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Patterns of adjustment of international students to the University of British Columbia 1988

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PATTERNS OF ADJUSTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA By KAVEH FARROKH B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER ..OF./ARTS>._' i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard TTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 © Kaveh Farrokh, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Cpot-vsgU Pry. ^ A <d^A&> The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date Q ^ v o V v ^ l^-gg DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t T h i s study has been an attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p r o c e s s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment of a group of 13 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l umbia. The "u-curve" t h e o r y of adjustment was t e s t e d . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s would have i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . G e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t , academic s e l f - c o n c e p t , a t t i t u d e towards Canadians and a t t i t u d e towards Canadian c u l t u r e were used as i n d i c e s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . The s e l f - c o n c e p t d i m e n s i o n s were d e f i n e d by Ishiyama's s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n t h e o r y (1987,1988). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l i n d i c e s were e x p l o r e d . The adjustment p a t t e r n s of groups of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ( i . e ; Male/Female) were a l s o e x p l o r e d . The main method of d a t a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was v i s u a l a n a l y s i s , u s i n g two d i m e n s i o n a l graphs. C - s t a t i s t i c t e s t s ( T r y o n , 1982) were used t o t e s t the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c u r v e s . Three d i m e n s i o n a l graphs were a l s o used f o r d a t a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n t e r v i e w s were conducted a t the end of the s t u d y . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the u-curve t h e o r y of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment was not s u p p o r t e d a c r o s s a l l . s u b j e c t s . G e n e r a l and academic s e l f - c o n c e p t s were found t o be h i g h l y r e l a t e d . Academic performance was found t o have a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e upon academic s e l f - c o n c e p t . No c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was d i s c o v e r e d between a t t i t u d e s about Canadians and Canadian c u l t u r e . F i n a l l y , female we s t e r n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s were found t o have the most s u c c u s s f u l l a d j u s t m e n t . T h i s was f o l l o w e d i n s u c c e s s i o n by non-western f e m a l e s , western males and f i n a l l y , e a s t e r n males. i v Table of Contents Chapter 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter 2: L i t e r a t u r e Review ..3 I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l A djustment. . . 3 C u l t u r e Shock, The U-Curve Model and Other Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment 4 Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment of I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s . 6 C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment and S e l f - V a l i d a t i o n ..... 7 C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment and G e n e r a l S e l f - C o n c e p t (GSC) 9 Academic Performance and G e n e r a l S e l f - Concept (GSC) 10 G e n e r a l and Academic S e l f - C o n c e p t s and S e l f - V a l i d a t i o n 11 A t t i t u d e s about Canadian People (ACP)... 12 A t t i t u d e s about Canadian C u l t u r e (ACC) 13 Language P r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h 13 Chapter 3: Hypotheses ....15 P a t t e r n s of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment 15 G e n e r a l S e l f - C o n c e p t (GSC) and Adjustment.. 15 Academic S e l f - C o n c e p t (ASC) and Adjustment... 16 A t t i t u d e s about Canadian P e o p l e (ACP) and Adjustment... 16 A t t i t u d e about Canadian C u l t u r e and Adjustment ". 16 Chapter 4: Methodology 18 R a t i o n a l e . . 18 The Survey Instrument..... ...21 \ V P r o c e d u r e 22 Data A n a l y s i s 24 Chapter 5: R e s u l t s 30 I n t r o d u c t o r y Comments ....30 S e c t i o n I : T a b l e s f o r N u m e r i c a l R a t i n g s , A d j e c t i v e R a t i n g s , and C o r r e l a t i o n s . . . . . 30 S e c t i o n I I : R e s u l t s f o r I n d i v i d u a l S u b j e c t s .42 S e c t i o n I I I : R e s u l t s f o r Groups .....68 S e c t i o n IV: R e s u l t s Summary 73 Chapter 6: D i s c u s s i o n . . 75 I m p l i c a t i o n s of R e s u l t s 75 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e Research 77 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g 78 R e f e r e n c e s 81 Appendix . . .89 Appendix I : The C-Stat i s t i c . . . .' 89 Appendix I I : O r t h o g o n a l P o l y n o m i a l s 91 Appendix I I I : A d j e c t i v e R a t i n g Sheet 92 Appendix IV: Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment..113 Appendix V: The Three D i m e n s i o n a l Graph 115 Appendix V I : Graphs of Adjustment 118 Appendix V I I : I n t e r v i e w s ...167 Appendix VI11 : C o r r e l l a t i o n s . . 1 68 Appendix IX: D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 170 1 Chapter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The' p r e s e n t study i s an attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e the a c t u a l p r o c e s s of adjustment of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (U.B.C). There were 1021 I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s a t U.B.C i n 1985 (Muehlen, 1985). I n e v i t a b l y they f i n d t hemselves i n a new c u l t u r a l environment d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own. The i s s u e of adjustment i s a ve r y i m p o r t a n t one f o r many f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s because i t s t r o n g l y a f f e c t s t h e i r s o c i a l and academic l i v e s w h i l e l i v i n g and s t u d y i n g i n a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y environment. Numerous r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have shown t h a t n e g a t i v e adjustment p a t t e r n s can l e a d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and g e n e r a l h e a l t h problems ( T o r r e y , 1970; S t a f f o r d , 1980; Owie, 1982; Brouke & Vandereycken, 1986). T h i s makes i t i m p e r a t i v e f o r c o u n s e l o r s t o comprehend the n a t u r e o f , and problems i n , i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' e m o t i o n a l adjustment t o a new c u l t u r e . T h i s knowledge may h e l p p r e v e n t or reduce some of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s and the n e g a t i v e consequences e x p e r i e n c e d by many i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . The p r e s e n t survey i n v e s t i g a t e d how a group of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s went through changes i n g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t , academic s e l f - c o n c e p t , peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h C a n a d i a n s , and a t t i t u d e s towards the h o s t c o u n t r y . A l l of t h i s was done d u r i n g the academic year i n o r d e r t o t e s t some 2 of the p r e d i c t i o n s made by r e s e a r c h e r s on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . In a sense, the g o a l of t h i s study was t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . The purpose of the s t u d y was t o t e s t the t e s t the u-curve t h e o r y of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a djustment (Deutsch & Won, 1963; D u b o i s , 1956; G u l l a h o r n & G u l l a h o r n , 1963; Jacobson, 1963; L y s g a a r d , 1955; S e l l i t z & Cook, 1962; S e w e l l , M o r r i s & D a v i d s o n , 1954). The r a l a t i o n s h i p between the G e n e r a l and academic s e l f - c o n c e p t s as w e l l as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards Canadian p e e r s and Canadian c u l t u r e were e x p l o r e d . F i n a l l y , groups of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ( i . e ; Male/Female) were compared i n terms of t h e i r a djustment t o Canadian c u l t u r e . 3 Chapter 2 L i t e r a t u r e Review D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y i s a young f i e l d of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , e x t e n s i v e work has been co n d u c t e d i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . S t o n e g u i s t (1937) e x p l o r e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n two c u l t u r a l systems s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . S i n c e then the g e n e r a l theme i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e has been t h a t l i f e i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a s o j o u r n e r l i v i n g i n a f o r e i g n l a n d (Furnham & Bochner, 1982). The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d about i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment The i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s who come t o N o r t h American u n i v e r s i t i e s f a c e f o r m i d a b l e c h a l l e n g e s i n terms of e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and academic a d j u s t m e n t . S o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n (Owie, 1982) or homesickness ( S t a f f o r d , 1980) a r e o n l y a few of the problems f a c e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . C o u n s e l l o r s need t o be aware of t h o s e i s s u e s . Poor adjustment by t h e s e s t u d e n t s can l e a d t o v a r i o u s n e g a t i v e consequences. For example, T o r r e y (1970) and Coelho (1981) noted t h a t n e g a t i v e adjustment p a t t e r n s towards N o r t h American c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y l i f e t ends t o r e s u l t i n s e r i o u s mental h e a l t h problems f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . They found t h a t problems such as a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , psychosomatic r e a c t i o n s , and p a r a n o i d thought d i s o r d e r s were common amongst f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s s t u d i e d . S t a f f o r d (1980) 4 found s t r o n g c o r r e l l a t i o n s between poor adjustment i n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s and homesickness. In a s i m i l i a r s t u d y , Owie (1982) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n was a common symptom amongst those f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d j u s t m e n t . Brouke and Vandereycken (1986) r e p o r t e d a l i n k between e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s amongst f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s and poor adjustment t o a new c u l t u r a l environment.. I t would seem from t h e s e s t u d i e s ( T o r r e y , 1970; S t a f f o r d , 1980; Owie, 1982; Brouke & Vandereycken, 1986), t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s go t h r o u g h some s o r t of "shock" when they come t o a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y f o r s t u d i e s . C u l t u r e Shock, The U-Curve Model and Other Models Of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment Oberg (1960) proposed the i d e a of " c u l t u r e shock" or the i d e a t h a t e n t e r i n g a new c u l t u r e i s a p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f u s i n g and d i s o r i e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . S m a l l e y (1963) . expanded upon the i d e a and proposed a f o u r s t a g e model of the c u l t u r e shock e x p e r i e n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o S m a l l e y , the f i r s t s t age o c c u r s when the newcomer i s f a s c i n a t e d by the new c u l t u r e , y e t f e e l s t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n b a r r i e r s t h a t p r e v e n t him from e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the members of the h o s t c u l t u r e . The second stage w i t n e s s e s h o s t i l i t y and anger a g a i n s t the host c u l t u r e as w e l l as an emphasis upon the s u p e r i o r i t y of the o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e . P e o p l e a t the t h i r d s t a g e e x p e r i e n c e d e c r e a s e d anger and t e n s i o n . Here, the s o j o u r n e r improves i n h i s / h e r adjustment towards the 5 h o s t c u l t u r e . F i n a l l y the s o j o u r n e r d e v e l o p s a sense of b i - c u l t u r a l i s m . At t h i s f i n a l s t a g e , the s o j o u r n e r has been a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e h o s t c u l t u r e and come t o terms w i t h i t . A p a r a l l e l t h e o r e t i c a l a pproach, the u-curve h y p o t h e s i s (Deutsch & Won, 1963; D u b o i s , 1956; G u l l a h o r n & G u l l a h o r n , 1963; J a c o b s o n , 1963; L y s g a a r d , 1955; S e l l i t z & Cook, 1962; S e w e l l , M o r r i s & D a v i d s o n , 1954), e x p l a i n e d the p r o c e s s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment as h a v i n g t h r e e d i s t i n c t phases: the f i r s t b e i n g e l a t i o n and p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s towards the host c u l t u r e f o l l o w e d by n e g a t i v i t y , d e p r e s s i o n and c o n f u s i o n , then f i n a l l y g i v i n g way t o the i n i t i a l f e e l i n g s of o p t i m i s m . Other models of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment ( A d l e r , 1975; K l e i n 1977; Morten & Sue 1979) f o l l o w a s i m i l i a r " u -curve" p a t t e r n . Morten and Sue (1979) proposed a model of m i n o r i t y i d e n t i t y development. A l t h o u g h not meant s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , i t i s a h e l p f u l model f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . They i d e n t i f i e d f i v e s t a g e s of a d j u s t m e n t . The f i r s t s t age i s c o n f o r m i t y . Here, the ... i n d i v i d u a l s a t t i t u d e toward the dominant group i s so c a l l e d " a p p r e c i a t i n g " . The second stage i s d i s s o n a n c e . C o n f l i c t s a r i s e w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l between h i s / h e r group a p p r e c i a t i n g and group d e p r e c i a t i n g b e l i e f s . The next stage i s i n t r o s p e c t i o n , meaning t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n s h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f w i t h the b a s i s of the group d e p r e c i a t i o n 6 b e l i e f s . The f i n a l s t age o c c u r s when the i n d i v i d u a l s e l e c t i v e l y a p p r e c i a t e s t h e dominant group. Morten and Sue c a l l t h i s l a s t s tage s y n e r g e t i c a r t i c u l a t i o n and awareness. The models d e v e l o p e d by A d l e r (1975) and K l e i n (1977) f o l l o w s i m i l i a r p a t t e r n s (For more i n f o r m a t i o n see appendix IV.) The main t r e n d t h a t a l l of the s e t h e o r i e s (Morten & Sue, 1979; K l e i n , 1977; A d l e r , 1975) a r e p r o p o s i n g i s a s i m p l e one, s i m i l i a r t o the u-curve h y p o t h e s i s proposed,by Deutsch and Won (1963) and o t h e r s . The models (Morten & Sue, 1979; K l e i n , 1977; A d l e r , 1975) suggest an i n i t i a l s t a t e of e l a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a s o r t of d e p r e s s i o n or f a l l , f i n a l l y f o l l o w e d by a re s u r g e n c e of p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s towards the host c u l t u r e and towards t h e m s e l v e s . The g o a l s of the p r e s e n t study was t o t e s t the u-curve t h e o r y . The main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i s : do a l l f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s go through a s i m p l e u-curve i n t h e i r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t ? The adjustment i s s u e i s f a c e d not o n l y by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s but by peopl e such as Peace Corps v o l u n t e e r s , b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s , or d i p l o m a t s . Models of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment of I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s C e r t a i n o t h e r t h e o r i e s of f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' adjustment use d i f f e r e n t models t o e x p l a i n the adjustment p r o c e s s . H u l l (1981) deve l o p e d a model c a l l e d the f r e q u e n c y of c o n t a c t h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t f r e q u e n c y of c o n t a c t between N o r t h American and f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s r e s u l t s 7 i n more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n b o t h f o r e i g n and N o r t h American s t u d e n t s r e g a r d i n g each o t h e r ' s c u l t u r e ' s . T h i s t h e o r y has r e c i e v e d both s u p p o r t i v e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s . Blackman's s t u d y (1979) f o r example, c o n t r a d i c t e d H u l l ' s example. Blackman found t h a t a program d e s i g n e d t o f o s t e r peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s between I r a n i a n and American s t u d e n t s ended i n an a b j e c t f a i l u r e . However, Westwood's peer p a i r i n g program (1984), has been s u c c e s s f u l due t o t h e f a c t t h a t Canadian and f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s were matched up a c c o r d i n g t o h o b b i e s , f i e l d of s t u d y and/or work, age, sex, and o t h e r p e r s o n a l d i m e n s i o n s . Westwood (1986) a l s o s e t s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a as t o the number of t i m e s each C a n a d i a n - f o r e i g n s t u d e n t p a i r s h o u l d meet. Westwood's aim was t o f o s t e r a "peer r e l a t i o n s h i p " between the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t and h i s / h e r Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t . The Canadian would i n e s s e n c e , a c t as a s o c i a l g uide t o the Canadian c u l t u r e . The Canadians would a s s i s t i n t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o v i d e e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t , t h e r e b y f a c i l i t a t i n g the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t . The q u e s t i o n now i s : what l i e s a t the h e a r t of the adjustment p r o c e s s ? C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment and S e l f - V a l i d a t i o n I shiyama's t h e o r y of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n (1987, 1987), notes how i n d i v i d u a l s s t r i v e t o v a l i d a t e t h e m s e l v e s . The manner i n which the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t v a l i d a t e s h i m / h e r s e l f , may be a f f e c t e d by whether he/she w i l l a d j u s t s u c c e s s f u l l y or not t o the h o s t c u l t u r e . For example, i f 8 the p r o c e s s of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n i s b l o c k e d , the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t w i l l not a d j u s t s u c c e s s f u l l y t o the h o s t environment. S e l f - V a l i d a t i o n as noted by Ishiyama (1987) i s " . . . t h e p r o c e s s of r e s t o r i n g and r e - i n f o r c i n g the sense of s e l f - w o r t h , meaning i n l i f e , and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and competence th r o u g h a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , and t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e s e q u a l i t i e s t o a s p i r i t u a l l e v e l " ( p . 