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Administrators' perceptions of the outcomes of implementing three provincial policies on community college.. Mitchell, Alan Robert 1986

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ADMINISTRATORS* PERCEPTIONS OF THE OUTCOMES OF IMPLEMENTING  THREE PROVINCIAL POLICIES  ON COMMUNITY COLLEGE GOVERNANCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY ALAN ROBERT MITCHELL Dip., B u i l d i n g , (T.E.D.) W.A., 1969 Dip., T e c h n i c a l Teachers, (T.E.D.) W.A. , 1973 B.Ed., W.A.Institute of Technology, 1979 Dip. Ed. Admin., W.A.Institute of Technology, 1979 M.A. London U n i v e r s i t y , 1985 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher  Education)  We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  IHE_yNIVERSIIY_QF_BR December 1986 @  Alan Robert MITCHELL, 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n permission.  Department o f  Administrative,  A d u l t and Higher E d u c a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 17th December  1986  A B S T R A C T Recent  students  analysis  of  o-f p o l i c y  policy  have d e v o t e d  implementation,  occur during the implementation is  another  such  study,  administrators implementing of  the  describing  o-f p o l i c y  the purpose  was  college  system  through  in  the  British  Minister  concerned Columbia.  and  Ministry  policy  f o r m u l a t o r , community c o l l e g e g o v e r n a n c e  topic,  and  community  implementors.  A  discrepancies, and  the  college  system  subsidiary  i f any,  outcomes  existed  o-f  those  is  as  o-f  with  governance  The  provincial  staff,  was  the  the  policy were t h e  determine  between t h e p o l i c i e s ' policies  how  outcomes  was  to  This  to determine  administrators  purpose  the that  i n v a r i o u s ways.  o-f w h i c h  policies  to  the changes  o-f community c o l l e g e s p e r c e i v e d t h e three provincial  Government,  much a t t e n t i o n  what  intentions,  perceived  by  the  i mplementors.  Guided  by a c o n c e p t u a l framework d e v e l o p e d  policy  implementation  systems  theory,  a  and  based  from the l i t e r a t u r e  on E a s t o n ' s  c a s e s t u d y method was  (1965B)  used  to  on  political  collect  and  analyse the data.  The  documented  relation  but  implemented  only  in  a  intentions.  implementors, not  align  policies.  perceived  to the three p o l i c y  congruous,  policy  and  a  with The  two  way  initiatives  of  examined  formulators  corresponded  in  were r e a s o n a b l y  o f t h e p o l i c i e s were p e r c e i v e d  that  From an  intentions  at a l l c l o s e l y  a n a l y s i s of t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f  to to  be the  policy  number o f d i f f e r e n t  o u t c o m e s emerged w h i c h  did  the  those  the  i n t e n t i o n s of  following  who  formulated  m a j o r c o n c l u s i o n s were r e a c h e d .  i  1  Governance perceived result  2  3  of  Administrators  perceived  that  the Minister  to  providing  a more c e n t r a l i s e d g o v e r n a n c e  appeared  to  be  and  an  the  B.C.  was as a  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f outcomes.  It  was p e r c e i v e d and  that  a lack  various  findings  implications, some a d d i t i o n s  have  connection  thus  (strong  p e r c e p t i o n s of i n t e n t  of t r u s t e x i s t e d  interest  groups  between  involved  in  the the  system.  practical,  including  office,  structure.  interesting  and  moved f r o m t h e  Ministry  between a d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  governance of t h e c o l l e g e  and  d e c i s i on—making  Councils  There  in  of t h e p o l i c i e s .  Ministry  The  system  t o have become more s i m p l i f i e d and e f f i c i e n t  relationship)  4  t h e community c o l l e g e  theoretical  and  methodological  recommendations f o r f u t u r e  t o t h e body o f knowledge on p o l i c y  some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r  research  on  policy-makers, implementation,  this  topic.  T A B L E  O F  C O N T E N T S  Page A B S T R A C T  i  A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S C H A P T E R  STATEMENT  ix  O N E  OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM  1  THE  RESEARCH QUESTIONS  2  WHY  GOVERNANCE  3  POLICIES?  The  C a s e F o r C o l l e g e Autonomy  6  The  Case F o r C o o r d i n a t i o n  8  The  P o l i c i e s To Be C o n s i d e r e d  and C o n t r o l  11  DEFINITION OF TERMS  15  THE  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  19  THE  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  20  SUMMARY  22  NOTES ON CHAPTER ONE  23  C H A P T E R  T W O  L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW  AND  MODEL DEVELOPMENT  24  EASTON'S P O L I T I C A L SYSTEMS THEORY  25  IMPLEMENTATION IN THE PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS  30  Policy  a s an A u t h o r i t a t i v e S t a t e m e n t  32  Policy  Including  33  Implementation  Synthesis A DEVELOPMENT  33 OF THE MODEL  37  The  Environment  38  The  Inputs  39  The  Processes  43  The  Outcomes  46  iii  THE  P O L I T I C S OF IMPLEMENTATION  48  TOWARDS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  51  CONCLUSIONS  58  NOTES ON CHAPTER TWO  60  C H A P T E R RESEARCH THE  T H R E E  METHODOLOGY  AND  DESIGN  61  VALUE OF A CASE STUDY The  62  Case  65  SOURCES OF DATA  65  Legislation Other  and Q - f - f i c i a l  Documents  66  Documentation  Interviews with  67  Key P e r s o n s  67  DATA ANALYSIS  69  VALIDATION OF RESEARCH  71  REPORTING OF FINDINGS  75  NOTES ON CHAPTER THREE  75  C H A P T E R  F O U R  AN  OF  AND THE  ANALYSIS  THE  COLLEGE/POLITICAL  SYSTEM  I T S ENVIRONMENT  76  SOCIO-POLITICAL CONTEXT The  Constitution  The  Parliamentary  The  Economic C l i m a t e  POST-SECONDARY  77 77  System  EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  78 80 84  The  C o l l e g e System  85  The  Ministry  90  O-f-fice  INTEREST GROUP ACTIVITY The Other  Intermediary Interest  91 Councils  Groups  92 96 i v  THE ACTORS  99  SUMMARY  100  NOTES ON CHAPTER FOUR  104  CHAPTER THE OF  INTENTIONS THREE  PART THE  F I V E  GOVERNANCE  PERCEIVED  OUTCOMES  POLICIES  105  ONE  POLICY  MISSION,  AND  INTRODUCING  GOALS,  AND  DOCUMENTED POLICY  SYSTEM  OBJECTIVES  106  INTENTIONS  107  PERCEIVED POLICY INTENTIONS  110  POLICY COMMUNICATION LINKAGES  113  Formulators' Formal  Knowledge o f The C o l l e g e S y s t e m  and In-formal  Communication  Linkages  113 113  PERCEIVED POLICY OUTCOMES  118  SUMMARY OF POLICY ONE - INTENTIONS AND OUTCOMES  121  Documented Perceived  Intentions Intentions  Communication Perceived  121 122  Linkages  122  Effects  122  CONCLUSIONS PART THE  124  TWO  POLICY  DISSOLVING  THE  INTERMEDIARY  COUNCILS  126  DOCUMENTED POLICY INTENTIONS  126  PERCEIVED POLICY  128  INTENTIONS  POLICY COMMUNICATION LINKAGES Communication  Not C o n s u l t a t i o n  PERCEIVED POLICY OUTCOMES  132 132 133  SUMMARY OF POLICY TWO - INTENTIONS AND OUTCOMES Documented Perceived  Intentions  Effects  137  Intentions  Communication  137  Linkages  137  Outcomes  138  CONCLUSIONS P A R T THE OF  137  139  THREE:  POLICY  PROVIDING  ALL COLLEGE  FOR T H E GOVERNMENT  APPOINTMENT  BOARD MEMBERS  DOCUMENTED POLICY PERCEIVED POLICY  INTENTIONS  142  INTENTIONS  143  POLICY COMMUNICATION LINKAGES Consultation  141  144  and C o m m u n i c a t i o n  M a j o r Change o r T h r e a t  144 145  PERCEIVED POLICY OUTCOMES  146  SUMMARY OF POLICY THREE - INTENTIONS AND OUTCOMES  148  Documented Perceived  Intentions Intentions  Communication Perceived  148 150  Linkages  150  Effects  150  CONCLUSIONS  151  NOTES ON CHAPTER F I V E  153  C H A P T E R SUMMARY,  S I X  CONCLUSIONS AND  IMPLICATIONS  SUMMARY  154 154  The P u r p o s e s o f t h e R e s e a r c h  154  The Method Employed  155  The F i n d i n g s  155  vi  CONCLUSIONS  167  1 S i m p l i f i c a t i o n of t h e System Governance S t r u c t u r e  168  2 C e n t r a l i s a t i o n of Decision-Making  168  3 P o l i c y Design - R e l a t i o n s h i p and P e r c e i v e d Outcomes 4 A Need f o r T r u s t and  of P e r c e i v e d  Intent 170  Between P o l i c y F o r m u l a t o r s  Implementors  171  IMPLICATIONS  172  Implications  for Practice  172  Implications  f o r Theory  176  Implications  f o r Methodology  178  FURTHER  RESEARCH  179  NOTES ON CHAPTER SIX  181  S E L E C T E D  182  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  G L O S S A R Y  193  A P P E N D I C E S APPENDIX ONE  Interview  Introduction  194  APPENDIX TWO  Interview  Question  Guide f o r P o l i c y I n t e n t i o n s  195  APPENDIX THREE I n t e r v i e w  Question  G u i d e f o r P o l i c y Outcomes  197  APPENDIX FOUR  Interviewees  APPENDIX F I V E  Format of C h a r t s Interview  APPENDIX SIX  Interview  199 Used  for Interpreting  Transcripts  200  Coding  201  APPENDIX SEVEN Members o f A d v i s o r y APPENDIX EIGHT A d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  Panel  Comments  202 on L a c k  of T r u s t  203  v i :i.  L I S T  OF  T A B L E S  TABLE 1 Implementation  as a C h a r a c t e r i s t i c  o-f t h e P o l i c y  Process  34  TABLE 2 Classi-fication  o-f I m p l e m e n t a t i o n  Variables  54  TABLE 3 Remarks on P e r c e i v e d  E-f-fects o-f F i s c a l  Restraint  82  TABLE 4 Colleges  Included  i n t h e B.C. System  88  TABLE 5 Formulators'  P e r c e p t i o n s o-f I n t e n t i o n s - P o l i c y  One  112  TABLE 6 P e r c e p t i o n s o-f P o l i c y  Formulators'  Knowledge  114  TABLE 7 Implementors'  Comments on M i n i s t r y ' s L a c k o f C o m p l i a n c e  120  TABLE 8 Summary o f F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d  to Policy  One  123  TABLE 9 Formulators'  P e r c e p t i o n s of I n t e n t i o n s - P o l i c y  Two  130  TABLE 10 Summary o f F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d  to Policy  Two  139  TABLE 11  LI mIp lSeTm e n tOo rFs '  P eIr cGe U p tRi oEn S s of P o l i t i c a l F  Effects  149  TABLE 12 FIGURE 1 Summary inding rs et ee m s S i m p l i f i eodf F Model osf R Ee a ls attoend' s t Poo lP io tl ii cc ay l T h Sy TABLE 13 FIGURE 2 Summary o f P o l i c y A n a l y s i s F i n d i n g s Simple Systems Theory A p p l i e d t o P o l i c y  Theory  Implementation  152 26  156 28  FIGURE 3 Political  Systems  Model  Adapted  FIGURE 4 Schema t o A n a l y s e E f f e c t s  f o r Implementation  of P o l i c y  Implementation  Analysis  29 v 56 i i i  A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S The  research  embodied  p o s s i b l e through  in  t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n has  t h e combined  only  e f f o r t s o f a l a r g e number o f  t o whom t h e a u t h o r owes a l a r g e d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e . is  given  t o t h e one I c a l l  not  the least  o f which  been  God,  for total  made  persons,  Acknowledgement  provision i n a l l things,  i s t h e c o m f o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e  Holy  Spirit.  My  wife,  Barbara  partnership  has  of l i v i n g  the  frustrations  Her  typing  and  shared  and j o y s t h a t computing  support  h a v e grown t h r o u g h o u t  allowing  encouraged  To in  Dr J»  members rigorous Soles  My  guidance,  this  stretched  her  love,  in  program.  beyond  the  interest  and  and D r ' s J .  I record  their  and t h e s e n i o r  f o r h i s generous  Andrews, patience,  and  who  I.  support Housego,  persistence  my s i n c e r e t h a n k s .  and c o n t a c t s ,  officers  acknowledged.  Supervisor,  my c o m m i t t e e f o r  f o r advice  edited  study,  t h e program a r e g r a t e f u l l y  of  of  but  Department o f W e s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n f o r  t o undertake t h i s  t i m e and e x p e r t i s e ,  i n the  t h e program.  of t h e Education  Dennison, Research  but  only  away f r o m home,  have been  a stimulating challenge,  leave  not  have formed p a r t  skills  of  generosity  way,  and w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r  bounds  The  in a total  Also  and Mrs P. T u r n e r , who  and  t o Dr  A.  generously  many o f t h e e a r l y d r a f t s o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n , t h a n k y o u .  wife  and  I a l s o express our thanks t o f e l l o w  faculty  o f A.A.H.E.  who h e l p e d  pleasant  and s t i m u l a t i n g  our s t a y  students  and  i n Canada t o be s u c h  a  experience.  i  x  C H A P T E R STATEMENT  The  ONE OF THE RESEARCH  PROBLEM  d i s t r i b u t i o n o-f power i n o r g a n i s a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g has  always produced h e a l t h y debate which has -fascinated s c h o l a r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s a l i k e . T h i s debate o-f t e n r e v o l v e s around issues  o-f c e n t r a l i s e d and d e c e n t r a l i s e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  community policy  initiatives  their  important,  issues,  policies  mechanisms  examined  that  analysts iveness  In such  cases  centralisation  will  be  interpreted,  and even  e d u c a t i o n , ^ t h e heed  and with more  Furthermore,  t o balance  government  w h i l s t m a i n t a i n i n g academic autonomy c a n be  t h r o u g h a concern f o r t h e apparent d i s c r e p a n c y  of t h a t  develop  but with the p o s s i b l e e f f i c i e n c y  p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . effects  balance.  t h e outcomes o f p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  post-secondary  control  to alter  must not o n l y be concerned w i t h  decentralisation which  and i n  c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n governments f r e q u e n t l y  governments  in  governance  implementation  t o be i m p o r t a n t .  between  How a c t o r s i n t e r p r e t t h e  has been  shown  by p r e v i o u s  "The p u l l between u n f e t t e r e d r e s p o n s -  t o p e r c e i v e d c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s  imposed  by  c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s i s o f paramount c o n c e r n t o e d u c a t o r s i n v i r t u a l l y a l l postsecondary j u r i s d i c t i o n s " (Fraser,1979:38).  This the  research  outcomes o f t h r e e such p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s i n B r i t i s h  (B.C.).  study  issues, control,  Columbia  In t h i s Chapter t h e problem i s s t a t e d i n t h e  researchable the  i s concerned w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of  questions, parameters.  form  and t h e i r elements examined t o It will  f i r s t address  the  of  outline  governance  i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e elements of autonomy, c o o r d i n a t i o n and t h e n i d e n t i f y t h e p o l i c i e s t o be s t u d i e d and t h e i s s u e s 1  to  be i n c l u d e d ,  and  then o f f e r some d e f i n i t i o n s of  used t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n . some  statements  Regular States  The Chapter w i l l  key  conclude  on t h e i m p o r t a n c e and l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e  reference w i l l  words with study.  be made t o s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d i n t h e U n i t e d  of America (U.S.A.),  n o t o n l y because of  the  intrinsic  worth of d o i n g s o , b u t because of t h e s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t y which t h e community c o l l e g e s of t h e U.S.A. have w i t h t h o s e of B.C.2  THE_RESEARCH_QUESTIONS The  purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e some i m p o r t a n t  relating often  to a  outcomes. issues  p o l i c y implementation  discrepancy  between  The s t u d y w i l l  and t o e x p l a i n why  policy  intentions  issues  there  and  is  policy  a d d r e s s both p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l  r e l a t i n g t o t h e outcomes of implementing t h r e e governance  policies.  The  following  major and s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s w i l l  be  used t o f o c u s t h e r e s e a r c h .  What  do  system a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p e r c e i v e t o be t h e outcomes  of  implementing t h r e e r e c e n t p r o v i n c i a l Government p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to  t h e governance of t h e community c o l l e g e  Columbia? Mission,  The  three  policies  have t o  do  system with:  G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s 1982-87' statement;  of the  British system  the abolition  of t h e t h r e e i n t e r m e d i a r y C o u n c i l s ; and Government appointment of all  A  C o l l e g e Board members.  subsidiary  question i s related t o ,  and s h o u l d a s s i s t i n t h e  e x p l a n a t i o n o f , t h e major r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n .  What, i f any,  d i s c r e p a n c i e s e x i s t between f o r m u l a t i o n and implem-  e n t a t i o n of the p o l i c i e s as perceived  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ?  WHY_GQVERNANCE_POLIC  In o r d e r t o a d d r e s s some governance i s s u e s r a i s e d i n t h e problem,  i t i s meaningful t o e s t a b l i s h a  examining  a  number  distribution.  of s t u d i e s  This task w i l l  i n t h e area  by  of  briefly  authority  f i r s t r e q u i r e an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s will  context  research  on c o l l e g e autonomy, and  then f o c u s on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l .  Under  t h e Westminster  responsible head,  system  of government,  f o r post-secondary education  clearly  t o delegate  ministerial authority  education  policy  decision-making  affecting the legal  a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e n s u r e The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e  s e r v i c e i s l a r g e l y dependent upon  decisions,  i s delegated,  titular  and a l s o has t h e  t h a t government p o l i c i e s a r e r e a l i s e d . ^ post-secondary  minister  B.C., a s  has t h e power t o make d e c i s i o n s  d e l i v e r y of the post-secondary s e r v i c e s , entitlement  in  the  upon  and upon  framework assumes.  t h e agencies what  shape  to  such which  t h e systems'  T h i s s e c t i o n a d d r e s s e s some  of t h e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a b a l a n c e o f power i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g framework f o r t h e c o l l e g e system.  "Governance (Deegan clarified and  i s t h e framework i n which d e c i s i o n  & Goilattscheck,1985:73). as follows:  exercise  of  "The  making  occurs"  This d e f i n i t i o n i s  further  policy-making,  authority in  ...  objective-setting,  [ t h e system!  includes  administrative relate  to  or management -functions t o t h e e x t e n t  the  execution  Thesaurus,1982:110). conjunction  of p o l i c y  Governance  and  authority"  they  (E.R.I.C.  p o l i c i e s were not a n a l y s e d  with i n d i v i d u a l colleges.  implementing  that  Rather,  system-wide governance p o l i c i e s ,  in  the r e s u l t s  of  perceived  by  as  system a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , were a n a l y s e d .  The  search  for  governance models i n  post—secondary  education  f i r s t f o c u s s e d on i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s which were d e s c r i b e d * bureaucratic', predominant;  where a  the  rational  'collegial'  and  pattern,  formal  aspects  as were  where p r o f e s s i o n a l  and  academic communities were i n v o l v e d i n p a r t i c i p a t o r y management; a ' p o l i t i c a l ' pattern, and  i n which c o n f l i c t was  f i n a l l y on t h e 'garbage can' model,  dominant know  i t i s doing"  (Cohen &  such as s o c i a l n e t w o r k s ,  learning,  and examining  intentional  norm;  where a m b i g u i t y was  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and i n which t h e i n s t i t u t i o n  what  models  the acceptable  March,1974:3).  "does  "More  the not  recent  loose coupling, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s as c u l t u r e s r e j e c t t h e more  and r a t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n s of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  models"  (Peterson,1985:9).  The  Carnegie  governance accepted  Commission  a  additionally,  policy  "No  clear  theory  w i t h i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s as  (1973:13).  declared:  basis  for  complicates In an attempt  approaching an  policy,  examination  of  the  the  this, subject"  t o i s o l a t e t h e p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s of  i n i t i a t i v e s and t h e p e r c e i v e d outcomes,  to  generally  and  t h i s study  i n c i d e n t l y i d e n t i f y any d i s c r e p a n c y between o u t p u t s and related  about  three p o l i c i e s .  Governance  policies  will  outcomes declare 4  government i n t e n t i o n s f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h i n t h e system, the  outcomes  of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e v e a l something of  the  and  impact  upon t h e system.  Boyd  h i g h l i g h t s some of t h e s e i s s u e s i n h i s paper on  Values  he  writes:  i s t o a c h i e v e and m a i n t a i n  govern-  mental arrangements and p o l i c i e s t h a t s t r i k e a d e s i r a b l e  balance  "The  i n Educational  P o l i c y and Governance,' when  'Competing  d i f f i c u l t y of c o u r s e ,  between  t h e advantages (and d i s a d v a n t a g e s ) of c e n t r a l i s a t i o n and  decentralisation" states,  (1984:9).  would  help unravel  academic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n "  research  human  some of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  on p u b l i c p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n must  t h e government  constitutional  which  as  to  optimise  assumes  welfare clear and  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  service  and must  their  p o l i c i e s (see  According t o the  Carnegie  I t s h o u l d be  not f o r i t s own sake b u t f o r t h e sake o f t h e  of t h e academic  enterprise"  (1973:3).  Nevertheless,  l i n e s of communication a s w e l l as l e v e l s of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y authority  effective  need  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d and  governance of t h e system.  maintained  The f o l l o w i n g  i d e n t i f y some of t h e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s of d e l e g a t i o n and  realised.  the financial  "governance i s a means and not an end.  and a d j u s t e d  the  a l b e i t human a g e n c i e s , i n such a  J e n n i n g s (1980) and Housego (1986)). Commission  studying  consider  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the college  delegate authority t o agencies,  devised  he  (1971:21).  s e t t i n g i n which p o l i c y i n t e n t i s e x p r e s s e d and  Similarly  way  e x t e n d s t h i s view when  "a s t u d y of t h e p o l i t i c a l dynamics s u r r o u n d i n g d e c i s i o n -  making  Any  Baldridge  f o r the subsections  of  authority  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e governance of t h e c o l l e g e system.  Also 5  identified  are the p a r t i c u l a r  policy  i n i t i a t i v e s t o be  included  i n t h i s study.  Ibe_Case_£gr_Cgllege_A,ytgngmy There  i s a l a r g e body of l i t e r a t u r e o u t l i n i n g  centralised  decision-making,  autonomy  was one of t h e fundamental o b j e c t i v e s of t h e  Dennison (1976), and  others,  Beswick Gleazer  institutional  respect  conflict  movement.  local  in  problems of  apparent  college  with  particularly  the  et  (1968),  al  to  autonomy.  (1983),  the Such  community  Campbell  (1971),  Medsker (1960), Monroe (1976),  i n c l u d i n g many Government R e p o r t s and Commissions of  I n q u i r y i n Canada and t h e U.S.A., have s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of institutional believed future,  autonomy i n community c o l l e g e governance.  that  this  autonomy has i n t h e p a s t ,  and can  It i s i n the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o c o l l e g e f l e x i b i l i t y and  encouragement  of  local  initiatives.  Sidney  Brossman,  the for  example, a r g u e s : Local management of community c o l l e g e s must be maintained if these c o l l e g e s are t o remain t r u e t o the b a s i c reason f o r their existence. T h i s means t h a t s t a t e a g e n c i e s , while c a r r y i n g out t h e i r s t a t e r o l e s , should i n no way d i m i n i s h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l o c a l boards ( S e a r 1 e, 1978s 1 9 ) .  Conversely, alone  Ashworth  i s not  government  reminds  us t h a t t h e demand  of i t s e l f a j u s t i f i c a t i o n  for  autonomy  f o r standing  outside  control:  To w i l l the end without having t o hand the means whereby the end can be achieved i n a way t h a t a t t r a c t s support and assent i s the mark of p o l i t i c a l incompetence and no amount of high-faluting nonsense about the d e s i r a b i l i t y of autonomy ... or the sanctity of academic freedom should be allowed to obscure t h a t ( 1 9 8 3 ; 6 7 ) .  These central  writings  call  policy-making  r e s e a r c h e r s t o examine both in  higher education,  d i f f i c u l t i e s of making p o l i c i e s t h a t can be  and  the  role  of  the  inherent  realised. 6  The  Task F o r c e on t h e Community C o l l e g e s  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1973,  declared,  o-f the i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s was  in  British  after extensive that  Columbia,  research,  that  one  -  the governance and operation of every college should reflect the concerns of a l l elements within the college and i t s wider community. Community colleges oust be highly responsive to community needs for learning (Task F o r c e , 1974: 11) . The  Task  Force  corporate  status;  responsible  The  also  recommended  and  "that  further,  that  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s ..."  Organisation  for  (O.E.CD.) r e p o r t e d ,  Economic  colleges the  college  granted board  Cooperation  and  Development  "the examiners a r e of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t some  (1976:82).  institutional  I f Brossman's a s s e r t i o n i s a c c u r a t e ,  c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between government and authority i s essential.  He w r i t e s ,  community  " v i r t u a l l y every  innovations  stemming d i r e c t l y from l o c a l b o a r d s b e i n g f r e e  ally,  autonomy  higher  The  any  form  of from  Dennison n o t e s " t r a d i t i o n -  a much d e s i r e d q u a l i t y f o r and  result  of  institutions  of  structure  is  politicians  and  provincial  as a t h r e a t t o such autonomy" (1979:35).  rhetoric  public  is  education  perceived  (Searle,1978:22).  the  important  in  uniformity"  college education i s  a  college  development  state  be  (1974:16).  a u t h o r i t i e s go t o o f a r i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l decisions"  be  seems  t o have gone unheeded  policy-makers,  provision,  as  the  c u r r i c u l a r m a t t e r s , and  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c e n t r a l i s e d .  control  by of  finance,  course  other important d e c i s i o n s Cohen and  Associates  are  record  t h i s d r i f t when t h e y o b s e r v e : Gradually, steadily, seemingly irresistibly, governmental agencies, commissions, boards, and legislature are impinging on 7  the colleges. A l l i s done with the best of intentions: program duplication among colleges in the same region must be avoided, data must be reported uniformly, minimum standards for programs and personnel must be maintained. But people in the colleges nay be forgiven i f they see the state as an unwelcome intruder (1975:1). The  history  •forms  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between government  an i m p o r t a n t backdrop -for t h i s s t u d y o-f  tation.  Gallagher  regional  responsiveness,  the than  (1984) r e p o r t s : and  - colleges  policy  implemen-  " Z e a l o u s l y guarded autonomy,  c u r r i c u l u m comprehensiveness  bedrock f o r B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e g e s " a decade ago Cohen and  and  were  (1984,9;2:7).  A s s o c i a t e s observed  a  More  centralising  tendency: control of community colleges i s gravitating toward state capitals. Responsibility for funding, planning, and managing everything from cost accounting to instructional techniques i s moving steadily away from local o f f i c i a l s (1975:1). A g a i n , McGivney n o t e s t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c  influences that  contribute  to t h i s c e n t r a l i s a t i o n : The centralization imperative appears to be driving most private and public organizations toward an increasingly bureaucratic character in their structures. Consequently, educational policy making systems and organizational structures over the long term are becoming more bureaucratic, specialized, and centralized (1984:49). However, t h e whole debate on c e n t r a l i s a t i o n v e r s u s l o c a l autonomy is  generated  from  w i t h i n t h e system,  the perceptions  of t h i s  The_Case_f_  or_Cogrdi.natign_and_Control.  Policies  on  college and  the  governance  authority  education  actors  w i t h i n t h e system.  governance,  include  which i n t u r n  with  policies.  the  phenomenon  degree of c o o r d i n a t i o n must be  w i t h elements of c o n t r o l , of  by  as w e l l as t h o s e not d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d  t h e system, but a f f e c t e d by t h e r e l e v a n t  coordination,  balance  a f f e c t the  In t h e c o n t e x t  J e n n i n g s n o t e s " i t i s ...  of  balanced  distribution of  England's  clear that  party  8  political  l e a d e r s l i k e ...  more c e n t r a l i s e d c o n t r o l over  services"  (1980:2).  B.C.  p r o v i d i n g t h e b u l k of t h e f u n d i n g  is  colleges,  it  For example, i-f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Government i n f o r the operation  of  wants t o be a b l e t o implement i t s p o l i c i e s t h r o u g h  t h e system t o m a i n t a i n and  local  accountability.  Thus c o l l e g e  coordination  c o n t r o l becomes an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n p u b l i c p o l i c y .  The examination of the conditions under which power and social control become legitimated and transformed into authority i s an important undertaking in trying to understand the governance and control of organizations (Pf ef f er , 1981 s 6) . Glenny  reported  regard  to higher  that  s t u d i e s of t h e education  coordination  i n t h e U.S.A.,  and  phenomenon  with  whilst recognising  "both t h e laws e s t a b l i s h i n g c o o r d i n a t i n g a g e n c i e s and  actual operations political  depend on a v a r i e t y of  factors  social,  their  economic,  i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o-f  the  and  state"  (1985:8), went on t o d e c l a r e : the most successful coordination involves widespread participation by faculty and administrators of the coordinated organizations, experts and lay people from the public and representatives of organizations interested in education (1985:20).  Many  college  coordination which  strongly  on t h e b a s i s of i t s apparent  threaten  1979:41).  administrators  the  But,  as  oppose  provincial  'control'  functions,  degree of c o l l e g e autonomy ( H o i 1 i c k - K e n y o n , t h e f i n a n c i a l commitment of t h e  provincial  Government t o community c o l l e g e s grew, so t h e demand f o r  stronger  l i n k s between a l l segments of t h e system gave r i s e t o a need central coordination, planning  The the  Mission,  Goals,  Government  'objectives'.  and  of B.C.^ It  for  and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y .  O b j e c t i v e s p o l i c y statement 1982-87 l i s t e d governance as t h e f i r s t  of  of  its  states with respect to coordination that  the 9  system w i l l  " p r e s e r v e an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s t r u c t u r e , c o m p r i s i n g  one or more c o u n c i l ( s ) , which can p r o v i d e i n p u t t o t h e government and  to  educational  perspective"  institutions  (Ministry  decision-making  based  on  of Education,1983C:11).  a This  was abandoned e a r l y i n t h e 1982-87  t h e t h r e e e x i s t i n g C o u n c i l s were d i s s o l v e d ,  provincial level  period  of when  and t h e c o o r d i n a t i n g  r o l e became t h e d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e Government,  through  t h e o f f i c e of t h e M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n .  Recent r e v i e w s have exposed t h e i n c r e a s i n g e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s the  governance of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  ability  to  control  environmental  the  pressures  education,  system. not  and on government's  McGivney  o n l y on  recognised  institutions  system of e d u c a t i o n but a l s o on t h e s t a t e system Because the states receive aid from the federal p o l i t i c s of education at state level should be perspective that recognizes that the state regulator but also a regulatee (McGivney, 1984:  the  within  the  itself.  government, the examined from a i s not only a 44) .  He f u r t h e r reviewed t h e s t a t e v e r s u s l o c a l c o n t r o l r e s e a r c h conceptual  on  into  models of ' S t a t e E d u c a t i o n Governance P a t t e r n s ' ,  and  concluded t h a t " s t a t e p o l i t i c s and e d u c a t i o n has c l e a r l y begun t o emerge  and  be r e c o g n i s e d as a s e r i o u s and  important  field  s t u d y , " and t h a t t h e " c o n c e p t u a l models have y e t t o be i ntegrated"  There  is  of  completely  (1984:49).  a case f o r p r o v i n c i a l governments i n Canada t o  g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over t h e community c o l l e g e systems of  assume  education,  i f f o r no o t h e r reason than t o ensure f i n a n c i a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o their  e l e c t o r a t e s , as  escalating  t h e y assume a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e  c o s t s of t h i s s e r v i c e .  But t h e r e a r e o t h e r  of  the  reasons. 10  There  is a  perspective  need f o r both a p r o v i n c i a l i n policy  economic  and  provide  a  duplication eliminate service  social  and  than  of  and  optimise  within the  that  but  of  as  could  minimise scale, the  still  and total  fostering  potential innovation  t h e broader  literature  such  Such p l a n n i n g  economies  and  planning  education,  d y s f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s of  accessibility,  students,  national  coordination  without jeopardising the q u a l i t y ,  comprehensiveness, staff  model  services,  wasteful  other  (see 0.E.C.D.,1976).  rational of  areas  and  on  government  framework.  Indeed,  mangement  institutions  supports the c e n t r a l i s a t i o n imperative  of  policy  of  public  i n times  of  f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t o r when p r o v i d i n g a framework f o r unpopular changes.  Ib§_EQilEig§_to_be_Cgnsidered The  Government of B.C.  has t a k e n p r a c t i c a l s t e p s t o e n s u r e  that  t h e domains over which community c o l l e g e s can e x e r c i s e freedom of c h o i c e i n m a t t e r s of governance a r e reduced. the  The  College  significant  move  and P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e  The p r o c l a m a t i o n Act  (1977),  t o provide a p r o v i n c i a l perspective  secondary e d u c a t i o n .  of  was  on  a  post-  In a s s e s s i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e A c t ,  Dennison o b s e r v e d : The post-Bill B2 period has been characterized by a host of new procedures affecting program and course approval, budgetary control, governance, and associated factors which influence the day to day operations of the colleges and institutes ... the Act placed emphasis upon centralization of the system (1980:5). I t was d u r i n g this  research  Mission,  1982 t o 1983 t h a t t h e p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s s t u d i e d i n were announced.  Goals,  The development of t h e  system's  and O b j e c t i v e s statement was t h e f i r s t of t h e s e  initiatives. 11  Policy  One  Institutional  decision-making  requiring  College  Objectives  with  component  potential  Boards t o a l i g n those  of  of t h e system  the  will  their  influenced  Mission,  provincial  by  Goals,  Government.  be a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h e  of a l l a p p l i c a b l e o b j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e d within  was  and "Each  attainment  i n the following  document  t h e time-frame f o r which t h e y a r e p e r t i n e n t " ( M i n i s t r y of  Education,1983C:7).  Each  college  support,  was  founded  on a b a s i s  i n d e e d of l o c a l governance.  of  local  and  regional  Since the establishment  of  the  c o l l e g e s t h e i r f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n had changed,  and by  the  provincial  a l l college  income.  A  need  provincial program  Government was  was  perceived  and  p o l i c i e s of t h e Government.  plan  institutions and  to  of  develop  governance,  s u p p o r t f o r economic  and  social  A f t e r wide c o n s u l t a t i o n , a M i s s i o n ,  f o r the  system.  The  initiative  t o develop a f i v e - y e a r p l a n ,  p r e s e r v i n g harmony w i t h ,  document in  Government  and O b j e c t i v e s statement was developed,- i n t h e form of  five-year  to,  by t h e  almost  p o l i c i e s f o r these c o l l e g e s i n areas  rationalisation,  Goals,  providing  1980  will  the  provincial  plan.  This  s e r v e as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e f i r s t p o l i c y i n i t i a t e d ,  I t provides  administrators'  on  g i v i n g due c o g n i s a n c e  as much as i t encompasses governance i s s u e s i n  sector.  called  a  a foundation  perception  the  colleges  document on which t o p u r s u e t h e  of governance p o l i c y  implementation  outcomes.  Policy Three  Two intermediary  Councils  were  established  to  act  as  coordinating  a g e n c i e s f o r t h e Government t o ensure t h e e f f e c t i v e  implementation fairly,  of i t s p o l i c i e s ,  college  and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  needs t o t h e Government.  to  represent  Many r e c o r d e d  their  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o r a l l y and formal  documents.  problems  in  this  Dennison  highlights  arrangement by  some of  recording  the  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ... t h e c o n f l i c t i n g mandates ... of  accountability  a l l o c a t i o n s ...  ...  and t h e  the  competing  the  submitted  logistics  for  the  abandonment of t h e t h r e e C o u n c i l s ,  urges  the  repeal  alteration  program  (1980:5-8) of  of P a r t 6 S e c t i o n  i n 1982,  Council endorsing  by recommending, 45-52  and  the  Association  f i r s t to the Presidents'  and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o t h e M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n  on  t h e wide d i v i s i o n  i d i o s y n c r a t i c nature"  a brief,  inherent  "emphasis  C o u n c i l s t h e m s e l v e s . The C o l l e g e - I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t o r s ' (C.I.E.A.)  in  "C-IEA  therefore  the  of t h o s e o t h e r s e c t i o n s of t h e Act which r e f e r t o t h e  Councils"  (C.I.E.A.,1982:17).  E l l i s and  t h e i r c a s e - s t u d y of t h e Open L e a r n i n g  Mugridge  Institute,  (1983),  in  a l s o complained  of  t h e i m p o s i t i o n on e d u c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y of t h e  multiplicity  of  intermediary bodies i n the establishment  institution.  Indeed,  one  of  the  coordinating  of t h a t  Councils  reported  to  the  vociferous  in  government: It i s tempting to suggest that B i l l 82 be revised to do away with the existing three Councils and substitute something more l i k e the Council of Higher Education and a College Commission referred to above but with terms of reference and membership altered to conform to new situations (Academic Counci 1 ,1980: 13). Community expressing  Sufficient  college  administrators  were  also  d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n the c o o r d i n a t i o n s t r u c t u r e . ^  dissatisfaction  was  expressed  to  persuade  Government t o modify the p o l i c y statement and f u r t h e r change  the the 13  decision-making coordination  structure by  dissolving  o-f  post-secondary  the three Councils,  education  and  requiring  i n s t i t u t i o n s t o d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e o-f-fice o f t h e M i n i s t r y  of  Education. In July 1983, the three Councils were eliminated as part of the provincial government's restraint program ... the centralizing trend appeared to be strengthening ... this government f e l t that increased control, especially over budget-setting decisions, was necessary (Cal der , 1984: 86-87) . The  perceived  e f f e c t s of implementing such governance  formed a major t h r u s t f o r t h i s  policies  research.  P o l i c y Three Concurrent  with  t h e a b o l i t i o n of t h e C o u n c i l s  was  a  further  p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e by t h e Government of B.C. The d e c i s i o n r e q u i r e d the  m i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r post—secondary education  a l l c o l l e g e governors, of  e l e c t e d School  t o appoint  r a t h e r than a l l o w t h e p r e v i o u s  Board members s e l e c t i n g t h e i r  practice  representatives  on C o l l e g e Boards.  When  the colleges  governed under  were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e  indirectly  t h r o u g h t h e School  Boards  they  which  were  operated  During t h i s t i m e C o l l e g e  Council  membership comprised a p p o i n t e e s from p a r t i c i p a t i n g School  Boards,  as  t h e P u b l i c Schools Act.  1960's,  w e l l a s t h e p r i n c i p a l o f t h e c o l l e g e and t h e s c h o o l  superintendent,  plus  two members a p p o i n t e d  Governor-in—Counci1. from  the Council  In and  t h e number  of  Government  Lieutenant-  appointees  Board a p p o i n t e e s g u a r a n t e e d .  i n c l u s i o n of t h e d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t  proclamation  the  1970 t h e c o l l e g e p r i n c i p a l was removed  i n c r e a s e d , w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f School The  by  district  ceased i n 1973.  The  of t h e C o l l e g e s and P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e A c t i n 1977 14  changed  t h e name of t h e g o v e r n i n g body from C o u n c i l  reaffirmed  t o Board and  t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r Board s i z e a s f o l l o w s :  ...the number of positions on the board i s twice the number of school d i s t r i c t s , included, i n whole or i n part, within the college region of the college, less one position ( C o l l e g e and. P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e s A c t , P a r t 111,7,(2);1977). It a l s o provided  In  colleges with corporation  status.  1980 t h e b a l a n c e of membership changed t o g i v e a m a j o r i t y  one  appointed  by t h e Government.  This provided  the basis  of on  which t h e p r o v i n c i a l Government enacted l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1983, t o become  e f f e c t i v e from  F e b r u a r y 1984,  i n i t i a t i v e examined i n t h i s s t u d y . board by  which i s t h e t h i r d p o l i c y  The l e g i s l a t i o n s t a t e d " t h e  o f a c o l l e g e s h a l l c o n s i s t o f 5 o r more members  t h e Lieutenant  Act,Part  Governor i n C o u n c i l "  (Cgl1ege  appointed  and  Institute  3,6;1977).  DEFINITIQN_QF_TERMS  Administrators  In  t h e c o n t e x t of t h i s r e s e a r c h ,  persons  involved  governance. senior  i n system—wide  The term  administrators decision-making  w i l l encompass  Ministers  on  of  those college  Education,  b u r e a u c r a t s i n t h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n t h e  post-secondary members,  education  and c h i e f  sector,  executive  College  c l a s s i f i e d a s system a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  involvement  Board  chairmen  o f f i c e r s of c o l l e g e s  i n t e r e s t groups such a s B.C.A.C. and C.I.E.A. so  means  and  and major  These p e r s o n s a r e  because of  their  i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c o l l e g e system  direct  governance  policies.  15  C o l l e g e System The  term c o l l e g e system means t h o s e e n t i t i e s i n B.C.  directly  involved  i n t h e d e l i v e r y of  which  post-secondary education  programs a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h t h e f i f t e e n community c o l l e g e s province.  It  will  are  in  be used synonymously w i t h 'community  the  college  system'.  Communication The  term  Linkage  communication l i n k a g e  i s used i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n  r e f l e c t t h e meaning developed by Nakamura and Smallwood r e l a t i o n t o what t h e y c a l l  to  (1980) i n  t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n environment and  t h e p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n environment. They d e f i n e i t as f o l l o w s : These linkages consist of a series of crisscrossing cofflfflunications networks between policy makers, implementors, intermediaries, recipients, lobbyists, and others who become involved in the implementation process. - Since these different actors may attempt to resist or circumvent policy directives for a variety of reasons, a c r i t i c a l component in these networks consists of compliance mechanisms that are employed in an effort ; to move various actors to carry out policy instructions (1980:59-60).  Environment Environment i s d e f i n e d a s : Those aspects of a society that f a l l outside the boundaries of a p o l i t i c a l system can be generalized by stating that they consist of a l l the other sub-systems of the society. They constitute the environment of the p o l i t i c a l system. Environment embraces the social as well as the physical environment (East on , 1965A: 70-71) . In t h i s s t u d y , includes documented  those and  environment r e l a t e s t o p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n pressures legal  exerted  directions  on and  the  system  constraints  from of  and the  policy  statements.  16  Governance Governance p.3),  h a s been p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s  and w i l l  framework of  Chapter ( s e e  be used i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y t o mean t h e  of a u t h o r i t a t i v e decision-making a f f e c t i n g t h e  system  community c o l l e g e s i n B.C.  Implementation Implementation upon,  will  r e f e r t o "the s o c i a l a c t i v i t y that  and i s s t i m u l a t e d by" (Brewer  adoption  of a  &  follows  deLeon,1983:256) " t h e  p o l i c y and b e f o r e r o u t i n i z a t i o n  of o p e r a t i o n s ,  a c t i v i t i e s o r t a s k s t h a t a r e governed by t h e p o l i c y "  (Schneider,  1982:716).  Inputs I n p u t s a r e d e f i n e d a s t h e i n t e n t i o n s of p o l i c y , and  perceived  objectives  by f o r m u l a t o r s ,  derived  from  those  both  documented  which i n c l u d e t h e s t a n d a r d s and intentions,  as well  as t h e  r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o implement t h e p o l i c y .  I n t e r e s t Group For  this  study,  legitimised  t h e term w i l l be used  and n o n - l e g i t i m i s e d p r e s s u r e  1975:75), b u t w i l l  t o incorporate groups,  ( s e e Kogan,  include only those with d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c o l l e g e governance p o l i c i e s i n B.C. within  those  both  confines  Therefore,  t h e d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n by Wrong  c a n be  employed. People who share a common s i t u a t i o n o f t e n have like interests which a r e c a p a b l e of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o common interests. If they achieve s u c c e s s f u l m o b i l i z a t i o n by d e v e l o p i n g a sense of collective i d e n t i t y and f i n d i n g or c r e a t i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n to defend and promote t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , t h e i n t e r e s t s of them a l l  17  become the i n t e r e s t s of each. The maintenance of the organization and of the s o l i d a r i t y t h a t h e l p s s u s t a i n i t becomes vitally relevant t o the f u l f i l l m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l interests previously pursued i n i s o l a t i o n or i n c o m p e t i t i o n with other members of the c o l l e c t i v i t y ( 1 9 7 9 : 1 7 9 - 1 8 0 ) .  Outcomes The use of t h e word outcome throughout t o mean t h e unintended be  located  t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d be t a k e n  consequences of a p o l i c y .  through  the perceptions  of  Outcomes college  will system  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who implement t h e p o l i c i e s .  Outputs Throughout  this  study,  t h i s term assumes a somewhat  meaning t o t h a t a s c r i b e d by systems t h e o r y . the  concept  of  "an a u t h o r i t a t i v e  (Easton,1965A:126),  i t will  different  Rather than p r o j e c t  allocation  of  values"  be used t o convey t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of  p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s , b u t n o t i n c l u d i n g outcomes.  Perceptions Personal  perceptions  respect  a r e t h e prime s t i m u l u s  t o implementing  policy.  f o r action  with  T h i s r e s e a r c h f o c u s s e s on t h e  p e r c e i v e d outcomes o f system governance i n i t i a t i v e s , and t h e word perceived the  will  policy  be used i n t h e same g e n e r a l sense a s i t s u s e i n  implementation  That i s , t h e term  l i t e r a t u r e , reviewed  perceptions  i n Chapter  w i l l be used t o r e f l e c t  Two.  adminis-  t r a t o r s ' p e r s o n a l v a l u e and b e l i e f frameworks i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e policy  elements.  