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Patterns of adjustment of international students to the University of British Columbia Farrokh, Kaveh 1988

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PATTERNS OF ADJUSTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA By KAVEH FARROKH B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M A S T E R ..OF./ARTS>._'  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  TTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 ©  Kaveh F a r r o k h , 1988  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Cpot-vsgU Pry.  ^  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Q^voVv^  l^-gg  A <d^A&>  Abstract  T h i s s t u d y has p r o c e s s of  cross-cultural  international Columbia. I t was  been an  attempt to  a d j u s t m e n t of  students studying at  The  the  " u - c u r v e " t h e o r y of  hypothesized that  i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s of  foreign  cross-cultural  C a n a d i a n s and  attitude  d i m e n s i o n s were d e f i n e d by  explored.  The  The  explored. analysis, (Tryon, of  the  data of  The  u s i n g two  1982)  subjects. be  highly  strong  were u s e d  of  ( i . e ; M a l e / F e m a l e ) were data  also  interpretation  the  concluded that  a d j u s t m e n t was  influence was  as  were  was  C-statistic  statistical  not  the  visual tests  significance  I n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d a t  I t was  related.  C a n a d i a n s and  towards  self-concept  groups  dimensional graphs.  G e n e r a l and  relationship  The  General  T h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l g r a p h s were a l s o  study.  cross-cultural  tested.  between a l l i n d i c e s  were u s e d t o t e s t  curves.  British  Ishiyama's s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n theory  main method of  interpretation.  the  adjustment.  relationship  students  of  adjustment. attitude  a d j u s t m e n t p a t t e r n s of  international  13  University  towards Canadian c u l t u r e  cross-cultural  (1987,1988).  a g r o u p of  s t u d e n t s would have  academic s e l f - c o n c e p t ,  of  the  a d j u s t m e n t was  self-concept,  indices  investigate  used the  for end  u-curve theory  supported across a l l .  a c a d e m i c s e l f - c o n c e p t s were f o u n d  A c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e was  No  d i s c o v e r e d between a t t i t u d e s  about  Finally,  to  found t o have a  upon a c a d e m i c s e l f - c o n c e p t .  Canadian c u l t u r e .  of  female  causal  western  foreign  s t u d e n t s were f o u n d t o h a v e t h e most  adjustment.  T h i s was  followed  f e m a l e s , w e s t e r n m a l e s and  succussfull  i n s u c c e s s i o n by  finally,  non-western  e a s t e r n males.  iv  Table  Chapter  1:  Introduction  Chapter  2:  Literature  of C o n t e n t s  1  Review  ..3  I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment. ..  3  C u l t u r e S h o c k , The U - C u r v e M o d e l a n d O t h e r Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment  4  Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l International Students.  6  Cross-Cultural  Adjustment of  A d j u s t m e n t a n d S e l f - V a l i d a t i o n ..... 7  C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment and G e n e r a l S e l f - C o n c e p t (GSC)  9  Academic Performance and G e n e r a l S e l f C o n c e p t (GSC)  10  G e n e r a l and Academic Validation  11  S e l f - C o n c e p t s and S e l f -  A t t i t u d e s about Canadian People (ACP)...  12  A t t i t u d e s about Canadian C u l t u r e  13  (ACC)  Language P r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h Chapter  13  3: H y p o t h e s e s  ....15  P a t t e r n s of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l  Adjustment  15  G e n e r a l S e l f - C o n c e p t (GSC) a n d A d j u s t m e n t . .  15  Academic  16  S e l f - C o n c e p t (ASC) a n d A d j u s t m e n t . . .  A t t i t u d e s a b o u t C a n a d i a n P e o p l e (ACP) a n d Adjustment... A t t i t u d e about Canadian  Culture  and A d j u s t m e n t Chapter  4:  ".  16  Methodology  Rationale The S u r v e y I n s t r u m e n t . . . . . \  16  18  ..  18 ...21  V  Procedure  22  Data A n a l y s i s  24  C h a p t e r 5: R e s u l t s  30  Introductory Section  Comments  ....30  I : Tables f o r Numerical  Adjective Ratings,  Ratings,  and C o r r e l a t i o n s . . . . .  Section  I I : Results  Section  I I I : Results  Section  IV: Results  f o r I n d i v i d u a l Subjects f o r Groups  30 .42 .....68  Summary  73  C h a p t e r 6: D i s c u s s i o n . .  75  Implications  of R e s u l t s  75  Implications  f o r Future Research  77  Implications  for Counselling  78  References  81  Appendix  ..  .89  A p p e n d i x I : The C - S t a t i s t i c . . . .'  89  Appendix I I : Orthogonal Polynomials  91  Appendix I I I : A d j e c t i v e  92  Rating  Sheet  Appendix IV: Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l  Adjustment..113  A p p e n d i x V: The T h r e e D i m e n s i o n a l G r a p h  115  Appendix V I : Graphs of Adjustment  118  Appendix V I I : Interviews  ...167  Appendix VI11 : C o r r e l l a t i o n s . .  1 68  Appendix IX: D e f i n i t i o n  170  o f Terms  1  Chapter 1 Introduction The' p r e s e n t  study  i s an a t t e m p t  a c t u a l p r o c e s s of adjustment  to investigate the  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  students  studying a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  (U.B.C).  T h e r e were 1021 I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s  a t U.B.C  (Muehlen,  themselves  cultural  1985).  Inevitably  they  environment d i f f e r e n t  adjustment  i s a very  important  because i t s t r o n g l y a f f e c t s while l i v i n g  find  from t h e i r  i n 1985  own.  i n a new  The i s s u e o f  one f o r many f o r e i g n  their  students  s o c i a l and academic  and s t u d y i n g i n a Canadian  lives  university  environment. Numerous r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have shown t h a t adjustment  p a t t e r n s can l e a d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and  g e n e r a l h e a l t h problems 1982;  negative  ( T o r r e y , 1970; S t a f f o r d ,  Brouke & Vandereycken,  1986).  1980; Owie,  T h i s makes i t  i m p e r a t i v e f o r c o u n s e l o r s t o comprehend t h e n a t u r e o f , and problems i n , i n t e r n a t i o n a l a new c u l t u r e .  students' emotional  T h i s k n o w l e d g e may h e l p p r e v e n t  some o f t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t n e g a t i v e consequences experienced  adjustment or  difficulties  by many  to  reduce and t h e  international  students. The  present  international concept,  survey  i n v e s t i g a t e d how a g r o u p o f  s t u d e n t s went t h r o u g h  academic s e l f - c o n c e p t , peer  Canadians,  changes i n g e n e r a l relationships  and a t t i t u d e s towards the host country.  t h i s was done d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r  self-  with A l l of  i n order to test  some  2 of  the p r e d i c t i o n s  adjustment.  made by r e s e a r c h e r s on  In a sense, the g o a l of t h i s  cross-cultural s t u d y was  to  b e t t e r understand the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  adjustment  international  students.  o f t h e s t u d y was  test  the u-curve  the t e s t  The  purpose  t h e o r y of  of  cross-cultural  adjustment  ( D e u t s c h & Won,  1963;  Dubois,  Gullahorn,  1963;  1963;  L y s g a a r d , 1955;  C o o k , 1962; ralationship as w e l l  Sewell, Morris & Davidson,  1956;  1954).  between the G e n e r a l and academic  as t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s  Canadian groups  Jacobson,  p e e r s and C a n a d i a n  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  compared i n terms  culture  to  Gullahorn & Sellitz  &  The self-concepts towards  were e x p l o r e d .  Finally,  s t u d e n t s ( i . e ; M a l e / F e m a l e ) were  of t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t  to Canadian  culture.  3 Chapter 2 L i t e r a t u r e Review Despite  the  fact that c r o s s - c u l t u r a l psychology  young f i e l d o f s c i e n t i f i c been c o n d u c t e d  in c e r t a i n areas.  the d i f f i c u l t i e s cultural  investigation,  experienced  by  e x t e n s i v e work  Stoneguist  S i n c e then  theme i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e h a s difficult  for a sojourner  & Bochner, concerned  1982).  The  living  following  about i n t e r n a t i o n a l  the  in  students'  two  general  been t h a t l i f e  in a foreign land review  has  (1937) e x p l o r e d  individuals living  systems s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  is a  is  (Furnham  is primarily cross-cultural  adjustment. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students The  international  universities  and  C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment  s t u d e n t s who  come t o N o r t h  face formidable challenges  emotional,  social,  and  academic  alienation  ( O w i e , 1982)  o n l y a few  o f t h e p r o b l e m s f a c e d by  consequences. noted  these  s t u d e n t s can  Social  (Stafford,  international  C o u n s e l l o r s need t o be a w a r e of t h o s e a d j u s t m e n t by  i n t e r m s of  adjustment.  or homesickness  issues.  ( 1 9 7 0 ) and  life  tends  t h a t problems such  psychosomatic  r e a c t i o n s , and  negative (1981)  North  to r e s u l t  s e r i o u s mental h e a l t h problems f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l They f o u n d  are  students.  Coelho  t h a t negative adjustment p a t t e r n s towards  American c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y  1980)  Poor  lead to various  For example, Torrey  American  in  students.  as a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , paranoid  common amongst f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s  thought  studied.  d i s o r d e r s were  Stafford  (1980)  4 found s t r o n g c o r r e l l a t i o n s between foreign  s t u d e n t s and  In a s i m i l i a r a l i e n a t i o n was  homesickness.  s t u d y , Owie (1982) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  a common symptom amongst t h o s e  students experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s and V a n d e r e y c k e n  cultural  (Torrey,  Vandereycken,  Stafford,  between  Brouke  eating  s t u d e n t s and p o o r a d j u s t m e n t t o a  environment..  1970;  social  foreign  i n adjustment.  (1986) r e p o r t e d a l i n k  d i s o r d e r s amongst f o r e i g n new  poor adjustment i n  I t w o u l d seem f r o m t h e s e  1980; O w i e , 1982; B r o u k e  1986), t h a t  international  studies  &  s t u d e n t s go t h r o u g h  some s o r t o f " s h o c k " when t h e y come t o a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y f o r studies. C u l t u r e Shock, Cultural  The U - C u r v e M o d e l  Adjustment  Oberg  (1960) p r o p o s e d t h e i d e a o f " c u l t u r e  t h e i d e a t h a t e n t e r i n g a new c o n f u s i n g and d i s o r i e n t i n g expanded  new  culture  is a  experience.  shock" or  potentially  S m a l l e y (1963) .  upon t h e i d e a and p r o p o s e d a f o u r s t a g e m o d e l o f  the c u l t u r e first  and O t h e r M o d e l s Of C r o s s -  shock e x p e r i e n c e .  A c c o r d i n g t o S m a l l e y , the  s t a g e o c c u r s when t h e newcomer i s f a s c i n a t e d by  c u l t u r e , yet f e e l s that there are c e r t a i n  p r e v e n t him f r o m e f f e c t i v e l y the host c u l t u r e .  The  barriers  third  second stage w i t n e s s e s h o s t i l i t y  of t h e o r i g i n a l  culture.  and  upon  People at the  s t a g e e x p e r i e n c e d e c r e a s e d a n g e r and t e n s i o n .  the sojourner  that  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e members o f  a n g e r a g a i n s t t h e h o s t c u l t u r e a s w e l l a s an e m p h a s i s the s u p e r i o r i t y  the  improves i n h i s / h e r adjustment towards  Here, the  5 host c u l t u r e . culturalism.  Finally At t h i s  the s o j o u r n e r d e v e l o p s a sense of b i final  s t a g e , t h e s o j o u r n e r has  been  a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e h o s t c u l t u r e and come t o t e r m s  with  it. A parallel  t h e o r e t i c a l approach,  ( D e u t s c h & Won,  1963;  Dubois,  1963;  1963;  L y s g a a r d , 1955;  Jacobson,  Sewell, M o r r i s & Davidson, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment the  first  Gullahorn & Gullahorn, Sellitz  & Cook,  1962;  1954), e x p l a i n e d t h e p r o c e s s of as  having three d i s t i n c t  b e i n g e l a t i o n and p o s i t i v e  host c u l t u r e  phases:  f e e l i n g s towards  the  f o l l o w e d by n e g a t i v i t y , d e p r e s s i o n and  c o n f u s i o n , then f i n a l l y of  1956;  the u-curve h y p o t h e s i s  g i v i n g way  t o the i n i t i a l  feelings  optimism. O t h e r models of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t  Klein  1977;  Morten  & Sue  1979)  (Adler,  follow a similiar  1975;  "u-curve"  pattern. Morten  and Sue  (1979) p r o p o s e d  i d e n t i t y development. foreign  a model o f  minority  A l t h o u g h n o t meant s p e c i f i c a l l y  for  s t u d e n t s , i t i s a h e l p f u l model f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment. adjustment.  The  first  They i d e n t i f i e d  five  stage i s c o n f o r m i t y . Here,  i n d i v i d u a l s a t t i t u d e toward the dominant group "appreciating". arise within  The  second  the i n d i v i d u a l  t h e ...  i s so  stage i s dissonance. between h i s / h e r  s t a g e s of  called  Conflicts  group  a p p r e c i a t i n g and g r o u p d e p r e c i a t i n g b e l i e f s .  The  is  concerns  i n t r o s p e c t i o n , meaning t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l  h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f w i t h t h e b a s i s of t h e group  next  stage  depreciation  6 beliefs.  The f i n a l  selectively call  this The  follow  stage  occurs  when t h e i n d i v i d u a l  a p p r e c i a t e s t h e dominant group.  last  stage  synergetic articulation  models developed  similiar  patterns  by A d l e r  M o r t e n a n d Sue and awareness.  (1975) a n d K l e i n  (1977)  ( F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n s e e a p p e n d i x  IV.) The Sue,  main t r e n d t h a t a l l of these  1979; K l e i n ,  simple  one, s i m i l i a r  D e u t s c h a n d Won Sue,  1977; A d l e r ,  c u l t u r e and towards study  The main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n  students  go t h r o u g h  international  The m o d e l s  (Morten  a simple  The a d j u s t m e n t students  volunteers, business  &  initial or  fall,  of p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s  theory.  adjustment?  isa  f o l l o w e d by a s o r t o f d e p r e s s i o n  g o a l s of t h e p r e s e n t  &  proposed,by  1975) s u g g e s t an  f o l l o w e d by a r e s u r g e n c e  towards the host The  t o the u-curve hypothesis  1977; A d l e r ,  state of e l a t i o n , finally  1975) a r e p r o p o s i n g  (1963) a n d o t h e r s .  1979; K l e i n ,  t h e o r i e s (Morten  themselves. was t o t e s t  the u-curve  i s : do a l l f o r e i g n  u-curve i n t h e i r  cross-cultural  i s s u e i s f a c e d n o t o n l y by  b u t by p e o p l e  persons,  such as Peace Corps  or diplomats.  Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students C e r t a i n other use Hull  t h e o r i e s of f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s '  d i f f e r e n t models t o e x p l a i n t h e adjustment (1981) d e v e l o p e d  contact hypothesis. contact  between N o r t h  a model c a l l e d This theory  adjustment process.  the frequency  of  s t a t e s that frequency  American and f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s  of  results  7 i n more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s  i n both  f o r e i g n and  North  American s t u d e n t s r e g a r d i n g each o t h e r ' s c u l t u r e ' s .  This  t h e o r y has  r e c i e v e d b o t h s u p p o r t i v e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y  findings.  Blackman's study  H u l l ' s example. f o s t e r peer  (1979) f o r example, c o n t r a d i c t e d  Blackman found  t h a t a program d e s i g n e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n I r a n i a n and  s t u d e n t s e n d e d i n an a b j e c t  American  failure.  H o w e v e r , Westwood's p e e r been s u c c e s s f u l due  p a i r i n g program  to the fact  (1984),  t h a t C a n a d i a n and  s t u d e n t s were m a t c h e d up a c c o r d i n g t o h o b b i e s , s t u d y and/or work, age, Westwood of  s e x , and  (1986) a l s o s e t s p e c i f i c  times each C a n a d i a n - f o r e i g n  Westwood's a i m was the  international  The  Canadian would i n essence,  i n f o r m a t i o n and facilitating The  the  q u e s t i o n now  adjustment  s t u d e n t and  The  student p a i r  dimensions.  s h o u l d meet.  relationship"  between  h i s / h e r Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t . a c t as a s o c i a l  provide emotional foreign  of  as t o t h e number  Canadians would a s s i s t support,  i s : what l i e s  guide  to  the  in technical  thereby  student's successful a t t h e h e a r t of  adjustment. the  process?  C r o s s - C u l t u r a l A d j u s t m e n t and Ishiyama's n o t e s how  criteria  has  foreign  field  other personal  t o f o s t e r a "peer  Canadian c u l t u r e .  to  t h e o r y of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n  individuals strive  manner i n w h i c h h i m / h e r s e l f , may  Self-Validation  the  to v a l i d a t e  international  student  (1987,  1987),  themselves. validates  be a f f e c t e d by w h e t h e r h e / s h e w i l l  s u c c e s s f u l l y or not  to the host c u l t u r e .  The  adjust  For example, i f  8 the process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n student w i l l  i s blocked, the foreign  not a d j u s t s u c c e s s f u l l y  t o the host  environment. S e l f - V a l i d a t i o n a s n o t e d by I s h i y a m a p r o c e s s of r e s t o r i n g and r e - i n f o r c i n g worth, meaning i n l i f e ,  (1987) i s " . . . t h e  t h e sense of s e l f -  and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y  and competence  through a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e n a t u r a l and s o c i a l environments, qualities The of  and t r a n s c e n d i n g these  to a s p i r i t u a l l e v e l " (p.7). more s i m i l a r i t y t h e r e i s b e t w e e n t h e s o c i a l  t h e home a n d h o s t e n v i r o n m e n t s ,  v a l i d a t e o n e s e l f as a f o r e i g n environment.  T h i s would  coming from Anglo-Saxon  countries, w i l l  that  students  have an e a s i e r  cultural  time  and academic  t h a t W e s t e r n / E u r o p e a n s t u d e n t s a d j u s t more  t o North American  culture  than t h e i r non-  c o u n t e r p a r t s ( M e l o n i , 1986; D a l i l i ,  1977).  A few s t u d i e s h o w e v e r , show  "Western"  1982; P e r k i n s ,  contrdictory  s t u d e n t s do n o t a d j u s t t o N o r t h  c u l t u r e any b e t t e r students  be t o  i n an a l i e n  western  that  i t will  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e  confirms the fact successfully  student  i n effect predict  a d a p t i n g t o t h e North American environments.  the easier  customs  (Bresee,  than  findings  American  " E a s t e r n " or non-white/non-European  1985).  Helms ( 1 9 7 8 ) a n d M e l e i s (1982) s t u d i e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t of  A r a b i c speaking s t u d e n t s i n American  t h a t many went t h r o u g h d i f f i c u l t to  their  cultural  c o l l e g e s and found  p e r i o d s of adjustment  a t t i t u d e s arid b e l i e f s .  Chang  (1973)  due found  9 similiar  f i n d i n g s f o r Chinese  American  campuses.  studied  foreign  Altscher  s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g on N o r t h (1976) and P e r k i n s (1977)  students i n North American  g e n e r a l and found adjustment  problems  campuses i n  related  to differences  b e t w e e n t h e i r home c u l t u r e s a n d t h a t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a i n terms  of s o c i a l  variables. element  i n t e r a c t i o n and o t h e r  In short, s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n  i n the process of adjustment  C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment Many s t u d i e s s u g g e s t a f f e c t e d by s e l f - c o n c e p t . different Phares will  cross-cultural i s an i m p o r t a n t to a foreign  a n d G e n e r a l S e l f - C o n c e p t (GSC) that adjustment  itself  Self-concept i t s e l f  things to different  be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s e l f . the self  may be  may mean  researchers (Epstein,  (1984) n o t e d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g p e o p l e  notion that  culture.  