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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Study of interactions of adult learners with learning situations Shores, W. Louise 1985

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STUDY OF INTERACTIONS OF ADULT LEARNERS WITH LEARNING SITUATIONS by W. M a s t e r Of N u r s i n g ,  LOUISE SHORES  University  Of W a s h i n g t o n ,  Seattle,  1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOP. THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE  F A C U L T Y OF  GRADUATE  STUDIES  DEPARTMENT; OF"-ADMINISTRATIVEJ-ADUTST-AND HIGHER-EDUCATION  We a c c e p t to  this  thesis  the required  as  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH December  ©  W.  Louise  conforming  COLUMBIA  1985  Shores,  1985  In  presenting  degree freely  this  thesis  at t h e U n i v e r s i t y available  copying  of  department publication  this or  in  partial  fulfilment  o f British  Columbia,  f o r reference thesis by  o f this  a n d study.  for scholarly  his o r thesis  purposes  gain  of  Adult  and H i g h e r  shall  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British 1956 M a i n Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  December  2,  Columbia  1985  Education  agree  that that  It  is  for an  t h e Library permission  may b e granted  h e r representatives.  f o r financial  t h e requirements  I agree  I further  permission.  Department  of  make  it  for extensive  by the head  understood  not b e allowed  shall  advanced  that without  of my  copying  or  m y written  i i  Abstract This  exploratory  learners  and  study  learning  s o u g h t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how  situations  interactions  might  interactionist  t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e , and  research  be  interact  methodology,  involving different a n a l y s i s of p r i o r 1.  explained.  the  data  study  With  a  multiple  its  learners  individual  of  own  --  field  knowledge,  i n two  parts  and  meta-  study  l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s and  terms.  from  learners  experiences  constructivist,  conducted  p a r t i c i p a n t s were u s e d t o s e e k u n d e r s t a n d i n g in  those  research.  Observation  experience  how  interpretive, qualitative was  sources  and  adult  were  the across  found  purpose,  to  Analysis  same  situations.  attention  E l e m e n t s of  and  of of  learners'  experience,  emotional  of  learner  comparison  situation,  past  level,  adult  included  observed  include  of  interviews  prior  response,  and  perceptions. 2.  With p r i o r research  analysis  was  findings their the of  data,  done t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  i n the  field  interactions.  S o u r c e s of  studies  (descendency),  and  an  evolving  r e l a t e d to adult  s a m p l e were A d u l t those  as  interpretive s t a t e of  theory  and  l e a r n e r s , s i t u a t i o n s , and  s t u d i e s w h i c h were  Education Quarterly,  (ancestry),  meta-  included  in  1979-1984, c i t a t i o n s  S o c i a l S c i e n c e s C i t a t i o n Index  Dissertation Abstracts  International,  1979-  1984. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of related adult  studies  the  included:  cognition,  (d)  learner  (a) ego  analyzed  clusters  of  (b) a u t o n o m y ,  (c)  (e) c o g n i t i v e s t y l e ,  (f)  development,  learning styles,  in  age  and  academic  relevance  and  ability,  (g)  curiosity.  developmental  Clusters  of  studies  s i t u a t i o n s were r e l a t e d t o (a) T e l e c o u r s e , educational  orientation  l e a r n e r s and on of  (a) l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n teacher  The  behavior, prior  Person  consistent  study to enable  theory  The was  present  found  theories  and  elements almost (2)  framework  and  and  for data  empirical  dialogue  studies  between  content  used as  i n b o t h p a r t s of two  a the  perspectives.  t o p r o v i d e a base f o r research  r e s e a r c h on  Cumulative  between  or r a r e .  s t u d y and  i n the  and  on  adult  theoretical  of  competing  C o n c l u s i o n s from  the  integrative  emotional  in prior  responses,  research,  adult  purpose,  learning  momentary s t a t e s s u c h  experience  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  experience  findings,  phenomenon  research review data i n c l u d e d :  individual  p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , and  this  proponents  learner's  no a t t e n t i o n that  between  of  ( N y s t e d t ) was  conducted  rudimentary.  level  combinations  they  interaction  t h a t l e a r n e r p e r c e p t i o n s , and  attention  (c)  interaction.  were a b s e n t  a n a l y s i s of f i e l d (1)  (c)  s t a t e of t h e o r y and  t o be  foundations,  Interaction  in clusters  P r o c e s s Model  designed  learner/situation  learning  (b) L e c t u r e , and  i n t e g r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of t h e  development  on  (h)  knowledge.  Situation  was  and  i n p l a n n i n g , (b) l e a r n e r p e r c e p t i o n  and  organizing  study  teachers.  s i t u a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d  o r g a n i z e r s and  The  of  tasks,  and  are  important  have  received  and  learners such as  which  as  exhibit  unique  prior  knowledge,  are r e l a t e d  t o t h e ways  situations  and  which  help  to  iv  explain idiosyncratic  responses.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER ONE: DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM  1  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of The A d u l t  3  Research In A n d r a g o g i c a l Assumptions  6  Research Streams  9  In General Education  T e a c h e r E f f e c t i v e n e s s And C l a s s r o o m O b s e r v a t i o n Studies  9  Attribute-Treatment  Interaction  12  Constructivism  13  Student-Teacher I n t e r a c t i o n  15  S t a t e m e n t Of The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m And I t s S i g n i f i c a n c e To A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  17  Summary  18  CHAPTER TWO: DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Interactionism Selection  20 20  Of A M o d e l F o r S t u d y Of A d u l t  Learner/Situation  Interaction  Summary  25 37  CHAPTER THREE: DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  38  S e l e c t i o n Of A R e s e a r c h P a r a d i g m  38  Development  44  Of R e s e a r c h M e t h o d  Meta-Analysis, P r i o r Research  46  Field  48  Study  Limitations  Of The S t u d y  49  vi  Summary  55  CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF PRIOR RESEARCH  56  P r o c e s s F o r C o l l e c t i o n Of D a t a  56  Process For A n a l y s i s  59  A n a l y s i s Of D a t a C l u s t e r s  •  60  S t u d i e s On C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of The L e a r n e r S t u d i e s On C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of L e a r n i n g S i t u a t i o n s  61 ...145  S t u d i e s On I n t e r a c t i o n B e t w e e n L e a r n e r s And Situations  170  Summary And C o n c l u s i o n s  216  CHAPTER F I V E : PROCESS FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF F I E L D DATA Literature  220 Background  D e c i s i o n s For A n a l y t i c Approach  .221 In T h i s Study  227  P r o c e s s F o r C o l l e c t i o n , T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , And A n a l y s i s Of O b s e r v a t i o n Data  230  C o l l e c t i o n Of O b s e r v a t i o n D a t a  230  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n And A n a l y s i s Of O b s e r v a t i o n D a t a  235  P r o c e s s F o r C o l l e c t i o n , T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , And A n a l y s i s Of I n t e r v i e w Data C o l l e c t i o n Of I n t e r v i e w D a t a  237 .237  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n And A n a l y s i s Of I n t e r v i e w D a t a  240  A Priori  241  General  C a t e g o r i e s And I n t r a r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y  C o d i n g , R e d u c i n g And O r g a n i z i n g The D a t a ....247  S e c o n d C o d i n g -- P a t t e r n s And A n a l y t i c C a t e g o r i e s D e s c r i b i n g The L e a r n e r s ' E x p e r i e n c e  ...251 258  Comparing Learner Responses W i t h i n S i t u a t i o n s  258  Comparing Learner Responses A c r o s s S i t u a t i o n s  259  Summary  260  CHAPTER S I X : SITUATION OBERVATIONS AND LEARNER INTERVIEWS .261 S i t u a t i o n s As O b s e r v e d And E x p e r i e n c e d By L e a r n e r s  262  S i t u a t i o n Two  263  S i t u a t i o n Four  318  Situation Five  337  E x p e r i e n c e Of I n d i v i d u a l L e a r n e r s A c r o s s S i t u a t i o n s  ....361  Alice  361  Celia  373  lone  376  Donna  379  Jean  382  Abstract  Structure  382  Summary And A n a l y s i s Of E x p e r i e n c e -- W i t h i n And Across S i t u a t i o n s Summary  385 388  CHAPTER SEVEN: SUMMARY AND INTEGRATION OF FINDINGS Summary, R e s e a r c h Summary, F i e l d  Review  Study  I n t e g r a t i o n Of F i n d i n g s  389 390 391 392  Abstract Structure  393  Momentary S t a t e s  410  Perceptual-Cognitive Structure  413  Chapter  Summary  418  CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  419  R e e x a m i n a t i o n Of The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m  419  Reexamination  422  Of The T h e o r e t i c a l  Perspective  P e r s o n S i t u a t i o n P r o c e s s M o d e l As A S p e c i f i c M o d e l Of Adult Learner/Situation  Interaction  423  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s F o r A R e s e a r c h Agenda  425  C r i t i q u e Of T h i s S t u d y  427  Comments On The R e s e a r c h M e t h o d  427  Use Of The P e r s o n S i t u a t i o n P r o c e s s M o d e l  428  Limitations  432  Significance  Of The S t u d y Of The S t u d y  BIBLIOGRAPHY  435 437  APPENDIX A: PILOT A N A L Y S I S : PERSON SITUATION PROCESS MODEL 459 APPENDIX B: SAMPLE PAGES FROM DECISION LOG FOR RESEARCH REVIEW  465  APPENDIX C: TABLES: ELEMENTS FROM CLUSTERS OF DAI ABSTRACTS 468 APPENDIX D: OBSERVATION GUIDE  488  APPENDIX E: A PRIORI CATEGORIES FOR CODE/RECODE  490  ix  TABLE OF TABLES  Table  1 Q u a n t i t a t i v e Summary Of I n c l u d e d S t u d i e s By S o u r c e  Table 2 Comparison Personality  Of Y o u n g e r And O l d e r S t u d e n t s ,  57  Omnibus  I n v e n t o r y (Kasworm, 1980)  T a b l e 3 Summary Of M a j o r  120  C o n s t r u c t s From S t u d i e s On  Learner  Characteristics Table 4 Typology  143  F o r Modes Of D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n  By Moore  Proposed  .  