u r e i n p o l i c y when these t a x e s were l e v i e d f o r the time i n towns.  first,  The Orange Free S t a t e a l r e a d y had a p o l l  o f t e n s h i l l i n g s , and i n 1893  and I898 enacted  tax  s q u a t t e r s laws  l i m i t i n g s q u a t t e r s to f i v e f a m i l i e s on p r i v a t e l a n d .  Despite  the o r g a n i s a t i o n o f l a b o u r r e c r u i t i n g , the e v i l s of p r i v a t e t o u t i n g c o n t i n u e d , and the d i s p u t e between the farmers and  the  m i n i n g community - which w i l l become v e r y f a m i l i a r i n R h o d e s i a became i n c r e a s i n g l y a c e r b i c as demand i n c r e a s e d . I n the Cape the L o c a t i o n Law  was  amended i n 1892,  increasing  the t a x on landowners to one pound f o r every male A f r i c a n not  65  i n employment. I n 1894  Many were t u r n e d o f f the l a n d as a r e s u l t .  the Glen Grey A c t o f the Cape widened the  dependence o f l a b o u r on t a x a t i o n .  A t a x of ten  explicit shillings  was imposed on a l l those not i n work - l a b o u r f o r t h r e e months p r o v i d e d exemption f o r a y e a r ;  continuous labour f o r  t h r e e y e a r s gave exemption f o r l i f e .  The Act a l s o encouraged  A f r i c a n s to take up l a n d by q u i t - r e n t under the European system o f survey and i n d i v i d u a l t e n u r e , another attempted communalism.  a t t a c k on  Rhodes i n i n t r o d u c i n g the b i l l i n t o the Cape  P a r l i a m e n t openly a s s e r t e d t h a t i t was hoped the measure 12  would cause an improvement i n the l a b o u r s u p p l y .  In  fact  the l a b o u r t a x s e c t i o n s o f the Glen Grey A c t never worked and were r e p e a l e d e l e v e n y e a r s l a t e r , but the p h i l o s o p h y behind them i s i m p o r t a n t to subsequent South A f r i c a n and Rhodesian l a b o u r policy. A f t e r the Boer War, of labour.  The War  them at home;  had d i v e r t e d l a b o u r e r s elsewhere  encouraging  o r kept  the army had p a i d h i g h wages to s c o u t s , messengers,  l a b o u r e r s d u r i n g the War, for a while;  South A f r i c a e x p e r i e n c e d a d e a r t h  so p r o v i d i n g the means to s t a y at home  and the mine owners took t h e i r f i r s t s t e p towards l a b o u r by combining  to reduce wages.  I n 1904  the  Report o f the T r a n s v a a l Labour Commission" "^ r e v e a l e d the n a t 1  ure o f the debate i n the T r a n s v a a l m i n i n g community r e g a r d i n g the encouragement o f A f r i c a n l a b o u r o r i t s replacement European l a b o u r .  Defence has been s t r e s s e d as an  by  important  66 p a r t o f South A f r i c a n n a t i v e l a b o u r p o l i c y from i t s b e g i n n i n g s : we now f i n d an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n on t h i s theme.  In h i s  evidence b e f o r e the Commission one w i t n e s s , Rudd, s a i d Could Mr. K i d d r e p l a c e the 200,000 n a t i v e workers by 100,000 u n s k i l l e d w h i t e s , they would s i m p l y h o l d the Government o f the c o u n t r y i n the h o l l o w o f t h e i r hand. I p r e f e r t o see the more i n t e l l e c t u a l s e c t i o n o f t h e community at t h e helm The N a t i v e i s a t p r e s e n t , and I hope w i l l l o n g remain, a u s e f u l i n t e r m e d i a r y between t h e white employer and employee. ^ The A f r i c a n s were here seen as a b u f f e r between the c a p i t a l i s t s and t h e i r f e a r o f democracy.  I t was a q u e s t i o n o f  l e s s e r e v i l s - t h e S c y l l a and C h a r y b d i s o f South A f r i c a n policy. The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Chinese l a b o u r was the expedient adopted t o s o l v e the problem o f t h e r e f u s a l o f A f r i c a n s t o work and the r e f u s a l o f t h e mine owners t o use Europeans instead.  A t o t a l o f 60,000 Chinese a r r i v e d on the Rand  b e f o r e they were a l l r e t u r n e d by 1912.  The p r o j e c t h e l p e d  the U n i o n i s t Government t o i t s f a l l i n 1905; the attempted confinement o f so many Chinese i n compounds and the r e s u l t ant h i g h l y p u b l i c i s e d e v i l s o f gambling, male p r o s t i t u t i o n and v i o l e n c e h e l p e d t o d i s c r e d i t t h e whole system o f i n d e n t ured l a b o u r .  By t h i s time, however, the much-vaunted f r e e 15  l a b o u r market had been d e s t r o y e d .  A t a c r i t i c a l moment,  A f r i c a n l a b o u r had been undercut by t h e Chinese, who, a l t h o u g h p a i d more than A f r i c a n s , were o b l i g e d t o s t a y l o n g e r and were  67  more e f f e c t i v e l y under the owners' c o n t r o l .  I n South A f r i c a ,  Chinese i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r c o n f i r m e d an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n of migrant l a b o u r .  I n B r i t a i n , the Chinese l a b o u r i s s u e  was  seen not as an a t t a c k upon the i n t e r e s t o f A f r i c a n l a b o u r but as an a t t a c k upon the i n t e r e s t o f w h i t e l a b o u r , not so much as a h u m a n i t a r i a n i s s u e but 'as a c o n f l i c t between U n i o n i s t Imperi a l i s m and L i b e r a l I m p e r i a l i s m . With the growing power o f the European u n i o n s b e f o r e and a f t e r the F i r s t World War,  d e f e n s i v e p r o v i s i o n s loomed ever  l a r g e r i n South A f r i c a n l a b o u r p o l i c y , u n t i l to-day the N a t i o n a l i s t Government i s a t t e m p t i n g the w e l l - n i g h i m p o s s i b l e task of r e t u r n i n g A f r i c a n s to t h e i r Bantustans, g l o r i f i e d reserves.  . I n Adam Smith's c o n f l i c t of defence and opulence,  defence has become pre-eminent. F o r the sake o f u n i t y South A f r i c a n l a b o u r p o l i c y  has  been b r i e f l y r e v i e w e d o v e r some hundred y e a r s of i t s h i s t o r y . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d the Rhodesian e x p e r i e n c e w i t h out r e f e r e n c e to South A f r i c a .  Rhodesia's o r d i n a n c e s were  l a r g e l y based on those o f the Cape and of N a t a l , her a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were from South A f r i c a , the n a t i v e commissioners were i n v a r i a b l y from the N a t a l n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . High Commissioner  Under the  f o r South A f r i c a , R h o d e s i a was. t r e a t e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y as an e x t e n s i o n o f South A f r i c a ;  as the  b r a i n c h i l d of Rhodes t h i s was an i n e v i t a b l e mental a t t i t u d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y as f e d e r a t i o n o r union w i t h South A f r i c a  was  68  throughout the p r e - F i r s t World War ility.  p e r i o d a d i s t i n c t probab-  For the d u r a t i o n o f the C e n t r a l A f r i c a n  R h o d e s i a l o o k e d b r i e f l y N o r t h and E a s t .  In recent  the o l d o r i e n t a t i o n has r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f . the a t t i t u d e was  Federation, years  Although  uppermost, i t i s the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s  to e s t a b l i s h the d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n Rhodesia, and above a l l the n a t u r e o f the power e x e r c i s e d  by  the i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y over the B r i t i s h South A f r i c a Company. I n h i s evidence to the T r a n s v a a l  Labour Commission, S i r  Percy F i t z p a t r i c k s a i d I s t a r t e d w i t h and c l u n g to the b e l i e f t h a t we had an u n l i m i t e d supply ^ ~ o f l a b o u r _ 7 i n C e n t r a l A f r i c a i f we chose t o ~ e x t e n d our o r g a n i s a t i o n and i n c u r the expense, and I s e v e r a l times d i s c u s s e d w i t h him /""Rhodes^ "the p o s s i b i l i t y of pushing on tjhe Cape""of C a i r o r a i l w a y w i t h the o b j e c t o f p u s h i n g up the supply. ° The  push to the N o r t h has been seen as the s e a r c h  f o r a golden  E l d o r a d o , as a p u r s u i t f o r the f u r t h e r expansion o f the Saxon race. was  Here i s some e v i d e n c e - a t l e a s t t h a t another commodity  sought, a commodity r e q u i r e d to e x p l o i t the known r i c h e s  of K i m b e r l e y and  the Rand:  labour.  