1980).  see as t h e i r s  Allport  (1961) took t h e  i s everything considered important to  t h e p e r s o n t h a t t h e p e r s o n c o n s i d e r s a s h i s / h e r own. sense,  s e l f - e s t e e m , and a l l o t h e r t h i n g s s i g n i f i c a n t  Body to a  person are important. This leads t o the Rogerian approach  (1980) t o t h e s e l f .  Rogers noted t h a t a s a p e r s o n goes t h r o u g h l i f e , so by way o f  h i s / h e r experiences (Rogers,  he/she does  1980).  i s d e f i n e d a s b e i n g a f f e c t e d by t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s 1980).  Rogers  that which  strives  w h i c h he c a l l s Ishiyama's specific  (1980) n o t e s t h a t t h e essence to learn,  improve,  The s e l f (Rogers,  of t h e s e l f i s  a n d t o grow; a p r o c e s s  "self-actualization". model  (1987,  1988) i s s i m i l i a r ,  than t h e p r e v i o u s approches  discussed  b u t more (Allport,  10 1961;  Epstein,  Ishiyama's major  1980;  Rogers,  s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model  thematic, components:  support  1980:  (4) i d e n t i t y  fulfillment,  and m e a n i n g i n l i f e  and b e l o n g i n g (5)  o f Terms" s e c t i o n ) .  e n h a n c e d and  1988)  and  love,  (for definitions The  see  self-validation  t h o s e components a r e  reinforced  contains five  s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e (3) c o m p e t e n c e  and autonomy  i s t h e manner i n w h i c h  (1987,  1984).  (1) s e c u r i t y , c o m f o r t ,  (2) s e l f - w o r t h a n d  "Definition  Phares,  ( I s h i y a m a , 1988).  process  restored, From t h i s  self-  v a l i d a t i o n p e r p e c t i v e , t h e g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t (GSC) understood  as a s y n e r g e t i c  output of t h e s e f i v e  components of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n . t h a t h a s been u s e d a s an  may  thematic  It is this definition  index of adjustment  be  of  GSC  f o r the  international students. Academic Performance Research  and G e n e r a l S e l f - c o n c e p t  f i n d i n g s support a p o s i t i v e  (GSC)  relationship  b e t w e e n g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t and a c a d e m i c - s e l f  concept  (Purkey,  1967;  Kifer,  1977;  Ames & Ames, 1978;  Sohn,  Johnson,  1981;  Crano,  1985;  Marsh,  Reinecke, An related  1984;  Zar.b,  1977;  1984;  1986).  interesting failures  s t u d y by P u r k e y  stemmed l a r g e l y  (1967) n o t e d t h a t  from  f a c t o r s such  m i s d i r e c t e d m o t i v a t i o n , l a c k o f c o m m i t t m e n t , and disadvantages.  A l l of t h e s e a r e v i e w e d  by P u r k e y  consequence of f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n s of the s e l f Reinecke  (1986) n o t e d how  academic environment  c a n be  foreign  and  school  as  cultural as  the  the w o r l d .  students in a  foreign  induced i n t o a s t a t e of " l e a r n e d  11 h e l p l e s s n e s s " because they  see  c o n t r o l of t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e control"  i s not  w i t h the  outside environment.  t h e m s e l v e s as n o t  environment.  "self"  but  significant failures.  Johnson noted that students  how  significant  students  academically.  i n such a In a  s c h o o l exchange s t u d e n t s  (1985) r e p o r t e d  saw  had  the  (1981) a  situation study  i n New  Zealand,  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  themselves  self-  performing  T h e s e s t u d i e s have c o n f i r m e d  the academic s e l f - c o n c e p t to a f f e c t  of  academic  "learned helplessness".  conducted with high  c o n c e p t and  Johnson  students  in  "locus  r a t h e r more w i t h  positive correlation with their  were i n a s t a t e of  Crano  Their  In a another study,  found t h a t poor s e l f - c o n c e p t w i t h i n  being  the a b i l i t y  the general  of  self-  concept. These s t u d i e s p o i n t toward a p a r a l l e l  between  and  a c a d e m i c s e l f - c o n c e p t s . The  has  been u s e d as a n o t h e r m e a s u r e o f a d j u s t m e n t  international General .  and  academic s e l f - c o n c e p t  A c a d e m i c s e l f - c o n c e p t s and self-validation  autonomy" i n s t u d i e s w o u l d be a v e r y self-validation  f o r any  " c o m p e t e n c e and  a u t o n o m y " , was  concept and  for  (ASC)  the  student.  I n t e r m s ,of t h e  of t h e  general  dedicated  general  self-concept  (ASC)  i s hypothesized  autonomy" d i m e n s i o n .  where " c o m p e t e n c e and  Self-Validation  model, "competence  and  important  of  student.  hypothesized  (GSC).  The  as b e i n g  Therefore,  dimension  This  as b e i n g  academic only the  t h e ASC  dimension, a  part  self"competence  i s that  autonomy" i s e i t h e r v a l i d a t e d  area or  12 invalidated.  The  interdependent If  ASC  with  ( f o r example, the  t h e n t h e GSC  i s not  student  i s i n d a n g e r of b e i n g  then e x i s t s t h a t the  Note t h a t t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dimensions.  This  and  (1986) who  Lefebvre  and to  ASC  damaged.  does not  are  to a f f e c t  perceptions  bear a s i m i l i a r  c a u s a l l y a f f e c t e d by  one  causal  the  Lefebvre and  Perceptions regards  self-  In s h o r t , with  GSC  regards  to Canadian  relationship. (ACP) s e e n as  being  self-concept dimensions.  Lefebvre  c o n t e n d t h a t s e l f - c o n c p t and a t t i t u d e  study  Apart  from  ( R y b a , E d e l m a n , & Chapman, 1984)  s t u d i e s h a v e have f o u n d a c a u s a l and  host  imply a  another.  dimensions are c a u s a l l y l i n k e d (1986). supportive  the  general  A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s C a n a d i a n s were n o t  Lefebvre  frustration  linked.  with  A t t i t u d e s about Canadian People  and  possibility  predicted that self-concept  s e e n as o v e r l a p p i n g .  c u l t u r e may  The  i s c o n t r a r y t o the a s s u m p t i o n s of  both able  C a n a d i a n s and  grades),  s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e  i s assumed t h a t t h e a c a d e m i c and  concepts are  as  or  r e c e i v e s poor  c u l t u r e and  a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n s were c a u s a l l y It  enhanced  i n t e r n a t i o n a l student's  d i s p l a c e d onto the host  c u l t u r e members.  i s t o be v i e w e d  GSC.  the academic s e l f - c o n c e p t  validated  c o u l d be  t h o u g h p a r t o f GSC,  link  between  one very  few  self-concept  a t t i t u d e dimensions. Having discussed  the general  and  academic  self-  c o n c e p t s as m e a s u r e s o f a d j u s t m e n t , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t  the  13 international  student's attitudes  members ( o r C a n a d i a n  regarding host  culture  p e o p l e ) a l s o be u s e d a s an i n d e x o f  adjustment. A t t i t u d e about Another (ACC). be  Canadian  Culture  (ACC)  a t t i t u d e dimension  i s that of Canadian  culture  P e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e c u l t u r e a t l a r g e may  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  Camilleri  (1984)  studied  foreign  adjustment.  students sojourning i n  F r a n c e a n d f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s who were c o n f u s e d a b o u t cultural  identity  t e n d e d t o h o l d more n e g a t i v e v i e w s  regards t o the host that  (French) c u l t u r e .  Naser  (1984)  their  with found  t h e p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t male A r a b s t u d e n t s had of t h e  American  c u l t u r e were r e l a t e d  s t u d e n t s h e l d about  to a t t i t u d e s that  themselves.  these  In s h o r t , they found a  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e American The 1984)  also  culture.  academic  .,  r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s  hint  about  t o the p o s s i b i l i t y  (Camelleri,  t h a t n e g a t i v e g e n e r a l and  s e l f - c o n c e p t s c o u l d be r e l a t e d  p e r c e p t i o n s of the host c u l t u r e .  to negative  A g a i n , as i n t h e  d i s c u s s i o n o f ACP, ACC i s seen a s I n d e p e n d e n t concept dimensions  1984; N a s e r ,  (eventhough  of t h e s e l f -  a non-causal r e l a t i o n s h i p  may  exi st) . Language P r o f i c i e n c y  in English  A v e r y i m p o r t a n t i s s u e t h a t n e e d s t o be a d d r e s s e d i s t h a t of language  competency and i t s e f f e c t  upon  adjustment.  No m a t t e r what t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s may be i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  14 student's adjustment, important one.  language  Inadequate  competency c o u l d be a very  command of the E n g l i s h  language  has been shown to'be a major source of maladjustment among i n t e r n a t i o n a l students. Hartung's study of Japanese students (1983) and Cummings' study of Caribbean  immigrant  students  (1983) showed that the students experienced c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment English.  difficulties  due  to t h e i r l a c k of p r o f i c i e n c y i n  S t u d i e s (de Wolf, 1980;  academic performance native English  Park,  1974)  of f o r e i g n students due  speakers.  showed lower to being  non-  15  Chapter 3 Hypothesis B a s e d upon t h e d i s c u s s i o n  of the l i t e r a t u r e  s e r i e s o f p r e d i c t i o n s h a v e been made. now d i s c u s s e d Patterns  Each p r e d i c t i o n i s  i n turn.  of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l  I t h a s been p r e d i c t e d adjust  Adjustment that  f o r e i g n students tend to  i n an i n d i v i d u a l f a s h i o n .  I t was p r e d i c t e d  u - c u r v e a p p r o a c h w o u l d n o t be an a c c u r a t e  individual The concept  s t u d e n t s were p r e d i c t e d  that the  p r e d i c t o r of  adjustment f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l students. international  review, a  The  to adjust i n  fashions.  general  self-concept  (GSC) a n d t h e a c a d e m i c  (ASC) were s e e n a s o v e r l a p p i n g  self-  and t h e i r  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t was e x p l o r e d . and  ASC were u s e d a s m e a s u r e s o f a d j u s t m e n t .  Attitudes  a b o u t h o s t c u l t u r e members (ACP) a n d h o s t c u l t u r e  (ACC) were  a l s o used as measures of a d j u s t m e n t and e x p l o r e d . the  patterns  GSC  of adjustment of Males v s . Females and  Finally Eastern  v s . W e s t e r n s t u d e n t s were e x a m i n e d . G e n e r a l S e l f - C o n c e p t and A d j u s t m e n t GSC was u s e d a s an i n d e x o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . The  c o m p o n e n t s o f GSC have been d e f i n e d  by t h e f i v e  major  t h e m a t i c components of I s h i y a m a ' s s e l f - V a l i d a t i o n model: (1) s e c u r i t y , c o m f o r t , and s u p p o r t acceptance  (2) s e l f - w o r t h and s e l f -  ( 3 ) c o m p e t a n c e a n d autonomy  (4) i d e n t i t y and  16 belonging  (5) l o v e ,  definitions  f u l f i l l m e n t , and m e a n i n g i n l i f e ( f o r  see " D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms"  A c a d e m i c S e l f - C o n c e p t (ASC) ASC  The  Ishiyama's  third  autonomy.  ASC  d i m e n s i o n o f ASC  h a s been h y p o t h e s i z e d a s  t h o u g h p a r t o f GSC,  A t t i t u d e s about  GSC.  Canadian  The  People  (ACP)  and  index of  Adjustment cross-cultural  L e f e b v r e and L e f e b v r e model o f  viewed as inadequate because  This  link  issue  also explored in the.study.  A t t i t u d e s about ACC  was  adjustment. ACP  adjustment  i t predicted a causal  b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n s . was  and  i s c o n s i d e r e d as  has a l s o been u s e d a s an  adjustment.  cross-cultural  t h e m a t i c component: competance  interdependent with  was  Adjustment  h a s a l s o been u s e d as a m e a s u r e o f  adjustment.  ACP  and  section).  Canadian  Culture  used as a n o t h e r Again, l i k e  and ACC  (ACC)  index of  and  Adjustment  cross-cultural  the s e l f - c o n c e p t dimensions,  were seen t o o v e r l a p p .  This relationship  the was  a l s o e x p l o r e d i n the study. Also,  i t was  non-western  n a t i o n s would  North American n a t i o n s . The  seen a s p o s s i b l e t h a t  h a v e more d i f f i c u l t y  w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s were e x p e c t e d t o be t o North American  t h e i r p r o c e s s e s of s o c i a l more s i m i l i a r .  In f a c t ,  i n a new  self-validation  from  adjusting  c u l t u r e than those coming from the  prepared f o r adjustment  interaction  s t u d e n t s coming  culture  to  western better since  i s e x p e c t e d t o be  l a c k of knowledge of  social  c u l t u r e has been shown t o be r e l a t e d  to  adjustment problems i n students s t u d y i n g country  (Chang,  Schute,  1986;  were a l s o  in a foreign  1973; Helms & M e l e i s , 1982; H e i k e n h e i m o Penn  explored.  & Durham, 1 9 7 8 ) .  These  &  possibilities  18  Chapter 4 Methodology Rationale The  r e s e a r c h methodology used  in this  s t u d y , was  e x p l o r a t o r y case study u s i n g a time s e r i e s d e s i g n . r e a s o n s u c h a t i m e s e r i e s d e s i g n was the i n t e r e s t  u s e d , was  an The  because of  i n s t u d y i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s of a d j u s t m e n t ,  not t h e outcome.  The  p r o c e s s of adjustment  t e s t was  t h a t of the u-curve h y p o t h e s i s .  validity  of t h e u-curve  t h e o r y was  t h a t was  and put  In essence,  put t o t e s t .  to  the  The  international  s t u d e n t s were s t u d i e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f  time  (from October  to A p r i l ) .  to  collect  The  s u r v e y method was  the d a t a .  The  t i m e s e r i e s method i s a way  of mapping change i n  i n d i v i d u a l s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s over time The  up and down map  given  used  (Agnew & P i k e ,  of change i n a time s e r i e s c u r v e , f o r a  individual, will  follow a given course f o r a  c o m b i n a t i o n of reasons  (Agnew and P i k e ,  1987).  s t u d y , t h e t i m e s e r i e s c u r v e u n d e r s t u d y was cultural  adjustment  of a d j u s t m e n t  (GSC,  of  13 i n t e r n a t i o n a l  ASC,  the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g  ACP,  ACC)  in response addition,  In  the  this  cross-  students.  Indices  were s e l e c t e d t o e x p l o r e  adjustment.  Conducting a survey i s often u s e f u l people f e e l about  1987).  a particular  to a p a r t i c u l a r  for exploring  i s s u e , o r how  situation  t h e y may  (Mcburney,  how behave  1983).  s u r v e y s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o examine  In  19 c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e s u b j e c t s r e s p o n s e s a n d t o l o o k f o r p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h o s e (Kidder,  responses  1981).  This study,  e x p l o r e d change p a t t e r n s over  c o r r e l l a t i o n s among g e n e r a l concept,  time and  s e l f - c o n c e p t and academic  a t t i t u d e towards Canadians,.and a t t i t u d e  the Canadian  self  towards  culture.  Through g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e responses, process  of adjustment through  time  exploratory  study.  statistical  t e s t s were u s e d t o t e s t  the  was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s  The g r a p h e d d a t a  and supplementary the notions of a u-curve  p a t t e r n of adjustment f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  students.  There a r e major s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s  i n the survey  r e s e a r c h method i n terms o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l  validity.  Internal validity  t o which  concerns i t s e l f with the extent  the o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e independent v a r i a b l e and dependent v a r i a b l e i s a c a u s a l one. validity can  deals with the extent  research  The m a j o r s t r e n g t h o f t h e s u r v e y  that i t forces the researcher  1987).  F o r example, a f t e r  questionnaires, individual  validity  t o examine t h e " r e a l  The u s e o f a c t u a l p h y s i c a l  g r e a t l y enhance t h e v a l i d i t y  Pike,  method o f  i s t h a t i t o f f e r s a great d e a l of e x t e r n a l  (Agnew & P i k e , 1 9 8 7 ) . can  t o which the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  be made f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f  interest.  in  External  of t h e survey the c o l l e c t i o n  evidence  (Agnew & of data v i a  i n t e r v i e w s w o u l d be c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e  research  participants.  world"  20 The  weakness of  i s t o l d t o us may reality  t h i s method l i e s  be  (Agnew & P i k e ,  r e f l e c t a l a c k of  Schwartz, & S e c h r i s t , The in  1987).  Indeed, lack  could  internal validity  be  anything  what  actual  of  r e s p o n s e s and  behavior  (Webb, C a m p b e l l ,  1.966).  f a c t o r of c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s  survey research  fact that  v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from the  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between q u e s t i o n n a i r e may  i n the  (Sidman, 1960). from b i a s e d  i s a major  Intervening  responding to  concern  variables  the  questionnaire  t o t h e manner i n w h i c h q u e s t i o n s were w o r d e d  on  (Agnew & P i k e ,  the  survey  1987).  The  intervening  v a r i a b l e s s e r v e t o weaken t h e  internal validity  studies  S i n c e the  (Webb e t a l . , 1 9 6 6 ) .  p r e s e n t s t u d y was  to  i d e n t i f y any  r e l a t i o n s h i p to successful to study t o the international validity  the  The  become as  objective  w h o l e body of  research  to f i n d  the bearing  adjustment,  that  Columbia.  internal  of  external  results applicable  to lessen  To the  help  lessen  interviews  collection.  As  mentioned before,  enhance the  external  validity  of  p r o c e s s of  s t u d y and  the  the  data  t h i s approach helps the  to  and/or  were c o n d u c t e d w i t h  p a r t i c i p a n t s , f o l l o w i n g the  to  the  danger between  responses versus a c t u a l a t t i t u d e s  personal  and  for  i s s u e of as  of  s t u d e n t s coming from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s  c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s , and  behaviors,  relevant  was  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  d i s c r e p a n c y of  or u n s u c c e s s f u l  survey  variables  a c t u a l p r o c e s s of a d j u s t m e n t  d o e s not  validity.  objective  possible  s t u d e n t s at U.B.C, the  of  to  also help  to  21 a l l e v i a t e the issue of i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y  (Agnew & Pike,  1987). The  Survey Instrument The  instrument  questionnaire. four areas, concept,  used i n t h i s study was  In essence,  a  survey  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e focussed  i . e ; general s e l f - c o n c e p t , academic  on  self-  a t t i t u d e towards Canadians, and a t t i t u d e towards  the Canadian c u l t u r e . The  f o l l o w i n g four q u e s t i o n s were used:  The  f i r s t q u e s t i o n d e a l s with the general s e l f - c o n c e p t :  How  have you  The  second q u e s t i o n d e a l s with the academic s e l f - c o n c e p t :  How  have you been f e e l i n g about your school work?  The  t h i r d q u e s t i o n d e a l s with a t t i t u d e and/or p e r c e p t i o n  been f e e l i n g about y o u r s e l f f o r the past week?  about Canadians: How  have you been f e e l i n g about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  Canadian, students you The  study  other  with?  f o u r t h q u e s t i o n d e a l s with a t t i t u d e s and/or  perceptions  about Canadian c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y : How  have you been f e e l i n g about the Canadian c u l t u r e and  soc i e t y ? A Likert ranging  type r a t i n g s c a l e was  from -4  (extremely  used f o r each area,  negative)  to +4  (extremely  positive) . In a d d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s were asked to provide d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s i n three balnk  spaces.  