7 ) . The more s i m i l a r i t y t h e r e i s between the s o c i a l customs of the home and host e n v i r o n m e n t s , the e a s i e r i t w i l l be t o v a l i d a t e o n e s e l f as a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t i n an a l i e n e nvironment. T h i s would i n e f f e c t p r e d i c t t h a t s t u d e n t s coming from Anglo-Saxon c o u n t r i e s , w i l l have an e a s i e r time a d a p t i n g t o t h e N o r t h American c u l t u r a l and academic e n v i r o n m e n t s . The m a j o r i t y of the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e c o n f i r m s the f a c t t h a t Western/European s t u d e n t s a d j u s t more s u c c e s s f u l l y t o N o r t h American c u l t u r e than t h e i r non- western c o u n t e r p a r t s ( M e l o n i , 1986; D a l i l i , 1982; P e r k i n s , 1977). A few s t u d i e s however, show c o n t r d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s t h a t "Western" s t u d e n t s do not a d j u s t t o N o r t h American c u l t u r e any b e t t e r than " E a s t e r n " or non-white/non-European s t u d e n t s ( B r e s e e , 1985). Helms (1978) and M e l e i s (1982) s t u d i e d the adjustment of A r a b i c s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s i n American c o l l e g e s and found t h a t many went through d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d s of adjustment due to t h e i r c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s arid b e l i e f s . Chang (1973) found 9 s i m i l i a r f i n d i n g s f o r Chinese s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g on N o r t h American campuses. A l t s c h e r (1976) and P e r k i n s (1977) s t u d i e d f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n N o r t h American campuses i n g e n e r a l and found adjustment problems r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r home c u l t u r e s and t h a t of N o r t h America i n terms of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and o t h e r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . In s h o r t , s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t element i n the p r o c e s s of adjustment t o a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e . C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment and G e n e r a l S e l f - C o n c e p t (GSC) Many s t u d i e s suggest t h a t adjustment i t s e l f may be a f f e c t e d by s e l f - c o n c e p t . S e l f - c o n c e p t i t s e l f may mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s ( E p s t e i n , 1980). Phares (1984) noted t h a t e v e r y t h i n g p e o p l e see as t h e i r s w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s e l f . A l l p o r t (1961) took the n o t i o n t h a t the s e l f i s e v e r y t h i n g c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t o the p e r s o n t h a t the person c o n s i d e r s as h i s / h e r own. Body sense, s e l f - e s t e e m , and a l l o t h e r t h i n g s s i g n i f i c a n t t o a perso n a r e i m p o r t a n t . T h i s l e a d s t o the R o g e r i a n approach (1980) t o the s e l f . Rogers noted t h a t as a person goes t h r o u g h l i f e , he/she does so by way of h i s / h e r e x p e r i e n c e s (Rogers, 1980). The s e l f i s d e f i n e d as b e i n g a f f e c t e d by tho s e e x p e r i e n c e s (Rogers, 1980). Rogers (1980) notes t h a t the essence of t h e s e l f i s t h a t which s t r i v e s t o l e a r n , improve, and t o grow; a p r o c e s s which he c a l l s " s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " . I shiyama's model (1987, 1988) i s s i m i l i a r , but more s p e c i f i c than the p r e v i o u s approches d i s c u s s e d ( A l l p o r t , 10 1961; E p s t e i n , 1980; Rogers, 1980: P h a r e s , 1984). Ishiyama's s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model (1987, 1988) c o n t a i n s f i v e major thematic, components: (1) s e c u r i t y , c o m f o r t , and s u p p o r t (2) s e l f - w o r t h and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e (3) competence and autonomy (4) i d e n t i t y and b e l o n g i n g (5) l o v e , f u l f i l l m e n t , and meaning i n l i f e ( f o r d e f i n i t i o n s see " D e f i n i t i o n of Terms" s e c t i o n ) . The s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e s s i s the manner i n which t h o s e components a r e r e s t o r e d , enhanced and r e i n f o r c e d ( I s h i y a m a , 1988). From t h i s s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n p e r p e c t i v e , the g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t (GSC) may be u n d e r s t o o d as a s y n e r g e t i c output of t h e s e f i v e t h e m a t i c components of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n . I t i s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of GSC t h a t has been used as an index of adjustment f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . Academic Performance and G e n e r a l S e l f - c o n c e p t (GSC) R e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t and a c a d e m i c - s e l f concept (Purkey, 1967; K i f e r , 1977; Ames & Ames, 1978; Sohn, 1977; Johnson, 1981; Crano, 1985; Marsh, 1984; Zar.b, 1984; R e i n e c k e , 1986). An i n t e r e s t i n g s tudy by Purkey (1967) noted t h a t s c h o o l r e l a t e d f a i l u r e s stemmed l a r g e l y from f a c t o r s such as m i s d i r e c t e d m o t i v a t i o n , l a c k of committment, and c u l t u r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s . A l l of t h e s e are viewed by Purkey as the consequence of f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n s of the s e l f and the w o r l d . R e i n e c k e (1986) noted how f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n a f o r e i g n academic environment can be induced i n t o a s t a t e of " l e a r n e d 11 h e l p l e s s n e s s " because they see t h e m s e l v e s as not b e i n g i n c o n t r o l of t hemselves i n the environment. T h e i r " l o c u s of c o n t r o l " i s not w i t h the " s e l f " but r a t h e r more w i t h the o u t s i d e environment. In a a n other s t u d y , Johnson (1981) found t h a t poor s e l f - c o n c e p t w i t h i n s t u d e n t s had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e i r academic f a i l u r e s . Johnson noted t h a t s t u d e n t s i n such a s i t u a t i o n were i n a s t a t e of " l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s " . In a s t u d y c o n ducted w i t h h i g h s c h o o l exchange s t u d e n t s i n New Z e a l a n d , Crano (1985) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f - c oncept and how s t u d e n t s saw t h e m s e l v e s p e r f o r m i n g a c a d e m i c a l l y . These s t u d i e s have c o n f i r m e d the a b i l i t y of the academic s e l f - c o n c e p t t o a f f e c t the g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t . These s t u d i e s p o i n t toward a p a r a l l e l between g e n e r a l and academic s e l f - c o n c e p t s . The academic s e l f - c o n c e p t (ASC) has been used as a n other measure of adjustment f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t . G e n e r a l and Academic s e l f - c o n c e p t s and S e l f - V a l i d a t i o n . In terms ,of the s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model, "competence and autonomy" i n s t u d i e s would be a v e r y i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n f o r any d e d i c a t e d s t u d e n t . T h i s d i m e n s i o n , "competence and autonomy", was h y p o t h e s i z e d as b e i n g a p a r t of the g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t (GSC). The academic s e l f - c oncept (ASC) i s h y p o t h e s i z e d as b e i n g o n l y the "competence and autonomy" d i m e n s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the ASC i s t h a t a r e a where "competence and autonomy" i s e i t h e r v a l i d a t e d or 12 i n v a l i d a t e d . The ASC though p a r t of GSC, i s t o be viewed as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w i t h GSC. I f the academic s e l f - c o n c e p t i s not enhanced or v a l i d a t e d ( f o r example, the s t u d e n t r e c e i v e s poor g r a d e s ) , then the GSC i s i n danger of b e i n g damaged. The p o s s i b i l i t y then e x i s t s t h a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t ' s f r u s t r a t i o n c o u l d be d i s p l a c e d onto the host c u l t u r e and the h o s t c u l t u r e members. Note t h a t t h i s does not i m p l y a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n s . T h i s i s c o n t r a r y t o the assumptions of L e f e b v r e and L e f e b v r e (1986) who p r e d i c t e d t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n s were c a u s a l l y l i n k e d . I t i s assumed t h a t the academic and g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t s a r e both a b l e t o a f f e c t one a n o t h e r . In s h o r t , GSC and ASC a r e seen as o v e r l a p p i n g . P e r c e p t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d s t o Canadians and p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d s t o Canadian c u l t u r e may bear a s i m i l i a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . A t t i t u d e s about Canadian People (ACP) A t t i t u d e s towards Canadians were not seen as b e i n g c a u s a l l y a f f e c t e d by the s e l f - c o n c e p t d i m e n s i o n s . L e f e b v r e and L e f e b v r e contend t h a t s e l f - c o n c p t and a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n s a r e c a u s a l l y l i n k e d (1986). A p a r t from one s u p p o r t i v e study (Ryba, Edelman, & Chapman, 1984) v e r y few s t u d i e s have have found a c a u s a l l i n k between s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n s . Having d i s c u s s e d the g e n e r a l and academic s e l f - c o n c e p t s as measures of a d j u s t m e n t , i t i s suggested t h a t the 13 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g host c u l t u r e members (or Canadian p e o p l e ) a l s o be used as an index of ad j u s t m e n t . A t t i t u d e about Canadian C u l t u r e (ACC) Another a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n i s t h a t of Canadian c u l t u r e (ACC). P e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the c u l t u r e a t l a r g e may a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d by the p r o c e s s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . C a m i l l e r i (1984) s t u d i e d f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s s o j o u r n i n g i n France and found t h a t s t u d e n t s who were c o n f u s e d about t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y tended t o h o l d more n e g a t i v e views w i t h r e g a r d s t o the hos t (French) c u l t u r e . Naser (1984) found t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t male Arab s t u d e n t s had of the American c u l t u r e were r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e s t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s h e l d about t h e m s e l v e s . In s h o r t , they found a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e about American c u l t u r e . . , The r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s ( C a m e l l e r i , 1984; Naser, 1984) h i n t t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t n e g a t i v e g e n e r a l and academic s e l f - c o n c e p t s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s of the host c u l t u r e . A g a i n , as i n the d i s c u s s i o n of ACP, ACC i s seen as Independent of the s e l f - c oncept d i m e n s i o n s (eventhough a n o n - c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t ) . Language P r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h A v e r y i m p o r t a n t i s s u e t h a t needs t o be a d d r e s s e d i s t h a t of language competency and i t s e f f e c t upon a d j u s t m e n t . No matter what the o t h e r f a c t o r s may be i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l 14 student's adjustment, language competency could be a very important one. Inadequate command of the English language has been shown to'be a major source of maladjustment among international students. Hartung's study of Japanese students (1983) and Cummings' study of Caribbean immigrant students (1983) showed that the students experienced c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s due to their lack of proficiency in English. Studies (de Wolf, 1980; Park, 1974) showed lower academic performance of foreign students due to being non- native English speakers. 15 C h a pter 3 H y p o t h e s i s Based upon the d i s c u s s i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , a s e r i e s of p r e d i c t i o n s have been made. Each p r e d i c t i o n i s now d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n . P a t t e r n s of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Adjustment I t has been p r e d i c t e d t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s t e n d t o a d j u s t i n an i n d i v i d u a l f a s h i o n . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t the u-curve approach would not be an a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t o r of adjustment f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s were p r e d i c t e d t o a d j u s t i n i n d i v i d u a l f a s h i o n s . The g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t (GSC) and the academic s e l f - c oncept (ASC) were seen as o v e r l a p p i n g and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment was e x p l o r e d . GSC and ASC were used as measures of a d j u s t m e n t . A t t i t u d e s about ho s t c u l t u r e members (ACP) and host c u l t u r e (ACC) were a l s o used as measures of adjustment and e x p l o r e d . F i n a l l y the p a t t e r n s of adjustment of Males v s . Females and E a s t e r n v s . Western s t u d e n t s were examined. G e n e r a l S e l f - C o n c e p t and Adjustment GSC was used as an index of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . The components of GSC have been d e f i n e d by the f i v e major t h e m a t i c components of Ishiyama's s e l f - V a l i d a t i o n model: (1) s e c u r i t y , c o m f o r t , and su p p o r t (2) s e l f - w o r t h and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e (3) competance and autonomy (4) i d e n t i t y and 16 b e l o n g i n g (5) l o v e , f u l f i l l m e n t , and meaning i n l i f e ( f o r d e f i n i t i o n s see " D e f i n i t i o n of Terms" s e c t i o n ) . Academic S e l f - C o n c e p t (ASC) and Adjustment ASC has a l s o been used as a measure of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . The d i m e n s i o n of ASC has been h y p o t h e s i z e d as Ishiyama's t h i r d t h e m a t i c component: competance and autonomy. ASC though p a r t of GSC, i s c o n s i d e r e d as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w i t h GSC. A t t i t u d e s about Canadian P e o p l e (ACP) and Adjustment ACP has a l s o been used as an index of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . The L e f e b v r e and L e f e b v r e model of adjustment was viewed as inadequate because i t p r e d i c t e d a c a u s a l l i n k between s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n s . T h i s i s s u e was a l s o e x p l o r e d i n t h e . s t u d y . A t t i t u d e s about Canadian C u l t u r e (ACC) and Adjustment ACC was used as a n o t h e r index of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . A g a i n , l i k e the s e l f - c o n c e p t d i m e n s i o n s , the ACP and ACC were seen t o o v e r l a p p . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was a l s o e x p l o r e d i n the s t u d y . A l s o , i t was seen as p o s s i b l e t h a t s t u d e n t s coming from non-western n a t i o n s would have more d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g t o N o r t h American c u l t u r e than those coming from the w e s t e r n n a t i o n s . The western s t u d e n t s were e x p e c t e d t o be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r adjustment t o N o r t h American c u l t u r e s i n c e t h e i r p r o c e s s e s of s o c i a l s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o be more s i m i l i a r . In f a c t , l a c k of knowledge of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a new c u l t u r e has been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o adjustment problems i n s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g i n a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y (Chang, 1973; Helms & M e l e i s , 1982; Heikenheimo & Schu t e , 1986; Penn & Durham, 1978). These p o s s i b i l i t i e s were a l s o e x p l o r e d . 