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The effects of teacher-made and pupil-made simulation games on student attitudes toward social studies Tiles, Alice Durana 1975

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THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER-MADE AND PUPIL-MADE SIMULATION GAMES ON STUDENT ATTITUDES TOWARD SOCIAL STUDIES  by ALICE DURANA TILES B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of EDUCATION  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard.  (Chairman) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1975  In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirments for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis  I for  scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood that copying or publication of  this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Social Studies  Education  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  ii ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to test the e f f e c t s of teachermade and pupil-made simulation games on student attitudes toward social studies.  A sample of seventy grades four and f i v e students was randomly  assigned to a control group, a teacher-made-simulation treament group or a pupil-made-simulation treatment group.  The control treatment group  was instructed through the analytic approach while the teacher-madesimulation treatment group was instructed through the use of simulation games developed by the researcher.  In the pupil-made-simulation t r e a t -  ment, the students developed and played simulation games within the classroom. The same objectives and i n s t r u c t i o n a l data were employed in each treatment.  The researcher developed this unit following the procedures  u t i l i z e d in recent curriculum development p r a c t i c e .  The inquiry processes  incorporated in this unit were adapted from the analytic and integrative modes of inquiry.  The control treatment u t i l i z e d primarily the analytic  mode while the teacher-made and pupil-made-simulation treatments employed primarily the integrative mode. The researcher administered the three treatments consecutively with each treatment consisting of fourteen i n s t r u c t i o n a l periods.  Student  attitudes toward social studies were evaluated by means of a paired-comparison rating scale.  A pre-test was administered f i v e months p r i o r to  the study and a posttest was administered one week a f t e r the administration of each treatment.  A modified paired comparison rating scale was given  as a delayed posttest to the control and teacher-made-simulation treatment groups on the same day that the pupil-made-simulation treatment received i t s f i r s t posttest.  The posttest mean scores for the three treatments  were adjusted by an analysis of covariance in comparing group performance. Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e and order of differences between treatment group mean scores. The study revealed that students in the teacher-made and p u p i l made-simulation treatments had s i g n i f i c a n t l y more favorable toward social studies  attitudes  than did the children in the control treatment.  The teacher-made and pupi1-made-simulation treatments were found to be equally e f f e c t i v e in influencing favorable student attitudes  toward  iii  social studies.  Conclusions and implications were drawn relevant to  classroom practice and curriculum development.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page LIST OF TABLES.  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  vi i •  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION THE PROBLEMS  II.  1  Statement of the Hypothesis  3  Significance of the Study  3  Methodology  4  Developmental Phase  5  Experimental Phase  6  Definition of Terms  7  Organization of Remainder of Thesis  7  REVIEW OF RESEARCH Student Attitudes Toward Social Stud.ies  III.  Simulation Games  10  Studies in the Area of Curriculum Development  15  Summary  18  METHODOLOGY Subjects  19  Design  19  Description of the Treatments  21  Criterion Instrument  22  Implementation  25  Statistical IV.  8  Procedures  -  25  DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Selection of Major Educational Aims  27  Selection of Concepts from Anthropology  32  Selection of Analytic Inquiry Processes  34  Derivation of Cognitive Objectives Based on Anthropological t  Concepts and the Processes of the  V  Page Analytic Mode of Inquiry  36  Derivation of Cognitive Objectives Based on Anthropological Concepts of the Processes of the Integrative  Mode of Inquiry  41  Derivation of Affective Objectives  44  Selection of Major Organizing Centers  48  Selecting A Major Organizing Center for Testing Purposes  V.  51  Developing Major Organizing Center II:  Treatment A  53  Developing Major Organizing Center II:  Treatment B  61  Developing Major Organizing Center II:  Treatment C  66  ANALYSIS OF DATA Testing of Hypotheses Conclusions  71 ;  Limitations Implications  74 of this Study for Classroom Practice and  Curriculum Development Additional Research Needed APPENDICES BIBLIOGRAPHY....  73  76 77 79 154  vi  LIST OF TABLES Page  I.  The Structure of Each Treatment Group by Grade and Sex  II.  The Hierarchy of Cognitive Objectives U t i l i z i n g the Analytic Mode Of Inquiry  III.  The Hierarchy of Cognitive Objectives U t i l i z i n g the Processes of Comparing and Integrating in the Integrati ve ModeoofMnqufry  IV. V. VI.  Three-Way Analysis of Variance With the Covariate Sum of Squares Removed Adjusted Treatment Group Means Posttest and Delayed Posttest Scores f o r C.T. and T.M.S.T  vii LIST OF FIGURES Page 1.  Desi gn of Study  2.  A Grid of Concepts from Anthropology and Processes of the Analytic Mode of Inquiry  3.  A Grid of Concepts from Anthropology and Processes of the Integrative Mode of Inquiry  4.  A Grid of Substantive and Behavioral Elements of A f f e c t i v e Objectives  5.  Selection of Major Organizing Centers  6.  Sequencing of Major Organizing Centers and Concept Development  7.  Students Study and Discussing H i s t o r i c a l Documents  8.  Students Working With Simulated A r t i f a c t s of Trade Goods..  9.  Children Playing the Otter Box Game....  10.  Children P a r t i c i p a t i n g in The Slide Game...  11.  Children Playing the Sea Otter Hunt Game  12.  Students Devising a Game Using Indian Population Statistics  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer wishes to express a sincere appreciation f o r the generous help and guidance provided by Dr. Doreen Binnington, advisor for this thesis.  The writer also wishes to thank Dr. Dave Williams  for  his assistance, p a r t i c u l a r l y with the computer programming and the s t a t istical  analyses.  The constructive suggestions of Dr. Robert Conry and  Dr. Jack Kehoe are deeply appreciated. The co-operation and assistance of the principal Arnold Bauman, and the teachers E l s i e Linfoot, Judy Dennett and Don Handy from Clayton Elementary School are gratefully acknowledged. The writer also wishes to thank Dorothy McKeil for her untiring assistance in typing this work. F i n a l l y , the understanding and encouragement of my husband John has been a great comfort.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The lack of interest and motivation to learn among students, is a situation of great concern for educators.  This problem appears to have  been p a r t i a l l y created by the f a i l u r e of teachers to present lessons  in an  interesting and stimulating manner.  One subject in p a r t i c u l a r that suffers  from this problem is social studies.  At the classroom level the goals and  intent have changed l i t t l e and rarely r e f l e c t recent research and i n t e r pretations from the various social sciences.  Frequently social studies  taught as a dull exposition based on an outdated text which stresses  is  the  memorization of f a c t s . It dies.  is not s u r p r i s i n g , therefore, that students d i s l i k e social 1 2  Investigations by Herman  and Reynolds  stu-  have concluded that social  studies is one of the least popular subjects taught in school.  This lack  of motivation i n , and unfavorable attitude toward social studies, is the basic question to which this research addresses THE PROBLEMS  itself.  Three problems are advanced in this study. by the situation commented on above.  The f i r s t one is  raised  Abt has demonstrated that students who  are not motivated to learn in school are frequently motivated in other ae3 t i v i t i e s such as games.  Simulation gaming is an educational technique that  u t i l i z e s the c h i l d ' s spontaneity to play.  Enthusiasts  of this technique  claim that i t has many advantages, but the most consistent claim is  that  learning through simulation games is an i n t e r e s t i n g , enjoyable and highly motivating experience. Although advocates of simulation games claim that many advantages are derived through the participation in these games, the research data, parti c u l a r l y in the a f f e c t i v e domain, is sketchy and dlraconclusive.  Cohen has  pointed out that more studies must be made to determine the e f f e c t of games 'Wayne L. Herman, J r . , 'JHow Intermediate Children Rank the Subjects," Journal of Educational Research, LVI (April 1963), pp. 339-345 4  2 Mary S. Reynolds, "Needed: A Social Studies Explosion," Journal of Geography LXV, (Dec. 1966), pp. 429-432. 3 Clark C. Abt, Serious Games (New York: Viking Press, 1970), p. 420  1  2 on students'  attitudes and values'*.  Thus this need for further studies  raises the f i r s t problem to be dealt with in this research paper. Will children enrolled in an experimental class for the study of culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating teacher-made-simulation games, achieve a s i g n i f icantly more favorable attitude toward social studies than w i l l students enrolled in a similar study without simulation games? If  the proponents of simulation games are c o r r e c t , the results of  playing commercially produced or teacher-madessimulations should result in s i g n i f i c a n t changes in student attitudes.  This raises a c r i t i c a l  issue  not thoroughly researched, namely, the e f f e c t of pupil-made-simulations on student attitudes toward social studies.  Past experiences with stu-  dents in the classroom leads this researcher to believe that students would be deeply involved and highly motivated as a result of the development of, and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , t h e i r own simulation games.  This ex-  perience may be s u f f i c i e n t l y motivating to favorably influence the students' attitude toward social studies.  This possibiT.jtyf?ohoweverbahas  not been thoroughly investigated. The lack of research in this area gives r i s e to the second problem to be dealt with in this study. Will children enrolled in an experimental class for the study of culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating student-made-simulation games, achieve a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more favorable attitude toward social studies than w i l l  students  enrolled in a s i m i l a r study without simulation games? It appears that teacher-made and pupil-made simulations may be e f f e c t i v e in influencing favorable student attitudes.  If  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  teacher-made-simulations is s u f f i c i e n t l y motivating to influence student attitudes toward social studies, perhaps the same result w i l l be achieved  Karen Cohen, Effects of Two Simulation Games on the Opinions and Attitudes of Selected S i x t h , Seventh, and Eighth Grade Students (Baltimore, W: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED031766, 1969), p. 16.  3 with the pupil-made-simulations  since the students are not only part-  i c i p a t i n g in games, but also developing them.  The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t -  iveness of these two approaches has not been rigorously  investigated.  The paucity of research on this topic gives rise to the t h i r d problem to be dealt with in this  investigation.  Will children enrolled in an experimental class for the study o f culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating student-made-simulation  games, achieve no s i g n i f -  icant difference in t h e i r attitude toward social  studies  from students enrolled in a s i m i l a r study with teachermade-simulation games? STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESES The purpose of this study w i l l be an attempt to test the following hypotheses: 1.  Children enrolled in an experimental class for the study of culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating teacher-made-simulation games, w i l l achieve a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more favorable attitude toward social studies than w i l l children enrolled in a s i m i l a r study without simulations.  2.  Children enrolled in an experimental class for the study of culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating student-made-simulation games, w i l l achieve a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more favorable attitude toward social studies than w i l l children enrolled in a s i m i l a r study without simulations.  3.  Children enrolled in an experimental class for the study of culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating student-made-simulation  games, w i l l achieve no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference in t h e i r attitude toward social studies from students enrolled in a s i m i l a r study with teacher-madesimulation games. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Most research on simulation games has u t i l i z e d commercially produced games and has focused on students'  cognitive learning.  There i s a  need for further studies on the effects of simulation games on the a f f e c t i v e  4 domain.  In addition, few studies focus on the effects of teacher-made-  and pupil-made simulation games.  Perhaps this investigation w i l l  give  some insight into these areas of needed research. Hodgetts, moreover, has pointed out that students have an apathy toward Canadian history.  They find l i t t l e in t h e i r nation's past which  is interesting and meaningful  to them, and p r a c t i c a l l y no source of i n -  spiration for t h e i r cultural heritage.  Hodgetts stressed that new mate5  r i a l s and appropriate teaching strategies  should be developed.  This study is an attempt to develop) new materials and to test the teaching strategy of simulation games in one area of the elementary social studies curriculum, namely, Culture Change Among the Nootka Indians.  As  Canadian data w i l l be used in this study, i t should be of importance for B r i t i s h Columbia educators.  Simulations may prove to be an interesting and  e f f e c t i v e technique for teaching history in our schools. At present there is a need for innovation in education p a r t i c u l a r l y in the area of s o c i a l studies.  Becker has stressed that schools  remain s t a t i c in a rapidly changing society. must be attempted.  Becker further states  cannot  New techniques and strategies  that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for inn-  ovation must rest with teachers who make t h e i r own plans and devise t h e i r own strategies  .  This paper is an attempt by a classroom teacher to invest-  igate the effectiveness of simulation games using materials developed by herself for use in social  studiessinstruction. METHODOLOGY  Three main steps were involved in the methodology of this 1.  study.  The developmental phase included the selecting of aims and objectives; selecting and sequencing major organizing centers and developing and r e f i n i n g the instructional program. this  2.  Institute  The c r i t e r i o n instrument was also developed at  stage.  The experimental phase involved the pre and posttesting of  A.B. Hodgetts, What Culture? What Heritage? (Toronto: for Studies in Education, 1968), pp. 116-121.  James Becker, "Organizing for Change: The Individual System," Social Education (March 1973), p. 194.  Ontario in the  5 the control and experimental groups through the use of the c r i t e r i o n instrument as well as the administration of the three treatments. 3.  The data obtained from the tests were analyzed and conclusions were reached.' THE DEVELOPMENTAL PHASE  Development of the social studies  unit  The same social studies unit, Culture Change Among the Nootka Indians, was used with the three treatment groups.  The procedure for  unit development was based on the Binnington model^ for humanistic  o curriculum development.  Bruner's curriculum Man:  A Course of Study,  provided f i v e social studies concepts used in this study, namely, technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing, language and world view. In addition, the concept of culture change was u t i l i z e d .  Inquiry pro-  cesses used in this unit were adapted from the analytic and integrative 9 modes of inquiry described in the C a l i f o r n i a State Framework.  While  the three treatments used the same learning materials, the method of instruction varied. The Control Treatment The control treatment involved instruction through the " t r a d i t i o n a l " or analytic approach.  The children engaged in such a c t i v i t i e s  as l i s t e n i n g to lectures; taking part in class and group, discussions; studying learning materials and answering questions.  These instructional  materials included documents, s l i d e s , sketches and simulated a r t i f a c t s . The Teacher-Made-Simulation Treatment For this treatment the children participated in simulation games 'Doreen Bethune Binnington, "The Development of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Based on an Integration of EthnomusicoTogy and the Social Studies" (unpublished Doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n , U.C.L.A. 1973). 8 Jerome Bruner, Toward a Theory of Instruction Massachusetts: Bel knap Press, (1966), pp. 73-101.  (Cambridge,  Q  Social Scifte'riees Education Framework for C a l i f o r n i a Public Schools (Sacramentol State Curriculum Committee, 1968).  6 developed by the teacher.  Working in groups, the children assumed  the role of Nootka Indians engaged in such a c t i v i t i e s as hunting the sea otter and trading the pelts for needed items.  A class debriefing  session followed each game. The Student-Made-Simulation  Treatment  After playing one teacher-made-simulation game, and discussing the structure of others, the children working in groups, attempted to devise t h e i r own simulations.  The students played the games in class  and suggested revisions. EXPERIMENTAL PHASE Research Design The experimental phase of this study used a pretest-posttest design, employing two experimental groups and one control group.  The  pretest was administered several months p r i o r to the implementation of the study and the posttest was administered one week a f t e r each t r e a t ment.  The c o n t r o l , and the teacher-made-simulation treatments  also  received a delayed posttest. A sample of three grade four and f i v e classes was randomly assigned to each of the three treatment groups.  The treatments were  administered consecutively by the researcher. Analysis  Phase Data on the effects of the three treatments on student attitudes  toward social studies was obtained through the use of a paired-comparison rating s c a l e .  The posttest class mean scores were used for the comparison  of treatment e f f e c t s .  The overall d i f f e r e n t i a l effects among the three  treatments were tested by means of a three-way analysis the covariate sum of squares removed.  of variance with  The pretest scores were used as  the covariates and the adjusted posttest scores on the dependent variable were the c r i t e r i a .  C r i t i c a l F ratios were presented for the main effects  and interactions of grade, sex and treatment variables on subject preference, the dependent variable. significant  Since the F test ratios indicated a  treatment e f f e c t , the Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used  to determine the order and significance of the differences.  7 DEFINITION OF TERMS Simulation Games-Constitutive  Definition  A simulation game is any technique which places a learner in a social environment and requires him to respond to gamesprocedures; the learner discovers for himself the theoretical basis of his actions and is led to conceptualize about the practical consequences of his course . . . 10 ' of action. A  /  Simulation Games -OperationaiTeDeifinitrion Simulation games are situations  in which students assume the  roles of decision makers in an imitated environment according to speci f i e d procedures or rules. the results of his  Through playing the role a student learns  actions.  Attitude - Constitutive Definition An attitude is a r e l a t i v e l y enduring system of evaluative, a f f e c t ive reactions based upon and r e f l e c t i n g the evaluative concepts or b e l i e f s which have been learned about characteristics of a social object or class of social  objects  Attitude - Operational Definition An attitude is a response by which an individual indicates where he assigns the object of judgment along a dimension of v a r i a b i l i t y .  The  dimension of v a r i a b i l i t y is usually an evaluative one such as the des i r a b i l i t y of social  studies.  ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THESIS The general plan for the remainder of the thesis is as outlined below.  The following chapter reviews research related to the purpose of  this investigation.  The methodology, including a description of the  evaluative instrument u t i l i z e d in this study is given in Chapter  III.  A v i t a l aspect of this research is the development of the instructional unit.  Chapter IV gives a description of this procedure.  Chapter V  outlines the steps in the analysis of data as well as giving the conclusions, limitations  and implications pertinent to this  ^ S . Brodbelt, "Simulation in Social Studies: Education, (Feb. 1969), pp. 176-178.  investigation.  