Policy Policy  means  a  formal  statement  of  intent  by  a  governing 18  authority. the  I t i s a l s o used i n t h e more g e n e r a l s e n s e ,  complete  p r o c e s s which i n c l u d e s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  t o convey through  to  t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y .  Policy Effects P o l i c y e f f e c t s i s used t o c o m p r i s e both p o l i c y o u t p u t s and p o l i c y outcomes  as  realisation  d e s c r i b e d above, of  policy  and t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e s  intentions  consequences of t h e p a r t i c u l a r  as w e l l  both  as t h e  the  unintended  policy.  P o l i c y Formulators Policy formulators,  or p o l i c y a r c h i t e c t s ,  include the  relevant  M i n i s t e r s of E d u c a t i o n , s e n i o r b u r e a u c r a t s a t t a c h e d t o t h e o f f i c e of  the Ministry,  and p a s t o f f i c e r s o-f t h e M i n i s t r y .  A l l these  o f f i c e r s r e p r e s e n t t h e group who were seen t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of any of t h e t h r e e p o l i c i e s b e i n g examined.  Policy The  Implementors  term  implementor  i s used i n t h i s s t u d y  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who r e c e i v e , action,  or i n a c t i o n ,  include  College  to  include  only  i n t e r p r e t and p u t t h e p o l i c i e s  into  w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e system.  Board  chairmen and  members,  I t i s used t o chief  executive  o f f i c e r s of c o l l e g e s and i n t e r e s t group e x e c u t i v e s .  IHE_SI6NIFICANCE_QF_IHE_§iyBY The  whole  makers, governance  process  of p o l i c y a n a l y s i s i s c r i t i c a l  p o l i c y - i m p l e m e n t o r s , and of  post-secondary  to  policy-evaluators.  education  appears  to  policyAs t h e become  19  increasingly processes  c e n t r a l i s e d , s o t h e i m p o r t a n c e of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e involved  in effective  implemention  becomes  more  i m p o r t a n t f o r p o l i t i c i a n s , c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and academics. Clearly, the techniques of s k i l l e d policy analysis are very ouch needed to inform that task - for i t i s in the f i e l d of policy analysis that one may find the tools and techniques, the technologies and the strategies for blending the contributions of p o l i t i c s and expertise in the processes of public policy-making for education (Downey, 1984: 3) . Although  this  work  can o n l y make a s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n  t o the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of government p o l i c y f o r community c o l l e g e s , important  that  regularity,  such  enthusiasm  example of r e s e a r c h public  knowledge and  be  pursued  scholarship.  with  i ti s  increasing  I t i s an  important  t h a t a t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s between  p o l i c y i n t e n t and outcomes,  the p u b l i c p o l i c y process,  and t h u s has a p p l i c a t i o n  to  i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e community c o l l e g e  systems i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y i n B.C.  A  search  of t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t no p r e v i o u s  studies  of  t h e e f f e c t s of implementing p r o v i n c i a l governance p o l i c i e s i n t h e community reinforces launching  college  system of B.C.  t h e need  not only f o r  of complementary r e s e a r c h  have this  been  conducted.  study,  t o add t o t h e  This  but f o r t h e understanding  of t h i s p u b l i c f u n c t i o n .  IHE_LIMIIAIIONS_OF_IHE_SILjDY  The  study  i s l i m i t e d t o the period following  t h e Government's  announcement of t h e t h r e e p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s : (a) System M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s , March 1983, (b) A b o l i t i o n of i n t e r m e d i a r y (c> Government  appointment  C o u n c i l s , J u l y 1983, of C o l l e g e Board members, J u l y 1983,  and  extend t h r o u g h t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  Post-Secondary Education  o f t h e new M i n i s t r y f o r  i n F e b r u a r y 1986.  During t h i s time t h e  system was a l s o s u b j e c t t o f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t , of  'formula f u n d i n g ' ,  these  a r e excluded  and o t h e r  Government  the introduction i n t e r v e n t i o n , but  from t h e p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s b e i n g  examined.  In many s i t u a t i o n s i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o s e g r e g a t e apparent causes and  e f f e c t s of t h e p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c i e s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d  without  r e c o g n i s i n g these other i n t e r v e n t i o n s .  The  term  community  college  administrators  i s restricted  to  p e r s o n s who a r e p e r c e i v e d a s key d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n t h e implementation the  of t h e governance p o l i c i e s .  The r e s e a r c h  i slimited  by  degree t o which t h o s e p e r s o n s were a v a i l a b l e and w i l l i n g  to  make documents a c c e s s i b l e , and/or t o d i s c u s s t h e r e l e v a n t i s s u e s . Furthermore, included  middle  level  managers w i t h i n  colleges  were n o t  i n t h e sample frame o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d and  therefore  l i m i t s p e r c e p t i o n s t o s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e s w i t h i n t h e system.  Yin when  (1985)  s t a t e s some o f t h e i n h e r e n t problems  of  he w r i t e s "they a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o b l e m s ,  recall,  and  poor  or inaccurate a r t i c u l a t i o n "  interviews bias,  poor  (1985:85).  The  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c i e s w i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h e f a c t s i n l e g i s l a t i o n , formal  documents, c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and t h e a c c u r a c y  of r e c a l l e x h i b i t e d by i n t e r v i e w e e s . a web  of  decisions  recorded  and  Because p o l i c y " c o n s i s t s of  actions that a l l o c a t e s value"  (Easton,  1967:130), t h e study cannot i n c o r p o r a t e t h e t o t a l i t y of t h a t web, nor  indeed  successive researcher  of  a l l the values  held  by  participants.  The  r e f i n e m e n t of t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n elements by t h e a l s o s e r v e s t o l i m i t t h e scope o f t h e study. 21  SUMMARY This  c h a p t e r has d e f i n e d t h e r e s e a r c h problem and has  some  of  t h e major  issues  background  to  provincial  Government's  community features inclusion, standing  the three  involved.  policy initiatives intervention  c o l l e g e s i n B.C. of  I t has  into  provided  that  formed  A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of t h e  t h e d e f i n i t i o n s p r o v i d e f o r an  of t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n .  some the  t h e governance  t h e problem p r o v i d e d some j u s t i f i c a t i o n  and  addressed  of  dominant  for their  improved  under-  The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h e Chapter  o u t l i n e d b o t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e and l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e s t u d y .  ,  NOTES ON CHAPTER ONE 1.  W h i l s t t e c h n i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e use of t h e terms 'post-secondary e d u c a t i o n ' , 'higher e d u c a t i o n ' and ' t e r t i a r y education', i n t h i s s t u d y they a l l r e f e r t o post compulsory s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by a l l p u b l i c l y funded a g e n c i e s , and can be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y .  2.  See Macdonald (1962) H i g h e r _ E d u c a t i o n _ i n _ B r i t i s h _ C o l . u m b i a . and Hoi1ick-Keynon's unpublished doctoral dissertation (1979) , An a n a l y s i s of t h e C o o r d i n a t i o n of Community. Col1eges_in_British_Columbia.  3.  See W i l d i n g , N., and Laundy, P., (1972), An_Ency.cl.gp.aedia_gf_Parli.am ; and Ib__£Ql. lf§9e__Qd_ I n s t i t u t e_ A c t , 1977, B.C.  4.  The M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s statement r e f e r r e d t o h e r e and t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s i s e n t i t l e d I n t e g r a t e d F_ye Year P l a n n i n g f o r t h e B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e Systems. System O b j e c t i v e s 1982-87.  5.  The f i r s t d r a f t of t h e M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s document entitled i n t e g r a t e d F i v e Year P l a n n i n g f o r t h e Br i t Ish Columbia C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e System:. System O b j e c t i v e s 1982-87, was sent t o c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s w i t h an accompanying l e t t e r from t h e M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , was dated March 3 1 , 1982. I t was r e d r a f t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s , and a copy dated March 1983 was f o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t o c o l l e g e s i n May 1983.  6.  See Notes from B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s workshop, 'Understanding O c c u p a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g ' , November,1980:28-29.  C H A P T E R  TWO  L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW AND  "Major  policies",  (1971:21).  demonstrated  respect  bodies  by  s e t the s t r a t e g i e s f o r reaching  relating  of r e s e a r c h  destiny of t h e  to  governance,  focus  on  one o f t h e l a r g e s t (Deegan &  such works have tended  the p o l i c y - f o r m a t i o n stage r a t h e r  implementation  With  i t h a s been  of l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n " Until recently,  concept  generated.  t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s "may have generated  Gollattscheck,1985:73).  those  The importance o f t h e p o l i c y  t h e volume  to policies  suggested  to  "commit t h e o r g a n i z -  and i n g e n e r a l d e t e r m i n e t h e long-range  organization" is  DEVELOPMENT  according t o Baldridge,  ation t o d e f i n i t e goals, goals,  MODEL  than  upon t h e  stage.  The purpose o f t h i s r e v i e w i s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e development o f a conceptual the  framework t o g u i d e t h e r e s e a r c h :  that i s t o  researcher with the 'instruments' t o a l l o w f o r a d e s c r i p t i v e  a n a l y s i s of t h e phenomena b e i n g s t u d i e d .  In the f i r s t place the  l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with p o l i c y implementation This  provide  w i l l be  addressed.  w i l l be done by a n a l y s i n g E a s t o n ' s (1965B) systems model a s  i t r e l a t e s t o the p o l i c y formulation. a s u r v e y o f p u b l i c a t i o n s on t h e p o l i c y process. distinguish  Finally,  framework a  incorporates project.  r o l e implementation  plays i n the  Another purpose of t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s t o  the significant  conceptual  What then f o l l o w s w i l l be  parameters  on  which  f o r studying implementation  conceptual  framework  will  be  a  suitable  can be advanced  based. which  t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , and s e r v e s t o g u i d e t h i s r e s e a r c h  EASION^S_PQLIIICAL_SYSIEMB David  Easton  theory.  has  His  presented  made  first  t h e case  important  contributions to  book i n a s e r i e s , for a  theoretical  f o u n d a t i o n f o r a n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l followed  The P o l i t i c a l model  behaviour.  by A Framework f o r P o l i t i c a l  political  to  System,  provide  a  T h i s was c l o s e l y  A n a l y s i s which  elaborated  t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l framework by s p e c i f y i n g some of t h e elements t h e model.  H i s t h i r d book, A Systems A n a l y s i s of P o l i t i c a l  developed volumes Each  t h e conceptual within  element  working  model.  b e h a v i o u r , through what he c a l l s ' e m p i r i c a l  T h i s t h e o r y has been w i d e l y used i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e  1983; and T a y l o r , 1983).  addresses  policy  although  Easton's t o cope  (see M i l l e t ,  1968; Howell  formulation rather  than  implementation, offers  systems model e n a b l e s t h e  w i t h many of t h e complex p o l i t i c a l  some  phenomena.  researcher I t allows  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a c t i o n i n t e r r e l a t i o n s i n a s y s t e m a t i c way, i s comprehensive,  highlights  and  bases.  (1965B) p o l i t i c a l  the  &  However, t h e model s p e c i f i c a l l y  not d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s research,  useful conceptual  of  two  i n t h e model i s p r e s e n t e d a s a u s e f u l t o o l i n t h e  p o l i c y process i n higher education Brown,  Life,  i n the f i r s t  a systems t h e o r y and p r o v i d e d a  a n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l theory'.  s t r u c t u r e s noted  of  and  i n as much a s i t p r o v i d e s f o r a n a l y s i s of many  relevant  political  activities.  the inter—relationships  between  Systems  analysis  sub-systems,  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n p u t s t o o u t p u t s , and t h e c o n s e q u e n t i a l outcomes of  decision-making,  information  within  and  p r o v i d e s f o r a n a l y s i s of t h e f l o w  t h e system.  F i g u r e One p r e s e n t s  a  of  simple  s t r u c t u r e of t h e major r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e f i n e d by t h i s t h e o r y . 25  FIGURE 1 SIMPLIFIED MODEL OF EASTON'S POLITICAL SYSTEMS THEORY  FEEDBACK LOOP Source: E a s t o n  Easton's  1965B.  <1965B) model o f f e r s c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s which a s s i s t  the  e x a m i n a t i o n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s , e m p h a s i s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e of  i d e n t i f y i n g inputs into a p o l i t i c a l  nature to  system and  the  peculiar  of t h e s e as t h e y a r e c o n v e r t e d from s u p p o r t s and  outputs  equilibrium  and of  outcomes.  The  the p o l i t i c a l  s t r e s s demands  system whether o r  converted t o outputs i s recognisable. stakeholders  as  place not  demands on  the  they  are  E a s t o n d e s c r i b e s t h e key  'gatekeepers' or s t r u c t u r a l r e g u l a t o r s i n t h e  system, whom he m e t a p h o r i c a l l y l i n k s w i t h c o n t r o l l e r s " r e g u l a t i n g the  flow  along  idiosyncracies  of  t h e demand output  channels"  and feedback  (1965B:88>.  concepts  i n order  The to 26  analyse  communication  environment, useful.  with  between  emphasis  the p o l i t i c a l  on i t s c y c l i c a l  system nature,  E a s t o n draws a d i s t i n c t i o n between " o u t p u t s '  allocation behaviour  and i t s are  also  (deliberate  of r e s o u r c e s o r v a l u e s ) and 'outcomes' ( c o n s e q u e n t i a l o r m o b i l i s a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s o r v a l u e s )  as  important  l i n k s i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l model.  F i g u r e Two p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e systems t h e o r y t o the  a n a l y s i s of p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  noted  that i n t h i s figure,  theory  i s replaced  identified  by  the ' p o l i t i c a l  with policy  Weatherley  s c h o l a r s such as Bardach  However,  and B a r r e t t and Fudge (1981).  be  system'  in  Easton's  implementation,  an  approach  and L i p s k y (1977)  (1977),  i t should  and  supported  Pressman and W i l d a v s k y  by  (1979),  T h i s s i m p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be  extended t o encompass many of t h e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e f l o w of  information  policy  between p o l i c y i n t e n t ,  statements  policy  and t h o s e undocumented but s t i l l  formulators,  implementors.  as expressed  Some  and  of  policy  outcomes  as  formal  intended  perceived  t h e s e can be i n s e r t e d i n t o  model (see F i g u r e T h r e e ) .  by  the  by by  systems  T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o i n t s e n a b l e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o e x t r a c t many of  t h e dynamic  observing being  of  the implementation  t h e b e h a v i o u r of system and sub-system  bound  assists  elements  t o a formal h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e .  i n identifying  some of t h e means  and  process,  by  members w i t h o u t This ends  approach by  which  p o l i c i e s a r e , o r a r e n o t , implemented, and t h u s p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l tool  by  means  of which t o  examine  outlines  some  of  required  when  analysing policy  policy  t h e i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s of  outcomes. a  implementation:  systems  Elmore model  (1) (2) (3) (4)  Clearly specified tasks and o b j e c t i v e s that accurately r e f l e c t t h e i n t e n t of the p o l i c y ; a management plan that a l l o c a t e s tasks and performance standards t o subunits; an o b j e c t i v e means of measuring subunit performance; and a system of management controls and s o c i a l sanctions sufficient to hold subordinates accountable f o r t h e i r performance (1978:195).  FISURE  S I M P L E S Y S T E M S THEORY  2  A P P L I E D TO P O L I C Y I M P L E M E N T A T I O N  ENVIRONMENT  ENVIRONMENT  —OUTPUTS Intentions Realised INPUT Policy Intentions Documented & P e r c e i v e d  P R O C E S S Policy  Implementation  *» OUTCOMES Unintended Policy Effects  ENVIRONMENT  ENVIRONMENT  FEEDBACK LOOPS P o l i c y E f f e c t s Inform Next P o l i c y Change  FIGURE 3 P O L I T I C A L SYSTEMS MODEL ADAPTED FOR EVALUATION OF  FEEDBACK LOOP  FEEDBACK LOOP  Source:  Easton,  1965B:110  IMPLEMENTATION  Whilst for  E a s t o n ' s model p r o v i d e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h  a  -framework  a n a l y s i s beyond t h e f o r m a l h i e r a r c h y o f t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n , one  which  encompasses  t h e b e h a v i o u r of both  formal  and  informal  a c t o r s , i t does not c l a r i f y t h e r o l e of t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s a s opposed t o t h e p o l i c y implementors o t h e r t h a n t o i d e n t i f y them a s the  a u t h o r i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t systems o r sub-systems.  A p o l i t i c a l system i s not a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of human b e i n g s that i s selected out f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s a s e t of interactions i s o l a t e d from other kinds of i n t e r a c t i o n i n which t h e human being i s engaged ( 1 9 6 5 A : 3 6 ) .  Easton's  theory  a l l o w s f o r the a n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l  w i t h i n an o r g a n i s a t i o n , the  political  system  behaviour  and i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o o f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o  outcomes of p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h e c o l l e g e  when  complemented  with  some  of t h e  implementation  v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r s .  IMPLEMENIAIIQN.I The  concept  researchers policy  of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s not new,^ b u t t h e f o c u s of has tended towards t h e f o r m u l a t i o n element  process.  Only  recently  have  analysts  turned  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n h e r e n t problems of p o l i c y e x e c u t i o n . 'implementation' statements  by  of t h e their  The term  serves t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p o l i c y actors  i n the  system.  Brewer  d e f i n i t i o n c a p t u r e s some o f t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s :  and deLeon's "Implementation  i s t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e s e l e c t e d o p t i o n - an o p t i o n t h a t may bear o n l y f a i n t resemblance t o ... o r d e r l y recommendations, the  a n a l y s t ' s wonderment, f r u s t r a t i o n o r c h a g r i n "  often t o  (1983:19).  30  The  concept  Bureaucrats',  of p o l i c y outlined  examination of Dunsires  (1978)  'Implementation  (1980),  who p r o v i d e  (1986),  by  by Weatherley and L i p s k y  by w r i t e r s such as J e n n i n g s Housego  implementation  'Street  Level  (1977),  and an  Gap' i s s u p p o r t e d  B a r r e t t and Fudge  appropriate  (1981)  analysis  of  and this  i m p o r t a n t element of t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s .  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phenomenon i s more a c c u r a t e l y understood i f i t is  first  process,  examined  i n r e l a t i o n t o other stages  of t h e p o l i c y  f o r a s Pressman and W i l d a v s k y a s s e r t ,  dependent on t h e o t h e r "  "each element i s  (1979:178).  The process of making public policy can best be understood as one that involves a complicated interaction between government institutions, actors, and the particular characteristics of substantive policy areas (Bardach , 1 9 7 7 : i x ) . This section w i l l element word  i d e n t i f y some of t h e p o l i c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s by examining some d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e  policy,  followed  i s s u e s emanating process.  by an a n a l y s i s of some of t h e  political  from a f o c u s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as a s t a g e i n t h e  I t will  c o n c l u d e w i t h a s y n t h e s i s of  policy  process  models i n which t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e i s i d e n t i f i e d .  Policy  c a n mean  decisions time. policy  t h e process  of a r r i v i n g  on which a system o r o r g a n i s a t i o n a c t s a t some  C o n v e r s e l y i t can i n c o r p o r a t e t h e e x e c u t i o n i s not r e a l i s e d u n t i l  i t i sfully  have been many a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e p o l i c y , look  at authoritative  a t some  of t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d  understand something  phase,  implemented.  future where There  and i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o  i n these  definitions t o  of t h e n a t u r e of t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s .  31  Pglic__as_an_Authoritat Most  d e f i n i t i o n s o-f p o l i c y suggest t h e e x e r c i s e  i n f l u e n c e over d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , or  not  implementation  but may f a i l  i s included.  of  power  and  t o d e s c r i b e whether  Downey  epitomises  this  e x c l u s i o n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n which d e s c r i b e s t h e proposed  'output'  i n the formulation  i n c l u d e t h e v a r i e t y of v a l u e s a s s i g n e d  process,  but  does  not  t o such a statement by t h e  p o l i c y implementors. A policy, then, i s a major decision by a governing authority. It selects and establishes a value from competing sets of values; i t declares an intent to act on the selected value; i t allocates resources, from society's scarce resources, to that value; and i t sets guidelines for persons who are to act on the achievement of the authority's intent (1984:4).  Kogan  writes  of p o l i c i e s a s " o p e r a t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s of  values"  (1975:55), b u t s u g g e s t s t h a t "any s i n g l e p o l i c y t a k e s on m u l t i p l e guises  and  i s viewed d i f f e r e n t l y a t many p o i n t s  system" (1975:238).  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t on  p o l i c y a s a p r e s c r i p t i v e mandate, policy could  as be  of  complex  t h e one hand he v i e w s  b u t , on t h e o t h e r ,  t a k i n g form o n l y when i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d . c l a s s i f y i n g p o l i c y i n e i t h e r of t h e s e  declares:  a  forms  " P o l i c y i s a p r o c e s s as w e l l a s a p r o d u c t .  perceives Wildavsky when  he  I t i s used  t o r e f e r t o a p r o c e s s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and a l s o t o r e f e r t o t h e product  of  that process"  (1979:387).  policy  as g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n t o d e c i s i o n s ,  having  "a f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n ...  the context  of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g "  Jennings goals,  characterises and v a l u e s and  Cwhich] a l l o w s f o r changes i n  (1977:30).  t h a t p o l i c i e s need not be e x p l i c i t l y  He goes on t o d e c l a r e  stated.  Sometimes these Mays of doing may be found f i x e d i n t r a d i t i o n s or conventions, b e c a u s e t h e y have been p e r p e t u a t e d w i t h o u t c r i t i c a l r e e x a m i n a t i o n or t e s t i n g . Yet they have the effect and f o r c e of p o l i c y (1977:32).  P o l icy_Includ:Lng_Ime Easton  incorporates  t h e p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t  concept  when  he  reminds h i s r e a d e r s t h a t p o l i c y i s r e l a t e d  to  writes: The essence of a policy l i e s in the fact that through i t certain things are denied to some people and Bade accessible to others. A policy, in other words, whether for a society, for a narrow association, or for any other group, consists of a web of decisions and actions that allocates value. A decision alone i s of course not a policy ... (1967:129-130). However,  Harman  a c t i o n , b u t i n d o i n g so i m p l i e s t h a t p o l i c y i s o n l y r e a l i s e d when implemented. Policy can be viewed basically as a course of action or inaction toward the accomplishment of some intended or desired end. It embraces both what i s actually intended and what occurs as a result of the intention (1980:56). For  Lindblom  change  "most,  policy  (1980:64).  perhaps a l l ,  i n the process  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s make of  trying  to  or  implement i t "  T a b l e One p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f w r i t e r s who f e a t u r e  t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase as prominent  i n the p o l i c y process.  Syntheses Policy  i s used  resources not  be  t o mean b o t h  an  authoritative  t o influence f u t u r e decision-making, realised  interpretive  as ' i n t e n d e d ' ,  behaviour  o r i t may  d i f f e r e n t s c h o l a r s i n a v a r i e t y of ways.  it  i s 'the m i s s i n g  Discrepancy  stage  of  which may o r may  mean  the acts  This conversion process i s  by  gap'.  of  of  by members of a system i n response t o  g i v e n statement of ' i n t e n t ' .  link',  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n game',  allocation  to  Bardach  To Hargrove (1977)  and t o D u n s i r e (1978) 'the  a  viewed (1975)  i t i s 'the implementation  between i n t e n t and outcome can occur a t any  the policy  process,  f r e q u e n t l y during implementation.  but  apparently  occurs  most  TABLE 1 IMPLEMENTATION AS A CHARACTERISTIC OF THE POLICY PROCESS A c o l l a t i o n o-f v a r i o u s a u t h o r s ' c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n s o-f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n element i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s  (1977)  JENNINGS  HARK AH  (i960)  BARRETT ft FUDGE  (1981)  Initiation  Issue Emergence & Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Environmental Demands and Needs  R e f e m u l a t i o n of Opinion  Development and Authorisation  Policy  Emergence of A l t e r n a t i v e s  Implementation  Organisation Mediation  D i s c u s s i o n and Debate  Evaluation  Execution  Legitimisation  Termination  Decisions  Implementation  HAKAHURA ft SHALLU000  (1980)  ST JOHN  (1981)  BREHER ft deLEOK  Formation  Plan t o Plan  Initiation  Implementation  Assessment  Estimation  Evaluation  P o l i c y Formulation  Selection  Implementation  Implementation  E v a l u a t i o n & Review  Evaluation  (1983)  Termination  Easton tend  (1967),  Kogan (1975),  J e n n i n g s (1977) and Downey  (1984)  t o s u p p o r t t h e concept t h a t t h e p o l i c y i s complete when t h e  statement  i s issued,  Horn (1975),  whereas w r i t e r s such a s Van Meter and Van  Harman (1980), B a r r e t t and Fudge (1981), and Brewer  and  deLeon  (1983) encompass t h e i m p o r t a n t  interpretive  phase,  known as i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The implementation phase does not commence u n t i l goals and objectives have been established (or identified) by prior policy decisions ...[which] examines those factors that contribute to the realization or nonrealization of policy objectives (Van Meter & Van Horn,1975:448). In o r d e r t o understand t h e outcomes o-f p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , i s assumed t h a t phase i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e p o l i c y which  cannot be e v a l u a t e d  implementation (1986)  clearly  demonstrate  J e n n i n g s (1980) and  how  policies  to  s t u d y of t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s f a i l s t o i n c l u d e t h e  of  variables  implementation process i s included.  Housego  intended.  The  the p o l i t i c a l  the  redistribute  governance a u t h o r i t y a r e not always implemented as  influencing  process,  i n i t s e n t i r e t y as a p o l i c y u n t i l  phase i s complete.  it  multiplicity  dynamics,  unless  the  Dunsire supports t h i s p o i n t -  o f - v i e w when he w r i t e s " e v a l u a t i o n of p o l i c i e s w i l l go a s t r a y  if  they  the  assume t h a t t h e e f f e c t s t h e y measure a r e a f u n c t i o n of  policies  decided  rather  t h a n of  the  policies-as-implemented"  (1978:18).  I n s t i t u t i o n s engage humans, who internal  inconsistency  system.  It  without within  beliefs,  the formal  organisation,  Administrators reality  is  define  and  and how  their  own  i n guiding t h e i r actions. and  not e v i d e n t  i s i m p o s s i b l e t o understand  considering the  that  i n t r o d u c e a degree of v a r i e t y in  policy  a  mechanical  implementation  i n f o r m a l n a t u r e of i t is  perceived  view-point  and  which  by  politics actors.  serves  A l l a r e governed by  customs t h a t a r e not e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e ,  as  values, but  may  develop s t r u c t u r e , not  -functions and communication  networks t h a t a r e  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e -formal o r g a n i s a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s ,  that  matter t h e Government's i n t e n t i o n s ,  for  or  example,  for  college  system governance p o l i c i e s . Implementation consists of defining a detailed set of objectives that accurately reflect the intent of a given policy, assigning responsibilities and standards of performance to subunits consistent with these objectives, monitoring system performance, and making internal adjustments that enhance the attainment of the organization's goals. The process i s dynamic, not s t a t i c ; the environment continually imposes new demands that require internal adjustments. But implementation i s always goal-directed and value-maximizing (Elmore, 1978: 191) .  There  is  agreement among t h e m a j o r i t y of p o l i c y  analysts  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l but t h e o r e t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t of  the p o l i c y process.  of  debate  Indeed,  many  t h e phenomena e x p l o r e d f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n element can  and  are  e q u a l l y w e l l i d e n t i f i e d i n o t h e r phases of  process.  In f a c t Nakamura and Smallwood d e c l a r e :  analysis,  policy  is  element  However, t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l of  as t o where t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e s e segments l i e .  that  policy  "In t h e f i n a l  e v a l u a t i o n [which i s t h e i r t h i r d p o l i c y phaseD  subject  to  many  constraints  as  t h e f i r s t two p o l i c y environments  Implementation]"  the  be  of  (1980:83).  the  same  political  influences  and  [Formulation &  Bardach a l s o s a y s of h i s own  model,  " t h i s o v e r a l l c o n c e p t i o n of t h e 'implementation p r o c e s s ' does not differ  significantly  from  the  conception  found  in  previous  s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t " (1977:37).  Again Van  and  this  Van  differs first  Horn  r e c o g n i s e t h a t " i n most r e s p e c t s  l i t t l e from o t h e r a d a p t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l introduced  by  Easton"  (1975:446),  d i s t i n c t i o n between p o l i c y and performance feature.  Such  admissions  Meter  framework  systems  models  identifying  the  as t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  offer substantial assistance i n  the  development  o-f a s u i t a b l e c o n c e p t u a l -framework  for this  research  i n t o perceived implementation e f f e c t s .  6_DEyELQPMENT_QF_THE_M The  basic  conceptions  intra-societal total  the  <1965B>  framework  include  and e x t r a - s o c i e t a l i n p u t s t o t h e system from  environment,  respect  of E a s t o n ' s  i n t h e form of s u p p o r t s and  t o t h e s e phenomena,  establishment  of  the  demands.  With  i n s u f f i c i e n t attention i s given  precise  boundaries.  a n a l y s i s of t h e c o n v e r s i o n of i n p u t s ,  Nevertheless  to the  w i t h a view t o t h e i r b e i n g  i n c l u d e d or r e j e c t e d and r e c e i v i n g an a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n i n the  form of an o u t p u t from t h e p o l i t i c a l system,  useful  arrangement  though  this i s  model's but  policy  implementation,  not t h e a p p a r e n t i n t e n t i o n of  the  even  model.  The  ' s c i e n t i f i c ' base i s v a l u a b l e i n some a r e a s of r e s e a r c h ,  tends  elements  f o r examining  i s a c l e a r and  t o l o s e t h e a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h some w i t h i n a system,  of  the  human  such as p r o b i n g t h e r e a s o n s why power  i s unequally d i s t r i b u t e d .  Burrell  and  "encompasses  Morgan make t h e p o i n t t h a t systems  theory  a  <1982s59>,  whole range of  possibilities"  clearly and  assert that the open systems approach does not carry with i t the implication that any one particular kind of analogy i s appropriate for studying a l l systems, since i t i s possible to discern different types of open systems in practice <1982s59>. Because t h e systems model i s so d i v e r s e , its  s u c c e s s f u l a d o p t i o n by so many s c h o l a r s ,  accompanied with  and perhaps because  i t s use.  much c r i t i c i s m  There a r e a number of problems  t h e a d o p t i o n of E a s t o n ' s (1965B) p o l i t i c a l  of has  associated  systems  model.  Ham and H i l l  report:  i t would be wrong to accept Easton's conceptualisation of the p o l i t i c a l system as an accurate description of the way systems work in practice. While Easton's identification of processes i s valuable, the neat, logical ordering of those processes in terms of demand i n i t i a t i o n , through the conversion process to outputs, rarely occurs so simply in the practical world of policy-making (1984:15).  In t h e absence o-f e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h , forced  to  methods  adopt  c e r t a i n behaviour,  where human b e i n g s  researchers  of i s o l a t i n g s u i t a b l e e x i s t i n g b e h a v i o u r  analysis.  The  l i n e a r approach,  must  are  develop  variables f o r  r e f i n e d by Easton and  others,  appears t o p r o v i d e a w e l l t e s t e d framework t h r o u g h which much can be  learned.  either  Each  model i n c l u d e s some  inherent  difficulties,  i n t h e b a s i c assumptions on which t h e model i s b u i l t ,  w i t h i n t h e model i t s e l f .  T h i s s e c t i o n i d e n t i f i e s some o f  weaknesses under t h e sub-headings of E a s t o n ' s (1965B) elements,  and  where  or  these  conceptual  p o s s i b l e a d d r e s s e s them i n terms  of  this  p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h problem.  The_Enyironment The  environment a c c o r d i n g t o Easton c o n t a i n s "those a s p e c t s of a  society system" "the  that  fall  (1965A:70).  o u t s i d e t h e boundaries His p o l i t i c a l  of  the  systems t h e o r y c o n c e p t u a l i s e s  i d e a o f a system embedded i n an environment and s u b j e c t t o  i n f l u e n c e s from i t t h a t t h r e a t e n t o d r i v e t h e e s s e n t i a l of  political  t h e system beyond t h e i r c r i t i c a l range"  and  Smallwood  the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase of a p o l i c y by c a l l i n g on  identify  (1980), and Bardach  (1965B:33).  variables Nakamura  (1977) extend t h a t concept f o r analysts  a d i f f e r e n t environment f o r p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  t h a t of p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n .  to from  From t h e s e v i e w s of t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n environment, Van Meter and Van Horn c i t e s t r o n g s u p p o r t -for examining and  political  particular college  conditions"  value system  a r e o-f  t o t h i s s t u d y because of t h e p r e s s u r e  on t h e  by  funding,2  formula  agreements, and t h e changing r o l e of c o l l e g e s , out  by  Dennison and G a l l a g h e r :  dynamic a s t h e s o c i e t y t h e y fresh vision,  "community c o l l e g e s must be  serve  ...  environment for  as  A l l the issues c a l l f o r  a n t i c i p a t i o n , and change" (1986:140).  t h e added  collective  which i s p o i n t e d  i n f l u e n c e s e x e r t e d through t h e passage of t i m e , has  social  These elements  exerted  (1975:471).  " t h e economic,  c o n s t r a i n t of t h e p o l i c y  Besides the  the  implementor  statement.  i s not t h e same f o r t h e p o l i c y implementor  Thus  the  as i t  was  t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r , even i n t h e same p o l i c y p r o c e s s .  The_lnp.uts Scholars  of  conceptual  policy  implementation  have  shown  that  Easton's  i n p u t must be examined t h r o u g h many d e s i g n v a r i a b l e s .  Recent a n a l y s t s expose i m p o r t a n t l i n k s between t h e d e s i g n o f t h e policy link  s t a t e m e n t and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s , that  "pointCs3  conditions  and  1979:xxi).  These  between of  t o a c h a i n of  future  causation  consequences"  (Pressman  They  between &  f o r m u l a t i o n of  t h e l a c k of knowledge as an  adequacy  "The g r e a t problem,  i s t o make t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of  a p a r t of t h e i n i t i a l identify  initial  Wildavsky,  means and ends [which3 c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e  we u n d e r s t a n d i t ,  ation  theoretical  s c h o l a r s a s s e r t " t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a mismatch  the o r i g i n a l policy design" (1979:xxiii).  as  a  policy" important  implement(1979:143). condition  l i n k i n g p o l i c y i n p u t s w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n outcomes, and emphasise the  importance  of  the effectiveness  of  implementation  with  design.  T h e i r "model p r e s c r i b e s c l e a r l y s t a t e d g o a l s ,  plans,  tight  controls  ...  incentives  and  detailed  indoctrination"  (1979:179).  Van  Meter  model  and Van Horn (1975) s e t out t o d e v e l o p  i n which  policy  could  t h e ' d e t e r m i n a n t s ' and  the  phase.  conceptual  'consequences'  be i d e n t i f i e d and examined t h r o u g h  implementation  a  o-f  the important  T h e i r c o n c e p t u a l framework  i s expressed  through s i x fundamental elements. (1) an environment that both stimulates government o f f i c i a l s and receives the products of their work; (2) demands and resources that carry stimuli from the environment to policy makers; (3) a conversions process, including the formal structures and procedures of government, that transforms (converts) demands and resources into public policies; (4) the policies that represent the formal goals, intentions, or statements of government o f f i c i a l s ; (5) the performance of the policy as i t i s actually delivered to clients; and (6) the feedback of policies and performances to the environment, which i s transmitted back to the conversions process as demands and resources of a later point in time (1975:446). In  respect  to  input,  characteristics: which  there  they  identified  "two  distinguishing  t h e amount of change i n v o l v e d and t h e e x t e n t t o  i s goal consensus among t h e  participants  i n the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s " (1975:458).  Hargrove policy  lists input  develop  s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o be  phase,  satisfactory  beginning,  for  implementation do  a  and s u g g e s t s "a f a i l u r e t o answers  alternatives  feasibility"  resources  capacity,  and u n c e r t a i n t i e s ,  the  them  and  c o u l d condemn p o l i c i e s  from  the  levels  of  involve  (1975:23).  degree  during  ask  different  These q u e s t i o n s have t o  w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o n s u l t a t i o n ,  professional  asked  of  change,  degree of the  threat,  provision  p a r t i c u l a r l y as perceived  by  of the 40  implementors. policy "The  He  designs policy  brings  i n t o sharp r e l i e f t h e  t a k i n g c o g n i s a n c e of t h e  development  analytic  importance  implementation  role  should  o-f  phase.  contain  an  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e because a c o n c e r n f o r e x e c u t i o n s h o u l d be p a r t of e v e r y new p o l i c y i d e a "  Weatherley  and  requirements" This  was  Lipsky  identify  (1977:185),  particularly  (1975:16).  "conflicting  as an i m p o r t a n t f l a w i n p o l i c y  evident i f the p o l i c y d i d  adequate p r o v i s i o n of r e s o u r c e s i n c o r p o r a t e d takes  the  concept  of  and  policy  formulators bureaucracy  and  individuals  conflict  of  "the  organizations  beyond  problems possessed  not  of of  input.  have  (1977:193).  interests  implementors  highlights  and  bureaucratic  Bardach  between the  an  policy  level  of  obstruction monopoly  by  power"  (1977:103), which he d e t e r m i n e s can be a d d r e s s e d i n t h e d e s i g n of the  policy  nature  of  statement. problems  He a l s o c o n s i d e r s t h a t  associated with  addressed a t t h e d e s i g n s t a g e . main  problems  incompetence,  problem  of  implementation  programs:  variability in  c o n t r o l , and t h e problem of c o o r d i n a t i o n "  Elmore, to  when  which  significant the  impersonal should  " S o c i a l e n t r o p y throws up  t o p l a g u e government the  the  be  three  the  problem  of  the  objects  of  (1977:125).  d e v e l o p i n g f o u r d i f f e r e n t ' i d e a l ' models a c c o r d i n g  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n can be a n a l y s e d ,  highlights  the  l i n k between p o l i c y i n p u t and e x e c u t i o n by means  most of  * systems management' model.  Implementation c o n s i s t s of d e f i n i n g a d e t a i l e d s e t of o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the i n t e n t of a given policy, assigning responsibilities and standards of performance to subunits c o n s i s t e n t with these o b j e c t i v e s , monitoring system performance,  41  and (Baking internal adjustments that enhance the attainment of the organization's goals (1978:191). Conversely,  i n h i s " C o n f l i c t and B a r g a i n i n g ' model he  suggests  t h e d e s i g n of p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s i n c o r p o r a t e " t h e p r e f e r e n c e s and resources  of  participants"  e f f e c t i v e implementation.  (1978:218)  i n order  to  ensure  S t . John a l e r t s r e a d e r s t o t h e need t o  c o n s i d e r t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e subsystems,  labelled  m i c r o s t r u c t u r e s by many a u t h o r s , i n t h e d e s i g n of p o l i c y . If new services are being introduced in a system of institutions at a state or national level i t i s important to assess the capacity of the institutions when designing a strategy (1981:54). Such of  s t u d i e s have l e d Brewer and deLeon t o s u p p o r t t h e i n c l u s i o n d e l i b e r a t e i n c e n t i v e s t o implementors when  designing  policy  (1983:273).  Legislation  i s o f t e n used t o communicate  policy,  and  whatever  form i t t a k e s , p l a c e s a degree of c o n s t r a i n t on implementors t h a t is  n o t e x e r t e d on p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s .  through  legislation,  i t provides  a  When p o l i c y i s e x p r e s s e d legitimate  statement  of  a u t h o r i t y and s e t s c e r t a i n parameters which need t o be r e c o g n i s e d during i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Such a mandate, i f c a r e f u l l y planned w i t h  e f f e c t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n mind,  builds certain c r i t e r i a into a  policy  interpretation.  that  recognises  narrow t h e scope of there  a r e perhaps  other  more  p r o c l a i m i n g p o l i c y than t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n . policy  designers  prices  and  regulations"  ...  useful  markets r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h (1977:253),  because  Bardach  ways  of  "Other t h i n g s e q u a l ,  should p r e f e r t o operate through  implement p o l i c y t h e m s e l v e s ... actors  But  writing  "policymakers  manipulating and  enforcing  u s u a l l y do not  [ r a t h e r ] r e l y on another s e t of  t o a c t u a l l y c a r r y out t h e p o l i c i e s  they p r e s c r i b e "  (Nakamura & Smal1wood,1980:32). faithful  compliance,  implementation" Lipsky  noted  regulations  it  "While c l a r i t y does not  i s a necessary step  (Nakamura & Smal1wood,1980:33). in  their  stipulated  extensive research  deLeon a l s o suggested t h a t "The necessarily  resources not"  to  result  in  Holt  the  also  and  program  that  but  provided  no  Brewer  and  (1977:180).  "the  a u t h o r i z a t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n does appropriation  c a r r y out t h e a s s i g n e d  (1983:262).  effective  Weatherley  what needs t o be done  b l u e p r i n t f o r administering the process"  not  toward  ensure  tasks;  alerts  expressing p o l i c y statements through  us  of  requisite  i t frequently to  the  does  problems  of  legislation.  It i s notoriously d i f f i c u l t to get the checks and balances right in participatory schemes that carry legislative force. Apathy might reinforce a hierarchy, or open the door to the cabals of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s (1980:108).  The_Prgce__e_ The  p r o c e s s used by Easton between i n p u t s and  attention  to  implementors Pressman alert  communication when  linkages  examining  the  policy  work  Cor t h o s e ] of p o l i t i c a l resources,  on  Imjglemjjntatign  elements Csuch a s ] g r e a t c o n f l i c t  ...  failure  i m p o r t a n c e " ( 1 9 7 9 : x v i i i ) , or even l a c k of but as was  "perfectly  shown i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  present  s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e s t o implementation"  the  implementation.  not  it  reports  the  and  is  study,  Elmore  was  requires  formulators  of  analysts to the f a c t that p o l i c y  always caused by "dramatic  essential  between  effects  and W i l d a v s k y i n t h e i r seminal  outputs  effects  implementation process thus:  of  ordinary  official  circumstances  case [that]  (1979:xviii>.  documents  in  the  An agency sight, for example, put a great deal of effort into developing an elaborate collection of rules and regulations or an elegant system of management controls, knowing f u l l well that i t doesn't have the resources to make them binding on other actors. But the expectation that the rules might be enforced i s sufficient to influence the behaviour of other actors <1978:220-221). Brewer and deLeon o b s e r v e : Too many projects have foundered because implementation was not distinguished from the earlier steps in the total process, thus making i t almost impossible to translate a policy into i t s component, operational programs with any f i d e l i t y (1983:254). Other  factors  financial, policies  concern  and  t h e p r o v i s i o n of  the organisational  are initiated.  resources,  structures  Pressman and  human  and  i n which  the  Wildavsky  alert  their  r e a d e r s t o t h e importance i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n when  they  declare  implementation  does  that  " t h e emphasis  i s not  t o programs but on what  on  what  the forces  that  produce p o l i c y do t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " ( 1 9 7 9 : x i i ) .  Policy clarity  issues  t h a t have a f f e c t e d  and communication,  implementation  also  include  a c c e p t a n c e of g o a l s by i m p l e m e n t o r s ,  motivation  and  evaluation  criteria,  " t h e amount  of  change  involved",  and t h e e x t e n t t o which p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e committed t o  t h e new p o l i c y (Van Meter & Van Horn,1975:458).  