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Lifelong education : definition, agreement and prediction Shak, Therese W.H. 1989

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LIFELONG EDUCATION: DEFINITION, AGREEMENT AND PREDICTION by Therese W. H. Shak B.A.(Hons.), The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1957 G.C.I.E., The U n i v e r s i t y of H u l l , U.K., 1963 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1972 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1989 © Therese W. H. Shak, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT L i f e l o n g education, promulgated by Faure e t . a l . (1972) and elaborated by UNESCO, has been d i f f i c u l t to implement. This i s because i t s c e n t r a l components are not w e l l i d e n t i f i e d and i t c a l l s f or a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of education systems. Moreover, advo-cates of l i f e l o n g education know l i t t l e about the extent to which educators agree with the concept, and need to recognize that those who occupy p o s i t i o n s of power w i t h i n present systems might r e s i s t changes that threaten t h e i r careers or the status quo. This study had three purposes: to c l a r i f y the concept through i d e n t i f y i n g i t s c o n s t i t u e n t elements and d e r i v i n g postu-l a t e s from them and thus c o n t r i b u t e towards i t s d e f i n i t i o n , to develop an instrument to measure the extent to which educators accept these p o s t u l a t e s , and to p r e d i c t "agreement" with them. The attempt to c o n t r i b u t e toward a d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e l o n g educa-t i o n was commenced by formulating seventeen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c o r p o r a t i n g ideas or assumptions of authors d i r e c t l y connected with UNESCO. An instrument, embodying 28 p o s t u l a t e s , was created to measure "agreement" with l i f e l o n g education. An array of socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s (age, sex, years of teaching experience, s e l f - p e r c e i v e d progressiveness, types of schools, and p o s i t i o n ) and perceived career e f f e c t s (on p r e s t i g e , author-i t y , job s e c u r i t y , job d i f f i c u l t y and other advantages) were used as independent v a r i a b l e s to p r e d i c t agreement with l i f e l o n g education. The content, construct and face v a l i d i t y of the L i f e l o n g Education Scale used to measure agreement, was e s t a b l i s h e d with i i the a s s i s t a n c e of nineteen experts on l i f e l o n g education asso-c i a t e d with UNESCO and 36 p i l o t subjects i n Hong Kong. The LLE scal e c o n s i s t e d of 28 item p a i r s (postulates and c o n t r a s t s ) . T o t a l scores were derived by summing over items. Although l i f e -long education involves v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s , there was no attempt to measure i n t e r a c t i o n s among the p o s t u l a t e s . The LLE Scale for the dependent v a r i a b l e "agreement" simply asked res-pondents to agree with p o s t u l a t e s . The psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of two other instruments (the CE Scale and SD Questionnaire) used to measure independent v a r i a b l e s were a l s o examined and found to be acceptable. The three instruments were r e f i n e d and, when ready, completed by 270 Hong Kong educators employed i n 68 schools. I t was hypothesized that "career e f f e c t s " would not account for more variance i n educators' agreement with l i f e l o n g educa-t i o n than socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s . Various analyses, design-ed to examine the p r e d i c t i v e power of d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e com-b i n a t i o n s showed the f o l l o w i n g . "Career e f f e c t s " d i d not as s e r t a greater i n f l u e n c e than the combination of socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s . Considered s e p a r a t e l y , the best p r e d i c t o r s of agreement with l i f e l o n g edu-c a t i o n were "career e f f e c t s " (on a u t h o r i t y and job s e c u r i t y ) . Of the socio-demographic p r e d i c t o r s , the most powerful were sex, age and s e l f - p e r c e i v e d progressiveness. When the c o n j o i n t ef-f e c t s of the socio-demographic and "career e f f e c t s " v a r i a b l e s were considered they explained 23 percent of the variance i n agreement with l i f e l o n g education. A l l the v a r i a b l e s , except i i i "years of teaching experience" explained some variance i n agree-ment with the p o s t u l a t e s . But, 77 percent of the variance i n "agreement" was unexplained. In t h i s study "agreement" was assumed to stem from an i n t e r a c t i o n of socio-demographic and career e f f e c t s . In r e t r o s p e c t , some of the unexplained variance may have resided i n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . As t h i s study was conducted in Hong Kong, l e s s than ten years before i t was supposed to be returned to China i n 1997, the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n was unset-t l i n g for many people. There were somewhat i n t a n g i b l e and d i f f i c u l t to measure v a r i a b l e s which might have i n f l u e n c e d the educators' agreement with l i f e l o n g education. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page AUTHORIZATION f J ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . ' '.v LIST OF TABLES x i ; LIST OF FIGURES xv LIST OF APPENDICES : xvi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xix CHAPTER I : NATURE OF LIFELONG EDUCATION 1 H i s t o r y of the Concept 2 Towards a D e f i n i t i o n 5 Confusion i n the F i e l d 8 Terminology 8 Concept S The Purposes of the Study 12 S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s Study 12 Strategy to Accomplish Purposes 13 Stru c t u r e of the D i s s e r t a t i o n 16 CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE ON LIFELONG EDUCATION 20 Background 20 El a b o r a t i n g the Concept 21 Applying the Concept 23 No Clear D e f i n i t i o n 30 L i t e r a t u r e for D e f i n i t i o n 31 CHAPTER I I I : DERIVING CHARACTERISTICS AND POSTULATES 32 De r i v i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Categories 33 v The Seventeen C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 33 Inherent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c . . . . . 34 Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 35 Des i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 47 The Nature of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 52 I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 53 Po s t u l a t e s Comprising a Comprehensive D e f i n i t i o n 55 Inherent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c and Pos t u l a t e s 56 Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Po s t u l a t e s 56 Des i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Pos t u l a t e s 58 Interdependence of the Postula t e s 59 D e r i v a t i o n of a D e f i n i t i o n 65 The D e f i n i t i o n 66 CHAPTER IV: INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES 69 L i t e r a t u r e for Con c e p t u a l i z i n g the Study 69 Independent V a r i a b l e s 71 Personal Data 71 Types of Schools 72 P o s i t i o n 75 Intervening V a r i a b l e s 79 Career E f f e c t s 80 Dependent V a r i a b l e 81 Type of Research Design 81 A Model 82 Hypotheses 84 A n c i l l a r y Hypotheses 85 Minor Hypotheses 86 v i Major Hypothesis 86 CHAPTER V: INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT 87 The L i f e l o n g Education Scale 87 The P o s t u l a t e s and t h e i r Contrasts 88 The Career E f f e c t s Scale 92 The Socio-Demographic Questionnaire 95 Securing R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Data.. 96 I d e n t i f y i n g L i f e l o n g Education Experts and P i l o t Subjects 97 CHAPTER VI: METHOD 99 Location Chosen 99 S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l Context 99 Socio-economic S i t u a t i o n 100 The Education System ...101 The Population 102 Sampl ing 107 Data C o l l e c t i o n 110 CHAPTER V I I : RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENTS.... 113 R e l i a b i l i t y of the LLE Scale 115 Experts 115 P i l o t Subjects 118 Main Sample 119 Content and Construct V a l i d i t y of LLE Sc a l e . . . . . 121 Face V a l i d i t y of LLE Scale 122 R e l i a b i l i t y of the CE Scale 122 P i l o t Subjects 123 Main Sample 124 v i i Face V a l i d i t y of the CE Scale 126 Face V a l i d i t y of the SD Quesionnaire 127 Instrument Refinement 127 Procedures for Retai n i n g P o t u l a t e s and Contrasts 127 The Retained P a i r s of P o s t u l a t e s and Contrasts 135 Treatment of the Contrasts 136 Procedures for Confirming Retention of P o s t u l a t e s and Contrasts 140 The Confirmed P a i r s of Po s t u l a t e s and Contrasts 145 R e f i n i n g CE Scale 146 R e f i n i n g SD Questionnaire 148 Summary of Instrument Refinement 149 CHAPTER V I I I : PREDICTING AGREEMENT 150 Data A n a l y s i s 150 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents 152 Testing of Hypotheses 157 A n c i l l a r y Hypotheses 157 Minor Hypotheses 166 Major Hypothesis 171 Summary of the Chapter 172 CHAPTER IX: SEARCHING FOR EXPLANATORY POWER of INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 174 Educators' Agreement with L i f e l o n g Education ......174 Dis c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s from Analysing Educators' Agreement with the Po s t u l a t e s 177 v i i i -From Perspective of Educators' Agreement 178 Testing for S i g n i f i c a n t P r e d i c t o r s 182 P r e d i c t i o n from P e r s p e c t i v e of P r e d i c t o r s 183 P r e d i c t i o n from Pers p e c t i v e of P o s t u l a t e s . . 208 Post u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g Education as C r i t e r i o n 212 Summary of the Chapter 214 CHAPTER X: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 217 Summary of the Study 217 Phase I - Developing a D e f i n i t i o n 219 Phase II - Constructing an Instrument to Measure Educators' Agreement with the P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g Education 219 Phase I I I Developing a Method of the Study 222 Phase IV - Reporting on P r e d i c t i o n and Agreement 222 Conclusions to be Drawn 225 Conclusion from C l a r i f y i n g the Concept 225 The Instrument to Measure Agreement with P o s t u l a t e s 225 Conclusions from P r e d i c t i n g Agreement 226 The M o d i f i e d Model ...227 C o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h i s Study 231 The D e f i n i t i o n 231 An Instrument of L i f e l o n g Education Developed 232 The S i g n i f i c a n t P r e d i c t o r s I d e n t i f i e d 232 The Nature of t h i s Study 233 ix G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y .233 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 233 Recommendations to Researchers 235 The LLE Scale and Modi f i e d Model to be Used 235 Research Related to the F i e l d of P r a c t i c e 235 Recommendations for UNESCO 236 Concluding Remarks 238 REFERENCES 240 APPENDICES 247 X': LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Strategy to Accomplish Purposes 13 Table 2: Sources of C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g Education 53 Table 3: Hong Kong Secondary Schools According to Funding..104 Table 4: Secondary Schools According to Curriculum 105 Table 5: A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Teachers According to School O r i e n t a t i o n 1 08 Table 6: A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Teachers According to School Funding 1 09 Table 7: R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Tests Done on the LLE, CE and SD Instruments 114 Table 8: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of Subtests in the LLE Scale: Experts' Responses 117 Table 9: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of Subtests i n the LLE Scale: P i l o t Subjects' Responses 119 Table 10: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of Subtests i n the LLE Scale: Main Sample Subjects' Responses 120 Table 11: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of Subtests i n the CE Scale: P i l o t Subjects' Responses 123 Table 12: C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t of Subtests and T o t a l Test of the CE Scale: P i l o t Subjects' Responses... 124 Table 13: R e l i a b i l i t y of Subtests i n the CE Scale: Main Sample Subjects' Responses 125 Table 14: C o r r e l a t i o n of Subtests and T o t a l Test of the CE Scale: Main Sample Subjects' Responses 126 X i Table 15: D e r i v a t i o n of Item P a i r s for LLE Scale ( F i n a l Version) . . . 1 42 Table 16: Percentage of P i l o t Subjects Agreeing or D i s -agreeing with the P o s t u l a t e s or Contrasts 145 Table 17: Schools and I n d i v i d u a l s i n the Main Sample 151 Table 18: Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : Age, S e l f - p e r c e i v e d Progressiveness, Part-time and F u l l - t i m e Teaching Experience 153 Table 19: Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o s i t i o n s 154 Table 20: Hong Kong Schools Main Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n : School Funding Category 155 Table 21: Hong Kong School Main Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n : School O r i e n t a t i o n . 156 Table 22: Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Educators' Agreement with L i f e l o n g Education 158 Table 23: E f f e c t s of School V a r i a b l e s on Educators' Agreement with L i f e l o n g Education 160 Table 24: E f f e c t of P o s i t i o n on Educators' Agreement with L i f e l o n g Education 161 Table 25: Comparison of D i f f e r e n c e s i n Mean Scores: P o s i t i o n s 1 62 Table 26: Orthogonal Contrast of P o s i t i o n : P r i n c i p a l , A s s i s t a n t and Teacher 163 Table 27: Summary of Tests of A n c i l l a r y Hypotheses 165 Table 28: Comparing Influence of Career E f f e c t s and Personal Data on Educators' Agreement with L i f e l o n g Education 168 x i i Table 29: Comparing Influence of Career E f f e c t s and Type of Schools on Educators' Agreement with L i f e l o n g Education 169 Table 30: Comparing Influence of Career E f f e c t s and P o s i t i o n on Educators' Agreement with L i f e l o n g Education 170 Table 31: Comparing Influence of Career E f f e c t s , Personal Data, Types of schools, and P o s i t i o n on Educators' Agreement with L i f e l o n g Education ...... 