UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teacher efficacy : its relationship to school level organizational conditions and teacher demographic… Cavers, Lloyd 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1988_A2 C38.pdf [ 12.17MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055813.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055813-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055813-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055813-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055813-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055813-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055813-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055813-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055813.ris

Full Text

TEACHER EFFICACY: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SCHOOL LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITIONS AND TEACHER DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS by LLOYD CAVERS A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t , and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1988 ® L l o y d C a v e r s , 1988 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t , and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Va n c ou v er , Canada V6T 1W5 Da te : June 1988 ABSTRACT T h i s e m p i r i c a l s tudy e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and each of s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d be used i n s c h o o l improvement p l a n n i n g . Teacher e f f i c a c y , the e x t e n t t o which t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e they have the c a p a c i t y t o a f f e c t s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e , has two components as d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y : t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , and p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . Teach ing e f f i c a c y , c o n s i d e r e d t o be a g e n e r a l measure o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , d e s c r i b e s the t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s , as a g roup , t o i n f l u e n c e l e a r n i n g . P e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , c o n s i d e r e d t o be the more s p e c i f i c and impor tan t measure o f the two, d e s c r i b e s the b e l i e f t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r has the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s t o b r i n g about s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . The t e a c h e r ' s sense o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y i s b e l i e v e d t o have the most p o t e n t i a l f o r a f f e c t i n g the t e a c h e r ' s m o t i v a t i o n and f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r . A t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y i s b e l i e v e d t o be a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Nine s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and f i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s e l e c t e d f o r s tudy from the l i t e r a t u r e because they had been p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o good s c h o o l s . A v o l u n t e e r sample o f 339 s c h o o l - b a s e d t e a c h e r s i n one A l b e r t a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i i i were s u r v e y e d and the p r i n c i p a l o f each o f 15 s c h o o l s was i n t e r v i e w e d . Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s were used w i t h the t e a c h e r as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s ; t h e s e f i n d i n g s were v e r i f i e d and a m p l i f i e d u s i n g a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w i t h the s c h o o l as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . The main c o n c l u s i o n s were: (1) t e a c h e r sex and t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , w h i l e t e a c h e r age and e x p e r i e n c e were n o t ; and (2) t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f s tudent b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The s tudy s u g g e s t s seven i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n enhanc ing t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . These i n c l u d e : (1) p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s t o d i s c u s s i n s t r u c t i o n - r e l a t e d t o p i c s ; and (2) implement ing a s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e p o l i c y aimed at i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . Ten i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a secondary s c h o o l f o c u s and a l s o the use o f r e s e a r c h methods w i t h the p o t e n t i a l t o e s t a b l i s h a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page L i s t o f T a b l e s x i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s x v i Acknowledgements x v i i Chapte r 1. BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 1 Background 2 E lements o f the Study 5 The Teacher 5 The S c h o o l Workplace 7 S t u d y i n g the R e l a t i o n s h i p s : A R a t i o n a l e 8 Purpose 9 S i g n i f i c a n c e 9 Summary 11 Overv iew o f The D i s s e r t a t i o n 12 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14 Teacher E f f i c a c y 14 D e f i n i t i o n s o f E f f i c a c y 15 Teacher E f f i c a c y and the S c h o o l S e t t i n g 20 The T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e 24 Summary 29 The S c h o o l L e v e l Focus 30 The S c h o o l L e v e l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s . . . . 32 Goa l Consensus 34 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A c t i v i t y 34 D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g 36 V Chapter Page 2. Communication 38 Student Behaviour 40 Teacher Evaluation 41 Summary 43 The Teacher Demographic Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s 44 Teacher Age 44 Teacher Sex 46 Teaching Grade Level D i v i s i o n 46 Years of Teaching Experience 47 Summary 49 Framework of Relationships 49 Summary 57 3. METHOD 59 Research Questions 59 Research Question 1 60 Research Question 2 60 Conceptual and Operational D e f i n i t i o n s 61 Teacher E f f i c a c y 61 The School Level Organizational Conditions 62 Teacher Demographic Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s 65 Study Design 65 Population and Sample 66 Data C o l l e c t i o n Instruments 67 Construction of the School Dimensions Survey 68 v i Chapter Page 3. Section A: teacher e f f i c a c y . 69 Section B: school l e v e l organizational conditions 70 Section C: teacher demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 72 Construction of the P r i n c i p a l Interview Schedule 74 Revision of the Instruments 75 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures 78 School Dimensions Survey 78 Phase 1 78 Phase 2 79 Phase 3 80 P r i n c i p a l Interview Schedule 80 Data Analysis 81 Levels of Analysis 81 Data Analysis Procedures: The Teacher as the Unit of Analysis 82 Data Analysis Procedures: The School as the Unit of Analysis 85 Delimitations, Assumptions and Limitations of the Study 88 Delimitations 88 Assumptions 89 v i i Chapter Page 3. Limitations 90 4- FINDINGS: THE TEACHER AS THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS 91 The Respondents 91 Age of Respondents 93 Sex of Respondents 96 Teaching Experience of Respondents 96 The Teacher E f f i c a c y Scale 97 The Relationships 100 Research Question 1: Teacher E f f i c a c y and Teacher Demographic Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s 100 Age and Sex 100 Grade Level Placement 102 Teaching Experience 104 Research Question 1.2: Demographic Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of High and Low E f f i c a c y Teachers 104 D e f i n i t i o n of high teacher e f f i c a c y 106 Comparison of e f f i c a c y scores with age, sex, and grade l e v e l 108 Comparison of e f f i c a c y scores and teaching experience 110 Research Question 2: Teacher E f f i c a c y and the School Level Organizational Conditions 113 v i i i Chapter Page 4. Correlation analysis r e s u l t s 114 Multiple regression analysis r e s u l t s 114 High and Low E f f i c a c y Teachers and Goal Consensus 119 High and Low E f f i c a c y Teachers and the Other Eight School Organizational Conditions 121 Summary of Findings: The Teacher as the Unit of Analysis 124 The Respondents 125 The Teacher E f f i c a c y Scale 126 The Relationships Between Teacher Sense of E f f i c a c y and the Teacher Demographic Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s 126 Research question 1.1 126 Research question 1.2 126 Research Question 2: The Relationship Between Teacher Sense of E f f i c a c y and the School Level Organizational Conditions 127 Other Results 128 5. ' FINDINGS: THE SCHOOL AS THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS 129 Post-hoc Analysis 130 Measurement of Student Socio-economic Status 130 Measurement of Student Achievement 131 i x Chapter Page 5. High E f f i c a c y Schools 131 Student Socio-economic Status 135 Student Achievement 135 Teacher E f f i c a c y Scores 135 School Level Organizational Conditions 140 Goal consensus 140 Administrative a c t i v i t y 141 Decision-making 141 Communication 142 Student behaviour 144 Teacher evaluation 144 Summary 145 P r i n c i p a l Interviews 148 School 06 148 P r i n c i p a l interview 149 School 07 152 P r i n c i p a l interview 153 School 09 158 P r i n c i p a l interview 160 School 13 163 P r i n c i p a l interview 164 Low E f f i c a c y Schools 168 Summary of Findings: The School as the Unit of Analysis 170 X Chapter Page 5. Consistent Findings 170 New Findings From the Post-hoc Analysis 172 New Findings Using the School as the Unit of Analysis 172 Inconsistent Finding 173 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 175 Nature of the Study 175 Purpose 175 Research Questions 176 Liter a t u r e Review 177 Framework of Relationships 178 Study Procedures 180 Major Findings and Discussion 181 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the Findings 182 Research Question 1: S i g n i f i c a n t Relationships Between Teacher E f f i c a c y and Teacher Demographic Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s 183 Teacher sex 184 Elementary/Secondary 184 Non-significant Relationships Between Teacher E f f i c a c y and Teacher Demographic Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; Student Achievement and SES 187 Teacher age 187 x i Chapter Page 6. Teaching experience 188 Student achievement and SES 188 Research Question 2: S i g n i f i c a n t Relationships Between Teachers' Sense of E f f i c a c y and School Level Organizational Conditions 189 Horizontal communication 190 Student behaviour 193 Teacher Sense of Ef f i c a c y , Student Behaviour, Student Achievement and Socio-economic Status.... 197 The Relationship Between Teacher E f f i c a c y and Other Combinations of School Level Organizational Conditions 202 The Relationship Between Teacher E f f i c a c y and Administrative Style 204 Teacher E f f i c a c y and Goal Consensus 210 Summary of Conclusions 212 Research Question 1 212 Research Question 2 212 Additional Conclusions 213 7. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 214 Implications 217 Implications for Practice 218 Implication one 218 Implication two 219 x i i C h a p t e r Page 7. I m p l i c a t i o n t h r e e 219 I m p l i c a t i o n f o u r 220 I m p l i c a t i o n f i v e 221 I m p l i c a t i o n s i x 221 I m p l i c a t i o n seven 222 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 222 I m p l i c a t i o n one 223 I m p l i c a t i o n two 223 I m p l i c a t i o n t h r e e 224 I m p l i c a t i o n f o u r 224 I m p l i c a t i o n f i v e 225 I m p l i c a t i o n s i x 226 I m p l i c a t i o n seven 226 I m p l i c a t i o n e i g h t 227 I m p l i c a t i o n n i n e 228 I m p l i c a t i o n t e n 228 x i i i Page REFERENCES 230 APPENDICES A. A Summary of Findings on School Effectiveness and School Improvement 241 B. School Dimensions Survey (SDS) and Letters of Transmittal 247 C. P r i n c i p a l Interview Schedule and Letter of Transmittal 260 D. Correspondence with P r i n c i p a l s Regarding Their P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Study 265 E. A Comparison of High and Low Teacher E f f i c a c y Teachers' Scores Across the School Level Organizational Conditions 268 F. Graphs for Each of the Fi f t e e n Schools i n the Study Based on the School's Mean Scores on Teacher E f f i c a c y and the School Level Organizational Conditions 274 G. High and Low Teacher E f f i c a c y Cut-off Points: Discussion and Data 298 x i v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. S c h o o l L e v e l F a c t o r s That Have Been Shown i n The L i t e r a t u r e t o be R e l a t e d t o T e a c h e r S e l f E f f i c a c y 22 2. A Summary o f Teacher E f f i c a c y S t u d i e s 25 3 . D e f i n i t i o n s and Sample Items f o r the Nine D imensions i n the S c h o o l D imens ion Survey (SDS) 63 4 . A Compar ison o f F a c t o r L o a d i n g s i n G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984 (n=208), and A n d e r s o n , Greene , & Loewen, 1987 (n=65) S u p p o r t i n g the Use o f the G i b s o n Teacher E f f i c a c y S c a l e 71 5. W i l s o n e t a l . ' s R e l i a b i l i t y E s t i m a t e s f o r the S i x S c h o o l L e v e l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l D imensions (n=61) 73 6. Summary o f the Data Types and S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t s 83 7. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s I ssued and Comple ted : Response Rate By S c h o o l 92 8. F requency D i s t r i b u t i o n s : Demographic V a r i a b l e s 94 9 . A Compar ison o f Teachers i n the Study t o A l l S c h o o l - B a s e d T e a c h e r s i n the S c h o o l D i s t r i c t and i n the P r o v i n c e 95 10 . A Compar ison o f F a c t o r L o a d i n g s i n Three S t u d i e s U s i n g The G i b s o n Teacher E f f i c a c y S c a l e (1984): G i b s o n & Dembo (1984) n=208; A n d e r s o n e t a l . (1987) n=65; Cavers (1987) n=338 99 11 . Means and S tandard D e v i a t i o n s f o r P e r s o n a l T e a c h i n g E f f i c a c y R e l a t e d t o Three Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : Sex , T e a c h i n g Grade L e v e l and Age (ANOVA) 101 12. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : Teacher Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by P e r s o n a l T e a c h i n g E f f i c a c y 103 13. Means and S tandard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e V a r i a b l e s and t h e i C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h P e r s o n a l T e a c h i n g E f f i c a c y . . . . 1 0 5 X V Table Page 14. The Cut-Off Points Established for Determining High E f f i c a c y Teachers (above the 75th percentile) and Low E f f i c a c y Teachers (below the 25th percentile) 107 15. A Comparison of High and Low Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y Teachers on Three Demographic Variables 109 16. The Difference Between High and Low Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y Teachers and Their Years of Teaching Experience 112 17. Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations of Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y and the School Level Organizational Conditions (n=253) 115 18. Multiple Regression Results on Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y with Student Behaviour and Horizontal Communication as Predictors 116 19. Beta Weights, F Values, and Significance of F Values (Prob.) for a l l Variables with Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y as Dependent Variable 118 20. Goal Ranking By Teachers with High and Low Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y 120 21. A Comparison of High (n=76) and Low (n=78) Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y Teachers' Perceptions of School Level Organizational Conditions 123 22. A Comparison of the 15 Schools on Staff Size, Rate of Survey Response, and Percentage of High Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y (PTE) Teachers i n Their Schools and i n the Study 133 23. Canadian Achievement Test (CAT) Percentages i n Grades 3 & 6 for the Elementary Schools with the Highest Percentage of High E f f i c a c y Teachers 137 24. High Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y Schools' Mean Scores on E f f i c a c y and the School Organizational Conditions 139 xvi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Model A: Denham and Michael's (1981) model for the study of teachers' sense of e f f i c a c y Model B: Ashton's (1985) model of the reci p r o c a l e f f e c t s of teachers' sense of e f f i c a c y and student achievement 54 2. A model for studying the re l a t i o n s h i p between teachers' sense of e f f i c a c y , and each of, school l e v e l organizational conditions and teacher demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 56 3. School 06: Mean scores on teacher e f f i c a c y and the school l e v e l organizational dimensions 150 4. School 07: Mean scores on teacher e f f i c a c y and the school l e v e l organizational dimensions 154 5. School 09: Mean scores on teacher e f f i c a c y and the school l e v e l organizational dimensions 159 6. School 13: Mean scores on teacher e f f i c a c y and the school l e v e l organizational dimensions 165 7. A modification of Ashton's (1985) model to include the two s i g n i f i c a n t school l e v e l organizational conditions: student behaviour and horizontal communication 216 x v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n was a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f many p e o p l e . S i n c e r e thanks are ex tended t o the t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s i n the 15 p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s and t o the C e n t r a l O f f i c e s t a f f f o r t h e i r prompt c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l t a s k s . The c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t and encouragement o f my r e s e a r c h a d v i s o r and mentor , D r . Ian Housego, t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i v e feedback and i n s i g h t f u l comments o f committee members, D r . Pat Crehan and D r . H a r o l d R a t z l a f f , c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o my p e r s o n a l sense o f e f f i c a c y and t o t h i s t h e s i s . My a p p r e c i a t i o n a l s o goes t o D r . Graham K e l s e y and t o my c o l l e a g u e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y Jay H a n d e l , L e s l i e M e t c a l f e , and T r i s h a W i l c o x . Thanks a re extended t o D r . Myrna Greene and Ms. Pam Loewen f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the computer a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a and t o M r s . Joy Kimmit t f o r t y p i n g the t h e s i s . Once a g a i n , I am i n d e b t e d t o my f a m i l y and p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t . Thank y o u . CHAPTER ONE" 1 BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM T h i s s t u d y was based on the b e l i e f t h a t the t e a c h e r and the s c h o o l envi ronment are c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n s c h o o l improvement . Research o v e r the p a s t two decades has r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the s c h o o l e f f e c t s t h a t make a d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . S c h o o l s p o s s e s s i n g t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can now be i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g r e s e a r c h - b a s e d c r i t e r i a . There i s , however, much l e s s knowledge about how and why s c h o o l s come t o a c q u i r e t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s s t u d y a t tempted t o show t h a t a t l e a s t some o f the answers may l i e i n an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n t e r a c t i o n between the t e a c h e r and the w o r k p l a c e . I t was assumed t h a t more knowledge about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and workp lace c o n d i t i o n s would be u s e f u l t o t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l improvement. One t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y , o r the t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t he o r she can make a d i f f e r e n c e t o s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g , has been r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g and t o o t h e r good t h i n g s t h a t happen i n s c h o o l s (Hawley, R o s e n h o l t z , G o o d s t e i n , & H a s s e l b r i n g , 1984) . Both s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s a re thought t o have an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y (Dembo & G i b s o n , 1985) . More knowledge about how c e r t a i n s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y c o u l d a f f e c t s c h o o l improvement e f f o r t s by p r o v i d i n g a f o c u s . 2 F o r example, knowing which s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s a re p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y c o u l d make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p t h o s e s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o i n c r e a s e the t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . The f o c u s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o de termine how the s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s : f i r s t , a background s ta tement w i l l i d e n t i f y the g e n e r a l p r o b l e m ; s e c o n d , the e lements o f the s t u d y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d ; t h i r d , a r a t i o n a l e f o r the s t u d y w i l l be made and the purpose o f the s tudy s t a t e d ; f o u r t h , the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s t u d y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . F o l l o w i n g a b r i e f summary, the c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h an overv iew o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n . Background There i s a p u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t s c h o o l s w i l l p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h the k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t w i l l a s s i s t them now and i n t h e i r f u t u r e l i v e s . A l t h o u g h the p u b l i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a good e d u c a t i o n has undergone some change o v e r the y e a r s , the v iew t h a t the t e a c h e r i s a key d e t e r m i n a n t i n b r i n g i n g about good e d u c a t i o n has not changed. D u r i n g the t imes when p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e i n s c h o o l s and t e a c h e r s i s low, the t e a c h e r i s a f o c u s f o r s c h o o l improvement e f f o r t s . Because the t e a c h e r i s the p e r s o n c l o s e s t t o the s t u d e n t i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s he o r she i s c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n e v e r y t h i n g t h a t happens . 3 P r o v i n c i a l governments and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have r e c o g n i z e d the need t o p r o v i d e p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h f u r t h e r o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g . These programs a r e v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o as s t a f f deve lopment , p r o f e s s i o n a l deve lopment , o r i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n , but whatever they are c a l l e d , the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need f o r such a c t i v i t i e s has e x i s t e d s i n c e the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y (Howey & Vaughan, 1983) . The purpose o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i s t o improve t e a c h e r s ' s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s so t h e y , i n t u r n , can b e t t e r a s s i s t s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n . A l t h o u g h the need t o p r o v i d e s t a f f development f o r t e a c h e r s has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d , the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s need has i n c r e a s e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . T h i s i n c r e a s e d emphasis has been a t t r i b u t e d t o the f o l l o w i n g : 1. D e c l i n i n g s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s have r e s u l t e d i n a r e d u c e d t e a c h i n g f o r c e and l e s s t e a c h e r m o b i l i t y . T h i s means t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s must f o c u s on e x i s t i n g s t a f f f o r s c h o o l improvement . 2. R e s e a r c h i n r e c e n t y e a r s has p r o d u c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t body o f knowledge about e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s . There i s an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i l l be implemented i n the s c h o o l s . 3 . S t a f f development i s r e c o g n i z e d as one o f the means t o make changes i n s c h o o l s but i n t h e s e t i m e s o f f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t the p r o c e s s has t o be r e - e x a m i n e d . S t a f f d e v e l o p e r s a re e x p e c t e d t o be a c c o u n t a b l e ; t h a t i s , p o s i t i v e 4 changes a t the c l a s s r o o m l e v e l must r e s u l t from t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ( C o l l i n s , 1981; Guskey , 1986; Howey & Vaughan, 1983; M c D o n n e l l , 1983; R o s e n h o l t z , 1986; Swenson, 1981) . S t a f f development has been e s t a b l i s h e d as one o f the most l i k e l y ways t o h e l p t e a c h e r s t o i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t ach ievement , and i t appears t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s are s u p p o r t i n g s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s t o t h i s end (Greene, 1984; Howey & Vaughan, 1983) . S t a f f development i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d and s u p p o r t e d as an i m p o r t a n t way t o improve s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g , y e t G r i f f i n (1984) n o t e s : i n s p i t e o f i n t e n s e and p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t s t o i n t r o d u c e change i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs o f s c h o o l s , i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , a f t e r an i n i t i a l f l u r r y o f a c t i v i t y o b s e r v a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e showed [ t h a t l i t t l e had changed] ( p . 2 ) . S e v e r a l v iews have been advanced t o e x p l a i n t h i s p e r p l e x i n g and f r u s t r a t i n g problem ( F u l l a n , 1985; G r i f f i n , 1984; L ieberman & M i l l e r , 1984; McNergney e t a l . , 1983) . The c o n s e n s u s seems t o be t h a t s t a f f d e v e l o p e r s have f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e and t o u n d e r s t a n d the c o m p l e x i t y o f the t e a c h e r change p r o c e s s as i t o c c u r s w i t h i n the s c h o o l env i ronment . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the two c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s c i t e d a re t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s , and the n a t u r e o f the s c h o o l as a w o r k p l a c e . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y the enhancement o f a t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y was v iewed as a form o f s t a f f deve lopment . S t a f f development i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one component o f s c h o o l improvement and as F u l l a n (1987) n o t e s , " e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development and e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l development 5 go hand i n hand" ( p . 2 1 6 ) . Our i n c r e a s e d knowledge about s c h o o l i n g has i n c r e a s e d bo th the p r e s s u r e and our a b i l i t y t o improve s c h o o l s ( G o o d l a d , 1984, p . 2 7 0 ) , but the s p e c i f i c s o f how t o improve them appear t o be l a c k i n g a t the p r e s e n t t ime ( C l a r k , L o t t o , & A s t u t o , 1984; Purkey & S m i t h , 1983) . A l t h o u g h the s p e c i f i c s a re l a c k i n g , one v iew i s t h a t "the key l i e s i n the p e o p l e who p o p u l a t e p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l s a t p a r t i c u l a r t imes and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s " ( C l a r k e t a l . , 1984, p . 5 0 ) . Wh i le the t e a c h e r and the workp lace are i d e n t i f i e d as key v a r i a b l e s , many i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s r e m a i n , such a s , how do the v a r i a b l e s i n t e r a c t and which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have t o be p r e s e n t and t o what e x t e n t (Sackney , 1986)? Elements of the Study In the l i g h t o f the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two c r i t i c a l e lements which have been i d e n t i f i e d , namely the t e a c h e r and the s c h o o l w o r k p l a c e . These e lements w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y . The Teacher T h i s s t u d y c o n s i d e r e d two t e a c h e r - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Reviews o f a decade o f r e s e a r c h on s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s c h o o l improvement have i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a re r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t achievement 6 (Clark et a l . , 1984; Joyce & Showers, 1980; Purkey & Smith, 1983; Rosenholtz, 1985). One teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which i s consi s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d i s teacher e f f i c a c y (Berman & McLaughlin, 1976; Ashton, Webb & Doda, 1983). McLaughlin and Marsh (1978) note that: The most powerful teacher a t t r i b u t e i n the RAND analysis was teacher sense of e f f i c a c y - a b e l i e f that the teacher can help even the most d i f f i c u l t or unmotivated students (p.85). The enhancement of a teacher's sense of e f f i c a c y i s considered to be an important s t a f f development goal because of i t s l i n k with both student learning and school improvement. I t i s because of t h i s that teacher e f f i c a c y was selected as one of the variables i n the present study. In order for educators to understand teacher e f f i c a c y better, Dembo and Gibson (1985) suggest the study of "personal teacher variables" (p.177) as one area for research. In t h e i r teacher e f f i c a c y construct, Denham and Michael (1981) i d e n t i f y personal variables among the antecedent conditions which they believe influence teacher e f f i c a c y . Other researchers interested i n school improvement and i n change (Fullan, 1985; Sarason, 1971), have stressed the importance of considering i n d i v i d u a l teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Gibson and Dembo (1984) recommend the "inve s t i g a t i o n of the relat i o n s h i p s between teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , sex, years of teaching experience, grade l e v e l s , and personal attributes) and sense of e f f i c a c y " (p.579). It seemed reasonable that a study of rela t i o n s h i p s 7 s h o u l d c o n s i d e r as many v a r i a b l e s as c o u l d be managed i f i t was t o be u s e f u l , but s i m p l i c i t y and pars imony were a l s o i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s ( R a t s o y , 1983) . The School Workplace The impor tance o f the s c h o o l s e t t i n g i n s c h o o l change was d i s c u s s e d by S a r a s o n (1971) and L o r t i e (1976) and has been r e i n f o r c e d s i n c e by many w r i t e r s i n c l u d i n g F u l l a n (1982, 1985) , Good lad (1983) , L ieberman and M i l l e r (1984) , and L i t t l e (1982) . S c h o o l l e v e l f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o bo th s t u d e n t achievement and s c h o o l improvement have a l s o been i d e n t i f i e d i n the e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d e a r l i e r . R e c e n t l y , r e s e a r c h e r s have e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p among s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which a re b e l i e v e d t o be l i n k e d t o s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l i n g , such a s : t e a c h e r l e a r n i n g ( R o s e n h o l t z , 1986); t e a c h e r commitment ( R o s e n h o l t z , 1987); the l e a d e r s h i p r o l e o f the p r i n c i p a l ( H a l l i n g e r & Murphy, 1987) , and s c h o o l - b a s e d change ( C o n l e y , 1987) . A s h t o n & Webb (1986) i d e n t i f i e d f o u r c o n t e x t s which are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t f o r the d e s i g n o f r e s e a r c h t o enhance t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y : t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs, b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and p a r e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s ( p . v i i i ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e d on one o f t h e s e , the s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s p e c i f i c a l l y on the n i n e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were b e l i e v e d t o have the 8 p o t e n t i a l t o enhance t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . These c o n d i t i o n s a re d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n c h a p t e r two. Studying the Relationships: A Rationale The l i t e r a t u r e on s c h o o l improvement and s t a f f development s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a need t o know more about the i n t e r a c t i o n o f the t e a c h e r w i t h the w o r k p l a c e . F u l l a n (1985) d e s c r i b e s the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g " i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n v e r g e n t and d e t a i l e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o improvement" (p .391) but a l s o n o t e s t h a t , "we do no t have much s p e c i f i c knowledge about how and why improvement o c c u r s " ( p . 3 9 2 ) . G r i f f i n (1983) o b s e r v e s t h a t "a s t a f f development e f f o r t has many p a r t s , some o f which a re p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r a c t i v e . Among the p a r t s , he l i s t s the p e o p l e and t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the n a t u r e o f the s e t t i n g ( p . 4 1 5 ) . F u l l e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (1982) s t a t e t h a t , " l i t t l e i s known about the s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . . . w h i c h i n f l u e n c e the e f f i c a c y o f l o c a l a c t o r s " ( p . 8 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y a l s o i n d i c a t e s a need f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n about the c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s which i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g . A s h t o n e t a l . (1983) recommend t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e x p l o r e the p r o c e s s e s by which o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s can i n c r e a s e the s u p p o r t o f t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y ( p . 2 8 ) . G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) recommend t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and i t s 9 " r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d " ( p . 5 7 9 ) . More knowledge about the s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s which a re r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y c o u l d make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p those s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s and s u b s e q u e n t l y , t o i n c r e a s e the t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . S i n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y has been l i n k e d w i t h s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g , any new knowledge about how to enhance i t c o u l d be a u s e f u l f o c u s f o r s c h o o l improvement e f f o r t s . Purpose P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t many i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l e f f e c t s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by the n a t u r e o f the s c h o o l c o n t e x t . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s dependent on c e r t a i n c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s (Ashton e t a l . , 1983) . Few s t u d i e s , however, have sought t o de termine the n a t u r e o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s o r t h e i r e f f e c t s on measures o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y (Guskey, 1986) . The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y and each o f s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d be used i n s c h o o l improvement p l a n n i n g . Significance The impor tance o f s t u d y i n g t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h has l i n k e d t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y w i t h 10 s t u d e n t achievement g a i n s ( e . g . , A s h t o n , e t a l . , 1983; Berman e t a l . , 1977; R u t t e r e t a l . , 1979); and w i t h the o v e r a l l f e e l i n g t h a t good t h i n g s a re happening f o r s t u d e n t s (Hawley e t a l . , 1984; MacKenz ie , 1983) . Second , t h i s r e s e a r c h has i d e n t i f i e d a number o f s c h o o l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s t h a t appear t o be r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( e . g . , Dembo & G i b s o n , 1985; Denham & M i c h a e l , 1981) . A s h t o n e t a l . , (1983) s t a t e t h a t " t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y p r o v i d e s a p o w e r f u l f o c u s f o r d i r e c t i n g r e s e a r c h and development e f f o r t s , because o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s i t has f o r s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r development" ( p . 2 2 ) . I f a b e t t e r knowledge o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s g o i n g t o s e r v e the end o f s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r deve lopment , then i t seems i m p o r t a n t t o at tempt t o i d e n t i f y the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n t e c e d e n t s o f e f f i c a c y (Dembo and G i b s o n , 1985, p . 1 7 7 ) . T h i s s t u d y was under taken because i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t i t had the p o t e n t i a l t o add t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c h o o l i n g i n f i v e g e n e r a l a r e a s . F i r s t , i t l o o k e d at the s c h o o l as a w o r k p l a c e , which i s c e n t r a l t o s c h o o l improvement and s t a f f development e f f o r t s . Second , i t c o n s i d e r e d t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y as one o f the t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n f l u e n c e s s t u d e n t ach ievement . T h i r d , i t e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which might e x i s t between t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and workp lace c o n d i t i o n s . F o u r t h , c o n s i d e r i n g each o f the above, the s t u d y had the p o t e n t i a l to y i e l d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r a c t i c e and f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . F o r example, i f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p were found 11 t o e x i s t between c e r t a i n s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s would have a f o c u s f o r s c h o o l improvement. The s t u d y c o u l d a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h ; f o r example , t o de te rmine whether o r not the two v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be m a n i p u l a t e d t o i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t ach ievement . F i n a l l y , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s s tudy might f o s t e r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p which t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may have w i t h s c h o o l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s . I n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n a l l f i v e o f t h e s e a r e a s was b e l i e v e d p o s s i b l e i n the s t u d y and a l l have the p o t e n t i a l t o be o f i n t e r e s t t o s t a f f d e v e l o p e r s , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has a t tempted t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s t u d y . Some background was g i v e n t o i d e n t i f y the t e a c h e r as a major f o c u s i n s c h o o l improvement e f f o r t s . A l a c k o f f o c u s on the t e a c h e r i n h i s o r h e r workp lace was c i t e d as a p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r the min imal amount o f change which has o c c u r r e d i n s c h o o l s , i n s p i t e o f s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h - b a s e d g u i d e l i n e s . Three v a r i a b l e s were i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g some p o t e n t i a l t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the i d e n t i f i e d a re a o f c o n c e r n , namely , t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s t u d y e x p l o r e d some o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which might e x i s t among the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . 12 F i n a l l y , some o f the p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s o f the s t u d y were p r e s e n t e d . Overview of the Dissertation The remainder o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n s i x c h a p t e r s . Chapte r two r e v i e w s the l i t e r a t u r e i n the main a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s s t u d y : t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Rather than r e p o r t i n g the t o t a l range o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e s e a r e a s , the f o c u s i s on the l i t e r a t u r e which i s most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s t u d y . F o r example, the t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s on the meaning o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n the s c h o o l w o r k p l a c e ; the d i s c u s s i o n o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o c u s e s o n l y on t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a re v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s wh ich p r o v i d e d the background f o r the s t u d y and p r e s e n t s an e x p l a n a t o r y m o d e l . C h a p t e r t h r e e d e s c r i b e s the method used i n the s t u d y . F o l l o w i n g an o u t l i n e o f the s t u d y d e s i g n and p r o c e d u r e s , the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s are s t a t e d . Chapte r f o u r p r e s e n t s the f i n d i n g s o f the s t u d y w i t h the t e a c h e r as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s ; c h a p t e r f i v e , w i t h the s c h o o l as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . Chap te r s i x summarizes the p r e s e n t s t u d y , d i s c u s s e s the major f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e , and draws c o n c l u s i o n s from the f i n d i n g s and the r e v i e w o f the 13 r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . The f i n a l chapter explores the implications of the study and advances some suggestions for further research. CHAPTER TWO 14 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The p r i m a r y purpose o f t h i s r e v i e w i s t o i n t e g r a t e the f i n d i n g s from the r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r s t u d y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . I t was hoped t h a t a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e workp lace c o n d i t i o n s might a s s i s t e d u c a t o r s i n i m p r o v i n g s c h o o l s . A s e c o n d a r y purpose o f the r e v i e w i s t o i n t r o d u c e the i n s t r u m e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the s t u d y . There are f o u r main p a r t s t o the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , each o f which c o n c l u d e s w i t h a b r i e f summary. In the f i r s t s e c t i o n t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s d e f i n e d , i t s p o t e n t i a l impor tance t o s c h o o l improvement i s d i s c u s s e d , and a d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t i s p r e s e n t e d . The second s e c t i o n i n t r o d u c e s the i d e a o f the s c h o o l l e v e l f o c u s and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which form one s e t o f v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y . The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t i s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . The t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are p r e s e n t e d i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n . The f o u r t h s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the framework o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s which g u i d e d the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y In the o p e n i n g c h a p t e r , a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s were c i t e d f o r t h e i r work i n i d e n t i f y i n g s e v e r a l t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t achievement and s c h o o l 15 improvement , ( C l a r k , 1984; Joyce & Showers, 1980; Purkey & S m i t h , 1983; R o s e n h o l t z , 1985) . I t was n o t e d t h a t one t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d i n t h a t l i t e r a t u r e i s t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y (Berman & M c L a u g h l i n , 1976; A s h t o n e t a l . , 1983) . Hawley e t a l . (1984) sum up the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e when they s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a l i n k between t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y and t e a c h e r m o t i v a t i o n , a sense o f accompl ishment and s a t i s f a c t i o n , h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e , s t a f f s t a b i l i t y , and the o v e r a l l f e e l i n g i n s c h o o l s " t h a t good t h i n g s are happen ing f o r s t u d e n t s " ( p . 8 ) . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y w i l l b e g i n w i t h a r e v i e w which t r a c e s i t s h i s t o r y and use i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . Some d e f i n i t i o n s o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and the one which b e s t c o r r e s p o n d s t o the purpose o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . The r e v i e w w i l l e x p l a i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y t o s c h o o l improvement and w i l l i d e n t i f y a d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t which appears t o have p o t e n t i a l f o r use i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . D e f i n i t i o n s of E f f i c a c y There appear t o be two l i n e s o f r e s e a r c h about e f f i c a c y . The f i r s t can be t r a c e d t o the " e a r l y r e s e a r c h o f H e i d e r (1958) o r White (1959)" (Guskey, 1986, p . 2 ) . The s e c o n d , i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e about o r g a n i z a t i o n s , stems from the work o f Lewin (1938) (Dar l ing-Hammond, W i s e , and Pease 1983; F u l l e r , Wood, Rapopor t , and D o r n b u s c h , 1982) . I t i s , however, i n B a n d u r a ' s (1977, 1978, 1981, 1982, 1986) r e s e a r c h 16 t h a t the c o n c e p t o f s e l f - e f f i c a c y , which i n c l u d e s the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s o r her env i ronment , has a p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n t o s t u d i e s o f t e a c h i n g (Ashton & Webb, 1986; G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984) . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , A s h t o n , Webb & Doda, 1983; G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984) s t a t e t h a t the c o n s t r u c t o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n two Rand C o r p o r a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s (Armor e t a l . , 1976; Berman e t a l . , 1977) t h a t r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and s t u d e n t ach ievement . In the Rand s t u d i e s , t e a c h e r s were asked t o r e s p o n d , on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e , t o the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s : 1. "When i t comes r i g h t down t o i t , a t e a c h e r r e a l l y c a n ' t do much because most o f a s t u d e n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n and per formance depends on h i s o r h e r home e n v i r o n m e n t . " 2 . "If I t r y r e a l l y h a r d , I can get t h r o u g h t o even the most d i f f i c u l t and unmot iva ted s t u d e n t s . " ( M c L a u g h l i n & Marsh , 1978, p . 8 5 ) . The t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s were combined t o y i e l d a s i n g l e measure o f e f f i c a c y : t h a t i s , the e x t e n t t o which the t e a c h e r b e l i e v e d he o r she had the c a p a c i t y t o a f f e c t s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . S i n c e the Rand s t u d i e s , the major i n f l u e n c e on the development o f the t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y c o n s t r u c t i s a t t r i b u t e d t o B a n d u r a ' s (1977, 1978) work ( A s h t o n , e t a l . , 1983; G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984) . Bandura (1977, 1986) t r i e d t o e x p l a i n and to p r e d i c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes a c h i e v e d by d i f f e r e n t modes o f t r e a t m e n t . H i s work i s based on the t h e o r y t h a t " p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . . . a l t e r the l e v e l and s t r e n g t h o f s e l f - e f f i c a c y " ( p . 1 9 1 ) . Bandura h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t " e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y de termine whether c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r w i l l be i n i t i a t e d , how much e f f o r t w i l l be expended, and how l o n g i t w i l l be s u s t a i n e d i n the f a c e o f a v e r s i v e e x p e r i e n c e s " ( p . 1 9 1 ) . H i s hypotheses were s u p p o r t e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . Based on B a n d u r a ' s f i n d i n g s , G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t : t e a c h e r s who b e l i e v e t h a t s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g can be i n f l u e n c e d by e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g , and who a l s o have c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own t e a c h i n g a b i l i t i e s would p e r s i s t l o n g e r , p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r academic f o c u s i n the c l a s s r o o m , and e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f eedback than t e a c h e r s who have lower e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g ( p . 5 7 0 ) . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s has g e n e r a l l y been a c c e p t e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , A s h t o n , e t a l . , 1983; Denham & M i c h a e l , 1981) . Bandura (1977, 1986) a l s o i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e d imens ions o f e f f i c a c y - magni tude , g e n e r a l i t y , and s t r e n g t h - wh ich he b e l i e v e d have i m p o r t a n t per formance i m p l i c a t i o n s . These d i m e n s i o n s a re s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n . Magni tude r e f e r s t o the h i e r a r c h y o f t a s k d i f f i c u l t y f o r wh ich the t e a c h e r f e e l s competent . As Denham and M i c h a e l (1981) e x p l a i n , "a t e a c h e r may l i m i t h i s [her] sense o f e f f i c a c y t o s i m p l e r t a s k s o r may b e l i e v e h i m s e l f [ h e r s e l f ] 18 e f f e c t i v e a t even the most d i f f i c u l t t a s k " ( p . 4 2 ) . G e n e r a l i t y r e f e r s t o the range o f b e h a v i o u r s i n which the t e a c h e r f e e l s e f f i c a c i o u s . F o r example, G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) s u g g e s t t h a t the t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y "might a p p l y t o c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s " ( p . 5 7 0 ) . S t r e n g t h r e f e r s t o the ease w i t h which t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y a t t i t u d e s c a n be changed . T e a c h e r s w i t h a weak sense o f e f f i c a c y might be e a s i l y d i s c o u r a g e d by a s e r i e s o f weaker c l a s s e s , w h i l e a c o l l e a g u e w i t h a s t r o n g sense o f e f f i c a c y wi11 p e r s e v e r e . G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) i d e n t i f i e d two f a c t o r s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e d t o B a n d u r a ' s (1977) two-component model o f e f f i c a c y . Bandura (1977) A p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o u r i s d e t e r m i n e d by g e n e r a l outcome e x p e c t a n c y ( b e l i e f t h a t b e h a v i o u r w i l l l e a d t o d e s i r a b l e o u t c o m e s ) . Gibson & Dembo (1984) 1. T e a c h i n g E f f i c a c y - a b e l i e f t h a t any t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o b r i n g about change i s l i m i t e d by f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o the t e a c h e r s u c h as home e n v i r o n m e n t , f a m i l y back -g r o u n d , and p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e . 2. A p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o u r i s a l s o de te rmined by a sense o f s e l f e f f i c a c y ( b e l i e f t h a t one has the r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s t o b r i n g about the outcome) . 2 . P e r s o n a l T e a c h i n g E f f i c a c y - a b e l i e f t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r has the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s t o b r i n g about s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . (Dembo & G i b s o n , 1985, p p . 1 7 4 , 175) 19 Most r e s e a r c h e r s agree t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y has a t l e a s t two components and t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n s t u d y i n g the c o n s t r u c t . A s h t o n e t a l . (1983) s t a t e t h a t " i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o keep t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s s e p a r a t e c o n c e p t u a l l y because i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the most a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h e r change s t r a t e g y w i l l depend on the o r i g i n o f the sense o f i n e f f i c a c y " ( p . 2 ) . F o r example, the s t a f f development approach adopted would be d i f f e r e n t i f the t e a c h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s i n h i s o r h e r c l a s s c o u l d no t l e a r n because o f t h e i r home env i ronment , as compared t o the s i t u a t i o n i n which the t e a c h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s c o u l d not l e a r n because he o r she c o u l d not t e a c h them. There i s g e n e r a l agreement among r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t the t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y c o n s t r u c t i s composed o f the t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n s (Ashton e t a l . , 1983; Berman & M c L a u g h l i n , 1975; G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984) . Of the two, p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y appears t o be the more i m p o r t a n t t o s c h o o l improvement e f f o r t s because i t d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e s b e h a v i o u r i n s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . A s h t o n and Webb (1986) s t a t e : " E x p e r i e n c e s t h a t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t . . . p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , w i l l be the most p o w e r f u l i n i n f l u e n c i n g t e a c h e r s ' m o t i v a t i o n and f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r " ( p . 4 ) . In the s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s , the e x p e r i e n c e s which might i n f l u e n c e a t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d . 20 Teacher E f f i c a c y and the School Setting L i t t l e has been w r i t t e n about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , but c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has been r e p o r t e d about the impor tance o f i n d i v i d u a l e f f i c a c y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n r e l a t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l per fo rmance ( e . g . , F u l l e r e t a l . , 1982) . B a n d u r a ' s (1978, 1982) i d e a o f r e c i p r o c a l d e t e r m i n i s m i n which b e h a v i o u r i s de te rmined by b o t h p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s emphasizes the p o t e n t i a l impor tance o f env i ronment o r s e t t i n g t o a p e r s o n ' s f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - e f f i c a c y . A l t h o u g h he was not w r i t i n g about o r g a n i z a t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y , Bandura (1982) emphasizes the impor tance o f the envi ronment t o f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - e f f i c a c y : S e l f - e f f i c a c y i s not e n t i r e l y an i n t e r n a l c o n s t r u c t ; i t r e q u i r e s a r e s p o n s i v e env i ronment t h a t a l l o w s f o r and rewards per formance a t t a i n m e n t ( p . 1 4 0 ) , [and] s o c i a l env i ronments may p l a c e c o n s t r a i n t s on what p e o p l e do o r may a i d them t o behave o p t i m a l l y ( p . 1 3 1 ) . S i n c e p o s i t i v e t e a c h e r change i s u s u a l l y a p a r t o f any d i s c u s s i o n about s c h o o l improvement ( e . g . , F u l l a n , 1986) , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know about the env i ronments which may a i d o r h i n d e r t e a c h e r growth . Darl ing-Hammond e t a l . (1983) s u g g e s t t h a t " t e a c h e r knowledge about t e a c h i n g g e n e r a l l y and a l s o about t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s i s n e c e s s a r y t o empower t e a c h e r s t o improve" ( p . 