An Overview, "Social  ^Marvin E. Shaw and J.W. Wright,Scales for the Measuremsnti^f Attitudes (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Co., 1967), p. 8.  CHAPTER  II  REVIEW OF RESEARCH Innthe l a s t chapter i t was noted that, in l i t e r a t u r e examined, no studies were found which attempted to change student attitudes towards social studies through the use of simulation games.  This chapter w i l l r e -  view the l i t e r a t u r e appropriate for the purpose of this work.  These topics  include studies related to student attitudes towards social studies; i n vestigations  on the effects of simulation games on student interest and  motivation and studies in the area of curriculum development. STUDENT ATTITUDES TOWARD SOCIAL STUDIES The topic of student attitudes towards social studies has not been thoroughly or rigorously investigated.  One of the e a r l i e r studies in this  area was conducted by J e r s l i d and Tasch^.  The purpose of this study was to  examine children's wishes, i n t e r e s t s , likes and d i s l i k e s as related to a variety of topics.  An Interest  Finder questionnaire was administered o r a l l y ,  or in written form, to over 3000 grade one through twelve students. In the area of subject preference, social studies was indicated as the most unpopular subject, p a r t i c u l a r l y among grades four through six students.  The unfavorable attitude toward social studies becomes even  more s i g n i f i c a n t since many of the students also indicated a great interest in social studies topics.  In view of this finding J e r s l i d and Taseh con-  tend that the children's attitudes towards social studies might have been d i f f e r e n t i f the subject were taught by way of issues  that touched on the  children's feelings and that have significance in t h e i r l i v e s . 2 In studies reported by Chase and Wilson  , social studies was i n -  dicated as one of the least preferred school subjects, p a r t i c u l a r l y among girls.  Studies, over a ten year period, from 1947 to 1957 indicated  scarecely any growth in preference for this subject. Arthur T. J e r s l i d and R.J. Tasch, Children's Interest and What They Suggest for Education (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1949).  2 W. Linwood Chase and Gilbert M. Wilson, "Preference Studies in Elementary School Social Studies," Journal of Education, CXL (April 1958), pp. 1-28.  8  9 A l a t e r study was undertaken by Robert Curry five students.  J  involving 43,979 grade  On a questionnaire, the children indicated t h e i r subject  preference from a l i s t of ten s k i l l s  and content areas.  Results indicated  a gradual drop in the popularity of social studies since the given by Chase and Wilson.  investigations  When the stated preferences of the boys and  g i r l s were combined, social studies was rated as the most unpopular subject taught in school. 4  Stimulated by e a r l i e r studies, Herman  sought to test student at-  titudes towards social studies using a multi-dimensional approach to measurement. all  His sample consisted of 214 grades four to six students.  When  the children in the sample were considered, social studies items on an  Interest Inventory were rejected more frequently than were items of any other subject.  When students were asked which subject they liked the l e a s t ,  social studies and English were mentioned most frequently. As a result of this study, Herman concluded that high student i n terest should be u t i l i z e d to optimum advantage and that attempts should be made to raise low interest levels by introducing a variety of teaching modes and a c t i v i t i e s . 5  Mary Reynolds  reported s i m i l a r results as Herman regarding  attitudes  towards social studies when she interviewed t h i r t y adults and t h i r t y s t u dents throughout the United States about t h e i r l e a s t - l i k e d school subjects. Out of the sixty p a r t i c i p a n t s , forty-seven indicated social studies as t h e i r most unpopular subject.  The respondents reported they d i s l i k e d such things  as memorizing facts and dates, and reading from texts and answering questions.  Reynolds stresses  that these results r e f l e c t teaching techniques  that are common in many schools. In these studies c i t e d , numerous limitations were noted in the i n struments and techniques employed to determine student subject preference. Robert Curry, "Subject Preference of Fiftji-grade C h i l d r e n " , Peabody Journal of Education, XLI (July 1963), pp. 23-27. 4 Wayne L. Herman, J r . , "How Intermediate Children Rank the Subjects," Journal of Educational Research, LVI (April 1963), pp. 339-345. J  5  Mary S. Reynolds, "Needed: A Social Studies Explosion," Journal of Geography, LXV (Dec. 1966), pp. 429-432.  10 Measurement was further limited by the lack of an ideal subject preference pattern against which results could be evaluated.  S i m i l a r l y , no attempts  were made to give a c l i n i c a l analysis of the motives underlying student responses.  Lastly, findings to date have been based on ex post facto  descriptive and correlational studies.  There is a need for investigations  on student subject preference based upon sound experimental design.  It  is  hoped this study can make some contribution in this area. Although these studies have several l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e i r remarkably consistent findings warrant consideration by educators. can serve a twofold purpose:  These findings  to indicate the general effectiveness, or  ineffectiveness, of our instructional program, and to indicate the need for a special e f f o r t in motivating students in the area of social  studies.  Favorable attitudes towards a school subject are important since, as Strikland points out: It is assumed that attitudes play an important role in school performance; that a c h i l d with favorable attitudes w i l l achieve more and be better adjusted; and that the adjustment and achievement thus created w i l l f a c i l i t a t e one another. The problem of motivation, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the elementary grades, becomes more s i g n i f i c a n t when one realizes that the attitudes and s k i l l s developed in young children usually determine t h e i r l a t e r performance-^ Therefore, from the preceding studies, one can conclude that many students d i s l i k e social studies.  This problem appears to stem from archaic  teaching methods that do not s a t i s f y the needs of interests of today's students.  The purpose of this study is to investigate a teaching technique  that may enhance favorable student attitudes towards social studies.  The  technique selected for this purpose is simulation games. SIMULATION GAMES Simulation Games and Student Interest in the Learning Process A review of the literature reveals that few innovative teaching devices have experienced such enthusiastic and u n c r i t i c a l acceptance as Guy S t r i c k l a n d , Development of a School Attitude Questionnaire for Young Children (U.C.L.A. Graduate School of Education, Center for the Study of Evaluation, July 1970, ERIC ED043919), p. 1.  11 simulations.  In spite of the popularity of simulation games empirical  evidence i s limited and contradictory concerning t h e i r effectiveness as a teaching device.  It  appears, however, that simulation games have t h e i r  greatest impact in the area of i n t e r e s t , motivation and affective learning. In a magor review of six e a r l i e r studies, Cherryholmes  7  reported  that the only consistent finding was that students p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a simulation game revealed more interest and motivation in the game than in more conventional classroom a c t i v i t y . value of simulations  These early researchers i d e n t i f i e d the  as a powerful motivational device.  This conclusion en-  couraged other researchers to investigate the effects of simulations  in the  affective realm.  o One study focusing on this area was undertaken by Cohen  and involved  76 grades s i x , seven and eight students enrolled in the "Speedway" summer program.  The students played The Democracy Game and The Consumer Game for f i v e  days in place of t h e i r regular English classes.  Informal questionnaires were  administered before and after participation in the games. The students indicated they enjoyed the games and consistently preferred them to the, regular classroom situation on a variety of dimensions.  The stu-  dents reported the games were easier and more interesting than t h e i r regular school work; gave them a better idea of how well they were doing; involved more competition with other students; made better use of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and allowed them more independence and freedom to work on t h e i r own. ful outcome of this study confirmed e a r l i e r findings  The success-  and gave some insight  into  the reasons why children responded so well to the simulation games. As a result of the success of the e a r l i e r study, the Consumer Game was t r i e d again in a regular school setting on grade seven students who were t r u ancy problems and uninterested in the regular school program.  One class played  the game for f i v e sessions and served as a treatment group while another class served as a control group and was not exposed to the game.  Questionnaires were  'Cleo H. Cherryholmes, "Some Current Research on Effectiveness of Educational Simulations: Implications for Alternative S t r a t e g i e s " , American Behavioral S c i e n t i s t (Oct. 1966), pp. 4-7. Karen C. Cohen, The Effects of Two Simulation Games on the Opinions and Attitudes of Selected S i x t h , Seventh, and Eighth Grade Students (Baltimore, Mdl ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED031766, 1969). 8  12 completed by the students following the f i v e day treatment period. The students who played the simulation game reported that they q  found school more i n t e r e s t i n g .  Cohen  concluded, however, that the most  s t r i k i n g result did not appear in the questionnaire but in the behavior of the students.  They requested to play the game on t h e i r free time  and t h e i r attendance record improved markedly during the week they played the game.  It appears that even this short exposure to the game had suf-  f i c i e n t impact to influence the students attitude not only toward the game, but also, toward school in general. A study s i m i l a r to Cohen's investigations was'undertaken by Lee and O ' L e a r y ^ and focused on the learning effects of a three-day immersion in the Inter-Nation  Simulation as played by high school seniors.  A group  of t h i r t y experimental subjects played the game while a control group o f forty-one subjects engaged in debates, panels and preparation of research papers on various topics on international a f f a i r s .  As part of the e v a l -  uation, a questionnaire was administered to obtain subjective reactions o f students to the simulation experience. The students reported that the simulation was a valuable and enjoyable learning experience that taught them about people and real world problems.  The researchers commented that this study implied that student  enjoyment was v i t a l to achieve the more profound kinds of learning objectives addressed by simulation games.  Beyond enjoyment, the study revealed  that simulation could envoke deep and powerful emotional forces which became enmeshed in the learning process and made i t an e x c i t i n g experience. In addition, the students indicated that they preferred the simulation to the t r a d i t i o n a l classroom teaching approach.  They strongly  agreed that simulations should be used in a l l high school social  studies  classes. Although there was a marked increase in the appreciation of the course, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t change in the students evaluation of social studies.  Perhaps a favorable change would have been noted i f the  9 Karen C. Cohen, "Effects of the 'Consumer Game' on learning and Attitudes of Selected Seventh Grade Students in a Target-Area School" (Baltimore, Md: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED038733, 1970). ^ R o b e r t ' s . Lee and Arlene O'Leary, "Attitude and Personality Effects of a Three-day Simulation," Simulation and Games II (Sept. 1971), pp. 309347.  1.3 students participated in games for a more extended period rather than in only one highly appreciated peak learning experience. In an attempt to get a more objective evaluation of student a t titudes toward learning, Stadklev^  developed an attitude scale and suc-  cessfully compared simulations with another teaching method covering the same information on the Constitution of America.  The treatment lasted for  ten days and involved two matched grade ten classes.  One class played the  simulation games and served as the treatment group, while another class served as a control group and was taught through the lecture-discussion method.  Pre- and posttests were administered to determine student at-  titudes toward the instructional program. The results showed that the, experimental group had assign i f i. can t l y more positive reaction to t h e i r experience than did the control group. The students of the simulation group indicated the instructional experience had been enjoyable, meaningfulaand that they had been a l e r t , attentive an|d involved in the learning s i t u a t i o n . formation was gained in a more meaningful context.  It was noted that i n Above a l l , the stu-  dents agreed that the learning experience was interesting and had stimulated t h e i r creative thinking. Stadklev concludes that games appear to be a powerful educational tool for influencing attitudes and values.  He stresses  that this device  appears to create a positive attitude toward learning which is v i t a l to the educational processes. Thus, in most of these studies c i t e d , researchers enthusiastically endorse the use of simulation games p a r t i c u l a r l y because of t h e i r effec= tiveness in generating student i n t e r e s t , involvement and motivation.  They  feel that i t is a powerful education tool that could be used to r e v i t a l i z e the educational program.  On the basis of these contentions, perhaps sim-  ulations could be used to create more favorable student attitudes toward social studies which is the purpose of this While most studies on simulations in motivating students, the findings i c a l l y conclusive.  investigation.  conclude that they are e f f e c t i v e  are by no means unanimous or empir-  Part of the problem stems from the weakness of the  Ronald Stadklev, "A Comparative Study of Simulation Gaming and Lecture-Discussion Method" (unpublished Master's t h e s i s , Northern State College, 1969).  14 experimental design of the studies.  Most researchers, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the  early period, f a i l e d to erect a firm theoretical foundation on which to base f i e l d work.  In comparative studies, for example, researchers had d i f f i c u l t i e s  matching a game with another teaching device in terms of subject matter covered. Conclusions as to what factors determine success or f a i l u r e of a game could ,not be reached because of a lack of knowledge of s p e c i f i c variables involved in simulations.  The problems were further compounded by lack of control of  non-experimental variables which might be operating during the game. Although most research on simulations has been in the cognitive realm, most suppositions  about them have been in the a f f e c t i v e realm.  Unfortunately  these suppositions are based on informal observations or subjective written evaluations since most researchers had not devised v a l i d or r e l i a b l e e v a l uative instruments.  Taking these problems into consideration, i t is the aim  of this study to employ  a-more rigorous experimental design to evaluate the  effectiveness of simulations  in influencing student attitudes toward social  studies, an area that has not been thoroughly investigated. Student-Made-Simul ation-Games In professional l i t e r a t u r e , frequent references have been made to student developed simulations.  Studies in this area, however, are meager. 12  One of the few investigations on this topic was undertaken by Shellyv.  The  purpose was to have university students develop, test and revise simulation games.  Questionnaires were administered before, during and a f t e r the devel-  opmental process. The students respondeddvery p o s i t i v e l y to the process of total class game development.. The quality of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n as estimated by the pupils was high.  Shelly stresses  that the motivational power of constructing  and playing simulation games was evidenced by the high level of involvement and s a t i s f a c t i o n experienced by the students. As a result of this study, Shelly concluded that i t is possible for students to devise simulation games for class use. to guide game development.  Shelly produced a model  A modified version of this model was used in this  study. 12 Anne Converse Shelly, "Total Class Involvement in Simulation Game Development" (unpublished Doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n , Michigan State University, 1973).  15 Since i t appears that the development of simulation games creates a positive student response, perhaps the experience is s u f f i c i e n t l y sati s f y i n g to favorably influence student attitudes toward social  studies.  This study w i l l investigate this p o s s i b i l i t y u t i l i z i n g a sample of e l e mentary school children. A necessary step in this research involves the development of a social studies unit to provide the aims, objectives and instructional mater i a l s for the treatment groups.  For purposes of this task, some works in  the area of curriculum development were consulted. STUDIES IN THE AREA OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 13 Bruner's award winning curriculum, Mari:  A Course of Study,  in-  vestigated whether objectives r e l a t i n g to basic social studies concepts could be feasibly used in elementary school.  This widely used curriculum  u t i l i z e d f i v e major ethnological concepts; technology, social language, c h i l d rearing and world view.  organization,  The concept development s p i r a l s t  through d i f f e r e n t levels as children inquire into the l i f e of the salmon, the baboon and the culture of the N e t s i l i k Eskimo of the past.  Emphasis  -is placed on the Eskimo unit wherein the children explore the meaning of man's humanness by f i n d i n g s i m i l a n i t i e s and differences between themselves and the N e t s i l i k people.  Subject matter organization and inquiry processes  are directed through diverse instructional method and media toward three recurring questions: "What is human about human beings? How did he get that way? How can he be made more so?"  14  The curriculum was evaluated on a population of 2,182 p u p i l s , l o cated in classrooms  across the United States.  by a multi-dimensional approach.  The students were tested  Evaluation results give supportive  data to the contention that elementary children can learn the ethnograhic concepts of technology, social organization, language, c h i l d 1  1o Jerome Bruner, Toward a Theory of Instruction Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 1966), pp. 73-101. 1 4  I b i d . , p. 74.  (Cambridge,  16 rearing and world view and apply them in contrastive analysis of s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between various species of the animal kingdom including man. This p r o j e c t , which involves the development of a social studies u n i t , w i l l employ these findings as evidence that the concepts can be employed successf u l l y as organizaing elements in unit development. 15 After a thorough study of works by scholars in the f i e l d ,  Binnington  devised a procedure for humanistic curriculum development based on an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y model deriving objectives and methods from eethnomusicology and social studies.  The study related two scholarly f i e l d s in a humanistic cur-  riculum focusing upon the study of the Barrow Eskimo and directed toward upper elementary pupils.  It developed a step by step procedure indicating how  scholarly resources were consulted for objectives, instructional methods and materials that could guide a c h i l d ' s inquiry into his relationship with humani t y . This model consists of the following steps and procedures: Step one: Derivation of Aims and Objectives. 1.  Derivation of aims.  2.  Selection and validation of major concepts and processes of efchhomusicology.  3.  Derivation of cognitive and affective objectives based on eeithnomusicology.  4.  Selection of major concepts from social  studies.  5.  Derivation of cognitive objects from processes of ethnomusicology and concepts of social studies.  6. Step two:  Screening instructional objectives.  OrganizitnggMajor Centers of the Curriculum. 1.  Selecting major organizing centers.  2.  Sequencing major organizing centers.  Step three:  Developing and Refining the Instructional  Program.  1.  Developing ethnomusicology resources.  2.  Selecting learning opportunities through which children may achieve the curriculum objectives.  Doreen Bethune Binnington, "The Development of an I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Curriculum Based on an Integration of Ethnomusicology and the Social Studies" (unpublished Doctor's Dissertation, U.C.L. A., 1973).  17 3.  Selecting data needed for achieving objectives of each organizing center.  4.  Refining the curriculum through a classroom tryout.  5.  Presenting the program of i n s t r u c t i o n .  6.  Discussing observations and implications.  16  A formative evaluation of the Barrow Eskimo curriculum derived from the Binnington model was carried out using a sample of s i x t y - s i x grades four to six students.  