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Lifelong education : definition, agreement and prediction Shak, Therese W.H. 1989

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LIFELONG EDUCATION: DEFINITION, AGREEMENT AND  PREDICTION  by Therese W. H. Shak B.A.(Hons.), The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1957 G.C.I.E., The U n i v e r s i t y of H u l l , U.K., M.A.,  1963  The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1972  M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT  OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,  A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, ©  1989  Therese W. H. Shak, 1989  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this or  thesis for by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be her  representatives.  permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  DE-6 (2/88)  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  ABSTRACT L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , promulgated by Faure e t . a l . (1972) and e l a b o r a t e d by UNESCO, because  has been d i f f i c u l t t o implement.  This i s  i t s c e n t r a l components a r e not w e l l i d e n t i f i e d and i t  c a l l s f o r a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of e d u c a t i o n systems.  Moreover, advo-  cates  of  the e x t e n t  which  e d u c a t o r s agree w i t h the concept,  that  l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n know l i t t l e about  quo.  systems  r e s i s t changes t h a t t h r e a t e n t h e i r c a r e e r s or t h e s t a t u s This  through lates  study  had t h r e e purposes:  to c l a r i f y  the  concept  i d e n t i f y i n g i t s c o n s t i t u e n t elements and d e r i v i n g  postu-  from them and thus c o n t r i b u t e towards i t s d e f i n i t i o n ,  develop  an i n s t r u m e n t t o measure the e x t e n t t o which  accept these p o s t u l a t e s , The attempt was  to  educators  and t o p r e d i c t "agreement" w i t h  them.  t o c o n t r i b u t e toward a d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e l o n g educacommenced  by f o r m u l a t i n g  seventeen  characteristics  i n c o r p o r a t i n g i d e a s or assumptions of a u t h o r s d i r e c t l y with  recognize  those who occupy p o s i t i o n s of power w i t h i n p r e s e n t  might  tion  and need t o  to  UNESCO.  An  instrument,  embodying  28  connected  postulates,  was  c r e a t e d t o measure "agreement" w i t h l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . An a r r a y of  socio-demographic  experience,  v a r i a b l e s (age, s e x , y e a r s  self-perceived progressiveness,  of  teaching  types of s c h o o l s ,  and p o s i t i o n ) and p e r c e i v e d c a r e e r e f f e c t s (on p r e s t i g e , a u t h o r ity,  job security,  j o b d i f f i c u l t y and o t h e r advantages)  were  used as independent v a r i a b l e s t o p r e d i c t agreement w i t h l i f e l o n g education. The  content,  c o n s t r u c t and face v a l i d i t y of t h e  E d u c a t i o n S c a l e used t o measure agreement, ii  Lifelong  was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h  the  a s s i s t a n c e of n i n e t e e n e x p e r t s on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n  ciated  w i t h UNESCO and 36 p i l o t s u b j e c t s i n Hong Kong.  scale  consisted  of 28 item p a i r s ( p o s t u l a t e s  and  assoThe LLE  contrasts).  T o t a l s c o r e s were d e r i v e d by summing over i t e m s .  Although  long  there  education  attempt Scale  involves variable interactions,  was  t o measure i n t e r a c t i o n s among the p o s t u l a t e s .  two  used  other instruments  The p s y c h o m e t r i c  ( t h e CE S c a l e and  SD  res-  properties  Questionnaire)  t o measure independent v a r i a b l e s were a l s o  found t o be a c c e p t a b l e .  no  The LLE  f o r t h e dependent v a r i a b l e "agreement" s i m p l y asked  pondents t o agree w i t h p o s t u l a t e s . of  life-  examined and  The t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s were r e f i n e d and,  when ready, completed by 270  Hong Kong e d u c a t o r s employed i n 68  schools. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t " c a r e e r e f f e c t s " would not account for  more v a r i a n c e i n e d u c a t o r s ' agreement w i t h l i f e l o n g  t i o n than socio-demographic ed  educa-  v a r i a b l e s . Various analyses, design-  t o examine the p r e d i c t i v e power of d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e  com-  b i n a t i o n s showed t h e f o l l o w i n g . "Career the  effects"  combination  separately, cation  of  d i d not a s s e r t a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e socio-demographic  fects  were " c a r e e r e f f e c t s "  were  (on a u t h o r i t y and j o b s e c u r i t y ) .  p r e d i c t o r s , the most p o w e r f u l were s e x ,  and s e l f - p e r c e i v e d p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s . of  Considered  t h e best p r e d i c t o r s of agreement w i t h l i f e l o n g edu-  Of t h e socio-demographic age  variables.  than  t h e socio-demographic  considered  When t h e c o n j o i n t e f -  and " c a r e e r e f f e c t s "  variables  they e x p l a i n e d 23 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e  agreement w i t h l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  A l l the v a r i a b l e s , iii  in  except  "years of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e " e x p l a i n e d some v a r i a n c e i n agreement  w i t h the p o s t u l a t e s .  But,  "agreement"  was  assumed  stem from an i n t e r a c t i o n of  to  career  unexplained.  77 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e In t h i s study  "agreement"  socio-demographic  retrospect,  and  some of the u n e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e may  r e s i d e d i n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . As t h i s study was Hong Kong,  returned tling  was  effects.  In  in  in  for  difficult  l e s s than ten y e a r s b e f o r e i t was  t o China i n 1997, many p e o p l e .  the p o l i t i c a l There were  conducted  supposed t o be  s i t u a t i o n was  somewhat  have  unset-  intangible  t o measure v a r i a b l e s which might have i n f l u e n c e d  e d u c a t o r s ' agreement w i t h l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  iv  and the  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page f J  AUTHORIZATION ABSTRACT  i i .'  TABLE OF CONTENTS  '.v  LIST OF TABLES  xi ;  LIST OF FIGURES  xv : xvi  LIST OF APPENDICES  xix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER I : NATURE OF LIFELONG EDUCATION History  of the Concept  1 2  Towards a D e f i n i t i o n  5  C o n f u s i o n i n the F i e l d  8  Terminology  8  Concept  S  The Purposes of t h e Study  12  Significance  12  of t h i s Study  S t r a t e g y t o A c c o m p l i s h Purposes  13  Structure  16  of the D i s s e r t a t i o n  CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE ON LIFELONG EDUCATION Background Elaborating  20 20  the Concept  21  A p p l y i n g the Concept  23  No C l e a r D e f i n i t i o n  30  Literature for Definition  31  CHAPTER I I I : DERIVING CHARACTERISTICS AND POSTULATES Deriving  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Categories  v  32 33  The Seventeen C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  33  Inherent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c . . . . .  34  Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  35  Desirable  47  Characteristics  The Nature of t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  52  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  53  Postulates  55  C o m p r i s i n g a Comprehensive D e f i n i t i o n  I n h e r e n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c and P o s t u l a t e s  56  Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P o s t u l a t e s  56  Desirable  58  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P o s t u l a t e s  Interdependence of t h e P o s t u l a t e s Derivation  of a D e f i n i t i o n  65  The D e f i n i t i o n  66  CHAPTER IV: INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES L i t e r a t u r e for Conceptualizing  t h e Study  Independent V a r i a b l e s Personal  59  69 69 71  Data  71  Types of S c h o o l s  72  Position  75  Intervening  Variables  79  Career E f f e c t s  80  Dependent V a r i a b l e  81  Type of Research D e s i g n  81  A Model  82  Hypotheses  84  A n c i l l a r y Hypotheses  85  Minor Hypotheses  86  vi  Major  Hypothesis  86  CHAPTER V: INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT  87  The L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n S c a l e  87  The  P o s t u l a t e s and t h e i r C o n t r a s t s  88  The Career E f f e c t s S c a l e  92  The Socio-Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  95  S e c u r i n g R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Data..  96  I d e n t i f y i n g L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n E x p e r t s and P i l o t Subjects  97  CHAPTER V I : METHOD  99  L o c a t i o n Chosen  99  S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l Context  99  Socio-economic S i t u a t i o n The The  E d u c a t i o n System  100 ...101  Population  102  Sampl i n g  107  Data C o l l e c t i o n  110  CHAPTER V I I : RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENTS.... 113 R e l i a b i l i t y of t h e LLE S c a l e  115  Experts  115  P i l o t Subjects  118  Main Sample  119  Content and C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y of LLE S c a l e . . . . .  121  Face V a l i d i t y of LLE S c a l e  122  R e l i a b i l i t y of the CE S c a l e  122  P i l o t Subjects  123  Main Sample  124  vii  Face V a l i d i t y of t h e CE S c a l e  126  Face V a l i d i t y of t h e SD Q u e s i o n n a i r e  127  Instrument  Refinement  127  Procedures  f o r R e t a i n i n g P o t u l a t e s and C o n t r a s t s  127  The R e t a i n e d P a i r s of P o s t u l a t e s and C o n t r a s t s  135  Treatment of t h e C o n t r a s t s  136  Procedures  f o r Confirming  Retention  of P o s t u l a t e s and C o n t r a s t s  140  The Confirmed P a i r s of P o s t u l a t e s and C o n t r a s t s  145  R e f i n i n g CE S c a l e  146  R e f i n i n g SD Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  148  Summary of Instrument  149  Refinement  CHAPTER V I I I : PREDICTING AGREEMENT  150  Data A n a l y s i s  150  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Respondents  152  T e s t i n g of Hypotheses  157  A n c i l l a r y Hypotheses  157  Minor Hypotheses  166  Major H y p o t h e s i s  171  Summary of t h e Chapter  172  CHAPTER I X : SEARCHING FOR EXPLANATORY POWER of INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Educators'  174  Agreement w i t h L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n  D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s from A n a l y s i n g Agreement w i t h t h e P o s t u l a t e s  viii-  ......174  Educators' 177  From P e r s p e c t i v e of E d u c a t o r s '  Agreement  Testing for Significant Predictors  178 182  P r e d i c t i o n from P e r s p e c t i v e of P r e d i c t o r s  183  P r e d i c t i o n from P e r s p e c t i v e of P o s t u l a t e s . .  208  P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n  as C r i t e r i o n  Summary of t h e Chapter  214  CHAPTER X: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of t h e Study Phase I - D e v e l o p i n g  212  217 217  a Definition  219  Phase I I - C o n s t r u c t i n g an Instrument t o Measure E d u c a t o r s '  Agreement w i t h  the P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n Phase I I I D e v e l o p i n g  a Method of t h e Study  219 222  Phase IV - R e p o r t i n g on P r e d i c t i o n and Agreement Conclusions  222  t o be Drawn  Conclusion  225  from C l a r i f y i n g t h e Concept  225  The Instrument t o Measure Agreement w i t h Postulates Conclusions  225 from P r e d i c t i n g Agreement  The M o d i f i e d Model  226 ...227  C o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h i s Study  231  The D e f i n i t i o n  231  An Instrument of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n Developed  232  The S i g n i f i c a n t P r e d i c t o r s I d e n t i f i e d  232  The Nature of t h i s Study  233  ix  Generalizability  .233  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Recommendations t o R e s e a r c h e r s  233 235  The LLE S c a l e and M o d i f i e d Model t o be Used  235  Research R e l a t e d t o t h e F i e l d of P r a c t i c e  235  Recommendations f o r UNESCO  236  C o n c l u d i n g Remarks  238  REFERENCES  240  APPENDICES  247  X':  LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1:  S t r a t e g y t o A c c o m p l i s h Purposes  T a b l e 2:  Sources of C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g Education  13  53  T a b l e 3:  Hong Kong Secondary S c h o o l s A c c o r d i n g t o Funding..104  T a b l e 4:  Secondary S c h o o l s A c c o r d i n g t o C u r r i c u l u m  T a b l e 5:  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Teachers A c c o r d i n g t o S c h o o l Orientation  T a b l e 6:  1 08  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Teachers A c c o r d i n g t o School Funding  T a b l e 7:  1 09  R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y T e s t s Done on the LLE, CE and SD I n s t r u m e n t s  T a b l e 8:  114  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of S u b t e s t s i n the LLE S c a l e : E x p e r t s ' Responses  T a b l e 9:  105  117  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of S u b t e s t s i n the LLE S c a l e : P i l o t S u b j e c t s ' Responses  119  T a b l e 10: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of S u b t e s t s i n the LLE S c a l e : Main Sample S u b j e c t s ' Responses  120  T a b l e 11: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of S u b t e s t s i n the CE S c a l e : P i l o t S u b j e c t s ' Responses  123  Table 12: C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t of S u b t e s t s and T o t a l Test of the CE S c a l e : P i l o t S u b j e c t s ' Responses... 124 T a b l e 13: R e l i a b i l i t y  of S u b t e s t s i n the CE S c a l e :  Main Sample S u b j e c t s ' Responses  125  T a b l e 14: C o r r e l a t i o n of S u b t e s t s and T o t a l Test of the CE S c a l e : Main Sample S u b j e c t s ' Responses  Xi  126  T a b l e 15: D e r i v a t i o n of Item P a i r s f o r LLE S c a l e ( F i n a l Version) . . .  1 42  T a b l e 16: Percentage of P i l o t S u b j e c t s A g r e e i n g or D i s a g r e e i n g w i t h the P o s t u l a t e s or C o n t r a s t s T a b l e 17: S c h o o l s and I n d i v i d u a l s i n the Main Sample  145 151  T a b l e 18: Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : Age, S e l f - p e r c e i v e d P r o g r e s s i v e n e s s , P a r t - t i m e and F u l l - t i m e Teaching E x p e r i e n c e  153  Table 19: Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o s i t i o n s  154  T a b l e 20: Hong Kong S c h o o l s Main Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n : S c h o o l Funding Category  155  T a b l e 21: Hong Kong S c h o o l Main Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n : School O r i e n t a t i o n .  156  Table 22: Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n E d u c a t o r s ' Agreement w i t h L i f e l o n g Education T a b l e 23: E f f e c t s  158  of S c h o o l V a r i a b l e s on E d u c a t o r s '  Agreement w i t h L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n  160  T a b l e 24: E f f e c t of P o s i t i o n on E d u c a t o r s ' Agreement w i t h L i f e l o n g Education  161  Table 25: Comparison of D i f f e r e n c e s i n Mean S c o r e s : Positions  1 62  T a b l e 26: O r t h o g o n a l C o n t r a s t of P o s i t i o n :  Principal,  A s s i s t a n t and Teacher  163  T a b l e 27: Summary of T e s t s of A n c i l l a r y Hypotheses  165  T a b l e 28: Comparing I n f l u e n c e of Career E f f e c t s and P e r s o n a l Data on E d u c a t o r s ' Agreement w i t h L i f e l o n g Education  168  xii  T a b l e 29: Comparing I n f l u e n c e of Career E f f e c t s and Type of S c h o o l s on E d u c a t o r s ' Agreement w i t h L i f e l o n g Education  169  T a b l e 30: Comparing I n f l u e n c e of Career E f f e c t s and P o s i t i o n on E d u c a t o r s ' Agreement w i t h L i f e l o n g Education  170  Table 31: Comparing I n f l u e n c e of Career E f f e c t s , P e r s o n a l D a t a , Types of s c h o o l s , and P o s i t i o n on E d u c a t o r s ' Agreement w i t h L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n ...... 171 Table 32: Summary  of R e s u l t s of Hypotheses: Comparing  S e t s of P r e d i c t o r s  173  Table 33: Degree of Agreement w i t h I n d i v i d u a l P o s t u l a t e s Concerning L i f e l o n g Education  175  Table 34: S i g n i f i c a n t P r e d i c t o r s of E d u c a t o r s ' Mean Agreement w i t h P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n  183  Table 35: Summary of 28 Stepwise R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s Showing R e l a t i o n s h i p s between P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s and I n d i v i d u a l P o s t u l a t e s  185  Table 36: Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s between P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s and Agreement w i t h the P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n : Simple C o r r e l a t i o n s , R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ; and A s s o c i a t i o n s with Individual Postulates.  187  Table 37: Summary of 28 Stepwise R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s : Number of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s A s s o c i a t e d with Individual Postulates T a b l e 38: E x p e r t s ' and E d u c a t o r s ' Degree of Agreement  xiii  209  w i t h the P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n  xiv.  LIST OF FIGURES Figure I:  Phases A s s o c i a t e d w i t h E x e c u t i o n  F i g u r e I I : A Model f o r P r e d i c t i n g V a r i a n c e  of t h i s Study...17 i n Educators'  Agreement w i t h P o s t u l a t e s C o n c e r n i n g L i f e l o n g Education  (1)  83  F i g u r e I I I : A Model f o r P r e d i c t i n g V a r i a n c e  i n Educators'  Agreement w i t h P o s t u l a t e s C o n c e r n i n g L i f e l o n g Education  (2)  228  xv  LIST OF APPENDICES  Appendix  A:  The O r i g i n a l V e r s i o n of Faure's Recommendations,  Dave's C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , G e l p i ' s I n -  dicators Cropley  and  Other  Points  Stressed  and Lengrand from which  Seventeen  Characteristics  of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n  the  of t h e LLE  Postulates  by  Scale  and  and  CE  S c a l e f o r t h i s Research were D e r i v e d Appendix B:  Appendix C:  247  Original Characteristics, Postulates & Contrasts  259  LLE S c a l e f o r E x p e r t s  267  Appendix D.I: LLE S c a l e f o r P i l o t S u b j e c t s  276  Appendix D.2: CE S c a l e f o r P i l o t S u b j e c t s  288  Appendix D.3: SD Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r P i l o t S u b j e c t s . . . .  