T a b l e 5 Summary Of M a j o r  148  C o n s t r u c t s From S t u d i e s On  Situation Characteristics Table 6 Teacher Content  167  Behavior F a c t o r s , C o r r e l a t i o n With  A r e a ' A n d Type ( S o l o m o n ,  Course  1966)  187  T a b l e 7 Summary Of M a j o r C o n s t r u c t s From S t u d i e s On I n t e r a c t i o n B e t w e e n L e a r n e r s And S i t u a t i o n s  216  T a b l e 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of L e a r n e r I n t e r v i e w s A c r o s s Situations  239  T a b l e 9 I l l u s t r a t i o n Of D a t a D i s p l a y : R e d u c i n g  And  O r g a n i z i n g The D a t a Table Two  248-249  10 P a t t e r n s And A n a l y t i c C a t e g o r i e s I d e n t i f i e d Interviews  From 252-254  Table  11 I l l u s t r a t i o n  Of D a t a M a t r i x : P a t t e r n C o d i n g  Table  12 R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t s  ..257-258  In Betty's  A b s t r a c t S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n Two Table  13 R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t s  .270  In C e l i a ' s  Abstract Table  E l e m e n t s Of  S y s t e m And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  16 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d  Abstract Table  S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  15 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d  Person Table  .278  Elements In  Of E l e m e n t s Of A b s t r a c t  18 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d  .286  Ethel's 290 Faye's  S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  17 C o m p a r i s o n  Abstract  Two  Two  Two  Structure  Momentary S t a t e s F o r F i v e L e a r n e r s I n S i t u a t i o n Table  Two  14 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t s I n Donna's  Abstract Table  S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  Elements In  .296  And  Two  ....299  Alice's  S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  Three 309  Table  19 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d  Person Table  S y s t e m And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  20 C o m p a r i s o n  S t a t e s F o r Two Table  Learners In S i t u a t i o n  Three  ....313  Momentary  Three  315  Elements In Helen's  S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  Four  322  Elements In Ione's  S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  24 C o m p a r i s o n  Of A b s t r a c t  S t r u c t u r e And  S t a t e s For Three L e a r n e r s In S i t u a t i o n Table  Gail's  Four  327  23 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t s I n J e a n ' s  Abstract Table  S t r u c t u r e And  22 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d  Abstract Table  Of A b s t r a c t  21 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d  Abstract Table  E l e m e n t s Of  Four  331  Momentary  Four  334  25 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t s I n C e l i a ' s  Abstract  S t r u c t u r e And Her E x p e r i e n c e Of S i t u a t i o n  Five  343  xi  T a b l e 26 R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t s I n Donna's Abstract  S t r u c t u r e And  T a b l e 27 C o m p a r i s o n Of States  For  Her  E x p e r i e n c e Of  Abstract  Four L e a r n e r s  S t r u c t u r e And  S t r u c t u r e And  T a b l e 29 Summary Of R e s e a r c h And  Her  Field  Alice's  S i t u a t i o n One  M a j o r E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d From  394 To  ABE  And  Marginal  Students  469  T a b l e 31 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s D e v e l o p m e n t Of  Related  To  Cognitive  Adults  T a b l e 32 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  471 Related  To  Learning  Style  (Kolb)  473  T a b l e 33 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s R e l a t e d  To  Field  Dependence-Independence  474  T a b l e 34 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s R e l a t e d  To  Use  T a b l e 35 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  To  Teacher  As  Perceived  By  Related  Of  Lecture  .478  Behavior 480  To  Student  Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s  T a b l e 37 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s R e l a t e d Organizers  Of  Students  T a b l e 36 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s R e l a t e d Evaluation  .366  Prior  Study Analyses  T a b l e 30 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s R e l a t e d Ability  358  E l e m e n t s Of  E x p e r i e n c e Of  348  Momentary  In S i t u a t i o n F i v e  T a b l e 28 R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n S e l e c t e d Abstract  S i t u a t i o n Five  484 To  Use  Of  Content 486  TABLE OF FIGURES  Figure  1 Person S i t u a t i o n Process  Model  (Nystedt,  1981,  P. 382) .'  28  Figure  2 T r i a n g u l a t i o n Of D a t a S o u r c e s  Figure  3a P r o b l e m Of Low L i t e r a t e A d u l t  Described Figure  Learners  As  By Boyd And M a r t i n  63  3b Summary Of E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d  A c h i e v e m e n t F o r ABE And M a r g i n a l Figure  46  I n S t u d i e s Of  Ability  4a P a r a d o x Of Autonomous L e a r n e r  Students  As D e v e l o p e d By  Chene Figure  77  4b Autonomy As C h o i c e R e l a t i v e To G o a l  Within A Specific  Attainment  Situation  Figure  5a V a r i o u s  Figure  5b I l l u s t r a t i o n  Theories  5c I l l u s t r a t i o n  80  Of A d u l t  Using  King's  M o d e l To Compare Two L e a r n e r s Figure  Using  Cognition  92  R e f l e c t i v e Judgment  In Lecture  King's  M o d e l To Compare Two L e a r n e r s  94  R e f l e c t i v e Judgment  In Problem  Posing  Situation Figure  95  6a C o n c e p t s E m p l o y e d By P i g g E t A l . i n S t u d y Of  County E x t e n s i o n Figure  6b L e a r n i n g  Agents' Learning  Styles  S t y l e Modes And E n v i r o n m e n t a l  98 Complexity  (Kolb & F r y ) Figure  70  100  7a F i e l d D e p e n d e n c e - i n d e p e n d e n c e And S u c c e s s I n A  High School  Completion Program  (Donnarumma E t A l . ) .....109  xiii  Figure On Figure  7b Summary Of  Concepts R e l a t e d  Research  Cognitive Style 8a S o c i o e m o t i o n a l  8b  Studies  , O r i e n t a t i o n s Of  Undergraduate Students Figure  To  Self-efficacy  117  Older  (Rasworm, 1980)  I n The  Older  ..121  Undergraduate  Student  (Rebok & O f f e r m a n ) Figure  8c  Adults Figure  123  I n t e r a c t i v e E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d From S t u d i e s  Of  In Academic S e t t i n g s  9a P e r c e i v e d  127  I m p o r t a n c e Of  Havighurst's  Developmental Tasks Figure  9b H y p o t h e s i z e d  T a s k s Of Figure  10a  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between D e v e l o p m e n t a l  A d u l t s And Surprise  D e s i r e For  131  Learning  Situations  (curiosity),  Knowledge  (Rossing  Figure  11a  R e s e a r c h On  Telecourse  Figure  12a  R e s e a r c h On  Use  Figure  12b  E f f e c t Of  And Figure  Of  Perceived  136 Relevance  And  & Long)  138  R e v i e w e d By W i e s n e r  Lecture  146  R e v i e w e d By O d d i  I n s t r u c t i o n a l M e t h o d On  ....151  Personality  Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n (Bubenzer) 12c  152  I n t e r a c t i o n Between P e r s o n a l i t y And  Teaching  Methods Figure  12d  154 Personality Characteristics,  T e a c h i n g Method Figure  13a  Teachers Figure And  14a  (Stanton's  E d u c a t i o n a l And  Preference,  And  P h a s e s 2 & 3)  155  Interpersonal Behaviors  Of  (Holmes)  160  Participation  Satisfaction  In Course P l a n n i n g ,  (Rosenblum & Darkenwald)  Achievement 172  xiv  Figure  14b " B e t t e r C o u r s e " H y p o t h e s i s F o r E f f e c t  Participation Figure  In P l a n n i n g  14c " O w n e r s h i p "  Participation  Of 178  Hypothesis For E f f e c t  Of  In Planning  180  Figure  15a S t u d e n t P e r c e p t i o n  Of T e a c h e r B e h a v i o r ( K e r w i n )  Figure  15b S t u d e n t P e r c e p t i o n  Of T e a c h e r s And R a t i n g s  C o u r s e V a l u e And T e a c h i n g A b i l i t y Figure  Figure  For  (Deshpande E t A l . ) ...185  15c Summary Of E l e m e n t s R e l a t e d  Perception  183  To  Student  And E v a l u a t i o n Of C o u r s e And T e a c h e r  16a I n t r o d u c t o r y M a t e r i a l And  199  P r i o r Knowledge  Level  (Grotelueschen) Figure  16b C o n d i t i o n s  Assimilative Figure  Theory  203 And E f f e c t Of A d v a n c e  Organizers,  (Mayer)  16c C o n c e p t s R e l a t e d  To P r i o r K n o w l e d g e And  208 Content  Organizers  213  Figure  17 E l e m e n t s Of B e t t y ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n  Two  .267  Figure  18 E l e m e n t s Of C e l i a ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n Two  .274  Figure  19 E l e m e n t s Of Donna's E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n  Two  .281  Figure  20 E l e m e n t s Of E t h e l ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n  Two  .288  Figure  21 E l e m e n t s Of F a y e ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n Two  Figure  22 E l e m e n t s Of A l i c e ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n  ..293  Three 307  Figure  23 E l e m e n t s . Of G a i l ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n T h r e e  311  Figure  24 E l e m e n t s Of H e l e n ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n F o u r  321  Figure  25 E l e m e n t s Of I o n e ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n F o u r  .325  Figure  26 E l e m e n t s Of J e a n ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n F o u r  .329  X V  F i g u r e 27 E l e m e n t s Of C e l i a ' s First  In S i t u a t i o n  Five,  Segment  F i g u r e 28 E l e m e n t s Of C e l i a ' s Second  Experience  340 Experience  In S i t u a t i o n  Five,  Segment  F i g u r e 29 E l e m e n t s Of Donna's E x p e r i e n c e  342 In S i t u a t i o n Five  346  F i g u r e 30 E l e m e n t s Of I o n e ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n F i v e  .350  F i g u r e 31 E l e m e n t s Of J e a n ' s E x p e r i e n c e I n S i t u a t i o n F i v e  .354  F i g u r e 32 E l e m e n t s Of A l i c e ' s E x p e r i e n c e  .364  $SIGNOFF  I n S i t u a t i o n One  CHAPTER  DEVELOPMENT OF THE  RESEARCH PROBLEM  ADULT LEARNER'S EXPERIENCE OF  If adult n a t u r e of  the  education adult  " T h e r e seems t o be adult  l e a r n e r and  give adult  learner  the  dimensions, they are 1964,  the  consistent  adult.  Set  Houle,  1972,  are  subtitle  issues which r e c e i v e d  different  from the  of  the  what  education  vary  in  the  adult  Darkenwald & Merriam,  1982).  l e a r n e r s and  educational  "Andragogy v e r s u s for debate.  considerable  c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e n t as  those d i f f e r e n c e s ?  maturity  how  process?  f o r t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  under the  a d u l t s and  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t s as  K n o w l e s ' work became a f o c a l p o i n t primary  uniqueness.  i n i n c l u s i o n of  those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e the  K n o w l e s (1970) p u t  the  p r o b l e m s of a d u l t h o o d a r e  W h i l e d e f i n i t i o n s of a d u l t  (Verner,  education,  i t s s p e c i a l q u a l i t y " (Darkenwald & Merriam,  other  What a r e  i s c e n t r a l to that  n e e d s and  p.  learner  a f o r m of  i n c r e a s i n g agreement t h a t  education  11).  EDUCATIONAL SITUATIONS  i s u n i q u e as  1982,  do  THE  ONE  Second, ought the teaching  Pedagogy," T h e r e were  attention.  l e a r n e r s and teaching  o f c h i l d r e n and  the  two  First,  i f so what  of a d u l t s  to  i f so what a r e  are be  those  differences? Cross i n the with  ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o m p a r e d and  o n g o i n g d e b a t e and  the  contrasted  various  concluded t h a t the  n a t u r e of andragogy.  She  perspectives  confusion  reviewed arguments  begins developing  2  it  r e s p e c t i v e l y as l e a r n i n g theory,  a political scientific issue  or a s e t of hypotheses s u b j e c t  verification.  versus the c h i l d as l e a r n e r .  arguments have b y p a s s e d a c r i t i c a l  educators.  How do a d u l t s  vary,  variations affect their interactions with For  adult  educators,  differences  their  a n d how do t h o s e learning  s e r v e d , a n d how t h o s e  response t o educational  seem more c r u c i a l  influence  situations?  i t i s important t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e range of  v a r i a t i o n s among t h e c l i e n t s influence  l i n e of a n a l y s i s f o r  What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t s  response as l e a r n e r s ?  