18 Chapter 4 Methodology R a t i o n a l e The r e s e a r c h methodology used i n t h i s s t u d y , was an e x p l o r a t o r y case study u s i n g a time s e r i e s d e s i g n . The reason such a time s e r i e s d e s i g n was used, was because of the i n t e r e s t i n s t u d y i n g the p r o c e s s e s of a d j u s t m e n t , and not t h e outcome. The p r o c e s s of adjustment t h a t was put t o t e s t was t h a t of the u-curve h y p o t h e s i s . In e s s e n c e , the v a l i d i t y of the u-curve t h e o r y was put t o t e s t . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s were s t u d i e d over a p e r i o d of time (from October t o A p r i l ) . The s u r v e y method was used t o c o l l e c t the d a t a . The time s e r i e s method i s a way of mapping change i n i n d i v i d u a l s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s over time (Agnew & P i k e , 1987). The up and down map of change i n a time s e r i e s c u r v e , f o r a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l , w i l l f o l l o w a g i v e n c o u r s e f o r a c o m b i n a t i o n of reasons (Agnew and P i k e , 1987). In t h i s s t u d y , the time s e r i e s c u r v e under s t u d y was the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment of 13 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . I n d i c e s of a d j ustment (GSC, ASC, ACP, ACC) were s e l e c t e d t o e x p l o r e the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g a d j u s t m e n t . C o n d u c t i n g a survey i s o f t e n u s e f u l f o r e x p l o r i n g how people f e e l about a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e , or how they may behave i n response t o a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n (Mcburney, 1983). In a d d i t i o n , s u r v e y s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o examine 19 c o r r e l a t i o n s among the s u b j e c t s r e s p o n s e s and t o l o o k f o r p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among thos e r esponses ( K i d d e r , 1981). T h i s s t u d y , e x p l o r e d change p a t t e r n s over time and c o r r e l l a t i o n s among g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t and academic s e l f c o n c e p t , a t t i t u d e towards Canadians,.and a t t i t u d e towards the Canadian c u l t u r e . Through g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s p o n s e s , the p r o c e s s of adjustment t h r o u g h time was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . The graphed d a t a and supplementary s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were used t o t e s t the n o t i o n s of a u-curve p a t t e r n of adjustment f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . There a r e major s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s i n the su r v e y r e s e a r c h method i n terms of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h the e x t e n t t o which the o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the independent v a r i a b l e and dependent v a r i a b l e i s a c a u s a l one. E x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y d e a l s w i t h the e x t e n t t o which the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made from the r e s e a r c h t o the p o p u l a t i o n s of i n t e r e s t . The major s t r e n g t h of the survey method of r e s e a r c h i s t h a t i t o f f e r s a g r e a t d e a l of e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i n t h a t i t f o r c e s the r e s e a r c h e r t o examine the " r e a l w o r l d " (Agnew & P i k e , 1987). The use of a c t u a l p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e can g r e a t l y enhance the v a l i d i t y of the survey (Agnew & P i k e , 1987). For example, a f t e r the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a v i a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n t e r v i e w s would be conducted w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s . 20 The weakness of t h i s method l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t what i s t o l d t o us may be v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from the a c t u a l r e a l i t y (Agnew & P i k e , 1987). Indeed, l a c k of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e sponses and b e h a v i o r may r e f l e c t a l a c k of i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y (Webb, Ca m p b e l l , S c h w a r t z , & S e c h r i s t , 1.966). The f a c t o r of c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s i s a major c o n c e r n i n survey r e s e a r c h (Sidman, 1960). I n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be a n y t h i n g from b i a s e d r e s p o n d i n g t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o the manner i n which q u e s t i o n s were worded on the s u r vey (Agnew & P i k e , 1987). The i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s s e r v e t o weaken the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of survey s t u d i e s (Webb et a l . , 1966). S i n c e the o b j e c t i v e of the p r e s e n t study was t o i d e n t i f y any p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e s b e a r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s u c c e s s f u l or u n s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t , and t o study t o the a c t u a l p r o c e s s of adjustment f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C, the i s s u e of i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y does not become as r e l e v a n t as t h a t of e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . The o b j e c t i v e was t o f i n d r e s u l t s a p p l i c a b l e t o the whole body of s t u d e n t s coming from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. To h e l p l e s s e n the c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s , and t o l e s s e n the danger between the d i s c r e p a n c y of r esponses v e r s u s a c t u a l a t t i t u d e s and/or b e h a v i o r s , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h the r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s , f o l l o w i n g the p r o c e s s of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . As mentioned b e f o r e , t h i s approach h e l p s t o enhance the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study and a l s o h e l p t o 21 a l l e v i a t e the issue of int e r n a l v a l i d i t y (Agnew & Pike, 1987). The Survey Instrument The instrument used in t h i s study was a survey questionnaire. In essence, the questionnaire focussed on four areas, i.e; general self-concept, academic s e l f - concept, attitude towards Canadians, and attitude towards the Canadian culture. The following four questions were used: The f i r s t question deals with the general self-concept: How have you been feeling about yourself for the past week? The second question deals with the academic self-concept: How have you been feeling about your school work? The t h i r d question deals with attitude and/or perception about Canadians: How have you been feeling about the relationships with other Canadian, students you study with? The fourth question deals with attitudes and/or perceptions about Canadian culture and society: How have you been fee l i n g about the Canadian culture and soc iety? A L i k e r t type r a t i n g scale was used for each area, ranging from -4 (extremely negative) to +4 (extremely positive) . In addition, subjects were asked to provide three descriptive adjectives in three balnk spaces. F i n a l l y , a 22 small space i s given to describe any major contributing factors and/or incidents for every question. The format for answering each question is as follows: (Ratings) -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 Adjectives: , , Major Contributing factors/incidents: An important element, namely that of r e l i a b i l t y , enters the discussion. The reason t h i s issue has not been f u l l y addressed is.due to the fact that only four questions were involved in the whole survey, and for any r e l i a b i l i t y c a l c u l a t i o n s , at least twenty items are needed (Nunnaly, 1967). However as Nunnaly notes (1967), Likert scales have shown a very high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y even when the number of items used are small ( i . e ; less than twenty). The reason only four items were used was because very clear and s i m p l i f i e d questions were needed for the data sampling in the time series. Four questions were generated for the purpose of exploring the process of adjustment of international students over time. The l i m i t a t i o n of course, is that no psychometric information on these scales i s av a i l a b l e . Procedure Subjects: The subjects for t h i s study were a group of international students who had come to study in the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Before the study a c t u a l l y began, 60 international students were paired up with an equal number of Canadian peers in a program run by Dr.s 23 Westwood and Ishiyama of the Department of Counselling Psychology of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l of the international students were volunteers in t h i s "peer pair i n g program". The matching was done very c a r e f u l l y , taking into account key factors such as age, sex, department or f i e l d of studies, interests, languages spoken, and any other important preferences the international students and their Canadian peers may have had. The International Students were then paired according to each of the key factors mentioned with a Canadian peer. For a more detailed description of the subjects, consult table I in the results section. Survey Administration: In a meeting for the Canadian peers, volunteers were recruited to help in the process of data c o l l e c t i o n . The role of these Canadian participants was to administer a questionnaire to their peer in an i n t e r v a l of every 7-14 days throughout the academic year from September to A p r i l . Because the Canadian student and his/her international counterpart were to meet as peers, as part of the program, they could arrange the appropriate timetable so as to accomodate time for the questionaire administration. The study began l a t e in September, and consent forms were signed by those international students w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e in the study. A t o t a l of 15 international students agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e in the study, and of those, 2 dropped out for personal reasons. The data c o l l e c t i o n began 24 in October. The Canadians, in e f f e c t , acted as contact persons between the researchers and the international students being surveyed. A l l subjects went to their peer for completing the questionnaire. Completed surveys were dropped into the "survey deposit box" in the department of counselling psychology of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. This approach proved very u s e f u l l in the interviewing segment of the study. When the study was over, most of the students had l e f t the university to return to their home countries having completed their f i n a l exams. Since each of them had been assigned to a Canadian peer, i t was possible to approach those peers in the event that the foreign student himself/herself was unavailable to provide information regarding his/her adjustment. For the format of the interviews, consult Appendix VII. Data Analysis Due to a small number of subjects (n=13) an individual case analysis of the time series data was conducted on each subject. Visual analysis was the primary method of data analysis. Graphs were used to observe the patterns of adjustment. The u-curve hypothesis was put to.t e s t . As a back up to the graphs, C - S t a t i s t i c s and orthogonal polynomials were used to aid in the interpretation of the graphs. Co r r e l l a t i o n s were used to explore the relationships between GSC and ASC, ACP and ACC, and between the self-concept and a t t i t u d i n a l dimensions (consult Appendix VIII for more information). These were done for 25 individuals and groups (Male vs. Female and Eastern vs. Western). F i n a l l y , 3-dimensional graphs were used to a s s i s t in the interpreation of the adjustment of the international students. The data analysis i s now discussed in d e t a i l . The f i r s t approach was to construct tables for the ratings given for every question across the timetable spe c i f i e d (October to A p r i l ) . The tables were used to record the ratings of every individual subject across the months of October to A p r i l . Since each subject gave four responses (for general self-concept, academic self-concept, attitudes towards Canadians, and attitudes towards Canadian culture respectively), each response was recorded onto a separate frequency table. A l l subjects responded to the four questions each time and their responses were recorded, tabulated, and graphed to indicate fluctuation over time. Since the subjects gave variable numbers of questionnaires in any p a r t i c u l a r month of the study, the ratings were simply averaged for every month for every subject (Jaccard, 1983). For any missing data, the average of a l l the other data was taken as to provide an estimate of the missing point (Zar, 1984). The next step was to v i s u a l l y analyze the trend of the data. The subjects ratings for each question were graphed to study the trend of adjustment to test the v a l i d i t y of the u-curve hypothesis. The ordinate ranged from a value of +4 to -4 (see survey instrument), and the abscissa was a timeline showing months (October-April). Since subjects 26 gave in d i f f e r e n t numbers of questionnaires, these graphs were used primaraly to look for any trends in adjustment. Also, the trends for the each of the four questions were compared with each other as to v i s u a l l y test for any possible relationships among the four indices of adjustment. The trends for a l l four questions were then plotted onto the same graph for every subject. As explained before, each subject had his/her responses to every question graphed. As a res u l t , each subject ended up with four graphs. Since a t o t a l of 13 people participated in the study, a t o t a l of 52 graphs were obtained. In accordance with the exploratory aspects of the study, the f i r s t graph, general self-concept, was compared to the second, academic self-concept, to see i f any s i m i l i a r trends existed v i s u a l l y . The t h i r d and fourth graphs, regarding attitudes toward the Canadians and toward the Canadian culture, were also analyzed. 3-dimensional graphs of adjustment were also plotted. These were used to a s s i s t in the interpretation of the adjustment of the international students. These were done by a computer program derived from the TELEGRAF program for graphics. For more information about the three dimensional graphs, consult Appendix V. In order to a s s i s t the analysis of the adjustment trends found on the graphs, a number of s t a t i s t i c a l tests were done. These were used as an adjunct to the visu a l analysis. 27 The individual graphs were s t a t i s t i c a l l y tested to see i f any true trends did e x i s t . The C - s t a t i s t i c (Tryon, 1982) was used to analyze the ratings to see i f any s i g n i f i c a n t trends existed. This approach provides a simple method of evaluating any possible intervention e f f e c t s . The logic underlying the C - s t a t i s t i c i s the same as that underlying v i s u a l analysis; the v a r i a b i l i t y in the successive data points i s evaluated r e l a t i v e to the changes in slope from one period of time to the other. For the puposes of our experiment 7 data points (N=7), were used which corresponded to the seven months of the study. The c r i t i c a l value was set 1.62 at the .05 l e v e l of significance (Tryon, 1982). The main l o g i c a l question to be answered by the C- s t a t i s t i c was wether or not the data had shown any s i g n i f i c a n t trends. For more information consult Appendix I . If a trend was found in any of the graphs, another mathematical technique, orthogonal polynomials (Rosenthal, Rosnow, 1982), was used to determine the nature of the trends. In this way we were able to see i f the nature of the trends were curves or simply straight l i n e s . For more information consult Appendix I I . On the adjective section of the questionnaire, the subjects had the opportunity to respond with a maximmum of three adjectives for every question of the questionnaire. In order to analyze t h i s portion of the data, i t was 28 necessary f i r s t to find a method of objectively ranking the adjectives. A l l of the adjectives given by the researchers throughout the year were put onto one questionnaire. The raters were asked to rate the adjectives on a scale ranging from -4 (extremely negative) to +4 (extremeley p o s i t i v e ) , (see Appendix I I I : Adjective Rating Sheet). Five graduate students uninvolved in the research project rated the adjectives using the questionnaire (It was impossible to have the international students themselves rank the data, many of them having departed right after f i n a l exams). Following the ratings made by a l l fiv e raters, averages were taken for the ratings given for every adjective. For every question, a l l adjectives, positive and/or negative, were averaged as to provide an average adjective rating. Tables were set up in the same manner as the numerical ratings. Graphs were also drawn to provide another visu a l medium to test the u-curve hypothesis. The l a s t stage of the survey acted as an important follow up to the data analysis. This segment of the study was a way of obtaining additional information, as well as confirming the s t a t i s t i c a l and graphical information obtained during the data analysis. It was hoped that another approach would be provided to test the u-curve hypothesis. The interviews proved h e l p f u l l in that they helped in the exploratory aspects of the study discussed e a r l i e r . For more information regarding the interviews, consult Appendix VII. 29 If the foreign students had departed for their home countries right after their f i n a l exams, the Canadian peers were approached to provide information about the international students' process of adjustment. 