Nakamura  and Smallwood's (1980) t r i p a r t i t e model of  process,  based on f u n c t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s , p r o v i d e s a  useful  framework  particularly  i n which t o a n a l y s e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  sector  w i t h t h e i r development of t h e l i n k a g e s between  environments.  Pressman  and  Wildavsky  make  the point  "implementers must know what t h e y a r e supposed t o do be  the policy  effective"  (1979:179),  so  policy  statements  the that  i n order t o must  be  e f f e c t i v e l y communicated. 44  F a c t o r s such as a m b i g u i t y i n t h e p o l i c y statement may w e l l in  compromise i n t h e p r o c e s s of p o l i c y  implementation.  result Berman,  f o r example, s u g g e s t s some f a c t o r s t h a t cause d i s c r e p a n c y between p o l i c y i n t e n t and e x e c u t i o n . goals,  often  "Ambiguity i s r e f l e c t e d by m u l t i p l e  conflicting,  means" (1978:168).  and i n t h e l a c k of s p e c i f i c i t y  He goes on t o d e c l a r e " i t seems o b v i o u s t h a t  t h e more ambiguous t h e i n t e n t of a p o l i c y , administering (1978:168).  agency  has  in  defining  t h e more l a t i t u d e t h e a  government  Smal1wood,1980:37).  law  and  application  of  variations in application"  Time  is  of  (Nakamura  Weatherley and L i p s k y observed t h a t  i t s administrative regulations,  uniform  program"  " P o l i c y vagueness can grow out of t h e i n a b i l i t y  p o l i c y makers t o agree on t h e problem t h e y a r e s o l v i n g " &  about  procedures,  intended  instead  to  "a  produce  yielded  wide  (1977:188).  a n o t h e r c r i t i c a l element of p o l i c y  communication.  As  Bardach p o i n t s o u t , implementation takes a long time, much longer than most of the program sponsors had hoped i t would take and longer even than the law's hypothetical 'reasonable man' might have expected (1977:180). The t i m i n g of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w has s i g n i f i c a n t impact on effectiveness  or  'gatekeeping'  can  within  a  otherwise  of  policy  implementation.  a f f e c t the flow v e r t i c a l l y  and  the Such  horizontally  p o l i t i c a l system and can i n c l u d e not o n l y t h e  initial  p o l i c y statement and i t s subsequent i n t e r p r a t i v e d i r e c t i v e s ,  but  also  and  t h e f l o w of  information  feedback l o o p s (Easton,1965B  D u n s i r e , 1 9 7 8 ) . B a r r e t t and Fudge draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t i m e i n b o t h t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and p o l i c y process.  implementation  (1981:175).  45  The  Outcomes  Government, whether national, regional or local, appears to be adept at making statements of intention, but what happens on the ground often f a l l s a long way short of the original aspirations. Government either seems unable to put i t s policy into effect as intended, or finds that i t s interventions and actions have unexpected or counter-productive outcomes which create new problems ( B a r r e t t & Fudge,1981s4). People  respond t o p o l i c i e s on the b a s i s of how  p o l i c y statement a l i g n s with t h e i r own  they p e r c e i v e  personal  needs and  the  values.  The implementation process is necessarily one of consensusbuilding and accommodation between policy-makers and implesenters. The central problem of implementation is not whether implementers conform to prescribed policy but whether the implementation process results in consensus in goals, individual autonomy, and commitment to policy on the part of those who must carry i t out (Elmore, 1978: 209) . When  viewing  implementation  as  part  of  an  Organizational  Development Model, Elmore d e s c r i b e s implementation f a i l u r e not  as  "the  of  result  of  poor management c o n t r o l or the  bureaucratic routines, and  but a r i s C i n g 3 out of a lack of  commitment among implementers"  were  well  through  designed,  an  realising disposition  of  the In  implementor,  perceptions.  Barrett  (1978:213).  influencer  Even  enunciated  structure  policy i n i t i a t i v e ,  Mintzberg,1983). policy  meticulously  organisational the  persistence  that  and was  there i s s t i l l (Van  Meter  &  consensus i f policy  communicated conducive the  Van  to  important Horn,1975;  order t o assess the l i k e l y behaviour of researchers and  need  Fudge r e p o r t on  to  a  establish  their  "three aspects  CthatJ  seem of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e . 1. p e r c e p t i o n s  of the scope f o r a c t i o n ;  2. p e r c e p t i o n s  of the need f o r a c t i o n ;  3. m o t i v a t i o n  to act"  (1981:28).  46  The  experience  together that  each  brings  to  an  organisation,  with t h e v a l u e s , e t h i c s and a t t i t u d e s he or she h o l d s i n  organisation,  given  implementor  policy.  organisational commitment.  combine t o c r e a t e a base -for p e r c e i v i n g Perceptions  structure, "In  spite  are  peers, of  also  influenced  professional  any  by  the  bodies  and  e m p i r i c a l evidence t h a t  a  process  operates i n a c e r t a i n way, people can n e v e r t h e l e s s  p e r s i s t i n the  belief  way"  that  1978:227). Van  i t ought  to  operate  in  another  (Elmore,  T h i s m i s a p p l i c a t i o n may be caused by many v a r i a b l e s .  Meter  and Van Horn draw on the work of  Kaufman  (1971)  to  i d e n t i f y some of these. Goals and objectives may be rejected for numerous reasons: they offend implementors' personal values or extraorganizational loyalties; they violate implementors' sense of self interest; or they alter features of the organization and i t s procedures that implementors desire to maintain (1975:482). Mintzberg  c a p t u r e s some of these p o i n t s and r e l a t e s them t o t h e  e x e r c i s e of power of implementors' p e r c e p t i o n s  when he observes:  To understand the behaviour of the organization, i t is necessary to understand which influencers are present, what needs each seeks to f u l f i l l in the organization, and how each i s able to exercise power to f u l f i l l them (1983:22). Brewer and deLeon add t o t h e concept of i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s by drawing  a t t e n t i o n t o " s u b t l e f a c t o r C s ] ...  of i n t e r e s t of the o r i g i n a l on  d e c i s i o n maker" (1983:269).  t o r e p o r t t h a t "the i n c e n t i v e problem becomes acute  agency  i s ordered  outside  i t s primary r o l e "  Most  [such asD t h e degree  policy  to  analysts  d e c i s i o n s with a c t i o n .  c a r r y out a program  that  it  They go when  an  considers  (1983:272).  have tended t o In other  equate  policy  formation  words, t h e s e " d e c i s i o n s a r e seen  as t h e outputs of t h e p o l i c y process,  t h e assumption being  that  47  once  made t h e y w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n "  1981:8-9). important analysis fifths  ( B a r r e t t & Fudge,  As Dror noted " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e t h e most element  in  public  policymaking"  (1968:64).  An  of B a l d r i d g e ' s p o l i t i c a l / p o w e r model r e v e a l s t h a t concentrates  2.2:22),  whereas  occasion  one  declares  that  because  on  t h e f o r m a t i o n of  (1971:Figure  t h e e x e c u t i o n or i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  fifth  of t h e  analytical  h i s model " f o c u s e s on  element  framework.  He  policy-forming  only openly  processes,  major p o l i c i e s commit an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o d e f i n i t e  and s e t t h e s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e a c h i n g al,1977:10). significance behaviour  policy  four  those  goals  goals" (Baldridge, et  Such s t a t e m e n t s g i v e i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e of  interpretation,  and t h e l i k e l y  of t h o s e implementing t h e p o l i c i e s .  divergence The e x e r c i s e  in of  d i v e r g e n t b e h a v i o u r was c e r t a i n l y e v i d e n c e d i n t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a u t h o r i t y i n t h e c o l l e g e system of B.C.  Indeed  Hoi1ick-Kenyon  observed: the description of the origins of the colleges ... describes the p o l i t i c a l efforts of grass roots movements to get colleges started. This process, in turn, resulted in a strong bias towards local community control of the i n s t i t u t i o n , once i t was in operation. This commitment i s reflected today in the resistance that i s evident in B r i t i s h Columbia to centralize the control of the community colleges on a province-wide basis (1979:111-112).  IHE_PQLIIICS_gF_I Hargrove  observes  implementation  that  political scientists  have  served  concept w e l l by d e v e l o p i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l  the  aspects  of t h e p r o c e s s . They begin with a policy as i t was i n i t i a l l y shaped by the p o l i t i c s of reaching agreement and then chart the continuing politics of program administration in which politicians, bureaucrats, interest groups and publics vie for control over the direction of the program. Their conception i s the broadest of  48  a l l current usages because i t excludes nothing that i s relevant to understanding what happens (1975:3). "The of  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n environment diversity,  arenas,  fluidity,  bureaucratic  and  i s c h a r a t e r i z e d by a h i g h degree c o m p l e x i t y i n terms  imperatives,  linkages,  mechanisms" (Nakamura & Smal1wood,1980:65).  of  and  Bardach  actors,  compliance adds,  implementation p o l i t i c s i s , I believe, a special kind of politics. It i s a form of p o l i t i c s in which the very existence of an already defined mandate, legally and legitimately authorized in some prior process, affects the strategy and tactics of the struggle (1977:37) .  Implementors coordinate policy  have and  orchestrate  directives  diffuse.  been shown t o f a c e t h e t a s k of a t t e m p t i n g  that  can  many v a r i a b l e s of  themselves  to  when  carrying  out  be  ambiguous  and  T h e i r problems a r e e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e need t o r e c o n c i l e  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t e r n a l norms w i t h i n a wide variety there  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . is a  variety  I t can be  of p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s a t work  concluded i n both  that the  f o r m u l a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phases of t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . As a result, there appear to be many situations in which implementers possess a considerable degree of independent discretion and authority to exercise their own political judgements i n order to influence and shape the policy process (Nakamura & Smal1wood,1980:111). Indeed college  the exercising  of p o l i t i c s i n t h e governance  of t h e  system i s seen a s an ongoing p r o c e s s t h a t changes almost  continuously.  Hargrove  a l e r t s h i s r e a d e r s t o t h e c e r t a i n t y of t h e p r e s e n c e  the p o l i t i c a l process i n implementation, of  of  and t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t y  t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h a t p r o c e s s (1975:69).  He agrees t h a t i t  i s s i m i l a r t o t h e behaviour experienced i n p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n , but  49  different  because  (1975:70).  As  i t cannot i g n o r e t h e e f f e c t of there  i s difficulty  implementation  from  difficult  separate  to  Essentially process  the formulation  phase, of  so  i s t h e next phase  Truman  (1951)  influence (1971)  of power  Nevertheless,  of  elements.  i n the  direct  policy  influence,  legislation.  and Kogan (1975) developed t h e o r i e s based on t h e i n t e r e s t groups, political Bardach  and t o some  model  makes  employs  extent the  t h e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  reveals  the  l i m i t e d e x t e n t t o which i n t e r e s t "Since  Baldridge's  same  one of t h e i m p o r t a n t  between  implementation.  policy  i t i s also  t h e two  i n which t h e f o r m u l a t i o n element h a s  o f t e n w i t h t h e support  sector  i n identifying  the politics  implementation  that  there  method.  distinctions  s e c t o r s when groups  i s considerable  he  influence  differentiation  among a c t o r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o how t h e y view t h e i r p o s s i b l e l o s s e s , c o a l i t i o n s do n o t r e a d i l y important  He makes  o b s e r v a t i o n by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between  p o l i t i c s ' and "adoption more  emerge" (1977:42).  polities',  another  "implementation  which he p e r c e i v e s as emerging  on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s than i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of  coalitions  (1977:42-43).  Each  of  the policy  definitions  and  research  implementation  c i t e d e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y  of  which can be b r o a d l y o r n a r r o w l y  politics,  the  context  termed human  of a p o l i t i c a l system,  an  projects  on  i n c l u d e t h e concept defined.  organisation  Within could  be  p o l i t i c a l when i t demonstrates "any p e r s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s that involves,  control,  influence,  power  or  to  a  authority"  significant  extent,  (Dahl,1976:3) .  But 50  Easton l i n k s t h e system and t h e b e h a v i o u r o-f t h e p e r s o n s . A political system, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d as a set of interactions, a b s t r a c t e d from the t o t a l i t y of s o c i a l behaviour, through which v a l u e s are a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y a l l o c a t e d f o r a s o c i e t y . Persons who are i n the p r o c e s s of engaging i n such i n t e r a c t i o n s , that i s , who are a c t i n g i n p o l i t i c a l r o l e s , w i l l be r e f e r r e d to g e n e r i c a l l y as the members of the system ( 1 9 6 5 A : 5 7 ) .  This  is  a  governance  valuable  guide  when  p o l i c y implementors.  decision-making  can  analysing  the  behaviour  of  A l l t h o s e engaged i n t h e r e l a t e d  be i d e n t i f i e d as members of  the  political  system.  The  power/political  coalitions  are  process.  Elmore  "permits  us  formal  behaviour  to  argues make  routines"  that the  individuals  governed  of  well  as  implementation  bargaining the  model  implementation  h a v i n g t o be unduly i n f l u e n c e d  and " w i t h o u t by  as  policy  conflict  c o n c e p t u a l sense  without  hierarchy is  of  important f a c t o r s i n the  p r o c e s s " <1978:220), the  relations  asserting  a predictable  set  that of  by  everyone's  bureaucratic  (1978:220).  IQWARDS_A_CQNCEPIUAL S t u d e n t s of p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n have demonstrated factors those used  a r e i m p o r t a n t t o implementors. variables  in  following  section  framework  using  in  the e f f e c t s this  work  of will  certain  They have d e s c r i b e d how  can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n new  determining  that  policy  declared develop  settings  policies. a  such v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a  or The  conceptual basis  on  which t o pursue t h i s s t u d y .  51  Elmore  suggests  [nlor  another"  areas  of  t h a t " t h e e v i d e n c e f a v o u r s [ n e i t h e r ] one (1978:226),  and Berman o b s e r v e s " a l t h o u g h  agreement do n o t y e t c o n s t i t u t e  framework,  model  a  fully  these  articulated  l e t a l o n e a t h e o r y " (1978:159), t h e v a l u e of a d a p t i n g  s u i t a b l e e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s f o r the p o l i c y process could provide a base  on  which t o a n a l y s e t h e p e r c e i v e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  effects.  M i n t z b e r g o b s e r v e s " t h e o r i e s a r e u s e f u l because t h e y s h o r t c u t t h e need  t o s t o r e masses of d a t a .  One need n o t remember  d e t a i l s one has l e a r n e d about a phenomenon.  i s concerned  successive  refinement  particular  directives,  interpretation  of  forming  input  the  refinement, of  the p o l i t i c a l  process  and c o n v e r s i o n of p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s procedures,  the stated  tasks,  intentions.  f o r subsequent  and suggest a  of t h e systems model,  procedure  changes.  useful association with the  the  linear  and v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h o s e t h e o r i e s The concern of  this by  o r one body, s h o u l d n o t be viewed  as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v e r y major d e c i s i o n w i t h i n t h e  system,  i t i s f a r more l i k e l y t o i n v o l v e numerous i n d i v i d u a l s  as s t a t i c .  is  But i n t h e a n a l y s i s of p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h e  p e r c e p t i o n s of any one p e r s o n ,  coalitions  and  This  i s t h e a n a l y s i s of how t h i s p r o c e s s i s p e r c e i v e d  administrators.  for  of into  strategies, Such  policy  which a s s i s t i n t h e a n a l y s i s of b e h a v i o u r . research  (1983:x).  c o n v e r s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n a l l i n v o l v e t h e e x e r c i s e  politics,  nature  with  the  I n s t e a d one s t o r e s a  t h e o r y , an a b s t r a c t i o n t h a t e x p l a i n s many of them"  Implementation  a l l  (Bardach,1977:42),  than  nor s h o u l d t h e p r o c e s s be viewed  Hamblin i n h i s r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e o b s e r v e s "on  behavioural  side,  [of p o l i c y ]  many  scholars  d e r i v a t i o n s of a model which was developed by E a s t o n "  work  with  (1984:14).  Easton's  (1965B)  political  systems  model  has  some  positive  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o make i n a n a l y s i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h problem, b u t i t s limitations there-fore based  are too strong proposes  ignore.  t o develop a s u i t a b l e  on E a s t o n ' s model,  with  to  The  present  conceptual  but modified t o provide  policy  implementation  the gathering  interviews, the  outcomes.  of  data,  research  to  either  Y i n observes be  should  should  (1985:33).  as i m p o r t a n t t o  T h i s framework a c t s a s a g u i d e including  the construction  that i n order t o  compared w i t h p r e v i o u s  s h o u l d n o t be i d i o s y n c r a t i c .  the  the  of  as w e l l as a base on which t o r e p o r t t h e f i n d i n g s of  research.  findings  or  -framework  a s u i t a b l e base on which t o i n c l u d e more p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e  v a r i a b l e s which o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have determined  to  writer  Rather each ...  "key  research  definitions  u n i t of a n a l y s i s  be s i m i l a r t o t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d by o t h e r s  deviate  i n clear,  For these  conceptual  work  allow  o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined  ways"  reasons i t i s considered wise t o c o n s t r u c t  framework from t h i s w e l l  established  political  systems model.  T a b l e Two c o l l a t e s t h o s e v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d from t h i s r e v i e w which are  assumed  implementation  to  contribute  outcomes.  to  the examination  of  policy  T h i s study r e q u i r e s t h e i n c l u s i o n  of  t h e p o l i c y a r c h i t e c t s o r f o r m u l a t o r s w i t h i n t h e same boundary  as  implementors,  f o r they  communication  and  implementation. system  not  only  contribute  e n u n c i a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y ,  The  model  to  the  design,  but a l s o  to i t s  i s based on t h e premise  i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from i t s environment,  complex important  political aspects  system of  i s possible policy  design,  only  that  which  the in a  i n theory.  The  communication,  and  enunciation,  which  a r e e s s e n t i a l l y "the degree t o which p o l i c y  o b j e c t i v e s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t o implementors consistently, 1975:478),  and  clearly,  i n a t i m e l y manner" (Van Meter &  a r e recognised aspects  These  'inputs'  i n Easton's terms,  of  implementation  can be  considered  Easton's  (1965B)  conceptual  and c o n v e r s i o n  model,  they points  t o provide  o b s e r v a t i o n of o u t p u t s and outcomes of t h e p o l i t i c a l  the  formulation  When t h e key i s s u e s of t h a t i n p u t a r e i d e n t i f i e d ,  be f o l l o w e d through v a r i o u s p r o c e s s i n g  within  Horn,  h a v i n g a l r e a d y passed through  systems c y c l e a t l e a s t once p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e p o l i c y  can  Van  by a l l a u t h o r s c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e  review.  stage.  accurately,  for  system.  TABLE 2 COLLATION OF INDEPENDENT VARIABLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION WHEN POLICY OUTCOMES ARE THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES  IMPLEMENTATION ENVIRONMENT  POLICY INPUT & DESIGN  IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS  IMPLEMENTATION OUTCOMES  Economic S o c i a l P o l i t i c a l State  Incentives/ Sanctions  C l a r i t y of Statement  Incentives/ Sanctions  Policy Statement  Change/Threat  Time  Understanding  Complexity  Consultation  Consultation  Influences  Ambiguity  Ambiguity  Commitment  Resources Imperfect Knowledge  54  In o r d e r t o c o l l a t e t h e s e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n a that  i s both accepted and understood i n t h e r e l a t e d  Figure  Four i s developed from E a s t o n ' s  model,  with  research develop  framework  disciplines,  <1965B) p o l i t i c a l  systems  t h e c o n c e p t u a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s o u t l i n e d above.  i s not designed t o prove or d i s p r o v e a t h e o r y , grounded  existing  theory,  b u t i s advanced i n t h e  nor  to  knowledge  of  t h e o r i e s which p r o v i d e a base on which both  interviews  This  to  design  and proceed w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  case.  The  environment  i s seen as n o t o n l y an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t u a l t o o l  by Easton f o r a p o l i t i c a l (1975), and  system,  but by Van Meter and Van  Horn  Berman (1978), Nakamura and Smallwood (1980), and Brewer  deLeon  process. social,  (1983)  a v i t a l element  of  the  implementation  The i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as t h e economic, and  emphasis  as  political  s t a t e s of t h e  society,  with  particular  on t h e f a c t t h a t such s t a t e s change over t i m e ,  fundamentally  different  for policy  formulators  and a r e  and  policy  implementors.  In  the  scholars  case have  of  researching  policy  implementation  effects,  suggested t h a t i n p u t s s h o u l d c o n s i s t not o n l y  documented i n t e n t i o n s ,  but p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s  these  relate  Other  i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s of system i n p u t f o r implementors  the  allocation  of  t o those i n v o l v e d i n the  of r e s o u r c e s ,  implementation  and t h e e x p l i c i t n e s s  process.  with  are which  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are delegated.  55  FIGURE 4 A SCHEMA OF THEORIES TO ASSIST IN THE ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION E N V I R O N M E N T  E N V I R O N M E N T  \  /  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * I  * * * *  NPUT  (POLICY INTENT) I ENTIFIED_VARIABLES Documented I n t e n t i o n s Perceived Intentions D e l e g a t i o n o-f R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s A l l o c a t i o n of Resources  * *  n  *  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  *  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  FLOW  OF  E F F E C T S  (COMMUNICATION L I N K A G E S ) IDENTIFIED_VARIABLES Degree of Change o r T h r e a t P e r c e i v e d C l a r i t y of Purpose and G o a l s Degree of A m b i g u i t y Designed I n c e n t i v e s and S a n c t i o n s Degree of C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h Implementors F o r m u l a t o r s ' Knowledge  * * * * *  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  \  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  O U T C O M E S  ( I M P L E M E N T O R S ' P E R C E P T I O N S OF UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES) * IDENTIFIED VARIABLES I m p l e m e n t o r s ' P e r c e p t i o n s of P o l i c y E f f e c t s * P e r c e i v e d V a l u e of I n c e n t i v e s / S a n c t i o n s I n f l u e n c e r s ' and I n t e r e s t Groups Response * Commitment t o P o l i c i e s  * * * *  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  /  E N V I R O N M E N T  \  E N V I R O N M E N T  56  Both  the  theory  systems t h e o r y and t h e f u r t h e r  for  stressed between  policy  implementation  developments  reported i n  this  of  that  work  have  t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of t h e f l o w of e f f e c t s or l i n k a g e s policy  independent  formulators  and  policy  implementors.  v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t t o  The  implementation  i n c l u d e t h e degree of change or t h r e a t p e r c e i v e d by i m p l e m e n t o r s , t h e c l a r i t y of purpose of t h e p o l i c y and t h e degree of it  contains.  sanctions,  Whether or not t h e p o l i c y i n c l u d e s i n c e n t i v e s  and  practice,  how  also  these  place  are  perceived  influence the e f f e c t s .  a f f e c t i n g implementation took  ambiguity  concern  by  implementors  Other i m p o r t a n t  and  the  in  aspects  t h e degree of c o n s u l t a t i o n  i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y ,  or  that  perceived  knowledge of t h e f o r m u l a t o r s .  In t h i s c a s e s t u d y , the  outputs,  These  are  and  t h e outcomes a r e more c l o s e l y examined s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d as  predominantly  contained i n the perceptions  than  crucial. of  those  implementing t h e p o l i c y , and  i n c l u d e t h e i r p e r s o n a l commitment t o  the  their  policy  outputs  and  relative  interest  in  p r o f e s s i o n a l and i n t e r e s t group r e s p o n s e s t o t h e p o l i c y ,  the  as w e l l  as t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of both rewards and s a n c t i o n s f o r c o m p l i a n c e or non-compliance r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s .  According  to  traceable  t o CtheD a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n s "  modified 1983:21).  Easton,  outputs, This  policy  "indirect research  outcomes  are  consequences" will  focus  on  the  "consequences  (1965B:352),  or  (Howell  &  Brown,  those  unintended  activities  t h a t r e s u l t from t h e p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s , as p e r c e i v e d  by  implementors.  policy  I t i s t h e i m p o s i t i o n of a  new  formal  decision-making Government  structure  promulgated  by  the  that gives r i s e t o administrators'  policies  take  on  organisational  multiple  s e t t i n g , each  hierarchy viewing  behaviour. A l l  interpretations person w i t h i n  provincial  in  a  complex  the administrative  the issues differently.  CONCLUSIONS  P o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s a t h e o r e t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t element, o f t h e policy  process.  closely  intertwined  'conversion of  I t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h a t p r o c e s s and i s  processes',  systems t h e o r y .  policy  with other  elements,  'outputs'  formulation  he  and 'feedback l o o p s ' i n terms  p r o v i d e a framework on which  t o build the  Indeed Bardach makes t h e p o i n t  a s s e r t s " i t i s w i d e l y and c o r r e c t l y r e a l i z e d  bargaining  and maneuvering,  policy-adoption  process  implementation process"  The  complexity  description  and stress  "policies  imply  t h e p u l l i n g and h a u l i n g ,  carries  over  into  the  analysis  very  difficult.  t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e o r y theories,  whether s t a t e d  and f u t u r e consequences" ( 1 9 7 9 : x x i ) .  relationships  of t h e policy-  (1977:38).  i n this explicitly  Furthermore,  "display c h a r a c t e r i s t i c processes, among  factors  that influence  both  Pressman and  p o l i c i e s p o i n t t o a c h a i n o f c a u s a t i o n between i n i t i a l  will  that the  of f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n makes  Wildavsky  policy  'inputs',  In t h i s r e s p e c t t h e models e s t a b l i s h e d f o r  s t u d y on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s . when  including  analysis: or  not,  conditions  each t y p e of  s t r u c t u r e s , and the execution  of  p u b l i c p o l i c y " (Van Meter & Van Horn,1975:458). 58  The  strong  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s and  implementors  has  a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d .  might d i f f e r i n name, uishable" the of  the  i n p r a c t i c e they a r e v i r t u a l l y  (Brewer & deLeon, 1983s254).  t h e whole  policy  Easton (1965A,  T h i s a l l o w s some scope f o r  t o be used a s a  The ' P o l i t i c a l  base  analysis f o r the  Systems Model' developed by  1965B, & 1967) has been most commonly used f o r t h e  whole p o l i c y p r o c e s s . any  process,  roles  indisting-  employment of a t h e o r e t i c a l model d e s i g n e d f o r t h e  a n a l y s i s of segments.  as  "While  policy  I t o f f e r s a framework  t h a t i s as p e r t i n e n t  a l t e r n a t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e outcomes of  the  implemen-  t a t i o n process.  This  review  features that  has  attempted t o expose some  of t h e p o l i c y process.  theoretically-based  of  the  significant  I t has a l s o attempted t o  research  can  make  a  meaningful  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e h a v i o u r i n t h e c o n t e x t of implementation. systems  model,  boundaries  of  In  order  to  the  r e s e a r c h e r s must i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e b o t h  the  system,  environment i n which t h e system o p e r a t e s , political  system,  their  analyses  policy  within  the p o l i t i c a l  make such  show  thus  establishing  the  and t h e members of t h e  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h one another and  with  a c t o r s e x e r t i n g i n f l u e n c e from o u t s i d e t h e system b o u n d a r i e s .  59  NOTES  ON  CHAPTER  TWO  1.  H.A.Simon, (1947), A d m i n i s t r a t i ye B e h a v i o u r , noted t h a t "The actual physical task of c a r r y i n g o u t an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s f a l l s t o t h e persons a t t h e lowest l e v e l of t h e administrative hierarchy." See a l s o Kaufman's (1960) Study o f t h e U.S.A.'s F o r e s t S e r v i c e .  2.  Formula f u n d i n g was i n t r o d u c e d a f t e r t h e M i n i s t e r withdrew f u n d i n g a l l o c a t i o n powers from t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y c o u n c i l s , i n an attempt t o p r o v i d e a system wide f o r m u l a f o r t h e allocation of operating funds t o t h e c o l l e g e s and institutes.  3.  See RILEY & BALDRID6E (1977), Governing Academic I n s t i t u t i o n s , C h a p t e r s 17 and 18, and MINGLE, J . , (1981), C h a l l e n g e s of Retrenchment, Chapter 8.  60  C H A P T E R  T H R E E  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND  DESIGN  Chapter  One f o c u s s e d  Chapter  Two r e v i e w e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e  which  enabled  questions  t h e development  about  conceptual project.  on t h e elements of t h e s t a t e d  This  (Yin,1985:20),  on which t o b u i l d  Chapter  will  implementation  o f " s h a r p e r and more  t h e Cproblem]"  framework  on p o l i c y  problem.  insightful  and p r o v i d e d  t h e current  research  d e s c r i b e an a p p r o p r i a t e method of  conducting the research w i t h i n the boundaries e s t a b l i s h e d i n first  two C h a p t e r s .  data  t o be c o l l e c t e d  initial study  a  It will  the  develop "the l o g i c t h a t l i n k s t h e  (and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t o be drawn)  q u e s t i o n " (Yin,1985:27).  to  the  The n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e  has been l a r g e l y determined by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o  o b t a i n and a n a l y s e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e e f f e c t s of governance p o l i c i e s w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e system o f B.C.  Yin  claims  situations (1985:20). Case  that f o r research i t i s possible t o "identify i n which a s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g y has d i s t i n c t Based  some  advantage"  on a b l e n d of t h e s t r a t e g i e s he o u t l i n e s i n  Study. Research and t h e ' n a t u r a l i s t i c ' approach of Guba and  Lincoln  (1981), a c a s e s t u d y method was employed t o i n t e r p r e t t h e  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f government p o l i c y w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e  system i n  B.C.  Baldridge develop  (1971)  employed a case s t u d y method  the power/political  model  t o a n a l y s e and  of i n f l u e n c e s  on  policy  f o r m u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s t u d e n t r e v o l t s a t The New York U n i v e r s i t y i n t h e 1960's. the  research  Robert Dahl reported  (1961) u t i l i s e d t h e c a s e  i n h i s prizewinning  method i n  publication  Who 61  Governs?  A c c o r d i n g t o Lowi  (1964), t h e case method i s one of t h e  most i m p o r t a n t methods of a n a l y s i n g p o l i t i c a l method and  science.  was chosen because i t enabled t h e r e s e a r c h e r  identify  system,  many  which  'slippage'  of t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n v a r i a b l e s  contribute to perceived ' f a i t h f u l  of t h e p o l i c i e s on governance.  The to  case  observe  within  the  execution'  As Guba and  or  Lincoln  explain, the a b i l i t y to tap into the experience of others in their own natural language, while u t i l i z i n g their value and belief frameworks, i s v i r t u a l l y impossible without face-to-face and verbal interaction with them (1981s155).  Mintzberg's  advice  to  researchers to  produce  some  practical  r e s u l t s i n t h e i r work w i l l a l s o be heeded where p o s s i b l e . firmly  convinced"  effective  he  declares,  "that the best route  to  p o l i c y making i s b e t t e r knowledge i n t h e mind  practitioner Nevertheless,  of  t h e w o r l d he or she a c t u a l l y  the  methodological  procedures  Chapter were not c o n s t r u e d as r e s t r i c t i v e ,  faces"  " I am more  of  the  (1983sx).  s e t out  in  this  but r a t h e r as a g u i d e  t o t h e development and r i g o r of t h e r e s e a r c h .  IHE_VALUE_OF_A_CASE_SILJDY A  case s t u d y approach  which  allowed  t o t h e r e s e a r c h problem  provided a  method  f o r deep p r o b i n g of p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s as w e l l  t h e s t u d y of b e h a v i o u r .  Baldridge writes,  A case study i s an intensive investigation of one organisation in a f i e l d setting. Like an anthropologist in a foreign land, the case-study researcher t r i e s to find out how the local situation ticks ... He i s not bound by one method, but capitalizes on any approach that might help unravel a new puzzle ... A case study, then, i s basically an exploratory piece of research carried out in one f i e l d setting by u t i l i z i n g a variety of techniques (1971:32).  as  Much the  has been w r i t t e n about t h e advantages case  method  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s  and t h e d e t a i l s of t h a t  repeated here.^  debate  will  not  o-f be  Howell and Brown argue  that the carefully constructed case study can be just as f r u i t f u l in explaining the policy-Baking process - and sometimes more so - than the statistically-based survey, which enjoys the advantages of producing a broader source of quantifiable material for generalization or explanation (1983:14).  A  survey  approach  information retrieval survey  sought from  was  and  with  in the  for this  project,  considered too d i v e r s e t o  a manageable  questions  problematic, overcome  was contemplated  questionnaire.  this  type  of  The  research  d i f f i c u l t i e s appeared  the  attempt  its  validity was  t o be  a semi-structured interview.  but  seen  of as  more  easily  and  Aucoin  Doern  asserts For the most part, however, the survey research method i s inappropriate at the higher echelons of policy-making. For one thing, most high-level policy-makers do not appreciate being subjected to set questionnaires, at least not in the current context. Therefore i t i s usually necessary to employ a good number of open-ended questions in the interview setting and this often limits the possibility of following accepted procedures of survey research (1971:30). The growing number of case s t u d i e s used f o r t h i s t y p e of r e s e a r c h offers  strong  researchers  testimony t o t h e i r perceived value  with  a  detailed  behaviour being i n v e s t i g a t e d  and  sensitive  (see D a h l ,  1961;  in providing  picture  of  the  Baldridge,  1971;  Kogan, 1975; Howell & Brown, 1983; and Housego, 1986).  A m e t a - a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e was not a p p r o p r i a t e because of t h e l a c k of  research  research  conducted  project  inappropriate  for  or  i n the  area.  statistical  Indeed,  an  a n a l y s i s were  e t h i c a l and p r a c t i c a l  reasons  experimental both  seen  as  respectively,  particularly  considering  the  n a t u r e o-f t h e  problem,  and  the  p o s i t i o n s h e l d by t h o s e whose p e r c e p t i o n s were sought.  Guba and  Lincoln  type  support  research,  and  technique  the  declare:  that  specialized  case  study  "Interviewing  provides  knowledge  approach  access  of  the  to  for  i s virtually 'elites'  situation  the  it  with  provides  <1981:18).  i s s u f f i c i e n t q u a l i f i e d s u p p o r t i n t h e a n a l y s i s of  implementation research.  to  warrant  Furthermore,  the  use  of only  - those  - and  i n f o r m a t i o n much more q u i c k l y than o b s e r v a t i o n "  There  this  policy  of t h e c a s e method i n t h i s  Greenfield declares, "Social science  has  been t o o s u c c e s s f u l i n t e a c h i n g us t o see t r u t h i n numbers and insist  that  nothing  (1979:237). ...  He  i s true unless  suggests  that  it  between  exists"  (1979:238)?  research variables asserts  tool of  research"  everywhere"  "take  The  case  method p r o v i d e d investigating  government p o l i c i e s on studies  seriously  q u e s t i o n : what i s t h e  t h e u n i q u e event and t h e c o n t e x t  f o r thoroughly  "case  true  researchers  a b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  relation  is  to  college  in  which  it  t h e most v a l u a b l e  the  implementation  governance.  have a d i s t i n c t i v e p l a c e  in  Yin  evaluation  (1985:25), and o u t l i n e s some a p p l i c a t i o n s :  The most important i s to explain the causal links in real l i f e interventions that are too complex for the survey or experimental strategies. A second application i s to describe the real l i f e context in which an intervention has occurred. Third, an evaluation can benefit, again in a descriptive mode, from an i l l u s t r a t i v e case study ... F i n a l l y , the case study strategy may be used to explore those situations in which the intervention being evaluated has no clear single set of outcomes (1985:25). These  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c u r a t e l y portray the concerns  research. research  Furthermore, should  be  Mintzberg  observes that  of  this  "policy-making  r i c h i n r e a l world d e s c r i p t i o n and  not  be  64  obsessed the  with  rigor"  (19B3:viii),  case study strategy  asked  about  a  when "a  contemporary  investigator  has  little  r e i n f o r c e the  b a s i s on  method t o c o n d u c t t h e  or  and  'how' set  no  Yin  or of  s t r e s s e s the  use  of  'why'  question  is  events,  over  which  the  These  all  control"  (1985:20).  which t h i s r e s e a r c h e r  chose the  being  case  study  research.  The_Case Both  the  One,  and  a n a l y s i s of the  reported  review  in  disposition  Chapter  of  the  administrators. the  limits  of Two,  To  i n i t s design  answers  the  single  (1985:41).  policy the  of  has  Data  implementation  be  c a s e must  i s defined  the  be as  taxonomy,  delimited.  and  college  system  in  three  method to  case  because while  by  within  implementing  The  the  system  'the  research  raised.  analysed  of  t h i s research  t h o s e phenomena most l i k e l y already  Chapter  in particular,  outcomes of  i m p l e m e n t o r s , and  between M i n i s t r y p e r s o n n e l  in  importance  m u l t i p l e u n i t s embedded will  from the  the  t h i s end  questions  it  the  studied  a Type 2 i n Y i n ' s  case,  formulators  thesis,  perceptions  incorporate  as  indicate  c a s e t o be  policies.  classified  on  i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s and,  the  to  elements conducted  literature  a doctoral  administrators' governance  research  It i s c l e a r that to confine  of  Accordingly,  the  its  separating  will reveal  could  be  i t is  a  structure policy  a further distinction  made  administrators.  SgyRCES_QF_DATA The  collection  search  of  of  relevant  data  for t h i s research  documents,  but  the  required  c o n d u c t of  not  only  interviews  a and  appropriate were  produced  modified was  analysis and  within the context  interpreted.  s y s t e m s model,  guided  by  Within  the case study  the elements i n d i c a t e d  o r d e r t o examine p e r c e i v e d outcomes.  to  events  was  c o m p r e h e n s i v e , and  be r e a s o n a b l y  the  was  a f i v e year  documents  -framework  not  limited  i n F i g u r e Four,  in  o c c u r r i n g over  i n which t h e  of  to,  period,  the r e c o l l e c t i o n  but  Chapter  Because the data  a  Two,  relate  a c c e s s t o documents  of r e s p o n d e n t s  assumed  to  factual.  L_9i_I_tion_and_0ffi__a__Dgcu_ents The  first  was  policy  of the t h r e e b e i n g  communicated  provincial  Government,  legislation. implemented Institutes  through  The was Act  Objectives  redrafted amendment  i n March  governance being  with  the  1979  document  Amendment A c t 1983, in  other  i n part  No  in  1983.  first  then Bill  are  as  provincial  Government  1977, The  20,  the  important  in  document d e c l a r i n g  policy  from  outputs  Goals, 1982, further  Institute  the  changes  These documents,  and  interpretation  statement  which  major  March  C o l l e g e and  correspondence  B.C.,  with  Mission,  drafted  t o system g o v e r n a n c e were e x t r a c t e d ,  i n t e n t i o n s and  in  Proy_n__al.  formally issued after  the recorded of  the  identified  i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study.  accompanying  study  from  i n t h e C o l l e g e and  July  was  statement  two  promulgated and  this  i n w h i c h t h e p o l i c i e s were b e i n g  i s the formal  served  Other  1982,  1983.  documents,  relating  was  i n November  official  context  proclaimed  amendments i n O c t o b e r and  the  legal  which  an  investigated in  the and  from  major the  the  points declared  identified.  documents o f an o f f i c i a l  n a t u r e were a v a i l a b l e i n 66  t h e form o-f r e p o r t s generated whose  dissolution  consideration Councils'  by t h e t h r e e i n t e r m e d i a r y C o u n c i l s ,  occurred  in this  influence  on  work;  within  t h e time  these provided  -frame  evidence  t h e governance of t h e c o l l e g e  under of t h e system.  These documents were examined i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e C o u n c i l s ' s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r p o l i c y outcomes.  Q£her_Dgcumentatian Important  and  i n f l u e n t i a l documents were a l s o generated  C o u n c i l of C o l l e g e P r i n c i p a l s i n B.C., Colleges, and  A s s o c i a t i o n of  t h e C o l l e g e - I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C.,  other  these  t h e B.C.  key s t a k e h o l d e r s i n t h e system.  documents  provided  evidence  of  An  examination  pressures  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e system by r e l e v a n t i n t e r e s t  Relevant  correspondence  from a v a r i e t y of  applied  sectors  environmental  particular  supports  Documents were used n o t o n l y a s p r i m a r y d a t a ,  t o " c o r r o b o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n from o t h e r s o u r c e s " that  gained  from i n t e r v i e w s .  but  (Yin,1985s80), i n  As Guba  and L i n c o l n  " i n t e r v i e w i n g has many advantages w i t h r e s p e c t t o  collection.  to  within the  elements of s u p p o r t and demand a s w e l l as i n t r a - s o c i e t a l and demands.  of  groups.  p o l i t i c a l system were examined i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y  assert,  by t h e  data  Among i t s s t r e n g t h s i s t h a t t h e r e i s l e s s chance of  misunderstanding o t h e r approaches"  between  t h e i n q u i r e r and t h e respondent  than  (1981s187).  lDt^CYiews_with_Key_Per5gns The p r i n c i p a l undocumented i n t e n t i o n s of governance p o l i c i e s were d i s c o v e r e d by i n t e r v i e w i n g p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s .  V i r t u a l l y a l l of 67  the  actors involved i n t h e formation  accessible Lincoln  of t h e t h r e e p o l i c i e s  w i t h i n B.C., and a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r v i e w .  add t h e i r  support  t o the interview  were  Guba and  method  of  data  c o l l e c t i o n when they w r i t e s of a l l the means of exchanging i n f o r m a t i o n or g a t h e r i n g data known t o man, perhaps the o l d e s t and most respected i s conversation. Simple or complex, f a c e - t o - f a c e exchanges between human beings have served f o r eons t o convey messages, e x p r e s s sympathy, d e c l a r e war, make t r u c e s , and p r e s e r v e h i s t o r y . As an extension of t h a t heritage, interviewing with a purpose (Dexter,1970,p.136) - i s perhaps t h e o l d e s t and c e r t a i n l y one of the most respected of the t o o l s t h a t the i n q u i r e r can use (1981s153-154).  A sample of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was  also  interviewed.  active i n the p o l i c i e s ' Interviewees included  implementation  public  servants  employed by t h e M i n i s t e r , community c o l l e g e p r i n c i p a l s , d i r e c t o r s and  Board members,  and c h i e f o f f i c e r s of  e s t a b l i s h t h e i r perceptions stated  policies.  analysis seven  t o provide  and r u r a l  that  they e x e r c i s e p o l i t i c a l  an from  from u r b a n , were  of major i n t e r e s t g r o u p s ,  means o f i n t e r v i e w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r  private  drawn  Interviews  also on t h e  i n f l u e n c e both on t h e  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s and on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s By  were  with representatives  institutions.  conducted w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s presumption  a s comprehensive  college administrators  of t h e f i f t e e n c o l l e g e s ,  semi-rural  groups, t o  of t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n outcomes o f t h e  In o r d e r  as possible,  interest  of  administrators.  was a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h some  a s w e l l as p u b l i c p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t  to individual r  interpretations  of p o l i c y  statements.  The proforma  for  the  i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s appears i n A p p e n d i c i e s Two and Three. Gordon  describes  technique  a  "standardized  non-scheduled  interviewing"  i n which he c a l l s f o r t h e p o s i n g o f c e r t a i n  questions 68  to  a l l interviewees,  <1975:6).  This  but  not n e c e s s a r i l y  requires  t h e same  the interviewer  to  to  each  assume  more  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " f o r d i r e c t i n g t h e f l o w of t h e i n t e r v i e w w h i l e  at  t h e same t i m e a l l o w i n g f o r freedom t o pursue l i n e s of q u e s t i o n i n g that  might  arise  1984:51).  This  relevant  d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e i n t e r v i e w "  s t r a t e g y was adopted t o i n c r e a s e t h e scope f o r  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and was s t r e n g t h e n e d by a l l  b e i n g conducted by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . basis  of  of  Q u e s t i o n s were posed on t h e  built-in incentives,  responsibilities  consulted  and  c l a r i t y of g o a l s  sanctions,  whether  during the formulation  i n the  such t h i n g s as p e r c e p t i o n s of  e x t e n t of t h e proposed c h a n g e - t h r e a t ,  purpose,  interviews  important implementation v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d  l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , and i n c o r p o r a t e d the  (Hamblin,  or  resources,  not  and  assignment  implementors  were  phase.  D£IA_ANALYSIS Data  were  extent  organised  of  the provincial p o l i c i e s  documented  and  identified  i n the  initial  interviews  verbatim  to  as  intentions.  