304  Appendix E:  R e s u l t s of R e l i a b i l i t y T e s t s on L L E - S c a l e by E x p e r t s and P i l o t S u b j e c t s  306  Appendix F:  Comments from E x p e r t s and P i l o t S u b j e c t s  321  Appendix G:  F r e q u e n c i e s of E x p e r t s ' R e p l i e s t o P o s t u l a t e s and C o n t r a s t s R e t a i n e d  Appendix H:  333  S i t u a t i o n of R e t a i n e d P a i r s of P o s t u l a t e s and C o n t r a s t s from P i l o t S u b j e c t s  339  Appendix 1.1: The LLE S c a l e  340  Appendix 1.2: The CE S c a l e  347  Appendix 1.3: The SD Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  359  Appendix J :  M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n among A l l V a r i a b l e s  360  Appendix K:  R e s u l t s from S t e i g e r ' s M u l t i c o r r  364  xvi< ,  Appendix L:  F r e q u e n c i e s on Responses and Step-wise R e g r e s s i o n on A l l V a r i a b l e s  Related to  Postulate plus Possible Interpretations  365  Appendix M:  L i s t of E x p e r t s  374  Appendix N:  L i s t of S c h o o l s f o r P i l o t Test  378  Appendix 0:  L i s t of Main Sample S c h o o l s  379  Appendix P:  Sample L e t t e r t o UNESCO P a r i s , UNESCO I n s t i t u t e of E d u c a t i o n , Hamburg, and UNESCO Bangkok  381  Appendix Q:  Sample L e t t e r s t o E x p e r t s  383  Appendix R:  Sample Reminder L e t t e r t o E x p e r t s  386  Appendix S:  Sample L e t t e r of Thanks t o E x p e r t s  387  Appendix T:  Correspondence from E x p e r t s  388  Appendix U:  Sample L e t t e r t o P r i n c i p a l s of P i l o t Test  420  Appendix V:  Sample L e t t e r t o Teachers of P i l o t Test  421  Appendix W:  Sample L e t t e r of Thanks t o P i l o t S u b j e c t s  422  Appendix X.1: Sample L e t t e r t o P r i n c i p a l s of Main Sample (English)  423  Appendix X.2: Sample L e t t e r t o P r i n c i p a l s of Main Sample (Chinese)  426  Appendix Y.1: Sample L e t t e r t o Teachers of Main Sample (English)  429  Appendix Y.2: Sample L e t t e r t o Teachers of Main Sample (Chinese)  431  Appendix Z.1: Sample of Reminder L e t t e r s t o P r i n c i p a l s of Main Sample ( E n g l i s h )  xvi i  432  Appendix Z.2: Sample of Reminder L e t t e r s t o P r i n c i p a l s of Main Sample (Chinese)  433  Appendix AA.1:Sample of Reminder L e t t e r t o Teachers of Main Sample ( E n g l i s h )  434  Appendix AA.2:Sample of Reminder L e t t e r t o Teachers (Chinese)  435  Appendix AB.1:Sample L e t t e r s of Thanks t o Main Sample (English)  436  Appendix AB.2:Sample L e t t e r s of Thanks t o Main Sample (Chinese)  438  Appendix AC:  C e r t i f i c a t e of A p p r o v a l from E t h i c s Committee.440  Appendix AD:  L e t t e r from E x p e r t V e r i f y i n g T r a n s l a t i o n  441  Appendix AE:  O b i t u a r y of Edgar Faure  442  xviii  ACKOWLEDGEMENT I  wish  to  express  Doctoral  Dissertation  G r i f f i t h  (chairman),  untiring  patience,  John  M.  H.  said  tion  am  thankful  experts,  to  questionnaire,  the  pilot,  and  their  moral  take  tailed  their  the  in  and  and  retired  to  the  members  Professors Roger  U.B.C.  for  support;  and  of  my  William  Boshier  continuing  from  the  Ed.  in  computer  Goodstad  Last  to  thus  S.  their  also  to  from  the  the  to  of  staff  Rev.  three  to  the  secondary  Hong Kong  of  Ocean  Adult and  I  in  and  lifelong for  educa-  validating  schools  that  did  principals,  schools  in  in  from  pursuit  and  Charles  was  my  Higher  Wong, last  miles  Father  of  it  their  Hong  Kong  Patrick  and  a l l  also  in  was  to  me  the  Hong Kong; S.J.  use  over  also  to  for  my for  thanks  corrections  Finneran  en-  Service  taught  me  many  goes  My s p e c i a l who  for  for  the  that  Education  minute  away  Germany  possible  work  My a p p r e c i a t i o n  encouragement.  in  Misereor  making  absence  programme.  assisted  and  68  the  experts  the  goes  support  leaves  friend,  while  of  also  Caritas  support  and  education  the  Pacific D.  identifying  questionnaires.  Caritas  mail  for  lifelong  substantial  my g o o d  editorial  Mrs.  Conry  advice  UNESCO  the  my  the  constant to  to  frequent  across  electronic Leo  to  and  colleagues  the  thanks  Committee,  F.  My g r a t i t u d e  am g r a t e f u l  flights  due  who  teachers  responding I  to  Robert  and  test.  assistants for  Advisory  candid  Andrews  sincere  committee. I  my  my  is of the Mr.  their  advice. but  not  the  Elizabeth Lyson,  least, Miss  I  am  Rosana  xix  indebted  to  Ng,  Mary  Miss  my  good Chong  friends, and  Miss  Mary and  Kwok, my  t o my  sister  during  my  support  f r o m my  brother  Catherine  course  of  sister  and  sister-in-law,  for taking care  studies. and  I also  of my  and  domestic  appreciate  brother-in-law,  xx  Peter  Zita  and  Verina, affairs  the Bruce.  moral  CHAPTER NATURE OF  If  beauty  education'  lies  lies  I  LIFELONG EDUCATION  i n the eyes of  the  beholder,  i n the e a r s of the l i s t e n e r ,  d i f f e r e n t b e l l for d i f f e r e n t people.  The  'lifelong  for i t  rings  a  term, ' l i f e l o n g educa-  t i o n ' , o f t e n appears a t t r a c t i v e enough and people h a i l i t enthus i a s t i c a l l y a t f i r s t s i g h t . But o r g a n i z e d or u n o r g a n i z e d , ental?  compulsory or f r e e , planned  given  t o youth t o prepare  or one  e d u c a t i o n ' and  'adult education',  i n L e a r n i n g t o Be,  implementation The  and s u b s e q u e n t l y  horizontal  involves  'recurrent and  k i n d of r e s t r u c t u r i n g envisaged  or  vertical  integration,  or  teachers  would  f e e l uncomfortable  education. i t i s necessary  possibility.  Clearly,  Thus,  by  T h i s i s p a r t l y because  restructuring entire educational  p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t s t o t h e i r a u t h o r i t y and  occur,  does i t  elaborated  t h r e a t e n s those  have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo.  lifelong  How  their  n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , as d i s c u s s e d by Faure e t .  (1972)  tems.  of  jargon?  UNESCO, has been d i f f i c u l t to implement.  and  or a c c i d -  ' permanent e d u c a t i o n ' , a l l of which are p a r t  p a r c e l of modern e d u c a t i o n a l The  them f o r the whole  t h a t bespeaks a d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h y ?  d i f f e r from ' l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ' ,  al.  life,  I s ' l i f e l o n g ' an a d j e c t i v e , d e s c r i b i n g the k i n d of edu-  cation life,  i s i t e d u c a t i o n throughout  with  who  For them,  democratisation, power.  sys-  are  Administrators  some  aspects  b e f o r e e x p e c t i n g implementation  of to  t o examine the b a r r i e r s t h a t impede such e d u c a t o r s ' acceptance or non-acceptance 1  of  the  concept  barrier. ful  of l i f e l o n g  e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be an  S i n c e t h e y a r e t h e ones t o e x e c u t e  implementation  asset  policies,  d e p e n d s on t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e .  or  a  success-  As C r o p l e y  ob-  served: A c c e p t a n c e of many o f t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t s o f p r o p o n e n t s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n l o o k s t o be m a i n l y a m a t t e r of f a c e v a l i d i t y , o r even s h a r e d i d e o l o g y , r a t h e r t h a n of commitment b a s e d on a n a l y s i s of e v i d e n c e . . . . [ o r ] how t h e o u t c o m e s o f l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n w o u l d be e v a l u a t e d . How w o u l d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , o r e d u c a t i o n a l theorists know w h e t h e r c h a n g e s had t a k e n place [or] those changes would be r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e kinds of problem t h e y were s u p p o s e d t o d e a l w i t h ? (1977, p. 152-153) Hence, than  the u n d e r l y i n g problems of l i f e l o n g  s u r f a c e m e a n i n g of t h e  term.  History  The Greek  concept  It  Aristotle  laid  the  learning.  Lewis  (1981),  sidered  lifelong  to  e d u c a t i o n can said  t o be  Ministry  the  expressed  1919  Report  traced  Socrates,  philosophy  t h e key  the c o n t r o l of the immortal Aristotle  back  to  of  and  the  i n the l e t t e r  Ten  study the  r e t u r n e d t o t h e theme i n a book,  v  was right  role  lifelongness'  of t r a n s m i t t a l  later,  entitled  2  a  of  life.  i d e a of  years  con-  and  Yeaxlee  ^Lifelong  in  t h a t accom-  of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Committee of  of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  and  lifelong  happiness  soul  to  Plato  s t r e s s e d the l i f e l o n g  aimed f o r i n  W i t h i n the present century,  panied  that  be  Plato claimed that l i f e l o n g  f o r a c h i e v i n g what one  e d u c a t i o n was  Concept  f o r example, c l a i m e d t h a t S o c r a t e s  learning  o r d e r i n g o f s o c i e t y , and study  is  the  f o u n d a t i o n s of a  "healthy s o u l " at death; essential  of  of l i f e l o n g  philosophers.  e d u c a t i o n l i e deeper  the  (1929)  Education',  which  stressed  ultimately such  a  that  upon  way  t h e case f o r  lifelong  education  t h e n a t u r e and needs of human  t h a t no i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d r i g h t l y  o u t s i d e i t s scope.  Dewey (1938) a l s o c l a i m e d  rested  personality be  regarded  in as  that education i s  a l i f e l o n g process. The  concept  R i g h t s endorsed emphasized  gained p o p u l a r i t y as t h e D e c l a r a t i o n of  Human  by the U n i t e d N a t i o n s a f t e r t h e Second World War  people's  r i g h t t o e d u c a t i o n and s t i m u l a t e d  govern-  ments t o c o n s c i o u s l y use e d u c a t i o n as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r d e v e l o p ment.  As Faure p o i n t e d o u t , In c o u n t r i e s which were t a k i n g t h e i r f i r s t s t e p s t o wards i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , p r o g r e s s i n i n d u s t r y began t o have a v e r y n e a r l y d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p. 10). Education  ment  has been used t o f u r t h e r programmes of  or t o m a i n t a i n c u l t u r a l b a l a n c e .  Indeed  develop-  such g r e a t  pro-  g r e s s has been made through e d u c a t i o n t h a t i t i s viewed not j u s t as something The Education World" for until  happening i n e a r l i e r p e r i o d s , but throughout Second  had  UNESCO  International  f o r i t s theme,  ( Montreal,  1960),  Conference  "Adult Education i n a  Advancement  that  Adult  Changing  and s e t l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n as a g o a l  t h e f u t u r e p o l i c i e s of governments. 1965  on  life.  However,  the UNESCO I n t e r n a t i o n a l  i t was not  Committee  f o r the  of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l l y d i s c u s s e d t h e  paper,  which was p r e s e n t e d by t h e S e c r e t a r i a t on ' E d u c a t i o n Permanente/ Continuing Education'.  The paper d e a l t w i t h l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n ,  though t h e concept was not d e f i n e d f u l l y During  t h e 1970's,  (Hely,  1962).  UNESCO c o n c e n t r a t e d on e l a b o r a t i n g t h e  3  concept and  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n and sought methods  disseminate  Commission  on  information related to  i t . The  Learning  "  years  t o come  International  The Faure  Report  t o Be -- the World of E d u c a t i o n Today and To-  morrow s t i m u l a t e d wide d i s c u s s i o n . posed  implement  the Development of E d u c a t i o n was formed i n 1971  f o r t h i s purpose w i t h Edgar Faure as Chairman. (1972)  to  as t h e master concept  L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n was p r o -  for educational p o l i c i e s  f o r both developed  and  developing  i n the  countries"  (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p. 182). T h i s i d e a encompassed many a c t i v i ties  and  began t o be recommended as a  guiding  principle  for  e d u c a t i o n a l reform work of the member c o u n t r i e s . In Adult  1972,  the T h i r d UNESCO I n t e r n a t i o n a l  E d u c a t i o n was convened i n Tokyo w i t h  E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Context recommended integral  Conference  i t s theme,  of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n " .  on  "Adult  The c o n f e r e n c e  t h a t a l l governments i n c l u d e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as an  p a r t of t h e i r  e d u c a t i o n a l system based on t h e  concept  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n (Lowe, 1975). The concept  number of c o u n t r i e s i n t e r e s t e d or w i l l i n g t o adopt the of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n was r e p o r t e d by G e l p i  (1979)  as  follows: Responses t o t h e survey on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n conducted w i t h i n t h e UNESCO N a t i o n a l commissions [on "experi e n c e s of the v a r i o u s member s t a t e s s u b s c r i b i n g t o the principle of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n " , November 1977] (54 responses a n a l y s e d as a t May 2nd, 1978) c o n f i r m t h a t t h e r e i s widespread acceptance of l i f e l o n g education as a "new e d u c a t i o n a l concept r e l a t i n g t o t h e educational system as a whole - both t o i n i t i a l and t o subsequent e d u c a t i o n " (39 out of 54 r e s p o n s e s ) ; i t a l s o shows t h a t the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s reflected i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n of 40 out of 54 c o u n t r i e s , t h a t l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s v i s u a l i z e d as an e d u c a t i o n a l approach r e l e v a n t t o a l l c o u n t r i e s not merely t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s - (46 out of  4  54), and t h a t i t i s a g l o b a l a p p r o a c h which does n o t concern o n l y t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n (48 o u t o f 54 responses). At t h e l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l structures t h e concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n has become a c c e p t e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s , even i f t h i s a c c e p t a n c e is sometimes of n o n s p e c i f i c n a t u r e (Gelpi, 1979 i n C r o p l e y [ e d . ] , 1979). C o u n t r i e s such as Sweden,  Poland,  Eastern Europe, implemented 1982; Gelpi,  land, All  elements  i n v a r y i n g degrees  1980; H o c h l e i t n e r  et al.,1978;  1977; B o s h i e r ,  S c i e n c e and C u l t u r e ,  i s evidence of the f a c t  education though  has  Spain,  (see  R u b e n s o n , 1981;  Moro'ka,  1980; S u t h e r -  1986; a n d U r e v b u ,  that the concept of  been p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e  Kulich,  1980; J a p a n , M i n i s t r y o f  1982;  1980; A l - S h a r a h , 1986; E k a n a y a k e , this  Great B r i t i s h ,  S o u t h A m e r i c a , A f r i c a a n d A s i a were s a i d t o h a v e  1981; W i l l i a m s ,  Education,  U.S.A.,  C h i n a , K o r e a , J a p a n , New Z e a l a n d a n d o t h e r s i n  various  Linton,  Canada,  diverse  lifelong  ways,  even  f o r t h e p r o m u l g a t i o n o f modern  forms  sometimes i n a ' n o n s p e c i f i c '  in  1985).  manner.  Towards a D e f i n i t i o n UNESCO was r e s p o n s i b l e of  lifelong  education,  and so i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o  analyse  the  w r i t i n g s o f a u t h o r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h UNESCO. In defined,  the  Faure  but  essential  Report  lifelong  education  t h e r e were ' f o u r b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s ' ,  f o r any s o c i e t y  educational  (1972)  system  s e e k i n g t o b r i n g about  through e v o l u t i o n  rather  was  said to  not be  reform i n i t s  than  revolution.  These were: 1) t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y which a m i d s t t h e v a r i e t y of n a t i o n s and c u l t u r e s , of p o l i t i c a l o p t i o n s and degrees of development, i s reflected i n common a s p i r a t i o n s , p r o b l e m s a n d t r e n d s , a n d i n i t s movement t o w a r d s one a n d t h e same d e s t i n y ;  5  2) t h e b e l i e f i n democracy, c o n c e i v e d of as i m p l y i n g each man's r i g h t t o r e a l i z e h i s own p o t e n t i a l and t o share i n the b u i l d i n g of h i s own f u t u r e ; 3) the aim of development i s t h e complete fulfilment of man, i n a l l t h e r i c h n e s s of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , ... as i n d i v i d u a l , member of a f a m i l y and of a community, c i t i z e n and p r o d u c e r , i n v e n t o r of t e c h n i q u e s and c r e a t i v e dreamer; 4) o n l y an o v e r a l l , l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n can produce t h e k i n d of complete man ... no l o n g e r a s s i d u o u s l y [ a c q u i r i n g ] knowledge once f o r a l l , but [ l e a r n i n g ] how t o b u i l d up a c o n t i n u a l l y e v o l v i n g body of knowledge a l l through l i f e — l e a r n t o be' (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p. v-vi). v  Lengrand lifelong 1948,  (1975),  education,  one  of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  godfathers  of  and member of t h e UNESCO S e c r e t a r i a t s i n c e  wrote An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n , and had t h i s  to s a y , What we mean by l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s a s e r i e s of very s p e c i f i c i d e a s , experiments and achievements, i n o t h e r words, e d u c a t i o n i n t h e f u l l sense of t h e word, i n c l u d i n g a l l i t s a s p e c t s and d i m e n s i o n s , i t s u n i n t e r r u p t e d development from the f i r s t moments of l i f e t o t h e v e r y l a s t and the c l o s e , o r g a n i c i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i o u s p o i n t s and s u c c e s s i v e phases i n i t s development (Lengrand, 1975, p.20). At at  t h e 19th S e s s i o n of the UNESCO G e n e r a l Conference  N a i r o b i i n 1976, t h e r e was an attempt  held  t o d e f i n e l i f e l o n g edu-  c a t i o n as f o l l o w s , the term ^ l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n and l e a r n i n g ' , f o r i t s p a r t , denotes an o v e r a l l scheme aimed both a t r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n system and a t d e v e l o p i n g the e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l o u t s i d e t h e e d u c a t i o n system; in such a scheme men and women a r e t h e agents of t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n , through c o n t i n u a l i n t e r - a c t i o n between t h e i r thoughts and a c t i o n s ; e d u c a t i o n and l e a r n i n g , f a r from b e i n g l i m i t e d t o t h e p e r i o d of attendance a t s c h o o l , s h o u l d extend throughout life, i n c l u d e d a l l s k i l l s and branches of knowledge, use a l l p o s s i b l e means, and g i v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a l l people 6  for  f u l l development of the p e r s o n a l i t y ;  the e d u c a t i o n a l and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s i n which c h i l d ren, young people and a d u l t s of a l l ages a r e i n v o l v e d i n the course of t h e i r l i v e s , i n whatever form, s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a whole (UNESCO, 1977, p. 2 ) . To  Cropley  (1977),  the key n o t i o n i n l i f e l o n g  education  was: a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a r e t o have o r g a n i s e d s y s t e m a t i c opportunities for instruction, study and l e a r n i n g a t any time throughout their lives. T h i s i s t r u e whether t h e i r g o a l s a r e t o remedy e a r l i e r e d u c a t i o n a l d e f e c t s , to a c q u i r e new s k i l l s , t o upgrade themselves v o c a t i o n ally, t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w o r l d i n which they l i v e , t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s , or some o t h e r purposes (1977, p. 2 1 ) . Cropley  and Dave c l a i m e d t h a t l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t e d  of f i v e words:  (1) t o t a l i t y ,  meaning c o v e r i n g t h e e n t i r e  life-  span of the i n d i v i d u a l and encompassing a l l l e v e l s and a l l forms of e d u c a t i o n ; tions  a r e i n t e r - r e l a t e d and  meaning  a  methods; people tion;  (2) i n t e g r a t i o n , meaning a l l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u interconnected;  (3)  flexibility,  dynamic approach i s used i n e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e n t (4) d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n ,  and  meaning t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r  w i t h d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s t o r e c e i v e educaand (5) s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t ,  d u a l ' s q u a l i t y of l i f e politically Gelpi's  meaning t o improve each  indivi-  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , s o c i a l l y and  ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p. 1-3-14). (1979)  d e f i n i t i o n from  statement,  which came c l o s e s t t o b e i n g  a  a s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , was,  L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n can be regarded from s e v e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s (response t o s o c i a l demand, and / o r e x i s t e n t i a l demand, and / o r economic and/or c u l t u r a l demand e t c . ) and a c c o r d i n g t o the p e r s p e c t i v e chosen one might t h i n k t h a t a development of l i f e l o n g education can occur i n a s p e c i f i c k i n d of s o c i e t y o r a t a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d ( G e l p i , 1979, p . 