three  Finally, a  22 small space i s given to d e s c r i b e any major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s and/or The  i n c i d e n t s f o r every q u e s t i o n .  format f o r answering  each q u e s t i o n i s as  (Ratings) -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 Adjectives:  ,  Major C o n t r i b u t i n g  +4  ,  factors/incidents:  An important element, the d i s c u s s i o n .  +2 +3  follows:  The  namely that of r e l i a b i l t y ,  reason t h i s issue has not been  enters fully  addressed is.due to the f a c t that only four q u e s t i o n s were i n v o l v e d i n the whole survey, and f o r any c a l c u l a t i o n s , at l e a s t twenty 1967).  of  items are needed  However as Nunnaly notes  shown a very high degree  reliability (Nunnaly,  (1967), L i k e r t  of r e l i a b i l i t y  s c a l e s have  even when the number  items used are small ( i . e ; l e s s than twenty).  only four items were used was  because  very c l e a r  The  reason  and  s i m p l i f i e d q u e s t i o n s were needed f o r the data sampling i n the time s e r i e s . purpose  Four q u e s t i o n s were generated f o r the  of e x p l o r i n g the process of adjustment  i n t e r n a t i o n a l students over time. i s that no psychometric  The  of  l i m i t a t i o n of course,  i n f o r m a t i o n on these s c a l e s i s  available. Procedure S u b j e c t s : The  s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were a group of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l students who  had come to study i n the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Before the study a c t u a l l y  began, 60 i n t e r n a t i o n a l students were p a i r e d up with an equal number of Canadian  peers i n a program run by  Dr.s  23 Westwood and Ishiyama Psychology  of the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g  of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  A l l of  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l students were v o l u n t e e r s i n t h i s  "peer  p a i r i n g program". The matching account  was  done very c a r e f u l l y , t a k i n g i n t o  key f a c t o r s such as age,  s t u d i e s , i n t e r e s t s , languages  sex, department or f i e l d of  spoken, and any  other  important p r e f e r e n c e s the i n t e r n a t i o n a l students and Canadian  peers may  have had.  The  International  were then p a i r e d a c c o r d i n g to each of the key mentioned with a Canadian  peer.  their  Students  factors  For a more d e t a i l e d  d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t s , c o n s u l t t a b l e I i n the  results  section. Survey A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : In a meeting  f o r the Canadian  peers,  v o l u n t e e r s were r e c r u i t e d to help i n the process of data collection.  The r o l e of these Canadian  a d m i n i s t e r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to t h e i r peer every 7-14  days throughout  to A p r i l .  Because the Canadian  p a r t i c i p a n t s was  to  i n an i n t e r v a l of  the academic year from September student and h i s / h e r  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t were to meet as peers, as p a r t of the program, they c o u l d arrange the a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e t a b l e so as to accomodate time f o r the q u e s t i o n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The  study began l a t e  i n September, and consent  were signed by those i n t e r n a t i o n a l students w i l l i n g participate  i n the study.  A t o t a l of 15  students agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e dropped  forms to  international  i n the study, and of those, 2  out f o r p e r s o n a l reasons.  The data c o l l e c t i o n began  24 i n October.  The Canadians,  i n e f f e c t , acted as c o n t a c t  persons between the r e s e a r c h e r s and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l students being surveyed.  A l l s u b j e c t s went t o t h e i r  f o r completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . dropped  peer  Completed surveys were  i n t o the "survey d e p o s i t box" i n the department of  c o u n s e l l i n g psychology of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  T h i s approach proved very u s e f u l l  i n the  i n t e r v i e w i n g segment of the study. When the study was over, most of the students had l e f t  the u n i v e r s i t y t o r e t u r n t o  t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s having completed  their  final  exams.  Since each of them had been a s s i g n e d t o a Canadian peer, i t was p o s s i b l e t o approach those peers i n the event that the f o r e i g n student h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f was u n a v a i l a b l e t o provide i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g h i s / h e r adjustment.  For the format of  the i n t e r v i e w s , c o n s u l t Appendix V I I . Data  Analysis Due t o a small number of s u b j e c t s (n=13) an i n d i v i d u a l  case a n a l y s i s of the time s e r i e s data was conducted on each subject.  V i s u a l a n a l y s i s was the primary method of data  analysis.  Graphs were used t o observe the p a t t e r n s of  adjustment.  The u-curve h y p o t h e s i s was put t o . t e s t .  As a  back up t o the graphs, C - S t a t i s t i c s and orthogonal polynomials were used t o a i d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the graphs.  C o r r e l l a t i o n s were used t o explore the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between GSC and ASC, ACP and ACC, and between the s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d i n a l dimensions Appendix VIII f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n ) .  (consult  These were done f o r  25 i n d i v i d u a l s and groups (Male v s . Female and E a s t e r n v s . Western).  Finally,  3-dimensional  graphs were used t o a s s i s t  in the i n t e r p r e a t i o n of the adjustment of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l students. The  The data a n a l y s i s i s now d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . first  approach was to c o n s t r u c t t a b l e s f o r the  r a t i n g s given f o r every q u e s t i o n a c r o s s the t i m e t a b l e specified  (October  to A p r i l ) .  The t a b l e s were used to  r e c o r d the r a t i n g s of every  i n d i v i d u a l subject a c r o s s the  months of October to A p r i l .  Since each subject gave four  responses  ( f o r general s e l f - c o n c e p t , academic s e l f - c o n c e p t ,  a t t i t u d e s towards Canadians, and a t t i t u d e s towards Canadian c u l t u r e r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , each response separate  frequency  table.  was recorded onto a  A l l s u b j e c t s responded to the  four q u e s t i o n s each time and t h e i r  responses  were recorded,  t a b u l a t e d , and graphed to i n d i c a t e f l u c t u a t i o n over  time.  Since the s u b j e c t s gave v a r i a b l e numbers of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n any p a r t i c u l a r month of the study, the r a t i n g s were simply averaged subject  f o r every month f o r every  ( J a c c a r d , 1983). For any m i s s i n g data, the average  of a l l the other data was taken as t o provide an estimate of the m i s s i n g p o i n t (Zar, 1984). The data.  next  step was to v i s u a l l y analyze the t r e n d of the  The s u b j e c t s r a t i n g s f o r each q u e s t i o n were graphed  to study  the t r e n d of adjustment to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the  u-curve h y p o t h e s i s . to -4 (see survey  The o r d i n a t e ranged from a value of +4  instrument), and the a b s c i s s a was a  t i m e l i n e showing months ( O c t o b e r - A p r i l ) .  Since s u b j e c t s  26 gave i n d i f f e r e n t numbers of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , these graphs were used p r i m a r a l y to look f o r any trends i n adjustment. A l s o , the trends f o r the each of the four q u e s t i o n s were compared w i t h each other as t o v i s u a l l y t e s t  f o r any  p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the four i n d i c e s of adjustment. The trends f o r a l l four q u e s t i o n s were then p l o t t e d onto the same graph f o r every s u b j e c t . As e x p l a i n e d before, each s u b j e c t had h i s / h e r responses to every q u e s t i o n graphed. As a r e s u l t , each s u b j e c t ended up with four graphs. Since a t o t a l of 13 people p a r t i c i p a t e d in the study, a t o t a l of 52 graphs were o b t a i n e d . In accordance with the e x p l o r a t o r y a s p e c t s of the study, the f i r s t  graph, g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t , was compared  to the second, academic  s e l f - c o n c e p t , to see i f any s i m i l i a r  trends e x i s t e d v i s u a l l y . The t h i r d and f o u r t h graphs, regarding a t t i t u d e s toward the Canadians and toward the Canadian c u l t u r e , were a l s o a n a l y z e d . 3-dimensional graphs of adjustment were a l s o p l o t t e d . These were used to a s s i s t  i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  adjustment of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s .  These were done  by a computer program d e r i v e d from the TELEGRAF program f o r graphics.  For more i n f o r m a t i o n about the t h r e e dimensional  graphs, c o n s u l t Appendix  V.  In order to a s s i s t the a n a l y s i s of the adjustment trends found on the graphs, a number of s t a t i s t i c a l were done. analysis.  tests  These were used as an adjunct to the v i s u a l  27 The i f any was  individual  graphs were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  t r u e trends d i d e x i s t .  The  C-statistic  used to analyze the r a t i n g s to see i f any  trends e x i s t e d .  t e s t e d to see (Tryon,  significant  T h i s approach p r o v i d e s a simple method of  e v a l u a t i n g any p o s s i b l e i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f e c t s . u n d e r l y i n g the C - s t a t i s t i c visual  1982)  The  logic  i s the same as that u n d e r l y i n g  a n a l y s i s ; the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the s u c c e s s i v e data  points i s evaluated r e l a t i v e  to the changes i n slope from  one p e r i o d of time to the o t h e r . For the puposes of our experiment 7 data p o i n t s (N=7), were used which corresponded study.  The  c r i t i c a l value was  significance The statistic  to the seven months of  (Tryon,  set 1.62  at the  .05  the l e v e l of  1982).  main l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n to be answered by the was  significant  wether or not the data had  trends.  C-  shown any  For more i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s u l t Appendix  I. I f a t r e n d was  found  mathematical technique, Rosnow, 1982), was trends.  i n any  of the graphs,  orthogonal  polynomials  another (Rosenthal,  used to determine the nature of the  In t h i s way  we  were able to see i f the nature of  the t r e n d s were curves or simply s t r a i g h t  lines.  For more  i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s u l t Appendix I I . On  the a d j e c t i v e s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the  s u b j e c t s had  the o p p o r t u n i t y to respond  with a maximmum of  three a d j e c t i v e s f o r every q u e s t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In order to analyze t h i s p o r t i o n of the data, i t was  28 necessary  first  adjectives. throughout  to f i n d a method of o b j e c t i v e l y ranking  A l l of the a d j e c t i v e s given by the  from -4  researchers  the year were put onto one q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  r a t e r s were asked  the  The  to r a t e the a d j e c t i v e s on a s c a l e ranging  (extremely  negative) to +4  (extremeley  (see Appendix I I I : A d j e c t i v e Rating Sheet). students uninvolved  positive),  Five  graduate  i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t r a t e d the  a d j e c t i v e s using the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( I t was  impossible to  have the i n t e r n a t i o n a l students themselves rank the data, many of them having departed  right after  f i n a l exams).  F o l l o w i n g the r a t i n g s made by a l l f i v e r a t e r s , averages were taken  f o r the r a t i n g s given f o r every a d j e c t i v e . For every q u e s t i o n , a l l a d j e c t i v e s , p o s i t i v e and/or  negative, were averaged  as to provide an average a d j e c t i v e  r a t i n g . Tables were set up i n the same manner as numerical  the  r a t i n g s . Graphs were a l s o drawn to provide  another  v i s u a l medium to t e s t the u-curve h y p o t h e s i s . The  last  stage of the survey acted as an  f o l l o w up to the data a n a l y s i s . was  a way  T h i s segment of the  of o b t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l  c o n f i r m i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l and  i n f o r m a t i o n , as w e l l as  I t was  hoped that  approach would be provided to t e s t the u-curve  hypothesis. helped  study  graphical information  obtained d u r i n g the data a n a l y s i s . another  important  The  i n t e r v i e w s proved  helpfull  i n that they  i n the e x p l o r a t o r y aspects of the study d i s c u s s e d  earlier.  For more i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the interviews,  c o n s u l t Appendix V I I .  29 If the f o r e i g n students had departed f o r t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s r i g h t a f t e r t h e i r f i n a l exams, the Canadian peers were approached to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the i n t e r n a t i o n a l students' process of adjustment.  30  Chapter 5 Results Introductory The first  Comments  r e s u l t s a r e presented here i n four s e c t i o n s .  The  s e c t i o n shows a l l of the t a b l e s f o r the numerical and  adjective tables  ratings for questions  f o r every s i n g l e s u b j e c t ,  1 through 4, and c o r r e l a t i o n Eastern  students, and Male and Female students. discusses study.  and Western The second  the r e s u l t s of each of the 13 s u b j e c t s  i n the  The t h i r d s e c t i o n does so with the East/West and  Male/Female groups, as w e l l as the whole subject final  section  section  i s a summary s e c t i o n regarding  pool.  The  the s i g n i f i c a n t  aspects of the r e s u l t s . For d e f i n i t i o n s such as "GSC" or "ACC" r e f e r to s e c t i o n on d e f i n i t i o n of terms (Appendix V I I I ) .  For terms such as  "quadrant I" on the 3-dimensional graph, r e f e r to appendix V.  A l l graphs are i n Appendix V I .  S e c t i o n I : Tables f o r Numerical R a t i n g s , A d j e c t i v e and C o r r e l a t i o n s Preceding the t a b l e s , i s a d e s c r i p t i v e t a b l e all  relevant  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s u b j e c t s  Ratings listing  (see Table 1).  There are a t o t a l of four t a b l e s f o r the r a t i n g responses c o r r e s p o n d i n g to each of the four q u e s t i o n s r e p e c t i v e l y (see tables  1-4) .  The same a p p l i e s to the a d j e c t i v e  ratings  (see t a b l e s 5-8). C o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e s e x i s t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l subjects and  ( t a b l e 9 ) , East/West groups ( t a b l e 10),  Male/Female groups ( t a b l e 11).  0  31  Table 1 DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECTS AGE  SEX  MARITAL  S01  27  F  S02  27  S03  STATUS  ETHNICITY  FIELD OF STUDY  Single  Eastern  Biology  F  Single  Eastern  Science (?)  20  F  Single  Eastern  Psychology  S04  24  M  Single  Eastern  Engineering  S05  29  M  Single  Eastern  English L i t .  S06  23  M  Single  Eastern  Engineering  S07  28  M  Single  Eastern  Engineering  S08  22  F  Single  Western  English L i t .  S09  26  M  Single  Western  Political Sci.  SI 0  23  F  Single  Western  Psychology  S1 1  22  F  Single  Western  Botany  S1 2  22  F  Single  Western  Biology  S.1 3  27  M  Single  Western  Political Sci.  TABLE 2 SUBJECTIVE NUMERICAL RATINGS fOR GSC Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  S01  + 2.33  -2 .00  + 1.00  + 3 .00  + 3.50  + 4.00  + 4.00  S02  + 3.00  -1 .00  + 0 .80  + 2.50  + 1.00  + 1.00  0 .00  S03  + 2.00  + 1.5  + 1.57  + 2.00  + 2 .00  + 1.00  + 1.00  S04  + 2.00  + 2.00  + 2.00  + 3 .00  + 3 .00  + 3 .00  + 3.00  SOS  + 0 .50  0 .00  0 .00  0 .00  0 .00  + 1.00  0 .00  S06  + 2.56  + 2.67  + 2.00  + 2.50  + 3 .00  + 2.50  + 2.56  S07  -1 .00  0 .00  + 0.50  + 1.00  + 2.00  + 1.00  + 1.00  S08  -1 .00  + 1.00  + 0.67  + 2.00  + 1.00  0 .00  + 1.00  S09  + 4 .00  0 .0.0  + 1. 1 3 + 2.00  0 .00  -0 .50  + 4.00  S1 0  + 3 .00  + 3 .00  + 4.00  + 1.75  + 3 .00  + 4.00  + 3 .50  S1 1  + 1.42  + 1.67  + 1.00  + 2 .67  + 2 .00  + 1.00 ' -1 .00  S12  +2.00  +2.50  -1.00  +2.67  +3.00  +3.00  +3.00  S13  +1.00  +0.50  +1.00  +1.00  +0.50  +1.50  +0.91  TABLE 3 SUBJECTIVE NUMERICAL fOR ASC  RATINGS  Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  S01  + 2.33  + 2.50  + 0.50  + 2.00  + 2 .50  + 1.50  + 2.50  S02  -3 .00  + 0 .67  + 0.30  + 1 .00  + 2 .00  + 1.00  -2 .00  S03  + 1.00  + 1 .00  + 0.71  + 2.00  + 1 .00  0 .00  -1 .00  S04  + 1.00  + 1.00  + 2.00  + 3.00  + 3 .00  + 3.00  + 3.00  S05  -0 .50  0 .00  0 .00  + 1.00  + 1.00  0 .00  + 1.00  S06  + 2.44  + 2.67  + 1.00  + 2.50  + 3.00  + 2.50  + 2.44  S07  -2 .00  -0 .67  + 0.13  + 2.00  + 2 .00  + 1.00  0 .00  S08  0 .00  + 1.00  +  o .33  + 1.00  -1 .00  0 .00  + 1.00  SO 9  0 .00  + 1.50  + 0.75  + 4.00  0 .00  -1 .00  + 1 .00  S1 0  + 2.00  + 2.33  + 4 .00  + 3.00  + 3 .25  + 3.00  + 2.00  S1 1  + 1.33  + 1 .67  + 1 .50  + 1.33  + 2 .00  + 1.50  -1 .00  S1 2  + 2.00  + 2.00  0 .00  '+2 • 67  + 3 .00  0 .00  + 3 .00  S13  -2 .00  + 1.00  + 1.00  + 1.50  -1 .00  + 2.00  + 0.45  TABLE 4 SUBJECTIVE NUMERICAL FOR ACP  RATINGS  Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  S01  + 4 .00  + 4.00  + 4 .00  + 4.00  + 4.00  + 4 .00  + 4.00  S02  + 3 .00  + 3. 33  + 2.50  + 1 .50  + 3 .00  + 2.00  + 2.00  S03  + 2.00  + 2.00  + 2.00  + 2 .00  + 2.00  + 2 .00  + 2.00  S04  + 3.00  + 3. 00  + 3.00  + 3.00  + 3.00  + 3.00  + 3 .00  S05  + 0 .50  0. 00  0 .00  -1 .00  0 .00  + 1.00  + 1.00  S06  + 1 .44  + 0.67  + 1 .00  + 2.00  + 2.00  + 1.00  + 0 .22  S07  + 2.00  -1 . 33  0 .00  + 1 .00  + 2.00  + 1.00  + 1 .00  S08  + 1 .00  + 1 .00  + 0 .83  0 .00  + 1.00  + 2.00  0 .00  S09  + 1.00  0. 00  + 0.50  + 2.00  0 .00  -0 .50  + 2 .00  S1 0  + 4.00  + 4. 00  + 4 .00  + 4.00  + 4.00  + 4.00  + 4.00  S1 1  + 2. 17  + 2. 50  + 2.00  + 2.33  + 3.00  + 2.50  + 2.00  S1 2  + 1 .00  + 2.00  + 1.00  + 3.00  + 3.00  + 3 .50  + 3.00  S1 3  + 3.00  + 2.00  -1 .00  -0 .67  -1 .50  + 1.00  + 0.27  TABLE 5 SUBJECTIVE NUMERICAL FOR ACC  RATINGS  Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  SO 1  + 4.00  + 4 .00  + 4.00  + 4.00  + 0.50  + 3.00  + 4.00  S02  + 2.00  -1 .00  0 .00  + 1 .00  0 .00  0 .00  -1 .00  S03  + 2.00  + 3.00  + 2.71  + 3.00  + 3 .00  + 3.00  + 2 .00  S04  0 .00  0 .00  0 .00  + 1 .00  + 1.00  + 2.00  + 2.00  S05  -0 .50  0 .00  -1 .00  + 1.00  -1 .00  -1 .00  -1 .00  S06  + 0.22  0 .00  0 .00  0 .00  0 .00  + 1.00  + 0.22  S07  + 2.00  0 .00  + 0.63  + 1.00  + 1.00  0 .00  + 1.00  S08  + 1.00  + 1 .00  + 0.17  0 .00  -1 .00  0 .00  0 .00  S09  -1 .00  + 2.00  + 0.50  + 1.00  0 .00  -1 .00  + 2.00  SI 0  + 3.00  + 4.00  + 3.00  + 2 .25  + 3.00  + 3 .33  0 .00  SI 1  + 1.50  + 0 .67  + 2.00  + 1.33  + 2.00  + 2.25  + 1 .00  S1 2  -2 .00  0 .00  + 1.00  + 1 .67  + 1.00  + 1.00  + 2 .00  S1 3  0 .00  + 1 .00  0 .00  + 1 .33  + 0.50  + 1 .00  + 0.82  TABLE 6 SUBJECTIVE ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR GSC Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  S01  -1 .55  -2. 36  - o . 92  + 1.29  + 1.34  + 2.37  + 1.57  SO 2  + 0.72  -0. 97  - o . 24  + 1.54  -1 .00  + 0.12  -1 .83  S03  + 1.95  -0. 03  - o . 32  + 2.59  -1 .83  "2. 59  -2 .00  S04  + 0.67  + 0.22  + 0.77  + 1.33  + 1.17  + 0.29  +  S05  + 0. 1 1 + 0.17  + 0.67  + 0.33  + 0.33  - o . 50  -0 .50  S06  + 0.40  + 1.34  -2. 1 7 + 0.89  + 2.67  -2. 00  + 1.67  S07  -2 .33  + 0.60  -o. 1 3  ••+ 1..06  + 1.42  + 0.45  -2 .00  S08  -1 .33  + 1. 00  + 0.51  + 1.00  + 1.50  -1 .34  + 2.25  S09  -0 .59  t o . 05  -o. 1 7  -2 .17  + 0.33  -1 .03  + 2.39  •si 0  + 1•  + 2.02  + 2.1 1 -0 .49  + 1.89  + 2.48  + 0.06  SI 1  -1 .15  + 0.45 . -2. 33  + 1.67  -2 .33  -2. 75 . -1.61  S1 2  + 1.67  + 0.42  -1 .50  + 1.69  + 1.67  +0. 90  + 2.17  •SI 3  + 1.28  -0. 28  -0. 97  + 1.92  -0 .61  + 0.80  + 0.36  1  9  o  .92  TABLE 7 SUBJECTIVE ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR ASC Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  S01  -0 .80  -0. 