171 Table 32: Summary of Results of Hypotheses: Comparing Sets of P r e d i c t o r s 173 Table 33: Degree of Agreement with I n d i v i d u a l P o s t u l a t e s Concerning L i f e l o n g Education 175 Table 34: S i g n i f i c a n t P r e d i c t o r s of Educators' Mean Agree-ment with P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g Education 183 Table 35: Summary of 28 Stepwise Regression Equations Showing R e l a t i o n s h i p s between P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s and I n d i v i d u a l P o s t u l a t e s 185 Table 36: Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s between P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s and Agreement with the P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g Education: Simple C o r r e l a t i o n s , Regression C o e f f i c i e n t s ; and A s s o c i a t i o n s with I n d i v i d u a l P o s t u l a t e s . 187 Table 37: Summary of 28 Stepwise Regression Equations: Number of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s Associated with I n d i v i d u a l P o s t u l a t e s 209 Table 38: Experts' and Educators' Degree of Agreement x i i i with the P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g Education xiv. LIST OF FIGURES Figure I: Phases Associated w i t h Execution of t h i s Study...17 Figure I I : A Model for P r e d i c t i n g Variance i n Educators' Agreement with P o s t u l a t e s Concerning L i f e l o n g Education (1) 83 Figure I I I : A Model for P r e d i c t i n g Variance i n Educators' Agreement with P o s t u l a t e s Concerning L i f e l o n g Education (2) 228 xv LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A: The O r i g i n a l Version of Faure's Recommenda-t i o n s , Dave's C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , G e l p i ' s In-d i c a t o r s and Other P o i n t s Stressed by Cropley and Lengrand from which Seventeen C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of L i f e l o n g Education and the P o s t u l a t e s of the LLE Scale and CE Scale f o r t h i s Research were Derived 247 Appendix B: O r i g i n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , P o s t u l a t e s & Contrasts 259 Appendix C: LLE Scale for Experts 267 Appendix D.I: LLE Scale for P i l o t Subjects 276 Appendix D.2: CE Scale for P i l o t Subjects 288 Appendix D.3: SD Questionnaire for P i l o t Subjects.... 304 Appendix E: Results of R e l i a b i l i t y Tests on LLE-Scale by Experts and P i l o t Subjects 306 Appendix F: Comments from Experts and P i l o t Subjects 321 Appendix G: Frequencies of Experts' R e p l i e s to Po s t u l a t e s and Contrasts Retained 333 Appendix H: S i t u a t i o n of Retained P a i r s of Po s t u l a t e s and Contrasts from P i l o t Subjects 339 Appendix 1.1: The LLE Scale 340 Appendix 1.2: The CE Scale 347 Appendix 1.3: The SD Questionnaire 359 Appendix J : M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n among A l l V a r i a b l e s 360 Appendix K: Results from S t e i g e r ' s M u l t i c o r r 364 xvi< , Appendix L: Frequencies on Responses and Step-wise Regression on A l l V a r i a b l e s Related to Post u l a t e plus P o s s i b l e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 365 Appendix M: L i s t of Experts 374 Appendix N: L i s t of Schools for P i l o t Test 378 Appendix 0: L i s t of Main Sample Schools 379 Appendix P: Sample L e t t e r to UNESCO P a r i s , UNESCO I n s t i t u t e of Education, Hamburg, and UNESCO Bangkok 381 Appendix Q: Sample L e t t e r s to Experts 383 Appendix R: Sample Reminder L e t t e r to Experts 386 Appendix S: Sample L e t t e r of Thanks to Experts 387 Appendix T: Correspondence from Experts 388 Appendix U: Sample L e t t e r to P r i n c i p a l s of P i l o t Test 420 Appendix V: Sample L e t t e r to Teachers of P i l o t Test 421 Appendix W: Sample L e t t e r of Thanks to P i l o t Subjects 422 Appendix X.1: Sample L e t t e r to P r i n c i p a l s of Main Sample (English) 423 Appendix X.2: Sample L e t t e r to P r i n c i p a l s of Main Sample (Chinese) 426 Appendix Y.1: Sample L e t t e r to Teachers of Main Sample (English) 429 Appendix Y.2: Sample L e t t e r to Teachers of Main Sample (Chinese) 431 Appendix Z.1: Sample of Reminder L e t t e r s to P r i n c i p a l s of Main Sample (English) 432 xv i i Appendix Z.2: Sample of Reminder L e t t e r s to P r i n c i p a l s of Main Sample (Chinese) 433 Appendix AA.1:Sample of Reminder L e t t e r to Teachers of Main Sample (English) 434 Appendix AA.2:Sample of Reminder L e t t e r to Teachers (Chinese) 435 Appendix AB.1:Sample L e t t e r s of Thanks to Main Sample (English) 436 Appendix AB.2:Sample L e t t e r s of Thanks to Main Sample (Chinese) 438 Appendix AC: C e r t i f i c a t e of Approval from E t h i c s Committee.440 Appendix AD: L e t t e r from Expert V e r i f y i n g T r a n s l a t i o n 441 Appendix AE: Obituary of Edgar Faure 442 x v i i i ACKOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o t h e m e m b e r s o f my D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e , P r o f e s s o r s W i l l i a m S . G r i f f i t h ( c h a i r m a n ) , R o b e r t F . C o n r y a n d R o g e r B o s h i e r f o r t h e i r u n t i r i n g p a t i e n c e , c a n d i d a d v i c e a n d c o n t i n u i n g s u p p o r t ; a l s o t o J o h n H . M . A n d r e w s w h o r e t i r e d f r o m U . B . C . a n d t h u s f r o m t h e s a i d c o m m i t t e e . I am t h a n k f u l t o U N E S C O f o r i d e n t i f y i n g t h e l i f e l o n g e d u c a -t i o n e x p e r t s , t o t h e l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s f o r v a l i d a t i n g my q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a n d t o t h e s t a f f o f t h e t h r e e s c h o o l s t h a t d i d t h e p i l o t , t e s t . M y g r a t i t u d e a l s o g o e s t o t h e p r i n c i p a l s , t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s a n d t e a c h e r s o f t h e 68 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n H o n g K o n g f o r r e s p o n d i n g t o my q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I am g r a t e f u l t o C a r i t a s H o n g K o n g a n d M i s e r e o r G e r m a n y f o r t h e i r m o r a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t i n m a k i n g i t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o t a k e t h e f r e q u e n t l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k a n d t h e m a n y f l i g h t s a c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n i n p u r s u i t o f a l l t h a t w a s e n -t a i l e d i n t h e E d . D . p r o g r a m m e . M y a p p r e c i a t i o n a l s o g o e s t o my c o l l e a g u e s i n C a r i t a s A d u l t a n d H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t . My s p e c i a l t h a n k s i s d u e t o my g o o d f r i e n d , C h a r l e s W o n g , w h o t a u g h t me t h e u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r a n d a s s i s t e d i n my l a s t m i n u t e c o r r e c t i o n s o v e r t h e e l e c t r o n i c m a i l w h i l e I w a s m i l e s a w a y i n H o n g K o n g ; a l s o t o M r . L e o G o o d s t a d a n d R e v . F a t h e r P a t r i c k F i n n e r a n S . J . f o r t h e i r e d i t o r i a l a d v i c e . L a s t b u t n o t t h e l e a s t , I am i n d e b t e d t o my g o o d f r i e n d s , M r s . E l i z a b e t h L y s o n , M i s s R o s a n a N g , M i s s M a r y C h o n g a n d M i s s x i x Mary Kwok, t o my b r o t h e r and s i s t e r - i n - l a w , P e t e r and V e r i n a , and my s i s t e r C a t h e r i n e f o r t a k i n g c a r e of my domestic a f f a i r s d u r i n g my c o u r s e of s t u d i e s . I a l s o a p p r e c i a t e the moral su p p o r t from my s i s t e r and b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , Z i t a and Bruce. xx CHAPTER I NATURE OF LIFELONG EDUCATION I f beauty l i e s i n the eyes of the beholder, ' l i f e l o n g education' l i e s i n the ears of the l i s t e n e r , for i t r i n g s a d i f f e r e n t b e l l for d i f f e r e n t people. The term, ' l i f e l o n g educa-t i o n ' , often appears a t t r a c t i v e enough and people h a i l i t enthu-s i a s t i c a l l y at f i r s t s i g h t . But i s i t education throughout l i f e , organized or unorganized, compulsory or f r e e , planned or a c c i d -e n t a l ? Is ' l i f e l o n g ' an a d j e c t i v e , d e s c r i b i n g the kind of edu-c a t i o n given to youth to prepare them for the whole of t h e i r l i f e , or one that bespeaks a d i f f e r e n t philosophy? How does i t d i f f e r from ' l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ' , 'adult education', 'recurrent education' and ' permanent education', a l l of which are part and p a r c e l of modern educational jargon? The notion of l i f e l o n g education, as discussed by Faure e t . a l . (1972) i n Learning to Be, and subsequently elaborated by UNESCO, has been d i f f i c u l t to implement. This i s p a r t l y because implementation involves r e s t r u c t u r i n g e n t i r e educational sys-tems. The kind of r e s t r u c t u r i n g envisaged threatens those who have a vested i n t e r e s t i n maintaining the s t a t u s quo. For them, h o r i z o n t a l or v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , or democratisation, are p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t s to t h e i r a u t h o r i t y and power. Ad m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers would f e e l uncomfortable with some aspects of l i f e l o n g education. Thus, before expecting implementation to occur, i t i s necessary to examine the b a r r i e r s that impede such p o s s i b i l i t y . C l e a r l y , educators' acceptance or non-acceptance 1 of the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be an a s s e t or a b a r r i e r . S i n c e they a r e the ones t o execute p o l i c i e s , s u c c e s s -f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n depends on t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e . As C r o p l e y ob-s e r v e d : Acceptance of many of the pronouncements of proponents of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n l o o k s t o be m a i n l y a m a t t e r of f a c e v a l i d i t y , or even s h a r e d i d e o l o g y , r a t h e r than of commitment based on a n a l y s i s of e v i d e n c e . . . . [ o r ] how t h e outcomes of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n would be e v a l u a t e d . How would a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , or e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s know whether changes had taken p l a c e [ o r ] those changes would be r e s p o n s i v e t o the k i n d s of problem they were supposed t o d e a l w i t h ? (1977, p. 152-153) Hence, the u n d e r l y i n g problems of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n l i e deeper than s u r f a c e meaning of the term. H i s t o r y o f t h e C o n c e p t The concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n can be t r a c e d back to Greek p h i l o s o p h e r s . I t i s s a i d t h a t S o c r a t e s , P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s of a p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . Lewis (1981), f o r example, c l a i m e d t h a t S o c r a t e s con-s i d e r e d l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g t o be the key t o h a p p i n e s s and a " h e a l t h y s o u l " a t d e a t h ; P l a t o c l a i m e d t h a t l i f e l o n g s t u d y was e s s e n t i a l t o the c o n t r o l of the immortal s o u l and the r i g h t o r d e r i n g of s o c i e t y , and A r i s t o t l e s t r e s s e d the l i f e l o n g r o l e of study f o r a c h i e v i n g what one aimed f o r i n l i f e . W i t h i n the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , the i d e a of v l i f e l o n g n e s s ' i n e d u c a t i o n was e x p r e s s e d i n the l e t t e r of t r a n s m i t t a l t h a t accom-p a n i e d the 1919 Report of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Committee of the M i n i s t r y of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Ten y e a r s l a t e r , Y e a x l e e (1929) r e t u r n e d t o the theme i n a book, e n t i t l e d ^ L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n ' , 2 which s t r e s s e d that the case f o r l i f e l o n g education rested u l t i m a t e l y upon the nature and needs of human p e r s o n a l i t y i n such a way that no i n d i v i d u a l could r i g h t l y be regarded as outside i t s scope. Dewey (1938) a l s o claimed that education i s a l i f e l o n g process. The concept gained p o p u l a r i t y as the D e c l a r a t i o n of Human Rights endorsed by the United Nations a f t e r the Second World War emphasized people's r i g h t to education and stimulated govern-ments to co n s c i o u s l y use education as an instrument f o r develop-ment. As Faure pointed out, In c o u n t r i e s which were t a k i n g t h e i r f i r s t steps t o -wards i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , progress i n industry began to have a very nearly d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to the p o p u l a r i z a -t i o n of education (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 10). Education has been used to f u r t h e r programmes of develop-ment or to maintain c u l t u r a l balance. Indeed such great pro-gress has been made through education that i t i s viewed not j u s t as something happening i n e a r l i e r p e r i o d s , but throughout l i f e . The Second UNESCO I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Adult Education had for i t s theme, "Adult Education i n a Changing World" ( Montreal, 1960), and set l i f e l o n g education as a goal for the future p o l i c i e s of governments. However, i t was not u n t i l 1965 that the UNESCO I n t e r n a t i o n a l Committee for the Advancement of Adult Education o f f i c i a l l y discussed the paper, which was presented by the S e c r e t a r i a t on 'Education Permanente/ Continuing Education'. The paper d e a l t with l i f e l o n g education, though the concept was not defined f u l l y (Hely, 1962). During the 1970's, UNESCO concentrated on e l a b o r a t i n g the 3 concept of l i f e l o n g education and sought methods to implement and disseminate information r e l a t e d to i t . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on the Development of Education was formed i n 1971 for t h i s purpose with Edgar Faure as Chairman. The Faure Report (1972) Learning to Be -- the World of Education Today and To- morrow stimulated wide d i s c u s s i o n . L i f e l o n g education was pro-posed " as the master concept for educational p o l i c i e s i n the years to come for both developed and developing c o u n t r i e s " (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 182). This idea encompassed many a c t i v i -t i e s and began to be recommended as a guiding p r i n c i p l e for educational reform work of the member c o u n t r i e s . In 1972, the T h i r d UNESCO I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Adult Education was convened i n Tokyo with i t s theme, "Adult Education i n the Context of L i f e l o n g Education". The conference recommended that a l l governments include adult education as an i n t e g r a l part of t h e i r educational system based on the concept of l i f e l o n g education (Lowe, 1975). The number of c o u n t r i e s i n t e r e s t e d or w i l l i n g to adopt the concept of l i f e l o n g education was reported by G e l p i (1979) as f o l l o w s : Responses to the survey on l i f e l o n g education conduc-ted w i t h i n the UNESCO N a t i o n a l commissions [on "exper-iences of the various member st a t e s s u b s c r i b i n g to the p r i n c i p l e of l i f e l o n g education", November 1977] (54 responses analysed as at May 2nd, 1978) confirm that there i s widespread acceptance of l i f e l o n g education as a "new educational concept r e l a t i n g to the educa-t i o n a l system as a whole - both to i n i t i a l and to subsequent education" (39 out of 54 responses); i t a l s o shows that the concept of l i f e l o n g education i s r e f l e c t e d i n the educational l e g i s l a t i o n of 40 out of 54 c o u n t r i e s , that l i f e l o n g education i s v i s u a l i z e d as an educational approach relevant to a l l c o u n t r i e s not merely the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s - (46 out of 4 5 4 ) , and t h a t i t i s a g l o b a l approach which does not co n c e r n o n l y the urban p o p u l a t i o n (48 out of 54 r e s -p o n s e s ) . At the l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n has be-come a c c e p t e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s , even i f t h i s a c c e p t a n c e i s sometimes of n o n s p e c i f i c n a t u r e ( G e l p i , 1979 i n C r o p l e y [ e d . ] , 1979). C o u n t r i e s such as Canada, U.S.A., Great B r i t i s h , S p a i n , Sweden, P o l a n d , C h i n a , K o r e a , Japan, New Ze a l a n d and o t h e r s i n E a s t e r n Europe, South A m e r i c a , A f r i c a and A s i a were s a i d t o have implemented v a r i o u s elements i n v a r y i n g degrees (see K u l i c h , 1982; L i n t o n , 1980; H o c h l e i t n e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ; Rubenson, 1981; G e l p i , 1981; W i l l i a m s , 1977; B o s h i e r , 1980; Japan, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e and C u l t u r e , 1982; Moro'ka, 1980; S u t h e r -l a n d , 1980; A l - S h a r a h , 1986; Ekanayake, 1986; and Urevbu, 1985). A l l t h i s i s e v i d e n c e of the f a c t t h a t the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n has been put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n d i v e r s e ways, even though sometimes i n a ' n o n s p e c i f i c ' manner. Towards a D e f i n i t i o n UNESCO was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o m u l g a t i o n of modern forms of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , and so i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y s e the w r i t i n g s of a u t h o r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h UNESCO. In the Faure Report (1972) l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n was not d e f i n e d , but t h e r e were ' f o u r b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s ' , s a i d t o be e s s e n t i a l f o r any s o c i e t y s e e k i n g t o b r i n g about r e f o r m i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l system through e v o l u t i o n r a t h e r than r e v o l u t i o n . These were: 1) the e x i s t e n c e of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l community which amidst the v a r i e t y of n a t i o n s and c u l t u r e s , of p o l i t i -c a l o p t i o n s and degrees of development, i s r e f l e c t e d i n common a s p i r a t i o n s , problems and t r e n d s , and i n i t s movement towards one and the same d e s t i n y ; 5 2) the b e l i e f i n democracy, conceived of as implying each man's r i g h t to r e a l i z e h i s own p o t e n t i a l and to share i n the b u i l d i n g of h i s own f u t u r e ; 3) the aim of development i s the complete f u l f i l m e n t of man, i n a l l the richness of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , ... as i n d i v i d u a l , member of a fami l y and of a community, c i -t i z e n and producer, inventor of techniques and crea-t i v e dreamer; 4) only an o v e r a l l , l i f e l o n g education can produce the kind of complete man ... no longer assiduously [acqui-r i n g ] knowledge once f o r a l l , but [ l e a r n i n g ] how to b u i l d up a c o n t i n u a l l y e v o l v i n g body of knowledge a l l through l i f e — v l e a r n to be' (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. v - v i ) . Lengrand (1975), one of the i n t e l l e c t u a l godfathers of l i f e l o n g education, and member of the UNESCO S e c r e t a r i a t since 1948, wrote An I n t r o d u c t i o n to L i f e l o n g Education, and had t h i s to say, What we mean by l i f e l o n g education i s a s e r i e s of very s p e c i f i c ideas, experiments and achievements, i n other words, education i n the f u l l sense of the word, i n c l u -ding a l l i t s aspects and dimensions, i t s uninterrupted development from the f i r s t moments of l i f e to the very l a s t and the c l o s e , organic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the various p o i n t s and successive phases i n i t s deve-lopment (Lengrand, 1975, p.20). At the 19th Session of the UNESCO General Conference held at N a i r o b i i n 1976, there was an attempt to define l i f e l o n g edu-c a t i o n as f o l l o w s , the term ^ l i f e l o n g education and l e a r n i n g ' , f or i t s p a r t , denotes an o v e r a l l scheme aimed both at r e s t r u c -t u r i n g the e x i s t i n g education system and at developing the e n t i r e educational p o t e n t i a l outside the education system; i n such a scheme men and women are the agents of t h e i r own education, through c o n t i n u a l i n t e r - a c t i o n between t h e i r thoughts and a c t i o n s ; education and l e a r n i n g , f a r from being l i m i t e d to the per i o d of attendance at school, should extend throughout l i f e , i ncluded a l l s k i l l s and branches of knowledge, use a l l p o s s i b l e means, and give the opportunity to a l l people 6 f o r f u l l development of the p e r s o n a l i t y ; the educational and l e a r n i n g processes i n which c h i l d -ren, young people and a d u l t s of a l l ages are involved i n the course of t h e i r l i v e s , i n whatever form, should be considered as a whole (UNESCO, 1977, p. 2). To Cropley (1977), the key notion i n l i f e l o n g education was: a l l i n d i v i d u a l s are to have organised systematic opp-o r t u n i t i e s f or i n s t r u c t i o n , study and l e a r n i n g at any time throughout t h e i r l i v e s . This i s true whether t h e i r goals are to remedy e a r l i e r e ducational d e f e c t s , to acquire new s k i l l s , to upgrade themselves v o c a t i o n -a l l y , to increase t h e i r understanding of the world i n which they l i v e , to develop t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s , or some other purposes (1977, p. 21). Cropley and Dave claimed that l i f e l o n g education c o n s i s t e d of f i v e words: (1) t o t a l i t y , meaning covering the e n t i r e l i f e -span of the i n d i v i d u a l and encompassing a l l l e v e l s and a l l forms of education; (2) i n t e g r a t i o n , meaning a l l educational i n s t i t u -t i o n s are i n t e r - r e l a t e d and interconnected; (3) f l e x i b i l i t y , meaning a dynamic approach i s used i n educational content and methods; (4) democratization, meaning to make i t p o s s i b l e for people with d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s to receive educa-t i o n ; and (5) s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t , meaning to improve each i n d i v i -dual's q u a l i t y of l i f e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , e motionally, s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y (Cropley & Dave, 1978, p. 1-3-14). G e l p i ' s (1979) statement, which came c l o s e s t to being a d e f i n i t i o n from a s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , was, L i f e l o n g education can be regarded from s e v e r a l per-s p e c t i v e s (response to s o c i a l demand, and /or e x i s t e n -t i a l demand, and /or economic and/or c u l t u r a l demand etc.) and according to the perspective chosen one might think that a development of l i f e l o n g education can occur i n a s p e c i f i c kind of s o c i e t y or at a s p e c i -f i c p e riod ( G e l p i , 1979, p.1). 7 I t can be seen from the above statements that the concept of l i f e l o n g education for the UNESCO authors was broadly based, and concerned the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . But there was l i t t l e consensus as to what elements should c o n s t i t u t e a d e f i n i t i o n . Each author looked at the concept from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . Confusion i n the F i e l d Ever since UNESCO began promoting l i f e l o n g education some confusion has accompanied the term. There are two types of confusion - i n terminology, and i n concept. Terminology ' L i f e l o n g education' i s often confused with 'adult educa-t i o n ' , 'recurrent education', 'permanent education', and ' l i f e -long l e a r n i n g ' . The term ' l i f e l o n g education', although often a s s o c i a t e d with 'adult education', 'recurrent education', and 'permanent education', should not be equated with them, because i t encompasses education for c h i l d r e n and youth, as w e l l as for a d u l t s . Yet, since the concept of l i f e l o n g education was pro-mulgated at the UNESCO T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Adult Education i n Tokyo 1972, (which had 'Adult Education i n the Context of L i f e l o n g Education' for i t s theme), i t has often been confused with adult education, a subset of l i f e l o n g education. Indeed the Faure (1972) and other reports and a r t i c l e s published by UNESCO have made i t c l e a r that l i f e l o n g education means education o c c u r r i n g i n i n f o r m a l , non-formal and formal s e t t i n g s throughout the e n t i r e l i f e - s p a n of i n d i v i d u a l s . I t has l i f e l o n g and l i f e w i d e dimensions. The terms 'recurrent' and 'permanent education' are asso-8 c i a t e d with the OECD (Organization f o r Economic Co-operation and Development) and Council of Europe. The former term i s a str a t e g y which enables i n d i v i d u a l s to resume studi e s whenever they d e s i r e , and retu r n to t h e i r regular employment. The l a t t e r term i s a French equivalent of v a d u l t education'. From one p e r s p e c t i v e , * l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ' should mean the act of l e a r n i n g throughout one's l i f e t i m e and be a p p l i e d to the underlying f u n c t i o n of l i f e l o n g education although not l i m i t e d by i t , since one can lea r n without s u b j e c t i n g oneself to the e x t e r n a l r i t u a l of the educational process. I t r e t a i n e d i t s l i t e r a l meaning u n t i l L i f e l o n g Learning i n the Higher Education Act, which became P u b l i c Law 94-482, was passed by the U.S. Congress i n October 1976 (Cassara, 1979, p. 55). Since then, l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g i n the U.S.A. has l a r g e l y been equated with c o n t i n u i n g and adu l t education, much to the dismay of the re s t of the world, which has to deal with the confusion that r e s u l t s from t h i s usage. Concept Conceptual confusion involves the philosophy, theory and research concerning l i f e l o n g education. A n a l y t i c educators l i k e Lawson (1982, p. 99) complained that "from many po i n t s of view ^ l i f e l o n g education' could be seen to be l e s s of a concept of education and more of a p o l i c y of education". He considered the a d j e c t i v e ^ l i f e l o n g ' to be a redundant d e s c r i p t o r . Since edu-c a t i o n was c l e a r l y v f o r l i f e ' , he could not see any novelty i n the notion of v l i f e l o n g ' education. The Faure report (1972) was a p o l i c y recommendation to 9 governments wishing to develop t h e i r country through education, but, as a philosphy, i t was an amalgam of many ideas, assump-t i o n s and p o s t u l a t e s . As Cropley put i t , The l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e l o n g education, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t i s approached i n terms of educational ideas rather than as a set of p r a c t i c e s , makes i t c l e a r that the m a j o r i t y of w r i t e r s i n the area have indeed accep-ted, i m p l i c i t l y i f not always e x p l i c i t l y , c e r t a i n b e l i e f s about the nature of man, good, s o c i e t y and education. In t h i s respect, there i s an i d e n t i f i a b l e "philosophy" of l i f e l o n g education, i f agreement among t h i n k e r s conerning goals and values can be s a i d to i n v o l v e a philosophy. This "philosophy" i s l o o s e l y humanitarian and humanistic in nature (Cropley 1979, p. 102). Then he went on to l i s t elements to be included i n a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education. I t would: 1. involve l e a r n e r s as a c t o r s i n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g rather than as passive r e c i p i e n t s , 2. f o s t e r the c a p a c i t y to be an a c t i v e l e a r n e r , 3. lead to democratization of s o c i e t y , 4. improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e of a l l men and women (Cropley, 1979, p. 102). White (1982), who looked upon l i f e l o n g education as a challenge to the t r a d i t i o n a l programme, spoke i n favour of l i f e l o n g education, when he r e j e c t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of "an educated man" i n the l i b e r a l philosophy, If education i s to be reconceptualized as a " l i f e l o n g process" and not as something belonging only to youth, then we might as w e l l drop the concept of the educated man: there i s no l i n e to be crossed; the journey goes on forever (White, 1982, p.130-131). For persons looking f o r an ideology that i n t e g r a t e s the nature of humankind, education and l i f e , the l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e -long education o f f e r s s o l u t i o n s rather than a b s t r a c t philosophy. 