1 ) .  7  It  t h a t the  concept  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n f o r the UNESCO a u t h o r s was b r o a d l y  based,  and  can be seen from t h e above statements  concerned  consensus  t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y .  But t h e r e was l i t t l e  as t o what elements s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e  Each author  l o o k e d a t t h e concept Confusion  Ever confusion  a  definition.  from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e .  i n the F i e l d  s i n c e UNESCO began promoting  l i f e l o n g education  has  There a r e two  accompanied t h e term.  some  types  of  c o n f u s i o n - i n t e r m i n o l o g y , and i n concept. Terminology 'Lifelong tion',  e d u c a t i o n ' i s o f t e n confused  w i t h ' a d u l t educa-  ' r e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n ' , 'permanent e d u c a t i o n ' , and  long l e a r n i n g ' .  The term  ' l i f e l o n g education',  associated with 'adult education', 'permanent e d u c a t i o n ' ,  'recurrent  although often education',  as w e l l as f o r  adults.  Y e t , s i n c e t h e concept  mulgated  a t t h e UNESCO T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on  Context  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n was p r o -  i n Tokyo 1972, (which had ' A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n '  confused  and  s h o u l d not be equated w i t h them, because  i t encompasses e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n and y o u t h ,  Education  'life-  Adult i n the  f o r i t s theme), i t has o f t e n been  with adult education,  a subset of l i f e l o n g  education.  Indeed t h e Faure (1972) and o t h e r r e p o r t s and a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d by  UNESCO  have  made i t c l e a r t h a t  education occurring i n i n f o r m a l , throughout  non-formal  education  means  and f o r m a l s e t t i n g s  the e n t i r e l i f e - s p a n of i n d i v i d u a l s .  and l i f e w i d e The  lifelong  I t has l i f e l o n g  dimensions.  terms ' r e c u r r e n t ' and 'permanent e d u c a t i o n ' a r e 8  asso-  c i a t e d w i t h the OECD ( O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o - o p e r a t i o n and Development) strategy  and  Council  which e n a b l e s  of Europe.  The former  i n d i v i d u a l s t o resume  term  studies  they d e s i r e , and r e t u r n t o t h e i r r e g u l a r employment.  is a  whenever The l a t t e r  v  term i s a French e q u i v a l e n t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ' . From  one p e r s p e c t i v e ,  a c t of l e a r n i n g throughout underlying by  literal Act,  one's l i f e t i m e and be a p p l i e d t o t h e  f u n c t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h not  i t , since  external  * l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ' s h o u l d mean t h e  one can l e a r n w i t h o u t s u b j e c t i n g o n e s e l f t o t h e  r i t u a l of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s .  became P u b l i c Law 94-482,  Congress i n October 1976 ( C a s s a r a , lifelong  I t retained i t s  meaning u n t i l L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g i n the Higher  which  l e a r n i n g i n t h e U.S.A.  c o n t i n u i n g and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , of t h e w o r l d ,  limited  was passed  1979, p.  by  Education t h e U.S.  55). Since  then,  has l a r g e l y been equated  with  much t o t h e dismay of t h e  rest  which has t o d e a l w i t h t h e c o n f u s i o n t h a t r e s u l t s  from t h i s usage. Concept Conceptual  confusion i n v o l v e s the philosophy,  research concerning l i f e l o n g education. Lawson (1982, ^lifelong  p.  99) complained  education'  theory  and  A n a l y t i c educators  like  t h a t "from many p o i n t s of view  c o u l d be seen t o be l e s s of a concept  e d u c a t i o n and more of a p o l i c y of e d u c a t i o n " . a d j e c t i v e ^ l i f e l o n g ' t o be a redundant c a t i o n was c l e a r l y v  v  for life',  the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g ' The  Faure  of  He c o n s i d e r e d t h e  descriptor.  S i n c e edu-  he c o u l d not see any n o v e l t y  in  education.  r e p o r t (1972) was a 9  policy  recommendation  to  governments but,  w i s h i n g t o d e v e l o p t h e i r c o u n t r y through  as a p h i l o s p h y ,  i t was  t i o n s and p o s t u l a t e s .  education,  an amalgam of many i d e a s ,  assump-  As C r o p l e y put i t ,  The l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , particularly when i t i s approached i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s r a t h e r than as a s e t of p r a c t i c e s , makes i t c l e a r t h a t the m a j o r i t y of w r i t e r s i n the a r e a have indeed accepted, implicitly i f not always e x p l i c i t l y , certain b e l i e f s about the n a t u r e of man, good, s o c i e t y and education. In t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e r e i s an i d e n t i f i a b l e " p h i l o s o p h y " of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , i f agreement among thinkers conerning g o a l s and v a l u e s can be said to involve a philosophy. This "philosophy" i s loosely h u m a n i t a r i a n and h u m a n i s t i c i n n a t u r e ( C r o p l e y 1979, p. 102). Then  he went on t o l i s t elements t o be i n c l u d e d i n a p h i l o s o p h y  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  I t would:  1. i n v o l v e l e a r n e r s as a c t o r s i n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than as p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t s , 2. f o s t e r the c a p a c i t y t o be an a c t i v e l e a r n e r , 3. l e a d t o d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y , 4. improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e of a l l men ( C r o p l e y , 1979, p. 102). White challenge  (1982), to  l o o k e d upon l i f e l o n g  the t r a d i t i o n a l  l i f e l o n g education, "an educated  who  man"  programme,  and women  education  spoke i n  as  favour  when he r e j e c t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l concept  i n the l i b e r a l  a of of  philosophy,  I f e d u c a t i o n i s t o be r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a " l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s " and not as something b e l o n g i n g o n l y t o y o u t h , then we might as w e l l drop the concept of the educated man: t h e r e i s no l i n e t o be c r o s s e d ; the journey goes on f o r e v e r (White, 1982, p.130-131). For  persons  l o o k i n g f o r an i d e o l o g y t h a t  n a t u r e of humankind, e d u c a t i o n and l i f e ,  integrates  the l i t e r a t u r e on  the life-  l o n g e d u c a t i o n o f f e r s s o l u t i o n s r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t p h i l o s o p h y .  10  Hence,  they may be d i s a p p o i n t e d .  operational  strategies,  B u t , f o r those w i t h an eye on  t h e treatment  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i n  the l i t e r a t u r e i s e l a s t i c enough t o i n c l u d e p r a c t i c a l A f r e q u e n t c r i t i c i s m concerns c a t i o n l a c k s a t h e o r e t i c a l base.  concerns.  the c l a i m that l i f e l o n g  edu-  T h i s evoked t h e f o l l o w i n g  sug-  g e s t i o n by P a r r o t who s a i d t h a t : To e s t a b l i s h t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l e v a n c e of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , one must e s t a b l i s h a t h e o r y which i s l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , i n t e r n a l l y sound, and which i s a l s o i n a d i r e c t and o b s e r v a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h e x t e r n a l realities. Without both these c o n d i t i o n s being met, l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n w i l l wallow i n the q u i c k s a n d s of an a l l - e m b r a c i n g dreamworld ( P a r r o t , 1974, p. 143). Cropley  d i s c u s s e d t h e need t o v e r i f y t h e v a r i o u s  fragments  of  theory: A c o n t i n u i n g problem f o r e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s has been t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s c a t t e r e d and fragment a r y statements t h a t emphasize t h e l i f e l o n g n a t u r e of e d u c a t i v e l e a r n i n g , these have not been c o l l e c t e d and o r g a n i z e d i n t o a u n i f i e d t h e o r y of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Thus, a l t h o u g h l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s , t o some e x t e n t , merely t h e r e v i v a l of e a r l i e r i d e a s , i t can c l a i m t o represent a novel c o n t r i b u t i o n to educational t h i n k i n g ... ( C r o p l e y , 1977, p. 150). The  l a c k of a w e l l d e f i n e d t h e o r y l e a v e s t h e door open f o r  v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s , who advocated  " d e - s c h o o l i n g " , and  p u l s o r y l i f e l o n g s c h o o l i n g ' (1983, same as l i f e l o n g  such as by I l l i c h  (1971)  O h l i g e r who o b j e c t e d t o 'comp. 161), but t h i s i s not t h e  education.  As f o r r e s e a r c h , C r o p l e y had t h i s t o say i n 1977, A n a l y s t s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n have seldom made a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of t h e e m p i r i c a l evidence [ t o support the b e l i e f ] t h a t t h e k i n d s of e x p e d i e n t s proposed f o r r e f o r m i n g e d u c a t i o n , both i n and out of s c h o o l , would a c t u a l l y have t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . Indeed, i t i s not a t a l l c l e a r whether o r not such [ e m p i r i c a l ] evidence e x i s t s ( C r o p l e y , 1977, p. 152).  1 1  Many  c o u n t r i e s and people c l a i m t o be p r a c t i s i n g  education, tion. is  which they g e n e r a l l y understand  lifelong  t o mean a d u l t educa-  Even i n books b e a r i n g t h e name l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n ,  often  short,  scanty  evidence p e r t a i n i n g t o  there  i t s philosophy.  In  t h e f i e l d of p r a c t i c e i s confused and t h i s m i r r o r s t h e  s t a t e of t h e concept. The Purposes of the Study  There were t h r e e purposes t o t h i s s t u d y . clarify  t h e concept  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n through  i t s c o n s t i t u e n t elements, tulates tion. to  associated  identifying  o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and d e r i v i n g pos-  w i t h them f o r the development of a  The second was t o c r e a t e a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d  defini-  instrument  measure the e x t e n t t o which e d u c a t o r s agree w i t h t h e  lates.  It  i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e concept  clarified ment  l i f e l o n g education,  ious  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n  Many c o u n t r i e s c l a i m t o be  purposes, definition  have  ^practising'  and many books have been w r i t t e n on i t , but  been d i f f i c u l t  i t i s necessary with  be  endorse-  no d e f i n i t e l i n e s have been d e l i n e a t e d f o r p r a c t i c e claims  should  Study  b e f o r e e m p i r i c a l evidence p e r t a i n i n g t o i t s  can be g a t h e r e d .  since  postu-  The t h i r d was t o p r e d i c t e d u c a t o r s ' agreement w i t h them. S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s  to  evaluate.  to develop a  c o n s t i t u e n t elements  of  fairly  For  var-  research  comprehensive  t h e concept,  which  s p e l l out what i t would e n t a i l t o make l e a r n i n g through-  out l i f e p o s s i b l e . The  The f i r s t was t o  Hence, t h i s study i n v o l v e d t h r e e main s t e p s .  f i r s t was t o d e f i n e l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n ;  1 2  t h e second was  to  establish from  the r e l i a b i l i t y  the d e f i n i t i o n ;  and v a l i d i t y of an i n s t r u m e n t  t h e t h i r d was t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s , t h a t  c o u l d p r e d i c t e d u c a t o r s ' agreement w i t h the concept of education. have  The  built  lifelong  r e s u l t s would be u s e f u l f o r p o l i c y makers  who  t o d e c i d e whether or not t o adopt l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n as  'master  a  concept'. Strategy to Accomplish  The  t h e Purposes  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e s t r a t e g y employed t o accom-  p l i s h t h e t h r e e purposes  of t h e s t u d y . Table 1  Strategy to Accomplish Purpose  Purposes  Strategies I  II  Developing def i n i t i o n  Review literature  Identify characteristics and d e r i v e p o s t u l a t e s  Developing instrument  Develop items from p o s t u l a t e s  V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t s by e x p e r t s and p i l o t subjects  P r e d i c t ing agreement  Identify predictors  Correlational analysis  In  developing  authors  a definition,  a review of  of  Education 1983)  s i n c e UNESCO has been  c h i e f proponent of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  works  This  included the  t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on t h e Development ( Faure,  C r o p l e y (1977,  1986b).  by  h a v i n g a d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h UNESCO was regarded as  having greatest relevance for t h i s study, the  literature  The  1972),  Lengrand (1975),  1979) and G e l p i (1979,  Dave (1973,  1976,  1981, 1984, 1986a,  i d e a s e x p r e s s e d by these a u t h o r s were  13  of  considered  more  a u t h o r i t a t i v e than those of o t h e r w r i t e r s who appeared  have  derived  among  t h e i r notions  from t h e UNESCO  group.  Yet  even  these l e a d i n g spokesmen t h e r e was l i m i t e d agreement  c e r n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ^ l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n ' . some  v  concerning  con-  There were  b a s i c p o i n t s on which they a l l seemed t o agree,  those  such  but t h e r e were o t h e r s on which they  differ.  G e l p i was unique i n h i s s t r e s s on c u l t u r e b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d  In s h o r t ,  d i f f e r e n t i n s i g h t s were ap-  p l i e d to postulates concerning l i f e l o n g education. i s understandable  perspectives (1972,  and  p.v) were  solutions  into  w h i l e Faure and Dave put s t r e s s on v e r t i c a l and  horizontal integration.  tion  as  d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n ' of e d u c a t i o n and t h e * impro-  vement' of s o c i e t y ,  the c u r r i c u l u m ,  to  s i n c e they a l l wrote  This v a r i a -  from  under d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . commissioned by UNESCO t o  different  Faure e t a l  suggest  "overall  t o t h e major problems i n v o l v e d i n t h e development  e d u c a t i o n i n a changing  universe",  of  and made 21 recommendations.  Lengrand wanted t o "throw some l i g h t on the v a r y i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e of the concept (Lengrand  and t o show what f o r c e s m i l i t a t e i n i t s  1975, p.1) and he l o o k e d a t l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n from a  sociological perspective. a and  Dave (1976) hoped h i s work " w i l l make  humble c o n t r i b u t i o n towards t h e f u r t h e r a n c e of implementation  characteristics.  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n " Gelpi  teen i n d i c a t o r s . C r o p l e y  partly  from  understanding  and drew up  (1979) wanted t o show what  p r a c t i s i n g l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n would be l i k e ,  concept  favour",  view.  d i f f e r e d and d u p l i c a t e d one a n o t h e r .  14  society  and p r o v i d e d n i n e -  (1977), a p s y c h o l o g i s t ,  a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of  a  twenty  approached t h e  In  short,  Review  of  they other  a u t h o r s was For  a l s o necessary  f o r c l a r i f y i n g the  t h i s study i t was  necessary  i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . t i c were would  t o i d e n t i f y the c h a r a c t e r -  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h each c h a r a c t e r i s -  v a r i o u s p o s t u l a t e s or i d e a l s ,  a f f e c t p r a c t i c e i n the f i e l d .  g e n e r a l statements  with  ^should  which,  i f implemented,  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  d e s c r i b i n g each aspect of l i f e l o n g  They were i n the form of ciated  concept.  s  i s ' statements.  statements.  education.  The p o s t u l a t e s  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i d e a l s and  be'  l i f e l o n g education,  were used as i t e m s . had  to  pilot  be  education.  for  reliability  e x p e r t s on l i f e l o n g  of these  tion.  on It  E x p e r t s were used t o examine c o n t e n t and  con-  the p i l o t s u b j e c t s f o r face v a l i d i t y , and  both  in internal consistency  purposes. education,  p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s formed the bases of the was  believed  t h a t a s p e c t s of  educators'  predicpersonal  i n t e r e s t s would be a f f e c t e d i f the p o s t u l a t e s were t o be mented. postulates such  as  perceived  items and  In p r e d i c t i n g e d u c a t o r s ' agreement w i t h l i f e l o n g effects  education  education  subjects.  struct v a l i d i t y ,  agreement  the p o s t u l a t e s of l i f e l o n g  The v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y  e s t a b l i s h e d by  imple-  P r e d i c t i v e v a r i a b l e s on e d u c a t o r s ' agreement w i t h were i d e n t i f i e d as r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l age,  as  postulates,  In d e v e l o p i n g an instrument t o measure e d u c a t o r s ' with  asso-  expressed  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  taken t o g e t h e r , d e f i n e d l i f e l o n g  were  sex,  y e a r s of t e a c h i n g  progressiveness,  and p o s i t i o n s h e l d . of the implementation  experience,  the  particulars, and  self-  the types of s c h o o l s they worked i n  Moreover, what they p e r c e i v e d as the e f f e c t on t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s , such as  15  their  perceived "career e f f e c t s " ty,  (on p r e s t i g e ,  job d i f f i c u l t y and t o t a l a d v a n t a g e s ) ,  influence.  The  in  IV.  Chapter  r a t i o n a l e f o r choosing  a u t h o r i t y , job s e c u r i would have p r e d i c t i v e  these v a r i a b l e s i s g i v e n  R e l i a b i l i t y t e s t i n g by p i l o t s u b j e c t s  i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the  showed  instrument.  S t r u c t u r e of the D i s s e r t a t i o n Chapter  I has d e s c r i b e d the n a t u r e of l i f e l o n g  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i t s implementation educators  'agree'  and need t o understand  or ' d i s a g r e e ' w i t h i t s p o s t u l a t e s .  shows the s t e p s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e x e c u t i o n of t h i s  16  education, why  Figure I study.  