to  In each of t h e arguments a c e n t r a l  seems t o e m e r g e — t h e a d u l t The  adult  reality,  as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n ,  activities.  variations  These  questions  than t o c o n t i n u e debate of a d u l t / c h i l d  which t r e a t each i n t h e i r homogeneity r a t h e r  than i n  their diversity. The of  research  problem f o r t h i s  i n t e r a c t i o n between a d u l t  situations:  how m u l t i p l e  study p e r t a i n s  learners  learners  vary within  s i t u a t i o n , a n d how t h e same l e a r n e r situations.  and t h e i r  learning  t h e same  varies across  F o r t h e development of t h a t  to the nature  learning  learning  problem, t h i s  chapter  p r e s e n t s a review of l i t e r a t u r e on: (a) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adults, research  (b) r e s e a r c h  on a n d r a g o g i c a l  streams i n general  education.  a s s u m p t i o n s , and ( c ) L a s t l y , the problems f o r  i n q u i r y , and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e study a r e d e s c r i b e d .  3  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE  ADULT  T h e r e i s no l a c k o f d i s c u s s i o n on t h e d e f i n i t i o n a d u l t h o o d and  i t s characteristics.  and a c c e p t a n c e o f s o c i a l commonly i n c l u d e d Merriam, down.  Age,  of  psychological maturity,  r o l e s a s c r i b e d to adulthood, are  in determining adult  status  (Darkenwald  &  1 9 8 2 ) , y e t become e l u s i v e w i t h e f f o r t s t o p i n them  Adulthood frequently  i s defined  in contrast  to childhood.  A d u l t s are a d u l t because they are o l d e r than c h i l d r e n ( P a t e r s o n , 1979) . W h i l e some d e f i n i t i o n s and imply a s t a t i c perspective. recently,  expositions regarding adulthood  condition, others include a Erikson  (1982) r e f l e c t e d  i n an h i s t o r i c a l  developmental  t h a t we  s e n s e , come t o a c k n o w l e d g e a d u l t h o o d  a s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p h a s e i n i t s own  right,  the  From t h i s  m a t u r e end o f a l l d e v e l o p m e n t .  adulthood  have o n l y  rather  i s seen t o e v o l v e over time as the  than  merely  perspective, individual  d e v e l o p s , and a d u l t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r y a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l s life  spans.  (Erikson,  1963, G o u l d ,  They d i f f e r different  W h i l e t h e r e may  f r o m one  points  Paterson of  and  be o r d e r i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n s  1 9 7 2 ) , a d u l t s a r e n o t a homogeneous mass.  a n o t h e r as w e l l a s f r o m t h e m s e l v e s a t  i n the l i f e  cycle.  (1979) d e v e l o p e d the c o n c e p t of a d u l t h o o d as  expected m a t u r i t y .  mental, psychological,  He  one  suggests that a d u l t s vary i n p h y s i c a l ,  social,  and  skill  attributes.  a t t r i b u t e s do n o t t h e m s e l v e s c o n s t i t u t e a d u l t h o o d .  Such In  fact,  4 some p r e c o c i o u s be m i s s i n g not  one  claimed  rather  c h i l d may  have them a l l ,  o r more.  t h a t he  while  When someone i s c a l l e d an  has  any  one  s t a t u s of a c h i l d .  Adults  are  and  adult  may  i t is  s e t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but  a c e r t a i n status which i s s i g n i f i c a n t  s u p p o s e d t o be,  some a d u l t s  are  not  in contrast  to  n e c e s s a r i l y m a t u r e , but  that necessary supposition  the they  defines  adulthood. I n a r e v i s e d e d i t i o n of  the  earlier  work c i t e d ,  (1980) p r e s e n t e d f o u r a s s u m p t i o n s about the  Knowles  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  adults, t h a t as  i n d i v i d u a l s mature:  f r o m one  of b e i n g  self-directed  1) t h e i r  self-concept  a dependent p e r s o n a l i t y toward being  human b e i n g ;  2)  they accumulate a  r e s e r v o i r o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a t becomes an resource  f o r l e a r n i n g ; 3)  oriented  i n c r e a s i n g l y to the  social  r o l e s ; and  4)  their  their  accordingly, f r o m one  of  their  changes  to  their of  subject-  of p e r f o r m a n c e - c e n t e r e d n e s s .  (1980,  44-45)  Knowles assumptions are presents  rich  t o l e a r n becomes  developmental tasks  toward l e a r n i n g s h i f t s  c e n t e r e d n e s s t o one pp.  readiness  a  growing  increasingly  time p e r s p e c t i v e  i m m e d i a c y o f a p p l i c a t i o n , and orientation  moves  the  adult  stated  l e a r n e r as  i n developmental terms. i n the  p r o c e s s of  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y e x p e r i e n c e d , not  He  maturation,  as a s e t o f  fixed  attributes. In a r e v i e w of e d u c a t i o n a l reported  notable  research,  Kowalski  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n and  (1984) adults  with  5 regard  to the a d u l t ' s  (a) h i g h e r  speed,  ( c ) more f i x e d  behavior,  hearing,  (e) g r e a t e r  expectation often  the  initiators  processes  than  do  and  Prior  1982).  differentiate  children  one  vision,  and  so  Charnley education existed  Cross  to suggest  supports  found  (Beder to  the adults speed,  h o m o g e n e i t y where none  a diverse  I t seems r e a s o n a b l e  presented  a conceptual  clientele.  t o ask  characteristics.  and  compulsory  those  situation.  p e r s p e c t i v e on  versus  learning.  of  in  p s y c h o l o g i c a l domains a s Situational  b a r e - b o n e s and  along  framework, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n the model, t o p a r t - t i m e  t o be  how  vary  includes personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  as  voluntary versus  in adult  t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a d u l t s do  sociocultural,  interesting  used  in motivation, physical  i n f l u e n c e the a d u l t i n a l e a r n i n g  acknowledged  autonomy  same f a c t o r s a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e  physiological,  and  control  and  d e s c r i p t i o n s are  adults, experience  to misrepresent  supports  situational  e x e r t more  have more power and  (1984) s t a t e d t h a t t e c h n i q u e s  L e a r n e r s , which  limited,  experience,  these  A d u l t s vary  many d i m e n s i o n s . variations  A d u l t s a r e more  forth.  thus  Observation  Adult  and  r e s e a r c h tended  and  and  (f)  knowledge, e x p e r i e n c e ,  While  that those  another.  regressive vision  relevance.  own  physical  t a s k s c h a r a c t e r i z e a d u l t development  & Darkenwald,  from  their  (b) lower  i n d e p e n d e n c e and  of  outcomes and  to l i f e  observation  levels  of  pre-adults.  orientation  (d)  f r e e d o m and  for higher  over  motivation,  well  characteristics  are  full-time  learning,  While  framework,  tentative,  the  offers  t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r as  an  interacting  with  6  situations,  i t s "explicit  d i f f e r e n c e s between ultimately teaching in t h i s  purpose  i s to elucidate  a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n as l e a r n e r s and  t o s u g g e s t how t e a c h i n g  adults  should  differ  from  c h i l d r e n " ( 1 9 8 2 , p. 2 3 4 ) . The p r o b l e m f o r d e v e l o p m e n t study  i s to find  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h e x i s t among  a d u l t s and-how t h e y i n t e r a c t w i t h they  . . .  l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n which  engage.  RESEARCH I N ANDRAGOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS Andragogical the  adult  a s s u m p t i o n s h a v e become a p r e v a i l i n g v i e w o f  as a l e a r n e r  argued t h a t andragogy established doctrine in s u f f i c i e n t successful the  i n adult  research  values  educators.  emerged a n d a c q u i r e d  i n becoming  general  education  to justify  because  without being  grounded  position.  i n t o the mainstream  i t embodies  (1984)  the s t a t u s of  i t s dominant  incorporated  Jarvis  o f s o c i e t y were c o m p a t i b l e w i t h  remains s i g n i f i c a n t adult  f o r many a d u l t  I t was because  i t , and i t  many o f t h e i d e a l s o f  educators. Studies  of andragogical  a s s u m p t i o n s have t e n d e d t o f o c u s on  the  educator t o determine t h e degree t o which t h e assumptions  are  h e l d and used as a b a s i s  posed t h e q u e s t i o n , pre-adults  forpractice.  "Do t e a c h e r s  teach  Beder and Darkenwald  adults differently  from  a n d , i f s o , what a r e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a n d what  f a c t o r s determine t h e i r magnitude?" concluded that  teachers  most o f t h e v a r i a n c e  do t e a c h  ( 1 9 8 2 , p. 1 4 2 ) . I t was  adults differently  i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the teachers'  and that perceptions  7 of  learning-related differences.  teaching  behaviors  teachers, teachers and  derived  from e x t e n s i v e  g e n e r a l l y supports  andragogical  use i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e .  inferences  that classroom  f u n c t i o n of student teachers  perceived  self-directed  The s t u d y ,  interviews  with  assumptions as f a c t o r s  The d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t l a r g e ,  practice differs  age were n o t s u p p o r t e d . students  w i t h measures of  s h a r p l y as a  H o w e v e r , when  t o be more m o t i v a t e d ,  s e r i o u s , and  (more a d u l t - l i k e ? ) t h e y were more r e s p o n s i v e  and  learner-centered. In a n o t h e r  study  using  t h e same d a t a , D a r k e n w a l d  (1982)  sought t o determine i f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s e x h i b i t e d a m e a n i n g f u l underlying  structure.  Principal  c o m p o n e n t s a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d two  f a c t o r s , R e s p o n s i v e n e s s and C o n t r o l , which resemble centered  and t e a c h e r - c e n t e r e d  pedagogical  formulation.  concepts i n the andragogical/  Darkenwald p o i n t s out the s i m i l a r i t y  of t h o s e f a c t o r s w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s ,  progressivism  t r a d i t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h h a v e been d e m o n s t r a t e d teachers Jones,  of younger students  1982).  This  and  i n s t u d i e s of  ( e . g . Adevere-Boamah, D e l a y , &  observation  such o r i e n t a t i o n s d i f f e r e n t i a t e students  learner-  c a s t s d o u b t on c o n c l u s i o n s teachers  of a d u l t and p r e - a d u l t  s i n c e t h e y c a n be f o u n d i n t e a c h e r s  across  age g r o u p s .  T e a c h e r s o f a d u l t s do n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t a n d r a g o g i c a l of a d u l t s . had  Kitchen  views  (1972) f o u n d t h a t e v e n i n g c o l l e g e f a c u l t y  a l e s s f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t students  their  that  i d e a l concept of the c o l l e g e  report  toward  student.  Beder and Darkenwald d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s both a d u l t s and p r e - a d u l t s ,  than  who  teach  some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g  b e h a v i o r when t h e y p e r c e i v e The be  i n the student  characteristics usually attributed to adults more i m p o r t a n t t h a n a d u l t / p r e - a d u l t  teaching  i n educational  to d i s t i n g u i s h a d u l t with  status  groups.  were f o u n d t o  i n reported  differences.  