13  -1 .47  -0 .67  + 0.74  -0 .30  -0 .67  S02  -3 .17  - o . 33  -0 .21  + 1.71  34 +1 .  + 0.72  -1 .5.0  S03  + 0.61  + 0.96  -0 .82  + 1.83  -2. 00  -3 .17  -3 .17  S04  -1 .50  + 0.24  + 0.26  + 1.17  - o . 50  + 0.67  + 1.50  S05  + 0.04  + 0.67  + 0.67  -0 .50  + 1 .17  -0 .22  + 0.17  S06  + 0.36  + 0.74  + 1.17  + 0 .42  + 1 .17  -2 .00  + 0.67  S07  -1 .92  - o . 80  + 0.17  + 1.42  + 2.17  + 1.75  -1 .61  S08  -1 .00  + 0.67  -0 .07  + 1.25  -2. 33  -1 .28  + 2.25  S09  -o .67  - o . 92  0 .00 . +1 .92  + 0.33  -1 .00  + 0.39  S1 0  + 0.92  32 +1 .  + 2.28  + 1. 1 3 + 1 . 89  + 1.44  + 2.33  S1 1  + 0. 1 5 + 0. 57  -0 .28  + 1.57  + 0.33  + 0.42  -1 .75  S1 2  +1  + 0.97  -2 .33  + 1.36  + 1.25  -1 .56  + 1.33  S1 3  -0 .17  - o . 15  -0 .80  + 0.95  + 0.05  + 1.95  + 0.51  TABLE 8 SUBJECTIVE ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR ACP Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  SOI  + 2.29  + 2.00  + 2.78  + 2.42  + 2.1 7 + 2.50  39 +1 .  S02  + 1.83  + 2.69  + 2.21  + 0 .97  + 3.00  + 2.42  + 2.34  S03  -0 . 1 7 + 1 . 28  + 1.02  + 1.33  + 0.33  + 3.00  + 0.33  S04  + 1.94  + 0.56  + 0.85  + 1.42  + 0.33  + 0.50  + 0.33  S05  + 1.39  +1 . 59  + 1.00  + 0 .33  + 0.33  + 1.42  + 0.67  S06  + 0.71  + 0.33  + 0.33  + 1.59  00 +1 .  + 0.67  + 0.33  S07  + 1.34  -2. 33  + 0.71  + 1.59  42 +1 .  + 1.34  + 0.92  S08  + 0.67  + 0.67  + 0. 1 1 -0 .67  -1 . 1 7 + 0.84  + 0. 33  S09  -1 .44  + 0.27  +  -1 .50  + 0.79  + 0.50  S1 0  + 2.33  + 2.1 5 + 1.89  + 2. 1 3 + 2.24  + 2.08  +1 . 84  + 1.61  + 2.25  + 2.58  + 1.50  + 0.92  + 2.33  + 0.09  S1 2  + 1.39  + 2.00  + 2.33  + 1.50  + 2.00  + 1.80  50 +1 .  3  + 0.67  - o . 33  -1 .21  -o .13  -2. 33  + 2.42  -0. 1 5  S11  S1  ;  o  .27  + 3.00  Feb  Mar  Apr  TABLE 9 SUBJECTIVE ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR ACC Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  S01  + 2.1 7 + 2.42  + 2.42  + 1.84  -2 .33  -0 .22  + 0.33  S02  + 2.83  -1 .67  - o . 52  + 0.28  -2 .83  + 0.17  -1 .92  S03  +1 . 78  + 1.88  69 +1 .  + 1.33  + 1.17  + 1.83  + 2.1 7  S04  -0. 1 7 + 0.33  + 0.47  + 1.00  + 0.33  + 1.00  + 0.33  S05  + 0.50  -1 .83  -2. 33  + 2.33  -0 .83  + 0. 1 1 + 0.84  S06  + 0.48  -0 .08  -0. 33  -0 .33  -0 .33  + 1.67  + 2.25  42  + 0.12  + 0.18  + 0.92  + 1.34  -1 .78  + 0.92  S08  + 0.67  + 0.67  -0. 27  -0 .17  -1 .42  -0 .67  -0. 67  S09  + 0.06  + 0.22  - o . 24  -1 .39  -1 .50  -1 .44  -0. 28  S10  71 +1 .  + 1.79  + 1.22  -0 .60  + 1.83  + 0.85  + 2.06  S1 1  + 0.45  + 0.42  + 2.00  + 0.08  + 1.83  + 0.84  + 1 .1 7  S12  -1. 75  -0 .50  0. 00  + 1.06  -0 .67  -0 .13  67 +1 .  S13  + 0.61  + 1.54  -2. 1 6 -0 .83  + 0.78  + 3.00  + 0.49  S07  _  0  -  40  TABLE 10 Gsc and Asc  Gsc and Acp  Gsc and Acc  ASC and Acp  Asc and Acc  Tsc and Acp  Tsc and Acc  Can and Gsc  Can and Asc  S01  + .23  *n .a  -.18  *n .a  + .13  *n .a  + .08  -.32  -.20  S02  -.04  -.07  + .25  -.44  + .32  -.40  + .40  + .10  -.26  S03  + .88  -.54  + .09  -.52  + .44  -.54  + .34  -.35  -.11  S04  + .96  *n .a  + .89  *n. a  + .85  *n .a  + .87  + .89  + .85  S05  -.73  + .66  -.50  -.13  -.10  -.18  + .66  -.43  S06  + .40  + .75  + .06  + .04  + .04  + .75  + 1 .00 + .79  + .06  S07  + .67  + .65  + .52  + .50  + .10  + .63  + .32  + .19  S08  + .34  -.60  -.43  -.54  + .54  -.67  S09  + .72  + .88  + .68  + .83  + .88  + .92  + .83  + .82  + .90  S10  + .21  -.23  -.33  -.10  + .37  -.15  + .27  -.09  + .35  SI 1  + .75  + .34  -.04  + .41  + .09  + .40  + .02  + .11  + .25  SI 2  + .35  + .64  + .20  + .13  + .09  + .42  + .16  + .44  + .12  SI 3  + .33  + .37  + .21  -.32  -.34  + .16  + .42  + .44  + .44  0  0  + .05 -.71  0  *n.a: A l l values i n one column are i d e n t i c a l , making c o r r e l a t i o n computations by the M i n i t a b program i m p o s s i b l e . Note: "Can" i s the same term as "Can/p/c". P set at .05.  TABLE 11 Gsc and Asc  Gsc and Acp  Gsc and Acc  EAST  + .50  + .14  WEST  + .40  + .46  Asc and Acp  ASC and Acc  Tsc and Acp  Tsc and Acc  Can and . Gsc  + .22  -.18  -.41  -.03  -.13  + .27  -.46  -.26  -.24  + .60  + .07  + .26  + .12  + .33  Asc and Acc  Tsc and Acp  Tsc and Acc  Can and Gsc  Can and Asc 0  Can and Asc  TABLE 12 Gsc and Asc MALE  + .26  FEMALE + .30 EAST: n=7 WEST: n=6 MALE: n=6 FEMALE: n=7  Gsc and Acp  Gsc and Acc  Asc and Acp  -.01  + .51  -.51  + .67  -.44  + .75  + .27  + .22  -.15  + .29  -.15  + .31  -.19  + .05  + .12  42  S e c t i o n I I ; R e s u l t s f o r I n d i v i d u a l Subjects There were a t o t a l of t h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s i n the study. The  r e s u l t s of each are now  Subject  discussed.  1 (Japanese/Female/Single/Age 27): The  numerical  r a t i n g graphs ( f i g . 1 ) showed that q u e s t i o n s  one (GSC) and  two (ASC) were s i m i l i a r  1 showed a d i p  i n shape.  Question  in the October-November time frame. seen i n e i t h e r graph. were both s t r a i g h t  Questions three  i n February.  r a t i n g graphs ( f i g . 2 ) showed roughly  gave constant  The  However, a d i p  The a d j e c t i v e  3 showed  T h i s i n d i c a t e s that t h i s  subject  f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s about  people. orthogonal  estimates  l i n e a r trend f o r q u e s t i o n  showed s t a t i s t i c a l y  3 was s i g n i f i c a n t .  c o r r e l a t i o n s y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t The  (ACC)  the same r e s u l t s f o r  1, 2, and 4, however q u e s t i o n  c o n s i s t e n t l y high r a t i n g s .  Canadian  (ACP) and four  l i n e s and were p a r r a l l e l .  was seen f o r both questions  questions  No r e a l u-curve was  that the  The  results.  3-dimensional graphs ( f i g . 3 ) showed that the  s u b j e c t ' s o v e r a l l p e r c e p t i o n of Canadian c u l t u r e and people (Can/p/c) was high. . I t was only  i n February t h a t a r e a l  "nose d i v e " was seen, however by March a l l was normal The  again.  i n t e r v i e w showed that the f i r s t  set of mid-term  exams lowered the s u b j e c t ' s s e l f - e s t e e m .  Note that t h i s  i n d i c a t e d by the monthly graphs.  T h i s subject  found  was  43 academic general  work t o be very important and s t r o n g l y t i e d t o her self-concept.  Her a t t i t u d e s about Canadians were c o n s t a n t l y f a v o r a b l e , as i n d i c a t e d i n the 2 and 3-dimensional  graphs;  e s p e c i a l l y graph three of the a d j e c t i v e s .  Her experience  with the Canadian c u l t u r e was more mixed.  She enjoyed the  i n d i v i d u a l i s m that she was a b l e to express. p r i d e i n her academic  achievements.  She took great  The s l i g h t d i p found i n  December on the two dimensional graphs were found t o be c o n s i s t e n t with academic  w o r r i e s and performance.  A l l of  these emotions however, put her i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with her Japanese  cultural  self.  Here,  she was expected to marry,  bear c h i l d r e n , and become a housewife; thereby any p e r s o n a l p u r s u i t s she may have. c o n f l i c t , was the f a c t that younger challenge their elders.  Another  abandoning  source of  people were a b l e t o  T h i s was shown t o her when a  student c h a l l e n g e d h i s i n s t r u c t o r  in c l a s s .  44 Subject 2 (Japanese/Female/Single/Age 27): The numerical r a t i n g graphs  ( f i g . 4 ) showed no s i m i l a r i t i e s between  q u e s t i o n s 1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC) i n the f i r s t  term (October to  December), however these d i f f e r e n c e s receded i n the second term (January to A p r i l ) .  The same s i t u a t i o n h e l d f o r  q u e s t i o n s 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC). showed the same r e s u l t s .  The a d j e c t i v e graphs  (fig.5)  What came up c o n s i s t e n t l y was a  d i p i n r a t i n g s i n the month of A p r i l .  No r e a l u-curve  found i n any of the graphs, however a m i l d  was  "sawtooth"  p a t t e r n was e v i d e n t , to some e x t e n t , i n each of them. The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t trends f o r any of the graphs. were: GSC v s . ASC  The only s i g n i f i c a n t  correlations  (-.44), and between ACP and TSC  (-40).  The 3-dimensional graph ( f i g . 6 ) showed a "nosedive" i n the month of A p r i l .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s occurred i n  quadrant IV (GSC and ASC n e g a t i v e ) . agreement  i s in  with the absolute value of the ACP v s . TSC  correlation The  Note that t h i s  (.40).  i n t e r v i e w showed that the subject  f e l t conscious  about being a Japanese female i n Canadian s o c i e t y .  Her  ASC  and GSC  Her  ASC  was  were found to be very c l o s e to each o t h e r .  s t r o n g l y t i e d to her academic marks and performance.  T h i s was  shown i n the 2 dimensional graphs.  Like  one, she found the expression of i n d i v i d u a l i t y culture exciting.  i n Canadian  She was a l s o impressed that females were  a b l e to explore c a r e e r s that were t r a d i t i o n a l y dominated  subject  (i.e pilot).  male-  She d i d have a c o n f l i c t with her  45 Japanese female r o l e .  Here she was expected to  marry and abandon her personal Canadian c u l t u r e aggresive"  pursuits.  (ACC) that d i s p l e a s e d  females, the weakening  and r e l a t i v e freedom of homosexual  eventually  The a s p e c t s of  her were:  "overly  of the t r a d i t i o n a l expression.  family,  Her  a t t i t u d e s about Canadian people (ACP) were c l o s e l y t i e d to her  a t t i t u d e s about Canadian c u l t u r e  interview  session  in general.  The .  f a i l e d however, to show the s i g n i f i c a n c e  of the negative c o r r e l a t i o n s .  46 Subject 3 (Malaysian/Female/Single/Age r a t i n g graphs  20): The  ( f i g . 7 ) showed q u e s t i o n s 1 (GSC)  to very s i m i l i a r .  numerical and 2  Both had a wavelike p a t t e r n .  (ACP) and 4 (ACC) were h a r d l y s i m i l i a r at a l l . was  simply a s t r a i g h t  " i n v e r t e d u-curve". showed s i m i l i a r a straight  line.  Questions 3 Question 3  Question 4 resembled  The a d j e c t i v e graphs  (ASC)  an  ( f i g . 8 ) roughly  r e s u l t s , except that q u e s t i o n three was  line.  not  No t r u e "u-curves" showed up.  The orthogonal e s t i m a t e s showed that the wavelike p a t t e r n f o r q u e s t i o n 1 was c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC ASC  vs. ACP  significant.  vs. ASC  (-.52), ASC  vs. ACC  The  (.88), GSC  significant  vs. ACP  (-.54),  (.44), and TSC vs.  ACC  (.34). The  3-dimensional graph showed ( f i g . 9 ) low Can/p/c  r a t i n g s i n October, but that r a p i d l y changed. shot up i n november.  ratings  From November u n t i l February, the  l e v e l of r a t i n g s stayed h i g h . o c c u r r e d i n quadrant  The  Note that a l l of t h i s  II (GSC and ASC  are p o s i t i v e ) .  In  March a "nosedive" o c c u r r e d i n which the r a t i n g s with r e s p e c t t o Can/p/c simply dropped. way  to A p r i l .  and ASC  The  T h i s happened a l l the  "nosedive" o c c u r r e d i n quadrant  (GSC  are n e g a t i v e ) .  T h i s s u b j e c t had strong l i n k s between her GSC T h i s was  IV  amply supported by the graphs and  Academic performance with Canadians  was  l i n k e d to ASC.  ASC.  correlations.  She got along w e l l  and a p p a r e n t l y had no. t r o u b l e making  She a l s o l i k e the Canadian  and  friends.  c u l t u r e and noted that she would  47 l i k e to r e t u r n  to Canada to continue her s t u d i e s and  p o s s i b l y make a l i f e explain  i n Canada.  What was d i f f i c u l t to  i n the c o r r e l a t i o n s were the negative numbers.  the p r e v i o u s s u b j e c t ,  the interview  failed  Like  to h i g h l i g h t the,  s i g n i f i c a n c e of those negative c o r r e l a t i o n s .  48 Subject 4 ( S r i Lankan/Male/Single/Age 24): The r a t i n g graphs ( f i g . 1 0 ) f o r q u e s t i o n s 1 (GSC) were found to be very s i m i l i a r . evident  i n both.  Question  l i n e and q u e s t i o n 4 (ACC) progression.  results.  pattern.  Question  c o u n t e r p a r t and  1 and  3 showed lower  i t was  was  straight  The  2 showed a "sawtooth"  r a t i n g s from  not a s t r a i g h t a straight  line.  i t s numerical  The  l i n e at an  numerical average  a d j e c t i v e v e r s i o n of q u e s t i o n 3 had  4 f o r the numerical  previously, questions  an  1.  q u e s t i o n 2 showed a s l i g h t u-curve 1 and  ratings. trend.  trends f o r  Note that  As  noted  2 showed s l i g h t u-curve  trends  graphs.  The GSC  a simple  orthogonal estimates showed s i g n i f i c a n t  q u e s t i o n s 2 and  in the  was  (ASC)  showed a "step l a d d e r "  Questions  r a t i n g at roughly  The  2  A s l i g h t u-shape  3 (ACP)  ( f i g . 10) was  r a t i n g of t h r e e . average  and  The a d j e c t i v e graphs ( f i g . 1 1 ) showed very  different  r a t i n g graph  numerical  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC  vs. ACC  (.89), ASC  Can/p/c vs. GSC The  v s . ACC  (.85), TSC  (.89), and Can/p/c vs. ASC  3-dimensional  graph  v s . ASC  vs. ACC  (.96),  (.87),  (.85).  ( f i g . 1 2 ) simply confirmed  the  r e s u l t s of the 2 dimensional graphs and the c o r r e l a t i o n s , . However, new of October  d i s c o v e r i e s were made.  to A p r i l ,  that throughout (GSC  and ASC  Throughout the months  the Can/p/c r a t i n g s were low.  Note  t h i s time, the r a t i n g s were i n quadrant  negative).  However i n the month of  IV  January,  the r a t i n g s simply "shot up" and they stayed up a l l the  way  49 into A p r i l .  T h i s o c c u r r e d i n quadrant  II (GSC and ASC  both  positive). In  the i n t e r v i e w the s u b j e c t s t a t e d that he  no abrupt changes i n h i s GSC. the r e s u l t s found  i n c o n t a d i c t i o n to  i n a l l of the graphs.  to be s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to GSC, graphs t e s t i f i e d .  T h i s was  The  experienced  The ASC  was  as the c o r r e l a t i o n s  s u b j e c t ' s goal was  found  and  to become a c i v i l  engineer and to work i n h i s home country of S r i - L a n k a . terms of ACC, Canadians. his  daily  In  the s u b j e c t d i d not have much c o n t a c t with  Most of h i s classmates were f o r e i g n students and l i f e passed with f e l l o w Sri-Lankans whom he rented  a house with. " l o o s e " and  He d i d note however, that Canadian women were  "less morally s t r i c t " .  50 Subject 5 (Japanese/Male/Single/Age r a t i n g graphs  29): The  numerical  ( f i g . 1 3 ) i n d i c a t e d that q u e s t i o n 1 (GSC)  along i n a wavelike f a s h i o n a c r o s s time. f l u c t u a t e d between o and  1.  The  Question 2 (ASC)  went  ratings showed a  s i m i l i a r p a t t e r n , except that the r a t i n g s f l u c t u a t e d between 0 and -1.  Question 3 (ACP)  showed a steady d e t e r i o r a t i o n of  r a t i n g s up to January where they reached a n a d i r of -1.  A  steady climb i s then seen up to the month of March where the r a t i n g s reached an average  of 1.  Question 4 (ACC)  showed  r a t i n g s c o n s i s t e n t l y below 0; except f o r January where they reached an average of 1.  The a d j e c t i v e r a t i n g  graphs  ( f i g . 1 4 ) showed roughly the same t r e n d s . The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t for any of the graphs.  The  GSC  vs. ACP  vs. ASC  (-.73), GSC  and Can/p/c vs. GSC The  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: (.66), ASC  vs. ACP  (fig.1.5) showed low Can/p/pc  r a t i n g s f o r the October-December p e r i o d . IV (GSC and ASC  Note that t h i s  still  i n quadrant  IV.  r a t i n g s stayed high and moved to quadrant are p o s i t i v e ) .  In A p r i l ,  quadrant  positive).  The  I (ASC  location  In March the II (GSC and  i n t e r v i e w showed that the s u b j e c t ' s GSC  The  The  ASC  the r a t i n g s were l o c a t e d at  severe s t r a i n due to being a Japanese culture.  was  are n e g a t i v e ) . In the January-  February p e r i o d , the r a t i n g s began to move up. of the r a t i n g s was  (-.50),  (.66).  3-dimensional graph  in quadrant  trends  s u b j e c t ' s ASC  was  was  under  male i n Canadian  very damaged i n the month of  51 December. exam.  Here, he  r e c i e v e d poor r e s u l t s from h i s e n g l i s h  T h i s e x p l a i n s the l o c a t i o n of the r a t i n g s i n the 3  dimensional  graph i n the October-December p e r i o d .  January on,  the s u b j e c t ' s ASC  rose  (see 2  dimensional  graphs) as h i s academic performance improved. dimensional  graph showed improvement i n the  The  The  connection  between s e l f - c o n c e p t and  The  c o r r e l a t i o n s a l s o confirmed the  that  "every man  Canadian c u l t u r e was i s for himself".  He  and strong  Finally,  the  "individualistic"  and  noted that t h i s was  stark c o n t r a s t to h i s t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese c u l t u r a l upbringing individual.  where group support  ASC  a t t i t u d e dimensions.  interview a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d t h i s connection.  s u b j e c t noted how  3-  subject's  Can/p/c r a t i n g s throughout the months as h i s GSC improved.  From  i s stronger  f o r the  in  52 Subject 6 ( M a u r i t i u s Chinese/Male/Single/Age numerical r a t i n g graphs  23): The  ( f i g . 1 6 ) showed the f i r s t  q u e s t i o n s (GSC and ASC) to be very s i m i l i a r however q u e s t i o n 2 showed a s l i g h t u-curve  two  i n shape, trend.  In the  month of December, both GSC and ASC showed a d i p .  Questions  three and four (ACP and ACC) d i d not show s i m i l i a r  shapes.  Question 3 f l u c t u a t e d roughly between 1 and 2. g e n e r a l l y stayed c l o s e to 0.  Question 4  The a d j e c t i v e r a t i n g  graphs  ( f i g . 1 7 ) were s i m i l i a r to t h e i r numerical c o u n t e r p a r t s ( f i g . 1 6 ) f o r q u e s t i o n s one and two.  The December drop i n  GSC however, was markedly sharper than the numerical version.  The Month of march a l s o showed a l a r g e d i p f o r  both GSC and ASC. The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t for any of the graphs. vs. ASC ACC  trends  S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC  (.40), GSC v s . ACP  (.75), TSC v s . ACP (.75), TSC vs.  (1.00), and Can/p/c v s . GSC (.79). The 3 dimensional graph  (fig.18) showed a " c u r v i n g up"  in the months of October-February. however, there i s a "nosedive". quadrant  From March onwards  The nosedive occurs i n  II (GSC and ASC are p o s i t i v e ) .  This i s c u r i o u s  because i t i m p l i e s that as GSC and ASC of the s u b j e c t rose, h i s Can/p/c r a t i n g s of Canadian  people and C u l t u r e  became lower. The i n t e r v i e w c l e a r e d up t h i s c u r i o u s r e s u l t .  The  subject noted that as he entered Canada he was overcome by a f e e l i n g of awe and i n f e r i o r i t y with respect to the Canadian  53 culture.  H i s GSC was t h e r e f o r e  low i n the i n i t i a l  months.  In the f o l l o w i n g months however, he claimed that as h i s GSC rose, he became more c r i t i c a l culture.  of the Canadian'people  The 2-dimensional graphs d i d not show t h i s  change, but the 3-dimensional graph d i d .  was that the people seemed s u p e r f i c i a l and always He claimed that  subtle  H i s ASC was  g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by h i s s t u d i e s and he d i d do w e l l .  H i s ACP  on the go.  i t was hard to make any true f r i e n d s .  ACC was very s i m i l i a r to h i s ACP. paced  and  His  Again he noted the f a s t  l i f e and the " s u p e r f i c i a l i t y " .  54 Subject 7 ( S r i Lankan/Male/single/Age r a t i n g graphs  28): The  numerical  ( f i g . 1 9 ) showed a c o n s i s t e n t l y low GSC  mean of around  -1.  where the mean was  at a  The o n l y "high" o c c u r r e d i n February 2.  The ASC  followed a s i m i l i a r  Questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC)  showed s i m i l i a r  pattern.  shapes.  Both  s t a r t at a r a t i n g of 2 and both d i p i n the November-December period. again.  Both climb and then drop i n March, only to climb up These two curves show u-curve t r e n d s .  r a t i n g graphs  ( f i g . 2 0 ) show trends s i m i l i a r  r a t i n g s f o r q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2.  The  adjective  to the numerical  Questions 3 and 4 show a "u-  curve" i n the October-December time r e g i o n , but that p a t t e r n does not repeat i t s e l f  i n l a t e r months; the curves remain at  an upward t r e n d . The orthogonal e s t i m a t e s showed only that the graph f o r q u e s t i o n 2 was  significant.  found to be s i g n i f i c a n t .  