legislation,  described  through  the  Key i n t e n t i o n s were  official  administrators'  thus  documentation,  and formed t h e b a s i s of a second  discern  and  perceptions  and  round of  of  policy  Each i n t e r v i e w was r e c o r d e d on a u d i o - t a p e , t r a n s c r i b e d o n t o a word p r o c e s s o r  transcripts. other  perceived  interviews,  outcomes.  t o e s t a b l i s h f i r s t of a l l t h e n a t u r e  These  and produced i n t h e form of  were r e t u r n e d  unedited  t o the  typed  respondents,  than t h o s e w i t h whom p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d , f o r  checking  f a c t u a l d e t a i l s and  unintended  errors.  Interviewees  were i n v i t e d t o c a r r y out t h i s check w i t h i n f o u r weeks of r e c e i p t  69  and  return  t h e comments o n l y i f  necessary.  Whilst  transcript  75% e i t h e r  they  felt  confirmed  corrections  t h e accuracy  o r r e t u r n e d i t w i t h v a r y i n g amounts of  were  of t h e  editing,  the  o t h e r 257. i n d i c a t e d t h e i r agreement by n o t r e p l y i n g .  Editorial  changes  resulting  were  transcripts  made on computer-stored searched  c o p i e s and  f o r responses t o questions  the  i n order  to  e x t r a c t t h e p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s o r outcomes.  In  order  charts  t o a r r i v e a t a meaningful  were compiled  and t h e r e s p o n d e n t s '  question,  Separate  answers summarised r e t a i n i n g t h e i r own words  the colour  charts  implementors, implementor  were  with  i n t h e f o r m a t shown i n Appendix  chart  policies,  compiled  further  t h e i n k used  for policy  divisions  being  was  changed.  formulators made  board members, and i n t e r e s t group  contained  particular policy. each  of  group  answers  t o questions  and  within the  category t o i d e n t i f y p r o f e s s i o n a l f u l l - t i m e  administrators,  for  the top,  I f answers g i v e n were c o n s i d e r e d t o be more a p p l i c a b l e t o  another  Each  of t h e i n t e r v i e w s ,  with the questions l i s t e d across  and l i s t e d under each q u e s t i o n , Five.  overview  college  spokespersons.  relating  to  a  T h i s r e q u i r e d t h e c o m p i l a t i o n of f o u r c h a r t s of  respondents,  one f o r  each  of  the  three  and one f o r o v e r a l l g e n e r a l governance q u e s t i o n s which  were n o t l i m i t e d t o any one of t h e t h r e e b u t c o u l d be  considered  as r e l e v a n t t o a l l .  The summarised answers were then c o l l a t e d , s o t h a t a l l answers t o a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n c o u l d be grouped f o r s i m i l a r i t y , answers were then paraphrased made  by  respondents  were  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . also  coded,  using  and group  A l l statements the  analytical 70  •framework  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Chapter Two,  so t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s  could  be i s o l a t e d by c o n d u c t i n g a s e a r c h  coding  used i s shown as Appendix S i x .  i n the  computer.  The  V6LIDAII0N_QF_RESEARCH  Case s t u d i e s , sciences,  have  validation. way  and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e come  under  heavy c r i t i c i s m -for t h e i r  social lack  of  Cohen and Manion suggest "perhaps t h e most p r a c t i c a l  of a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r v a l i d i t y i s t o m i n i m i s e t h e  b i a s as much as p o s s i b l e " (1984:252).  amount  To t h i s end q u e s t i o n s  of were  posed as unambiguously as p o s s i b l e , a l l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted by  the researcher  and samples were chosen t o o p t i m i s e  represent-  a t i v e n e s s as w e l l as e x p e r t i s e .  Yin  s t a t e s t h a t "the c a s e s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t o r a l s o must  f o u r a s p e c t s of t h e q u a l i t y of any d e s i g n (2)  internal  reliability" concerns  fall  validity  ...  (1985:27). within  (3)  Guba the  terms  external and  validity,  Lincoln  scientific as more  (1) c o n s t r u c t  argue  paradigm,  and that  and  (4) such  "propose  analagous  studies  t h r o u g h what t h e y term t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c paradigm, i . e . ,  validity]" plea,  and  (1981:104).  behavioural  [internal v a l i d i t y ] , fittingness for  a p p l i c a b i l i t y [external v a l i d i t y ] , [reliability],  to  validity,  certain  " c r e d i b i l i t y f o r t r u t h value  appropriate"  maximise  *auditabi1ity' f o r consistency  confirmability  for  neutrality  [construct  Such a l t e r n a t i v e s seem t o s a t i s f y Kogan's  when i n r e l a t i o n t o p o l i c y s t u d i e s he w r i t e s ;  more modest imagery i s needed"  (1975:23).  To  of t h e s e v a l i d a t i o n c r i t e r i a , Y i n s u g g e s t s two  " s o f t e r and  address the f i r s t steps.  (1) select the specific types of changes that are to be studied ... and (2) demonstrate that the selected measures of these changes do indeed reflect the specific types of change that have been selected (1985:37). The r e s e a r c h e r i d e n t i f i e d from documents t h e s p e c i f i c of  the  three  determined  p o l i c i e s with respect  increase  then  intentions  Yin suggests that a strategy  c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y i s t o "use  e v i d e n c e " (1985:37); collected.  Cohen  interview  measures measure  (1984:252).  and  An e x a m i n a t i o n of p e r c e i v e d outcomes e n a b l e d t h e  researcher t o e s t a b l i s h deviation.  another  governance,  from i n t e r v i e w s t h e e x t e n t t o which t h o s e  were r e a l i s e d .  to  to  intentions  m u l t i p l e sources  t h i s s h o u l d be done when t h e d a t a a r e b e i n g and  Manion suggest "one  is  that  t o compare t h e has  This concept,  already  way  of  interview  been  validating  measure  shown  to  be  which t h e y term convergent  with valid"  validity,  is  a l s o a p p l i e d d u r i n g d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and was i n c o r p o r a t e d  the  p r e s e n t s t u d y by a s k i n g of both p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s and  implementors many s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s .  Respondents were r e q u e s t e d  i d e n t i f y any a r e a s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s t u d y but not c o v e r e d  the  q u e s t i o n s , and t o name p e r s o n s e x p e r t i n t h e f i e l d , who  would  o f f e r an opposing  view.  If  more  r e s p o n d e n t s named t h e same p e r s o n , t h a t p e r s o n was  Credibility particularly for  or  internal  is  difficult  tactics  including than  two  interviewed.  to  i t r e l i e s on t h e e x t e n t t o which a r e s e a r c h e r can  explanation  by  monitor,  i n t h e c a s e of d e s c r i p t i v e or e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h ,  i d e n t i f y c a u s e s of e f f e c t s .  to  validity  into  policy  to  those  of  building  (1985:36), and  these questions,  and  positively  Y i n s u g g e s t s " p a t t e r n matching time  series  analysis"  ...  as  suitable  6uba and L i n c o l n suggest g i v i n g  attention  "what can be done t o produce f i n d i n g s  that  are  most  l i k e l y t o be found c r e d i b l e by s o u r c e s Cand3  c r e d i b i l i t y be t e s t e d w i t h s o u r c e s " (1981:105)?  how  Credibility  can is  seen as a most i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e i n t h i s work, and " t h e o v e r a l l problem  of making i n f e r e n c e s " (Yin,1985:38)  i s addressed i n d a t a  r e p o r t i n g and c o n c l u s i o n s .  A  panel of e x p e r t s was r e c r u i t e d t o s c r u t i n i s e t h e q u e s t i o n s  be a s k e d , and a s s e s s t h e comprehensiveness their  impartiality.  their  experience,  ments,  and  issues.  met  of t h o s e q u e s t i o n s and  T h i s panel c o n s i s t e d of persons chosen f o r knowledge of t h e f i e l d and academic  together  with the researcher  Pa n e l members a r e l i s t e d i n Appendix  study i s designed t o analyse of  to  implemented p o l i c i e s ,  to  achieve-  discuss the  Seven.  Because t h e  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p e r c e i v e d outcomes  e v e r y endeavour was made t o  t h a t t h e answers t o i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were n o t  establish  distorted.  To  t h i s end r e s p o n d e n t s were asked t o e d i t t r a n s c r i p t s of i n t e r v i e w s to  reduce  error.  Again a wide range of s o u r c e s of  used, which p r o v i d e d "convergent  Hargrove social  science  look  theories  were  (Yin,1985:37).  o b s e r v e s t h a t " t h e common c r i t i c i s m of case s t u d i e s i n  representative might  l i n e s of i n q u i r y "  data  i s that  of  like"  one  cannot  be  sure  i f they  l a r g e r p a t t e r n s o r even what (1975:74-75).  The use  of  such  are  patterns  well-established  enhanced t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e p l i c a t i o n a s d i d t h e use  of sound r e s e a r c h method t o improve f i t t i n g n e s s o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y . However, t h i s s t u d y i s n o t seen as one t h a t w i l l o f f e r much scope for  g e n e r a l i s a b l e or u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s ,  describes  a  p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n of b e h a v i o u r t h a t  but r a t h e r  may  i n some  respects  p a r a l l e l t h e r e s u l t s o-f p a s t and -future r e s e a r c h s o  t o improve u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Finally,  thorough  ability.  as  o-f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s .  documentation o-f t h e c a s e p r o v i d e s -for a u d i t -  In o r d e r t o maximise t h i s a s p e c t o-f t h e r e s e a r c h , Y i n  gives the following advice. The general way of approaching the r e l i a b i l i t y problea i s to make as many steps as possible as operational as possible, and to conduct research as i f someone were always looking over your shoulder (1985:40). The  inherent  difficulties  insurmountable.  of v a l i d a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t  F o r Hamilton  b u t not  eta l :  proof i s rarely obtainable in case study research. Rather than setting proof as a primary goal, the case-study worker should aim to increase understanding of the variables, parameters and dynamics of the case under study (1977:188). Guba  and L i n c o l n p l a c e t h e emphasis back i n t o  they  observe  without  t h a t i t i s " i m p o s s i b l e t o have  reliability"  (1981:120).  credibility internal  when  validity  Indeed t h e y go on t o  assert  " a u d i t a b i 1 i t y r e q u i r e s s i m p l y t h a t t h e work of one e v a l u a t o r team)  can  be  t e s t e d f o r c o n s i s t e n c y by a second  (or  evaluator  or  team" (1981:124).  In t h i s r e s e a r c h every p r e c a u t i o n was t a k e n t o c r o s s - c h e c k recognising be proven. of  t h a t t h e r e i s no t h e o r y of p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  data, to  R a t h e r , p o l i t i c a l systems t h e o r y guided t h e d i r e c t i o n  the research,  and p r o v i d e d a s y s t e m a t i c method of  analysis.  Hargrove e x p l a i n s , "we need c a s e s t u d i e s which a r e performed w i t h "theoretical  alertness'  generalizations"  to  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  developing  (1975:75).  74  The  research  University Screening Human  project  was s u b m i t t e d t o ,  o-f B r i t i s h Committee  Subjects,  Columbia (U.B.C.)  F o r Research and  and  and  approved  by  Behavioural  Other  Studies  a l l r e l e v a n t c o n d i t i o n s of  The  Sciences Involving  approval  were  satisfied.  RIPQBIINS_QE_EINDi_es  The c o n t e x t of t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n Chapter Four by o u t l i n i n g those  environmental  influences  on t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  of t h e  p o l i c i e s which were r e v e a l e d i n documents and through i n t e r v i e w s . Chapter F i v e r e p o r t s on and d i s c u s s e s t h e i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s . is  divided i n t o three parts.  policy,  Each p a r t p o r t r a y s ,  given  t h e f o r m u l a t o r s ' i n t e n t i o n s , t h e p e r c e i v e d communication  l i n k a g e s between f o r m u l a t o r s and i m p l e m e n t o r s , outcomes.  for a  It  The  and t h e p e r c e i v e d  f i n a l Chapter of t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n summarises t h e  f i n d i n g s , draws c o n c l u s i o n s and p r e s e n t s some i m p l i c a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s of t h e f i n d i n g s .  NQIES_Q__CHA_IER_IHREE 1.  See M o u z e l i s , (1975), O r g a n i s a t i o n and Bureaucracy. Y i n , (1985), The Case Study Methodi_ An Annotated B i b l i o g r a g h y , and B u r r e l l 3< Morgan, (1982), S o c i Q _ o g i c a l Paradigms and QL9_QL__t_gnal A n a _ y s i s _ Elements of t h e S o c i o l o g y of C o r p o r a t e L _ f e .  75  CHAPTER  FOUR  AN ANALYSIS  OF THE C O L L E G E / P O L I T I C A L  AND  I T S ENVIRONMENT  Chapter of  Two i l l u s t r a t e d t h e importance o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n  a political  This  system i n t h e a n a l y s i s of p o l i c y  implementation.  Chapter d e s c r i b e s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l  question, were  three  system i n  by f i r s t d e s c r i b i n g t h e s o c i e t y i n which t h e  declared,  Before  policies  and then examining t h e c o n t e x t of t h e system.  reporting governance  implementors the  SYSTEM  t h e p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s and outcomes p o l i c i e s d e s c r i b e d by p o l i c y  respectively,  of the  f o r m u l a t o r s and  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y some of  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e c o n t e x t i n t o which t h e p o l i c i e s  were  introduced.  Colleges  were  f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n B.C. by  through  t h e a u t h o r i t y of t h e i r S c h o o l  without  the direct  In  local  Boards.  communities  This  involvement of t h e p r o v i n c i a l  Government.  r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s of t h e s e c o l l e g e s ,  national  and p r o v i n c i a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  happened  there are  phenomena t h a t need  be c o n s i d e r e d a s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s and examined sub-headings and  of "The C o n s t i t u t i o n ' ,  "The Economic C l i m a t e ' .  viewpoints  to  under t h e  "The P a r l i a m e n t a r y System',  From t h e s e n a t i o n a l and  t h e working o f t h e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  provincial  education  system  i s examined w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on t h e r o l e s of t h e c o l l e g e s and t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o governance. number system, the  of  politically  i n f l u e n t i a l groups  the college  and o t h e r s which t e n d t o s t r a d d l e t h e b o u n d a r i e s between  system and i t s environment.  various  within  There a r e a  interest  groups,  This chapter w i l l i d e n t i f y these  and w i l l end by  referring  t o the 76  environment It  w i t h which t h e c o l l e g e / p o l i t i c a l  identifies  those  elements  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of governance  seen t o be  system  interacts.  influential  i n the  policies.  IHE_SOCIO PQLIIICAL_CQNIEXI =  A l l s o c i e t i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o E a s t o n , employ a c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s of making and e x e c u t i n g p o l i c y . The forffl of the mechanism and the kind of sanctions are, however, matters for empirical investigation; they do not invalidate the conclusion that there i s discernible a process whereby values are authoritatively allocated for the whole society (1967:141). In  order  to  address  c o l l e g e / p o l i t i c a l system, important some  of  the conceptual t h i s section w i l l  boundaries  of  the  i d e n t i f y some of t h e  elements of t h e s o c i e t y w i t h which i t i n t e r a c t s , - and t h e s o c i a l systems w i t h i n t h a t s o c i e t y r e l a t e d  college/political  t o the  system.  The a c t i v i t i e s of a society, ... are broader than those of any of i t s component groups. B r i e f l y , the broadest grouping of human beings who l i v e together and collectively undertake to satisfy a l l the minimum prerequisites of group l i f e i s what we refer to when we speak of a society ( E a s t o n , 1967: 135) . In  t h e c o n t e x t of t h i s s t u d y t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e  province  of  B.C.  a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e wider  society  in  r e s p e c t t o l e g i s l a t i v e , economic, and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s which a l l i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e governance of i t s d i s t i n c t i v e community c o l l e g e system.  The_Constitution The  Canadian  Governments  Constitution as  firmly  the authorities  establishes  the  responsible  f o r education.  S e c t i o n 93 of t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t s t a t e s :  provincial  " I n and f o r  77  each  Province  relation  to  the Legislature Education  may e x c l u s i v e l y  ..." ( B r i t i s h North  make  America  1907:19), a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some who d i s p u t e t h i s monopoly.  Peitchinis  Education  i n Canada,  intentions  of  i n h i s study,  of  A c t 1867-  jurisdictional  F i n a n c i n g Post  Secondary  d i s c u s s e s t h e debate on i n t e r p r e t i o n of t h e  the founding f a t h e r s i n  Peitchinis,1971:26-33). subject  Laws i n  As  this  today's  debate  has  context never  (see  been  a j u d i c i a l r u l i n g from t h e Supreme C o u r t ,  the  i t seems  appropriate t o set aside the long standing arguments to the effect that post-secondary institutions f u l f i l l national and international objectives, or that the architects of confederation in 1867 had not conceived of higher learning as part of 'education' (Denni son , 1986B: 2) , and t o c o n s i d e r t h e mandate of t h e Government of B r i t i s h Columbia to  "make laws i n r e l a t i o n t o " community c o l l e g e s .  There i s no  n a t i o n a l department o r m i n i s t r y of e d u c a t i o n f o r Canada, the  s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l a i d given t o  for  post-secondary  education  acts,  education. and  no  provinces,  Indeed t h e r e  despite  particularly  a r e no  clear national policies,  a  national state  of  a f f a i r s which r e c e i v e d some degree of c r i t i c i s m from t h e O.E.CD (O.E.CD. , 1976:89) .  The_Par_i_mentary_System The  Canadian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r y  system  p r o v i d e s t h e e l e c t e d p r o v i n c i a l Government of B.C. w i t h t h e power and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g both l e g i s l a t i o n and  with respect t o post-secondary The  provincial  governance Governments  Government  education throughout t h e province. i s able  to  plan  and  s t r u c t u r e s of a l l s e c t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n . take  into  policies  account  interest  group  direct  the  Provincial  pressures  and  78  anticipate  -future  pressures  by d e c l a r i n g  policies  that  s e c u r e what t h e y p e r c e i v e a s b e i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . positions  best  If their  a r e p e r c e i v e d by t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s as a t t r a c t i v e  and  adequate t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o be r e - e l e c t e d .  As  has  been  noted  earlier,  legislation  authorising  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community c o l l e g e s i n B.C. was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the  P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t as e a r l y as 1958.  The U n i v e r s i t i e s  Act  (1974) and t h e C o l l e g e s and P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e A c t (1977) examples  of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n which  differences  between  various  governance s t r u c t u r e s . to  various  agencies  differentiates The  Acts  goals the  r e c o g n i s e some of t h e institutions  and  and persons  between  which,  Universities, political  among  other  C o l l e g e s and  systems,  structures are different,  things,  Institutes.  first  because  the  secondly  because  the  of t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t and t h i r d l y framework  differs. unlike  of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  B.C. has developed that  distinguishes provincial  of them  most  external t o  the  because  institutions  a governance s t r u c t u r e f o r c o l l e g e s  other  from  institutes  their  Within these Acts a u t h o r i t y i s delegated  distinguish  organisational  tertiary  are  provinces  in  Canada,  the t r a d i t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t i e s  (Dennison,1986As8).  The  which and t h e  Colleges  and  P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e A c t (1977) s e r v e d t o e s t a b l i s h f o r t h e f i r s t time,  legislation  that  separated  colleges  u n i v e r s i t i e s and compulsory e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r s , extent  t h e i n s t i t u t e s from t h e c o l l e g e s .  from  both  and t o a  the  certain  The A c t d e l e g a t e d  to  t h e M i n i s t e r t h e power t o : "(a)  e s t a b l i s h ...  p o l i c y r e s p e c t i n g post-secondary  education  and t r a i n i n g i n t h e P r o v i n c e , 79  (b)  provide  <Cgllege  &  provided  -for  which  such s e r v i c e s as he c o n s i d e r s  Provincial Institutes  Act,1977:2).  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o-f t h r e e  would  relate  i n s t i t u t e sector.  to  The  to  the  "  Act  intermediary  t h e M i n i s t e r and  These C o u n c i l s  n e c e s s a r y ...  also  Councils  college  and  comprised,  t h e Academic C o u n c i l , the Occupational T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l , t h e Management A d v i s o r y  and  Council.  There a r e many d i v e r s e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d system  -from  initiatives system. system  the to  in  college/political  addition  to  government  change t h e governance s t r u c t u r e of  Indeed, to  environment,  on t h e  the  college  t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be s u f f i c i e n t p r e s s u r e on  cause  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of governance  policies  to  the be  distorted.  TheEcgngmicClimate Between  1980  and  not e q u a l l e d 1985:xi).  Although  As  B.C.  it  suffered  restraint, the  economic  recession  In May on  a  i n f l u e n c e d t h e whole c o u n t r y ,  s t r a t e g y t o address the  more  1983,  campaign  than  most  provinces"  concerns soon  problem.  (Dennison,  a Social Credit Party administration platform  that  emphasised  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r .  was  Rsegrts  l a r g e l y upon n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n ,  somewhat  political  priorities  the r e c e s s i o n  developed i t s own  " i s centred  1986B:3).  Canada e x p e r i e n c e d an  s i n c e the 1930s ( M i n i s t r y of Supply Canada,  each p r o v i n c e  elected  1983  of t h e campaign,  f e l t through p o l i c i e s  financial  Irrespective  t h e impact that  was  of  affected  of  their the  governance of community c o l l e g e s .  80  Despite  the  question  that  directly  formulator the  -fact  the  related  research to  interviews  finance,  all  but  one  no  policy  and h a l f of t h e implementors i n t e r v i e w e d commented  p e r i o d of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t being e x p e r i e n c e d  system.  involved  All  Ministry  officers  interviewed  college  commented  e f f e c t s of t h e p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s . 'restraint',  i n the  on  the  Most used t h e word  but a l l r e f e r r e d t o t h e s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e which  p r o v i n c i a l economy e x e r t e d on Government p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , adjectives  on  like  'intense', of  'overwhelming'  restraint.  to  comments  on f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t s as a f f e c t i n g c o l l e g e governance  Government  abolishing  the  One  Three  used  the  p o l i c y implementation.  Table  were  indeed  describe  during  period  and  the  summarises  of t h e major r e a s o n s f o r  three intermediary  Councils  r e s o l v e t o reduce t h e o p e r a t i o n a l c o s t s of t h e system. a l s o some agreement t h a t t h e d i s s o l u t i o n of t h e C o u n c i l s  the  was  a  There  is  provided  more f i n a n c i a l f l e x i b i l i t y a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l .  Financial college  restraint  is  administrators  implementation Respondent's  of  all  a l s o p e r c e i v e d by as  having  the  a  Ministry  major  current  influence  governance  o p e r a t i n g had t o be reduced" ( 4 s 2 ) ^ ,  way part  "we  upon  tied  Government  were e x p e c t i n g  the  t o make v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l s a v i n g s through changes i n t h e  t h e y conduct t h i n g s , of  and  and  policies.  comments such as "the p r i m a r y t h r u s t of i t was  i n w i t h Government's o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n s , t h e c o s t of  colleges  staff  the  restraint"  so ... (7s14),  t h e C o u n c i l s ' e l i m i n a t i o n became were  typical  perceptions  of  financial influences.  81  TABLE 3 QUOTATIONS CONNECTION  FROM INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS DEMONSTRATE THE PERCEIVED BETWEEN FISCAL RESTRAINT AND THE EFFECTS ON SYSTEM GOVERNANCE POLICY IMPLEMENTATION.  POLICY FQRMULATORS "[The] Minister ... advised the i n s t i t u t i o n s ... that restraint was something that they were going to have to l i v e with" <4s3). "It was a desire to save a substantial amount of money in a tine whelming r e s t r a i n t s " (5:1). "At that spending"  time we (7: 14) .  were coming into a  period  of  restraint  on  of  over-  Bovernment  "They were quite a costly operation and in a period D f f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t " (8:4). "They f i t into a broader context, and evaluation of those p o l i c i e s , trying to keep something l i k e r e s t r a i n t out of i t i s ... almost impossible" (9:22). "It was a time of restraint and people had to remember the context"  (10:15).  PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE ADMINISTRATORS "Rationalisation, joint planning and cooperation of colleges ... [has] proven to be extremely d i f f i c u l t to pull off in times of severe r e s t r a i n t " (12:16). "Well funding drags the college M.6.0. to the extent that the funding has been responsive to the provincial M.6.0.'s" (20:12).  provincial  "Unfortunately the timing allowed them also to include some of the elements of the r e s t r a i n t strategies" (22:15).  BOARD MEMBERS -  INTEREST GROUPS AND  OTHER OBSERVERS  "I recognise that there has been a recession" (16:12). "During a time of recession when funding i s short, when monies clipped, there i s some feeling of h o s t i l i t y " (17:8). "I think the prime policy that would affect us would be probably that's been imposed on them by the Treasury Board" (18:13).  are the  being one  "Legislative changes in 1983 were made to improve the system. They were made to contain the system within a p o l i t i c a l economic strategy that the Government had committed i t s e l f to" (21:7).  NOTE:  In some c a s e s q u o t a t i o n s have been e d i t e d f o r b r e v i t y . 82  However,  there  influenced  were  other  ways i n  which  t h e e f f e c t s of t h e governance p o l i c i e s .  pressure  As p a r t  of  assume  the  of d e t e r m i n i n g what programs would be p r o v i d e d through  the  t h e i r economic s t r a t e g y , t h e Government task  financial  colleges,  because  of  p r o v i n c i a l economy. 'Provincial could  Ministry  development current  will  five  interviewed system  only  and  local  'Local  Programs',  programs  Indeed,  the  without  be  year  commented  to  contract  from  (1983C:4).  programs  manpower  expansion Many  and  the  Objectives  " O c c u p a t i o n a l and  for  the  administrators  on t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d on academic  colleges  approval  t h e p r i n c i p a l a r e a of period"  whereby  M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and  r e c o r d e d i n i t s preamble:  2  the  T h i s l e d t o a d i s t i n c t i o n b e i n g made between  office.  statement  to  the p o t e n t i a l f o r t r a i n i n g t o a s s i s t  Programs'  offer  decided  the  expand  college  vocational  t r a i n i n g programs.  Another fact  s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e f i s c a l s i t u a t i o n a r o s e from  t h a t l o c a l School Boards were n e i t h e r c o l l e c t i n g  finance  the  operating  colleges  costs.  establishing of  nor  Having  contributing  to  capital  or  responsible  for  t h e c o l l e g e s i n t h e i r l o c a l i t y under t h e  l o n g possessed  the  taxes  their  been almost t o t a l l y  an amendment t o t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t ,  Since  to  a strong  provincial  l o c a l School  Government had assumed t h e  local  a  service  which  Boards  assumed a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g they  School  and t h e f e d e r a l Government had  c u t back i t s f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o p o s t — s e c o n d a r y  for  provision  c l a i m t o governance of t h e c o l l e g e s .  Boards' f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  t h e Government of B.C.  the  considered  was  not  education, expenditure sufficiently  accountable.  One respondent  r e p o r t e d t h i s phenomenon  i nthe  •following way, " r a p i d l y e s c a l a t i n g c o s t s o-f o p e r a t i n g t h e system, and t h e - f e e l i n g on t h e p a r t of Government [was] t h a t t h e r e had t o be much more c o n t r o l , much more c e n t r a l i s e d c o n t r o l "  (5:1).  PQSI_SECONDARY_EDUC  W i t h i n t h e community c o l l e g e system of B.C., t h e r e a r e some o t h e r contextual  considerations  that  need t o be  purpose of a n a l y s i n g t h e e f f e c t s of t h e p o l i c y  isolated  for  the  initiatives.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (U.B.C.) e s t a b l i s h e d under i t s own  charter  together formal  i n 1915, and i t s s a t e l l i t e  campus  i n Victoria,  w i t h t h r e e p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , ^ composed post-secondary education s e r v i c e u n t i l  1964,  the entire apart  from  some v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . In  1962 t h e P r e s i d e n t of U.B.C.  of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n adopted  growth, colleges, provincial  of t h e c o l l e g e s  of Technology (B.C.I.T.). sixteen  colleges,  together  a r e p o r t on t h e f u t u r e  i n B.C. which s e t o u t many of t h e p r i n c i p l e s  f o r the establishment  Institute  prepared  with  institutes,  and t h e B.C.  In a t i m e of unprecedented  including  t h e B.C.I.T.  two p r i v a t e l y - o p e r a t e d and s i x p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  p l u s t h e Open L e a r n i n g  Institute,  e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p l a n o u t l i n e d by Macdonald  were (1962).  However, as i s so often the case i n other areas of unanticipated growth, a lack of rational coordination and certain duplication of function, with accompanying confusion of goals, became increasingly evident (Dennison , 1979: 2) . By  1980 t h e number of u n i v e r s i t i e s had t r e b l e d ,  graduating  from  secondary  school  could enrol  and  students  i n either the  84  university  sector  or  t h e c o l l e g e s e c t o r when  pursue academic programs. courses  were  they  wished  to  The - f i r s t two y e a r s o-f many u n i v e r s i t y  available  at the colleges  in a  -form  providing  t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of c r e d i t .  The  use of t h e word 'system' f o r t h e c o l l e g e s e c t o r i n B.C.  caused  considerable  administration previously  consternation  at the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  been  considered  among t h o s e i n v o l v e d level.  Colleges  autonomous,  i ni t s  i n B.C. had  independent,  local  a g e n c i e s of p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t s of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y -education. combined  with  Government some  after  similar  organisations  a u d i t came as something of a  threat  Dennison  other  t o the previously perceived  noted  an " a r e a of c o n f u s i o n  under  surprise,  t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of l o c a l f u n d i n g ,  To be  provincial and  offered  independence.  was c r e a t e d  has  as  appeared t o  Indeed colleges,  be  moving  from a community, toward p r o v i n c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n " ( 1 9 8 6 A s l l ) . Government, this  through  study,  structure  made  t h e t h r e e governance p o l i c i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n d e l i b e r a t e moves t o  establish  a  governance  f o r t h e c o l l e g e system i n t h e p r o v i n c e t h a t aimed  p r o v i d e f o r system-wide p l a n n i n g ,  These p o l i c y  not o n l y met w i t h some measure of r e s i s t e n c e , to  influence  to  c l a r i t y of a u t h o r i t y r o l e s and  i d e n t i f i a b l e l i n e s of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y .  attempts  The  initiatives  but g e n e r a t e d some  t h e r e l o c a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y  within  the  c o l l e g e system.  Ihe?_Qgl Iege_System The  college  system  i n B.C.  participants  making  competing  specialised  interest-groups,  i s fragmented claims.  and  Divided  divided,  with  loyalties  and  each w i t h d i f f e r e n t g o a l s f o r t h e  system,  attempt  decisions. kind  to  obtain  f a v o u r a b l e outcomes  from  One of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d e s c r i b e d i t as a  policy  "dog-eat-dog  of w o r l d and everybody's out competing f o r e v e r y buck  can g e t " (12:16). provided which  intended  B r i t i s h Columbia. have  provided  perceived U.B.C.  such In  established from  Amendments t o t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t i n 1958  f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community c o l l e g e s  were  the  t o be a f f i l i a t e d w i t h  Indeed,  Macdonald  in  B.C.,  the University  (1962),  system  in  i n s t i t u t i o n s as b e i n g c l o s e l y  linked  with  w i t h h i s recommendations  autonomous i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h  l o c a l communities t h e y s e r v e d ,  f i r s t two y e a r s of u n i v e r s i t y programs.  of  who i s thought t o  the blueprint f o r the college  accordance as  they  B.C., the  colleges  financial  and t h e y  were  support  offered  The l e g i s l a t i o n  the  offered  v e r y l i t t l e d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e r o l e and purpose of t h e c o l l e g e s .  The p r o m u l g a t i o n of t h e C o l l e g e s and P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e s in  Act,  1977, was seen a s a benchmark p o l i c y of t h e B.C. Government i n  establishing goals.  a  This  system  based on p r o v i n c i a l  A c t was " t o u t e d  as  rather  than  local  i n n o v a t i v e and i m p o r t a n t " a t  the  t i m e (Academic Counci1,1980:4).  Dennison c a p t u r e s some  the  r e a c t i o n s of c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s when he w r i t e s :  of  Froia the point of view of the colleges, this [centralisation] trend i s away from the fundamental concept of colleges as community based institutions, under community control and responsive to community needs ... the powers of college boards, since the implementation of the Act, are regarded as limited at best and insignificant at worst (1980:5-6). The of  l e g i s l a t i o n enacted i n 1977 p r o v i d e d n o t o n l y t h e f i r s t  Act  t h e p r o v i n c e d e s i g n e d f o r c o l l e g e s , b u t was p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t  provincial  statement of t h e Government's p e r c e p t i o n of t h e  community c o l l e g e s were t o f u l f i l l  within i t s jurisdiction.  role This 86  statement  certainly  announced  some  radical  changes  to  the  governance o-f t h e c o l l e g e system.  Chapter  One  established  that the  fifteen  community  colleges  needed t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e o t h e r forms of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y institutions.  In  istrators  t h e major s t a k e h o l d e r s i n t h e  are  governance  the  policy.  political  environment,  college  admin-  implementation  Most of t h e c o l l e g e s s e r v e an  of  identifiable  g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n , based on p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d School Board districts.  Although  the  Task  F o r c e Report on  the  Community  C o l l e g e (1974) was never a c c e p t e d by t h e incoming Government, t h e regional agreed  concept i t espoused has been g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d policy  g u i d e (1974:58-59).  college  in  B.C.  special  identification  of  (1985:3). when  with  that  population's  an each  there i s  a  post-secondary  F o r r e s t e r observed " c o l l e g e s o b t a i n e d t h e v a s t  their  students  from  their  surrounding  These g e o g r a p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the e f f e c t s  historically  i s r o o t e d i n t h e l o c a l community,  e d u c a t i o n needs. majority  Because  as  region"  a r e more pronounced  of t h e system governance s t r u c t u r e a r e observed  by means of a count of c o l l e g e p e r s o n n e l a t t a c h e d t o u r b a n , s e m i urban,  and r u r a l c o l l e g e s .  In t h i s c o n t e x t t h e c o l l e g e s can be  d i s t i n g u i s h e d as shown i n T a b l e Four. under each  the  c o l l e g e r e p r e s e n t t h e t o t a l number of  college  f o r t h e academic year  p e r c e n t a g e of f u l l - t i m e  The  F i g u r e s shown i n b r a c k e t s  1984/85,  enrolments  followed  the  e n r o l m e n t s i n t h e same y e a r .  l e g i s l a t i o n empowers t h e Government t h r o u g h t h e  Governor  by  in  Lieutenant-  i n C o u n c i l , t o d e s i g n a t e "(a) a c o l l e g e , and  87  TABLE 4  COLLEGES INCLUDED IN THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE SYSTEM OF B.C.  URBAN  SEMI-URBAN  RURAL  CAPILANO COLLEGE (4138) 587.  CARIBOO COLLEGE (3611) 557.  EAST KOOTENAY COLLEGE (1150) 507.  CAMOSUN COLLEGE (4756) 677.  COLLEGE NEW CALEDONIA (2521) 707.  NORTH ISLAND COLLEGE (2361) 217.  DOUGLAS COLLEGE (4519) 467.  FRASER VALLEY COLLEGE (2489) 517.  NORTHERN LIGHTS COLLEGE (1404) 437.  KWANTLEN COLLEGE (3934) 587.  MALASPINA COLLEGE (2951) 727.  NORTHWEST COMMUNITY COLLEGE (968) 707.  VANCOUVER COMMUNITY OKANAGAN COLLEGE COLLEGE (9858) 647. (3772) 657. SELKIRK COLLEGE (1429) 807.  NOTE: Name o-f c o l l e g e f o l l o w e d by number of F u l l Time E q u i v a l e n t (F.T.E.) s t u d e n t s i n 1984-85, and t h e percentage of s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d f u l l time.  Source: M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n B_C__Pg_t_Secondary_EnrQ_ment S t a t i s t i c s , October 3 1 , 1984.  88  <b)  the  area  o-f t h e P r o v i n c e t h a t i s t h e  <QeLIgaes & P r o v i n c i a l  c o n s i s t s of a governing the Act.  president, The  The and  i s e s t a b l i s h e d as a c o r p o r a t i o n ,  Board  governing  whose c o m p o s i t i o n  Board  the necessary  legislation  region  ..."  Insti.tut.es A c t , 1977:4).  A c o l l e g e once d e s i g n a t e d  by  college  which  i s also regulated  appoints a college p r i n c i p a l  staff  to achieve  or  i t s objectives.  decreed:  The objects of a college are to provide comprehensive (a) courses of study equivalent to those given by a university at the f i r s t and second year post-secondary l e v e l , (b) post-secondary education or t r a i n i n g , and (c) continuing education (Colleges & Provincial The  p o w e r s and  Act,  and  to  expenditure,  particular  what  college  detailed.  administer  and  b u s i n e s s and  limiting  t h e power t o  Of  d u t i e s of t h e B o a r d s were a l s o p r o c l a i m e d  were wide and  "manage,  without  I n s t i t u t e ) ! A c t , 1977:5).  ..."  They i n c l u d e d t h e  control  other  the g e n e r a l i t y  the  relevance t o t h i s study  employed  first  is  discrepancy  and  the board  and, has  I n s t i t u t e s A c t , 1977:6).  the  system,  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  revealed  Government's M i s s i o n , G o a l s ,  revenue,  a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between  p e r c e i v e as  p e r c e p t i o n s of t h o s e  property,  of t h e f o r e g o i n g ,  the  requirement  a f f a i r s of t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n  ( C o l l e g e s 2< P r o v i n c i a l  personnel  in  by  the  against  Government.  publication  of  the The the  O b j e c t i v e s document:  A system by which i s meant the 21 colleges and i n s t i t u t e s , the councils, the Minister, and ministry s t a f f , a l l working to the common end of providing educational opportunities that w i l l enable adults throughout the province to meet changing individual and economic needs ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1983C: 5) .  T h e r e had  b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e on  t h e Government t o  abolish  89  the  provincial  C o u n c i l s (see p.91),  a l t h o u g h many f e l t t h a t  single  i n t e r m e d i a r y body was n e c e s s a r y .  within  the  system  o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g comments about t h e e f f i c a c y of  the  Councils:  "they applauded t h e change" ( 1 0 : 2 ) , " t h e r e was  concurrence  ...  was  not any t e a r s shed f o r t h e  really  there  was  t h a t t h e C o u n c i l s s h o u l d go"  composition different  On  of  the  o t h e r hand,  the p o l i c y  t h e C o l l e g e Boards was  proclaimed  was  unmanageable,  on  onerous, Boards  the  the was  criticism Boards. change  School  "there  (8:8).  Thus  the  system  changing in a  the  somewhat  seen as s u s p e c t , being  There  was  respondents  the  as  the  the  i n f l u e n c e of f a c u l t y  received  by t h e  tasks  College  and a c e r t a i n amount  on of  Government  the  terms of t h e  College colleges'  of  Board  political  from  School of  Boards.  the Many  'maturity'  and  of age' when t h e Boards were l e g a l l y s e p a r a t e d from  the  School B o a r d s ,  in  of  do  College  mixed r e a c t i o n t o t h e announcement  composition  talked  were f i n d i n g  Boards as w e l l and  to  For i n s t a n c e , t h e s i z e of some  members  involvement  was  in  'coming  and  a number of o r g a n i s a t i o n s t r u c t u r a l problems  w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g C o l l e g e Boards.  serving  Councils"  general  context.  were  Boards  (7:2),  no element of s u r p r i s e i n t h e p o l i c y f o r  administrators.  There  Observers  a  but o t h e r s d e c r i e d t h e move as "a r e t r o g r a d e s t e p  and an a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c s t e p "  (11:7).  Ib__Ministry_0ffice In with  1970 when t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s were b e i n g the  colleges,  more the  recently Minister  established  two  year  or  of E d u c a t i o n a p p o i n t e d a team  melded  community of  four 90  people  to  Education.  form  the  This  inaugural  team  Department  the  Education,  post-secondary  institutes  from  were e s t a b l i s h e d . for  In  Postfor  education  universities  and  only s i x s t a f f  were  including  t o t h e Department from t h e U n i v e r s i t y the  than  and w h i l s t t h e o f f i c e was r e s p o n s i b l e  a s w e l l as community c o l l e g e s ,  transferred 117  Councils  more  p r o v i n c i a l Government a p p o i n t e d a M i n i s t e r  Secondary all  Post-Secondary  q u i c k l y expanded and i n c l u d e d  f i f t y by t h e t i m e t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y 1986  of  Education sector.  sector,  but  that  this  It i s anticipated  number w i l l s t a b i l i s e a t something between 105 and 110 employees, a c c o r d i n g t o one s e n i o r  People  officer.  employed i n t h e o f f i c e of t h e M i n i s t r y a r e v e r y  i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of governance p o l i c i e s , perceptions important  of  the  the  their  have  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make t o t h e system and t o t h i s  between  Councils,  and as such  p o l i c i e s and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  Many who were i n t e r v i e w e d existed  involved  an  study.  i d e n t i f i e d both t h e c o n f l i c t s which had  Ministry  office  and t h e p r e v a i l i n g s t r e n g t h  and  the  intermediary  of t h e former group i n t h e  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of governance p o l i c i e s .  INIiBESI_GROyP_ACIiyiIY  The  number of f o r m a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s  system  i s extensive,  Opposition, Councils colleges,  that constitutes the  and i n c l u d e s t h e e l e c t e d  college  Government  and  t h e o f f i c e of t h e M i n i s t r y , t h e p r e v i o u s l y - m e n t i o n e d while which  administration,  they  were  i n existence,  can be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o  and  the  individual  governing  Boards,  academic c o u n c i l s or committees, f a c u l t y , s t u d e n t 91  groups,  and t h e l i k e .  principal  internal  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on  and  external  interest  groups  within  the the  system, i n an attempt t o i d e n t i f y t h e r o l e of each i n i n f l u e n c i n g the implementation  of p o l i c i e s on c o l l e g e governance.  Ib__lQtercnediar__Counci_s Three B.C. six  i n t e r m e d i a r y C o u n c i l s were e s t a b l i s h e d by for  in  t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n of t h e f o u r t e e n r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s and  provincial  "establish,  institutes.^  The  Act r e q u i r e d t h e  Minister  to  i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the c o u n c i l s , p o l i c y r e s p e c t i n g  post-secondary education and  legislation  Provincial  and t r a i n i n g i n t h e  I n s t i t u t e s Act,1977:3(1)(a)>.  Province"  (Colleges  Although  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e t h r e e C o u n c i l s as s e p a r a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s ,  the  Act  i t made  no p r o v i s i o n e i t h e r i n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n ,  organisational structure  or  another.  policies  for  them t o c o n s u l t  one  Southern  and  Dennison noted an intermediary body i s one organisational mechanise by which many governments have sought to monitor the expenditures of public money ... while simultaneously respecting, to the extent practicable, Ctheir institution's] autonomy in the interests of preserving academic freedom (1985:79).  The  B.C.  Government e s t a b l i s h e d t h e C o u n c i l s p a r t l y t o  the r a p i d l y r i s i n g p u b l i c expenditure well  as  programs.  to  coordinate  However,  the  national  on t h e c o l l e g e and  monitor  system,  provincial  E x e c u t i v e Committee of t h e  A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l noted one serious problem i s that the Councils have accepted restrictions which seem contrary to the Act. Section 52(1)(d) makes i t clear that M.A.C. shall allocate funds for a l l programs not assigned to another council ... In other words, a l l funds to institutions should flow through one of the three Councils, ... Funds for Continuing Education and much of Adult Basic Education short-circuited the Councils in 1979 (November , 1979: 2) .  as  vocational Management  This  was  one  officers  of  reported  that  Councils  was  worse"  them,  are  severely  reported  usurping  power and  environment  position  paper  has  executive  between t h e  observed  that  "in  the  that  i n the  i n which t h e by  of  of  party  any  that  c o l l e g e s and  the  o n c e were  operated  kind"  dissolved  established  from s e n i o r  resentment  of  Columbia  s h o r t l i v e d , being  Reactions  Councils the  coordination  coordination  were t o be  feeling  the  "persons i n B r i t i s h  to  years.  been  three  H o i 1 i c k - K e n y o n seemed t o o v e r s t a t e  authority that  endorsed  college  or  same p o l i t i c a l  persons  and  imperfect  opposed  a  irritated  Council's  communication  communication  i n B.C.,  reflected  the  and  that  staff  i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n on  l e s s than four  from  Ministry  s t r a i n e d when t h e y  Government of t h e  Councils,  August  coordination  These C o u n c i l s  in  problems  Management A d v i s o r y  completely  interviewed  The  The  colleges  (1979:41). a  Councils,  (November,1979:3).  community  by  many c o o r d i n a t i o n  inter—council  c a s e when he  today  the  the  administrators.  practice,  of  officers  against  the  Ministry,  for  theirs.  