Phase  I - DEFINITION  Literature  Review Ch.  "~1  II  D e r i v a t i o n of Characteristic Categories  17  <-  Ch. I l l  D e r i v a t i o n of " i n i t i a l " postulates " i n i t i a l " ' contrasts ' Ch. I l l  51 51  Phase  I I - INSTRUMENT  DEVELOPMENT  LLE S c a l e s e n t t o 21 e x p e r t s for content 4 c o n s t r u c t validity 4 reliability purposes Ch.  V  1  L L E S c a l e , CES 4 SDQ s e n t t o 36 p i l o t s u b j e c t s i n HK f o r face v a l i d i t y 4 r e l i a b i l i t y purposes  Ch. V I I  Ch.  V  Ch. V I I  LLE S c a l e , CES 4 SDQ r e f i n e d P o s t u l a t e s r e d u c e d t o 28 C o n t r a s t s r e d u c e d t o 28 Ch.  Phase  I l l ,  Ch. V I I  I I I - METHOD " F i n a l " L L E S c a l e , CES 4 SDQ a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 412 HK e d u c a t o r s Ch.  IV  C h . VI  i  '  284 responses 270 U s a b l e Ch.  Phase  IV - PREDICTING  VIII  ACHEEMENT Results - I Nature  o f Samp I t Ch.  VIII  4 R e s u l t s II Predicting  Agreement  A.  A n c i l l a r y hypotheses ( R e g r e s s i o n : Y=agreement, X^separate soc 1 o - d e m o g r a p h 1 c v a r i a b l e s )  B.  Minor hypotheses (Regression: L a g n c a e n t , J . ' c j r t e t ' variables, g r o u p s o f s oc i o — d e t a o g r aph i c v a r i a b l e s )  C.  Major h y p o t h e s e s ( R e g r e s s i o n : Y = agreement , X='career* v a r i a b l e s , combination of s o c l o - d e o o g r a p h I c variables) Ch. V I I I  i  '  Results III Searching  f o r Explanatory  Power Ch . IX  Plgure I  Phases Associated with Esecuclon of Study 17  The long  s t e p s are c l a s s i f i e d under four phases - d e f i n i n g l i f e -  education,  agreement. process  instrument development,  method and  Phase I d e a l s w i t h d e f i n i n g l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  i s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r s I I and I I I , the former  w i t h the review of l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , with  predicting The deals  the  latter  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d  postulates. Phase  II  d e a l s w i t h independent and dependent  and the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y  of the i n s t r u m e n t s .  d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r s IV and V.  Chapter  pendent and dependent v a r i a b l e s ,  and the hypotheses,  the  III  i s concerned  d e s i g n i s ex post f a c t o . The  with  inde-  Chapter  V  tests.  method.  The  research  l o c a t i o n chosen, the p o p u l a t i o n and  sample are d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Phase  the  These are  IV e x p l a i n s the  d e s i g n of the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y Phase  variables,  VI.  IV i n v o l v e d r e f i n i n g the i n s t r u m e n t s , t e s t i n g  hypo-  t h e s e s and the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s used to p r e d i c t agreement chapters  with VII,  the p o s t u l a t e s . V I I I and IX.  The  These s t e p s a r e d e s c r i b e d f i r s t of these c h a p t e r s  c r i b e s the r e s u l t s of the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y refinement (LLE  Scale)  of i n s t r u m e n t s ,  i.e.  f o r measuring agreement w i t h the  des-  t e s t s and  the L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n  d i c t i n g agreement. of data c o l l e c t i o n , of the a n c i l l a r y ,  Questionnaire The  (SD  postulates  Questionnaire)  l a t t e r two c h a p t e r s c o n t a i n the  the  Scale  dependent v a r i a b l e ) , the Career E f f e c t s S c a l e (CE S c a l e ) and Socio-demographic  in  for  (the the pre-  results  p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s ,  the v e r i f i c a t i o n  minor and major hypotheses,  and the a n a l y s i s  18  of the p r e d i c t o r s and the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the p o s t u l a t e s imbedded i n the d e f i n i t i o n study,  conclusions  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  A summary of  the  and recommendations a r e found i n Chapter X.  The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r b e g i n s the review of  19  literature.  CHAPTER II LITERATURE ON LIFELONG EDUCATION  In t h i s c h a p t e r an account i s g i v e n of t h e review of l i t e r ature  on  which  was Phase I of t h e s t u d y .  general  l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n undertaken t o d e f i n e t h e  concept,  A d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n of t h e  background of t h e l i t e r a t u r e  available,  and how i t was  r o u g h l y c a t e g o r i z e d and used. Background Between  1984 and 1986, s e v e r a l ERIC searches  using the d e s c r i p t o r s : continuing education,  l i f e l o n g education,  long education' Psycinfo  i ntheir  title  r e c u r r e n t educa-  were found i n ERIC. nothing with  But much l i t e r a t u r e  and  of t h e UIE (UNESCO I n s t i t u t e  'life-  A s e a r c h of  ' l i f e l o n g edu-  on l i f e l o n g  c o u l d be found i n t h e IERS ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l Service)  done  learning,  Twelve books u s i n g t h e words,  from Data Base i d e n t i f i e d  cation' i n i t s t i t l e .  lifelong  p r o f e s s i o n a l education,  t i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  were  of E d u c a t i o n )  education Reporting  i n Hamburg,  i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n . The l i s t  drawn  from  tained  mainly  practice. Fifteen  This books  education' three  t h e l a s t mentioned sources from 1982 onwards commentaries, list  r e p o r t s and recommendations f o r  d e a l t w i t h t h e broad f i e l d  and 21 a r t i c l e s b e a r i n g  of  t h e phrase  i n t h e t i t l e s were reviewed.  articles  con-  Thirteen  from f i v e UNESCO a u t h o r s were used  practice. 'lifelong  books  and  extensively  to form t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s t u l a t e s . Works  with  'lifelong learning' i n their  20  title  were  more  p l e n t i f u l than those w i t h ^ l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n ' , b u t , on examination, v  i t appeared  adult education',  t h a t most equated ^ l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ' e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e U.S.A.  Those not  x  s i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ' , m o s t l y emphasized lum and methods ( e . g . Sprecher,  1985).  with exclu-  curricu-  C l a r k , 1980; Van Bernem, 1981; Chambers &  On t h e whole they d i d not seem t o c l a r i f y t h e  concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , except i n de-emphasizing the form of  education.  Some of t h e a u t h o r s c o u l d be s a i d t o form s c h o o l s  of  t h e i r own,  such as I l l i c h  (1983)  i n that  education. education, These  (1971),  Tough (1979) and  they promulgated " s e l f  directed"  There were a l s o p u b l i c a t i o n s l i s t e d under professional  education  and  recurrent  works m a i n l y d e a l t w i t h a s p e c t s of the concept  Ohliger  a s p e c t s of continuing education. put  into  practice. In  the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s t h e r e i s a b r i e f review of l i t e r -  a t u r e w r i t t e n s i n c e 1972, t h e year t h e Faure Report was p u b l i s h ed. Works w i t h ^ l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n ' as p a r t of t h e i r t i t l e s were emphasized,  because t h e term i m p l i e d not o n l y t h e c o n c e p t ,  a l s o the o r g a n i z a t i o n , they  system and p r o c e s s f o r t h e c o n c e p t ,  s u i t the purposes of t h i s s t u d y .  roughly  but so  The l i t e r a t u r e c o u l d be  c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h a t which e l a b o r a t e d the concept  and  t h a t which concerned a p p l y i n g t h e c o n c e p t . E l a b o r a t i n g t h e Concept The concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n promulgated by Faure the  and  o t h e r members of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission of the D e v e l -  opment  of E d u c a t i o n i n 1972 was e l a b o r a t e d d u r i n g t h e 70's and  e a r l y 80's.  Faure e t a l . (1972), who promoted the c o n c e p t , made  21  21 recommendations f o r p r a c t i c e . UNESCO  Institute  In 1973 Dave, D i r e c t o r of the  f o r E d u c a t i o n a t Hamburg,  concept under 20 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  pinned  and s u b s e q u e n t l y made sugges-  tions  c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g  1977,  1983).  (1973,  1976,  Lengrand (1975) was one of t h e founders of Peuple  e t C u l t u r e and, the  down the  as a member of t h e UNESCO S e c r e t a r i a t , examined  f o u n d a t i o n s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n from a  cultural  perspective.  working  at  sociological  and  I n 1977, C r o p l e y who was on l e a v e  and  the UNESCO  Institute  of  Education  i n Hamburg  ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p. v ) , wrote ^ L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n : a psychological  analysis'  (Cropley,  psychological  dimensions  1984,  1986b)  1986a,  (Ireland, and  had  Gelpi  of  f o r workers  (1979,  experience a s s o c i a t i n g with  and c u l t u r e ,  workers  indicators",  examined u n r e s o l v e d problems c o n c e r n i n g power and  ance  control.  he s t r e s s e d t h e import-  l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n as a c h a l l e n g e t o  t h e unemployed.  p u b l i c a t i o n s by these a u t h o r s were e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s  because the  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  1979, p. i x ) , drew up 19 " i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  In h i s concern  The  1977) i n which he e x p l o r e d the  which  adopted  p a r t l y d e f i n e d concept a t i t s Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Confer-  ence  of t h e i r d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h UNESCO,  study  on  Adult Education at Montreal  promulgated  (1960),  and  officially  i t a t t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference  E d u c a t i o n i n Tokyo  on  Adult  (1972).  B e s i d e s t h e UNESCO w r i t e r s a l r e a d y mentioned, o t h e r a u t h o r s also  wrote about t h e c o n c e p t ,  education. lacked  a  F o r example,  t h e o r y o r p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e l o n g  Parrot claimed that l i f e l o n g  t h e o r e t i c a l base and suggested a r e s t r i c t i v e  22  education defini-  tion.  He  said  "people's blow  p o i n t was  to  aim  of our p e r c e p t i o n of  (1982)  looked at l i f e l o n g  and a n a l y t i c p e r s p e c t i v e and  clear definition.  at  raising  reality,  minds w i t h u n a t t a i n a b l e f a n t a s i e s "  Lawson  liberal  important  consciousness  their  p.143).  the  not  (Parrot,  education  to 1974,  from  found the concept  a  lacking  He thought the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of educa-  t i o n had become b l u r r e d , and t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between format i v e i n f l u e n c e s and those chosen i n t e n t i o n a l l y and  the  s t a t e had become o b s c u r e d .  Lawson (1982) and o t h e r s , c o n s i d e r e d inadequate as a p h i l o s o p h y . militated gested  t h a t was ent  Wain (1985),  individual  reacting  l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n as  I t s concern with formal  the p h i l o s o p h y  education  of John Dewey,  w i t h "the m i s s i n g  operations  clarification,  and  p r o a c h of t h i s  study.  sug-  thus  providing  philosophical  paradigm"  needed i n order t o be i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and  as a programme.  to  being  a g a i n s t the " u t o p i c approaches" of p h i l o s o p h y . He  adopting  lifelong  by the  coher-  These c r i t i c s a l l p o i n t e d t o the need t h e i r works were u s e f u l i n shaping  the  for ap-  A p p l y i n g the Concept There was  p l e n t y of l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the  implementa-  t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n and much d e a l t w i t h p o l i c y and ning,  finance  and r e s o u r c e s  plan-  ( i n c l u d i n g l i b r a r i e s and museums),  c u r r i c u l a , e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g , and faced  teacher  training.  This l i t e r a t u r e revealed basic  by c o u n t r i e s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o implement  implementation  or  problems advocate  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . These were problems r e l a t -  ed to e d u c a t i o n a l systems a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e ,  23  or t o p r a c t i c e s  a l r e a d y a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n , such as the l a c k of ities the  f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t stages of s c h o o l i n g emphasis  l e a r n i n g how ent  opportun-  on l e a r n e r s p a s s i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s to learn.  aspects  integration,  rather  and  than  on  T h i s l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t e d out the d i f f e r -  of the concept,  such as v e r t i c a l  and  horizontal  d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s , t h a t  s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a d e f i n i t i o n . Vertical integration, writers (1976)  on  intergration. policy  to v e r t i c a l  policy  or  p l a n n i n g were the c h i e f  l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i n the 70's  complained  organized  and  Related  and  lifelong  concerns 80's.  Pierce  about the a l l e g e d l a c k of an i n t e g r a t e d f o r youth and a d u l t s t h a t  would  help  a d u l t s i n t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n s between stages i n l i f e .  of  and  young  He s t r e s s e d  t h a t e d u c a t i o n should meet the need of a d u l t s of a l l ages r a t h e r than  merely  serve i n s t i t u t i o n a l  w r i t i n g about B r i t a i n , long  education  particularly  interests.  Linton  o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n s on how  (1980),  to make l i f e -  a p p l i c a b l e to the e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  i n the a r e a of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  system,  He advocated  using  l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n as a u n i f y i n g system f o r p l a n n i n g . O l o f s s o n ' s (1981) the x  r e p o r t on a r e c e n t l o n g i t u d i n a l p r o j e c t  Swedish  follow  they  e d u c a t i o n a l system was  an  example.  evaluating It  involved  up' of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of s e q u e n t i a l c o h o r t s  l e f t f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n and e n t e r e d ^working  l i n e d problem areas c o n n e c t i n g secondary tion,  for  such as drop-out  attendance  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Allman  24  I t out-  s c h o o l and a d u l t educa-  r a t e s and r e j e c t i o n ,  t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between attendance  life'.  as  and formed a p o s i -  i n secondary  education  and  (1982) c h a l l e n g e d r e s e a r c h  which that and  assumed  adulthood  adulthood  i s 'non-developmental'.  should be c o n c e i v e d  that l i f e l o n g education  development.  as a  She  stressed  developmental  was an instrument  period,  t o f a c i l i t a t e the  V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n r e q u i r e d an improved c u r r i c u -  lum t o s o l v e problems r e l a t e d t o t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . G r i f f i n analysed  the  " a d u l t c u r r i c u l u m " and  suggested t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n obstacle  education,  to  because many a d u l t e d u c a t i o n supply  and  as i t was i n B r i t a i n might be  t o t h e development of an i n t e g r a t e d l i f e l o n g  curriculum, tured  lifelong  (1982)  an  education  programmes were s t r u c -  second chances r a t h e r than  integrate  the  l e a r n i n g stages as was o f t e n s t r e s s e d i n l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  He  c a l l e d f o r a r e a p p r a i s a l of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n the importance of t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . ative  analysis  Romania, they  of f o u r c a s e s :  content  So,  through  and s t r e s s e d  M i t t e r (1982) made a compar-  Belgium,  Brazil,  Nigeria  f o c u s s i n g on t r a n s i t i o n s which c o n f r o n t e d  progressed  work.  to  formal education  from  and  learners  as  pre-school  to  c u r r i c u l a and t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y would be problems, i f  v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n were Horizontal  overlooked.  integration.  This involves planning  for l i f e -  wide l e a r n i n g , i n t e g r a t i o n of s c h o o l , community and t h e w o r l d of work, (1977)  and m a x i m i z a t i o n approached  socio-economic informal, sive, context  and  of r e s o u r c e s  lifelong  education  of  school,  Furter  anthropological, and viewed  i t as  The importance of comprehen-  and f l e x i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n  Integration  from:  p o l i t i c a l perspectives,  non-formal and f o r m a l .  diversified  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  structures  i n the  was emphasized by M i t t e r  (1982).  community,  25  and t h e w o r l d of work  was  s t r e s s e d by Guy (1981) who w r o t e on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d mentation  of  (Canada)  and  lifelong  education  Fairfield  implications  secondary school sent a  i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom.  the  content  as l a c k i n g  r a t h e r than  Urevbu  (1985)  f o r the  He c o n s i d e r e d  the pre-  relevance  to life  work,  and found  the  development of the  curricula individual,  still  on  testing  d e s c r i b e d the p o l i c y adopted  by  N i g e r i a n government i n i n t e g r a t i n g s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y policy  of  needs  of  lifelong  education  the country.  b a s e d on  For example,  the  changing  ceship places.  into a  a l l i n d u s t r i e s should  government d e p a r t m e n t s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e  the  societal  r e q u i r e d t o t a k e on a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n o f s c h o o l - b a s e d t i c e s and  and  education  e m p h a s i s o f most p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n s  "recall".  Vancouver  (1982) drew a t t e n t i o n t o  d i s c o n t i n u i t y between s c h o o l and  emphasizing and  Fincham  of the concept of l i f e l o n g  secondary education  sharp  to  (New Z e a l a n d ) t o show t h a t s c h o o l s  c o m m u n i t i e s c a n be i n t e g r a t e d . the  with reference  imple-  be  apprenapprenti-  He e n u m e r a t e d t h e p r o b l e m s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  and  s u g g e s t e d g u i d e l i n e s t o s o l v e them. The i n t e g r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n and  work i s a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r o b l e m . In  a horizontally  i n t e g r a t e d system,  resources  should  be  put  t o maximum u s e , a n d more e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among p r o v i d e r s  of  formal,  generally  non-formal done.  and  Wolfenden  tween museums a n d l i b r a r i e s that  earlier  museums  informal education (1973) d i s c u s s e d  than  had  the contrasts  i n t h e 1920's a n d now,  and  a n d l i b r a r i e s were d u l l p l a c e s  been be-  claimed but  now  t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e need f o r c o l o u r a n d  en-  j o y m e n t i n s u c h p l a c e s . He drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n e e d f o r t e a c h -  26  ers  to  regard  Williams  l i b r a r i a n s a n d museum  (1977)  Zambia,  edited articles  Venezuela,  Poland  e f f e c t s of l i f e l o n g in these p l a c e s , sharing,  educational principles tion  tween  a  partners.  