The comments of the teachers and students taking part in  the evaluation indicated that the model had successfully produced a curriculum that brought about favorable cognitive and affective learning. The above was used in this study to outline the procedures followed i t s curriculum development. given in Chapter IV.  A more detailed description of the procedure is  While Binnington u t i l i z e d the processes o f ethnomuic-  ology in the development of the. curriculurn, this study employed the processes of the analytic and integrative modes of social science inquiry as described in the C a l i f o r n i a State Framework. The C a l i f o r n i a State Framework^ was developed by a group of renowned social s c i e n t i s t s and educators to meet the needs of today's students in our modern world.  This program was to be used in C a l i f o r n i a schools from kinder-  garten through to grade twelve.  It was based on the premise that an e f f e c t i v e  curriculum in social sciences education must have Ithree components.  First,  i t must have the concepts and generalizations drawn from the social sciences. Second, i t must have the settings  and topics which serve as the selected  samples of human experience both past and present.: T h i r d , i t must employ the processes or methods of investigating and the modes or ways of learning used in the social sciences. The three modes of inquiry u t i l i z e d within the framework are: a n a l y t i c , the integrative and the policy or valuing modes.  the  Since this study  is concerned with the analytic and integrative modes, they w i l l  discussed  more f u l l y . The analytic mode is used in the systematic analysis of urban geo-  1 6  I b i d . , pp. 41-42.  ^ S o c i a l Sciences Education for C a l i f o r n i a Public Schools (Sacramento: Report of the Statewide Social Sciences Study Committee to the State Curriculum Commission and the C a l i f o r n i a State Board of Education, 1968).  18 graphic, economic, h i s t o r i c a l or other cultural phenomena selected for study in depth.  The central thrust of the analytic mode seeks to e x p l a i n , "Why do .  these phenomena behave as they do?". The processes of the analytic mode are: observing, c l a s s i f y i n g , d e f i n i n g , contrasting, generalizing, i n f e r r i n g and communicating. On the other hand, the integrative mode is employed in studies designed to provide a r e l a t i v e l y complete or h o l i s t i c synthesis of the diverse factors involved in a p a r t i c u l a r time or place.  The questions basic to the  integrative mode are, "Who am I or who are we or who are they?". The processes of the integrative mode are observing, c l a s s i f y i n g , defining, comparing, integrating, i n f e r r i n g and communicating.  While the central process  in the analytic mode is generalization, in the integrative mode i t is hol i s t i c integration. The developers of the C a l i f o r n i a State Framework stress that students should employ the total cycle of processes described in the inquiry modes which have been developed and tested by social s c i e n t i s t s  in t h e i r study of  man in society. SUMMARY A review of the l i t e r a t u r e reveals that many students have unfavorable attitudes toward social studies.  This attitude may be the r e s u l t of unin-  s p i r i n g instructional methods.  A teaching technique that may enhance student  i n t e r e s t is simulation games.  Unfortunately, however, the effects of  teacher-made and pupil-made simulations  on student attitudes toward social  studies have not been thoroughly or rigorously investigated.  The present study  w i l l investigate this problem. For purposes of this study i t is necessary to develop a social unit.  To aid in this process, Bruner's Man:  studies  A Course of Study was consulted  for evidence that his f i v e major ethnological concepts could be successfully applied to elementary children. unit.  These concepts were incorporated into this  The Binnington Model for humanistic curriculum development was studied  to provide guidelines on the procedures to be followed in unit development. The inquiry processes to be used in the derivation of the unit's  objectives  were adopted from the analytic and integrative modes of inquiry as described in the C a l i f o r n i a State Framework.  CHAPTER  III  METHOD This chapter describes (1) the subjects (2) the design (3) the treatments (4) the instrument (5) the implementation of the study and (6) the s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis. SUBJECTS  The subjects for this study were students from three, grade four and f i v e classes enrolled at Clayton Elementary School, in Surrey, B r i t i s h Columbia.  The children in this school are predominantly from r u r a l , middle-  class homes.  The subjects ranged in age from eight to twelve years,  i t a t i o n of the classes was possible due to:  a) t h e i r geographic  solic-  accessibility  b) the permission of the administration c) the cooperation of the teachers and d) the ease by which the children could be randomly assigned to three groups. In t h e i r homeroom classes, the children had been following the program of instruction as outlined in the B r i t i s h Columbia Social Curriculum Guide.  Studies  The students had no p r i o r experience with simulation games. DESIGN  Initially,  seventy-three students were involved m  the study but with  a mortal ity,yrate of three, data on seventy students was analyzed.  Using a  table of random numbers, the students were assigned to a teacher-made-simulation (T.M.S.T.), group (C.T.).  pupil-made simulation (P.M.S.T.) or a control treatment  The structure of each group by grade and sex is given in Table TABLE I THE STRUCTURE OF EACH TREATMENT GROUP BY GRADE AND SEX Grade 4 Male  C.T.  6  T.M. S.T. P.M.  S.T.  Grade 5 Male  Female  Totals Female  5  7.  6  24  6  5  6  6  23  6  4  5  8  23  18  14  18  20  70  19  I.  20 The experimental design f o r this study was based on the pretestposttest control group design described by Campbell and Stanley^. treatment groups and one control group were involved.  Two  Timetable d i f -  f i c u l t i e s necessitated the consecutive administration of the treatments. All  groups were taught the same material but the method of instruction varied.  The control group was taught through the t r a d i t i o n a l or analytic mode.  One  treatment group was taught by teacher-made-simulations while the other was instructed through student-made-simulations. several months p r i o r to the investigation. posttest was given.  Pretests were administered One week a f t e r each treatment a  In an e f f o r t to cope with the problems of history main  effects and interactions of history X treatments and maturation X treatments, a modified paired-comparison scale was given to the control group and the teacher-made-simulation group on the same day the student-made-simulation group was administered t h e i r posttest.  The design of this study is given  in Figure 1. C.T.  R  0-,  X  p  T.M.S.T.  R  0  1  X  S.M.S.T.  R  0  1  _X  A  2  0  B  2  C  FIGURE 1. DESIGN OF STUDY C.T.  - Control Group  T.M.S.T.  - Teacher-Made-Simulation Group  S.M.S.T.  - Student-Made-Simulation Group  X^  - Control Treatment  Xg  - Teacher-Made-Simulation Treatment  X^  - Student-Made-Simulation Treatment  0-j  - Pre-test  0  2  - Posttest  0  Q  - Delayed Posttest  Donald T. Campbell and Julian C. Stanley, Experimental and QuasiExperimental Designs f o r Research (Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Co., 1963), pp. 13-25.  p  3  0  3  0  2  21  THE DESCRIPTION OF THE TREATMENTS The instructional programs employed in this study were developed and taught by the researcher. logical  Each treatment focused upon the same anthropo-  concepts and the same t o p i c , culture change among the Nootka Indians  during the fur trade period, and employed the same data.  Each group spent  approximately half the instructional time in group work, while the remaining time was spent in class 'discussion and individual seatwork.  Each student's  assignments were checked daily by the researcher and b r i e f records were kept noting each c h i l d ' s progress.  See Chapter IV for a more detailed description  of the treatments and t h e i r development. The Control Treatment - C.T. Students in the control treatment engaged p r i n c i p a l l y in the " t r a d i tional""method of social studies i n s t r u c t i o n .  Usually each lesson was  x  ini-  tiated by the teacher giving an introduction or lecture on the topic of study, followed by group work on primary source data and ending with a class d i s cussion of each group's and answered questions. sketches, slides  findings.  The children studied learning materials  These materials included h i s t o r i c a l documents,  and simulated a r t i f a c t s .  The lessons  aimed at engaging the  students in the total cycle of analytic inquiry processes adapted from the  2 C a l i f o r n i a State Framework.  These processes are observing,  classifying,  defining, contrasting, generalizing, i n f e r r i n g and communicating. thrust of the students'  The central  inquiry sought to answer the question, "Why do these  phenomena behave as they do?"  Each student made a Re'source Booklet on his  inquiry results. The Teacher-Made-Simulation-Treatment - T.M. S.T. The students of this group engaged p r i n c i p a l l y in tions.  teacher-made-simula=  The usual class procedure involved f i r s t , the introduction of the game;  second the assignment and studying of the r o l e s ; t h i r d , the playing of the game; fourth, the debriefing session where the strengths  and weaknesses  of the  games were discussed and l a s t l y , the checking of the accuracy of the game  2 Social Sciences Education Framework for C a l i f o r n i a Public Schools (Sacramento: Report of the Statewide Social Sciences Study Committee to the State Curriculum Commision and the C a l i f o r n i a State Board of Education, 1968), pp. 9-19.  22 by consulting primary data sources described in the control treatment. The students kept individual and group records of each game's progress and summaries of information that had been learned.  The simulations  aimed  at engaging the students in total cycle of the integrative inquiry processes 3 adopted from the C a l i f o r n i a State Framework.  These processes are observing,  c l a s s i f y i n g , defining, comparing, integrating, i n f e r r i n g and communicating. This mode of inquiry addresses  i t s e l f to the identity questions, "Who am I  or who are we or who are they?" The Student-Made-Simulation  -Treatment - S.M.S.T.  The student-made-simulation treatment u t i l i z e d the same integrative inquiry processes as in the preceding treatment, however, the instructional procedure d i f f e r e d .  After playing one teacher-made-simulation and discussing  the structure of that game and others, the students, working in groups, devised t h e i r own games. The usual developmental procedure involved a number of steps.  First,  the teacher introduced the purpose of the lesson, namely to develop a game that would teach other students about culture change among the Nootka Indians. Second, the children studied primary data sources to obtain information. T h i r d , the class discussed what they had learned and how this could be used to develop a game.  information  Fourth, the possible structure, purpose,  roles and problems that could be used in games were discussed by the class. F i f t h , the c l a s s , working in groups, devised t h e i r own games.  S i x t h , each  group described to the class the game they developed and a class of each game's value followed. games.  discussion  Seventh, the students played some of the  Eight, the class discussed what they learned from the games and  suggested possible  revisions. THE CRITERION INSTRUMENT  A paired-comparison attitude scale was constructed by the investigator in consultation with Dr. Robert Conry, a s p e c i a l i s t in research design at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Scale is given in Appendix A.  An example of the Paired-Comparison  Nine school subjects were paired, allowing each  subject to appear once with every other subject.  3  Ibid.  Rating  T h i r t y - s i x subjectspairs were  23 l i s t e d on the test.  To eliminate threats to instrument v a l i d i t y , school  subjects common between pairs were maximally separated and detectable systematic patterns of pairs were avoided.  The order of presentation of  the pairs varied to eliminate s e r i a l learning of a response pattern.  The  comparison scale was administered as a pre and posttest. Upon administration of the paired-comparison s c a l e , the students were instructed to rank each pair of subjects in terms of r e l a t i v e d e s i r ability.  The students indicated t h e i r preference by writing " 1 " by t h e i r  f i r s t choice and "2" by t h e i r second choice.  The pupils were required  to rank each subject p a i r , no equality of judgement was permitted,  approx-  imately ten minutes was required to administer the instrument. Scoring A score for each subject pair was obtained by a l l o t t i n g two marks for the f i r s t choice and one mark for the second choice. subject was calculated.  A total score of each  The scores ranged from eight for subjects of least  preference, to sixteen for subjects of greatest preference.  Since the focus  of this study was upon student attitude towards social studies, a class mean for this subject was calculated for a l l  tests.  V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y In his comparative study of scaling methods, Barnhart contends: The paired-comparison form of constanttmethod has long been held the ideal technique for determining preferences since a l l stimuli serve as standards whereby the  4 others are evaluated. Using a sample of forty-one students, Barnhart compared the order of merit and paired-comparison scaling methods as applied to judgments of affective s t i m u l i .  The paired-comparison method was found to have a high  degree of consistency with average r e l i a b i l i t i e s of .91.  Barnhart concludes  that the paired-comparison method is a r e l i a b l e technique for determining group preference. Edward N. Barnhart, "A Comparison of Scaling Methods for Affective Judgements", Psychological Review, XLIII (Sept. 1936), p. 392. 5  I b i d . , pp. 387-395.,  24 A further study by S a f f i r  compared, on the basis of empirical data,  the sca.les constructed by the Method of Paired Comparison, the Rank Order Method and the Method of Successive Intervals.  Using a sample of 133  university students, S a f f i r focused on the measure of social nationality preferences and harid-writing excellence.  attitudes,  He discovered that  any of the three scales could be used with considerable confidence, producing equally v a l i d results. Further evidence r e f l e c t i n g substantial  s t a b i l i t y of the paired-com-  parison technique is found in the comparative psychometric research of Witroyl and Thompson . 7  These investigators  experimentally compared the  s t a b i l i t y of the partial-rank-order and paired-comparison psychometric approaches applied to four sixth grade-populations, nineteen to twenty-five.  ranging in size from  A l l the paired comparison scores yielded t e s t - r e -  test s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of correlation of .903 or above with intervals of one, four and five weeks. 8 A more recent study by Fisher, Weiss and Dawis  compared the Likert and  paired-comparison scale' as applied to measures of dimensions of vocational needs.  Their sample consisted of 175 persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a Work Adjust-  ment Program and 122 college students from the University of Minnesota.  The  test results indicated that both types of instruments produce adequate scale r e l i a b i l i t i e s with ithe medians in the mid. g In another study, Koch  .80's.  reports a high degree of s t a b i l i t y of the  paired-comparison method as applied to social acceptability. sisted of children in grades two, four, six and eight with N's f o r t y , t h i r t y - f i v e and forty-two respectively.  The sample conof t h i r t y - n i n e ,  The subjects were asked to  indicate which c h i l d in a p a i r they l i k e d the best.  The students were re-  tested one month l a t e r , producing correlation c o e f f i c i e n t s between the scaled M i l t o n A. S a f f i r , "A Comparative Study of Scales Constructed by Three Psychophysical Methods," Psychometrika, II (Sept. 1937), pp. 179-191. D  ^Sam L. Witroyol and George G. Thompson, "An Experimental Comparison of the Partial-Rank-Order and Paired-Comparison Approaches to Social Accepta b i l i t y , " Journal of Educational Psychology, XLIV (Jan. 1953), pp. 20-30.  o Stephen T. Fisher, David J . Weiss & Rene Dawis, "A Comparison of Likert and Paired Comparison Techniques in Multivariate Attitude Scaling," Educational and Psychological Measurement XXVIII (1968), pp. 81-94. g H.L. Koch, "Study of Some Factors Conditioning the Social Distance Between the Sexes", Journal of Social Psychology XX (Aug. 1944), pp. 79-107.  25 scoresron the two tests of .930, .937 and .990 for grades two, four, six and eight respectively. In addition to the researchers cited here, writers such as G u i l f o r d , and Torgerson  1 0  regard the method of paired comparisons as a r e l i a b l e and  11  v a l i d technique.  Despite these claims, research on this topic is meagre.  Perhaps this study can contribute to this area of needed research. IMPLEMENTATION The paired-comparison rating scale pretest was administered by each of the three homeroom teachers in Nov., 1973.  At the end of March, 1974,  the students were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups. The actual instruction started at the beginning of A p r i l .  Two additional  teachers aided by instructing the two other groups using a regular social studies unit that each of them had developed, while the researcher administered the three treatments consecutively beginning with the control group. Following the completion of the control treatment, the classes rotated and the researcher administered the student-made-simulation treatment to the second group.  When the second treatment was completed, the pupil-made-  simulation treatment was administered to the t h i r d group. group had fourteen, forty-minute periods.  Each treatment  On the f i f t e e n t h period, which  took place one week after the completion of each treatment, each class met again for the administration of the posttest.  The control and teacher-made-  simulation treatment groups met for one additional time for the administration of the delayed posttest on the same day that the children of the student-madesimulation treatment were administered t h e i r f i r s t posttest.  This total  treatment cycle took nine and a half weeks to complete. STATISTICAL PROCEDURES This study employed a 2x2x3 (sex X grade X treatment) f a c t o r i a l design with the pretest used as a covariate.  Investigation of grade, sex and t r e a t -  ment main effects and interactions was made on the basis of analysis of vaarJ o y Paul G u i l f o r d , Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958T 10  1958).  in Psychology and Education  ^Warren S. Torgerson, Theory and Methods of Scaling  (New York:  Willey,  26 iance.  The alpha level of rejection of the hypothesis is<=< =.05  in the numerator - 2, d.f.  in the denominator - 56.)  (d.f.  The posttest scores  were adjusted by an analysis of covariance in comparing group performance. Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to determine the significance and order of differences between treatment group mean scores.  CHAPTER IV DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to describe the development of the instructional unit employed in this study.  The procedure for developing  the unit was derived from the Binnington model for the development of a humanistic curriculum*.  The stages involved include selecting aims and  objectives; selecting and sequencing major organizing centers, and developing and r e f i n i n g the instructional program. SELECTION OF MAJOR EDUCATIONAL AIMS The f i r s t step in developing a social studies unit is widely held 2 to be the derivation of i t s broad educational aims.  Good!ad  contends  that the values of a society must serve as the sources of the values of the educational system, i f that system is to function congruently in that society.  In other words, i t is essential that educational aims bear the  support of the community and r e f l e c t i t s values.  Should the aims selected  for a curriculum by representatives of the society serving on boards of education be incongruent with the aims of society, opinions w i l l be voiced against i t s adoption or retention. riculum  The B r i t i s h Columbia social studies cur-  guide was examined for educational aims for the development of th.fs  u n i t , as the implementation phase of the research was in B r i t i s h Columbia classrooms. Doreen B. Binnington, "The Development of an I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Curriculum Based on an Integration of Ethnomusicology and the Social Studies." (unpublished Doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1963). 2 John I. Good!ad, The Development of a Conceptual System for Dealing with Pftdbl.ems of Curriculum and Instruction (Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1966), p. 205. 3 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Division of Instructional Services Curriculum Development Branch, Elementary Social Studies Year 1-7 ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, 1974.)  27  28 Joyce's * widely recognized goals f o r social studies: 1  intellectual  education, humanistic education and c i t i z e n s h i p education, while not exp l i c i t y stated in the B r i t i s h Columbia social studies curriculum guide, are implied by such statements  as:  The programme encourages the c h i l d to organize his inquiry, provides him with a means of understanding the world around him, and helps him to examine and consider values, and thus begin to develop his own system of values.5 Special emphasis is placed upon extending s e n s i t i v i t y to cultural s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences, and upon r e a l i z i n g the dignity and worth of a l l people.6 Encourage children to make choices, and make them freely Give them opportunities to make public affirm? ations of t h e i r choices. 