10 Hence, they may be disappointed. But, for those with an eye on o p e r a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , the treatment of l i f e l o n g education i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s e l a s t i c enough to include p r a c t i c a l concerns. A frequent c r i t i c i s m concerns the c l a i m that l i f e l o n g edu-c a t i o n l a c k s a t h e o r e t i c a l base. This evoked the f o l l o w i n g sug-ges t i o n by Parrot who s a i d t h a t : To e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y and relevance of l i f e l o n g education, one must e s t a b l i s h a theory which i s l o g i -c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , i n t e r n a l l y sound, and which i s a l s o i n a d i r e c t and observable r e l a t i o n s h i p with e x t e r n a l r e a l i t i e s . Without both these c o n d i t i o n s being met, l i f e l o n g education w i l l wallow i n the quicksands of an all-embracing dreamworld ( P a r r o t , 1974, p. 143). Cropley discussed the need to v e r i f y the various fragments of theory: A c o n t i n u i n g problem f o r educational t h e o r i s t s has been t h a t , although there are s c a t t e r e d and fragmen-t a r y statements that emphasize the l i f e l o n g nature of educative l e a r n i n g , these have not been c o l l e c t e d and organized i n t o a u n i f i e d theory of l i f e l o n g education. Thus, although l i f e l o n g education i s , to some extent, merely the r e v i v a l of e a r l i e r ideas, i t can c l a i m to represent a novel c o n t r i b u t i o n to educational t h i n k i n g ... (Cropley, 1977, p. 150). The lack of a w e l l defined theory leaves the door open for various i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s , such as by I l l i c h (1971) who advocated "de-schooling", and Ohliger who objected to 'com-pulsory l i f e l o n g schooling' (1983, p. 161), but t h i s i s not the same as l i f e l o n g education. As for research, Cropley had t h i s to say i n 1977, Analysts of l i f e l o n g education have seldom made a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the e m p i r i c a l evidence [to support the b e l i e f ] that the kinds of expedients proposed for reforming education, both i n and out of school, would a c t u a l l y have the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . Indeed, i t i s not at a l l c l e a r whether or not such [ e m p i r i c a l ] evidence e x i s t s (Cropley, 1977, p. 152). 1 1 Many c o u n t r i e s and people c l a i m to be p r a c t i s i n g l i f e l o n g education, which they g e n e r a l l y understand to mean adult educa-t i o n . Even i n books bearing the name l i f e l o n g education, there i s often scanty evidence p e r t a i n i n g to i t s philosophy. In short, the f i e l d of p r a c t i c e i s confused and t h i s m i r r o r s the sta t e of the concept. The Purposes of the Study There were three purposes to t h i s study. The f i r s t was to c l a r i f y the concept of l i f e l o n g education through i d e n t i f y i n g i t s c o n s t i t u e n t elements, or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and d e r i v i n g pos-t u l a t e s a s s o c i a t e d with them for the development of a d e f i n i -t i o n . The second was to create a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d instrument to measure the extent to which educators agree with the postu-l a t e s . The t h i r d was to p r e d i c t educators' agreement with them. Significance of this Study I t i s e s s e n t i a l that the concept of l i f e l o n g education be c l a r i f i e d before e m p i r i c a l evidence p e r t a i n i n g to i t s endorse-ment can be gathered. Many c o u n t r i e s c l a i m to be ^ p r a c t i s i n g ' l i f e l o n g education, and many books have been w r i t t e n on i t , but since no d e f i n i t e l i n e s have been d e l i n e a t e d f o r p r a c t i c e var-ious claims have been d i f f i c u l t to evaluate. For research purposes, i t i s necessary to develop a f a i r l y comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n with c o n s t i t u e n t elements of the concept, which should s p e l l out what i t would e n t a i l to make l e a r n i n g through-out l i f e p o s s i b l e . Hence, t h i s study involved three main steps. The f i r s t was to define l i f e l o n g education; the second was to 1 2 e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of an instrument b u i l t from the d e f i n i t i o n ; the t h i r d was to i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s , that could p r e d i c t educators' agreement with the concept of l i f e l o n g education. The r e s u l t s would be u s e f u l for p o l i c y makers who have to decide whether or not to adopt l i f e l o n g education as a 'master concept'. Strategy to Accomplish the Purposes The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the strategy employed to accom-p l i s h the three purposes of the study. Table 1 Strategy to Accomplish Purposes Purpose S t r a t e g i e s I II Developing def i n i t i o n Review l i t e r a t u r e I d e n t i f y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and derive p o s t u l a t e s Developing instrument Develop items from p o s t u l a t e s V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t s by experts and p i l o t subjects P r e d i c t ing agreement I d e n t i f y p r e d i c t o r s C o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s In developing a d e f i n i t i o n , a review of l i t e r a t u r e by authors having a d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n with UNESCO was regarded as having greatest relevance for t h i s study, since UNESCO has been the c h i e f proponent of l i f e l o n g education. This included the works of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on the Development of Education ( Faure, 1972), Lengrand (1975), Dave (1973, 1976, 1983) Cropley (1977, 1979) and G e l p i (1979, 1981, 1984, 1986a, 1986b). The ideas expressed by these authors were considered 13 more a u t h o r i t a t i v e than those of other w r i t e r s who appeared to have derived t h e i r notions from the UNESCO group. Yet even among these leading spokesmen there was l i m i t e d agreement con-cerning the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ^ l i f e l o n g education'. There were some basic p o i n t s on which they a l l seemed to agree, such as those concerning v d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n ' of education and the * impro-vement' of s o c i e t y , but there were others on which they d i f f e r . G e l p i was unique i n h i s s t r e s s on c u l t u r e being i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m , while Faure and Dave put s t r e s s on v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . In short, d i f f e r e n t i n s i g h t s were ap-p l i e d to p o s t u l a t e s concerning l i f e l o n g education. This v a r i a -t i o n i s understandable since they a l l wrote from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s and under d i f f e r e n t circumstances. Faure et a l (1972, p.v) were commissioned by UNESCO to suggest " o v e r a l l s o l u t i o n s to the major problems i n v o l v e d i n the development of education i n a changing universe", and made 21 recommendations. Lengrand wanted to "throw some l i g h t on the varying s i g n i f i c a n c e of the concept and to show what forces m i l i t a t e i n i t s favour", (Lengrand 1975, p.1) and he looked at l i f e l o n g education from a s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Dave (1976) hoped h i s work " w i l l make a humble c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the furtherance of understanding and implementation of l i f e l o n g education" and drew up twenty c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . G e l p i (1979) wanted to show what a s o c i e t y p r a c t i s i n g l i f e l o n g education would be l i k e , and provided nine-teen i n d i c a t o r s . Cropley (1977), a p s y c h o l o g i s t , approached the concept from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. In short, they p a r t l y d i f f e r e d and d u p l i c a t e d one another. Review of other 1 4 authors was a l s o necessary for c l a r i f y i n g the concept. For t h i s study i t was necessary to i d e n t i f y the c haracter-i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g education. Associated with each c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c were va r i o u s p o s t u l a t e s or i d e a l s , which, i f implemented, would a f f e c t p r a c t i c e i n the f i e l d . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were general statements d e s c r i b i n g each aspect of l i f e l o n g education. They were i n the form of s i s ' statements. The p o s t u l a t e s asso-c i a t e d with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i d e a l s and expressed as ^should be' statements. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s t u l a t e s , taken together, defined l i f e l o n g education. In developing an instrument to measure educators' agreement with l i f e l o n g education, the p o s t u l a t e s of l i f e l o n g education were used as items. The v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of these items had to be e s t a b l i s h e d by experts on l i f e l o n g education and p i l o t s u b j e c t s . Experts were used to examine content and con-s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , the p i l o t subjects f o r face v a l i d i t y , and both for r e l i a b i l i t y i n i n t e r n a l consistency purposes. In p r e d i c t i n g educators' agreement with l i f e l o n g education, e f f e c t s on personal i n t e r e s t s formed the bases of the p r e d i c -t i o n . I t was b e l i e v e d that aspects of educators' personal i n t e r e s t s would be a f f e c t e d i f the p o s t u l a t e s were to be imple-mented. P r e d i c t i v e v a r i a b l e s on educators' agreement with the p o s t u l a t e s were i d e n t i f i e d as r e l a t e d to personal p a r t i c u l a r s , such as age, sex, years of teaching experience, and s e l f -perceived progressiveness, the types of schools they worked i n and p o s i t i o n s h e l d . Moreover, what they perceived as the e f f e c t of the implementation on t h e i r personal i n t e r e s t s , such as t h e i r 15 perceived "career e f f e c t s " (on p r e s t i g e , a u t h o r i t y , job s e c u r i -t y , job d i f f i c u l t y and t o t a l advantages), would have p r e d i c t i v e i n f l u e n c e . The r a t i o n a l e f o r choosing these v a r i a b l e s i s given i n Chapter IV. R e l i a b i l i t y t e s t i n g by p i l o t subjects showed i n t e r n a l consistency of the instrument. Structure of the D i s s e r t a t i o n Chapter I has described the nature of l i f e l o n g education, f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i t s implementation and need to understand why educators 'agree' or 'disagree' with i t s p o s t u l a t e s . Figure I shows the steps associated with the execution of t h i s study. 