30 Chapter 5 R e s u l t s Introductory Comments The results are presented here in four sections. The f i r s t section shows a l l of the tables for the numerical and adjective ratings for questions 1 through 4, and co r r e l a t i o n tables for every single subject, Eastern and Western students, and Male and Female students. The second section discusses the results of each of the 13 subjects in the study. The t h i r d section does so with the East/West and Male/Female groups, as well as the whole subject pool. The f i n a l section i s a summary section regarding the s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of the re s u l t s . For d e f i n i t i o n s such as "GSC" or "ACC" refer to section on d e f i n i t i o n of terms (Appendix VIII). For terms such as "quadrant I" on the 3-dimensional graph, refer to appendix V. A l l graphs are in Appendix VI. Section I: Tables for Numerical Ratings, Adjective Ratings and Correlations Preceding the tables, i s a descriptive table l i s t i n g a l l relevant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subjects (see Table 1). There are a t o t a l of four tables for the rating responses corresponding to each of the four questions repectively (see tables 1-4) . The same applies to the adjective ratings (see tables 5-8). Correlation tables exist for the individual subjects (table 9), East/West groups (table 10), and Male/Female groups (table 11). 0 31 Table 1 DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECTS AGE SEX MARITAL STATUS ETHNICITY FIELD OF STUDY S01 27 F Single Eastern Biology S02 27 F Single Eastern Science (?) S03 20 F Single Eastern Psychology S04 24 M Single Eastern Engineering S05 29 M Single Eastern English L i t . S06 23 M Single Eastern Engineering S07 28 M Single Eastern Engineering S08 22 F Single Western English L i t . S09 26 M Single Western P o l i t i c a l S c i . SI 0 23 F Single Western Psychology S1 1 22 F Single Western Botany S1 2 22 F Single Western Biology S.1 3 27 M Single Western P o l i t i c a l S c i . TABLE 2 SUBJECTIVE NUMERICAL RATINGS fOR GSC Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr S01 + 2 .33 -2 .00 + 1 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .50 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 S02 + 3 .00 -1 .00 + 0 .80 + 2 .50 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 S03 + 2 .00 + 1 .5 + 1 .57 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 S04 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 SOS + 0 .50 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 S06 + 2 .56 + 2 .67 + 2 .00 + 2 .50 + 3 .00 + 2 .50 + 2 .56 S07 -1 .00 0 .00 + 0 .50 + 1 .00 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 S08 -1 .00 + 1 .00 + 0 .67 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 S09 + 4 .00 0 .0.0 + 1 . 1 3 + 2 .00 0 .00 -0 .50 + 4 .00 S1 0 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 4 .00 + 1 .75 + 3 .00 + 4 .00 + 3 .50 S1 1 + 1 .42 + 1 .67 + 1 .00 + 2 .67 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 ' -1 .00 S12 +2.00 +2.50 -1.00 +2.67 +3.00 +3.00 +3.00 S13 +1.00 +0.50 +1.00 +1.00 +0.50 +1.50 +0.91 TABLE 3 SUBJECTIVE NUMERICAL RATINGS fOR ASC Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr S01 + 2 .33 + 2 .50 + 0 .50 + 2 .00 + 2 .50 + 1 .50 + 2 .50 S02 -3 .00 + 0 .67 + 0 .30 + 1 .00 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 -2 .00 S03 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 + 0 .71 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 -1 .00 S04 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 + 2 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 S05 -0 .50 0 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 S06 + 2 .44 + 2 .67 + 1 .00 + 2 .50 + 3 .00 + 2 .50 + 2 .44 S07 -2 .00 -0 .67 + 0 .13 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 S08 0 .00 + 1 .00 + o .33 + 1 .00 -1 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 SO 9 0 .00 + 1 .50 + 0 .75 + 4 .00 0 .00 -1 .00 + 1 .00 S1 0 + 2 .00 + 2 .33 + 4 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .25 + 3 .00 + 2 .00 S 1 1 + 1 .33 + 1 .67 + 1 .50 + 1 .33 + 2 .00 + 1 .50 -1 .00 S1 2 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 0 .00 '+2 • 67 + 3 .00 0 .00 + 3 .00 S 1 3 -2 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .50 -1 .00 + 2 .00 + 0 .45 TABLE 4 SUBJECTIVE NUMERICAL RATINGS FOR ACP Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr S01 + 4 .00 + 4. 00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 S02 + 3 .00 + 3. 33 + 2 .50 + 1 .50 + 3 .00 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 S03 + 2 .00 + 2. 00 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 S04 + 3 .00 + 3. 00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 S05 + 0 .50 0. 00 0 .00 -1 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 S06 + 1 .44 + 0. 67 + 1 .00 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 + 0 .22 S07 + 2 .00 -1 . 33 0 .00 + 1 .00 + 2 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 S08 + 1 .00 + 1 . 00 + 0 .83 0 .00 + 1 .00 + 2 .00 0 .00 S09 + 1 .00 0. 00 + 0 .50 + 2 .00 0 .00 -0 .50 + 2 .00 S1 0 + 4 .00 + 4. 00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 S1 1 + 2 . 17 + 2. 50 + 2 .00 + 2 .33 + 3 .00 + 2 .50 + 2 .00 S1 2 + 1 .00 + 2. 00 + 1 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .50 + 3 .00 S1 3 + 3 .00 + 2. 00 -1 .00 -0 .67 -1 .50 + 1 .00 + 0 .27 TABLE 5 SUBJECTIVE NUMERICAL RATINGS FOR ACC Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr SO 1 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 4 .00 + 0 .50 + 3 .00 + 4 .00 S02 + 2 .00 -1 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 0 .00 -1 .00 S03 + 2 .00 + 3 .00 + 2 .71 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 3 .00 + 2 .00 S04 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 + 2 .00 + 2 .00 S05 -0 .50 0 .00 -1 .00 + 1 .00 -1 .00 -1 .00 -1 .00 S06 + 0 .22 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 + 0 .22 S07 + 2 .00 0 .00 + 0 .63 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 S08 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 + 0 .17 0 .00 -1 .00 0 .00 0 .00 S09 -1 .00 + 2 .00 + 0 .50 + 1 .00 0 .00 -1 .00 + 2 .00 SI 0 + 3 .00 + 4 .00 + 3 .00 + 2 .25 + 3 .00 + 3 .33 0 .00 SI 1 + 1 .50 + 0 .67 + 2 .00 + 1 .33 + 2 .00 + 2 .25 + 1 .00 S1 2 -2 .00 0 .00 + 1 .00 + 1 .67 + 1 .00 + 1 .00 + 2 .00 S1 3 0 .00 + 1 .00 0 .00 + 1 .33 + 0 .50 + 1 .00 + 0 .82 TABLE 6 SUBJECTIVE ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR GSC Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr S01 -1 .55 -2. 36 -o. 92 + 1 .29 + 1 .34 + 2. 37 + 1 .57 SO 2 + 0 .72 -0. 97 -o. 24 + 1 .54 -1 .00 + 0. 12 -1 .83 S03 + 1 .95 -0. 03 -o. 32 + 2 .59 -1 .83 "2. 59 -2 .00 S04 + 0 .67 + 0. 22 + 0. 77 + 1 .33 + 1 .17 + 0. 29 +o .92 S05 + 0 . 1 1 + 0. 17 + 0. 67 + 0 .33 + 0 .33 -o. 50 -0 .50 S06 + 0 .40 + 1. 34 -2. 1 7 + 0 .89 + 2 .67 -2. 00 + 1 .67 S07 -2 .33 + 0. 60 -o. 1 3 • + 1. 06 + 1 .42 + 0. 45 -2 .00 S08 -1 .33 + 1. 00 + 0. 51 + 1 .00 + 1 .50 -1 . 34 + 2 .25 S09 -0 .59 t o . 05 -o. 1 7 -2 .17 + 0 .33 -1 . 03 + 2 .39 •si 0 + 1 • 1 9 + 2. 02 + 2. 1 1 -0 .49 + 1 .89 + 2. 48 + 0 .06 SI 1 -1 .15 + 0. 45 . -2. 33 + 1 .67 -2 .33 -2. 75 . -1 .61 S1 2 + 1 .67 + 0. 42 -1 . 50 + 1 .69 + 1 .67 +0. 90 + 2 .17 •SI 3 + 1 .28 -0. 28 -0. 97 + 1 .92 -0 .61 + 0. 80 + 0 .36 TABLE 7 SUBJECTIVE ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR ASC Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr S01 -0 .80 -0. 13 -1 .47 -0 .67 + 0. 74 -0 .30 -0 .67 S02 -3 .17 -o. 33 -0 .21 + 1 .71 + 1 . 34 + 0 .72 -1 .5.0 S03 + 0 .61 + 0. 96 -0 .82 + 1 .83 -2. 00 -3 .17 -3 .17 S04 -1 .50 + 0. 24 + 0 .26 + 1 .17 -o. 50 + 0 .67 + 1 .50 S05 + 0 .04 + 0. 67 + 0 .67 -0 .50 + 1 . 17 -0 .22 + 0 .17 S06 + 0 .36 + 0. 74 + 1 .17 + 0 .42 + 1 . 17 -2 .00 + 0 .67 S07 -1 .92 -o. 80 + 0 .17 + 1 .42 + 2. 17 + 1 .75 -1 .61 S08 -1 .00 + 0. 67 -0 .07 + 1 .25 -2. 33 -1 .28 + 2 .25 S09 -o .67 -o. 92 0 .00 . +1 .92 + 0. 33 -1 .00 + 0 .39 S1 0 + 0 .92 + 1 . 32 + 2 .28 + 1 . 1 3 + 1 . 89 + 1 .44 + 2 .33 S1 1 + 0 . 1 5 + 0. 57 -0 .28 + 1 .57 + 0. 33 + 0 .42 -1 .75 S 1 2 + 1 + 0. 97 -2 .33 + 1 .36 + 1. 25 -1 .56 + 1 .33 S1 3 -0 .17 -o. 15 -0 .80 + 0 .95 + 0. 05 + 1 .95 + 0 .51 TABLE 8 SUBJECTIVE ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR ACP Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr SOI + 2 .29 + 2. 00 + 2 .78 + 2 .42 + 2. 1 7 + 2 .50 + 1 . 39 S02 + 1 .83 + 2. 69 + 2 .21 + 0 .97 + 3. 00 + 2 .42 + 2. 34 S03 -0 . 1 7 + 1 . 28 + 1 .02 + 1 .33 + 0. 33 + 3 .00 + 0. 33 S04 + 1 .94 + 0. 56 + 0 .85 + 1 .42 + 0. 33 + 0 .50 + 0. 33 S05 + 1 .39 + 1 . 59 + 1 .00 + 0 .33 + 0. 33 + 1 .42 + 0. 67 S06 + 0 .71 + 0. 33 + 0 .33 + 1 .59 + 1 . 00 + 0 .67 + 0. 33 S07 + 1 .34 -2. 33 + 0 .71 + 1 .59 + 1 . 42 + 1 .34 + 0. 92 S08 + 0 .67 + 0. 67 + 0 . 1 1 -0 .67 -1 . 1 7 + 0 .84 + 0. 33 S09 -1 .44 + 0. 27 +o .27 + 3 .00 -1 . 50 + 0 .79 + 0. 50 S1 0 + 2 .33 + 2. 1 5 + 1 .89 + 2 . 1 3 + 2. 24 + 2 .08 + 1 . 84 S11 ; + 1 .61 + 2. 25 + 2 .58 + 1 .50 + 0. 92 + 2 .33 + 0. 09 S1 2 + 1 .39 + 2. 00 + 2 .33 + 1 .50 + 2. 00 + 1 .80 + 1 . 50 S1 3 + 0 .67 -o. 33 -1 .21 -o .13 -2. 33 + 2 .42 -0. 1 5 TABLE 9 SUBJECTIVE ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR ACC Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr S01 + 2. 1 7 + 2 .42 + 2. 42 + 1 .84 -2 .33 -0 .22 + 0. 33 S02 + 2. 83 -1 .67 -o. 52 + 0 .28 -2 .83 + 0 .17 -1 . 92 S03 + 1 . 78 + 1 .88 + 1 . 69 + 1 .33 + 1 .17 + 1 .83 + 2. 1 7 S04 -0. 1 7 + 0 .33 + 0. 47 + 1 .00 + 0 .33 + 1 .00 + 0. 33 S05 + 0. 50 -1 .83 -2. 33 + 2 .33 -0 .83 + 0 . 1 1 + 0. 84 S06 + 0. 48 -0 .08 -0. 33 -0 .33 -0 .33 + 1 .67 + 2. 25 S07 _ 0 - 42 + 0 .12 + 0. 18 + 0 .92 + 1 .34 -1 .78 + 0. 92 S08 + 0. 67 + 0 .67 -0. 27 -0 .17 -1 .42 -0 .67 -0. 67 S09 + 0. 06 + 0 .22 -o. 24 -1 .39 -1 .50 -1 .44 -0. 28 S10 + 1 . 71 + 1 .79 + 1. 22 -0 .60 + 1 .83 + 0 .85 + 2. 06 S 1 1 + 0. 45 + 0 .42 + 2. 00 + 0 .08 + 1 .83 + 0 .84 + 1 . 1 7 S12 -1. 75 -0 .50 0. 00 + 1 .06 -0 .67 -0 .13 + 1 . 67 S13 + 0. 61 + 1 .54 -2. 1 6 -0 .83 + 0 .78 + 3 .00 + 0. 49 40 TABLE 10 Gsc Gsc Gsc ASC Asc Tsc Tsc Can Can and and and and and and and and and Asc Acp Acc Acp Acc Acp Acc Gsc Asc S01 + .23 *n .a -.18 *n .a + .13 *n .a + .08 -.32 -.20 S02 -.04 -.07 + .25 -.44 + .32 -.40 + .40 + .10 -.26 S03 + .88 -.54 + .09 -.52 + .44 -.54 + .34 -.35 -.11 S04 + .96 *n .a + .89 *n. a + .85 *n .a + .87 + .89 + .85 S05 -.73 + .66 0 -.50 -.13 -.10 -.18 + .66 -.43 S06 + .40 + .75 + .06 + .04 + .04 + .75 + 1 .00 + .79 + .06 S07 + .67 + .65 + .52 + .50 + .10 + .63 + .32 + .05 + .19 S08 + .34 -.60 -.43 -.54 + .54 -.67 0 -.71 0 S09 + .72 + .88 + .68 + .83 + .88 + .92 + .83 + .82 + .90 S10 + .21 -.23 -.33 -.10 + .37 -.15 + .27 -.09 + .35 SI 1 + .75 + .34 -.04 + .41 + .09 + .40 + .02 + .11 + .25 SI 2 + .35 + .64 + .20 + .13 + .09 + .42 + .16 + .44 + .12 SI 3 + .33 + .37 + .21 -.32 -.34 + .16 + .42 + .44 + .44 *n.a: A l l values in one column are i d e n t i c a l , making co r r e l a t i o n computations by the Minitab program impossible. Note: "Can" i s the same term as "Can/p/c". P set at .05. TABLE 11 Gsc Gsc Gsc Asc ASC Tsc Tsc Can Can and and and and and and and and and Asc Acp Acc Acp Acc Acp Acc . Gsc Asc EAST + .50 + .14 + .22 -.18 -.41 -.03 -.13 + .27 -.46 WEST + .40 + .46 -.26 -.24 + .60 + .07 + .26 + .12 + .33 TABLE 12 Gsc Gsc Gsc Asc Asc Tsc Tsc Can Can and and and and and and and and and Asc Acp Acc Acp Acc Acp Acc Gsc Asc MALE + .26 -.01 + .51 -.51 + .67 -.44 + .75 + .27 0 FEMALE + .30 + .22 -.15 + .29 -.15 + .31 -.19 + .05 + .12 EAST: n=7 WEST: n=6 MALE: n=6 FEMALE: n=7 42 Section II; Results for Individual Subjects There were a t o t a l of thirteen subjects in the study. The results of each are now discussed. Subject 1 (Japanese/Female/Single/Age 27): The numerical rating graphs (fig.1) showed that questions one (GSC) and two (ASC) were s i m i l i a r in shape. Question 1 showed a dip in the October-November time frame. No real u-curve was seen in either graph. Questions three (ACP) and four (ACC) were both straight l i n e s and were p a r r a l l e l . However, a dip was seen for both questions in February. The adjective rating graphs (fig.2) showed roughly the same results for questions 1, 2, and 4, however question 3 showed consistently high ratings. This indicates that t h i s subject gave constant favorable adjective descriptions about Canadian people. The orthogonal estimates showed s t a t i s t i c a l y that the linear trend for question 3 was s i g n i f i c a n t . The correlations yielded no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . The 3-dimensional graphs (fig.3) showed that the subject's o v e r a l l perception of Canadian culture and people (Can/p/c) was high. . It was only in February that a real "nose dive" was seen, however by March a l l was normal again. The interview showed that the f i r s t set of mid-term exams lowered the subject's self-esteem. Note that t h i s was indicated by the monthly graphs. This subject found 43 academic work to be very important and strongly t i e d to her general self-concept. Her attitudes about Canadians were constantly favorable, as indicated in the 2 and 3-dimensional graphs; e s p e c i a l l y graph three of the adjectives. Her experience with the Canadian culture was more mixed. She enjoyed the individualism that she was able to express. She took great pride in her academic achievements. The s l i g h t dip found in December on the two dimensional graphs were found to be consistent with academic worries and performance. A l l of these emotions however, put her in dire c t c o n f l i c t with her Japanese c u l t u r a l s e l f . Here, she was expected to marry, bear children, and become a housewife; thereby abandoning any personal pursuits she may have. Another source of c o n f l i c t , was the fact that younger people were able to challenge their elders. This was shown to her when a student challenged his instructor in c l a s s . 44 Subject 2 (Japanese/Female/Single/Age 27): The numerical rating graphs (fig.4) showed no s i m i l a r i t i e s between questions 1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC) in the f i r s t term (October to December), however these differences receded in the second term (January to A p r i l ) . The same situ a t i o n held for questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC). The adjective graphs (fig.5) showed the same res u l t s . What came up consistently was a dip in ratings in the month of A p r i l . No real u-curve was found in any of the graphs, however a mild "sawtooth" pattern was evident, to some extent, in each of them. The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t trends for any of the graphs. The only s i g n i f i c a n t c o rrelations were: GSC vs. ASC (-.44), and between ACP and TSC (-40). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.6) showed a "nosedive" in the month of A p r i l . Interestingly, this occurred in quadrant IV (GSC and ASC negative). Note that t h i s i s in agreement with the absolute value of the ACP vs. TSC co r r e l a t i o n (.40). The interview showed that the subject f e l t conscious about being a Japanese female in Canadian society. Her ASC and GSC were found to be very close to each other. Her ASC was strongly t i e d to her academic marks and performance. This was shown in the 2 dimensional graphs. Like subject one, she found the expression of i n d i v i d u a l i t y in Canadian culture e x c i t i n g . She was also impressed that females were able to explore careers that were t r a d i t i o n a l y male- dominated (i.e p i l o t ) . She did have a c o n f l i c t with her 45 Japanese female role. Here she was expected to eventually marry and abandon her personal pursuits. The aspects of Canadian culture (ACC) that displeased her were: "overly aggresive" females, the weakening of the t r a d i t i o n a l family, and r e l a t i v e freedom of homosexual expression. Her attitudes about Canadian people (ACP) were clos e l y t i e d to her attitudes about Canadian culture in general. The . interview session f a i l e d however, to show the significance of the negative c o r r e l a t i o n s . 46 Subject 3 (Malaysian/Female/Single/Age 20): The numerical rating graphs (fig.7) showed questions 1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC) to very s i m i l i a r . Both had a wavelike pattern. Questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC) were hardly s i m i l i a r at a l l . Question 3 was simply a straight l i n e . Question 4 resembled an "inverted u-curve". The adjective graphs (fig.8) roughly showed s i m i l i a r r e s u l t s , except that question three was not a straight l i n e . No true "u-curves" showed up. The orthogonal estimates showed that the wavelike pattern for question 1 was s i g n i f i c a n t . The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r relations were: GSC vs. ASC (.88), GSC vs. ACP (-.54), ASC vs. ACP (-.52), ASC vs. ACC (.44), and TSC vs. ACC (.34). The 3-dimensional graph showed (fig.9) low Can/p/c ratings in October, but that rapidly changed. The ratings shot up in november. From November u n t i l February, the l e v e l of ratings stayed high. Note that a l l of t h i s occurred in quadrant II (GSC and ASC are p o s i t i v e ) . In March a "nosedive" occurred in which the ratings with respect to Can/p/c simply dropped. This happened a l l the way to A p r i l . The "nosedive" occurred in quadrant IV (GSC and ASC are negative). This subject had strong li n k s between her GSC and ASC. This was amply supported by the graphs and c o r r e l a t i o n s . Academic performance was linked to ASC. She got along well with Canadians and apparently had no. trouble making friends. She also l i k e the Canadian culture and noted that she would 47 l i k e to return to Canada to continue her studies and possibly make a l i f e in Canada. What was d i f f i c u l t to explain in the correlations were the negative numbers. Like the previous subject, the interview f a i l e d to highlight the, significance of those negative c o r r e l a t i o n s . 48 Subject 4 (Sri Lankan/Male/Single/Age 24): The numerical rating graphs (fig.10) for questions 1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC) were found to be very s i m i l i a r . A s l i g h t u-shape was evident in both. Question 3 (ACP) was a simple straight l i n e and question 4 (ACC) showed a "step ladder" progression. The adjective graphs (fig.11) showed very d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . Questions 1 and 2 showed a "sawtooth" pattern. Question 3 showed lower ratings from i t s numerical counterpart and i t was not a straight l i n e . The numerical rating graph ( f i g . 