Sweden,  Quebec,  showing examples of t h e  on t h e u s e o f u n i v e r s i t y  Artigas  resources  reform  with  of  such  resources.  a n d C u e r p o (1978) r e p o r t e d on t h e S p a n i s h w h i c h t h e y c l a i m e d h a d been education. t o implement  such  lifelong  problems as " c o n f l i c t  vocational training  based  employment;  the  Educa-  education.  That  of  interests  ...  a tendency  a s an e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l  b r i d g e between s c h o o l and  on  They saw t h e G e n e r a l  t e a c h e r s and t h e aims of t h e reform;  regard as  on  have changes i n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  of l i f e l o n g  met  a n d Ghana,  education  Law a s an a t t e m p t  effort  written  as  i n t h e hope t h a t , o t h e r c o u n t r i e s k n o w i n g  would  Hochleitner,  educators  rather  setbacks  beto than  i n the  s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n o l d a n d new e d u c a t i o n a l m e t h o d s a n d p r a c t i c e s " , ( p . 7 8 ) . The b i g g e s t p r o b l e m s a p p e a r e d t o be t h e l a c k o f f i n a n ce,  w h i c h came up a g a i n a n d a g a i n .  ence  to  a  Rubenson  s t u d y on s e l f - d i r e c t e d  learning  ( 1 9 8 1 ) made and  critized i t s  inedequacy  f o r p o l i c y purposes s i n c e i t concentrated  processes  and  outcomes useful tion  frequency  f o r d e c i s i o n purposes, and  research  learning  and  f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y .  self-directed  t h e o r i e s of the s o c i a l  as  of t h i s  should  against  neglected  of l i f e l o n g  related  function of education.  to  Kulich  r e s o u r c e s and t h e r o l e of  the be  educa-  existing  He t h o u g h t  look i n t o the e f f i c a c y of i n d i v i d u a l  collective  s o c i a l change.  o n l y on t h e  For research to  the philosophy  l e a r n i n g must be  refer-  future  resources  education  in  (1932) w r o t e on t h e r o l e s t o be p l a y e d by  27  universities: search  in  addition  t o g e n e r a t i n g new  they a l s o c o n t r i b u t e i n c r e a s i n g l y to l i f e l o n g  provision  through  undergraduate  and  professional continuing education. support long  education  t i o n was  was  on  f i n a n c e and  (Japanese  In  and  a s s e r t e d t h a t government  Such l i t e r a t u r e  resource  of l i f e l o n g  1982  a s p e c t s of  life-  showed  lifelong  that educa-  the Japanese C e n t r a l C o u n c i l f o r  Government,  re-organization  t a t i o n were:  of  1982)  the e d u c a t i o n a l system  education.  Fourth  and  Government,  lifelong  education  creating  more system,  formal schools.  Final 1987),  Report many  implemen-  on  acad-  Educational  those  outside  the the  Reform in  related  to  formal  the r e c o g n i t i o n of knowledge g a i n e d  outside  showed t h a t e q u a l i t y  lifelong  education  was  a  a c a d e m i c c a r e e r s w o u l d a l w a y s be discouraged.  28  of  opport-  prerequisite,  to f o s t e r p o s i t i v e  since competition for entrance  c r a m m i n g c o u l d n o t be  to  the  Such l i t e r a t u r e  of l e a r n i n g ,  In  of the e l e m e n t s found  opportunities for learning and  underway.  especially  t h a t i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t  i o u s s c h o o l s and  the  f o r c h i l d r e n due  R e f o r m was  were s t r e s s e d ,  u n i t i e s when i m p l e m e n t i n g for without  on  cramming of academic knowledge i n s c h o o l t o  n e g l e c t of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i n i n g .  (Japanese  based  Among t h e o b s t a c l e s t o  l e s s e n i n g of f a m i l y e d u c a t i o n  u r b a n i z a t i o n and  provisional  recommended m e a s u r e s f o r  c o m p e t i t i o n t o e n t e r p r e s t i g i o u s s c h o o l s and  emic c a r e e r s ,  tude  programmes  needed.  Education  school  He  insufficient.  Democratization.  concept  graduate  re-  education  f o r u n i v e r s i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia i n p r o m o t i n g  clarification  the  knowledge i n  into  atti-  prestig-  present,  and  Teacher t r a i n i n g . the c h i e f concerns stressed  a pivotal  school  and  community  system of l i f e l o n g  literature  elements of  in  a  a  system of l i f e l o n g  lack  developing  education  e d u c a t i o n , thus  of understanding  systems  of t h e  from y o u t h  importance  reports  h a d t o be u n d e r s t o o d  mentioned  before  to  of  i t c o u l d be  research  and c r i t i q u e s of  research area  on l i f e l o n g  study,  education  education  i s not c l a r i f i e d ,  reviewed  lifelong  of l i f e l o n g Although the  they  showed t h e  If  the  the f i e l d  not type  There i s a  will  concept  of  remain  an  On t h e w h o l e ,  p o i n t e d t h e way t o t h e k i n d o f  29  existing  r e s e a r c h were  unmapped t e r r a i n a s f a r a s r e s e a r c h i s c o n c e r n e d . literature  cramming  successfully  being covered.  a n d much r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d .  adult;  learners*  In the  showed t h a t t h e c o n c e p t  d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t o r y towards t h i s  lifelong  i n a lack  of  e d u c a t i o n was s u b j e c t t o m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  the  of  resulting  a c l e a r and d e f i n i t e concept  implemented. Such l i t e r a t u r e  large  played  relation-  a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than  educational  of  tea-  r e v e a l e d some o f t h e p r o -  knowledge f o r t h e p a s s i n g of e x a m i n a t i o n s .  above  of  "horizontally  just discussed c o n s i s t e d mostly  of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t r a n s i t i o n s  in  society,  such a s : t h e f a i l u r e of governments t o p l a n e d u c a t i o n as  a unified  and  (1977)  education.  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . The a r e a s c o v e r e d  blems,  and  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o s i t i v e and f r u i t f u l  between  The  of c u l t u r e  Dove (1982) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r  role  integrated"  and  by t h e UNESCO a u t h o r s . L y n c h  and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t were i m p o r t a n t  training.  ship  expressed  t h a t knowledge of s e l f ,  production cher  The t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s h a s been one o f  postu-  l a t e s t h a t s h o u l d be d e r i v e d from t h e l i t e r a t u r e . No C l e a r D e f i n i t i o n The  l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s review c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y of d e s c r i p -  t i o n s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . to  But no r e s e a r c h had been  reported  show t h e l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e p o s t u l a t e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e  concept.  In  concept. there  fact,  t h e r e was s t i l l  Although  many  no c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of t h e  people had expounded  was no o f f i c i a l pronouncement t o c l a r i f y  on t h e c o n c e p t , or  rigourously  d e f i n e what they meant by l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n o r what i t e n t a i l e d in  practice.  works  prominent a u t h o r s from UNESCO wrote  f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons,  concept. the  Even  F o r example,  Director  but not s t r i c t l y  Faure e t a l .  G e n e r a l of UNESCO,  to define  wrote of  of E d u c a t i o n (Faure,  Rene Maheu,  from  whom  and  Gelpi  (1979,  1984,  1986a,  Conference  1986b)  wrote w i t h the member  C r o p l e y (1977) s a i d he wrote h i s  w i t h "a wide a u d i e n c e i n mind," such as newcomers i n t o t h e  f i e l d of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , training using  (1975)  1975, p . 1 ) . Both Dave (1973, 1976, 1983)  c o u n t r i e s of UNESCO i n mind. work  they  on t h e  1972, p . v ) . Lengrand  h i s work f o r t h e Member S t a t e s of the G e n e r a l  UNESCO (Lengrand,  the  (1972) wrote a r e p o r t f o r  r e c e i v e d the appointment t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission Development  their  scholars,  i n s t r u c t o r s of t e a c h e r  and s t u d e n t s ( C r o p l e y 1977, pp.  t h e words,  and s e v e r a l examined  7-8). Everyone  i t s systemic  was  qualities.  But o n l y a few ever p r e s e n t e d a s e t of p o s t u l a t e s which  govern-  ments c o u l d adopt. Because  of  t h e f a c t t h a t each of these prominent  had a d e f i n i t e purpose i n mind when he wrote h i s work,  30  authors so  each  expressed  lifelong  Therefore,  a framework f o r t h e concept  was  developed  used  the  education  from  a  different  perspective.  was n e e d e d , a n d u n t i l one  a n d e n d o r s e d by r e l e v a n t a u t h o r i t i e s ,  term  lifelong  various concepts  e d u c a t i o n would c o n t i n u e  while c a l l i n g  to  those  who  deal  with  them a l l by t h e same name.  Literature for Definition The c o n c e p t  of l i f e l o n g  education  was n o t t h e i n v e n t i o n  UNESCO, b u t i n r e c e n t d e c a d e s , UNESCO h a s been i t s c h i e f ent. of  Therefore,  to  concept  derived their  Among  postulates,  the  leading  literature  related  f r o m t h e UNESCO a u t h o r s  emphases.  To c l a r i f y  t o p i n i t down t o c o n c r e t e which  would  writers. t o the  a l r e a d y men-  resource.  d u p l i c a t i o n s and d i f f e r e n t  of  these  t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e UNESCO a u t h o r s  necessary  foundation  here. Other w r i t e r s appear-  i d e a s from  education  t i o n e d was t h e p r i m a r y  teristics  w r i t i n g s became t h e  i n d e f i n i n g the concept,  lifelong  propon-  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h UNESCO were  of p o s t u l a t e s developed  have  Therefore,  was  directly  g r e a t e s t r e l e v a n c e and t h e i r  for the l i s t ed  authors  were s t a t e m e n t s  there  characteristics  an a c c o u n t  The r e v i e w  e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s t h a t would c o n s t i t u t e a  istics  of the concept.  i s given of the process  of l i f e l o n g  education  and  e x p r e s s i n g what t h e c h a r a c -  i m p l y when b e i n g p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e .  framework f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n  were  the concept i t  l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t e d out d i f f e r e n t aspects of the concept different  of  In the next  and basic  chapter  used t o d e r i v e t h e c h a r a c t e r -  and t h e a s s o c i a t e d p o s t u l a t e s .  31  CHAPTER I I I DERIVING CHARACTERISTICS AND The  v a r i o u s phases a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s  F i g u r e I a t t h e end I  of the s t u d y .  of C h a p t e r As n o t e d ,  clarify  the concept  tulates  for a f a i r l y  tors'  agreement.  Steps  interrelated. time  the purposes  of l i f e l o n g  I t was  had  associated  to achieve these three  education  from  Learning to  Gelpi  until  until  a s e t of  developed,  such time  and  as  This  postulates  subsequently involved  steps used  in  procedures  concerning  particularly  the  lifelong  T h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s the  lifelong  the Faure  Report  Be. r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s g i v e n by F a u r e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Dave ( 1 9 8 3 ) ,  et a l . (1972),  nineteen indicators  ( 1 9 7 9 ) and v a r i o u s p o i n t s s t r e s s e d by C r o p l e y  Lengrand  in  n o t p o s s i b l e t o measure " a g r e e m e n t "  seminal l i t e r a t u r e ,  T h e r e were 21 twenty  educa-  were  been d e f i n e d .  derive  pos-  purposes  development of the i n s t r u m e n t . to  t o measure  to  to explain variance  w i t h f o r m u l a t i n g the d e f i n i t i o n  designed  o f t h e s t u d y were  definition,  c o u l d n o t be d e v e l o p e d  education  t o Phase  education through d e r i v i n g  comprehsive  taken  s t u d y were shown i n  This chapter belongs  a s a d e f e n s i b l e i n s t r u m e n t was  instrument  the  I.  a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p o s t u l a t e s and  such  POSTULATES  (1975).  These  emphases.  recommendations  varied  in  tions,  i n d i c a t o r s and p o i n t s c a n  "characteristics"  and  i n v o l v e d the f o l l o w i n g  and  T h i s c h a p t e r shows how  (1977)  these  "postulates".  steps.  32  and  characteristics recommenda-  be c a t e g o r i z e d u n d e r  associated  by  The  seventeen process  Deriving Characteristic Categories The tics  recommendations  (Dave  1983),  (Faure et a l .  the i n d i c a t o r s  1972),  (Gelpi,  the  1979)  characteris-  the other p o i n t s  s t r e s s e d by C r o p l e y (1977) and L e n g r a n d  (1975) were f i r s t  and  i d e a s (see Appendix  classified  This  process  These  The  said the  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  groups of r e l a t e d  'umbrella' ty.  i n t o groups of r e l a t e d  resulted  in  seventeen  i d e a s were e x p r e s s e d w i t h  statement showing  listed  groups.  one  t h e i r c e n t r a l concept or  A).  general commonali-  ' u m b r e l l a ' statement f o r m u l a t e d f o r each group c o u l d  to  be a ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c '  of l i f e l o n g  i d e a s o f p o s t u l a t e s e x p r e s s e d by t h e  characteristics 1)  fell  inherent,  i n t o the f o l l o w i n g that  education UNESCO  be  embodying  authors.  The  three categories:  i s , e x p r e s s i n g t h e e s s e n c e of  lifelong  educat i o n ; 2) f u n d a m e n t a l , of w h i c h w o u l d 3)  result  desirable,  those which are e s s e n t i a l , in distorting those  the e n t i r e  or the  absence  concept;  which would enhance the  meaning  or  o p e r a t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n .  The Seventeen The  rationales  quotations the f i n a l  are  compare  f o r seventeen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  v e r s i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  in  and P o s t u l a t e s ) .  (see Appendix  example  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s t u l a t e s w i t h literature.  33  B on  for Orig-  Detailed materials  the appendices are i n t e n d e d f o r those  i d e a s from the  and  i n accordance w i t h the p o s t u l a t e s r e t a i n e d  inal Characteristics, tained  Characteristics  con-  who  wish  to  the  original  Inherent  Characteristic  This  characteristic  Lifelong life,  r e v e a l s the essence of  e d u c a t i o n i s not j u s t a c c i d e n t a l  but  be  learning  concept. throughout  i n v o l v e s c o n s c i o u s and planned p r o c e s s e s of l e a r n i n g  c a r r i e d out d u r i n g people's this  the  i s not understood  lives.  T h i s i s i n h e r e n t , because i f  by governments and p r o v i d e r s ,  s a i d t h a t l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s used as *a master  it  cannot  concept'.  Therefore, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1) E d u c a t i o n c o v e r s the e n t i r e l i f e - s p a n of i n d i v i d u a l s (Faure et a l , 1972, p.182; C r o p l e y , 1979, p.9; Dave, 1983, p . 3 ) . There i s o n l y one q u i n t e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c - l i f e l o n g ness.  The  following  are  statements  expressed  by  different  authors: The l i f e l o n g concept c o v e r s a l l a s p e c t s of e d u c a t i o n , embracing e v e r y t h i n g i n i t , w i t h the whole b e i n g more than the sum of i t s p a r t s . . . . we propose lifelong e d u c a t i o n as the master concept f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i cies i n the y e a r s t o come f o r both developed and dev e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 182). The s i n g l e most obvious i d e a i n w r i t i n g s about long education i s t h a t i t s h o u l d be something goes on throughout p e o p l e ' s lives (Cropley, p. 9) .  lifewhich 1979,  The t h r e e b a s i c terms upon which the meaning of the concepts i s based a r e " l i f e " , " l i f e l o n g " and "educat i o n " (Dave, 1983, p . 3 ) . To  compensate  for  education i n t r a d i t i o n a l priority  the n e g l e c t of systems,  pre-school  and  adult  Faure et a l . advocated  giving  t o the development of p r e - s c h o o l and a d u l t  (Faure et a l . ,  1972,  education  pp.191, 206). But i f e d u c a t i o n f o r l i f e i s  s t r e s s e d t h e r e s h o u l d be no need t o s t r e s s p r i o r i t y f o r any group u n l e s s a s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s i t must i n v e s t a 34  age-  disproportion-  ate for  amount of r e s o u r c e s on one age group i n order t o compensate previous The  inadequacies.  reasons  and v a r i e d , quences  why  e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be l i f e l o n g a r e  the c h i e f ones being r e l a t e d t o change.  of change have s t r o n g i m p l i c a t i o n s  tion.  For example, expectancy  post  retirement periods.  for  change b r i n g s on o b s o l e s c e n c e  lengthen places  readjustment.  Tech-  and a l s o c a l l s f o r  When changes occur  suffer psychologically,  quickly,  re-  people  u n l e s s g i v e n a chance t o l e a r n  to adapt at any time d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s . people  r a t e and a l o n g e r  T h i s c a l l s f o r an i n c r e a s e i n  t r a i n i n g or redeployment. may  conseeduca-  i n c r e a s e the p r e - s c h o o l age group and  k i n d e r g a r t e n as w e l l as r e t r a i n i n g and  nological  The  for l i f e l o n g  a lower i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y  life  numerous  how  Education should help  a n a l y s e what changes they s h o u l d r e s i s t or promote.  Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The  next e l e v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are grouped under the  amental cept; them.  category.  They d e a l w i t h e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of the  fundcon-  l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n would be incomplete w i t h o u t any one They i n c l u d e  p h i l o s o p h y t h a t r e g a r d s knowledge as  of  being  t e n t a t i v e and r e l a t e d t o l i f e ; v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of  education  throughout  the  different  towards  learning;  aspects  of  life  and  education;  horizontal  i n t e g r a t i o n of  a positive attitude  freedom of c h o i c e i n s u b j e c t matter and p l a c e ;  easy e n t r y - e x i t -  re-entry;  diversified  special  training;  shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h l e a r n e r s  educational provision;  of the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e ; ful  w o r l d community.  The  teacher  i n the management  s o c i e t a l improvement and a peace-  e l e v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are c o n s i d e r e d 35  as fundamental t o t h e concept  of l i f e l o n g  education.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 2) Knowledge i s h e l d t o be r e l a t e d t o l i f e s i t u a t i o n s (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p.xxx; Lengrand, i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p 3 2 . ) . This  characteristic  derlying  i s important because i t g i v e s t h e un-  reason why e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r t h e e n t i r e  life-span  of an i n d i v i d u a l .  