None of the "u-curve's" were  The  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were:  GSC  vs. ASC  (.67), GSC  v s . ACP  (.65), GSC  vs.  ACP. (.50), and TSC  vs. ACP  (.63).  The  3-dimensional graph  vs. ACC  ( f i g . 2 1 ) showed very  r a t i n g s f o r the October-December time p e r i o d initial quadrant  high point  in October).  IV (GSC and ASC  February time saw  o c c u r r e d at quadrant The subject  an  These r a t i n g s o c c u r r e d at  are n e g a t i v e ) .  The Decemberf a l l down  A l l r a t i n g s from December onward  II (GSC and ASC  are both  positive).  i n t e r v i e w y i e l d e d very i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . felt  ASC  low  (after  the Can/p/c r a t i n g s shoot up and  in the f o l l o w i n g months.  (.52),  a great d e a l of pressure on h i s GSC.  He  The was  55 very s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about being a dark white-dominated s o c i e t y .  skinned person  in a  H i s way of coping was t o a s s o c i a t e  p r i m a r a l y with the Sri-Lankan community i n Vancouver, and to become p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e  i n Sri-Lankan a f f a i r s .  was a l s o very t i e d to h i s GSC.  H i s ASC  He f e l t great urgency to  s u c c e s s f u l l y complete h i s Ph.d i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g . degree was of utmost importance to  f i n d work i n S r i - L a n k a .  The  t o him, because he needed i t  H i s ACP was that females were  too " l o o s e " and the power they h e l d with r e s p e c t to men deeply s u r p r i s e d him.  H i s ACC was that Canadian c u l t u r e  "loose and w i l d " and " l a c k i n g i n true c u l t u r e " .  was  56 Subject 8 (West German/Female/Single/Age 22): The r a t i n g graphs questions  numerical  ( f i g . 2 2 ) showed a "mountain peak" p a t t e r n f o r  1 and 2 (GSC and ASC).  The  r a t i n g s were lower at  the beginning and end of the study f o r both q u e s t i o n s . Questions 3 and 4 (ACP and ACC) ratings.  showed a gradual d e c l i n e of  Question 3 showed a peak f o r March, however the  d e c l i n e i n r a t i n g s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r that month.  The  A d j e c t i v e r a t i n g graph  trends f o r  questions question  ( f i g . 2 3 ) showed s i m i l i a r  1 and 2, however a r e a l 1 i n February.  "nosedive" i s e v i d e n t f o r  Questions 3 and 4 showed gradual  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of r a t i n g s a c r o s s time. was  The only e x c e p t i o n  i n March f o r q u e s t i o n 3 where the r a t i n g s  improved.  A f t e r t h a t , the d e c l i n e  slightly  in ratings continued.  The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s . The  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC  vs. ACP  (-.54), ASC  Can/p/c vs. GSC The  vs. ACP  vs. ACC(.54), TSC vs. ACP  (-.60),  ASC  (-.67), and  (-.71).  3-dimensional graph  ( f i g . 2 4 ) showed high r a t i n g s  for Can/p/c i n October, d e s p i t e the f a c t that the r a t i n g located  i n quadrant  IV (GSC and ASC  November to January a v i r t u a l t h i s occurs i n quadrant  are n e g a t i v e ) .  "nosedive" o c c u r s .  II (GSC and ASC  was  From  Curiously,  are p o s i t i v e ) .  In  the January-February p e r i o d , the r a t i n g s are v i r t u a l l y "rockbottom". January  These r a t i n g s are l o c a t e d  (GSC and ASC  in quadrant (GSC and ASC  positive).  There  IV, but then the r a t i n g are p o s i t i v e ) .  i n quadrant  II f o r  i s a climb i n a p r i l  " d i v e s " i n quadrant  II  57 The  interview  d i d not i l l u m i n a t e any r e a l s o l u t i o n s as  to the complexity of the 2 and 3 dimensional graphs. the negative explained.  were very  nature of most of the c o r r e l a t i o n s c o u l d not be However, the a b s o l u t e  were s t r o n g .  Indeed, the subject  social Her  very  value  of the c o r r e l a t i o n s  noted that her GSC and ASC  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , and that her s t u d i e s were  important t o her. along  very  In terms of ACP she noted that she got  w e l l with Canadians.  life,  Also,  She l i k e d the Canadian  and noted that she had many Canadian f r i e n d s .  ACC was that there  i s no " r e a l Canadian c u l t u r e " .  However, she found Canadian c u l t u r e t o be " c a r e f r e e and fun".  58 Subject 9 ( B r i t i s h / M a l e / S i n g l e / A g e 26): The numerical graphs  rating  ( f i g . 2 5 ) showed a double u-curve o c c u r r i n g f o r  question  1 (GSC).  Question 2 (ASC)  The d i p s o c c u r r e d i n November and March. showed a s i m i l i a r p r o f i l e , except that  graph showed a "low s t a r t " (October). question  i n the e a r l y part of the study  Question 3 (ACP)  1.  the  showed a s i m i l i a r p r o f i l e to  Question 4 (ACC)  showed a p r o f i l e s i m i l i a r  to  q u e s t i o n 2, except that the r a t i n g s here were much lower. The a d j e c t i v e r a t i n g graphs  ( f i g . 2 6 ) showed s i m i l i a r  to t h e i r numerical c o u n t e r p a r t s f o r q u e s t i o n s 1 and Question 3 was pattern.  different.  Question 4 was  counterpart.  I t was  shapes 2.  I t showed a "mountain peak" also different  from i t s numerical  almost a s t r a i g h t curve with very  low  ratings. The orthogonal estimates confirmed that the trends found i n q u e s t i o n 1 were s i g n i f i c a n t . confirmed that the graph The  f o r q u e s t i o n 4 was  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC  vs, ACP  (.88), GSC  vs. ACC  ACC  (.84), TSC vs. ACC  GSC  (.82), Can/p/c vs. ASC The  (.68), ASC  (.83), TSC  They a l s o significant.  vs. ASC vs. ACP  vs. ACP  u-curve  (.72),  GSC  (.83), ASC  vs.  (.95), Can/p/c vs.  (.90).  3-dimensional graph  ( f i g . 7 ) showed an  initially  moderate Can/p/c r a t i n g s and then a d o w n f a l l i n the November-Decemeber time. III  The  r a t i n g s s t a r t e d i n quadrant  (GSC p o s i t i v e ) and hovered onto quadrant  negative). quadrant  IV (GSC and  ASC  In January the Can/p/c r a t i n g s rose and moved to  II (GSC and ASC  positive).  In February to March,  59 the r a t i n g s dropped both n e g a t i v e ) .  and moved to quadrant  ASC  In A p r i l , the Can/p/c r a t i n g rose  d r a m a t i c a l l y and moved to quadrant The  IV (GSC and  III (ASC  positive).  i n t e r v i e w confirmed the r e s u l t s of a l l the  and the c o r r e l a t i o n s .  GSC  and ASC  found to be  graphs  strongly  related.  Academic performance  g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d the  There was  indeed a "u-curve" i n the person's GSC.  ASC. Personal  and academic i s s u e s c o n t i b u t e d to the shape of the curve. In terms of ACP, superficial  the s u b j e c t noted that Canadians  and that  i t was  hard to meet people.  were The  s u b j e c t commented on the l a c k of knowledge shown by Canadians  i n the areas of world a f f a i r s and g e n e r a l  i n f o r m a t i o n . He noted that h i s p e r c e p t i o n of them went hand in hand with h i s GSC ratings).  and ASC  In terms of ACC,  want to be a "Canadian"  (as shown i n the graphs  and  the s u b j e c t noted he would never  and that Canadian  c u l t u r e was  a very  a  "mechanical and p l a s t i c " c u l t u r e , with heavy emphasis on the m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s of  life.  60 Subject  10 (American/Female/Single/Age  r a t i n g graphs  ( f i g . 2 8 ) showed q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 (GSC and  ASC) to be s i m i l i a r . January.  23): The numerical  The lowest p o i n t f o r GSC was i n  Both showed a c o n s i s t e n t  "sawtooth"  l i k e pattern.  The  r a t i n g s stood c o n s i s t e n t l y high; f l u c t u a t i n g between 2  and  4.  Question 3 (ACP) was simply a s t r a i g h t  r a t i n g of 3.  l i n e at a  Question 4 (ACC) showed an " i n v e r t e d u" with  the lowest r a t i n g s at 2, i n the b e g i n i n n i n g and end of the curve.  The a d j e c t i v e r a t i n g graphs  ( f i g . 2 9 ) showed  similiar  shapes to t h e i r numerical c o u n t e r p a r t s f o r q u e s t i o n s 1 through  4.  question The  The only r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s were the d i v e taken by  1 i n February, and q u e s t i o n 4 i n A p r i l . orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s .  The c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o i n s i g n i f i c a n t The  3-dimensional  graph  ( f i g . 3 0 ) showed c o n s i s t e n t l y  high Can/p/c r a t i n g s throughout A p r i l month. quadrants Only  (see t a b l e 9 ) .  the year, except  f o r the  The r a t i n g s g e n e r a l l y s h i f t e d between  II (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) and I I I (GSC p o s i t i v e ) .  i n January d i d the r a t i n g move t o the quadrant  IV (GSC  and ASC negative) and Quadrant I (ASC p o s i t i v e ) border.  The  Can/p/c r a t i n g s were h i g h i n t h i s r e g i o n as w e l l . The  i n t e r v i e w found that the s u b j e c t ' s GSC and ASC  were high throughout  the year.  I t was i n January when they  sunk, due to i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems; and  3 dimensional graphs.  as i n d i c a t e d  She noted that her GSC and ASC  were s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d , however her GSC was a l s o r e l a t e d to her ACP.  i n the 2  strongly  Her ACP was very high throughout the  61 year, because as an American she " f e l t  r i g h t at home".  made many f r i e n d s without d i f f i c u l t y and f e l t accepted. her  immediatly  The s u b j e c t ' s ACC was a l s o very f a v o r a b l e , due t o  American background.  American and Canadian c u l t u r e s  were found to be the "same" to her. temporarily  She  Her p e r c e p t i o n  altered  i n A p r i l due.to her p e r s o n a l d i s l i k e of Premier  Van Der Zalm's p o l i c i e s on a b o r t i o n .  62 Subject  11 (Danish/Female/Single/Age 22): The numerical  r a t i n g graphs question  ( f i g . 3 1 ) showed a "sawtooth" p a t t e r n f o r  1 (GSC), with the peak i n January and a steady  decline thereafter. 2 (ASC) and 3 (ACP). for a markedly graphs  S i m i l i a r p a t t e r n s showed f o r q u e s t i o n s Question 4 (ACC) was s i m i l i a r except  low r a t i n g  i n November.  The a d j e c t i v e  rating  ( f i g . 3 2 ) were more or l e s s s i m i l i a r a c r o s s a l l four  questions. The orthogonal estimates found no r e a l t r e n d s .  The  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC v s . ASC (75), ASC v s . ACP (.41), GSC v s . ACP (.34), TSC v s . ACP  (.40).  The 3-dimensional graph ( f i g . 3 3 ) showed very low Can/p/c r a t i n g s i n October, where the r a t i n g s o c c u r r e d i n quadrant I I I (GSC p o s i t i v e ) . r a t i n g s simply shot up. l o c a t e d i n quadrant  From November t o February, the  The December-February  II (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) .  r a t i n g s were The r a t i n g s  continued to stay on a high plane i n the M a r c h - A p r i l p e r i o d , however they were now l o c a t e d i n quadrant IV (GSC and ASC negat i v e ) . The  i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s showed that the - c l i e n t * s GSC was  g r e a t l y t i e d to her r e l a t i o n s h i p with her Canadian boyfriend.  She f e l t very bad about that r e l a t i o n s h i p and  when she broke up, her GSC steadily  improved..  (along with ASC, ACP, and ACC)  Her ASC was i n tune with her GSC; they  went up and down t o g e t h e r .  She had d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g to  the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system at f i r s t , w e l l , and her grades were good.  but she adapted  Her ACP was n e u t r a l at  63  first,  but a f t e r breaking up with her b o y f r i e n d , her  a t t i t u d e s with regards t o Canadians  improved  greatly.  In  terms of ACC, she found the d i f f e r e n c e s and c o n t r a s t s of Canadian  culture "fascinating".  became more n e u t r a l about All  As the year progressed, she  ACC, but never t r u l y n e g a t i v e .  of the graphs and c o r r e l a t i o n s confirmed the r e s u l t s of  the i n t e r v i e w .  64 Subject  12 ( B r i t i s h / F e m a l e / S i n g l e / A g e 22): The  numerical  r a t i n g graphs ( f i g . 3 4 ) showed a d e f i n a t e "u-curve" question  for  1 (GSC) with the low p o i n t i n December. " Question  2  (ASC) was s i m i l i a r , however the low p o i n t o c c u r r e d i n March. Question  3 (ACP) was a l s o very s i m i l i a r to 1.  Question 4  (ACC) was a curve that g r a d u a l l y rose high from a very low starting point. less higher.  The r a t i n g s then continued to stay more or  The a d j e c t i v e r a t i n g graph ( f i g . 35) showed  very s i m i l i a r graphs f o r q u e s t i o n however, was l i n e a r . usually  T h i s may  1,2, and 4.  i n d i c a t e that the subject was  " k i n d e r " i n her a d j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s about  Canadians than her numerical The only s i g n i f i c a n t  r a t i n g s may have shown.  trends found by the orthogonal  estimates were the r e s u l t s f o r q u e s t i o n 4.  The only  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were f o r GSC v s . ACP Can/p/c v s . GSC  (.44)  The 3-dimensional steadily  Question 3  (.64) and  (see t a b l e 9 ) . graph ( f i g . 3 6 ) r a t i n g s c l i m b i n g up  i n the October-November time.  in quadrant II (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) ' .  The r a t i n g s occurred In December the  r a t i n g s stayed the same, however they were l o c a t e d i n quadrant IV (GSC and ASC n e g a t i v e ) . GSC i n decemeber f o r q u e s t i o n  Note the low p o i n t f o r  1 i n f i g . s 34 and 35.  r a t i n g s moved back to quadrant II i n January to stay there u n t i l  The  and continued  April.  The most important  p o i n t that turned up i n the  i n t e r v i e w was the strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s u b j e c t ' s GSC and ACP.  T h i s confirmed  the s i m i l a r i t i e s of q u e s t i o n s 1  65 and  3 in fig.s  though it  34 a n d 35 a s w e l l a s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s .  the subject  was h e r " s o c i a l  noted that  h e r ASC was t i e d  to her  life"  affected  t h e most.  that  December  she h a d a l o w p o i n t  as noted  i n a l l of the graphs.  thereafter.  Due  t o her a b l i t y  Her ASC  (Can/p/c).  remained  to s o c i a l i z e ,  and  the subject's  that  GSC, In  exams,  stable also ACP  Her ACC was a l s o h i g h and s h e n o t e d how  was s i m i l i a r t o B r i t i a n . high ratings  h e r GSC  due t o t h e p r e s s u r e o f  because of her B r i t i s h background, very high.  Even  was Canada  The 3 - d i m e n s i o n a l g r a p h n o t e d t h e  she made o f C a n a d i a n  p e o p l e and  culture  66 Subject graphs  13 (German/Male/Single/Age 27): The numerical r a t i n g ( f i g . 3 7 ) found that q u e s t i o n 1 (GSC)  "sawtooth  pattern".  q u e s t i o n 2 (ASC).  Similiar  February.  Question 4 (ACC)  showed a "sawtooth" (fig.  Questions  p a t t e r n s , and q u e s t i o n 3 was  u-  f a l l in  pattern.  38) were not very  t h e i r numerical c o u n t e r p a r t s .  "sawtooth"  showed a "double  i n December and a f u r t h e r  The a d j e c t i v e r a t i n g graphs to  r e s u l t s were found f o r  Question 3 (ACP)  curve" with a low point  showed a  similair  1,3 and 4 showed  a relatively  stable  curve with no r e a l ups or downs. The orthogonal estimates showed that the graph f o r q u e s t i o n 4 was were: GSC vs.  ACC The  significant.  The  vs. Can/p/c (.44), ASC  signicant  correlations  vs. Can/p/c  3-dimensional graph  ratings, f l u c t u a t e d g r e a t l y . ratings steadily  ( f i g . 3 9 ) was  interesting in  deteriorated.  s u b j e c t noted i n the i n t e r v i e w that the concept of  the concept of himself i n Canadian noted that h i s GSC  critical in All  The Can/p/c  From February however, the  "himself as a person" d i d not change g r e a t l y .  fig.37).  TSC  (.42).  that the r a t i n g s moved i n a l l four quadrants.  The  (.44), and  I t was .  and ASC  i n h i s ACP  and ACC  where he was  and ACC  most greatly  deteriorated.  noted i n h i s 3-dimensional graph  i n Canadian  He  (see  fluctuated  months, and then they g r a d u a l l y  of t h i s was  He noted that  c u l t u r e important.  were s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d  H i s ideas about ACP  the f i r s t  He d i d f i n d  (fig.39).  c u l t u r e , females r e c e i v e more  67 p o s i t i v e a t t e n t i o n than males.  He found Canadians to be  l a c k i n g i n g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l awareness and a c t i v i s m , that t h e i r  system of s o c i a l i z i n g  i s poor.  and  68  S e c t i o n I I I : R e s u l t s f o r Groups Two main groups were a n a l y z e d ; Group 1 ( E a s t e r n / Western) and Group 2 (Female/Male). group i s now  The r e s u l t s of each  discussed.  Group 1 ( E a s t e r n ) : The numerical r a t i n g graphs showed s i m i l i a r  (fig.40)  shapes f o r q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 (GSC and ASC),  but no r e a l u-curve.  Questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC) were  a l s o s i m i l i a r , however q u e s t i o n 3 had higher r a t i n g s . The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC ASC vs. ACC  (-.41), and Can/p/c v s . ASC  vs.ASC  (-.46).  The 3-dimensional graph ( f i g . 4 1 ) showed Can/p/c r a t i n g s i n the October-December  (.50),  moderate  period.  These  r a t i n g s were l o c a t e d i n quadrant III (GSC h i g h ) .  The  r a t i n g s shot high i n the January-February time, where the r a t i n g s moved to quadrant II (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) .  The  r a t i n g s stayed i n that quadrant u n t i l A p r i l where they moved to quadrant III (GSC p o s i t i v e ) .  By A p r i l ,  dropped to roughly the same l e v e l as the  the r a t i n g s had October-December  time. Judging from the i n t e r v i e w s , female e a s t e r n e r s were as a whole, more p o s i t i v e about ACP and ACC counterparts.  than t h e i r male  A l l of the the 3 dimensional graphs  41, 43, 45, and 47) show t h i s .  (fig.s  Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the GSC  and ASC of the e a s t e r n e r s were not found to be c a u s a l l y l i n k e d to the a t t i t u d e dimensions.  69 Group 1 (Western): The numerical r a t i n g graphs showed q u e s t i o n s 1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC) to be very but no r e a l u-curve e x i s t s .  (fig.42) similiar,  Questions 3 (ACP) and 4  (ACC)  were not as s i m i l i a r , and q u e s t i o n 3 had higher r a t i n g s than 4. The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC ASC^vs. ACP  (.46), and Can/p/c v s . ACC  In the 3-dimensional graph  (.40),  (.60).  ( f i g . 4 3 ) the r a t i n g s showed  very low Can/p/c r a t i n g s i n quadrant IV (GSC and ASC  v s . ASC  III (GSC p o s i t i v e ) and  n e g a t i v e ) , f o r the October-December time.  They then moved to quadrant II (GSC and ASC shot to t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l  i n January.  The  p o s i t i v e ) and ratings  f l u c t u a t e d g r e a t l y but moved back to moved back to quadrant II i n A p r i l , where the Can/p/c r a t i n g s were at a moderate level. The only i n t e r e s t i n g western  f a c t worth mentioning  females were more p o s i t i v e about ACP  t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s .  i s that  and ACC  than  Group 2 (Females): The numerical r a t i n g graphs questions  (fig.44) for  1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC) showed no s i m i l a r i t i e s .  N e i t h e r of them showed a "u-curve".  The same s i t u a t i o n  occurred f o r q u e s t i o n s 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC). The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was between GSC v s . ASC. A l l other c o r r e l a t i o n s were i n s i g n i f i c a n t The 3-dimesional graph  (see t a b l e 11).  ( f i g . 4 5 ) showed great  f l u c t u a t i o n s i n r a t i n g s between the months. changed  between I I , I I I , and IV.  The quadrants  G e n e r a l l y , the Can/p/c  r a t i n g s s t a r t e d very low i n October  i n quadrant I I I (GSC  p o s i t i v e ) , and ended up very h i g h i n A p r i l  i n quadrant II  (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) . G e n e r a l l y , the i n t e r v i e w s found that e a s t e r n had c o n f l i c t between the r o l e s imposed  females  by t h e i r home  c u l t u r e s and the i n d i v i d u a l i s m they c o u l d express i n Canadian c u l t u r e .  The western females seemed to be the  group that had the e a s i e s t time a d j u s t i n g .  