Differences  o r i e n t a t i o n a l s o have been  e d u c a t o r s f r o m one a n o t h e r  Though s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  each  were f o u n d b e t w e e n  means f o r t h e two o r i e n t a t i o n s , Holmes s u g g e s t e d  andragogical  that  a n d p e d a g o g i c a l c o n c e p t s were b e s t e x p r e s s e d a s  e x t r e m e s on a c o n t i n u u m . education,  found  ( H o l m e s , 1980)  50% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n h i s s t u d y e x p r e s s i n g  orientation. the  differences  Other f a c t o r s , such as purpose of.  n a t u r e of l e a r n e r s ,  t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , and  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e d u c a t o r t o l e a r n e r , may g e n e r a t e a p e c u l i a r b l e n d of a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n e i t h e r o r i e n t a t i o n . significant  associations  orientations  between e d u c a t i o n a l  (FIRO-B) s u g g e s t i n g t h a t  exist within a larger personal  Citing  toward  learners.  several  studies  his  i t follows  framework.  andragogical  which support the p r o p o s i t i o n  t o our b e l i e f s .  that  prophecy,  that  Purkey  factors i n determining h i s  i n the classroom"  that  " I f t h i s assumption i s  the t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f s about himself  students are c r u c i a l  effectiveness  interpersonal  assumption of t h e theory of s e l f - c o n c e p t ,  we b e h a v e a c c o r d i n g true,  found  o r i e n t a t i o n may  or i n t e r p e r s o n a l  t e a c h e r b e l i e f s can serve as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g s t a t e d as a b a s i c  and  teaching  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t e a c h e r may d e t e r m i n e orientation  Holmes  ( 1 9 7 7 , p. 1 5 1 ) .  and  9  RESEARCH STREAMS IN GENERAL Evolving  r e s e a r c h streams  i n t h e e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n and  college students offer p o t e n t i a l problem  posed f o r t h i s  teacher,  study.  EDUCATION  insight  i n t o t h e n a t u r e of the  Traditionally  i n or out of t h e c l a s s r o o m  setting,  f o c u s e d on t h e there i s increasing  s t u d y of s t u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n , and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r factors  r e l a t i o n s h i p as  i n the educational process.  Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s and Classroom  Observation  Studies  O v e r a p e r i o d o f d e c a d e s , r e s e a r c h e r s have a t t e m p t e d determine  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e h a v i o r s t h a t make  effective.  There i s s u b s t a n t i a l agreement t h a t those  have p r o v i d e d l i m i t e d disappointing  results.  Some r e v i e w e r s h a v e  results to methodological  others to the reductionist  to  teachers efforts  attributed  or conceptual  problems,  p a r a d i g m u s e d i n most o f t h e s t u d i e s .  On a more o p t i m i s t i c  n o t e , Gage (1978) a n d G l a s s , McGaw, a n d  Smith  u s i n g a n a l y t i c and s t a t i s t i c a l  to  (1981) suggest  p r o d u c e t h e more p o s i t i v e  reviewed certainty  studies really  represent.  they b e l i e v e the  "The p a t h t o i n c r e a s i n g  becomes n o t t h e s i n g l e e x c e l l e n t  nonetheless findings  f i n d i n g s which  approaches  study, which i s  weak i n one o r more r e s p e c t s , b u t t h e c o n v e r g e n c e o f  f r o m many s t u d i e s , w h i c h  a r e a l s o weak b u t i n many  10  different and  ways"  (Gage, 1978,  associates "carefully  p.  sifted"  s e v e r a l h u n d r e d v a r i a b l e s and third  Using  detailed  developed  g r a d e t e a c h e r s of r e a d i n g  maximize  35).  that approach, information for  a s e t of  inferences for  (and p e r h a p s m a t h e m a t i c s ) t o  achievement.  While  there are o p t i m i s t i c  effectiveness'  stream  s u p p o r t e r s of t h e  'teacher  of r e s e a r c h , t h e r e a l s o a r e d e t r a c t o r s .  " D e s p i t e t h o u s a n d s of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , b o o k s , and there  is still  is!"  (Brophy Doyle  little  & Evertson,  1976,  p.  4).  (1978) c r i t i c i z e d the p r o c e s s - p r o d u c t  arguable assumption  that c a u s a l i n f l u e n c e always  teacher to student. framework tends collective  classroom  According to Doyle,  t o be  individualistic  settings.  c o n t e x t s and  concern  events.  articles,  o r no a g r e e m e n t a b o u t what good t e a c h i n g  t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s e a r c h as t o o n a r r o w and  the  He  f o r how  Doyle  the  b a s e d on flows  while classrooms  t e a c h e r s and  proposed  p a r a d i g m of  broadening  the framework  For example, ' a t t e n d i n g ' i s a  around,  g e s t u r e more, a r e e f f e c t i v e .  a s s e r t s t h a t many t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s may  may  evoke d i f f e r e n t  mediating  response  A substantial  By  t e a c h e r s who  result  which  responses.  b r i n g s about  move He  i n t h e same  t h e same t o k e n , t h e same t e a c h e r  student  from  account  c o u l d e x p l a i n why  responses.  are  s t u d e n t s make s e n s e of  m e d i a t i o n a l process which are e n t h u s i a s t i c ,  from  classroom  paradigm to take i n t o  m e d i a t i n g , or student p r o c e s s e s .  the  conceptual  recommended r e s e a r c h on  'teacher process-product'  student  Gage  behavior  I t i s the s t u d e n t ' s  own  learning.  body o f t h e r e s e a r c h on  teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s  11 evolved  from development  techniques 1970).  (Bales,  of I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s A n a l y s i s  1 9 5 0 ) , and  This approach  Interaction Analysis  t o s t u d i e s of c l a s s r o o m  i n v o l v e s use o f an o b s e r v a t i o n a l  (Flanders,  interactions  system t o reduce t h e s t r e a m of  classroom behavior to small-scale, predetermined units f o r computation. slightly  V a r i o u s systems  different  & Boyer,  u n i t s of a n a l y s i s ,  p r e d o m i n a n t l y on one on a l i m i t e d  (Simon  1974)  cover  b u t most f o c u s  s i d e of the i n t e r a c t i o n ,  t h e t e a c h e r , and  sample of c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r , ' t e a c h e r - t a l k '  or  overt behavior. Delamont  (1976) a t t r i b u t e d  research to over-emphasis and t h e r e s t r i c t e d  failure  o f much e d u c a t i o n a l  on t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i o n  range of t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e t o o l i m i t e d  t a p the c o m p l e x i t y of the c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n . v a r i a b l e s may counterparts.  analysis,  be more t h e n t h e sum An a d d i t i o n a l  flaw  High-inference  of t h e i r l o w - i n f e r e n c e i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has  s u g g e s t e d a s a f o c u s on t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r t o w a r d t h e e n t i r e rather  than toward  individual  G e t z e l s and T h e l e n unique s o c i a l  system  s t u d e n t s ( B r o p h y & Good,  i n which there i s c o n f l i c t  as r e q u i r e m e n t s of the i n s t i t u t i o n  or m i n i m i z e d .  maximized, idiographic  In a nomothethic  person minimized. style.  class  1974).  The  between  i n the form of learner  style,  used t o determine which i s maximized.  style,  role are  role i s  opposite i s true  In a t r a n s a c t i o n a l  role-  Leadership styles  e x p e c t a t i o n s or r e q u i r e m e n t s of the i n d i v i d u a l maximized  been  (1960) d e s c r i b e d t h e c l a s s r o o m a s a  e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s . shift  to  i n an  the s i t u a t i o n i s  Thelen stated  that  12 " c l a s s r o o m s a r e m i c r o s o c i e t i e s w h i c h have s a l i e n t and distinctive  t e n d e n c i e s of t h e ' l a r g e r s o c i e t y ' " ( 1 9 8 1 ,  Attribute-Treatment Cronbach  (cited  i n Biggs,  T r e a t m e n t I n t e r a c t i o n model 'treatments' students.  Interaction  1976) p r o p o s e d t h e A t t r i b u t e -  ( A T I ) b a s e d on t h e i d e a  may be d i f f e r e n t l y  disappointing  that  e f f e c t i v e f o r sub-groups of  A s u b s t a n t i a l body o f r e s e a r c h  t h i s model.  p. 1 0 0 ) .  h a s been done  using  R e v i e w s o f ATI s t u d i e s have d e m o n s t r a t e d r e s u l t s and, a c c o r d i n g  to Biggs,  the studies  t o h a v e m i s s e d C r o n b a c h ' s most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t , t h a t  seem  each  treatment w i l l c a l l out d i f f e r e n t person c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w , C r o n b a c h a n d Snow ( 1 9 7 7 ) f o u n d few demonstrated i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . disappointing  r e s u l t s , Cronbach  predominant experimental revealed  the  sake of h o l d i n g  two d e c a d e s o f  (1975) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e  strategy  i n t e r a c t i o n s which e x i s t .  results to a consistent  Assessing  has c o n c e a l e d r a t h e r  than  He a t t r i b u t e d some o f t h o s e  w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t Type I I e r r o r s f o r  Type I e r r o r s  i n check.  The c o s t  h a s been  r e p e a t e d f i n d i n g s o f 'no s i g n i f i c a n c e . ' Hunt research  (1975a) a t t r i b u t e d t h e d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o an e x c e s s i v e l y  environment i n t e r a c t i o n . criterion  to define  r e s u l t s o f ATI  restrictive definition Acceptance of a s p e c i f i c  of personstatistical  an ATI h a s l i m i t e d i t s u s e f u l n e s s  person-environment concept. paradigm has t r i v i a l i z e d  According  as a  t o H u n t , u s e o f t h e ATI  person-environment i n t e r a c t i o n i n t o a  13 form of s t a t i s t i c a l it  i s not that  infinitum.  have c o n t i n u e d strategy detect  Increasingly  but r a t h e r  to yield disappointing  interactions.  1950 h a s o n l y  The f a i l u r e  simpler  The  there ones  designs experimental  l i m i t e d the a b i l i t y to  t o demonstrate  significant  and t r e a t m e n t , or p e r s o n and  i n a broader context,  than t h e o r e t i c a l flaw  results.  (1975),  that  sophisticated statistical  i n t e r a c t i o n s between a p t i t u d e  rather  t o Cronbach  More c o m p l e x i n t e r a c t i o n s h i d e  dominant s i n c e  situation  According  i n t e r a c t i o n s do n o t o c c u r ,  a r e many o f them. ad  interaction.  may be due t o  (Magoon,  methodological  1977).  C o n s t r u c t i v i sm Magoon ( 1 9 7 7 ) o u t l i n e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r u s e o f a constructivist  theme i n e d u c a t i o n a l  research.  d o u b t s w h i c h have been r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g he  proposed a reverse  in priority  traditional  a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i v i s t a p p r o a c h were "Subjects"  approaches,  from b u i l d i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  to c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o p a r t i c u l a r cases f i r s t .  1.  B a s e d on s e r i o u s  are considered  Basic identified:  k n o w i n g b e i n g s who u s e  k n o w l e d g e t o i n t e r p r e t a c t i o n s , a n d who f o r m c o m p l e x of  sets  meanings. 2.  