3 1 5 ) . S i m i l a r l y , more knowledge about the c o n d i t i o n s i n the s c h o o l which may o r may not enhance t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s c h o o l 21 improvement. In t h e i r review, F u l l e r et a l . (1982) i d e n t i f y findings to support the p o s i t i o n that c e r t a i n organizational conditions r e s u l t i n "increased performance and organizational e f f i c a c y " (p.124). Some of the organizational factors which appear to influence teachers' f e e l i n g s of s e l f - e f f i c a c y have been i d e n t i f i e d i n previous research. An i n i t i a l review of f i v e studies involving teacher e f f i c a c y i d e n t i f i e d four school l e v e l factors which appear to be r e l a t e d to the teacher's sense of e f f i c a c y . These findings are summarized i n Table 1. It i s important to note that "the present research on teacher e f f i c a c y involves c o r r e l a t i o n a l data, which do not y i e l d information about causal relationships among vari a b l e s " (Dembo & Gibson, 1985, p.176). The four s i g n i f i c a n t school l e v e l factors i d e n t i f i e d are: (1) shared decision-making; (2) leadership; (3) c o l l e g i a l i t y ; and (4) goals. The descriptions of these factors are very close to the descriptions of the important school l e v e l conditions which appear i n the next section of t h i s chapter. For example, teachers tend to f e e l e f f i c a c i o u s i n a school where: (1) goals and expectations are c l e a r and generally agreed upon; (2) teachers perceive themselves to be involved i n decision-making; and (3) teachers and administrators t a l k about i n s t r u c t i o n a l matters. Table 1 School Level Factors That Have Been Shown i n the Literature to be Related to Teacher S e l f - E f f i c a c y Studies School Level Factors Anderson Ashton Denham Gibson Rand Studies et a l . et a l . & Michael & Dembo McLaughlin & 1987 1983 1981 1984 Marsh, 1978 Decision-making X X X X X Leadership X X X X X C o l l e g i a l i t y X X Goals X X X X ro 23 E f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p e n s u r e s t h a t the f i r s t t h r e e f a c t o r s have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o o c c u r . In c o n t r a s t , A s h t o n e t a l . (1983) i d e n t i f i e d f i v e c o n d i t i o n s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o a sense o f i n e f f i c a c y and a sense o f a l o s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f - w o r t h . Of the f i v e , t h r e e appear t o be r e l a t e d t o a l a c k o f the c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 and d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h : (1) p e r v a s i v e sense o f u n c e r t a i n t y ; (2) i s o l a t i o n ; and (3) p o w e r l e s s n e s s . A s h t o n (1985) u n d e r s c o r e s h e r b e l i e f i n the impor tance o f s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : From our e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the change e f f o r t , we b e l i e v e t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l change s t r a t e g i e s a d v o c a t e d by Bandura a re not l i k e l y t o have a l o n g term impact on t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y w i t h o u t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t s t h a t a m e l i o r a t e the c o n d i t i o n s which t h r e a t e n t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y ( p . 2 6 5 ) . A f o c u s o f the p r e s e n t s tudy was t o t r y t o de te rmine which o f the s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s were r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . In summary, the e x t e n t o f the c o n s i s t e n c y o f the f i n d i n g s i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e rev iew i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a b a s i s f o r a c o n t i n u e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The c o n t i n u e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e s which have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t because o f the dynamic , " m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l , s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c [na ture o f the] c o n s t r u c t " (Ashton & Webb, 1986, p . 1 4 0 ) ; t h a t i s , d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s o r 24 d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s c o u l d have d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s depending on the n a t u r e o f the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n . The Teacher Efficacy Scale A s e c o n d a r y purpose o f t h i s rev iew i s t o a t tempt t o i d e n t i f y d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s which might be o f use i n t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s t u d i e s . Denham and M i c h a e l (1981) suggest t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s a d i f f i c u l t v a r i a b l e t o measure, but based on t h e i r r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e rev iew say " tha t even rough measures o f sense o f e f f i c a c y may l e a d t o i l l u m i n a t i n g f i n d i n g s " ( p . 4 4 ) . T a b l e 2 l i s t s 21 t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s t u d i e s and summarizes t h e i r purpose and the methods which were used f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . Based on t h e s e s t u d i e s , i t appears t h a t the s u r v e y method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n u s i n g e i t h e r the Rand i t ems o r the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e has been used most f r e q u e n t l y . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s used the two Rand i tems d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r t o measure t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , but A s h t o n and Webb (1986) sugges t " the Rand measures are i n a d e q u a t e from a p s y c h o m e t r i c p e r s p e c t i v e " and they a re g e n e r a l l y c r i t i c a l o f e x i s t i n g measures o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( p p . 1 4 8 - 1 4 9 ) . They d o , however, s u p p o r t G i b s o n ' s and Dembo's (1984) c l a i m f o r h a v i n g d e v e l o p e d a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measure o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . A s h t o n and Webb (1986) s t a t e t h a t the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e " i s a more s e n s i t i v e measure than the Rand i t e m s . . . and t h e i r measure can be u s e f u l i n p r o c e s s - p r o d u c t t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s e a r c h " ( p . 1 4 9 ) . Table 2 A Summary Of Teacher Eff icacy Studies Study & Date Purpose Method Armor et a l . (1976) Rand Corp. to evaluate the effectiveness of the Preferred Reading Program i n Los Angeles - survey: Teacher Sense of Eff icacy Measure, Rand items 1 & 2 (derived from Rotter's [1966] Locus of Control Construct) Berman & McLaughlin to evaluate 100 T i t l e 111 projects (1977) Rand Corp. (Change Agent Study) - survey: Rand items 1 & 2 (derived from Rotter's [1966] Locus of Control Construct) Brookover & Lezotte to study school characteristics (1979) related to student achievement teacher interviews Showers (1980) to study se l f -e f f icacy as a predictor of teacher participation i n school decision-making - survey: instrument developed from Bandura's eff icacy tbeory - teacher observation Denham & Michael (1981) to define the Teacher Sense of Eff icacy construct p i lo t study: involving teacher interviews Ashton & Webb (1982) to develop a conceptual framework for teacher eff icacy - survey: Rand items 1 & 2 plus 2 additional eff icacy scales - observation & interviews - microethnography Huberman & Crandall to study dissemination strategies (1982) DESSI for school inprovement survey: Rand items 1 & 2 interviews Glickman & Tamashiro to study teacher sense of eff icacy (1982) and teacher survival rate - survey: Rand items 1 & 2 no Table 2 A Summary Of Teacher Eff icacy Studies (continued) Study & Date Purpose Guskey (1982) Gibson & Dembo (1984) to study teachers' perceptions of personal control of student learning outcomes to develop an instrument to measure teacher eff icacy Mark (1984) to study reading teachers' perceptions of individual efficacy i n re lat ion to cn?gaMzational structure Simmons (1984) Trentham et a l . (1985) Grafton (1986) to study teacher expectation & performance pressure as moderators of test anxiety - test performance relationship to study the relationships among teacher sense of eff icacy, superintendents' ratings of teacher competency, and selected demographic variables to study the relationships between teacher eff icacy, teachers' teachers' perceptions of the pr incipal , and cxatrnunications Method - survey: Rand items 1 & 2 - survey: Gibson Teacher Eff icacy Scale (30 item questionnaire based on Bandura's [1977] se l f -e f f icacy theory) - teacher interview - survey Opinionaire based on Dcanribusch & Ful ler (1982) organizational eff icacy instrument - survey: Rand items 1 & 2 - survey: Instrument developed from the Campbell P o l i t i c a l Eff icacy Scale (1954) - survey: Gibson Teacher Eff icacy Scale (16 items) ro CM Table 2 A Summary Of Teacher Eff icacy Studies (continued) Study & Date Purpose Method Guskey (1986) Evans & Tribble (1986) to study context variables that affect measures of teacher eff icacy to study sel f -ef f icacy, commitment to teaching and preoeived teaching problems - survey: Responsibil ity for Student Achievement Scale (RSA) (1981) - survey: Gibson Teacher Eff icacy Scale (30 items) Rees (1986) Simone (1986) to study the relationships between job characteristics and teacher eff icacy to study teacher trust of the supervisor & teacher eff icacy i n the supervisory process - survey: Teacher Eff icacy Questionnaire (performance and organizational eff icacy) - survey: Gibson Teacher Eff icacy Scale (7 items) Anderson & Greene (1987) to study relationships among teachers' and students' thinking s k i l l s , sense s k i l l s , sense of eff icacy and student achievement - survey: Gibson Teacher Ef f icacy Scale (16 items) - teacher interview Housego (1987) to study pre-servioe teachers' preparedness to teach (included sense of efficacy) - survey: Student Teachers' Preparedness To Teach Scale Tracz & Gibson (1987) to study the relationship between teacher efficacy, teacher time allocation, student engagement & achievement - survey: Gibson Teacher Eff icacy Scale - classroom observation 28 G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) r e p o r t t h a t t h e y began r e s e a r c h on a t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y measure because "a t tempts t o d e v e l o p more u s e f u l measures o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y than the two i tems used i n [Rand] have been u n s u c c e s s f u l " ( p . 5 7 0 ) . T h e i r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w i t h a 3 0 - i t e m s c a l e y i e l d e d two f a c t o r s which c o r r e s p o n d e d t o B a n d u r a ' s (1977, 1978) two-component model o f e f f i c a c y and s u p p o r t e d A s h t o n and Webb's (1983) model o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The two f a c t o r s a r e : (1) a t e a c h e r ' s sense o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , and (2) a t e a c h e r ' s sense o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . Of the o r i g i n a l 30 i t e m s , o n l y 16 y i e l d e d a c c e p t a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y the r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e i tems were u s e d as the b a s i s f o r the f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s i n t h e i r s t u d y ( G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984, p . 5 7 4 ) . However, the 30 i t em v e r s i o n o f the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e was used by Evans and T r i b b l e (1986) w i t h a sample o f 59 p r e - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s . They used t o t a l e f f i c a c y s c o r e s i n t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s and d i d not a t tempt t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the two c o n c e p t u a l d i m e n s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y and t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y ( p . 2 0 ) . A n d e r s o n , Greene , and Loewen (1987) used the 16 i t em v e r s i o n o f the G i b s o n Teacher E f f i c a c y S c a l e ; t h a t i s , o n l y t h o s e i t ems which y i e l d e d a c c e p t a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . T h e i r a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d b o t h the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n and the t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n , but f o c u s e d on the former ( p . 9 ) . T h e i r f a c t o r 29 a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d the same f a c t o r l o a d i n g s as d i d t h a t o f G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) . The r e s e a r c h o f Anderson e t a l . (1987) , G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) , and G r a f t o n (1986) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e and c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r use i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The d e f i n i t i o n o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y u s e d by Dembo and G i b s o n (1985) was s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . I t d e f i n e s t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n terms o f B a n d u r a ' s (1977) two component model o f e f f i c a c y . F a c t o r one i s t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , a b e l i e f t h a t any t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o b r i n g about change i s l i m i t e d by f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o the t e a c h e r . F a c t o r two i s p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , a b e l i e f t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r has the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s t o b r i n g about s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n was s e l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y because i t i s based d i r e c t l y on B a n d u r a ' s (1978) r e s e a r c h on r e c i p r o c a l d e t e r m i n i s m . H i s t h e o r y emphasizes the impor tance o f env i ronment i n d e t e r m i n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y and subsequent b e h a v i o u r . Thus i t i s i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o the p r e s e n t s t u d y which f o c u s e d on the t e a c h e r i n the w o r k p l a c e . Summary T h i s rev iew p r o v i d e s a d e f i n i t i o n o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and i d e n t i f i e s an i n s t r u m e n t f o r measur ing the c o n s t r u c t . The r e v i e w s u g g e s t s t h a t r e c e n t r e s e a r c h has p r o v i d e d e d u c a t o r s w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n s i n c e the t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y c o n s t r u c t was used by Armor e t a l . (1976) . 30 T e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s an i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f s t u d y f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : 1. i t i s r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t achievement and t o o t h e r good t h i n g s t h a t happen i n s c h o o l s ; 2 . i t i s r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r s and so c o u l d be u s e f u l i n s t a f f development e f f o r t s ; and 3. i t can be i n f l u e n c e d by s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s and so c o u l d be u s e f u l i n s c h o o l improvement p l a n n i n g . The c o n s t r u c t o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , based on B a n d u r a ' s work, appears t o p r o v i d e r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r and the env i ronment i n which the b e h a v i o u r t a k e s p l a c e . I t i s an i m p o r t a n t o p p o r t u n i t y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e much p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has emphasized the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s t u d y i n g the t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g . In the s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s c h o o l env i ronment , o r synonymously , the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which c o u l d have an i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y , w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d . The School Level Focus The impor tance o f c o n t e x t i n s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o s c h o o l i n g was i n t r o d u c e d i n c h a p t e r o n e . The impor tance o f the t e a c h e r i n the workp lace has been s t r e s s e d by a h o s t o f r e s e a r c h e r s o v e r the p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s ( e . g . , A s h t o n & Webb, 1986; F u l l a n , 1982, 1985; G o o d l a d , 1984; L ieberman & M i l l e r , 31 1984; L o r t i e , 1975; S a r a s o n , 1971) . I t s h o u l d be a x i o m a t i c by now t h a t any r e s e a r c h on s c h o o l change s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the t e a c h e r and the s c h o o l s e t t i n g i n i t s p l a n n i n g . The s c h o o l as a u n i t i s the s e t t i n g f o r t h i s s t u d y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l f a c t o r s , t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y , and c e r t a i n t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were the f o c u s f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s f o c u s i s the g e n e r a l acknowledgement t h a t improvement i n i t i a t i v e s have the b e s t chance f o r s u c c e s s a t the s c h o o l l e v e l (Wood, Thompson, & R u s s e l l , 1981) . In t h e i r r e v i e w , Hawley e t a l . (1984) e x p l a i n t h e i r emphasis on f a c t o r s t h a t o p e r a t e a t the s c h o o l l e v e l because t h i s i s the a r e a "most o f t e n d i s c u s s e d i n c u r r e n t p r o p o s a l s t o improve e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and t h a t have the most p o t e n t i a l f o r enhanc ing s t u d e n t achievement" ( p . 2 ) . F u l l a n (1984) recommends the s c h o o l as a u n i t b e c a u s e : i t a d d r e s s e s d i r e c t l y the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p r o c e s s f a c t o r s t h a t form the f o u n d a t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e change p r o c e s s e s . I t engages the whole s c h o o l o r l a r g e p a r t s o f i t i n a c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t o f s c h o o l improvement ( p . 4 1 7 ) . Anderson (1982) e x p l a i n s h e r f o c u s on the s c h o o l l e v e l because " r e s e a r c h a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l has p r o v e d r a t h e r f r u i t l e s s , [and] c l a s s r o o m s , n e s t e d as they a re w i t h i n s c h o o l s , have c l i m a t e s t h a t are d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the w i d e r s c h o o l c l i m a t e " ( p . 3 6 8 ) . Wh i le s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l f a c t o r s a re s i g n i f i c a n t they do not appear t o p r o v i d e the most f e r t i l e ground f o r s c h o o l improvement e f f o r t s . 32 The School Level Organizational Conditions One o f the i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s s t u d y was t o de te rmine which s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . Two c r i t e r i a were used t o s e l e c t the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the s t u d y : f i r s t , they had t o be s c h o o l l e v e l f a c t o r s which have been c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t ; and s e c o n d , they had t o be c o n d i t i o n s which c o u l d be changed by a r e a s o n a b l e e x p e n d i t u r e o f r e s o u r c e s . In o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , an i n t e g r a t i v e r e v i e w (Cooper , 1982) o f e i g h t r e c e n t r e v i e w s o f the s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s c h o o l improvement l i t e r a t u r e s was u n d e r t a k e n . The c o n d i t i o n s which were c o n s i s t e n t l y l i n k e d w i t h e f f e c t i v e o r i m p r o v i n g s c h o o l s were i d e n t i f i e d (Appendix A ) . The i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d from the r e s u l t s o f two major s t u d i e s o f s c h o o l change (Rand; D E S S I ) , and one major r e v i e w on each o f s c h o o l c l i m a t e (Anderson , 1982) and the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l (Le i thwood & Montgomery, 1986) . The c h o i c e o f r e v i e w s from which t o i d e n t i f y the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s was based on f o u r c r i t e r i a . Each r e v i e w was done d u r i n g the p a s t f i v e y e a r s ; was comprehensive i n s c o p e ; adopted a c r i t i c a l s t a n c e t o the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d ; and a p p l i e d the r e s u l t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r example , t o the development o f a change model o r t o making recommendat ions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 33 The f i n d i n g s from a l l f i v e s o u r c e s were compared t o p roduce a s y n t h e s i s o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d a c r o s s the d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a t u r e s . As a r e s u l t o f the s y n t h e s i s , n i n e c o n d i t i o n s were s e l e c t e d f o r the s t u d y : (1) g o a l c o n s e n s u s ; (2) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y ; (3) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n ; (4) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : c u r r i c u l u m and r e s o u r c e s ; (5) v e r t i c a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n between t e a c h e r s and the p r i n c i p a l ; (6) h o r i z o n t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n between t e a c h e r s ; (7) s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r ; (8) f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; (9) i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . Once the i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d , the l i t e r a t u r e was s e a r c h e d t o f i n d an i n s t r u m e n t which c o u l d be used t o measure t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . The S c h o o l Assessment Survey ( W i l s o n , F i r e s t o n e , & H e r r i o t t , 1985) was the i n s t r u m e n t s e l e c t e d t o g a t h e r d a t a about s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s w i l l p r o v i d e a b r i e f r e s e a r c h - b a s e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f each o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . 34 Goal Consensus S c h o o l s a re e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e f o r the w i d e - r a n g i n g needs o f a v a r i e d c l i e n t e l e and as a r e s u l t have many g o a l s t o pursue a t any g i v e n t ime ( G o o d l a d , 1983; Le i thwood & Montgomery, 1982) . T h i s p l u r a l i t y o f g o a l s can be a s o u r c e o f c o n f u s i o n f o r t e a c h e r s . Both the e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s l i t e r a t u r e ( e . g . , Cohen, 1983; Purkey & S m i t h , 1983) and the s c h o o l improvement l i t e r a t u r e ( e . g . , Joyce e t a l . , 1983; M a c K e n z i e , 1983) s u p p o r t the n o t i o n t h a t s h a r e d g o a l s o f e x c e l l e n c e a re common t o the more s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l s . In a r e c e n t s t u d y , Baumburg and Andrews (1987) found t h a t the s t a f f o f h i g h - a c h i e v i n g s c h o o l s i d e n t i f y g o a l s t h a t a re r e l a t e d t o the h i g h academic achievement o f s t u d e n t s more o f t e n than do the s t a f f o f l o w - a c h i e v i n g s c h o o l s ( p . 2 3 ) . I t seems from the l i t e r a t u r e on s c h o o l g o a l s , t h a t " l o o s e - c o u p l i n g " (Weick, 1976) does not work. I n s t e a d , g o a l s s h o u l d be c l e a r , w i d e l y - s h a r e d , and a r t i c u l a t e d th roughout the s c h o o l program (Hawley e t a l . , 1984) . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g d u r i n g t imes o f f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t when the c o m p e t i t i o n f o r r e s o u r c e s makes i t n e c e s s a r y t o l i m i t the p u r s u i t o f a l l g o a l s ( M c D o n n e l l , 1983) . Administrative A c t i v i t y Most s t u d i e s o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n agree t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s i n an i d e a l p o s i t i o n t o promote s c h o o l improvement ( e . g . , Le i thwood & Montgomery, 1982) . T h i s 35 f i n d i n g i s s u p p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e on b o t h s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s c h o o l improvement ( C l a r k , L o t t o & A s t u t o , 1984) as w e l l as s c h o o l c l i m a t e ( A n d e r s o n , 1982) . R o s e n h o l t z (1986) s a y s , " P r i n c i p a l s s e t the tone o f a s c h o o l and i n many ways shape the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s under which t e a c h e r s work" ( p . 9 2 ) . In s p i t e o f t h e r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t i n the l i t e r a t u r e about the type o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y which i s most e f f e c t i v e , t h e r e seems t o be a l a c k o f s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about what e f f e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l s a c t u a l l y do ( F u l l a n , 1986; Sweeney, 1982) . F u l l a n (1986) , f o r example, i d e n t i f i e s two u n r e s o l v e d m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g the c r i t i c a l r o l e o f p r i n c i p a l s : (1) when e f f e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l s a re examined i n d e t a i l , the c o m p l e x i t y and d i f f e r e n c e s among t h o s e l a b e l l e d e f f e c t i v e becomes much more a p p a r e n t ; and (2) w h i l e the word " a c t i v e " i s an a d j e c t i v e agreed upon, the d i f f e r e n c e and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f the p r i n c i p a l as an " a c t i v e f a c i l i t a t o r " v e r s u s an " a c t i v e d i r e c t o r " a re not c l e a r ( p . 7 7 ) . Recent r e v i e w s by F u l l a n (1986) and H a l l i n g e r and Murphy (1987) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the impor tance o f c o n t e x t t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d . The type o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y which i s most e f f e c t i v e i n p romot ing s c h o o l improvement w i l l v a r y depending on s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s . 36 The r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s the f a c i l i t a t i v e type o f l e a d e r s h i p which i s most l i k e l y t o enhance t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y (Ashton e t a l . , 1983) . The r e s e a r c h done by W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) r e s u l t e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s i x components o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r b e h a v i o u r which f a c i l i t a t e t e a c h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y . These components are s u p p o r t e d by the f o l l o w i n g summary o f f i n d i n g s about the a c t i v i t i e s i n which e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s engage: d e v e l o p i n g and a r t i c u l a t i n g a v i s i o n o f the s c h o o l and i t s f u t u r e ; p r o j e c t i n g t h a t v i s i o n i n d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t e a c h e r s ; f o s t e r i n g a p o s i t i v e s c h o o l c l i m a t e t h a t i s s u p p o r t i v e o f t e a c h e r s and which r e f l e c t s a p e r v a s i v e c a r i n g about i n d i v i d u a l s ; i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h s t a f f r e g u l a r l y and f a c i l i t a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) r e f e r t o two a r e a s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t the s c h o o l l e v e l . The f i r s t c o n c e r n s the i n f l u e n c e t h a t t e a c h e r s have r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f the p r i n c i p a l i n m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g d a y - t o - d a y c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . B e t t e r t e a c h i n g i s promoted when t e a c h e r s have more i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s a r e a r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f the p r i n c i p a l . The second c o n c e r n s l o n g - t e r m d e c i s i o n s such as t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and m a t e r i a l s , a d d i n g and d r o p p i n g c o u r s e s , s e t t i n g the t i m e - t a b l e and s t a f f ass ignments where the p r i n c i p a l i s e x p e c t e d t o have more c o n t r o l ( p . 8 ) . The assumpt ion i s t h a t s c h o o l s w i l l o p e r a t e 37 more e f f e c t i v e l y i f the zones o f a u t h o r i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a re c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d . There i s an emphasis i n the l i t e r a t u r e on s h a r e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (Berman & M c L a u g h l i n , 1978; L i t t l e , 1981) and on c o l l a b o r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( R o s e n h o l t z , 1986) . In both c a s e s , t e a c h e r and p r i n c i p a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i m p l i c i t . There i s , however, a p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the words " s h a r e d " and " c o l l a b o r a t i v e " . The f i r s t d e s c r i b e s a p r o c e s s where in b o t h t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n one d e c i s i o n . T h i s wou ld , i n e s s e n c e , be the same as c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Shared c o u l d a l s o mean s h a r i n g o f a r e a s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r which e i t h e r the t e a c h e r o r the p r i n c i p a l makes d e c i s i o n s . T h i s i s a p p a r e n t l y the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which W i l s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s used i n t h e i r work and i s a l s o the one u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s i m p o r t a n t because o f the o p p o r t u n i t y i t p r o v i d e s f o r t e a c h e r t o t e a c h e r and t e a c h e r t o p r i n c i p a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n as w e l l as f o r i n c r e a s i n g t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e i v e d s e l f - e f f i c a c y i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g competence (Showers, 1980) . When s c h o o l l e v e l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s l o o k e d a t from the v i e w p o i n t o f the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f the t e a c h e r s and the p r i n c i p a l , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s a re t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . As s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have p o i n t e d o u t , the s c h o o l s e t t i n g i s i m p o r t a n t and f a c t o r s such as s c h o o l g o a l s and s t a f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( H a l l i n g e r & Murphy, 1987) and 38 grade d i v i s i o n l e v e l ( F i r e s t o n e & H e r r i o t t , 1982) c o u l d have an impact on who makes what d e c i s i o n s . In d i s a d v a n t a g e d and low a c h i e v i n g s c h o o l s , more i n v o l v e m e n t by the p r i n c i p a l i n d e c i s i o n s about s e l e c t i n g b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t growth ( W e l l i s c h , MacQueen, C a r r i e r e , & Duck, 1978). The RAND s t u d y r e p o r t s , i n c o n t r a s t , emphasize the impor tance o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t e a c h e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n d e c i s i o n s about c u r r i c u l u m change i f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t o be e f f e c t i v e (Berman & M c L a u g h l i n , 1974) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l a c k o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e s u l t s i n l e s s t e a c h e r commitment ( C o n l e y , 1987) and lower s e l f - e f f i c a c y (Ashton e t a l . , 1983) . There appears t o be l i t t l e doubt about the impor tance o f t e a c h e r and p r i n c i p a l invo lvement i n s c h o o l l e v e l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . There d o e s , however, seem t o be some doubt about who ought t o have the major i n f l u e n c e i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . Communication W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) d i f f e r e n t i a t e between v e r t i c a l communicat ion (between t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion (between and among t e a c h e r s ) . The amount o f d i s c u s s i o n about s t u d e n t management i s s u e s and about i n s t r u c t i o n i s the b a s i s f o r measurement i n W i l s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ' work and i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . 39 T h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r two r e a s o n s : f i r s t , i t has been used as an i n d i c a t o r o f e f f e c t i v e communicat ion w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n ( e . g . , M i s k e l , McDonald , & Bloom, 1983); and s e c o n d , i t i s f r e q u e n t l y used as a measure o f c o l l e g i a l i t y ( e . g . , L i t t l e , 1982) and l i n k e d t o more e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l i n g . F u l l a n (1982) s t a t e s t h a t , " W i t h i n the s c h o o l , c o l l e g i a l i t y among t e a c h e r s as measured by the f r e q u e n c y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . . . was a s t r o n g i n d i c a t o r o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s u c c e s s " (p .121) and " i n c r e a s e d t e a c h e r t o t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n o c c u r s i n some c a s e s and i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n " ( p . 1 2 1 ) . M i s k e l e t a l . (1983) found a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h communicat ion between t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r s , and between t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s on s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T e a c h i n g has o f t e n been r e f e r r e d t o as a p r o f e s s i o n i n which one i s i s o l a t e d ( L o r t i e , 1975) and the tendency o f t e n i s f o r the t e a c h e r t o make many i n s t r u c t i o n a l - r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h c o l l e a g u e s ( L i t t l e , 1982) . C o n l e y (1987) s u g g e s t s t h a t "where t e a c h e r s f e e l they a r e i s o l a t e d from o t h e r t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s , we would e x p e c t c a r e e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t o r e s u l t " ( p . 5 ) . In h e r s c h o o l c l i m a t e r e v i e w , Anderson (1982) found t h a t t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n and the absence o f c o l l e g i a l i t y between s t a f f and 40 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a p r e v a i l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l e a d i n g t o a c l i m a t e o f c r i s i s ( p . 4 0 0 ) . Le i thwood and Montgomery 's (1986) s t u d y o f the p r i n c i p a l i n d i c a t e s t h a t the more e f f e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l s work a t e s t a b l i s h i n g norms o f c o l l e g i a l i t y among a l l members o f the s t a f f . S i m i l a r l y , R o s e n h o l t z (1986) e x p l a i n s t h a t "norms o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n do not j u s t happen" ( p . 9 3 ) . They a re c r e a t e d by p r i n c i p a l s who ensure t h a t the workp lace p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t a s k - r e l a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n among t e a c h e r s and between t e a c h e r s and t h e m s e l v e s . Student Behaviour The n a t u r e o f s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o u r i n a s c h o o l can be a measure o f the s c h o o l ' s c l i m a t e ( W i l s o n e t a l . , 1985) . P o s i t i v e s c h o o l c l i m a t e i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o i n the e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s l i t e r a t u r e as a sense o f o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e ( J o y c e e t a l . , 1983; Purkey & S m i t h , 1983) . A c o n s i s t e n t sense o f f a i r n e s s , o r d e r and community have been l i n k e d t o b e t t e r s c h o o l s and a p o s i t i v e " e t h o s " ( R u t t e r e t a l . , 1979) . P o l l a c k , C h r i s p e e l s , and Watson (1987) i n c l u d e a s a f e and o r d e r l y env i ronment , communica t ion , and h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r achievement i n t h e i r measure o f s c h o o l c l i m a t e o r c u l t u r e ( p . 3 ) . P r i n c i p a l s a re o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and c o n s i s t e n t l y e n f o r c i n g them (Brookover e t a l . , 1979; R o s e n h o l t z , 1986; R u t t e r e t a l . , 1979) . In the k i n d o f 41 env i ronment c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c l e a r e x p e c t a t i o n s and o r d e r l i n e s s , s t u d e n t s a re a b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i r s t u d i e s and t e a c h e r s a re a b l e t o f o c u s on the s t u d e n t s . I t makes sense t h a t achievement w i l l be h i g h e r i n t h i s s e t t i n g and t h a t a t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y might be h i g h e r . Teacher Evaluation The i n t e g r a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w showed c o n s i s t e n t s u p p o r t f o r the impor tance o f a system t o m o n i t o r t e a c h e r per fo rmance which p r o v i d e s t e a c h e r s w i t h f r e q u e n t and a c c u r a t e feedback t o g e t h e r w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a s s i s t a n c e ( e . g . , F u l l a n , 1985; Good & Brophy , 1986; Hawley e t a l . , 1984) . There i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s a re o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d because they do not know how w e l l they a re d o i n g (Ash ton & Webb, 1986; L o r t i e , 1975; R o s e n h o l t z , 1986) . In t h e i r rev iew o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , Darl ing-Hammond e t a l . (1983) i d e n t i f y s t a f f development as the purpose o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , and s c h o o l improvement as the purpose o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l . They emphasize the impor tance o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t t o t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f a p a r t i c u l a r e v a l u a t i o n s y s t e m , p o t e n t i a l u s e r s cannot a s s e s s whether o r no t the system i s w e l l - s u i t e d t o t h e i r aims o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Second , t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n t h a t i d e n t i f i e s per formance achievement i s p a r t o f a 42 r e s p o n s i b l e env i ronment t h a t enhances t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( p . 3 1 5 ) . N a t r i e l l o and W i l s o n (1986) s t u d i e d b o t h i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o n i n e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , seven o f which were used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x e l e m e n t s . The i t ems u s e d t o c o l l e c t t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s about each o f the e lements were found t o be u s e f u l i n e x a m i n i n g , f i r s t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i o u s e lements o f the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s ; and s e c o n d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d imens ions o f s c h o o l s ( p . 5 ) . In a way s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Darl ing-Hammond and h e r c o l l e a g u e s , N a t r i e l l o and W i l s o n i n d i c a t e the impor tance o f c o n t e x t i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f the b e n e f i t s and dangers o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . Under c e r t a i n k i n d s o f e d u c a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , f o r example , d i s a d v a n t a g e d and low a c h i e v i n g s c h o o l s , a g r e a t e r emphasis on h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y might r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t per formance ( W e l l i s c h e t a l . , 1978) . T h i s c o u l d a l s o be the r e a s o n why the t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s l i t e r a t u r e u s u a l l y l i s t s t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n as one c r i t e r i o n o f e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s s i n c e so much o f t h a t r e s e a r c h was done w i t h low a c h i e v i n g o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s . I t does appear , however, t h a t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s e r v e s an i m p o r t a n t purpose under o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l by g i v i n g 43 t e a c h e r s some feedback about t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . A s h t o n e t a l . (1983) i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y i s d e c r e a s e d by u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s because t h e y " d o n ' t r e a l l y b e l i e v e the r e s u l t s o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s measure t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s " ( p . 2 3 ) . I t appears t h a t t h e r e i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s as a means o f feedback and a s s i s t a n c e t o t e a c h e r s . Summary T h i s s e c t i o n o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w has a t tempted t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e d one group o f v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y . I t began by e x p l a i n i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f the s c h o o l l e v e l f o c u s t o t h i s s t u d y which has a major i n t e r e s t i n p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s c h o o l improvement . The c l a i m f o r the impor tance o f b o t h the s c h o o l l e v e l f o c u s and f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s appears t o have s o l i d s u p p o r t i n the l i t e r a t u r e . These p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s are i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s s tudy f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , each o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s has been i d e n t i f i e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t i n i m p r o v i n g some a s p e c t o f s c h o o l i n g . Second , each s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n appears t o have the p o t e n t i a l t o be changed w i t h a moderate i n p u t o f r e s o u r c e s . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t they a re easy t o change, j u s t t h a t t h e y a re e a s i e r t o change than o t h e r v a r i a b l e s 44 wh ich have been l i n k e d t o h i g h e r ach ievement , s u c h as s t u d e n t s ' s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The nex t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which formed a n o t h e r group o f v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The Teacher Demographic Characteristics F i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y : (1) age; (2) s e x ; (3) t e a c h i n g d i v i s i o n l e v e l ; (4) y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l ; and (5) t o t a l y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Each o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s has s u p p o r t i n the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d i c a t o r s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d i c a t o r s , o r t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . These v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s s tudy because i n d i v i d u a l l y o r t o g e t h e r i n a c e r t a i n c o m b i n a t i o n , they might be r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y o r t o any r e l a t i o n s h i p which might e x i s t between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . Teacher Age The i s s u e o f the a g i n g t e a c h i n g f o r c e and i t s p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s has been d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n the p a s t few y e a r s ( e . g . , MacDonald , 1984; S c h l e c h t y & Vance , 1983) . There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t the average age o f the t e a c h i n g f o r c e i s i n c r e a s i n g . F o r example , i n 1986 the average age f o r A l b e r t a t e a c h e r s was 38, up from 36 45 two y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y ( R e i d , 1986) . There i s , however , i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e i n the l i t e r a t u r e g e n e r a l l y t o i n d i c a t e whether t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between age groups i n r e l a t i o n t o s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The l i t e r a t u r e on s t a f f deve lopment , however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s have d i f f e r e n t j o b s k i l l s , knowledge, b e h a v i o u r , a t t i t u d e s , and c o n c e r n s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s i n t h e i r c a r e e r and t h a t t e a c h e r s t h e r e f o r e have d i f f e r e n t s t a f f development n e e d s . O ja (1980) r e v i e w e d v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s o f a d u l t development as the b a s i s f o r a s t a f f development p r o j e c t d i r e c t e d a t i n c r e a s i n g t e a c h e r s ' c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s a t d i f f e r e n t phases o f t h e i r c a r e e r s . I f t e a c h e r s ' s t a f f development needs a re d i f f e r e n t b a s e d on t h e i r age and m a t u r i t y l e v e l , pe rhaps t h e i r sense o f e f f i c a c y i s a l s o a f f e c t e d . I f t h i s i s t r u e , then i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c e r t a i n s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s a re more i m p o r t a n t a t some t imes i n a t e a c h e r ' s c a r e e r than a t o t h e r t i m e s . Showers (1980) found t h a t t e a c h e r s seem t o e x p e r i e n c e a d e c l i n e i n t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y a f t e r t e a c h i n g many y e a r s ( p . 7 4 ) . R o s e n h o l t z (1987) s u g g e s t s t h a t young t e a c h e r s l e a v e the p r o f e s s i o n u n l e s s the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r workp lace are r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i r needs ( p . 2 0 ) . Based on the n o t i o n t h a t c a r e e r s t a g e s c o r r e s p o n d t o age l e v e l s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t age c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y and t h a t d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l l e v e l 46 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s might be i m p o r t a n t a t d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s t a g e s . Teacher Sex Gender d i f f e r e n c e s have been n o t e d b o t h i n r e s e a r c h about o r g a n i z a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( e . g . , M i s k e l e t a l . , 1983); and i n r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( e . g . , Evans & T r i b b l e , 1986; Guskey , 1982) . Whi le M i s k e l e t a l . (1983) found a modest r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r sex and c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Evans and T r i b b l e (1986) found a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (p=.002) between t e a c h e r sex and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y w i t h females b e i n g more e f f i c a c i o u s . Anderson e t a l . ' s (1987) r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s t h a t o f Evans and T r i b b l e . G r a f t o n (1986) found p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and communicat ion o p e n n e s s , c r e d i b i l i t y , and management communicat ion s t y l e w i t h female t e a c h e r s . By c o n t r a s t , Guskey (1982) , i n h i s s t u d y o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c o n t r o l o v e r s t u d e n t outcomes, found t h a t t e a c h e r sex was not a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . S i n c e a r e a s o n a b l y good p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t e d f o r the sex o f a t e a c h e r t o be r e l a t e d t o sense o f e f f i c a c y , the gender v a r i a b l e was i n c l u d e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . Teaching Grade Level D i v i s i o n Among the c r i t i c i s m s l e v e l l e d a t the e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s r e s e a r c h i s the a lmost e x c l u s i v e f o c u s on the e l e m e n t a r y 47 s c h o o l (Good & Brophy , 1986; Purkey & S m i t h , 1983) . There i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t change i s more d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o m p l i s h at t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l (Berman & M c L a u g h l i n , 1978) . F u l l a n (1985) s a y s t h a t "we d o n ' t know enough about t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s [between e lementa ry and secondary ] because t h e r e have not been many a t tempts t o r e f o r m s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s " ( p . 4 1 7 ) . There has been some work t h a t a t tempts t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t e a c h e r s a t the e lementary l e v e l and t h o s e a t the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . For example, F i r e s t o n e and H e r r i o t t (1982) r e p o r t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s on some measures , such as g o a l consensus and i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and c o n c l u d e t h a t " t h e r e a re s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between l e v e l s t h a t seem t o p r e c l u d e g e n e r a l i z i n g from one t o the o t h e r " ( p . 1 2 ) . Anderson e t a l . (1987) found i n t h e i r t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s t u d y t h a t t h e r e a re i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the e lementa ry s c h o o l . The t e a c h e r ' s t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n was i n c l u d e d as one o f the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s because o f i t s p o t e n t i a l t o i n f l u e n c e the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . Years of Teaching Experience The e f f e c t o f the number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i s ano ther t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c about which the l i t e r a t u r e i s no t c l e a r . Based on t h e i r r e v i e w s , H a l l i n g e r and Murphy (1987) s t a t e t h a t "as t e a c h i n g s t a f f s mature and s t a b i l i z e , 48 the l e a d e r s h i p s t r a t e g i e s o f p r i n c i p a l s s h o u l d s h i f t from f o r m a l , d i r e c t i v e approaches t o more i n f o r m a l , i n d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s " ( p . 1 4 ) . R o s e n h o l t z (1987) i n c l u d e s l e a d e r s h i p as one o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d a f f e c t t e a c h e r commitment and s u g g e s t s t h a t d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s a re n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n t e a c h e r commitment a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f t h e i r c a r e e r s . G l i c k m a n and Tamashi ro (1982) found t h a t most f i r s t and f i f t h y e a r t e a c h e r s tended t o p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g more e f f i c a c i o u s i n t h e i r j o b s than d i d r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s . G u s k e y ' s (1982) f i n d i n g s , i n c o n t r a s t , showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l o v e r s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g outcomes. There i s a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y and y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Dembo and G i b s o n (1985) r e p o r t t h a t " b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s had h i g h e r [ e f f i c a c y ] s c o r e s than the s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g g r o u p . S c o r e s i n c r e a s e d from f i v e t o t e n y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , then d e c r e a s e d w i t h more t ime spent i n the p r o f e s s i o n " ( p . 1 7 8 ) . M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh (1978) , however, i n d i c a t e t h a t i n the Rand s t u d i e s " t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e " ( p . 8 6 ) . Both t o t a l y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and the t e a c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l were i n c l u d e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y because they appear t o be e i t h e r d i r e c t l y 49 o r i n d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l e f f e c t s . F o r example , the impor tance o f s t a f f s t a b i l i t y has been c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as one o f the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n s c h o o l s (MacKenz ie , 1983; Purkey & S m i t h , 1983) . R o s e n h o l t z (1986) ment ions the impor tance o f t e a c h e r s ' b e i n g s o c i a l i z e d t o the norms o f the s c h o o l and a l l o f the r e v i e w e r s s t r e s s the impor tance o f s t a f f c o l l e g i a l i t y . I t would seem t h a t the l e n g t h o f t ime t h a t a t e a c h e r has t a u g h t i n a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l c o u l d i n f l u e n c e a l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . Summary The l i t e r a t u r e rev iew i d e n t i f i e d f i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which have been shown t o i n f l u e n c e a n d / o r be i n f l u e n c e d by s c h o o l p r o c e s s e s . S i n c e i t was not c l e a r what i n f l u e n c e they might have on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and on o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y , an at tempt was made t o measure t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . In the f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r the framework o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s which g u i d e d the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s d e s c r i b e d . Framework of Relationships A g r e a t d e a l has been w r i t t e n about b o t h the impor tance and the d i f f i c u l t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l change ( e . g . , Berman, 1981; F u l l a n , 1982, 1985) . T e a c h e r change , d e s c r i b e d as s t a f f development o r as one a s p e c t o f s c h o o l improvement, c o n t i n u e s t o be a major t o p i c i n e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . In s p i t e o f 50 the d i f f i c u l t y i n bringing about change, "improvement and progress do seem possible by v i r t u e of the fa c t that success does happen i n some settings and does happen as a r e s u l t of deliberate planning, not j u s t by chance" (Fullan, 1982, p.120). One of the objectives of t h i s study i s to provide information which could be used i n school improvement planning. The importance of the teacher i n the workplace i n r e l a t i o n to studies of schooling i s well documented (e.g., Goodlad, 1984; L o r t i e , 1975). One of the main assumptions of t h i s study was that the school context makes a difference to how teachers perceive t h e i r work. These attitudes a f f e c t t h e i r teaching behaviours, which i n turn influence student learning (Ashton, 1986). Bandura 1s work on r e c i p r o c a l determinism (1978, 1982) provided the basis for thinking about the r e c i p r o c a l influence which teacher e f f i c a c y has on student achievement. Personal and environmental factors do not function as independent determinants; rather, they determine each other. Nor can "persons" be considered causes independent of t h e i r behaviour. It i s l a r g e l y through t h e i r actions that people produce the environmental conditions that a f f e c t t h e i r behaviour i n a r e c i p r o c a l fashion (Bandura, 1978, p.345). Bandura (1978) goes on to provide an example which can be applied to the present study: "People's e f f i c a c y and outcome expectations influence how they behave, and the environmental e f f e c t s created by t h e i r actions i n turn a l t e r t h e i r expectations" (p.346). 51 One o f the assumpt ions u n d e r l y i n g the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t h a t a t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y w i l l i n f l u e n c e h i s o r her b e h a v i o u r , wh ich i n t u r n a f f e c t s s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . I n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g has a r e c i p r o c a l e f f e c t on the t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y , w i t h the r e s u l t b e i n g an i n c r e a s e o r enhancement o f the t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y . A s h t o n e t a l . (1983) i n c l u d e two a d d i t i o n a l s t e p s where the s t u d e n t i s c o n c e r n e d ; t h a t i s , the t e a c h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r i n f l u e n c e s , one , the s t u d e n t ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y and , two, the s t u d e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r , which i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e s s t u d e n t ach ievement . The f i r s t and second s t a g e s seem t o make sense g i v e n the t h e o r y o f r e c i p r o c a l d e t e r m i n i s m . In t h i s s t u d y , the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and the t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d f a l l i n t o the c a t e g o r y which Bandura c a l l s "env i ronment" (Bandura , 1978, p .346 ; 1982, p . 1 3 1 ) . A r e s p o n s i v e env i ronment ( e . g . , s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ) c o u l d f o s t e r a s s u r a n c e and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s on the p a r t o f the t e a c h e r . In c o n t r a s t , an u n r e s p o n s i v e env i ronment c o u l d g e n e r a t e e i t h e r resentment o r apa thy , depending on whether the t e a c h e r was e i t h e r a h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r o r a low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r t o s t a r t w i t h (Bandura , 1978, p p . 1 4 0 , 141) . Some r e s e a r c h e r s have s u g g e s t e d the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y ( e . g . , A s h t o n e t a l . , 1983; Dembo & G i b s o n , 1985; Denham & M i c h a e l , 1981) . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s 52 s e l e c t e d f o r the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n were based on t h i s work. O t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were added from the l i t e r a t u r e on s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , s c h o o l improvement , change, s c h o o l c l i m a t e , and the p r i n c i p a l . T o g e t h e r , they p r o v i d e a g r o u p i n g o f v a r i a b l e s which have been shown t o i n f l u e n c e many good t h i n g s t h a t happen i n s c h o o l i n g . I t was c o n s i d e r e d l i k e l y t h a t some o f them would i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . A n o t h e r o b j e c t i v e o f the s t u d y was t o de te rmine which c o n d i t i o n s were most i m p o r t a n t . I f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , they c o u l d be used i n s c h o o l improvement p l a n n i n g , f o r example, e f f o r t s c o u l d be made t o use them t o c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e env i ronment f o r t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has i d e n t i f i e d a wide a r r a y o f v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g and v a r i o u s models have been d e v e l o p e d t o p o r t r a y t h e i r e f f e c t s ( e . g . , C e n t r a & P o t t e r , 1980; Glasman & B i n i a m i n o v , 1981; R a t s o y , 1983) . T h i s s t u d y l i m i t e d the number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s so as t o make the s t u d y more manageable and f o c u s e d . As Ra tsoy (1983) p o i n t s o u t , i t i s p r o b a b l y more r a t i o n a l , from an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , t o s t u d y a l l o f the v a r i a b l e s a t o n c e , but the c o s t i s h i g h . I n s t e a d he recommends t h a t " the p r i n c i p l e o f pars imony s h o u l d be used as a g u i d e i n s e l e c t i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s v a r i a b l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n . No model can be a l l - i n c l u s i v e " ( p . 5 ) . 53 In t h i s s t u d y the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s were r e s t r i c t e d by t h r e e c r i t e r i a : f i r s t , they were s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s which have been shown p r e v i o u s l y t o have an i n f l u e n c e on s c h o o l i n g ; s e c o n d , they had the p o t e n t i a l t o be changed w i t h r e a s o n a b l e r e s o u r c e i n p u t ; and t h i r d , they c o u l d be measured u s i n g p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y has s u g g e s t e d how s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might i n t e r a c t w i t h t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . There a r e , o f c o u r s e , s e v e r a l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y o r any o t h e r v a r i a b l e i n s t u d i e s o f s c h o o l i n g ; f o r example , w h i l e h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y has been shown t o have a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g by a f f e c t i n g t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r s , t h e r e are o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s (Ashton & Webb, 1986) . T h i s s t u d y chose t o f o c u s on one group o f v a r i a b l e s which had the p o t e n t i a l t o c o n t r i b u t e p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge t o the l i t e r a t u r e about s c h o o l s , and a t the same t i m e , was manageable . Both Denham & M i c h a e l (1981) and A s h t o n (1985) deve loped models t o g u i d e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y ( F i g u r e 1 ) . Model A i n t h i s f i g u r e i s the Denham and M i c h a e l (1981) model d e v e l o p e d " to g u i d e r e s e a r c h on the a n t e c e d e n t s and consequences o f t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y " MODEL A MODEL B Students' Sens* of Efficacy Student 4Achievement J Mul tioge Grouping Aomin Support Teoener Efficacy Effect o f l Other Variables, F i g u r e 1, Model A: Denham and M i c h a e l ' s (1981) model f o r the s t u d y o f t e a c h e r s ' s e n s e o f e f f i c a c y . Model B: A s h t o n ' s (1985) model o f t h e r e c i p r o c a l e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r s ' s e n s e o f e f f i c a c y and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . 55 ( p . 4 1 ) . T h i s model was c o n s i d e r e d t o be w e l l - s u i t e d t o the p r e s e n t s t u d y because i t d e s c r i b e s t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y as an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e which i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be r e l a t e d t o s u c h a n t e c e d e n t c o n d i t i o n s as s c h o o l system v a r i a b l e s and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s , and such measurable consequences as t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r s and s t u d e n t outcomes ( p . 4 1 ) . The A s h t o n (1985) model was based on the r e s u l t s o f the T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y Study (Ashton e t a l . , 1983) and makes an i m p o r t a n t a d d i t i o n t o the Denham and M i c h a e l model by s u g g e s t i n g t h o s e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which might i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( F i g u r e 1, Model B ) . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s A s h t o n s u g g e s t s a re m u l t i - a g e g r o u p i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t , bu t she a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a re o t h e r v a r i a b l e s which might i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . I t was c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e t h a t the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be the ones s e l e c t e d f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y . As Guskey (1986) o b s e r v e s : But w h i l e i t has been n o t e d t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s l i k e l y t o be dependent upon c e r t a i n c o n t e x t v a r i a b l e s few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have sought t o de te rmine the n a t u r e o f the v a r i a b l e s on t h e i r p r e c i s e e f f e c t s on measures o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( p . 5 ) . The i n t e n t o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o at tempt t o i d e n t i f y some o f the v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . Based on the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , the framework o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s was d e v e l o p e d . The model i n F i g u r e 2 p o r t r a y s how the t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y might be r e l a t e d t o the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l TEACHER SENSE OF EFFICACY Personal Teaching Efficacy Teaching Efficacy SCHOOL LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITIONS Goal Consensus Admin. Activity Decision-Making teacher principal Conounlcation vertical horizontal Student Behaviour Teacher Evaluation formal Informal TEACHER DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Age Sex Teaching Grade Level Total Years of Experience Years in Present School Figure 2. scfiool A model for studying the relationship between teachers' sense of efficacy, and each of, Tevel organizational conditions and teacher demographic characteristics. cn cn 57 c o n d i t i o n s and t o the t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g r e l a t e d t o bo th the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and the t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i s r e c i p r o c a l . The t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f e f f i c a c y . Summary T h i s r e v i e w has a t tempted t o d e s c r i b e the background l i t e r a t u r e and thought t h a t p r o v i d e d the u n d e r p i n n i n g s f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y . I t was o r g a n i z e d i n f o u r p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t d e a l t w i t h the c o n c e p t o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y from i t s s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e g i n n i n g i n B a n d u r a ' s r e s e a r c h t o i t s use i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . The d e f i n i t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the s t u d y was p r e s e n t e d . The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t , c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t one a v a i l a b l e f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y , was i d e n t i f i e d . The second p a r t d i s c u s s e d the n i n e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e one s e t o f v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y and i d e n t i f i e d the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s e l e c t e d t o measure them. The f i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were d i s c u s s e d i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . The framework o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s based on the f i r s t t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f the r e v i e w , was d i s c u s s e d i n the f o u r t h s e c t i o n . 58 The nex t c h a p t e r o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n d e s c r i b e s the s tudy method which was used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y and each o f s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 59 CHAPTER THREE METHOD This chapter w i l l focus on the research design and study procedures. I t begins by l i s t i n g the research questions formulated f o r the study. The conceptual and operational d e f i n i t i o n s of the variables are then stated. Five major sections follow the d e f i n i t i o n s : (1) the design of the study; (2) a description of the study sample; (3) a discussion of the data c o l l e c t i o n instruments; (4) a de s c r i p t i o n of data c o l l e c t i o n procedures; and (5) an outline of data analysis procedures. The chapter concludes with a statement of delimitations, assumptions, and l i m i t a t i o n s . Research Questions This study sought to determine the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among several workplace variables which were shown i n the l i t e r a t u r e to have a p o s i t i v e influence on various occurrences i n schools. Both teacher sense of e f f i c a c y and the selected organizational conditions appear to have the p o t e n t i a l to be altered or influenced. If they were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related, then perhaps they could become the focus f o r a school improvement plan. The research questions were designed to guide the research toward i t s purpose. 60 Research Question 1 1.1 Is a t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y r e l a t e d t o h i s o r her demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : ( i ) age ( i i ) sex ( i i i ) t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n ( i v ) t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r e s e n t s c h o o l (v) t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ? 1.2 Do some subgroups o f t e a c h e r s , based on demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , have a s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y than o t h e r subgroups o f t e a c h e r s ? Research Question 2 2.1 What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s : ( i ) g o a l consensus ( i i ) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y ( i i i ) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n ( i v ) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about c u r r i c u l u m and r e s o u r c e s (v) h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion ( v i ) v e r t i c a l communicat ion ( v i i ) s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r ( v i i i ) f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ( i x ) i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ? 2 .2 Which o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s are b e s t a b l e t o p r e d i c t h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ? 61 Conceptual and Operational Definitions The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a re p r o v i d e d i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y not o n l y how t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n the s t u d y , but a l s o how e a c h was measured i n r e l a t i o n t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Teacher Efficacy T e a c h e r e f f i c a c y has been d e f i n e d as "the e x t e n t t o wh ich t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e they can have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g and s t u d e n t achievement" (Ashton e t a l . , 1983, p . i i ) . A rev iew o f the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y has been h y p o t h e s i z e d t o have two d i m e n s i o n s , t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . T e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y i s a b e l i e f t h a t any t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o b r i n g about change i s l i m i t e d by f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o the t e a c h e r s u c h as home env i ronment , f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d , and p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e . P e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y i s the b e l i e f t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r has the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s t o b r i n g about s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g ( G i b s o n & Dembo, 1985, p p . 1 7 4 , 1 7 5 ) . The t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s were used t o d e f i n e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y b e c a u s e , as the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n d i c a t e s , t h i s e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n i s most p r e d i c t i v e o f t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r . A s h t o n e t a l . , (1983) s t a t e , " P e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y i s the most s p e c i f i c l e v e l o f 62 c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , and , c o n s e q u e n t l y , the b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r " ( p . 2 ) . Because one o f the o b j e c t i v e s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which might be u s e f u l f o r s t a f f development and s c h o o l improvement, i t was i m p o r t a n t t o l o o k a t the f a c t o r most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r . The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y used i n t h i s s t u d y i s the t e a c h e r ' s s c o r e on the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n o f the G i b s o n T e a c h i n g E f f i c a c y S c a l e (1984) . The G i b s o n s c a l e was i n c l u d e d as i tems 3 t o 18 i n the S c h o o l D imensions Survey (Appendix B ) . The School Level Organizational Conditions The n i n e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y on the b a s i s o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w were: 1. g o a l c o n s e n s u s ; 2 . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y ; 3 . d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n ( t e a c h e r ) ; 4 . d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : c u r r i c u l u m and r e s o u r c e s ( p r i n c i p a l ) ; 5. v e r t i c a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n between t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ; 6. h o r i z o n t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n between t e a c h e r s ; 7. s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r ; 8. f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; 9 . i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . T a b l e 3 p r o v i d e s d e f i n i t i o n s f o r each o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ' Table 3 Definitions And Sample Items For The Nine Dimensions In The School Dimensions Survey (SDS) (Adapted From School Assessment Survey Technical Manual - Wilson, Firestone, And Herriott, 1985, And From Natriello and Wilson, 1986) Number of Dimension Definition Sample Item Items Metric Goal Consensus Administrative Activity Decision-Making: Classroom Instruction Decision-Making: Curriculum and Resources Curriculum and Resources Agreement among teachers on which student skills and characteristics should receive the most attention in a particular school. Actions of the principal that encourage and support the professional behavior of the teaching staff. The ability of the principal to get teachers to carry out his/her wishes with respect to courses, schedules, staff assignments, and the allocation of resources. The ability of the principal to get teachers to carry cut his or her wishes with respect to teaching activities. Rank these seven areas in terms of how in^portant they are to you as a member of  your school! Critical and original thinking. Indicate how frequently your principal engages in each activity listed below: Gives teachers the feeling that their work i s an "iiiportant'' activity. Indicate how much influence teachers in the school and the principal in the school have on the following decisions: Selecting required texts and other materials. Indicate how much influence teachers in the school and the principal in the school have on the following decisions: Making specific staff grade level and course assignments. Most important (1) to least ijqpartant (7) Never (0) to always (5) 10 Principal centered (+3) to teacher centered (-3) 10 Principal centered (+3) to teacher centered (-3) Table 3 (continued) Dimension Definition Vertical The extent to which information Conmunication about instruction i s shared between teachers and administrators (frequency of discussions). Horizontal The extent to which information CJommunication about instruction i s shared among teachers (frequency of discussions). Student Behavior The presence of an orderly environment in the school. Teacher Evaluation (i) Formal ( i i ) Informal The extent to which the formal and informal teacher evaluation processes are applied in 2 teaching areas: teaching subject matter and maintaining control. The teacher evaluation process which includes planned observ-ation, conferencing and a written report. The teacher evaluation process which is largely unplanned and does not include a written report. Sample Item Number of Items Metric Indicate how often you talk about each of the topics listed below with administ-rators i n this school: Lessons or curriculum units that work well or poorly. Indicate how often you talk about each of the topics listed below with the two teachers you talk to most often: Lessons or curriculum units that work well or poorly. Throughout this school the atmosphere i s orderly and businesslike. Never (0) to once a day (5) Never (0) to once a day (5) Never (0) to always (5) I receive feedback from my evaluator on how well I am doing. Never (0) to always (5) 7 Never (0) to always (5) 65 c o n d i t i o n s , a sample f o r e a c h , the number o f i t ems i n each d i m e n s i o n and i t s m e t r i c . The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f each o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i s the t e a c h e r ' s s c o r e on each o f the d i m e n s i o n s i n the S c h o o l D imens ions S u r v e y . Teacher Demographic Characteristics The f i v e t e a c h e r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which c o n s t i t u t e the t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y were drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . On t h a t b a s i s , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t they might be r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The f i v e demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e : 1. age; 2 . s e x ; 3 . t e a c h i n g d i v i s i o n l e v e l ; 4 . y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l ; 5. y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t o t a l . The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i a b l e i s the t e a c h e r ' s r e s p o n s e on i tems number 117 t o 122 o f the S c h o o l D imens ions S u r v e y . Study Design T h i s s t u d y may be c a t e g o r i z e d as a r e l a t i o n s h i p s tudy which Borg and G a l l (1983) d e s c r i b e as b e i n g " c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h g a i n i n g a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f complex b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s and v a r i a b l e s t o which they a re 66 h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d " ( p . 5 7 6 ) . S i n c e the main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y l o o k a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s and s i n c e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s were s e l e c t e d so t h a t the d a t a would be i n q u a n t i f i a b l e form, the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p s t u d y was s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y seeks t o add t o the knowledge about the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l w o r k p l a c e . As one way o f d o i n g t h i s , i t was c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o ge t p e r c e p t u a l d a t a from the peop le i n t h e i r w o r k p l a c e . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1976) s t a t e s : " the impact , o f the s e t t i n g cannot be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t some i n f o r m a t i o n on how the s e t t i n g , and i t s v a r i o u s e lements were p e r c e i v e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s " ( p . 6 ) . P o p u l a t i o n and Sample The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n c o m p r i s e d 440 s c h o o l - b a s e d t e a c h e r s and 15 p r i n c i p a l s who were i n one m i d - s i z e d urban s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a s e r v i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8000 s t u d e n t s . There are 17 s c h o o l s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , 15 o f which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . Two s c h o o l s were not i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y , one because i t i s a s c h o o l w i t h h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n and two t e a c h e r s ; the o t h e r because i t i s a s p e c i a l f i v e - t e a c h e r s c h o o l f o r s t u d e n t s who are wards o f the c o u r t . Both were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t y p i c a l s c h o o l s and f o r t h a t r e a s o n were no t i n c l u d e d i n the sample f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The s tudy 67 sample was composed o f the v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r and p r i n c i p a l r e s p o n d e n t s . The s t u d y used the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the v o l u n t e e r r e s p o n d e n t s t o ge t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e i r e f f i c a c y b e l i e f s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . A s t u d y o f the t e a c h e r s i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f f e r s some i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y because s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d have an i n f l u e n c e on s t u d e n t outcomes can be c o n t r o l l e d . Many v a r i a b l e s c o n c e r n i n g r e s o u r c e s a re c o n t r o l l e d . F o r example, a l l s c h o o l s r e c e i v e the same p e r p u p i l t ex tbook g r a n t , have a c c e s s t o the same c o n s u l t a n t s , maintenance and c u s t o d i a l c a r e . S t a f f i n g f o r m u l a s f o r t e a c h i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p p o r t s t a f f keep s t a f f numbers e q u i t a b l e . S c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s , p l a y g r o u n d f a c i l i t i e s and b u s i n g arrangements a re v e r y s i m i l a r . A s tudy o f one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f f e r s some c o n t r o l o v e r a number o f v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d o t h e r w i s e confound the r e s u l t s o f a s t u d y such as t h i s o n e . Data C o l l e c t i o n Instruments Borg and G a l l (1983) s t a t e t h a t "da ta f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t u d i e s can be g a t h e r e d by v a r i o u s methods, i n c l u d i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n t e r v i e w s , o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s " ( p . 5 7 7 ) . In t h i s s t u d y , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w were used t o g a t h e r the d a t a . 68 Construction of the School Dimensions Survey The S c h o o l D imensions Survey (Appendix B) c o n t a i n s i tems and s c a l e s d e s i g n e d t o y i e l d the k i n d o f d a t a needed t o r e s p o n d t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s s t u d y . A l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h t o de termine whether s u i t a b l e s c a l e s had a l r e a d y been c o n s t r u c t e d , as s u g g e s t e d by Borg and G a l l (1983, p . 4 2 3 ) , was c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o g a i n the f o l l o w i n g advantages which a re s u g g e s t e d by Sudman and Bradburn (1983): I f the q u e s t i o n s have been used f r e q u e n t l y b e f o r e , most o f the bugs w i l l have been i r o n e d out o f them. A l s o i f the q u e s t i o n s have been used on s i m i l a r samples t o the one you a re i n t e r e s t e d i n , you ge t the advantage o f c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a from o t h e r t ime p e r i o d s o r o t h e r samples ( p . 1 2 0 ) . As a r e s u l t o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , two i n s t r u m e n t s were s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y : G i b s o n ' s T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e ( G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984) and the S c h o o l Assessment Survey ( W i l s o n , F i r e s t o n e , & H e r r i o t t , 1985) . Three c r i t e r i a were u s e d as the b a s i s f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n : f i r s t , they c o u l d p r o v i d e the d a t a needed t o answer the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s ; s e c o n d , they had been used s u c c e s s f u l l y b e f o r e i n s i m i l a r c o n t e x t s f o r p u r p o s e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n t h i s s t u d y ; and t h i r d , t h e y had been used w i t h Canad ian s a m p l e s . A f t e r a f u r t h e r l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h t o de te rmine more about the use o f the i tems and s c a l e s and a f t e r p e r s o n a l communicat ion w i t h the a u t h o r s about t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t s , some minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o the e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . O n - g o i n g and r e g u l a r c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h committee members and o t h e r f a c u l t y about the i n s t r u m e n t s and any ad jus tments 69 t h e r e t o were r e f l e c t e d i n the i n i t i a l d r a f t o f the S c h o o l D imens ions Survey (SDS) . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t combined i t ems from G i b s o n ' s E f f i c a c y S c a l e and W i l s o n e t a l . ' s S c h o o l Assessment Survey and added a s e c t i o n on t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The i t ems used t o g a t h e r t e a c h e r demographic i n f o r m a t i o n were d e v e l o p e d by the r e s e a r c h e r b a s e d on the p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which had been i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as p o s s i b l y h a v i n g an i n f l u e n c e on r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g . S e c t i o n A : t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . G i b s o n and Dembo's (1984) r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g a t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y measure r e s u l t e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f two f a c t o r s which c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h B a n d u r a ' s (1977) f i n d i n g s , namely, t e a c h e r s ' sense o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t e a c h e r s ' sense o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . G i b s o n and Dembo found 16 i t ems which t h e y c o n s i d e r s i g n i f i c a n t f o r measur ing one o r the o t h e r o f the two f a c t o r s . They r e p o r t t h a t t h e i r s c a l e has an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .78 f o r the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g d i m e n s i o n , .75 f o r the t e a c h i n g d i m e n s i o n , and .79 f o r a l l 16 i tems ( C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a ) . A s h t o n and Webb (1986) r e v i e w e d the a v a i l a b l e e f f i c a c y measures and s u p p o r t e d the u s e f u l n e s s o f the G i b s o n i tems ( p . 1 4 9 ) . I t would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l , however, i f a c o e f f i c i e n t o f s t a b i l i t y ( t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y ) were a v a i l a b l e f o r the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y i n s t r u m e n t , s i n c e t h e r e would be some b a s i s 70 f o r b e l i e v i n g t h i s Inst rument measures the v a r i a b l e i n a c o n s i s t e n t and g e n e r a l i z a b l e manner. In a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a , Anderson e t a l . (1987) r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s a lmost i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e o f G i b s o n and Dembo i n a v a l i d a t i o n o f the two d i m e n s i o n s o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( T a b l e 4 ) . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d some e v i d e n c e o f the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the G i b s o n s c a l e . F u r t h e r use o f the s c a l e w i l l e n a b l e us t o accumula te a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e about i t s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . The same 16 i tems were used i n the same o r d e r i n S e c t i o n A o f the S c h o o l D imens ions Survey i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . Section B: school l e v e l organizational conditions. The i t ems used i n t h i s s e c t i o n were s e l e c t e d from the S c h o o l Assessment Survey (SAS) ( W i l s o n e t a l . , 1985) . I t i s "a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t uses t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s t o measure key o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s c h o o l " ( p . l ) . The "key" s c h o o l d imens ions which i t measures were c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l i t e r a t u r e on s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s c h o o l improvement r e p o r t e d by W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) and were s u p p o r t e d by the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w done f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n the a r e a s o f s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( e . g . , Good & Brophy , 1986); s c h o o l improvement ( e . g . , M a c K e n z i e , 1983); change ( e . g . , F u l l a n , 1985); s c h o o l c l i m a t e ( e . g . , A n d e r s o n , 1982); and the p r i n c i p a l ( e . g . , Le i thwood and Montgomery, 1986) . Seven o f the n i n e SAS d i m e n s i o n s , however , had more s u p p o r t i n the l i t e r a t u r e and were 71 Table 4 A Comparison of Factor Loadings In Gibson & Dembo, 1984  (n=208) and Anderson, Greene & Loewen, 1987 (n=65) Supporting  the Use of the Gibson Teacher E f f i c a c y Scale Personal Teaching Teaching Vari a b l e E f f i c a c y E f f i c a c y (item no.J 1 (Factor 1) (Factor 2) Gibson Anderson Gibson Anderson & Dembo et a l . & Dembo et a l . (1984) (1987) (1984) (1987) 9 .55 .609 6 .46 .685 10 .61 .568 12 .51 .508 15 .48 .650 13 .49 .441 7 .53 .507 1 .49 .659 14 -.52 -.552 5 .46 .476 8 .65 .772 4 .60 .682 3 .54 .623 2 .54 .509 11 .52 .440 16 .45 .666 The item numbers are i n the same order as they appear i n the School Dimensions Survey. 72 c o n s i d e r e d more u s e f u l t o the p r e s e n t s t u d y . A f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h committee members and w i t h D r . Bruce W i l s o n , one o f the a u t h o r s o f SAS, the f o l l o w i n g seven d i m e n s i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y : g o a l c o n s e n s u s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , p r i n c i p a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , v e r t i c a l communica t ion , h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . The o r i g i n a l i t em o r d e r w i t h i n each o f the s e l e c t e d d ime n s io n s was r e t a i n e d . U s i n g C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a , W i l s o n e t a l . found the r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s t o range from .76 t o .96 f o r s i x o f the n i n e SAS d i m e n s i o n s . These were c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e f o r the purpose o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y ( T a b l e 5 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o the seven s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n d ime n s io n s adapted from W i l s o n ' s SAS i n s t r u m e n t , two o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the SDS i n s t r u m e n t : f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . These two d ime n s io n s a r e the most r e c e n t a d d i t i o n s t o the SAS i n s t r u m e n t and have been u s e d s i n c e 1984 " to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d ime n s io n s o f s c h o o l s " ( N a t r i e l l o & W i l s o n , 1986, p . 5 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s were not a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s a t the t ime o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . S e c t i o n C : t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as p o s s i b l y h a v i n g some i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y and on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were: Table 5 Wilson et a l . ' s R e l i a b i l i t y Estimates 1 f o r the Six School  Organizational Dimensions (n=61) Dimension Number of Items Alpha C o e f f i c i e n t 1. Administrative A c t i v i t y 6 2. Decision-making, classroom i n s t r u c t i o n 5 3. Decision-making curriculum & resources 5 4. Frequency of Discussions between teacher and administrator ( v e r t i c a l ) 6 5. Frequency of Discussions between teachers (horizontal) 6 Student Behavior 7 .96 .83 .76 .90 .88 .90 1Cronbach 1s alpha 74 age , s e x , t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l , y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , and y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r e s e n t s c h o o l . Construction of the Principal Interview Schedule The P r i n c i p a l I n t e r v i e w Schedu le (Appendix C) was used i n t h i s s t u d y t o g a t h e r d a t a from p r i n c i p a l s about the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . I t i s a s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e o f d a t a s i n c e the main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were a d d r e s s e d w i t h d a t a from the S c h o o l D imens ions S u r v e y . The i n t e r v i e w i s , however, c o n s i d e r e d t o be v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t a l l o w e d each p r i n c i p a l the o p p o r t u n i t y t o a m p l i f y h i s o r h e r r e s p o n s e s about the s c h o o l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ( S D S : S e c t i o n B ) . Second , i t gave the r e s e a r c h e r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o ask f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s , and t o probe more d e e p l y i n t o the work ings o f each s c h o o l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Sudman and Bradburn (1983) d e s c r i b e t h i s type o f q u e s t i o n i n g i n i n t e r v i e w s as a " f u n n e l sequence" ( p p . 2 1 9 - 2 2 2 ) . T h i r d , the i n t e r v i e w d a t a from the p r i n c i p a l s made p o s s i b l e not o n l y a v a l i d a t i o n o f the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , but a l s o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p e r c e p t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r i n c i p a l s and the t e a c h e r s . The b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from the use o f i n t e r v i e w s compared t o t h o s e from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a re u s u a l l y d i s c u s s e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t e x t s ( e . g . , Tuckman, 1978, p . 1 9 0 ) . The use o f b o t h methods i n t h i s s t u d y was an a t tempt , as J i c k 75 (1979) s a y s , " to e x p l o i t the a s s e t s a n d . . . n e u t r a l i z e the l i a b i l i t i e s " (p .604) found i n each s i n g l e method. The use o f the s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w f o r s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n i s recommended by Borg and G a l l (1983) because " i t p r o v i d e s a d e s i r a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v i t y and depth and o f t e n p e r m i t s g a t h e r i n g v a l u a b l e d a t a t h a t c o u l d no t be s u c c e s s f u l l y o b t a i n e d by any o t h e r approach" ( p . 4 4 2 ) . The P r i n c i p a l I n t e r v i e w Schedu le used the s t r u c t u r e from the i t ems i n S e c t i o n B o f the SDS t o l e a d i n t o q u e s t i o n s which a l l o w e d the p r i n c i p a l t o d e s c r i b e h i s o r h e r s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n more d e t a i l . Revision of the Instruments D u r i n g the r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s , i n f o r m a t i o n a n d / o r c r i t i c a l assessment were sought and r e c e i v e d from f i v e main s o u r c e s : (1) the l i t e r a t u r e ; (2) committee members, o t h e r f a c u l t y members, g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , and c o l l e a g u e s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ; (3) the E t h i c a l Review Committee; (4) d a t a e n t r y p e r s o n n e l ; and (5) two p i l o t t e s t s , each one i n v o l v i n g s i x d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n d e n t s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n p u t , many r e v i s i o n s were made t o the word ing o f the l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l and t o the format o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F i v e r e v i s i o n s were made e s p e c i a l l y t o the word ing o f the i tems t h e m s e l v e s s u c h t h a t t h e i r v a l i d i t y would not be compromised ( f o r example , " f a c u l t y " was changed t o r e a d " s t a f f " s i n c e the l a t t e r i s the term commonly used i n Canad ian s c h o o l s ) . 76 Most o f the changes were made t o encourage the r e s p o n d e n t t o comple te the s u r v e y , c a r e f u l l y r e c o r d i n g h i s o r h e r p e r c e p t i o n s . Sudman and B r a d b u r n ' s (1983) reminder t h a t " the r e s p o n d e n t i s d o i n g you a f a v o r ; and a w e l l - d e s i g n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . improves the q u a l i t y o f d a t a o b t a i n e d " (p .207) was heeded . The major p o i n t s about q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n found i n Borg and G a l l (1983, p .442) and i n Sudman and Bradburn (1983, p .230 , p .282) were a p p l i e d . D e c i s i o n s about such t h i n g s as c h o i c e o f t e r m s , t ype f a c e , o r d e r o f s e c t i o n s , paper c o l o u r , c l a r i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n s , and s p a c i n g were made o n l y a f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the anonymity o f r e s p o n d e n t s was made d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e v i s i o n o f the SDS i n s t r u m e n t and had d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . Anonymity was c o n s i d e r e d an i s s u e because the r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t e a c h e r s might be u n c o m f o r t a b l e about e i t h e r r e s p o n d i n g a t a l l o r r e s p o n d i n g c a n d i d l y about the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . Borg and G a l l (1983) s t a t e two problems t h a t a r i s e w i t h the use o f the anonymous q u e s t i o n n a i r e : F o l l o w - u p s a re d i f f i c u l t and i n e f f i c i e n t because n o n r e s p o n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s cannot be i d e n t i f i e d . . . and i t i s u s u a l l y not p o s s i b l e t o make some o f the s t a t i s t i c a l breakdowns o f the group t h a t may be d e s i r a b l e " ( p . 4 2 4 ) . R e g a r d i n g the l a t t e r p o i n t , a c a r e f u l r e v i e w o f the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the n e c e s s a r y d a t a c o u l d be 77 c o l l e c t e d w i t h o u t knowing a t e a c h e r ' s i d e n t i t y by u s i n g the demographic i n f o r m a t i o n and the s c h o o l c o d e s . The problem o f f o l l o w - u p , w h i l e not more i m p o r t a n t than t h a t o f anonymi ty , r e q u i r e d a more complex s o l u t i o n . The approach t a k e n was t h a t e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e would be done i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t o maximize t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e on the f i r s t a t t e m p t . T h i s approach i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g seven f a c t o r s wh ich were i n t e n d e d t o encourage t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n : (1) s c h o o l s were o f f e r e d a s c h o o l improvement p r o f i l e based on n i n e s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s but an 80% r e t u r n r a t e was needed; (2) t h e impor tance o f b o t h t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and s c h o o l - b a s e d d a t a was s t r e s s e d ; (3) p r i n c i p a l s were c o n t a c t e d t h r e e t i m e s and t h e i r s u p p o r t was s e c u r e d ; (4) d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was s c h e d u l e d as p a r t o f a s t a f f meet ing when t ime c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o comple te the s u r v e y ; (5) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o l l e c t e d by s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l ; (6) a l e t t e r o f s u p p o r t from the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and the l o c a l A l b e r t a T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (ATA) P r e s i d e n t accompanied the s u r v e y ; and (7) s c h o o l s were c o n t a c t e d on the morning o f A p r i l 6, 1987 t o make s u r e t h a t a l l was i n o r d e r f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In c o n c l u s i o n , the d e c i s i o n was made t o keep t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s anonymous f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : f i r s t , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s might i n c r e a s e the r a t e o f r e t u r n s ; s e c o n d , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s might make t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s more v a l i d ; and t h i r d , i t was not n e c e s s a r y t o know 78 i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s i d e n t i t i e s i n o r d e r t o r e s p o n d t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s s t u d y . Data C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s used i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be d e s c r i b e d w i t h a t h r e e phase framework a c c o r d i n g t o the a c t i v i t i e s which took p l a c e i n each p h a s e : Phase 1 - those a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took p l a c e b e f o r e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the i n s t r u m e n t s , but a f t e r t h e i r development and r e v i s i o n ; Phase 2 - t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took p l a c e d u r i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the i n s t r u m e n t s ; and Phase 3 - t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took p l a c e a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the i n s t r u m e n t s , but b e f o r e d a t a a n a l y s i s . Data c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r the S c h o o l D imens ions Survey and f o r the P r i n c i p a l I n t e r v i e w s . S c h o o l D imens ions Survey Phase 1. A t t h i s phase o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , the main c o n c e r n was f o r c l e a r communicat ion w i t h the p r i n c i p a l s and the o t h e r p e o p l e who would be i n v o l v e d w i t h the next two phases o f the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l s were c o n t a c t e d w i t h an i n i t i a l l e t t e r (Appendix D) on March 11, 1987 which e x p l a i n e d the p r o j e c t , and i t s p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s t o the s c h o o l and r e q u e s t e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The second c o n t a c t w i t h p r i n c i p a l s was made t h r o u g h a phone c a l l t o a sample o f f o u r p r i n c i p a l s s h o r t l y b e f o r e the March A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Mee t ing t o de te rmine not 79 o n l y i f t h e y had any q u e s t i o n s o r c o n c e r n s about the p r o j e c t , bu t a l s o t o p r e p a r e f o r q u e s t i o n s which might a r i s e a t the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Mee t ing o f March 26, 1987. A t h i r d c o n t a c t , a t the March 26 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s M e e t i n g , was u s e d t o r e v i e w the s t u d y , t o r e s p o n d t o q u e s t i o n s and c o n c e r n s , t o d i s t r i b u t e the "agreement t o p a r t i c i p a t e " forms (Appendix D) t o c o l l e c t the r e s p o n s e s , and t o d i s c u s s p r o c e d u r e s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s u r v e y . The f i n a l c o n t a c t was made w i t h a f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r on March 27, 1987 (Appendix D) which was t o c o n f i r m the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s d i s c u s s e d a t the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' M e e t i n g . A c h e c k l i s t was d e v e l o p e d by the r e s e a r c h e r as an a i d f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A system f o r s c h o o l codes was d e v e l o p e d and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e s t i n e d f o r each s c h o o l were coded p r i o r t o t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n . The t ime l i n e f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was e x p l a i n e d and c o p i e s were g i v e n t o the o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . B o t h the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and the l o c a l ATA p r e s i d e n t had been c o n t a c t e d i n J a n u a r y , 1987 c o n c e r n i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h and t h e i r s u p p o r t was r e q u e s t e d and r e c e i v e d . They were c o n t a c t e d a g a i n on March 26, 1987 and a j o i n t l e t t e r (Appendix H) was w r i t t e n , a copy o f which accompanied each q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Phase 2. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and accompanying l e t t e r s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o the s c h o o l s on A p r i l 1, 1987. Each 80 t e a c h e r r e c e i v e d a copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a l e t t e r i n an u n s e a l e d e n v e l o p e . I n f o r m a t i o n about the s t u d y , a s s u r a n c e o f anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , as w e l l as c o m p l e t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s (Appendix A) were i n c l u d e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e as the c o v e r page o f the SDS. The recommended p r o c e d u r e f o r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t o s e t a s i d e a 20 t o 25 minute b l o c k o f t ime d u r i n g the s t a f f meet ing on A p r i l 6, 1987. I t was, however, up t o each p r i n c i p a l t o de te rmine the a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r h i s o r h e r s c h o o l . Phase 3. The main p i c k - u p o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was done on A p r i l 7, 1987 and A p r i l 8, 1987 and a t a l l y was made as the r e t u r n s were p r o c e s s e d . A phone c a l l was made t o f i v e s c h o o l s w i t h an i n i t i a l r e t u r n o f l e s s t h a n 75%, a s k i n g the p r i n c i p a l t o make a g e n e r a l appea l t o the s t a f f t o submit the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i s f o l l o w - u p d i d not i n c r e a s e the number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d . P r i n c i p a l I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e The P r i n c i p a l I n t e r v i e w Schedu le (Appendix C) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 15 s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s between May 4, 1987 and May 21, 1987. P r i o r t o t h i s , r e f e r e n c e was made t o t h i s i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s on t h r e e o c c a s i o n s : i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r , a t the March A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' M e e t i n g , and i n the f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r . The i n t e r v i e w s ranged from 40 t o 60 minutes d u r i n g which t ime the p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s were r e c o r d e d i n note form. These n o t e s were l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d and r e t u r n e d t o the 81 p r i n c i p a l s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n t h a t they a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d the p r i n c i p a l ' s v iews about h i s o r h e r s c h o o l (Appendix D ) . S u b s e q u e n t l y , minor ad jus tments i n the i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s were made a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p a l ' s recommendat ions . Data Analysis T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the d a t a c o l l e c t e d by the S c h o o l D imens ions Survey and the P r i n c i p a l I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e and s p e c i f i e s the p r o c e d u r e s used t o a n a l y z e the d a t a . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s u s e d i n the s t u d y . The next two p a r t s d e s c r i b e the major a s p e c t s o f the d a t a a n a l y s i s and are o r g a n i z e d around the u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s and the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , ex tended v e r s i o n (SPSS X ) was used f o r a l l the s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s . Levels of Analysis Two s e p a r a t e l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s were used i n t h i s s t u d y : f i r s t , w i t h the t e a c h e r as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s ; and s e c o n d , w i t h the s c h o o l as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . T h i s was done i n an a t tempt t o d e v e l o p a more comprehensive p i c t u r e o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . As S i r o t n i k and B u r s t e i n (1985) p o i n t o u t : In v iew o f the complex ways i n which s c h o o l i n g i s o r g a n i z e d and h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a s i n g l e u n i l a t e r a l a n a l y s i s w i l l shed much l i g h t on phenomena s t u d i e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s e a r c h ( p . 1 7 4 ) . 82 I t was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t o i n c l u d e b o t h u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s i n t h i s s t u d y so t h a t t e a c h e r s were not t r e a t e d as though t h e y were independent o f t h e i r c o n t e x t o r workp lace e n v i r o n m e n t . Data A n a l y s i s P r o c e d u r e s : The T e a c h e r as the U n i t o f  A n a l y s i s T a b l e 6 shows the l e v e l s o f d a t a which were c o l l e c t e d and the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s employed. I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s was c o l l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h the use o f q u a s i -i n t e r v a l d a t a (Gardner , 1975) . The one e x c e p t i o n was the g o a l consensus v a r i a b l e which used o r d i n a l d a t a and was not i n c l u d e d i n t h o s e a n a l y s e s i n which the t e a c h e r was the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used n o m i n a l , o r d i n a l , and r a t i o l e v e l s o f d a t a . In the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , a P e a r s o n ' s P r o d u c t Moment C o r r e l a t i o n ( r ) was u s e d t o de te rmine the d i r e c t i o n and s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Where the r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t was t o i d e n t i f y the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s b e s t a b l e t o p r e d i c t h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , a s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n ( R 2 ) t e c h n i q u e was u s e d . In the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e T a b l e 6 Summary o f Data Types and S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t s I n f o r m a t i o n R e l a t e d T o : V a r i a b l e s Research Q u e s t i o n 1 .1 : Is a t e a c h e r ' s s e l f e f f i c a c y r e l a t e d t o h i s / h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y sex age group t e a c h i n g d i v i s i o n l e v e l y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e Research Q u e s t i o n 1.2: t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y Do some groups o f t e a c h e r s , based on demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , have a s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y than o t h e r groups o f t e a c h e r s ? sex age group t e a c h i n g d i v i s i o n l e v e l y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e Data Type T e s t and ( S t a t i s t i c ) i n t e r v a l nominal o r d i n a l o r d i n a l r a t i o i n t e r v a l nominal o r d i n a l o r d i n a l r a t i o A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e (ANOVA) c h i - s q u a r e c h i - s q u a r e P e a r s o n ' s Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n ( x 2 ) ( x 2 ) ( r ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e (ANOVA) same t e s t s as above 00 CO T a b l e 6 ( con t inued ) Summary o f Data Types and S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t s I n f o r m a t i o n R e l a t e d T o : V a r i a b l e s Data Type T e s t and ( S t a t i s t i c ) Research Q u e s t i o n 2 .1; What i s the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d -i t i o n s ? Teacher E f f i c a c y i n t e r v a l Goal Consensus o r d i n a l Admin. A c t i v i t y i n t e r v a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t e r v a l - t e a c h e r i n f l u e n c e - p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e Communication i n t e r v a l - v e r t i c a l - h o r i z o n t a l Student Behaviour i n t e r v a l Teacher E v a l u a t i o n i n t e r v a l - f o r m a l - i n f o r m a l same v a r i a b l e s same data as above type as above P e a r s o n ' s P r o d u c t Moment C o r r e l a t i o n ( r ) K e n d a l l ' s C o e f f i c i e n t o f Concordance (W) P e a r s o n ' s P e a r s o n ' s P e a r s o n ' s P e a r s o n ' s P e a r s o n ' s ( r ) ( r ) ( r ) ( r ) ( r ) Stepwise M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n Research Q u e s t i o n 2 . 2 : Which o f the School L e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s a re bes t a b l e t o p r e d i c t h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ? 1 A l l o f t h e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f g o a l c o n s e n s u s , can be used as an i n d i v i d u a l t eacher measure. Then the i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s can be aggregated t o compute a schoo l by s c h o o l mean s c o r e . Goa l consensus i s not USED IN ANY CASE WHERE THE INDIVIDUAL TEACHER IS THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS. (R 2 ) 85 (ANOVA), c h i - s q u a r e ( x 2 ) , and P e a r s o n r were u s e d , match ing l e v e l o f d a t a t o the a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t . Data Analysis Procedures: The School as the Unit of Analysis Data a n a l y s i s u s i n g the s c h o o l as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s was p o s s i b l e because each q u e s t i o n n a i r e was coded so t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d by s c h o o l . A l s o , s c h o o l s r e t u r n e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n b u n d l e s i d e n t i f i e d by s c h o o l . S i n c e the purpose o f t h i s p a r t o f d a t a a n a l y s i s was t o examine the v a r i a b l e s i n the s c h o o l c o n t e x t , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o aggrega te the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s t o c r e a t e s c h o o l s c o r e s . The v a l i d i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s c o r e s were a g g r e g a t e d and a mean was c a l c u l a t e d t o y i e l d a s c h o o l s c o r e on p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , and t o t a l e f f i c a c y . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the S c h o o l D imens ions Survey were based e x t e n s i v e l y on the W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) i n s t r u m e n t . The g u i d i n g purpose i n the development o f t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t was t o a s s e s s the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s c h o o l s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r s c h o o l improvement . S i n c e the p r e s e n t s t u d y had a s i m i l a r i n t e n t and used most o f the same i t e m s , i t was c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e t o use the same p r o c e d u r e s f o r the i n i t i a l t r e a t m e n t o f d a t a . 