10) was a straight l i n e at an average rating of three. The adjective version of question 3 had an average rating at roughly 1. The orthogonal estimates showed s i g n i f i c a n t trends for questions 2 and 4 for the numerical ratings. Note that question 2 showed a s l i g h t u-curve trend. As noted previously, questions 1 and 2 showed s l i g h t u-curve trends in the graphs. The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ASC (.96), GSC vs. ACC (.89), ASC vs. ACC (.85), TSC vs. ACC (.87), Can/p/c vs. GSC (.89), and Can/p/c vs. ASC (.85). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.12) simply confirmed the results of the 2 dimensional graphs and the correlations,. However, new discoveries were made. Throughout the months of October to A p r i l , the Can/p/c ratings were low. Note that throughout t h i s time, the ratings were in quadrant IV (GSC and ASC negative). However in the month of January, the ratings simply "shot up" and they stayed up a l l the way 49 into A p r i l . This occurred in quadrant II (GSC and ASC both p o s i t i v e ) . In the interview the subject stated that he experienced no abrupt changes in his GSC. This was in contadiction to the results found in a l l of the graphs. The ASC was found to be strongly related to GSC, as the correlations and graphs t e s t i f i e d . The subject's goal was to become a c i v i l engineer and to work in his home country of Sri-Lanka. In terms of ACC, the subject did not have much contact with Canadians. Most of his classmates were foreign students and his d a i l y l i f e passed with fellow Sri-Lankans whom he rented a house with. He did note however, that Canadian women were "loose" and "less morally s t r i c t " . 50 Subject 5 (Japanese/Male/Single/Age 29): The numerical rating graphs (fig.13) indicated that question 1 (GSC) went along in a wavelike fashion across time. The ratings fluctuated between o and 1. Question 2 (ASC) showed a s i m i l i a r pattern, except that the ratings fluctuated between 0 and -1. Question 3 (ACP) showed a steady deterioration of ratings up to January where they reached a nadir of -1. A steady climb i s then seen up to the month of March where the ratings reached an average of 1. Question 4 (ACC) showed ratings consistently below 0; except for January where they reached an average of 1. The adjective rating graphs (fig.14) showed roughly the same trends. The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t trends for any of the graphs. The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ASC (-.73), GSC vs. ACP (.66), ASC vs. ACP (-.50), and Can/p/c vs. GSC (.66). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.1.5) showed low Can/p/pc ratings for the October-December period. Note that t h i s was in quadrant IV (GSC and ASC are negative). In the January- February period, the ratings began to move up. The location of the ratings was s t i l l in quadrant IV. In March the ratings stayed high and moved to quadrant II (GSC and ASC are p o s i t i v e ) . In A p r i l , the ratings were located at quadrant I (ASC p o s i t i v e ) . The interview showed that the subject's GSC was under severe s t r a i n due to being a Japanese male in Canadian culture. The subject's ASC was very damaged in the month of 51 December. Here, he recieved poor results from his english exam. This explains the location of the ratings in the 3 dimensional graph in the October-December period. From January on, the subject's ASC rose (see 2 dimensional graphs) as his academic performance improved. The 3- dimensional graph showed improvement in the subject's Can/p/c ratings throughout the months as his GSC and ASC improved. The correlations also confirmed the strong connection between self-concept and attitude dimensions. The interview also highlighted t h i s connection. F i n a l l y , the subject noted how Canadian culture was " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " and that "every man i s for himself". He noted that t h i s was in stark contrast to his t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese c u l t u r a l upbringing where group support i s stronger for the i n d i v i d u a l . 52 Subject 6 (Mauritius Chinese/Male/Single/Age 23): The numerical rating graphs (fig.16) showed the f i r s t two questions (GSC and ASC) to be very s i m i l i a r in shape, however question 2 showed a s l i g h t u-curve trend. In the month of December, both GSC and ASC showed a dip. Questions three and four (ACP and ACC) did not show s i m i l i a r shapes. Question 3 fluctuated roughly between 1 and 2. Question 4 generally stayed close to 0. The adjective rating graphs (fig.17) were s i m i l i a r to their numerical counterparts (fig.16) for questions one and two. The December drop in GSC however, was markedly sharper than the numerical version. The Month of march also showed a large dip for both GSC and ASC. The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t trends for any of the graphs. S i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ASC (.40), GSC vs. ACP (.75), TSC vs. ACP (.75), TSC vs. ACC (1.00), and Can/p/c vs. GSC (.79). The 3 dimensional graph (fig.18) showed a "curving up" in the months of October-February. From March onwards however, there i s a "nosedive". The nosedive occurs in quadrant II (GSC and ASC are p o s i t i v e ) . This i s curious because i t implies that as GSC and ASC of the subject rose, his Can/p/c ratings of Canadian people and Culture became lower. The interview cleared up th i s curious r e s u l t . The subject noted that as he entered Canada he was overcome by a feel i n g of awe and i n f e r i o r i t y with respect to the Canadian 53 culture. His GSC was therefore low in the i n i t i a l months. In the following months however, he claimed that as his GSC rose, he became more c r i t i c a l of the Canadian'people and culture. The 2-dimensional graphs did not show th i s subtle change, but the 3-dimensional graph did. His ASC was greatly affected by his studies and he did do well. His ACP was that the people seemed s u p e r f i c i a l and always on the go. He claimed that i t was hard to make any true friends. His ACC was very s i m i l i a r to his ACP. Again he noted the fast paced l i f e and the " s u p e r f i c i a l i t y " . 54 Subject 7 (Sri Lankan/Male/single/Age 28): The numerical rating graphs (fig.19) showed a consistently low GSC at a mean of around -1. The only "high" occurred in February where the mean was 2. The ASC followed a s i m i l i a r pattern. Questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC) showed s i m i l i a r shapes. Both start at a rating of 2 and both dip in the November-December period. Both climb and then drop in March, only to climb up again. These two curves show u-curve trends. The adjective rating graphs (fig.20) show trends s i m i l i a r to the numerical ratings for questions 1 and 2. Questions 3 and 4 show a "u- curve" in the October-December time region, but that pattern does not repeat i t s e l f in later months; the curves remain at an upward trend. The orthogonal estimates showed only that the graph for question 2 was s i g n i f i c a n t . None of the "u-curve's" were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ASC (.67), GSC vs. ACP (.65), GSC vs. ACC (.52), ASC vs. ACP. (.50), and TSC vs. ACP (.63). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.21) showed very low ratings for the October-December time period (after an i n i t i a l high point in October). These ratings occurred at quadrant IV (GSC and ASC are negative). The December- February time saw the Can/p/c ratings shoot up and f a l l down in the following months. A l l ratings from December onward occurred at quadrant II (GSC and ASC are both p o s i t i v e ) . The interview yielded very interesting r e s u l t s . The subject f e l t a great deal of pressure on his GSC. He was 55 very self-conscious about being a dark skinned person in a white-dominated society. His way of coping was to associate primaraly with the Sri-Lankan community in Vancouver, and to become p o l i t i c a l l y active in Sri-Lankan a f f a i r s . His ASC was also very t i e d to his GSC. He f e l t great urgency to successfully complete his Ph.d in C i v i l Engineering. The degree was of utmost importance to him, because he needed i t to f i n d work in Sri-Lanka. His ACP was that females were too "loose" and the power they held with respect to men deeply surprised him. His ACC was that Canadian culture was "loose and wild" and "lacking in true culture". 56 Subject 8 (West German/Female/Single/Age 22): The numerical rating graphs (fig.22) showed a "mountain peak" pattern for questions 1 and 2 (GSC and ASC). The ratings were lower at the beginning and end of the study for both questions. Questions 3 and 4 (ACP and ACC) showed a gradual decline of ratings. Question 3 showed a peak for March, however the decline in ratings continued after that month. The Adjective rating graph (fig.23) showed s i m i l i a r trends for questions 1 and 2, however a real "nosedive" i s evident for question 1 in February. Questions 3 and 4 showed gradual deterioration of ratings across time. The only exception was in March for question 3 where the ratings s l i g h t l y improved. After that, the decline in ratings continued. The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t trends. The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ACP (-.60), ASC vs. ACP (-.54), ASC vs. ACC(.54), TSC vs. ACP (-.67), and Can/p/c vs. GSC (-.71). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.24) showed high ratings for Can/p/c in October, despite the fact that the rating was located in quadrant IV (GSC and ASC are negative). From November to January a v i r t u a l "nosedive" occurs. Curiously, th i s occurs in quadrant II (GSC and ASC are p o s i t i v e ) . In the January-February period, the ratings are v i r t u a l l y "rockbottom". These ratings are located in quadrant II for January (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) . There i s a climb in a p r i l in quadrant IV, but then the rating "dives" in quadrant II (GSC and ASC are p o s i t i v e ) . 57 The interview did not illuminate any real solutions as to the complexity of the 2 and 3 dimensional graphs. Also, the negative nature of most of the correlations could not be explained. However, the absolute value of the correlations were strong. Indeed, the subject noted that her GSC and ASC were very c l o s e l y related, and that her studies were very important to her. In terms of ACP she noted that she got along very well with Canadians. She li k e d the Canadian s o c i a l l i f e , and noted that she had many Canadian friends. Her ACC was that there i s no "real Canadian culture". However, she found Canadian culture to be "carefree and fun". 58 Subject 9 (British/Male/Single/Age 26): The numerical rating graphs (fig.25) showed a double u-curve occurring for question 1 (GSC). The dips occurred in November and March. Question 2 (ASC) showed a s i m i l i a r p r o f i l e , except that the graph showed a "low s t a r t " in the early part of the study (October). Question 3 (ACP) showed a s i m i l i a r p r o f i l e to question 1. Question 4 (ACC) showed a p r o f i l e s i m i l i a r to question 2, except that the ratings here were much lower. The adjective rating graphs (fig.26) showed s i m i l i a r shapes to t h e i r numerical counterparts for questions 1 and 2. Question 3 was d i f f e r e n t . It showed a "mountain peak" pattern. Question 4 was also d i f f e r e n t from i t s numerical counterpart. It was almost a straight curve with very low ratings. The orthogonal estimates confirmed that the u-curve trends found in question 1 were s i g n i f i c a n t . They also confirmed that the graph for question 4 was s i g n i f i c a n t . The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ASC (.72), GSC vs, ACP (.88), GSC vs. ACC (.68), ASC vs. ACP (.83), ASC vs. ACC (.84), TSC vs. ACC (.83), TSC vs. ACP (.95), Can/p/c vs. GSC (.82), Can/p/c vs. ASC (.90). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.7) showed an i n i t i a l l y moderate Can/p/c ratings and then a downfall in the November-Decemeber time. The ratings started in quadrant III (GSC positive) and hovered onto quadrant IV (GSC and ASC negative). In January the Can/p/c ratings rose and moved to quadrant II (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) . In February to March, 59 the ratings dropped and moved to quadrant IV (GSC and ASC both negative). In A p r i l , the Can/p/c rating rose dramatically and moved to quadrant III (ASC p o s i t i v e ) . The interview confirmed the results of a l l the graphs and the c o r r e l a t i o n s . GSC and ASC found to be strongly related. Academic performance greatly affected the ASC. There was indeed a "u-curve" in the person's GSC. Personal and academic issues contibuted to the shape of the curve. In terms of ACP, the subject noted that Canadians were s u p e r f i c i a l and that i t was hard to meet people. The subject commented on the lack of knowledge shown by Canadians in the areas of world a f f a i r s and general information. He noted that his perception of them went hand in hand with his GSC and ASC (as shown in the graphs and rat i n g s ) . In terms of ACC, the subject noted he would never want to be a "Canadian" and that Canadian culture was a very a "mechanical and p l a s t i c " culture, with heavy emphasis on the material aspects of l i f e . 60 Subject 10 (American/Female/Single/Age 23): The numerical rating graphs (fig.28) showed questions 1 and 2 (GSC and ASC) to be s i m i l i a r . The lowest point for GSC was in January. Both showed a consistent "sawtooth" l i k e pattern. The ratings stood consistently high; fluctuating between 2 and 4. Question 3 (ACP) was simply a straight l i n e at a rating of 3. Question 4 (ACC) showed an "inverted u" with the lowest ratings at 2, in the begininning and end of the curve. The adjective rating graphs (fig.29) showed s i m i l i a r shapes to the i r numerical counterparts for questions 1 through 4. The only real differences were the dive taken by question 1 in February, and question 4 in A p r i l . The orthogonal estimates showed no s i g n i f i c a n t trends. The correlations were also i n s i g n i f i c a n t (see table 9). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.30) showed consistently high Can/p/c ratings throughout the year, except for the A p r i l month. The ratings generally shifted between quadrants II (GSC and ASC positive) and III (GSC p o s i t i v e ) . Only in January did the rating move to the quadrant IV (GSC and ASC negative) and Quadrant I (ASC positive) border. The Can/p/c ratings were high in this region as well. The interview found that the subject's GSC and ASC were high throughout the year. It was in January when they sunk, due to interpersonal problems; as indicated in the 2 and 3 dimensional graphs. She noted that her GSC and ASC were strongly related, however her GSC was also strongly related to her ACP. Her ACP was very high throughout the 61 year, because as an American she " f e l t right at home". She made many friends without d i f f i c u l t y and f e l t immediatly accepted. The subject's ACC was also very favorable, due to her American background. American and Canadian cultures were found to be the "same" to her. Her perception altered temporarily in A p r i l due.to her personal d i s l i k e of Premier Van Der Zalm's p o l i c i e s on abortion. 62 Subject 11 (Danish/Female/Single/Age 22): The numerical rating graphs (fig.31) showed a "sawtooth" pattern for question 1 (GSC), with the peak in January and a steady decline thereafter. S i m i l i a r patterns showed for questions 2 (ASC) and 3 (ACP). Question 4 (ACC) was s i m i l i a r except for a markedly low rating in November. The adjective rating graphs (fig.32) were more or less s i m i l i a r across a l l four questions. The orthogonal estimates found no real trends. The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ASC (75), ASC vs. ACP (.41), GSC vs. ACP (.34), TSC vs. ACP (.40). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.33) showed very low Can/p/c ratings in October, where the ratings occurred in quadrant III (GSC p o s i t i v e ) . From November to February, the ratings simply shot up. The December-February ratings were located in quadrant II (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) . The ratings continued to stay on a high plane in the March-April period, however they were now located in quadrant IV (GSC and ASC negat i v e ) . The interview results showed that the -client*s GSC was greatly t i e d to her relationship with her Canadian boyfriend. She f e l t very bad about that relationship and when she broke up, her GSC (along with ASC, ACP, and ACC) steadily improved.. Her ASC was in tune with her GSC; they went up and down together. She had d i f f i c u l t y adjusting to the Canadian university system at f i r s t , but she adapted well, and her grades were good. Her ACP was neutral at 63 f i r s t , but after breaking up with her boyfriend, her attitudes with regards to Canadians improved greatly. In terms of ACC, she found the differences and contrasts of Canadian culture "fascinating". As the year progressed, she became more neutral about ACC, but never t r u l y negative. A l l of the graphs and correlations confirmed the res u l t s of the interview. 64 Subject 12 (British/Female/Single/Age 22): The numerical rating graphs (fig.34) showed a definate "u-curve" for question 1 (GSC) with the low point in December. " Question 2 (ASC) was s i m i l i a r , however the low point occurred in March. Question 3 (ACP) was also very s i m i l i a r to 1. Question 4 (ACC) was a curve that gradually rose high from a very low sta r t i n g point. The ratings then continued to stay more or less higher. The adjective rating graph ( f i g . 35) showed very s i m i l i a r graphs for question 1,2, and 4. Question 3 however, was l i n e a r . This may indicate that the subject was usually "kinder" in her adjective descriptions about Canadians than her numerical ratings may have shown. The only s i g n i f i c a n t trends found by the orthogonal estimates were the results for question 4. The only s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were for GSC vs. ACP (.64) and Can/p/c vs. GSC (.44) (see table 9). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.36) ratings climbing up steadily in the October-November time. The ratings occurred in quadrant II (GSC and ASC positive)'. In December the ratings stayed the same, however they were located in quadrant IV (GSC and ASC negative). Note the low point for GSC in decemeber for question 1 in f i g . s 34 and 35. The ratings moved back to quadrant II in January and continued to stay there u n t i l A p r i l . The most important point that turned up in the interview was the strong rel a t i o n s h i p between the subject's GSC and ACP. This confirmed the s i m i l a r i t i e s of questions 1 65 and 3 i n f i g . s 34 and 35 as w e l l as the c o r r e l a t i o n s . Even though the s u b j e c t noted t h a t her ASC was t i e d t o her GSC, i t was her " s o c i a l l i f e " t h a t a f f e c t e d her GSC the most. In December she had a low p o i n t due t o the p r e s s u r e of exams, as noted i n a l l of the g r a p h s . Her ASC remained s t a b l e t h e r e a f t e r . Due t o her a b l i t y t o s o c i a l i z e , and a l s o because of her B r i t i s h background, the s u b j e c t ' s ACP was v e r y h i g h . Her ACC was a l s o h i g h and she noted how Canada was s i m i l i a r t o B r i t i a n . The 3 - d i m e n s i o n a l graph noted the h i g h r a t i n g s t h a t she made of Canadian p e o p l e and c u l t u r e ( Can/p/c). 66 Subject 13 (German/Male/Single/Age 27): The numerical r a t i n g graphs (fig.37) found that question 1 (GSC) showed a "sawtooth pattern". S i m i l i a r results were found for question 2 (ASC). Question 3 (ACP) showed a "double u- curve" with a low point in December and a further f a l l in February. Question 4 (ACC) showed a "sawtooth" pattern. The adjective rating graphs ( f i g . 38) were not very s i m i l a i r to t heir numerical counterparts. Questions 1,3 and 4 showed "sawtooth" patterns, and question 3 was a r e l a t i v e l y stable curve with no real ups or downs. The orthogonal estimates showed that the graph for question 4 was s i g n i f i c a n t . The signicant correlations were: GSC vs. Can/p/c (.44), ASC vs. Can/p/c (.44), and TSC vs. ACC (.42). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.39) was interesting in that the ratings moved in a l l four quadrants. The Can/p/c ratings, fluctuated greatly. From February however, the ratings steadily deteriorated. The subject noted in the interview that the concept of "himself as a person" did not change greatly. He did find the concept of himself in Canadian culture important. He noted that his GSC and ASC were strongly related (see fig.37). It was in his ACP and ACC where he was most c r i t i c a l . His ideas about ACP and ACC fluctuated greatly in the f i r s t months, and then they gradually deteriorated. A l l of t h i s was noted in his 3-dimensional graph (fig.39). He noted that in Canadian culture, females receive more 67 p o s i t i v e attention than males. He found Canadians to be lacking in general p o l i t i c a l awareness and activism, and that their system of s o c i a l i z i n g i s poor. 68 Section I I I : Results for Groups Two main groups were analyzed; Group 1 (Eastern/ Western) and Group 2 (Female/Male). The results of each group i s now discussed. Group 1 (Eastern): The numerical rating graphs (fig.40) showed s i m i l i a r shapes for questions 1 and 2 (GSC and ASC), but no real u-curve. Questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC) were also s i m i l i a r , however question 3 had higher ratings. The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs.ASC (.50), ASC vs. ACC (-.41), and Can/p/c vs. ASC (-.46). The 3-dimensional graph (fig.41) showed moderate Can/p/c ratings in the October-December period. These ratings were located in quadrant III (GSC high). The ratings shot high in the January-February time, where the ratings moved to quadrant II (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) . The ratings stayed in that quadrant u n t i l A p r i l where they moved to quadrant III (GSC p o s i t i v e ) . By A p r i l , the ratings had dropped to roughly the same le v e l as the October-December time. Judging from the interviews, female easterners were as a whole, more positive about ACP and ACC than their male counterparts. A l l of the the 3 dimensional graphs ( f i g . s 41, 43, 45, and 47) show t h i s . Most importantly, the GSC and ASC of the easterners were not found to be causally linked to the attitude dimensions. 69 Group 1 (Western): The numerical rating graphs (fig.42) showed questions 1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC) to be very s i m i l i a r , but no real u-curve e x i s t s . Questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC) were not as s i m i l i a r , and question 3 had higher ratings than 4. The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ASC (.40), ASC^vs. ACP (.46), and Can/p/c vs. ACC (.60). In the 3-dimensional graph (fig.43) the ratings showed very low Can/p/c ratings in quadrant III (GSC positive) and IV (GSC and ASC negative), for the October-December time. They then moved to quadrant II (GSC and ASC positive) and shot to their highest l e v e l in January. The ratings fluctuated greatly but moved back to moved back to quadrant II in A p r i l , where the Can/p/c ratings were at a moderate l e v e l . The only interesting fact worth mentioning i s that western females were more positive about ACP and ACC than their male counterparts. Group 2 (Females): The numerical rating graphs (fig.44) for questions 1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC) showed no s i m i l a r i t i e s . Neither of them showed a "u-curve". The same situ a t i o n occurred for questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC). The highest c o r r e l a t i o n was between GSC vs. ASC. A l l other correlations were i n s i g n i f i c a n t (see table 11). The 3-dimesional graph (fig.45) showed great fluctuations in ratings between the months. The quadrants changed between II, II I , and IV. Generally, the Can/p/c ratings started very low in October in quadrant III (GSC p o s i t i v e ) , and ended up very high in A p r i l in quadrant II (GSC and ASC p o s i t i v e ) . Generally, the interviews found that eastern females had c o n f l i c t between the roles imposed by their home cultures and the individualism they could express in Canadian culture. The western females seemed to be the group that had the easiest time adjusting. 71 Group 2 (Males): The numerical rating graph (Fig.46) showed great s i m i l a r i t i e s in shape between questions 1 (GSC) and 2 (ASC). The only difference between them was that the ratings for question 1 were much higher. Questions 3 (ACP) and 4 (ACC) showed the same resu l t s , except that question 3 had much higher ratings than question 4. None of the graphs showed any "u-curve". The s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were: GSC vs. ACC (.51), ASC vs. ACP (-.51), ASC vs. ACC (.67), TSC vs. ACP (.31), TSC vs. ACC (.75). Note that the c o r r e l a t i o n of GSC vs. ASC was only .26. The 3-dimensional graph (fig.47) showed a very complex fluctuation of Can/p/c ratings. In general, the ratings started very low in the October-December months, and rose to their highest le v l e in January. In the February-March period, the ratings dropped to a moderate l e v e l . The ratings shifted between a l l four quadrants throughout the year. The interviews generally showed both eastern and western males to be more c r i t i c a l of Canadian people (ACP) and Canadian culture (ACC). The c r i t i c i s m s ranged anywhere from peoples lack of p o l i t i c a l awareness, s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of the culture, to the ambiguous roles demanded from males and females. 72 Total Group ( A l l Subjects): A two-dimensional graph was made of subjective numerical ratings of a l l four questions. Nothing s i g n i f i c a n t was noted except that GSC and ASC were s i m i l i a r in shape, as well as ACP and ACC. The only other point that can be made i s that no u-curve truly showed up. Caution i s advised in drawing inferences from th i s graph because A) The number of subjects are small (n=13) B) The subjects come from very diverse backgrounds (see Table I, pp.34) 73 Section IV: Results Summary The most s t r i k i n g aspect of the results had to do with the shapes of the curves. Although a few s o l i d "u-curves" showed themselves, no real consistent or s o l i d evidence was found to support the u-curve hypothesis. Most of the curves were very individual in character. This may indicate that each student adjusts in an individual fashion. The graphs, corre l a t i o n s , and interviews a l l hinted towards a powerful link between GSC and ASC. ASC was found to be strongly affected by exam marks and academic performance. The relationship between ACP and ACC was s i m i l i a r but less powerful than GSC and ASC. Stong relationships were found between the TSC.and attitude dimensions, and Can/p/c and self-concept dimensions. As a whole, western females seemed to adjust most successfully. They a l l found themselves at home in Canada and related to the roles they could play as women and the in d i v i d u a l i t y they were encouraged to express. Eastern females f e l t the same way, however they tended to be in c o n f l i c t with the t r a d i t i o n a l roles demanded from their home cultures. Western and eastern males were both c r i t i c a l of the Canadian culture, stating that i t was s u p e r f i c i a l and m a t e r i a l i s t i c . Eastern men were p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l of the women, stating t h a t they "loose", "wild" and "without morals". 74 The 3 dimensional graphs were of great assistance in understanding the adjsutment pattern of the international students. Also, they helped to show that the self-concept and attitude dimensions are not causally related as Lefebvre and Lefebvre (1986) have predicted. The three dimensional graphs helped to add another perspective to the results and highlight aspects that may have not shown themselves. Most individual's Can/p/c ratings rose very high in January. Also worthy of mention i s the fact that the Can/p/c ratings of females stayed consistently high in the 3 dimensional graphs. 75 D i s c u s s i o n Implications of Results The U-Curve Hypothesis: Having analyzed the results of the data, i t may be possible to conclude that the u-curve analogy of adjustment is an incomplete way of assessing the adjustment of foreign students studying in Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Although a few u-curve patterns were found, the overwhelming evidence seems to show that foreign students adjust in an individual fashion. It seems that in order to explain the process of adjustment for the foreign student, a number of factors must be taken into account. General and academic self-concepts (GSC and ASC), attitude about Canadians and Canadian culture (ACP and ACC), and their r e l a t i o n s h i p to s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n were discussed as possible indices of adjustment in the l i t e r a t u r e review and hypothesis sections. Indices of Adjustment: The indices of adjustment (GSC, ASC, ACP, ACC) proved h e l p f u l l in understanding the adjustment of the international students. The results showed that the GSC and ASC overlapped. ASC was found to be central to the identity of many of the international students. Grades and academic performance had a powerful impact upon ASC, which in turn was ref l e c t e d upon the GSC. In fact, the interviews revealed that academic studies and success were very central to the i d e n t i t y of the foreign students. Exploration of the data did show s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between the general 76 and academic self-concepts. In short, the ASC was found to be very central to the process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n of the international students. To a lesser extent, ACP and ACC were found to overlapp. What proved interesting however, was that the self-concept dimensions (GSC and ASC) and the attitude dimensions (ACP and ACC) were not . found to be causally linked. Although a relati o n s h i p between the two i s not ruled out, no causal link was found. Importance of Gender and Ethn i c i t y in Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Apart from the dimensions discussed as having a possible impact on adjustment, gender and ethnic differences were found to be important as well. Western women were found to have the most successful adjustment, followed by eastern women, western men, and f i n a l l y eastern men. Although the numbers of subjects were too small to allow us to make any strong generalizations, the results indicated that i t i s possible that men and women coming from an "eastern" culture, meaning non white or non western/European, would have a harder time adjusting to a north American university than men and women coming from a "western" culture. Also, i t may be possible that men and women coming from the same culture, may have d i f f e r e n t experiences, positive or negative, in their adjustments. For example, a woman coming from an "eastern" culture to study i n North America, may find that her role as an independent woman i s more reinforced than the way i t was 77 back home. This may help in her adjustment to North American culture. Basow (1984) discovered that female F i j i a n university students were more s i m i l i a r to their U.S counterparts in terms of attitudes about sex roles than F i j i a n university males and Americans. Such an in d i v i d u a l , a female "eastern" student, may in fact find her adjustment to a North American univeristy environment easier than her male counterpart. On the other hand, a man coming from the same "eastern" culture may fin d that his role as a man in North America i s not regarded in the way i t was back home. Such a person could stumble into adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s . Of course, i n f i n i t e types of scenarios may exist for men and women from d i f f e r e n t cultures, however the potential for dif f e r e n t patterns of adjustment may exist due to gender differences. The results did show that women as a whole seemed to adjust better than men, although t h i s was more pronounced for the "eastern" students. Implications for Future Research This study was a pioneer study in that many of the issues i t tackled had not been explored before by previous research. Since the numbers of subjects were small (n=13), i t was not possible to make ov e r a l l generalizations upon international students studying in Canada. Therefore any future research would have to obtain larger samples. A larger sample (with n at least 30) allows for more rigorous s t a t i s t i c a l testing and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y upon the population of interest (Jaccard, 1983). Any future study involving 78 international students could take the factors of gender and e t h n i c i t y into consideration. In t h i s study, these were found to be very important to the cr o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment of the international students. Further suggestions for further research in t h i s area would be to conduct studies over longer periods of time. F i n a l l y , i t seems most convenient to have a researcher c o l l e c t the questionnaires from the research participants d i r e c t l y . The Canadian peers who were assigned to the task at times proved unreliable. Only d i r e c t intervention by the researchers prevented the f a l l i n g off of survey data in such cases. Implications for Counselling The information found with regards to GSC, ASC, ACP, and ACC have important implications for counselling. Based upon the results i t was found that academic success and knowledge of Canadian c u l t u r a l norms play very important roles in the adjustment of foreign students. Although the importance of ASC has been noted, i t i s the role of the l a t t e r that i s es p e c i a l l y important. As noted by Ishiyama (1988), foreign students often experience problems in encoding and decoding communicational cues. The result i s that they experience problems in accurately understanding and conforming to the host culture's s o c i o - c u l t u r a l norms (Ishiyama, 1988). Such problems inevitably lead them to feelings confusion and neglect by host culture members (Hull, 1981). Counsellors can a s s i s t foreign students by teaching them the communication .systems and norms of the 79 host culture. Many such projects have already been implemented. The successfull "peer program" (Westwood, 1984) has assisted many foreign students in their adjustment to Canadian culture. Workshops also exist for teaching communication patterns and action oriented problem solving s k i l l s for foreign students (Wong-Rieger, 1984). Study workshops and thinking strategies (Hageman, 1984) can also be b e n e f i c i a l for the foreign students. By a s s i s t i n g in a multipronged approach such as the teaching of soc i o - c u l t u r a l s k i l l s , problem-solving, and study s k i l l s , counsellors hold great promise in helping foreign students adjust successfully to the Canadian culture and university. These approaches w i l l provide the foreign student with tools as to ensure his/her process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n . When the process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n i s free and unchecked, successfull adjustment by the foreign student becomes inevitable. A counselling approach that a s s i s t s the foreign student's process of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n could prove productive. E c l e c t i c approches such as Christenson's "perceptual approach to cr o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling" (1985) hold promise because they view the cr o s s - c u l t u r a l c l i e n t an a "unique" i n d i v i d u a l , rather than a "foreigner". The term "uniqueness" has been used by other c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counsellors (Altscher, 1976; Mcmillen, 1976). Viewing the international student as a unique person with a unique system of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n may prove to be a very powerfull method of cr o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling. 81 R e f e r e n c e s Adler, P. S. (1975). The t r a n s i t i o n a l experience: An Alternative view of Culture Shock. 