subjects 3. organize  Control  of behavior r e s i d e s  although i t i s constrained  initially by s o c i a l  within the norms.  Human b e i n g s h a v e h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d c a p a c i t i e s t o complexity,  to attend  t o meanings r a t h e r  than  14 surface  e l e m e n t s , and  to reconstruct  social  p r i m e phenomena f o r e d u c a t i o n a l  research  basic  highly  On  l e v e l s , s o p h i s t i c a t e d and  a s i m i l a r theme, D r i v e r  g r o w i n g body of  and  l i t e r a t u r e using  constructed their  found to h o l d  " s t u d e n t as  different i n how  basic  science  those concepts.  perspective.  (1981)  c o n c e p t i o n s of ability  subject  (1978) found t h a t  m a t t e r were d i r e c t l y  t o comprehend i t .  a b o u t m a k i n g m e a n i n g was  u s e d by  i d e n t i f i e d an 1.  4.  texts  i s an  or  P r i o r knowledge p l a y s  pre-  s t u d e n t s went  outcome. (1983)  s t r a t e g i e s are  in  learned  from these n a t u r a l  A c a d e m i c work r e q u i r e s  of  constructive information.  a significant role in  procedures for solving routine  Age  active  rehearsal  i n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , and  Solution  k n o w l e d g e and 5.  how  academic t a s k s , Doyle  merely reception  through experience; invent  a similar  r e l a t e d to t h e i r  r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g  C o m p r e h e n s i o n of  construction, 3.  students  e m e r g i n g c o n s t r u c t i v i s t theme:  p r o c e s s , not 2.  On  students  In both i n s t a n c e s ,  I n a summary o f work on  influence  identified  strategy  t h e y went a b o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g m a t e r i a l . Marton  scientist"  concepts which  Saljo  approaches i n l e a r n i n g  theme, D a h l g r e n and  a  c e r t a i n " t h e o r i e s - i n - a c t i o n , " or  meanings, regarding  l e a r n i n g of  a t t h e i r most  (1983) r e v i e w e d  metaphor which stems from a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t Students are  are,  The  organized.  Erikson  the  roles.  both  learning. "naturally"  strategies  ability  of  the  students  problems. domain-specific  complex s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . and  learner  that  influence  15 subjective complexity Not and  o n l y do  student t h a t how  itself.  are  view t h e i r not  taught.  content,  of r e s e a r c h  Manion  (1981)  work a s o d i o u s  i s of more i m p o r t a n c e t o them  or e n j o y a b l e ,  and  o f t h e work but  on  concluded  Woods (1976) f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s  so much t h e n a t u r e  teacher  to  c o n s t r u c t meanings  In a review  of s c h o o l , Cohen and  c h i l d r e n are taught  what t h e y  than  could  t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e relations with  the  concerned.  Good has  a l s o p e r c e i v e and  school experience  perceptions  tasks.  c o n s t r u c t meanings r e l a t e d  the academic t a s k , they  about the  was  students  of academic  (1983) r e p o r t e d t h a t c l a s s r o o m  shown d i s t i n c t  with individual v a r i a t i o n s are  observational  d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e ways t e a c h e r s  students  but  little  i n t e r p r e t e d by  research  interact  i s known a b o u t how  such  students.  Student-Teacher I n t e r a c t i o n An  i n c r e a s i n g f o c u s can  i n v o l v e s an Medley  i n t e r a c t i v e process  (forward  the past  two  more a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e e f f e c t to the  f o u n d on  learning context  between s t u d e n t  i n Ober, B e n t l e y , & M i l l e r ,  from s t u d i e s over  specific  be  teacher,  1971)  d e c a d e s , i t has  t h e p u p i l , and  the  small  (p. x i ) .  climate.  behavior  their  that and is  "If  number i s  Ober e t . a l p r o p o s e d a s y s t e m o f  observation which i n c o r p o r a t e d student  socio-emotional  asserted  situation.  universally e f f e c t i v e behaviors,  classsroom  teacher.  become more  of a g i v e n t e a c h e r  t h e r e a r e any indeed"  and  which  Delamont  behavior  and  (1976) a r g u e d t h a t complex  16 individual  e f f e c t s of t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l s t y l e c a n n o t  by o r t h o d o x  r e s e a r c h means, and  be  tapped  t h a t methods a r e n e e d e d  which  a l l o w c a t e g o r i e s t o emerge d u r i n g r e s e a r c h . C e n t r a and and  found  P o t t e r (1980) r e v i e w e d  inconsistent  s c h o o l s and  classrooms  results,  w i t h more v a r i a t i o n  t h a n b e t w e e n them.  more i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed a b o u t how b e h a v i o r and learning  i s something  c h i l d r e n do.  a review  t o them"  of r e s e a r c h on  They c o n c l u d e d  classroom processes, understanding of  student  complex,  as s t u d e n t  differences,  (c) c l i m a t e i s  body c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  improve u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and  or  (e)  prediction  behavior. o b s e r v a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m  t h a t the b e h a v i o r of i n d i v i d u a l  different  (1982)  called  (d) c l i m a t e a f f e c t s o u t c o m e s , and  climate will  Using d i r e c t found  something  t o e a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n , (b) s u c h  such dimensions  which  school c l i m a t e , Anderson  w h i l e d i s c e r n a b l e , a r e e l u s i v e and i n f l u e n c e d by  something  analysis,  287).  r e p o r t e d a g r e e m e n t t h a t (a) s c h o o l s p o s s e s s c l i m a t e , unique  that  teacher  "In the f i n a l  . .,not  (p.  within  schools affect  interaction with students.  s c h o o l s o r t e a c h e r s do In  "between s c h o o l " s t u d i e s  s i t u a t i o n s and  settings,  Furlong  s t u d e n t s changes  with different  teachers.  within  "Classroom  s i t u a t i o n s c h a n g e i n t h e m e a n i n g t h e y have f o r p u p i l s a n d , t h e y c h a n g e , so w i l l  t h e p u p i l s a s s e s s m e n t o f how  as  t o behave"  (1976). The of  teacher  teacher  well  i s an  important  f a c t o r as w e l l .  i n t e g r a t i o n , B r o p h y and  integrated (self-controlled)  Citing  Good (1974) o b s e r v e d  studies that  t e a c h e r s were e f f e c t i v e f o r  17 all  students  (defensive)  while  teachers  "strivers." students  weakly  integrated  ( f e a r f u l ) or turbulent  were e f f e c t i v e f o r s t u d e n t s  who were  They c o n c l u d e d t h a t h i g h l y a c h i e v e m e n t  do w e l l e v e n w i t h  expectation  ineffective  teachers.  motivated  Teacher  h a s been d e m o n s t r a t e d t o a f f e c t a c h i e v e m e n t .  (1979) r e v i e w e d r e s e a r c h support that teacher invariably.  on p y g m a l i a n e f f e c t a n d f o u n d  expectations  Cooper  solid  do a f f e c t a c h i e v e m e n t b u t .not  He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s i s p r o b a b l y  cyclic  between a c h i e v e m e n t and e x p e c t a t i o n s .  STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND I T S S I G N I F I C A N C E TO ADULT EDUCATION The  starting point  observation  that andragogical  practitioners, practice.  f o r i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o b l e m was t h e a s s u m p t i o n s were t r e a t e d by many  including the researcher,  That i s , b e h a v i o r s  which flow  as p r e s c r i p t i v e f o r from these  assumptions  c o n s t i t u t e t h e " r i g h t way" t o p r a c t i c e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . extent  t o w h i c h t h a t may be t r u e h a s n o t been e m p i r i c a l l y  demonstrated.  Attempts t o develop a study  demonstration l e d to the r e a l i z a t i o n i d e a l i z e d values adults. the  Still  of adulthood  holding  like,  to provide  that  t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s may be  r a t h e r than d e s c r i p t i o n s of  the values  embodied i n t h e a s s u m p t i o n s ,  inquiry l e d t o the empirical question:  really  The  a n d how do t h e y e x p e r i e n c e  What a r e a d u l t s  s i t u a t i o n s i n which  they  learn? It  i s a r g u e d t h a t a d u l t s a r e n o t a homogeneous mass, b u t  18 e x h i b i t a wide range of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which v a r y . research  f i n d i n g s have b a r e l y  potential they  begun t o d e m o n s t r a t e what  those  v a r i a t i o n s m i g h t be a n d e v e n l e s s i s known a b o u t how  influence the adult  studies  Reported  as a l e a r n e r .  related to the adult  F o r t h e most  part,  l e a r n e r have been a t h e o r e t i c a l a n d  n o n - c u m u l a t i v e so t h a t a s o l i d  base of r e s e a r c h  on t h i s  phenomenon d o e s n o t e x i s t . There i s need f o r e x p l o r a t o r y  study and t h e o r e t i c a l  development as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t  f o r understanding  l e a r n e r s , a n d how t h e y p e r c e i v e  and r e l a t e t o l e a r n i n g  situations. basis its  I f s u c h a c o n t r i b u t i o n were made a n d u s e d a s a  f o r f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l study t o v e r i f y ,  f i n d i n g s , the f i e l d  a fuller  adult  of a d u l t  education  expand o r modify  w o u l d be e n r i c h e d  by  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i t s c l i e n t s .  SUMMARY The  n a t u r e o f a d u l t s a n d a d u l t h o o d h a s been d e f i n e d  v a r i e t y o f ways. differ adult has  The i d e a  that adults continue  i n i m p o r t a n t ways f r o m one a n o t h e r educator.  Research i n teacher  d e m o n s t r a t e d an a n d r a g o g i c a l  basis  for their  practice.  r e s u l t s i n search  i s of i n t e r e s t t o the adults  o r i e n t a t i o n h e l d by many a s a  how t h o s e a s s u m p t i o n s r e l a t e d i r e c t l y  disappointing  t o develop and  assumptions about  No r e s e a r c h  Research streams i n general  in a  was f o u n d w h i c h to the adult  education f o r teacher  methods r e l a t e d t o e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g .  tested  learner.  have d e m o n s t r a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or  A t t r i b u t e Treatment  19 I n t e r a c t i o n s f o r a g g r e g a t e subgroups of l e a r n e r s has a l s o l e d t o little  t h a t c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d as c o n c l u s i o n s .  s t r a i n s of e d u c a t i o n a l Interactionist adult  explored  b a s e d on P e r s o n a l  t h e o r i e s o f f e r i n s i g h t s w h i c h may  education The  research  R e l a t i v e l y newer  research  Construct  be u s e f u l i n  study. pr-oblem i d e n t i f i e d  i n C h a p t e r s Two  f o r study  and T h r e e w i t h  t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  i s further  the development  perspectives  and  of  respectively.  20  CHAPTER  TWO  DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AN INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE  The involves important  r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m , a s i t was d e v e l o p e d the perspective  that adults  vary  i n ways t h a t a r e  i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of l e a r n i n g  assumed t h a t  i n C h a p t e r One,  situations.  s i t u a t i o n s a l s o v a r y , and a r e c i p r o c a l  between t h e l e a r n e r  and t h e l e a r n i n g  It is  influence  s i t u a t i o n occurs.  