16 Phase I - DEFINITION L i t e r a t u r e Review Ch. II "~1 D e r i v a t i o n of 17 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C a t e g o r i e s Ch. I l l <-D e r i v a t i o n of 51 " i n i t i a l " p o s t u l a t e s 51 " i n i t i a l " ' c o n t r a s t s ' Ch. I l l Phase II - INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT LLE S c a l e sent to 21 e x p e r t s f o r c o n t e n t 4 c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y 4 r e l i a b i l i t y p urposes Ch. V Ch. VII 1 LLE S c a l e , CES 4 SDQ sent to 36 p i l o t s u b j e c t s i n HK f o r face v a l i d i t y 4 r e l i a b i l i t y purposes Ch. V Ch. VII LLE S c a l e , CES 4 SDQ r e f i n e d P o s t u l a t e s reduced to 28 C o n t r a s t s reduced to 28 Ch. I l l , Ch. VII Phase I I I - METHOD " F i n a l " LLE S c a l e , CES 4 SDQ a d m i n i s t e r e d to 412 HK e d u c a t o r s Ch. IV Ch. VI i '  284 responses 270 U s a b l e Ch. VIII Phase IV - PREDICTING ACHEEMENT R e s u l t s - I Nature of Samp It Ch. V I I I 4  R e s u l t s II P r e d i c t i n g Agreement A. A n c i l l a r y hypotheses ( R e g r e s s i o n : Y=agreement, X^separate soc 1 o-demograph1c v a r i a b l e s ) B. Minor hypotheses ( R e g r e s s i o n : L a g n c a e n t , J . ' c j r t e t ' v a r i a b l e s , groups of s oc io—detaog r aph i c v a r i a b l e s ) C. Major hypotheses ( R e g r e s s i o n : Y = agreement , X='career* v a r i a b l e s , c o m b i n a t i o n of s o c l o - d e o o g r a p h I c v a r i a b l e s ) Ch. VIII i ' R e s u l t s I I I S e a r c h i n g f o r E x p l a n a t o r y Power Ch . IX Plgure I Phases Associated with Esecuclon of Study 1 7 The steps are c l a s s i f i e d under four phases - d e f i n i n g l i f e -long education, instrument development, method and p r e d i c t i n g agreement. Phase I deals with d e f i n i n g l i f e l o n g education. The process i s described i n chapters II and I I I , the former deals with the review of l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e l o n g education, the l a t t e r w ith c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g education and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d p o s t u l a t e s . Phase I I deals with independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s , and the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the instruments. These are described i n chapters IV and V. Chapter IV e x p l a i n s the inde-pendent and dependent v a r i a b l e s , and the hypotheses, Chapter V the design of the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t s . Phase I I I i s concerned with the method. The research design i s ex post f a c t o . The l o c a t i o n chosen, the population and sample are described i n Chapter VI. Phase IV involved r e f i n i n g the instruments, t e s t i n g hypo-theses and the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s used to p r e d i c t agreement with the p o s t u l a t e s . These steps are described i n chapters V I I , V I I I and IX. The f i r s t of these chapters des-c r i b e s the r e s u l t s of the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t s and the refinement of instruments, i . e . the L i f e l o n g Education Scale (LLE Scale) for measuring agreement with the p o s t u l a t e s (the dependent v a r i a b l e ) , the Career E f f e c t s Scale (CE Scale) and the Socio-demographic Questionnaire (SD Questionnaire) for pre-d i c t i n g agreement. The l a t t e r two chapters c o n t a i n the r e s u l t s of data c o l l e c t i o n , preparation and a n a l y s i s , the v e r i f i c a t i o n of the a n c i l l a r y , minor and major hypotheses, and the a n a l y s i s 1 8 of the p r e d i c t o r s and the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the p o s t u l a t e s imbed-ded i n the d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e l o n g education. A summary of the study, conclusions and recommendations are found i n Chapter X. The f o l l o w i n g chapter begins the review of l i t e r a t u r e . 1 9 CHAPTER II LITERATURE ON LIFELONG EDUCATION In t h i s chapter an account i s given of the review of l i t e r -ature on l i f e l o n g education undertaken to define the concept, which was Phase I of the study. A d e s c r i p t i o n i s given of the general background of the l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e , and how i t was roughly c a t e g o r i z e d and used. Background Between 1984 and 1986, s e v e r a l ERIC searches were done using the d e s c r i p t o r s : l i f e l o n g education, l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , c o n t i n u i n g education, p r o f e s s i o n a l education, recurrent educa-t i o n and adult education. Twelve books using the words, ' l i f e -long education' i n t h e i r t i t l e were found i n ERIC. A search of Psyc i n f o from Data Base i d e n t i f i e d nothing with ' l i f e l o n g edu-c a t i o n ' i n i t s t i t l e . But much l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e l o n g education could be found i n the IERS ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educational Reporting Service) of the UIE (UNESCO I n s t i t u t e of Education) i n Hamburg, and i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of L i f e l o n g Education. The l i s t drawn from the l a s t mentioned sources from 1982 onwards con-tained mainly commentaries, reports and recommendations for p r a c t i c e . This l i s t d e a l t with the broad f i e l d of p r a c t i c e . F i f t e e n books and 21 a r t i c l e s bearing the phrase ' l i f e l o n g education' i n the t i t l e s were reviewed. Thirteen books and three a r t i c l e s from f i v e UNESCO authors were used e x t e n s i v e l y to form the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s t u l a t e s . Works with ' l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ' i n t h e i r t i t l e were more 20 p l e n t i f u l than those with ^ l i f e l o n g education', but, on examina-t i o n , i t appeared that most equated ^ l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ' with v a d u l t education', e s p e c i a l l y i n the U.S.A. Those not e x c l u -s i v e l y r e l a t e d to x a d u l t education', mostly emphasized c u r r i c u -lum and methods (e.g. C l a r k , 1980; Van Bernem, 1981; Chambers & Sprecher, 1985). On the whole they d i d not seem to c l a r i f y the concept of l i f e l o n g education, except i n de-emphasizing the form of education. Some of the authors could be s a i d to form schools of t h e i r own, such as I l l i c h (1971), Tough (1979) and Ohliger (1983) i n that they promulgated " s e l f d i r e c t e d " aspects of education. There were a l s o p u b l i c a t i o n s l i s t e d under conti n u i n g education, p r o f e s s i o n a l education and recurrent education. These works mainly d e a l t with aspects of the concept put i n t o p r a c t i c e . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s there i s a b r i e f review of l i t e r -ature w r i t t e n since 1972, the year the Faure Report was p u b l i s h -ed. Works with ^ l i f e l o n g education' as part of t h e i r t i t l e s were emphasized, because the term i m p l i e d not only the concept, but a l s o the o r g a n i z a t i o n , system and process for the concept, so they s u i t the purposes of t h i s study. The l i t e r a t u r e could be roughly c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o that which elaborated the concept and that which concerned applying the concept. E l a b o r a t i n g the Concept The concept of l i f e l o n g education promulgated by Faure and the other members of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission of the Devel-opment of Education i n 1972 was elaborated during the 70's and e a r l y 80's. Faure et a l . (1972), who promoted the concept, made 21 21 recommendations for p r a c t i c e . In 1973 Dave, D i r e c t o r of the UNESCO I n s t i t u t e for Education at Hamburg, pinned down the concept under 20 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and subsequently made sugges-t i o n s concerning c u r r i c u l u m and teacher t r a i n i n g (1973, 1976, 1977, 1983). Lengrand (1975) was one of the founders of Peuple et Culture and, as a member of the UNESCO S e c r e t a r i a t , examined the foundations of l i f e l o n g education from a s o c i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In 1977, Cropley who was on leave and working at the UNESCO I n s t i t u t e of Education i n Hamburg (Cropley & Dave, 1978, p. v ) , wrote ^ L i f e l o n g education: a psy-c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s ' (Cropley, 1977) i n which he explored the p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimensions of l i f e l o n g education. G e l p i (1979, 1984, 1986a, 1986b) had experience a s s o c i a t i n g with workers ( I r e l a n d , 1979, p. i x ) , drew up 19 "implementation i n d i c a t o r s " , and examined unresolved problems concerning power and c o n t r o l . In h i s concern for workers and c u l t u r e , he str e s s e d the import-ance of l i f e l o n g education as a challenge to the unemployed. The p u b l i c a t i o n s by these authors were e s s e n t i a l to t h i s study because of t h e i r d i r e c t connection with UNESCO, which adopted the p a r t l y defined concept at i t s Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l Confer-ence on Adult Education at Montreal (1960), and o f f i c i a l l y promulgated i t at the T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Adult Education i n Tokyo (1972). Besides the UNESCO w r i t e r s already mentioned, other authors a l s o wrote about the concept, theory or philosophy of l i f e l o n g education. For example, Parrot claimed that l i f e l o n g education lacked a t h e o r e t i c a l base and suggested a r e s t r i c t i v e d e f i n i -22 t i o n . He s a i d the important p o i n t was to aim at r a i s i n g "people's consciousness of our perception of r e a l i t y , not to blow t h e i r minds with u n a t t a i n a b l e f a n t a s i e s " ( P a r r o t , 1974, p.143). Lawson (1982) looked at l i f e l o n g education from a l i b e r a l and a n a l y t i c perspective and found the concept l a c k i n g c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n . He thought the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of educa-t i o n had become b l u r r e d , and that the d i s t i n c t i o n between forma-t i v e i n f l u e n c e s and those chosen i n t e n t i o n a l l y by the i n d i v i d u a l and the s t a t e had become obscured. Wain (1985), r e a c t i n g to Lawson (1982) and others, considered l i f e l o n g education as being inadequate as a philosophy. I t s concern with formal operations m i l i t a t e d against the "utopic approaches" of philosophy. He sug-gested adopting the philosophy of John Dewey, thus p r o v i d i n g l i f e l o n g education with "the missing p h i l o s o p h i c a l paradigm" that was needed i n order to be i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and coher-ent as a programme. These c r i t i c s a l l pointed to the need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , and t h e i r works were u s e f u l i n shaping the ap-proach of t h i s study. Applying the Concept There was plenty of l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with the implementa-t i o n of l i f e l o n g education and much d e a l t with p o l i c y and p l a n -ning, finance and resources ( i n c l u d i n g l i b r a r i e s and museums), c u r r i c u l a , e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g , and teacher t r a i n i n g . This l i t e r a t u r e revealed basic problems faced by c o u n t r i e s i n t h e i r attempts to implement or advocate implementation of l i f e l o n g education. These were problems r e l a t -ed to educational systems already i n e x i s t e n c e , or to p r a c t i c e s 23 already accepted without q u e s t i o n , such as the lack of opportun-i t i e s for the i n t e g r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t stages of schooling and the emphasis on l e a r n e r s passing examinations rather than on l e a r n i n g how to l e a r n . This l i t e r a t u r e pointed out the d i f f e r -ent aspects of the concept, such as v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n , democratization and the t r a i n i n g of teachers, that should be included i n a d e f i n i t i o n . V e r t i c a l i n t e r g r a t i o n . Related to v e r t i c a l or l i f e l o n g i n t e g r a t i o n , p o l i c y and planning were the c h i e f concerns of w r i t e r s on l i f e l o n g education i n the 70's and 80's. P i e r c e (1976) complained about the a l l e g e d lack of an i n t e g r a t e d and organized p o l i c y f o r youth and a d u l t s that would help young a d u l t s i n t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n s between stages i n l i f e . He s t r e s s e d that education should meet the need of a d u l t s of a l l ages rather than merely serve i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . L inton (1980), w r i t i n g about B r i t a i n , o f f e r e d suggestions on how to make l i f e -long education a p p l i c a b l e to the e x i s t i n g educational system, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of adult education. He advocated using l i f e l o n g education as a u n i f y i n g system for planning. Olofsson's (1981) report on a recent l o n g i t u d i n a l p r o j e c t for e v a l u a t i n g the Swedish educational system was an example. I t involved x f o l l o w up' of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of s e q u e n t i a l cohorts as they l e f t formal education and entered ^working l i f e ' . I t out-l i n e d problem areas connecting secondary school and adult educa-t i o n , such as drop-out rates and r e j e c t i o n , and formed a p o s i -t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between attendance i n secondary education and attendance i n adult education. Allman (1982) challenged research 24 which assumed adulthood i s 'non-developmental'. She str e s s e d that adulthood should be conceived as a developmental p e r i o d , and that l i f e l o n g education was an instrument to f a c i l i t a t e the development. V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n required an improved c u r r i c u -lum to solve problems r e l a t e d to t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . G r i f f i n (1982) analysed the "adult c u r r i c u l u m " and l i f e l o n g education, and suggested that adult education as i t was i n B r i t a i n might be an obstacle to the development of an in t e g r a t e d l i f e l o n g education c u r r i c u l u m , because many adult education programmes were s t r u c -tured to supply second chances rather than to i n t e g r a t e the l e a r n i n g stages as was often s t r e s s e d i n l i f e l o n g education. He c a l l e d for a r e a p p r a i s a l of adult education content and str e s s e d the importance of t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . M i t t e r (1982) made a compar-a t i v e a n a l y s i s of four cases: Belgium, B r a z i l , N i g e r i a and Romania, focussing on t r a n s i t i o n s which confronted l e a r n e r s as they progressed through formal education from pre-school to work. So, c u r r i c u l a and t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y would be problems, i f v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n were overlooked. H o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . This involves planning for l i f e -wide l e a r n i n g , i n t e g r a t i o n of school, community and the world of work, and maximization