i s summarised  Management A d v i s o r y  Council  1981.  1  a lack or [ s i c ] coordination and i n t e r r e l a t i o n between educational program planning and funding, and that of support s e r v i c e s , c a p i t a l equipment and f a c i l i t i e s ;  2  a d i v i s i o n of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , among the a l l o c a t i n g agencies to the M i n i s t e r , and from the i n s t i t u t i o n s to the a l l o c a t i n g agencies  3  a d i f f e r e n t Bhil.05gp.hi. c a l aggrgach to program approvals• between the Academic C o u n c i l and the O c c u p a t i o n a l Training Council as well as an i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e d i v i s i o n of program responsibi1ity;  4  a lack of c l e a r r o l e d e f i n i t i o n of the a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d M i n i s t r y , C o u n c i l s , Boards, m i n i s t r y s t a f f , e t c . ;  -  in a in  5  tog much invglyement i n s t i t u t i o n a l operational  6  an unaddressed need f o r s h o r t and long terra g l a n n i n g at i.Q§titutignal level and at the g r g v i n c i a l level, which r e s p o n s i v e to needs;  7  an u n r e a l i s t i c set of annual, d e a d l i n e s f o r budget estimates and allocations which LIDEQse a severe constraint on effective decision-making and p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s at the i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l level  by council budgets;  in  the  detail  of  the is  (Management A d v i s o r y Counci1,1981:3).  The O c c u p a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l F o l l o w i n g recommendations of t h e 'Goard Commission'  (1977),  provincial  Occupational  Training means  Government Council.  of  in  respondents 'very  liaison  provincial  and  the  federal  the trades t r a i n i n g areas.  important' the  another way.  arose  establish  programs,  According t o  t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h i s O c c u p a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g  with  directional  to  T h i s C o u n c i l was t o p r o v i d e a more e f f i c i e n t  coordinating  particularly  was  decided  "The  t o the M i n i s t r y  unions.  of  Labour  to  But i t was p e r c e i v e d by  Council maintain  others  w i t h i n t h e system"  (8:5),  of t h e " d e b a t i n g forum" (1:10)  that  and  f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e c o l l e g e s . persons who  possessed  organisational structure.  Furthermore,  existed  in the  t h i s Council consisted  experience i n the  provincial vocational schools,  centralised  in  conflict  t h a t C o u n c i l , as w e l l as t h e p e r c e i v e d e x c e s s i v e c o n t r o l over  of  some  O.T.C. q u i t e c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d t h e i r r o l e as a  component  because  the  previously  operated  which formed a h i g h l y c e n t r a l i s e d  The O c c u p a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l had  a g r e a t d e a l of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  been p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d out by t h e C o l l e g e  most of which  had  Boards.  94  The The all  Management A d v i s o r y  Council  Management A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l c o n s i s t e d of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o l l e g e s and  of  i n s t i t u t e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e ; under t h e p r o v i s i o n s  of t h e o r i g i n a l Act a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o u l d be t h e chairman of  the  College  The  Board  practice  was  or  a person d e s i g n a t e d  by  the  chairman.  f o r c o l l e g e chairmen t o nominate e i t h e r t h e c o l l e g e  p r i n c i p a l or d i r e c t o r , or some other p e r s o n ; i n at l e a s t one  case  that  I t was  then  fact  make  nominee was  realised  that  decisions  not even a C o l l e g e Board member.  t h e employees of t h e Boards c o u l d  in  and recommendations which were b i n d i n g on t h e  Boards,  or t h a t t h e C o u n c i l c o u l d c o n s i s t of non-Board members. was each  subsequently institution  designated  by  amended t o read  The  Act  "the chairman of t h e board  of  or a member of t h e board of  each  institution  t h e chairman" ( C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e  Act  Amend-  ment, 1980:4: 15) .  The Management A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l (a)  (b) (c)  (d)  was  authorised to:  require an i n s t i t u t i o n to prepare and forward to i t , i n a form and by a date d e s i g n a t e d by i t , the f i n a n c i a l r e q u e s t s to the Government f o r the next f i s c a l year covering those programs t h a t are not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of another c o u n c i l , receive, review and coordinate the financial requests r e c e i v e d from the i n s t i t u t i o n s under paragraph ( a ) , make recommendations to the M i n i s t e r , by a date designated by him, respecting the f i n a n c i a l r e q u e s t s r e c e i v e d under paragraph ( a ) , allocate to the institutions funds provided by the Government f o r programs t h a t are not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of another c o u n c i l  ( C o l l e g e s and  P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e s A c t , 1 9 7 7 : S e c t i o n 52).  Interviewees  expressed  Council were  the  view  that t h i s  was  an  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i v e management in—as—much as a l l  represented.  effective colleges  The  Academic  The  Council  Academic C o u n c i l  was  resposible fors  Those programs of study usually considered as [ s i c ] appropriate to the f i r s t and second years of a university education; most of the career oriented technical studies, and a few areas of vocational study which are closely a l l i e d to one or the other of these categories (Academic C o u n c i 1 ,1979s 7) . It  also reported  its the  first level  that  y e a r of of  i t had  established specific  operations  to address  s y s t e m - w i d e p o l i c i e s and  committees  in  "unmet o p p o r t u n i t i e s  at  plans"  (Academic  Council,  1979s10).  In  a  report  Management 'problem other to  requested  Advisory areas'  things  of  by  the  Council the  ( s e e p.92)  three  that there  was  Council  approvals  between  Occupational  Training  Council  of So  policies  caused  or  the  the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of  being  the  by  as  an  the  and  the  incomprehensible  Government's  Council,  coordinating  administrators.  Ministry, College identified  three  among  aggroach  Council  f o r system  from the  exercised  the  identified  (Management A d v i s o r y  professional college administrators  philosophies  the  ebiigsggnicai  Academic  severe d i f f i c u l t i e s  people interviewed  Education,  system which r e v e a l e d  as w e l l  program r e s p o n s i b i l i t y "  1981s3).  Many of  the  of  published  "a d i f f e r e n t  program  division  Minister  the  Councils  Boards,  different as  causing  conf1ict.  Qther_Interest_Grguc)s There are form  an  a number of integral  interact governance  with  important  part  the  policies,  of  major but  the  l e g a l l y - c o n s t i t u t e d groups  c o l l e g e system a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  players  in  are  included  not  the  implementation in  the  which and of  provincial 96  Government's system.  The  Principals  legislative  or  most p r o m i n e n t i n B.C.,  the  p o l i c y d e s c r i p t i o n s o-f groups i n c l u d e the  B.C.  Association  College-Institute Educators' Association  The  B.C.  This and  Association  association  (B.C.A.C.) was  comprises representatives "It represents  each  board"  political  the  (B.C.A.C.  i n t e r e s t s of  of  the  authority  the  as  and  statement  incorporated  f u r t h e r s the well  Objectives  issued  The  College-Institute Educators'  has  within  operational  and  as  by  the  d r a f t of the  the  Ministry  established  i n 1980  faculty  faculty equivalent  successor From an  C.I.E.A.  representing  of  under the  1976,  Boards  in  cause,  of  It  Mission, i n March  the  employs  system.  has  of  B.C.  in It  Goals, 1983.  (C.I.E.A.)  organisation initial  grown t o  approximately  independent c o l l e g e f a c u l t y S o c i e t i e s Act  of  to  membership include  2,100  f a c u l t y at t h i r t e e n d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s .  conglomeration registered  the  Federation.  unions,  unions  as  in  Association  was  eight  the  a major r o l e  college  C o l l e g e - I n s t i t u t e Educators' Association  Faculties  and  coordinating  played  The  College  College  B.C.  community c o l l e g e s e c t o r .  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of influenced  and  pamphlet),  Director,  strongly  of  Colleges,  a l l community C o l l e g e  interests,  f u l l - t i m e Executive  the  college  Colleges  known a s  B.C.  a  of  Council  of  of  the  unions,  B.C.  [It] lobbies the government, Ministry o f f i c i a l s , the opposition and other interest groups on matters pertaining to colleges and i n s t i t u t e s ... maintains media contacts, issues press releases and arranges media coverage of c o l l e g e - i n s t i t u t e issues ... [and] acts in c o a l i t i o n with teacher, student, parent, labour and other groups (C. I. E. A. , 1985s 5) .  the of  twelve  full-time It i s a and  is  Its  s t a n d on c o l l e g e governance i s s u e s i s perhaps most s u c c i n c t l y  recorded Party  i n a paper i t r e c e n t l y p r e p a r e d f o r t h e New  (N.D.P.) Task F o r c e on  Democratic  Education.  During the period from 1982 to 1986 ... the government has increasingly centralised the system and has subordinated educational objectives to economic and p o l i t i c a l ones ... By means of a nest of legislation and policy, the provincial government has achieved greater control and direction of the college-institute system by radically centralizing the governance, funding, and operation of the system ... At the heart of many of the most serious problems in the college-institute system today i s the structure of the college and institute boards (C.I.E.A.,1986:2-4).  The  C L E . A.  submitted  the  Act  i n p a r t i c u l a r "the  and  a comprehensive r e p o r t on t h e e f f e c t s of widespread  discontent  c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s w i t h t h e t h r e e - c o u n c i l system" They  were  also  system  College  Boards.  Although  the  membership of t h i s group i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y  faculty  members,  their  was c o n s i d e r e d  and  the  against  centralisation  (1982:13). of  decision-making  lobbying  within  composition  of  the  i n f l u e n c e on t h e c o l l e g e system i s such t h a t important  t o i n c l u d e them as an i n t e r e s t group  it in  t h e c o l l e g e governance s t r u c t u r e .  The B.C. Many  C o u n c i l of P r i n c i p a l s  of t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d  on  implementing system governance p o l i c i e s by t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n whose full and  t i t l e i s ' C o u n c i l of P r i n c i p a l s of t h e B.C./Yukon Institutes'.  I t i s an ad hoc o r g a n i s a t i o n which  Colleges comprises  a l l p r i n c i p a l s of t h e f i f t e e n community c o l l e g e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study,  and as a body seeks " t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p t o c o l l e g e and  institute  education"  ( C o u n c i l of P r i n c i p a l s , Terms of R e f e r e n c e ,  1985:2).  Comments such as "the C o u n c i l of P r i n c i p a l s  ...  was  98  s t r o n g l y i n s u p p o r t o-f t h e demise recent  revision  initiated  by  to  the  the  M i s s i o n , Goals,  C o u n c i l of  C o u n c i l of P r i n c i p a l s ... argue  with  (21:1),  the  of t h e C o u n c i l s " and  Principals"  (20:2),  Objectives  (22:17),  and  "the was "the  s e r v e s t h a t purpose L"a group t h a t c o u l d  Government i n t h e p l a c e of t h e  r e v e a l the perceived  Councils]  importance of t h i s group.  now"  They see  one of t h e i r f u n c t i o n s as: reviewing position papers, policies or procedures of the Ministry of Education, which are of general interest to the Council of Principals and advising the Ministry [and] individual institutions as to the position of the Council where such communication i s warranted (Terms of R e f e r e n c e , 1985: 2) . This a s s o c i a t i o n comprising  s m a l l numbers,  i s perceived to exert  c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e governance of t h e c o l l e g e system.  IHE_ACTORS  Within  this  behaviour Easton's of  system  there  is a  wide  range  of  administrator  t h a t a f f e c t s t h e implemention of governance (1965B) c o n c e p t u a l  identifying  perceptions  the  policies.  framework p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e  important  actors  can then be examined.  in  the  study,  whose  Within a l l p o l i t i c a l  systems  t h e r e a r e p e r s o n s or groups of p e r s o n s r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e forces  acting  system"  argues  relationships each  on t h a t system.  other  Easton  "must  "The  e x i s t e n c e of  include  plurality  various  a  political  of  political  through which t h e i n d i v i d u a l members a r e l i n k e d t o and through which t h e p o l i t i c a l  system a r e pursued" (19658:177). Legislature,  means  objectives  of  the  A c t o r s must be drawn from  the  t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c e , t h e c o l l e g e s and t h e i r  g r o u p i n g of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  diverse  i n t e r e s t groups.  99  Because  implementation  composition,  efforts  disposition  can  vary  according  to  the  and i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e a c t o r s and t h e  c o n d i t i o n s of t h e environment, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e account of all  key a c t o r s .  policies  A l i s t of p e o p l e implementing  governance  f o r t h e community c o l l e g e system must i n c l u d e n o t  college administrators also  the  those  and o f f i c e r s a t t a c h e d  only  t o t h e M i n i s t r y , but  i n t h e o t h e r i n t e r e s t groups o u t l i n e d  above.  This  s t u d y t a k e s i n t o account t h o s e who a r e engaged on a f u l l - t i m e and part-time  basis  i n administering  t h e community  college  system  w i t h i n B.C.  For a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s many of t h e o c c u p a n t s of such would  n o t want t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p o l i t i c a l  positions  community,  Easton a s s e r t s "we a r e s a i d t o be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p o l i t i c a l when our a c t i v i t y r e l a t e s i n some way t o t h e making and of  p o l i c y f o r a s o c i e t y " (1967:128).  i n c l u s i o n of M i n i s t e r s of E d u c a t i o n , Deputy M i n i s t e r s ,  but life  execution  T h i s c l e a r l y demands t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r s , A s s i s t a n t  and D i r e c t o r s from t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c e a s w e l l  as  college principals,  The  o f f i c e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r community c o l l e g e governance i n each  of  the  members  interest  directors,  groups p r e v i o u s l y  i n the p o l i t i c a l  interviewed,  system.  Board chairmen and  identified A l i s t of  would  members.  also  specific  be  actors  a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n Appendix Four.  SUMMARY The  c o l l e g e system has e v o l v e d i n t o i t s p r e s e n t  something oriented  quite  different,  institutions,  where  a c o l l e c t i o n of  condition  strong  from  community-  local residents contributed  both  100  financially of  and by s e r v i n g  on g o v e r n i n g B o a r d s .  t h e C o l l e g e s and P r o v i n c i a l  new  provincial  dimension  institute  The d e c l a r a t i o n  A c t (1977) i n t r o d u c e d  and p r o v i d e d  some  legal  a  governance  boundaries.  The  policy  initiative  M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and environment  where  respect  the  to  secondary ...  a  respondent,  role  statement  was a g r e a t  "the  sense  of  was c a r r i e d  within  reflect  students  ...  debate  about  t o get rather the  some  college  r e s o u r c e s f o r implementing  All this tumultuous  reduced  financial  restraint  colleges  to  "be  the  a s p i r a t i o n s o f Government"  both  (8:29).  from  the  to when the  These  within  the  i t interacts.  the  o f one o f  attempted economic  view  t h e l a c k of factor.  while s t i l l  was s u b j e c t  province of  that  within  to the  to  being  different policies  T h o s e who were r e s p o n s i b l e  supportive  one  "at a time  a s a most i m p o r t a n t  t h e implementation  in  d i d not  said  have accepted  t h e system,  expenditure.  post-  at a time  general"  w i t h which  by a s h o r t a g e o f r e s o u r c e s , because  the  (4:19)  (1979) who i d e n t i f i e d  In t h e c a s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ,  influences,  in  with  w h a t ' s g o i n g t o happen  implementation  the policy  the  o u t i n an  "The s y s t e m  of t h e p r e s s u r e s both  of p o l i c y  of  ambiguity  goals"  province i n  t a k e n by P r e s s m a n and W i l d a v s k y  pressured  of  s t a t e m e n t s were d e v e l o p e d  and a l s o f r o m t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  actually  development  deal  o f t h e community  starting  and  comments  the  (9:14) e x p l a i n e d a n o t h e r .  were  system,  Most  there  well-defined and  the system"  system  Objectives  was a l o t o f  things  led to  e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e of t h e p r o v i n c e .  have  there  which  for  encourage development  (7:11). 101  The  p r o m u l g a t i o n of t h e t h r e e governance p o l i c i e s emerged from a  somewhat  hostile  environment,  one c h a r a c t e r i s e d  c o n s t r a i n t s and c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . demands  address  significant  the  A  Government  more  p e r i o d of economic c o n s t r a i n t  to  to  r e s t r a i n t was p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l more  of  the  a l s o t o have  some  courses.  caused  decision-making  program a p p r o v a l s w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e s  vocationally-oriented  social  produced  p r e s s u r e s on t h e governance of t h e c o l l e g e / p o l i t i c a l  Financial  respect  decision-making  of t h e c o l l e g e system. The t h r e e p o l i c i e s were meant t o this.  system.  financial  From t h e environment came  f o r a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of r o l e s w i t h i n t h e  framework  by  There  by  was  fostering considerable  p r e s s u r e on t h e system t o r e t a i n t h e o r i g i n a l mandate  the c o l l e g e s , t h a t i s t o s e r v e t h e needs  with  of  o f , and be governed by,  the l o c a l community.  The B.C. the  Association  Ministry,  as  of C o l l e g e s  had r a i s e d s e v e r a l  had t h e C.I.E.A.  concerns with  because of t h e tendency  to  c e n t r a l i s e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g of t h e c o l l e g e system i n t h e M i n i s t r y . Many  groups  powers  and  i n t h e environment c a l l e d f o r  i n f l u e n c e t h a t can be p e r c e i v e d  p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e system.  colleges,  clarification  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s throughout t h e whole  other p o l i t i c a l  interest  a  group  executives,  system.  of The  i s t h e changes of  Changes of M i n i s t e r s , b u r e a u c r a t s and not  t o mention  staff  changes  i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y a l t e r t h e p o l i t i c a l  in foci  w i t h i n t h e system.  Evidence  of  a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s i n t h e p r e v i o u s  s t r u c t u r e demanded changes of v a r i o u s magnitudes, of t h e C o u n c i l s  was i n i t i a t e d by many i n t e r e s t  governance  and t h e demise  groups.  Demands 102  emerged l a r g e l y -from p e r c e p t i o n s of c o l l e g e s ' institutions Boards  no  t o r e q u i r e the support  of  the  and as a r e s u l t of t h e p e r c e i v e d  where School  threat  of  decision-making.  Implementors  of governance p o l i c i e s were d e f i n e d as t h o s e  occupation  administration, politicians, interest  seen  longer,  centralised  full-time  were  'maturity',  was  plus  predominantly  College  M i n i s t r y s t a f f and  Board  concerned  with  members,  and  whose college  included  college administrators.  groups such as B.C.A.C.,  CLE.A.,  Other  and t h e C o u n c i l of  P r i n c i p a l s , a r e shown t o be boundary spanning groups which sought t o i n f l u e n c e governance p o l i c i e s .  In  this  chapter  actors  through  useful  backdrop  perceived initiatives,  a r e i d e n t i f i e d some of t h e i n t e r e s t groups which i n t e r a c t i o n took against  intentions and  policy  which t o examine  of  those  who  took  the the  It  provides  documented three  a g a i n s t which t o a n a l y s e p o l i c y  p e r c e p t i o n of outcomes. the  place.  and a and  policy  implementors'  The d a t a on t h e p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s of  formulators,  and  the  outcomes  perceived  i m p l e m e n t o r s , are r e p o r t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  by  NOTES ON CHAPTER FOUR 1.  Q u o t a t i o n s w i t h o u t name o r d a t e a r e drawn from of i n t e r v i e w s , which a r e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e d a t a .  transcripts  2.  MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, BRITISH COLUMBIA, (March 19S3) P o s t Secondary Department, lQtegrated_Fiye_Year_Planni GQllf=9e_and_Institute_System System_Ob_ecti yes___982-87.  3.  The t h r e e p r i v a t e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s o p e r a t i n g t h e 1960's were Columbia C o l l e g e , T r i n i t y Western C o l l e g e , N o t r e Dame.  4.  Kwantlen C o l l e g e , a f i f t e e n t h community c o l l e g e , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1980, and i n 1985 two i n s t i t u t e s were merged, t h e B.C. Institute of Technology and t h e P a c i f i c Vocational Institute.  in  104  C H A P T E R THE OF  F I V E  INTENTIONS AND  PERCEIVED  THREE GOVERNANCE  Intentions  that  OUTCOMES  POLICIES  a r e documented  by p o l i c y  formulators  are  significantly  i n f l u e n c e d by both f o r m u l a t o r s ' and  perceptions.  These i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e t h e p o l i c y outcomes, a s do  elements  of p o l i c y design.  expected  t o s e t boundaries w i t h i n  occur"  (Nakamura  difficult  &  "Initial  implementors'  s t a t e m e n t s of p o l i c y a r e  which  implementation  Smal1wood,1980:32).  Whilst  will  i t i s often  t o i s o l a t e p r e c i s e l y what t o i n c l u d e i n t h e  'initial'  statement o f p o l i c y , such s t a t e m e n t s form t h e c o n c e p t u a l i n p u t of the  The  political  systems t h e o r y .  l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n Chapter Two i d e n t i f i e d some i m p o r t a n t  variables  w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o l i c y changes made  during  implemen-  t a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n s g e n e r a t e d from t h a t r e v i e w formed t h e b a s i s of  q u e s t i o n s asked of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s  study.  Questions  consultation,  were  asked h a v i n g t o do w i t h  t h e degree o f a c t u a l change,  and commitment t o p o l i c i e s .  i n this  communication,  perceived intentions  These elements were a l l assumed t o  have s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  Policies This  c a n be e x p r e s s e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways (Hi 11,1983:74).  chapter  a t t e m p t s t o u n r a v e l some o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n and  r e p o r t t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e p o l i c i e s ,  a s d e l i n e a t e d both by t h e  documented and p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s and t h e outcomes p e r c e i v e d by p o l i c y implementors. analysing  t h e communication  consultation  exercised  elements,  during  policy  Emphasis i s p l a c e d on such a s t h e degree formulation  of  and t h e  perceived  d e g r e e o-f c h a n g e i n t h e system o r t h r e a t t o t h e s y s t e m  perceived  by  three  implementors.  p a r t s with  policy,  the  each p a r t r e p o r t i n g ,  documented  i n t e n t i o n s as declared and  policy  headings  align  with  identified  implementors.  No  i s  initiatives.  communication  be  presented  respect  the  to  a  in given  perceived  policy  t h e communication  linkages  the  implementors.  characteristics  i n Chapter  The p o l i c i e s w i l l  of endorsation  attempt  by  t h e important  describe the perceived  order  by f o r m u l a t o r s ,  will  with  intentions,  outcomes a s p e r c e i v e d  implementation  and  The c h a p t e r  Two.  These  of  policy  Each p a r t w i l l  l i n k a g e s between be a n a l y s e d  also  formulators  i n chronological  by t h e Government o f B.C.  made t o l o c a t e t h e s o u r c e s  of t h e  three  policy  Kogan a s s e r t s :  The sources of policy generation are so d i f f i c u l t to locate, l e t alone place in any logical pattern, that detecting changes in values, or the pressures by which change i s effected, i s more a matter of art than of analysis ( 1 9 7 5 : 2 3 ) .  P A R T  THE  O N E  P O L I C Y INTRODUCING  M I S S I O N , GOALS, AND Part  One o f t h i s c h a p t e r  the  Government's  SYSTEM  OBJECTIVES analyses  initiative  t h e i n t e n t i o n s and o u t c o m e s  t o develop  Planning  f o r the British  (1983).  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e M i s s i o n ,  statement after  was  the  formulated system.  probably  Columbia C o l l e g e  the f i r s t  major  Integrated and  Institute  Goals,  Year System  and O b j e c t i v e s  governance  d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e C o l l e g e s and the provincial  Five  of  Institutes  initiative Act; i t  G o v e r n m e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e c o l l e g e  F o r some t i m e c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had been a s k i n g t h e  106  Government f o r more s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o-f c o l l e g e s p a r t l y because of t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n of d e c i s i o n s on program a p p r o v a l partly  as  and f u n d i n g  unpredictable  w i t h i n t h e system,  c o l l e g e s moved toward a g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y  and  province-  wide (Dennison,1986As10).  Part  One  w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n f o u r  i n t e n t i o n s of t h e p o l i c y ; the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s ; the  policy;  sections;  the  documented  t h e p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s as p e r c e i v e d  by  t h e communication l i n k a g e s i n r e l a t i o n t o  and t h e p o l i c y outcomes as p e r c e i v e d  by t h e p o l i c y  implementors which were each s u p p o r t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e .  These w i l l  be f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f i n d i n g s on t h e p o l i c y .  DQCy_E_IED_POLICY_I_IENI  The  f i r s t p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e on governance of t h e c o l l e g e  was i n t r o d u c e d as  l e s s a b r u p t l y than t h e f o l l o w i n g  d r a f t s of t h e M i s s i o n ,  Goals,  two,  debated and r e w r i t t e n b e f o r e being  the  Education^.  institutions  of  appended  to  in-as-much  and O b j e c t i v e s statement were  widely c i r c u l a t e d , Minister  system  However,  t h e document  a  adopted by  letter  provides  an  to  the  official  statement on t h e r e v i s e d r o l e of c o l l e g e s a s a p p a r e n t l y  expected  by  upon  t h e Government.  sharpen  their  particularly  focus  In  i t t h e c o l l e g e s were  upon  provincial  economic and manpower needs,  and  called national  r a t h e r than  goals, continue  t h e i r emphasis on t h e d e f i n e d needs of t h e l o c a l r e g i o n . "intended  t o s e r v e as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  to  I t was  of l o n g  and  s h o r t term p l a n s by each of t h e c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s of t h e c o l l e g e s and  i n s t i t u t e system" ( M i n i s t r y of Education,B.C.,1983Cs3). 107  The  governance  overall  mission  Government's operate its  o b j e c t i v e s were designed of the system,  specific  through  to  objectives,  the "The  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t develop,  The  official  document  (Ministry records  to  the  provincial system  will  will,  through  and  deliver  co-ordinate,  achieve common purposes"  B.C.,1983C:9).  contribute  and t o c l a r i f y  g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s .  i n d i v i d u a l components,  education  to  of  Education,  four  primary  and because each of the s u b s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g with  * decision—making 'preserve',  structure'  one may  o b j e c t i v e commences with  assume t h a t the document was  the  the word  not designed  to  i n t r o d u c e any major change t o the governance of the system. OBJECTIVE A 1.  DECISION-MAKING STRUCTURES  In the 1982-87 period, the college and institute system will have three levels of decision-making responsibility. The organizations at each level will be cohesive. Appropriate and necessary lay, community-appointed representation and input will be included. The system M i l l : a) preserve the overall provincial policy-making responsibi l i t y , decision-making capacity, and accountability of the Minister and the Government b) preserve an intermediate level structure, comprising one or more Council(s), which can provide input to the Government and to educational institutions based on a provincial perspective c) preserve the responsibility of the Boards of colleges and institutes for developing institutional policy relating to the delivery of education consistent with their regionspecific or program-specific mandates ( M i n i s t r y of Education,B.C.,19Q3C:11). Governance was "the  the f i r s t  in a l i s t  of e i g h t g o a l s .  I t was  clear  purpose of t h i s g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s document i s t o p r o v i d e  an o v e r a l l  framework, f o r the c o - o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g of the c o l l e g e  and  institute  education"  The  Mission,  Goals,  providing  ( M i n i s t e r of Education  and  Objectives  statement  B.C.,1983C:5). continued  some c l e a r i n t e n t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o c o n s u l t a t i o n  those decision-making  by by  bodies.  108  In performing t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , each of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g bodies will be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r u n d e r t a k i n g necessary consultation in advance of making d e c i s i o n s . T h i s w i l l happen as f o l l o w s : a) the M i n i s t e r w i l l undertake to c o n s u l t with Boards and with the C o u n c i l (or C o u n c i l s ) c o n c e r n i n g the p r o v i n c i a l policy framework b) Council(s) will be encouraged to establish or continue provincial a d v i s o r y committees, i n c l u d i n g program a d v i s o r y committees c) Boards w i l l be encouraged to take account the opinions of the educators and s t u d e n t s through the use of internal program a d v i s o r y committees d) institutions will be expected to p a r t i c i p a t e in external program a d v i s o r y committees ...  ( M i n i s t r y o-f E d u c a t i o n  The  document  consult to  thus  B.C. ,1983C: 12) .  p l a c e s an o b l i g a t i o n upon  the  Minister  both C o l l e g e Boards and p r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l s w i t h  respect  t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y -framework, which i n c l u d e s governance.  A document developed i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e M i s s i o n , O b j e c t i v e s statement was Sf  to  Institute  considerable governance  Strategic importance  policy  e n t i t l e d G u i d e l i n e s f o r the and  Qfjerat i o n a l  Goals,  Preparation  Plans.  It  i n administrators' perceptions  outcomes,  because  it  document  to  Mission,  G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s s t a t e m e n t .  became  and  the  assumed of  the  strategy  a s s i s t i n t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e i n t e n t i o n s of  the  I t focussed a t t e n t i o n  on i n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a n n i n g r a t h e r than system p l a n n i n g , an i d e a of t h e g e n e r a l M i n i s t r y impact on c o l l e g e s when,  but in  gives the  introduction, i t states: In 1987, a major system wide review w i l l be undertaken of the outcomes of the strategic planning process. This review w i l l coincide with the analysis of the 'reasons, i f any', for the continued existence of colleges and institutes, which i s required under Section 66 of the College and Institute Act ( M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n B.C.,1983A:1).  109  P i R Q i i y i D _ P Q L I C Y _ I N T E N T I O N S  Both p o l i c y -formulators and implementors were asked t h e q u e s t i o n : "In  your  statement far  opinion,  was  the  Mission,  and  i n t e n d e d as a major change t o t h e c o l l e g e  as governance i s concerned?"  statement  Goals,  One  Objectives system,  p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r saw  the  thus:  The most important intentions were to signal to the institutions that there was an overall philosophy and direction at work here, and the Government assumed responsibility for stating that ... i t was a signal that the world has changed in respect to colleges, that kind of signal had often been given through the budget systems and through new l e g i s l a t i o n , and through speeches that the Minister might give in the house, or any number of other vehicles. But certainly in the B.C. system, this was the f i r s t time i t had ever been attempted through an actual policy statement Another  respondent  change.  However,  i n t e r v i e w e d agreed for  as  directing  believed six  out  t h a t i t was of  the  eight  as  policy  a  major  formulators  t h a t t h i s p o l i c y "wasn't i n t e n d e d as a v e h i c l e  t h e system i n a new  implementors'  intended  (4:20).  direction"  o p i n i o n s as t o whether i t was  (9:14).  intended  Policy  that  this  p o l i c y would p r o v i d e a major impetus f o r change t o t h e governance of  the  system were e v e n l y s p l i t .  perceived  that  " i t was  intended t o represent  (21:21), which was s u p p o r t e d i t was  There were implementors a  major  by a s s e r t i o n s such as; "Oh  who  change"  yes,  sure  ... They were v e r y d e l i b e r a t e l y c e n t r a l i s i n g and g o i n g f o r  t h i s control decision-making"  (15:15).  t h a t " i t i s p r o b a b l y t h e l e a s t profound over r e c e n t y e a r s " ( 1 1 : 9 ) ,  There were t h o s e who  felt  of t h e M i n i s t r y d e c i s i o n s  and another a d m i n i s t r a t o r a s s e r t e d :  It was not either a subtle or a mischievous effort to change anything at a l l other than in institutions where we planned day by day, or week by week, to have us get a sense of longer term direction. No i t was not intended to produce major change (14:16). In  summary,  a  majority  of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s  perceived  this  p o l i c y as not i n t e n d i n g t o change t h e governance s t r u c t u r e of t h e  110  system,  although  implementors of  some  opposed  evenly  intended  divided,  of  framework  i n the policy  with  change of  Many p o l i c y  Another question that  had  t h e system,  formulators  Objectives  clarification Ministry  of  the  community  M i n i s t e r committing  Minister" serve  Government  in  i t  intentions,  he made p o l i c y (7:9), the  provide  (b)  increase  ranging  provide  (d)  retain  t o the  analysed  Goals,  definition the  governance awareness  from  "that the  of the province  could  need f o r f i n a n c i a l (c)  such  outcomes.  and  provincial  " t h e major  issue  on  policy  t o t i e down  community  colleges  perceived  by  manner p o s s i b l e "  by r e s p o n d e n t s ' ,  the  (6:9).  a r e summarised  be i n t e r p r e t e d a s i n t e n d i n g t o : direction  and  clarification  of t h e p r o v i n c i a l  perspective  of  roles,  and  the  restraint,  a framework f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n and educational  was a  Boards  as  as  there  d e c i s i o n s . I t was t r y i n g  intentions perceived  (a)  be  Nevertheless,  t o consult with  t o ensuring  needs  F i v e ; these  from  was  decision-making  perceived  college  ... i n t h e most c o s t - e f f i c i e n t  policy Table  change  T h i s was t h e most commonly s t a t e d a i m  was  issues before  the  responses w i l l  entitled  by i n t e r v i e w r e s p o n d e n t s .  the  in  s t a t e m e n t a s p r o v i d i n g an o v e r a l l  of perceived  The  about  was a s k e d r e l a t i n g  occurred  but those  diversity  would  perceptions  saw t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e M i s s i o n ,  perspective.  perceived  the  t o bring  policy  s i x implementors b e l i e v i n g  under t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b - s e c t i o n  and  Indeed,  t o c h a n g e t h e s t r u c t u r e and s i x p e r c e i v i n g t h a t no  c h a n g e was i n t e n d e d . degree  view.  who were a l s o a s k e d t o v e r b a l i s e t h e i r  the intentions inherent  were  that  system  planning,  autonomy i n c o l l e g e s .  Ill  TABLE 5  A SUMMARY OF POLICY FORMULATORS' PERCEPTIONS OF POLICY INTENTIONS  "The g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s were intended t o do two t h i n g s . One was t o c l a r i f y , and the other was t o p r o v i d e a s i g n a l f o r change ... i n the governance area ... was t o simply provide t h i s as formal direction ... where people cooperated with one another and where c e r t a i n kinds of p o l i c y were reasonably c l e a r l y d e f i n e d " (4s 18-19) .  "The most important i n t e n t i o n s were t o s i g n a l t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t there was an o v e r a l l p h i l o s o p h y and d i r e c t i o n at work ... and ... i t was a s i g n a l t h a t the world had changed" (4s 20).  "I t h i n k we wanted t o d e f i n e some broad parameters i n which t h e system could function ... they were always a s k i n g f o r some d e f i n e d goal or d i r e c t i o n ... t h i s simply t r i e d t o take a l l of the aspects and g i v e i t some form" (5s 13) .  "To make c e r t a i n t h a t the community c o l l e g e s would serve the p r o v i n c e ... i n the most c o s t - e f f i c i e n t manner" (6s 9 ) .  needs  o-f the  "The i n t e n t i o n of the M i s s i o n , Goals, and O b j e c t i v e s statement was t o form the parameters f o r the d i r e c t i o n of the c o l l e g e system ... the key t h i n g was to ensure t h a t t h e r e was a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s u l t a t i o n " (7:8).  "Basically what we s a i d i s t h a t we can i n c r e a s e t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the e n t i r e system" (9: 15) .  comprehensiveness  and  "They needed t o s t a r t l o o k i n g at t h e i r f u t u r e , coming.out of a development and growth phase and i n t o a c o n s o l i d a t i o n phase" (10s9).  Questions Has it intended to preserve in the col leges?  a high  degree  of educational  "Yes definitely, you w i l l not f i n d i n t h e M i s s i o n , Goals, and statement anything that smacks of t e l l i n g the c o l l e g e s how t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s " (7s 12) .  autonomy  Objectives c a r r y out  _____Y_____y____I____________ FQrmuIatorsJ__Know] ed u  There  was l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h o s e concerned w i t h t h e f o r m u l a t i o n  of a l l t h r e e p o l i c i e s were seen t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r the  c o l l e g e system.  Twenty p e r s o n s were asked t h e q u e s t i o n "Do  you t h i n k t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s were s u f f i c i e n t l y informed t h e community c o l l e g e system?" e a r l y i n t h e i n t e r v i e w . summarises  their  with  responses.  Although  t h e r e was  about  Table S i x  not  complete  unanimity, t h e i r o p i n i o n s c o i n c i d e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o conclude they p e r c e i v e d t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s as w e l l  that  informed.  E9C__i__D.d_.lQf Q_____-9________-9Q______9_When  examining  importance  the perceived  outcomes  of  this  policy,  of communication l i n k s between p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s and  implementors emerged c o n s i s t e n t l y , n o t o n l y through interview questions, to  but through  t h e -focus of  v o l u n t e e r e d r e s p o n s e s i n answer  questions with a l t e r n a t i v e t a r g e t s .  Such l i n k a g e s were n o t  only important f o r conveying  t h e meaning of t h e p o l i c y  and s u p p o r t i n g  but a l s o  documents,  p r e s s u r e s on p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s . formulators with  the  were  and  t h e degree  environmental  P o i n t s such as t h e e f f o r t which  seen t o have made t o communicate  implementors,  administrators,  showed t h e  statement  of a m b i g u i t y  the perceived  incentives i n the policy i n i t i a t i v e ,  absence  and  perceived of  consult by  sanctions  a l l and  a l l p l a y e d r o l e s of v a r y i n g  importance i n l i n k i n g p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s w i t h implementors.  TABLE 6 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO A QUESTION ON PERCEPTIONS FORMULATORS' AND IMPLEMENTORS'UNDERSTANDING OF THE QUESTION: Do you think the policy formulators in-formed about the community college system?  "Oh  hell  "Probably "Yes, "Yes"  yes  ..."  were  OF POLICY SYSTEM  suff ic  iently  (4s6> .  a l o t more aware than most of us g i v e them c r e d i t  they understood"  for"  (5:5).  (6:4).  (7:3).  "Sure the people w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y were s u f f i c i e n t l y "I t h i n k so"  informed"  (8s 12) .  (9s6) .  "I t h i n k the p o l i t i c i a n s had  their  e a r s p r e t t y c l o s e t o events"  (10:4).  "There have been a number of c o n s u l t a t i v e mechanisms, and I don't want to fault most Ministry o f f i c i a l s for taking pains to work out c o n s u l t a t i v e committees with the C o u n c i l of P r i n c i p a l s or with Boards or with the college system i n g e n e r a l " ( l i s 3 ) . "Oh  yes"  (12s5) .  "They don't  have a d e t a i l e d  "No ... people are" (14:4).  in p o l i t i c a l  knowledge of c o l l e g e s " positions really  (13:4).  do not understand  what  colleges  "Now you have M i n i s t r y s t a f f i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y making d e c i s i o n s i n my o p i n i o n t h a t are f a r beyond t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t o say nothing of their competence" (15s 1 ) . "Some people  i n the M i n i s t r y  "No  ... t h e r e was  "Oh  I t h i n k so, yes"  "The M i n i s t e r was were" ( 1 9 : 5 ) . "Yes"  ... understand  colleges"  a r e a c t i o n to p r e s s u r e from  Boards,  (16s 1 4 ) . pure and  simple"  (17s 2 ) .  (18:3) .  probably r e a s o n a b l y well informed,  I doubt t h a t the  others  (20s5).  "No,  but t h a t ' s been an ongoing  "Yes  they've  "Yes  ... t h e y ' r e informed"  been s u f f i c i e n t l y  problem ... of the e d u c a t i o n system" informed"  (21s6).  (22:5).  (23:6)  114  Consultation "There  was  c e r t a i n l y e v e r y e f f o r t from t h e M i n i s t r y  d i s t r i b u t e them [ M i s s i o n , and  ...  "I give f u l l  and  d i d not agree t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n between  implementors  was t h o r o u g h l y  t h i s research considered  Mission,  Goals,  May  on  previously  noted  respondents  seminar Board  during  o n l y t h e e f f e c t s of t h e  consultation,  the  i s important.  final  historical  I t has  been  i t quite clear that  period  and  a  which a p p a r e n t l y college  prolonged  culminated  i n t e r e s t groups.  At t h i s  but m a i n t a i n  of  i n a weekend  administrators  were d i s c u s s e d o p e n l y and t h e B.C.A.C.  and p r e s e r v e  formulation.  1982; and  with M i n i s t r y s t a f f ,  t h e document,  formulators  t h a t t h e f i r s t d r a f t was dated May  followed,  members,  issues  i t s formulation  made  consultation  executed  Very few  and O b j e c t i v e s statement i s s u e d by t h e M i n i s t r y  1983, i n t h e c o n t e x t of  perspective  small  on t h a t i s s u e ... who t r a v e l l e d t h e p r o v i n c e  Although  in  marks t o a  and d i d go back and r e d r a f t and r e d r a f t " (16:35).  respondents  to  G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s ] t o t h e c o l l e g e s  g e t c o n s u l t a t i o n " (12:16).  group of b u r e a u c r a t s  level  including  meeting  policy  agreed t o  revise  t h e t h r u s t of t h e seminar d i s c u s s i o n s  t h e M i n i s t r y purpose.  One M i n i s t r y o f f i c e r  observed:  if there was any one thing that to me was a signal that our process had worked, and that we had that kind of consultation, i t was that particular event (4:23). Indeed,  i n a l e t t e r t o c o l l e g e and i n s t i t u t e Board c h a i r m e n , t h e  Assistant  Deputy  M i n i s t e r of Education  statement  forwarded  to the Minister  stated that the revised f o r consideration  was  " i d e n t i c a l t o t h e March 8 1983, document p r e p a r e d by t h e B.C.A.C. and  forwarded  understanding Education,  to of  me  as  a  the intent  March 24,1983:1).  statement of  of  the  Association's  the Ministry"  ( M i n i s t r y of  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p o l i c y statement  finally  enacted  displayed  a n o t e on t h e c o v e r  page:  This document i s identical to the draft document dated February 1983, prepared by the B r i t i s h Columbia Association of Colleges with the exception that Appendix B has been altered to r e f l e c t changed timelines ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ,B. C. , 1983C: c o v e r ) .  Ambiguity Although  t h e r e was w i d e s p r e a d  occurred,  there  question  of  legitimate  clarity criticism,  document meant. (21:25).  was  acceptance that  not a s i m i l a r of  degree  communication.  saying  that  consultation  had  o f a c c e p t a n c e on  the  "Some  t h e y weren't  may  have  sure  what  a the  The document was o b s c u r e and e n i g m a t i c a t t i m e s "  One  respondent  saw t h e a m b i g u i t y  ploy t o provide f o r c e n t r a l i s a t i o n  o f t h e document a s a  of t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n :  In the absence of any quantifiers in the Ministry's own document, then the Ministry absolutely controls the quantitites ... wherever i t s u i t s them, they make an exception for their purpose ... so they certainly wrote their own statement so that i t wouldn't hinder them at a l l ( 1 5 : 1 8 ) . However,  to  sufficient statement another  the  question  ambiguity  in  whether  the  they  Mission,  believed  Goals,  t o allow c o l l e g e s a reasonable degree  respondent  there  and of  was  Objectives flexibility,  replied:  Yes, and that's probably why they don't worry about i t too much ... There isn't too much in there that says you cannot do t h i s , you can interpret i t to serve your own needs, so i f that's the case why bother about i t ( 1 3 : 1 3 ) . Still  other  Mission, ibility  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d e n i e d any l i n k  Goals, doesn't  and O b j e c t i v e s and c o l l e g e emanate f r o m  between  the  flexibility.  t h e M i s s i o n and  Goals  system "Flex-  statement"  ( 1 1 : 1 1 ) , and I don't suppose the statement had to be ambiguous in order to allow f l e x i b i l i t y . I think sometimes the statements were s u f f i c i e n t l y broad and general that there was opportunity to choose some s p e c i f i c responses, how we would go about doing things  (12:17).  116  There  was  a g e n e r a l agreement  that  the Mission,  Goals,  and  O b j e c t i v e s document was a v e r y ambiguous one, n o t o n l y because o-f the i s s u e s i t -failed t o address, of t h e i s s u e s were a d d r e s s e d . was  fuzzy  another:  and  of  " I t h i n k t h a t much of t h e wording  e q u i v o c a l " (14:19),  " i t ' s rather  Criticism  but i n t h e manner i n which some  an innocuous  said  document  respondent; really"  unintelligible professional  by  a  layman  and  (18:8).  t h e document's wording came from r e s p o n d e n t s  w i t h i n t h e M i n i s t r y and i n t h e c o l l e g e s .  both  "The document i s near  and i s o n l y  intelligible  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l can  t o the  deal  with  was a l s o g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t t h e document "has never  been  jargon"  It  one  (14:19).  operationalised" in there" the  (11:11),  (15:15),  minds  which has c r e a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f r u s t r a t i o n i n  of p o l i c y implementors.  