86 F o r the f o l l o w i n g f i v e o f the n i n e c o n d i t i o n s x , the i n d i v i d u a l i tem s c o r e was r e a d y f o r use as t r a n s c r i b e d from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e : (1) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y ; (2) v e r t i c a l communica t ion ; (3) s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r ; (4) f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; and (5) i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . In t h r e e c a s e s , however, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s were r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e the d a t a f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s : (1) h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion; (2) t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; and (3) p r i n c i p a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) d e s c r i b e the p r o c e d u r e u s e d i n t r a n s f o r m i n g the h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion d i m e n s i o n : A number o f d i f f e r e n t approaches c o u l d have been adopted t o measure communica t ion . By a s k i n g a r e s p o n d e n t t o r e p o r t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o n l y one c o l l e a g u e , answers would be b i a s e d t o the h i g h end because o f c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p a s s o c i a t i o n s . L i k e w i s e , a s k i n g t e a c h e r s t o a s s i g n an average a c r o s s a l l c o l l e a g u e s would y i e l d a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e s i n c e t h e r e a re l a r g e numbers o f t e a c h e r s who have l i t t l e o r no i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r . A compromise was t o ask t e a c h e r s t o t h i n k o f the two c o l l e a g u e s w i t h whom they speak most o f t e n and t o r e p o r t the f r e q u e n c y o f communicat ion w i t h e a c h . By a v e r a g i n g the r e s p o n s e s f o r two c o l l e a g u e s a more r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l o f communicat ion i s o b t a i n e d f o r c o l l e a g u e s w i t h whom any o n g o i n g communicat ion i s m a i n t a i n e d . To a r r i v e a t t h a t a v e r a g e , the mean o f the r e s p o n s e s v i s a v i s bo th c o l l e a g u e s was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each i t e m ( p . 1 2 ) . The two d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g d imens ions o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the i n f l u e n c e t h a t the p r i n c i p a l has i n two a r e a s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f the s c h o o l s t a f f . W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) p r o v i d e the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : Item s c o r e s f o r b o t h the c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m / r e s o u r c e s d imens ions were c a l c u l a t e d i d e n t i c a l l y . Ra ther than a s k i n g t e a c h e r s t o e v a l u a t e d i r e c t l y the i n f l u e n c e o f p r i n c i p a l s o v e r t e a c h e r s , a . 87 l e s s o b t r u s i v e approach was t a k e n . T e a c h e r s were asked t o i n d i c a t e how much i n f l u e n c e the " t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l " and "the p r i n c i p a l " s e p a r a t e l y had i n each o f t e n key d e c i s i o n a r e a s ( f i v e f o r each d i m e n s i o n ) . Both were a s s e s s e d on a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e from no i n f l u e n c e (0) t o major i n f l u e n c e ( 3 ) . The r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e measure f o r each d e c i s i o n a r e a was a s s e s s e d by s u b t r a c t i n g the t e a c h e r s ' s c o r e from the p r i n c i p a l ' s s c o r e . The g r e a t e r the s c o r e , the more c e n t r a l i z e d the i n f l u e n c e ( p . 1 2 ) . Once t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s were made, the mean s c o r e on each d i m e n s i o n was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each o f the 15 s c h o o l s . The measure o f the g o a l consensus d i m e n s i o n was a r r i v e d a t b y : a s k i n g each t e a c h e r t o rank o r d e r seven " a r e a s o f s t u d e n t development" i n terms o f "how i m p o r t a n t they are t o you as a member o f t h i s s c h o o l . " The degree o f c o n s e n s u s among t e a c h e r s w i t h i n each s c h o o l was o b t a i n e d by comput ing K e n d a l l ' s c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o n c o r d a n c e (W) a c r o s s a l l t e a c h e r s and r a n k s . T h i s s t a t i s t i c p r o d u c e s a s i n g l e s c o r e f o r each s c h o o l ( r a n g i n g from 0 t o 1) by a s s e s s i n g the degree o f agreement among a l l the t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l a c r o s s the seven g o a l s ( W i l s o n e t a l . , 1985, p . 1 0 ) . S i n c e t h i s d i m e n s i o n d e a l s w i t h consensus among the s t a f f , t h e r e i s a s c h o o l s c o r e r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s c o r e s . T h i s measure was, however, used t o i d e n t i f y the r e s p e c t i v e g o a l r a n k i n g s o f h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . The impor tance o f c l e a r and w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d s c h o o l g o a l s i s a commonly r e p o r t e d f a c t o r i n e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , but p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s a re a l s o i d e n t i f i e d ; f o r example, a s c h o o l f o c u s on b a s i c s k i l l s seems t o o c c u r i n a c a d e m i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s . By compar ing the g o a l r a n k i n g s o f h i g h 88 and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o add t o the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the s t u d y about s c h o o l l e v e l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a d d i t i o n t o the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , some r e v e r s e c o d i n g was r e q u i r e d so t h a t the d i r e c t i o n o f the s c o r e was a lways c o n s i s t e n t . The i tems p e r t a i n i n g t o t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y ( i t ems number 4, 5, 6, 10, 13, 18) a re worded so t h a t a h i g h s c o r e on t h e s e i tems would i n d i c a t e a low sense o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . These i t em s c o r e s were r e v e r s e s c o r e d so t h a t a h i g h s c o r e would i n d i c a t e a h i g h sense o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . In a d d i t i o n , the i tems (84, 85, 86, 87) f rom the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n were r e c o r d e d i n the r e v e r s e o r d e r from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( i . e . , never = 5; a lways = 0) so t h a t a h i g h s c o r e on each i t em i n d i c a t e s more f a v o u r a b l e s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . A f t e r the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f d a t a u s i n g the s c h o o l as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d , the d a t a from the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s were a l s o a n a l y z e d . The i n t e r v i e w s had two main p u r p o s e s : f i r s t , t o c o r r o b o r a t e the r e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and s e c o n d , t o a m p l i f y the r e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s by add ing d e t a i l s about the s c h o o l l e v e l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Delimitations, Assumptions and Limitations of the Study Delimitations The s t u d y sample c o n s i s t e d o f t h o s e 339 t e a c h e r s and 15 p r i n c i p a l s i n one m i d - s i z e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a who v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e d . Thus the f i n d i n g s i n 89 the s t u d y can o n l y be g e n e r a l i z e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s are l i k e the one s t u d i e d . The f o c u s o f the s t u d y was a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f v a r i a b l e s which were b e l i e v e d t o have an i n f l u e n c e on s t u d e n t ach ievement and s c h o o l improvement. A l t h o u g h the s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f as many s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s as was f e a s i b l e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t o t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s c o u l d i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t achievement and s c h o o l improvement as w e l l . A l t h o u g h the s c h o o l l e v e l i s u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as the most u s e f u l f o c u s f o r change, b o t h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l f a c t o r s and t h e c l a s s r o o m f a c t o r s are i n t e r a c t i v e . Each l e v e l , and even the p r a c t i c e s t h a t take p l a c e w i t h i n each l e v e l , c o u l d have a r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e on what happens a t any o t h e r l e v e l (Cohen, 1983, p p . 2 3 - 2 4 ) . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s p o t e n t i a l l y m i s l e a d i n g t o t r e a t the f a c t o r s i n any one l e v e l as b e i n g s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t . Assumpt ions One assumpt ion o f the s t u d y was t h a t t e a c h e r s 1 sense o f e f f i c a c y c a n be changed . Another assumpt ion u n d e r p i n n i n g the s t u d y was t h a t the d a t a would p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s which a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . On the b a s i s o f the f i n d i n g s from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , i t was assumed t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r the s t u d y were the most r e l e v a n t ones and t h a t t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be a d j u s t e d o r d e v e l o p e d t o enhance 90 t e a c h e r s ' f e e l i n g s o f e f f i c a c y . I t was a l s o assumed t h a t the s t u d y sample was l a r g e enough t o p e r m i t m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a and t h a t the r e s p o n s e s r e p r e s e n t e d v a l i d p e r c e p t i o n s o f the t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s . Limitations A l t h o u g h p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s were used t o c o r r o b o r a t e f i n d i n g s from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h i s s t u d y i s s u b j e c t t o the l i m i t a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s u r v e y r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f o v e r - r a t e r o r u n d e r - r a t e r b i a s and the tendency f o r r e s p o n d e n t s t o have agreed w i t h p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s i s acknowledged. In a d d i t i o n , the use o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l d a t a b r i n g s w i t h i t the we l l - known c a v e a t t h a t even though two o r more v a r i a b l e s may be shown t o be r e l a t e d , t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p does not n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y c a u s a l i t y . CHAPTER FOUR 91 FINDINGS: THE TEACHER AS THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s the s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Two l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s were u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y : the f i r s t was the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ; the second was the s c h o o l . In t h i s c h a p t e r , the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r was the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s u s i n g d a t a from the SDS. In c h a p t e r f i v e , the s c h o o l i s the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s u s i n g b o t h the SDS and p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s . Chapte r f i v e a l s o r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s o f the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s which were u s e d t o p r o v i d e a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n r a t e . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e s p o n d e n t s and a b r i e f compar ison o f them w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e . The s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n the o r d e r o f the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The Respondents Four hundred and f o r t y s c h o o l - b a s e d t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 339 o f which were comple ted and r e t u r n e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g a 77% r e s p o n s e r a t e ( T a b l e 7 ) . The r a t e o f r e t u r n v a r i e d from a low o f 50% i n one s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t o a h i g h o f 100% i n one e lementary s c h o o l . In 80% o f the s c h o o l s , 70% o r more o f the s t a f f r e s p o n d e d . A l t h o u g h the p e r c e p t i o n s o f 77% o f the s c h o o l - b a s e d t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l Table 7 92 Questionnaires Issued and Completed: Response Rate By School (01-05=Secondary; 06-15=Elementary) School Questionnaires Code Sent Out Questionnaires Completed Percentage Rate of Completion 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 69 34 34 42 36 18 27 29 24 23 27 25 11 21 20 50 29 31 21 22 18 22 23 18 21 26 19 8 18 13 72 85 91 50 61 100 81 79 75 91 96 76 73 86 65 Totals 440 339 77 % ( o v e r a l l return rate) 93 d i s t r i c t were r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s (82.2%) responded compared t o s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s (71.8%). Of the 101 n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s , 39 were e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s ; 62 were s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s . T a b l e 8 p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the sample , based on the demographic d a t a which the t e a c h e r s s u p p l i e d i n the S c h o o l D imens ions Survey i n s t r u m e n t . T a b l e 9 compares the v o l u n t e e r sample t o the a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and t o the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n . S i n c e the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t sample was v e r y s i m i l a r t o the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n , the d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s w i l l f o c u s on compar ing the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t sample t o the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n . Age o f Respondents The age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sample , based on the age groups e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the s t u d y , compared t o the same groups i n the t o t a l p r o v i n c e ( R e i d , 1986) , were s i m i l a r i n most c a t e g o r i e s . A lmost t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f the sample (72.4%) f e l l between 30 and 49 y e a r s o f age compared t o 66.2% o f the p r o v i n c i a l t e a c h e r s i n the same age g r o u p . The p r o v i n c i a l age d i s t r i b u t i o n showed t h a t the sample had o n l y about o n e - h a l f (12.0%) o f the t e a c h e r s i n the 20 t o 29 age group compared t o the p r o v i n c i a l average o f 22.5%. The p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s i n the 40 t o 49 y e a r c a t e g o r y i n the sample was 34.0% compared t o the p r o v i n c e ' s 26.3%. The main r e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s o f the age group d i s t r i b u t i o n were s i m i l a r i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s t o the T a b l e 8 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s : Demographic V a r i a b l e s AGE GROUPS n (%) SEX n (%) 20-29 years 40 (12.0) Females 195 (60 .9 ) 30-39 years 142 (42.8) Males 125 (39 .1 ) 40-49 years 113 (34.0) 320 (100.0) 50-59 years 35 (10.5) 60 y e a r s and over 2 ( 0.6) T o t a l 332 (99.9) TEACHING TOTAL TEACHING EXPERIENCE n (%) GRADE LEVEL n (%) 1-2 years 21 ( 6.6) K-3 99 (30 .6) 3-10 years 100 (31.5) 4-6 80 (24 .7) 11-20 years 128 (40.4) 7-9 70 (21 .6) over 20 y e a r s 68 (21.4) 10-12 75 (23.1) T o t a l 317 (99.9) 324 (100.0) Where t o t a l n does not equal 339, the d i f f e r e n c e i s due t o t h a t number < of n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s . Table 9 A Comparison of Teachers i n the Study to A l l School-Based Teachers i n the School D i s t r i c t and i n the Province Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s School D i s t r i c t Sample (n=339) School D i s t r i c t Population (n=440) P r o v i n c i a l Population (n=27,306) Sex females 60.9% 57.0% 60% males 39.1% 43.0% 40% Age Group D i s t r i b u t i o n 20-29 12.0% 12.1% 22.5% 30-39 42.8% 41.2% 39.8% 40-49 34.0% 34.5% 26.3% 50-59 10.5% 11.5% 20.1% 60+ 0.6% 0.6% 1.3% Tota l Years Experience 14.5 years 14.5 years 12.6 years Years of Post Secondary Not Education Avail a b l e 4.65 years 4.55 years In the present study, teachers were not asked years of post secondary education. about t h e i r 96 p r o v i n c i a l age group d i s t r i b u t i o n , but had fewer younger t e a c h e r s (aged 20-29 y e a r s ) and more o l d e r t e a c h e r s (aged 40-49 y e a r s ) . Sex of Respondents One hundred and n i n e t y - f i v e female t e a c h e r s responded compared t o 125 male t e a c h e r s . T h i s gender d i f f e r e n c e , 60.9% female and 39.1% male , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same as the number o f female and male t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . The p r o v i n c i a l t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n ( T a b l e 9) i s composed o f 60% females and 40% males ( R e i d , 1986) . Teaching Experience of Respondents The sample t e a c h e r s had taught an average o f 14 .5 y e a r s compared t o the p r o v i n c i a l average o f 12.6 y e a r s . The r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y had spent an average o f 8 .3 y e a r s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l . On ly 6.2% o f the sample were i n the f i r s t two y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g . The t e a c h e r s were f a i r l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s the g rades and between the t e n e lementary (n=186), and the f i v e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s (n=153). T e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t sample had an average o f 4 .65 y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g compared t o the p r o v i n c i a l average o f 4 .55 y e a r s . Taken c o l l e c t i v e l y , the p r e c e d i n g d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s would s u g g e s t t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s sample are s i m i l a r t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t e a c h e r p o p u l a t i o n i n A l b e r t a . The lower number o f younger t e a c h e r s i n the sample compared t o the r e s t o f the p r o v i n c e was the main 97 d i s c r e p a n c y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , however, t h a t the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t sample d a t a are e s t i m a t e s w h i l e the p r o v i n c i a l d a t a r e p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n v a l u e s . In o r d e r t o de te rmine i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the number o f sample and p r o v i n c i a l t e a c h e r s i n the 20 - 29 y e a r c a t e g o r y , a c h i - s q u a r e ( X 2 ) a n a l y s i s was done . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (X 2 =9.49) between the e x p e c t e d and o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c i e s . T h e r e f o r e , i n the 20-29 y e a r age c a t e g o r y , the sample i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p o p u l a t i o n . The T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e T e a c h e r e f f i c a c y was measured w i t h the 16 i t em G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e c r e a t e d and v a l i d a t e d by G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) . They r e p o r t an i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .78 f o r the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g d i m e n s i o n , .75 f o r the t e a c h i n g d i m e n s i o n , and .79 f o r a l l 16 i t e m s . As n o t e d i n c h a p t e r two, t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t one a v a i l a b l e f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y . A f u r t h e r check on i t s r e l i a b i l i t y , however, was c o n s i d e r e d p r u d e n t . The r e s u l t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C r o n b a c h ' s a lpha ) were .69 f o r the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g d i m e n s i o n , .67 f o r the t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n , and .72 f o r a l l 16 i t e m s . In o r d e r t o c o n f i r m t h a t the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e measures two s e p a r a t e d i m e n s i o n s o f e f f i c a c y as G i b s o n and Dembo c l a i m , a p r i n c i p a l components f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w i t h var imax r o t a t i o n (SPSS*) was per formed on the e f f i c a c y 98 s c o r e s o f the 339 t e a c h e r s i n the sample . T h i s v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e was used by Anderson e t a l . (1987) when they used the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e w i t h a sample o f 65 t e a c h e r s . As shown i n T a b l e 10, the o r i g i n a l a n a l y s i s p roduced two f a c t o r s w i t h the v a r i a b l e s c l u s t e r e d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o the g r o u p i n g s i d e n t i f i e d by G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) and by A n d e r s o n e t a l . (1987) . When the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was f o r c e d t o y i e l d o n l y two f a c t o r s , the i tems l o a d e d on the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g d i m e n s i o n ( F a c t o r One) and the t e a c h i n g d i m e n s i o n ( F a c t o r Two), thus s u p p o r t i n g the G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) f i n d i n g . These r e s u l t s c o n f i r m e d the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the i n s t r u m e n t . T a b l e 10 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f o r the 16 i tems are s i m i l a r w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f i t e m number 14 which l o a d e d on b o t h F a c t o r One and F a c t o r Two. T h i s i t em r e a d s : "The i n f l u e n c e s o f a s t u d e n t ' s home env i ronment can be overcome by good t e a c h i n g . " The word ing i s ambiguous s i n c e i t r e f e r s b o t h t o the e f f e c t s o f a good t e a c h e r ( F a c t o r One) and t o the e f f e c t s o f the s t u d e n t ' s home env i ronment ( F a c t o r Two) i n the same s t a t e m e n t . S i n c e t h i s i t e m d i d l o a d e q u a l l y on bo th f a c t o r s , i t was i n c l u d e d as a f a c t o r two o r t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y i tem i n a l l f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h the o r i g i n a l G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) s t u d y . T a b l e 10 A Comparison o f F a c t o r Load ings i n Three S t u d i e s U s i n g the G i b s o n Teacher E f f i c a c y S c a l e (1984): G ibson & Dembo, 1984 n=208; Anderson e t a l . , 1987 n=65; C a v e r s , 1987 n=339 V a r i a b l e P e r s o n a l Teaching T e a c h i n g ( i tem n o . ) E f f i c a c y E f f i c a c y ( F a c t o r 1) ( F a c t o r 2) G ibson Anderson Cavers G i b s o n Anderson Cavers & Dembo e t a l . (1987) & Dembo e t a l . (1987) (1984) (1987) (1984) (1987) 9 .55 .609 .641 6 .46 .685 .569 10 .61 .568 .550 12 .51 .508 .545 15 .48 .650 .542 13 .49 .441 .498 7 .53 .507 .490 1 .49 .659 .465 14 .453 - . 5 2 - . 5 5 2 - .371 5 .46 .476 .410 8 .65 .772 .763 4 .60 .682 .755 3 .54 .623 .650 2 .54 .509 .586 11 .52 .440 .468 16 .45 .666 .325 1 The i tems are i n the same o r d e r as they appear i n the SDS i n s t r u m e n t . V O V O 100 The Relationships T h i s s e c t i o n r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s wh ich were done t o de te rmine i f r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and each o f s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f i r s t r e s u l t s which a re p r e s e n t e d p e r t a i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The second s e t o f r e s u l t s r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . In b o t h a n a l y s e s , the t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y i s the dependent v a r i a b l e and i s measured by the t e a c h e r ' s mean s c o r e on the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n o f the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e . Research Question 1: Teacher Efficacy and Teacher  Demographic Characteristics R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1.1 a s k s : Is a t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y r e l a t e d t o h i s o r h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? F i v e demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e a n a l y s e s : (1) age g r o u p ; (2) s e x ; (3) t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l ; (4) t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l ; and (5) t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Age and sex. F i v e age g r o u p i n g s were used t o d e f i n e t e a c h e r age: 20-29 y e a r s ; 30-39 y e a r s ; 40-49 y e a r s ; 50-59 y e a r s ; and 60 y e a r s and o v e r ( T a b l e 11 ) . A one-way a n a l y s i s 101 Table 11 Means and Standard Deviations f o r Personal Teaching  E f f i c a c y Related to Three Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  Sex, Teaching Grade Level and Age (ANOVA) Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c n M SD F Prob. Sex female 193 4.74 .531 11.56 .001 male 125 4.53 .560 Teaching Grade Level K-3 99 4.73 .599 4-6 80 4.69 .577 0.51 .732 7-9 70 4.61 .490 10-12 75 4.56 .503 Age Group 20-29 40 4.56 30-39 132 4.64 20-49 107 4.60 0.47 .757 50-59 35 4.72 60 & over 2 4.83 102 o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was conduc ted u s i n g the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y mean s c o r e s a c r o s s the f i v e age g r o u p i n g s . The r e s u l t s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, a s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e (F=11.56, p=.001) was found w i t h females showing a s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y . Grade l e v e l p l a c e m e n t . Four d i v i s i o n s o f grade l e v e l p lacement were used t o d e s c r i b e the r e s p o n d e n t s ' t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l a s s i g n m e n t : K - 3 ; 4 - 6 ; 7 - 9 ; and 10 -12 . U s i n g the one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e c h n i q u e , the mean d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s grade l e v e l p lacements were found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was done t o de te rmine i f t h e r e were any i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s when the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were combined. The a n a l y s i s was done by r u n n i n g a s e r i e s o f t h r e e two-way ANOVA's u s i n g t e a c h e r s ' mean p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s a c r o s s the p a i r s o f demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) mean p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y by age and s e x ; (2) mean p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y by age and grade l e v e l ; and (3) mean p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y by sex and grade l e v e l . None o f the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t : (1) age by s e x : F=1.30, p=0.27; (2) age by grade l e v e l : F=1.05, p=0.40; and (3) sex by grade l e v e l : F=1.89 , p=0.13 ( T a b l e 12 ) . The o n l y main e f f e c t which showed 103 Table 12 By Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y Source SS df MS F P Age 0.56 4 0.14 0.47 0.76 Sex 3.43 1 3.43 11.56 <0.01 Age x Sex 1.15 3 0.39 1.30 0.27 Error 91.13 307 0.30 Age 0.61 4 0.15 0.50 0.73 Grade Level 1.73 3 0.58 1.93 0.12 Age x Grade Level 3.14 10 0.31 1.05 0.40 Error 89.91 300 0.30 Sex 1.73 1 1.73 5.91 0.02 Grade Level 0.48 3 0.16 0.54 0. 65 Sex x Grade Level 1.66 3 0.55 1.89 0.13 Error 89.90 307 0.29 104 a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y was t e a c h e r s e x . T e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e v a r i a b l e was broken i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s i n the s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t : (1) y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l , (2) y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n ano ther s c h o o l i n the d i s t r i c t and , (3) y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n another s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . These c a t e g o r i e s were combined t o g i v e a t o t a l f o r y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e . F o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , the a r e a s o f f o c u s were the y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r e s e n t s c h o o l and t o t a l y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ( T a b l e 13 ) . A P e a r s o n P r o d u c t Moment C o r r e l a t i o n ( r ) was used t o de termine the magnitude o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mean p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r e s e n t s c h o o l ; and between mean p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t o t a l y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e . Both r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . Based on the a n a l y s e s used t o a d d r e s s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1 . 1 , t e a c h e r sex was the o n l y t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The females were shown t o have a s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y than the m a l e s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 .2 : Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  H i g h and Low E f f i c a c y T e a c h e r s R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1.2 a s k s : Do some subgroups o f t e a c h e r s , based on demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have a s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y than o t h e r subgroups o f t e a c h e r s ? Table 13 Means and Standard Deviations for the Teaching Experience Variables and t h e i r C o r r e l a t i o n with Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y Variable M SD Years i n present school 8.33 6.52 0.09 .115 (n.s.) Total years teaching experience 14.08 8.22 0.02 .677 (n.s.) 106 D e f i n i t i o n o f h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . H i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n t h i s s t u d y r e f e r s t o t e a c h e r s whose mean s c o r e was 5.1 and above on the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y i t ems on the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e (1984) . I t appears t h a t t h e r e i s n o t , as y e t , a s t a n d a r d s c o r e f o r h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . F i v e s t u d i e s (Anderson e t a l . , 1987; A s h t o n e t a l . , 1983; Loucks e t a l . , 1982 (DESSI ) ; G i b s o n and Dembo, 1984; and Showers, 1980) i d e n t i f i e d " h i g h " e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s and based subsequent r e s e a r c h on t h e i r r e s u l t i n g s a m p l e s . A p a r t i c u l a r s c o r e on a p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e , however, i s not used c o n s i s t e n t l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o d e f i n e h i g h e f f i c a c y . R a t h e r , the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s seem t o de te rmine what i s " h i g h " . Showers (1980) , f o r example, d i v i d e d h e r sample i n t o h i g h e f f i c a c y (23%), medium (65%), and low e f f i c a c y (21%) and s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y and s e l e c t e d d imens ions o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the c u t - o f f p o i n t s f o r h i g h (above the 75th p e r c e n t i l e ) and low (below the 25th p e r c e n t i l e ) are shown i n T a b l e 14. Based on t h e s e c u t - o f f p o i n t s , 76 (22.5%) t e a c h e r s were i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s and 78 (23.0%) were i d e n t i f i e d as low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . The t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s were u s e d t o d e f i n e h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y b e c a u s e , as the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n d i c a t e s , t h i s e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n i s most p r e d i c t i v e o f t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s (Ashton e t a l . , 1983) . T a b l e 14 The C u t - o f f P o i n t s E s t a b l i s h e d For Determin ing H igh E f f i c a c y Teachers (above the 75th p e r c e n t i l e ) and Low E f f i c a c y Teachers (below the 25th p e r c e n t i l e ) %i le S c a l e Va lue 90.0 75.0 5.33 5.01 66.7 50.0 33.3 4.88 4.66 4.44 25.0 10.0 4.43 3.96 HIGH (n=76) LOW (n=78) n M 1 Minimum Maximum Median SD 338 4.65 2.56 6.0 4.67 .551 Means based on a 6 p o i n t s c a l e where 1 = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e , 6 = S t r o n g l y Agree 108 Comparison of e f f i c a c y scores with age, sex, and grade  l e v e l . The t a b l e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n r e p o r t the compar isons between h i g h and low t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s c o r e s a c r o s s the demographic v a r i a b l e s . The t e a c h e r s i n the s t u d y h a v i n g a s t r o n g e r sense o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y were compared t o t h o s e t e a c h e r s who had a weaker sense o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y u s i n g age g r o u p , sex and t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l ( T a b l e 15 ) . The c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c ( X 2 ) was used t o t e s t f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n between h i g h e f f i c a c y and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s and t h e s e t h r e e demographic v a r i a b l e s . S i n c e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between t e a c h e r sex and t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y i n e a r l i e r a n a l y s e s ( T a b l e 10 ) , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n (p=0.04) between h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s and s e x . The f r e q u e n c i e s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . Of the 74 h i g h e f f i c a c y r e s p o n d e n t s , 51 o r 68.9% were f e m a l e , w h i l e o n l y 23 o r 31.1% were ma le . The low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r group was r e p r e s e n t e d a lmost e q u a l l y by females (50.7%) and males (49.3%) a l t h o u g h t h e r e were s l i g h t l y more fema les than males (0.7%) i n t h i s group as w e l l . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n terms o f age g r o u p . The number o f t e a c h e r s f a l l i n g i n t o each age group c a t e g o r y was r o u g h l y the same f o r the h i g h and low s a m p l e s . A h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s (16.2%) was found i n the 50-59 y e a r age c a t e g o r y h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r group than i n the same Table 15 A Comparison of High and Low Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y Teachers on Three  Demographic Variables 1 High Teacher E f f i c a c y Low Teacher E f f i c a c y VARIABLE X n Frequency Percent n1 Frequency Percent Relationship Sex 74 73 female 51 68.9 37 50.7 X 2=4.33 male 23 31.1 36 49.3 E =0.04 Age Group 74 74 20-29 8 10.8 7 9.5 30-39 27 36.5 29 39.2 X 2=1.10 40-49 26 35.1 29 39.2 E =0.89 50-59 12 16.2 8 10.8 60+ 1 1.4 1 1.4 Grade Level D i v i s i o n 74 75 K-3 29 - 39.2 18 24.0 4-6 19 25.7 16 21.3 X 2=6.40 7-9 13 17.6 18 24.0 E =0.09 10-12 13 17.6 23 30.7 K-6 74 48 64.9 75 34 45.3 X 2=4.97 7-12 26 35.1 41 54.7 E =0.02 1 Where n<76 (high teacher efficacy) and n<78 (low teacher e f f i c a c y ) , the diffe r e n c e i s due to that number of non-respondents for those items. 110 c a t e g o r y o f the low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r group (10.8%). There was a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the combined 30 t o 49 age group (78.4%) compared t o the same age group i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y sample (71.6%). T e a c h i n g grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n showed a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n (p=0.02) w i t h h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s when the compar ison was based on whether t h e y were e lementa ry o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . However, the d i f f e r e n c e was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t when the f o u r grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n s were u s e d , t h a t i s , K - 3; 4 - 6; 7 - 9; and 10 - 12. T e a c h e r s work ing a t the p r i m a r y l e v e l a c c o u n t e d f o r 39.2% o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y g r o u p . The t e a c h e r s i n grade 4 -6 a c c o u n t e d f o r 25.7% o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y g r o u p . The t e a c h e r s i n b o t h the grade 7 - 9 group and the grade 10 - 12 group each a c c o u n t e d f o r 17.6% o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y g r o u p . There were c o n s i d e r a b l y more e lementa ry t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y group (48 t e a c h e r s ) than t h e r e were s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s (26 t e a c h e r s ) . In the low e f f i c a c y g r o u p , the number o f t e a c h e r s from each grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n was more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the K - 9 grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n s . There were, however, more low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the grade 10 - 12 d i v i s i o n . Compar ison o f e f f i c a c y s c o r e s and t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e was one o f the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used i n the s t u d y t o d e s c r i b e t h i s t e a c h e r I l l sample . Two k i n d s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e were u s e d : f i r s t , the number o f y e a r s the t e a c h e r was i n h i s o r h e r p r e s e n t s c h o o l ; and s e c o n d , the t o t a l number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n a l l s c h o o l s . The d i f f e r e n c e between the h i g h and low t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y groups i n t h e i r y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i s shown i n T a b l e 16. The h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r group were found t o have taught i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l f o r an average o f 9.83 y e a r s compared t o the low e f f i c a c y g r o u p , who had taught i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l an average o f 7.80 y e a r s . The h i g h e f f i c a c y group averaged 14.36 y e a r s o f t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e the low e f f i c a c y group averaged 14.50 y e a r s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the h i g h and low t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y groups on b o t h c a t e g o r i e s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e were found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . The f i n d i n g s y i e l d e d by the c o m p a r i s o n o f the t e a c h e r g roups d e s i g n a t e d as h i g h and low e f f i c a c y on the f i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t o answer r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1 .2 : Do some subgroups o f t e a c h e r s , b a s e d on t h e i r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , have a s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y than o t h e r subgroups o f t e a c h e r s ? There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the number o f h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s based on gender d i f f e r e n c e and t e a c h i n g l e v e l . There were more females than males i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y group and t h e r e were more e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s than s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y g r o u p . Female Table 16 The Difference Between High and Low Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y Teachers and Their  Years of Teaching Experience HIGH EFFICACY LOW EFFICACY Years of Teaching n M SD n M SD Experience i n present school 75 9.83 6.37 75 7.80 7.74 t = 1.50 d.f. • 148 2 = ° - 1 4 (n.s) i n t o t a l 73 14.36 8.61 74 14.50 7.86 t = -0.11 d.f. =145 p = 0.92 (n.s.) 113 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were found t o be more e f f i c a c i o u s than any o t h e r t e a c h e r group i n t h i s sample . Research Question 2 : Teacher Efficacy and the School Level  Organizational Conditions P a r t o f the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i d e n t i f y the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . I f c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s were f o u n d t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , and i f t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be emphas ized , then i t might be p o s s i b l e t o enhance t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y by a d j u s t i n g t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s i n the s c h o o l s . The purpose o f t h i s d a t a a n a l y s i s was t o i d e n t i f y the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were b e s t a b l e t o p r e d i c t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . F i r s t , a P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( r ) was used t o de termine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and each o f the e i g h t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . Second , t o a d d r e s s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 2 . 2 , a s t e p - w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e (R ) was used t o de termine the amount o f v a r i a n c e i n p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s a c c o u n t e d f o r by each o f the s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s . Borg and G a l l (1983) c a u t i o n t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e b a l a n c e be r e t a i n e d between sample s i z e and the number o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . I f the sample s i z e i s s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o the number o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , the v a l i d i t y o f the p r e d i c t i o n c o u l d be j e o p a r d i z e d . They recommend t h a t sample s i z e be 114 i n c r e a s e d , by 15 s u b j e c t s f o r each p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e t o be i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n (p . 603) . S i n c e t h e r e were e i g h t p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e s e n t m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n , the sample s i z e would have t o be a t l e a s t 120 t e a c h e r s . The sample s i z e f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s was 253 and was t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e d a t a wh ich c o u l d p rove u s e f u l f o r p r e d i c t i o n i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . C o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s . T a b l e 17 p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r ) , means, and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and the e i g h t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . Two s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s were found t o c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , namely , s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r (p=.001) and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion (p= .022) . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s . A s t e p - w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was per fo rmed w i t h p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y as the dependent v a r i a b l e and each o f the f o l l o w i n g s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s as independent o r p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , p r i n c i p a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , v e r t i c a l communica t ion , h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r , f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n , and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s a re shown i n T a b l e 18. The s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h the s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y was s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r , Table 17 Correlations. Means, and Standard Deviations of Personal Teaching Eff icacy and the  School Level Organizational Conditions 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 M S.D. 1. Personal Teaching Eff icacy .13 .07 .02 .16* .13 .22* .15 .17 4.66 .55 2. Administrative Act iv i ty .25 -.09 -.02 .30 .23 .37 .40 3.76 .91 3. Teacher Decision Making .01 .02 .18 .03 .16 .11 -1.38 .73 4. Pr incipal Decision Making -.03 -.07 .01 -.04 -.07 1.18 .80 5. Horizontal Discussion .45 .06 .20 .24 2.33 .97 6. Ver t ica l Discussion .07 .24 .32 1.34 .79 7. Student Behaviour .19 .25 3.51 .52 8. Formal Evaluation -79 3.05 1.40 9. Informal Evaluation 2.77 1.30 *p<.05 T a b l e 18 M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n R e s u l t s on P e r s o n a l Teach ing E f f i c a c y With Student Behav iour and H o r i z o n t a l Communication as P r e d i c t o r s SCHOOL LEVEL DEPENDENT VARIABLE: PERSONAL TEACHING EFFICACY ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITIONS Mult R R2 R2 ( a d j . ) F P r o b . S tudent Behav iour .219 .048 .044 12.62 .00 H o r i z o n t a l Communication .261 .020 .021 9.08 .02 (Between Teachers ) (R2=.048; F=12.62), a c c o u n t i n g f o r 4.8% o f the v a r i a n c e . The nex t i n impor tance was h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , (R2=.020; F=9.08 ) ,account ing f o r 2.0% o f the v a r i a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s have the most p r e d i c t i v e p o t e n t i a l , they account f o r o n l y 6.8% o f the v a r i a n c e i n the p e r s o n a l t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s c o r e s . T a b l e 19 p r e s e n t s a summary o f B e t a w e i g h t s , F v a l u e s and s i g n i f i c a n t F v a l u e s f o r a l l the v a r i a b l e s w i t h p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y as the dependent v a r i a b l e . B e t a we igh ts a r e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i v e impor tance o f the v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t i n g f o r change i n the dependent v a r i a b l e . These r e s u l t s show t h a t s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r was the most i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e o f the e i g h t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . Based on the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , i t i s p o t e n t i a l l y more i m p o r t a n t than h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion (B=.210:B=.141) i n p r e d i c t i n g a change i n p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t s i n c e o n l y one sample was used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n s t a b i l i t y i n the Beta column i s p r e s e n t . The r e s u l t s which have been p r e s e n t e d t o t h i s p o i n t have a t tempted t o show the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c e r t a i n t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c e r t a i n s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t o t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y . The demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d was t e a c h e r s e x . Two s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , were shown t o 118 Table 19 Beta Weights, F Values, and S i g n i f i c a n c e of F Values (Prob.)  f o r A l l Variables with Personal Teaching E f f i c a c y as  Dependent Vari a b l e Beta F Prob. Admin. A c t i v i t y .087 1. .39 .167 Decision-Making (Teacher) -.076 -1. .24 .215 Decision-Making ( P r i n c i p a l ) .021 0, .35 .726 Communication ( V e r t i c a l ) .066 < .96 .336 Communication (Horizontal) .141 2, .31 .021 Student Behaviour .210 3. .43 .007 Teacher Evaluation (Formal) .094 1, .48 .140 Teacher Evaluation (Informal) .010 1. .5 .125 119 have a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The two v a r i a b l e s , however, a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 6.8% o f the v a r i a n c e i n the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s . H i g h and Low E f f i c a c y T e a c h e r s and G o a l Consensus G o a l c o n s e n s u s , u n l i k e the o t h e r e i g h t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , was based on a group s c o r e r a t h e r t h a n an i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s c o r e . The i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s g o a l r a n k i n g was used t o measure the degree o f agreement among a l l t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l a c r o s s the seven g o a l s . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , " the degree o f consensus among t e a c h e r s w i t h i n each s c h o o l was o b t a i n e d by comput ing K e n d a l l ' s c o e f f i c i e n t o f concordance (W) a c r o s s a l l t e a c h e r s and ranks" ( W i l s o n e t a l . , 1985, p . 1 0 ) . The same p r o c e d u r e was used t o de te rmine the degree o f c o n s e n s u s on the e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s between the h i g h and low t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y g r o u p s . Because a low s c o r e means a h i g h r a n k i n g , the g o a l w i t h the lowest s c o r e i s the most i m p o r t a n t . The compar ison o f how each group ranked t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s p r o v i d e d some i d e a about the k i n d o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l f o c u s which was p e r c e i v e d t o be most impor tan t by each g r o u p . T a b l e 20 p r e s e n t s the seven s c h o o l g o a l s i n o r d e r o f t h e i r impor tance as p e r c e i v e d by the h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . B o t h groups ranked s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - e s t e e m as the most i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l g o a l . T h i s g o a l appeared t o be 120 T a b l e 20 Goa l Ranking by T e a c h e r s w i t h H i g h and Low P e r s o n a l Teach ing  E f f i c a c y H igh P e r s o n a l T e a c h i n g E f f i c a c y (n=76) GOAL MEAN RANK1 1. S e l f - e s t e e m 1. 81 2. S t r i v i n g f o r e x c e l l e n c e 3 . 50 3 . C r i t i c a l and o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g 3 . 61 4 . B a s i c s k i l l s ( r e a d i n g and math) 3 . 90 5. U n d e r s t a n d i n g o t h e r s 4. 11 6. Respec t f o r a u t h o r i t y 4. 55 7. V o c a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s k i l l s 6. 53 w =. 431 LOW PERSONAL TEACHING EFFICACY (n= 78) GOAL MEAN RANK1 1. S e l f - e s t e e m 2 . 39 2 . B a s i c s k i l l s ( r e a d i n g and math) 3 . 43 3 S t r i v i n g f o r e x c e l l e n c e 3. 58 4 . C r i t i c a l and o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g 3 . 94 5. Respec t f o r a u t h o r i t y 4. 01 6. U n d e r s t a n d i n g o t h e r s 4. 26 7. V o c a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s k i l l s 6. 40 w =.320 A low s c o r e f o r t h i s d i m e n s i o n i n d i c a t e s g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e . 121 p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o the h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s s i n c e 82.9% o f them ranked i t as e i t h e r f i r s t o r s e c o n d i n i m p o r t a n c e . There were some d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n about the r e l a t i v e impor tance o f the o t h e r s i x g o a l s . The h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y group ranked s t r i v i n g f o r e x c e l l e n c e , c r i t i c a l and o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g , and b a s i c s k i l l s as the s e c o n d , t h i r d and f o u r t h i n impor tance r e s p e c t i v e l y . The low t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y group p l a c e d b a s i c s k i l l s s e c o n d , s t r i v i n g f o r e x c e l l e n c e t h i r d , and c r i t i c a l and o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g f o u r t h . The f i n a l t h r e e g o a l s were the same f o r b o t h groups e x c e p t the g o a l s ranked f i f t h and s i x t h were r e v e r s e d . The h i g h e f f i c a c y group ranked u n d e r s t a n d i n g o t h e r s as the f i f t h g o a l and r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y as the s i x t h , w h i l e the low e f f i c a c y group r e v e r s e d t h a t o r d e r . V o c a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s k i l l s was ranked lowest by bo th g r o u p s . High and Low E f f i c a c y Teachers and the Other Eight School  Organizational Conditions A s i m p l e d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s was done t o compare h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s a c r o s s the r e m a i n i n g e i g h t s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s u s i n g the means o f each g r o u p ' s r e s p o n s e t o the e i g h t d imens ions o f the SDS. The purpose was t o de te rmine i f any t r e n d s were e v i d e n t i n the way the h i g h e f f i c a c y group p e r c e i v e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . S i n c e o n l y two o f the e i g h t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y 122 r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n the e a r l i e r a n a l y s i s , and s i n c e t h e s e two c o n d i t i o n s combined t o e x p l a i n o n l y 6.8% o f the v a r i a n c e i n e f f i c a c y s c o r e s , i t was c o n s i d e r e d p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l t o l o o k a t the h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r s c h o o l s . Any r e s u l t i n g t r e n d s , a l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , c o u l d p o s s i b l y be used t o h e l p u n d e r s t a n d how t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y r e l a t e s t o the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , o r t o e x p l a i n the work ings o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . The r e s u l t s o f the compar ison o f the h i g h and low t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y groups based on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 21. The main r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s was t h a t the h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s ' s c o r e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r t h a n the low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s ' s c o r e s a c r o s s the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . A h i g h s c o r e r e p r e s e n t s a more p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , communica t ion , s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r , and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n measures . T h i s t r e n d s u g g e s t s t h a t h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e t h e s e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t o be p r e s e n t t o a g r e a t e r degree than do t h e i r l e s s e f f i c a c i o u s c o u n t e r p a r t s . A l t h o u g h i t must be remembered t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s t r e n d would be r e p e a t e d w i t h ano ther t e s t i n g , i t i s n o n e - t h e - l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the s c o r e s a re a l l i n the same d i r e c t i o n . A s e r i e s o f g raphs (Appendix F) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s t r e n d . Table 21 A Comparison of High (n-76) and Low (n-78) Personal Teaching Efficacy Teachera'  Perceptions of School Level Organizational Conditiona HIGH POTENTIAL LOW n Mean SD Nin. Max. n Mean SD Admin. A c t i v i t y 75 3.82 .984 0.00 5.00 75 3 72 901 Decision-making teacher 75 -1.46 .656 -3.00 3.00 74 -1 23 822 principal 75 1.21 .808 -3.00 3.00 73 1 22 887 Communication horizontal 76 2.49 1.01 0.00 5.00 72 2 16 1 02 v e r t i c a l 76 1.53 .808 0.00 5.00 71 1 27 754 Student Behavior 76 3.73 .499 0.00 5.00 77 3 41 507 Teacher Evaluation formal 64 3.15 1.49 0.00 5.00 68 2 87 1 34 informal 66 3.09 1.34 0.00 5.00 68 2 73 1 28 124 The measurement o f the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g d i m e n s i o n s was t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y from t h a t o f the o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s and so r e q u i r e s some e x p l a n a t i o n . I t i s a measure o f the amount o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; t h a t i s , the amount o f i n f l u e n c e which the t e a c h e r s h a v e , r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f the p r i n c i p a l . Wi th t h i s measure i t i s assumed t h a t t e a c h e r s have more i n f l u e n c e r e l a t i v e t o the p r i n c i p a l i n m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n and management, w h i l e the p r i n c i p a l has more i n f l u e n c e r e l a t i v e t o the t e a c h e r s i n m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m and r e s o u r c e s ( W i l s o n e t a l . , 1985) . T h e r e f o r e , a d e c i s i o n i n the t e a c h e r s ' r e a l m ( c l a s s r o o m management and i n s t r u c t i o n ) which was p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s t o be i n f l u e n c e d t o t a l l y by them, would be s c o r e d a - 3 . I f t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t p r i n c i p a l s i n f l u e n c e d t h e s e d e c i s i o n s c o m p l e t e l y , they would s c o r e the i t e m a +3. An e q u a l amount o f i n f l u e n c e by b o t h groups would appear as a 0 o r no i n f l u e n c e . Wi th t h i s sample o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s , the r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t the h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t they had more i n f l u e n c e ( -1 .46 ) over c l a s s r o o m - r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s than d i d the low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s ( - 1 . 