Labour r e c r u i t e r s were  a l r e a d y t r y i n g t h e i r l u c k i n the N o r t h from the 1870s.  They  were p a r t of the romantic but arduous p i o n e e r i n g i n C e n t r a l A f r i c a t h a t i n s p i r e d i n Rhodes and S i r Harry J o h n s t o n ^ t h e i r 1  dreams of the Cape to C a i r o l i n k . hunters,  These p i o n e e r s ,  missionaries,  e x p l o r e r s , had a g r e a t e f f e c t on the f o r m a t i o n  of  69 views on A f r i c a and A f r i c a n s , f o r t h e i r works had an extremely 18  wide and eager public.,  Undoubtedly the most p r e v a l e n t  view  o f t h e A f r i c a n t h a t emerged was the c h i l d view, an i d e a c u r r e n t and i n f l u e n t i a l from the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o the m i d - t w e n t i e t h .  There a r e a thousand p o s s i b l e  expressions  of t h i s , b u t t h a t o f Lugard i s e f f e c t i v e i n i t s s u c c i n c t n e s s and i n t e r e s t i n g as the o p i n i o n o f a g r e a t Governor.  To him  the A f r i c a n h o l d s the p o s i t i o n o f a l a t e born c h i l d i n t h e f a m i l y o f n a t i o n s , and must as y e t be s c h o o l e d i n the d i s c i p l i n e o f the nursery.1° Given n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n d i t i o n s i n A f r i c a and the exhausted and f e v e r - r i d d e n s t a t e o f t h e t r a v e l l e r s , i t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t they d e r i v e d an extremely poor opinion of Africans.  What i s c u r i o u s i s t h a t so many o f them  wished t o impose on A f r i c a n s concepts o f work, o f p u n c t u a l i t y , and o f t h e cash economy t h a t were b r u t a l i s i n g t h e i r own s o c i e t y at home, and t h a t so many o f them had s e t out t o escape.  David  L i v i n g s t o n e had h i m s e l f escaped from the w o r l d o f sweated m i l l labouring.  I n h i s i d e a s f o r massive European e m i g r a t i o n t o  A f r i c a he wished t o a l l e v i a t e the i o t o f the working c l a s s a t home, b u t i t never seems t o have o c c u r r e d t o him t h a t t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e European economy might have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t 20 on t h e A f r i c a n .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n t h e midst o f A f r i c a  home s o c i e t y i t s e l f took on a r o m a n t i c i s e d i m p r e s s i o n and n o t h i n g c o u l d seem worse than t h e s l a v e r y and warfare t h a t  70  A f r i c a n s s u f f e r e d from. European economy was  At any r a t e , the a r r i v a l of  regarded as the s a l v a t i o n of  A f r i c a n , and i f , l i k e a c h i l d , he had work, i t was  e n t i r e l y f o r h i s own  the  the  to be d i s c i p l i n e d to  good.  E a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s f r e q u e n t l y had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i n d i n g l a b o u r , s i m p l y because, a c c o r d i n g r e a l i t i e s i n A f r i c a , any  to the  s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g man  current  would  provide  h i m s e l f w i t h s l a v e s , and moreover because the more w a r l i k e t r i b e s , accustomed to h a v i n g s l a v e s themselves, were q u i t e 21 u n w i l l i n g to s e r v e i n a m e n i a l c a p a c i t y f o r Europeans. F o r many p i o n e e r s James S t e w a r t , who  the' answer was  forced labour.  One  o f them,  t r a v e l l e d i n the Zambezi a r e a i n the e a r l y  s i x t i e s , b e l i e v e d t h i s w a s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e approach. 7  viewing  On  the d e s t r u c t i o n of Nyanja v i l l a g e s by Yao r a i d e r s , he  wrote A f t e r a l l the l o s s of an A f r i c a n v i l l a g e i s l i t t l e l o s s t o the owners, and none to the w o r l d g e n e r a l l y . They can soon r e b u i l d and a n y t h i n g t h a t compels them to work i s r a t h e r a b l e s s i n g than a curse.22 Another, more i l l u s t r i o u s , S i r Samuel Baker, adopted f o r c e d l a b o u r w h i l e Governor of E q u a t o r i a , b e l i e v i n g i t to be n e c e s s a r y to overcome i n s t i n c t i v e i d l e n e s s . ^ 2  The  A l b e r t N'yanza, he wrote i n a v e i n h i g h l y  of E a r l Grey, though more extreme: The n a t i v e s of t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s do not progress.: e n e r v a t e d by i n t e n s e heat, they i n c l i n e r a t h e r to repose and amusement than to l a b o u r . Free  I n h i s book, reminiscent  71  from the r i g o u r s o f w i n t e r s , and the excitement of changes i n the seasons, the n a t i v e - c h a r a c t e r assumes the monotony of t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s temperature. They have no n a t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s to contend with-no s t r u g g l e w i t h adverse storms and i c y winds and f r o s t - b o u n d soil; but an e v e r l a s t i n g summer, and f e r t i l e ground p r o d u c i n g w i t h l i t t l e t i l l a g e , e x c i t e no e n t e r p r i s e ; and the human mind, u n e x e r c i s e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s , s i n k s i n t o l a n g u o r and decay.^4 Of course Stewart and Baker were w r i t i n g about v e r y d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the C o n t i n e n t , but t h e i r views d e r i v e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d contempt.  from the same  They c o u l d understand  "backwardness" (Baker a c t u a l l y p l a c e d i t at the l e v e l  of  a n i m a l e x i s t e n c e ) , but they were q u i t e unable to comprehend t h a t A f r i c a n s might have s u f f e r e d r e l a t i v e r e t r o g r e s s i o n . I n t h i s they r e f l e c t e d t h e i r age,  when Improvement was  the  p r i n c i p a l norm. Baker was kind.  an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ,  Other more c o n v e n t i o n a l  though of a h i g h l y unorthodox administrators  a l s o wrote  c o p i o u s l y o f t h e i r views of the A f r i c a n and h i s f u t u r e . 25  It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to s t a r t w i t h S i r B a r t l e F r e r e ^ because he represents  so w e l l a s c h o o l whose views would be taken over  and m o d i f i e d thesis.  by the p r i n c i p a l s i n the p e r i o d covered by  Towards the end  I n d i a , South A f r i c a and  this  of a l i f e of l o n g e x p e r i e n c e i n  Zanzibar,  F r e r e r e a d a paper On  the  Laws a f f e c t i n g the R e l a t i o n s between C i v i l i z e d and Savage L i f e , as b e a r i n g  on the d e a l i n g s of C o l o n i s t s w i t h A b o r i g i n e s ,  to  72  the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e o f Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d on June 2 8 , 1 8 8 1 .  F r e r e m a i n t a i n s i n t h i s paper t h a t w h i l e i t  i s u s u a l f o r savage r a c e s t o be d e s t r o y e d ,  expelled or driven  back i n t h e face o f a c i v i l i z e d power, t h i s l a w does n o t h o l d f o r more v i g o r o u s destroyed  r a c e s l i k e the Bantu.  T h e i r savagery i s  by another means, namely by p r o x i m i t y to the  European c i v i l i z a t i o n civilization.  