referenced decision-making, what time"  "you can't r e f e r e n c e back t o a n y t h i n g  "We  don't  have  criterion  we have a b s o l u t e l y no foggy n o t i o n of  t h e c r i t e r i a a r e t h a t a r e going t o be a p p l i e d a t  any  one  (11:10).  S a n c t i o n s and I n c e n t i v e s Policy  implementation  and W i l d a v s k y importance  a n a l y s t s such as Bardach (1977),  (1979) and Brewer and deLeon (1983) have noted of  incentives  and  sanctions  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . asked  t h e s e elements i n t h e p o l i c y . "there  the  i n influencing the  Therefore  a q u e s t i o n was  of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s whether i t was i n t e n d e d  consistent:  Pressman  to  include  The r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n was  were no f o r m a l s a n c t i o n s o r rewards"  (8:26).  117  Several  officers  alluded  to  informal  sanctions  through  the  r e g u l a t i o n of budgets by t h e M i n i s t r y .  PERCEIVED J f O L I C Y _ g y T C  P o l i c y implementors were asked t o i d e n t i f y t h e i m p o r t a n t of t h e M i s s i o n , request  Goals,  elicited  outcomes  and O b j e c t i v e s p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e .  a variety  of  responses.  One  This  administrator  observed "as f a r as I can make o u t , t h e r e a r e n ' t any outcomes. t h i n k i t ' s l a r g e l y a non-event" ( l i s 10), "I and  w h i l s t another  I  declared  t h i n k t h e r e a l i t y i s a r e d u c t i o n i n j u s t about e v e r y c o l l e g e , t h e whole  diminished"  college  (15s16).  system  i s being  There  i s no  both  demeaned  unanimity  implementors on t h e outcomes of t h i s p o l i c y ,  among  and  policy  but t h e r e a r e  some  themes which emerge from t h e v a r i e t y of r e s p o n s e s r e c e i v e d .  Most  college  principals  college's Mission, the  interviewed  "certainly  direction reported  that "yes,  we have been g i v e n "  our  objectives  Government. perceived  One  their  own  (14s16);  w i t h i n that umbrella" encompass  and of  as  mandatory,  the  explicit  another  principal  when we d i d our  we used t h o s e same c a t e g o r i e s and developed  ...  outcomes Goals,  t h a t was  we've chosen t o go t h a t way ...  f i v e year p l a n ,  Mission,  Some i n t e r p r e t e d i t  t h a t was t h e i n t e n t ,  own  perceived  that  G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s d i d a l i g n w i t h t h o s e of  p r o v i n c i a l Government.  saying  agreed  f a r more  Objectives  than  (12:14).  But t h e  aligning  w i t h t h o s e of  college  the provincial  t h e major d i f f i c u l t i e s p o l i c y implementors  about t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y was  that  M i n i s t r y was not complying w i t h i t s own p o l i c y statement.  the Table  11.8  Seven summarises r e s p o n s e s r e c e i v e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s t o p i c .  To  a  question  a s k i n g p o l i c y implementors t o what  thought t h a t t h e M i s s i o n , decision-making  Goals,  that  i t ' s ...  "Not a t a l l "  had any impact a t a l l "  t h e y have" (14:22).  (18:11).  (11:12). (12:20).  the following " I don't t h i n k " I don't  think  " I don't t h i n k t h a t i t has changed d e c i s i o n -  making t h a t much i n B.C." (17:8). at a l l "  they  and O b j e c t i v e s had changed t h e  framework of t h e c o l l e g e system,  r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d :  extent  To sum up,  " I don't t h i n k i t ' s changed i t  seven out of t h e t w e l v e  respondents  e x p r e s s e d t h e view t h a t t h e M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s p o l i c y represented people and  l i t t l e o r no change i n t h e system governance.  f e l t t h a t t h e r e were changes as a r e s u l t of  one o f f i c e r remained uncommitted.  i n c l u d i n g Board members,  College  Furthermore  Board  tended t o s e e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of  Goals,  and  this  administrators,  the college administrators including the  Mission,  O b j e c t i v e s statement d i m i n i s h i n g over t i m e .  Indeed  t h e o b s e r v a t i o n was shared by most p o l i c y implementors. think  i t made much d i f f e r e n c e ...  more o r l e s s i g n o r e d  Despite  " I don't  because i n e f f e c t t h e  i t a f t e r a while"  of  implementors  (13:12).  Goals,  and O b j e c t i v e s p o l i c y t o p r e s e r v e  educational saw  i t from  autonomy another  in  colleges,  perspective.  the  but s t a t e d t h a t t h a t o b j e c t i v e had n o t been r e a l i s e d . twelve  interviewees  d i d not see  the Mission,  a high policy  However,  Board member remarked " I t h i n k t h a t i t was t h e o b j e c t i v e "  of  system  t h e f a c t t h a t p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s saw i t as t h e i n t e n t i o n  of t h e M i s s i o n , degree  policy  r e g a r d e d i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n as of minimal  significance. members  Three  one  (17:9),  Nine  out  Goals,  and 119  TABLE SUMMARY OF COMPLIANCE  7  IMPLEMENTORS'COMMENTS ON THE WITH THE M I S S I O N , G O A L S , AND  M I N I S T R Y ' S L A C K OF OBJECTIVES POLICY.  "Decisions made i n V i c t o r i a are not r e l a t e d to college decision-making. Decisions made i n the M i n i s t r y o f f i c e are too open t o change generated by p o l i t i c a l whims" ( 1 1 : 9 ) .  "I can't r e c a l l at any time, at a ... discussion, or n e g o t i a t i o n with any M i n i s t r y people or Government people, t h a t i t ' s ever been made r e f e r e n c e t o " (12s17).  "I think i t ' s used when i t s u i t s somebody and ignored other impression i s t h a t f o r most of the time i t ' s i g n o r e d " (13:16).  "It r e a l l y  hasn't  been used  much at a l l "  My  (14:20).  "Whenever i t s u i t s them, they make an e x c e p t i o n f o r t h e i r  "One could r e a l l y say t h e r e hasn't been much change, have done what i t wanted anyway" (16s 2 6 ) .  "I would  times.  purpose"  (15:18).  because Government would  ... p r e f e r to see the M i n i s t r y not q u i t e as d i c t a t o r i a l "  (18s 1 3 ) .  "Basically i t was a set of l i m i t a t i o n s or boundaries w i t h i n which individual institutions would o p e r a t e , but i t d i d n ' t c o n s t r a i n Government i n any way" (19s14).  "The M i n i s t r y M i s s i o n and Goals statement, over the l a s t s i x months has been meaningless ... the M i n i s t r y ... has made us a b s o l u t e l y c y n i c a l that the Ministry has any p l a n whatsoever i n mind, because t h e r e have been 180 degree shifts i n o p e r a t i n g funds and e x c e l l e n c e funds, in capital funds ... the practice of the Ministry has n o t h i n g t o do with t h e i r M i s s i o n and Goals statement" (20s 14) .  "The M i s s i o n , Goals, and O b j e c t i v e s statement from each i n s t i t u t i o n should have allowed i n s t i t u t i o n s at l e a s t t o look down the road and say t h i s i s what we're going t o do, the M i n i s t r y has s a i d t h i s i s a c c e p t a b l e , but ... the institutions can't predict what's going to happen ... i t d i d n ' t have any r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e a l i t y " (21:22-23).  "In terms of being an instrument t o guide the o p e r a t i o n of the system c o n c e r t e d or c a u s a l b a s i s , i t r e a l l y i s n ' t " (22s 1 3 ) .  in  a  Objectives for  as  preserving  colleges,  two  administrator intention  a high  degree of  educational  respondents offered neutral  answered,  t o weaken t h e  r e s p o n s e s and  "I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i n s t i t u t i o n s or t h e i r  autonomy  has  one  been  governance"  any  (14:22).  SyMMARY_QF_POLICY_g Dgcumented_I.ntentioQS The  g o v e r n a n c e component of t h e  Mission,  Goals,  and  Objectives  four  documented  Plans statement  was  intentions. focus  on  brief The  the  provincial  contained  and  fundamentally  major i n t e n t i o n s s t a t e d i n t h e p o l i c y  need f o r t h e  system t o p l a c e g r e a t e r  n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c and  claim to provide that  and  the three  f o r long  t e r m and  l e v e l s of  documents  emphasis  manpower n e e d s .  They  s h o r t term p l a n n i n g ,  decision-making  and  responsibility  on also  state  will  be  maintained. (a)  Overall responsibility  (b)  T h r e e l e v e l s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g Ministry,  (c)  College  Council Boards  and  policy  at  all  particular, and  B o a r d s on  There  that  of the  h e l d by  the  were t o be  Minister.  maintained  by  the  of  'community-appointed'  lay  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e g e governance.  document c l e a r l y levels  t o be  Boards.  consisting  p e r s o n s were t o be  The  was  the  intended  c o n s u l t a t i o n t o be p r a c t i s e d  decision-making  M i n i s t e r should  provincial  policy  i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e  framework,  c o n s u l t with  and  both  in  Councils  issues.  Mission,  Goals,  and  Objectives  121  statement,  together  Pr.f=E_____9D exert  with  t h e accompanying G u i d e l i n e s  I n s t i t u t e S t r a t e g i c and  of  i n f l u e n c e on c o l l e g e s '  •from  the  Goals,  planning  Qrjeratignal  O b j e c t i v e s p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e was  o-f t h e p e r c e i v e d  the  Plans,  did  perspectives.  r e s p o n s e s r e c e i v e d i t i s not c l e a r t h a t  and  for  However,  the  Mission,  the p r i n c i p a l  cause  p l a n n i n g e-f-fect.  P_L__i____lD__Qti_DS It  was  define the  h e l d by t h e -formulators t h a t t h e p o l i c y was and  c l a r i f y t h e r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of t h e  system.  policy  Those  who  system  agencies  intended  to provide a  to  within  were c l o s e s t t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of  t h o u g h t t h a t i t was  c o n s u l t a t i o n and  intended  framework  the for  planning.  Cgmmunicatign__in_ages Most p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d c o n s i d e r e d well-informed  about  the  c o l l e g e system.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and believed  that  the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s t o Those  most  closely  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y  t h e d r a f t documents had  been  widely  circulated,  with extensive c o n s u l t a t i o n taking place during formulation. policy  was,  in  the  main,  seen  to  have  communicated,  but  t h e document i t s e l f was  unclear  not  practical.  and  been  Respondents  intended  to  make  a  major change  to  t o be  believed  the  The  effectively  perceived  very  that  no  that i t  was  framework  for  s a n c t i o n s or rewards were i n c l u d e d i n t h e p o l i c y and not  be  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h i n t h e system.  ElC£eiyed_Effects Policy  implementors b e l i e v e d t h a t no change had t a k e n  place  in  the  governance of t h e c o l l e g e system as a r e s u l t of t h e M i s s i o n ,  Goals, that  and O b j e c t i v e s p o l i c y statement. the individual  i n s t i t u t i o n a l Mission,  colleges Goals,  p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y statement, officials obliged  were  had  made  However, an  most t h o u g h t  effort  to  align  and O b j e c t i v e s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e b u t a l s o observed t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y  n o t c o n s t r a i n e d by t h i s p o l i c y ,  t o remain w i t h i n i t s g u i d e l i n e s .  nor were  Therefore  they  the policy  had no impact on c o l l e g e system governance.  TABLE 8 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS RELATED TO POLICY ONE DOCUMENTED INTENTIONS G r e a t e r Emphasis on P r o v i n c i a l / N a t i o n a l Economic & Manpower Needs P r o v i d e f o r Long Term & S h o r t Term P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a t i o n t o be P r a c t i s e d a t a l l L e v e l s PERCEIVED  INTENTIONS  D e f i n e & C l a r i f y R e s p e c t i v e R o l e s of A g e n c i e s i n System P r o v i d e Framework f o r C o n s u l t a t i o n & System P l a n n i n g COMMUNICATION LINKAGES Extensive Consultation Exercised Extensive Ambiguity Major Change o r T h r e a t Not Intended I n c e n t i v e s / S a n c t i o n s Not I n c l u d e d o r P r a c t i s e d F o r m u l a t o r s Knowledge S u f f i c i e n t l y Broad OUTPUTS No I n t e n t i o n s C o m p l e t e l y R e a l i s e d PERCEIVED OUTCOMES I n s t i t u t i o n s A l i g n with P r o v i n c i a l Mission Goals & Objectives M i n i s t r y Not C o n s t r a i n e d by P o l i c y No C o n s u l t a t i o n f o r P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c i e s E x e r c i s e d  CONCLUSIONS If  t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of r e s p o n d e n t s  the  were an a c c u r a t e assessment of  v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s being s t u d i e d ,  felt  policy  system,  formulators  then t h e f a c t  were w e l l - i n f o r m e d about  that  they  the college  and t h a t e x t e n s i v e c o n s u l t a t i o n took p l a c e p r i o r t o t h e  policy's  receiving  official  status,  a r e good  grounds f o r  b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e p o l i c y w i l l be e a s i e r t o implement than i f t h e case were o t h e r w i s e . to  have some s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  that did  The o t h e r major elements which would appear  administrators  of  policy  were  c o n s i d e r e d t h e document v e r y ambiguous  not c o n t a i n e i t h e r i n c e n t i v e s o r s a n c t i o n s f o r  A c c o r d i n g t o s c h o l a r s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ,  and  implementors.  t h e s e must c o n t r i b u t e t o  policy slippage.  The p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s of t h e p o l i c y do n o t e n t i r e l y a l i g n w i t h t h e documented i n t e n t i o n s of t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s . considered  that  the policy  governance  structure  of  was not  t h e system,  intended  Informants  to  change  and i n d e e d ,  one  the  of t h e  documents s u p p o r t s t h i s p o i n t - o f - v i e w by s t a r t i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of  each of t h e governance d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  'preserve'. statement  However,  and M i n i s t e r i a l correspondence  "Occupation of  both t h e M i s s i o n ,  expansion  l e v e l s with the Goals,  word,  and O b j e c t i v e s  support the notion  that  and Manpower development w i l l be t h e p r i n c i p a l  area  f o r t h e c u r r e n t f i v e year  period"  (Ministry  of  Education,B.C.,1983Cs4>.  The  policy  developing major  documents  the intention  of  and e x e c u t i n g a h i g h l e v e l of c o n s u l t a t i o n among  the  decision-making  clearly  levels  enunciated  within  t h e system.  This  is 124  complimented by t h e statement " a l l s t r a t e g i e s f o r a c t i o n  arising  out of t h e o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d be i n i t i a l l y proposed by c o n s t i t u e n t parts  of  t h e c o l l e g e and i n s t i t u t e system,  Ministry"  r a t h e r than by  ( M i n i s t r y of Education,B.C.,1983Cs3).  T h i s concept  supported  by t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s ,  as was  intention  that  for  planning.  the  policy  Indeed,  coincide  with  in  would form  most  ways  the  the  basis  documented  t h e i n t e n t i o n s p e r c e i v e d by  policy  which i f s u b s e q u e n t l y  r e a l i s e d ; are considered  P o l i c y implementors,  however,  ( l i s 10)  r e s p e c t t o governance,  Minister's  lack  of  Council(s), respect  plus  commitment t o  they  believed  to provincial policy  formulators,  outputs.  non-event" policy  implementors noted  retaining  the  t h e y were not  matters.  the  system  because t h e M i n i s t r y d i d not comply w i t h i t s own With  was  intentions  saw t h i s p o l i c y as "a  document.  the  the  intermediary  consulted  Implementors  with  testified  t h a t major changes were made t o a l l a s p e c t s of c o l l e g e and system administration Objectives linkages and  without  statement.  reference to Despite  the  the  Mission,  positive  Goals,  communication  of t h e p o l i c y and t h e g e n e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n of  documented i n t e n t i o n s ,  administrators  to  have  governance s t r u c t u r e .  had  and  perceived  t h e outcomes were b e l i e v e d by system no r e a l  effect  on  the  system's  P A R T  TWO  THE P O L I C Y D I S S O L V I N G THE  In  July  1783 t h e Government o-f B.C.  governance three  structure  intermediary  four years e a r l i e r . amendments will  INTERMEDIARY  COUNCILS  decided  o-f t h e c o l l e g e system  by  abolishing the  C o u n c i l s which i t had e s t a b l i s h e d l e s s  than  T h i s d e c i s i o n was promulgated i n a number of  made t o t h e Qol_l_eg.es and I n s t i t u t e  Act.  This  Part  r e p o r t t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e amendment t o  abolish the intermediary Councils.  They w i l l  four  intentions  sections;  initiative;  t h e documented  the p o l i c y formulators' perceived  communication the  t o change t h e  be p r e s e n t e d of t h e  outcomes.  policy  intentions; the  linkages incorporated i n the p o l i c y ,  implementors' p e r c e i v e d  under  and  This Part w i l l  finally conclude  w i t h a summary of t h e f i n d i n g s .  It  s h o u l d be noted t h a t some of t h e C o u n c i l s ' powers were  drawn by t h e M i n i s t e r b e f o r e t h e i r d i s s o l u t i o n . C a l d e r  with-  records:  In 1982, the main executive function of the Councils, budgetary allocation to the institutions, had been eliminated under the powers given the Minister under the Act. At that time also, the Councils' role in program approval was eliminated (1984:86). The  C o u n c i l s had a l s o s u f f e r e d budget c u t s which f o r c e d them t o  reduce  their  support s t a f f .  These moves r e f l e c t some  of t h e  M i n i s t e r ' s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the Council s t r u c t u r e before  this  p o l i c y was p r o c l a i m e d .  _Q_yMENIED_POLICY_INIEN For t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , t h e documents examined the  abolition  announcement  of t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y  Councils  date  concerning from  the  i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e i n J u l y 1983, when t h e C o l l e g e s 126  and  Institute  •forms p a r t  of  'downsize' Act  by  Act  was  "a  large  package  of  public  sector"  (Calder,1984:83).  the  eliminating  their  dissolution.  On  repeal  (a) (b) (c)  (d) (e) (f) (g)  the  through  Bill  20  provincial  a l l references  to  the  (1983B).  This  legislation It  Councils,  ...  amends  and  Bill to the  proclaims  of  section 44 of the College and Institute Act, the occupational t r a i n i n g c o u n c i l , section 46 of the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e Act, the academic c o u n c i l , or s e c t i o n 48 of the C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e Act, the management advisory council i s d i s s o l v e d and the appointment of each member of the c o u n c i l i s t e r m i n a t e d , a l l the r i g h t s and p r o p e r t y of the c o u n c i l are transferred to and v e s t e d i n the government, the government assumes a l l o b l i g a t i o n s and l i a b i l i t i e s of the c o u n c i l , and where paragraph (a) a p p l i e s , a matter under review of the occupational t r a i n i n g c o u n c i l under s e c t i o n 29 (1) of the AEBLintLEishiB Act i s r e f e r r e d back to the m i n i s t e r under t h a t Act ( ' M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n B.C., Bill 20,1983B:4).  Although  the  initiative, in  amended  part  i t had  by  actually  Bill  other  was  dissolution  documents  the of  policy,  which  agencies  and  clear  some f a r — r e a c h i n g  intended.  Legislature  quite  and  When  aimed  Councils to  commissions  Assembly,1983:1366).  effects, the  where  was  part  of  "the  overall  elimination (Hansard,  the  described  of  Bill  Minister  of  are  claimed  an  practical" the  which  the  Education  debate  intent  perceptions  of  achieve  During  the  introducing  Minister the  by  on  what  was  into  the  that  the  Government of  Boards,  Legislative  stated:  One of the t h r u s t s of the Government i s to ensure a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of autonomy for colleges. There are considerable administrative burdens to be borne by them, and I t h i n k freedom and f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n should be encouraged (Hansard,1983:1367) .  It  seems t h a t  the  Councils  created  a  level  of  decision-making  in  127  the  system's  organisation  administrators provided in  or  that  was  unacceptable  i n t e r e s t groups i n t h e system.  such r e a s o n s f o r t h e C o u n c i l s ' demise as  t h e way C o u n c i l s were o r i g i n a l l y  established"  p r o v i d i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n a c r o s s t h e system" ( 8 : 3 ) , d i d n ' t work a s a v e h i c l e f o r governance" ( 6 : 1 ) . and  widespread  degree  of  consultation  most  Respondents "difficulties (4:2),  and " i t  "not simply  There was s t r o n g  support f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n of t h e C o u n c i l s  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , which, according high  to  among  t o one i n t e r v i e w e e , encouraged a and  communication  between  the  M i n i s t r y o f f i c e and c o l l e g e s on t h i s p o l i c y .  A  letter  Chairman the  s e n t by t h e M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n t o a on J u l y 7 t h 1983, t h e day t h e B i l l  Legislature,  College  Board  was i n t r o d u c e d  into  summarised some of t h e i n t e n t i o n s both of t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y and of t h e changes i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of C o l l e g e  Boards.  Basically what these amendments propose i s the elimination o-f the three councils, the alteration of board composition so that a l l board appointments are to be made by the Lieutenant-Governor-inCouncil and the strengthening of the ministerial authority to issue policies and directives ( M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n ,7: 7s 83) . These  condensed  legislation, strengthen formal  intentions  not  only  reveal  stated  intentions  t o dissolve the Councils,  but  of t h e also  to  t h e M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y , and a d e l i b e r a t e movement of  control.  _ERCEiyED_PQLICY_I_  Administrators  perceived  a  wide v a r i e t y of i n t e n t i o n s  policy  t o abolish the Councilss  burden  of  ...  f o r instance,  having t o e x p l a i n t o three  i n the  t o "relieve the  different  Councils"  128  (10s4)  was o f t e n  coupled  w i t h what was p e r c e i v e d  t o be an  inherent  i n t e n t i o n t o a g r e a t e r degree of c e n t r a l i s e d d e c i s i o n -  making.  "The d e s i r e  t o have a s d i r e c t  contact  as p o s s i b l e  between t h e Government of t h e day and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s "  (4s1), or  t o reduce c o s t s and t o remove t h e d u p l i c a t i o n of work by C o u n c i l s and t h e M i n i s t r y were o t h e r i n t e n t i o n s p e r c e i v e d .  The  prevailing  the  intention  account g i v e n by s e n i o r M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s of s i m p l i f y i n g t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e and  restating  t h e v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t y r o l e s of t h e system  This  i n response  was  confusion  of r o l e s ,  intensified between  Councils  as a  authority  and  and t h e M i n i s t r y ,  t o eliminate  that  There was  Councils  which conflict  and  This p o l i c y  conflict.  The  i n t e n t i o n o f s i m p l i f y i n g and c l a r i f y i n g t h e governance of  and t h e  responsibility,  a s w e l l a s among t h e C o u n c i l s . way  components.  dissatisfaction,  during the Councils' existence.  institutions, seen  t o mounting  was  t h e system was e x p r e s s e d i n many d i v e r s e ways,  other was  perceived structure  and c e r t a i n l y  not always i n response t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "what do you b e l i e v e were the  prime  intermediary  intentions Councils?"  of t h e p o l i c y Table  t o abolish  Nine summarises  the  some  of  three those  comments.  O b s e r v a t i o n s have a l r e a d y been made on p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s '  perc-  eptions  of t h e p e r i o d of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t b e i n g imposed upon t h e  system,  n e v e r t h e l e s s most s e n i o r p u b l i c s e r v a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d saw  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e as i n t e n d i n g t o reduce c o s t s s There were s e v e r a l i n t e n t i o n s t h a t were o p e r a t i n g at once, among them was t h e Government's desire to achieve budgeting efficiencies. Councils cost money at a time when ... the  129  Government s a i d t h a t o v e r a l l be reduced (4s 1) .  c o s t s of o p e r a t i n g  Government  should  TABLE 9  SUMMARY OF POLICY FORMULATORS' COMMENTS ON PERCEIVED INTENTIONS TO SIMPLIFY THE GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE.  "The d e s i r e t o have as d i r e c t c o n t a c t the day and the i n s t i t u t i o n s " (4s1).  as p o s s i b l e between the Government  of  "I t h i n k i t was a d e s i r e t o s i m p l i f y ... the C o u n c i l s tended t o echo t h e work t h a t was done by the b u r e a u c r a t s " (5s1).  "[There] were so many q u e s t i o n s about where the power l a y and so much ambiguity, t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s concluded e a r l y i n the game t h a t they [the C o u n c i l s ] should be a b o l i s h e d " (6:2).  "The principal role [of the M i n i s t r y ] ... parameters w i t h i n which the i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l  "I would say we have b a s i c a l l y  a monitoring  i s t o s e t up the s t r u c t u r e function" (7s3).  f u n c t i o n on governance"  and  (8s 1 1 ) .  " I t was a d d r e s s i n g the f a c t t h a t t h e r e were j u s t so many e n t i t i e s i n v o l v e d ... i t was an attempt t o c l a r i f y what was a messy s i t u a t i o n " (9s 2 - 4 ) .  "The C o u n c i l s were causing the institutions because allocations" (10s 1) .  a tremendous amount of problems and c o n f u s i o n i n they weren't c o o r d i n a t i n g their a c t i v i t i e s and  130  "We  had t o save money e v e r y p o s s i b l e o c c a s i o n we c o u l d  C o u n c i l Cs3  became  •formulators  a t a r g e t " (5:1).  interviewed,  gave  F i v e o-f t h e  'cost  saving'  i n t e n t i o n s b e h i n d t h e p o l i c y of d i s s o l v i n g t h e  Many  of  the  Minister's even to  senior  bureaucrats  centralisation  ...  eight  as  Cthe policy  one  of  Councils.  interviewed  supported  motive f o r t h e p o l i c y ,  which  the became  more e v i d e n t when t h e y were asked whether t h e p o l i c y delegate  more  respondents  saw  colleges.  authority to  to  perceptions  were  a l l o c a t i o n of d o l l a r s "  ( 4 : 5 ) , and  "we  evaluation  or  institution" control  A  majority  further  supported  a q u e s t i o n on t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e of  a f t e r t h e a b o l i t i o n of t h e C o u n c i l s . "the  colleges.  aimed of  i t as a matter of a u t h o r i t y moving away from t h e  These  responses  the  the  tend t o the  ...  (5:4)  the  but a l s o  concentrate  "program  These  only  direction"  an enormous amount on  comments i l l u s t r a t e t h e their  the  Ministry  Responses i n c l u d e d not  assessment of programing methods  (5:4).  in  the  within  an  amount  of  which was  assumed t o be i n t e g r a l t o  coordinating  important  o b s e r v a t i o n can be made from t h e r e s p o n s e s  of  formulators  on t h e Government i n i t i a t i v e t o a b o l i s h  the  function.  Another policy  Councils;  a f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r own  perceived  i n t e n t i o n s , most  a f f i r m e d t h a t t h o s e i n t e n t i o n s were being r e a l i s e d . responded anticipate  in  a any  way  that c l e a r l y indicated that  unforeseen  negative  Again, they  effects  did  from  most not the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y .  13 3.  PQLICY_COMMUNICAIION_LI QQ!D!DyDiQ§tiQD_y9t_Q9D§yItat.iDn Most the  p o l i c y -formulators i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y r e a s o n s -for a b o l i s h i n g t h e C o u n c i l s were f a i r l y  communicated intense  t o implementors.  lobbying  from  thought  effectively  This p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e  Ministry  staff,  College  administrators  announcement  came a s no s u r p r i s e t o t h o s e w o r k i n g i n t h e c o l l e g e  were  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e communication  seen  groups,  Boards,  professional  system.  and i n t e r e s t  followed  of t h e p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s  t o be of l e s s i m p o r t a n c e than t h e  Nevertheless, dissolution  i n t h e governance  of  hence i t s  Councils'  the college  demise.  system t h e  o f t h e C o u n c i l s r e q u i r e d some movement of  authority  from t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y b o d i e s t o another agency o r a g e n c i e s , so  t h e communication  Although for no  linkages  assumed  an  important  and role.  t h e m a j o r i t y of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s b e l i e v e d t h e r e a s o n s  t h e change were c l e a r l y communicated t o p o l i c y common  agreement  could  be  reached  from  implementors, implementors'  p e r c e p t i o n s on t h i s p o i n t .  It  was  n o t easy  consultation policy.  f o r implementors t o c l a r i f y  whether  had t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e f o r m a t i v e  Implementors  certainly  stages  or not of  this  supported t h e notion t h a t t h e  C o u n c i l s s h o u l d be d i s s o l v e d . "We had been a d v i s i n g f o r a number of years and breathed a mighty sigh of r e l i e f when i t a c t u a l l y happened, so c o n s u l t i n g us on t a k i n g the d e c i s i o n wouldn't have been necessary" (11:2).  Another  reported  " I t h i n k t h e system was  well  problem  and was  q u i c k t o impose a r a t i o n a l e on  (12:2).  Nevertheless  aware  of t h e  the decision"  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e i d e a  of r e p l a c i n g t h e t h r e e C o u n c i l s w i t h a s i n g l e C o u n c i l , e i t h e r f o r  the  whole  college  system  or  alternatively  t h e whole  post-  secondary system i n t h e p r o v i n c e , which caused one i n t e r v i e w e e t o comment:  " I n t h e con-fusion o-f t h e -few months t h a t -followed  that  l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e r e wasn't ever any attempt t o e x p l a i n or d i s c u s s . There c e r t a i n l y wasn't any p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n " (21:2).  P o l i c y F o r m u l a t o r s ' Knowledge of t h e System Interview  responses  difficulty  revealed  i n identifying  particular  initiative,  that  whilst  the policy  implementors  formulators  had  for this  t h e r e was a g e n e r a l consensus t h a t  most  o f f i c e r s i n t h e M i n i s t r y were knowledgeable and w e l l - i n f o r m e d the  c o l l e g e system;  extended other  to  t h i s view,  but with l e s s  enthusiasm,  t h e M i n i s t e r b u t most implementors  believed  c a b i n e t members and M.L.A.'s g e n e r a l l y were  about t h e c o l l e g e system,  not  on was that  informed  and, as one respondent p u t i t ,  there  was a l a r g e " c r e d i b i l i t y gap" (13:13).  Ambiguity No-one  interviewed  Government's detailed  identified  intention  to  understanding  of  any a m b i g u i t y  abolish where  r e d i s t r i b u t e d was f a r from c l e a r .  the three  inherent  i n the  Councils,  the authority  was  to  but be  There was no agreement between  f o r m u l a t o r s and implementors on whether t h i s p o l i c y c l a r i f i e d t h e d e l e g a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from C o u n c i l s .  PERCEiyED_PQ_ICY_OyiCOMES A  wide  policy.  variety One  of that  outcomes was seen a s was  evident  from  resulting  most  from  interviews  this with  i m p l e m e n t o r s , but hold  perhaps most s t r o n g l y i n t h e case o-f t h o s e  membership  interaction  on  a  College  Board,  was  between Boards and M i n i s t r y .  the  increase  "I t h i n k the  who in  biggest  e-f-fect of t h e a b o l i t i o n of t h e C o u n c i l s i s t h a t t h e r e was  a  better  interchange  Boards"  (17s1).  T h i s d i r e c t c o n t a c t , however, was  between  Ministry  and  individual  much  not always viewed w i t h  f avour. Now that the Councils have gone, the buffer has gone between institutions and the Government. I don't know whether the Government anticipated t h i s , but now when funding i s deficient, as i t always seems to be, the responsibility i s now perceived to rest more and more with the Government, whereas when the Councils were in place, they often served as lighting rods. So in a sense i t ' s a healthier more honest relationship (21:12). "It  became e a s i e r ,  processes  i n my o p i n i o n ,  and p o l i c i e s w i t h o u t t h e C o u n c i l s ,  s a t i s f y three divergent Councils"  Most of  t h i s p o l i c y was  without having  Councils  There was  effect for  s t r o n g consensus t h a t t h e demise of  removed a l a y e r of b u r e a u c r a c y  questioned  to  (19s1).  t o s i m p l i f y the o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e  hinder decision-making were  program  p o l i c y implementors i n t e r v i e w e d agreed t h a t a major  system governance. the  t o s o r t out o v e r a l l  that  i n t h e c o l l e g e system.  was  seen  to  When implementors  on t h e most n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t s of t h i s  policy,  t h e m a j o r i t y of o b s e r v e r s r e f e r r e d e i t h e r t o a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  of  the  of  organisational  decision-making Nevertheless, pattern  in "the  structure,  or  the M i n i s t r y . main  to  the  S e v e r a l commented  e f f e c t was t o remove  of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g "  (11:1).  centralisation  a  on  both.  disintegrated  P o l i c y implementors a t a l l  l e v e l s tended t o agree t h a t  134  the most n o t i c e a b l e change was some c l e a r i n g of the c l u t t e r of an administrative type, and of a decision-making type ... There was j u s t so much c o n f u s i o n i n the r o l e s of the C o u n c i l s , and so much upset over t h a t , that any kind of smooth running of t h e o p e r a t i o n j u s t became i m p o s s i b l e (20:1).  Another  even  abolishing the  more c l e a r l y — e n u n c i a t e d  the three  Councils  interviewed  to  stated  reverted  was t h e s h i f t i n g  Ministry. that  Every  he/she  of decision-making that  a  the  colleges,  of such  news w e r e  to  supporters  the  indicated  centralisation Some  Councils  perception  saw  of a u t h o r i t y  policy  towards  i n the Ministry  of decision-making  or that a clear  no  change  from  implementor  a movement  power  l i m i t e d degree  of t h e r e s u l t s of  the  office. authority  occurred,  but  minority:  The f i r s t and most n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t was t h a t the powers t h a t had previously been held by the C o u n c i l s were d i s t r i b u t e d between the M i n i s t e r on the one hand and the Boards of c o l l e g e s on the other ... As i t a c t u a l l y turned o u t , most of the e f f e c t i v e power went t o the M i n i s t e r (14:1). This  quote  conveys  implementors the  interviewed.  authority  stayed  the  that  typical  level"  of the thoughts  that  the policy  effectively effectively. (17:3). Councils  I mean  (12:3),  as  the  of t h e p o l i c y  "The the  of  policy  i t  itself,  has  just  role  the  most o f Councils  of  seen  evidence  t o have  been  simply  (18:1),  been  implemented disappeared"  t h e d i s s o l u t i o n of the  could  which  was c l e a r  was  policy.  outcomes  decision-making  the Ministry"  regarded  the  of  that  provincial  There  [the Councils]  essence  most  a n d " t h e e f f e c t o f i t was  into  think  But not a l l implementors  understanding response:  back  for  as "I think  the Councils  "I  they  such  expressed.  of e l i m i n a t i n g  implemented.  outcome  i n the four^  a l l the decision-making  were  Ministry  Comments  was h o u s e d  at the provincial  taking  perceived  Many  implementors'  be expressed  was t o w i t h d r a w the  Boards,  in  this  into  the  has  been  completed there ...  to a  ' t ' " (11:14),  has been We  had  influence (14:8).  real  now Of  including  "the -feeling  ...  functions  about  as  follows:  The  removal  1)  system  The  are  perceived  had been  of  we  structure,  lost  respondent b y many don't  reported,  Board  have  relatively  t h e most  some  members  that  much  powerless  now"  noticeable  t o t h e system.  of a l l n o n - p o l i t i c a l  outcome  as  believed  that  This  come  had  bodies designed t o discuss  problems.  There was no body formed formal manner ( 1 5 : 1 ) . 2)  before,  Boards  simplification  several  o-f c a s t r a t i o n  influence  those that a  or as another  The removal  ...  of a l a y body  where I can take problems i n a  to advise  on a system  wide-basis.  The C o u n c i l s themselves p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r i n g people i n who may not have been i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e administration of a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n , and a l l o w them t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the system (4:9). 3)  The removal  o f an a g e n c y  that  could  assess  programs.  The Academic C o u n c i l which was s o r t of l o o k i n g a f t e r the nuts and b o l t s of t r a n s f e r from c o l l e g e s t o u n i v e r s i t y ... I don't think the M i n i s t r y p i c k e d up the b a l l on t h a t and frankly I don't t h i n k c o l l e g e s have ... I don't recall anything a t the time s a y i n g t h a t t h a t would be one of the reasons f o r abolishing the Councils. I t h i n k i t was just one of the t h i n g s they s a i d , well I j u s t assumed somebody would look a f t e r i t ( 1 3 : 6 ) . 4)  The removal  of a body  t o which  the Ministry  was  responsible.  There was a sense i n which ... the C o u n c i l s ... c a l l e d the M i n i s t r y a few times on b l a t a n t p r a c t i c e s i n t h e M i n i s t r y ( 2 0 : 3 ) . 5)  The removal  of s t a b i l i t y  i n Government  policy  matters.  The i n e r t i a of the C o u n c i l system was both a b l e s s i n g and a curse. I t was a c u r s e i n t h a t i t r e a l l y took a long time to change d i r e c t i o n , longer than i t needed t o . On the other hand, because the C o u n c i l s were made up l a r g e l y of people who were independent of the Government ... [and] a l l three had capable people who went about t h e i r job i n a thorough way, d i d n ' t always agree with a l l t h e d e c i s i o n s they [ t h e Government] made ... I guess the o l d system was  136  less l i k e l y to make sudden changes ... less direct p o l i t i c a l manipulation (19:8-9).  subject to  At least the Councils had some degree of autonomy from the Government and could make decisions that were not directly p o l i t i c a l decisions (21:2).  SyMMARY_QF_POLICY Documented_Intentions Only two s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e n t i o n s were e l i c i t e d  -from t h e documents,  t h e major one b e i n g t o d i s s o l v e t h e t h r e e C o u n c i l s , strengthen  t h e other t o  t h e M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y and power i n t h e  governance  structure.  PeCEgiyed_Intentions P o l i c y -formulators saw t h e a b o l i t i o n o-f t h e C o u n c i l s as i n t e n d i n g to  ease  the administrative load,  structure  and  conflict.  to  to  simplify  reduce d u p l i c a t i o n of work  the and  governance inter—agency  Other p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s i n c l u d e d t h e r e s t a t i n g  authority  r o l e s and t h e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of system  of  decision—making  i n t h e M i n i s t r y , as w e l l as t h e r e d u c t i o n o f c o s t s by e l i m i n a t i n g the  Councils.  There  was some support  f o r t h e view  that  the  p o l i c y was i n t e n d e d t o t r a n s f e r t o t h e c o l l e g e s some of t h e power held  by  Councils.  Councils  should  concurrence  The have  evidence  been  s u p p o r t s t h e view  abolished:  "there  that  was  the  general  ... t h a t t h e C o u n c i l s s h o u l d go" ( 7 : 2 ) .  Communicatign_Linkages Several The seen  a s p e c t s of t h e d e s i g n of t h i s p o l i c y a r e worthy of note.  communication of t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p o l i c y by  policy  formulators  to  be  initiative  effective;  but  was among 137  implementors general  an even s p l i t on the p o i n t meant t h a t t h e r e was  agreement.  e-ffectively  held,  Consultation  was  not seen  to  have  no been  although many -felt t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n was  not  necessary because of the support a l l i n t e r e s t groups gave t o  the  abolition  of  the  administrators system.  Councils.  about  Some  doubt  the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s '  was  expressed  knowledge  the  Respondents b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e was no ambiguity i n t h e  p o l i c y statement on the d i s s o l u t i o n of the C o u n c i l s ,  but d i d not  agree on t h e i n t e n t i o n about where t o l o c a t e delegated and  of  by  responsibility.  implementors  No  incentives  were p e r c e i v e d  or  authority  sanctions  t o be intended  for  policy  or r e a l i s e d by system  administrators.  __C___ved_E_fects The  first  Policy  obvious e f f e c t was the d i s s o l u t i o n of  the  Councils.  implementors a l s o t e s t i f i e d t o the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the system, and a more d i r e c t with  the M i n i s t r y .  There i s strong evidence t h a t  perceived  as r e a l p o l i c y outcomes the s h i f t  authority  to  previously system  the  Ministry  performed  because  administrators  of  office,  at t h e C o u n c i l the d i s s o l u t i o n  and  of that  contact  implementors  decision-making some  functions  l e v e l had been l o s t t o of  the  the  Councils.  the  System  suggested t h a t the a b o l i t i o n of the C o u n c i l s  had  reduced t h e c o s t of system governance.  138  TABLE 10 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS RELATED TO POLICY  TWO  DOCUMENTED INTENTIONS D i s s o l v e Three I n t e r m e d i a r y C o u n c i l s S t r e n g t h e n A u t h o r i t y & Power o-f M i n i s t r y PERCEIVED INTENTIONS Ease A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Load & S i m p l i f y Governance S t r u c t u r e Restate Authority Roles C e n t r a l i s e Decision-Making Reduce C o s t s D e l e g a t e Some C o u n c i l Powers t o C o l l e g e s COMMUNICATION LINKAGES C o n s u l t a t i o n Not E x e r c i s e d E f f e c t i v e l y Minimal Ambiguity I n c e n t i v e s / S a n c t i o n s Not I n c l u d e d o r P r a c t i s e d Some Doubt About F o r m u l a t o r s ' Knowledge OUTPUTS A b o l i t i o n of Three I n t e r m e d i a r y C o u n c i l s L e g i s l a t e d A u t h o r i t y of M i n i s t r y Strengthened Simplified Administrative Structure PERCEIVED OUTCOMES C o s t s of Governance Reduced More D i r e c t C o n t a c t w i t h M i n i s t r y E x c e s s i v e Decision-Making Located i n M i n i s t r y Some System F u n c t i o n s L o s t  CONCLUSIONS The  second governance p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e t o be examined  some q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s from t h o s e of t h e p r e v i o u s  revealed policy.  The documented i n t e n t i o n s a r e f a r more p r e c i s e , which i s p r o b a b l y the  result  Its  brevity  of s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n t o communicate and c o n c i s e n e s s ,  however,  the  policy.  failed to clarify  the  139  important  set  of i s s u e s i n h e r e n t  i n t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of  authority  p r e v i o u s l y h e l d by t h e C o u n c i l s .  conceptual  framework developed f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h ,  Indeed,  within  the  of t h e C o u n c i l s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as an o u t p u t ,  the the  abolition  and t h e  other  e f f e c t s as outcomes.  In r e l a t i o n t o t h i s p o l i c y , t h e communication l i n k between p o l i c y formulators  and  implementors was  not viewed i n t h e same way  by  both p a r t i e s , which p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s t h e l a c k of c o n s u l t a t i o n the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n perceived implementors governance  expressed structure,  pleasure but  by most a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . at the  power went t o t h e M i n i s t e r " (14:1). seemed t o have e x e r t e d That  i s t o say,  pressures  The  environmental  bring  the  effective influences  the f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s being experienced  by  T h i s s t r o n g demand  economic c o n t r o l a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l seemed  to  about an e f f e c t i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y which  required  the  wherever  there  authority. (see  of  for c e n t r a l i s e d decision-making.  t h e system were c r u c i a l i n t h i s development. for increased  Policy  simplification  concern t h a t "most of t h e  on  p.126),  through o t h e r  Government was  Hence even  to  exercise  an  authoritative  doubt about t h e l o c a t i o n of  decision-making  t h e i n t e n t i o n noted i n t h e M i n i s t e r ' s though t h e a u t h o r i t y was  legislation.  already  expended by  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s attempting  t o c o u n t e r t h a t movement,  reduced  of why  questioning  letter  available  Indeed t h e tendency t o c e n t r a l i s a t i o n  a f f e c t e d by t h e l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e e n e r g i e s  the  role  college  seem t o have  f u n c t i o n s have been l o s t t o  the  system.  140  P A R T  THE  T H R E E  POLICY  PROVIDING  OF A L L C O L L E G E  The  original  provided  FOR THE GOVERNMENT  APPOINTMENT  BOARD MEMBERS  amendment (1958) t o t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s  -for t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t ,  maintenance and  A c t which  o p e r a t i o n of  community c o l l e g e s a u t h o r i s e d t h e membership o f c o l l e g e g o v e r n i n g Councils  t o be composed almost e x c l u s i v e l y o f a p p o i n t e e s o f t h e  ' c o o p e r a t i n g ' School Boards.  The p r i n c i p a l , who was a p p o i n t e d by  the  superintendent of schools  Council,  the district  and two  p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i 1 were t h e only  o t h e r members.  In 1970 t h e c o l l e g e p r i n c i p a l was removed  from membership on t h e Board o f h i s / h e r c o l l e g e . Government  appointments  increased,  were s t i l l  i n the majority.  appointments superintendent  of s c h o o l s was removed,  The number of  b u t t h e School In 1973 t h e  and P r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t e s A c t was passed,  Councils  became  a  district  and i n 1977, when t h e  _9.1Li3__  but  Board  the College  c o r p o r a t i o n s and were known a s C o l l e g e  m a j o r i t y of School Board a p p o i n t e e s  Boards,  was m a i n t a i n e d .  A  f u r t h e r amendment i n 1980 s h i f t e d t h e b a l a n c e : t h e Government now appointed  t h e m a j o r i t y of g o v e r n o r s .  The p o l i c y  decision  to  a p p o i n t a l l members of C o l l e g e Boards was made by t h e Government of B.C. was from  i n J u l y 1983,  reduced.  and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t h e s i z e of t h e Boards  N i n e t y - t h r e e School Board a p p o i n t e e s were removed  o f f i c e and t h e Government a p p o i n t e d f i f t y - f o u r  persons  to  r e p l a c e them.  This,  the third  policy  structure  of t h e c o l l e g e  described  as having  i n i t i a t i v e t o change system  t h e governance  i n B.C. h a s a l r e a d y  been i n t r o d u c e d by means of a  been  number of 141  changes  in  political the  legislation.  In  order t o  examine  the  perceived  outcomes o-f t h i s p o l i c y , t h e r e p o r t w i l l a g a i n d e s c r i b e  documented  intentions,  the  communication l i n k a g e s between f o r m u l a t o r s and i m p l e m e n t o r s ,  and  then  intentions,  the  perceived  t h e outcomes p e r c e i v e d by implementors.  findings  on t h i s p o l i c y w i l l then be p r e s e n t e d  A summary of t h e and  conclusions  drawn.  DQCUMENIED_PDLICY  The p r o c l a m a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y t o a b o l i s h School Board on  t h e C o l l e g e Boards was c o n t a i n e d i n t h e same B i l l  which e n u n c i a t e d Bill  appointees 20  <1983B)  the previously-described p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e .  