2 3 ) . Summary of Findings: The Teacher As The Unit of Analysis C h a p t e r f o u r i s the f i r s t o f two c h a p t e r s which r e p o r t the r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y . The f o c u s o f the a n a l y s i s i n t h i s c h a p t e r was the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r . The a n a l y s i s o f d a t a 125 from the SDS produced a number o f q u a n t i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s which w i l l be summarized i n f i v e s e c t i o n s : (1) the r e s p o n d e n t s ; (2) the t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y measure; (3) r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1: the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; (4) r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 2: the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ; and (5) o t h e r r e s u l t s . The Respondents The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the sample u s e d i n the s t u d y was f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a based on the number o f t e a c h e r s o f each sex and t h e i r y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . In most age group c a t e g o r i e s , t e a c h e r s i n the sample were s i m i l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d . In the 20 t o 29 age group a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d . In the sample , t h i s age group was r e p r e s e n t e d by o n l y 11.8% o f i t s t e a c h e r s , w h i l e t h e r e were 22.5% o f the p r o v i n c e ' s t e a c h e r s i n the same c a t e g o r y . There was 33.4% o f the sample i n the 40 t o 49 c a t e g o r y compared t o 25.3% o f the p r o v i n c e ' s t e a c h e r s i n the same c a t e g o r y . The r e s p o n d e n t s were 339 i n number, 186 o f whom were e lementa ry t e a c h e r s , w h i l e 153 were s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . The r e s p o n d e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d 77% o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s s c h o o l - b a s e d t e a c h i n g s t a f f . There were f i v e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s and t e n e lementa ry s c h o o l s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t where a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8000 s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d s c h o o l at the t ime o f the s t u d y . 126 The T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was done on the 16 i t ems from the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y s c a l e as a r e l i a b i l i t y check on the per formance o f the i tems i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The r e s u l t s compared f a v o u r a b l y t o t h o s e from the o r i g i n a l G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) s t u d y and a l s o t o t h o s e from the Anderson e t a l . (1987) s t u d y , which s u g g e s t e d t h a t the r e s u l t s from t h i s measure c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e . The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between T e a c h e r Sense o f E f f i c a c y  and the T e a c h e r Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1.1: Is a t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y r e l a t e d t o h i s o r h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? F i v e demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i n c l u d e d i n these a n a l y s e s : (1) age g r o u p ; (2) s e x ; (3.) t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l ; (4) t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l ; and (5) t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Of the f i v e , two were found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l . These were t e a c h e r sex ( T a b l e 11) and t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l ( T a b l e 15) when t h i s measure was broken down i n t o e l e m e n t a r y (K-6) and s e c o n d a r y ( 7 - 1 2 ) . Females were more e f f i c a c i o u s t h a n m a l e s . T e a c h e r s i n K t o 6 were more e f f i c a c i o u s than t e a c h e r s i n g r a d e s 7 t o 12. R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1.2: Do some subgroups o f t e a c h e r s , b a s e d on demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , have a s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y t h a n o t h e r subgroups o f t e a c h e r s ? 127 In the p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s , female e lementa ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were found t o be more e f f i c a c i o u s t h a n any o t h e r group o f t e a c h e r s . F u r t h e r a n a l y s e s u s i n g a l l o f the p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f demographic v a r i a b l e s d i d not r e s u l t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f any o t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t e a c h e r g r o u p . Research Question 2: The Relationship Between Teacher Sense  of Efficacy and The School Level Organizational Conditions Two r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s g u i d e d the a n a l y s i s o f d a t a about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s : 2.1 what i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ; 2 .2 which o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i s b e s t a b l e t o p r e d i c t h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ? Two s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were found t o have a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . They were s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion ( T a b l e 18 ) . A s t e p - w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o de termine the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t o t r y t o de te rmine which o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were b e s t a b l e t o p r e d i c t h i g h e f f i c a c y . I t was found t h a t , a l t h o u g h the two s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n , they a c c o u n t e d f o r 128 o n l y 6.8% o f the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n the t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s c o r e s . Other Results Two s e t s o f r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d which d i d not a p p l y d i r e c t l y t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The f i r s t was the degree o f consensus on s c h o o l g o a l s r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t deve lopment . G o a l consensus was based on a group s c o r e r a t h e r than an i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s c o r e . The h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r group ranked s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - e s t e e m as the most i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l g o a l w i t h 82.9% o f them r a n k i n g i t e i t h e r f i r s t o r second i n i m p o r t a n c e . The second r e s u l t i n t h i s s e c t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , but showed a t r e n d which was c o n s i d e r e d p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g how the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s might i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . When the h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the e i g h t s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s were a n a l y z e d , i t was found t h a t the h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d the c o n d i t i o n s t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e i r s c h o o l s t o a g r e a t e r degree than d i d the low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . Some f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s rema ined , however, about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s a f t e r the a n a l y s e s were done u s i n g the t e a c h e r as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . In the next c h a p t e r , the s c h o o l i s u s e d as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . I t was hoped t h a t the r e s u l t s from t h i s a n a l y s i s would l e a d t o a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how the v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y i n t e r a c t i n the s c h o o l as a w o r k p l a c e . CHAPTER FIVE 129 FINDINGS: THE SCHOOL AS THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS Two l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s were used i n t h i s s t u d y t o p r o v i d e as comple te a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e about how workp lace c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t e t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e s e c o n d l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s , the s c h o o l , was the f o c u s . The s c h o o l s w i t h the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s were used f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . I f the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from the e a r l i e r a n a l y s e s were found i n these h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s , t h e r e would be s u p p o r t f o r t h e s e e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s . I f n o t , the new f i n d i n g s c o u l d i n t r o d u c e o t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s wh ich c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r f u r t h e r s tudy by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . The purpose o f u s i n g the s c h o o l as the second l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d y i n g the t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was the same; t h a t i s , e i t h e r t o c o n f i r m e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s o r t o r a i s e new q u e s t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The main s o u r c e o f d a t a f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s was t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s t o the SDS. The i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s c o r e s were a g g r e g a t e d t o form a s i n g l e mean s c o r e f o r e a c h s c h o o l . The s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e o f d a t a was the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s . The purpose o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s was t o d e v e l o p a more comple te p i c t u r e o f the work ings o f the s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o v a l i d a t e the SDS d a t a . I t was an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a m p l i f y the f i n d i n g s f rom the s u r v e y and t o d e l v e more d e e p l y i n t o the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the s c h o o l s . F o r t h i s 130 r e a s o n most o f the a n a l y s e s were q u a l i t a t i v e in an a t tempt t o i n t e r p r e t and t o e x p l a i n the f i n d i n g s from the e a r l i e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . Post-hoc Analysis Two a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f d a t a were used as p a r t o f a p o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s i n o r d e r t o add t o the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f o u r s c h o o l s . S i n c e s c h o o l e f f e c t s a re i n f l u e n c e d by many v a r i a b l e s , i t was c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e t h a t t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y c o u l d a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e v a r i a b l e s ( A s h t o n , 1985) . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a measure o f s t u d e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s (SES) and a measure o f s t u d e n t achievement were i n c l u d e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y group s c h o o l s . Measurement of Student Socio-economic Status A c c o r d i n g t o H a l l i n g e r and Murphy (1987) , " the most commonly used measures o f SES are m o t h e r ' s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n and the p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s on f r e e o r r e d u c e d l u n c h " ( p . 6 ) . The f i r s t measure was not a v a i l a b l e and t h e r e was no f r e e l u n c h program i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , so an a l t e r n a t i v e SES measure was s o u g h t . The SES measure used i n the p o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s was the average p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f the houses i n each o f the a t t e n d a n c e a r e a s o f the s c h o o l s f o r the p e r i o d September, 1986 t o A u g u s t , 1987. S i n c e 99% o f s t u d e n t s a t t e n d t h e i r l o c a l s c h o o l , t h i s was c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l s o u r c e o f d a t a f o r 131 t h i s p a r t o f the s t u d y . T h i s measure i s acknowledged t o be a rough one , but n e v e r - t h e - l e s s appeared t o have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o p r o v i d e some d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e . Measurement of Student Achievement The measure o f s t u d e n t achievement was the s t u d e n t s ' C a n a d i a n Achievement T e s t (CAT) r e s u l t s from 1987. These t e s t s were w r i t t e n w i t h i n t h r e e weeks o f the t ime when the SDS i n s t r u m e n t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t e a c h e r s . The r e l a t i v e p r o x i m i t y o f the t ime p e r i o d f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f b o t h t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t d a t a was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t , s i n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s c o n s i d e r e d a dynamic , s i t u a t i o n -s p e c i f i c c o n s t r u c t ( A s h t o n , 1986) . The s t u d e n t s c o r e s on the r e a d i n g and math t e s t s i n g r a d e s t h r e e and s i x were the d a t a u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y because t h e s e a re the s c o r e s which have been u s e d most o f t e n i n s t u d i e s o f s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s c h o o l improvement . U s i n g the same c a t e g o r y o f s t u d e n t s c o r e s p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o compare the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s from t h i s s t u d y t o t h o s e o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . High E f f i c a c y Schools Four s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d from the 15 i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y , r e p r e s e n t i n g about 27% o f the s c h o o l s i n the s t u d y . They were s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y because t h e y had h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e s o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f . The r e m a i n i n g 11 s c h o o l s were not i n c l u d e d because l e s s than 25% 132 o f t h e i r s t a f f s were i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y c a t e g o r y . Fewer t h a n one h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r i n f o u r was no t c o n s i d e r e d a s u f f i c i e n t number t o p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . T a b l e 22 d e s c r i b e s a l l 15 s c h o o l s u s i n g s t a f f s i z e , number o f r e s p o n d e n t s , number o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s , and each s c h o o l ' s p e r c e n t a g e o f the t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . I t was p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y the r e s p o n s e s from each s c h o o l i n the s t u d y u s i n g a system o f s c h o o l c o d e s . S c h o o l s w i t h codes 01 t o 05 were s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w h i l e s c h o o l s w i t h codes 06 t o 15 were e lementa ry s c h o o l s . The f i r s t f i n d i n g was t h a t a l l f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . The second f i n d i n g was t h a t the s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n two d i s t i n c t a r e a s o f the c i t y , two (06, 09) on the n o r t h s i d e and two (07 ,13) on the s o u t h s i d e . The s c h o o l s ' s t a f f s i z e ranged from a low o f 11 t e a c h e r s t o a h i g h o f 27 t e a c h e r s , when p a r t t ime t e a c h e r s were c o u n t e d as one f u l l - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t . The average s t a f f s i z e was 20 t e a c h e r s which was s l i g h t l y lower than the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t average s i z e f o r e lementa ry s c h o o l s (21 .4 t e a c h e r s ) . The p e r c e n t a g e o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s t a f f s r e s p o n d i n g t o the s u r v e y ranged from a low o f 73% t o a h i g h o f 100%. The o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e r a t e from a l l t h e s c h o o l s was 77%, w h i l e the r e s p o n s e r a t e from the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s was h i g h e r (82%). The h i g h e s t r e s p o n s e r a t e (100%). Table 22 A Comparison of the 15 Schools on Staff Size, Rate of Survey Response, and Percentage  of High Personal Teaching Eff icacy (PTE) Teachers in Their Schools and in the Study School Staff No. of Percent of No. of High Percent of Percent of the Code Size Respondents School Staff PTE Teachers School Staff Study's High PTE Teachers 01 69 50 (72) 7 (14.0) 9.2 02 34 29 (85) 7 (24.0) 9.2 03 34 31 (91) 3 (9.7) 3.9 04 42 21 (50) 4 (19.0) 5.3 05 36 22 (61) 6 (27.3) 1 7.9 06* 18 18 (100) 9 (50.0) 11.8 07* 27 22 (81) 6 (27.3) 1 7.9 08 29 23 (79) 4 (17.4) 5.3 09* 24 18 (75) 11 (61.1) 14.5 10 23 21 (91) 4 (19.0) 5.3 11 . 27 26 (96) 3 (11.5) 3.9 12 25 19 (76) 0 (0.0) 0.0 13* 11 8 (73) 5 (63.0) 6.6 14 21 18 (86) 3 (16.7) 3.9 1 15 20 13 (65) 4 (30.1) 5.3 Total 440 339 (77) 76 (26.0) 100.0 Schools 05 and 07 each had 27.3% while school 15 had 30.1% of responding high eff icacy teachers on staf f . School 07 was used in the subsequent analysis because i t had a higher teacher response rate thus the data were considered to be more representative. A minimum response of 70% of teachers in a school was considered a va l id response for this analysis so school 15 was not used. •Denotes a high eff icacy school. 134 i n the s t u d y was from one o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s (06 ) . The p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f r a n g e d from a low o f 27.3% t o a h i g h o f 63.0%, w i t h an o v e r a l l f i g u r e o f 44.3%. Three o f the f o u r s c h o o l s had a c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f , between 50% and 63%. The s c h o o l s coded 13 and 09 had the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f , 63% and 61.1% r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s a c c o u n t e d f o r between 6.6% and 14.5% o f the t o t a l number o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the s t u d y . T o g e t h e r , t h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r a t o t a l o f 41% o f a l l the r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l was an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . T h i s was no t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e a r l i e r p a r a m e t r i c a n a l y s i s (ANOVA), which i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t (p=.73) a s s o c i a t i o n between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and grade l e v e l p lacement , when the grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n s were K - 3 ; 4 - 6 ; 7 -9 ; and 10 -12 . A s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n (p=0.02) was f o u n d , however, i n the c h i square a n a l y s i s when the h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s were compared. Because o f t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , a t - t e s t was run t o t e s t f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between t e a c h e r mean e f f i c a c y s c o r e s a c r o s s j u s t two grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n s , K-6 and 7 -12 . U s i n g a t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y mean s c o r e o f 4.71 f o r the e l e m e n t a r y grades and a mean s c o r e o f 4 .50 f o r the s e c o n d a r y g r a d e s , the r e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( t=2 .12; p=0 .03) . 135 Student Socio-economic Status The SES measure was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the average p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f houses w i t h i n the a t t e n d a n c e b o u n d a r i e s o f each s c h o o l f o r the 12 month p e r i o d between September, 1986 and A u g u s t , 1987 ( R e s i d e n t i a l S a l e s S t a t i s t i c s ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s showed t h a t the average p u r c h a s e p r i c e was: 06 = $57 ,718 .00 (11 s a l e s ) 09 = $63 ,984 .00 (20 s a l e s ) 13 = $79 ,166 .66 (9 s a l e s ) 07 = $126,747.00 (17 s a l e s ) The f i r s t two s c h o o l s (06 and 09) a re l o c a t e d i n the n o r t h end o f the c i t y , w h i l e the second two s c h o o l s (13 and 07) are l o c a t e d i n the s o u t h end o f the c i t y . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t h a t houses i n the n o r t h end o f the c i t y a re l e s s e x p e n s i v e than t h o s e i n the s o u t h end o f the c i t y . These f i g u r e s would seem t o s u p p o r t t h i s g e n e r a l b e l i e f and s u g g e s t t h a t s c h o o l s 06 and 09 were i n a lower s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a r e a than s c h o o l s 07 and 13. Student Achievement S tudent achievement was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s s t u d y i n which t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y was the major f o c u s . I t was i m p o r t a n t because o f the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and s t u d e n t achievement are b e l i e v e d t o have on each o t h e r ( A s h t o n , 1985; Denham & 136 M i c h a e l , 1981) . T a b l e 23 r e p o r t s the s t u d e n t s ' r e s u l t s on the most r e c e n t Canad ian Achievement T e s t s i n each o f the f o u r s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t means a re i n c l u d e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r i s o n . The r e s u l t s i n r e a d i n g f o r g rades t h r e e and s i x f o r the f o u r s c h o o l s a re c o n s i s t e n t i n t h a t s c h o o l s 06 and 09 are c o n s i s t e n t l y below the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean and s c h o o l s 07 and 13 a re c o n s i s t e n t l y above the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean. The grade t h r e e math r e s u l t s show the same t r e n d w i t h s c h o o l s 06 and 09 b e i n g below the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean and s c h o o l s 07 and 13 b e i n g above the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean. The grade s i x math r e s u l t s v a r y from the t r e n d i n one i n s t a n c e because s c h o o l 06 i s above the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean. The o t h e r t h r e e s c h o o l s c o n t i n u e t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h 09 b e i n g below and s c h o o l s 07 and 13 b e i n g above the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean. These s c o r e s showed a t r e n d i n d i c a t i n g r e s u l t s above the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t average i n r e a d i n g and math f o r the s c h o o l s coded 06 and 09 and below f o r the s c h o o l s coded 07 and 13. T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c o r e s The h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were compared on t h r e e k i n d s o f e f f i c a c y s c o r e s : p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , and t o t a l e f f i c a c y . The s c h o o l means on each v a r i a b l e were u s e d t o compute a s c h o o l s c o r e . T h i s made i t p o s s i b l e t o compare the f o u r s c h o o l s t o one another and t o Table 23 Canadian Achievement Test (CAT) Percentages In Grades 3 & 6 for the Elementary  Schools with the Highest Percentage of High Efficacy Teachers School Reading Math Code Grade 3(%) Grade 6(%) Grade 3(%) Grade 6(%) 6 58 51 62 64 7 70 72 75 65 9 60 40 63 56 13 75 65 68 72 School D i s t r i c t Mean 65 56 64 61 to 138 the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean. The f i r s t t h r e e columns o f T a b l e 24 p r o v i d e the f o u r s c h o o l s ' e f f i c a c y s c o r e s and the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s . P e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y was the major measure o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n the s t u d y . Of the f o u r s c h o o l s , s c h o o l 09 had the h i g h e s t mean s c o r e (5 .23) and s c h o o l 07 had the lowes t mean s c o r e ( 4 . 7 5 ) . S c h o o l s 06 and 13 had i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s ( 4 . 9 4 ) . T e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a more g e n e r a l measure o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and d e s c r i b e s the t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s , as a g r o u p , t o i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g ( G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984) . These r e s u l t s d i f f e r e d from the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s c o r e s i n the rank o r d e r o f the f o u r s c h o o l s : s c h o o l 13 had the h i g h e s t s c o r e (4 .30) f o l l o w e d by s c h o o l 07 ( 3 . 7 4 ) ; s c h o o l s 06 and 09 had s c o r e s o f 3 .34 and 3.52 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s were i n t r i g u i n g because the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s o f the two n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s ( 0 6 : 4 . 9 4 ; 09 :5 .23 ) were h i g h e r than those o f the two s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s ( 0 7 : 4 . 7 5 ; 1 3 : 4 . 9 4 ) . In c o n t r a s t , the t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s o f the two s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s ( 0 7 : 3 . 7 4 ; 13 :4 .30 ) were h i g h e r than t h o s e o f the two n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s ( 0 6 : 3 . 3 4 ; 0 9 : 3 . 5 2 ) . Because t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s seemed t o be p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t , a t - t e s t was r u n u s i n g the combined s c o r e s from the n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s and from the s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s on Table 24 High Personal Teaching Efficacy Schools' 1 Mean Scores on Efficacy and the School Organizational Conditions School Teacher Efficacy Goal 2 Admin. Decision Making Communication Student Teacher Evaluation Code Personal Teaching Total Consensus Activity Teacher Principal Vertical Horizontal Behaviour Formal Informal 6 (18) 4. 94 3. .34 4 .25 0.41 3. .83 -1 .21 1.14 1.95 2. .65 3. .51 2.88 2.82 7 (22) 4. .75 3. .74 4. .31 0.44 3. .37 -1. .24 1.65 1.25 2. .77 3. .82 3.52 3.01 9 (18) 5. 23 3. .52 4. .48 0.36 4. .24 -1. .23 1.36 1.46 2. .40 3. .36 4.29 3.40 13 (8) 4. 94 4. 30 4. .66 0.62 3. .67 -1. .30 0.61 1.67 2. 51 4. 07 2.60 3.06 School Dist. Respondents Mean 4. .68 3. .50 4 .16 0.43 3. .83 -1. .39 1.21 1.41 2. .36 3. .54 3.01 2.86 SD 0, 22 0. .28 0 .20 0.10 0 .36 0. .71 0.78 0.30 0. .29 0. 29 0.62 0.40 min.- max.4 1 to 6 0.00 to 0 to 5 .3 to -3 0 to 5 0 to 5 0 to 5 1.00 1 Each school's mean score was based on the personal teaching efficacy scores of the responding teachers i n that school. Kendall's W was used to measure goal consensus after respondents ranked goals i n priority order from 1 (highest) to 7 (lowest). . The numbers in brackets refer to the number of respondents from each of the 4 schools. Minimum and maximum scores for each variable. CO vo 140 each o f the two e f f i c a c y measures . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the t e a c h e r s ' mean s c o r e s i n the s c h o o l s were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y f a c t o r s , p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y ( t=2 .23; p=.03) and t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y ( t = - 2 . 0 9 ; p= .04 ) . The t o t a l e f f i c a c y s c o r e r e p r e s e n t s the average o f the combined mean s c o r e s on p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a l e s s u s e f u l measure than e i t h e r o f the o t h e r e f f i c a c y measures ( G i b s o n , 1987, p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n ) . P e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y are s e p a r a t e measures o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( A s h t o n , 1985) and combin ing them tends t o mask the s e p a r a t e meaning o f each d i s t i n c t measure . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the t o t a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s were not used i n any a n a l y s i s . S c h o o l L e v e l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s G o a l c o n s e n s u s . The degree o f g o a l c o n s e n s u s which was p r e s e n t among the s t a f f s o f the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s was a moderate 0.46 when the p o s s i b l e minimum was 0.00 and the maximum 1 .00 . The s t u d y mean ( s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r e s p o n d e n t s ) f o r g o a l consensus was .43 and W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) r e p o r t a g o a l consensus s c o r e o f .40 (n=200 s c h o o l s ) . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were s i m i l a r to o t h e r s c h o o l s s t u d i e d and t h a t the s t a f f s appeared t o have moderate agreement about which s t u d e n t s k i l l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d r e c e i v e the most a t t e n t i o n . 141 Administrative a c t i v i t y . The t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s about the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which t h e i r p r i n c i p a l was engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l b e h a v i o u r ranged from 3.37 ( s c h o o l 07) t o 4 .24 ( s c h o o l 0 9 ) ( T a b l e 2 4 ) . The mean f o r the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s (3 .78) was c l o s e t o t h a t o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r e s p o n d e n t s ( 3 . 8 3 ) and r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o W i l s o n e t . a l . ' s r e s u l t ( 3 . 5 1 ) . The p e r c e p t i o n s o f the t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l 09 s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i r p r i n c i p a l a lmost a lways engages i n a c t i v i t i e s which promote p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . Decision-making . As n o t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r , t h i s d i m e n s i o n measures the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e which the p r i n c i p a l has compared t o the i n f l u e n c e which t e a c h e r s have i n two s e p a r a t e s p h e r e s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n used i n t h i s s t u d y was t h a t t e a c h e r s a re e x p e c t e d t o have more i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n s about c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n , w h i l e the p r i n c i p a l i s e x p e c t e d t o have more i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n s about c u r r i c u l u m and r e s o u r c e s . The r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e measure f o r each d e c i s i o n a r e a was a s s e s s e d by s u b t r a c t i n g the t e a c h e r s ' s c o r e from the p r i n c i p a l ' s s c o r e . The g r e a t e r the s c o r e , the more c e n t r a l i z e d the i n f l u e n c e ( W i l s o n e t a l . , 1985, p . 1 2 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a maximum c e n t r a l i z a t i o n s c o r e (+3) means the p r i n c i p a l i s p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g major i n f l u e n c e w h i l e the t e a c h e r s have none and a minimum c e n t r a l i z a t i o n s c o r e ( -3) means the t e a c h e r s a re p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g major i n f l u e n c e and the p r i n c i p a l none . The r e s u l t s i n T a b l e 24 142 show t h a t the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f the p r i n c i p a l i s l e s s c e n t r a l i z e d i n d e c i s i o n s i n which the t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o have more i n f l u e n c e , t h a t i s , i n d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s would seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s as h a v i n g a minor say i n d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . In d e c i s i o n s i n which the p r i n c i p a l i s e x p e c t e d t o have more i n f l u e n c e ; t h a t i s , i n d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m and r e s o u r c e s , the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean (1 .21 ) would seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t most t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s t o have more i n f l u e n c e than t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l 06, however, c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e i r p r i n c i p a l has c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s i n f l u e n c e i n m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m and r e s o u r c e s . They p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s i n f l u e n c e a t 0.61 compared t o a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 3 .0 had they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p r i n c i p a l t o have comple te i n f l u e n c e o v e r d e c i s i o n s i n t h i s a r e a . Communica t ion . Two k i n d s o f s c h o o l l e v e l communicat ion were measured: (1) v e r t i c a l communicat ion o r communicat ion between t e a c h e r s and the p r i n c i p a l ; and (2) h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion o r communicat ion among t e a c h e r s . The s t a t e d purpose o f the communicat ion i n bo th c a s e s was about c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n and c l a s s r o o m management. F o r the measure o f v e r t i c a l communicat ion the d a t a i n T a b l e 24 s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s t a l k w i t h t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s l e s s than they t a l k w i t h each o t h e r . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s t a l k w i t h t h e i r 143 p r i n c i p a l s once o r t w i c e p e r month about i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s . When the s c h o o l mean s c o r e s were c o n v e r t e d t o a f r e q u e n c y , t h a t i s , the number o f d i s c u s s i o n s i n a g i v e n t ime p e r i o d , the d i f f e r e n c e d i d not appear p a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t . However, i t seems t h a t v e r t i c a l communicat ion was more f r e q u e n t a t s c h o o l 06 (1 .95) and l e s s f r e q u e n t a t s c h o o l 07 ( 1 . 2 5 ) . The h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s t a l k w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w t e a c h e r s about t h r e e o r f o u r t imes p e r month about i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s . The f r e q u e n c y measure f o r t h i s d i m e n s i o n i s based on a s i x p o i n t s c a l e which ranged from never (0) t o once a day o r more ( 5 ) . Both the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean and the s c o r e s f o r the f o u r s c h o o l s were between 2 (2 o r 3 t imes a month) and 3 (about once a week) . I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o g e t a more p r e c i s e i n d i c a t o r o f the f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n . I t was p o s s i b l e , however , t o ge t an i d e a about the r e l a t i v e impor tance o f t h i s measure t o the t e a c h e r s i n the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . I t appears t h a t t e a c h e r s t a l k i n g t o t e a c h e r s was a more f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e i n s c h o o l s 07 (2 .77) and 06 (2 .65) than i n the o t h e r two. The, t r e n d s u g g e s t e d by the f i n d i n g s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t the e a r l i e r s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s which i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion . 144 S t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . As was s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n c h a p t e r two, t h i s d i m e n s i o n measured some o f the i n d i c a t o r s o f s c h o o l c l i m a t e o r " e t h o s " ( R u t t e r e t a l . , 1979) . The s c o r e s i n the two s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s were h i g h e r ( 0 7 : 3 . 8 2 ; 13 :4 .07 ) than the s c o r e s i n the two n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s ( 0 6 : 3 . 5 1 ; 0 9 : 3 . 3 6 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the two s c h o o l s w i t h lower s c o r e s on t h i s d i m e n s i o n a l s o had lower s c o r e s on bo th the s t u d e n t achievement measure and the SES measure . The two s c h o o l s w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h i s d i m e n s i o n a l s o had h i g h e r s c o r e s on the s t u d e n t achievement and the SES measure . T e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . The purpose o f u s i n g t h i s d imens ion was t o g e t an i n d i c a t i o n o f how t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d b o t h the f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . The b a s i s f o r measurement was the f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f each o f the seven components o f the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s (0 = n e v e r ; 5 = a l w a y s ) . I t was s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e t h a t t e a c h e r s had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s d i m e n s i o n and the r e s p o n s e r a t e was lower than w i t h the o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s (about t e n fewer r e s p o n d e n t s ) . The f r e q u e n c i e s r e p o r t e d by the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s on f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ranged from 2.60 (13) t o 4 .29 (09 ) . The f r e q u e n c i e s r e p o r t e d f o r i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n d i d no t r e p r e s e n t as g r e a t a range (2 .82 (06) t o 3 .40 ( 0 9 ) . The p e r c e p t i o n o f the t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l 09 t h a t they were e v a l u a t e d v e r y r e g u l a r l y w i t h a f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e was c o n s i d e r e d worthy o f n o t e . 145 Summary The purpose o f a n a l y z i n g the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s ' s c o r e s was t o i d e n t i f y any t r e n d s which might be u s e f u l i n one o r more o f t h r e e ways: f i r s t , t h i s a n a l y s i s c o u l d p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about the impor tance o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t o s u p p o r t e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s ; s e c o n d , i t c o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about o t h e r i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ; and t h i r d , the s p e c i f i c s c h o o l l e v e l f o c u s c o u l d i d e n t i f y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were i m p o r t a n t t o a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . S i n c e a l l o f the s c h o o l s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s were s t a f f e d w i t h a " h i g h " p e r c e n t a g e o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s , i t was assumed t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t e d t h a t c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s sense o f e f f i c a c y . F i v e main r e s u l t s a p p l y g e n e r a l l y t o a l l o f the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s : 1. they a re e lementary s c h o o l s ; 2 . t h e y t e n d t o be s m a l l e r i n compar ison t o o t h e r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n the sample based on the number o f t e a c h e r s ; 3 . t h e s e s c h o o l s accounted f o r 41% o f a l l r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the 15 s c h o o l sample ; 4 . the t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d t h a t they t a l k e d w i t h t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s f r e q u e n t l y about i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s ; 146 5. the t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d t h a t they t a l k w i t h each o t h e r more f r e q u e n t l y than they t a l k w i t h t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s about i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s . There was a c o n s i s t e n t s p l i t between the two p a i r s o f h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . The f i r s t s e t o f f i v e r e s u l t s i n t h i s s e c t i o n a p p l i e s t o s c h o o l s 06 and 09: 1. s c h o o l s 06 and 09 are n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s ; 2 . t h e i r CAT s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g and math a t g r a d e s t h r e e and s i x were lower t h a n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean and c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than the o t h e r two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s ; 3 . they were lower than the o t h e r two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s on the SES measure; 4. t h e s e s c h o o l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n ( t=2 .23; p=.03) than the o t h e r two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s ; but t h e i r s c o r e s on the t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower ( t = -2 .09 ; p=.04) t h a n the o t h e r two s c h o o l s ' s c o r e s on t h i s d i m e n s i o n ; 5. t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r t o be l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y than d i d t e a c h e r s i n the o t h e r two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . The second s e t o f f i v e r e s u l t s a p p l i e s t o s c h o o l s 07 and 13: 1. s c h o o l s 07 and 13 a re s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s ; 147 2. t h e i r CAT s c o r e s tended t o be h i g h e r t h a n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean s c o r e i n b o t h grade t h r e e and grade s i x r e a d i n g and math; and c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than the o t h e r two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s ; 3 . they were a l s o h i g h e r than the o t h e r two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s on the SES measure; 4 . t h e s e s c h o o l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n t h a n the o t h e r two s c h o o l s , but s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n ; 5. t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r t o be more f a v o u r a b l e than do the t e a c h e r s i n the o t h e r two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . There were some r e s u l t s which a p p l i e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l but not t o the o t h e r s . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n from the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s . Some f e a t u r e s o f each o f the s c h o o l s were h i g h l i g h t e d by the r e s u l t s . S c h o o l 06 had a h i g h p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e , but a much lower t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e . S c h o o l 09 had a p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h s c o r e i n t h r e e a r e a s : (1) p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y ; (2) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y ; (3) t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . S c h o o l 13 had a p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h s c o r e on the g o a l consensus measure . The r e s u l t s which have been r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n show some t r e n d s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s r e g a r d i n g 148 t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and some o f the s c h o o l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s o f the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d n e x t . P r i n c i p a l Interviews The r e s u l t s from t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r each o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . The purpose o f the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s was not o n l y t o c o n f i r m and t o a m p l i f y e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s , but a l s o t o p r o v i d e a p o r t r a i t o f each o f the s c h o o l s . As an a i d t o i d e n t i f y i n g the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were i m p o r t a n t t o each s c h o o l , a g raph o f the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s c o r e s on each o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n i s i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f the d i s c u s s i o n . The graphs f o r a l l 15 s c h o o l s are i n Appendix F . These graphs were d e v e l o p e d u s i n g the g u i d e l i n e s d e s c r i b e d by W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) who e x p l a i n the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n : S i n c e t h e d i m e n s i o n s c o r e s use f o u r d i f f e r e n t m e t r i c s , t h e i r u t i l i t y f o r e d u c a t o r s can be g r e a t l y enhanced i f d i r e c t compar isons can be made a c r o s s d i m e n s i o n s . To do so r e q u i r e s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f s c o r e s so t h a t e v e r y d i m e n s i o n i s measured u s i n g the same m e t r i c . F o l l o w i n g M c C a l l (1939) , we chose a "t s c a l e " w i t h a mean o f 50 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 10 ( p . 2 0 ) . The 25th and 75th p e r c e n t i l e s were p l a c e d on the g raph as a d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s . School 06 T h i s was one o f the two n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s which were i n c l u d e d as h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s i n the s t u d y . There were 18 t e a c h e r s and 325 s t u d e n t s i n the s c h o o l . T h i s i s lower -149 t h a n the average s t a f f s i z e f o r the t e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ( 2 1 . 5 ) . Twelve o r 66% o f the s t a f f were f e m a l e . A l l t e a c h e r s on t h i s s t a f f responded t o the s u r v e y . O n e - h a l f the t e a c h e r s on s t a f f f e l l i n t o the h i g h e f f i c a c y range based on the c u t - o f f p o i n t s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the s t u d y . The n i n e h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s r e p r e s e n t e d 11.8% o f the t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . U s i n g the graph ( F i g u r e 3 ) , t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s s t a n d out because t h e y a re above the 75th p e r c e n t i l e : (1) p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y ; (2) h o r i z o n t a l d i s c u s s i o n ; and (3) v e r t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n . The t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n s t a n d s ou t because i t i s a t the 25th p e r c e n t i l e . S i n c e h i g h p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y was the c r i t e r i o n u s e d f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e s c h o o l s , the h i g h s c o r e which i s r e p o r t e d was not s u r p r i s i n g . The low t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e , however, was not a n t i c i p a t e d . P r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w . In r e s p o n d i n g t o the q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion among the s t a f f members, the p r i n c i p a l s a i d : The amount o f d i s c u s s i o n would v a r y between t e a c h e r s . Some members o f the s t a f f speak r e g u l a r l y about i n s t r u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n grade l e v e l s . T e a c h e r s a t the same grade l e v e l work w e l l t o g e t h e r and he f e l t t h e y would speak q u i t e o f t e n . When asked t o r a t e the f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n about d i f f e r e n t components o f t e a c h i n g and managing the c l a s s r o o m , the p r i n c i p a l r a t e d " m o t i v a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g s p e c i f i c Onjniii/.nlioiicil Dimensions O 151 c h i l d r e n " and " i m p r o v i n g d i s c i p l i n e g e n e r a l l y " as the most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g i tems o f d i s c u s s i o n . The p r i n c i p a l i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l communicat ion r e g a r d i n g t e a c h i n g and management as o c c u r r i n g between once and t h r e e t i m e s p e r week. In t a l k i n g about " i m p r o v i n g d i s c i p l i n e g e n e r a l l y " the p r i n c i p a l s a i d : There was l o t s o f t a l k about d i s c i p l i n e t h i s y e a r s i n c e t h e y had d e v e l o p e d a d i s c i p l i n e p o l i c y o v e r the c o u r s e o f the y e a r . A l s o , they had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the grade s i x c l a s s t h i s y e a r . R e l a t e d t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n were the p r i n c i p a l ' s comments r e g a r d i n g the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n . The t e a c h e r s s c o r e d t h i s d i m e n s i o n lower than the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean wh ich i n d i c a t e d a lower l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h i s a r e a . As has been ment ioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s was a type o f s c h o o l c l i m a t e measure . The p r i n c i p a l s a i d t h a t he b e l i e v e d s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r would be p e r c e i v e d as a major s t a f f c o n c e r n . A p p a r e n t l y both he and the s t a f f p e r c e i v e d t h i s t o be a c o n c e r n . An i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t o f the i n t e r v i e w was t h a t the p r i n c i p a l d e s c r i b e d one s t r a t e g y which had been used t o d e a l w i t h the c o n c e r n . He s a i d : We t r i e d t o do someth ing w i t h c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r good b e h a v i o u r i n the h a l l s , i n the s c h o o l y a r d and i n the c l a s s r o o m . We g i v e a weekly c i t i z e n s h i p award. We want t o c a t c h k i d s d i s p l a y i n g good conduct and reward i t . The i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s r e i n f o r c e d and added t o e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s i n t h r e e a r e a s : (1) s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r was a 152 c o n c e r n ; (2) t e a c h e r s t a l k e d about i t t o each o t h e r and w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ; and (3) t h e r e was a s c h o o l p l a n t o d e a l w i t h the c o n c e r n . In summary, s c h o o l 06 was i n a lower SES a r e a . I t s s t a f f was s m a l l e r than the sample a v e r a g e . A s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e (66%) o f the s t a f f were female compared t o the average f o r the f o u r s c h o o l s (79%). The p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e was much h i g h e r than the t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e . The t e a c h e r s and the p r i n c i p a l t a l k e d about b o t h i n s t r u c t i o n and c l a s s r o o m management f r e q u e n t l y , but t h e r e was more d i s c u s s i o n about s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and d i s c i p l i n e . A p l a n o f a c t i o n t o d e a l w i t h the p e r c e i v e d c o n c e r n s was b e i n g implemented . The p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w seemed t o c o n f i r m t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s about the impor tance o f h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion i n p r e d i c t i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y . I t a l s o seemed t o c o n f i r m the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r s c o r e . T h i s was a f a c t o r which was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t o the p e o p l e i n t h i s h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l . V e r t i c a l communicat ion was not one o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t . I t appeared t o be i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s s c h o o l , and , s i n c e t h i s i s a h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l , c o u l d p o s s i b l y be r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y . S c h o o l 07 T h i s was one o f the two s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s which were 153 i n c l u d e d as h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s i n the s t u d y . I t i s s i t u a t e d i n a h i g h SES a r e a . There were 25 t e a c h e r s and 520 s t u d e n t s i n the s c h o o l . T h i s was a l a r g e r s t a f f s i z e than the sample average ( 2 1 . 4 ) and was the l a r g e s t o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . The s t a f f i n c l u d e d 22 female (88%) t e a c h e r s . The s t a f f r e s p o n s e r a t e on the s u r v e y was 81%. The lowes t p e r c e n t a g e (27.3%) o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y group o f s c h o o l s was found i n t h i s s c h o o l . These t e a c h e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r 7.9% o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . The summary o f the s c h o o l ' s mean s c o r e s on d i f f e r e n t measures o f e f f i c a c y and s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ( F i g u r e 4) i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l r e s u l t s which appeared t o be i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s s c h o o l . F i r s t , t h i s s c h o o l ' s p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e was lower than i t s t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e . T h i s i s the o p p o s i t e o f the r e s u l t s i n the f i r s t s c h o o l d i s c u s s e d (06 ) . Second , the s c o r e on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n was v e r y low, but f o u r o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s were v e r y h i g h : (1) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; (2) h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion ; (3) s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r ; and ( 4 ) f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s was a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s and one which c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . P r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w . The r e s u l t s o f the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w p r o v i d e d some a m p l i f i c a t i o n about some o f the Figure 4. School 07 155 e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s . In r e g a r d t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n , the p r i n c i p a l p r e d i c t e d t h a t the t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l would rank " t r e a t s t e a c h e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l workers" as o c c u r r i n g "a lmost a l w a y s " . But he b e l i e v e d t h a t t e a c h e r s would p e r c e i v e him as " t a k i n g a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l development o f t e a c h e r s " o n l y " o c c a s i o n a l l y " . He p r e d i c t e d t h a t on the i t e m , " g i v e s t e a c h e r s the f e e l i n g t h a t t h e i r work i s an i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y " t e a c h e r s would a l s o r a t e t h i s as o c c u r r i n g o n l y " o c c a s i o n a l l y " . S i n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y was a l s o p e r c e i v e d by the t e a c h e r s t o be v e r y low, the degree o f congruence s u g g e s t s a p a r t i c u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e . When asked about h i s b e l i e f t h a t t e a c h e r s would rank t h e s e i t ems i n the manner which they i n f a c t , d i d , he s a i d : t e a c h e r s know what they need and t h e y know what t o go a f t e r . I f he does (a) t h a t i s , t r e a t s t e a c h e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s , then they w i l l pu rsue t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e he p e r c e i v e s t h a t the t e a c h e r s would see him as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r who t r e a t s them as b e i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and g i v e s them the f e e l i n g t h a t they can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n . The r e s t he f e e l s f a l l s i n t o p l a c e w i t h o u t h i s p u r s u i n g i t . A p p a r e n t l y , the p r i n c i p a l d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t he needed t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s a r e a . The f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e t h a t l e a d e r s h i p was not p r e s e n t i n t h e s e a reas c o n f i r m s the p r i n c i p a l ' s s t a t e d b e l i e f about h i s l e a d e r s h i p . The p r i n c i p a l f e l t t h a t d e c i s i o n s were s h a r e d between h i m s e l f and the t e a c h e r s . H i s r e s p o n s e s on the i n t e r v i e w s u g g e s t e d t h a t he b e l i e v e d i n s h a r e d a r e a s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g 156 as d i s t i n c t from bo th t e a c h e r s and the p r i n c i p a l h a v i n g an e q u a l say i n a l l d e c i s i o n s . R e g a r d i n g h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , the p r i n c i p a l p e r c e i v e d t h a t : t e a c h e r s d i d some t a l k i n g , perhaps two o r t h r e e t imes a month w i t h t o p i c (a) - l e s s o n s o r c u r r i c u l u m u n i t s t h a t work w e l l o r p o o r l y , and perhaps t h e y t a l k e d t o him two o r t h r e e t imes a month and s i m i l a r l y w i t h (b) -m o t i v a t i n g o r c o n t r o l l i n g s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n . He f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s t a l k e d about d i s c i p l i n e and per formance about two o r t h r e e t imes a month and t h a t t h e y t a l k e d about s t u d e n t per formance w i t h him w i t h about the same f r e q u e n c y . H i s p e r c e p t i o n was d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the t e a c h e r s s i n c e t h e y i n d i c a t e d a h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n (about once a week) w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l , bu t a lower f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ( s l i g h t l y more o f t e n than once a month) . S tudent b e h a v i o u r was ano ther a rea which was p e r c e i v e d by the t e a c h e r s t o be p r e s e n t t o a h i g h d e g r e e . The p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the t e a c h e r s . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t he had been a c t i v e i n t h i s a r e a : He f e e l s t h a t he has been work ing w i t h the n o t i o n o f s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e w i t h the s t u d e n t s . He has been t r y i n g t o encourage t e a c h e r s t o encourage s t u d e n t s t o be d i s c i p l i n e d , t o show p r i d e i n t h e i r s c h o o l and t o a c t t h o u g h t f u l l y towards o t h e r s . He has promoted the i d e a o f v i s i b l e t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n . He wants t e a c h e r s t o be out and a r o u n d . The d e f i n i t i o n o f v i s i b l e s u p e r v i s i o n i s " b e i n g s e e n " : the t e a c h e r i s a t the c l a s s r o o m doorway when s t u d e n t s e n t e r o r l e a v e a t b e l l t i m e s so as t o be v i s i b l e t o the c l a s s r o o m and t o the h a l l w a y . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a 15 minute p e r i o d p r i o r t o s c h o o l b e g i n n i n g i n the morning when the c h i l d r e n can e n t e r the room, can be g r e e t e d by the t e a c h e r and can have a " s h a r i n g " t ime f o r j u s t c h a t t i n g . 157 The f o u r t h a r e a which was c o n s i d e r e d notewor thy because o f the t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g was f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t t e a c h e r s would r a t e fo rma l e v a l u a t i o n as t a k i n g p l a c e a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o c e s s o u t l i n e d , "a lmost a l w a y s " . The r e a s o n he gave f o r t h i s was t h a t he e v a l u a t e d h i s s t a f f r e g u l a r l y a c c o r d i n g t o the r e g u l a t i o n s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o l i c y on t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . S i n c e the p r o c e s s o u t l i n e d i n t h a t p o l i c y i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n the s u r v e y , he f e l t t e a c h e r s would r e a c t the way t h e y d i d . In summary, s c h o o l 07 was i n a h i g h SES ne ighbourhood and s t u d e n t achievement was c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h . T e a c h e r s t a l k e d among themse lves about c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n and management o f t e n , but much l e s s o f t e n t o the p r i n c i p a l about t h e s e t o p i c s . The t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the p r i n c i p a l was not p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n some a r e a s o f l e a d e r s h i p and the p r i n c i p a l seemed t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s was not a p r i o r i t y . He d i d b e l i e v e t h a t s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r was a p r i o r i t y and was a c t i v e i n t h i s a r e a . T e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h i s was an a r e a which was v e r y p o s i t i v e . He a l s o b e l i e v e d i n c o n d u c t i n g f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s and the t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t they were r e c e i v i n g feedback and d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s p o r t r a i t , the i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s s u p p o r t the p r e s e n c e o f the two s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s namely, s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion . The r e s u l t s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d 158 d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n as p o s s i b l y b e i n g i m p o r t a n t . S c h o o l 09 T h i s was the second o f the n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s i n c l u d e d i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y group o f s c h o o l s . B o t h s t u d e n t achievement and SES were lower than o t h e r s c h o o l s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y g r o u p . S tudent achievement i n t h i s s c h o o l was among the lowes t i n t h i s group o f s c h o o l s . The s t a f f c o n s i s t e d o f 22 t e a c h e r s and t h e r e were 403 s t u d e n t s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% o f the s t a f f was f e m a l e . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the s t a f f responded t o the s u r v e y . Of t h e s e , 11 o r 61.1% were i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s and they accounted f o r 14.5% o f the r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s s c h o o l had the second h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f . The s c h o o l ' s mean p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e was v e r y h i g h (5 .23) compared t o a l l o t h e r s c h o o l s , but i t s t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y mean s c o r e was 3 .52 . F i g u r e 5 p o r t r a y s a summary o f the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f the e f f i c a c y d imens ions and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h i s s c h o o l . T h i s p r o f i l e s u g g e s t s f i v e a r e a s where the r e s u l t s c o u l d p r o v i d e some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about s c h o o l l e v e l r e l a t i o n s h i p s : (1) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y ; (2) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; (3) s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r ; (4) f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; and (5) i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . In t h i s l i s t , a l l o f the Figure 5. School 09 75lli |K*iccnlilc St:li(K)l tlislricl * -* *• w 25lli |icicciililc 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Teaching Efficacy Goals Consensus Decision Making Discuss. Vci tic al Formal Teacher rival. Personal Efficacy Total Efficacy Admin. Activity Discuss. Ilorizonlal .Student Mchavior InformalTcarricr Eval. 18 IK 18 17 18 17 18 18 18 18 17 N Organizational Dimensions vo 160 mean s c o r e s were h i g h except f o r the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n . P r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w . The t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the p r i n c i p a l was v e r y a c t i v e i n the a r e a s o f l e a d e r s h i p d e s c r i b e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y c a t e g o r y . The p r i n c i p a l s a i d t h a t she b e l i e v e d t e a c h e r s would p e r c e i v e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s as o c c u r r i n g " f r e q u e n t l y " o r "a lmost a l w a y s " . She s a i d t h a t : she has p l a c e d h e r emphasis i n the f o l l o w i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s (a) T r e a t s t e a c h e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s , and (e) G i v i n g t e a c h e r s the f e e l i n g t h a t they can make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s . About ( a ) , she says t h a t she e x p e c t s t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . As examples she s a i d t h a t she t a l k s t o t e a c h e r s a l o t about what they a re d o i n g and where t h e i r problems a r e . As f a r as p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i s c o n c e r n e d , she gave examples o f how she h e l p s t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f y what they want t o be and t r i e s t o f a c i l i t a t e o b j e c t i v e s f o r the c l a s s . She a l s o has been t r y i n g t o encourage i n t e r a c t i o n between s t a f f members. She gave examples o f P. D. s e s s i o n s she had a r r a n g e d about the major s c h o o l g o a l f o r the y e a r . These r e s u l t s appear t o c o n f i r m the p r i n c i p a l ' s a c t i v i t y i n t h e s e a r e a s o f l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s p r i n c i p a l p e r c e i v e d t h a t t e a c h e r i n p u t was a p a r t o f a l l the d e c i s i o n - a r e a s l i s t e d i n the SDS. S i n c e a h i g h combined s c o r e on t h i s v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d more p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e o v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , the r e s u l t s show more i n f l u e n c e by t h i s p r i n c i p a l . The i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s seemed t o c o n f i r m t h i s : The p r i n c i p a l s a i d t h a t t e a c h e r i n p u t i s a p a r t o f a l l the a r e a s l i s t e d . F o r example, the p r i n c i p a l d i s c u s s e s r e q u e s t s f o r t e x t s . However, the p r i n c i p a l a lways h a s . the f i n a l s a y . In the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d example , she 161 c o u l d n ' t j u s t i f y some r e q u e s t s i f they a r e u n a u t h o r i z e d t e x t s and they a re v e r y c o s t l y . O t h e r w i s e , the t e a c h e r s a re i n c o n t r o l but the p r i n c i p a l wants t o be i n v o l v e d i n what i s g o i n g on i n the s c h o o l . S tudent needs and the A l b e r t a c u r r i c u l u m must be b a l a n c e d w i t h t e a c h e r i n p u t she s a y s . She s a i d she s t a r t e d a t C h r i s t m a s t o t r y and enhance communicat ion and i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . She e s t a b l i s h e d a F a c u l t y C o u n c i l wh ich i s made up o f one p e r s o n from each t e a c h e r team, the p r i n c i p a l and the a s s i s t a n t p r i n c i p a l . These e x e r p t s from the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s p r i n c i p a l was a c t i v e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and was i n v o l v e d i n most o f the d e c i s i o n s which were made i n the s c h o o l . S tudent b e h a v i o u r was one a re a which the t e a c h e r s ranked q u i t e low compared t o the r a n k i n g s i n the o t h e r s c h o o l s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t t h i s a r e a was not p a r t i c u l a r l y p o s i t i v e . The p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t t h e y would not p e r c e i v e the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n as n e g a t i v e l y as they d i d . She d i d , however, i n d i c a t e t h a t she was work ing on the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m : When she f i r s t s t a r t e d i n t h a t s c h o o l t h e r e were two major t h i n g s t h a t p e o p l e wanted t o change . T e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t a s s e m b l i e s had t o improve o r t h e y s h o u l d n ' t have any more because s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r had been v e r y d i s r u p t i v e . Her s o l u t i o n was t o s t r u c t u r e a s s e m b l i e s . D i r e c t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r were v e r y c l e a r . There was p l a n n e d s e a t i n g and e v e r y t e a c h e r was t o accompany h i s o r h e r c l a s s . O ther a d u l t s who d i d n ' t have a home room were a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s . They were asked t o s i t w i t h the c l a s s and e v e r y a d u l t i n the b u i l d i n g was e x p e c t e d t o be t h e r e w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the s e c r e t a r y . The f i r s t assembly was p l a n n e d t o be s h o r t . When the k i d s behaved w e l l they were compl imented on t h i s b e h a v i o u r then she d i r e c t e d t h e i r d i s m i s s a l row by row. The t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e t o t h i s was v e r y p o s i t i v e . I t s e t the s t a g e and now she m o n i t o r s t o see i f a d u l t s a re d o i n g what i s e x p e c t e d and she f o l l o w s - u p w i t h a d u l t s when they d o n ' t h e l p o u t . The o t h e r t h i n g was t h a t when she f i r s t a r r i v e d e v e r y s t u d e n t m i s b e h a v i n g was s e n t t o the o f f i c e , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t was a r e s u l t o f p l a y g r o u n d m i s b e h a v i o u r . She 162 i n s i s t s t h a t the t e a c h e r d e a l w i t h the d i s c i p l i n e on the p l a y g r o u n d b e f o r e the s t u d e n t i s s e n t t o the o f f i c e . The t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o s e t consequences and f o l l o w - u p w i t h the s t u d e n t . T h i s example d e s c r i b e s the s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o d e a l w i t h a s i t u a t i o n p e r c e i v e d by the t e a c h e r s t o be a p r o b l e m . A l t h o u g h the s i t u a t i o n may have i m p r o v e d , t e a c h e r s seemed t o p e r c e i v e t h a t more change was n e c e s s a r y . T e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the p r i n c i p a l was v e r y a c t i v e i n b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l s a i d she had not done any f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n s , but the i n t e r v i e w e x c e r p t c i t e d below p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t e a c h e r s might p e r c e i v e t h a t they had been e v a l u a t e d : The p r i n c i p a l s a i d t h a t t e a c h e r s c o u l d l e a v e the f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n s e c t i o n b l a n k u n l e s s t h e y p e r c e i v e d s u p e r v i s i o n as e v a l u a t i o n . She d i d n ' t do e v a l u a t i o n s t h i s y e a r due t o the f a c t t h a t h e r s c h o o l was i n v o l v e d i n a s c h o o l e v a l u a t i o n done by the d i s t r i c t . So t h i s y e a r she w a s n ' t r e q u i r e d t o do e v a l u a t i o n s . There were, t h e r e f o r e , no f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n s done by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r t h i s y e a r . The s u p e r v i s i o n was done by the a s s i s t a n t p r i n c i p a l and h e r . She v i s i t e d 14 t e a c h e r s , two v i s i t s per t e a c h e r a t l e a s t . She wrote r e p o r t s on each v i s i t and t h e r e a re d a t a c o l l e c t i o n r e p o r t s as w e l l . She a l s o e v a l u a t e d the a i d e s and s e c r e t a r i e s and the c a r e t a k e r . The c l a s s r o o m s u p e r v i s i o n she s a i d was h i n d e r e d by many g e n e r a l s c h o o l needs ( e . g . , s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r , a s s e m b l i e s , t e a c h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r , r e o r g a n i z i n g o f the o f f i c e bo th b u d g e t i n g p r o c e d u r e s and s e c r e t a r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) . A l t h o u g h the p r i n c i p a l had not done f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o l i c y , she d i d spend c o n s i d e r a b l e t ime i n c l a s s r o o m s , c o n f e r e n c e d w i t h t e a c h e r s , and p r e p a r e d r e p o r t s on t h e i r t e a c h i n g . T h i s p r o c e s s i s s o , 163 c l o s e t o the one d e s c r i b e d i n SDS t h a t t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e y were b e i n g e v a l u a t e d . In summary, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a s c h o o l w i t h a h i g h l y e f f i c a c i o u s s t a f f w i t h a p r i n c i p a l who was v e r y a c t i v e i n f i v e a r e a s , f o u r o f which were p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s t o be p o s i t i v e . The s c h o o l i s i n a low SES a r e a o f the c i t y and the s t u d e n t achievement s c o r e s t e n d t o be lower t h a n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean. The s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i d not appear t o be as i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s s c h o o l i n r e l a t i o n t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . S tudent b e h a v i o u r appeared t o be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . H o r i z o n t a l communicat ion d i d not seem as i m p o r t a n t as the f o u r d imens ions i n which the p r i n c i p a l was v e r y i n v o l v e d : (1) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y ; (2) d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; (3) f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; and (4) i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . School 13 T h i s was the second o f the two s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l g r o u p , and i t had the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e (63%) o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on i t s s t a f f . I t was l o c a t e d i n a h i g h e r SES a r e a than the two n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s b a s e d on the SES measure u s e d i n the s t u d y . I t was a s m a l l s c h o o l w i t h 11 t e a c h e r s and 145 s t u d e n t s . E i g h t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f the t e a c h e r s were f e m a l e . The CAT s c o r e s i n 164 g r a d e s t h r e e and s i x were v e r y h i g h i n r e a d i n g and math compared t o the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a v e r a g e . S e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t (8 out o f 11) o f the s t a f f r esponded t o the s u r v e y . Of the e i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s , f i v e (63%) were c o n s i d e r e d t o be h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . T h i s a c c o u n t e d f o r 6.6% o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t o t a l number o f the r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . The t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e f o r t h i s s c h o o l s t a f f s t o o d out because i t was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than the s c o r e s from the o t h e r s c h o o l s . The p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e f o r the s c h o o l was a l s o h i g h . Based on the d a t a summarized i n F i g u r e 6, t h r e e a r e a s s t a n d o u t : g o a l consensus and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r because they were h i g h ; d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g because i t appears low. A low s c o r e on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , however, i n d i c a t e s l e s s p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , so i t s h o u l d not be g i v e n a n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n . The two d imens ions which d e a l w i t h communica t ion a l s o appeared t o be p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s s c h o o l ' s p o r t r a i t . P r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w . The t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d the degree o f g o a l consensus i n t h i s s c h o o l was v e r y h i g h . The p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n was v e r y s i m i l a r and he e x p l a i n e d h i s b e l i e f : He b a s e s t h i s p e r c e p t i o n on h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s . They o f t e n r e f e r t o an emphasis on b a s i c s k i l l s and the r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y . T h i s was a l s o b rought out i n the s c h o o l e v a l u a t i o n w i t h was conduc ted i n O c t o b e r , 1986. In commenting on (c ) - b a s i c s k i l l s ^ Organizational Dimensions 166 he p e r c e i v e d t h a t the t e a c h e r s would i d e n t i f y t h i s as the most i m p o r t a n t g o a l . He s a i d t h a t t e a c h e r s a re v e r y c o n c e r n e d about the CAT s c o r e s (Canad ian Achievement T e s t s c o r e s ) . About (d) - r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y , the k i d s ' b e h a v i o u r and the management e x p e c t a t i o n s have been d i s c u s s e d a t s t a f f m e e t i n g s . He f e e l s t h a t t h e r e i s a consensus about l o n g range g o a l s . He f e e l s t h a t p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t r u l e s s h o u l d be p h r a s e d i n a p o s i t i v e way. There i s a w r i t t e n consensus but t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a l s o . There i s a g e n e r a l b e l i e f i n t h i s s c h o o l t h a t the k i d s b e l o n g t o " a l l o f u s " not j u s t t o the grade l e v e l t e a c h e r , but when s t u d e n t s have t o be spoken t o i t s h o u l d come from the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . Based on t h e s e d a t a , i t appears t h a t g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s have been d i s c u s s e d by t h i s s t a f f . There seems t o be a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s from b o t h the t e a c h e r s ' and the p r i n c i p a l ' s p o i n t o f v i ew . One i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t was the p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t a b a s i c s k i l l s f o c u s i n r e a d i n g and math was the p r i m a r y g o a l when e a r l i e r r e s u l t s by h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s ranked b a s i c s k i l l s f o u r t h o f seven i n i m p o r t a n c e . However, the h i g h achievement i n r e a d i n g and math by the s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s c h o o l appear t o s u p p o r t the p o i n t t h a t achievement was a major f o c u s . The t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t they had a c o n s i d e r a b l e say i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f the p r i n c i p a l . E s s e n t i a l l y , the p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n was the same. These r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was s h a r e d . The p r i n c i p a l s a i d t h a t : He b e l i e v e s t h a t t e a c h e r s have a say i n most d e c i s i o n s . They have some i n f l u e n c e i n a l l d e c i s i o n s and so does the p r i n c i p a l . He sees i t as a s h a r e d a c t i v i t y , i . e . s h a r e d i n the sense t h a t i t c o u l d be between the p r i n c i p a l and the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r o r the p r i n c i p a l 167 The t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s c h o o l seemed t o have more o f a v o i c e i n d e c i s i o n s than o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y g r o u p . The t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s about the two communicat ion d i m e n s i o n s showed t h a t they p e r c e i v e d communicat ion t a k i n g p l a c e more f r e q u e n t l y than d i d most t e a c h e r s i n the sample . The p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n seemed t o s u p p o r t t h i s s i n c e he e s t i m a t e d the f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n t o be between one and t h r e e t i m e s p e r week. In h i s v iew , t h i s f r e q u e n c y a p p l i e d t o b o t h h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l communicat ion when the t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n were about i n s t r u c t i o n , m o t i v a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g c h i l d r e n . He e x p l a i n e d , " t h i s i s a s m a l l s t a f f and t h e r e i s f a m i l y atmosphere h e r e " . The s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n was ranked v e r y p o s i t i v e l y by the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s c h o o l . The p r i n c i p a l ' s comments s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e might be some d i f f e r e n c e s i n v iews about s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r between d i v i s i o n one and d i v i s i o n two t e a c h e r s . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t he had t r i e d t o work on the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n : The p r i n c i p a l has t r i e d t o promote the i d e a o f a s s e m b l i e s as a way o f bond ing s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s have some say i n what happens at a s s e m b l i e s . He has r a i s e d the i s s u e i n a number o f s t a f f meet ings as a r e s u l t o f a B a r b a r a C o l o r o s o workshop. I t appears t h a t b o t h the t e a c h e r s and the p r i n c i p a l c o n s i d e r e d the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n t o be i m p o r t a n t and worked a t i t . In summary, t h i s was a s m a l l s c h o o l w i t h about o n e - h a l f the number o f t e a c h e r s who were found i n the o t h e r s c h o o l s i n 168 the sample . The h i g h e s t (63%) p e r c e n t a g e o f the r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s were i n t h i s s c h o o l . S e v e r a l impor tan t v a r i a b l e s were h i g h e r t h a n the sample mean: g o a l c o n s e n s u s , v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . Two o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s have been shown t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o h i g h p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . Of the e i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s , f i v e f e l l i n t o the h i g h e f f i c a c y group based on t h e i r p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s . T e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y was, however, h i g h e r than p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . T h i s s c h o o l was a l s o h i g h i n s t u d e n t achievement and SES . I t was low i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , but t h a t meant t h a t t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t they had c o n s i d e r a b l e say i n d e c i s i o n s . Low E f f i c a c y S c h o o l s The f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y because a t l e a s t 25% o f t h e i r r e s p o n d i n g t e a c h e r s were i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y c a t e g o r y . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t i f the s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were found i n the s c h o o l s w i t h the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s , then the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s would be v e r i f i e d and i n s i g h t s would be p r o v i d e d about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Whi le the use o f t h i s s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i o n was e f f e c t i v e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s , i t e l i m i n a t e d 11 s c h o o l s f rom f u r t h e r s t u d y . Among t h e s e were the s c h o o l s w i t h the lowest p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . An a n a l y s i s o f the p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e 169 t e a c h e r s was c o n s i d e r e d p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r v a l i d a t i n g e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s . The a n a l y s i s o f low e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s was b a s e d on the f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l e : i f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion were found t o be p r e d i c t i v e o f a s t r o n g e r sense o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y (Chapte r 4 ) ; and i f , based on the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were r a t e d h i g h e r ; t h e n the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion i n the low e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s s h o u l d be r a t e d l o w e r . S c h o o l s 01 , 03 , 11, and 12 were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s because they had the lowest p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on t h e i r s t a f f s ( T a b l e 2 2 ) . Based on the d a t a summarized i n the g raphs (Appendix F ) , s c h o o l s 01 , 03 , and 12 were below the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean on the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r measure w h i l e s c h o o l 11 was above . On the h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion measure s c h o o l s 01 , 03 , and 11 were below the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean, w h i l e s c h o o l 12 was above . Thus , i n t h r e e o f the f o u r s c h o o l s the assumpt ion t h a t the low e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s ' s c o r e s would be lower was borne o u t . In the two s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s (01 and 03) the s c o r e s were lower on b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The r e s u l t s v a r i e d i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s w i t h s c h o o l 11 s c o r i n g above the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean on the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r measure and s c h o o l 12 s c o r i n g above the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean on the 170 h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion measure . A l t h o u g h the r e s u l t s i n t o t a l were not c o n s i s t e n t l y i n l i n e w i t h the assumpt ions i n the r a t i o n a l e , t h e y p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s . Summary of Findings: The School as the Unit of Analysis Two s o u r c e s o f d a t a were used f o r t h i s p a r t o f the s t u d y ; f i r s t , SDS r e s u l t s which used t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ; and s e c o n d , the r e s u l t s o f the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s . The purpose o f u s i n g the s c h o o l as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r , was t o a t tempt t o ge t a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f the s c h o o l l e v e l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The f i n d i n g s a re summarized under f o u r h e a d i n g s : f i r s t , the f i n d i n g s which were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r ; s e c o n d , the r e s u l t s from the p o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s ; t h i r d , the new f i n d i n g s based on the s c h o o l as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s ; and f o u r t h , the one i n c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g . Consistent Findings 1. H igh e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were e x c l u s i v e l y e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . In c h a p t e r f o u r , a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found t o e x i s t between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and t e a c h i n g i n the e lementary s c h o o l . 171 2. The m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were f e m a l e s . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y w i t h fema les b e i n g more e f f i c a c i o u s . 3 . In a l l f o u r o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d the f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n among t e a c h e r s t o be h i g h e r . A l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e s c h o o l s and the o t h e r 11 s c h o o l s was not t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h i s f i n d i n g was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and h o r i z o n t a l d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g was s u p p o r t e d by the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s . 4 . In two o f the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s , the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r mean s c o r e s were h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e i n the o t h e r two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . The range between the h i g h e s t and lowest was q u i t e nar row. However, the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t from c h a p t e r f o u r i n d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r was o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by the new f i n d i n g s . 5. In t h r e e o f the f o u r low e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and the f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n t o be lower , thus p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r the 172 s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . New Findings From The Post-hoc Analysis 1. The two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s , which were l o c a t e d i n the lower SES a r e a s , had lower s t u d e n t ach ievement . 2 . These same two s c h o o l s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s compared t o the o t h e r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . These s c h o o l s had lower t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s . 3 . In c o n t r a s t , the two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s which were l o c a t e d i n the h i g h SES a r e a , had h i g h e r s t u d e n t ach ievement . 4 . These same two s c h o o l s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s compared t o the o t h e r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . These s c h o o l s had lower p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s . New Findings Using The School As The Unit Of Analysis Whi le the r e s u l t s o f the s c h o o l l e v e l a n a l y s i s g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m e d e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s , t h e r e were some a d d i t i o n a l o n e s : 1. The t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l group p e r c e i v e d t h a t some s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s o t h e r than s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l d i s c u s s i o n were p r e s e n t i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . 173 2. There was no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n o r t r e n d between the s c h o o l s and the o t h e r seven s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . F o r example, a l t h o u g h d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was i n d i c a t e d as p o s s i b l y b e i n g i m p o r t a n t by t h r e e s c h o o l s , i n two c a s e s i t was because p r i n c i p a l s had more say r e l a t i v e t o the t e a c h e r s , w h i l e i n the o t h e r c a s e , i t was because the t e a c h e r s had r e l a t i v e l y more i n f l u e n c e . 3 . Because t h e r e was no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n , t h e s e r e s u l t s a re d e s c r i b e d i n the c o m b i n a t i o n i n which they o c c u r r e d . In a d d i t i o n t o a h i g h s c o r e on h o r i z o n t a l d i s c u s s i o n : 3.1 s c h o o l 06 i d e n t i f i e d v e r t i c a l communica t ion ; 3 .2 s c h o o l 07 i d e n t i f i e d s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (more p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e ) , and f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; 3 .3 s c h o o l 09 i d e n t i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (more p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e ) , fo rma l and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ) ; and 3 .4 s c h o o l 13 i d e n t i f i e d g o a l consensus and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (more t e a c h e r i n f l u e n c e ) . I n c o n s i s t e n t F i n d i n g The t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r measure d i f f e r e n t l y . The two n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d t h e i r s c h o o l s t o be lower on t h i s measure w h i l e the two s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d t h e i r s c h o o l s t o be h i g h e r . Wh i le t h i s f i n d i n g was not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s , i t was c o n s i s t e n t i n r e g a r d t o the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l o c a t i o n o f the s c h o o l s . I t was a l s o c o n s i s t e n t i n t h a t the s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s were h i g h e r not o n l y on SES and s t u d e n t ach ievement , but a l s o on the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r measure . In 174 terms o f SES, s t u d e n t achievement and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r , the n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s were l o w e r . A f u r t h e r p o i n t o f c o n s i s t e n c y r e g a r d i n g the n o r t h and s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s was t h a t the n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s were h i g h e r i n p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and r e l a t i v e l y lower i n t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , w h i l e the r e v e r s e was the c a s e w i t h the s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l s . The purpose o f c h a p t e r f i v e was t o d e s c r i b e the f i n d i n g s u s i n g the s c h o o l as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . T h i s a n a l y s i s was i n c l u d e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a p o r t r a i t o f a h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l u s i n g d a t a from the SES and p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s p o r t r a i t , based p r i m a r i l y on d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a , was an a t tempt t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d be u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t and t o e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i a b l e s . A f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f low e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s was done t o c o n f i r m e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f i n d i n g s from both c h a p t e r s f o u r and f i v e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next c h a p t e r . CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 175 T h i s c h a p t e r has t h r e e main t a s k s . The f i r s t t a s k i s t o r e v i e w the p r e s e n t s t u d y by d e s c r i b i n g the r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s , the s t u d y d e s i g n and the method. The s e c o n d t a s k i s t o p r e s e n t the major f i n d i n g s o f the s t u d y and t o d i s c u s s them i n the l i g h t o f the l i t e r a t u r e . The l a t t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o c u s on the congruence between the s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s and r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . The t h i r d t a s k i s t o draw some c o n c l u s i o n s based on the f i n d i n g s and the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . Nature of the Study Purpose In o r d e r f o r change t o take p l a c e w i t h i n a s c h o o l , a knowledge o f the s c h o o l s e t t i n g and the t e a c h e r a re n e c e s s a r y . One o f the r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r the l a c k o f change i n s c h o o l s has been the f a i l u r e o f r e s e a r c h e r s and o t h e r p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n change t o c o n s i d e r the c o n t e x t i n which the i n n o v a t i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o work. T y l e r (1983) s u p p o r t s t h i s v iew when he s a y s , " E f f o r t s t o improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s c h o o l s cannot be i n t e l l i g e n t l y d i r e c t e d w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g the dynamics o f p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l s " ( p . 4 6 2 ) . The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o t r y t o i d e n t i f y those s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t h o s e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . Hawley e t a l . (1984) s t a t e : The c e n t r a l t a s k o f s c h o o l r e f o r m i s t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s t h a t p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the a b i l i t y o f t h o s e who e n t e r and s t a y i n the p r o f e s s i o n 176 and t h a t m o t i v a t e and f a c i l i t a t e the e x e r c i s e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e ( p . 7 ) . T e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y , o r the t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t he o r she can make a d i f f e r e n c e t o s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g , has been r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g and t o o t h e r good t h i n g s t h a t happen i n s c h o o l s (Hawley e t a l . , 1984) . S i n c e t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a dynamic , s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c c o n s t r u c t , perhaps c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n s c h o o l s are c a p a b l e o f enhanc ing i t . A s h t o n (1985) r e f e r s t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y as b e i n g n e g o t i a t e d d a i l y i n the many i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t t a k e p l a c e between p e o p l e i n a s c h o o l ( p . 1 6 6 ) . Thus one assumpt ion o f t h i s s t u d y was t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y can be changed . Other s t u d i e s (Ashton e t a l . , 1983; Dembo & G i b s o n , 1985; Denham & M i c h a e l , 1981) have i d e n t i f i e d a s t a r t i n g p o i n t by s u g g e s t i n g some s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t they b e l i e v e might be r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . By i d e n t i f y i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a re r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , the p e r s o n i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l improvement would have a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f u t u r e e f f o r t s . A l s o , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s might f i n d any new knowledge i n t h i s a r e a t o be h e l p f u l . Research Questions Two main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s g u i d e d t h i s s t u d y : (1) What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ? ; (2) Is a t e a c h e r ' s 177 sense o f e f f i c a c y r e l a t e d t o h i s o r h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? Two s u b q u e s t i o n s t o each o f the two main q u e s t i o n s a l s o h e l p e d t o d i r e c t the r e s e a r c h . Literature Review The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w had f o u r main p u r p o s e s . The f i r s t purpose was t o e x p l a i n t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y as i t was d e f i n e d and u s e d i n the s t u d y . In o r d e r t o do t h i s , the development o f the c o n c e p t o f e f f i c a c y f o r use i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h was t r a c e d t o B a n d u r a ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . The G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e ( G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984) was i d e n t i f i e d f o r use i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y based on a r e v i e w o f 21 r e c e n t e f f i c a c y s t u d i e s . The second purpose was t o d i s c u s s the impor tance o f the s c h o o l c o n t e x t i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and t o i d e n t i f y the n i n e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s wh ich were the f o c u s o f the s t u d y . Based on t h i s p a r t o f the r e v i e w , the S c h o o l Assessment Survey ( W i l s o n e t a l . , 1985) was i d e n t i f i e d as the o t h e r main d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t wh ich was s e l e c t e d f o r the s t u d y . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the f i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was the t h i r d purpose o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . The f i r s t t h r e e p a r t s o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w were then u s e d i n the development o f a framework t o g u i d e the s t u d y . 178 Framework o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s Both A s h t o n (1985) and Denham and M i c h a e l (1981) have d e v e l o p e d models which were d e s i g n e d t o g u i d e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . They c o n c e p t u a l i z e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n much the same way and bo th were congruent w i t h the f i n d i n g s from the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . Because o f t h i s , t h e i r models were used as the b a s i s f o r the development o f a framework f o r use i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . There were t h r e e groups o f v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y : (1) the e f f i c a c y g r o u p , made up o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y ; (2) the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s g r o u p , which was composed o f n i n e d i m e n s i o n s - g o a l c o n s e n s u s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , p r i n c i p a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , v e r t i c a l communica t ion , h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r , f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n , and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; and (3) the f i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s made up the t h i r d group o f v a r i a b l e s - t e a c h e r s e x , age , t e a c h i n g g rade l e v e l , t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l , and t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and the t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were thought t o be r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . The n a t u r e o f these r e l a t i o n s h i p s was the p r i m a r y f o c u s o f the s t u d y and the f i n d i n g s were c o n s i d e r e d p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l a d d i t i o n s t o the l i t e r a t u r e and t o p r a c t i c e . 179 The o t h e r p a r t s o f the framework f o r the s t u d y were based on the p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h o f Denham and M i c h a e l (1981) and A s h t o n (1985) . The s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were c o n s i d e r e d an teceden t c o n d i t i o n s which were thought t o i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h had e s t a b l i s h e d a l i n k between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . The l i n k a g e was b e l i e v e d t o be l a r g e l y r e c i p r o c a l and t o o c c u r as f o l l o w s : the t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y i n f l u e n c e s h i s o r h e r a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h i n g and subsequent t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s ; the t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e s , s u c h as f e e l i n g a b l e t o t e a c h the most d i f f i c u l t s t u d e n t s and p e r s e v e r a n c e ; and the t e a c h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r , s u c h as u s i n g p r a i s e and g i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o s t u d e n t s , i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y and t h e i r ach ievement . As a r e s u l t o f the i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t ach ievement , the t e a c h e r ' s sense o f e f f i c a c y i s i n c r e a s e d . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e d on one s e c t i o n o f the t o t a l c o n s t r u c t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between some o f the p o s s i b l e a n t e c e d e n t c o n d i t i o n s . The s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o have the p o t e n t i a l t o be changed w i t h a r e a s o n a b l e i n p u t o f r e s o u r c e s . The t e a c h e r s ' demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t because o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o d e f i n e f u r t h e r the c o n d i t i o n s which were f a v o u r a b l e f o r t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y t o f l o u r i s h . 180 Study Procedures T h i s r e s e a r c h used the p e r c e p t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s i n one m i d - s i z e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a t o s t u d y c e r t a i n s c h o o l l e v e l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The sample r e p r e s e n t e d 77% o f the s c h o o l - b a s e d t e a c h e r s and 100% o f the p r i n c i p a l s o f the 15 s c h o o l s s t u d i e d . The main s o u r c e o f d a t a was the S c h o o l D imens ions Survey (SDS) , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which combined i tems from the G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e , the W i l s o n S c h o o l Assessment S u r v e y , and f i v e demographic i tems d e v e l o p e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . A s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e o f d a t a , but one which became v e r y impor tan t t o the s t u d y , was the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . T h i s i n t e r v i e w was based on the SDS and p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g a t h e r i n g more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about the s c h o o l s . Two l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s were used i n the s t u d y i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n as c l e a r a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c h o o l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s ( S i r o t n i k & B u r s t e i n , 1986) . The t e a c h e r was the f i r s t u n i t o f a n a l y s i s u s e d . The main d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s used t o t e s t f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) and s t e p - w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n ( R 2 ) . P e a r s o n ' s p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( r ) was used i n c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t e r v a l and r a t i o d a t a w h i l e c h i - s q u a r e ( x 2 ) was used w i t h o r d i n a l and nomina l d a t a . The s e c o n d l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s was the s c h o o l . F o r t h i s a n a l y s i s , d a t a from bo th the SDS and the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s 181 were used t o d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f o u r of the f i f t e e n s c h o o l s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . These s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y because they had the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f . Data from the SDS were a l s o used i n the a n a l y s i s o f the f o u r s c h o o l s w i t h the lowest p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f . I t was hoped t h a t two l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s and two s o u r c e s o f d a t a would p r o v i d e s t r o n g e r e v i d e n c e f o r the f i n d i n g s . Three uses c o u l d be made o f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s way: (1) they c o u l d be t e s t e d by t h e i r congruence w i t h each o t h e r ; (2) t h e y c o u l d h e l p e x p l a i n each o t h e r ; and (3) they c o u l d y i e l d new i n f o r m a t i o n . Two o t h e r s o u r c e s o f d a t a were added as p a r t o f a p o s t -hoc a n a l y s i s i n o r d e r t o e n r i c h the p i c t u r e o f the s c h o o l s by p r o v i d i n g a measure o f s t u d e n t achievement and s t u d e n t background i n terms o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( S E S ) . These d a t a were c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l because o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o add two i m p o r t a n t d imens ions t o the emerging d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . Major Findings and Discussion The s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n p r o d u c e d a number o f f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and t o the purpose o f the s t u d y . T h i s r e s e a r c h was aimed at i n c r e a s i n g knowledge which c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o s c h o o l improvement . The f i n d i n g s may have a p p l i c a t i o n s i n o t h e r a r e a s o f s c h o o l i n g depending on t h e i r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . 182 G e n e r a l i z a b l l i t y of the Findings T h i s s t u d y was done i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a . The e x t e n t t o which the f i n d i n g s c a n be g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i s dependent on the degree o f s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and any o t h e r . As an a i d t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h an at tempt was made t o compare the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y t o the t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and t o the t e a c h e r s i n the r e s t o f the p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a based on f o u r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) the r e l a t i v e number o f males and f e m a l e s ; (2) the age group d i s t r i b u t i o n ; (3) the number o f y e a r s o f t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; and ( 4 ) the number o f y e a r s o f p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 9 ) . Based on t h e s e d a t a , i t was found t h a t the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n a l l f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . I t was found t h a t the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the r e s t o f the p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a based on t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : (1) r a t i o o f f e m a l e s and m a l e s ; (2) t o t a l y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; and (3) y e a r s o f p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . The two groups were comparable i n age group d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the number o f t e a c h e r s i n the 30 t o 39 age g r o u p , the 50 t o 59 age g r o u p , and i n the 60 and o v e r age g r o u p . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the number o f t e a c h e r s i n the 20 t o 29 age group w i t h 11.8% o f the sample t e a c h e r s f a l l i n g i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y and 22.5% c e n t o f the p r o v i n c i a l sample f a l l i n g i n t o 183 t h i s c a t e g o r y . There was a l s o a d i f f e r e n c e , a l t h o u g h not as g r e a t , between the number o f t e a c h e r s i n 40 t o 49 y e a r age group w i t h 33.4% o f the sample t e a c h e r s f a l l i n g i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y and 26.3% o f the t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the number o f younger t e a c h e r s aged 20 t o 29 between the sample and the p r o v i n c e ' s t e a c h e r s and i n the s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the number o f e a r l y m i d d l e - a g e d t e a c h e r s (40-49 y e a r s ) , might o n l y be i m p o r t a n t f o r the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y i f age were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . S i n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r age and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y was found t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s s t u d y , i t was b e l i e v e d the r e s u l t s c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d , w i t h c a r e , t o s i m i l a r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n A l b e r t a . Research Question 1: Significant Relationships Between  Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Demographic Characteristics F i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s t u d i e d : age , s e x , t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n , y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l , and t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Two o f the f i v e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were found t o be p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l : t e a c h e r sex and whether o r not the t e a c h e r was t e a c h i n g a t the e lementa ry o r s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . 184 T e a c h e r s e x . In t h i s s t u d y , females were found t o be more e f f i c a c i o u s than m a l e s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h r e e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . Evans and T r i b b l e (1986) found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and sex i n a sample o f p r e - s e r v i c e and b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h females b e i n g more e f f i c a c i o u s . Anderson e t a l . , (1987) a l s o found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and s e x , a g a i n w i t h fema les b e i n g more e f f i c a c i o u s . F i n a l l y , G r a f t o n (1986) a l s o found p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , communicat ion openness , c r e d i b i l i t y , and management communicat ion s t y l e w i t h female t e a c h e r s . The r e s u l t s from the s t u d y o f f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s showed t h a t t h r e e o f the f o u r s c h o o l s averaged 87% female s t a f f members, w h i l e the f o u r t h had 66% f e m a l e s . The o v e r a l l average o f f ema les i n the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s was 80%. The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r a t i o o f females t o males i s about 60% and 40% r e s p e c t i v e l y , but more females than males t e a c h i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . Is a female t e a c h e r i n h e r e n t l y more e f f i c a c i o u s than a male t e a c h e r o r i s t h e i r sense o f e f f i c a c y r e l a t e d t o some o t h e r v a r i a b l e ? T h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l be examined f u r t h e r i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f the o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the e lementary grade l e v e l p l a c e m e n t . E l e m e n t a r y / S e c o n d a r y . E lementa ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were found t o be more e f f i c a c i o u s than s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . Most s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y do not i n c l u d e e lementary 185 and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . In the Evans and T r i b b l e (1986) s t u d y , however, p r e - s e r v i c e e lementa ry t e a c h e r s p r o f e s s e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y and commitment t o t e a c h i n g than d i d t h e i r s e c o n d a r y c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h u s s u p p o r t i n g the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g . A l t h o u g h most s t u d i e s o f e f f i c a c y do not i n c l u d e b o t h e l e m e n t a r y and secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n the same sample , t h e r e i s s u p p o r t i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r the f i n d i n g t h a t e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s a re d i f f e r e n t from s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y . Berman and M c L a u g h l i n (1974) s t a t e t h a t change was t y p i c a l l y h a r d e r t o o b t a i n and c o n t i n u e a t the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l and s u g g e s t t h a t s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s might be " s u b j e c t - o r i e n t e d " i n c o n t r a s t t o the " c h i l d - c e n t r e d " o r i e n t a t i o n o f e lementary t e a c h e r s ( p . 