and by a n x i e t y t o approximate t o t h i s  "There a r e no p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s t o the changes  t h a t may thus take p l a c e . "  But t h e r e are c e r t a i n n e c e s s a r y  c o n d i t i o n s f o r these changes t o take p l a c e , o f which the most i m p o r t a n t i s "Such a peace as Romans and E n g l i s h have ensured to s u b j e c t r a c e s as a consequence o f c i v i l i z e d  sovereignty",  a peace b r i n g i n g "-with i t p r o t e c t i o n f o r l i f e and p r o p e r t y , p r a c t i c a l e q u a l i t y b e f o r e the law, s u b s t i t u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l property f o r t r i b a l commonage, a b o l i t i o n o f s l a v e r y and p r i v a t e r i g h t s o f making war and c a r r y i n g arms, education i n the a r t s o f c i v i l i z e d l i f e , l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t the manufacture and s a l e o f i n t o x i c a t i n g substances t h a t r u i n h e a l t h and r e t a r d m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e of the n a t i v e community. To secure a l l t h i s an e q u i t a b l e form o f t a x a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to meet the expenses o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s i s an extremely s u c c i n c t and i l l u m i n a t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p o l i c y o f the " c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n " s c h o o l o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s on the t h r e s h o l d o f the s o - c a l l e d New I m p e r i a l i s m .  In  some ways the d i s c u s s i o n on the c l o s e o f F r e r e ' s paper i s even more i n t e r e s t i n g f o r contemporary views than the paper i t s e l f .  73 One  speaker c r i t i c i s e d F r e r e f o r h i s use o f a n a l o g i e s from t h e  Roman Empire..  The B r i t o n s t h a t t h e Romans met i n England  were much more c i v i l i z e d than t h e n a t i v e s o f South A f r i c a , and they were a f t e r a l l Aryans]  The second speaker began by  c r i t i c i s i n g t h e lumping t o g e t h e r o f t h e Bantu r a c e as a chimera, and then went on t o c r i t i c i s e t h e Roman analogy from t h e o p p o s i t e end.  The pax B r i t a n n i c a i s not l i k e t h e pax Romana.  Our c i v i l i z a t i o n i s s t i f f .  The Romans i n t e r m a r r i e d .  impose an u n c o n g e n i a l r e l i g i o n . ing  We  Rome became t h e g r e a t m e l t -  p o t o f t h e Empire - p e o p l e s went t h e r e from a l l over t h e  known w o r l d . 27  But negroes do not come t o meetings o f s o c i e t i e s  l i k e ours. '  Another speaker, s t i l l d e s p e r a t e l y t r y i n g t o f i n d  laws, p o s t u l a t e d t h e l a w t h a t n a t i v e peoples d i s a p p e a r i n face of  Europeans i n temperate c l i m a t e s , b u t n o t i n t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e s .  In  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n we see t h e extremes o f p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c  r a c i s m j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e most e n l i g h t e n e d o p i n i o n o f t h e day. In  t h e y e a r t h a t F r e r e d e l i v e r e d h i s paper, A l f r e d M i l n e r  was c a l l e d t o t h e b a r and s t a r t e d w r i t i n g f o r t h e P a l l M a l l Gazette.  He had w r i t t e n i n h i s d i a r y t h a t he f e l t h i m s e l f  d e s t i n e d f o r a l i f e o f " p u b l i c u s e f u l n e s s " , a symbolic p a t e r n a l PQ  i d e a l i s t sentiment. Lyttelton Gell-^  0  y  H i s b r i g h t contemporaries a t B a l l i o l ,  and Henry B i r c h e n o u g h ^  1  - both future  d i r e c t o r s o f t h e B r i t i s h South A f r i c a Company - were a l s o i n London, Birchenough a c t u a l l y s h a r i n g rooms w i t h M i l n e r . Rhodes was a t O r i e l , dreaming dreams.  Sidney Webb e n t e r e d  7k the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , and Sydney O l i v i e r would f o l l o w him i n 1882.  The B r i t i s h N o r t h Borneo Company-^ was granted i t s  c h a r t e r , the f i r s t o f the new monopolies,  the f i r s t chartered  company t o a d m i n i s t e r a t e r r i t o r y s i n c e t h e E a s t I n d i a Company had l o s t i t s c h a r t e r i n 1 8 5 8 . e n t e r e d a f r e s h phase.  C o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n had  As F r e r e was r e a d i n g h i s paper t h a t  r e v e a l e d so much o f past e x p e r i e n c e , t h e stage was s e t f o r the i m p e r i a l i s m o f the g r e a t p a t e r n a l i s t s ready t o apply Germanic methods t o the problems F r e r e d e s c r i b e d . opposition. party l i n e s *  There was l i t t l e  C h a u v i n i s t i c imperialism cut d i r e c t l y  across  The Independent Labour P a r t y was as y e t weak.  The m a j o r i t y o f the F a b i a n s were as i m p e r i a l i s t as the U n i o n i s t Party i t s e l f  ( Sydney O l i v i e r a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n ).  Opposition  came p r i n c i p a l l y from w i t h o u t , from t h e s o c i e t i e s , the " E x e t e r H a l l f a c t i o n " t h a t had taken t o i t s e l f  the duty o f b e i n g the  i r r e p r e s s i b l e c o n s c i e n c e o f the n a t i o n .  The c r i e s o f a new  s l a v e r y , o f f o r c e d l a b o u r , o f the need f o r i m p e r i a l p r o t e c t i o n for  i n d i g e n o u s peoples would be heard again - p r i n c i p a l l y from  the B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n A b o r i g i n e s ' P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y - and c o u p l e d w i t h war and r e b e l l i o n i n Rhodesia, would see t o i t t h a t Joseph Chamberlain's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was n o t o n l y a more v i g o r o u s approach t o c o l o n i a l p o l i c y , but a l s o a more f i r m e s p o u s a l o f the n o t i o n o f i m p e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s stage to c o n s i d e r the a t t i t u d e s to A f r i c a n l a b o u r o f C e c i l Rhodes h i m s e l f .  He was a f t e r a l l  75 the C o l o s s u s ,  i n some ways almost the o r a c l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  i n Rhodesia.  L i k e most t h i n g s about the man,  e n t i r e l y paradoxical.  his attitude  He urged the most shady d e a l i n g s  was  with  A f r i c a n c h i e f s l i k e Lobengula-^ ; he f e l l w h o l e h e a r t e d l y i n t o the s l a u g h t e r and r e p r i s a l t h a t f o l l o w e d the Ndebele and Shona XL  " r e b e l l i o n s " - ^ ; yet he c o u l d win immense A f r i c a n r e s p e c t i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , as i n the p a r l e y i n g a f t e r the Ndebele "rebellion".  He adhered w h o l e h e a r t e d l y to the " c h i l d view",  yet c o u l d e x p r e s s the c e l e b r a t e d h i g h - f l o w n r i g h t s f o r every c i v i l i z e d man c i v i l i z e d man  b e i n g "a man  s u f f i c i e n t education  s o u t h of the Zambezi", the  whether white or b l a c k who  " L o a f e r " was  or  a favourite  I t r e f l e c t s w e l l h i s a t t i t u d e towards work  as a moral v i r t u e .  He drove h i m s e l f u n m e r c i l e s s l y and  o t h e r s to do the same.  expected  I f A f r i c a n s i n s i s t e d on " l o a f i n g " , they  c o u l d not be c i v i l i z e d , they had  has  to w r i t e h i s name, has some p r o p e r t y "55  works, i n f a c t i s not a l o a f e r " . word of Rhodes.  statement o f " e q u a l  and t h e r e f o r e to make them c i v i l i z e d ,  to be persuaded to work.  Rhodes's " c h i l d view" was " s t r o p b i l l " o f 1891, Africans.  I t was  sponsoring  apparent i n h i s support of  which proposed c o r p o r a l punishment f o r dropped.  I t was  of the Glen Grey A c t ^ .  