Given  those o b s e r v a t i o n s and a s s u m p t i o n s , i n t e r a c t i o n i s m ,  a s an a r e a  of  science  t h e o r e t i c a l formulation  perspectives, proposed  f r o m a number o f s o c i a l  offers a useful  underlying  framework f o r t h e  study.  INTERACTIONISM Personality models: the t r a i t interactionism  p s y c h o l o g y h a s been s u m m a r i z e d i n f o u r  model, psychodynamic model, s i t u a t i o n i s m , and  (Endler  & Magnusson, 1976).  psychodynamic models, behavior dispositions within the  external  main  the person.  In t r a i t and  i s d e t e r m i n e d by l a t e n t ,  stable  S i t u a t i o n i s t s regard s t i m u l i i n  e n v i r o n m e n t t o be d e t e r m i n a n t s o f b e h a v i o r .  According to interactionism,  behavior  i s a r e s u l t of a  c o n t i n u o u s r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r p l a y between t h e p e r s o n and t h e  21 situation  w h i c h he e n c o u n t e r s .  In i n t e r a c t i o n i s m , a prime c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e o b j e c t i v e  " e x t e r n a l w o r l d " and t h e  subjective  " i n t e r n a l w o r l d " a s t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s and D a t a f o r a c t u a l and p e r c e i v e d e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e i n c l u d e b o t h p h y s i c a l and be a n a l y z e d a t d i f f e r e n t  social  i s made  reacts to  it.  complementary,  e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , and  l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i t y ,  that  can  i s , micro  and macro e n v i r o n m e n t s c a n be d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d  (Endler,  1982). The  interactionist  translation  of h i s e a r l i e r  "from a c e r t a i n individual  p e r s p e c t i v e has a l o n g h i s t o r y . w r i t i n g s , K u r t Lewin a s s e r t e d  constellation  e n v i r o n m e n t o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e  characteristics alone.  Lewin  situation  (psychological  start  situation  situation)  i n the concept  "An a n a l y s i s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s must situation.  a n a l y s i s h e n c e p r e s u p p o s e s an a d e q u a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n dynamic terms of t h e t o t a l  s i t u a t i o n a s i t s most i m p o r t a n t t a s k " acknowledged situation  that  i n c l u d e d t h e meaning of t h e  from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the t o t a l  presentation  and  t o the dicotomous view  b e h a v i o r must be d e t e r m i n e d by e i t h e r p e r s o n o r  of e n v i r o n m e n t .  an  behavior. . . B=f(PE)"  B e h a v i o r as a f u n c t i o n o f b o t h p e r s o n  to the person  that  -- c o m p r i s i n g a s i t u a t i o n and  -- t h e r e r e s u l t s a c e r t a i n  ( 1 9 3 5 , p. 7 3 ) .  In a  the dynamic,  reciprocal  S u c h an and  psychological  ( 1 9 3 5 , p. 7 3 ) .  He  further  n a t u r e of t h e p e r s o n -  interaction.  I n an e x t e n s i o n o f L e w i n ' s (1976) p r e s e n t e d a f o r m u l a t i o n  field  t h e o r y , West and  i n which personal  Foster  characteristics  22  were more f u l l y behavior  is a function  stimulation, class  specified.  of  and  (p.  t h r o u g h a f r a m e of  West and  affects,  Foster,  Sells the  stimuli,  79).  The  external  v a l u e s , n e e d s , and  not  in behavior  of  (1981) d e s c r i b e t h e  of  the  interests.  interactive  According  best viewed  to  as  T h i s model environmental  phenomena, James  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  and  represent personal  filtering,  individual  or  individuals.  "knows" i s a  abstractions,  as  proximal  those e n v i r o n m e n t s to the  e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t an  v a r i o u s f o r m s of  mediated  construct, psychological climate,  cognitive  a c q u i r e d m e a n i n g s of  are  concepts,  b o t h p e r s o n and  environments, expressed i n terms that  effect,  stimuli  that  determination.  another approach to  individuals'  specific  person for  fixed attributes.  influence  a  internal  the  t h e s e s i x components are  acknowledges the  In  external  of  reference which includes  continuous variables,  factors  probability  b e h a v i o r a l c a p a c i t y of  behavior"  structures,  of  "The  In  product  generalizations  and  interpretations. Kelly's the  ( 1 9 5 5 ) t h e o r y of  personal constructs posits  most f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of  c a p a c i t y to construe s i t u a t i o n s ,  to  environment.  free  situation, (Nystedt,  Because people are  i t can 1981).  be  c o n s t r u e d by  Interaction  human b e i n g s i s  r e p r e s e n t the  each i n d i f f e r e n t  Not  o n l y do  b e h a v i o r of  the  p e r s o n i s an  the  p e r r o n , but  the  events a f f e c t active  external  ways  p e r s o n and  environment i s r e c i p r o c a l .  their  external  to c o n s t r u e the  between the  that  the  agent  who  23 influences environmental events (Endler p.  & Magnusson,  1976,  13). Assumptions  complimentary  underlying  a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t approach  are  to interactionism, providing p o t e n t i a l  e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e manner i n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l m i g h t with  the environment.  "knowing  b e i n g s " who  m e a n i n g s and who  interact  Magoon (1977) a s s e r t s t h a t p e r s o n s a r e use t h e i r  knowledge  t o form complex  engage i n p u r p o s i v e b e h a v i o r b a s e d on  s e t s of  those  meanings. Acknowledgment of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t c o n s t r u c t identified within adult the  first  of seven major  occurs i n a s p e c i f i c that  fact"  unique.  education l i t e r a t u r e . a s s u m p t i o n s , "Any  s i t u a t i o n and  ( 1 9 7 2 , p. 3 2 ) .  Houle  be  stated,  e p i s o d e of  as  learning  i s profoundly influenced  by  For each p e r s o n , every a c t i v i t y i s  F o r e v e r y s i t u a t i o n , e a c h p e r s o n who  perceives  can  shares i n i t ,  i t uniquely.  Mezirow  recommended " i n d u c t i v e l y f o r m e d  generalizations  w i t h w h i c h e d u c a t o r s c a n u n d e r s t a n d and p r e d i c t b e h a v i o r o f adults the  in educational  individual actively assigning  critical  mediating process.  educational the  s i t u a t i o n s " ( 1 9 7 1 , p.  136).  He  identified  meaning t o t h e s i t u a t i o n as a  Boyle defined  sphere as b e i n g m u t u a l ; t h a t  "reality  i n the  i s , i t neither  lies in  l e a r n e r a l o n e nor i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment a l o n e "  ( 1 9 8 1 , p. 2 3 ) .  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e d u c a t o r and  learner i s  v i e w e d as r e c i p r o c a l . I n s t u d i e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d r o p o u t b e h a v i o r , B o s h i e r (1973) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e phenomena stem  f r o m an i n t e r a c t i o n  between i n t e r n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l variables.  and  external  Rubenson a l s o d e s c r i b e d  s t u d i e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . which i n t u r n  an  i n t e r a c t i v e process in  " A t t i t u d e toward a d u l t  influences p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult  d e p e n d e n t upon a p e r s o n ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l during  previous  situation"  ( 1 9 7 5 , p.  b a s e d on  research and  how  s e e n a s an  interactionist  explanatory  and  i n f l u e n c e d by  t h e o r i e s nor one  another  person  (the  account f o r the the  same  current  for this  "How  do  study  the  adults  vary,  the  situation in  exists.  learner) with  situational  account for v a r i e d behavior across behavior  is  s i t u a t i o n t h e o r i e s o f f e r promise  for understanding consistent  propose that  his  potential for  (the t e a c h e r ) w i t h i n a  T h e o r i e s w h i c h a c k n o w l e d g e no useful  —  . . . events  l e a r n e r and  which a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n probably  f o r e x p l a i n i n g how  --  r e l a t e to l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s " i s  i n t e r a c t i o n between the  trait  education  perspective  That i s , the q u e s t i o n  they perceive  Neither  and  education  276).  i t s perceived  problem. do  field,  s t a g e s of h i s l i f e - c y c l e ,  S e l e c t i o n o f an was  environmental  given  is  situation.  i n f l u e n c e may  r e s p o n s e s , but situations.  is situationally  traits  do  be not  Theories  determined f a i l  which  to  v a r i e d r e s p o n s e of d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n  situation.  25  S e l e c t i o n of a Model f o r Study of Adult  Learner/Situation  Interactionism,  which p o s t u l a t e s  between p e r s o n and s i t u a t i o n , learner/situation  Interaction a reciprocal  influence  o f f e r s p o t e n t i a l f o r exploring the  i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e r e s p e c t i v e  r o l e s played  by  each. For  purposes of t h i s 1.  The a d u l t  perspective: static, 2. limited are  s t u d y , t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made:  learner  adulthood  f o r each  i n a developmental  i s seen as e v o l v i n g ,  rather  than  individual.,  Andragogical to adult  i s considered  assumptions represent  y e a r s b u t more f r e q u e n t l y  p o t e n t i a l l y important  v a r i a b l e s , not found t h e r e , and  factors in adults'  responses t o  learning situations. 3.  Adults  e x h i b i t an unknown v a r i e t y a n d r a n g e o f  a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which could their  be i m p o r t a n t i n  response t o l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . 4.  S i t u a t i o n s i n which a d u l t s  complex i n themselves and i n c l u d e teaching  l e a r n a r e v a r i e d and  teacher,  content,  m e t h o d s , a n d s e t t i n g a s a minimum s e t o f  variables. 5.  E a c h l e a r n e r makes h i s / h e r  situation. is  own m e a n i n g o f t h e  Some o f t h a t m e a n i n g i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c , a n d some  i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e or consensual with other  learners.  26 6.  A learner's  response to a s i t u a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y  r e l a t e d t o t h e m e a n i n g s/he makes o f i t . The  s e l e c t i o n of a model f o r use i n t h i s  account these c r i t e r i a : for  (a) t h a t  study took  t h e model p r o v i d e  into  a framework  a n a l y s i s of a t t r i b u t e s w i t h i n the l e a r n e r as w e l l as  situational  f a c t o r s which might c o n t r i b u t e  response w i t h i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n ,  to the learner's  (b) t h a t  i t provide  a  framework f o r a n a l y s i s of t h e i n t e r f a c e between t h e l e a r n e r and the  learning situation,  (c) that  parsimony and t h e c o m p l e x i t y s i t u a t i o n , a n d (d) t h a t  i t r e f l e c t a balance  between  of t h e l e a r n e r and t h e l e a r n i n g  i t not p r e - s p e c i f y  for  the learner  for  their  his  Behavior-Person-Environment paradigm which a l s o served  screening  or f o r the s i t u a t i o n ,  the s a l i e n t v a r i a b l e s  study.  Hunt  criteria.  but p r o v i d e  (1975b) s p e c i f i e d f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e : t h a t  interactive,  that  i t should  view the person  perspective,  that  i t should  consider  interaction  i t should  be  i n developmental  i t should  be p o s s i b l e  implications.  