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Adjustment in a foreign society: nowegian fulbright grantess v i s i t i n g the united states. International Social Science B u l l e t i n , 1_, 45-51 . Marsh, H. W. (1984). The relat i o n s h i p between dimensions of s e l f ; a t t r i b u t i o n and dimensions of self-concept. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(1), 3-32. Mcburney, D. H. (1983). Experimental Psychology. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company. Mcmillen, P. J . (1976). A Non-Traditional Approach to Counselling International Students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Personnel and Guidance Association, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . Meleis, A. I. (1982). Arab students in western u n i v e r s i t i e s : s o c i a l properties and dilemmas. Journal of Higher Education, 53(4), 439-447. 85 Meloni, C. F. (1986). Adjustment Problems of Foreign Students inU.S. Colleges and U n i v e r s i t i e s . Master's thesis, 4p. Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (1979). Proposed minority identity developement model. In G. Morten & D. W Sue (Ed.), Counselling American Minorities, a Cross-Cultural Perspective. Dubuque, Iowa: WM.C Brown Company. Muehlen, M. X. (1985). Country P r o f i l e s of International Students at Canadian Educational Ins t i t u t i o n s 1979-1980 to 1984-1985. Ottowa, Ottowa Secretariat, Faculty of Administration, University of Ottowa, 157 p. Naser, S. A. (1985). The impact of the american culture on male arab students in the united states. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(4-A), 914. Nunnaly, J. (1967). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. Oberg, K. ( i 9 6 0 ) . Cultural shock: adjustment to new c u l t u r a l environments. P r a c t i c a l Anthropology, 1_, 177-82. Owie, Ikponmwosa. (1982).. Social alienation among foreign students. College Student Journal, J_6(2), 163-165. Park, J. H. (1974). 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Tactics of S c i e n t i f i c Research. New York: Basic Books. Smalley, W. (1963). Culture shock, language shock, and the shock of self-discovery. P r a c t i c a l Anthropology, 10, 49-56. Sohn, D. (1977).•Affect generating powers of e f f o r t and a b i l i t y : s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n s of academic success and f a i l u r e . Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(5), 500-5. 87 Stafford, T. H. (1980). Adjustment of international students. NASPA Journal, 18(1), 40-45. Stonequist, E. V. (1937). The Marginal Man. New York: Scribner. Torrey, E. F. (1970). Problems of foreign students: an overview. Journal of the American College Health Association, 19(2), 83-86. Tryon, W. T. (1982). A simplified-time series analysis for evaluating treatment interventions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 423-429. Thurstone, E. (1967). The measurement of s o c i a l a t t i t udes. In M. Fishbein (Ed.), Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. New York, London, Sydney: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Von Neuman, J. (1941). D i s t r i b u t i o n of the r a t i o of the mean square successive difference to the variance. Annals of Mathematical S t a t i s t i c s , 12, 367-395. Webb, F. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., & Sechrest, C. (1966). Unobtrusive Measures: Non-Reactive Research in the Social Sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally. Westwood, M. J., Lawrence, W. S., & Paul, D. (1984). Preparing for reentry: a program for the sojourning students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 9(3), 221-230. [ Wong-Rieger, D. (1984). Testing a model of emotional and coping responses to problems in adaptation: foreign students at a Canadian university. International Journal of Int e r c u l t u r a l Relations, 8(2T^ 153-184. ~~' Young, L. C. (1941). On randomness in ordered sequences. Annals of Mathematical S t a t i s t i c s , 12, 293-300. Zar, J . H. (1984). B i o s t a t i s t i c a l Analysis. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 88 Zarb, J . M. A comparison of remedial, f a i l u r e , and successful secondary school students across self-perception and past and present school performance variables. Adolescence, 1984, j_9(74), 335-48. 89 APPENDIX I The C - S t a t i s t i c There are two orthogonal estimates of the variance of a time seri e s . The f i r s t measure i s the variance calculated as indicated by equation A: S2=1/N S u m N ( w i t h i = 1 > ( X r X m e a n ) Where N i s the number of data points and X i s the score for the p a r t i c u l a r data point. Each X i s subtracted from the mean of a l l those data points. A l l of that i s summed up and multip l i e d to 1/N. This variance of the time series increases in di r e c t proportion to any changes or trends in the mean value of the ser i e s . As a re s u l t , the presence of a trend increases both the mean and the variance. The second estimate of the variance of a times series is the Mean Square Successive difference (MSSD) s t a t i s t i c . It i s calculated as i t s name implies. The consecutive differences among data points are f i r s t calculated, squared, and f i n a l l y averaged as indicated by equation B: MSSD=D2 = Sum N _ 1 ( w i t h i + 1 >(X i +,_Xi) 2/N-1 In t h i s case, the " i " stands for the i n i t i a l value. The MSSD or D i s independent of changes in the mean value of the time series. Von Neumann (1941) discussed extensively the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the MSSD to the actual variance. Young (1941) developed t h i s l i n e of reasoning into the actual C - s t a t i s t i c as given by equation C: The standard error of the O s t a t i s t i c i s calculated as such S C = ( N - 2 / (N - 1 ) (N + 1 ) ) 1 / 2 Young (1941) has shown that the r a t i o of C to i t s standard error i s the Z - s t a t i s t i c : Z=C/SC For further information, consult Tryon's a r t i c l e on "A Simplified Time-Series Analysis for Evaluating Treatment Interventions" (1982). 91 APPENDIX II Orthogonal Polynomials In simple algebraic terms, a linear trend i s any function that is dependent upon an x variable. This type of trend is closer to a "straight l i n e " . If a student shows this type of trend, i t i s possible to conclude, from a mathematical standpoint, that the student's adjustment did not follow a "U-curve". It either stayed stable (Slope=0), kept going up through time (Slope i s p o s i t i v e ) , or kept going downhill (Slope i s negative). However, i t i s possible to also to use a quadratic function with X 2 to see i f a "U" type trend ex i s t s . Trend analysis (Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1982) allows us to take a set of data and put them into a mathematical formula to see what sort of form they have. Two formulas have been used; one for p l o t t i n g numbers to see i f a linear trend e x i s t s , and the other plots for quadratic functions. Note that the graphs were already plotted, however we had no way of knowing wether the trends that showed themselves were in any way s t a t i s t i c a l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Since the derivation of the quadratic polynomials is rather complex, It is advised to consult Rosenthal and Rosnow's book on "Trend Analysis" (1982). 92 APPENDIX III Adjective Rating Sheet This rating sheet i s anonymous. You are to rate each adjective on a scale of +4(very positive) to -4(very negative). Don't dwell too long on a single adjective; try to flow through the questions. The purpose of this rating sheet i s to find a standardized rating sheet for adjectives given by participants in a research study. You are one of the independent judges who w i l l help build that standardized rating sheet. Disappointment fri e n d l y sad H e l p f u l l t i r e d very nice f r u s t r a t i o n kind not enough energy fr i e n d l y -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 - 2 -3-4 0 + 1 + 2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 •2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 •2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 f e e l stupid great feel s i l l y I l i k e school Canadians are In d i v i d u a l i s t v i v i d j o l l y active t i r e d exc ited nervous relieved d i f f i c u l t sharing dum good t e r r i b l e -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 - 1 - 2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 - 2 - 3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1. +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 free so hard comfortable lonesome set t l e d unsat i sf ied more accepted angry no worries sick p o s i t i v e hard normal complete homesick looking up ignorant motivated -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1 + 2 +3 +4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 Canadian culture i s too moderate anxious challenging so so enlightened overloaded with work loneliness I don't care loving not great lonely people understanding funny rude nothing new more exc i t i n g reasonable -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 - 2 - 3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 - 1 - 2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 + 2 + 3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 not too enthusiastic puzzled energetic limited I can manage demanding more clear scared thoughtful f a i r r e g r e t f u l soc iable d i s i l l u s i o n e d less insecure archaic leisured I want to leave Canada! -1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 - 2 - 3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 - 2 - 3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 + 2 + 3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 strong going out i n q u i s i t i v e healthy inef f ic ient support ive overworked approachable I despise them impressed primitive a l i t t l e unhappy quaint amiable Canadian culture i s commerc i a l i rrelevant -1. -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 - 2 - 3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 • 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 enlightment average well prepared proud of self -2 - 3 - 4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 - 3 - 4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 aggressive fami 1iar hect ic image consc ious decresed self d i s c i p l i n e looking forward exhausted f u l l f amiliar impatient easy going congenial -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 - 3 - 4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 •2 -3 -4 0 + 1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 mixed surprised inspi red lack of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e more organized lonely hopeful rested pleasant but bland questioning getting better neat! moderately content Canadian culture is too liberated upward trend conf ident -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 + 3 + 4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 unintriguing fun worried happy s t r e s s f u l disorganized warm hearted neutral pissed off c u r i o s i t y moderate good mood anxious to be finished with school glad pressed waiting hopeless -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 •2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 •2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2-3-4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 camaraderie somewhat nervous I hate i t ! self assured impatient accelerating insecure empathet ic losing interest well prepared unique communicat ion with others demanding not punctual honesty somet imes loose -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1 + 2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1 + 2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 cheerful more unsure more contacts uncertain awareness together down too wrapped up sometimes fun negative caut iously favorable disgusting decisive unsatisf ied with self coping divided gregarious -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3-4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2-3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 t ime consuming disgruntled a b i t sad close in control comprehending Canadian culture i s a l i t t l e conservat ive f u l f i l l e d gett ing behind in school confused enjoyable s a t i s f i e d reserved cautious trying competitive -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + .1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 secure anticipatory pleased uncompre- hending new indi fferent preoccupied I w i l l miss the Canadians st imulated working in school ambivalent se t t l e down time pressure Canadians lack depth lousy carefree -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 . + 2 + 3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1 +2. +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 d i f f i c u l t i e s -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 for me in the future elated panic puzzled Canadians lack finesse -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 + 1 +2 +3 +4 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 thoughtful apprehensive peaceful nice f o r g e t f u l fine helpless hospitable terr i f ied not bad unconcerned busy -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 •2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -.3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 + 1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 - 2 -3-4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 too much interesting d u l l easy f e l t blamed generous wonderfull bored energetic r e f l e c t i v e Canadian culture too recent I f e e l closer to Canadians relaxed not so good support ive Canadian 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -.3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 -4 0 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 1 +2 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 + 3 +4 culture i s a l i t t l e confused slow able to cope marking time benef ic i a l Canadian culture i s too i rksome favorable I »m impressed with Canadian culture supportive too easy t r a n s i t i o n a l Canadian culture is too fast and too wild getting tough intrigued 1 -2 -3 -4 0 •1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1 + 2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 content better f e l t judged very well Canadians are compartment - a l i z e d I f e e l I know the Canadians better moderate stress I am gett ing along and I am more familiar wi th Canadian culture uncertain Canadian culture has less depth than other cultures -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 -4 0 +1 -4 0 +1 -4 0 +.1 -4 0 +1 -4 0 +1 -4 0 +1 -4 0 +1 -4 0 +1 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 +2 +3 +4 better -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 prepared fe e l -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 adapted complete -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 no true -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 Canadian culture exists not well -1 -2 -3-4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 enjoyable -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 depressed -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 under -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 pressure not so -1 -2 -3 -4 0 + 1 +2 +3 +4 exciting Canadian -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 culture i s respectful of the individual stable - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 less -1 -2-3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 confusing more -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 accepting shocking -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 I respect -1 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 Canadian culture Canadians are s e l f i s h f u l l interest ing acculturated ok s a t i s f i e d unconf ident Canadians are a l i t t l e distant energet ic understand my school work better discontented Canadians are superf ic i a l o ptimistic refect ive 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1.