4 5 ) . F i r e s t o n e and H e r r i o t t (1982) found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e lementary and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s on two c l i m a t e measures and on one l e a d e r s h i p measure i n t h e i r c o m p a r i s o n o f the two l e v e l s u s i n g some o f the e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s c r i t e r i a . They came t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s are d i f f e r e n t from s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n two main ways: (1) i n c o n t r a s t t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s have a s h a r e d sense o f purpose w i t h a g r e a t e r emphasis on b a s i c s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n ; and (2) e l e m e n t a r y p r i n c i p a l s have more o p p o r t u n i t y t o be i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r s by i n f l u e n c i n g c l a s s r o o m management. They c i t e f o u r r e a s o n s why t h i s i s s o : 186 (1) d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n makes i t more d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e s c h o o l consensus on g o a l s ; (2) department heads i n the h i g h s c h o o l l o o k a f t e r many i s s u e s which would be h a n d l e d by the p r i n c i p a l i n the e lementary s c h o o l ; (3) l a r g e s c h o o l s i z e makes communicat ion more d i f f i c u l t ; and (4) l e a d e r s h i p i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d ( p p . 8 - 1 0 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d a l s o have a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s i n the r e s u l t s o f the SDS when a n a l y z e d f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s compared t o the r e s t o f the s a m p l e . F i r s t , no s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were i n c l u d e d i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y group o f s c h o o l s because t h e i r p e r c e n t a g e o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s was r e l a t i v e l y low. S e c o n d , i n l o o k i n g a t the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c o r e s on the SDS, f o u r o f the f i v e s c h o o l s s c o r e d below the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t mean on s i x o f the n i n e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s . The f i f t h s c h o o l was below the sample mean on t h r e e o f the e i g h t d i m e n s i o n s . In t h r e e s c h o o l s , h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion was v e r y low and i n two c a s e s , s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r was v e r y low. S i n c e s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , and the o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s a l o n e o r i n a c o m b i n a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y , the lower number o f s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s i n the sample c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d . 187 In c o n t r a s t t o the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r e s e n c e o f d e s i r a b l e s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s was h i g h e r . S i n c e t h e s e s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s a re b e l i e v e d t o have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the p r e s e n c e o f a s u p p o r t i v e s c h o o l env i ronment e x p l a i n s e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s ' h i g h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y b e t t e r than do gender d i f f e r e n c e s . The problem f o r s t a f f d e v e l o p e r s when i t comes t o change i s how t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s which a re more c o n d u c i v e t o e n h a n c i n g t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . Non-Significant Relationships Between Teacher Efficacy and  Teacher Demographic Characteristics; Student Achievement  and SES Teacher age. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r age and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y was found t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s s t u d y . In the RAND change agent s t u d y , however, Berman and M c L a u g h l i n (1974) found t h a t o l d e r , v e t e r a n t e a c h e r s were l e s s w i l l i n g t o change and l e s s e f f i c a c i o u s t h a n younger t e a c h e r s . In s t u d y i n g t e a c h e r commitment and s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s , R o s e n h o l t z (1987) found t h a t m i d - c a r e e r t e a c h e r s show the g r e a t e s t l o s s o f commitment t o t e a c h i n g . In c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , MacDonald (1985) s t a t e s t h a t the s t e r e o t y p i c a l p o r t r a i t o f m i d - c a r e e r - teachers as a group i n d e c l i n e and s t a g n a t i o n i s a myth. Based on her l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , she b e l i e v e s t h a t " t e a c h e r s a t m i d - c a r e e r a r e a t a s t a g e i n t h e i r a d u l t and c a r e e r l i f e - c y c l e s when many seek autonomy, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t i n u e d growth" ( p . 8 8 ) . 188 Based on the f i n d i n g s from the r e v i e w o f s e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r age and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . As f a r as t h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d , however, no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between the two v a r i a b l e s . T e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Dembo and G i b s o n (1985) sugges t t h a t t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e rev iew i n d i c a t e d e v i d e n c e t h a t t e a c h e r s ' • s e n s e o f e f f i c a c y v a r i e d w i t h the amount o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e . They r e p o r t t h a t b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s had h i g h e r p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s than d i d s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s and t h a t t h e s e s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d between f i v e and t e n y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n d e c r e a s e d w i t h more t ime s p e n t i n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s ( p . 1 7 9 ) . T h i s f i n d i n g r e c e i v e s g e n e r a l s u p p o r t from G l i c k m a n and Tamashi ro (1982) and M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh (1977) . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . There were no r e s u l t s i n any o f the a n a l y s e s t o s u g g e s t t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . S tudent ach ievement and S E S . Two s t u d e n t - r e l a t e d measures , achievement and SES, were added as p a r t o f a p o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s i n o r d e r t o e n r i c h the p o r t r a i t o f each s c h o o l . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t n e i t h e r was r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The b a s i s f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s 189 was t h a t w h i l e the achievement s c o r e s and the SES measure were d i f f e r e n t , i n each o f the two p a i r s o f s c h o o l s t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y remained the same. I t was odd t h a t s t u d e n t achievement was not r e l a t e d t o e f f i c a c y s i n c e the l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t e d a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two ( A s h t o n , 1985) . T h i s might be due t o a problem o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n c e the h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s may o r may not have d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the outcome measured by the CAT s c o r e s . Wi th r e g a r d t o SES, i n two r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r l e a r n i n g (1986) and t e a c h e r commitment (1987) , R o s e n h o l t z a l s o found t h a t SES was not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . Research Question 2: Significant Relationships Between  Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and School Level Organizational  Conditions E i g h t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were s t u d i e d i n terms o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . They were s t u d i e d on the assumpt ion t h a t by i d e n t i f y i n g the s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t appeared t o make a d i f f e r e n c e , the f i r s t s t e p i n p l a n n i n g a way t o change them i n o r d e r t o enhance t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . Two s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , however, were found t o be more i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l l y than the o t h e r s i x : h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion (p=.022) and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r (p= .001) . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion ( .16) and f o r s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r ( .22) were low, but a c c e p t a b l e f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p s t u d y such as the p r e s e n t one : 190 R e l a t i o n s h i p s t u d i e s a re aimed p r i m a r i l y a t g a i n i n g a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the complex s k i l l s o r b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s b e i n g s t u d i e d , and t h e r e f o r e low c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are as m e a n i n g f u l as h i g h c o e f f i c i e n t s (Borg & G a l l , 1984, p . 6 2 3 ) . A l t h o u g h the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e s e two c o n d i t i o n s a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 6.8% o f the v a r i a n c e i n the t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s c o r e s , f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s gave s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e ; f o r example, t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were found t o be c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . In a d d i t i o n , the impor tance o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y had s u p p o r t i n the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g r e l a t e d t o good t h i n g s which happen i n s c h o o l s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s and because o f the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f r e s e a r c h i n the a r e a o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , the f i n d i n g s were c o n s i d e r e d t o have p r a c t i c a l as w e l l as s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . H o r i z o n t a l communica t ion . The f r e q u e n c y o f h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion was the measure o f the f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n which o c c u r r e d among t e a c h e r s i n the same s c h o o l about each o f the f o l l o w i n g s i x t o p i c s : (1) l e s s o n s o r c u r r i c u l u m u n i t s t h a t work w e l l o r p o o r l y ; (2) m o t i v a t i n g o r c o n t r o l l i n g s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n ; (3) i m p r o v i n g d i s c i p l i n e g e n e r a l l y ; (4) d e f i n i n g o r e n f o r c i n g s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e , g r a d i n g o r p romot ion s t a n d a r d s ; 191 (5) m a i n t a i n i n g o r i m p r o v i n g p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s ; and (6) o b t a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s o r r e s o u r c e s needed f o r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . A l l o f t h e s e t o p i c s were c o n s i d e r e d t o have the p o t e n t i a l t o a f f e c t s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g s i n c e they were e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . L o r t i e (1975) d i s c u s s e d the i s o l a t i o n o f the t e a c h e r and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have w r i t t e n about the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t wh ich t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n has on s u c c e s s f u l change i n s c h o o l s ( e . g . , F u l l a n , 1982) . Teacher i s o l a t i o n i s m has been l i n k e d t o n e g a t i v e s c h o o l e f f e c t s such a s : t e a c h e r r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e a re i n t e r p r e t e d as a l a c k o f t e a c h i n g competence; and t h e r e i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t e a c h e r s t o r e c e i v e p o s i t i v e feedback f o r what they a re d o i n g ( R o s e n h o l t z , 1985) . T h i s l a c k o f a d u l t i n t e r a c t i o n makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t e a c h e r s t o d e v e l o p a sense o f the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g (Denham & M i c h a e l , 1981) . The o p p o s i t e c o n d i t i o n t o the t e a c h e r who i s no t i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r a d u l t s has been r e f e r r e d t o as t e a c h e r c o l l e g i a l i t y ( L i t t l e , 1982) . Teacher c o l l e g i a l i t y , i n c o n t r a s t , has been l i n k e d w i t h p o s i t i v e s c h o o l e f f e c t s . In L i t t l e ' s (1982) r e s e a r c h about o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n d u c i v e t o t e a c h e r s ' c o n t i n u e d " l e a r n i n g on the j o b " , she found t h a t norms o f c o l l e g i a l i t y were p r e s e n t i n the more s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l s ( p . 3 2 5 ) . The norms o f c o l l e g i a l i t y which 192 she d e s c r i b e s i n c l u d e the f r e q u e n c y w i t h wh ich t e a c h e r s t a l k t o each o t h e r about i n s t r u c t i o n - r e l a t e d t o p i c s . R o s e n h o l t z (1986) found t h a t t e a c h e r s engag ing i n p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r were l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e b o t h s u p p o r t and i n c e n t i v e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r s k i l l s . I t was a l s o a s o u r c e o f new i d e a s , s t r a t e g i e s and t e c h n i q u e s . She b e l i e v e s t h a t the i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n might i n c l u d e the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs th roughout the s c h o o l and the g e n e r a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e momentum and en thus iasm ( p . 1 0 0 ) . In s t u d i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the p r e s e n c e o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as one o f the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the s u c c e s s o f the p r o j e c t . B o t h Berman and M c L a u g h l i n (1978) and C o r b e t t (1982) d e s c r i b e the impor tance o f meet ings d u r i n g which t e a c h e r s had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o share e x p e r i e n c e s and i d e a s . C o r b e t t (1982) r e p o r t s t h a t when the meet ings were d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e r e was l e s s t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n and t e a c h e r i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t d e c l i n e d . By c o n t r a s t , i n s c h o o l s where t e a c h e r s had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s and exchange i d e a s , p r o p o s e d s c h o o l - w i d e changes were more l i k e l y t o be a c c e p t e d and implemented ( p . 3 4 ) . One o f the main f i n d i n g s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y was t h a t the f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n between t e a c h e r s about i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o p i c s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . T h i s f i n d i n g was a l s o s u p p o r t e d by the s c h o o l 193 l e v e l a n a l y s i s i n which t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d the f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n among t e a c h e r s t o be h i g h . A s h t o n and her c o l l e a g u e s (1983) , i n t h e i r t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s t u d y , f o u n d , i n compar ing an i s o l a t e d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l w i t h a more c o l l a b o r a t i v e m i d d l e s c h o o l , t h a t t e a c h e r s tended t o t r e a t s t u d e n t s d i f f e r e n t l y . The t e a c h e r s i n the more c o l l e g i a l s e t t i n g were l e s s c u s t o d i a l i n t h e i r t rea tment o f s t u d e n t s , more c e r t a i n o f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o make a d i f f e r e n c e t o s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g , and as a r e s u l t , more l i k e l y t o use e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The impor tance o f t e a c h e r s t a l k i n g w i t h t e a c h e r s as a measure o f communica t ion , c o l l a b o r a t i o n o r i s o l a t i o n i s m was d e t e r m i n e d i n i t i a l l y by a r e v i e w o f the s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s c h o o l improvement l i t e r a t u r e (Cohen, 1983; F u l l a n , 1985; Hawley e t a l . , 1984; J o y c e e t a l . , 1983; M a c K e n z i e , 1983; and Purkey & S m i t h , 1983) . As a r e s u l t o f g o i n g back t o the l i t e r a t u r e , f u r t h e r s u p p o r t was found f o r the impor tance o f t e a c h e r c o l l e g i a l i t y t o t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y . The t a s k f o r t h o s e p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l improvement i s t o de te rmine how b e s t t o reduce the degree o f t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . The i s o l a t i o n from c o l l e a g u e s and the l o n e l i n e s s o f the p r o f e s s i o n ( J a c k s o n , 1968; L o r t i e , 1975) have been the s u b j e c t o f some r e s e a r c h ; however, t h e y s t i l l remain as c o n c e r n s . S tudent b e h a v i o u r . T h i s s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and 194 was c o n s i d e r e d t o have the most p o t e n t i a l o f a l l the c o n d i t i o n s t o p r e d i c t h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . In the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s i t would be more l i k e l y t h a t t e a c h e r s c o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on s t u d e n t s and s t u d e n t s c o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i r work, thus r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g . The r a t i o n a l e f o r i n c l u d i n g t h i s d i m e n s i o n i n the s t u d y was t w o - f o l d : f i r s t , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t a s a t i s f y i n g workp lace might c o n t r i b u t e t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y which i n t u r n c o u l d have a p o s i t i v e impact on s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g ; and s e c o n d , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g c o u l d have a p o s i t i v e impact on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d imens ion r e f e r s t o what s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r i s l i k e th roughout the s c h o o l . Respondents were asked t o r a t e the f o l l o w i n g s ta tements so t h a t t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n would b e s t r e p r e s e n t the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e i r s c h o o l : a . the atmosphere i s o r d e r l y and b u s i n e s s l i k e ; b. s t u d e n t s behave i n an o r d e r l y manner i n p u b l i c a r e a s ( e . g . , h a l l s , b u s e s , a s s e m b l i e s , c a f e t e r i a s , bathrooms, e t c . ) ; c . i n c l a s s , s t u d e n t s c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i r work w i t h v e r y l i t t l e d i s r u p t i o n ; d . s t u d e n t s a re i n t i m i d a t e d by o t h e r s t u d e n t s when not d i r e c t l y s u p e r v i s e d ( e . g . , i n h a l l s , b u s e s , a s s e m b l i e s , c a f e t e r i a s , l a v a t o r i e s , e t c . ) ; 195 e . i t i s a problem t o ge t s t u d e n t s t o pay a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g l e s s o n s ; f . s t u d e n t s have t o worry about t h e i r p e r s o n a l s a f e t y ; and g . k e e p i n g g r a f f i t i o f f the w a l l s i s a p r o b l e m . A l t h o u g h the f o c u s o f the i tems i s s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o u r , i t p r o v i d e s a p i c t u r e o f the e t h o s o r c l i m a t e o f the s c h o o l ( R u t t e r e t a l . , 1979) . The r e f e r e n c e t o the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f the atmosphere o f the s c h o o l b e i n g o r d e r l y and b u s i n e s s l i k e , f o r example, i s a d e s c r i p t o r found f r e q u e n t l y i n the e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s l i t e r a t u r e ( e . g . , Good & Brophy , 1986; Purkey & S m i t h , 1983; R u t t e r e t a l . , 1979) . The s c h o o l ' s e f f e c t i v e use o f t ime i s ano ther d i m e n s i o n f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h more e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s ( e . g . , Hawley e t a l . , 1984; MacKenz ie , 1983) . In a d d i t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t f o r the impor tance o f the t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r i tems i n e x p l a i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , t h e r e a re the r e s u l t s o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r i s an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f the g e n e r a l h e a l t h o f a s c h o o l when i t i n c l u d e s i t ems such a s : an o r d e r l y and b u s i n e s s l i k e a tmosphere , o r d e r l y s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r th roughout the s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s who a r e on t a s k , and i s a s a f e p l a c e f o r s t u d e n t s , i s not l i k e l y t o meet w i t h o p p o s i t i o n . Whi le i t was not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s d i m e n s i o n was found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , i t was 196 i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i t was no t p e r c e i v e d by a l l h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s t o be " i n " t h e i r s c h o o l s . In the a n a l y s i s o f the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s , the r e s p o n d i n g t e a c h e r s on the n o r t h s i d e ( low s t u d e n t achievement and SES) p e r c e i v e d s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r i n t h e i r s c h o o l s t o be lower than d i d most o f the o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n the sample . The r e s u l t s o f the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s , however, s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r was an a rea which was r e c e i v i n g a t t e n t i o n i n t h e s e s c h o o l s . The r e s p o n d e n t s i n the o t h e r p a i r o f s c h o o l s ( s o u t h s i d e , h i g h s t u d e n t achievement and SES) p e r c e i v e d the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n v e r y p o s i t i v e l y . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e y s h o u l d do s o , however, g i v e n t h e i r f a v o u r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The f i n d i n g about the n o r t h s i d e s c h o o l s s h o u l d not be s u r p r i s i n g e i t h e r , g i v e n t h e i r g e n e r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , except t h a t t h e s e t e a c h e r s were v e r y h i g h i n p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . I f the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n does not p r e d i c t h i g h e f f i c a c y i n t h e s e s c h o o l s , then what does? The f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c u s s i o n among t e a c h e r s was the o t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n which was found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . I t r e c e i v e d a h i g h s c o r e from t e a c h e r s i n a l l f o u r s c h o o l s , thus e l i m i n a t i n g i t as the cause o f the i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y , however, 197 t h a t o t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s o r o t h e r f a c t o r s c o u l d have an i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n t h e s e s c h o o l s . T e a c h e r Sense o f E f f i c a c y , S tudent B e h a v i o u r ,  S t u d e n t Achievement and S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s Based on the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the d i m e n s i o n which s h o u l d have had the most p o t e n t i a l f o r p r e d i c t i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y was s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . When the s c h o o l was the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s , however, t h i s d i m e n s i o n was p e r c e i v e d by the r e s p o n d e n t s t o be e v i d e n t t o a h i g h degree i n two o f the s c h o o l s and t o a low degree i n two s c h o o l s . I t was somewhat p u z z l i n g t o f i n d the two extremes r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . The p o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s added f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n when the two new v a r i a b l e s , s t u d e n t achievement and SES, were i n c l u d e d . The t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s i n the h i g h e r SES a r e a s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the s i t u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n was v e r y p o s i t i v e . The t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s i n the low SES a r e a s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r s i t u a t i o n was l e s s f a v o u r a b l e . S tudent achievement was about the lowes t i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n the two h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s i n the lower SES a r e a . In c o n t r a s t , s t u d e n t achievement was about the h i g h e s t i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s i n the h i g h e r SES a r e a . T h i s f i n d i n g was not s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e 198 s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have l i n k e d SES and s t u d e n t achievement ( e . g . , H a l l i n g e r & Murphy, 1987; R o s e n h o l t z , 1985) . What was s u r p r i s i n g i n i t i a l l y was t h a t two o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n the lower SES p a r t o f the c i t y . Here was a s i t u a t i o n i n which the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r measure was low and the s t u d e n t SES and achievement were low. In a d d i t i o n , the t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o u r t o be l e s s t h a n d e s i r a b l e on measures o f o r d e r l y b e h a v i o u r and a t t e n t i v e n e s s and they p e r c e i v e d the atmosphere i n t h e i r s c h o o l t o be l e s s o r d e r l y and b u s i n e s s l i k e than might be d e s i r a b l e . Based on t h e s e r e s u l t s , one might have p r e d i c t e d a low s c o r e on t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n t h e s e s c h o o l s , i f o n l y because o f the r a t h e r n e g a t i v e p i c t u r e which i s p o r t r a y e d by t h e s e f a c t o r s . Added t o t h e s e f a c t o r s i s the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t achievement and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ( A s h t o n , 1985; Denham & M i c h a e l , (1981) . Low s t u d e n t achievement i s thought t o have a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . On one hand, the apparent d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e s e f i n d i n g s was p u z z l i n g , but on the o t h e r hand, t h e r e was a p a t t e r n which r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . A l t h o u g h the two h i g h e r e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s and the two lower e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s l i n e d up on s e p a r a t e s i d e s w i t h s t u d e n t ach ievement and s t u d e n t SES, they a l s o l i n e d up on the two d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y f a c t o r s : p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . H igh e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n 199 the lower SES s c h o o l s had v e r y h i g h s c o r e s i n p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . P e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y was d e f i n e d e a r l i e r (p .29 ) as the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t he o r she has the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s t o b r i n g about s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . T e a c h e r s w i t h h i g h p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y can make a d i f f e r e n c e t o s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . The background t o t h i s c o n c e p t i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d by g o i n g back t o B a n d u r a ' s (1977) o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s : e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y de te rmine whether c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r w i l l be i n i t i a t e d , how much e f f o r t w i l l be expended, and how l o n g i t w i l l be s u s t a i n e d i n the f a c e o f o b s t a c l e s and a v e r s i v e e x p e r i e n c e s ( p . 1 9 1 ) . G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) based t h e i r p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n on B a n d u r a ' s h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s d i m e n s i o n was u s e d as the major measure o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . Thus , i f the h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l s w i t h the low s t u d e n t achievement have a v e r y h i g h sense o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , they l i k e l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y can make a d i f f e r e n c e r e g a r d l e s s o f the s t u d e n t s ' c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In c o n t r a s t , however, the same group o f t e a c h e r s had much lower t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s . The t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n i s based on the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t : "a p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o u r i s de te rmined by g e n e r a l outcome e x p e c t a n c y - a b e l i e f t h a t b e h a v i o u r w i l l l e a d t o d e s i r a b l e outcomes" (Bandura , 1977, p . 1 9 0 ) . T h i s i s a more g e n e r a l e f f i c a c y b e l i e f ; t h a t i s , any t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o b r i n g about change 200 i s l i m i t e d by e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as home env i ronment , f a m i l y background and p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e (Dembo & G i b s o n , 1985) . Three q u e s t i o n s a r i s e as a r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s . F i r s t , because o f t h e i r s t r o n g sense o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , do t e a c h e r s i n the low a c h i e v i n g s c h o o l s p e r s e v e r e i n s p i t e o f o r because o f the s t u d e n t s ' l i m i t a t i o n s ? I f s o , t h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B a n d u r a ' s (1977) c o n c e p t o f s t r e n g t h i n s e l f - e f f i c a c y b e l i e f (see C h . 2 , p p . 1 7 , 1 8 ) . S e c o n d , do t h e s e t e a c h e r s who are e f f i c a c i o u s b e l i e v e t h a t they can t e a c h t h e s e k i d s , but a re not s u r e whether o t h e r t e a c h e r s c o u l d do so? O r , t h i r d , do t h e s e t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s cannot l e a r n because o f t h e i r home e n v i r o n m e n t , not because the t e a c h e r does not have the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s t o t e a c h them? I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the answer l i e s i n some c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t u d e n t l i m i t a t i o n s , b e l i e f s about c o l l e a g u e s ' t e a c h i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s , and s t u d e n t home e n v i r o n m e n t . One can o n l y s p e c u l a t e on the answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s s i n c e the p r e s e n t d a t a do not a l l o w a c o n c l u s i o n , but a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e i s p o s s i b l e f o r a l l t h r e e q u e s t i o n s b a s e d on the r e s e a r c h . There i s some a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r a f f i r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e s when the s c o r e s on the e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n s f o r the t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h s t u d e n t achievement and SES s c h o o l s ( s o u t h s i d e ) are a n a l y z e d . In t h e s e s c h o o l s , one would e x p e c t t o f i n d e f f i c a c i o u s t e a c h e r s because t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e 201 t h a t they a re making a d i f f e r e n c e . The s t u d e n t s ' r e s u l t s on the CAT were c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r than average and b o t h p r i n c i p a l s commented about the s t u d e n t s ' e x c e l l e n t r e c o r d o f ach ievement i n w r i t i n g and s p e a k i n g c o n t e s t s , s c i e n c e f a i r s and o t h e r such a c t i v i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r s c o r e i s v e r y h i g h which s u g g e s t s a p o s i t i v e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . The i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i s t h a t the s o u t h s i d e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were not as h i g h on the p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n as t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the two n o r t h s i d e h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . T h e i r p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y s c o r e s were, o f c o u r s e , v e r y h i g h by a l l compar isons i n the s t u d y . The r e v e r s a l i n t e a c h e r s c o r e s on the two d i m e n s i o n s o f e f f i c a c y r a i s e s a q u e s t i o n about t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s because the o v e r a l l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s e s c h o o l s were v e r y p o s i t i v e . Do t h e s e t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t any t e a c h e r c o u l d t e a c h t h e s e s t u d e n t s under the same c o n d i t i o n s , thus e l i m i n a t i n g one s o u r c e f o r p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y ? Based on B a n d u r a ' s (1977) h y p o t h e s i s and on subsequent r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r s e l f - e f f i c a c y (Ashton e t a l . , 1983; Dembo & G i b s o n , 1985) , an a f f i r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e would be r e a s o n a b l e . In c o n c l u s i o n , the apparent d i s c r e p a n c y can be e x p l a i n e d . I t seems t h a t a t l e a s t t h r e e f a c t o r s c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r sense o f p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t h e i r sense o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y : (1) the f a c t o r s t h a t c o l l e c t i v e l y make up the. s t u d e n t 202 b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n ; (2) s t u d e n t ach ievement ; and (3) s t u d e n t S E S . Of the t h r e e , however, o n l y the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n was found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The Relationship Between Teacher Efficacy  and Other Combinations of School Level  Organizational Conditions One o f the r e a s o n s f o r l o o k i n g a t the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n the s c h o o l l e v e l a n a l y s i s was t o t r y t o ge t a b e t t e r p i c t u r e o f the work ings o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . In g e n e r a l , the r e s u l t s c o n f i r m e d e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s . The one d i s c r e p a n c y was t h a t the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n was not c o n s i s t e n t l y p e r c e i v e d t o be i m p o r t a n t by a l l f o u r o f the s c h o o l s . T h i s r e s u l t , p l u s the b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be o t h e r v a r i a b l e s o r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n t h i s sample , prompted a f u r t h e r l o o k a t the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . L ieberman and M i l l e r (1986) s t a t e : We cannot o v e r l o o k o r u n d e r p l a y the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s among s c h o o l s and the r e a l m e s s i n e s s and i d i o s y n c r a t i c n a t u r e as the r e a l s t o r i e s o f s c h o o l improvement ( p . 9 8 ) . Based on the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were e lementa ry s c h o o l s s t a f f e d m a i n l y by female t e a c h e r s . Two s c h o o l s were h i g h e r i n s t u d e n t ach ievement and SES than the o t h e r two s c h o o l s . T e a c h e r s i n a l l f o u r s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t e a c h e r s t a l k e d w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y about c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d 203 t o p i c s . Two s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e d t h e i r s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n measure more p o s i t i v e l y than the o t h e r two s c h o o l s . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , the f i n d i n g s were r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e a r l i e r q u a n t i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s , and i n most c a s e s where t h e r e i s an i n c o n s i s t e n c y , i t can be e x p l a i n e d . There d i d n o t , however, appear t o be any p a t t e r n i n the next s e t o f r e s u l t s . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s appeared t o have the p o t e n t i a l t o make a d i f f e r e n c e i n the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . In a d d i t i o n t o a h i g h s c o r e on h o r i z o n t a l d i s c u s s i o n : s c h o o l 06 i d e n t i f i e d v e r t i c a l communica t ion ; s c h o o l 07 i d e n t i f i e d s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (more p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e ) , and f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; s c h o o l 09 i d e n t i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (more p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e ) , f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; and s c h o o l 13 i d e n t i f i e d g o a l consensus and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (more t e a c h e r i n f l u e n c e ) . These f i n d i n g s seem t o u n d e r s c o r e L ieberman and M i l l e r ' s (1986) p o i n t about the impor tance o f r e c o g n i z i n g the i n d i v i d u a l n a t u r e o f s c h o o l s and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t e r a c t i n g t o i n f l u e n c e whatever happens i n s c h o o l s . T h i s p o i n t was made e a r l i e r as p a r t o f the r a t i o n a l e f o r s t u d y i n g the t e a c h e r i n the w o r k p l a c e . The impor tance o f the 204 s c h o o l s e t t i n g i n s t u d y i n g t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y was one o f the c o n c l u s i o n s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , thus s u p p o r t i n g the t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s o f A s h t o n and Webb (1986) ; Denham and M i c h a e l (1981) ; and G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) . In the g e n e r a l s e n s e , t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s u p p o r t s the f i n d i n g s o f many r e s e a r c h e r s about the c r i t i c a l n a t u r e o f s c h o o l c o n t e x t t o whatever t a k e s p l a c e i n s c h o o l s ( F u l l a n , 1982, 1985; G o o d l a d , 1984; L ieberman & M i l l e r , 1984; L o r t i e , 1975; and S a r a s o n , 1971) . The impor tance o f c o n t e x t w i t h r e g a r d t o s c h o o l change ( e . g . , F u l l a n , 1985); s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s (Hawley e t a l . , 1984) ; t e a c h e r l e a r n i n g ( e . g . , R o s e n h o l t z , 1986); t e a c h e r commitment ( e . g . , R o s e n h o l t z , 1987); and p r i n c i p a l s ' l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s ( e . g . , H a l l i n g e r & Murphy, 1987) has been d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were more i m p o r t a n t i n some s c h o o l s than o t h e r s . The s c h o o l l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s l i k e l y i n c l u d e d such v a r i a b l e s a s : the c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t a f f , the n a t u r e o f the s t u d e n t s , and the l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e o f the p r i n c i p a l . The Relationship Between Teacher E f f i c a c y  and Administrative Style A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y was one o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s measured i n t h i s s t u d y . I t was found t o have a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . T h i s was somewhat s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e A s h t o n e t a l . (1983) found t h a t 205 t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y was r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s and b e h a v i o u r s . T e a c h e r s were found t o have a s t r o n g e r sense o f e f f i c a c y i n a s c h o o l where the p r i n c i p a l d e l e g a t e d a good d e a l o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t o t e a c h e r teams and promoted f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n (Ashton & Webb, 1986, p p . 1 1 7 , 118) . T e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n , i n the A s h t o n s t u d y , appears t o be s i m i l a r i n some r e s p e c t s t o the h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion measure i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y and seems t o r e i n f o r c e the impor tance o f t e a c h e r s t a l k i n g w i t h t e a c h e r s as a means o f p romot ing a s t r o n g e r sense o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The measure o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y was t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f how o f t e n t h e i r p r i n c i p a l was i n v o l v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s i x a c t i v i t i e s : 1. t r e a t s t e a c h e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s ; 2 . t a k e s a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l development o f t e a c h e r s ; 3 . g i v e s t e a c h e r s the f e e l i n g t h a t t h e i r work i s an " i m p o r t a n t " a c t i v i t y ; 4 . has c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s t o o f f e r t e a c h e r s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r major p r o b l e m s ; 5. g i v e s t e a c h e r s the f e e l i n g t h a t they can make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o i m p r o v i n g the c l a s s r o o m per formance o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s ; and 6. makes meet ings a v a l u a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y . T o g e t h e r , t h e y were i n t e n d e d t o d e s c r i b e " f a c i l i t a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p " ( W i l s o n e t a l . , 1985, p . 4 ) . 206 S i n c e the impor tance o f the p r i n c i p a l i n f i n d i n g s about e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s , s c h o o l improvement, and change has become a x i o m a t i c , i t was s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . In the s c h o o l l e v e l a n a l y s i s , i t appeared t o be i m p o r t a n t i n o n l y one o f the f o u r h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . I t i s , however, i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the i n f l u e n c e o f the p r i n c i p a l would q u i t e l i k e l y be f e l t i n a l l o f the s c h o o l s depending on h i s o r h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e (Le i thwood & Montgomery, 1986; R o s e n h o l t z , 1985) . When one c o n s i d e r s the l i s t o f the o t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s t o be i m p o r t a n t i n the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e i n each c a s e i s q u i t e c l e a r : v e r t i c a l communicat ion i n v o l v e s the p r i n c i p a l and the t e a c h e r d i r e c t l y as do f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i n wh ich the p r i n c i p a l has more i n f l u e n c e , i s another example o f d i r e c t p r i n c i p a l i n v o l v e m e n t ; i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n which the t e a c h e r has the most i n f l u e n c e and i n g o a l c o n s e n s u s , the p r i n c i p a l would a l s o have a t l e a s t some i n f l u e n c e . The p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r the b e l i e f t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e o f l e a d e r s h i p had a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r i n f l u e n c e on t h e s e f a c t o r s . How a c t i v e a p r i n c i p a l i s i n each s c h o o l i n r e g a r d t o each o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by the s c h o o l c o n t e x t . H a l l i n g e r and Murphy (1987) make two key p o i n t s about t h i s : 207 1. common s e n s e , as w e l l as numerous s t u d i e s , c o n f i r m t h a t a v a r i e t y o f c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e the n a t u r e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p ( p . l ) ; and, 2 . no one s t y l e o f l e a d e r s h i p i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o a l l s i t u a t i o n s o r c o n t e x t s ( p . 1 3 ) . F u l l a n (1982, 1986) adds ano ther d i m e n s i o n t o t h i s i d e a when he p o i n t s out t h a t how " a c t i v e " a p r i n c i p a l i s i n d e a l i n g w i t h any s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n w i l l i n f l u e n c e what happens t o i t i n the s c h o o l ; and whether the p r i n c i p a l i s an " a c t i v e f a c i l i t a t o r " o r an " a c t i v e d i r e c t o r " w i l l a l s o i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t s o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e a re b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by compar ing s c h o o l s 09 and 13, the two s c h o o l s w i t h the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on t h e i r s t a f f s . S c h o o l 09 was a h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l i n a low SES a r e a w i t h low a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r was l e s s than d e s i r a b l e . T h i s s c h o o l had the second h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e (61.1%) o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f when compared w i t h a l l the r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . More than o n e - h a l f o f the t e a c h e r s on t h i s s t a f f who responded t o the SDS were h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . Both t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s and the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w p r o v i d e c o n s i s t e n t d a t a t o s u g g e s t why the s c h o o l remained a h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l . The p r i n c i p a l was v e r y a c t i v e i n the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e a r e a s : 208 1. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y ; 2 . d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; and 3 . t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s p r i n c i p a l p l a c e d emphasis o n : g i v i n g t e a c h e r s the f e e l i n g t h a t they can make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; t a l k i n g w i t h t e a c h e r s about i n s t r u c t i o n ; f a c i l i t a t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n among t e a c h e r s ; b e i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h t e a c h e r s i n a l l a r e a s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; and s p e n d i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e t ime o b s e r v i n g t e a c h e r s i n c l a s s r o o m s and g i v i n g them f e e d b a c k . Based on the p r i n c i p a l ' s d i r e c t invo lvement w i t h a l l o f the above a r e a s , h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e appears t o have been more d i r e c t i v e than f a c i l i t a t i v e . A l t h o u g h o n l y one o f the s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h a t i s , h o r i z o n t a l d i s c u s s i o n , was p r e s e n t i n t h i s s c h o o l , i t had the second h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the sample . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the main r e a s o n was the p r i n c i p a l who was a c t i v e ( F u l l a n , 1986) i n d o i n g t h i n g s t o make t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t they were i m p o r t a n t and c o u l d make a d i f f e r e n c e t o s t u d e n t s . In o t h e r words, t h i s p r i n c i p a l h e l p e d t e a c h e r s t o f e e l e f f i c a c i o u s . S c h o o l 13, i n c o n t r a s t t o s c h o o l 09 , was l o c a t e d i n a h i g h SES a r e a and i t s s t u d e n t s ' CAT s c o r e s were among the h i g h e s t i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s s c h o o l had 11 t e a c h e r s on s t a f f , o n e - h a l f the number o f t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l 09 . 209 S c h o o l 13 had the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e (63%) o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t on i t s s t a f f . Both t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s and the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s u g g e s t why t e a c h e r s f e l t e f f i c a c i o u s i n s c h o o l 13 a l t h o u g h the s c h o o l p o r t r a i t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f s c h o o l 09 . In a d d i t i o n t o the two s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s ( h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r ) , g o a l consensus and v e r t i c a l communicat ion were a l s o p e r c e i v e d v e r y p o s i t i v e l y . Wh i le the p r i n c i p a l was not p e r c e i v e d by the t e a c h e r s t o have a major i n f l u e n c e i n the a r e a s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s t u d i e d , i t appears t h a t he p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t a f f d i s c u s s i o n s about s c h o o l g o a l s and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . The r e l a t i v e l y low number o f t e a c h e r s on s t a f f l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f communicat ion among t e a c h e r s and between the t e a c h e r s and the p r i n c i p a l , but i t appears t h a t the p r i n c i p a l a l s o p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h i s t o o c c u r . In compar ison t o the p r i n c i p a l i n s c h o o l 09 , the p r i n c i p a l i n s c h o o l 13 appeared t o be l e s s d i r e c t i v e than f a c i l i t a t i v e . There i s e v i d e n c e , however, t h a t he was a c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n key a r e a s r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The compar ison o f s c h o o l s 09 ( low SES) and s c h o o l 13 ( h i g h SES) s u g g e s t s t h a t the t y p e o f l e a d e r s h i p p r o v i d e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l might v a r y w i t h s c h o o l SES . The n o t i o n o f 210 d i r e c t and f a c i l i t a t i v e p r i n c i p a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o s c h o o l SES i s d i s c u s s e d by H a l l i n g e r and Murphy (1986) : The d i f f e r e n c e between the h i g h and low SES s c h o o l s was p r i m a r i l y i n the e x t e n t t o which p r i n c i p a l s i n f l u e n c e d o r c o n t r o l l e d c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r d i r e c t a c t i v i t y . P r i n c i p a l s i n the lower SES s c h o o l s were more f o r c e f u l i n a s s e r t i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n making i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s and i n i n t e r v e n i n g i n c l a s s r o o m s where t e a c h e r s were no t meet ing t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . In the upper income s c h o o l s p r i n c i p a l s tended t o o r c h e s t r a t e more from the background , a c t i v e l y c o o r d i n a t i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l programs o f t h e i r s c h o o l s , but not e x e r c i s i n g as much c o n t r o l as p r i n c i p a l s i n the lower SES s c h o o l s ( p . 3 ) . The r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y s u p p o r t H a l l i n g e r and M u r p h y ' s r e s u l t s . The d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e approach used by e a c h o f the p r i n c i p a l s i n s c h o o l s 09 and 13 appeared t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the c o n d i t i o n s i n t h a t s c h o o l . T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y and G o a l Consensus The impor tance o f e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s i s s t r e s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r two main r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e y a re i m p o r t a n t because t h e y a re the b a s i s f o r most o f the d i r e c t i o n s taken by the p e o p l e i n a s c h o o l , and so c o u l d a f f e c t most o f the o t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . S e c o n d , the n a t u r e o f the g o a l s c o u l d a f f e c t the c o n t e n t o f programs and the t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h . C l e a r g o a l s ( J o y c e e t a l . , 1983; Purkey & S m i t h , 1983) p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t d i r e c t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and the p r i n c i p a l . The e s t a b l i s h i n g o f g o a l s i s o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d as a l e a d e r s h i p d i m e n s i o n i n s c h o o l s (MacKenz ie , 1983; R o s e n h o l t z e t a l . , 1986) . R o s e n h o l t z e t 211 a l . , (1986) s t a t e t h a t i n e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s p r i n c i p a l s s e t s p e c i f i c g o a l s f o r s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . These g o a l s s e r v e t h r e e f u n c t i o n s : (1) they communicate the p r i n c i p a l ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t s t u d e n t s a re c a p a b l e o f making academic p r o g r e s s ; (2) they p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; and (3) t h e y p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r a common e x p e n d i t u r e o f e f f o r t and f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l d i a l o g u e ( p . 9 2 ) . An emphasis i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y was on the g o a l s which ought t o r e c e i v e the most a t t e n t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l . G i v e n a c h o i c e o f seven g o a l s f o r s t u d e n t deve lopment , the m a j o r i t y o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m as most i m p o r t a n t . B a s i c s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g and math was ranked f o u r t h i n i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s was an i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s i n c e the s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s l i t e r a t u r e has tended t o emphasize b a s i c s k i l l s improvement and has used s t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g and math as the measure (Good & B r o p h y , 1986) . These r e s u l t s c o u l d mean t h a t h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s do not n e c e s s a r i l y measure t h e i r s u c c e s s i n terms o f s t u d e n t achievement when i t i s based on math and r e a d i n g s c o r e s . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s s u p p o r t e d by the f i n d i n g t h a t the s t u d e n t s c o r e s i n two o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s were among the lowes t i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Perhaps t h e s e t e a c h e r s d e r i v e t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - e f f i c a c y from " p s y c h i c rewards" which L o r t i e (1975) s t a t e s i s the major s o u r c e o f t e a c h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n ( p . 1 0 4 ) . He s a y s t h a t t e a c h e r s g a i n p s y c h i c 212 rewards from h a v i n g " reached" s t u d e n t s ( p . 1 0 4 ) . I f the t e a c h e r s ' g o a l f o r s t u d e n t development i s a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t , t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s c o u l d i n c l u d e s t u d e n t s ' a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b e i n g i n a good mood, and e n j o y i n g c l a s s e s ( L o r t i e , 1975, p . 1 7 2 ) . T e a c h e r s would ge t immediate p o s i t i v e feedback t h a t they were d o i n g a good j o b ; t h a t i s , t h a t they make a d i f f e r e n c e t o the s t u d e n t s . As a r e s u l t t h e y would f e e l more e f f i c a c i o u s . Summary of Conclusions The f i n d i n g s from the s tudy t o g e t h e r w i t h a n o t h e r r e a d i n g o f the l i t e r a t u r e gave s u p p o r t f o r the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : Research Question 1 1. Female e lementa ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a re more e f f i c a c i o u s t h a n any o t h e r t e a c h e r group examined i n t h i s s t u d y . 2 . T e a c h e r s ' age , t h e i r y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l and t h e i r t o t a l y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a re not r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y . Research Question 2 1. S tudent b e h a v i o u r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y , but i s not e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n a l l h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . 2. H o r i z o n t a l communica t ion , a measure o f the f r e q u e n c y t h a t t e a c h e r s t a l k e d t o o t h e r t e a c h e r s about c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n and management, i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o 213 t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and i s i m p o r t a n t i n a l l o f the h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s . A d d i t i o n a l C o n c l u s i o n s 1. A l l n i n e o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . 2 . The impor tance o f the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y i s i n f l u e n c e d by the s p e c i f i c s c h o o l c o n t e x t . 3 . The p r i n c i p a l ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e i s p r o b a b l y an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n e x p l a i n i n g how the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r sense o f e f f i c a c y . 