The  simply statess  Section 6 i s repealed and the following substituted: AfiBDintments to boards of colleges 6  The board of a college shall consist of 5 or more members appointed by the Lieutenant Sovernor in Council ( M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n B.C.,1983B:2).  During t h e debate on t h i s amendment, t h e M i n i s t e r r e p o r t e d t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly t h a t : It i s our view that most of the rationale for having a school board trustee or an appointee by the school d i s t r i c t on the board of a college i s not really there any longer (Hansard, 1983: 1367) .  An  intention  College aimed  Board  was a l s o e x p r e s s e d Chairman  i n the M i n i s t e r ' s l e t t e r  indicating that the policy  t o s t a b i l i s e numbers on C o l l e g e Boards.  complaints Okanagan,  both of t o o many members,  a  initiative  There  had  as was e x p e r i e n c e d  and of t o o few, as i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y .  to  been  i n the  The M i n i s t e r  a l s o d e c l a r e d t h a t a reason f o r t h i s change i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o-f College  Boards  was  t h a t " s c h o o l s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  l o n g e r used a s a v e h i c l e -for r a i s i n g e i t h e r c a p i t a l o r expenses" represented  (Hansard,1983:1367).  They  should  on C o l l e g e Boards.  However,  no  a r e no operating  longer  be  a s a spokesperson  for  t h e O p p o s i t i o n d e c l a r e d " I don't know who has c o n v i n c e d him Minister] but  Cthe  t h a t he s h o u l d have t h i s heavy hand over t h e c o l l e g e s ,  I t h i n k we have t o c o n s i d e r t h a t i t i s s t r i c t l y a  political  move" (Hansard,1983:1374).  PIRCEIVED_POLICY_IN  There  was  colleges  testimony  had  offered  matured  t o support t h e notion  t o a p o i n t where  dependent on School Boards.  they  were  that the no  longer  One respondent a s s e r t e d "the  primary  reasons  f o r doing i t was t h a t c o l l e g e s c o u l d now s t a n d on  own  and be counted  ...  policy  a s independent e n t i t i e s "  (4:12).  sought t o g i v e both C o l l e g e and School Boards  their This  distinctly  separate c o n s t i t u e n c i e s .  Several were  respondents  expressed  n o t t h e p r i m a r y motive  although  most  pointed  the belief that functional behind  t o one o r more  b e f o r e t h e p o l i c y was i n t r o d u c e d : persons;  this  functional  own  initiative, difficulties  (a) o v e r l o a d of work f o r l a y  (b) "the c o l l e g e e v o l u t i o n was b e i n g h e l d back because  of t h e c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by School Boards" and  policy  (5:10);  (c)  (d) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of f a c u l t y b e i n g on t h e Board of o r an a d j o i n i n g c o l l e g e ;  However,  reasons  size; their  a l l were g i v e n a s p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s .  t h e major i n t e n t i o n p e r c e i v e d i n t h i s p o l i c y  initiative  was  political.  probably (6s6)  The view t h a t t h e Government was  "experiencing  some o-f t h e h e a v i e s t -flak ... from School Board members"  t h r o u g h t h e " p o l i t i c i s a t i o n of some School Boards"  dominated t h e r e s p o n s e s , Board  relations,  b u t other  i s s u e s , such as  and " c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t "  (7:5),  union-College  (4;11),  were  also  mentioned.  _Q_rcY_co__y_icAiio_ Q9DiyI__ti9D__D__QQ!!![DyDi£i|t.iQQ Policy that  formulators  any c o n s u l t a t i o n had o c c u r r e d  the p o l i c y . (11:7). by  p r i o r t o the proclamation  The o n l y d i s s e n t e r j u s t i f i e d h i s d i f f e r e n c e of  of  " i t  opinion  was no s e c r e t about what was i n t h e  wind"  Answers t o t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n q u e s t i o n brought some of t h e  direct  (17:4),  believed  Answers r e c o r d an almost unanimous " a b s o l u t e l y none"  explaining,  (13:8). most  and implementors were asked i f t h e y  responses,  ranging  from a s t r a i g h t  "no"  (12:9),  t o , "you're not g o i n g t o c o n s u l t w i t h t h e o p p o s i t i o n , t o  d e c i d e t h a t you're g o i n g t o e l i m i n a t e t h e o p p o s i t i o n "  (14:12).  There was an element of s u r p r i s e i n r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s t o t h e announcement  of t h i s change i n governance  announced one a f t e r n o o n no c o n s u l t a t i o n " (20:8). the  historical  implementors trustees  " I t was  t h a t i t was done, s o t h e r e was a b s o l u t e l y However,  evolution  of  t h e r e was a keen awareness of Board  composition.  Policy  were w e l l aware of t h e l i n k s w i t h t h e School  and  the times  when  College  p r e d o m i n a n t l y School Board appointments. interviewed  structure.  recounted  Board  Board  members  were  The m a j o r i t y of  those  t h e changes from t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n  of t h e 144  Col1eges  and I n s t i t u t e s A c t ,  when School Board members  held  a  m a j o r i t y o-f one, and subsequent amendments t o t h e A c t , which gave t h e Government a p p o i n t e e s a m a j o r i t y of one.  !3siQ!I_Qb Q9!=_gr_Threat a  In  t h e c a s e of t h i s p o l i c y i t was c l e a r t o both f o r m u l a t o r s  implementors  that  no  consultation  took  nature  prior  proclamation.  Despite  initiative  t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k of c o n s u l t a t i o n ,  and  the p o l i t i c a l  place  of  to i t s  the p o l i c y most of t h e  M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s d i d not p e r c e i v e t h e p o l i c y as a major to one  policy  likely that  of  as  system.  the eight p o l i c y formulators  a major change o r t h r e a t t o  to  the college  be seen as a t h r e a t by o t h e r s and a t l e a s t  t h e p r o b a b i l i t y was s t i l l  years,  interviewed  Only  saw  this  governance  Some b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e change was  people,  growing.  two  felt  " I t h i n k a number of  on r e f l e c t i o n of what's happened o v e r t h e l a s t c o u p l e of scratch  their  head, one  wonder i f i t was  <8s17),  explained  " I don't t h i n k i t was seen as  of t h e c o l l e g e  was  and  decision"  as  change  t h e system o r a t h r e a t t o implementors of t h e p o l i c y . out  and  forumulator's  administrators  ...  a  the  response;  he  t h r e a t by v e r y  right also many  i t d i d n ' t seem t o be seen  t e r r i b l y much of a t h r e a t by t h e f a c u l t y groups a t t h e  time,  but i t d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h a t " < 8 s 1 7 ) .  Conversely, topic,  of t h e t w e l v e p o l i c y implementors i n t e r v i e w e d on t h i s  ten perceived  system components,  i t as a t h r e a t t o a t l e a s t  i f not a l l .  record these perceptions:  some  of t h e  Comments such as t h e f o l l o w i n g ,  " i t was u n i v e r s a l l y seen as a  dramatic  145  change ... t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o-f us saw i t a s a t r a g e d y "  (20:8-9),  and  students,  " i t c e r t a i n l y concerned i n t e r e s t groups,  faculty,  s t a f f , community groups; a l s o I f e e l f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t i t a f f e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e same way" (21s15). that  There was no s u g g e s t i o n  t h e p o l i c y statement was ambiguous,  a l t h o u g h t h e r e was  a  wide d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n as t o i t s i n t e n t .  PERQiiyiD_PQLICY_OUICgMES  S e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s were used i n an attempt t o a s s e s s p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e outcomes of t h i s p o l i c y . soliciting system gave  'key f a c t o r s ' , p e r c e i v e d  decision-making conflicting  introduced. policy  why  Q u e s t i o n s were posed  "changes t o t h e framework' of  and "unforeseen  reasons  implementors'  this  effects'. policy  Implementors  might  have  been  There were some implementors who i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e  formulators' perceived i n t e n t i o n ,  t h a t " t h e c o l l e g e s had  matured" ( 1 3 : 8 ) , " t h e c o l l e g e s had come of age and d i d n ' t have t o depend on School  Boards f o r t h e i r i n p u t "  Again t h e l i n k w i t h s c a r c e f i s c a l that  the provincial  establishment perceived  and  for their  recognition  that  provincial  economic  membership for  was  operating costs  accountable  Implementors  r e s o u r c e s was made by many; i n  Government  the Ministry  providing  of  fiscal  management. wanted t o  policies  through  most  colleges.  would want t o be a b l e  Government  regarded  (18:4).  be  the  Implementors  to  hold  There was able  of  Boards again  a  to  implement  the College  system.  changing t h e c o m p o s i t i o n  of C o l l e g e  as one method t h e Government b e l i e v e d  would  Board provide  t h e more e f f e c t i v e achievement of t h i s o b j e c t i v e .  146  Another  interesting  repercussions  was  result  suggested  by  that one  could  respondent  have who  political  said;  one of the e f f e c t s of the change has been a r a p i d i n f u s i o n of new people to Boards i n the system, and as a r e s u l t a need f o r them to l e a r n the background of the system, how i t o p e r a t e s , and to understand the c o m p l e x i t i e s of i t ... I t h i n k one of the biggest d i f f i c u l t i e s i s t h a t people have been appointed to Boards without any p r i o r exposure to a governance s t r u c t u r e ( 1 9 : 1 2 ) . An  outcome  executive  of  a  similar  committee  of  nature the  was  the  B.C.A.C.  upheaval  One  i t created  implementor  in  the  observed:  starting from the provincial level, i t decimated the B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s ... the key p o s i t i o n s at the provincial level on the B.C.A.C. were ... School Board people ... so i t sapped the B.C.A.C. from the p e r s p e c t i v e of j u s t the manpower i s s u e f o r a while (20:9-10). Another  implementor  Government coincide a  one  changed,  with  that  hundred  per  Arguments were had  now  warned  of  predominance politicisation orientation"  the  the  previous  offered  of  more those of  one  and  cent  become  that new  change  for  in  and  result  Minister's office  college  against  political, who  Boards  might  believed  there  i f  the  did  not  could  be  governors.  the  perception there  "there a l l  that  'pleasure'  bearer,  but  having  be  has one  that  was  been  Boards  clearly  an  a  increased  clear  political  (12:10):  The Government w i l l say we wanted a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of people, and t h a t we're a p p o i n t i n g people who are committed to e d u c a t i o n , and it's not p o l i t i c a l . But you look at the appointments, particularly those that have been made s i n c e the [policy has been announced] and I guarantee t h a t y o u ' l l f i n d no N.D.P. You'll f i n d very few women, y o u ' l l f i n d no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from c u l t u r a l minorities ... you'll find no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from people on welfare ... you will predominantly find male Government supporters i n business (20: 17-18) . Conversely, "It's has  been  others a  have  strange  b e c o m e much  not and  perceived unexpected  more s e n s i t i v e t o  the  a l l the  effects  consequence need  of  that  as  adverse.  our  articulating  Board with  147  the  school d i s t r i c t s "  (12:10).  I suggest that i f they Cthe Board members] took an aggressive private c r i t i c i s m of the Government, that would be more effective. I know that Board members who have close connections with Cabinet Ministers and other people in Government w i l l go and talk to them in the privacy of their own offices ... that's probably more effective (12s 12-13). The p o l i t i c a l described  outcomes p e r c e i v e d by p o l i c y implementors a r e b e s t  by summarising comments a s shown i n T a b l e E l e v e n .  can be seen t h a t a l l but one o-f t h e t w e l v e implementors that the  there  were s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l  c o l l e g e system.  It  believed  outcomes on t h e governance  of  T h i s view i s s u p p o r t e d by newspaper a r t i c l e s  such as t h e Nanaimo D a i l y F r e e P r e s s and t h e Nanaimo Times, which both  r e p o r t e d a c a l l by t h e Nanaimo N.D.P.  resignation reported  of  the Malaspina College  association f o r the  Board.  t h e p r e s i d e n t of t h e l o c a l N.D.P.  Both and  newspapers  College  Board  member, a s s a y i n g "an a p p o i n t e d board s i m p l y doesn't work. not  It i s  r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e p e o p l e of Nanaimo b u t t o t h e government  which  appointed  Ubyssey C L E . A.  October  Times,May  8,1986).  Again t h e  f e a t u r e d a f r o n t page s t o r y q u o t i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e as  administration economic  i t " (Nanaimo  saying  " i n c r e a s e d government  involvement  i n the  of B.C.'s c o l l e g e s i s t r a n s f o r m i n g them i n t o 'the  and p o l i t i c a l  t o o l s of t h e government'"  (The  Ubyssey,  21,1986).  _UMMARY_gF_POLICY_IHRE ygcu_ented__ntent_gns The documents examined  r e v e a l e d t h r e e prime i n t e n t i o n s .  1.  The Government would a p p o i n t a l l C o l l e g e Board members.  2.  School Board a p p o i n t e e s would no l o n g e r be on C o l l e g e Boards.  148  TABLE 11 SUMMARY OF IMPLEMENTORS' COMMENTS ON THE POLITICAL EFFECTS OF THE GOVERNMENT'S APPOINTING ALL COLLEGE BOARD MEMBERS  "Boards have been l e s s a c t i v e spokesmen f o r t h e c o l l e g e s by C a l l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t y c a u c u s " (11:8).  ...  "There  having  h a s b e e n an i n c r e a s e d  political "The their  orientation"  politicisation  of B o a r d s ,  they a r e e l e c t e d  a l l one  clear  (12:10).  appointees h a v e been a b i t more p o l i t i c a l t h a n e x p e c t e d ...[they] see function as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e Government's or Cabinet's interests"  (13:10).  " T h i s way y o u c a n be more a s s u r e d o f t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e B o a r d Members a n d t h e willingness o f t h e B o a r d t o be a b l e t o o p e r a t e c o n s i s t e n t with p r o v i n c i a l  policy"  (14:10).  " I t ' s made t h e game p a r t o f t h e same p o l a r i s a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e t h a t e x i s t s a b o u t most o t h e r t h i n g s , w h i c h i s t o s a y i t becomes v e r y much a p o l i t i c a l game then ... c o l l e g e s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s c l e a r l y t e n d t o g e t f a v o u r a b l e decisions made i n v o l v i n g money, a n d o t h e r s d o n ' t " (15:7). "In this context ... I t h i n k t h i s G o v e r n m e n t i s a highly authoritarian a g e n c y , i t i s a l m o s t b e y o n d t h e b o u n d s o f d e m o c r a c y ... i t was j u s t p a r t o f this Government's determination t o be i n t o t a l control of a n y t h i n g and  everything"  (16:18-19).  "It was s e e n a s r e m o v i n g t h e c o m m u n i t y i n p u t i n t o B o a r d s and c e r t a i n l y them p o l i t i c a l p e o p l e r a t h e r t h a n c o m m u n i t y p e o p l e " (17:4).  making  "Some p e o p l e who a r e a p p o i n t e d h a v e a v e r y s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l b i a s , or should I say p a r t y b i a s , and t h e y w o u l d n o t s p e a k o u t a g a i n s t a n y t h i n g t h e G o v e r n m e n t p r o p o s e d , w h e t h e r i t w o u l d b e n e f i t o r harm t h e c o l l e g e s y s t e m " . (18:5). "The system i s probably l e s s c r i t i c a l t h a n i t h a s been Government and Government a c t i o n s " (19:13).  i n the past,  of  "The n a r r o w e r band o f d i s c u s s i o n ... t h e d e f i n i t e l a c k o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l a r g e s e g m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e s e n s e o f where t h e s i g n a l s come f r o m f o r Board members, i n s o many c a s e s now i t ' s a s i g n a l f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l M.L.A., or from t h e p a r t y p e r s p e c t i v e " (20:11). "Boards have become much more a p a r t o f G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e s e n s e that when proposals go f o r w a r d from c o l l e g e s t o t h e M i n i s t r y , we r e a l l y have a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t w o p a r t s o f t h e same t h i n g " (21:18). "It clearly makes i t e a s i e r f o r t h e Government t o i n i t i a t e administrative level, but I don't b e l i e v e t h a t t h e change s y s t e m had any e f f e c t on t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s " (22: 10) .  changes a t t h e i n the college  149  3.  The  size  and  composition  o-f  College  Boards  would  be  degree  o-f  stabi1ised.  Psrceiyed_intentigns Respondents support  -from e i t h e r  policy  as  o-f-ficials that  there  with  that  colleges,  Boards,  •functional  and  policy  policies  on  previous saw  so,  that  intended  was  -formulators  they  difficulties,  there  the  even  composition.  this  that  policy  was  reported  the  School  and  considered  i t as were  the  which  not  policy  same  or  implementors  two  policies.  a  no  the  political longer  was  manifested  -for  Ministry  decision,  dependent  intended  to  themselves  both  in  to  public criticism  the  the  resolve  administrators also perceived of  but  on  System curb  this  size that  Government  education.  Cgmmunicatign_Linkages It  was  shown  that  no  this  policy. not  but  almost  Those  initiate  variety to  occurred  in the  major  change.  statement  perceived  formulators  as  of have  prior  in the  viewed  Policy  to  i t as  but  intentions.  No  exercised  with  the  perceived of  intending did  not  considered  i n c e n t i v e s or  when  implementors  proclamation  governance  formulators  ambiguous,  been  agreed  Ministry office  change  a l l implementors  significant  wide  policy  c o n s u l t a t i o n had  did  policy  that  implementing  the  the to  of  policy system,  provide  perceive i t to  the  contain  sanctions this  a  a  were  policy.  Esrceiyed_Effects Policy  implementors  was  obvious  the  noted  policy  many  effect  effects  that  the  from  this  composition  policy. of  the  First Boards  150  did  change, as d i d t h e i r s i z e , which by d e f i n i t i o n must be termed  an o u t p u t .  A second and a s s o c i a t e d e f f e c t was t h e sudden  of new g o v e r n o r s ,  which can be termed an outcome.  influx  However, t h e  s t r o n g e s t comments r e c e i v e d i n d i c a t e d a p e r c e i v e d outcome was t h e p o l i t i c i s a t i o n of t h e B o a r d s , which was e x p r e s s e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways. If  Administrators  the  college  Government governors  perceived  that  significantly  b e l i e v e d a t h r e a t t o t h e system  changed would  t h e r e was a  also  possibility  change.  Policy  existed. that a l l  implementors  t h e o r i e n t a t i o n toward l o c a l community had depreciated  by  the  changes  in  been  College  Board  appointments.  CONCLUSIONS  I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s p o l i c y was i n t r o d u c e d w i t h t h e l e a s t amount of  c o n s u l t a t i o n and communication.  As w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s  policy  e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e r e appeared l i t t l e a m b i g u i t y i n the statement,  and t h e major t h r u s t of t h e p o l i c y , seems t o have  been e f f e c t i v e l y implemented. created  However, t h i s p o l i c y seems t o have  t h e l a r g e s t amount of d i s s e n t i o n  among  administrators,  and p r o b a b l y because of t h e apparent attempt t o smother criticism  which  had  been  seen t o emanate  members and School Board groups. perceived  from  School  A t h r e a t has emerged from  problems i n h e r e n t i n a change of Government,  Board members c o u l d be r e p l a c e d .  Furthermore,  the o t h e r s ,  T h i s p o l i c y produced more p o l i t i c a l  Board the  when a l l  t h e seeming  of community o r i e n t a t i o n i n c o l l e g e governance i s a l s o as a t h r e a t .  political  loss  perceived  a g i t a t i o n than  and c l a i m s were made t h a t i t t h r e a t e n s t h e democracy  of c o l l e g e governance.  TABLE 12 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS RELATED TO POLICY THREE COMMUNICATION LINKAGES C o n s u l t a t i o n Not E x e r c i s e d Minimal A m b i g u i t y I n c e n t i v e s / S a n c t i o n s Not I n c l u d e d o r P r a c t i c e d OUTPUTS Government A p p o i n t s A l l C o l l e g e Board Members School Board A p p o i n t e e s E l i m i n a t e d S t a b i l i s e d S i z e & C o m p o s i t i o n o f C o l l e g e Boards PERCEIVED OUTCOMES I n f l u x o f New C o l l e g e Governors C o l l e g e Boards P o l i t i c a l l y P a r t i s a n T h r e a t Emerging w i t h Change of Government Community O r i e n t a t i o n L o s t OUTPUTS Government A p p o i n t s A l l C o l l e g e Board Members School Board A p p o i n t e e s E l i m i n a t e d S t a b i l i s e S i z e & C o m p o s i t i o n o f C o l l e g e Boards PERCEIVED OUTCOMES I n f l u x o f New C o l l e g e Governors P a r t i s a n P o l i t i c s i n C o l l e g e Boards T h r e a t Emerging w i t h Change of Government Loss o f Community O r i e n t a t i o n  N O T E S  O N  C H A P T E R  F I V E  1.  The original d r a f t of t h e M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and Objectives statement was developed i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c e and circulated t o c o l l e g e s i n F e b r u a r y 1982. The policy document used f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , was dated March, 1983.  2.  The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f o u r t h C o u n c i l made by t h i s respondent was t o t h e ad hoc committee l o c a t e d i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c e , who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f u n d s and the c o o r d i n a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs t h r o u g h o u t t h e province.  CHAPTER  S I X  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND  This  chapter  employed  IMPLICATIONS  sums up t h e p u r p o s e s of t h e s t u d y ,  and t h e p r i n c i p a l f i n d i n g s ,  which a r e o r g a n i s e d  t h e h e a d i n g s o f t h e t h r e e p o l i c i e s examined. each  finding  t h e methodology under  In c o n n e c t i o n  some a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y s i s i s o f f e r e d .  with  The  four  major c o n c l u s i o n s reached from t h e study a r e summarised, t o g e t h e r with  discussions  i n support  of each  conclusion.  which a r i s e from t h e study a r e o r g a n i s e d specifically  under t h r e e  f o r t h e f i e l d of p r a c t i c e ,  appropriate  Implications categories,  f o r t h e body of  theory  t o t h e study and f o r t h e methodology employed i n t h e  gathering of data.  F i n a l l y , a number of s u g g e s t i o n s  a r e made f o r  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r i s i n g from t h e s t u d y .  SUMMARY Ib__Pyr.BQ____of _ t h e _ R e s e a r c h The  major  purpose  of  t h e study  administrators  i n community  implementation  of  concerned  with  was  colleges  of  purposes  of  t h e study t h e a r c h i t e c t s  Minister  of  Education  how  perceive  the  Government  policies  system.  For the  the college  and h i s s t a f f ,  determine  i n B.C.  three recent p r o v i n c i a l  governance  to  of  the p o l i c i e s ,  the  a r e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e  p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s , w h i l e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the  c o l l e g e system a r e r e f e r r e d t o as  subsidiary  purpose,  implementation, exist  was  i n accord  policy  implementors.  with current theory  t o d e t e r m i n e what  on  discrepancies,  between t h e r e a l i s e d i n t e n t of t h e p o l i c y ,  A  policy  i f any,  as r e v e a l e d i n  t h e s t a t e d and r e p o r t e d p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e f o r m u l a t o r s ,  and t h e  154  outcomes o-f t h e p o l i c i e s as p e r c e i v e d  by t h e  implementors.  Ihe_Metngd_Emrji gyed The  research  method  was  incorporating  paradigm.  p a s t and  Buba  Interviews  administrators  and  were  Lincoln's  naturalistic  conducted w i t h a sample  d i r e c t o r s and  senior o f f i c e r s ,  college  principals  of  of o t h e r major i n t e r e s t groups.  perceived  intentions,  directors,  chairmen  and  In order t o e s t a b l i s h  was  implementation outputs relevant  and  then of  conducted  the  perceived  documents and  with  those  p o l i c i e s i n order p o l i c y outcomes.  most  of t h e p o l i c i e s .  i n t h i s study, the p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s .  interviews  senior  i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h t h o s e  associated with the formulation  a  Education,  c o u p l e d w i t h t h e documented i n t e n t i o n s t o p r o v i d e  called,  system  Education,  C o l l e g e Board  and  officers  were  (1981)  i n c l u d i n g t h e r e l e v a n t M i n i s t e r of  members,  closely  (1985) case s t u d y  t h e then c u r r e n t A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of  Ministry and  d e s i g n e d on t h e b a s i s of Y i n ' s  to An  These what  is  A second round of involved  in  establish analysis  i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s provided  the  policy of  the  both basic  d a t a on which t h e f i n d i n g s a r e based.  The of  f i n d i n g s which f o l l o w w i l l the  three  discrepancies discrepancies  policies between  as  i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n of the outcomes perceived  intentions  were found and  and  by  implementors,  outcomes  the  where  these  an a n a l y s i s of t h e f o r e g o i n g  based  upon t h e e v i d e n c e found.  The_Findings The  major f i n d i n g s of each p o l i c y a r e summarised i n t h e  previous  chapter again  after reporting theanalysis. presented  collation  of  intentions evidence  below  the p o l i c i e s ,  which  Ten and Twelve.  each p o l i c y a s d e t e r m i n e d  obtained,  implementors  i n Table T h i r t e e n ,  Tables E i g h t ,  of  These a r e c o l l a t e d  and  represents  a  I t includes the  from  t h e documentary  t h e i n t e n t i o n s a s p e r c e i v e d by f o r m u l a t o r s of  t h e communication l i n k a g e s between f o r m u l a t o r s and as p e r c e i v e d ,  t h e outputs  and t h e outcomes of t h e  p o l i c i e s a s p e r c e i v e d by t h e i m p l e m e n t o r s .  TABLE 13 SUMMARY OF POLICY ANALYSIS FINDINGS  DOCUMENTED INTENTIONS POLICY 1  POLICY 2  POLICY 3  Greater Eaphasis on Provincial/ National Econoaic & Manpower Needs  Dissolve Three Interaediary Councils  Governient to Appoint A l l College Board Heibers  Provide for Long Tere & Short Tera Planning  Strengthen Authority & Power of Ministry  Eliminate School Board Appointees  Maintain 3 Levels of Decision-flaking Responsibility  Stabilise Size k Coaposition of College Boards  Consultation to be Practised at a l l Levels PERCEIVED INTENTIONS POLICY 1  POLICY 2  POLICY 3  Define k C l a r i f y Respective Roles of Agencies in Systea  Ease Adainistrative Load & Siaplify Governance Structure  Resolve Functional D i f f i c u l t i e s Size & fleabership of Boards  Provide Fraaework for Consultation fc Systea Planning  Restate Authority Roles  Curb Public C r i t i c i s a of Governient by School Boards  Centralise Decision-Raking Reduce Costs Delegate Soae Council Pollers to Colleges  156  COMMUNICATION POLICY  1  POLICY  LINKAGES 2  POLICY  3  Extensive Consultation Exercised  Consultation Not Exercised Effectively Consultation Not Exercised  Extensive Aibiguity  Miniaal Aabiguity  Hiniaal Asbiguity  Incentives/Sanctions Not Included or Practised  Incentives/Sanctions Not Included or Practised  Incentives/Sanctions Not Included or Practised  Foraulators' Knowledge Sufficiently Broad  Soie Doubt About Foraulators' Knowledge  Major Change or Threat Not Intended  OUTPUTS POLICY  1  No Intentions Coapletely Realised  POLICY  1  POLICY  3  Abolition of Three Interaediary Councils  6overnaent Appoints All College Board Heebers  Legislated Authority of Ministry Strengthened.  School Board Appointees Eliainated  Siaplified Adainistrative Structure  Stabilised Size & Coaposition of College Boards  PERCEIVED POLICY  2  POLICY  OUTCOMES 2  POLICY  3  Institutions Align with Provincial Mission Goals & Objectives  Costs of Bovernance Reduced  Influx of Nen College Governors  Ministry Not Constrained by Policy  More Direct Contact nith Ministry  College Boards Politically Partisan  No Consultation for Provincial Policies Exercised  Excessive Decision-Making Located in Ministry  Threat Eaerging K i t h Change of Boverneent  Soae Systea Functions Lost  Coaaunity Orientation Lost  157  Although same way  D u n s i r e does not use t h e term outcome and o u t p u t i n t h e as t h i s r e p o r t ,  he n e v e r t h e l e s s  notes that they  rarely  c o r r e s p o n d when p o l i c i e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n : Government (or other p o l i c y makers) may d e v i s e a p o l i c y to s o l v e a problem, meaning that they envisage an output from governmental agencies which, i f produced, would i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n s o l v e i t : but i t i s common e x p e r i e n c e t h a t the output a c t u a l l y produced is not t h a t which was envisaged (1978:18).  This  study  has shown t h a t t h e p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s documented  perceived  by  with  p o l i c y outputs.  the  perceived  t h e -formulators do not n e c e s s a r i l y It also reveals  closely  that  the  -for each p o l i c y .  administrators'  Furthermore,  perceptions  o-f  policy  outcomes  may  be  The  Thirteen occur  an  policies  170).  P o l i c y 1 - System M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and 1.1  outputs  t h e s t u d y shows t h a t  i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e (see  align  outcomes  by p o l i c y implementors do not equate w i t h t h e  determined  and  findings  of  the research  Objectives as  summarised  in  Table  i n d i c a t e t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t changes were p e r c e i v e d  i n t h e governance of t h e system as a r e s u l t of t h e p o l i c y ,  even  though t h e p e r c e i v e d  were  not  intentions.  altogether  i n t e n t i o n s of t h e  policy  i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h t h o s e of  T h i s can perhaps be b e s t e x p l a i n e d  t h e w r i t t e n p o l i c y statement r e v e a l e d  the  formulators documented  when we n o t e t h a t  t h a t most of t h e i n t e n t i o n s  r e l a t e d t o governance r e q u i r e d some d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t a c t i o n t h e M i n i s t e r or M i n i s t r y .  The  action l a t e r ,  bear no r e l a t i o n t o t h e p o l i c y once i t was  1.2  to  In r e t r o s p e c t ,  provincial/national  however, tended t o  proclaimed.  i t i s apparent t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n economic  and  by  manpower  needs,  concerning essential  elements  i n f u t u r e program p l a n n i n g ,  colleges.  The  was  not made known t o  the  c o l l e g e s were t h e r e f o r e u n a b l e t o i n c l u d e programs  w i t h i n t h e i r f i v e year p l a n s t h a t would a d d r e s s s p e c i f i c manpower needs.  Although  there  are  a  number  o-f  implications  for  c u r r i c u l u m development i n t h i s f i n d i n g , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s research  lies  in  t h e l a c k of e f f e c t i v e  p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s and previous Van  Elmore,  Smallwood, of p o l i t i c s ,  focussed  Horn,  1975.  1978;  Pressman & W i l d a v s k y , 1979;  1980).  between  i m p l e m e n t o r s , a phenomenon upon which many  s c h o l a r s of p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n have  Meter & Van  1978;  communication  Weatherly & L i p s k e y ,  1977;  Berman,  and Nakamura &  The r e s e a r c h a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t the  a t i n d i v i d u a l and  (see  exercise  i n t e r e s t group l e v e l s , i n f l u e n c e d  the implementation e f f e c t s .  1.3  Planning  judged  by c o l l e g e s f o r t h e l o n g - t e r m and s h o r t - t e r m  t o have been i g n o r e d by t h e M i n i s t r y when new  programs,  introduced.  made  to  the  and t h e  colleges'  considered  accepted.  Indeed, 'Five  'Fund f o r E x c e l l e n c e i n  Education',  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t no r e f e r e n c e  proposals  college  provincial  such as ' T r a i n i n g A c c e s s ' , t h e ' L o c a l Economic Renewal  Development G r a n t ' , were  was  integrated  under i t was  these  schemes  suggested by one  year p l a n s ' "may  t h e M i n i s t r y " (21s22).  planning  documents  were  was when  rejected  or  implementor t h a t  the  not have been read by p e o p l e  in  Another respondent  reported!  I have sent in ... annual reports, ... five year plans, ... institutional evaluations, ... and a l l of those things have places in them when you're talking about system ideas. I've never had one question, or one response to any of those things (20s 15) .  1.4  The  policy  intention  of  maintaining  three  levels  of 159  decision-making  responsibility  in  the  system,  Ministry,  the  abandoned  by t h e M i n i s t e r when he s u b s e q u e n t l y  dissolution  that  is  the  Boards,  was  recommended  the  C o u n c i l or C o u n c i l s and t h e C o l l e g e  of  the C o u n c i l s .  The  demise of the  Councils  was  i n i t i a t e d j u s t a few months a f t e r t h e f o r m a l p o l i c y statement t h e i r r e t e n t i o n was respondents  issued.  With r e s p e c t t o t h i s  effects,  on all  observed a number of s i g n a l s t h a t c o u l d h e l p e x p l a i n  the implementors' perceptions.  The  respondents expressed  their  a l a r m t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r had not c o n s u l t e d them on t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of t h i s l e v e l of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , strongly  supported  t h e d i s m a n t l i n g of t h e  structure.  System  resultant  strengthening  enabled  even though most a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  administrators of  the  existing  were  also  Minister's  the  failure  Ministry  office  was  p o l i c y , and t h i s was  t o implement a p o l i c y perceived  aware  of  authority,  him t o amend L e g i s l a t i o n at r e a s o n a b l y  Finally,  governance  short  the which  intervals.  generated  as a l a c k of commitment  by to  the that  i n t e r p r e t e d f u r t h e r as a s i g n a l t o d i s r e g a r d  o t h e r a s p e c t s of t h e p o l i c y statement.  1.5  The  levels  f a i l u r e of t h e M i n i s t e r t o c o n s u l t o t h e r of  College  system governance i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e  Boards  the M i s s i o n ,  also f e l l  Goals,  decision-making composition  s h o r t of r e a l i s i n g t h e s t a t e d aims  and O b j e c t i v e s p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e .  w e l l have r e s u l t e d from a d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e p o l i c y Minister  has  governance would  have  mechanism  t h e l e g a l means t o d e l e g a t e  perhaps  been w i s e r not t o  design.  authority  t o whichever a g e n c i e s he c o n s i d e r s include  This  for  may  system It  consultation  f o r making d e c i s i o n s which so c l e a r l y r e s t e d w i t h  o f f i c e of t h e M i n i s t e r (see  of  The  appropriate. a  of  the  1.7). 160  1.6  The  perception  that extensive consultation i n  f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s had t a k e n p l a c e was  (see p.113),  the  policy  that the p o l i c y  e x p r e s s e d i n a f o r m a l w r i t t e n statement and not  t h e c o n s t r a i n t s of l e g i s l a t i o n , t h a t t h e p o l i c y was  limited not  by  perceived  by  f o r m u l a t o r s or implementors t o o f f e r a major change or t h r e a t  to  present  the  policy  c o l l e g e autonomy and t h a t a l l r e s p o n d e n t s formulators  t o have an adequate  c o l l e g e system (see T a b l e 6:114), analysts  are a l l c o n s i d e r e d  Horn, 1975$ Bardach, 1977;  Brewer & deLeon, or  no  1983).  delegation  B a r r e t t & Fudge, 1981;  and  when compared  with  Goals,  viewed  Objective.^  the  Minister's  of  Mission,  a u t h o r i t y and  responsibility and  is  the  should,  as  a system M i s s i o n ,  I t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t Goals,  respondents  and O b j e c t i v e s p o l i c y as t h e  ambiguous of t h e t h r e e governance p o l i c i e s i n q u e s t i o n , may  have  outcomes.  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o the implementors' One  include  and O b j e c t i v e s s t a t e m e n t , g i v e n  many a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b e l i e v e d , not be c o n s i d e r e d or  the  initiated.  p r e r o g a t i v e of t h e r e l e v a n t M i n i s t e r (see 1.5),  Goal,  previous Van  e x p r e s s e d some doubt about t h e need t o  governance i n a M i s s i o n , the  the  However, t h e s e were p e r c e i v e d t o be of  consequence  Interviewees  that  by  of  (see  f a i l u r e t o comply w i t h a p o l i c y which he had  1.7  knowledge  t o p r o v i d e f o r more e f f e c t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  Meter & Van  little  considered  r e s p o n d e n t ' s comment may  and  perceptions  most this of  w e l l r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e  of most implementors: That's one of the reasons we don't mind i t [the Mission, Goals, and Objectives statement], i t allows you, within the limits of the resources available, to do whatever you want (20: 14).  1.8  The  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y  on  Mission,  Goals,  and 161  Objectives nor  was  changing  perceived  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as n e i t h e r r e l o c a t i n g  t h e a u t h o r i t y or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o-f a c t o r s  c o l l e g e system (see 1.6). that  the  that  i n i t s v a l u e as a p o l i c y document. implementors  e f f e c t s of t h i s p o l i c y . by  Dennison,  were i n a  the  were i n c l i n e d t o  M i n i s t e r ' s d i s r e g a r d f o r the p o l i c y c o n t r i b u t e d  depreciation seen  Administrators  in  position  to  feel to  a  I t can a l s o  be  influence  the  In a r e c e n t independent s t u d y conducted  where i t was  c o n c l u d e d t h a t "the s t r o n g f e e l i n g i n  t h e c o l l e g e community t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e g e p l a n s , but responded t o i t s own (1986Asl3),  a c c o r d s w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s  P o l i c y 2 - The 2.1  There was  policy  of  realised.  2.2  The  The  'system' p l a n "  research.  Three I n t e r m e d i a r y  Councils  no disagreement t h a t t h e documented i n t e n t of  abolishing  the  three  intermediary  C o u n c i l s were d i s s o l v e d by  Councils  the was  legislation.  documented i n t e n t i o n t o s t r e n g t h e n  M i n i s t r y was that  A b o l i t i o n of The  to  t h e a u t h o r i t y of  the  r e a l i s e d in-as-much as p o l i c y implementors c o n f i r m e d  t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  powers a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y a l l o c a t e d  to  t h e C o u n c i l s r e v e r t e d , i n t h e main, t o t h e M i n i s t r y (see p.133).  2.3  Policy  formulators  undocumented  intentions  9s130),  and  noted t h e e x i s t e n c e in  of  a  this policy initiative  number (see  of  Table  t h o s e t o o were r e a l i s e d i n p a r t , d e s p i t e t h e l a c k of  consultation,  t h e l a c k of s t a t e d i n c e n t i v e s or s a n c t i o n s and  implementors'  expressed  knowledge of t h e system. d i s p e n s e d w i t h , and  doubt The  about  the  policy  formulators'  c o s t of o p e r a t i n g t h e C o u n c i l s  the i n c r e a s e i n M i n i s t r y s t a f f was  the  was  minimal.  2.4  Policy  implementors  i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e was that  there  was  Ministry.  p o s i t i v e and indicated  and  more  and  interchange  because  it  However,  the  gave  system's  link  o f f i c i a l s was The  between  less  the M i n i s t r y  scope  Government  is  for  to  are  seen  as  direct and  opposition  2.5  The  and  communication  i t s supporters,  increased  a  proportion  commensurate  administrators  perceived  has been r e a l i s e d . community  invite  distortion. from  because  the c o l l e g e s .  public  more  the there  In view a l l major  Government,  criticism  from  i n t e r e s t groups.  t h e p r o v i n c i a l Government was imply  both  colleges,  c o n s t a n t l y under a t t a c k  so  college  and  the  c e r t a i n l y p o l i c i e s i n i t i a t e d by t h e partisan  the  have  t h e p u b l i c n a t u r e of t h e community c o l l e g e system, and  and  between  seen  s u p p o r t f o r t h e more  on t h e L e g i s l a t u r e and  decisions,  admin-  m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n d e n t s  i s no b u f f e r agency between Government and of  the  between t h e Boards  direct  n e g a t i v e consequences.  frequent  Opposition  this Ministry  approval  that  s i m p l i f i e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s p o l i c y , i n  more d i r e c t c o n t a c t  However,  administrators  perceived  of f u n d i n g perceived  shift  in  f o r c o l l e g e s provided by p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s accountability.  to  System  t h a t such an i n t e n d e d s h i f t i n a u t h o r i t y  T h i s i n t u r n reduced t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of  orientation  by  on t h e b a s i s of which t h e  colleges  the were  founded.  2.6  Because  demise,  t h e overwhelming  expressed  consultation reduced.  of  on  the  by  all  support  respondents,  formulation  for  the  the  necessity  of t h i s p o l i c y  Councils'  seemed  to  for be  However, many e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t a s i n g l e C o u n c i l  was,  and  system. from  still  is,  r e q u i r e d i n t h e governance s t r u c t u r e of  That no such body was  0  the  lack  e s t a b l i s h e d was  seen  to  of c o n s u l t a t i o n between C o l l e g e Boards  policy formulators  and  t h e e x e r c i s e of s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d  the  result and  the  political  behavi our.  2.7  Respondents  formerly the  c a r r i e d out by t h e C o u n c i l s ,  system,  policy  a l s o e x p r e s s e d t h e view  had  been  (see p.136).  that  and  and  Ministry structure  I t was  claimed  t h a t t h e r e was  to  has not e s t a b l i s h e d a  decisions same  now  had  acted  and  role  actions,  i n the new  and  liaison  also held that  t h a t no agency was  The  organisational  scrutineer  governance s t r u c t u r e .  this  inadequate  level.  industrial  I t was  as an independent  of  to  the l i k e to i n f l u e n c e  suitable  p r o v i d e f o r commercial and  such m a t t e r s f o r t h e whole p r o v i n c e . Councils  seen as i m p o r t a n t  program d e t a i l s a t a p r o v i n c i a l system  office  functions  l o s t during the implementation  p r o v i s i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and course  some  of  the  Ministry  seen t o f i l l As one  on  the  respondent  from t h e M i n i s t r y observed: Some Df the f u n c t i o n s performed by the C o u n c i l s : t a k i n g a second look at t h i n g s ; p r o v i d i n g an independent examination of certain kinds of i s s u e s ; making sure t h a t c e r t a i n programs f o r us were examined; i n f a c t , ought to have been taken on by someone ( 4 : 8 ) .  2.8  The  greatest The  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y was shift  research  authority Ministry  seen t o  of a u t h o r i t y from the C o u n c i l s t o t h e  r e v e a l e d t h a t much of t h e C o u n c i l s '  could office  produce  not e a s i l y be d e l e g a t e d was  perceived  to  Ministry.  decision-making  colleges,  t o have i n c r e a s e d  the  its  making c a p a c i t y beyond what implementors b e l i e v e d was  but  the  decision-  necessary. 164  P o l i c y 3 - Government Appointment of a l l C o l l e g e Board Members 3.1  The  documented i n t e n t i o n s of t h i s p o l i c y  essentially  realised  policy  declared,  was  initiative  in-as-much as t h e Government,  were  since  has a p p o i n t e d a l l C o l l e g e Board  the  members.  The c o o p e r a t i n g School Boards do not make any appointments. other  result  of  t h i s p o l i c y was t h a t i n some  regions  One  of t h e  p r o v i n c e t h e number of C o l l e g e Board members was reduced.  3.2  The  f i r s t perceived i n t e n t i o n recorded i n Table  Thirteen  a l i g n e d w i t h one of t h e documented i n t e n t i o n s and was seen t o implemented their  effectively.  However, implementors d i d n o t agree i n  p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e e f f e c t s of t h e i n t e n t i o n t o l i m i t  public  criticism  representatives. noting  that  initiating  of  Government a s e x p r e s s e d  This  phenomenon  implementors  any p o l i t i c a l  be  by  might b e s t be  d i d not p e r c e i v e  School  the Board  explained  College  by  Boards  as  p r e s s u r e p r i o r t o t h e p o l i c y change.  As  one respondent put i t : At the time the decision was made, the Government was getting a lot of heat from trustees, individually and from the B.C.S.T.A., as an organisation, questioning the wisdom of their policies in the public school system. I think Government feared that the trustees involved with College Boards might use that other forum as another base for a p o l i t i c a l attack ... They've been burned in a number of other situations ... but I don't think they've ever been burned by College Boards or by this Association [B.C. Association of Colleges] <19s 10-24).  3.3  Even though t h e r e was consensus t h a t no c o n s u l t a t i o n between  p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s and implementors took p l a c e on t h i s (see  initiative  p.144), and no i n c e n t i v e s o r s a n c t i o n s were w r i t t e n i n t o t h e  p o l i c y statement, implemented.  t h i s p o l i c y was seen t o have been  effectively  T h i s s u c c e s s can b e s t be measured i n terms of t h e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e p o l i c y i n a c h i e v i n g t h e s t a t e d  intentions.  3.4  Many a d m i n i s t r a t o r s saw t h e e f f e c t s as p a r t i s a n  and  as  representing  interests  (see  Evaluation  o-f  neither  local  T a b l e l i s 149). t h e Vancouver  community  In  a  in  nor  recent  nature  provincial  Institutional  Community C o l l e g e i t was  reported  that frequent mention was made of the fact that, with the change in the way Board members are appointed, a d i s t i n c t l y narrower spectrum of the community was represented on the Board (V.C.C., I n s t i t u t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n I n t e r i m R e p o r t , 1 9 8 6 s 9 ) . An  e x p l a n a t i o n -for  t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s might  be  h o s t i l e environment r e p o r t e d i n Chapter F o u r , that  the  economic  were  initiated  Government  was  such as t o i n v i t e  control.  This  departure  Evidence  for  from the  Hoi1ick-Kenyon's  the  more  the  direct  c e n t r a l i s i n g pressure  the  policies provincial  was  strongly  because i t was p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g  historic  nature  of  colleges  r e a l i t y of t h i s r e s i s t a n c e may (1979)  in  where i t was shown  and p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e i n which  r e s i s t e d at the college l e v e l , a  found  doctoral  in  be  dissertation  B.C.  found  on  in  college  coordination.  This  policy  interference observation questions its  involved with is  strongest  by  implementors'  structure?"  suggested  Again,  it  Eight  changing  the  system.  responses  This to  membership The  fact  of  the  twelve  the  composition  of  policy College  i s suggested t h a t because implementors  t h i s p o l i c y as p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d ,  large.  political  "In what ways would you encourage t h e system t o change  implementors  Board  perceived  t h e governance of t h e c o l l e g e  supported  governance  Boards.  the  was that  saw  they b e l i e v e d that C o l l e g e  not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of appointments were  the "at  community the  at  Minister's  166  pleasure'  also  consideration choice  of  believed  implied  that  o-f p o l i t i c a l  appointees.  political  s e l e c t i o n and  a l l e g i a n c e were i n f l u e n t i a l  Administrators  i n t h e importance  system's governance,  party  indicated  i n the  that  of t h e r o l e of t h e Board  and many expressed  t h e hope t h a t  they i n the  authority  would be r e s t o r e d t o b r o a d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Boards i n t h e f u t u r e .  