school education  was  apparent a l s o i n h i s He pleaded t h a t h i s  own  more i n the n a t u r e o f s l a v e r y than the  work expected of an A f r i c a n . "inexorable  the  He spoke too i n terms o f  law":  I f you are r e a l l y one who  loves  the  an  76  n a t i v e s , you must make them worthy of the c o u n t r y they l i v e i n , or e l s e they are c e r t a i n , by an inexorable law, to l o s e t h e i r country. You w i l l c e r t a i n l y not make them worthy i f you a l l o w them to s i t i n i d l e n e s s and i f you do not ,o t r a i n them i n the a r t s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . The  /  paradox i s p e r f e c t l y r e v e a l e d by Woodhouse i n the Rhodes  biography. Rhodes was  Having attempted to show how  much more e n l i g h t e n e d  compared w i t h the Boers, Woodhouse w r i t e s , The best t h a t c o u l d be s a i d of him i n t h i s m a t t e r - and he o f t e n s a i d i t h i m s e l f was t h a t he r e g a r d e d the n a t i v e s as c h i l d r e n , who might one day attain the a d u l t l e v e l o f the white man, but were s t i l l f a r from i t . Even t h a t was o n l y t r u e of him i n theory. I n p r a c t i c e i t would be t r u e r to say t h a t he r e g a r d e d them as domestic a n i m a l s : which i s not to i m p l y c r u e l t y , f o r Englishmen are u s u a l l y k i n d to domestic animals. But u n l i k e c h i l d r e n dogs are not expected to grow up i n t o human a d u l t s ; and u n l i k e c h i l d r e n dogs may be shot when they get out of hand. That was c e r t a i n l y Rhodes's a t t i t u d e to the Matabele /~Ndebele_7in the e a r l y weeks o f the R e b e l l i o n . - ^  The  domestic animal view f i t s Boer o p i n i o n of the p e r i o d  r a t h e r w e l l ; y e t the Boers regarded Rhodes as a n e g r o p h i l i s t . The  paradox has been e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s t r u e , by r e f e r e n c e  Rhodes's o p i n i o n s at d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n h i s c a r e e r , but  to these  p o i n t s are s e p a r a t e d by no more than a few y e a r s , and h i s ambivalence i s symptomatic of much of Southern A f r i c a n o p i n i o n . Rhodes c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t h i n g to a l l a y the f e a r s of the B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n A b o r i g i n e s * P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y , as expressed  i n Fox Bourne's pamphlet M a t a b e l e l a n d  and  the  30  Chartered  Company,  y  or i n the B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n  Aborigines'  77 P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y ' s O u t l i n e s o f a Suggested C h a r t e r f o r N a t i v e s under B r i t i s h R u l e i n South A f r i c a , ^ which had proposed t h a t the A f r i c a n s should be wards of the Crown; t h a t r e s e r v e s s h o u l d be under Crown c o n t r o l ; t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be more power f o r the c h i e f s , e d u c a t i o n and  advance-  ment f o r the n a t i v e s , r e g u l a t i o n o f i n t e r f e r e n c e from o u t s i d e , for  example w i t h r e g a r d to l a b o u r ; t h a t t a x e s ought t o be  r e s t r i c t e d to hut t a x , agreed w i t h the n a t i v e s ; t h a t the pass system ought t o be l i m i t e d to a s i n g l e p a s s p o r t t o h e l p the A f r i c a n s ; t h a t t h e r e ought t o be complete freedom of a c t i o n to seek l a b o u r , no curfew and no i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r ; and t h a t the n a t i v e s who have c o m p l e t e l y l e f t the r e s e r v e s ought t o be admitted the  to some r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s as f e l l o w s u b j e c t s w i t h  whites. T h i s was what L o r d M i l n e r was q u i t e unprepared t o do.  H i s views on l a b o u r are r e v e a l e d i n c o u n t l e s s despatches from South A f r i c a .  They c o i n c i d e d r a t h e r too a c c u r a t e l y - f o r the  t a s t e o f the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o f f i c i a l s , and indeed o f h i s Resident  Commissioner i n Rhodesia, S i r M a r s h a l l C l a r k e ^ -  w i t h those o f the d i r e c t o r s o f the B r i t i s h South A f r i c a Company and the men  on the spot.  He took a f a v o u r a b l e  a t t i t u d e towards f o r c e d l a b o u r , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r p u b l i c works. He f e l t i t was the duty o f n a t i v e commissioners t o put p o s i t i v e moral pressure on the A f r i c a n s t o work, and as h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n he sought r e f u g e i n the o l d t r o p i c a l i n d o l e n c e argument - "The  78 b l a c k man  i s n a t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d , much more than the w h i t e ,  to do n o t h i n g a t a l l " . ^  He c e r t a i n l y r e a l i s e d the  embarrassment such views caused the government and even attempted  to suppress on o c c a s i o n an o f f e n d i n g sentence  of a despatch t h a t was  to appear i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y paper.  M i l n e r , burdened as he was w i t h the B r i t o n - B o e r problem and the r e s u l t i n g war i n South A f r i c a , l a c k e d a d o c t r i n a i r e "native policy".  He made l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the  reserves-amalgamation  debate.  And o f course h i s d o w n f a l l  and censure came about because he p e r m i t t e d , almost i n a d v e r t e n t l y , the i l l e g a l c o r p o r a l punishment o f Chinese l a b o u r e r s . A l l was  s u b o r d i n a t e d by t h i s time to h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , h i s  development o f the m i n i n g economy, and consequent encouragement of B r i t i s h , immigration. The B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n A b o r i g i n e s ' P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y C h a r t e r ( v i d . sup.) had expressed a c u r i o u s m i x t u r e o f r e s p e c t f o r A f r i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , more power to c h i e f s , and the n o t i o n o f amalgamation, equal r i g h t s .  Rhodes too had spoken o f  e q u a l r i g h t s ; he has a l s o been d e s c r i b e d by h i s most r e c e n t b i o g r a p h e r s as a r e s e r v e s man,  b e l i e v i n g t h a t they would  p r o t e c t the A f r i c a n from the v i c e s o f the European, permit him to c u l t i v a t e h i s own a rudimentary  p l o t of l a n d i n peace, and g i v e him  political education.^  I t i s a dilemma t h a t  runs, r i g h t through the l a b o u r p o l i c y o f the period.,  Neither  South A f r i c a nor Rhodesia wanted a permanent l a b o u r f o r c e f o r  79  s e c u r i t y reasons.  There was a f e a r o f what would happen when  the mines, a w a s t i n g a s s e t , would no l o n g e r p r o v i d e work. But the r e s e r v e s on the o t h e r hand p r o v i d e d too much scope f o r l e t h a r g y , f o r the backward r u l e o f c h i e f s ( c f . Herman M e r i v a l e on r e s e r v e s ) and above a l l i n s u f f i c i e n t l a b o u r f o r p r e s e n t needs.  The backwardness o f the r e s e r v e s was  f o r concern  f o r the h u m a n i t a r i a n s  as much a matter  and m i s s i o n a r i e s as f o r the  o f f i c i a l s of the C h a r t e r e d Company.  The  f a s h i o n i n which  Rhodesian A f r i c a n s were f o r c e d i n t o a s t a t e o f great i n s e c u r i t y on, or a c t i v e l y e x p e l l e d from, Crown l a n d , p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , u r b a n l l o c a t i o n s , and even the r e s e r v e s themselves (when a l i e n a t i o n took p l a c e as the r e s u l t o f inadequate  survey0', w i l l  be  recounted i n greater d e t a i l l a t e r . T h i s i n s e c u r i t y r e s u l t e d from the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a 45  powerful a n t i - r e s e r v e s lobby. H. W i l s o n Fox, i n h i s copious memoranda o f 1 9 1 0 and 1 9 1 2 drawn up f o r the Board o f the Company, y  46 a t t a c k e d r e s e r v e s and t r i b a l i s m .  He d i d however r e a c h the  l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e had to be a permanent l o c a l l a b o u r policy. I t would a l s o seem p r e f e r a b l e to arrange t h a t the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the r e l a t i o n s between the two r a c e s s i o u l d , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , be such t h a t they should be a b l e to r e g a r d each o t h e r from some o t h e r paint o f view than the economic o n e . 