4 . S tudent achievement and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s do not appear t o r e l a t e t o h i g h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . 5. S tudent s e l f - e s t e e m i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the most i m p o r t a n t g o a l f o r s t u d e n t development by h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . 6. The G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , based on B a n d u r a ' s (1977) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y had two d i m e n s i o n s : p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y i s s u p p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y by the r e s u l t s o f the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the nex t c h a p t e r . CHAPTER SEVEN 214 IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose o f c h a p t e r s i x was t o rev iew the major f i n d i n g s o f the s tudy and t o d i s c u s s the c o n c l u s i o n s which were made a f t e r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . In t h i s c h a p t e r , the purpose i s t o d i s c u s s how t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s might be a p p l i e d i n s c h o o l s and i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . In the open ing c h a p t e r , f i v e g e n e r a l a r e a s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l i n g were i d e n t i f i e d . I t was s u g g e s t e d a t t h a t t i m e , t h a t the p r e s e n t s t u d y had the p o t e n t i a l t o add t o e x i s t i n g knowledge i n t h e s e a reas and t h a t t h i s knowledge might be o f use t o s t a f f d e v e l o p e r s , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b e g i n w i t h a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the s t u d y ' s c o n c l u s i o n s u s i n g t h e s e f i v e a reas as a framework. The second p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s some i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s t u d y , and the t h i r d p a r t w i l l s u g g e s t some a reas f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . F i r s t , t h i s s tudy l o o k e d a t the s c h o o l as a workp lace as i t examined the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were r e l a t e d t o the t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . The i m p o r t a n c e o f the s c h o o l s e t t i n g was u n d e r s c o r e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn about the p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t appeared t o make a d i f f e r e n c e . Whi le s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion were i d e n t i f i e d as the s i g n i f i c a n t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , c e r t a i n v a r i a t i o n s and c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s e s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s 215 and o t h e r s , were found t o be i m p o r t a n t i n o t h e r s c h o o l s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Thus , some a d d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n about t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y was g a i n e d . Second , i t added t o e x i s t i n g knowledge about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , s p e c i f i c a l l y , the f a c t o r i d e n t i f i e d as p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . S i n c e p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y was c o n s i d e r e d t o have a more d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r s than t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , i t was the f o c u s o f the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r the G i b s o n Teacher E f f i c a c y S c a l e as a means o f measur ing t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . T h i r d , t h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which might e x i s t between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and each o f workp lace c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , was the major f o c u s o f the s t u d y . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and female e lementa ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . S tudent b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion were the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , thus add ing t o A s h t o n ' s (1985) model ( F i g u r e 7 ) . F o u r t h , t h e r e was the p o t e n t i a l w i t h t h i s r e s e a r c h t o y i e l d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r a c t i c e and f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the f i n d i n g s f o r s c h o o l s and the recommendat ions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n the next s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . In bo th 216 F i g u r e 7- A m o d i f i c a t i o n o f A s h t o n ' s (1985) model to i n c l u d e t h e two s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s : s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 217 c a s e s , however, the s t u d y demonst ra ted t h a t u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be g e n e r a t e d from a s t u d y o f t e a c h e r s i n the w o r k p l a c e . F i f t h , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y c o u l d f o s t e r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s c h o o l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s . The most d r a m a t i c example o f t h i s e f f e c t from the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , was the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d i n g h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s a t the e lementary s c h o o l l e v e l compared t o the p e r c e n t a g e a t the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . T h i s summary has a t tempted t o show t h a t t h e r e has been a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o knowledge i n each o f the f i v e major a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t , which c o l l e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e the r a t i o n a l e f o r the s t u d y . The next s e c t i o n o f the c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s t u d y f o r s c h o o l s and f o r p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l improvement. I m p l i c a t i o n s The purpose o f the s t u d y was t o i d e n t i f y the s c h o o l l e v e l f a c t o r s which seem t o make a d i f f e r e n c e t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . Perhaps t h i s was the easy p a r t o f the p r o b l e m , because the next s t e p i s t o d e v e l o p change s t r a t e g i e s whose end r e s u l t would be t o improve the impor tan t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . To a s s i s t w i t h t h i s nex t s t e p , the c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s r e s e a r c h a re p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 218 I m p l i c a t i o n s F o r P r a c t i c e Because the sample used i n t h i s s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , i t c o u l d be t h a t the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e w i l l be most u s e f u l t o the s c h o o l s i n t h a t d i s t r i c t . There i s , however, s u p p o r t i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r most o f the s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s . Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and o t h e r s c h o o l s c o u l d a p p l y the i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s s t u d y t o improve the c o n d i t i o n s which a re r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . The f o c u s o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s the i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l improvement p l a n n i n g . The s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y a re o f i n t e r e s t f o r s c h o o l improvement p l a n n i n g . Both s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion were i d e n t i f i e d not o n l y as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , but a l s o as h a v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t i n the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t t o s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , s c h o o l improvement and s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l change . I m p l i c a t i o n o n e . I f the main t a s k o f s c h o o l improvement i s t o de te rmine how t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s i n the s c h o o l t o enhance t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , then a good p l a c e t o s t a r t might be w i t h t h e s e two s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s , however , i m p o r t a n t t o acknowledge t h a t much more i s known about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n the e lementary s c h o o l s from t h i s s t u d y , than about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . No 219 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d f o r the s c h o o l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s due t o the r e l a t i v e l y low number o f h i g h e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s on t h e s e s t a f f s . So w h i l e the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r and h o r i z o n t a l communicat ion d imens ions were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t based on a l l o f the t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s , i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g them can be a p p l i e d w i t h l e s s c o n f i d e n c e i n the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t h a n i n the e lementa ry s c h o o l s . I m p l i c a t i o n two. The second i m p l i c a t i o n o f the s t u d y t o the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s i n o t h e r s c h o o l s i s the i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t e x t . I n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f t h e i r s c h o o l , pe rhaps u s i n g the v a r i a b l e s from the p r e s e n t s t u d y as a framework o r s t a r t i n g p o i n t . One example o f t h i s from a f a i r l y g e n e r a l p o i n t o f v iew i s the d i f f e r e n c e between e lementary and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . I m p l i c a t i o n t h r e e . The s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r c o n d i t i o n was d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r as a c l i m a t e measure and the i t em "the atmosphere i s o r d e r l y and b u s i n e s s l i k e " c e r t a i n l y r e f e r s t o an o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f the s c h o o l . A number o f f a c t o r s p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e t h i s o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n , but i n t h i s s tudy the s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o u r i n most a s p e c t s o f t h e i r s c h o o l l i v e s was the f o c u s . Thus t h e s e f a c t o r s c o u l d be the f o c u s f o r s c h o o l improvement . 220 D u r i n g the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s , r e f e r e n c e s were made t o s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s which were t aken by p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s t o a f f e c t s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . The development o f a s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e p o l i c y was one o f t h e s e a c t i o n s . The p o l i c y development was done d i f f e r e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s , but i t a lways i n v o l v e d t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n some s c h o o l s s t u d e n t s were added t o the commit tee . The main r e s u l t o f the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the d i s c i p l i n e p o l i c y was a c o n s i s t e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d and i n t e r p r e t e d s e t o f r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r . Both e x p e c t a t i o n s and consequences were s p e l l e d o u t . The key t o s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the p o l i c y appeared t o be a c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s u p p o r t and i n v o l v e m e n t . I m p l i c a t i o n f o u r . The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n gave one example o f how the s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d i n s c h o o l s . The second s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n was h o r i z o n t a l communica t ion . S c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o u l d c o n s i d e r p r o v i d i n g as many o p p o r t u n i t i e s as p o s s i b l e f o r t e a c h e r s t o ge t t o g e t h e r t o t a l k about i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s . The peer s u p e r v i s i o n p r o c e s s , based on c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n , i s one way o f b r i n g i n g t e a c h e r s t o g e t h e r t o d i s c u s s t e a c h i n g (Sparks & B r u d e r , 1987) . The development of g rade l e v e l teams and the p r o v i s i o n o f t ime f o r meet ings on a r e g u l a r b a s i s c o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . The teams o f t e a c h e r s c o u l d be based on grade l e v e l d i v i s i o n s i n s m a l l e r -221 s c h o o l s . The t o p i c s which have been u s e f u l f o r t h e s e t e a c h e r g roups i n c l u d e : program a r t i c u l a t i o n from grade t o g r a d e ; c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s ; t e x t book recommendat ions; s t r a t e g i e s f o r c l a s s r o o m management; and i d e a s f o r grade themes i n language a r t s and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . The p o s s i b l e t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n a r e v e r y d i v e r s e , but the f o c u s ought t o be on c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n and management. A d m i n i s t r a t o r s u p p o r t t o encourage t e a c h e r t a l k and t o f a c i l i t a t e t e a c h e r s ' o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o ge t t o g e t h e r i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . I m p l i c a t i o n f i v e . One o f the c o n c l u s i o n s r e f e r r e d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l l o f the e i g h t s c h o o l l e v e l c o n d i t i o n s were p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . I t c o u l d be t h a t d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . The c o n d i t i o n s emphasized i n t h i s s t u d y , however, s h o u l d no t be c o n s i d e r e d a r e c i p e f o r a h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l . One f i n d i n g t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d g e n e r a l l y i s t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s i n an i d e a l p o s i t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I m p l i c a t i o n s i x . Teacher e f f i c a c y has been c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g one o f the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l s . In s p i t e o f t h i s , the c o n c e p t o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and i t s impor tance i n e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l i n g and change remains r e l a t i v e l y unknown. 222 Perhaps the knowledge about the c o n c e p t o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and i t s e f f e c t s c o u l d be communicated t o p r i n c i p a l s and c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f . There a r e two b e n e f i t s which c o u l d be r e a l i z e d : f i r s t , an emphasis c o u l d be p l a c e d on the i m p o r t a n c e o f t e a c h e r s i n s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g , t h a t i s , t h a t t e a c h e r s make a d i f f e r e n c e ; and s e c o n d , t h e r e c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d d i s c u s s i o n about how t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y c o u l d be enhanced at i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . I m p l i c a t i o n s e v e n . The s c h o o l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s r e i n f o r c e d the impor tance o f the s c h o o l c o n t e x t g e n e r a l l y , but i t a l s o drew a t t e n t i o n t o the two d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y d i m e n s i o n s : p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . Depending on the s o u r c e o f the t e a c h e r ' s low e f f i c a c y , approaches t o h e l p t h a t t e a c h e r c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t . I f , f o r example, a t e a c h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t a c e r t a i n group o f s t u d e n t s s i m p l y cannot l e a r n because o f t h e i r background , a p e r s o n i n v o l v e d i n s t a f f development might need t o use examples o f s t u d e n t s u c c e s s i n o r d e r t o i n f l u e n c e the t e a c h e r . But i f a t e a c h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t he o r she d i d not have the s k i l l s t o t e a c h a group o f s t u d e n t s , then the s t a f f d e v e l o p e r might need t o f i n d ways t o i n c r e a s e the t e a c h e r ' s s k i l l l e v e l . I m p l i c a t i o n s F o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The p r e s e n t s t u d y used the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f s e v e r a l r e l a t e d a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h i n i t s development o f a framework 223 o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i t s s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e r e are some s u g g e s t i o n s which o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s might f i n d h e l p f u l . I m p l i c a t i o n o n e . T h i s s t u d y used b o t h e lementa ry and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n i t s sample when the t e a c h e r was u s e d as the u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . T h e r e f o r e the r e s u l t s r e p r e s e n t a l l o f the t e a c h e r r e s p o n d e n t s and the s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s c a n be a p p l i e d g e n e r a l l y t o a l l s c h o o l s . There i s , however, a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n i n the f i n d i n g s t h a t e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s might not be the same. S i n c e t h i s f i n d i n g i s s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h , i t seems t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y might f o c u s on s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The m a j o r i t y o f e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s s t u d i e s have used e l e m e n t a r y s a m p l e s . Whi le the p r e s e n t s t u d y used bo th e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , o n l y e lementary s c h o o l s were i n c l u d e d i n the second l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , an e f f i c a c y s t u d y wh ich u s e d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s o n l y might add i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e . I m p l i c a t i o n two. The framework o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s used i n t h i s s t u d y drew from two e a r l i e r e f f i c a c y s t u d i e s ( A s h t o n , 1985; Denham & M i c h a e l , 1981) , but f o c u s e d on the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s might w i s h t o f o c u s on o t h e r p a r t s o f the e a r l i e r mode ls ; f o r example, what i s i t t h a t h i g h 224 e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y do i n the c l a s s r o o m t o a f f e c t s t u d e n t ach ievement . There i s some p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h (Ash ton e t a l . , 1983; Dembo & G i b s o n , 1985) which s u g g e s t s some o f the t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r s which appear t o make a d i f f e r e n c e t o s t u d e n t s . I m p l i c a t i o n t h r e e . The S c h o o l D imens ion Survey (SDS) seemed t o be r e a s o n a b l y e f f e c t i v e i n g a t h e r i n g the d a t a r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . S i n c e the two main components o f the SDS were p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h a c c e p t a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s , t h i s was not a s u r p r i s e . I t was, n e v e r - t h e - l e s s , r e a s s u r i n g . O ther r e s e a r c h e r s may want t o c o n s i d e r u s i n g the SDS i n s t r u m e n t i n o t h e r s c h o o l s and o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n s i m i l a r s t u d i e s t o de te rmine i f the same s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s remain s i g n i f i c a n t . S c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s may want t o c o n s i d e r t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o some a c t i o n r e s e a r c h . F o r example, i t might be u s e f u l t o d e v e l o p a p r o f i l e o f the s c h o o l s u s i n g the 11 v a r i a b l e s o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e s . W i l s o n e t a l . (1985) have d e v e l o p e d a p r o c e d u r e t o do t h i s and i t p roved u s e f u l i n the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . A s c h o o l p r o f i l e which p r o v i d e d the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r s c h o o l might be u s e f u l f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about s c h o o l improvement . I m p l i c a t i o n f o u r . Ano ther i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a p p l i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the G i b s o n 225 T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e . Some r e s e a r c h e r s have commented on t h e measurement d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h t e a c h e r s ' sense of e f f i c a c y ( e . g . , A s h t o n & Webb, 1986) . One a n a l y s i s which was done as p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y was a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f the 30 i tem G i b s o n T e a c h e r E f f i c a c y S c a l e ( p . 9 9 ) . The f i n d i n g s were v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f b o t h G i b s o n and Dembo (1984) and Anderson e t a l . (1987) , thus c o n f i r m i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t . Based on a r e v i e w o f 21 t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s t u d i e s , the G i b s o n i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t c h o i c e f o r t h i s s t u d y . I t i s recommended as a u s e f u l i n s t r u m e n t f o r o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n s i d e r i n s i m i l a r k i n d s o f r e s e a r c h . I m p l i c a t i o n f i v e . F o r the p u r p o s e s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , c u t - o f f p o i n t s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r i d e n t i f y i n g h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s . A l t h o u g h o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s (Anderson e t a l . , 1987; A s h t o n e t a l . , 1983; G i b s o n & Dembo, 1984; Loucks e t a l . , 1982; and Showers, 1980) i d e n t i f i e d h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r s a m p l e s , they d i d not use p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d c u t - o f f p o i n t s . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s were used i n t h i s p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . Two s t u d i e s , however, d i d use the G i b s o n i n s t r u m e n t but d i d not use the same c u t - o f f p o i n t s . Thus the d e c i s i o n t o use the 75th p e r c e n t i l e and 25th p e r c e n t i l e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o i d e n t i f y the h i g h and low t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y sample was not based on p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d s c o r e s . 226 I t would be u s e f u l f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i f a s t a n d a r d s c o r e were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a h i g h and low e f f i c a c y t e a c h e r , s i n c e i t would p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n a c r o s s s t u d i e s . As an a i d t o the r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s p r o b l e m , a summary o f the r e s p o n d i n g t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y , t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y and t o t a l e f f i c a c y s c o r e s from the p r e s e n t s t u d y t o g e t h e r w i t h t h o s e from Anderson e t a l . , (1987) a re appended (Appendix G ) . I m p l i c a t i o n s i x . T h i s s t u d y used f i v e t e a c h e r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which had been u s e d i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h about s c h o o l e f f e c t s g e n e r a l l y o r i n r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y s p e c i f i c a l l y . Teacher sex was one o f the v a r i a b l e s which was found t o have a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . Two q u e s t i o n s r e m a i n , however, c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p : f i r s t , a re female t e a c h e r s more e f f i c a c i o u s because they a r e f e m a l e ; t h a t i s , i s i t a gender i n f l u e n c e ; o r s e c o n d , are female t e a c h e r s more e f f i c a c i o u s because t h e y t e n d t o be e lementary t e a c h e r s ; t h a t i s , i s i t a c o n t e x t u a l i n f l u e n c e ? These q u e s t i o n s might be c o n s i d e r e d by a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r . I m p l i c a t i o n s e v e n . The impor tance o f the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l i n s t u d i e s o f s c h o o l improvement has been v e r y w e l l documented. The p o t e n t i a l impor tance o f the p r i n c i p a l was a l s o s u g g e s t e d by the f i n d i n g s i n the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . 227 Other r e c e n t r e s e a r c h has q u e s t i o n e d what i t i s t h a t e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a c t u a l l y do t o have an i n f l u e n c e on s c h o o l improvement . The q u e s t i o n which a r i s e s from t h i s s t u d y i s , what do p r i n c i p a l s do t o enhance t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ? A l t h o u g h some s u g g e s t i o n s were made e a r l i e r , i t seems t h a t t h i s i s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . An i n t e r e s t e d r e s e a r c h e r may want t o c o n s i d e r the use o f a framework f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as the one used by Le i thwood and Montgomery (1986) . I m p l i c a t i o n e i g h t . There are some i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s t u d y t h a t have t o do w i t h methodology . One o f the main f i n d i n g s o f the s t u d y was the impor tance o f the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l c o n t e x t t o t e a c h e r s ' sense o f e f f i c a c y . T h i s has been s t a t e d many t i m e s b e f o r e by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , but a lways needs t o be u n d e r s c o r e d f o r t h o s e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n s c h o o l improvement . There i s , however, a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t comes from t h i s f i n d i n g . There seems t o be a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y may be r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s c h o o l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s . There seems t o be a need t o s tudy t h e p r e s e n t s e t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s e t t i n g s t o de termine i f the same r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re found t o be i m p o r t a n t . T h i s s t u d y used most o f the t e a c h i n g s t a f f o f one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as i t s sample . There were advantages i n d o i n g t h i s , 228 one o f which was t o l i m i t the number o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l v a r i a b l e s which might a f f e c t the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The p r o b l e m , however, was t h a t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d . A b r o a d e r sample c o u l d l e a d t o the i n c r e a s e d r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s as p r e d i c t o r s o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c a c y . I m p l i c a t i o n n i n e . The SES measure used i n the p o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s was not one o f the most commonly used SES measures . I t was u s e f u l i n t h i s s t u d y , however, because i t c o n f i r m e d the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t c i t i z e n s have about a r e a s o f the c i t y . I t was p u z z l i n g t h a t s t u d e n t SES was not r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , a l t h o u g h R o s e n h o l t z (1986, 1987) found t h a t s t u d e n t SES d i d not appear t o be r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r l e a r n i n g o r t e a c h e r commitment. S tudent SES d i d appear t o be r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t achievement i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . I f SES i s r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t ach ievement , why i s n ' t SES r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y ? A l t h o u g h the i n c o n s i s t e n c y c o u l d be due t o the SES measure used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , an i n t e r e s t e d r e s e a r c h e r might want t o pursue t h i s q u e s t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n t e n . The s tudy used two l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s , the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r and the s c h o o l . I t a l s o used two methods o f d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n ; the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w . The t r i a n g u l a t i o n o f d a t a from t h e s e s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s p r o v e d t o be v e r y u s e f u l and i s recommended. 229 F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h i s t o p i c , however, might c o n s i d e r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s which take the r e s e a r c h e r i n t o c l a s s r o o m s t o see what e f f i c a c i o u s t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y d o . T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e d a g l i m p s e i n t o h i g h e f f i c a c y s c h o o l s w i t h the r e s u l t s o f the p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s . O ther r e s e a r c h e r s might w i s h t o go i n t o t h e s e s c h o o l s t o o b s e r v e the i n t e r a c t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . S e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y f o r b o t h p r a c t i c e and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h have been p r e s e n t e d . The approach t o s c h o o l improvement which i d e n t i f i e s the s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which are r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y i s b e l i e v e d t o be a p o t e n t i a l l y p o w e r f u l o n e . T h i s a p p r o a c h , which i n f l u e n c e s l a r g e r numbers o f p e o p l e i n s c h o o l s t h a n do i n d i v i d u a l s t a f f development a p p r o a c h e s , i s s i m i l a r t o G o o d l a d ' s (1983) when he t a l k s about c r e a t i n g a more s a t i s f y i n g s c h o o l env i ronment as a means o f s t a f f development ( p . 4 4 ) . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i s s t u d y was the p r e v i o u s work done by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n the a rea o f t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y and the p r e l i m i n a r y work which t e n t a t i v e l y l i n k e d i t w i t h some s c h o o l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The c o n c l u s i o n s c o n f i r m e d some o f t h e s e e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s , added some new f i n d i n g s , and p r o v i d e d some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b o t h p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h . 230 REFERENCES Anderson, C. (1982). The search for school climate: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 52 (3), 368-420. Anderson, R., Greene, M., & Loewen, P. (1987). Relationships among  teachers' and students' thinking s k i l l s , sense of e f f icacy and  student achievement. Unpublished manuscript, University of Lethbridge. Armor, D., Conry-Oseguera, P. , Cox, M., King, N., McDonnell, L . , Pasca l l , A . , Pauly, E . , & Zellman, G. (1976). Analysis of  the school preferred reading program i n selected Los Angeles  minority schools. (Report No. R-2007. LAUSD.). Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation. Ashton, P. (1985). Motivation and the teacher's sense of e f f icacy. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.) . Research On Motivation i n  Education. Volume 2: The Classroom Mi l ieu . Academic Press 141-171. Ashton, P. & Webb, R. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers'  sense of e f f icacy and student achievement. New York, NY: Longman, Inc. Ashton, P . , Webb, R., & Doda, N. (1983). A study of a teacher's  sense of e f f icacy, f i n a l report. Executive Summary, F lor ida University. Gainsvi l le , F lor ida . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service Number ED 231 833). Bandura, A. (1977). Se l f -e f f icacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84 (2), 191-215. 231 American Psychologist, 33, 344-358. Bandura, A. (1981). Self -referent thought: a developmental analysis of se l f - e f f i cacy . In F l a v e l l , J . & Ross, L. (Eds.) . Social cognitive development: Frontiers & possible futures. Cambridge: University Press. Bandura, A. (1982). Se l f -e f f icacy rnechanism i n human agency. American Psychologist, 37 (2), 122-147. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A soc ia l cognitive theory. Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : Prent ice-Hal l . Berman, P. (1981). Educational change: an implementation paradigm. In R. Lehrriins and M. Kane (Eds.) . Improving Schools: Using What We Know. London: Sage Publications. Berman, P . , and McLaughlin, M. (1975). Federal programs support- ing educational change, V o l . IV: The findings i n review. Santa Monica, C a l i f : The Rand Corporation. Berman, P . , McLaughlin, M. (1978). Federal programs supporting educational change. Vo l . VIII: Implementing and sustaining innovations. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 159 289). Berman, P . , McLaughlin, M., Bass, G . , Pauly, E. & Zellman, G. (1977). Federal programs supporting educational change. V o l . VII: Factors affect ing inplementation and cxaitinuation. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation. Borg, W., & G a l l , M. (1983). Educational Research (4th edi t ion) . New York: Longman. 232 Brcokover, W., & Lezotte, L. (1979). Changes In school character ist ics coincident with changes i n student achieve- ment. East Lansing, Michigan: Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University. Burden, P. (1982). Professional development as a stressor. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Teacher Educators, Phoenix, AZ. Clark, D., Lotto, L . , & Astuto, T. (1984). Ef fect ive Schools and school improvement: A comparative analysis of two l ines of inquiry. Education AdmiMstration Quarterly. 20 ( 3), 41-68. Cohen, M. (1983). Instruction, management and socia l conditions i n ef fect ive schools. In A. Odden and L. Webb (Eds.) . School Finance and School Inprovement: Linkages for the 1980's, (pp. 17-50). Cambridge, Mass.: Bal l inger. Cooper, H. (1982). Sc ien t i f i c guidelines for conducting integrative research reviews. Review of Educational Research. 52 (2), 291-302. Conley, S. (1986). The teacher work environments as a focus of  school-based change. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, Washington, D.C. Corbett, H. (1982). To make an omelette you have to break the egg crate. Educational Leadership, 40 (2), 34-36. Crandall , D., Eiseman, J . , & Louis, K. (1986). Strategic planning issues that bear on the success of school improvement e f for ts . Educational Adniinistrative Quarterly, 22 (3), 21-53. Darling-Hammond, L . , Wise, A . , & Pease, R. (1983). Teacher 233 evaluation i n the organizational context: a review of the l i te ra ture . Review of Educational Research, 53 (3), 285-327. Dembo, M. & Gibson, S. (1985). Teachers' sense of e f f icacy: An important factor i n school inprovement. The Elementary  School Journal, 86 (2), 173-184. Denham, C. & Michael, J . (1981). Teacher sense of e f f icacy: A def in i t ion of the construct and a model for future research. Educational Research Quarterly, 6 (1), 39-63. Evans, E. & Tr ibble, M. (1986, A p r i l ) . Perceived teaching  problems, se l f - e f f i cacy , and corrrrdtment to teaching among  pre-service teachers. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), San Fran-c isco , CA. Firestone, W. & Herr iott , R. (1982a.). Effect ive schools: Do elementary prescriptions f i t secondary schools? Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools. Firestone, W. & Heriott , R. (1982b.). Two images of schools as organizations: an expl icat ion and i l l u s t r a t i v e empirical tes t . Educational Administrative Quarterly, 18 (2), 39-59. Ful lan, M. (1982). The meaning of educational change. OISE Press. The Ontario Institute for Studies i n Education. Ful lan, M. (1985). Change processes and strategies at the loca l l e v e l . The Elementary School Journal, 85 (3), 391-421. Ful lan, M. (1986). The management of change. In Boyle, E. & McMahon (Eds.) , World yearbook of education: The Management 234 of Schools. New York: Koran Page. Ful lan, M. (1987). Implementing the implementation plan. In M. Wideen and I. Andrews (Eds.) . Staff Development for School Improvement, (pp. 213-222). New York: The Falcon Press. Fu l le r , B . , Wood, K., Rapoport, T . , & Dornbusch, S. (1982). The organizational context of individual ef f icacy. Review of Educational Research, 52 (1), 7-30. Gardner, P. (1975). Scales and s t a t i s t i c s . Review of Educational Research, 45 (1), 43-57. Good, T . , & Brophy, J . (1986). School e f fects . InM.C. Wittrock (Ed. ) . Handbook of Research on Teaching. (3rd Ed . ) , (pp. 570-604). New York: Macmillan. Goodlad, J . (1983). The school as a workplace. In G. G r i f f i n (Ed.) Staff Development. 82nd Yearbook for the Study of Educa-t ion , (pp.36-61). University of Chicago Press. Goodlad, J . (1984). A place ca l led school. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Gibson, S. & Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher ef f icacy: A construct va l idat ion . Journal of Educational Psychology, 76 (4), 565-582. Glickman, D. & Tamashiro, R. (1982). A comparison of f i r s t -year , f i f th -year , and former teachers on ef f icacy, ego development, and problem solving. Psychology i n the  Schools, 19, 558-562. Grafton, L. (1986). Teachers: A descriptive model of the re la t ion- ships between teacher ef f icacy, teachers' perceptions of the 235 pr inc ipa l , and ocmnunicaticn conf l i c t message strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertat ion, Bowling Green State Uni -vers i ty . Greene, M. (June, 1984). The professional development ac t i v i t i es  of teachers. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education, Guelph, Ontario. G r i f f i n , G. (1984). Changing teacher pract ice: Executive summary  of an experimental study. Report number 9055. Research and Development Center for Teacher Education, University of Texas. Guskey, T. (1985). Staff development and teacher change. Educational Leadership, (4), 57-60. Guskey, T. (1986). Staff development and -the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15 (5), 5-12. Guskey, T. (1986, A p r i l ) . Context variables that affect measures  of teacher e f f icacy. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Fran-c isco , CA. Hal l inger, P. & Murphy, J . (1986). Instructional leadership and school socio-economic status: A preliminary investigat ion. Adrninistrator's Notebook. 31 (5), 1-4. The University of Chicago. Hal l inger, P. & Murphy, J . (1987). Organizational and soc ia l con- text and the leadership role of the pr inc ipa l . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Asso-c ia t ion , Washington, D.C. Hawley, W., Rosenholtz, S . , Goodstein, H. , Hasselbring, T. (1984). 236 Good schools: what research says about improving student achievement. Peabody Journal of Education, 61 (4) complete issue. Housego, B. (1987, A p r i l ) . Student teachers' feel ings of preparedness to teach. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education, Hamilton. Howey, K. & Vaughan, J . (1983). Current patterns of s taf f develop-ment. G. G r i f f i n (ed.) . Staff Development. 83rd Yearbook of  the National Society for the Study of Education. University of Chicago Press. Huberman, M., & Crandall , D. (1982). People, p o l i c i e s , and prac- t i c e s : ExcmiJiing the chain of school improvement, Volume X:  Implications for action, a study of dissemination ef for ts supporting school improvement. Andover, Mass.: The Network, Inc. J ick , T. (1979). Mixing qual i tat ive and quantitative methods. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24 (6), 602-611. Joyce, B . , & Showers, B. (1980). Improving inservice t ra in ing: The messages of research. Educational Leadership, 37 (5), 374-384. Joyce, B . , Hersh, R., & McKibbin, M. (1983). The structure of  school iuipruveuient. New York: Longman. Leithwood, K. & Montgomery, D. (1986). Inproving pr inc ipa l e f fec- t iveness: the pr incipal p r o f i l e . The Ontario Institute for Studies i n Education. OISE Press. Lieberman, A . , & M i l l e r , L. (1984). Teachers, the i r world and the i r 237 work: Implications for school Improvement. Alexandria: ASCD. L i t t l e , J . (1982). Norms of c o l l e g i a l i t y and experimentation: work-place conditions of school success. American Educational  Research Journal, 19 (3), 17-24. Lor t ie , D. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Loucks, S . , Cox, P . , Mi les, M., Huberman, M., Eiseman, J . (1982). Portra i ts of the players and the contexts, Volume II: Implica- t ions for act ion, a study of dissemination ef for ts supporting  schcol improvement. Andover, Mass.: The Network, Inc. Mackenzie, D. (1983). Research for school improvement: an appraisal of some recent trends. Educational Researcher, 12 (4), 5-16. Mark, D. (1984). Reading teachers' perceptions of individual e f f i - cacy i n re la t ion to organizational structure (power  structure, organizational effectiveness, job sat is fact ion) . Unpublished doctoral dissertat ion, Columbia University. MacDonald, M. (1985). The greying of B . C . ' s teachers: impl ica- t ions for the p r i n c i p a l ' s ro le . Major paper. University of B r i t i s h Columbia. McDonnell, L. (1983). Schcol improvement and f i s c a l retrenchment. How to improve education when resources are decl in ing. In A. Odden and L. Webb (Eds.) . School Finance and School  Inprcwement: Linkages for the 1980's, (pp. 69-89). Cambridge, Mass.: Bal l inger . McLaughlin, M. & Marsh, D. (1978). Staff development and school 238 change. Teachers College Record, 80 (1), 69-94. McNergney, R., Francis, P . , Hainson, S . , & Stimpfle, P. (1983). Translating a metatheory of teacher development into pract ice. Journal of Teacher Education, 35, 5, 53-57. Nat r ie l lo , G . , & Wilson, B. (1986, A p r i l ) . Teacher evaluation as an organizational process. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. Oja, S. (1980). Adult development i s impl ic i t i n s taf f development. Journal of Staff Development, 1 (2), 9-53. Purkey, S . , Smith, M. (1983). Effect ive schools: a review. The Elementary School Journal, 83 (4), 427-452. Ratsoy, E. (1983). Assessing effectiveness i n educational organizations. The Canadian Administrator, 23 (3), 1-6. Rees, J . (1986). A study of the relat ionship between spec i f ic job  character ist ics and teacher e f f icacy. Unpublished doctoral d issertat ion, University of Cincinnat i . Reid, J . (1986). Teacher S ta t is t ics 1985-86. Student Records and Computer Services, Alberta Education. Rosenholtz, S. (1985). Effect ive Schools: Interpreting the e v i -dence. American Journal of Education, 93 (3), 352-388. Rosenholtz, S . , McAninch, A. (1987, A p r i l ) . Workplace conditions  and the r i s e and f a l l of teacher commitment. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Associat ion, Washington, D.C. Rosenholtz, S . , Bassler, 0 . , Hoover-Dempsey, K. (1986). Organiza-239 t ional corxiitions of teacher learning. Teacher and Teacher  Education, 2 (2), 91-104. Rutter, M., Maughan, B . , Mortimore, P. , Ouston, J . (1979). Fi f teen  thousand hours: Secondary schools and the i r ef fects on c h i l - dren. London: Open Books. Sackney, L. (1986). Pract ical strategies for improving school effectiveness. The Canadian School Executive, 6 (4), 15-20. Schlechty, P. , & Vance, V. (1983). Recruitment, select ion and retention: the shape of the teaching force. Elementary School , Journal, 83 (3), 469-487. Showers, B. (1980). Se l f -e f f icacy as a predictor of teacher p a r t i - c ipat ion i n oecisicn-making. Unpublished doctoral d isser ta -t ion , Stanford University. Simmons, S. (1983). Teacher ef f icacy, teacher expectation, and  performance pressure as moderators of test-anxiety test - performance relat ionship. Unpublished doctoral d issertat ion, University of F lor ida . Simcne, M. (1986). Uses of common technical language and public  agenda i n the supervisory process and the i r relat ionship to  t rust of the supervisor and teacher e f f icacy. Unpublished doctoral dissertat ion, Rutgers University. Sirotnik, K. & Burstein, L. (1985). Measurement and s t a t i s t i c a l issues i n mult i level research on schooling. Educational Admini- s t rat ion Quarterly, 21 (3), 169-185. SPSSX I n c . (1983) . A complete g u i d e t o SPSS X language and  operations. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 240 Sweeney, J . (1982). Research synthesis on effect ive schcol leader-ship. Research Information Service, 2, 346-352. Swenson, T. (1981). The state-of- the-art i n inservice education and s ta f f development i n K-12 schools. Journal of Research  and Development i n Education, 15 (1), 2-7. Tracz, S . , Gibson, S. (1987, A p r i l ) . Teacher ef f icacy: I ts r e l a - t ionship to teacher time al locat ion, student engagement and  student achievements. A paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C. Trentham, L . , S i lvern, S. & Erogdon, R. (1985, Ju ly ) . Teacher e f f icacy and teacher competency rat ings. Psychology i n the  Schools, 22, 343-352. Tyler , R. (1983). A place ca l led schcol . Phi Delta Kappan, 64 (7), 462-464. Weick, K. (1976). Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems. Adrrdnistrative Science Quarterly, 21 (3), 1-19. Wiersma, W. (1986). Research methods i n education: an introduc-t ion . Fourth edi t ion. Boston: A l lyn and Bacon Inc. Wilson, B . , Firestone, W., and Herr iott , R. (1985). Schcol assess- ment survey: A technical manual. Philadelphia: Research For Better Schools, Inc. Wood, F . , Thompson, S . , & Russel l , J . (1981). Designing ef fect ive s ta f f development programs. In B. Dil lon-Peterson (Ed. ) . Staff developn^ent/organizational development. Alexandria, V . A . : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 241 APPENDIX A A Summary of Findings on School E f f e c t i v e n e s s and School Improvement 242 A Summary of Research. Findings on School E f f e c t i v e n e s s and School Improvement ^Researcher(s): Joyce, Hersh, & McKibbin (1983) A t t r i b u t e s of E f f e c t i v e Schools: 1. C l e a r academic and s o c i a l behavior goals 2. Order and d i s c i p l i n e 3. High expectations 4. Teacher e f f i c a c y 5. Pervasive c a r i n g 6. P u b l i c rewards and i n c e n t i v e s 7. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p 8. Community support ^Researchers: Purkey & Smith (1983) Important o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e v a r i a b l e s : 1. School s i t e management 2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p 3. S t a f f s t a b i l i t y 4. Curriculum a r t i c u l a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n 5. Schoolwide s t a f f development 6. Parental involvement and support 7. Schoolwide r e c o g n i t i o n of academic success 8. Xaximized l e a r n i n g time 9. D i s t r i c t support Important process v a r i a b l e s ( c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a productive school c u l t u r e ) : 1.. C o l l a b o r a t i v e planning and c o l l e g l a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 2. Sense of community 3. C l e a r goals and high expectations commonly shared 4. Order and d i s c i p l i n e ^Researcher: Cohen C1983) Classroom variables: 1. Teacher expectations and r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s based on a high sense of teacher e f f i c a c y 2. Classroom management 3. D i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n School l e v e l v a r i a b l e s : 1. Tight coupling: a r t i c u l a t i o n between goals, ALT, expectations, well-coordinated I n s t r u c t i o n a l program, and resource a l l o c a t i o n 2. P r i n c i p a l l e a d e r s h i p 3. Shared values and c u l t u r e 4 . Teacher c o l l e g i a l i t y *Researcher: MacKenzle <1983> Leadership Dimensions 1. P o s i t i v e c l i m a t e and o v e r a l l atmosphere 2. Goal-focused a c t i v i t i e s 243 3. Teacher-directed classroom management and decision-making 4. In-service t r a i n i n g f a r e f f e c t i v e teaching 5. Shared concensus on goals and values 6. Long range planning and c o o r d i n a t i o n 7. S t a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y of key s t a f f 8. D i s t r i c t l e v e l support f o r school Improvement E f f i c a c y Dimensions 1. E f f e c t i v e use of time 2. O r d e r l y and d i s c i p l i n e d school and classroom environment 3. Continuous diagnosis, evaluation, and feedback 4. V e i l s t r u c t u r e d classroom a c t i v i t i e s 5. I n s t r u c t i o n guided by content coverage 6. Schoolwide emphasis on basic and higher order s k i l l s ^Researchers: Hawley, Rosenholtz, Goodstein, Basse1bring (1984) Leadership behaviors and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s : 1. Development of c l e a r and widely shared goals and t h e i r a r t i c u l a t i o n 2. Maximize the competence of teachers: s e l e c t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , and i n - s e r v i c e 3. Reduce circumstances that take away from i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i n e , maintain student d i s c i p l i n e , f a c i l i t a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l I n t e r a c t i o n among s t a f f , and define r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a l l s t a f f 4. Reduced c l a s s s i z e i n connection with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n t e r a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s 5. A r t i c u l a t i o n of the curriculum i n and between schools 8. Avoid t r a c k i n g and encourage the use of f l e x i b l e forms of a b i l i t y grouping 7. Link schools t o parents and the community 8. Motivate teachers by e s t a b l i s h i n g and maintaining schoolwide norms emphasizing academic achievement, i n v o l v i n g teachers i n decision-making, p r o v i d i n g teachers with frequent and accurate feedback about t h e i r performance, and p r o v i d i n g teachers with o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development ^Researchers: Clark, Lotto, & Astuto (1984) School e f f e c t i v e n e s s p r o p o s i t i o n s : 1. Schools d i f f e r i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , consequently, they matter 2. People matter most i n schools: 2.1 teachers a f f e c t l e a r n i n g by the expectations they hold f o r t h e i r own performance and f o r student l e a r n i n g 2.1 students a f f e c t one another by t h e i r achievement, behavior, and expectations 2.2 school l e v e l a dministrators make a d i f f e r e n c e i n s e t t i n g a climate and by supporting the work of teachers 244 *Researcher: F u l l a n (1985) Organizational v a r i a b l e s : 1. i n s t r u c t i o n a l l y focused leadership at the school l e v e l 2. d i s t r i c t support 3. emphasis on curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n 4. c l e a r goals and high expectations f o r students 5. a system f o r monitoring performance and achievement 6. on-going s t a f f development 7. parental Involvement and support 8. o r d e r l y and secure school climate Process v a r i a b l e s 1. a f e e l f o r the improvement process on the part of leadership 2. a guiding value system 3. Intense i n t e r a c t i o n and communication 4. c o l l a b o r a t i v e planning and implementation *Researchers: Good & Brophy (1986) 1. JTearly a l l the studies support the importance of p r i n c i p a l leadership. The more e f f e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l s : 1.1 emphasize achievement, set i n s t r u c t i o n a l goals, develop performance standards f o r students and express optimism about the a b i l i t y of students to meet i n s t r u c t i o n a l goals; 1.2 are proactive, develop and a r t i c u l a t e a v i s i o n of the school and i t s future and project that v i s i o n i n d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n with teachers; 1.3 take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , observe teachers r e g u l a r l y and discuss t h e i r work problems; 1.4 promote e f f e c t i v e teaching by c r e a t i n g the conditions that enable i t to occur and by preventing or l i m i t i n g i n t r u s i o n s once i t i s underway; 1.5 create shared values and culture; generate a strong sense of community, with commonly shared goals and high expectations f o r student and s t a f f performance; 1.8 create a moral order that e n t a i l s respect f o r authority, genuine and pervasive c a r i n g about i n d i v i d u a l s , respect, t r u s t , and the consistent enforcement of norms of behaviour. 2. Student and f a c u l t y norms and school "ethos" can be shaped by p r i n c i p a l s and teachers and by I n s t r u c t i o n a l features of schools: 2.1 b u i l d i n g l e v e l autonomy, l a t i t u d e f o r i n d i v i d u a l schools to work i n t h e i r own way toward school improvement 2.2 s t r a t e g i c assignment of students to p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s e s 2.3 time f o r teachers to t a l k , v i s i t others classrooms, to plan and evaluate programs 245 2.4 system l e v e l administrators a f f e c t schools by o f f e r i n g psychological and material support. They develop a concensus around a raison d'etre f o r the school d i s t r i c t . 3. Good schools can be characterized as focusing on academic achievement, maintaining high expectations f o r student achievement, a l l o c a t i n g and using ALT e f f i c i e n t l y , maintaining an orderly and supportive school climate, providing learning opportunities f a r teachers as well as students, using regular programs of evaluation and feedback to students. 4. Vhy e f f e c t i v e schools e x i s t , are sustained, f a l l to emerge, or f a i l over time i s unclear. External shocks to and support mechanisms for, schools and systems a s s i s t i n the c r e a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e schools. The key,however l i e s in the people who populate p a r t i c u l a r schools at p a r t i c u l a r times and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n within these organizations. School improvement propositions; 1. Schools and school systems can and do Improve 2. People matter most i n school Improvement programs. 3. Teachers can and w i l l Implement new programs and p r a c t i c e s given a c t i v e leadership from b u i l d i n g and c e n t r a l o f f i c e administrators, a chance f o r planning the implementation process, appropriate t r a i n i n g , opportunities f o r i n t e r a c t i o n , breathing space to t r y and f a l l , and continuous assistance and support. 4. B u i l d i n g l e v e l administrators make a d i f f e r e n c e i n school Improvement programs by e s t a b l i s h i n g a climate of expectations that teachers w i l l s u c c e s s f u l l y Improve p r a c t i c e and by providing on-site coordination, communication, assistance, and support. 5. D i s t r i c t l e v e l administrators a f f e c t school Improvement by e x h i b i t i n g a c t i v e backing i n the form of communicated expectations f o r success, psychological support, needed resources, and l o c a l f a c i l i t a t i o n assistance. 6. External a s s i s t e r s are most e f f e c t i v e at the school l e v e l providing concrete and p r a c t i c a l assistance on Implementation issues such as planning, scheduling, problem-solving, and follow-through. 7. An innovation i s more l i k e l y to be adopted and implemented i f i t i s perceived as having a r e l a t i v e advantage, compatibility, s i m p l i c i t y , and legitimacy. Implementation i s more e f f e c t i v e when the Innovation focuses on a s p e c i f i c need and demonstrates c l a r i t y i n purpose and techniques. 9. S p e c i f i c resources are necessary to support e f f e c t i v e school programs; s t a f f development programs that are t a s k - s p e c i f i c and provide on-going assistance and support; and monetary resources that are adequate to provide the people, materials, and time needed i n the program. 246 3. Teachers bring about the f e e l i n g In students that school achievement goals are legitimate. 4. In times of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t e f f e c t i v e shools have been able to assert the primacy of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l mission around a l i m i t e d set of goals. 5. E f f e c t i v e schools reduce teacher i s o l a t i o n and develop c o l l e g l a l working r e l a t i o n s h i p s and shared problem-solving. *Researcher: Rosenholtz (1986) Organizational context of teacher learning: 1. P r i n c i p a l s set s p e c i f i c goals f o r student learning: 1.1 goals communicate p r i n c i p a l ' s expectations that teachers are capable of making academic progress 1.2 goals provide a basis f o r r a t i o n a l decision-making 1.3 goals provide a basis f o r common expenditure of e f f o r t and f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l dialogue 2. Teacher evaluation i s the bas i s f o r teacher growth and development. 3. B u f f e r i n g t e a c h e r s - i n t e r r u p t i o n s which take time away from i n s t r u c t i o n are minimized. 4. Management of student behavior through the consistent enforcement of expectations. 5. Teacher i s o l a t i o n i s minimized by c o l l a b o r a t i o n among s t a f f members to make teaching a c o l l e c t i v e rather than an i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e . 6. P r i n c i p a l c o l l e g i a l i t y - p r i n c i p a l s encourage c o l l a b o r a t i o n and provide su