T h i s n o t i o n i s based on  the  fact  t h a t modern w o r l d changes cause many s i t u a t i o n s t o be t r a n s i e n t . For example, Faure e t a l . wrote, One i m p l i c a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c i a l era i s t h a t knowledge i s b e i n g c o n t i n u a l l y modified and i n n o v a t i o n s renewed (Faure, 1972, p. x x x ) . Lengrand e x p l a i n e d , The t r a d i t i o n a l concept of knowledge i s i t s e l f i n c r e a s i n g l y i n doubt. Up t o now knowledge has u s u a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d t o be something by i t s e l f . . . . But t h i s i s o n l y one component of knowledge, t h e component cont a i n e d i n manuals, e n c y c l o p a e d i a s , t r e a t i s e s and a r t i c l e s . . . . [But t h e r e i s t h e o t h e r which h o l d s that] t h e r e i s no o t h e r knowledge than t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h e s w i t h the o b j e c t he wants t o know....This c o n c e p t i o n of knowledge has a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s of v i t a l importance f o r l i f e l o n g education. I f knowledge does not e x i s t by i t s e l f , and i f i t has no s t a b i l i t y , then we must s t o p c l i n g i n g t o i t as i f i t were a p i e c e of s o l i d rock (Lengrand, i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p. 3 2 ) . Therefore, Education s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d as a p r o c e s s of s e l f fulfilment r a t h e r than as a c u r r i c u l u m t o be l e a r n t ( F a u r e , 1972, p. 143). In learn  other more  words,  than  knowledge (Lengrand ceived  l e a r n e r s s h o u l d be taught t h e s k i l l  they s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o absorb  ready-made  i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p.35). Knowledge i s  of as t h e r e s u l t of an i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n .  make i n f o r m a t i o n m e a n i n g f u l  t o one's own l i f e  36  to  One  con-  has t o  s i t u a t i o n , whether  u s i n g i t t o s o l v e a problem or t o s a t i s f y c u r i o s i t y . can one c l a i m t o have i n c r e a s e d one's knowledge. how  then  Hence knowing  t o l e a r n i s more c o n v e n i e n t than c a r r y i n g a baggage l o a d of  information. to  Only  But t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d  mean t h a t t h e r e i s not a need f o r some fundamental  knowledge.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 3) The d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of l i f e and knowledge a r e t o be v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p.183; Dave, 1983, p.6; C r o p l e y , 1977, p.79, p.93). The ingful  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of growth, knowledge,  integration.  and  t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  t h e demands made by changes,  mean-  call  for  As C r o p l e y put i t ,  Growth i s , i n f a c t , i n t e g r a t e d over t i m e , or v e r t i c a l ly integrated. T h i s i n t e r l o c k i n g growth p r o c e s s beg i n s i n e a r l i e s t i n f a n c y so t h a t i t i s l i f e l o n g . . . . learning i s r i g h t l y viewed as a c o n t i n u o u s fabric s t r e t c h i n g over a l i f e t i m e ( C r o p l e y , 1977, p. 9 3 ) . Cropley elaborated f u r t h e r , W i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l development, people a c q u i r e p a t t e r n s of m o t i v e s , the c a p a c i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e emotions, an image of themselves as a c e r t a i n k i n d of a p e r s o n , and so on. Each phase of development i n these domains i s l i n k e d t o p r e c e d i n g phases and t o subequent phases, so t h a t events a t one time i n t h e developmental proc e s s i n t e r a c t w i t h those a t both e a r l i e r and l a t e r times ( C r o p l e y , 1977, p. 9 7 ) . The  periods  when people a r e most m o t i v a t e d  events t o l e a r n a r e the best time f o r them t o be events there ers'  happen  different  taught.  Such  In o t h e r  words,  a r e t e a c h a b l e moments i n t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of  learn-  lives  especially  i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of l i f e .  by  which s h o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d and used  educators,  those when l e a r n e r s a r e most m o t i v a t e d and have  " w i l l i n g n e s s t o focus e f f o r t " The  by  the  ( C r o p l e y , 1977, p. 102-103).  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of knowledge b e i n g t r a n s i e n t and r e l a t e d  only to l i f e  situations calls for vertical integration. 37  Educa-  t i o n systems s h o u l d be an e x p r e s s i o n of such a v e r t i c a l  integra-  t i o n , f o r as Lengrand put i t , The f i r s t q u e s t i o n i s t o what e x t e n t knowledge of any s u b j e c t i s l a s t i n g and c h a n g e l e s s . A p a r t from some abs t r a c t t r u t h s not s u b j e c t t o v a r i a t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e , such as m a t h e m a t i c a l d a t a , the domain of knowledge expands and changes a t such a pace t h a t anyone who does not r e g u l a r l y adapt h i s c o n c e p t i o n s t o t h e r e a l i t y of f a c t s and the e v o l u t i o n of i d e a s , f i n d s h i m s e l f reduced t o a t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y f a l s e v i s i o n of t h e a r e a i n which he i s engaged. R e g u l a r r e c y c l i n g , as f r e q u e n t l y as p o s s i b l e , thus seems i n d i s p e n s a b l e (Lengrand, i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p.31). A g a i n he s a i d , Knowledge i t s e l f i s an i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n c a r r i e d out by a mind which r e s o l v e s a problem, f i n d s an answer t o a q u e s t i o n . . . . But every i n d i v i d u a l can a c t u a l i z e h i s p o t e n t i a l i n h i s own way, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own rhythm depending on t h e g e n e r a l b i o l o g i c a l s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t s and t h e p a r t i c u l a r happenings a t t h a t moment i n h i s l i f e (Lengrand, i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p. 3 2 ) . Faure  called for integration  through t h e a b o l i t i o n of " a r -  t i f i c i a l and o u t - d a t e d b a r r i e r s between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of edu c a t i o n " (Faure e t a l . ,  1972, p.189),  so t h a t l e a r n e r s might  move a l o n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system w i t h ease. supported  by G e l p i ,  H i s statement was  who advocated " i n t e g r a t i o n  t r a i n i n g and subsequent t r a i n i n g " ( G e l p i ,  between  initial  1979, p . x ) .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 4 ) The d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of e d u c a t i o n , such as s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and e d u c a t o r s , r e l a t e d t o the different a s p e c t s of l i f e a r e t o be h o r i z o n t a l l y integ r a t e d (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p.189; G e l p i , 1979, p.x; Dave, 1983, p. 6) . The  chief  disciplines separate different another,  reason f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n  of d i f f e r e n t  subject  i s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h i t s emphasis  disciplines disciplines and  and s p e c i a l i s a t i o n s  produces  who a r e o f t e n unable t o  people  understand  on of one  l e a r n e r s who a r e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e of work. 38  As F a u r e  (1972) e x p l a i n e d ,  education, called  the t r a d i t i o n a l  which separates  technical  "academic model"  so-called general education  of  from  so-  education,  h a s t h e s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e of p r e p a r i n g p e o p l e o n l y f o r a l i m i t e d number of p r o f e s s i o n s , and of r u l i n g o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r i t s g r a d u a t e s , when j o b s a r e s c a r c e , of t u r n i n g , e v e n t e m p o r a r i l y , t o t h e t e c h n i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s t h e y h a v e been t a u g h t t o d e s p i s e ( F a u r e , 1972, p . x x x i ) . This Therefore, different al  and  1972,  is  no h e l p t o f u l l  Faure  suggested  development of the whole  that a r t i f i c i a l  educational disciplines,  non-formal  education  courses  barriers ...  and  "between  between  s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d " ( F a u r e  form-  et a l . ,  p.189). Gelpi  "abolition  went of  to the any  r o o t of the m a t t e r  r a n k i n g between the  ciplines  and  the s o - c a l l e d  1979,  x).  The  p.  ciplines  higher  which i n c l u d e  so-called  intellectual  for  manual  disciplines"  " t h e t e c h n i c a l and  to despise"  emphasizing  status,  (Faure, i s an  1972,  dis-  [the  p.xxxi).  obstacle to  hori-  education.  s t u d e n t s who  are  technical  training  would  equipped  f o r employment o r l a c k a s e n s e o f c u l t u r e and Therefore,  dis-  (Gelpi,  they  e m p h a s i s on d i c h o t o m i z i n g g e n e r a l and mean t u r n i n g o u t  the  disciplines,  practical activities  i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f  Moreover,  called  i n a s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y than manual  S u c h an a t t i t u d e , zontal  and  t r a d i t i o n a l attitude places i n t e l l e c t u a l  l e a r n e r s ] h a v e been t a u g h t  ment.  person.  either  i l l -  refine-  t h e w o r l d of s c h o o l s h o u l d a l s o be i n t e g r a t e d  w i t h t h e w o r l d of w o r k .  Dave g a v e h i s r e a s o n  i n t e g r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t  a s p e c t s of l i f e  39  f o r the as  horizontal  follows:  ... i n t e g r a t i o n between the p h y s i c a l , intellectual, a f f e c t i v e and s p i r i t u a l a s p e c t s of l i f e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r f u l l development of p e r s o n a l i t y . Such an i n t e g r a t i o n i s a l s o required f o r performing personal, s o c i a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s i n a harmonious manner and for t a k i n g c a r e of a l l t a s k s r a n g i n g from the s i m p l e s t to the most complex ones i n an o p t i m a l l y e f f e c t i v e manner (Dave, 1983, p. 6 ) . The  key i d e a of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s f o r the  develop-  ment of a f u l l p e r s o n a l i t y so t h a t one can perform one's d i f f e r ent l i f e  r o l e s i n a harmonious manner.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 5) E d u c a t i o n i s t o d e v e l o p i n the l e a r n e r s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e (Faure et a l . , 1972, p . x x i x ; C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p.12, 20, 31). T h i s i s an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g for without  education,  i t l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n c o u l d not be m a i n t a i n e d .  of the drawbacks of t r a d i t i o n a l  e d u c a t i o n seems t o be i t s  One fail-  ure to f o s t e r i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g . In c e r t a i n r e g i o n s where o n l y h a l f of a l l c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e to e n t e r s c h o o l , t h a t h a l f a g a i n of t h a t h a l f [meaning h a l f of those who have e n t e r e d s c h o o l ] f a i l t o adapt t o i t , and become d i s c o u r a g e d even during p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n (Faure, 1972, p. x x i x ) . Therefore  i t i s essential that, the purpose of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t of i n f l u e n c i n g the p r o c e s s of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g which a l ready e x i s t s . The g o a l i s not t h a t of making l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g o c c u r ; t h a t a l r e a d y happens. What i s needed is an e d u c a t i o n system which i s c a p a b l e of aiding, g u i d i n g , s y s t e m a t i z i n g and a c c e l e r a t i n g the p r o c e s s of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , i n o r d e r t o improve i t s e f f i c i e n c y , i n c r e a s e i t s e x t e n t , p r o v i d e i t w i t h g o a l s and purposes, and make i t more capable of meeting the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p. 20).  The  skill  required  (1983) termed e d u c a b i l i t y ,  for l i f e l o n g education i s  what  Dave  which i n c l u d e s i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n ,  s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , w i l l i n g n e s s t o be a l e a r n e r p l u s s t u d y i n g and  i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s t o  40  enable one t o o b t a i n r e l e v a n t knowledge when needed.  Therefore,  A teacher should f a c i l i t a t e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p. 31). L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t o r e g a r d l e a r n i n g as something relevant to t h e i r l i v e s ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p. 12). Learning  how  t o l e a r n i s important t o the whole p r o c e s s of  l e a r n i n g throughout  life,  i f i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g i s t o be main-  tained. Characteristic 6) L e a r n e r s are g i v e n freedom of c h o i c e i n where t o l e a r n t h e i r s u b j e c t s of i n t e r e s t (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.220; Dave, 1983, p . 7 ) . The  proponents  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n endorse  freedom  of  choice: It s h o u l d be made a p r i n c i p l e t o c e n t r e e d u c a t i o n a l activity on the l e a r n e r , t o a l l o w him greater and g r e a t e r freedom as he matures, t o d e c i d e f o r h i m s e l f what he wants t o l e a r n , and how and where he wants t o l e a r n i t and take h i s t r a i n i n g (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 220). To become " a u t o d i d a c t i c " ( G e s t r e l i u s , Cropley, ing.  1979,  The  choice since  there  of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  has t o be s u f f i c i e n t s u b j e c t s ' t o choose But s t i l l ,  and  learning  "alternative 1983,  p.7).  and  forms of  from  i s necessary  acquiring  in  education" person  l i f e , a d i v e r s i f i e d choice  t o meet the need.  41  and  learning",  S i n c e i n t e r e s t s vary from person t o  from time t o time i n the person's  of s u b j e c t matter  planners,  and d i v e r s i t y  t o o l s and t e c h n i q u e s and time of patterns  of  Dave s t r e s s e d t h a t l i f e l o n g  e d u c a t i o n i s " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s f l e x i b i l i t y  (Dave,  12 i n  p r a c t i c a l problems i n v o l v e d p r o v i d i n g f o r freedom  enough p l a c e s t o go t o .  and  p.  p. 18) i s the term g i v e n t o s e l f governed l e a r n -  would be the concern  content,  1977,  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 7) D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s i s s t r e s s e d (Faure et a l . , 1972, p! 183; C r o p l e y , 1979, p.74; Dave, 1983, p . 7 ) . P r o v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y t i e d up w i t h the l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g process, to  f o r i f p r o v i s i o n i s inadequate,  i t would be p o i n t l e s s  persuade people not t o s t o c k up knowledge but t o l e a r n as  need a r i s e s throughout  the  life.  I t makes i t s appeal t o a l l k i n d s of a g e n c i e s : school, c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y but e q u a l l y the f a m i l y , the community and the w o r l d of work, books, p r e s s , t h e a t r e and the media f o r mass communication (Richmond quoting Lengrand i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p. 74). Dave a l s o wrote, L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e s both f o r m a l and non-formal p a t t e r n s of e d u c a t i o n , p l a n n e d as w e l l as i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g (Dave, 1983, p . 7 ) . Faure s t r e s s e d the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l  institutions:  E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and means must be m u l t i p l i e d , made more a c c e s s i b l e , o f f e r the i n d i v i d u a l a f a r more d i v e r s i f i e d c h o i c e . E d u c a t i o n must assume the p r o p o r t i o n s of a t r u e mass movement (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 183) . It be  i s easy t o see t h a t adequacy and d i v e r s i t y s h o u l d  s t r e s s e d i n such p l a c e s of l e a r n i n g ,  the c i t i z e n s i s dependent on them.  also  s i n c e the e d u c a t i o n  of  Faure suggested d i v e r s i f i c a -  t i o n through d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  e.g.  ... business, i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l f i r m s w i l l have e x t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . . . . T h e i r role s h o u l d not be l i m i t e d t o t r a i n i n g w o r k e r s , but extended so f a r as p o s s i b l e t o t r a i n i n g technicians and r e s e a r c h e r s (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 198). In so d o i n g , i s provided firms  for,  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l and the b u s i n e s s ,  i n d u s t r i a l and  w i l l a l s o have the r i g h t k i n d of p e r s o n n e l  f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g and 42  opportunities agricultural  and share  research.  the  Characteristic 8) E n t r y - e x i t - r e - e n t r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s are p r o v i d e d f o r a l l k i n d s of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.186, p.203; C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p.14; Lengrand, 1975, p.50). This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a l o g i c a l necessity i f education to  is  be l i f e l o n g . Faure et a l . wrote, As e d u c a t i o n a l systems become more d i v e r s i f i e d and as possibilities f o r e n t r y , e x i t and r e - e n t r y i n c r e a s e , o b t a i n i n g u n i v e r s i t y degrees and d i p l o m a s s h o u l d become l e s s and l e s s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o c o m p l e t i n g a predetermined course of study (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 203) . Each person s h o u l d be a b l e to choose h i s path more freely, i n a more f l e x i b l e framework, w i t h o u t b e i n g compelled to g i v e up u s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r l i f e i f he l e a v e s the system (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 186). Under  most e x i s t i n g systems i t i s d i f f i c u l t  f o r persons t o  enter education at t h e i r appropriate l e v e l a f t e r l e a v i n g school, s i n c e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge gained out of s c h o o l are ordinarily  recognized academically.  C r o p l e y and Dave  not  pointed  out, Finally, i t would not suppose t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l i s committed t o a s i n g l e l i f e path as a r e s u l t of educat i o n a l d e c i s i o n s taken i n c h i l d h o o d , but would p e r m i t change, f o r example through new l e a r n i n g c a r r i e d out after the p e r i o d of c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l i n g had ended ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p. 14). And  Lengrand a l s o emphasized t h a t , The n o t i o n t h a t a man can a c c o m p l i s h h i s l i f e span w i t h a g i v e n s e t of i n t e l l e c t u a l or t e c h n i c a l luggage is fast disappearing. Under p r e s s u r e from internal needs and as an answer t o e x t e r n a l demands, education is i n the p r o c e s s or r e a c h i n g i t s t r u e significance, which i s not the a c q u i s i t i o n of a hoard of knowledge but the development of the i n d i v i d u a l , a t t a i n i n g i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n as the r e s u l t of s u c c e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e s (Lengrand, 1975, p.50). Such  e x p e r i e n c e s may  i n v o l v e r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l or  43  other  educational  institutions.  