3.5  Another of t h e outcomes of t h i s p o l i c y was p e r c e i v e d t o  be  the  sudden l a r g e t u r n o v e r of C o l l e g e Board members (see pp.147).  The  new members had i n i t i a l l y r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e  both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t o t h e i r r o l e .  This closely  another p e r c e p t i o n of p o l i c y outcomes which emerged, threat  to  possibility members.  the s t a b i l i t y of  a  sudden  of  t h e system  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  Were t h e Government of B.C.  arising so  many  orientation paralleled namely  the  from  the  new  Board  t o change and i n v o k e 'the  M i n i s t e r ' s pleasure', administrators feared that t h i s could bring about a major change i n Board membership i n a v e r y s h o r t space of time.  CONCLUSIONS This  research  Generalisable the  has been a c a s e s t u d y bound by conclusions  following  t h e important  (Hargrove,1975s13). be  discussed  primary  from  and  i t .  place. However,  c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d s e r v e as hypotheses f o r  generalisable research, "what  cannot be drawn  time  which i n t u r n w i l l a s s i s t i n u n r a v e l l i n g  v a r i a b l e s a r e i n implementation Four  of  processes"  major c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s s t u d y  i n this section,  purpose  future  the f i r s t three  t h e s t u d y and t h e f o u r t h  will  relate  t o the  related  t o the  167  s u b s i d i a r y purpose. all  levels  F i r s t , t h e governance s t r u c t u r e was seen by  t o be s i m p l i f i e d .  centralisation  of  decision-making  n e g a t i v e outcome. apparent policy  Second,  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s saw  i n the Ministry o f f i c e  as  a  T h i r d , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' r e s p o n s e s r e v e a l e d an  relationship  between t h e p e r c e i v e d  intentions  and t h e p e r c e i v e d p o l i c y outcomes d e s p i t e t h e  of p e r c e i v e d  the  intentions.  of t h e  difference  F i n a l l y , i t can be c o n c l u d e d from t h i s  study t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g  of mutual  trust  between p o l i c y a c t o r s .  1  Simei. i.f i c a t i o n _ o f _the_System_Boyernance_Stru  Administrators believed  that  governance efficient  at  a l l decision-making  a  major  policies  outcome  under  study  governance s t r u c t u r e .  of was  levels  of  the  system  implementing  the  three  a  more  simplified  and  Those who were c l o s e s t t o t h e  f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e p o l i c i e s p e r c e i v e d them as c l a r i f y i n g what was seen  as  (1)  a confusing  making a g e n c i e s , and  (3)  and unmanageable t a n g l e  (2) c e n t r a l i s i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  e s t a b l i s h i n g a governance framework  of  decision-  i n the M i n i s t r y  f o r the  community  c o l l e g e s w i t h i n which t h e p r o v i n c i a l Government p o l i c i e s would be more  e f f e c t i v e l y planned and  pursued.  Indeed,  one  intention  c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d by both p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s and implementors was the  pursuit  college the  system.  f o r the  The g r e a t e s t impetus t o t h i s change came  a b o l i t i o n of t h e C o u n c i l s ,  of School  2  of a more s i m p l i f i e d governance s t r u c t u r e  from  but more was g i v e n by t h e ending  Board appointments t o t h e C o l l e g e Boards.  Centralisatign_gf_Decision-Making  I t was t h e view of a m a j o r i t y of implementors t h a t a u t h o r i t y  had  shifted  during  the implementation  d i r e c t i o n of t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c e ,  of t h e s e  policies  i n the  and t h a t most of t h i s movement  took p l a c e as a r e s u l t of t h e d i s s o l u t i o n of t h e t h r e e One  way  t o view t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y i s t o  provincial  policies  on  college  governance  do  Councils.  suggest  that  influence  the  l o c a t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n t h e system, b u t t h a t administrators different  perceive  ways.  communication scholars  location  though  of  that  the design  authority variables  l i n k a g e s do n o t s a t i s f y t h e c r i t e r i a  have  which  i d e n t i f i e d as important i n o p t i m i s i n g  implementation, did  Even  the  the perceived  in and  other  effective  c e n t r a l i s e d decision-making output  c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e documented and p e r c e i v e d  i n t e n t i o n s of a t  l e a s t two of t h e p o l i c i e s .  Formulators a l s o perceived were in  intended  t o p r o v i d e c o l l e g e s w i t h a h i g h degree of autonomy  s t r i c t l y educational  claimed  that  realised. lies  t h a t t h e governance p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s  these  matters.  intentions,  A possible explanation  However, had  most  i n t h e main,  reduce  the  (see p . 8 0 f f ) extent  to  not  policies  and t h e Government's p e r c e i v e d which  been  of t h i s l a c k of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  i n t h e economic environment i n which t h e s e  implemented,  implementors  community  colleges  were  need t o exercised  authority.  It  must  policies, funding, reasons  a l s o be acknowledged t h a t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n together were  seen  w i t h some p r e v i o u s Government by system a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as  f o r s h i f t i n g t h e c e n t r e of a u t h o r i t y t o  of  these  decisions even  on  stronger  the Ministry.  169  Although t h i s study  d i d not attempt t o analyse the e f f e c t s of  the  'Formula  policy  the  Funding'  colleges, was  3  the  of  the  i s s u e of formula  B.C.  Government  funding and  financial  prominent i n a l l the d i s c u s s i o n s (see Table  upon  restraint  3s82).  Pol icy._Design_-__e_atign  and_Perce_yed_Qutcomes T h i s study of  a  suggests t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the i n t e n t  policy  outcomes.  will  be r e f l e c t e d  Brewer and  in his/her  perception  of  the  deLeon make r e f e r e n c e t o the importance  and  scope of p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s : One can see that a decision is laden with intention - about objectives and goals, instrumental means, and timing and sequencing of events. Aspects o-f political communication are inextricably bound with each intentional element (1983:221).  There  were  considerable  formulation, examined  communication  i n t h i s study.  elements,  often  influence  upon  policy 1975; Brewer  v a r i a t i o n s among the elements  called  &  t i m i n g of  the  Previous research  three  'design v a r i a b l e s ' ,  have a  (see Van  1977;  deLeon,  Meter & Van  Elmore,  1983).  1978;  Horn,  these  significant  commitment 1975:  to  Hargrove,  B a r r e t t ?< Fudge, 1981;  In t h i s study  implementors of p o l i c i e s expressed  the  policies  i n d i c a t e s that  implementors' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  initiatives Bardach,  and  in  both  and  formulators  and  the view t h a t what they saw  as  the i n t e n t i o n s of the p o l i c i e s were being r e a l i s e d ,  despite  the  variation  despite  the  in  differences communicated  their in  the and  views ways  of the i n t e n t i o n s in  formulated.  which This  the  and  three  phenomenon  policies  were  occurred  so  f r e q u e n t l y t h a t i t appears worthwhile f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o  be  170  undertaken  i n order  to find  o u t why.  4  A_Need_fgr_Tru_t_Betwe  The  a n a l y s i s o f r e s p o n d e n t s ' comments r e v e a l e d  of  mistrust  including was  to  outcomes.  have  groups arose suggests that  well  have  particular  groups  administrators' may of  well that  group.  into  Eight  of implementors',  implementors'  action  opinion  of  mistrust  plurality  based,  that  implementation  of  association  actors  groups.  the  It  of  interest  might  well  group  the  agenda concern  I t may be a r g u e d t h a t  (1980) and which  these  term ' d i s p o s i t i o n ' Mintzberg  i n turn  are  (1983), converted  result.  suggest that  there  is a  actually lies,  much o f  policies  major  perceptions  (1971)  difference confirming  is  the  with the values  of  be t h e c a s e t h a t  by  on  during  the  particular future  some  the  administration.  negotiation  motivated  of  power/political  where he s u g g e s t s g o v e r n a n c e i s b a s e d  suggest  policy  Furthermore,  of i n t e r e s t i n post-secondary education  also  the  them w i t h t h e  or t h e broader  a s t o where t h e a u t h o r i t y  is  trust  with  s u m m a r i s e s some o f  t h e a s s u m p t i o n s on w h i c h B a l d r i d g e ' s  model  of  association  one o r a n o t h e r  own v a l u e s ,  or i n a c t i o n as a  Expressions  their  observers to i d e n t i f y  Appendix  and  groups  o f t r u s t among  stake-holders.  u s e d by Nakamura and S m a l l w o o d  reflect  They  by  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  lack  administrators'  about t h e l a c k of t r u s t .  'perceptions  of  influenced of  cause other  expressed  as  been  expression  interest  this  upon t h e p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s  The f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h a l a c k  interest may  between t h e g o v e r n m e n t and v a r i o u s  t h e c o l l e g e s and t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t  seen  a clear  the  perceived interest  studies  will  171  analyse  t h e degree t o which p o l i c i e s  are effectively  implemented  when r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f mutual  trust  between a c t o r s  policy  could  a l s o be v i e w e d  process.  important  This  conclusion  i n the as  an  i m p l i c a t i o n f o r f u t u r e p o l i c i e s between Government  and  col1eges.  IMPLICATIONS H a r g r o v e s u g g e s t s some g u i d a n c e f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s when he w r i t e s s "Policy its  research  capacity  services"  upon i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  to  suggest  (1975s45).  findings  of  this  These,  to  of  the  body  particularly  be p r e s c r i p t i v e  means f o r i m p r o v i n g  There  are several  study that  practioners.  should  provide  together  knowledge  implementation,  with  the  delivery  explanations  useful  in of  of  the  implications  for  some a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n  relating  to  the  a r e s e t out i n t h i s  policy  process,  section.  l!DEli£ations_f o r _ P r a c t i c e 1.  Administrators  governance  need  structure  lost  can  In  restored.  research, be  that  simplified,  some  of  the  Administrators  whether  the  simplified  and whether a t t h e  t o t h e system, i f c o n s i d e r e d view of t h e  first  same  necessary,  conclusion  of  this  t h e g o v e r n a n c e o f t h e c o l l e g e s y s t e m was s e e n t o system a d m i n i s t r a t o r s outcomes at  which  a l l levels  f u n c t i o n s had been l o s t the  examine  c a n be m a i n t a i n e d  time those f u n c t i o n s be  to  need t o t a k e c o g n i s a n c e  follow  from  expressed  this  the  t o t h e system as a r e s u l t  p o l i c y of a b o l i s h i n g t h e C o u n c i l s  view  of  conclusion. that  some  of implementing  ( s e e 2.7s164).  2.  In  a s i m i l a r manner,  consequences in  p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s s h o u l d examine  of t h e p e r c e i v e d c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of  the M i n i s t r y  office,  decision-making  which was i d e n t i f i e d  c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h .  the  i n the  second  Q u e s t i o n s must be asked about  the  r o l e of C o l l e g e Boards i f t h i s p e r c e p t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s an indication  of  reality.  decision-making college  authority  objectives?  different  Indeed,  nuance  represent a s h i f t  Does  when  does t h i s p e r c e i v e d s h i f t  t h e word  particularly  'community'  take  used t o c h a r a c t e r i s e a c e r t a i n  p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n i n B.C.? ask t h e q u e s t i o n ,  i n direction  reflected  sector,  P o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s need  to  two  formulators  of  this  persons,  i n t h e governance  of  i n terms of t h e  " t o s t r i v e f o r e f f i c i e n c y i n government i s n o t  in efficiencies  centralization"  involved  Housego and Downey n o t e d ,  necessarily to centralize. result  a of  i n c o n c l u s i o n one and  professionals,  community c o l l e g e s . school  on  whether t h e g a i n i n o r g a n i s a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y ,  as  l a y and  for  type  r e s e a r c h , has been o f f s e t by t h e l o s s of l o c a l community both  in  On t h e c o n t r a r y , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n can as worthy  (1985:3).  should  examine  In  as  light  those of  the r o l e  achieved  through  t h e above,  politics  play  policy i n the  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a u t h o r i t y .  3.  Many  administrators,  implementors,  find  policy  formulators  Even though s e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s  t h e view t h a t t h e Government appointment  Board members was b e i n g p r a c t i s e d i n a r e s p o n s i b i l e perceived subject  t h i s form of governance t o be p a r t i s a n , t o abuse.  and  t h e p r e s e n t c o n t r o l by t h e M i n i s t e r and t h e  M i n i s t r y t o be f a r t o o p a r t i s a n . expressed  both  of way,  College others  and t h e r e f o r e  Whilst t h e p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n i n the case  of  Policy  Three was r e a l i s e d ,  p o l i c y -formulators a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l  Government  l e v e l s h o u l d n o t e t h a t t h e outcomes i n t h i s c a s e  less  acceptable t o the  than  decision-making under  implementors.  are  C e n t r a l i s a t i o n o-f  has p r o v i d e d a degree of e f f i c i e n c y n o t a v a i l a b l e  t h e p r e v i o u s governance s t r u c t u r e ,  but a t  the cost  of  l o s i n g community i n v o l v e m e n t i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  The  w r i t e r a n t i c i p a t e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be c o n t i n u e d  agitation to  modify t h i s p o l i c y s o as t o accommodate t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of p o l i c y implementors w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l present  governance  devolution Government for  of  structure.  Colleges  decision-making  n a t u r e of t h e  require  authority.  The  a  greater  spectre  of  u s i n g t h e f u n d i n g and o p e r a t i o n of t h e c o l l e g e system  partisan p o l i t i c a l  purposes t o a t t r a c t v o t e s ,  rather than i n  t h e p u r s u i t of e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , looms l a r g e i n t h e e y e s of many p o l i c y implementors. seems  While t h i s c o n d i t i o n continues  there  l i t t l e hope of r e a c h i n g s t a b i l i t y i n t h e community c o l l e g e  system.  4.  Irrespective  responsible  of  how  a  policy  is  constructed,  f o r i t s f o r m u l a t i o n might w e l l a s s e s s and  those consider  how i t s i n t e n t i s p e r c e i v e d by t h o s e who w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s implementation, that  whatever  i f t h e p o l i c y i s t o be r e a l i s e d .  the accuracy  of t h a t  p e r c e p t i o n which i s seen t o be r e a l i s e d .  perception,  I t appears i t is  this  I f , f o r example,  the  government appointment of a l l C o l l e g e Board members i s to the  be a p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l Board,  act,  perceived  whatever t h e f u t u r e a c t i o n s  of  they w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be p e r c e i v e d as f u l f i l l i n g t h a t  174  end.  Furthermore,  if  successful  implementation  of  depends upon the support of implementors, then p o l i c y might  well  attempt  to  narrow  the  apparent  implementors' and f o r m u l a t o r s ' p e r c e i v e d  5.  The  value  of communicating  underestimated.  When  policy  policies  formulators  gap  between  intentions.  p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s i s not objectives  are  not  to  be  effectively  communicated from p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s t o p o l i c y implementors,  the  intentions  Van  of the p o l i c y a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o  be  realised.  Meter and Van Horn observes The d e l i v e r y of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by the manner in which standards and objectives are communicated to implementors and the s t a n d a r d s and o b j e c t i v e s have t h e i r i n d i r e c t impact on the d i s p o s i t i o n of implementors through intero r g a n i z a t i o n a l communication a c t i v i t i e s . Clearly implementors' responses t o the p o l i c y w i l l be based, i n p a r t , on t h e i r percept i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of i t s o b j e c t i v e s (1975s474).  System a d m i n i s t r a t o r s need t o address a r e s o l u t i o n t o number  four  mutual  trust  improved? planning  of t h i s study.  How be  participants policy  a l l participants in can  a  in  with  degree of system  process?  and How  does the  Finally  when  other words, policy  How  the  be  policy can  in  the of  redistri-  communication  implementation,  r e c o g n i s e the s a l i e n c e of p o l i t i c a l  policy  models.  In  a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e apparent gap between  intentions  adequately  of  mobilisation  examining  the  process  openness  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n f l u e n c e  authority?  should  policy  can  governance?  l i n k a g e s with r e s p e c t t o t h e f i d e l i t y of makers  the  How  the implementation p r o c e s s be i n v o l v e d  behaviour  of  greater  integrated  formulation  political bution  of  Questions such ass  conclusion  and  described  policy by  outcomes  a n a l y s i n g the  can  perhaps  exercise  of  be  more  political  l i n k a g e s employed throughout t h i s s t u d y . -  P f e f f e r suggests  "the  p o l i t i c a l model presumes t h a t p a r o c h i a l i n t e r e s t s and p r e f e r e n c e s control by  c h o i c e " <1981s22).  Baldridge  concept  of  describes  (1771)  The p o w e r / p o l i t i c a l model  a l e r t s readers t o the  ' c o n f l i c t ' i n t h e communication  t h e communication  (1983:72).  process as  both  importance process,  of t h e and  'bargaining  Lindblom w r i t e s " p u r s u a s i o n s t a n d s as a  f e a t u r e of a l l p o l i t i c a l systems"  developed  Hill  politics' fundamental  (1980:30). T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n has  p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s of t h e  p o l i c y p r o c e s s and t h e p o l i t i c s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  _Q3_____t_QQ_______bfiQC¥ This  s t u d y c o n f i r m s t h e p o s i t i o n h e l d by Nakamura and  who  submit  that  organisations within, system"  effective  depends  on  and between,  implementation  "communication  of  (1980:27-28).  policies  linkages  t h e d i f f e r e n t environments Recent a n a l y s t s of p o l i c y  Smallwood  that  in exist  and o u t s i d e t h e implementation  suggest t h a t when documented i n t e n t i o n s and p e r c e i v e d  intentions  correspond,  realised.-  In were  t h e planned o u t p u t i s more l i k e l y t o be  t h i s study, not  always  intentions. were  not  t h e i n t e n t i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p o l i c y documents congruent  However, perceived  with  the formulators'  perceived  i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e planned t o be r e a l i s e d f o r P o l i c y  One.  outputs But f o r  P o l i c i e s Two and Three, where documented and p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s did  not c o r r e s p o n d so c l o s e l y ,  be r e a l i s e d .  t h e planned o u t p u t s were seen t o  T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e view t h a t p l a c e s t h e emphasis on  t h e importance of c o n t e x t i n t h e a n a l y s i s of plausible  explanation  emerges  implementation.  when t h e communication  A  linkage  176  between  policy  closely  examined.  This  triad  policy  implementors  of p o l i c i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h o s e  legislation theorists  -formulators and  were  the  most  effectively  is  expressed  through  implemented.  have observed t h a t t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n of p o l i c y  more  Many through  l e g i s l a t i o n i s f r a u g h t w i t h problems.,_ T h i s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by observing through  t h e l i m i t e d e x t e n t t o which t h o s e legislation  could  be m o d i f i e d  policies  during  expressed  implementation.  T h e r e f o r e , t h e importance of c o n s i d e r i n g t h e environment i n which the p o l i c i e s were implemented  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e communication of  t h o s e p o l i c i e s , whether or not through l e g i s l a t i o n , must be t a k e n i n t o account.  The  phenomena  variables  of  isolation. variables another,  policy There  should and  potential  identified  by  previous  scholars  implementation should  not  as  important  be  viewed  i s e v i d e n c e i n t h i s s t u d y t o suggest t h a t t h e r a t h e r be c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n  with  one  t h a t t h o s e v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d be compared  with  the  leeway as p e r c e i v e d by implementors.  T h i s i s perhaps  b e s t demonstrated by comparing t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h the  view  decisions  put  forward  by  during p o l i c y formulation,  Rather, related the  Bardach  (1977),  a r e t a k e n more on an i n d i v i d u a l  predominant. the  Such  a  group  w i t h which t h e y  c o n t e x t of t h i s r e s e a r c h ,  implementor  this  are  is  research.  p e r c e p t i o n s of implementors seem t o position  with  l e v e l than i s t h e case  view i s not s u p p o r t e d by  individual  that  where t h e f o r m a t i o n of c o a l i t i o n s  t o both t h e i r h i e r a r c h i c a l  interest  in  be  w i t h i n t h e system and associated.  t h e s e phenomena can u s e f u l l y  In  the  be viewed  as  sub-systems  or para-systems i n  Easton's  terms,  where  the  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t group seeklsl t D i n s t i l l in i t s members a high level of diffuse support in order that regardless of what happens the members w i l l continue to be bound by strong t i e s of loyalty and affection (Easton,1965As124) . This  supports  (1975) will  and o t h e r s who vary  out"  t h e work of Lowi  (1964),  suggest t h a t "the  Van Meter and Van implementation  depending on t h e n a t u r e of t h e p o l i c y t o  (Van Meter & Van  Horn process  be  carried  Horn,1975s458)  I______t__Q____r____ In g e n e r a l t e r m s ,  i t appears t h a t t h e use of t h e case method  much t o o f f e r r e s e a r c h i n t o p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . the  use  again  of  as  a  considers  research  tool,  particularly  But t h e r e a r e a number of  alternatives  that  research  t h i s nature.  of  in  order  One  to  when from  p r e f e r a b l y t o one to  one whom  methodological  change recommended would  d e v o t e more a t t e n t i o n  persons i n c l u d e d f o r i n t e r v i e w .  the  future be  to  single  number  of  T h i s would p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o v i d e  t h e i n c l u s i o n of middle l e v e l managers,  whose  emerged  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e d e s i g n of  reduce t h e number of p o l i c i e s a n a l y s e d ,  for  has  t h e h i g h - r a n k i n g o f f i c e of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  answers were o b t a i n e d .  policy,  Furthermore,  i n t e r v i e w s from which t o c o m p i l e d a t a powerful  has  f a c u l t y and  p e r c e p t i o n s would add d e t a i l t o t h e account  of t h e  staff, policy  outcomes.  Another advantageous a l t e r n a t i v e would be t o conduct t h e r e s e a r c h at  the  t i m e when t h e p o l i c y was a c t u a l l y b e i n g  implemented.  formulated  and  The s t u d y of t h e case would be a p p r e c i a b l y improved :i. 78  if  perceptions  •formulation over  were  analysed  and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ,  time  could  regularly  throughout  so t h a t changes i n p e r c e p t i o n s  be documented.  Such t i m i n g would  r e s e a r c h e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e e x t e n t t o which p o l i c y can  be  "regarded as a p r o c e s s o-f i n t e r a c t i o n  t a k i n g p l a c e over t i m e , effect  and  those  policy  allow the  implementation  and  negotiation,  between t h o s e s e e k i n g t o p u t p o l i c y  upon whom a c t i o n depends" ( B a r r e t t  into  &  Fudge,  of t h e debate i n t h e case s t u d y l i t e r a t u r e r e v o l v e s  around  1981:4).  Much the  issue  of  whether  or not a  single  case  study  provides  s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o c o n s t i t u t e an a d d i t i o n t o knowledge. value  of  this  study would have been c o n s i d e r a b l y enhanced i f  s i m i l a r c a s e s had been a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison. available,  The  S i n c e none were  i t s t a n d s as a s e t of f i n d i n g s r e q u i r i n g t h e t e s t  of  f u r t h e r case s t u d i e s or more g e n e r a l i s a b l e r e s e a r c h .  EU_IbiR_RESE_RCH  During  t h e conduct of t h i s r e s e a r c h s e v e r a l p o i n t s  emerged  as  i m p o r t a n t t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e community c o l l e g e system i n B.C.  and of t h e p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h i n t h a t  system.  They need t o be v i g o r o u s l y pursued through f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  1 the  A c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e b a l a n c e i n governance  f u n c t i o n between  c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r of c o l l e g e s and t h e C o l l e g e  Board.  T h i s matter was r a i s e d by s e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s i n i n t e r v i e w s , was  seen  college  t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e governance  and  of t h e  system. 179  2  An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e e f f e c t s of system governance p o l i c i e s on  staff  morale.  A number of r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d a l o w e r i n g of  morale  as a r e s u l t of c e n t r a l i s e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  is  i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e e f f e c t s  an  governance  3  An  provincial,  of for  implementing  system  policies.  analysis  structure  of  and t h i s t o o  of  regional  the  respective  roles  and l o c a l a g e n c i e s i n  of t h e c o l l e g e system.  of  the  the  national,  administrative  This plea f o r a c l a r i f i c a t i o n  r o l e s and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y i s n o t new,, but t h e need further  a n a l y s i s a l s o became o b v i o u s a s a  result  of  this  study.  4  An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e impact of p r o v i n c i a l governance  on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s .  policies  T h i s s t u d y has  addressed some of t h e p e r c e i v e d outcomes of implementing on  the  governance of t h e system.  outcomes  at  the  level  of  However,  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r course p l a n n i n g ,  there  individual  policies  are  obvious  institution  with  s t a f f r e c r u i t m e n t , f u n d i n g and  faci1ities.  5  Further  intentions perspective  s t u d y of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  perceived  and p e r c e i v e d p o l i c y outcomes from t h e i s desirable.  There  seems  to  policy  implementors'  be  a  direct  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n s and p e r c e i v e d outcomes, and  further  research  on  t h i s phenomenon may  understanding p o l i c y implementation,  assist  both  in  and d i s c o v e r i n g r e a s o n s f o r  such a phenomenon.  180  The  u t i l i s a t i o n o-f a p r e d o m i n a n t l y s t r u c t u r a l t h e o r y as  •for  this  r e s e a r c h has produced a p a r t i c u l a r view o-f t h e  analysis.  There  alternative  remains  frameworks  a  need -for  through  on some l o n g i t u d i n a l to  -further  policy using  in  I t would a l s o be u s e f u l  studies  their "termination',  base  research  t o provide comparative studies  i m p o r t a n t f i e l d of human b e h a v i o u r . embark  a  this to  of t h e same p o l i c i e s c a r r i e d  i n order  more  accurately  to  a s s e s s t h e p e r c e i v e d outcomes over t h e l o n g e r term.  NQIiS_ON_CHAPIER_SIX  1.  A d r a f t r e v i s i o n of the Integrated Fi_ye Year Pl_anni_ng f o r the Bri.ti.sh Columbia C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e Systems System Missionj. GDal_s^ and O b j e c t i v e s 1286-1996, was c i r c u l a t e d on March 6, 1986 where 'governance' had been removed.  2.  See G a l l a g h e r , (1985) f o r a p l e a t o e s t a b l i s h mediary body f o r c o l l e g e s i n B.C.  3.  See Brown, R.G.S., and S t e e l , D.R., (1979), Ihe_Administratiye_Prgces , Secnd E d i t i o n , Methuen 8e Co., L t d . , London, (p. 185) .  4.  See Van Meter and Van Horn, (1975), f o r a d i s c u s s i o n on t h e a f f e c t s of goal consensus upon i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; B a r r e t t and Fudge 1981, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n on p o l i c y - a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and Brewer and deLeon, 1983, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n on intentional i ty.  5.  See B a r d a c h , (1977), and Brewer and deLeon, (1983), f o r t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of e x p r e s s i n g p o l i c y t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n .  6.  O.E.CD., (1976), c a l l e d f o r c l a r i t y at national and provincial levels. The Task F o r c e on t h e Community C o l l e g e i n B.C., (1974), a l s o c a l l e d f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of d e c i s i o n making with respect to provincial, regional and institutional levels. 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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, BRITISH COLUMBIA, Post-Secondary Department, lQtegrated_Fiye_Year_PIanning_f Cgllege_and_lnstitute O p e r a t i o n s and P l a n n i n g s F e b r u a r y 2, 1982 First March 31, 1982 Draft November 5, 1982 Draft March 24 1983C Draft  , compiled No 1 No 2 No 3  19.1  MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1985, B.C. P o s t - S e c o n d a r y E n r o l m e n t S t a t i s t i c s P r e p a r e d by S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s .  1984/85,  MINISTRY OF SUPPLY, CANADA, 1985, R e p o r t JL RQy_I_Cgmm____on_on_the_Econo lQd_Bg__Il9E[0]_nt_Pros_ects_for_Canada, Ottawa. PUBLIC SCHOOLS ACT, 1960, P r o v i n c e o-f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R e v i s e d , Queens P r i n t e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . TASK FORCE ON THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1974, Hazel L'Estrange, Chairman, Tg_ards_t.ne_LearniQg_Cgmm , R e s e a r c h and D e v e l o p m e n t D i v i s i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o-f E d u c a t i o n . VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE, 1986, lQ_titutignal_Eyaluatign_Inter_m_Re_grt.  G L O S S A R Y  A. C  Academic  B. C.  British  Columbia  B.C.A.C.  British  Columbia  A s s o c i a t i o n o-f C o l l e g e s  B.C.I.T.  British  Columbia  I n s t i t u t e of Technology  B.C.S.T.A.  British  Columbia  School  C L E . A.  College  I n s t i t u t e Educators'  E. R . I . C  Educational  F. T.E.  Full  M.A.C.  Management A d v i s o r y  M.B.O.  Mission  M.L.A.  Member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  N.D.P.  New D e m o c r a t i c  O.E.CD.  Organisation and  Council.  Time  Resources  Trustees  Association  A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.  Information  Centre  Equivalent Council  G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s Assembly  Party  f o r Economic  Cooperation  Development  O.L.I.  Open L e a r n i n g  O.T.C.  Occupational  S.O.C.R.E.D.  Social  U.B.C  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  U.S.A.  United  V.CC  Vancouver  Credit  Institute Training Council Party Columbia  S t a t e s of America Community  College  APPEND  ICES  APPENDIX 1 I N I i R y i E _ _ I N I R Q D y C I I O N OPENING  I n t r o d u c e s e l f - P r i n c i p a l from West A u s t r a l i a , C u r r e n t l y s t u d y i n g towards an Ed. D . a t U.B.C. I n t e r e s t e d i n B.C.'s Community C o l l e g e System and Implementation of Governance P o l i c i e s Thank, i n t e r v i e w e e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g O u t l i n e purpose of s t u d y (a) Understand t h e governance of t h e c o l l e g e system. (b) Study t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of Government p o l i c y i n B.C. R e f e r t o p r a c t i c a l outcomes (a) Importance of u n d e r s t a n d i n g how distribution of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and d e v o l u t i o n of a u t h o r i t y o c c u r s . <b> The need f o r A u s t r a l i a n s t o l e a r n from o v e r s e a s . (c) The importance o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a b a l a n c e between p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s and e d u c a t i o n a l autonomy. BACKROUND TO RESEARCH B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e t h e t h r e e p o l i c i e s on governance. (a) A b o l i t i o n of t h r e e i n t e r m e d i a r y C o u n c i l s . (b) A b o l i t i o n of School Board appointments. (c) System M i s s i o n G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s . E x p l a i n t h a t t h e t h r e e i s s u e s w i l l be q u e s t i o n e d s e p a r a t e l y . These p o l i c i e s r e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l Government i n i t i a t i v e s on t h e governance o f t h e community c o l l e g e system i n B.C. Governance i s t a k e n t o mean t h e framework made f o r t h e system.  i n which d e c i s i o n s a r e  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s used t o mean a l l persons d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n system d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and i n c l u d e s t h e M i n i s t e r , Ministry o f f i c i a l s , Board members, major i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l college administrators.  CONFIDENTIALITY & PERMISSION TO RECORD E x p l a i n d i f f i c u l t y of n o t e t a k i n g , and t h e need f o r a c c u r a c y . A s s u r e i n t e r v i e w e e of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Seek p e r m i s s i o n t o r e c o r d t h e i n t e r v i e w . P r e s e n t I n t e r v i e w e e Consent Forms and a s k f o r s i g n a t u r e .  194  APPENDIX  TWO  INTERVIEW QUESTION GUIDE FOR POLICY INTENTIONS  Abolition_of_Cgunc_l_ Qis  What do you b e l i e v e were t h e major i n t e n t i o n s of t h e p o l i c y to abolish the three intermediary Councils?  Q2s  In your o p i n i o n , were t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p o l i c y change c l e a r l y communicated t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e system?  Q3s  D i d t h e p o l i c y aim t o d e l e g a t e more a u t h o r i t y c o l l e g e s when t h e C o u n c i l s were d i s s o l v e d ?  Q4s  What i s t h e major i n t e n d e d r o l e of t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c e i n the governance of t h e c o l l e g e system?  Q5s  Do you t h i n k t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s were i n f o r m e d about t h e community c o l l e g e system?  Q6s  What degree of independent d i s c r e t i o n d i d t h e p o l i c y intend to provide college administrators with respect to governance?  Q7:  Do you b e l i e v e t h e p r o v i n c i a l Government's p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s are being r e a l i s e d ?  Q8:  Have t h e r e been any u n f o r s e e n e f f e c t s from t h e a b o l i t i o n o f the three Councils?  t o the  sufficiently  Ggy_rnm_n__A_Bgintm_nt_gf Q9:  What were t h e key f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e Government t o d i r e c t l y a p p o i n t a l l members t o C o l l e g e Boards?  Q10:  D i d any c o n s u l t a t i o n occur p r o c l a m a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y ?  with c o l l e g e s  prior  t o the  Q l l s Was t h e p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e t o a b o l i s h l o c a l School Board appointments t o c o l l e g e s seen as a major change o r t h r e a t t o the system a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ? Q12s  Has t h e r e been any u n f o r s e e n e f f e c t s from t h e change?  Q13s  Why was no term of o f f i c e s p e c i f i e d f o r appointments?  _i__ion__oa____nd_Ob Q14s  Was t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o-f t h e M.6.0. 's i n t e n d e d a s a major change t o t h e c o l l e g e system as f a r a s governance i s concerned?  Q15s  What were t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n t e n t i o n s of t h e Government's system M.G.O.'s s t a t e m e n t ?  Q16s  Do you b e l i e v e t h e M.G.O.'s were e f f e c t i v e l y communicated t o members o f t h e c o l l e g e system?  Q17s  What s a n c t i o n s and i n c e n t i v e s a r e e x e r c i s e d f o r implementers of t h e M.G.O.'s?  Q18s  In what way have t h e M.G.O.'s changed t h e framework f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e c o l l e g e system?  Q19s  Was i t i n t e n d e d t o p r e s e r v e a h i g h degree autonomy f o r t h e c o l l e g e s ?  of e d u c a t i o n a l  Q20s How i m p o r t a n t , i n your o p i n i o n , a r e t h e p r o v i n c i a l on system governance?  policies  Q21s  elements  What a r e t h e i m p o r t a n t u n d e c l a r e d o r undocumented of t h e p o l i c i e s on governance?  Q22s A r e t h e r e any o t h e r i s s u e s on which you would like comment w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p o l i c i e s on governance?  to  196  APPENDIX  THREE  INIiByiEW_QyE_IION__yiDE_F Abglitign_gf_CgunciIs 1.  What do you b e l i e v e were t h e most n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t s o f t h e p o l i c y t o abolish the three intermediary Councils?  2.  In your o p i n i o n were t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p o l i c y change c l e a r l y communicted t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e system?  3.  In your o p i n i o n , d i d t h e p o l i c y aim t o d e l e g a t e authority t o t h e c o l l e g e s when t h e C o u n c i l s di ssolved?  4.  In your o p i n i o n , what i s t h e major r o l e of t h e M i n i s t r y o f f i c e i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s governance p o l i c y i n t h e c o l l e g e system?  5.  Do you t h i n k t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t o r s were informed about t h e Community C o l l e g e System?  6.  In your o p i n i o n , what degree of independent d i s c r e t i o n d i d the p o l i c y intend t o provide c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s with r e s p e c t t o governance?  7.  How e f f e c t i v e l y do you b e l i e v e t h a t was implemented?  8.  Do you b e l i e v e any u n f o r s e e n e f f e c t s abolishing the three Councils?  Abg_itign_gf  have  more were  sufficiently  emerged  from  _Schgg__Bgard_AeBgintments  9.  In your o p i n i o n , what were t h e key f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the Government t o d i r e c t l y a p p o i n t a l l members t o C o l l e g e Boards?  10.  Do you b e l i e v e any c o n s u l t a t i o n o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n of t h e P o l i c y ?  11.  In your o p i n i o n , was t h e p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e t o a b o l i s h l o c a l School Board appointments t o c o l l e g e s seen a s a major change o r t h r e a t t o t h e system a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ?  13.  Do y o u b e l i e v e t h e r e have been any u n f o r s e e n e f f e c t s t h e change?  14.  What do you b e l i e v e were t h e r e a s o n s no term of o f f i c e was s p e c i f i e d f o r appointments?  14a  In your o p i n i o n , what changes have o c c u r r e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s or framework of t h e system because of t h e change i n Board membership?  with  colleges  from  197  Mi5_ign__Gg_____and_ 15=  In your o p i n i o n , was t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n of t h e M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s i n t e n d e d a s a major change t o t h e c o l l e g e system, as f a r a s governance i s concerned?  PROBE  Have t h e c o l l e g e M.G.O.'s been c l o s e l y a l l i g n e d of t h e p r o v i n c i a l Government's f o r t h e system?  16.  In your o p i n i o n , t h e Government's statement?  17.  Do y o u b e l i e v e t h e M i s s i o n G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s were e f f e c t i v e l y communicated t o members o f t h e C o l l e g e System?  18.  Do you b e l i e v e t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t a m b i g u i t y i n t h e M.G.O. statement t o a l l o w t h e c o l l e g e a r e a s o n a b l e degree of flexibility?  21.  In your opinion, what s a n c t i o n s and i n c e n t i v e s a r e e x e r c i s e d f o r implementers of t h e M.G.O.'s?  22.  How do you b e l i e v e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f system i s evaluated?  25.  In your o p i n i o n , i n what way has t h e M i s s i o n G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s changed t h e framework f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e C o l l e g e System?  28.  Do you b e l i e v e t h e MGO's i n t e n d e d t o p r e s e r v e a h i g h degree of e d u c a t i o n a l autonomy f o r t h e c o l l e g e s ?  to  those  what were t h e most i m p o r t a n t outcomes of system M i s s i o n , G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s  governance  General Governance I s s u e s 23.  How i m p o r t a n t , i n your o p i n i o n , a r e t h e p r o v i n c i a l on system governance?  policies  24.  What do you b e l i e v e a r e t h e i m p o r t a n t u n d e c l a r e d undocumented elements o f t h e p o l i c i e s on governance?  26.  In what ways would y o u encourage t h e system t o change i t s governance s t r u c t u r e ?  32.  I s t h e r e any o t h e r i s s u e s on which you would l i k e t o comment w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e t h r e e policies?  33.  A r e t h e r e any o t h e r a r e a s t h a t my q u e s t i o n s covered which you c o n s i d e r a r e i m p o r t a n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of governance p o l i c i e s ?  34.  Can y o u recommend anyone knowledgeable o f t h e a r e a being examined who c o u l d a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s s t u d y , o r someone who would p r o v i d e an opposing view t o your own?  or  have n o t t o the  198  APPENDIX  FOUR  INTERVIEWEES BEINDER Frank Mr -former E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f B.C.A.C. BENNETT B e r y l Ms Member M a l a s p i n a C o l l e g e Board BUCKLEY Robert Mr Member of S e l k i r k C o l l e g e Board former P r e s i d e n t B.C.A.C. COUCH Don Mr E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s former E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of The Academic C o u n c i l FISHER Grant Dr A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r P o s t Secondary E d u c a t i o n former P r i n c i p a l Camosun C o l l e g e FRASER Bruce Dr P r i n c i p a l M a l a s p i n a  College  former M i n i s t r y D i r e c t o r GALLAGHER P a u l Dr P r i n c i p a l Vancouver Community C o l l e g e HARDWICK Walter Dr Ex former M i n i s t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n P r e s i d e n t Knowledge Network HEINRICH John Mr former M i n i s t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n KENNEDY J i m Dr former Chairman o f V.C.C. and former Chairman Exec Comm Management A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l MacIVER Sandy Mr former D i r e c t o r P o l i c y & P l a n n i n g M i n i s t r y McCANDLESS R i c Mr D i r e c t o r Research and A n a l y s i s M i n i s t r y MOORE B a r r y Dr P r i n c i p a l F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e MORIN L l o y d Dr P r i n c i p a l Camosun C o l l e g e NEWBERRY Jack Dr Exec D i r Management S e r v i c e s M i n i s t r y PERRA Leo Mr P r i n c i p a l S e l k i r k  College  RIZUN H i l d a Ms Chairman C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e Board SHOOP M i c h a e l Mr former D i r e c t o r P l a n n i n g M i n i s t r y SOLES Andrew Mr former A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r U n i v e r s i t i e s THOMPSON L o m e Mr E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r Program S e r v i c e s M i n i s t r y WATERS John Mr P r e s i d e n t C.I.E.A. WING Dennis Dr P r i n c i p a l North  Island College 199  APPENDIX  FIVE  FQRf_AI_OF_CHARI__USED_FOR POLICY INFLUENCERS s e p a r a t e c h a r t -for <a> FORMULATORS )principal (b) IMPLEMENTERS )board member ) i n t e r e s t group POLICY NUMBER —  (Separate c h a r t f o r each p o l i c y )  QUESTION NUMBER  QUESTION NUMBER  QUESTION NUMBER  RESPONDENT NUMBER ANSWERS TD S P E C I F I C QUESTIONS HERE SUMMARISED  AND  RECORDED IN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN U S I N 6  THE RESPONDENTS OWN HORDS  RESPONDENT NUMBER IF  ANSWERS  TO ANOTHER QUESTION HERE  GIVEN,  THE SUMMARY HAS RECORDED UNDER THE COLUMN  THE  QUESTION HHICH PROMOTED THE RESPONSE BUT  IN A DIFFERENT COLOURED INK  RESPONDENT NUMBER  OF  QUESTION NUMBER  APPENDIX S I X INTERVIEW CODING Q  QUESTION;  PR;  I - = INTERVIEWER; POLICY 1 POLICY 2 POLICY 3 Comments  PROBE: R - =  RESPONDENT  (Mission Goals, Objectives) ( A b o l i t i o n of C o u n c i l s ) (Government Board Appointments) on g e n e r a l governance i s s u e s  P01; P02; P03; POG;  DESIGN VARIABLES Amount of Change Degree of Threat C l a r i t y of G o a l s Sanctions & Incentives C o n s u l t a t i on Resources F o r m u l a t o r s Knowledge Assign R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Intent Stated Intent Unstated ENVIRONMENT  Is  2; 3; 5; 6; 7; S; 9; 10; 11; ENV 17; 18; 19;  Economic S t a t e Social State P o l i t i c a l State COMMUNICATION VARIABLES  C l a r i t y of Purpose 13; Degree of A m b i g u i t y 14; Timing 16; Degree of B u r e a u c r a t i s a t i o n 22; P e r c e i v e d E f f e c t i v e n e s s Comm'n 23; INDIVIDUAL PERCEPTION VARIABLES  I/P  P e r c e i v e d Importance of P o l i c y U n d e r s t a n d i n g of P o l i c y Influencers I n d i v i d u a l Committment Intentions Realised I n t e n t i o n s Not R e a l i s e d  24; 27; 30; 31; 33; 34;  I. = INTENTION: P. = PERCEPTION: R. = REALISED: 0. = OUTCOMES.  ?oi  APPENDIX  SEVEN  MIMBERS_OF_RESEARCH_AD  DAY B i l l  Principal  Douglas C o l l e g e  DENNISON John  P r o f e s s o r Higher E d u c a t i o n U.B.C.  FAST Lawrence  D i r e c t o r Academic A f f a i r s Vancuver Community C o l l e g e  HOLLYCK-KENYON Tim Researcher ROBERTSON B i l l SOLES Andrew  on B.C. c o l l e g e c o o r d i n a t i o n  former Head of Department of D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n B.C. I n s t i t u t e of Technology former Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n  APPENDIX  EIGHT  SOME C O L L E G E A D M I N I S T R A T O R S ' COMMENTS I M P L Y I N G L A C K OF T R U S T  "In the case of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r system, among the i l l s was the f a c t t h a t a l l of the v a r i o u s p a r t i e s w i t h i n the system d i d not always have a well defined sense of g o a l s , nor d i d they always cooperate well with one another" ( 4 s 1 9 ) .  "If people of good will can work t o g e t h e r [they will] demonstrate the p o t e n t i a l of the system to s o l v e d i f f i c u l t problems and to work them out i n a reasonably i n t e r a c t i v e f a s h i o n " (4s31).  "The a t t i t u d e seems t o be, i n i t f o r me" (12s 16) .  I ' l l cooperate with you,  i f t h e r e i s an  "Right now I j u s t don't t h i n k t h a t we're very c r e d i b l e . b e l i e v e us" ( 1 2 : 2 4 ) .  advantage  I don't t h i n k people  "The Minister has the a u t h o r i t y t o d e l e g a t e a l o t of h i s powers t o Boards, even though he r e t a i n s f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . M i n i s t e r s have not chosen t o do that, and I contend t h a t they have not chosen t o do t h a t because they don't have enough c o n f i d e n c e yet i n the competence and a b i l i t y of Boards" ( 1 4 : 3 ) .  "What i t r e a l l y demonstrated though, i s how makers to keep them on t r a c k " (23s3).  a bureaucracy ...  need  policy-  "You w i l l f i n d i n any l e v e l of Government ... people sometimes being c a p t u r e d by the b u r e a u c r a t s i n the c o l l e g e s ... You've got t o be on your t o e s , because t h e r e ' s nobody more c r a f t y than a seasoned b u r e a u c r a t , b e l i e v e me" (23:14).  

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