of resources and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Furter (1977) approached l i f e l o n g education from: a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , socio-economic and p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , and viewed i t as i n f o r m a l , non-formal and formal. The importance of comprehen-s i v e , d i v e r s i f i e d and f l e x i b l e educational s t r u c t u r e s i n the context of l i f e l o n g education was emphasized by M i t t e r (1982). I n t e g r a t i o n of school, community, and the world of work was 25 s t r e s s e d by Guy (1981) who wrote on the i m p l i c a t i o n s and i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Vancouver (Canada) and F a i r f i e l d (New Zealand) t o show t h a t s c h o o l s and communities can be i n t e g r a t e d . Fincham (1982) drew a t t e n t i o n t o the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n f o r the secondary s c h o o l i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. He c o n s i d e r e d the p r e -sent secondary e d u c a t i o n as l a c k i n g r e l e v a n c e t o l i f e and found a sharp d i s c o n t i n u i t y between s c h o o l and work, the c u r r i c u l a e m p h a s i z i n g c o n t e n t r a t h e r than development of the i n d i v i d u a l , and the emphasis of most p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n s s t i l l on t e s t i n g " r e c a l l " . Urevbu (1985) d e s c r i b e d the p o l i c y adopted by the N i g e r i a n government i n i n t e g r a t i n g s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y i n t o a p o l i c y of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n based on the cha n g i n g s o c i e t a l needs of the c o u n t r y . For example, a l l i n d u s t r i e s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o take on a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n of s c h o o l - b a s e d appren-t i c e s and government departments r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a p p r e n t i -c e s h i p p l a c e s . He enumerated the problems of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and suggested g u i d e l i n e s t o s o l v e them. The i n t e g r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n and work i s a t the b a s i s of the problem. In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system, r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be put t o maximum use, and more e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among p r o v i d e r s of f o r m a l , non-formal and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n than had been g e n e r a l l y done. Wolfenden (1973) d i s c u s s e d the c o n t r a s t s be-tween museums and l i b r a r i e s i n t h e 1920's and now, and c l a i m e d t h a t e a r l i e r museums and l i b r a r i e s were d u l l p l a c e s but now t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e d awareness of the need f o r c o l o u r and en-joyment i n such p l a c e s . He drew a t t e n t i o n t o the need f o r t e a c h -26 e r s t o r e g a r d l i b r a r i a n s and museum e d u c a t o r s as p a r t n e r s . W i l l i a m s (1977) e d i t e d a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n on Sweden, Quebec, Zambia, V e n e z u e l a , P o l a n d and Ghana, showing examples of the e f f e c t s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n on the use of u n i v e r s i t y r e s o u r c e s i n t h e s e p l a c e s , i n the hope t h a t , o t h e r c o u n t r i e s knowing such s h a r i n g , would have changes i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s . H o c h l e i t n e r , A r t i g a s and Cuerpo (1978) r e p o r t e d on the S p a n i s h e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m which they c l a i m e d had been based on the p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . They saw the G e n e r a l Educa-t i o n Law as an attempt t o implement l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . That e f f o r t met w i t h such problems as " c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s be-tween t e a c h e r s and the aims of the re f o r m ; ... a tendency t o r e g a r d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g as an e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l r a t h e r than as a b r i d g e between s c h o o l and employment; s e t b a c k s i n the s t r u g g l e between o l d and new e d u c a t i o n a l methods and p r a c t i c e s " , (p. 7 8 ) . The b i g g e s t problems appeared t o be the l a c k of f i n a n -c e , which came up a g a i n and a g a i n . Rubenson (1981) made r e f e r -ence t o a stu d y on s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g and c r i t i z e d i t s inedequacy f o r p o l i c y purposes s i n c e i t c o n c e n t r a t e d o n l y on the p r o c e s s e s and frequ e n c y of t h i s l e a r n i n g and n e g l e c t e d the outcomes f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . F o r r e s e a r c h t o be u s e f u l f o r d e c i s i o n p u r p o s e s , the p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e l o n g educa-t i o n and s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g must be r e l a t e d t o e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s of the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n . He thought f u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d l o o k i n t o the e f f i c a c y of i n d i v i d u a l r e s o u r c e s as a g a i n s t c o l l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s and the r o l e of e d u c a t i o n i n s o c i a l change. K u l i c h (1932) wrote on the r o l e s t o be p l a y e d by 27 u n i v e r s i t i e s : i n a d d i t i o n t o g e n e r a t i n g new knowledge i n r e -s e a r c h they a l s o c o n t r i b u t e i n c r e a s i n g l y t o l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n t h r o u g h undergraduate and g r a d u a t e programmes and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . He a s s e r t e d t h a t government sup p o r t f o r u n i v e r s i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia i n p r o m o t i n g l i f e -l o n g e d u c a t i o n was i n s u f f i c i e n t . Such l i t e r a t u r e showed t h a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n on f i n a n c e and r e s o u r c e a s p e c t s of l i f e l o n g educa-t i o n was needed. D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . In 1982 the Japanese C e n t r a l C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n (Japanese Government, 1982) recommended measures f o r the r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l system based on the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Among the o b s t a c l e s t o implemen-t a t i o n were: c o m p e t i t i o n t o e n t e r p r e s t i g i o u s s c h o o l s and acad-emic c a r e e r s , l e s s e n i n g of f a m i l y e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n due t o u r b a n i z a t i o n and cramming of academic knowledge i n s c h o o l t o the n e g l e c t of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i n i n g . Reform was underway. In the p r o v i s i o n a l F o u r t h and F i n a l Report on E d u c a t i o n a l Reform (Japanese Government, 1987), many of the elements found i n l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n were s t r e s s e d , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i n g more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g o u t s i d e the f o r m a l s c h o o l system, and the r e c o g n i t i o n of knowledge g a i n e d o u t s i d e f o r m a l s c h o o l s . Such l i t e r a t u r e showed t h a t e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t -u n i t i e s when implementing l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n was a p r e r e q u i s i t e , f o r w i t h o u t t h a t i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o f o s t e r p o s i t i v e a t t i -tude of l e a r n i n g , s i n c e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o p r e s t i g -i o u s s c h o o l s and academic c a r e e r s would always be p r e s e n t , and cramming c o u l d not be d i s c o u r a g e d . 28 Teacher t r a i n i n g . The t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s has been one of the c h i e f c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by the UNESCO a u t h o r s . Lynch (1977) s t r e s s e d t h a t knowledge of s e l f , of c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y , of p r o d u c t i o n and the environment were i m p o r t a n t elements of t e a -c h e r t r a i n i n g . Dove (1982) p o i n t e d out t h a t the t e a c h e r p l a y e d a p i v o t a l r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o s i t i v e and f r u i t f u l r e l a t i o n -s h i p between s c h o o l and community i n a " h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d " system of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e j u s t d i s c u s s e d c o n s i s t e d m o s t l y of r e p o r t s and recommendations. The a r e a s c o v e r e d r e v e a l e d some of the p r o -blems, such a s : the f a i l u r e of governments t o p l a n e d u c a t i o n as a u n i f i e d system of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , thus r e s u l t i n g i n a l a c k of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t r a n s i t i o n s from y o u t h t o a d u l t ; and a l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the importance of l e a r n e r s * d e v e l o p i n g a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than cramming i n knowledge f o r the p a s s i n g of e x a m i n a t i o n s . In the e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l systems a c l e a r and d e f i n i t e concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n had t o be un d e r s t o o d b e f o r e i t c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented. Such l i t e r a t u r e showed t h a t the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n was s u b j e c t t o m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the above mentioned r e s e a r c h and c r i t i q u e s of r e s e a r c h were not d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t o r y towards t h i s s t u d y , they showed the type of r e s e a r c h on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n b e i n g c o v e r e d . There i s a l a r g e a r e a and much r e s e a r c h i s needed. I f the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s not c l a r i f i e d , the f i e l d w i l l remain an unmapped t e r r a i n as f a r as r e s e a r c h i s con c e r n e d . On the whole, the l i t e r a t u r e r e v iewed p o i n t e d the way t o the k i n d of p o s t u -29 l a t e s that should be deriv e d from the l i t e r a t u r e . No Clear D e f i n i t i o n The l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s review c o n s i s t e d mainly of d e s c r i p -t i o n s of l i f e l o n g education. But no research had been reported to show the l o g i c a l consistency of the po s t u l a t e s underlying the concept. In f a c t , there was s t i l l no c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the concept. Although many people had expounded on the concept, there was no o f f i c i a l pronouncement to c l a r i f y or r i g o u r o u s l y define what they meant by l i f e l o n g education or what i t e n t a i l e d in p r a c t i c e . Even prominent authors from UNESCO wrote t h e i r works for d i f f e r e n t reasons, but not s t r i c t l y to define the concept. For example, Faure et a l . (1972) wrote a report for the D i r e c t o r General of UNESCO, Rene Maheu, from whom they received the appointment to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on the Development of Education (Faure, 1972, p.v). Lengrand (1975) wrote h i s work for the Member States of the General Conference of UNESCO (Lengrand, 1975, p.1). Both Dave (1973, 1976, 1983) and Ge l p i (1979, 1984, 1986a, 1986b) wrote with the member co u n t r i e s of UNESCO i n mind. Cropley (1977) s a i d he wrote h i s work with "a wide audience in mind," such as newcomers i n t o the f i e l d of l i f e l o n g education, s c h o l a r s , i n s t r u c t o r s of teacher t r a i n i n g and students (Cropley 1977, pp. 7-8). Everyone was using the words, and se v e r a l examined i t s systemic q u a l i t i e s . But only a few ever presented a set of po s t u l a t e s which govern-ments could adopt. Because of the f a c t that each of these prominent authors had a d e f i n i t e purpose i n mind when he wrote h i s work, so each 30 e x p r e s s e d l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e r e f o r e , a framework f o r the concept was needed, and u n t i l one was d e v e l o p e d and endorsed by r e l e v a n t a u t h o r i t i e s , those who used the term l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n would c o n t i n u e t o d e a l w i t h v a r i o u s c o n c e p t s w h i l e c a l l i n g them a l l by the same name. Literature for De f i n i t i o n The concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n was not the i n v e n t i o n of UNESCO, but i n r e c e n t decades, UNESCO has been i t s c h i e f propon-e n t . T h e r e f o r e , a u t h o r s d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h UNESCO were of g r e a t e s t r e l e v a n c e and t h e i r w r i t i n g s became the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the l i s t of p o s t u l a t e s d e v e l o p e d h e r e . Other w r i t e r s appear-ed t o have d e r i v e d t h e i r i d e a s from t h e s e l e a d i n g w r i t e r s . T h e r e f o r e , i n d e f i n i n g the c o n c e p t , l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o the concept l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n from the UNESCO a u t h o r s a l r e a d y men-t i o n e d was the p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e . Among the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the s e UNESCO a u t h o r s t h e r e were d u p l i c a t i o n s and d i f f e r e n t emphases. To c l a r i f y the concept i t was n e c e s s a r y t o p i n i t down t o c o n c r e t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s t u l a t e s , which were s t a t e m e n t s e x p r e s s i n g what the c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s would imply when b e i n g put i n t o p r a c t i c e . The re v i e w of l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t e d out d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the concept and the d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s t h a t would c o n s t i t u t e a b a s i c framework f o r the d e f i n i t i o n of the c o n c e p t . In the next c h a p t e r an account i s g i v e n of the p r o c e s s used t o d e r i v e the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n and the a s s o c i a t e d p o s t u l a t e s . 