B a s e d on t h o s e c r i t e r i a ,  studying  as  person-environment  i n r e c i p r o c a l terms, and t h a t  to generate p r a c t i c a l  (Nystedt,  a framework  the Person-Situation  P r o c e s s Model  1981) was s e l e c t e d a s a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k f o r the adult  learner/educator  interaction.  Relationships  between e l e m e n t s or u n i t s of t h e model, as w e l l as i t s boundaries, provide  a means t o o r g a n i z e  information  about the  p e r s o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n , a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n them. The  model l e n d s  itself  interacting with a specific  t o a n a l y s i s o f an i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r s i t u a t i o n a n d c a n be a d a p t e d t o  e x p l o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f an  "average" or aggregate  w i t h i n a s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t or t y p e . theoretically  it  The  f r a m e w o r k , " a s d e f i n e d by D e n z i n  observed, w h i l e the l a t t e r  are  observed  (1978).  from a  i n the  i t and  sensitizing i t will  the  Person S i t u a t i o n  the  s i t u a t i o n as  the  the meanings people a t t a c h t o i t  P r o c e s s Model  l e n s model  P r o c e s s Model  (cited  in Nystedt,  ( s e e F i g u r e 1)  1981),  distinguishes  i t i s , f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n a s p e r c e i v e d by  external  situation  s u b s t a n c e , q u a l i t y , and  relation.  Substance  Elements  be t h i n g s , p e o p l e , e v e n t s , p r o c e s s e s , r u l e s ,  of  so o n .  Quality  those elements.  covert, abstract. interaction causal  i t i s composed.  r e f e r s t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or The  q u a l i t i e s may  Relation  norms,  qualities  be o v e r t , c o n c r e t e o r  r e f e r s t o the n a t u r e of  b e t w e e n e l e m e n t s and c a n  relations.  of which  r e f e r s t o the  i t i s and t h e e l e m e n t s  and  the  i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g  s i t u a t i o n as may  be  field.  B a s e d on B r u n s w i k ' s  The  He  i s not o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d u n t i l  Person S i t u a t i o n  person.  elements.  f o r m e r d e f i n e s a c o n c e p t by s t a t i n g how  processes representing  does  P r o c e s s M o d e l c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d an o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d c o n c e p t one.  or  i n a g i v e n i n t e r a c t i o n , nor  r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h o s e  Person S i t u a t i o n  "sensitizing  interactionist  I t does not suggest which person  elements are s a l i e n t  impose a p a r t i c u l a r The  model i s  n e u t r a l e x c e p t as i t r e p r e s e n t s an  theoretical perspective. situation  The  learner  the  include s p a t i a l ,  time,  and  28  The  external situation  i salso described  Abstract  The  distal  structure  i n regard t o  Momentary  slates  situntiun:  T _>K_  Proximal Situation  Substance (Quality Relations  Perceptual-cognitive  structure:  Substance  Covert  Overt  Response  Response  Quality Relations  J F i g u r e I. p. 382)  Person  Situation  p r o x i m i t y t o the person. represents  Process  The p r o x i m a l  the part of the t o t a l  Model  ( N y s t e d t , 1981,  situation  situation  i n t h e model  t o which the person  pays a t t e n t i o n and i n c l u d e s a l l e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e person's responses.  T h i s means t h a t one p e r s o n ' s  s i t u a t i o n c a n be d i f f e r e n t  from a n o t h e r s ,  o b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d i s t a l derived  in  independent of  situation.  from t h e p e r s o n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s , p a s t  expectations  for the future.  proximal  It is  e x p e r i e n c e s , and  The c o n c e p t o f t i m e . i s i m p o r t a n t  t h e d e f i n i n g and r e d e f i n i n g of s i t u a t i o n s , and i s a f u n c t i o n  29  of how  the  The  person construes  e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n and  the p e r c e p t u a l - c o g n i t i v e momentary s t a t e s , and The  of t h e  the  situation.  t h u s i s d e p e n d e n t on  abstract  the  structure,  person's  abstract  It contains  relatively  f o r s e l e c t i o n of  a directive  on  the  long-term structure  circumstances. the  the  c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r making meaning from the of  situation  k n o w l e d g e of  e f f e c t on  way  the  life  stable, this  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  e s t a b l i s h e s a person's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  such,  system.  person's  c o n t i n u i t y under c h a n g i n g  s t r u c t u r e has  to  immediate  c a t e g o r i e s , r u l e s , and  Assumed t o be  As  external  the person  s t r u c t u r e r e f e r s t o the  m e a n i n g and  systems:  cognitive  both the  components of  or c o g n i t i v e u n i v e r s e .  expectations.  selector  s t r u c t u r e i s the  of t h o s e same f a c t o r s f r o m t h e  past, a t t i t u d e s , opinions,  The  four  input s e l e c t o r .  r e l a t i o n are  as w e l l as o t h e r  situation  i s composed o f  I t i s the meaning the p e r s o n a t t a c h e s  s i t u a t i o n and  The  individual interacting  immediate e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n .  s u b s t a n c e , q u a l i t y , and representations  an  s t r u c t u r e , the a b s t r a c t  perceptual-cognitive  representation  provides  situation.  person system r e p r e s e n t s  w i t h i n an  context  the  input  perceptual-  information.  It  perceiving  situations. Momentary s t a t e s r e f e r t o t r a n s i t o r y i n f l u e n c e s such emotions, m o t i v a t i o n , involvement.  i n t e n t i o n s , d e g r e e of  intensity  Momentary s t a t e s i n f l u e n c e i n p u t  perceptual-cognitive process,  and  ways o f p e r c e i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s .  as  of  s e l e c t i o n and  the  account for u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Nystedt acknowledged  that  30  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e momentary s t a t e and are  not  that  c l e a r . ' They may  influences  believes As  the  represent  perceptual  end  the diagram  meaning a t t a c h e d  illustrates,  t o the  perceptual-cognitive e l e m e n t s of  the  intellectual,  proximal  structure.  covert  on  a  structure  dimension  Nevertheless,  he  distinction. response i s a f u n c t i o n  of  s i t u a t i o n through  the  Not  Nystedt,  r e s p o n s e can  attitudinal,  points  process.  i t i s u s e f u l t o make t h e  abstract  identified be  by  assumed t o  include  p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses that are  d i r e c t l y measurable or measured; w h i l e  overt  responses  i n c l u d e o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r s as w e l l as m e a s u r e d  not  could  covert  responses.  Utility For  the  of  the Model f o r t h i s  proposed study, adult  i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s b e t w e e n an a s i t u a t i o n a l context. learner  p e r s o n , and the  e d u c a t o r and  an  adult  i s , each i n f l u e n c e s  t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n mediates the  as  an  learner  in  e d u c a t o r and the  the  other.  s i t u a t i o n i n a manner w h i c h i s u n i q u e t o  Each  the  person's response  Person S i t u a t i o n Process Model i s s u i t e d to study  s u c h a phenomenon. s u b s t a n c e of  by  i s defined  to  situation. The  can  education  I n t e r a c t i o n between the  i s r e c i p r o c a l , that  c o n s t r u e s the  Study  the  be a n a l y z e d the  by  each a c t o r ,  external  situation.  the  other  the  e d u c a t o r as p a r t e d u c a t o r , the  i s a part  Thus, a g i v e n  within a s i t u a t i o n a l context  l e a r n e r , the  i s construed  For  of  the  as  situation; of  the  interaction  i t is  l e a r n e r as p a r t  of  of  construed or as i t the  31 situat ion. The P e r s o n S i t u a t i o n P r o c e s s M o d e l p r o v i d e s  a framework f o r  o r g a n i z i n g m u l t i p l e s i t u a t i o n and p e r s o n v a r i a b l e s w h i c h be can  encountered  i n the study.  be d e s c r i b e d  e x p l o r a t i o n or  provide  a framework f o r o r g a n i z i n g  about t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s of i n t e r e s t ,  i t does not  p o s t u l a t e s or t h e o r i e s about t h e nature  situation.  for further  experimentation.  relationships.  an  R e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e e l e m e n t s  a n d p o s t u l a t e s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d  W h i l e t h e model p r o v i d e s information  could  The m o d e l i s g e n e r a l  This  relative  f o r any p e r s o n  theoretical neutrality  a d v a n t a g e f o r an e x p l o r a t o r y A selected research  report  their  i n any  i s considered  study. was s t u d i e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  d e g r e e of f i t w i t h t h e model and i t s u t i l i t y elements and a n a l y z i n g  of those  for organizing  i n t e r a c t i o n s (see Appendix A ).  The g o a l was t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n i s m w o u l d h a v e provided variables if  a meaningful construct i n the reviewed study.  A s e c o n d g o a l was t o d e t e r m i n e  t h e model s u g g e s t e d a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d  the understanding the  and framework f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e  o f t h e phenomena s t u d i e d .  f i n d i n g s of t h e r e v i e w e d study  adult  Finally,  enhance  how m i g h t  c o n t r i b u t e t o development of  l e a r n e r / s i t u a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n theory. Through t h a t p r o c e s s ,  the Person S i t u a t i o n P r o c e s s Model  was j u d g e d t o be u s e f u l f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s l i m i t a t i o n s were r e c o g n i z e d representation limits  i n i t s use.  study.  Several  For example,  o f t h e c o n c e p t s i n two d i m e n s i o n s f i x e d  i t s c a p a c i t y t o show i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s  time,  in print,  and t o  32 reflect  a c o n t i n u o u s l y changing  emotional of the  process  of i n t e r a c t i o n .  r e a c t i o n (covert response) to a p a r t i c u l a r  perception  s i t u a t i o n w o u l d , w i t h i n moments, f i t t h e d e f i n i t i o n  "momentary s t a t e s , " and  c o n t r i b u t e i t s share  continuing perceptions. t h o u g h i t were one  Using  visualization  of  of t h e m o d e l  frame i n a - m o t i o n p i c t u r e h e l p e d f o r use  limitation  r e m a i n s f o r use  of the model i n r e p o r t i n g the  conclusions.  A two  i n a n a l y s i s but  dimensional  the  model does  capture m u l t i v a r i a n t , dynamic, temporal  as  to  that l i m i t a t i o n  a n a l y s i s and  of  influence to  counteract  easily  An  not  situations.  R e l a t e d Models A number o f o t h e r  i n t e r a c t i v e m o d e l s were c o n s i d e r e d  provide d i f f e r e n t  p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r study  phenomena.  