71 Group 2 (Males): The numerical r a t i n g graph great s i m i l a r i t i e s (ASC).  i n shape between q u e s t i o n s 1 (GSC) and 2  The only d i f f e r e n c e between them was  r a t i n g s f o r q u e s t i o n 1 were much h i g h e r . and 4 (ACC)  Questions 3  v s . ACP  TSC v s . ACC was  only  (ACP)  None of the graphs  "u-curve".  The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were: GSC ASC  that the  showed the same r e s u l t s , except that q u e s t i o n 3  had much higher r a t i n g s than q u e s t i o n 4. showed any  (Fig.46) showed  (-.51), ASC (.75).  v s . ACC  v s . ACC  (.67), TSC v s . ACP  (.51), (.31),  Note that the c o r r e l a t i o n of GSC  vs. ASC  .26.  The 3-dimensional graph  ( f i g . 4 7 ) showed a very complex  f l u c t u a t i o n of Can/p/c r a t i n g s .  In g e n e r a l , the r a t i n g s  s t a r t e d very low i n the October-December months, and rose to t h e i r highest l e v l e  i n January.  p e r i o d , the r a t i n g s dropped  In the  February-March  to a moderate l e v e l .  The  r a t i n g s s h i f t e d between a l l four quadrants throughout  the  year. The  i n t e r v i e w s g e n e r a l l y showed both e a s t e r n and  western males to be more c r i t i c a l and Canadian c u l t u r e  (ACC).  of Canadian people  (ACP)  The c r i t i c i s m s ranged anywhere  from peoples lack of p o l i t i c a l awareness,  s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of  the c u l t u r e , t o the ambiguous r o l e s demanded from males and females.  72 T o t a l Group ( A l l S u b j e c t s ) : A two-dimensional graph was made of s u b j e c t i v e numerical r a t i n g s of a l l four Nothing s i g n i f i c a n t similiar  questions.  was noted except that GSC and ASC were  i n shape, as w e l l as ACP and ACC.  The only  p o i n t that can be made i s that no u-curve t r u l y Caution  i s advised  i n drawing i n f e r e n c e s  other  showed up.  from t h i s  graph  because A) The number of s u b j e c t s are small  (n=13)  B) The s u b j e c t s come from very d i v e r s e backgrounds (see Table I, pp.34)  73  S e c t i o n IV: R e s u l t s Summary The most s t r i k i n g aspect of the r e s u l t s had t o do with the shapes of the c u r v e s .  Although a few s o l i d  "u-curves"  showed themselves, no r e a l c o n s i s t e n t or s o l i d evidence was found t o support the u-curve h y p o t h e s i s . were very i n d i v i d u a l  in character.  Most of the curves  T h i s may i n d i c a t e  each student a d j u s t s i n an i n d i v i d u a l  that  fashion.  The graphs, c o r r e l a t i o n s , and i n t e r v i e w s a l l h i n t e d towards a powerful l i n k between GSC and ASC. to  ASC was found  be s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by exam marks and academic  performance.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between ACP and ACC was  s i m i l i a r but l e s s powerful than GSC and ASC.  Stong  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between the TSC.and a t t i t u d e dimensions, and Can/p/c and s e l f - c o n c e p t As a whole, western successfully.  dimensions.  females seemed t o a d j u s t most  They a l l found themselves a t home i n Canada  and r e l a t e d to the r o l e s they c o u l d p l a y as women and the i n d i v i d u a l i t y they were encouraged females f e l t  r o l e s demanded  from t h e i r home  Western and e a s t e r n males were both c r i t i c a l of  the Canadian  c u l t u r e , s t a t i n g that  materialistic.  i t was s u p e r f i c i a l and  E a s t e r n men were p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l of  the women, s t a t i n g t h a t morals".  Eastern  the same way, however they tended t o be i n  c o n f l i c t with the t r a d i t i o n a l cultures.  t o express.  they " l o o s e " , " w i l d " and "without  74 The  3 dimensional graphs were of great a s s i s t a n c e i n  understanding the adjsutment students.  p a t t e r n of the  international  A l s o , they helped to show that the s e l f - c o n c e p t  and a t t i t u d e dimensions and Lefebvre  are not c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d as Lefebvre  (1986) have p r e d i c t e d .  The  three dimensional  graphs helped to add another p e r s p e c t i v e to the r e s u l t s h i g h l i g h t aspects that may  have not shown themselves.  and Most  i n d i v i d u a l ' s Can/p/c r a t i n g s rose very high i n January. A l s o worthy of mention i s the f a c t that the Can/p/c of females graphs.  ratings  stayed c o n s i s t e n t l y high i n the 3 dimensional  75  Discussion  I m p l i c a t i o n s of R e s u l t s The U-Curve H y p o t h e s i s : Having a n a l y z e d the r e s u l t s of the data, i t may  be p o s s i b l e to conclude that the u-curve  analogy of adjustment i s an incomplete way  of a s s e s s i n g the  adjustment of f o r e i g n students studying i n Canadian universities.  Although a few u-curve p a t t e r n s were found,  the overwhelming students a d j u s t  evidence seems to show that i n an i n d i v i d u a l  fashion.  foreign  I t seems that i n  order to e x p l a i n the process of adjustment f o r the f o r e i g n student, a number of f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o account. General and academic  self-concepts  (GSC and ASC),  about Canadians and Canadian c u l t u r e  attitude  (ACP and ACC),  and  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n were d i s c u s s e d as possible  i n d i c e s of adjustment  hypothesis  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  sections.  I n d i c e s of Adjustment: The i n d i c e s of adjustment ACP,  ACC)  review and  proved h e l p f u l l  (GSC,  ASC,  i n understanding the adjustment of  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s .  The r e s u l t s showed that the GSC  and ASC o v e r l a p p e d .  found to be c e n t r a l to the  ASC was  i d e n t i t y of many of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s .  Grades  academic performance had a powerful impact upon ASC, in turn was  r e f l e c t e d upon the GSC.  r e v e a l e d that academic  and  which  In f a c t , the i n t e r v i e w s  s t u d i e s and success were very c e n t r a l  to the i d e n t i t y of the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . data d i d show s i g n i f i c a n t  E x p l o r a t i o n of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the general  76 and academic  self-concepts.  In s h o r t , the ASC was found t o  be very c e n t r a l t o the process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l students. To a l e s s e r e x t e n t , ACP and ACC were found t o o v e r l a p p . What proved i n t e r e s t i n g however, was that the s e l f - c o n c e p t dimensions  (GSC and ASC) and the a t t i t u d e dimensions (ACP  and ACC) were not . found t o be c a u s a l l y l i n k e d .  Although a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two i s not r u l e d out, no c a u s a l l i n k was found. Importance  of Gender and E t h n i c i t y  in Cross-Cultural  Adjustment: Apart from the dimensions d i s c u s s e d as having a possible  impact on adjustment, gender and e t h n i c  were found to be important as w e l l .  Western  differences  women were  found t o have the most s u c c e s s f u l adjustment, f o l l o w e d by eastern women, western men, and f i n a l l y eastern men. Although the numbers of s u b j e c t s were too small t o allow us to make any strong g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , the r e s u l t s that  i t i s p o s s i b l e that men and women coming  indicated  from an  " e a s t e r n " c u l t u r e , meaning non white or non western/European, north American  u n i v e r s i t y than men and women coming  "western" c u l t u r e . women coming  would have a harder time a d j u s t i n g t o a from a  A l s o , i t may be p o s s i b l e that men and  from the same c u l t u r e , may have d i f f e r e n t  e x p e r i e n c e s , p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e , i n t h e i r For example, a woman coming  adjustments.  from an " e a s t e r n " c u l t u r e t o  study i n North America, may f i n d that her r o l e as an independent woman i s more r e i n f o r c e d than the way i t was  77 back home.  T h i s may h e l p i n her adjustment t o North  American c u l t u r e . Fijian  u n i v e r s i t y students  counterparts Fijian  Basow (1984) d i s c o v e r e d  were more s i m i l i a r  female  t o t h e i r U.S  i n terms of a t t i t u d e s about sex r o l e s than  u n i v e r s i t y males and Americans.  a female " e a s t e r n " student, to  that  may i n f a c t  Such an i n d i v i d u a l , f i n d her adjustment  a North American u n i v e r i s t y environment e a s i e r than her  male c o u n t e r p a r t .  On the other hand, a man coming from the  same " e a s t e r n " c u l t u r e may f i n d that h i s r o l e as a man i n North America i s not regarded  i n the way i t was back home.  Such a person c o u l d stumble i n t o adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s . Of course,  infinite  types of s c e n a r i o s may e x i s t  f o r men and  women from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , however the p o t e n t i a l f o r d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of adjustment may e x i s t due t o gender differences.  The r e s u l t s d i d show that women as a whole  seemed t o a d j u s t b e t t e r than men, although pronounced f o r the " e a s t e r n " I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Future T h i s study  t h i s was more  students.  Research  was a pioneer  study  i n that many of the  i s s u e s i t t a c k l e d had not been explored before by previous research. it  Since the numbers of s u b j e c t s were small  (n=13),  was not p o s s i b l e t o make o v e r a l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s upon  i n t e r n a t i o n a l students  studying  i n Canada.  Therefore any  f u t u r e r e s e a r c h would have t o o b t a i n l a r g e r samples. l a r g e r sample (with n a t l e a s t  30) allows  A  f o r more r i g o r o u s  statistical  t e s t i n g and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y upon the p o p u l a t i o n  of i n t e r e s t  (Jaccard, 1983).  Any f u t u r e study i n v o l v i n g  78 i n t e r n a t i o n a l students c o u l d take the f a c t o r s of gender ethnicity  into consideration.  found to be very important  In t h i s study, these were  to the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s .  and  adjustment  F u r t h e r suggestions f o r  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area would be to conduct s t u d i e s over longer p e r i o d s of time.  Finally,  i t seems most  convenient to have a researcher c o l l e c t  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  from the r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s d i r e c t l y . who  The Canadian  were a s s i g n e d to the task at times proved  Only d i r e c t  peers  unreliable.  i n t e r v e n t i o n by the r e s e a r c h e r s prevented  the  f a l l i n g o f f of survey data i n such c a s e s . Implications for Counselling The and ACC  i n f o r m a t i o n found with regards to GSC, have important  upon the r e s u l t s  implications  i t was  knowledge of Canadian  importance latter  that  of ASC  ACP,  for counselling.  Based  found that academic success and  c u l t u r a l norms p l a y very  r o l e s i n the adjustment  ASC,  of f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s .  has been noted,  is especially  important Although  the  i t i s the r o l e of the  important.  As noted by  Ishiyama  (1988), f o r e i g n students o f t e n experience problems i n encoding and decoding communicational  cues.  The  result is  that they experience problems i n a c c u r a t e l y understanding and conforming (Ishiyama,  to the host c u l t u r e ' s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l norms  1988).  Such problems i n e v i t a b l y lead them to  f e e l i n g s c o n f u s i o n and n e g l e c t by host c u l t u r e members (Hull,  1981).  C o u n s e l l o r s can a s s i s t  f o r e i g n students by  t e a c h i n g them the communication .systems and norms of the  79 host c u l t u r e . implemented. 1984)  Many such p r o j e c t s have already  been  The s u c c e s s f u l l "peer program" (Westwood,  has a s s i s t e d many f o r e i g n students i n t h e i r adjustment  to Canadian c u l t u r e .  Workshops a l s o e x i s t f o r teaching  communication p a t t e r n s skills  for foreign  and a c t i o n o r i e n t e d  students  workshops and t h i n k i n g  problem s o l v i n g  (Wong-Rieger, 1984).  strategies  be b e n e f i c i a l f o r the f o r e i g n  Study  (Hageman, 1984) can a l s o  students.  By a s s i s t i n g i n a  multipronged approach such as the teaching  of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  skills,  counsellors  great  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , and study s k i l l s ,  promise i n h e l p i n g  foreign  students  hold  adjust  s u c c e s s f u l l y to the Canadian c u l t u r e and u n i v e r s i t y . These approaches w i l l provide the f o r e i g n as to ensure h i s / h e r  student with t o o l s  process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n .  When the  process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n i s free and unchecked, s u c c e s s f u l l adjustment by the f o r e i g n student becomes inevitable. A counselling  approach that a s s i s t s the f o r e i g n  student's process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n c o u l d E c l e c t i c approches such as C h r i s t e n s o n ' s approach to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g "  prove  productive.  "perceptual (1985) hold  promise  because they view the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c l i e n t an a "unique" i n d i v i d u a l , rather  than a " f o r e i g n e r " .  The term  "uniqueness" has been used by other c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counsellors  (Altscher,  1976; Mcmillen,  1976).  Viewing the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l student as a unique person with a unique  system of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n may method of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  prove to be a very p o w e r f u l l  counselling.  81  R e f e r e n c e s  A d l e r , P. S. (1975). The t r a n s i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e : An A l t e r n a t i v e view of C u l t u r e Shock. J o u r n a l of Humanistic Psychology, 15(4), 13-23. Agnew, Mck. A., & Pike S. W. (1987). The Science Game: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Research i n the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc. A l l p o r t , G. W. (1961). 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Scandinavian students' images of the u n i t e d s t a t e s : a study in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 295, 126-35. Sidman, M. (1960). York: Basic Books.  T a c t i c s of S c i e n t i f i c  Research.  New  Smalley, W. (1963). C u l t u r e shock, language shock, and the shock of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y . P r a c t i c a l Anthropology, 10, 49-56. Sohn, D. (1977).•Affect g e n e r a t i n g powers of e f f o r t and a b i l i t y : s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n s of academic success and f a i l u r e . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 69(5), 500-5.  87  S t a f f o r d , T. H. (1980). Adjustment of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . NASPA J o u r n a l , 18(1), 40-45. S t o n e q u i s t , E. V. Scribner.  (1937). The M a r g i n a l Man.  New  York:  T o r r e y , E. F. (1970). Problems of f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s : an overview. J o u r n a l of the American C o l l e g e H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , 19(2), 83-86. Tryon, W. T. (1982). A s i m p l i f i e d - t i m e s e r i e s a n a l y s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g treatment i n t e r v e n t i o n s . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Behavior A n a l y s i s , 15, 423-429. Thurstone, E. (1967). The measurement of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . In M. F i s h b e i n (Ed.), Readings i n A t t i t u d e Theory and Measurement. New York, London, Sydney: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Von Neuman, J . (1941). D i s t r i b u t i o n of the r a t i o of the mean square s u c c e s s i v e d i f f e r e n c e to the v a r i a n c e . Annals of Mathematical S t a t i s t i c s , 12, 367-395. Webb, F. J . , Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., & S e c h r e s t , C. (1966). Unobtrusive Measures: Non-Reactive Research i n the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . Chicago: Rand McNally. Westwood, M. J . , Lawrence, W. S., & P a u l , D. (1984). P r e p a r i n g f o r r e e n t r y : a program f o r the s o j o u r n i n g students. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l f o r the Advancement of C o u n s e l l i n g , 9(3), 221-230. [ Wong-Rieger, D. (1984). T e s t i n g a model of emotional and coping responses to problems i n a d a p t a t i o n : f o r e i g n students at a C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s , 8(2T^ 153-184. ~~' Young, L. C. (1941). On randomness i n ordered sequences. Annals of Mathematical S t a t i s t i c s , 12, 293-300. Zar, J . H. (1984). B i o s t a t i s t i c a l C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l .  Analysis.  Englewood  88  Zarb, J . M. A comparison of remedial, f a i l u r e , and s u c c e s s f u l secondary s c h o o l students a c r o s s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n and past and present school performance v a r i a b l e s . Adolescence, 1984, j_9(74), 335-48.  89  APPENDIX I The  C-Statistic  There are two orthogonal estimates of the v a r i a n c e of a time s e r i e s .  The f i r s t  measure i s the v a r i a n c e c a l c u l a t e d  as i n d i c a t e d by equation A: S =1/N S u m 2  N ( w i t h  i = 1  >(X X  m e a n  r  )  Where N i s the number of data p o i n t s and X i s the score f o r the p a r t i c u l a r data p o i n t .  Each X i s s u b t r a c t e d from the  mean of a l l those data p o i n t s .  A l l of that i s summed up and  m u l t i p l i e d to 1/N. T h i s v a r i a n c e of the time s e r i e s i n c r e a s e s i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to any changes or trends i n the mean value of the series.  As a r e s u l t , the presence  of a trend i n c r e a s e s both  the mean and the v a r i a n c e . The  second  estimate of the v a r i a n c e of a times  i s the Mean Square S u c c e s s i v e d i f f e r e n c e It  i s c a l c u l a t e d as i t s name i m p l i e s .  d i f f e r e n c e s among data p o i n t s are f i r s t and  f i n a l l y averaged  In  (MSSD) s t a t i s t i c .  The c o n s e c u t i v e calculated,  squared,  as i n d i c a t e d by equation B:  MSSD=D = S u m 2  series  N_1 (  w  i  t  h  i+ 1  >(X ,_Xi) /N-1 2  i+  t h i s case, the " i " stands f o r the i n i t i a l The MSSD or D i s independent  value of the time s e r i e s .  value.  of changes i n the mean  Von Neumann (1941) d i s c u s s e d  e x t e n s i v e l y the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the MSSD to the a c t u a l variance.  Young (1941) developed  t h i s l i n e of reasoning  i n t o the a c t u a l C - s t a t i s t i c as given by equation C:  The standard  e r r o r of the O s t a t i s t i c  i s c a l c u l a t e d as such  S =(N-2/(N-1)(N+1)) / 1  2  C  Young (1941) has shown that the r a t i o of C to i t s standard  e r r o r i s the Z - s t a t i s t i c : Z=C/S  For  further information,  C  c o n s u l t Tryon's a r t i c l e on "A  S i m p l i f i e d Time-Series A n a l y s i s f o r E v a l u a t i n g Interventions"  (1982).  Treatment  91  APPENDIX II Orthogonal  Polynomials  In simple a l g e b r a i c terms, a l i n e a r t r e n d i s any f u n c t i o n that i s dependent upon an x v a r i a b l e . trend i s c l o s e r to a " s t r a i g h t  line".  T h i s type of  If a student shows  t h i s type of trend, i t i s p o s s i b l e to conclude, from a mathematical  s t a n d p o i n t , that the student's adjustment  not f o l l o w a "U-curve".  It either  kept going up through time  stayed s t a b l e  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e  to a l s o to use a q u a d r a t i c f u n c t i o n with X  1982)  Trend a n a l y s i s  2  to see i f a  "U"  (Rosenthal & Rosnow,  a l l o w s us to take a set of data and put them i n t o a  mathematical Two  (Slope=0),  (Slope i s p o s i t i v e ) , or kept  going d o w n h i l l (Slope i s n e g a t i v e ) .  type t r e n d e x i s t s .  