F l e x i b l e admission  requirements  are  needed. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 9) I t i s required that teachers receive s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g based on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.217; C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p.36). In l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n the r o l e of t e a c h e r s has changed from t h a t of a ^ d i s t r i b u t o r of knowledge' t o t h a t of a a ^ c o u n s e l l o r ' and is  necessary  and  v  c o - o r d i n a t o r ' . To f u l f i l l  N  facilitator',  these new  t h a t t e a c h e r s update t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l  techniques.  l i f e l o n g education  roles i t knowledge  On the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s the proponents  of  wrote,  ... t e a c h e r s w i l l need a number of s p e c i a l personal p r o p e r t i e s , of which one i s the c a p a c i t y t o engage i n a process of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g themselves, both i n o r d e r t o o f f e r a model of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g f o r t h e i r p u p i l s and a l s o t o cope w i t h t h e i r own periodical o b s o l e s c e n c e ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p.36). ... the p r i n c i p l e of a f i r s t , accelerated training s t a g e , f o l l o w e d by i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c y c l e s , s h o u l d be adopted (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 217). By keeping up w i t h t h e i r own cate  with  others  more m e a n i n g f u l l y than i f they  confined in a stale m i l i e u . long  l e a r n i n g t e a c h e r s can communi-  learners also.  The  were  to  In s h o r t , t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g they r e c e i v e  not be taken t o l a s t a l l t h e i r l i f e w i t h o u t any  be  lifeshould  replenishment.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 10) L e a r n e r s are g i v e n a share of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the management of the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.222; G e l p i , 1979, p . x i ) . This  characteristic  freedom and democracy,  i s c l o s e l y t i e d i n w i t h the  and w i t h t r a i n i n g f o r democracy.  idea  of  Learn-  e r s s h o u l d be g i v e n the chance t o v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n and have a share  i n the management of an a c t i v i t y t h a t i n t i m a t e l y  affects  t h e i r l i v e s , i . e . , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e the proponents of 44  l i f e l o n g education  advocate such a r i g h t f o r t h e l e a r n e r s . Faure  et a l . wrote, A l l l e a r n e r s , whether young or a d u l t , s h o u l d be a b l e t o p l a y a r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t not o n l y in their own education but i n t h e e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p. 2 2 2 ) . Gelpi  (1979) a l s o supported  school-children institutions"  and s t u d e n t s  t h e i d e a of " p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n t h e management  of  educational  ( G e l p i , 1979, p. x i ) . How t h i s can be done i s not  s p e l t o u t , nor i s the degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e f i n e d , essence  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c l e a r .  Learners  p l a y a r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i n t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n ,  but t h e  s h o u l d be a b l e t o which  h a v i n g a v o i c e i n t h e governance of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l they  of  includes  institutions  attend.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 11) E d u c a t i o n i s t o be f o r w a r d l o o k i n g and optimistic of s o c i e t a l improvement (Faure, 1972, p. 1 3; Dave & S t i e m e r l i n g , 1973, p. 29; Lengrand, 1975, p.99). If  t r a d i t i o n a l education  preservative, procreative. also would also and  lifelong  i s accused of b e i n g r e a c t i v e  education  i s essentially proactive  and  I t not o n l y l o o k s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of changes, but  anticipates  them.  mean t h a t e d u c a t i o n  The s t r e s s on the r a p i d i t y of not o n l y has t o adapt t o  t o a n t i c i p a t e change,  change  change  s i n c e change presupposes  i t i s w i t h i n the nature of movement t h a t i t g a i n s  a l o n g the way.  and  but  movement, momentum  Faure wrote:  Science and t e c h n o l o g y have never b e f o r e demonstrated so s t r i k i n g l y t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r power and p o t e n t i a l . D u r i n g t h i s "second t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y " , knowledge i s making a p r o d i g i o u s l e a p f o r w a r d . . . . (More than 90 percent of s c i e n t i s t s and i n v e n t o r s i n a l l of human h i s t o r y a r e l i v i n g i n our times.) E q u a l l y remarkable i s the c o n s t a n t l y d i m i n i s h i n g gap between a s c i e n t i fic d i s c o v e r y and i t s l a r g e - s c a l e a p p l i c a t i o n . Man 45  took 112 y e a r s t o d e v e l o p p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the d i s c o v e r y of the p r i n c i p l e s of photography. Only two y e a r s s e p a r a t e d the d i s c o v e r y from the p r o d u c t i o n of s o l a r b a t t e r i e s . . . ( F a u r e et a l . , 1972, pp. 87-88 ). The for  speed of change i n modern s o c i e t y makes i t  impossible  a person t o l e a r n what he needs w i t h i n a s h o r t span of  life  and  to  expect t h a t knowledge w i l l l a s t him  all  his  through  life. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d p r e p a r e l e a r n e r s f o r a type of s o c i e ty which does not yet e x i s t (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.13) . L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t o view time as something p o s i t i v e , b r i n g i n g human e x p e r i e n c e , d i s c o v e r i e s and p r o g r e s s (Lengrand, 1975, p. 99). In  short l i f e l o n g education  has  t o be f o r w a r d l o o k i n g  and  o p t i m i s t i c of s o c i e t a l improvement. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 12) The v a l u e of a p e a c e f u l world community i s d e v e l o p e d i n l e a r n e r s ( Faure et a l . , 1972, p.235, p.240; Lengrand, 1975, p.105-107). Granted global other an  scale,  t h a t the e x p l o s i o n of knowledge i s happening on discoveries  countries,  i n t e g r a t e d and  fails  and  l i f e l o n g education  whole p e r s o n ,  country  are  affecting  i s supposed t o d e v e l o p if  it  t o i n s p i r e an i n t e r n a t i o n a l dimension i n the t h i n k i n g  of  the l i f e l o n g l e a r n e r . and  made i n one  a  the  i t would be r e g r e t a b l e  Such a sense i s e s s e n t i a l f o r w o r l d  development of a p e r s o n a l  global  perspective.  peace Faure  wrote, All c o u n t r i e s at a l l development l e v e l s should t h e r e f o r e be brought i n t o the common e f f o r t towards intern a t i o n a l s o l i d a r i t y , which at the same time should give s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n to developing countries (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 235). A spirit of peace s h o u l d be l e a r n e r s (Lengrand, 1975, pp.  inculcated 107).  Through t h e i r programmes l e a r n e r s s h o u l d 46  in  the  be g i v e n some  awareness of the u n i t y of mankind and t h e common a s p i r a t i o n s (Faure e t a l , 1972, p. 2 4 0 ) . If i t i s t r u e t h a t peace i s s o c i e t y ' s g r e a t e s t good, t h a t t h e very s u r v i v a l of the human s p e c i e s i s t h r e a tened by c o n f l i c t s I n c u l c a t i n g a s p i r i t of peace in individuals i s t h e r e f o r e bound up w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r u l t i m a t e ends of e d u c a t i o n , whether intellectual, a f f e c t i v e or s o c i a l . (Lengrand, 1975, pp. 105107) It  i s e s p e c i a l l y important  i n l i f e l o n g education  because  the l e a r n e r s a r e not o n l y c h i l d r e n who w i l l be t h e r u l e r s of t h e world, the  but a l s o a d u l t s who a l r e a d y ' r u l e ' t h e w o r l d .  networks  of news and i n f o r m a t i o n  through  Besides,  satellites  e l e c t r o n i c media have a l r e a d y t i e d people t o g e t h e r i n t o a communication see  net.  Given a w o r l d view,  mental  world  one i s b e t t e r a b l e t o  o n e s e l f and o t h e r s i n a broad p e r s p e c t i v e ,  p e t t i n e s s t h a t c e n t r e s on o n e s e l f .  and  In s h o r t ,  and be  r i d of  t h e above  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e concept  funda-  of l i f e l o n g  education. Desirable Characteristics The  desirable  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n l i f e l o n g education  those p r a c t i c e s which f a c i l i t a t e and promote l i f e l o n g even  though they a r e not a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l ,  p r a c t i s i n g l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n they a r e prominent, v i d i n g equal o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l , ces,  encouraging  experiments  maximizing  are  education  but i n a system such as  pro-  t h e use of r e s o u r -  i n s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n , e n a c t i n g sup-  p o r t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , and working  toward  improved q u a l i t y of l i f e  for a l l . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 13) I t i s assumed t h a t e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s p r o v i d e d f o r a l l who want t o l e a r n (Faure e t a l , 1972, p.192; Dave, 1983, p.6; G e l p i , 1979, p . x ) . S i n c e e d u c a t i o n has been d e c l a r e d t o be an u n i v e r s a l r i g h t , 47  equal  o p p o r t u n i t i e s must be g i v e n t o e x e r c i s e t h a t r i g h t .  s t r e s s i n g equal t i o n do  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the p r o p o n e n t s of l i f e l o n g  not  s t r e s s compulsory education  life,  since  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s may  heavy  financial  be  But  undertaking;  f r e e of c h a r g e ,  better maintained  nor  do  b e c a u s e i t may i f education  stage  not be they  w e l l be  i s not  equal opportunity for education  a t any  ready  insist  of  educapeople's  for  that  in  such  a  education  t h a t i n c e n t i v e can  free.  be  Wherever p o s s i b l e ,  s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d t o e v e r y o n e :  A l l c h i l d r e n must be g u a r a n t e e d t h e p r a c t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y of r e c e i v i n g b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , f u l l - t i m e i f p o s s i ble, i n o t h e r f o r m s i f n e c e s s a r y ( F a u r e e t a l , 1972, p. 1 9 2 ) . Contrary t o t h e e l i t i s t f o r m of e d u c a t i o n , l i f e l o n g education i s universal in character. I t represents d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n (Dave, 1983, p. 6 ) . E d u c a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e new c o n s t r u c t , i s no l o n g e r t h e p r e r o g a t i v e of a few. E q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s t o e d u c a tion f o r a l l i s p r o v i d e d a t any s t a g e in l i f e , the c h i e f c r i t e r i o n of e l i g i b i l i t y b e i n g o n e ' s c a p a c i t y t o p r o f i t f r o m i t (Dave, 1983, p . 6 ) . The  basis for this characteristic  which presupposes equal  r i g h t s and  t u n i t i e s c o u l d n o t be e q u a l , and  of  urban  rural areas"  and  democracy,  inequalities  equality  Therefore, in  (Gelpi,  and  ideology,  equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  i f the q u a l i t y  r u r a l a r e a s were u n e q u a l .  "abolition  i s a democratic  the 1979,  Oppor-  of s c h o o l s i n urban Gelpi called  quality p.x).  f o r the  of  schools  The  concept  human r i g h t s a r e subsumed i n  in of  such  a  demand. Gelpi although  (1979) such  definition,  also  bias  since  expressed  i s not it  a strong  included in this  i s o n l y one  48  of G e l p i ' s  bias  for  workers  derivation approaches,  of  a and  cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l i f e l o n g as  education,  t h e o t h e r a u t h o r s d i d not emphasize s e r v i n g any one group of  learners. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 14) The l i m i t a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l resources i s overcome through maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g p l a c e s of work (Lengrand, 1 975, p.32; Lengrand i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p.28). This would  be  Learning training,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s based on the f a c t  that  i n g r e a t demand i f people a r e m o t i v a t e d i n some  cases,  such as p r e - s e r v i c e  i s best done not i n premises  built  and  facilities to  learn.  in-service  exclusively  e d u c a t i o n , but i n environments s u i t e d t o o t h e r purposes.  for  There-  fore , ... i f one a c c e p t s t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e of a g l o b a l e n t e r p r i s e which i n v o l v e s t h e d i f f e r e n t ages and d i f f e r e n t periods i n l i f e , which harmonizes study time w i t h r e c r e a t i o n t i m e , which aims t o make o p t i m a l use of exi s t i n g b u i l d i n g s and equipment, then s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s s h o u l d no l o n g e r be b u i l t on t r a d i t i o n a l models but r a t h e r on t h e l i n e of the B r i t i s h v i l l a g e c o l l e g e s or s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s of a p o l y v a l e n t c h a r a c t e r and f o r m u l t i p l e use (Lengrand i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p. 2 8 ) . We must, of c o u r s e , i n s i s t s t r o n g l y t h a t b u i l d e r s of a l l t y p e s ( a r c h i t e c t s , town-planners, e t c . ) and those who u t i l i z e t h e i r s e r v i c e ... s h o u l d engage i n no b u i l d i n g scheme w i t h o u t h a v i n g f i r s t taken account of the b a s i c needs of human beings both as i n d i v i d u a l s and as members of communities (Lengrand, 1975, p. 3 2 ) . Facilities the  are e s s e n t i a l f o r l i f e l o n g  education.  n a t u r e of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s f l e x i b l e and  can occur i n many p l a c e s ,  t h i s s h o u l d not be  d i v e r s e , and  an excuse f o r not  b u i l d i n g more e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s when needed. tional facilities 1975, all  Granted  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n t h e workplace  A l s o educa(Lengrand,  p.12) and an e d u c a t i o n a l component s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e i n buildings  where people g a t h e r .  49  An i n t e r e s t i n s e l f  and  community improvement can be f o s t e r e d , t o those who  and easy a c c e s s p r o v i d e d  wish to l e a r n .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 15) A l l types of t e a c h i n g methods and educat i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y are encouraged, p a r t i c u l a r l y experimentation on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.209-210; Dave & S t i e m e r l i n g , 1973, p. 83; G e l p i , 1979, p . x i ; Dave, 1983, p . 7 ) . This  characteristic  i s based on the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among the l e a r n e r s , and d i f f e r e n t  situational  needs.  Faure et a l . s t r e s s e d t h a t , "the a c c e l e r a t i n g and  plying  e f f e c t of new  tion  t e c h n i q u e s of r e p r o d u c t i o n and  i s b a s i c t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of most  t i o n s (1972, p. 210).  indi-  multi-  communica-  educational  innova-  Also,  I t has been e n v i s a g e d t h a t a v a r i e t y of techniques will have t o be used t o c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to continue t h e i r education throughout life, new methods w i l l have t o be e v o l v e d t o ensure i n c r e a s i n g c o n t a c t and communication among people and t o promote i n i t i a t i v e and c r e a t i v i t y among them (Le Veugle i n Dave & S t i e m e r l i n g , 1973, p. 8 3 ) . Hence, a c c o r d i n g t o G e l p i , " t h e r e s h o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t  develop-  ment of experiments  The i n -  clusive  use  in self-instruction  (1979,  p.xi).  of a l l types of media i s s t r e s s e d (Faure  1972; G e l p i , 1979; Dave, 1983).  et a l . ,  Since l i f e l o n g education c a t e r s  f o r a l l t y p e s of s i t u a t i o n s throughout  the l e a r n e r s ' l i v e s ,  and  as d i f f e r e n t media h e l p t o meet d i f f e r e n t needs, i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t a l l media be used. Dave wrote, L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s a dynamic approach t o e d u c a t i o n which a l l o w s a d a p t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s and media of l e a r n i n g as and when new developments t a k e p l a c e (Dave, 1983, p . 7 ) . This situations ever  need  to  u t i l i z e t e c h n o l o g y t o serve  and l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s  before,  a l l types  i s more o b v i o u s  now  of than  w i t h the m i c r o and s u p e r - m i c r o computer and o t h e r 50  e l e c t r o n i c media on the market. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 16) R e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n , such as f o r p a i d e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e s , i s recommended t o support e d u c a t i o n throughout l i f e f o r t e a c h e r s and l e a r n e r s (Faure et a l . , 1972, p.216; G e l p i , 1979, p . x i ) . To encourage the maintenance of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s ,  to  ensure e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t o have a f a i r e r  distri-  bution  and  of t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l  i n urban and r u r a l a r e a s ,  promote the b u i l d i n g up of knowledge through  research,  to  legisla-  t i o n s h o u l d be enacted. G e l p i wrote, P r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s ( p a i d l e a v e , s c h o l a r s h i p s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , e t c . ) [ s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e ] to u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d groups t o enable them t o profit from the e d u c a t i o n a l system ( G e l p i , 1979, p. x i ) . Legislation learners,  but  is also  i n p l a c e not o n l y f o r the b e n e f i t t o r e t a i n t e a c h e r s i n the  less  of  the  preferred  places. The d e s i r e f o r promotion, w i t h i t s f i n a n c i a l and social advantages, s h o u l d not send him [the teacher] i n e x o r a b l y towards a b i g g e r and b i g g e r town, a l a r g e r and l a r g e r e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , or towards the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n and the h i g h e s t grades w i t h i n those l e v e l s (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 216). Whether sults  is  l e g i s l a t i o n succeeds i n p r o d u c i n g the d e s i r e d  another m a t t e r ,  but v a r i o u s k i n d s are d e s i r a b l e  reand  advantageous i f l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s to be p r a c t i s e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 17) The aim of e d u c a t i o n i s to l e a d t o improved q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r the people i n a community (Lengrand, 1975, p. 103; C r o p l e y , 1979, p.104; Dave, 1983, p . 9 ) . All  e d u c a t i o n aims t o l e a d t o improved q u a l i t y of l i f e ,  l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y more so and because  it  i s more e f f e c t i v e  i s t h e r e when people need t o improve themselves  the d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of t h e i r  lives. 