1 The three aims i f o r this unit are defined and stated in the following sections. Intellectual  Education  In the discussion of his widely acclaimed curriculum, Man:  A  Course of Study, Jerome Bruner maintained that i n t e l l e c t u a l education is the basis of learning and the foundation of curriculum planning. One must begin by setting forth the i n t e l l e c t u a l substance of what is to be taught, else there can be no sense of what challenges and shapes the c u r i o s i t y of the s t u d e n t . 8  According to Joyce, the social sciences provide the best models of the social world which have been developed.  By learning these models the  c h i l d comes to possess the most complete description of the events, people ^Bruce R. Joyce, Strategies for Elementary Social Science Education (Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc., 1965), p. 3. c  m-ovince o f B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Division of Instructional Services Curriculum Development Branch, Elementary Social Studies Year 1-7 ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, 1974), p. 1. 6  I b i d . , p. 2.  7  I b i d . , p. 6.  Q  Jerome S. Bruner, Toward a Theory of Instruction Norton and Co., 1968), p. 73.  (New York:  W.W.  29 and problems of his social world.  As the c h i l d matures, the social  science methods he employs in his inquiry becomes progressively more g sophisticated. Considering a l l of these f a c t o r s , the overriding i n t e l l e c t u a l aim of this unit i s : The c h i l d w i l l employ the concepts, models and modes of inquiry of the social s c i e n t i s t in progressively more s o p h i s i t i c a t e d form. Humanistic Education In the development of a humanistic curriculum, Binnington that we must not, " . . . i s o l a t e tive l i v e s .  cautions  i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding from our a f f e c -  I n t e l l i g e n t action must be integrated with a deep concern  for o t h e r s . . . . ^ Taking this factor into consideration, the overriding humanistic aim of this unit selected from the Binnington curriculum i s : The c h i l d w i l l develop his human capacity to understand and to value himself as a unique person, and persons and phenomena outside himself as unique persons and phenomena. Citizenship Education According to Joyce, c i t i z e n s h i p education gives the c h i l d opportunity to identify with the heritage of his society.  It also teaches him to use the  tools of the social s c i e n t i s t in dealing e f f e c t i v e l y with social problems and in p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of his time.  Thus, c i t i z e n s h i p educa-  tion provides s t a b i l i t y and order within the society, and provides the c h i l d with practice in decision making processes and with information necessary to 12 adapt to his rapidly changing world. 9  j y c e , Strategies 0  10  For Elementary Social Science Education, p. 12.  B i n n i n g t o n , "The Development of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum,"  p. 58. 1 1  I b i d . , p. 162.  1 2  J o y c e , "Strategies  pp. 7-11.  For Elementary Social Science Education."  30 Robert J . Havighurst supports the views of c i t i z e n s h i p education: F i r s t , i t is the s t a b i l i z e r or perpetuator of s o c i e t y , and second, i t is an agent for change. As a s t a b i l i z e r , education mirrors what is already in the society and r e f l e c t s i t into the lives of the next generation. As an agent of change, education acts under the direction of technological or ideological forces to make each generation d i f f e r e n t from i t s parent J 3 The broad c i t i z e n s h i p aim for this unit is stated as follows: The c h i l d w i l l become a well-informed c i t i z e n able to make wise p o l i t i c a l decisions and to deal wisely with social problems. DERIVATION OF EDUCATIONAL  objectives  While a broad statement of aims can give direction to education within the school s e t t i n g , they are too general to d i r e c t the decision 14 making process of curriculum selection and i n s t r u c t i o n .  Goodlad,  for  example, advocates objectives which are narrower, more s p e c i f i c , and s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c i t for the behavior sought to be observed or readily e l i c i t e d through a testing instrument, as a means of d i r e c t i n g this process. The purpose of the developmental phase of this research was to create one social understandings  studies unit concerned with developing the students'  of and positivieresponse toward people of a p a r t i c u l a r  c&iliture, namely, a Nootka speaking people of Vancouver Island, B r i t i s h Columbia.  Through these means the e f f e c t of simulation games on children's  response toward social studies could be evaluated.  The subject matter  topic through which the aims were to be met was selected from the programme of studies adopted by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Objectives must be consistent with, and contribute to achievement of the broad educational aims.  They must also be e x p l i c i t , and s a t i s f y  the c r i t e r i a f o r the objective-setting operation in curriculum making. Those c r i t e r i a include the following: 13 Robert J . Havighurst, "How Education Changes Society," Confluence: An International Forum, VI (Spring 1957), p. 86. 14 John I. Goodlad, The Development of a Conceptual System for Deal4.\q ing with Problems of Curriculum and Instruction (Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1966). •  31 The objectives were derived from an area of knowledge that i s compatible with the i n t e l l e c t u a l and humanistic aims of the curriculum, namely: The c h i l d w i l l employ the concepts, models, and modes of inquiry of the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t in progressively more sophisticated form. The c h i l d w i l l develop his human capacity to understand and to value himself as a unique person, and persons and phenomena outside himself as unique persons and phenomena. Objectives for the citizenship aim could be derived through a s i m i l a r process.  The experimental phase of this research was not d i r e c t l y  related to the c i t i z e n s h i p aim, therefore, objectives directed toward that aim w i l l not be developed herein. The content of the chosen subject matter area must be studied to ascertain the cycle of concepts which forms i t s basic substantive structure.  Objectives are formulated from both the substantive and the be-  havioral elements of the subject area.  A full  range of interrelated pro-  cesses must be selected through which children can Conduct t h e i r inquiry into the social sciences. L a s t l y , the objectives must be screened against selected c r i t e r i a , i . e . comprehensiveness, internal consistency, f e a s i b i l i t y , and a t t a i n ability. These objective-setting operations are described in the following section of this chapter. SELECTION OF CURRICULAR DATA SOURCES Anthropology is concerned with the study of man in the context of his natural and cultural environment.  Herskovits represents scholars  in  the f i e l d who attest to this point of view: ...anthropology, takes into account a l l phases of man's existence, biological and c u l t u r a l , past and present, combining these varied materials into an integrated attack on human e x p e r i e n c e . ^  Melvilde J . Herskovits, Cultural Anthropology (New York: A. Knopf, 1965), pp. 3-4.  Alfred  32 This inquiry into a l l phases of human experience is the essence of anthropology.  For this social studies u n i t , anthropology was selected as  the data source because i t is congruent with the wholistic approach put forth in the selected aims. SELECTION OF CONCEPTS FROM ANTHROPOLOGY Five major concepts of anthropology were chosen from Brcuner's widely respected and authoritative social science curriculum, Man: 16 Study.  A Course of  Each of the f i v e selected concepts is an important tool in inves-  tigating a culture and is recognized as a powerful "humanizing f o r c e " .  Each  of these i n t e r r e l a t e d concepts is described as i t is u t i l i z e d in the study of the nature of man.  The following concepts were included in the selection  of substantive elements for the development of cognitive objectives for this unit:  (1) language (2) social organization (3) technology (4) c h i l d rearing  practices and (5) world view. In addition to the above, the selection of culture change as the primary concept to be developed in this unit is central to the topic outline of the B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum committee, 1974.  It  is also supported by  scholars in the f i e l d of anthropology such as Ralph Linton, who contends that: A l l cultures, even the simplest, seem to be in a continuous state of change.17 Cultures are i n f i n i t e l y perfectable and everything indicates that a l l cultures are in a constant state of change J o The concepts used in this unit are described in the following section. Social  Organization The concept of social organization involves understandings  about  cooperative relations of individuals within groups, and is i l l u s t r a t e d by the Nootka Indian's relation to his family and to others within and outside the community.  The concept of social organization is central to the follow-  ing conceptual statement about Nootka Indians: 16 Bruner, Toward a Theory, pp. 73-101 17  p. 41.  Ralph Linton, The Tree of (Culture (New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1955),  1o Ralph Linton, Acculturation in Seven American Indian Tribes ('Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1963), p. 468.  33 Nootka Indian kinship and extended kinship ties formed primary systems of mutual a i d , societal control and reciprocal obligation. Technology The concept of technology consists  of understandings  about the use of  resources, the d i v e r s i t y of tools and the variety of man's a c t i v i t i e s these indicate.  Examples of technology to be discussed include such items as  weapons, t o o l s , implements, s h e l t e r , clothing, containers and means of transportation. The concept of technology is central to the following conceptual statement about Nootka Indians: Some manufactures of the Nootka Indians, in addition to clothing and objects with religious or ceremonial associat i o n s , were embellished or decorated. Example: storage boxes. Child Rearing The concept of c h i l d rearing involves understanding of the i n d i v i d ual's gradually decreasing dependency relationship within his family and community from infancy to early adulthood. The concepts of c h i l d rearing is central to the following conceptual statement about Nootka Indians: Certain changes have taken place in c h i l d rearing practices since the coming ofnnon-Indians to the west coast of Vancouver Island. World View The concept of world view or philosophy incorporates communication relevant to man's desire to explain and represent his world through use of symbols in speech, music, dance, visual and p l a s t i c a r t s , myth, drama, poetry and r e l i g i o n . The concepts of world view is central to the following statement about Nootka Indians: The Nootka Indians believed r i t u a l s , prayers and songs aided in the communication with the supernatural. Language The concept of language comprises understandings of s t r u c t u r e , usage and function of man's verbal symbolism.  3A The concept of language is central to the following conceptual 19 statement about Nootka Indians. Chinook jargon gradually became a seednd language to most Nootka Indians. Culture Change Culture change, " . . . i s a matter of change in knowledge, attitudes 20 and habits of individuals who compose a s o c i e t y . " The concept of culture change is central to the following conceptual statement about.the Nootka Indians: Contact with non-Indians hastened culture change among the Nootka Indians. Through inquiry into culture change focused upon the f i v e concepts previously described, children can become involved in the f u l l  range of  human experience which comprised the way of l i f e of this p a r t i c u l a r people. SELECTION OF ANALYTIC INQUIRY PROCESSES The comprehensive Social Sciijenees Education Framework for C a l i f o r n i a 21 Pub!ic Schools, this unit.  provided the modes and processes of inquiry u t i l i z e d by  A team of eminent social s c i e n t i s t s , curriculum workers and ed-  ucators working through the social sciences, devised three modes of inquiry which are employed by social s c i e n t i s t s .  Children can use these modes to  direct t h e i r study of mankind. The analytic mode is used in systematic analyses of cultural phenomena selected for in depth study.  The integrative mode i s used in studies de-  signed to provide a r e l a t i v e l y complete or h o l i s t i c syntheses of the diverse factors involved in a culture in a pauticular time or place.  The p o l i c y mode  is used in making decisions or judgements related to social or p o l i t i c a l issues i  ty  Reference to Nootka Indians refers herein to Indians who belong to the l i n g u i s t i c group referred to by anthropologists as Nootka. The s p e c i f i c locale to which the references are formed is Nootka Sound. 20 Linton, Accultuation in Seven American Indian T r i b e s , p. 468. 21 Statewide Social Sciences Study Committee, Social Sciences Education Framework for C a l i f o r n i a Public Schools (Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a : Department of Education, 1968) J  or  35 problems.  The essence of each mode of inquiry is a complete cycle of  i n t e r r e l a t e d processes essential to addressing the a n a l y t i c , integrative or policy questions of the social sciences. While the three modes of inquiry are never separated in p r a c t i c e , they should be 99parated for instructional planning in social sciences education, to give children the opportunity to understand the relationships among them.  The following sections provide an overview of the comprehensive  model developed in the C a l i f o r n i a document as i t is applied in the selection of objectives for this  unit.  The Analytic Mode The analytic mode addresses i t s e l f to the i n t e l l e c t u a l question, "Why do these phenomena behave as they do?"  The analytic mode is well  suited to s a t i s f y the i n t e l l e c t u a l aims of this  unit:'  Analytic inquiry proceeds by i s o l a t i n g selected phenomena for study, making s p e c i f i c observations of the phenomena, c l a s s i f y i n g the phenomena by precise d e f i n i t i o n , and examing the relationships among the defined classes. Selecteddaspects of behavior are c l a s s i f i e d according to constructed concepts.... Relationships among the concepts are examined and may be stated . as a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . . . .22 The cyle of processes of the analytic mode of inquiry are defined as fol 1 ows : Observation Observing is perception of selected and c l e a r l y defined facets of the total r e a l i t y being studied.  Observation may involve e i t h e r objects  such as technology, or patterns of behavior such as c h i l d rearing practices. It may be direct or i n d i r e c t , and often involves measurement. CI as si f i cation Classifying is grouping of data, .to enable the observer to name certain objects or patterns of behavior perceived which are to be contrasted within various settings. Definition Defining is the l a b e l l i n g or naming of the groups of observed data,  Social Sciences Study Committee, Social Sciences Education Framework, p. 10.  36 for use in the subsequent processes of analytic i n q u i r y , focused on that class of objects or behaviors within one or more social  settings.  Contrastive Analysis Contrasting in the analytic mode is the l i n i n g up the categories of objects or behavior so that the identical characteristics among them are held constant, and the c r i t i c a l  respects in which they vary are i d e n t i f i e d  precisely. Generalization Generalizing in the analytic mode is comprised of generating and testing of an hypothesis, that i s , making a statement about a possible relationship among variables, and using the tested hypothesis as a generalization for interpretation of data.  Generalizations are never considered  absolutely " r i g h t " or "wrong", but are used as a tool for i d e n t i f y i n g "contaminating" variables and analyzing t h e i r e f f e c t . Inference Inferring is the process of putting results of inquiry regarding a p a r t i c u l a r phenomena to further i n t e l l e c t u a l or practical use in generating further generalizations.  Over generalization is a danger i f one loses sight  of the type of phenomena from which a generalization was derived and t r i e s to apply i t to d i s s i m i l a r phenomena. Communi cati on Communicating is recording and relating to others the results of inquiry.  "In  the analytic mode, precision of communication is a paramount  necessity, and such language as mathematics, s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s , graphs,  23 maps and e x p l i c i t l y stated propositions w i l l often be used. " DERIVATION OF COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES BASED ON ANTHROPOLGICAL CONCEPTS AND THE PROCESSES OF THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY Six concepts or substantive elements and seven inquiry processes of the analytic mode provide the basis for statements of major cognitive objectives of this unit. I b i d . , p. 18.  37 To simplify the process of selecting cognitive objectives a grid is provided in Figure 2, A Grid of Concepts from Anthropology and Processes of the Analytic Mode of Inquiry.  Possible objectives are derived at the  intersection of each v e r t i c a l l y l i s t e d process and horizontally l i s t e d concept. Each major objective is refined into a series of increasingly complex.sub objectives.  The processes of analytic inquiry focused upon each  of the concepts engages the children in the f u l l range of objectives. Table II  demonstrates the hierarchical arrangement of cognitive objectives  u t i l i z i n g the analytic mode of dliiiquriiry. The following sections of this paper apply these objectives to each of the selected concepts of this u n i t , with examples to demonstrate the range of inquiry processes the children w i l l experience. STATEMENT OF COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES BASED ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES OF THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY The objectives stated in Appendices B to G of this section c l a s s i f i e d according to the hierarchy previously described, focus upon each of six anthropological concepts:  1) technology, 2) social organization, 3)  child rearing, 4) language, 5) world view, and 6) culture change. Some examples are included for purposes of c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  A l l object-  ives involve the children in the study of the culture of the Nootka Indians. Integrative Mode While analytic inquiry is focused on a limited number of selected, c l e a r l y defined patterns of behavior as seen in a wide range of social  set-  tings or set of events, the integrative mode focuses on many relevant aspects of a single setting or set of events.  To see the t o t a l i t y of ,social  r e a l i t y , the integrative mode gives attention to the many diverse events and personalities involved. . . . t h e inquirer seeks to experience the culture v i c a r i o u s l y ; and, in communicating the results of his inquiry, he seeks to enable others to do the same.^4 The understandings derived from the integratfve mode help to a l t e r , e n r i c h , and sharpen considerations on the i d e n t i f y questions, "Who am I,  or  Social Sciences Study Committee, Social Sciences Education Framework, p. 12.  38  2 Tech nology  3 Social Organi zati on  Concepts 5 4 Child LangRearuage ing  6 World Vi ew.  1 Culture Change  1.00 Observing  2.00 CI as si=Vfying* + 3.00 Defining  6 | £ 's  4.00 Contrast9 i n  cu T3  O E o  •S E  5.00 Generali z i n  9  (0 CU  5 B  6.00 Inferring  s4to CU  | 7.00 o CommuniQ- eating  Figure 2:  A Grid of Concepts from Anthropology and Processes of the Analytic Mode of Inquiry.  39 TABLE  II  THE HIERARCHY OF COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES UTILIZING THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY  1:00  Observing 1:10 Observing data to determine the structure of selected concepts. 1:20 Observing data to determine the usage of selected concepts. 1:30 Observing data to determine the function of selected concepts.  2:00  3  3:00  Classifying 2:10 Classifying  data according to the structure of selected concepts.  2:20 Classifying  data according to the usage of selected concepts.  2:30 Classifying  data according to the function of selected concepts.  Defining 3:10 Defining terms according to the structure of selected concepts. 3:20 Defining terms according to the usage of selected concepts. 3:30 Defining terms according to the function of selected concepts.  4:00  Contrasting 4:10 Contrasting data according to the structure of selected concepts. 4:20 Contrasting data according to the usage of selected concepts.  5:00  4:30 Contrasting data according to the function of selected concepts. Generalizing 5:10 Generalizing about the structure of selected concepts. 5:20 Generalizing about the usage of selected concepts. 5:30 Generalizing about the function of selected concepts.  6:00  Inferring 6:10 Inferring about the structure of selected concepts. 6:20 Inferring about the usage of selected concepts. 6:30 Inferring  7:00  about the function of selected concepts.  Communicating 7:10 Communicating the results of inquiry on the Structure of concepts. 7:20 Communicating the results of inquiry on the usage of selected concepts. 