did  formula to see what s o r t of form they have.  formulas have been used; one  f o r p l o t t i n g numbers to see  i f a l i n e a r trend e x i s t s , and the other p l o t s f o r q u a d r a t i c functions. Note that the graphs were a l r e a d y p l o t t e d , however had no way  of knowing wether the trends that showed  themselves  were i n any way  statisticaly  significant.  Since  the d e r i v a t i o n of the q u a d r a t i c polynomials i s r a t h e r complex, I t i s a d v i s e d to c o n s u l t Rosenthal and Rosnow's book on "Trend A n a l y s i s "  (1982).  we  92  APPENDIX III A d j e c t i v e Rating T h i s r a t i n g sheet  i s anonymous.  Sheet  You  are to r a t e each  a d j e c t i v e on a s c a l e of +4(very p o s i t i v e ) to negative).  Don't dwell too long on a s i n g l e a d j e c t i v e ; t r y  to flow through the The  questions.  purpose of t h i s r a t i n g sheet  s t a n d a r d i z e d r a t i n g sheet  independent judges who  i s to f i n d a  for a d j e c t i v e s given  p a r t i c i p a n t s in a research study.  rating  -4(very  You are one  w i l l h e l p b u i l d that  Disappointment  -2 -3 -4  0  +2  +3  +4  friendly  -2-3-4  0 + 1 + 2  +3  +4  sad  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Helpfull  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  tired  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  frustration  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  kind  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  not enough energy  •2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  friendly  •2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  very  nice  of  the  standardized  sheet. +1  by  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I like school  -1-2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadians are Individualist  - 1 - 2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  vivid  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  jolly  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  active  -1 - 2 - 3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  tired  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  exc i t e d  -1-2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  nervous  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  feel  stupid  great feel  silly  relieved  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  difficult  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  sharing  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  + 1. +2  +3  +4  dum  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  good  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  terrible  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  free  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  so hard  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  comfortable  - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0  +1  +2  +3  +4  lonesome  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  settled  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  unsat i sf i e d  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  more accepted  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  angry  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  no w o r r i e s  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  sick  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  positive  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  hard  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  normal  -1 - 2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  complete  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  homesick  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1+2  +3  +4  l o o k i n g up  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1+2  ignorant  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  motivated  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  +3+4  Canadian culture i s too moderate  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  anxious  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  challenging  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  so so  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  enlightened  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  overloaded with work  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  loneliness  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I don't care  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  loving  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  not great  -1 - 2 - 3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  lonely  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  understanding  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2+3  +4  funny  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  rude  -1-2  -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  more e x c i t i n g  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  reasonable  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  nothing  people  new  not too enthusiastic  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  puzzled  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  energetic  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  limited  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I can manage  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  demanding  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  more c l e a r  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  scared  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  thoughtful  -1-2-3-4  0  +1  +2+3  +4  fair  -1 - 2 - 3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  regretful  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  soc i a b l e  -1 - 2 - 3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  disillusioned  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  less  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  archaic  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  leisured  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I want to leave Canada!  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  insecure  strong  -1. -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  going out  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  inquisitive  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  healthy  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  inef f i c i e n t  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  support ive  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  overworked  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  approachable  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I despise them  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  impressed  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  primitive  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  a little unhappy  -1 - 2 - 3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  quaint  -1 -2 -3 -4 •• 0  +1  +2  +3  +4  amiable  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadian culture i s commerc i a l  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  irrelevant  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  enlightment  -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  average  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  well prepared  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  proud of self  -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  aggressive  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  fami 1 i a r  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  hect i c  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  image consc ious  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  decresed self discipline  -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  looking forward  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  exhausted  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  full  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  0+1  +2  +3  +4  familiar  •2 -3 -4  impatient  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  easy  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  going  congenial  mixed  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  surprised  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  i n s p i red  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  lack of selfdiscipline  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  organized -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  more  lonely  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  hopeful  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  rested  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  pleasant but bland  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  questioning  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  getting better  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  neat!  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  moderately content  -1 - 2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  Canadian culture i s too  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  +3+4  liberated upward t r e n d conf ident  unintriguing  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  fun  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  •2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  happy  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  stressful  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  disorganized  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  warm hearted  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  neutral  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  pissed off  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  curiosity  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  moderate  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  •2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  anxious to be f i n i s h e d with school  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  glad  -2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  pressed  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  waiting  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  hopeless  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  worried  good mood  camaraderie  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  somewhat nervous  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I hate i t !  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  self assured  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  impatient  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  accelerating  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  insecure  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  empathet i c  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  losing interest  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  well  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  communicat ion with others  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  demanding  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1+2  +3  +4  not  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  honesty  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  somet imes loose  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  prepared unique  punctual  cheerful  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  more unsure  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  more c o n t a c t s  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  uncertain  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  awareness  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  together  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  down  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  too wrapped up  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  sometimes fun  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  negative  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  caut i o u s l y favorable  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  disgusting  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  decisive  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  unsatisf ied with s e l f  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  coping  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  divided  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  gregarious  -1 - 2 - 3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  t ime  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadian culture i s a little conservat i v e  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  + .1  +2  +3  +4  fulfilled  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  gett ing behind i n school  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  confused  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  enjoyable  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  satisfied  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  reserved  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  cautious  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  trying  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  competitive  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  consuming disgruntled a b i t sad close in c o n t r o l comprehending  secure  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  anticipatory  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  pleased  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  uncomprehending  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  new  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  indi fferent  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  preoccupied  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I w i l l miss the Canadians  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  st imulated  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  working i n school  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  ambivalent  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  settle down  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  time pressure  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1 . + 2 + 3  +4  Canadians lack depth  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  lousy  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2.  +3  +4  carefree  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  difficulties for me i n the f u t u r e  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  elated  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  panic  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  puzzled  -1-2-3-4  0+1  +2  +3  +4  Canadians lack finesse  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +2  +3  +4  thoughtful  +1  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  •2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  peaceful  -2 -.3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  nice  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  forgetful  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  fine  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  helpless  -2 -3 -4  0+1  +2  +3  +4  hospitable  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  terr i f ied  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  not bad  -2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  unconcerned  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  busy  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  apprehensive  too much  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  interesting  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  dull  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  easy  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  generous  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  wonderfull  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  bored  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  energetic  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  reflective  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadian c u l t u r e too recent  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I feel c l o s e r to Canadians  1 -2 -.3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  relaxed  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  not so good  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  support i v e  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadian  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  felt  blamed  culture i s a little confused slow  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  a b l e to cope  •1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  marking time  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  benef i c i a l  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadian culture i s too i rksome  1 -2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  favorable  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I »m impressed with Canadian culture  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  supportive  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  too  easy  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  transitional  1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1+2  +3  +4  Canadian culture is too f a s t and too wild  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  getting  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  1-2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  tough  intrigued  content  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  better  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  felt judged  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  very  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +.1  +2  +3  +4  Canadians are compartment -alized  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I feel I know the Canadians better  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  moderate stress  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I am gett ing along and I am more familiar wi t h Canadian culture  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  uncertain  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadian culture has l e s s depth than other cultures  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  better  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  well  prepared feel adapted  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  complete  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  no true Canadian culture exists  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  not w e l l  -1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  enjoyable  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  depressed  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  under pressure  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  not so exciting  -1 -2 -3 -4  0+1  +2  +3  +4  Canadian -1 -2 -3 -4 culture i s r e s p e c t f u l of the i n d i v i d u a l  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  stable  -1-2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  less confusing  -1 - 2 - 3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  more accepting  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  shocking  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I respect  -1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadian culture Canadians are selfish  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  full  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  i n t e r e s t ing  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  acculturated  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  ok  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  satisfied  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  unconf ident  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadians are a l i t t l e distant  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  energet i c  1 -2  -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  understand my school work better  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  discontented  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +.3  +4  Canadians are superf i c i a l  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  optimistic  1 -2 -3 -4  0  + 1. +2  +3  +4  r e f e c t ive  1.