4 7 I t was  a f i n e sentiment, but the mineowners seemed u n w i l l i n g  to work i t .  There were advantages as w e l l as  i n a q u i c k t u r n o v e r o f l a b o u r w i t h o u t wives and  disadvantages children.  80  O b v i o u s l y wages c o u l d be kept down, and t h e r e was always the p o s s i b i l i t y - p a r t i c u l a r l y acute under Rhodesian c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a mine might be worked out and c l o s e d .  I t was  the  farmers, w i t h much l e s s danger o f working out* t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s , who  most s t r e n u o u s l y advocated  a pool of l o c a l labour.  Fox quoted t h e i r congress o f 1911,  Wilson  which r e s o l v e d w i t h r e g a r d  to " f o r e i g n " l a b o u r t h a t the boys be a l l o w e d to b r i n g t h e i r women w i t h them, so t h a t they may, i f they choose, settle f o r a number o f y e a r s , o r permanently, i f they w i s h , i n Southern R h o d e s i a . ^ But the farmers were n o n e t h e l e s s u n w i l l i n g to pay the wages necessary  f o r such a permanent s e t t l e m e n t .  The most i m p o r t a n t c o n v e r t to the a n t i - r e s e r v e s p o s i t i o n was L o r d G l a d s t o n e , ^ High Commissi.oner i n South A f r i c a , 1914,  whose despatches  seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t he was  1910-  to a l a r g e  e x t e n t c o n v e r t e d to h i s European environment i n South A f r i c a . W i t h r e g a r d to the Southern  Rhodesian Commission on N a t i v e 50 Reserves, he wrote to L e w i s H a r c o u r t , S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , I expressed the hope to Mr. Malcolm^"*" t h a t some arrangement would be made to prevent the n a t i v e s from wandering over the r e s e r v e s f a r too l a r g e f o r t h e i r present requirements. The p r a c t i c e i s d e m o r a l i s i n g and p r e j u d i c e s improvement i n a g r i c u l t u r e . Mr. Malcolm asked me whether o b j e c t i o n would be taken to some c u r t a i l m e n t o f the a r e a now a l l o t t e d . I said that I d i d not t h i n k t h e r e would n e c e s s a r i l y be o b j e c t i o n s to c u r t a i l m e n t , p r o v i d e d t h a t i t c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d by the c l e a r  81 advantage of the whole scheme to the natives. We agreed t h a t i t would he d e s i r a b l e to adopt the p r i n c i p l e s of the N a t i v e s ' Land Act. - t h a t n a t i v e s s h o u l d be p r o h i b i t e d from h o l d i n g l a n d i n t e r r i t o r y under white o c c u p a t i o n and v i c e versa.52 i  T h i s despatch was  met  w i t h a chorus of d i s a p p r o v a l i n the  Colonial Office.  The  e x t e n s i o n of the Union Land Act  R h o d e s i a was  regarded as " i m p o s s i b l e and q u i t e  unacceptable".  L a t e r , another o f f i c i a l wrote, " I t i s c l e a r t h a t the c o n s t i t u t e the o n l y r e a l means of s a f e g u a r d i n g interest".  to  reserves  the n a t i v e  ^  I n a d e s p a t c h of the p r e v i o u s week, Gladstone  provides  an e x c e l l e n t i n s i g h t i n t o c u r r e n t o p i n i o n o f the A f r i c a n . On a v i s i t to R h o d e s i a , he went to Zimbabwe, t h a t e s s e n t i a l of the A f r i c a n Grand Tour, and wrote The g r e a t e s t f a c t o r i n the i r r e s i s t a b l e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of Zimbabwe i s the mystery of i t s o r i g i n s . The flame of c o n t r o v e r s y has p l a y e d round each f e a t u r e of the r u i n s d u r i n g the l a s t ten y e a r s . The o n l y r e s u l t i s t h a t the d o c t o r s d i f f e r . But t h e r e i s one c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f o r c e s i t s e l f on the mind of the layman, w i t h the weight almost o f c o n v i c t i o n , and t h a t i s t h a t no Bantu o r n e g r o i d r a c e s were ever capable e i t h e r of such a stupendous c o n c e p t i o n o r of i t s masterly execution.55 As e a r l y as 1906,  an a r c h a r o l o g i s t had a s s e r t e d t h a t Zimbabwe  had been b u i l t by A f r i c a n s , ^ and now  t h e r e i s no doubt what-  ever among a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t h a t the "stupendous c o n c e p t i o n " i s 57 i n d e e d the work of Bantu peoples.^' c l e a r , i t was  As t h i s passage makes  not j u s t t h a t Gladstone c o u l d not b e l i e v e t h a t  82  Great Zimbabwe had been b u i l t by A f r i c a n s , but he d i d not want to b e l i e v e i t : such a p o s s i b i l i t y would upset h i s conc e p t i o n o f the A f r i c a n s ' p l a c e i n the c o l o n i e s .  He  had  been sent as a great L i b e r a l statesman to be.the f i r s t Governor G e n e r a l o f the Union of South A f r i c a , and  there-  f o r e i m p l i c i t l y accepted the c o l o u r bar e n s h r i n e d i n i t s constitution. I f these be the s e n t i m e n t s on l a n d and c u l t u r e of a L i b e r a l statesman of some s t a t u r e , i t i s reasonable  to  where the mantle of Stephen and M e r i v a l e had  fallen  during  t h i s period.  continued  Was  t h e i r humanitarian  by E x e t e r H a l l p h i l a n t h r o p y ? l i b e r a l , a Fabian  spirit  ask  only  An examination of works by  a  and a l e a d i n g member o f the Independent  Labour P a r t y w i l l attempt to d i s c o v e r the n a t u r e , the  strength  and the i n f l u e n c e of the o p p o s i t i o n to the " o f f i c i a l  opinion"  of the day, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to Southern A f r i c a .  58 his  J.A. Hobson's I m p e r i a l i s m : A Study^ i s c e l e b r a t e d f o r a t t a c k on c a p i t a l i s t i m p e r i a l i s m . H i s premises w i t h  59 r e g a r d to i n v e s t m e n t have now  been l a r g e l y r e f u t e d ,  J  but  l e s s n o t i c e has been taken of h i s s e c t i o n on " N a t i v e Races". He e x p r e s s e d a b e l i e f i n the c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n resources  "The  of the t r o p i c s w i l l not be developed v o l u n t a r i l y GO  by the n a t i v e s themselves". White men c o u l d only o r g a n i s e and s u p e r i n t e n d the l a b o u r o f the n a t i v e s . By d o i n g t h i s they can educate the n a t i v e s i n the a r t s of i n d u s t r y  83  and s t i m u l a t e i n them a d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l and moral p r o g r e s s , i m p l a n t i n g new.'wants' which form in^-every s o c i e t y the r o o t s of civilization. He a c c e p t e d the analogy of the e d u c a t i o n  of c h i l d r e n , but  a t t a c k e d the c h a r t e r e d companies as " l i t t l e e l s e than p r i v a t e d e s p o t i s m r e n d e r e d more than u s u a l l y p r e c a r i o u s i n t h a t i t C p has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the sake of d i v i d e n d s " , dependent on the whim of the Managing D i r e c t o r . remark, he f e a r e d the p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s rulers.  He  saw  and was  too  In a prophetic  of the i m p o r t e d  through some o f the b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of  p a t e r n a l i s m , p o i n t i n g out t h a t the k i n d of c i v i l i z a t i o n  to  be imposed depended e n t i r e l y upon the " c i v i l i z i n g n a t i o n s " ; t h a t t h e r e was progressive  no attempt to understand the a c t i v e or l a t e n t  f o r c e s of the s u b j e c t r a c e ;  agreements of 1 8 8 3  and 1 8 9 0 ,  t h a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  c a r v i n g up t e r r i t o r y , c a s t a  s t r a n g e l i g h t on the t r u s t t h e o r y .  But, l i k e a l l h i s  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , he f a i l e d to see the dramatic ism.  rise i n national-  He r e g a r d e d l e s s i n t e r f e r e n c e i n independent I n d i a n  s t a t e s as a good s i g n , and moreover he was Basutoland  very complimentary about  as an example of sane i m p e r i a l i s m i n the midst of  insane i m p e r i a l i s m .  