7:30 Communicating the results of inquiry on the function of selected concepts.  AO  Who are we, or who are they? The integrative mode of inquiry has been selected to meet the humanistic aim of this  unit.  The cycle of processes of the integrative mode are defined as follows: Observation While similar in many respects, observing in the integrative mode is d i f f e r e n t from observing in the analytic mode in that the observer is more comprehensive, and includes a wider range of relevant facets and features of any event being observed. Classification Classifying involves grouping data by the observer into a unit that is perceived and used in the observed culture to name certain objects or patterns of behavior.  This grouping can be used by the observer for further  application into inquiry on related aspects of a s p e c i f i c cultural s i t u a t i o n . Defining Defining is the l a b e l l i n g or naming of the group of data as perceived in the minds of members of the observed culture and refined by the observer for use in subsequent integrative inquiry into related phenomena within the p a r t i c u l a r setting. Comparing Comparing in the integrative mode is looking to general rather than specific similarities  and differences of unique events which are important  to understanding the unique events under study.  The essence of integrative  comparing is the running comparison with one's own experience through which! the inquirer generates and tests b e ! i e v a b i l i t y through p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the vicarious experience which poses the question "If  I were this person I  would....?" Integration Cultuyjalurategration means treating a given cultural situation as an e n t i t y whose constitute aspects or social processes...are mutually supporting and r e i n f o r c i n g . Cultural integration may focus upon one or more i n s t i t u t i o n s , themes of thought or f e e l i n g , or social processes that seem to permeate l i f e in most of i t s expressions in that s o c i e t y . "  I b i d . , p. 17  41 Historical integration focuses on the relationship that e x i s t within a s p e c i f i c setting and t r i e s to i d e n t i f y the causes of change in major aspects of culture.  This integration traces the course of change in  s p e c i f i c cultural settings. Both cultural and h i s t o r i c a l integration focus on the identity question of "Who?", which involves integrating a f f e c t i v e aspects  (feelings)  with cognitive learning (understanding r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) . Inference Inferring in integrative inquiry is the process of putting the results of inquiry to further i n t e l l e c t u a l or p r a c t i c a l use as in making predictions.  Since the integrative mode focuses on the unique q u a l i t i e s  of p a r t i c u l a r times and places, inferences must be made with caution. Communication Communicating in the integrative mode of inquiry is selecting appropriate means to adequately express cognitive and affective aspects of the i d e n t i t y question investigated regarding the p a r t i c u l a r culture. Communication in the integrative mode may, because of the wider range and more speculative nature of the information to be communicated, more often use connotative and evocative as opposed to denotative statement and includes such languages as poetry, h i s t o r i c a l narrative, and works of a r t . ? 2  Children may also create simulation games, role playing, dramati z a t i o n , and diary accounts to communicate findings of integrative inquiry based on vicarious p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the wide range of a c t i v i t i e s and events in the p a r t i c u l a r culture. DERIVATION OF COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES BASED ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND THE PROCESSES OF THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY The six selected anthropological concepts or substantive elements and seven inquiry processes of the integrative mode provide the basis for the statements of the major cognitive objectives of this unit.  I b i d . , p. 18.  42  Concepts  I Technology  2 Soci al Organic zati on  3 Child Rearing  4 Language  5 World YView  6 Culture Change  1.00 observing  2.00 Classifying  3-00. Defining  •I  4.00 Comparing  CD  CU >  £  is  5.00 I nte gratipg  cu  £ to cu to to cu o  6.00 Inferring  7.00 Communicating  Figure 3: Mode of  A Grid of Concepts from Anthropology and Processes of the Integrati  Inquiry.  43 To simplify the process of selecting integrative cognitive objectives, a grid is provided in Figure 3, A Grid of Concepts from Anthropology and Processes of the Integrative Mode of Inquiry.  Pos-  s i b l e objectives are derived at the intersection of each v e r t i c a l l y l i s t e d process and horizontally l i s t e d concepts. Each major objective i s refined into a series of increasingly complex sub objectives. Processes of integrative inquiry focused upon each o f the selected concepts engages the children in the f u l l range of objectives.  Since the processes of observing, c l a s s i f y i n g ,  defining,  i n f e r r i n g and communicating are f u l l y applied in deriving analytic objectives, and variations for integrative objectives were described in the definitions in the previous s e c t i o n , they w i l l not be repeated at this time.  It  is important to note, however, that they are more  comprehensive in integrative inquiry since the purpose of data gathering is p a r t i c i p a t i v e a c t i v i t y rather than for use in generating and testing hypothesis.  The processes of comparing and integrating in the i n t e -  grative mode vary considerably from contrasting and generalizing in the analytic mode.  Table III  demonstrates the Hierarchy of Cognitive Ob-  jectives U t i l i z i n g the Processes of Comparing and Integrating in the Integrative Mode of Inquiry. TABLE  III  THE HIERARCHY OF COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES UTILIZING THE PROCESSES OF COMPARING AND INTEGRATING IN THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY  4:00  Comparing  4:10  Making a running comparison of the structure of selected concepts through p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the vicarious experience.  4:20  Making a running comparison of the usage of selected concepts through participating in the vicarious experience.  4:30  Making a running comparison of the function of selected concepts through p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the vicarious experience.  5:00  Integrating  5:10  Integrating feeling and understanding focused on the structure of selected concepts as evidenced by the c h i l d ' s comments on behavior through participating in the vicarious experience.  44 TABLE III  5:20  (cont'd)  Integrating f e e l i n g and understanding focused on the usage ofselected concepts as evidenced by the c h i l d ' s comments on behavior p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the vicarious experience.  5:30  Integrating feeling and understanding focused on the function of selected concepts as evidenced by the c h i l d ' s comments and behavior p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the vicarious experience. STATEMENT OF COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES BASED ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES OF THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY  Objectives stated in Appendices H to M in this section,  classified  according to the hierarchy u t i l i z i n g the processes of comparing and i n t e grating as explained above are described in Table III of the s i x anthropological  concepts:  n i z a t i o n , (3) c h i l d rearing, (4)  and focus upon each  (1) technology, (2) social  orga-  language, (5) world view, and (6) culture  change. Some examples are included for c l a r i f i c a t i o n purposes. jectives involve inquiry into the culture of Nootka speaking  A l l ob-  Indians,  p a r t i c u l a r l y in the Nootka Sound l o c a l e . Policy Mode The policy mode of inquiry involves the c h i l d in the value question, "What should I,  or we, or they, do next?"  While the policy mode is well suited to meet the citizenship aims of this u n i t , i t is not d i r e c t l y related to the experimental phase of this research and, therefore, w i l l not be developed herein. DERIVATION OF AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES Because affective learning is of crucial concern to the experimental phase of this study, and central to the humanistic aim of the unit objectives are given prime consideration. A f f e c t i v e objectives, developed herein involve a substantive element which is the stimulus of a person or phenomena outside oneself.  The a f f e c t i v e  objective of this unit involve behaviors which ar£eorganized according to the  45 degree of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n or willingness 27 The Krathwohl, et a l ,  to respond to the stimulus.  continuum of behavioral elements ranging  from awareness of the stimulus to a response which is so deeply i n t e r nalyzed that i t becomes a h a b i t , i s used in defining childrens a f f e c t i v e response in this unit; Receiving is the awareness of and willingness  to respond to stimulus,  e.g. to social studies inquiry involving simulation games. Responding is willingness  to respond to the stimulus repeatedly,  and ranges from merely complying to expectations of another such as the teacher, to beginning to find s a t i s f a c t i o n in responding to the stimulus a number of times, e.g. asking repeatedly for a p a r t i c u l a r social  studies  experience such as to play a simulation game. Valuing is preferring to respond to the s t i m u l i , e.g. asking for social studies experiences such as to play simulation games. Organizing is conceptualizing and defending response to s t i m u l i , e.g. making statements regarding the nature of social studies experiences involving simulation games and giving reasons f o r responding to them. Internalizing a value is making judgements on the pattern inherent in the s t i m u l i , e.g. choosing to respond p o s i t i v e l y to social studies experiences involving simulation games over an extended period of time on the basis of the pattern or quality inherent i n the experience. Two substantive elements were selected as the aspects to which a positive response was hoped to be e l i c i t e d .  These involve various levels  of response 1) toward social studies, on the one hand involving students in a unit including simulation games and, on the other hand, involving students in a s i m i l a r unit not involving simulation games, and 2) toward the Nootka Indians. STATEMENT OF AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES Figure 4 presents A Grid of Substantive and Behavioral Elements of Affective Objectives.  Observable behavioral elements are l i s t e d v e r t i c a l l y  and substantive elements are l i s t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y . General a f f e c t i v e objectives f o r the unit are suggested at the i n t e r section of each observed behavioral element and each substantive element. David R. Krathwohl, Benjamin S. Bloom and Bertram B. Massia, Taxonomy of Education Objectives, Handbook II: Affective Domain (New York: David McKay Co., 1964).  SUBSTANTIVE ELEMENT  1 Social  1.  Studies  2 Nootka Indian  Receiving  2. Responding  3.  Valuing  4.  Organizing  5.  Internalizing  Figure 4:  A Grid of Substantive and Behavioral Elements of Objectives.  47 Varying degrees of responses are possible under each objective. While the two substantive elements were u t i l i z e d in the developmental phase of this research, namely social studies and the Nootka speaking Indian people, the element of primary concern for the experimental phase of this study was student attitudes towards social studies.  Affective objec-  tives involving attitude towards social studies based upon the processes described above as stated in Appendix N. Screening Instructional Decisions  Objectives  regarding the selection and implementation of objectives  were made by screening against s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a of:  1) comprehensiveness, 28 2) internal consistency 3) f e a s i b i l i t y and 4) a t t a i n a b i l i t y , Comp re hen s i venes s The c r i t e r i o n of comprehensivenesssrequired checking the total  set  of cognitive and a f f e c t i v e objectives with the broad educational aims of the unit. Internal  Consistency The c r i t e r i o n of internal consistency demands that the objectives  do not counteract one another.  The choice of the data source ;for the  objectives was directed toward the aim that cognitive and a f f e c t i v e objectives compliment one another.  In addition, the cognitive objectives were  designed to be consistent with and to build upon one another.  The a f f e c -  tive objectives which are directed toward i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n from a lesser to a greater degree likewise demonstrate internal  consistency.  Feasibility The c r i t e r i o n of f e a s i b i l i t y demands that learning opportunities be made available through which selected objectives can be met.  This  is  the central process for developing the instructional program. Attainabil i t y The c r i t e r i o n of a t t a i n a b i l i t y demands that each objective be appropriate for the learner.  The analytic objectives of this unit are 29 compatible with the symbolic mode of learning described by Bruner and For a more detailed description of the screening process see Binnington, "The Development of an I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Curriculum " pp. 162-165. 29 Bruner, Toward a Theory, p. 11  48 involve the children primarily in verbal and written symbols representing aspects of Nootka speaking Indian culture.  The integrative objectives of  this unit likewise employ the symbolic mode of learning, but focus on the iconic and enactive modes of learning described by Bruner because of i n dications that p a r t i c i p a t i v e , rather than spectator behavior, is  associated  with the identity questions central to integrative inquiry. . Following the selection and screening of objectives, the major organizing centers must be selected, organized and developed, i . e . opportunities through which the learners can achieve the stated objectives. DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR ORGANIZING CENTERS A f t e r the aims and objectives for the unit had been established, the next major undertaking was to s e l e c t , organize and develop the major organizing centers through which the objectives might be attained.  The  objectives were developed to engage students in the content of the anthropologist and in the cycles of processes of the analytic and integrative modes of social science inquiry as they investigate the culture of the Nootka Indians and the stages of culture change. SELECTION OF MAJOR ORGANIZING CENTERS Applying the C r i t e r i o n of Giving Practice to Objectives The problem of selecting major organizing centers was c h i e f l y one of determining what content, a c t i v i t i e s and events of Nootka Indian l i f e would best i l l u s t r a t e and give practice to the objectives. The f i r s t consideration was to focus upon Nootka culture and the factors which brought about cultural change.  Through involvement with  these factors and events, the children are given the opportunity to practice the objectives and to achieve the goals of this  unit.  To ensure that children may practice the behavior of the cognitive objectives sought, the organizing centers focusing on the study of Nootka culture and culture change, allow children to u t i l i z e the analytic and i n tegrative modes of social science inquiry into the content based on act i v i t i e s and events organized around the concepts selected from anthropology. To give the children the opportunity to achieve the a f f e c t i v e objectives of this unit each organizing center provides opportunities for them to respond toward social studies inquiry experiences, and toward the Nootka people through involvement in a c t i v i t i e s and events of these Indians.  A9  Applying the Criterion of Authenticity To meet the c r i t e r i o n of authenticity, primary data sources available in p r i n t to classroom teachers were consulted to determine the major organizing centers and to provide the learning opportunities for this unit.  Primary data sources consulted included d i a r i e s , journals,  ships logs, cargo l i s t s , museum a r t i f a c t s , and authoritative ethnographic works on the topic. On the basis of the above data sources, f i v e major organizing centers were selected.  The Selection of Major Organizing Centers is  demonstrated in Figure 5.  The numbers one to f i v e indicate the se-  quence of these major organizing centers. 1 ' Nootka culture before contact  2 Nootka culture during the fur trade period  3 Nootka culture during the missionary period  4 Nootka Culture today  5 Validation of the findings of f i r s t four periods through i n terviewing Indian resource people Figure 5 SELECTION OF MAJOR ORGANIZING CENTERS Applying the C r i t e r i o n that Content be Valid and S i g n i f i c a n t To s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i o n that content be v a l i d and s i g n i f i c a n t , major organizing centers were selected which i l l u s t r a t e d the fundamental concepts of the culture of the Nootka Indian, as well as engaging students in the analytic and/or integrative mode inquiry.  S p e c i f i c facts on  Nootka culture were selected from data collected and reported by anthropologists, and early explorers, maritime fur traders and adventurers. Applying the C r i t e r i o n of E f f i c i e n c y Each organizing center should be e f f i c i e n t in terms of providing for simultaneous  achievement of multiple objectives.  each center is organized around human experience:  The content of  hence the c h i l d ex-  plores data for objectives focused on the six anthropological  concepts,  not under separate topics, but in relation to p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s or events.  The c h i l d deals simultaneously with the a f f e c t i v e objectives  through the wholistic approach of each organizing center.  50 Applying the C r i t e r i o n of Continuity Continuity is taken into account in this unit as the increasingly complex changes in Nootka culture are gradually revealed through the sequence of the major organizing centers, which allow the c h i l d to build upon previous learnings  and to anticipate more complex learning to follow.  Applying the Criterion of F e a s i b i l i t y Each organizing center must be feasible in that i t provides several ideas and catch points for children's interests.  Varied materials and ac-  t i v i t i e s have been provided in this unit to stimulate student i n t e r e s t . The f e a s i b i l i t y of each organizing center takes into account adapta b i l i t y to experiences of children.  The range of a c t i v i t i e s  provides  opportunity for children to participate in the symbolic modes of learning, e.g. l i s t e n i n g , viewing, reading, discussing; the iconic mode of learning, e. g. preparing and using simulation bjoard games; the enactive or p a r t i c i pative mode of learning,, e.g. constructing and using simulated a r t i f a c t s . To summarize the selection of major organizing centers, each met the c r i t e r i a of a) giving practice to the objectives, b) authenticity, c) v a l i d i t y , d) s i g n i f i c a n c e , e) e f f i c i e n c y , f) continuity and g) feasibility.  Once the major organizing centers have been selected, the cur-  riculum developer must consider the problems of sequencing major organizing centers for continuous learning. SEQUENCING OF MAJOR ORGANIZING CENTERS IN THE OVERALL UNIT DESIGN Considering Sequential Development of Concepts and Processes Sequencing of major organizing centers to provide for continuous learning, requires consideration of the content of the f i e l d of study and objectives derived therefrom. The processes or behavioral elements of the objectives for this unit form one type of recurring theme as advocated by learning theorists. As the c h i l d interacts with increasingly complex data while moving through successive organizing centers, he engages repeatedly in the inquiry processes defined in the s p e c i f i c objectives.  Each inquiry process is related  to the next - e.g. observing of data sources is related to of data which in turn is related to defining and so on.  classifying  51 As the scope of the content enlarges, during the progression from one organizing center to the next, the c h i l d applies the inquiry processes to increasingly heterogenous data.  The recurrence of con-  cepts at each major organizing center allows each one to be sequentially developed, increasing in its generality, abstractness the content becomes more complex.  and complexity as  S i m i l a r l y , more proficiency in a p p l i -  cation of the inquiry processes is required by the increased complexity of the overall content. The Sequencing of Major Organizing Centers and Concept Development selected for this unit is i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 6. Sequencing of the organizing centers is closely related to c r i t e r i a considered in t h e i r s e l e c t i o n , namely continuity which provides opportunity to build upon what has gone on before and to prepare for what is to come, and chronological order of events in the content. Sequencing of major organizing centers requires careful consideration of the best order for children's understanding of the event in the lives of the Nootka people and i t s centers preceding and following i t .  relation to the themes of organizing This permits the students to become  involved gradually with the increasingly complex relationship between Nootka culture and the events of contact with fur traders,  missionaries  and f i n a l l y with modern society. For purposes of this u n i t , the order of presentation of the major organizing centers was derived from the chronological order of these events as they occurred in history.  