-2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1 +2 +.3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1. +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 I'm understanding the attitudes of the Cnandians unchanged I'm fascinated with the contrasts of Canadian culture powerless as usual safe fascinating not interesting rewarding not too pleasant enthusiastic s l i g h t l y overwhelmed relaxed Canadians are s i m i l i a r 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 -3 -4 0 •1 -2 -3 -4 0 1 -2 - 3 - 4 0 1 1 1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 + 3 + 4 +1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +1 +2 +3 +4 to us not denigrat ing l i v e l i e r could be better apprehensive r e s t r i c t e d f u l f i l l i n g pleasant competent heavy moderately conf ident enthusiastic interested managable less heavy exciting wondering -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 - 3 - 4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 •2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 - 3 - 4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 + 1 + 2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 -2 -3 -4 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 1 13 APPENDIX IV Models of Cross-Cultural Adjustment Klein's Model of Cross-Cultural Adjustment Klein (1977) developed a hypothesis which also i d e n t i f i e s various stages of adjustment. This model of adjustment i s geared s p e c i f i c a l l y towards foreign students coming to study in North American u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges. Klein proposes four phases; spectator, stress and adaptation, coming to terms, and decision. The spectator phase sees the cro s s - c u l t u r a l person as positive and delighted about the host culture. The stress and adaptation phase witnesses a c o n f l i c t of home and host cultures. In this p a r t i c u l a r stage, feelings of stress and disappointment become manifest. The next phase, coming to terms, occurs when the individual shows a greater degree of so c i a l involvement and has developed a more favourable perception of the host environment. The f i n a l phase, decision, i s concerned with the time to return to the home country. Here the student experiences a reawakening of tension, re- examination, and dealing with issues about returning to homeand alienation from the home culture. Adler's Model of the Transitional Experience Adler's theory of the " t r a n s i t i o n a l experience" (1975) is s i m i l i a r to the stage theories just discussed. Adler (1975) forecasts stages of adjustment for the individual immersed within a cr o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n . In 1 1 4 the contact stage, the individual i s l i a b l e to see differences as in t r i g u i n g . In th i s stage, excitement, euphoria, and other positive feelings manifest themselves. The disin t e g r a t i o n phase witnesses confusion, d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , loss, loneliness and a whole host of other negative feelings and perceptions. In the reintegration phase, the individual rejects differences between his/her culture and the host culture, resulting in feelings of anger and rage. The next two stages are predicted by Adler to be more p o s i t i v e . The autonomy phase occurs when the person is able to see the differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s between both his/her culture and the host culture. The f i n a l stage, independence, unfolds when differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s have become valued and s i g n i f i c a n t to the i n d i v i d u a l . Predictably, the emotional feelings of the individual become more positive during the last two stages. APPENDIX V The 3-Dimensional Graph The 3-dimensional graph is based upon a FORTRAN program c a l l e d DISSPLA. This i s a program which charts data into 3 dimensional planes. The X-axis was chosen to represent general self-concept (GSC), the Y-axis for academic self-concept (ASC), and the Z-axis was a collapsed category for the attitude towards Canadians, question 3, and attitude towards Canadian culture. The collapsed category, denoted by Can/p/c, was calculated by the Minitab program. The X-Y plane, or GSC versus ASC, simply r e l i e d upon the plots arrived at for the seven monthly ratings. As a result, the trend of adjustment was observed over the seven month period. There were two ways of looking at these graphs as to obtain u s e f u l l information. The f i r s t i s the obvious observation that the higher the "height", or Z-axis i s , the more "positive" the students is wi.th regards to Canadian culture and people. The second manner of observation has to do with the four quadrants of the X-Y plane. The objective of this graph i s to f i r s t see the relationship between the GSC and ASC ratings against the collapsed ratings of Canadian people and Canadian culture (Can/p/c) . For t h i s study, f i r s t imagine a window with the "GSC" as the bottom l i n e and the "ASC" as the right hand l i n e . A) Left side of GSC: ratings which were "lower than usual" or negative with respect to the normal ratings given by the subject for question 1 on the questionnaire. This i s known as the negative side of GSC. B) Right side of GSC: ratings which were "higher than usual" or p o s i t i v e with respect to the normal ratings given by the subject for question 1 on the questionnaire. This i s known as the positive side of GSC. OLower side of ASC: ratings which were "lower than usual" or negative with respect to the normal ratings given by the subject for question 2 on the questionnaire. This i s known as the negative side of ASC. D)Upper side of ASC: ratings which were "higher than usual" or p o s i t i v e with respect to the normal ratings given by the subject for question 2 on the questionnaire. This i s known as the positive side of ASC. The "quadrants" are areas defined by the plane of GSC and ASC (see "Graphs of Adjustment" in Appendix VI). Note that on the graphs, "quadrant w i l l be denoted by "Q"). The l a s t step i s to see the table as lying down and to put a "pole" or axis on the corner of quadrant I. This i s the Can/p/c ratings (the collapsed ratings of attitudes about Canadian people and cu l t u r e ) . Four points w i l l be considered with these graphs: 1) The "higher" the Can/p/c ratings, the higher the subject (or group of subjects) i s rating the Canadian people and culture. 2) There w i l l be 7 points for each graph, corresponding to the seven months of the study (october-april). 3) The i n i t i a l point (October) w i l l be marked as such: and the f i n a l point ( a p r i l ) w i l l be marked as such: 4) As the ratings move across time, they w i l l move across the dif f e r e n t quadrants. The quadrants w i l l be shown on the graphs as to ease the interpretation process. for Example: In november, a subject has a high Can/p/c rating. That rating is l i k e l y to be in quadrant IV (GSC and ASC negative). However, as the sudy has shown, other combinations are possible. Appendix VI Graphs of Adjustment The graphs w i l l be presented in two sections: A) Subjects: Each subject w i l l have 3 graphs. 1) A 2-dimensional Subjective Numerical Rating Graph 2) A 2-dimensional Subjective Adjective Rating Graph 3) A 3-dimensional graph B) Groups: Each Group except "Total Subjects" w i l l have (2) and ( 3 ) . The "Total Subjects" w i l l have only ( 2 ) . FIG.1 Rating Responses subject 1 o . c _ J \ .. . . V - - ' 1 / » mm mm mm « | mm — —l i • — \ \ \ > A • > / \ -• / 1 1 1 • • — -- 2 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR VO FIG-2 Adjective Responses subject 1 121 \ = \ C O C O o o < . o o I—| C O C O o o < + i d u o P C O C O O C D < y o u F H C O C O O O < -J FIG.4 Rating Responses subject 2 Ratings • >% ^ K *•—y si • 1 A / v / If 1 i i OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR ro ro FIG.5' Adjective Responses subject 2 Adjective Rating Responses O V - - ' K • > 1 - . # .\ - V A _ / * \ \ \ ' A • J N / \ / 0 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR 124 CC C O ® z : L U on  G SC  +  A S C +  O U T  G SC  +  A SC - Q I G SC - A SC +  i i K I U O FH CO CO G CD < FIG.7 Rating Responses subject 3 Ratings GSC • « K \ " L . / / \ \ i • / \ 1 i i L, 1 N Ml FIG.8 Adjective Responses subject 3 - 4 H i 1 1— i—• i 1 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR tv> 0 1 OH GSC- GSC + ASC+ ASC+ Q E QUI G S C - GSC+ A S C - ASC - £16.9 Adjustment for S3 ® START! END FIG.10 Rating Responses subject 4 ^ Ratings FIG.11 Adjective Responses subject 4 -2H i — . — r \ i 1 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR l\3 130 en < C O ® Q L U s/d/iioo |=j co co O C D < + I M O O H C O C O O O < FIG.13 Rating Responses subject 5 • a1 Ratings D // \ \ ./ \ x i A v \ / V 1 $ • o OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB FIGJ4 Adjective Responses subject 5 Adjective Rating Responses 1 - 0 v A . / V \ -2 \ I - 3 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR  F IG/16 Rating Responses subject 6 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR FIG.17 Adjective Responses subject 6  FIG-19 Rating Responses subject 7 Ratings •2 -u r OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR V>4 FIG.20 Adjective Responses subject 7 Adjective Rating Responses • ^ • * \ \ 1 \ L. • \ 7 fx I' • Y • / / / \ • ~T7 \ • 1 • > • • • — OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR API 139 C O ® O LU <3 0-r ST a . e rz °'z r t on  G SC  +  A SC + Q KT  G SC + A SC - Q I G SC - A SC + I i y o u F—I C O C O O O < FIG.22 Rating Responses subject 8 o FIG.23 Adjective Responses subject 8 3OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR  FIG.25 Rating Responses subject 9 F1G.26 Adjective Responses subject 9 3QCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR 4̂  FIG.28 Rating Responses subject 10 OS FIG.29 Adjective Responses subject 10 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MA  F1G.31 Rating Responses subject 11 Ratings T ^ C " . J • - ^ i • Nhh / i \ 1 n • ... \ • OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR VD FIG.32 Adjective Responses subject 11 Adjective Rating Responses • a.3 A C J O Q 4 A C ( 2 - 0 -2 - OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR O FIG. 33 Adjustment for S11 © START A E N D FIG.34 Rating Responses subject 12 • q1GSC •.a?A,QP Ratings • a|SED ° q^ACG l>0 FIG.35 Adjective Responses subject 12  FIG.37 Rating Responses subject 13 FIG.38 Adjective Responses subject 13 Adjective Rating Responses • OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR 157 CC < C O ® Q LU ot on  G SC  +  A S C +  on r G SC +  A SC - 01  G SC - A SC +  O O < FIG. 40 ADJUSTMENT PATTERN FOR EASTERN FOREIGN STUDENTS (RATINGS) • GSC • ACP FJGM ADJUSTMENT FOR EASTERN FOREIGN STUDENTS Q I GSC- ASC+ o n GSC + A S O OK. G S C - A S C - QTIT GSC+ ASC - ® START A E N D VJl FIG.42 ADJUSTMENT PATTERN FOR WESTERN FOREIGN STUDENTS (RATINGS) • GSC • ACP^ RATINGS • ASC O ACC" 0 H r- 1 r — i 1 r— 1 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR o 161 00 L d Q 00 o/d/uoQ on  G SC  +  A SC + QT TT  G SC +  A SO  J Q I G SC - A SC + w o o W C O C O O C D < F1C7.44 ADJUSTMENT PATTERN FOR FEMALE FOREIGN STUDENTS (RATINGS) RATINGS 2 .5 - I * 2H 1 .5 H 0 . 5 OCT APR ON QI on G S C - GSC + ASC+ ASC+ OTZ OTfT G S C - GSC + A S C - A S C - ? QUE ®START END FIG,4S ADJUSTMENT PATTERN FOR MALE FOREIGN STUDENTS (RATINGS) • GSC • ACP RATINGS • ASC O ACC 2.5- i ; ; ; r =  FIG-48 Adjustment Patterns for All Foreign Students • GSC • ACP ON ON 1 67 Appendix VII Interviews The i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d anyhere between 15 minutes to 1 hour. These r u l e s were fo l l o w e d : 1) The four i n d i c e s of adjustment (GSC, ASC, ACP, ACC) were used to guide the i n t e r v i e w . A maximmum of 15 minutes was a l l o c a t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n of each index. The o b j e c t i v e was to f i n d any changes i n adjustment with r e s p e c t to the four i n d i c e s . The u-curve p a t t e r n was t e s t e d here. 2) Data o b t a i n e d from the graphs and other a n a l y s e s would be used to guide i n the i n t e r v i e w i n g of the s u b j e c t . For example, the reasons f o r any abrupt changes i n graphs, or p e c u l i a r numbers i n the c o r r e l l a t i . o n s , would be e x p l o r e d . 3) F i n a l l y , r e l a t i o n s h i p s between GSC and ASC, and ACP and ACC were e x p l o r e d . 168 Appendix VIII C o r r e l l a t ions C o r r e l l a t i o n s were used to a s s i s t i n the e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the g e n e r a l and academic s e l f - concepts, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of those two elements to a t t i t u d e towards Canadians and a t t i t u d e towards Canadian c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . V a r i o u s other combinations were analyzed amongst the v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d . In t h i s step of the a n a l y s e s , c o r r e l a t i o n s were t e s t e d amongst the f a c t o r s s p e c i f i e d by the h y p o t h e s i s . A computer program, M i n i t a b , was used to t e s t those c o r r e l a t i o n s . Since the numbers of r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s were s m a l l , the t h r e s h o l d p o i n t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l l a t i o n s had to be set to at l e a s t .5. The c o r r e l l a t i o n s were t e s t e d a c c o r d i n g to such a t a b l e , f o r every s u b j e c t and f o r " e a s t e r n " (6 s u b j e c t s ) and "western" (7 s u b j e c t s ) s t u d e n t s . The same procedure was a p p l i e d f o r male versus female students. Gsc Gsc Gsc Asc Asc Tsc Tsc Tpc Tpc and and and and and and and and and Asc Acp Acc Acp Acc Acp Acc Gsc Asc sn sn = a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t The terms are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Gsc: G e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t Asc: Academic s e l f - c o n c e p t Acp: A t t i t u d e s about Canadians 169 Acc: A t t i t u d e s about Canadian c u l t u r e Tsc: T o t a l s e l f - c o n c e p t ( c o l l a p s e d r a t i n g s of Gsc and Asc) Tpc: T o t a l a t t i t u d e s about people and c u l t u r e ( c o l l a p s e d r a t i n g s f o r a t t i t u d e s about people and c u l t u r e ) Since each subject gave a v a r y i n g number of data p o i n t s , we are simply l o o k i n g f o r c o r r e l l a t i o n s w i t h i n each s u b j e c t . Note that t h i s d i f f e r s from the the a n a l y s i s of one group of students versus the o t h e r ; e a s t e r n students versus western. Here, we c o n s i d e r e d the mean r a t i n g per month f o r each s u b j e c t , as to have a standard number of data p o i n t s . The r a t i n g s given by a l l s u b j e c t s were averaged f o r every month of the study. F i n a l l y the same procedure was a p p l i e d with c o l l a p s i n g the r a t i n g s f o r the general and academic s e l f concepts and combining them i n t o a category c a l l e d the " t o t a l s e l f - concept". The t o t a l s e l f - c o n c e p t was then c o r r e l l a t e d with a t t i t u d e towards Canadians and a t t i t u d e towards the Canadian c u l t u r e . The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s procedure was to have another way of a n a l y z i n g the s e l f - c o n c e p t with the other v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d . Appendix IX D e f i n i t i o n of Terms A t t i t u d e : An a t t i t u d e i s our e v a l u a t i v e ( p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e ) f e e l i n g s toward p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t s such as people, p l a c e s , i d e a s , etc (Bern, 1970). ACC: A t t i t u d e ( s ) toward Canadian c u l t u r e . The e v a l u a t i v e ( p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e ) f e e l i n g s toward Canadian c u l t u r e . ACP: A t t i t u d e ( s ) about Canadian people. The e v a l u a t i v e ( p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e ) f e e l i n g s toward Canadian people. ASC: Academic s e l f - c o n c e p t . T i e d to Ishiyama's s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model (1987, 1988) and d e f i n e d by one's "competance and autonomy" in academic s t u d i e s . C u l t u r e Shock: Oberg's (1960) n o t i o n t h a t e n t e r i n g a new c u l t u r e i s a p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f u s i n g and d i s o r i e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . E a s t e r n Student: Any student coming from non-European/non- White/non-Anglo-Saxon c o u n t r i e s . GSC: General s e l f - c o n c e p t . GSC i s that e n t i t y surrounding the f i v e thematic components of Ishiyama's s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model (1987, 1988): (1) s e c u r i t y , comfort, support, (2) s e l f - w o r t h and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e , (3) competance and autonomy (4) i d e n t i t y and belonging (5) l o v e , f u l f i l l m e n t and meaning i n l i f e . Competence and Autonomy: The t h i r d component of the s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model (Ishiyama, 1987, 1988) concerned with the areas and the degree of competance and autonomy experienced i n v a r i o u s dimensions of l i f e ( i . e , s o c i a l , v o c a t i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , f i n a n e i a l , e t c ) . I d e n t i t y and Belonging: The f o u r t h component of the s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model (Ishiyama, 1987, 1988) concerned with i d e n t i t y and sense of b e l o n g i n g . In t h i s dimension, how one d e f i n e s o n e s e l f ( i n terms of work, s e x u a l i t y , appearance, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , e t c . ) i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the s o c i e t y and/or c u l t u r e at l a r g e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student: ( A l s o F o r e i g n Student). Any person coming as a f o r e i g n e r to study i n a Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n or u n i v e r s i t y . Love, F u l f i l l m e n t , and Meaning i n L i f e : The f i f t h component of the s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model (Ishiyama, 1987, 1988). T h i s dimension i s concerned with the c e n t r a l theme in human e x i s t a n c e , a h o l i s t i c dimension of l o v e , f u l f i l l m e n t , and meaning i n l i f e . The q u a l i t y of l i f e i s emphasized here. S e c u r i t y , Comfort, and Support: The f i r s t component of the 172 s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model (Ishiyama, 1987, 1988) i s concerned with the f e e l i n g s of p h y s i c a l and emotional s e c u r i t y and comfort, protectedness, f a m i l i a r i t y with the environment, p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , and s o c i a l support, among o t h e r s . Self-Worth and S e l f - Acceptance: The second component of the s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n model (Ishiyama, 1987, 1988) concerns i t s e l f with the i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense of mastery and confidence i n s p e c i f i c areas of c r e a t i v i t y / t a l e n t s and ge n e r a l s k i l l s f o r e f f e c t i v e communication, s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , communication, r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g and problem- s o l v i n g . S e l f - V a l i d a t i o n : As d e f i n e d by Ishiyama (1987, 1988) " . . . i s the p r ocess of r e s t o r i n g and r e - i n f o r c i n g the sense of s e l f - w o r t h , meaning i n l i f e , and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and competence through a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s with the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l environments, and t r a n s c e n d i n g these q u a l i t i e s to a s p i r i t u a l l e v e l " (p.7). U-Curve Hypothesis: the u-curve hypothesis (Deutsch & Won, 1963; Dubois, 1956; G u l l a h o r n & G u l l a h o r n , 1963; Jacobson, 1963; Lysgaard, 1955; S e l l i t z & Cook, 1962; Sewell, M o r r i s & Davidson, 1954), e x p l a i n e d the process of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment as having three d i s t i n c t phases: the f i r s t being e l a t i o n and p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s towards the host c u l t u r e f o l l o w e d by n e g a t i v i t y , d e p r e s s i o n and c o n f u s i o n , then f i n a l l y g i v i n g way to the i n i t i a l f e e l i n g s of optimism. Western Student: A student coming from Europe or any other white dominated/Anglo-Saxon country ( i . e A u s t r a l i a ) .

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