-2 -3 -4  0  +1  +3  +4  +2  11 1 I'm understanding the a t t i t u d e s of the Cnandians  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  unchanged  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  I'm fascinated with the contrasts of Canadian culture  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  powerless  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  as  1-2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  safe  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  fascinating  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  not interesting  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  rewarding  1-2-3-4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  not too pleasant  1-2-3-4  0  +1  +2  enthusiastic  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  slightly overwhelmed  1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  relaxed  •1 -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  Canadians are s i m i l i a r  1 -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  usual  +3+4  + 2 + 3 + 4  to us not d e n i g r a t ing  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  livelier  -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  could be better  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  •2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  restricted  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  fulfilling  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  pleasant  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  competent  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  heavy  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  moderately conf ident  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  enthusiastic  -2 - 3 - 4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  interested  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  managable  -2 -3 -4  0  +1+2  +3  +4  l e s s heavy  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  exciting  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  wondering  -2 -3 -4  0  +1  +2  +3  +4  apprehensive  1 13  APPENDIX IV Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment Klein's  Klein  Model  of  Cross-Cultural  (1977) developed  a hypothesis which a l s o  i d e n t i f i e s v a r i o u s stages of adjustment. adjustment  i s geared  coming t o study K l e i n proposes  Adjustment  specifically  T h i s model of  towards f o r e i g n  students  i n North American u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . four phases; s p e c t a t o r , s t r e s s and  a d a p t a t i o n , coming t o terms, and d e c i s i o n . The s p e c t a t o r phase sees the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l person as p o s i t i v e and d e l i g h t e d about the host c u l t u r e . The s t r e s s and a d a p t a t i o n phase witnesses a c o n f l i c t  of home and host c u l t u r e s . In  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r stage, f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s and disappointment become m a n i f e s t . The next phase, coming t o terms, occurs when the i n d i v i d u a l involvement  shows a g r e a t e r degree of s o c i a l  and has developed  a more favourable p e r c e p t i o n  of the host environment. The f i n a l phase, d e c i s i o n , i s concerned  with the time to r e t u r n t o the home country. Here  the student experiences a reawakening of t e n s i o n , r e examination,  and d e a l i n g with i s s u e s about r e t u r n i n g t o  homeand a l i e n a t i o n Adler's  from the home c u l t u r e .  Model  of  the  Transitional  Experience  A d l e r ' s theory of the " t r a n s i t i o n a l experience" is similiar Adler  t o the stage t h e o r i e s j u s t d i s c u s s e d .  (1975) f o r e c a s t s stages of adjustment  individual  (1975)  immersed w i t h i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  f o r the s i t u a t i o n . In  11 4 the c o n t a c t stage, the i n d i v i d u a l i s l i a b l e to see differences  as i n t r i g u i n g . In t h i s stage,  excitement,  euphoria, and other p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s manifest  themselves.  The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n phase witnesses c o n f u s i o n , d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , l o s s , l o n e l i n e s s and a whole host of other negative f e e l i n g s and p e r c e p t i o n s . In the r e i n t e g r a t i o n phase, the i n d i v i d u a l r e j e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s culture and  and the host c u l t u r e ,  rage.  by A d l e r to be  The autonomy phase occurs when the person i s  able to see the d i f f e r e n c e s culture  his/her  r e s u l t i n g i n f e e l i n g s of anger  The next two stages are p r e d i c t e d  more p o s i t i v e .  his/her  between  and s i m i l a r i t i e s between  and the host c u l t u r e .  independence, u n f o l d s when d i f f e r e n c e s  The f i n a l  both  stage,  and s i m i l a r i t i e s have  become valued and s i g n i f i c a n t to the i n d i v i d u a l . Predictably,  the emotional  f e e l i n g s of the i n d i v i d u a l become  more p o s i t i v e d u r i n g the l a s t  two stages.  APPENDIX V The The  3-Dimensional  3-dimensional  c a l l e d DISSPLA. dimensional  graph  Graph  i s based  upon a FORTRAN program  T h i s i s a program which c h a r t s data i n t o 3  planes.  The X - a x i s was  chosen to represent general s e l f - c o n c e p t  (GSC), the Y-axis f o r academic s e l f - c o n c e p t (ASC), and  the  Z-axis was  a c o l l a p s e d category f o r the a t t i t u d e towards  Canadians,  q u e s t i o n 3, and a t t i t u d e towards Canadian  culture.  The c o l l a p s e d category, denoted  c a l c u l a t e d by the M i n i t a b program. versus ASC,  observed  The X-Y  plane, or  was GSC  simply r e l i e d upon the p l o t s a r r i v e d at f o r the  seven monthly r a t i n g s . was  by Can/p/c,  As a r e s u l t , the t r e n d of  over the seven month p e r i o d .  adjustment  There were  two  ways of l o o k i n g at these graphs as to o b t a i n u s e f u l l information.  The  first  i s the obvious o b s e r v a t i o n that the  higher the " h e i g h t " , or Z-axis i s , the more " p o s i t i v e " students i s wi.th regards to Canadian c u l t u r e and The  the  people.  second manner of o b s e r v a t i o n has to do with the four  quadrants The  of the X-Y  plane.  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s graph  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the GSC  i s to f i r s t  and ASC  see  the  r a t i n g s a g a i n s t the  c o l l a p s e d r a t i n g s of Canadian people and Canadian c u l t u r e (Can/p/c) . For t h i s study, f i r s t  imagine  as the bottom l i n e and the "ASC"  a window with the  as the r i g h t hand  "GSC"  line.  A) L e f t  s i d e of GSC: r a t i n g s which were "lower than u s u a l " or  negative subject  with respect for question  as the negative B) Right  to the normal r a t i n g s given 1 on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  T h i s i s known  s i d e of GSC.  s i d e of GSC: r a t i n g s which were "higher  or p o s i t i v e with respect subject  by the  for question  than  usual"  to the normal r a t i n g s given  by the  1 on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  T h i s i s known  as the p o s i t i v e s i d e of GSC. OLower  side of ASC: r a t i n g s which were "lower than  or negative subject  with  respect  for question  as the negative  to the normal r a t i n g s given  2 on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  subject  by the  T h i s i s known  s i d e of ASC.  D)Upper side of ASC: r a t i n g s which were "higher or p o s i t i v e with  usual"  respect  for question  than u s u a l "  to the normal r a t i n g s given  2 on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  This  by the  i s known  as the p o s i t i v e s i d e of ASC.  The  "quadrants" are areas d e f i n e d by the plane of GSC and  ASC (see "Graphs of Adjustment" i n Appendix V I ) . on The  Note that  the graphs, "quadrant w i l l be denoted by "Q"). last  step i s to see the t a b l e as l y i n g down and to put a  "pole" or a x i s on the corner  of quadrant I .  T h i s i s the  Can/p/c r a t i n g s (the c o l l a p s e d r a t i n g s of a t t i t u d e s about Canadian people and c u l t u r e ) . Four p o i n t s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  with  these graphs:  1) The "higher" the Can/p/c r a t i n g s , the higher the s u b j e c t (or  group of s u b j e c t s ) i s r a t i n g the Canadian people and  culture. 2) There w i l l the  be 7 p o i n t s f o r each graph, corresponding to  seven months of the study  3) The i n i t i a l  point  (october-april).  (October) w i l l be marked as such:  and the f i n a l point  ( a p r i l ) w i l l be marked as such:  4) As the r a t i n g s move a c r o s s time, they w i l l move a c r o s s the d i f f e r e n t quadrants.  The quadrants w i l l  be shown on the  graphs as to ease the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s . for  Example: In november, a subject has a high Can/p/c  rating.  That r a t i n g  ASC n e g a t i v e ) .  is likely  to be i n quadrant  IV (GSC and  However, as the sudy has shown, other  combinations are p o s s i b l e .  Appendix  VI  Graphs of Adjustment The graphs w i l l  be presented i n two  sections:  A) S u b j e c t s : Each subject w i l l have 3 graphs. 1) A 2-dimensional S u b j e c t i v e Numerical Rating Graph 2)  A 2-dimensional S u b j e c t i v e A d j e c t i v e Rating Graph  3) B) Groups:  A 3-dimensional  graph  Each Group except " T o t a l S u b j e c t s " w i l l have and (2).  (3).  The " T o t a l S u b j e c t s " w i l l have only  (2)  FIG.1  Rating Responses subject 1 »  mm  mm  mm «|  mm  .  \  _ J \  o  -2  \  A >  \ OCT  /  .. . . V - - '  \ / -• NOV 1  —l  i  1  c  —• —  1  DEC  1  JAN  • >  FEB  /  •  MAR  •—APR  VO  FIG-2  Adjective Responses subject 1  121  +  \=\ C O  CO  o o <  i  d u o  P O  CO CD  CO <  . o o y o u I — |  o o  CO  CO FH CO < O O  CO <  -J  FIG.4  Rating Responses subject 2 Ratings  •  K  >% ^  • 1  A  /  *•—y si  /  v  If OCT  1  NOV  DEC  i  JAN  i  FEB  MAR  APR ro ro  FIG.5'  Adjective Responses subject 2 O  Adjective Rating Responses  V - -'  K  >•  1 -  .\ 0  \  A  \/  _ // * OCT  NOV  A  DEC  JAN  FEB  #  N  - V  \  \'  .  J  •  MAR  APR  124 CC z:  CO  L U  GSC + ASC-  OUT  GSC + ASC+  QI GSCASC+  on  ®  i  i  K I U O FH CO CO G CD <  FIG.7  Rating Responses subject 3 GSC •  Ratings  K  «  "L.  /  1  /  \\  /  \  L,  i  1  i  i  \  •  N Ml  FIG.8 Adjective Responses subject 3  -4 H OCT  i NOV  1 DEC  1— JAN  i—• FEB  i MAR  1 APR tv>  01 GSCASC+  OH GSC + ASC+  QE GSCASC-  QUI GSC+ ASC-  £16.9 Adjustment for S3  ® START! END  FIG.10  Rating Responses subject 4 ^  Ratings  FIG.11  Adjective Responses subject 4  -2H  OCT  i  NOV  — .  DEC  —  r  JAN  \  FEB  i  MAR  1  APR l\3  130  en  <  Q  CO  L U  ®  s/d/iioo  |=j c o co  O  CD  <  M H O  +  I  O O CO CO O <  FIG.13 Rating Responses subject 5 •  Ratings  a1  D  // \  ./ \ 1 OCT  NOV  \  x v  \/  DEC  JAN  $  •  i V  o  FEB  A  FIGJ4 Adjective Responses subject 5 Adjective Rating Responses  v A . 1  -  / V  0  \ -2  \  I  - 3  OCT  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  FIG/16  Rating Responses subject 6  OCT  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  FIG.17 Adjective Responses subject 6  FIG-19 Rating Responses subject 7 Ratings  •2 -u  OCT  r  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR V>4  FIG.20 Adjective Responses subject 7 •  Adjective Rating Responses  ^ • *  \  \  \  L.  fx ~T7 •  •  I'  Y  /  \  \  7  •  / /  • >  • •  1  •  OCT  • \  1  NOV  DEC  —  •  JAN  FEB  MAR  API  139  O  e  rz  °'  z  r  LU  ®  <3  t  QKT GSC+ ASC-  .  GSC + ASC+  a  on  ST  QI GSCASC+  0-r  CO  I  i  y o u F—I C O O  O  CO <  FIG.22 Rating Responses subject 8  o  FIG.23  Adjective Responses subject 8  3  OCT  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  FIG.25 Rating Responses subject 9  F1G.26 Adjective Responses subject 9  3  QCT  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR 4^  FIG.28 Rating Responses subject 10  OS  FIG.29 Adjective Responses subject 10  OCT  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MA  F1G.31  Rating Responses subject 11 Ratings  - ^ i  T^C"  OCT  / .  J  NOV  •  i  1  n  DEC  JAN  •  \  ...  •  FEB  Nhh  MAR  \ APR  •  VD  FIG.32 Adjective Responses subject 11 •  a.3 A C J  O Q4AC(  Adjective Rating Responses  2-  0  -2 -  OCT  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR O  FIG. 33 Adjustment for S11  © START AEND  FIG.34 Rating Responses subject 12 • q GSC • a|SED 1  Ratings  •.a?A,QP ° q^ACG  l>0  FIG.35  Adjective Responses subject 12  FIG.37  Rating Responses subject 13  FIG.38 Adjective Responses subject 13 •  Adjective Rating Responses  OCT  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  GSC + ASC+  onr  GSC+ ASC-  on  GSCASC+  01  157  CC  <  Q  CO LU  ®  ot  O  O  <  FIG. 40 ADJUSTMENT PATTERN FOR EASTERN FOREIGN STUDENTS (RATINGS) •  GSC  •  ACP  FJGM ADJUSTMENT FOR EASTERN FOREIGN STUDENTS  QI GSCASC+  on  OK.  QTIT GSC+ ASC-  GSCASC-  GSC + ASO ® START VJl  AEND  FIG.42 ADJUSTMENT PATTERN FOR WESTERN FOREIGN STUDENTS (RATINGS) •  RATINGS  0 H OCT  GSC  • ASC  r-  NOV  1  DEC  r—i  JAN  1  FEB  •  ACP^  O ACC"  r—  MAR  1 APR o  161  00 Ld Q  00  GSC + ASC+  QTTT GSC+ ASO w o o WCO CO O CD <  on  JQI GSCASC+  o/d/uoQ  F1C7.44 ADJUSTMENT PATTERN FOR FEMALE FOREIGN STUDENTS (RATINGS) RATINGS  2 .5 - I *  2H 1 .5 H  0.5  OCT  APR ON  QI  GSCASC+ OTZ GSCASC-  on  GSC + ASC+ OTfT GSC + ASC-  ? QUE ®START END  FIG,4S ADJUSTMENT PATTERN FOR MALE FOREIGN STUDENTS (RATINGS) GSC  •  2.5-i  RATINGS  •  • ASC ;  ;  ;  r  ACP  O ACC =  FIG-48 Adjustment Patterns for All Foreign Students •  GSC  •  ACP  ON ON  1 67 Appendix  VII  Interviews The  interview  l a s t e d anyhere  hour.  These  rules  1) The  four  indices  used t o guide allocated to  find  indices. 2) D a t a used  the  were  The  i n the  example, the r e a s o n s numbers  3) F i n a l l y , ACC  of e a c h  u-curve pattern  was  the graphs interviewing f o r any  (GSC,  index.  were e x p l o r e d .  The  ACP,  to 1  tested and  were was  objective  was  t o the  four  here.  o t h e r a n a l y s e s would  of the s u b j e c t .  abrupt changes  between GSC  ACC)  15 m i n u t e s  with respect  i n the c o r r e l l a t i . o n s ,  relationships  ASC,  A maximmum o f  i n adjustment  o b t a i n e d from  to guide  peculiar  of adjustment  interview.  changes  15 m i n u t e s  followed:  for discussion  any  between  would and  For  i n graphs,  or  be e x p l o r e d .  ASC,  and  ACP  and  be  168  Appendix  VIII  C o r r e l l a t ions Correllations of  the  relationships  concepts, attitude culture  and  between t h e  relationship  society.  amongst  analyses,  specified was  the  to a s s i s t  by  used to  the  Various  test  those  attitude other  least  In  correllations  Since  selfto  Canadian were  this  s t e p of  the  factors  the  Minitab,  numbers of  threshold point for had  t o be  set to at  .5. The  table,  correllations  f o r every  "western" applied Gsc and Asc  were t e s t e d a c c o r d i n g  s u b j e c t and  (7 s u b j e c t s )  students.  f o r male v e r s u s Gsc and Acp  Gsc and Acc  for "eastern"  female  Asc and Acp  Asc and Acc  sn = a p a r t i c u l a r  Tsc and Acp  subject  terms a r e  d e f i n e d as  Gsc:  General  self-concept  Asc:  Academic s e l f - c o n c e p t  Acp:  A t t i t u d e s about  follows:  Canadians  The  to such  Tsc and Acc  same p r o c e d u r e  Tpc and Gsc  a  (6 s u b j e c t s )  students.  sn  The  towards  A computer p r o g r a m ,  correlations.  significant  elements  were t e s t e d amongst  hypothesis. those  academic  combinations  r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s were s m a l l , t h e statisticaly  two  variables specified.  correlations the  i n the e x p l o r a t i o n  g e n e r a l and  of  t o w a r d s C a n a d i a n s and  analyzed the  and  were u s e d  Tpc and Asc  was  and  169  Acc:  Attitudes  Tsc:  Total  self-concept  Tpc:  Total  a t t i t u d e s a b o u t p e o p l e and  ratings Since points, each of  versus  are  simply  g r o u p of  looking  students versus  The  ratings  e v e r y month o f Finally ratings  combining  subject,  the  the  given  c o n c e p t " . The  by  same p r o c e d u r e general  was  and  total  other;  data  the  analysis  eastern  students  mean r a t i n g  standard  per  number o f  were a v e r a g e d  applied  academic  self-concept  culture.  The  specified.  culture)  from the  objective the  of  was  with  self  i n t o a c a t e g o r y c a l l e d the  analyzing  Asc)  (collapsed  number of  a l l subjects  t o w a r d s C a n a d i a n s and  of  and  the  t o have a  attitude  way  culture  and  data for  study.  f o r the  them  the  considered as  o f Gsc  for c o r r e l l a t i o n s within  this differs  w e s t e r n . H e r e , we  points.  ratings  gave a v a r y i n g  Note t h a t  month f o r e a c h  the  (collapsed  each subject  we  culture  f o r a t t i t u d e s about people  subject.  one  about Canadian  concepts  "total  and  self-  then c o r r e l l a t e d with  attitude  towards the  t h i s p r o c e d u r e was  self-concept  collapsing  with  the  t o have  other  Canadian another  variables  Appendix Definition Attitude:  An  attitude  feelings places, ACC:  Attitude(s)  i s our  ideas,  Attitude(s)  Academic  about  model  "competance and Culture  (Bern,  (positive/negative)  to  1988)  and  General the  i n academic that  is a potentially  student  thematic  validation support,  model  (2)  coming  love,  evaluative  (1987,  and  people.  selfby  one's  studies. entering  a  confusing  from  new  and  1988):  non-European/non-  countries.  i s that  components o f  entity  surrounding  Ishiyama's (1)  self-  s e c u r i t y , comfort,  and  self-acceptance,  (4)  i d e n t i t y and  autonomy  fulfillment  Competence and  GSC  self-worth  c o m p e t a n c e and  culture.  experience.  self-concept.  five  The  defined  White/non-Anglo-Saxon GSC:  evaluative  Ishiyama's  (1960) n o t i o n  disorienting S t u d e n t : Any  The  f e e l i n g s toward Canadian Tied  people,  1970).  Canadian people.  autonomy"  Shock: Oberg's  s u c h as  f e e l i n g s toward Canadian  (1987,  culture  Eastern  evaluative  etc  self-concept.  validation  Terms  toward Canadian c u l t u r e .  (positive/negative) ASC:  of  toward p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t s  (positive/negative) ACP:  IX  meaning  Autonomy: The  third  validation 1988)  in  (3)  belonging  (5)  life.  component model  of  the  (Ishiyama,  c o n c e r n e d w i t h the  self1987,  areas  and  the  degree  o f competance  and  autonomy e x p e r i e n c e d i n v a r i o u s dimensions  of  vocational,  life  (i.e, social,  intellectual,  physical,  finaneial, etc). Identity  and  B e l o n g i n g : The  fourth  component  validation  model  (Ishiyama,  1987,  concerned  sense  of b e l o n g i n g .  (in  how  with  one  closely  identity In  and/or c u l t u r e  sexuality,  t o the at  Canadian  etc.) is  society  large.  (Also Foreign Student). coming a s a  oneself  intellectually,  related  and  this  defines  t e r m s o f work,  appearance,  Student:  self-  1988)  dimension,  International  of the  foreigner  Any  person  to study  in a  educational institution  or  university. Love, and  Fulfillment,  Meaning  in Life:  The  fifth  component  validation 1988). with  This  love,  Security,  Comfort,  and  (Ishiyama,  dimension  the c e n t r a l  existance,  The  model  a holistic  Support:  of The  self1987,  i s concerned  theme i n human  fulfillment,  quality  of the  dimension  and m e a n i n g  life first  of in  life.  i s emphasized  here.  component  of  the  172 self-validation (Ishiyama,  model  1987,  1988)  concerned with the of  physical  security  is  feelings  and e m o t i o n a l  and  comfort,  protectedness, f a m i l i a r i t y with  the  environment,  predictability, s u p p o r t , among S e l f - W o r t h and  S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e : The  and  social  others.  s e c o n d component  self-validation (Ishiyama, concerns  mastery  model  1987,  1988)  itself  individual's  of the  w i t h the  s e n s e of  and c o n f i d e n c e i n  specific  a r e a s of  creativity/talents general  skills  effective  and  for  communication,  self-expression, communication, building  and  relationship problem-  solving. Self-Validation:  As d e f i n e d  by  Ishiyama  (1987,  the  p r o c e s s of  the  sense of s e l f - w o r t h ,  and p e r s o n a l  restoring  i d e n t i t y and  and  1988)  "...is  re-inforcing  meaning  in  competence  life,  through  a variety  interactions  w i t h the n a t u r a l  environments, qualities U-Curve H y p o t h e s i s :  and  Gullahorn, Lysgaard,  1956;  1963; 1955;  phases:  the  positive culture  as  Jacobson, Sellitz  having  first  feelings  and  giving  to the  way  Won,  1963;  & Cook,  1962;  1954),  cross-cultural  three  distinct  being e l a t i o n towards the  f o l l o w e d by  depression  &  Gullahorn &  the p r o c e s s of  adjustment  (p.7).  (Deutsch  Sewell, M o r r i s & Davidson, explained  social  these  level"  hypothesis  Dubois,  and  and  transcending  to a s p i r i t u a l  the u-curve 1963;  of a c t i v i t i e s  and  host  negativity,  c o n f u s i o n , then initial  finally  feelings  of  optimism. Western Student:  A  student  white  coming  from  E u r o p e o r any  other  dominated/Anglo-Saxon country ( i . e  Australia).  

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