Materials of the past give insight into the  elements of present l i f e when trends of continuity and change are considered.  Through the h i s t o r i c a l chronological approach of this u n i t , the  children build gradually upon the learning of past events to help explain the events and conditions of Nootka culture in today's  society.  SELECTING A MAJOR ORGANIZING CENTER FOR TESTING PURPOSES Once the chronological order of the major organizing centers had been decided, the developer selected one organizing center to be u t i l i z e d for measuring student attitudes towards social studies.  Because of the  a v a i l a b i l i t y of research and learning materials, and because children in previous years of the researcher's experience found the fur trade period i n t e r e s t i n g , major organizing center two, namely Nootka Culture During  Nootka Culture Before Contact  —Technology - - S o c i a l Organ ization --Child Rearing— —World View --Language --Culture Change—  Nootka Culture During the Fur Trade  —Technology — S o c i a l Organ ization — Child R e a r i n g — --World View --Language --Culture Change—  -Technology -Social O r g a n ization -Child Rearing-World View -Language -Culture Change-  Figure 6:  4  3  2  1  Nootka Culture During the Missionaries  --Technology --Social Organ I Nootka i zation — Child R e a r i n g — I Culture --World View --Language | Today — Culture Change —  Validation of the Four preceding centers by consulting resource people  Sequencing of Major Organizing Centers and Concept Development.  the Fur Trade, was selected for the emphasis in the testing process. A summary follows describing the objectives, learning opportunities and resource materials for the center using the three t r e a t ments . Treatment A employs analytic i n q u i r y ; Treatment B employs i n tegrative inquiry involving the use of teacher-made-simulations  des-  cribed in Appendix 0, and Treatment C employs integrative inquiry i n volving the use of student-made-simulations  described in Appendix P.  Observations and photographs of student participants are incorporated into the description of the learning opportunities for c l a r i f i c a t i o n purposes.  Children's comments for treatments A, B and C are presented  for the reader's interest in Appendix Q, R and S respectively. DEVELOPING MAJOR ORGANIZING CENTER II:  TREATMENT A, THE FUR  TRADE. - UTILIZING THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY Affective Objectives The a f f e c t i v e objectives previously described are operant throughout the entire unit.  Each c h i l d responds at his own capacity of positive  response toward two selected s t i m u l i , namely 1) Nootka Indian people and 2) social studies  inquiry.  Cognitive Objectives The instructional program developed for the purpose of this  orga-  nizing center encompasses a core of cognitive objectives which give pract i c e to the processes o f the analytic mode of inquiry applied to content relevant to six anthropological concepts.  The statement of objectives,  and learning opportunities which follow are c l a s s i f i e d according to seven inquiry processes and the hierarchy of s p e c i f i c a t i o n established elsewhere. Resource materials for this analytic organizing center are described following the statement of objectives and learning opportunities.  Student com-  ments are found in Appendix Q. I.  Process:  Observation  Objectives 1.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated a r t i f a c t s from the period of the fur trade, the c h i l d w i l l obtain and interpret s p e c i f i c data on culture change as seen in the structure of Nootka Indian technology.  social organization, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , language and world view. 2.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated a r t i f a c t s from the period of the fur trade, the c h i l d w i l l obtain data on culture change as seen in the usage of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , language and world view.  3.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated a r t i f a c t s from the period of the fur trade the c h i l d w i l l obtain data on culture change as seen in the function of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing practices, language and world view.  Learning Opportunities 1.  Working in small groups, the students studied excerpts from journals of Captain Cook, members of his crew and from maritime fur traders such as Meares and Strange.  Figure 7:  Students studying and discussing h i s t o r i c a l documents.  55 II.  Process:  Classification  Objecti ves 1.  Using data obtained from h i s t o r i c a l documents, the c h i l d w i l l classify  information on culture change according to the struc-  ture of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , language and world view. 2.  Using data obtained from simulated a r t i f a c t s of trade goods, the c h i l d w i l l c l a s s i f y aspects of culture change by grouping the a r t i f a c t s according to t h e i r usage in Nootka Indian technology, social organization, child rearing practices, language and world view.  3.  Using data obtained from slides dealing with Nootka culture during the maritime fur trade, the c h i l d w i l l c l a s s i f y data on culture change by grouping slides according to t h e i r function in Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing practices, language and world view.  Learning Opportunities 1.  The children grouped the simulated a r t i f a c t s of trade goods sheet copper, soap, needles, beads, r i c e , c l o t h , molasses, iron chisels and whiskey - according to the cultural changes they produced in the f i v e concepts of Nootka culture.  Figure 8:  Students working with simulated a r t i f a c t s of trade goods.  2.  The children grouped the slides of changes in Nootka culture by c l a s s i f y i n g them under the five aspects of Nootka culture.  III.  Process:  Defining  Objecti ves 1.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated a r t i f a c t s from the fur trade, the c h i l d w i l l demonstrate an understanding of the terms - c h i s e l s , iron c o l l a r s , Chinook jargon, button blankets, argolite pipes - by describing t h e i r structure in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s or events.  2.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated a r t i f a c t s from the fur trade, the c h i l d w i l l demonstrate an understanding of the Chinook terms - l i c e ==rice, six = f r i e n d , chuck = water, ou = brother - by using them in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s or events.  3.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated a r t i f a c t s from the fur trade, the c h i l d w i l l demonstrate an understanding of the terms - button blanket, iron c o l l a r s , Chinook jargon, argolite pipes - by describing t h e i r function in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s or events.  Learning Opportunities 1.  Working in small groups, the children studied word l i s t s of Chinook terms used by Indians and non-Indians in t h e i r trading a c t i v i t i e s .  The  children used these terms when they made a "Class Dictionary" of Chinook words and t h e i r English meanings. 2.  The children labelled and documented a "museum  display" of " r e p l i c a s " of Nootka Indian a r t i f a c t s of the fur trade period, that the children volunt a r i l y constructed as part of t h e i r group a c t i v i t i e s . IV.  Process:  Contrasting  Objectives 1.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated artifacts  the c h i l d w i l l contrast Nootka culture in  the pre and post f u r trade periods noting differences in structure of Nootka technology, social  organization,  c h i l d rearing practices, language and world view. 2.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated a r t i f a c t s the c h i l d w i l l contrast Nootka culture in the pre and post fur trade periods noting differences in usage of Nootka technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , language and world view.  3.  In examining h i s t o r i c a l documents, slides and simulated a r t i f a c t s the c h i l d w i l l contrast Nootka culture in the pre and post fur trade periods noting differences in function of Nootka technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing practices, language and world view.  Learning Opportunities 1.  The children used slides of Nootka Indian culture before and a f t e r the fur trade periodftd>contrast the Indian culture and to note changes.  The children i d e n t i f i e d  such things as changes in weapons, t o o l s ,  transportation  (the s a i l ) , clothing, food, objects for personal adornment and symbols of wealth. 2.  The children studied h i s t o r i c a l documents written by Captain Cook, bymembers of his crew and by the maritime fur traders.  The students contrasted Nootka  culture during the pre and post fur trade periods. i d e n t i f i e d cultural differences such as u t i l i =  They  58 zation of metal t o o l s ; adoption of non-Indian fashion such as powdered hair and clean faces; adoption of non-Indian customs such as table manners and method of greeting and employment of new symbols of wealth and prestige, e.g. - metal. V.  Process:  Generating and Testing Hypotheses  Ob j e c t i ves 1.  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses  regarding  culture change by noting differences in structure of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , language and world view as related to the fur trade. 2.  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses  regarding  culture change by noting differences in usage of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , language and world view as related to the fur trade. 3.  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses  regarding  culture change by noting differences in function of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , langauge and world view as related to the fur trade. Learning Opportunities 1.  After l i s t e n i n g to the account of Captain Cook's arrival at Nootka Sound in the book Maquinna the Magnificent, the children hypothesized that at the beginning of the fur trade the Nootka believed the white men were Indians returning from the dead or some supernatural creatures because of t h e i r manner of dress, t h e i r method of transportation and t h e i r possessions.  2.  The children studied slides of Nootka metal bladed tools plus slides of Nootka art during the fur trade period. From the slides the children hypothesized that Nootka art flourished during the fur trade period because metal tools made carving easier and more e f f i c i e n t .  59 VI.  Process:  Inferring  Objecti ves 1.  The children w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to make inferences regarding culture change by predicting the outsome in another time, place or for i n d i v i d uals in a s i m i l a r s e t t i n g , focusing upon the structure of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , language and world view in relation to the maritime fur trade.  2.  The children w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to make inferences regarding culture change by predicting the outcome in another time, place or for individuals in a s i m i l a r setting focusing upon the usage of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing practices, language and world view in relation to the maritime fur trade.  3.  The children w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to make i n ferences regarding culture change by predicting the outcome in another time, place or for individuals  in a  s i m i l a r setting focusing upon the function of Nootka Indian technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing practices, language and world view in relation to the maritime fur trade. Learning Opportunities 1.  The children studied simulated a r t i f a c t s of trade goods and made inferences regarding what changes these a r t i c l e s would make in Nootka culture. cluded e. g. cloth - If  Student inferences i n -  the Nootka Indians found the  trader's cloth more c o l o u r f u l , warm and comfortable than t h e i r own bark c l o t h , they would probably no longer weave t h e i r own c l o t h , e.g. c h i s e l - If  the chisel  made wood carving e a s i e r , probably the Indians would carve more and make f i n e r works, e.g. - If  the Indians  wanted these trade goods and could not make them themselves, they would probably become dependent on the fur trader to supply these a r t i c l e s .  2.  The children studied s t a t i s t i c s  on the number  of ships that v i s i t e d Nootka Sound from 1785 to 1825.  From the figures which indicated a  sharp decline in the number of ships, the c h i l dren inferred such things as " i f the Nootka k i l l e d more sea otter than in the past probably there weren't many animals l e f t and therefore the fur traders would not come. VII.  Process: 1.  Communicating  Findings  The c h i l d w i l l make a chart indicating changes in structure of Nootka technology, social  organization,  c h i l d rearing practices, language and world view as related to the maritime fur trade. 2.  The c h i l d w i l l use Chinook terms such as l i c e - r i c e , six - friends chuck - water and ou - brother in small groups and class discussion of trading a c t i v i t i e s .  3.  The c h i l d w i l l make entries in a Resource Booklet describing changes in function of Nootka technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing practices, language and world view as related to the maritime fur trade.  Learning Opportunities 1.  The children began a Resource Booklet of h i s t o r i c a l documents, i l l u s t r a t i o n s  and research findings  fo-  cusing on changes in the structure usage and function of Nootka culture. 2.  The children o r a l l y reported changes in the structure of Nootka technology discovered from research of h i s t o r i c a l documents.  RESOURCE MATERIALS FOR ORGANIZAING CENTER II, 1.  TREATMENT A  Excerpts from the book Maguinna the Magnificent by Bruce A. McKelvie describing Captain Cook's a r r i v a l at Yuquot were used in the l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t y .  2.  Excerpts and sketches from h i s t o r i c a l documents were provided f o r the children in booklet form.  The  61 material was derived from the journals of Captain Cook, some members of his crew and from the journals of maritime fur traders such as Meares and Strange. 3.  Statistics  on the number of ships  visiting  Nootka Sound from 1785 to 1825 plus the cargo l i s t s of these ships were derived from Joyce Wike's The Effect of the Maritime Fur Trade On Northeast Coast Indian Society. 4.  Indian population s t a t i s t i c s  (1835-1963) were  derived from Wilson Duff's The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia V o l ; 1. 5.  The simulated a r t i f a c t s of trade goods were selected from the cargo l i s t s given by Joyce Wike.  The a r t i f a c t s were made from available  materials and included - r i c e , needles, c l o t h , molasses, whiskey (coloured water in appropriate b o t t l e ) , sheet copper, beads, soap.  Each group  of four students received a bag containing these i terns. 6.  Slides of Indian culture before and after the fur traders arrived were photographed by this researcher from the holdings at the B.C. Provincial Museum, the Centennial Museum and on location at Fort  Langley.  In addition, slides wereobbtained from the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers Federation lesson aid services. DEVELOPING MAJOR ORGANIZING CENTER II:  TREATMENT B, THE  FUR TRADE - UTILIZING TEACHER-MADE SIMULATIONS Affective Objectives The a f f e c t i v e objectives described previously w i l l not be re-stated at this time.  In summary, they are directed at an increasingly positive  approach toward the Nootka Indians, and toward social  studies.  62  Cognitive Objectives The instructional program developed for the purpose of this  organ-  i z i n g center encompasses a core of cognitive objectives which give pract i c e to total cycle of processes in the integrative mode. IV.  Process:  Comparing  Objecti ves 1.  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison to i d e n t i f y elements of structure of Nootka technology, social organization, language, c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , world view and culture change through participation in a teacher-made simulation of trading a c t i v i t i e s .  2.  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison to identify elements of usage of Nootka technology, social organization, world view and culture change through participation in a teacher-made simulation of the sea otter hunt.  3.  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison to i d e n t i f y elements of function of Nootka technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing, world view and culture change through participation in a teacher-made simulation involving the assignment of trade items to members of an Indian family.  Learning Opportunities 1.  The children participated in a simulation called The Otter Box which involved them in the hunt for sea otter.  While engaging  in the hunt they encountered changes in usage <M Nootka c u l t u r e , e. g. technology - the use of guns, metal tools and weapons; social organization - increased wealth from sea otter hunt used to enhance social 2.  status.  The children participated in The Brown Bag Game where they assigned trade items to members of a Nootka family according to the items function, e.g. social organization - sheet copper enhanced a man's social status and prestige; technology - metal needles increased a woman's e f f i c i e n c y at sewing.  63  1  1  •  li  -A  •1  \\\  Figure 9: V.  Process:  Children playing The Otter Box Game. The boy in the center is reading his Hunt Result Card.  Integrating  Objectives 1.  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian in an End-of-Life exercise, the c h i l d w i l l express feeling and understanding of the structure of Nootka social organization, world view and culture change.  2.  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian in a Land Hunt Game the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of usage of Nootka technology, social organization, world view and culture change.  3.  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian in a game where slides of trade items had to be assigned to family members on the basis of function, the c h i l d w i l l express feeling and understanding of the function of Nootka technology, social organizat i o n , c h i l d rearing p r a c t i c e s , world view and culture change.  Learning Opportunities 1.  The children participated in the End-of-Life exercise which focused upon some of the negative effects of the fur trade.  64 Students'  integrating comments included:  "Now that  blind who's going to take care of my family?" and "I  I'm was  lucky, I d i d n ' t catch the measles l i k e other members of my group. 2.  They a l l  died."  The children participated in the Slide Game where they had to assign slides of trade items to members of t h e i r family according to the item's function. comments included:  "I'll  Student's  integrating  give these beads to my wife so she  can sew them on her dress for decoration." (fashion - world view), and " I ' l l  keep the steel trap for myself so I can trap  more animals for food and p e l t s , " functions -  Figure 10: Process:  (subsistence and economic  technology).  Children p a r t i c i p a t i n g in The Slide Game. The boy on the l e f t is using an individual s l i d e viewer.  Communicating  Findings  Objectives 1.  The c h i l d w i l l contribute to a classroom display of simulated a r t i f a c t s which i l l u s t r a t e changes in structure of Nootka technology, social organization, c h i l d rearing pract i c e s , language and world view.  65 2.  the c h i l d w i l l demonstrate the usage of a Nootka tool or weapon during a simulation game of the sea otter hunt.  3.  The c h i l d w i l l o r a l l y communicate the function of trade goods while taking part in a simulation game of a fur trading session.  Learning Opportunities 1.  During a debriefing session following p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a simulation game, the children discussed what they learned about the structure, usage and function of selected concepts.  2.  Following p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a simulation game, the children wrote an entry into a simulated anthropological  journal  describing what they learned about the structure, usage and function of selected concepts. 30 The Abt  guidelines for procedures in game construction were  adapted for use in the development of the simulations. context of the problem was selected.  F i r s t , the general  The details and scope of the situation  were defined in such terms as time duration, geography, actors concerned and the types of actions and functions involved. tives were selected.  Cognitive and a f f e c t i v e objec-  Next, the actors who were the main participants in the  s i t u a t i o n , were s p e c i f i e d . participant were determined.  The aims, goals, background and role of each A decision was selected which each actor was  to make, 'and which was distinguishable  in terms of goals, preferences, capa-  b i l i t i e s and resources from the other actors.  Third, the win c r i t e r i a were  specified and stated in such terms as the achievement of a given set or maximum degree of objectives within a minimum expenditure of resources. The interaction among the p a r t i c i p a n t s , as well as the mechanics of game procedure were determined next.  Rules were added to l i m i t the scope  of possible actions and interactions among the participants. game materials were constructed.  L a s t l y , the  These materials usually included such  things as the scenario, which gives background information about the setting of the game and pertinent information about game procedure, and the role  York:  Gft&rk C. Abt, The Art and Science of Games that Stimulate L i f e (New Viking, 1970), pp. 103-109.  