He  f a i l e d to see the immense problems the  one would cause to a t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y s t a t e , and the dangers economic underdevelopment would cause to the freedom o f the other.  Insane i m p e r i a l i s m he c l a s s i f i e d as handing over  "these r a c e s to the economic e x p l o i t a t i o n of white c o l o n i s t s who  w i l l use them as ' l i v e t o o l s ' and t h e i r l a n d s as r e p o s i t o r i e s  8k Cx  of mining or other p r o f i t a b l e treasure". ^ So f a r as l a b o u r i s concerned, Hobson's s o l e l e g i t i m a t e p r e s s u r e s are the p r e s s u r e of r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , o f new and of i n c r e a s i n g consumption.  needs,  A l l taxation i s forced labour;  so i s the b r i b i n g of c h i e f t a i n s to use t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , as advocated by "the p h i l a n t h r o p i c E a r l Grey" (the F o u r t h E a r l ) . ^ He a t t a c k e d the a l l i a n c e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c a p i t a l i s m to be found most b l a t a n t l y i n South A f r i c a , i n Rhodes, on the Rand, and i n Grey.  At l e a s t , he argued i r o n i c a l l y , the  T r a n s v a a l had the v i r t u e o f b e i n g m e t h o d i c a l - they took awaya l l l a n d , broke up the t r i b a l system, and gave the A f r i c a n no a l t e r n a t i v e but to work.  T h i s had a b e a r i n g on the i d e a o f  the permanent l a b o u r f o r c e i n the l o c a t i o n s , advocated by the P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Rand Chamber o f Mines i n 1 8 9 8 ^  and a g a i n by  the South A f r i c a n N a t i v e A f f a i r s Commission o f 1905, t r e a t e d i n Hobson's second e d i t i o n i n 1906).  (which i s  To Hobson, such  an i d e a would t u r n A f r i c a n s i n t o hostages to c a p i t a l i s m , v i r t u a l l y a s c r i p t i g l o e b i (remembering the South American  and  Portuguese A f r i c a n methods), s i m p l y b r e e d i n g the next generation of labourers.  He f e l t t h a t white communities i n these  c a p i t a l i s t s i t u a t i o n s c o u l d never escape the t a i n t of p a r a s i t i s m . W i t h remarkable c l a r i t y Hobson saw a l l the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f the r e v e a l e d p o l i c y o f h i s day.  But i n t h e i r p l a c e he s e t  up a new s e t o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , based on h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f the c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n through the medium of i n d i r e c t r u l e .  While  ' 85 he had p l e n t y of s t r i c t u r e s about the nature  of western  c a p i t a l i s m and of t r u s t e e s h i p , he f a i l e d to q u e s t i o n  the  q u a l i t y of r u l e t h a t i n d i r e c t r u l e would produce. Sydney O l i v i e r was,  as George Bernard Shaw i n h i s 67  l i v e l y memoir of him p o i n t e d out, He was  ' a rare character.  a c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r who  attended  pomp and t r a p p i n g s of a c o l o n i a l g o v e r n o r s h i p  to a l l the at the same  time as q u e s t i o n i n g the v e r y e x i s t e n c e of the i m p e r i a l power.  H i s White C a p i t a l i s m and Coloured  c u r i o u s book.  Several chapters  Labour  is a  of i t are devoted to  a t t a c k i n g bad r a c e r e l a t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , e x t o l l i n g the b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s i n the West I n d i e s .  and ?/hen  he does come to the p o i n t , he espouses the o l d f r i e n d , t r o p i c a l indolence: the A f r i c a n has no m e c h a n i c a l h a b i t of i n d u s t r y . He has no i d e a of any o b l i g a t i o n to be i n d u s t r i o u s f o r i n d u s t r y ' s sake, no c o n c e p t i o n of any e s s e n t i a l d i g n i t y i n l a b o u r i t s e l f , no d e l i g h t i n gratuitous t o i l . ° 9 He agreed w i t h the South A f r i c a n N a t i v e A f f a i r s Commission of 70 1905  t h a t i f the A f r i c a n i s p a i d more he w i l l s i m p l y work  l e s s , but he d i d make the attempt as we s h a l l see to e s t a b l i s h a c u l t u r a l explanation  f o r t h i s phenomenon.  He p r o v i d e d an e x c e l l e n t i r o n i c d e s c r i p t i o n of "'the theory" behind c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n . T r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s are not s u i t e d f o r ' s e t t l e m e n t by w h i t e s . Europeans cannot l a b o u r and b r i n g up f a m i l i e s t h e r e . The b l a c k can breed and l a b o u r under good  86 government, b u t he cannot develop h i s own c o u n t r y ' s r e s o u r c e s . He i s b r u t i s h , b e n i g h t e d and u n p r o g r e s s i v e . The ' p r i n c i p a l reason o f ( s i c ) t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s t h a t h i s l i f e i s made so easy f o r him by n a t u r e t h a t he i s n o t f o r c e d t o work. The white man must, t h e r e f o r e , i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f humanity make arrangements to i n d u c e the b l a c k man t o work f o r him. To him the economic p r o f i t which the b l a c k man does not v a l u e and cannot use; to t h e l a t t e r the moral and s o c i a l advancement and e l e v a t i o n . To e f f e c t t h i s development i s the 'White man's Burden'; i n t h i s way must we c o n t r o l the t r o p i c s ; a l o n g these l i n e s alone can the problem o f r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n our new p o s s e s s i o n s be solved.'' ! 7  The  core o f h i s argument r e s t e d on f i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s .  ,  F i r s t l y , t h e o n l y d i s t r e s s caused by the l a c k o f l a b o u r i n South A f r i c a was t h e d i s t r e s s o f the f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r unable to o b t a i n what he regarded as an adequate r e t u r n on h i s investment.  Secondly t h e d i s a f f e c t i o n between European  and A f r i c a n was not the d i s a f f e c t i o n o f race p r e j u d i c e , but the d i s a f f e c t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m t o l a b o u r and o f i n d u s t r i a l jealousy.  T h i r d l y , where he cannot f o r c e t h e t r o p i c a l  p e o p l e s t o l a b o u r f o r him, t h e c a p i t a l i s t t u r n s t o . c o u n t r i e s where t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s under g r e a t r e s t r a i n t , namely I n d i a and China.  F o u r t h l y t h e c a p i t a l i s t who p l e a d s a m i s s i o n a r y  motive i s i n e f f e c t a l i a r . be a m i s s i o n a r y .  I f he r e a l l y f e l t t h i s he would  F i f t h l y , the n e g r o p h i l i s t i s he whose  judgement has n o t been d i s t o r t e d by the economic demands o f 72 the c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l system.  I n h i s a t t a c k on t h e  i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r system he p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e West I n d i a n  87 negro thought t h a t the c o o l i e was opinion did.  more of a s l a v e than  official  He went on from t h i s to d e s c r i b e the negro i n  the West I n d i e s as more f r e e and independent than the  indust-  r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t at home. He was  not averse t o a sharp t h r u s t at a f e l l o w c o l o n i a l  admin i s t r a t o r , The d i s t i n c t i o n i n s e n s i b i l i t y , i n i n d u s t r i a l s t a n d a r d , between an a l i e n race and the w h i t e , i s deemed by such an a u t h o r i t y as L o r d M i l n e r , a P r o v i d e n t i a l dispensation. Such a d o c t r i n e r e a c t s upon the temper- of the employer i n i n d u s t r y , and on h i s c o n c e p t i o n of s u i t a b l e methods f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c o l o u r e d workmen. ' M i l n e r ' s d o c t r i n e , he went on, i s the product of the  industrial  r e l a t i o n - i t has grown r a p i d l y wherever c a p i t a l i s t i c  enterprise  has been extended.  