51  and  in  The u l t i m a t e g o a l o f l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s t o m a i n t a i n and i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e ( D a v e , 1983, p. 9 ) . The g o a l o f l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n c a n be seen a s t h a t o f developing a "new man", eager t o l e a r n throughout life, c a p a b l e of d o i n g s o , a b l e t o s e t p r i o r i t i e s and judge r e s u l t s , d e m o c r a t i c , concerned about f o s t e r i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e a n d s o on ( C r o p l e y , 1979, p. 1 0 4 ) . L e n g r a n d went f u r t h e r of  life"  t o e x p l a i n what was meant by  "quality  i n a community: The a i m s o f e d u c a t i o n a l s o come f a c e t o f a c e w i t h t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f what i s t o d a y c a l l e d t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e ... E v e r y t h i n g comes i n t o p l a y , t h e a i r we b r e a t h e , be it pure or contaminated, t h e w a t e r we d r i n k , be i t healthy or p o l l u t e d , a n d t h e l a n d - s c a p e a r o u n d u s , be it pleasant or dismal; or h o s t i l e environment which causes d i s t r e s s o r a f r i e n d l y e n v i r o n m e n t where a man feels s u p p o r t e d , encouraged and l o v e d ...(Lengrand, 1975, p. 1 0 3 ) .  E v i d e n t l y Lengrand i n g work p l a c e s ,  was r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c o m m u n i t y ,  where e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be p r o -  vided  t o s o l v e problems  fore,  e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be u s e d a s a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r  and c o m m u n i t y  been  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g  m a i n l y from t h e works of t h e f i v e  promoting the concept ors  t o c o m m u n i t y a n d work.  There-  individual  Characteristics  seventeen  derived  related  development.  The N a t u r e o f t h e The  includ-  f r o m UNESCO.  education chief  Table 2 i d e n t i f i e s  have  authors the auth-  f r o m whose w o r k s t h e s e v e n t e e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were d e r i v e d .  52  Table 2  Sources of C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P o s t u l a t e s of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n Characteristic  Faure * * * * * * * * * * * *  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 . 17  Dave  Cropley  Gelpi  * * * * * * * *  *  * * * * * * *  *  *  * *  . *  *  *  * * *  Lengrand The  ( 1 9 7 2 ) was (1976,  (1975,  seventeen  *  *  t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e  1983) , 1979,  Cropley  (1977,  i n C r o p l e y ) and  1979)  source, followed Gelpi  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not a l l s t r u c t u r e  l i k e a s k e l e t o n , b u t embody a t t i t u d e s ,  values  give s p i r i t  inter-related, integral  to actions  beliefs  policies.  and  They  are an  whole.  inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Characteristics  shows t h e e s s e n c e of t h e  n a m e l y , e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be l i f e l o n g .  characteristic must  and  and  depend on one a n o t h e r , a n d , a s a r e s u l t , f o r m  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the The  (1979),  others.  organization, that  *  * *  Dave  cept,  Others  *  *  Faure by  Lengrand  into practice,  be p r e s e n t t o s u p p o r t i t ,  To p u t t h e  the fundamental namely,  53  con-  inherent  characteristics  t h e r e must be  vertical  and  horizontal  i n t e g r a t i o n of l i f e  situations,  so  knowledge;  the  ing,  t h a t t h e r e i s no n e e d t o s t o c k up a d e v e l o p i n g of a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e  so t h a t i n t e r e s t  life;  freedom  diversified  of  and  sharing and  life  situations;  learn-  throughout learning,  and a  of l i f e l o n g  education  p r o m u l g a t e d c a n be e n s u r e d  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  and  passed  i n t h e management o f t h e  o u t l o o k on l i f e  the w o r l d community, education  on;  the  institution  of l i f e l o n g  handing  education;  t h a t would l e a d t o a sense of  so t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e aim and o b j e c t i v e  c a n be a t t a i n e d .  of  so t h a t t h e s p i r i t  t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system t o e n s u r e democracy and t h e  an o p t i m i s t i c  a  flexible  the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g  down o f p o l i c i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n c e p t and  of  s y s t e m a l l h e l p t o meet t h e need f o r l e a r n -  i n the concept  attitude  toward  of  p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  i n the d i f f e r e n t  teachers  i n p l a c e and matter  to l i f e  baggage  f o r l e a r n i n g c a n be s u s t a i n e d  choice  entry-exit-re-entry ing  and knowledge r e l a t e d  If lifelong  education  of  i s t o be p u t  i n t o p r a c t i c e t h e s e q u a l i t i e s must be s t r e s s e d , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e inter-dependent. sential,  I t w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e ,  though perhaps not e s -  t o have t h e d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s w e l l ,  e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l , maximum u s e o f r e s o u r c e s , teaching  methods and e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y ,  paid  such as  different  leaves  and  f o r the  pos-  scholarships. The tulates. istics tion and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are "umbrella These  statements"  postulates are manifested  are put into p r a c t i c e .  when t h e  character-  F o r e x a m p l e , when l i f e l o n g  i s put i n t o p r a c t i c e teachers  s h o u l d be l i f e l o n g l e a r n e r s ,  l e a r n e r s s h o u l d have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards  54  educa-  learning,  otherwise  there  is little  hope t h a t t h e y  will  continue  learning  throughout l i f e .  The p o s t u l a t e s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s -  tics  r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r ;  which  affects  are  The  postulates,  characteristics  which  are various  assumed  from  the  grouped under the  as the *master c o n c e p t '  They a r e  i n an e d u c a t i o n  lifesystem.  as f o l l o w s :  Not a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s h a v e been u s e d  verbatim.  t h e same i d e a a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n one  Those  seventeen  s t a t e of a f f a i r s e x p e c t e d i n a s o c i e t y u s i n g  education  peating 2)  and  ideas taken  a l s o demonstrate i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  They were p r o c e s s e d 1)  one  a Comprehensive D e f i n i t i o n  w r i t i n g s o f t h e UNESCO a u t h o r s  long  any  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the whole.  P o s t u l a t e s Comprising  the  t h e l a c k of  expressing  segments of a g e n e r a l  Those  re-  statement.  concept  expressed  elsewhere are l e f t out. 3)  Statements  assumed  of  explanation  r a t h e r than  s t a t e of a f f a i r s a r e a l s o  description  teristics the  r e f i n i n g process, The  lated One of  Postulates)  51 p o s t u l a t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e v e n t e e n  were d e v e l o p e d b e f o r e  being  (see Chapter  refined.  O n l y 28  characsurvived  IV)  f o l l o w i n g are the p o s t u l a t e s r e t a i n e d .  t o t h e seventeen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the "fundamental" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  education.  two f o r e a c h  and one f o r e a c h o f  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were r e t a i n e d .  55  They a r e r e -  lifelong  p o s t u l a t e f o r the "inherent" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  "desirable"  an  excluded.  ( s e e A p p e n d i x B on O r i g i n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d Altogether  of  T h e s e 28  the  postulates  are  c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o show the comprehensiveness of the  concept istics  of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , as  seventeen  i t s framework.  w i t h the  seventeen  character-  The 28 p o s t u l a t e s r e l a t i n g  t o the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were:  Inherent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c and P o s t u l a t e s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1) E d u c a t i o n c o v e r s the e n t i r e l i f e - s p a n of i n d i v i d u a l s (Faure e t a l , 1972 p. 182; Dave, 1983, p . 3 ) . P o s t u l a t e 1. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d cover the e n t i r e l i f e - s p a n of an i n d i v i d u a l (D2 i n Appendix A ) . Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and P o s t u l a t e s  Characteristic 2) Knowledge i s h e l d t o be r e l a t e d t o l i f e situations (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p.xxx; Lengrand i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p. 3 2 ) . P o s t u l a t e 2. E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a p r o c e s s of s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t r a t h e r than as a c u r r i c u l u m t o be l e a r n t (Faure, 1972, p. 143). P o s t u l a t e 3. L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be taught how t o l e a r n r a t h e r than to accumulate f a c t s (L6 i n Appendix A ) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 3) The d i f f e r e n t stages of l i f e and knowledge a r e t o be v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p.183; Dave, 1983, p.6; C r o p l e y , 1977, p.79, p.93). P o s t u l a t e 4. There a r e ' t e a c h a b l e moments' i n the d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d of l e a r n e r s ' 1 i v e s which s h o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d and used by e d u c a t o r s ( C r o p l e y , p.102-103). P o s t u l a t e 5. L e a r n e r s ' i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g i n s c h o o l and subsequent t r a i n i n g a t work s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d (Gr i n Appendix A). C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 4) The d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of e d u c a t i o n , such as s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and e d u c a t o r s , related to the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of l i f e a r e t o be h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d (Faure e t a l . , 1972, p.189; G e l p i , 1979, p. x; Dave, 1983, p . 6 ) . P o s t u l a t e 6. D i s t i n c t i o n s between a r t s , s c i e n c e and t e c h n i c a l streams of e d u c a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o l e a r n e r s ' d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d (F4 i n Appendix A ) . P o s t u l a t e 7. Any r a n k i n g between manual and i n t e l l e c t u a l c i p l i n e s s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d (Gj i n Appendix A ) . Characteristic  5) E d u c a t i o n  i s t o develop 56  dis-  i n the l e a r n e r s a  positive a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e (Faure a l . , 1972, p. x x i x ; C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p. 12, 20, 3 1 ) .  et  P o s t u l a t e 8. The c h i e f d u t y o f a t e a c h e r i s t o f a c i l i t a t e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p. 3 1 ) . Postulate 9. L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be something relevant to their p.12) .  t a u g h t t o r e g a r d l e a r n i n g as l i v e s ( C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978  Characteristic 6) L e a r n e r s a r e g i v e n f r e e d o m of c h o i c e in where t o l e a r n t h e i r s u b j e c t s of i n t e r e s t ( F a u r e e t a l . , 1972, p . 2 2 0 ; D a v e , -1983 p.7) . P o s t u l a t e 10. L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be f r e e t o c h o o s e t h e w h i c h t o l e a r n (F20 i n A p p e n d i x A ) . Postulate 11. L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e y want t o l e a r n (F20 i n A p p e n d i x  school  freedom t o d e c i d e A).  in what  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 7) D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s i s s t r e s s e d (Faure et a l . , 1972, p. 183; C r o p l e y , 1979, p.74; D a v e , 1983, p . 7 ) . P o s t u l a t e 12. E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d to o f f e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l a d i v e r s i f i e d c h o i c e (F2 i n A p p e n d i x A). Postulate 13. B u s i n e s s companies s h o u l d t r a i n not o n l y ers, b u t r e s e a r c h e r s a s w e l l (F9 i n A p p e n d i x A ) .  work-  Characteristic 8) E n t r y - e x i t - r e - e n t r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s are p r o v i d e d f o r a l l k i n d s of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s ( F a u r e et a l . , 1972, pp.186, 203; Lengrand, 1975, p.50; C r o p l e y & D a v e , 1978, p.14). P o s t u l a t e 14. L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e i r p a t h i n a flexible framework, w i t h o u t being compelled to give up using e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r l i f e i f they leave formal s c h o o l i n g (F3 i n A p p e n d i x A ) . P o s t u l a t e 15. E x a m i n a t i o n s s h o u l d be u s e d a s a means of c o m p a r i n g method e f f e c t i v e n e s s r a t h e r t h a n a s an a c a d e m i c a d m i s s i o n a i d (F11 i n A p p e n d i x A ) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 9) I t i s r e q u i r e d t h a t t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e s p e cial t r a i n i n g based l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n (Faure et al., 1972, p . 2 1 7 ; C r o p l e y & Dave, 1978, p.36). Postulate than (F18  16. T e a c h e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t o be e d u c a t o r s r a t h e r specialists in transmitting pre-established curricula i n Appendix A).  57  P o s t u l a t e 17. T e a c h e r s s h o u l d be l i v e s (CD2 i n A p p e n d i x A ) .  l e a r n e r s throughout  their  Characteristic 10) L e a r n e r s a r e g i v e n a s h a r e of r e s p o n s i bility i n the e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e (Faure et a l . , 1972, p . 2 2 2 ; G e l p i , 1979, p . x i ) . Postulate 18. A l l l e a r n e r s s h o u l d be g i v e n a r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m (F21 i n A p p e n d i x A ) . P o s t u l a t e 19. L e a r n e r s s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e management o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h e y a t t e n d (Gq i n A p p e n d i x A ) . Characteristic 11) E d u c a t i o n i s t o be f o r w a r d l o o k i n g and o p t i m i s t i c of s o c i a l i m p r o v e m e n t ( F a u r e , 1972, p.13; Dave & S t i e m e r l i n g , 1973, p.29). P o s t u l a t e 20. Education should prepare l e a r n e r s f o r a of t h e f u t u r e ( F a u r e , 1972, p.13).  society  Postulate 21. L e a r n e r s s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o v i e w t i m e a s b e i n g a b l e t o b r i n g a b o u t human e x p e r i e n c e , d i s c o v e r i e s and p r o g r e s s ( L e n g r a n d , 1975, p. 9 9 ) . Characteristic i s developed i n the 1975, p . 1 0 7 ) .  12) The v a l u e o f a p e a c e f u l w o r l d c o m m u n i t y l e a r n e r s (Faure, 1972, p.240; Lengrand,  P o s t u l a t e 22. A s p i r i t of p e a c e s h o u l d be e r s ( L e n g r a n d , 1975, p. 1 0 7 ) .  inculcated in learn-  P o s t u l a t e 23. T h r o u g h t h e i r programmes l e a r n e r s s h o u l d be g i v e n some a w a r e n e s s o f the u n i t y of mankind and i t s common a s p i r a t i o n s ( F a u r e , 1972, p. 2 4 0 ) . D e s i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  Postulates  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 13) I t i s assumed t h a t e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y is p r o v i d e d f o r a l l who want t o l e a r n ( F a u r e e t a l , 1972, p. 192; G e l p i , 1979, p . x ; Dave, 1983, p . 6 ) . Postulate 24. Similar q u a l i t y in resources for a l l schools i n u r b a n and r u r a l a r e a s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d t o e n s u r e f a i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l (Gh i n A p p e n d i x A ) . Characteristic 14) The l i m i t a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i s o v e r c o m e t h r o u g h maximum u t i l i z a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g p l a c e s o f work (Lengrand, 1975, p. 32; L e n g r a n d i n C r o p l e y , 1979, p. 2 8 ) . Postulate 25. Educational f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be p l a c e s o f work (L9 i n A p p e n d i x A ) . Characteristic  15)  provided  A l l t y p e s o f t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s and  58  in  educa-  t i o n a l t e c h o l o g y a r e e n c o u r a g e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n (Faure et a l . , 1972, p . 209-210; Dave & S t i e m e r l i n g , 1973, p. 83; G e l p i , 1979, p . x i ; Dave, 1983. p . 7 ) . P o s t u l a t e 2 6 . T h e r e s h o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t i m e n t s i n s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n (Gp i n A p p e n d i x A ) . Characteristic 16) R e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l leaves and o t h e r s , i s recommended tion throughout l i f e for teachers and l e a r n e r s 1972, p.216; Gelpi, 1979, p . x i ) . Postulate 27. Paid educational legislation (L10 i n Appendix  leaves A ) .  of  exper-  such as for paid to support educa(Faure et a l . ,  should  be  provided  by  Characteristic 17) T h e a i m o f e d u c a t i o n i s t o l e a d t o improved q u a l i t y of l i f e for the people i n a community (Lengrand, 1975, p . 103; C r o p l e y , 1979, p . 1 0 4 ; Dave, 1983, p . 9 ) . Postulate 28. dividual It  was  tionships;  E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be u s e d a s an i n s t r u m e n t and community advancement (Ge i n A p p e n d i x  beyond but  the  scope  of  this  s t i l l  their  logical  study  to  linkage  measure can  be  for A ) .  i n -  interrela-  shown  in  the  following.  Interdependence of t h e P o s t u l a t e s Lifelong extent,  each  education postulate  inter-relationships practice their  and,  duals  education (Postulate  ties  for  need  to  should as  a  be  people  integral  among  upon  them  these  other  are  were  concept.  crucial  not  worth  considering.  were  to  cover  the  1),  then  to  considered to  learn  knowledge as be  a  while  process  learnt,  entire  should  throughout  of  in  plenty  and are  2).  certain Thus,  the  field  of  this  study,  of  indivi-  of  there  opportuni-  would  young.  self-fulfilment  (Postulate  59  a  the  Life-span  be  l i f e they  in  measured  is  there  To  postulates.  basis  accumulate  curriculum  an  depends  although  conceptual If  is  be  no  Education rather  Since  than  learners  h a v e t o be have may  the  l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e , skill  change,  t o l e a r n and  but  with a s k i l l  enough t o f i n d fore, learners  not  relevant should  be  j u s t s t o r e up  t a u g h t how  m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n w o u l d be  the  i s c a l l e d a 'teachable  discovered  learners  should  young.  What t h e  for  them  not  The  moment',  and  forced  and  Such  one  t y p e of  know  are  required  should  learners'  initial  skill  be  be  possible  in school,  Very o f t e n ,  t o use  if  having t e c h n i c a l s k i l l  may  that t y p i s t  has  Therefore  i n order  subjects,  and  learn,  there  The  useful  school  (Postulate taught  expected  to  l e a r n e r s are  at  knowledge,  or t e c h n i c a l knowledge,