66 cards which describe the background information about each actor. The teacher-made-simulations were devised by the researcher.  The  same data sources and materials were used to develop the games as were employed in the development of the learning materials used in Treatment A. A b r i e f description of the games is presented in Appendix 0.  Additional  student comments are given in Appendix R. DEVELOPING MAJOR ORGANIZING CENTER II:  TREATMENT C,  THE FUR TRADE - UTILIZING PUPIL-MADE SIMULATIONS Affective Objectives The a f f e c t i v e objectives are directed at developing an increasingly more positive attitude toward the Nootka Indians, and toward social  studies.  Cognitive Objectives The instructional program developed for the purpose of this  orga-  nizing center encompasses a core of cognitive objectives which give practice to the integrative mode u t i l i z i n g the technique of  pupil-made-simulations  applied to content relevant to s i x anthropological concepts previously stated.  The statement of objectives and learning opportunities are c l a s -  s i f i e d according to two of the seven integrative inquiry processes.  The  processes of observing, c l a s s i f y i n g , defining, i n f e r r i n g and communicating are the same as Treatment B and w i l l not be repeated. Process:  Comparing Objectives 1.  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison to i d e n t i f y elements of structure of selected concepts focusing on Nootka c u l t u r e , through the construction of and/or p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a student made simulation dealing with the sea o t t e r hunt.  2.  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison to identify elements of usage of selected concepts focusing on Nootka culture through the construction of and/or p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a student made simulation dealing with simulated a r t i f a c t s of trade goods.  3.  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison to i d e n t i f y elements of function of selected concepts focusing on Nootka culture through the construction of and/or p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a student made simulation dealing with slides of trade goods.  67 Learning Opportunities 1.  The children studied slides of trade goods.  A class  discussion  followed on how the slides could be used to make a game that would help students indentify with experiences and events in the l i v e s of the Nootka Indians involving culture change and related concepts.  The students formed groups and t r i e d to de-  vise games u t i l i z i n g the s l i d e s , that could be played by other members of the class. 2.  After studying h i s t o r i c a l documents from the journals of Captain Cook some members of his crew, and from the journals of the maritime fur traders, the students t r i e d to devise some games using the same procedure as outlined above.  Figure 11: Process:  Children playing The Sea Otter Hunt Game devised by the students from t h e i r reading of h i s t o r i c a l documents.  Integrating  Objecti ves 1.  Through the construction of and/or participation in a student made simulation, the c h i l d w i l l demonstrate identifying with the Nootka Indians by expressing feeling toward and understanding of the structure of selected concepts.  For example:  find yew to make the shaft for my harpoon."  "It's  hard to  68 2.  Through the construction of and/or participation in a studentmade simulation, the c h i l d w i l l demonstrate identifying with the Nootka Indians expressing feeling toward and understanding of the usage of selected concepts.  For example:  "My spear works better  i f I throw i t higher." 3.  Through the construction of and/or participation in a student-made simulation, the c h i l d w i l l demonstrate i d e n t i f y i n g with the Nootka Indians by p a r t i c i p a t i n g in s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s and expressing f e e l ing toward and understanding of the function of selected concepts. For example:  "If  we had more guns, we could shorten this hunting  season." Learning Opportunities 1,  The class examined simulated a r t i f a c t s of trade goods.  A class  discussion followed on how the a r t i f a c t s could be used to make a game that would teach students about culture change and related concepts and help develop favorable attitudes towards the Nootka Indians.  The children then, working in groups, t r i e d to devise  a game u t i l i z i n g simulated a r t i f a c t s that could be played by other members of the class. 2.  Using Indian population s t a t i s t i c s  from 1835 to 1963, the children  devised games employing the same procedure as outlined above.  Figure 12:  Students devising a game using Indian population  statistics.  69 The student-made-simulation  games were devised by the pupils  using  the same data sources employed by the groups involved in Treatment A and Treatment B.  Methodology for introducing game construction was previously  described in Chapter III,  Description of the Treatments.  developed by the students.  Eight of these games were played in class by a l l  the students, or by groups of students. the student-made-simulation  Twelve games were  A b r i e f description of examples of  games are presented in Appendix P.  Student  comments are reported in Appendix S. The development of the instructional program for the three treatments has been described above. next chapter.  The results of these treatments are given in the  CHAPTER V ANALYSIS OF DATA From the administration of the c r i t e r i o n test (pretest, and delayed posttest)  posttest  three class mean scores were obtained for the control  treatment, three for the teacher-made-simulation treatment and two for the student-made-simulation  treatment.  Since the scores on the posttest and the  delayed posttest were almost i d e n t i c a l , i t was decided that the posttest class mean scores could safely be used for the comparison of treatment effects.  The pre- and adjusted posttest scores were used in the comparison  analysis.  Control for pre-treatment difference was achieved by random  assignment and u t i l i z a t i o n of the pretest scores as the covariate. A University of B r i t i s h Columbia adaptation of the program BMDX64 from U.C.L.A. BMD documentation was used to perform the analyses of variance and covariance.  The overall d i f f e r e n t i a l effects among the three treatment  conditions were tested by means of a three-way analyses of variance with the covariate sum of squares removed.  The pretest scores were used as the  covariates and the adjusted posttest scores on the dependent variable were the c r i t e r i a .  C r i t i c a l F ratios are presented for the main effects and  interactions of grade, sex and treatment variables on subject preference, the dependent variable. Table IV summarizes the results of the tests for main effects and interactions pertinent to hypotheses H^ and H 2  An analysis of the three  treatments revealed a c r i t i c a l F r a t i o of 22.70 for the treatment main effect.  This s t a t i s t i c proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t  at the p < .01 l e v e l .  An  analysis of covariance revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t sex or grade main effects or interactions. TABLE IV THREE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TABLE WITH THE COVARIATE SUM OF SQUARES REMOVED Source  Sum of Squares  D.F.  Mean Square  F  1.  Sex  .19  1  .19  .06  2.  Grade  .17  1  .17  .05  3.  Treatment  142.69  2  71.34  4.  Sex X Grade  1.29  1  1.29  70  22.70* .41  71 TABLE IV  (cont'd)  Sum of Squares  Source  D.F.  F  Mean Square  5.  Sex X Treatment  .58  2  .29  .09  6.  Grade X Treatment  .74  2  .37  .12  7.  Sex X Grade X Treatment  7.90  2  3.95  1.26  8.  Covariate  4.21  1  4.21  1.34  9.  Error  176.03  56  3.14  *P <  -oi  TESTING OF HYPOTHESES H 1  Children enrolled in an experimental class for the study of culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating teacher-made-simulation games w i l l achieve a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more favorable attitude toward social studies than w i l l a control  group.  On an attitude measure, X T.M.S.T.} X C.T. Since the F test ratios indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t , the Duncan Multiple Range Test was used to determine the order and the significance of the differences.  Table V gives the Adjusted Treatment  Gropp Means and indicates s i g n i f i c a n t treatment difference at .05 level on Duncan's Multiple Range Test. TABLE V ADJUSTED TREATMENT GROUP MEANS  X Posttest  X Delayed Posttest  N  X Pretest  Control Treatment (X^)  23  10.8  11.4T  11.4  Teacher-MadeSimulati on Treatment  23  11.1  14.5-J  14.6  24  10.8  14.6 —  Group  Student-MadeSi mul ation Treatment  (Xp)(  <*3)  ~ J Indicates s i g n i f i c a n t differences at .05 level on Duncan's Multiple Range Test  72 The magnitude of the differences between X2 ~ to be s i g n i f i c a n t as the p <^ .05.  X^ = 3.1 was found  This finding warrants  the acceptance of  the hypotheses H-|. h^: Children enrolled in an experimental class for the study of culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating student-made-simulation games w i l l achieve a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more favorable attitude toward.social studies than w i l l a control  group.  On an attitude measure X S.M.S.T. > The c r i t i c a l treatment e f f e c t s .  F ration(Table IV)  X C.T.  shows s i g n i f i c a n t  results  for  Using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (Table V), the  difference between the adjusted means of C.T. and S.M.S.T., Xg - X-j = 3.2 was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the p <( .05 l e v e l .  Student-made-simulation  treatment was more e f f e c t i v e than the control treatment in developing favorable student attitude toward social studies.  These findings warrant accept*  franee of the second hypothesis. H : Children enrolled in an experimental class for the study 3  of culture change among the Nootka Indians incorporating student-made-simulation games, w i l l achieve no s i g n i f i c a n t difference in t h e i r attitude toward social studies from students enrolled in a similar study with teacher-madesimulation games.  +  On an attitude measure X T.M.S.T. = X  S.M.S.T.  Duncan's Multiple Range Test was u t i l i z e d to determine i f any s i g n i f i c a n t difference existed between the adjusted means of T.M.S.T. and S.M.S.T.  The test revealed that X  3  - X,  = .1 was not s i g n i f i c a n t .  This result indicates that no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between T.M.S.T.aarid S.M. S.T. was present.  On the basis of these findings, the t h i r d hypothesis  warrants acceptance. Posttest and Delayed Posttest  Results  A delayed posttest was administered to the C.T. and T.M.S.T.  to  determine i f any change in the mean scores had taken place through time. A correlated t - t e s t between the class mean score's for the C.T. on the posttest 11.4 and the delayed posttest 11.4 yielded a " t " value of .00 which is not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l .  There is no s i g n i f i c a n t  73 difference between the class mean posttest score and the delayed mean posttest score for the random sample of twenty-three students. TABLE VI POSTTEST AND DELAYED POSTTEST SCORES FOR C.T. AND T.M.S.T.  Posttest  Delayed Posttest  X  t  p  X  C.T.  11.4  11.4  .00  NSS.  T.M.S.T.  14.5  14.6  .07  N.SS  *p= .05 S i m i l a r l y , a t - t e s t between the class mean scores f o r the T.M.S.T. on the posttest 14.5 and the delayed posttest 14.6 yielded a value of .07. This score was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 level where t  c r  -j  = t  1-71.  On the  basis of this r e s u l t , i t appears that there is no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the class mean scores on the posttest and the scores on the delayed posttest for the random sample of twenty-three students. The scores on the posttest and delayed posttest f o r the C.T. and T.M.S.T. were almost i d e n t i c a l , therefore, i t was decided that the posttest class mean scores could safely be used in the s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis.  CONCLUSIONS The s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis of this study has revealed that teacher-  made and pupil-made simulations helped to develop more favorable student attitudes towards social studies.  The s t a t i s t i c s  have further revealed  that both treatments were equally e f f e c t i v e in this area.  The results have  also shown that sex and grade were not important variables in influencing treatment results.  S i m i l a r l y , the interaction of the following variables  was found not to be s i g n i f i c a n t :  sex and grade; sex and treatment; grade  and treatment; sex, grade and treatment. The findings of this study suggest that simulation games favorably influenced student attitudes toward social studies.  While generalizations  made regarding this study are applicable only to the population of grade four and f i v e students used in this study, indications give encouraging  74 support for the usefulness of continued study of simulation games with a much wider population. The researcher was able to draw further conclusions as a result of the development of the instructional programs and the implementation of this investigation.  The study has shown that i t is possible for the classroom  teacher to develop simulation games that can favorably influence student attitudes toward social studies.  More importantly, i t has revealed that i t  is possible for this sample of grades four and f i v e students to successfully develop and play t h e i r own simiillation games which enhance favorable attitudes toward social  studies.  This investigation has demonstrated the successful'  use of the  Binnington model for the development of a humanistic curriculum.  It  also  has successfully employed the analytic and integrative modes of inquiry as described in the C a l i f o r n i a State Framework. In addition, the researcher has some impressionistic which may be worth noting.  observations  The students of the simulation groups appeared  to be e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y and actively involved in the games.  Their comments  some of which are given in Appendices R and S, revealed that they found the experience highly interesting and enjoyable.  While the noise level  in  the simulation classes was higher than in the control group, the noise was produced by students actively taking part in the learning process.  There  were no d i s c i p l i n e problems and the children appeared to look forward to t h e i r social studies lessons.  The investigator's  observations concurred  with the test r e s u l t s . In the area of cognitive learning the researcher observed a d i f ference in achievement between the three groups as noted on an informal evaluative instrument.  The students of the control and simulation group  appeared to have learned about the same amount of material while the children in the pupil-made simulation appeared to have learned more.  It must be  stressed, however, this conclusion is purely impressionistic and would require further emperical investigation. LIMITATIONS The conclusions cited must be regarded as tentative because this investigation had several l i m i t a t i o n s .  The subjects for this study were not  a random sample from the population of a l l the fourth and f i f t h grade students in B r i t i s h Columbia, but were chosen on the basis of t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y  75 and convenience.  Generalizations made as a result of this study are only  applicable to the population from which the sample was drawn; namely the fourth and f i f t h grade students at Clayton Elementary School in the Surrey School D i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h Columbia.  The study was further handicapped by the  smail 1 sample s i z e . While the students in this study have been grouped with other pupils of the school for their language arts and e l e c t i v e programs, the random assignment of the students to social studies groups was a new practice. departure from the students'  This  daily routine may have influenced t h e i r response  to the treatments. Although the students were not permitted to take the instructional materials home, i t was not possible to prevent them from interacting with the ideas and techniques employed during the treatments.  This problem was further  aggravated by the consecutive administration of the treatment programs. The consecutive presentation of the three treatments was required because of school administration p o l i c y . complete the treatments.  Nine and a half weeks were needed to  Extraneous independent variables such as history  and maturation could have interacted with the treatment, making i t d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the treatment or time, caused any change in student attitude. In an e f f o r t to cope with the problems of history and maturation, a second posttest was administered to the f i r s t two groups on the same day that the t h i r d group received i t s f i r s t posttest. posttest was a modification of the original posttest may have sensitized the students'  Although the second  s c a l e , the writing of the f i r s t response to the second.  Sensitization could also have resulted from the administration of the pretest.  To keep this problem to a minimum, the test was administered  five months p r i o r to this  study.  The testing and instructing of the experimental and control groups was done by the researcher.  While this procedure controls for teacher  e f f e c t , unconscious biases could have affected the v a l i d i t y o€ the study. The time l i m i t a t i o n of a three week treatment period for each group was short.  Perhaps d i f f e r e n t changes in student attitude could have resulted  i f the treatment period had been extended. The study was further limited by the administration of only one i n strument for measuring attitudes.  This attitude scale was handicapped by  76 the eight to sixteen range of total subject scores.  A number of students  rated social studies with the maximum number of points.  The possible score  range should have been wider so that more s i g n i f i c a n t results could have been attained. An additional" l i m i t a t i o n was that the test only evaluated student attitudes toward social studies.  No attempts were made to measure cognitive  learning or d i f f e r e n t areas of the a f f e c t i v e domain. It must 'asltso be noted that the significance of the results of this study were in d i r e c t relation to not only the content of the simulations, but also the presentation used by the researcher.  Decisions  regarding the value  of simulation which this study purports would necessitate the presentation of many more teacher-made and pupil-made simulations  to various classes by  d i f f e r e n t teachers. IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY FOR CLASSROOM . PRACTICE AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Despite i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , this investigation has some important i m p l i cations for classroom practice and for curriculum development. shown that a classroom teacher can devise simulation games.  This study has  Teachers should  try to use this technique to add variety to t h e i r social studies  lessons.  Once the children have experienced and anlayzed a few games, they should be encouraged to develop t h e i r own. in groups or as individuals.  This could be done by the class as a whole,  Perhaps these student-developers could teach  their games to other children in the class or in the school. S i m i l a r l y , this study has implications for curriculum development. Within the province of B r i t i s h Columbia the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of social  studies  curriculum development is increasingly f a l l i n g upon the classroom teacher. To aid teachers in this area, many school d i s t r i c t s have appointed teacher committees who are developing social studies units and materials to be used within the d i s t r i c t .  While this program has mefcit, i t also has problems, for ,  frequently teachers possess a limited knowledge of curriculum development. These teacher committees require a clear procedure to guide the developmental process.  This study has successfully applied the Binnington model for human-  i s t i c curriculum development.  This model could be of great value by providing  a procedure for future curriculum development. An area that is frequently not emphasized within teacher developed curriculum is that of inquiry s k i l l s .  Most teachers recognize the worth of  77 these processes, but have d i f f i c u l t y incorporating them into t h e i r unit and lesson planning.  This investigation has employed the C a l i f o r n i a State  Framework's integrative and analytic modes of inquiry with quite a high degree of success.  The modes are not d i f f i c u l t y t o employ and the processes  seem to grow from one another as the c h i l d engages in his inquiry.  Perhaps  curriculum committees should seriously consider u t i l i z i n g these modes when they are planning t h e i r units. This study has also revealed that simulation games can favorably influence student attitudes toward social studies.  Curriculum developers  should consider incorporating at least one game per unit and providing opportunity for children to develop t h e i r own games. that simulations  This study indicates  are not d i f f i c u l t to devise and can generate student i n -  t e r e s t , enjoyment, involvement and motivation. ADDITIONAL RESEARCH NEEDED The findings of this study tentatively suggest that simulation games is an e f f e c t teaching technique for developing favorable student attitudes toward social studies.  The exploratory nature of this research requires that  replidative investigations  be undertaken to support or reject this conclusion.  