capital-  I t f o l l o w e d t h a t the c o l o n i a l i s t  i s t ' s f e a r s are the f e a r s of the c a p i t a l i s t everywhere, f e a r s of the i l l - e f f e c t s of C h r i s t i a n i s i n g the p o p u l a t i o n , educating  them to i d e a s above t h e i r s t a t i o n .  a remarkable sympathy f o r the A f r i c a n ethos.  f e a r s of  Olivier The  African i s  more c o n s c i o u s of the u n f o r m u l a t e d powers of l i f e and under the dominion of the f o r m u l a t e d ;  revealed  less  h i s consciousness i s  more open to what i s beneath the s u p e r f i c i a l r a f t of e s t a b l i s h e d means o f s u r v i v a l and l e s s a c c e s s i b l e to r a t i o n a l economic motive, and c o n s e q u e n t l y u n r e l i a b l e as a wage earner.  And  so  the  A f r i c a n i s r e g a r d e d as a c h i l d , y e t he i s taxed and expected to work.  But as soon as he t a k e s up the a t t i t u d e of a Wat  o r a Hampden he i s v i l i f i e d and k i l l e d . ^  W i t h one  Tylor  single  88  o b v i o u s blow, he knocked A r n o l d ' s , and a l l h i s d i s c i p l e s ' d e v o t i o n to the Saxons on the head - he p o i n t e d out  their  75 t r i b a l i s m and t h e i r savagery.  • He c o u l d i n d e e d have gone  f u r t h e r and p o i n t e d to the remarkable s i m i l a r i t i e s between Saxon n o t i o n s o f crime and punishment and those o f , say,  the  Ndebele. O l i v i e r ' s arguments were c e r t a i n l y damaging, but  although  he l a t e r b r i e f l y became the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r I n d i a , he had v e r y l i t t l e e f f e c t on the course of events, at l e a s t i n the s h o r t term.  H i s f r i e n d , S i d n e y Webb, was l a t e r as L o r d  P a s s f i e l d to e n u n c i a t e u n e q u i v o c a l l y the t r u s t f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e s i n E a s t A f r i c a , but O l i v i e r , t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e , was unable to c o n s t r u c t an a l t e r n a t i v e .  He b e l i e v e d t h a t  Europeans s h o u l d go to A f r i c a s i n c e i t was underpopulated, an A f r i c a n l a n d monopoly was How  as i n t o l e r a b l e as any  and  other.'  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e accommodation c o u l d be reached on such  a b a s i s , he was  silent.  He had n o t h i n g to say on the f o r c e s  o f A f r i c a n n a t i o n a l i s m , a l t h o u g h the p r e c e d e n t s were a l r e a d y t h e r e i n I n d i a and i n embryo i n West A f r i c a . was  f i r m l y caught i n the p a t e r n a l i s t web.  the n o t i o n of " u p b r i n g i n g " was wrong; " u p b r i n g i n g " was  wrong;  O l i v i e r i n short He c o u l d see  that  t h a t the manner of t h a t  but he c o u l d f i n d no channel by which  to t r e a t the s u b j e c t as an a d u l t . J . Ramsay MacDonald i n h i s Labour and the E m p i r e ^ d i d have a p r e s c r i p t i o n -  89  the-democratic p r i n c i p l e of n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s to develop n a t i v e c i v i l i z a t i o n on i t s own l i n e s - the e d u c a t i o n a l method; the i m p e r i a l i s t method i s t o impose on i t . a n a l i e n ; o c i v i l i z a t i o n - the p o l i t i c a l method.... 7  The  E n g l i s h merchant i s c e l e b r a t e d  f o r seeking  t o s e l l what  the customers ought to have, r a t h e r than what they want, and t h i s has been a p p l i e d t o the t h e o r y o f B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i s m . 79 I n a p a r t i a l p r e v i e w o f Schumpeter,' MacDonald found i m p e r i a l J  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the p r e s e r v e o f t h e upper c l a s s - " t h e most narrow v i s i o n e d o f our s o c i a l c l a s s e s " .  Like other  critics,  he sought, and e a s i l y found i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s - there can be membership o f the Empire w i t h o u t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the i m p e r i a l life;  the man on the spot c o n c e p t i o n  s i b i l i t y i s a negation  o f the i m p e r i a l r e s p o n -  o f the i m p e r i a l i d e a .  And he added t h a t  i n f a c t no one i s r e g a r d e d as b e i n g on the spot u n l e s s he b e l o n g s to t h e m a j o r i t y .  He argued t h a t the i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s ought  to r e t a i n c o n t r o l over n a t i v e a f f a i r s u n t i l the f r a n c h i s e i s g r a n t e d - South A f r i c a s h o u l d know t h a t a l i b e r a l p o l i c y i s imposed upon i t not by Downing S t r e e t , but by the Empire. However, h i s dictum, "We r e q u i r e r e s i d e n t s r a t h e r than governo r s " , r e v e a l e d another convert p o s i t i o n f o r a man o f the L e f t .  t o i n d i r e c t r u l e , a remarkable Q-i  Hobson, O l i v i e r and MacDonald a l l a c c e p t e d some o f t h e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f the l a b o u r t h e o r y o f t h e i r day. to u n r a v e l the c o m p l i c a t i o n s  They f a i l e d  of c o l o n i a l race-relations,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems and l a b o u r p o l i c y .  Moreover, Hobson  90  and MacDonald were c o n v e r t s to the d e v e l o p i n g f a s h i o n o f i n d i r e c t r u l e , a p o l i c y which c o u l d i n d e e d b l i n k at i n d i g enous forms o f f o r c e d l a b o u r and s l a v e r y .  The L o z i  of  B a r o t s e l a n d , f o r example, p r o b a b l y m a i n t a i n e d s l a v e r y l o n g e r than N o r t h e r n Rhodesian a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l i k e d to t h i n k . The g r e a t e s t exponent o f the p o l i c y of i n d i r e c t r u l e  was  Op  of course F r e d e r i c k Lugard,  who was between 1900  and  a c t i v e l y i m p o s i n g i t throughout N o r t h e r n N i g e r i a .  1906  Although  he had no d i r e c t concern w i t h Southern A f r i c a a f t e r h i s e a r l y c a r e e r , h i s p o l i c i e s and views repay e x a m i n a t i o n because o f the enormous i n f l u e n c e they enjoyed.  To what e x t e n t d i d h i s p o l i c y  f i t the i d e a l i s e d v i e w . o f Hobson and MacDonald?  Recently,  E r i c S t o k e s has p o i n t e d o u t ^ t h a t Lugard pursued h i s p o l i c i e s not because o f the e x i g e n c i e s of the s i t u a t i o n - as has o f t e n been argued - not i n o t h e r words from a p o s i t i o n but from a p o s i t i o n  of s t r e n g t h .  o f weakness,  Where t h e r e was a  position  of r e a l weakness, as i n the N i g e r Coast P r o t e c t o r a t e o r i n M a l a w i , the e x t e n s i o n of a u t h o r i t y was a "more g r a d u a l p r o c e s s , and i n the end one more d e s t r u c t i v e o f i n d i g e n o u s p o l i t i c a l forms".^  I n o t h e r words, Lugard's p o l i c y d i d not n e c e s s -  a r i l y a r i s e from any r e s p e c t f o r the Muslim e m i r a t e s , but from a d e s i r e to extend a u t h o r i t y s w i f t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y by means of k n o c k i n g out "the m i l i t a r y r e s i s t a n c e o f the e m i r a t e s w i t h a few s w i f t blows, oust the o l d r u l e r s and i n s t a l p l i a n t s u c c e s s 85 ors". The a c c l a i m w i t h which Lugard's p o l i c y has been y  91  r e c e i v e d may  i n d e e d have been based on the wrong  premises.  Yet t h i s was  to become the p r i n c i p a l gospel of c o l o n i a l  p o l i c y i n A f r i c a w i t h enormous e f f e c t s on r e s e r v e s labour  and  policies.  