s o m e t h i n g of b e n e f i t may  While  m o d e l , o t h e r a s p e c t s were f o u n d with p e r s p e c t i v e s developed  A t t r i b u t e Treatment In  the years  t o be  and  of e d u c a t i o n a l be  found  incomplete  f o r t h i s proposed  i n each  or  incompatible  study.  Interaction  s i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e r e has  been  an  abundance of A t t r i b u t e Treatment I n t e r a c t i o n  (ATI)  studies.  to demonstrate  I t has  significant than  i n t e r a c t i o n s may  theoretical  i n t e r a c t i o n s may research design. and  been s u g g e s t e d  experimental  flaw occur  that f a i l u r e  be due  to methodological  (Magoon, 1 9 7 7 ) . but not  research  rather  That i s , s i g n i f i c a n t  be a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h  traditional  Increasingly sophisticated statistical s t r a t e g i e s have c o n t i n u e d  to  yield  designs  33  disappointing  results.  Hunt  (1975a) a t t r i b u t e d  r e s e a r c h t o i t s h a v i n g been t r e a t e d statistical ATI  failure  o f ATI  a s synonymous w i t h  interaction.  studies  have t r e a t e d  interaction  i n nomothetic  terms.  T h a t a p p r o a c h s e e k s t o d e t e r m i n e how much v a r i a n c e  i s attributed  t o main e f f e c t s a n d i n t e r a c t i o n  instances  effects.  In those  where "how much v a r i a n c e t o e a c h " i s i t s e l f invariable,  s u c h k n o w l e d g e w o u l d be u s e f u l .  cases, the i n t e r a c t i o n  effect  w o u l d be a v a r i a b l e .  acknowledged that naturalistic  on A T I , C r o n b a c h a n d Snow  be p l a y e d by  Endler  I t i s more s e n s i b l e  and s i t u a t i o n s  interact  t h a n how much e a c h c o n t r i b u t e s . f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e ATI c o n s t r u c t  t h a n how much, i s a  i s more i m p o r t a n t  t o a s k how  isa  individual  i n evoking behavior,  rather  While the t h e o r e t i c a l i s consistent  study, the methodological approach i s not. a useful  often  (1973) a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e  q u e s t i o n of whether person or s i t u a t i o n  not  and  observations.  purpose of t h e p r e s e n t study.  differences  controlled  (1977)  w h i c h c a n c o n s i d e r more v a r i a b l e s  i n t e r a c t i o n might o c c u r , r a t h e r  pseudo-issue.  itself  w o u l d n o t be  In t h e i r review of  a m a j o r r o l e , may a l s o  studies  provide richer  and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  Such p a t t e r n s of i n t e r a c t i o n  d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h ATI m e t h o d s . experimental studies  H o w e v e r , i n some  may be a d y n a m i c r e s u l t o f  i n f i n i t e c o m b i n a t i o n s of v a r i a b l e s  How  relatively  model f o r t h e s t u d y .  with the proposed T h u s , t h e ATI was  34  Flanders'  I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s Model  Flanders'  (1970) model f o r i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s  c l a s s r o o m c o m m u n i c a t i o n and Purposes  g i v e n as  (a) t o s t u d y t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r , and  for interaction analysis  control  c h a i n of c l a s s r o o m  events.  Classroom  i n t h e m o d e l were  (b) t o h e l p  t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r , and  g e n e r a l i z e d a t t i t u d e s toward share  on  t h e e f f e c t s o f c l a s s r o o m c l i m a t e on  pupils.  develop  focuses  (c) t o e x p l a i n the  c l i m a t e i s d e f i n e d as  t h e t e a c h e r and  i n common i n s p i t e o f  teachers  class that  pupils  individual differences (Flanders,  1967) . Several  l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s m o d e l were i d e n t i f i e d .  p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n of is  little  there  evidence  influence i s teacher to learner.  There  of a r e c i p r o c a l n a t u r e of i n t e r a c t i o n  i s e m p h a s i s on  teacher-pupil  The  and  the s u p e r i o r - s u b o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p  interactions,  which,  of  even i f a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  t e a c h i n g o f c h i l d r e n , w o u l d not be a u s e f u l m o d e l f o r a d u l t education.  Measurement i n the model i s l i m i t e d  communication. d e s c r i p t i v e of  Finally,  use  D e l a m o n t and system  t o be  disadvantages temporal  and  Hamilton  for a given  i t generates. o f t h i s and  f o r any  as  idiosyncratic  individual.  (1976) i d e n t i f y a d v a n t a g e s of  i t s simplicity,  numerical data  of c o n s e n s u s a t t i t u d e s  " c l i m a t e " does not account  e x p e r i e n c e of t h e s i t u a t i o n  to v e r b a l  reliability  and  the wealth  of  They a l s o i d e n t i f y s e v e r a l  similar  systems:  (a) most  s p a t i a l c o n t e x t , (b) t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d  o v e r t , measurable behavior,  this  ( c ) t h e y may  obscure,  ignore only with  distort,  or  35  ignore the q u a l i t a t i v e  f e a t u r e s t h e y seek t o i n v e s t i g a t e ,  they d e a l w i t h s m a l l b i t s of a c t i o n holistic,  r a t h e r than g l o b a l  (e) c a t e g o r i e s a r e p r e s p e c i f i e d , and  artificial  or  ( f ) there are  b o u n d a r i e s f o r c o n t i n u o u s phenomena.  d i s p u t e c l a i m s of o b j e c t i v i t y  (d)  They  further  in Interaction Analysis  systems.  By r e j e c t i n g d a t a s u c h a s s u b j e c t i v e a c c o u n t s a s i n v a l i d , approach r i s k s superficial  Hunt's  furnishing only a p a r t i a l  objectivity  B-P-E  description,  i s o b t a i n e d w i t h l o s s of  the  thus  validity.  Paradigm  B a s e d on t h e L e w i n i a n f o r m u l a , Hunt model f o r s t u d y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s .  (1975b) d e v e l o p e d a  The m o d e l r e q u i r e s  identifying  each of t h r e e components —  B e h a v i o r , P e r s o n , and E n v i r o n m e n t  in the s p e c i f i c  Hunt e q u a t e s B e h a v i o r w i t h  'dependent  situation.  variable,'  Environment w i t h  Person with  'independent  ' k i n d of s u b j e c t , '  and  variable.'  For the p r e s e n t s t u d y , s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the p a r a d i g m were i d e n t i f i e d . b r o a d and t o o n a r r o w no o r g a n i z i n g assist  First,  d e f i n i t i o n s as dependent  Too  broad i n that there  w i t h i n Person or Environment  i n understanding their and  B-P-E  t h e e l e m e n t s were b o t h t o o  t o be u s e f u l .  framework  —  interaction.  Too  elements to  narrow  independent v a r i a b l e s ,  was  i n the  suggestive  of an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n f o r t h e i r s t u d y . The  s e p a r a t i o n o f B e h a v i o r a s a component  from P e r s o n and  f r o m E n v i r o n m e n t was  basic, a s s u m p t i o n s used i n t h i s  study.  distinguished  not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  the  While behavior i s viewed  a s a f u n c t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p e r s o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (the  Lewinian  f o r m u l a ) , i t a l s o i s viewed  behaving  person.  seen as h e l p f u l  Doyle's  a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e  The s e p a r a t i o n i n t h e B-P-E f o r m u l a was n o t i n understanding  Mediating  Doyle  36  relationship.  Processes  (1978) c r i t i c i z e d  product" paradigm  that  the narrow focus of t h e " p r o c e s s -  i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and proposed  mediating processes  a s an a d d i t i o n a l  represented Doyle's  p a r a d i g m a s an e l o n g a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a  replacement  of t h e " p r o c e s s - p r o d u c t "  factor.  approach  r e s o u r c e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " and " m e d i a t i n g intervening variables. Person  Situation  situation;  P r o c e s s M o d e l -- T e a c h i n g  and Overt  Situation  Doyle's  Gage, i s l i n e a r  responses"  as  processes/External  s t r u c t u r e ; and  Responses.  However, d e f i n i t i o n s i n  P r o c e s s M o d e l p r o v i d e a more  s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , a n d more p o t e n t i a l the l e a r n e r .  w i t h p u p i l ' s "cue  selector;  Interpretation/Perceptual-cognitive  the Person  (1978)  There a r e c o n c e p t u a l p a r a l l e l s w i t h t h e  P u p i l cue response/Input  Products/Covert  Gage  student  complete  for holistic  study of  c o n s t r u c t , a t l e a s t a s r e p r e s e n t e d by  and o n l y p a r t i a l l y  s i t u a t i o n or the l e a r n e r .  represents e i t h e r the  SUMMARY I n t e r a c t i o n i s m was d e s c r i b e d a s t h e b r o a d perspective Person were  f o r the study.  Situation  The p r o c e s s  theoretical  for selection  of t h e  P r o c e s s M o d e l was d e s c r i b e d a n d r e l a t e d  models  critiqued. Chapter Three p r e s e n t s the s e l e c t i o n  p e r s p e c t i v e and d e s i g n of t h e s t u d y .  of a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  38  CHAPTER THREE  DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AN EXPLORATORY, QUALITATIVE APPROACH  This chapter  presents  (a) t h e s e l e c t i o n of a r e s e a r c h  p a r a d i g m b a s e d on a c r i t i c a l  review  of the l i t e r a t u r e ,  (b) t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t o f method w i t h i n t h e s e l e c t e d p a r a d i g m , a n d ( c ) t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e study.  SELECTION OF A RESEARCH PARADIGM Research  methods r e p r e s e n t  empirical world.  Rather  than n e u t r a l t o o l s ,  are the researcher's stance The  adoption  r e s e a r c h methods  t h e environment f o r study.  t h a t would have r e s u l t e d  from a d i f f e r e n t  F u r t h e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e method  employed s e r v e s different  toward  toward t h e  o f a method n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d s t o a c t i o n s t h a t a r e  d i f f e r e n t '. f r o m t h o s e method.  l i n e s of a c t i o n taken  t o make t h e f i n a l  from any o t h e r s  (Denzin,  observations  i n some way  1978).  L i n e s a r e d r a w n a n d t e n s i o n e x i s t s between v a r i o u s interpretations of the research e n t e r p r i s e .  Sometimes t h e b a s i s  f o r t e n s i o n i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l -- d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f k n o w l e d g e and  the process  metaphysical  o f knowing.  -- d i f f e r e n t  In other cases  t h e arguments a r e  v i e w s on t h e n a t u r e o f man, o r  39 methodological The  -- d i f f e r e n t  v i e w s on t h e n a t u r e o f s c i e n c e .  hypothetico-deductive  rationalistic  tradition  definition  of s c i e n t i f i c  research.  Kaplan  model,  a definition  logical-positivist,  have e n j o y e d a p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n i n t h e method w h i c h f o r many i s e q u a t e d  (1964) d e c l i n e d t o d e f i n e  b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e "If  and a  method"  i s no one t h i n g t o be d e f i n e d .  of ' s c i e n t i f i c  o f some u s e i n m e t h o d o l o g y ,  "scientific  with  method' i s s p e c i f i c  i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y  enough t o be general t o  embrace a l l t h e p r o c e d u r e s t h a t s c i e n t i s t s may e v e n t u a l l y come t o f i n d u s e f u l " ( p . 2 7 ) . R e s e a r c h h a s one b a s i c p u