31 CHAPTER I I I DERIVING CHARACTERISTICS AND POSTULATES The v a r i o u s phases a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s study were shown i n F i g u r e I a t the end of Chapter I . T h i s c h a p t e r belongs t o Phase I of the s t u d y . As n o t e d , the purposes of the study were t o c l a r i f y the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h d e r i v i n g pos-t u l a t e s f o r a f a i r l y comprehsive d e f i n i t i o n , t o measure educa-t o r s ' agreement w i t h the p o s t u l a t e s and t o e x p l a i n v a r i a n c e i n agreement. Steps taken t o a c h i e v e these t h r e e purposes were i n t e r r e l a t e d . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o measure "agreement" u n t i l such time as a d e f e n s i b l e i n s t r u m e n t was d e v e l o p e d , and the i n s t r u m e n t c o u l d not be d e v e l o p e d u n t i l such time as l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n had been d e f i n e d . T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the s t e p s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o r m u l a t i n g the d e f i n i t i o n s u b s e q u e n t l y used i n the development of the i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s i n v o l v e d p r o c e d u r e s d e s i g n e d t o d e r i v e a s e t of p o s t u l a t e s c o n c e r n i n g l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n from s e m i n a l l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Faure Report L e a r n i n g t o Be. There were 21 recommendations g i v e n by Faure e t a l . (1972), twenty c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Dave (1983), n i n e t e e n i n d i c a t o r s by G e l p i (1979) and v a r i o u s p o i n t s s t r e s s e d by C r o p l e y (1977) and Lengrand (1975). These recommendations and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i e d i n emphases. T h i s c h a p t e r shows how t h e s e recommenda-t i o n s , i n d i c a t o r s and p o i n t s can be c a t e g o r i z e d under seventeen " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " and a s s o c i a t e d " p o s t u l a t e s " . The p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s . 32 D e r i v i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Categories The recommendations (Faure e t a l . 1972), the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s (Dave 1983), the i n d i c a t o r s ( G e l p i , 1979) the o t h e r p o i n t s s t r e s s e d by C r o p l e y (1977) and Lengrand (1975) were f i r s t l i s t e d and c l a s s i f i e d i n t o groups of r e l a t e d i d e a s (see Appendix A ) . T h i s p r o c e s s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n seventeen groups. These groups of r e l a t e d i d e a s were e x p r e s s e d w i t h one g e n e r a l ' u m b r e l l a ' statement showing t h e i r c e n t r a l concept or commonali-t y . The ' u m b r e l l a ' statement f o r m u l a t e d f o r each group c o u l d be s a i d t o be a ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ' of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n embodying the i d e a s of p o s t u l a t e s e x p r e s s e d by the UNESCO a u t h o r s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f e l l i n t o the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 1) i n h e r e n t , t h a t i s , e x p r e s s i n g the essence of l i f e l o n g educat i o n ; 2) f undamental, t h o s e which are e s s e n t i a l , or the absence of which would r e s u l t i n d i s t o r t i n g the e n t i r e c o n c e p t ; 3) d e s i r a b l e , those which would enhance the meaning or o p e r a t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . The Seventeen C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The r a t i o n a l e s f o r seventeen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and example q u o t a t i o n s a r e i n accordance w i t h the p o s t u l a t e s r e t a i n e d f o r the f i n a l v e r s i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , (see Appendix B on O r i g -i n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and P o s t u l a t e s ) . D e t a i l e d m a t e r i a l s con-t a i n e d i n the a p p e n d i c e s are i n t e n d e d f o r t h o s e who w i s h t o compare the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s t u l a t e s w i t h the o r i g i n a l i d e a s from the l i t e r a t u r e . 33 Inherent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e v e a l s the essence of the concept. L i f e l o n g education i s not j u s t a c c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e , but involves conscious and planned processes of l e a r n i n g c a r r i e d out during people's l i v e s . This i s inherent, because i f t h i s i s not understood by governments and p r o v i d e r s , i t cannot be s a i d that l i f e l o n g education i s used as *a master concept'. Therefore, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1) Education covers the e n t i r e l i f e - s p a n of  i n d i v i d u a l s (Faure et a l , 1972, p.182; Cropley, 1979, p.9; Dave, 1983, p.3). There i s only one q u i n t e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c - l i f e l o n g -ness. The f o l l o w i n g are statements expressed by d i f f e r e n t authors: The l i f e l o n g concept covers a l l aspects of education, embracing everything i n i t , with the whole being more than the sum of i t s p a r t s . . . . we propose l i f e l o n g education as the master concept f o r educational p o l i -c i e s i n the years to come for both developed and de-velo p i n g c o u n t r i e s (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 182). The s i n g l e most obvious idea i n w r i t i n g s about l i f e -long education i s that i t should be something which goes on throughout people's l i v e s (Cropley, 1979, p. 9) . The three basic terms upon which the meaning of the concepts i s based are " l i f e " , " l i f e l o n g " and "educa-t i o n " (Dave, 1983, p.3). To compensate for the neglect of pre-school and adult education i n t r a d i t i o n a l systems, Faure et a l . advocated g i v i n g p r i o r i t y to the development of pre-school and adult education (Faure et a l . , 1972, pp.191, 206). But i f education f o r l i f e i s s t r e s s e d there should be no need to s t r e s s p r i o r i t y for any age-group unless a s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s i t must invest a d i s p r o p o r t i o n -34 ate amount of resources on one age group i n order to compensate for previous inadequacies. The reasons why education should be l i f e l o n g are numerous and v a r i e d , the c h i e f ones being r e l a t e d to change. The conse-quences of change have strong i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l i f e l o n g educa-t i o n . For example, a lower i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y rate and a longer l i f e expectancy increase the pre-school age group and lengthen post retirement periods. This c a l l s f o r an increase i n places for kindergarten as w e l l as r e t r a i n i n g and readjustment. Tech-n o l o g i c a l change brings on obsolescence and a l s o c a l l s for re-t r a i n i n g or redeployment. When changes occur q u i c k l y , people may s u f f e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , unless given a chance to l e a r n how to adapt at any time during t h e i r l i v e s . Education should help people analyse what changes they should r e s i s t or promote. Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The next eleven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are grouped under the fund-amental category. They deal with e s s e n t i a l aspects of the con-cept; l i f e l o n g education would be incomplete without any one of them. They include philosophy that regards knowledge as being t e n t a t i v e and r e l a t e d to l i f e ; v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of education throughout l i f e and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t aspects of education; a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g ; freedom of choice i n subject matter and p l a c e ; easy e n t r y - e x i t -r e - e n t r y ; d i v e r s i f i e d educational p r o v i s i o n ; s p e c i a l teacher t r a i n i n g ; shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with l e a r n e r s i n the management of the educational e n t e r p r i s e ; s o c i e t a l improvement and a peace-f u l world community. The eleven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are considered 35 as fundamental to the concept of l i f e l o n g education. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 2) Knowledge i s held to be r e l a t e d to l i f e  s i t u a t i o n s (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.xxx; Lengrand, i n Cropley, 1979, p 32.). This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s important because i t gives the un-d e r l y i n g reason why education should be provided f o r the e n t i r e l i f e - s p a n of an i n d i v i d u a l . This notion i s based on the fa c t that modern world changes cause many s i t u a t i o n s to be t r a n s i e n t . For example, Faure et a l . wrote, One i m p l i c a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c i a l era i s that knowledge i s being c o n t i n u a l l y modified and innovations renewed (Faure, 1972, p. xxx). Lengrand explained, The t r a d i t i o n a l concept of knowledge i s i t s e l f i n c r e a -s i n g l y i n doubt. Up to now knowledge has u s u a l l y been considered to be something by i t s e l f . . . . But t h i s i s only one component of knowledge, the component con-t a i n e d i n manuals, encyclopaedias, t r e a t i s e s and a r t i -c l e s . . . . [But there i s the other which holds t h a t ] there i s no other knowledge than the r e l a t i o n s h i p the i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h e s with the object he wants to know....This conception of knowledge has a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s of v i t a l importance f o r l i f e l o n g educa-t i o n . I f knowledge does not e x i s t by i t s e l f , and i f i t has no s t a b i l i t y , then we must stop c l i n g i n g to i t as i f i t were a piece of s o l i d rock (Lengrand, i n Cropley, 1979, p. 32). Therefore, Education should be conceived as a process of s e l f -f u l f i l m e n t rather than as a cu r r i c u l u m to be l e a r n t (Faure, 1972, p. 143). In other words, l e a r n e r s should be taught the s k i l l to le a r n more than they should be required to absorb ready-made knowledge (Lengrand in Cropley, 1979, p.35). Knowledge i s con-c e i v e d of as the r e s u l t of an i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n . One has to make information meaningful to one's own l i f e s i t u a t i o n , whether 36 using i t to solve a problem or to s a t i s f y c u r i o s i t y . Only then can one c l a i m to have increased one's knowledge. Hence knowing how to l e a r n i s more convenient than c a r r y i n g a baggage load of info r m a t i o n . But t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c should not be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean that there i s not a need for some fundamental knowledge. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 3) The d i f f e r e n t stages of l i f e and know- ledge are to be v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.183; Dave, 1983, p.6; Cropley, 1977, p.79, p.93). The understanding of growth, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of mean-i n g f u l knowledge, and the demands made by changes, c a l l f or i n t e g r a t i o n . As Cropley put i t , Growth i s , in f a c t , i n t e g r a t e d over time, or v e r t i c a l -l y i n t e g r a t e d . This i n t e r l o c k i n g growth process be-gins i n e a r l i e s t infancy so that i t i s l i f e l o n g . . . . l e a r n i n g i s r i g h t l y viewed as a continuous f a b r i c s t r e t c h i n g over a l i f e t i m e (Cropley, 1977, p. 93). Cropley elaborated f u r t h e r , With p s y c h o l o g i c a l development, people acquire pat-terns of motives, the c a p a c i t y to experience emotions, an image of themselves as a c e r t a i n kind of a person, and so on. Each phase of development i n these domains i s l i n k e d to preceding phases and to subequent phases, so that events at one time i n the developmental pro-cess i n t e r a c t with those at both e a r l i e r and l a t e r times (Cropley, 1977, p. 97). The periods when people are most motivated by d i f f e r e n t events to l e a r n are the best time for them to be taught. Such events happen i n d i f f e r e n t periods of l i f e . In other words, there are teachable moments i n the d i f f e r e n t periods of l e a r n -ers' l i v e s which should be discovered and used by educators, e s p e c i a l l y those when l e a r n e r s are most motivated and have the " w i l l i n g n e s s to focus e f f o r t " (Cropley, 1977, p. 102-103). The understanding of knowledge being t r a n s i e n t and r e l a t e d only to l i f e s i t u a t i o n s c a l l s f or v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Educa-37 t i o n systems should be an expression of such a v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a -t i o n , for as Lengrand put i t , The f i r s t question i s to what extent knowledge of any subject i s l a s t i n g and changeless. Apart from some ab-s t r a c t t r u t h s not subject to v a r i a t i o n s of experience, such as mathematical data, the domain of knowledge expands and changes at such a pace that anyone who does not r e g u l a r l y adapt h i s conceptions to the r e a l i -ty of f a c t s and the e v o l u t i o n of ideas, f i n d s himself reduced to a t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y f a l s e v i s i o n of the area i n which he i s engaged. Regular r e c y c l i n g , as fre q u e n t l y as p o s s i b l e , thus seems indispensable (Lengrand, i n Cropley, 1979, p.31). Again he s a i d , Knowledge i t s e l f i s an i n t e r n a l operation c a r r i e d out by a mind which resolves a problem, f i n d s an answer to a que s t i o n . . . . But every i n d i v i d u a l can a c t u a l i z e h i s p o t e n t i a l i n h i s own way, according to h i s own rhythm depending on the general b i o l o g i c a l s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t s and the p a r t i c u l a r happenings at that moment i n h i s l i f e (Lengrand, i n Cropley, 1979, p. 32). Faure c a l l e d f or i n t e g r a t i o n through the a b o l i t i o n of "ar-t i f i c i a l and out-dated b a r r i e r s between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of ed-ucation " (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.189), so that l e a r n e r s might move along the educational system with ease. His statement was supported by G e l p i , who advocated " i n t e g r a t i o n between i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g and subsequent t r a i n i n g " ( G e l p i , 1979, p.x). C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 4 ) The d i f f e r e n t aspects of education, such  as subject d i s c i p l i n e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and educators, r e l a t e d to  the d i f f e r e n t aspects of l i f e are to be h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e - grated (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.189; G e l p i , 1979, p.x; Dave, 1983, p. 6) . The c h i e f reason for the i n t e g r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t subject d i s c i p l i n e s i s that t r a d i t i o n a l education with i t s emphasis on separate d i s c i p l i n e s and s p e c i a l i s a t i o n s produces people of d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s who are often unable to understand one another, and le a r n e r s who are l i m i t e d in t h e i r choice of work. 38 As Faure (1972) e x p l a i n e d , the t r a d i t i o n a l "academic model" of e d u c a t i o n , which s e p a r a t e s s o - c a l l e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n from so-c a l l e d t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , has the s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e of p r e p a r i n g p e o p l e o n l y f o r a l i m i t e d number of p r o f e s s i o n s , and of r u l i n g out the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r i t s g r a d u a t e s , when j o b s a r e s c a r -c e , of t u r n i n g , even t e m p o r a r i l y , t o the t e c h n i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s they have been ta u g h t t o d e s p i s e ( F a u r e , 1972, p . x x x i ) . T h i s i s no h e l p t o f u l l development of the whole p e r s o n . T h e r e f o r e , Faure suggested t h a t a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s "between d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s , c o u r s e s ... and between form-a l and non-formal e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d " (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p.189). G e l p i went t o the r o o t of the m a t t e r and c a l l e d f o r the " a b o l i t i o n of any r a n k i n g between the s o - c a l l e d manual d i s -c i p l i n e s and the s o - c a l l e d i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e s " ( G e l p i , 1979, p. x ) . The t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e p l a c e s i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s -c i p l i n e s h i g h e r i n a s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y than manual d i s c i p l i n e s , which i n c l u d e "the t e c h n i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s they [ t h e l e a r n e r s ] have been ta u g h t t o d e s p i s e " ( F a u r e , 1972, p . x x x i ) . Such an a t t i t u d e , e m p h a s i z i n g s t a t u s , i s an o b s t a c l e t o h o r i -z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of e d u c a t i o n . Moreover, emphasis on d i c h o t o m i z i n g g e n e r a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g would mean t u r n i n g out s t u d e n t s who a r e e i t h e r i l l -e quipped f o r employment or l a c k a sense of c u l t u r e and r e f i n e -ment. T h e r e f o r e , the w o r l d of s c h o o l s h o u l d a l s o be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the w o r l d of work. Dave gave h i s reason f o r the h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of l i f e as f o l l o w s : 39 ... i n t e g r a t i o n between the p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , a f f e c t i v e and s p i r i t u a l aspects of l i f e i s necessary for f u l l development of p e r s o n a l i t y . Such an i n t e g r a -t i o n i s a l s o required f o r performing personal, s o c i a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s i n a harmonious manner and for t a k i n g care of a l l tasks ranging from the simplest to the most complex ones i n an o p t i m a l l y e f f e c t i v e man-ner (Dave, 1983, p. 6). The key idea of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s for the develop-ment of a f u l l p e r s o n a l i t y so that one can perform one's d i f f e r -ent l i f e r o l e s i n a harmonious manner. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 5) Education i s to develop i n the l e a r n e r s a  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.xxix; Cropley & Dave, 1978, p.12, 20, 31). This i s an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g education, for without i t l i f e l o n g education could not be maintained. One of the drawbacks of t r a d i t i o n a l education seems to be i t s f a i l -ure to f o s t e r i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g . In c e r t a i n regions where only h a l f of a l l c h i l d r e n are able to enter school, that h a l f again of that h a l f [meaning h a l f of those who have entered school] f a i l to adapt to i t , and become discouraged even dur-ing primary education (Faure, 1972, p. x x i x ) . Therefore i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t , the purpose of l i f e l o n g education i s that of i n -f l u e n c i n g the process of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g which a l -ready e x i s t s . The goal i s not that of making l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g occur; that already happens. What i s needed i s an education system which i s capable of a i d i n g , g u i d i n g , systematizing and a c c e l e r a t i n g the process of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , i n order to improve i t s e f f i c i e n c y , increase i t s extent, provide i t with goals and pur-poses, and make i t more capable of meeting the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l (Cropley & Dave, 1978, p. 20). The s k i l l r equired for l i f e l o n g education i s what Dave (1983) termed e d u c a b i l i t y , which includes i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n , s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , w i l l i n g n e s s to be a learner plus studying and information gathering s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s to 40 enable one to obtain relevant knowledge when needed. Therefore, A teacher should f a c i l i t a t e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l e a r n i n g process (Cropley & Dave, 1978, p. 31). Learners should be t r a i n e d to regard l e a r n i n g as some-th i n g relevant to t h e i r l i v e s (Cropley & Dave, 1978, p. 12). Learning how to l e a r n i s important to the whole process of l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e , i f i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g i s to be main-t a i n e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 6) Learners are given freedom of choice i n  where to l e a r n t h e i r subjects of i n t e r e s t (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.220; Dave, 1983, p.7). The proponents of l i f e l o n g education endorse freedom of choice: I t should be made a p r i n c i p l e to centre educational a c t i v i t y on the l e a r n e r , to allow him greater and greater freedom as he matures, to decide for himself what he wants to l e a r n , and how and where he wants to le a r n i t and take h i s t r a i n i n g (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 220). To become " a u t o d i d a c t i c " ( G e s t r e l i u s , 1977, p. 12 i n Cropley, 1979, p. 18) i s the term given to s e l f governed l e a r n -ing . The p r a c t i c a l problems involved p r o v i d i n g for freedom of choice would be the concern of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and planners, since there has to be s u f f i c i e n t s u b j e c t s ' t o choose from and enough places to go t o . But s t i l l , Dave st r e s s e d that l i f e l o n g education i s " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and d i v e r s i t y i n content, l e a r n i n g t o o l s and techniques and time of l e a r n i n g " , and " a l t e r n a t i v e patterns and forms of a c q u i r i n g education" (Dave, 1983, p.7). Since i n t e r e s t s vary from person to person and from time to time i n the person's l i f e , a d i v e r s i f i e d choice of subject matter i s necessary to meet the need. 41 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 7) D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s  i s s t ressed (Faure et a l . , 1972, p! 183; Cropley, 1979, p.74; Dave, 1983, p.7). P r o v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y t i e d up with the l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g process, f o r i f p r o v i s i o n i s inadequate, i t would be p o i n t l e s s to persuade people not to stock up knowledge but to l e a r n as the need a r i s e s throughout l i f e . I t makes i t s appeal to a l l kinds of agencies: school, c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y but e q u a l l y the f a m i l y , the community and the world of work, books, press, theatre and the media fo r mass communication (Richmond quot-ing Lengrand i n Cropley, 1979, p. 74). Dave a l s o wrote, L i f e l o n g education includes both formal and non-formal patterns of education, planned as w e l l as i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g (Dave, 1983, p.7). Faure st r e s s e d the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of educational i n s t i t u t i o n s : Educational i n s t i t u t i o n s and means must be m u l t i p l i e d , made more a c c e s s i b l e , o f f e r the i n d i v i d u a l a f a r more d i v e r s i f i e d choice. Education must assume the propor-t i o n s of a true mass movement (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 183) . I t i s easy to see that adequacy and d i v e r s i t y should a l s o be s t r e s s e d i n such places of l e a r n i n g , since the education of the c i t i z e n s i s dependent on them. Faure suggested d i v e r s i f i c a -t i o n through d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , e.g. ... business, i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l firms w i l l have extensive educational f u n c t i o n s . . . . Their r o l e should not be l i m i t e d to t r a i n i n g workers, but extend-ed so f a r as p o s s i b l e to t r a i n i n g t e c h n i c i a n s and researchers (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 198). In so doing, d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s provided f o r , and the business, i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l firms w i l l a l s o have the r i g h t kind of personnel and share the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g and research. 42 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 8) E n t r y - e x i t - r e - e n t r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s are  provided f o r a l l kinds of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experiences (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.186, p.203; Cropley & Dave, 1978, p.14; Lengrand, 1975, p.50). This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y i f education i s to be l i f e l o n g . Faure et a l . wrote, As educational systems become more d i v e r s i f i e d and as p o s s i b i l i t i e s for entry, e x i t and re-entry increase, o b t a i n i n g u n i v e r s i t y degrees and diplomas should be-come l e s s and l e s s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to completing a predetermined course of study (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 203) . Each person should be able to choose h i s path more f r e e l y , i n a more f l e x i b l e framework, without being compelled to give up using educational s e r v i c e s for l i f e i f he leaves the system (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 186). Under most e x i s t i n g systems i t i s d i f f i c u l t for persons to enter education at t h e i r appropriate l e v e l a f t e r l e a v i n g school, since l i f e experience and knowledge gained out of school are not o r d i n a r i l y recognized academically. Cropley and Dave pointed out, F i n a l l y , i t would not suppose that an i n d i v i d u a l i s committed to a s i n g l e l i f e path as a r e s u l t of educa-t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s taken i n childhood, but would permit change, for example through new l e a r n i n g c a r r i e d out a f t e r the period of conventional schooling had ended (Cropley & Dave, 1978, p. 14). And Lengrand a l s o emphasized t h a t , The notion that a man can accomplish h i s l i f e span wit