When we examine Lugard's approach to l a b o u r , we f i n d a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of c o l o n i a l policy.  labour  H i s Dual Mandate i n B r i t i s h T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ^  was  p u b l i s h e d o u t s i d e our p e r i o d , but the views c o n t a i n e d i n i t are merely a s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n o f i d e a s c u r r e n t i n t h e o r y p r a c t i c e f o r some y e a r s .  and  On the one hand he had a tendency  to f a v o u r the.; peasant c u l t i v a t o r , but adopted a m o d i f i e d  form  of the t r o p i c a l abundance and t r o p i c a l i n d o l e n c e t h e o r y .  . He  f e l t t h a t t a x a t i o n was  a s t i m u l a n t to p r o d u c t i v e i n d u s t r y  because i t tended to d i m i n i s h the l a r g e s u r p l u s of g r a i n crops t h a t would o t h e r w i s e be used f o r beer-making and as an excuse 86  f o r l a z i n e s s i n the f o l l o w i n g season.  Thus he saw  the  f u n c t i o n of t a x a t i o n to be the creaming of the s u r p l u s t h a t l e d to i n d o l e n c e i f i t were not f o r c e d i n t o a market economy. the o t h e r hand, he was  prepared  On.  to admit the e d u c a t i v e i n f l u e n c e  of f o r c e d l a b o u r , though he i n s i s t e d i t should o n l y be s a n c t i o n ed as an emergency a c t , p r o v i d e d i t was made a t t r a c t i v e enough to s t i m u l a t e v o l u n t a r y r e c r u i t m e n t s u b s e q u e n t l y . ^ prepared  He  to mix the d i r e c t s t i m u l a n t w i t h the i n d i r e c t .  was Both  these p o s i t i o n s had been a s s a i l e d ever s i n c e the s l a v e r y - f r e e l a b o u r debate of a hundred y e a r s b e f o r e , the one because d i r e c t  92  t a x a t i o n was  so l i t t l e known to the domestic working c l a s s ,  and because i t was  so o f t e n l i n k e d w i t h a confused or  i n d e f e n s i b l e l a n d p o l i c y , the o t h e r because i t smacked so much of the s l a v e r y i t i n t e n d e d  to r e p l a c e .  t h a t at a time when the s t a t e i n B r i t a i n was  I t i s possible e n t e r i n g more  and more i n t o the p r i v a t e l i v e s of i t s c i t i z e n s , such methods o f c o n t r o l l i n g c o l o n i a l l a b o u r d i d not seem so u n a c c e p t a b l e . W h i l e L o r d Lugard, i n an extremely moderate way, b o t h h o r s e s of the c o l o n i a l l a b o u r p o l i c y - and  rode  they were  indeed ridden  f o r most o f the i n t e r - w a r p e r i o d - S i r H a r r y  Johnston was,  as he had always been, more d i r e c t .  He  insisted oo  i n the H i s t o r y of the C o l o n i z a t i o n of A f r i c a by A l i e n Races t h a t i t was  a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r A f r i c a n s to work o r  trampled underfoot.  be  T h i s would be even more l i k e l y i f m e d i c a l  s c i e n c e made s u f f i c i e n t advance t h a t the u n h e a l t h y areas of A f r i c a c o u l d be made h a b i t a b l e f o r Europeans, f o r "a r u s h then.  may  sweep away the p r e - e x i s t i n g r i g h t s o f i n f e r i o r oq  races". b l a c k man  '  He p r o p h e s i e d r i g h t l y t h a t i n Southern A f r i c a the would c o n t i n u e  a l o n g time, and  t h a t he would g r a d u a l l y be pushed o f f the  on to the low v e l d . had  permitted  to be the source of cheap l a b o u r  I t was  for high  the d i s u n i t y of the A f r i c a n t h a t  the e n t r y of Europeans i n the f i r s t p l a c e , and i t was  i n h i s c o n t i n u i n g d i s u n i t y t h a t hope l a y f o r the European: And j u s t as i t would need some amazing and stupendous event f o r a l l A s i a to r i s e as one man a g a i n s t the i n v a s i o n of Europe, so i t i s d i f f i c u l t to c o n c e i v e  93 t h a t the b l a c k man w i l l e v e n t u a l l y form one u n i t e d negro people demanding autonomy, and p u t t i n g an end t o t h e c o n t r o l o f the white man, and t o t h e i m m i g r a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t , and i n t e r c o u r s e ^ of s u p e r i o r r a c e s from Europe and A s i a . 7  But l i k e t h e i n v a s i o n i t s e l f - and Johnston appears not t o have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s - i t c o u l d be done p i e c e m e a l .  Johnston's  u l t i m a t e v i s i o n was o f a r a c e o f Europeans i n A f r i c a w i t h dark s k i n s Great white n a t i o n s w i l l populate i n course o f time South A f r i c a , N o r t h A f r i c a , and Egypt; and r i l l s o f Caucasion b l o o d w i l l c o n t i n u e , as i n t h e r e c e n t and remote p a s t , t o c i r c u l a t e through Negro A f r i c a , l e a v e n i n g the many m i l l i o n s o f b l a c k men w i t h t h a t element o f the w h i t e - s k i n n e d s u b - s p e c i e s which alone has e v o l v e d beauty of f a c i a l f e a t u r e s and o r i g i n a l i t y o f i n v e n t i o n i n thought and deed No doubt, as i n A s i a and South America, the e v e n t u a l outcome o f the c o l o n i z a t i o n o f A f r i c a by a l i e n peoples w i l l be a compromisea d a r k - s k i n n e d r a c e w i t h a white man's f e a t u r e s and a white man's b r a i n . " By what m i r a c l e o f eugenics t h i s would happen, he i s s i l e n t . The  end o f European r u l e was t o Johnston u n t h i n k a b l e .  This  i s one o f the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t s t o remember about t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p o l i c y - m a k e r s i n A f r i c a d u r i n g our p e r i o d . In at  one sense, however, both Lugard and Johnston  arrived  a c o r n e r o f t h e t r u t h about t h e f u t u r e , (and the view o f  the f u t u r e o f any s o c i e t y i s v i t a l t o how i t handles t h e present).  The v o r t e x o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t e c h n o l o g y ,  i n d u s t r i a l i s m , and e d u c a t i o n would c l a i m a l l s o c i e t i e s . was  t h i s p r o c e s s t o be f a c i l i t a t e d ?  How  I t c o u l d be done g e n t l y ,  94 by the c r e a t i o n o f r e s e r v e s to p r o v i d e some communal s e c u r i t y , but j u s t enough l a n d hunger to p r o v i d e a s t i m u l a n t - a l o n g w i t h t a x e s and d e v e l o p i n g wants - to work.  Gr i t c o u l d be  e f f e c t e d by the d e s t r u c t i o n of t r i b a l e n t i t i e s , by the b r e a k i n g up o f r e s e r v e s i n the name of l a n d improvement, by a s o r t o f A f r i c a n H i g h l a n d Clearance designed t o f o r c e "backward" peoples i n t o the modern economy.  The  f i r s t would  produce the f a m i l i a r , i n e f f i c i e n t , but g l o r i o u s l y cheap, migrant l a b o u r system, which l e f t women and c h i l d r e n conveni e n t l y beyond the p a l e o f e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s .  The  second might c r e a t e a more e f f i c i e n t l a b o u r f o r c e , but the inhumanity by which t h i s would be accomplished o f f e n d e d the h u m a n i t a r i a n s , and the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l dangers o f f e n d e d the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i s t s .  The  f i r s t became orthodoxy, and  so  a t t e n t i o n was p a i d n e i t h e r t o the e f f i c i e n c y o f the l a b o u r f o r c e , nor t o the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e o f the A f r i c a n s , nor t o the development o f the peasant  cultivator.  The c o n f l i c t had been c o n t i n u i n g i n South A f r i c a f o r a century.  The B r i t i s h a f t e r much i n t r o s p e c t i o n and debate i n  e f f e c t adopted  the f i r s t p o l i c y .  A f r i k a a n s people had always adopted  W i t h l e s s debate,  the  the c l e a r a n c e method,  though not a t f i r s t f o r i n d u s t r i a l ends o f c o u r s e .  When  Rhodes s e t out t o o u t f l a n k the Boers, he opened up a v a s t new  a r e a where the same problem would be f a c e d . A f r i c a n t r i b a l s o