The present study employed only the subject matter and concepts taken from anthropology.  Additional studies should examine simulation games using  subject matter from d i f f e r e n t areas of the curriculum. Further studies are also required u t i l i z i n g the Binnington model for humanistic curriculum development.  While this study focused on the a f f e c t i v e  domain, the effectiveness of this model in prompting cognitive learning r e quires thorough investigation. The modes of inquiry taken from the C a l i f o r n i a State Framework have been successfully applied in this study, however, further research in d i f ferent classrooms  and at d i f f e r e n t grade levels is required to determine  their f u l l potential. The cognitive learning of students involved in teacher-made and pupil-made simulations  is an area that requires further investigation.  Additional studies are also required in the affective domain.  No  attempts were made in this study to test d i f f e r e n t areas of the affective realm other than student attitudes toward social studies.  For example, i t  is unknown whether, as a result of the simulation experience, the students had any increased empathy for the Nootka people and the problems facing them /  78 regarding culture change.  Studies made of the feelings and a t t i t u d i n a l  changes caused by teacher-made and pupil-made simulations would be invaluable. Other areas of study worth investigating are the effects of simulations on group and decision-making s k i l l s . The number of subjects involved in the present study was r e l a t i v e l y small.  Research studies u t i l i z i n g larger numbers of subjects should be  encouraged. In addition, further research on the paired-comparison rating scale is required.  Attempts should be made to refine the scale and to make i t  more sensitive for indicating the extent of attitude change.  A study u t i -  l i z i n g a multidimensional approach in evaluating student attitudes toward social studies would be of great value. Hopefully, future research w i l l be conducted which w i l l substantiate as well as extend the conclusions reached through this study.  Only by means  of such investigations w i l l education keep pace with the needs of today's students in our modern world.  APPENDIX A THE PAIRED-COMPARISON RATING SCALE  80 SUBJECT PREFERENCE SURVEY Name Place 1 by your  Rank each group of subjects in order of preference, f i r s t choice and 2 by your second choice. Reading  1  11  P.E.  Ari thmetic 2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  a  Social  Studies  b  Music  a  Arithmetic  b  P.E.  a  Music  b  Health  a  Art  b  Spelling  a  Science  b  Reading  a  P.E.  b  Social  a  Health  b  Ari thmetic  a  Reading  b  Art  12.  Arithmetic Science  13.  Social  Studies  Arithmetic 1,4,  Science Music  15.  Health Social  16.  Studies  Music Art  17.  Reading Spelling  Studies  Spelling Health  Art  18.  Musi c Reading  19.  Musi c P.E.  20.  Art Science  21.  32.  a) Reading b) Health  22.  33.  aj P.E. b] Spelling  23.  a) Ari thmeti c  a  P.E.  b  Reading  a  Science  b  Social  34.  Arithmetic Art  b] Musi c 24.  a)  25.  35.  Reading  b) Social  Studies 36.  a) Health  a) Social b)  27.  Studies  Spelling  a) Science b) P.E.  28.  a)  Spelling  b) Arithmetic 29.  a) Art b) Social  30.  Studies  a) Health b) Science  31.  a  Health  b  P.E. Spelling Science  b) Art 26.  Studies  a) Musi c Spelling  APPENDIX B OBJECTIVES FOCUSED ON THE CONCEPT OF TECHNOLOGY AND UTILIZING THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY  83 1:00  The c h i l d w i l l engage in observation of documents, s l i d e s , pictures and simulated a r t i f a c t s to obtain data on Nootka technology related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  1:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the structure of technology.  Example:  The whaling harpoon was made from a shaft of yew wood. The blade, which was made from a mussel s h e l l , was bound with gut to a barbed head and cemented with p i t c h . 1:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the usage of technology.  Example:  The Nootka stone-bladed chisels were used for such things as s p l i t t i n g logs, f e l l i n g trees and making canoes. 1:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the function of technology.  Example:  At the beginning of the maritime fur trade, the bow and arrow functioned in the economic a c t i v i t y of providing pelts for trade. 2:00  The c h i l d w i l l c l a s s i f y data on technology related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events in the lives of Nootka Indians.  2:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to structure of technology.  Example:  Before contact,containers were constructed of s o l i d s , e.g. wooden boxes and f l e x i b l e s , e.g. baskets of cedar bark f i b e r s . 2:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the usage of technology.  Example:  84 The bow and arrow were used for the hunt of sea o t t e r ; elbowadze and D adze were used for carving. 2:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y relevant to the function of technology.  data  Example:  The f i s h traps functioned in subsistence a c t i v i t i e s ; the whaler's hat functioned in social a c t i v i t i e s . 3:00  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to comprehend d e f i n i t i o n of terms related to Nootka technology by using them in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  3:10  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label according to structure.  technology  Example:  harpoon, spear, club, bow and arrow, maul (pixaxpinax), D-adze, elbow-adze. 3:20  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label used for a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y .  technology  Example:  "Digging s t i c k s " were used to dig clams and the t r a i l i n g roots of spruce and cedar. 3:30  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label functioning in s p e c i f i c ways.  technology  Example:  The "yahank" a c y l i n d r i c a l type fish trap, functioned in subsistence a c t i v i t i e s . 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l contrast Nootka technology in two or more a c t i v i t i e s and events.  4:10  The c h i l d w i l l contrast technology by i d e n t i f y i n g differences i  n  structure.  Example:  85  ) Hunting tools before the fur trader arrived, were constructed of natural products. After the fur traders arrived,they were constructed from processed materials. 4:20  The c h i l d w i l l contrast technology by noting differences in usage.  Example:  Before the fur trader arrived, the sea otter pelt was used for clothing. After the fur trader a r r i v e d , the pelt was used as an item for trade. 4:30  The c h i l d w i l l contrast technology by noting differences in function.  Example:  Hunting the sea otter before the fur traders a r r i v e d , served a subsistence function. After the traders a r r i v e d , the hunting of the sea otter served an economic function. 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding the differences in Nootka technology related to s p e c i f i c act i v i t i e s and events.  5:10  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses differences in structure of technology.  regarding  Example:  During the era of the maritime fur trade with non-Indians, the Nootka people put more time and e f f o r t into the hunting of the sea otter than in the e a r l i e r e r a , because they wanted the goods the non-Indians offered in trade for otter p e l t s . 5:20  The c h i l d w i l l generate and t e s t hypotheses differences in usage of technology.  regarding  Example:  The art of the Nootka Indians flourished after the contact with non-Indians, because the a v a i l a b i l i t y of metal provided more e f f i c i e n t equipment. 5:30  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses differences in function of technology.  regarding  Example:  86 After contact with non-Indians, technological devices which had previously functioned p r i marily for subsistence purposes, began to function for socio-economic purposes, because the non-Indians valued the pelts highly. 6:00  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences based on findings by predicting the outcome in another time, place or f o r other individuals  in  a s i m i l a r setting regarding Nootka technology in relation to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events. 6:10  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the structure of technology.  Example:  If the Nootka Indians had changed the structure of t h e i r clothing in imitation of the white man, they may have changed the structure of t h e i r houses for the same reason. 6:20  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the usage of technology.  Example:  If the use of the gun made the sea otter hunt more e f f i c i e n t and more deadly, then eventually the sea otter would become extinct. 6:30  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the function of technology.  Example:  If the non-Indians' blankets were in constant demand, probably eventually the blanket would function as the standard value in trade. 7:00  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others results of inquiry on Nootka technology related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  7:10  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others inquiry findings structure of technology.  Example:  Documented a r t i f a c t s from a Nootka v i l l a g e can be displayed in a classroom museum.  into the  87 7:20  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others findings of inquiry into the usage of technology.  Example:  An entry can be written into a simulated anthropological journal on the usage of a whaling canoe. 7:30  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others findings of inquiry into the function of technology.  Example:  The function of the whaler's harpoon in subsistence a c t i v i t i e s can be explained.  APPENDIX C OBJECTIVES FOCUSED ON THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND UTILIZING THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY  89 1:00  The c h i l d w i l l engage in observation of documents, slides pictures and simulated a r t i f a c t s to obtain data on Nootka social organization related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  1:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the structure of social organization.  Example:  The structure of Nootka Indian society was based upon three broad social classes - the upper c l a s s , the common people and the slaves. 1:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the usage of social organization.  Example:  Social class was used in determining the r o l e s , duties, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , rights and privileges in Nootka s o c i e t y , e.g. - the hereditary chief held the position of whaler and conducted trade with non-Indians. 1:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of observed data on the function of social  organization.  Example:  Constant recognition of three classes within Nootka s o c i e t y , functioned as a means o f maintaining continuity of the social organization. 2:00  The c h i l d w i l l c l a s s i f y  data on social organization related  to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events  in the l i v e s of the Nootka  Indians. 2:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the structure of social organization.  Example:  Social position determined work tasks among the Nootka Indians - e.g. the chief hunted the whale while the slaves did menial tasks such as cleaning f i s h .  90 2:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the usage of social roles in determining social  traditions.  Example: The Nootka Indian's position in the social organization was used to determine the form and order of i n v i t a t i o n , the type of g i f t and the order of giving and receiving of the g i f t , and the group with which he would s i t during a potlatch. 2:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the function of social organization.  Example:  The Nootka Indian roles could be c l a s s i f i e d according to the functions assigned to t h e i r position in the social organization, e.g. the hunter served primarily a subsistence function; the shaman served primarily as a contact with the supernatural or a s p i r i t u a l mediator function; the chief served primarily social and economic functions. 3:00  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to comprehend d e f i n i t i o n of terms of Nootka social organization by using them in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  3:10  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label social according to its' structure.  organization  Example:  potlatch, c h i e f ' s speaker, messengers, p r i v i l e g e , g i f t s , sheet copper. 3:20  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms in r e l a t i n g the social to i t s use.  Example:  Potlatches were used for the conferring of a new name on a son; the celebrating of a daughter's puberty ceremony; the building of a house; the accepting of a hereditary p o s i t i o n , or the celebrating of a successful whale hunt.  activity  91 3:30  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms in relating the social a c t i v i t y to i t s function.  Example:  The potlatch served primarily a socio-economic function. 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l contrast two or more a c t i v i t i e s and events of Nootka social  4:10  organization.  The c h i l d w i l l contrast structure of social  organization  by i d e n t i f y i n g differences within selected settings. Example: With the coming of the missionaries, the status of slave was outlawed. 4:20  The c h i l d w i l l contrast usage of social organization by noting differences within selected settings.  Example:  Before the fur trade, potlatches were used by hereditary chiefs to enhance t h e i r prestige. After the fur trade, potlatches became more lavish and were used mainly by wealthy "commoners" to raise themselves on the social scale. 4:30  The c h i l d w i l l contrast function of social  organization  by noting differences within selected settings.  Example:  Before the maritime fur trade, i n t e r - t r i b a l trade-served economic and subsistence functions. After the non-Indians a r r i v e d , i n t e r - t r i b a l trade functioned to strengthen the Nootka c h i e f ' s economic and social p o s i t i o n . 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses  explaining  differences in Nootka social organization related s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  to  92 5:10  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses  regarding  differences in structure of social organization.  Example:  Interior Vancouver Island tribes adopted the structure of the social systems and ceremonies of t h e i r powerful coastal neighbours because of increased trade relations and intermarriage stimulated by the fur trade. 5:20  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses differences in usage of social organization.  regarding Example:  The use of the slave to prepare sea otter pelts rather than to do a variety of menial tasks was generated by the value placed on the pelts by the fur trader. 5:30  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses  regarding  differences in function .of social organization.  Examp1e:  The change of the primary function of the chief to commercial leader was caused by the high value placed on sea otter pelts by the fur trader. 6:00  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences based on findings by predicting the outcome in another time, place or for other individuals  in  a s i m i l a r setting,regarding Nootka social organization in relation to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events. 6:10  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the structure of social organization.  Example:  If, with the coming of the fur trade, there was a redirection -\and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the sea otter hunt, then the need f o r shark l i v e r o i l in the lumber industry was also ajprimary cause of redirection in the social structure of the Nootka people.  93 6:20  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the usage of social organization.  Example:  If the chief moved closer to the trading f o r t , his a c t i v i t i e s would increasingly involve potlatching and exchanging pelts for beads. 6:30  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the function of social organization.  Example:  If only the hereditary chief could function as whaler, probably his eldest son would take his place at the time of his death. 7:00  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, results of inquiry on Nootka social organization as related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  7:10  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, inquiry findings on the structure of social organization.  Example:  A diagram can be drawn of the seating arrangement at a Nootka potlatch i n dicating the social position of each member. 7:20  The childwwill communicate to others, findings on the usage of social organization.  Examp 1 e:  A simulated'anthropologists report can be written on how an Indian's position on the social scale was used to determine what rights and privileges he was given. 7:30  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, inquiry findings on the function of social organization.  Example:  A chart can be made indicating the function of the c h i e f , commoner and slave before and a f t e r the coming of the fur traders.  APPENDIX D OBJECTIVES FOCUSED ON THE CONCEPT OF CHILDREARING AND UTILIZING THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY  95 1:00  The c h i l d w i l l engage in observation  of documents, s l i d e s , pictures  and simulated a r t i f a c t s to obtain data on Nootka c h i l d rearing related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events. 1:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the structure of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  Nootka children were seldom physically punished. The accepted code of conduct together with the rights and duties of t h e i r c l a s s , were constantly impressed on them. 1:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the usage of Nootka c h i l d rearing.  Example:  The Nootka Indians used group disapproval to ensure good behavior among t h e i r children. 1:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of observed data on the function of Nootka c h i l d rearing.  Example:  Nootka children engaged in games that functioned to teach s k i l l s necessary for adult l i f e . 2:00  The c h i l d w i l l c l a s s i f y data on c h i l d rearing related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events of the Nootka Indians.  2:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the structure of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  Nootka education can be c l a s s i f i e d as formal, such as instruction given by adults through oral teaching and demonstration and informal such as learning from s t o r i e s , play a c t i v i t i e s and learning from other children. 2:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the usage of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  96 Games were used in teaching the young. These games can be c l a s s i f i e d according to the s k i l l s they were used to teach e.g. "play potlatches" were used to teach certain social s k i l l s and respons i b i l i t i e s , while spear-throwing games were used to teach hunting s k i l l s . 2:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y to the function of c h i l d rearing.  data relevant  Example:  Nootka education can be c l a s s i f i e d into areas that functioned to t r a i n the young in technologic, economic, social and religious a c t i v i t i e s . 3:00  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to comprehend d e f i n i t i o n of terms of Nootka c h i l d rearing, by using them in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  3:10  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label c h i l d rearing according to structure.  Example:  cradleboard, first-game feast, head presses, play f e a s t s , play songs. 3:20  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label c h i l d rearing according to usage.  Example:  The 6 ' t u l or f i r s t game feast was given by the parents and used to honour t h e i r son f o r his f i r s t successful hunt. 3:30  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label c h i l d rearing according to function.  Example:  The cradleboard functioned to create the f e e l i n g of security for the Nootka c h i l d . 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l contrast two or more a c t i v i t i e s or events of Nootka c h i l d rearing.  97 4:10  The c h i l d w i l l contrast c h i l d rearing by noting differences in structure.  Example:  Children of the Nootka chief were told to be kindly and helpful to others. They were never to be arrogant or quarrelsome. They were taught to "take care" of t h e i r people by providing food, feasts, good w i l l e t c . . Children of low rank among the Nootka were told to play with the c h i e f ' s children c a r e f u l l y . They were told to help the c h i e f ' s children and never quarrel with or s t r i k e them. 4:20  The c h i l d w i l l contrast c h i l d rearing by noting differences in usage.  Example:  Before contact the Nootka children were taught to use the Nootka language.-With the coming of the fur trade the children were also taught to use the Chinook jargon and English. 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses explaining differences in Nootka c h i l d rearing related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  5:10  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding differences in structure of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  Nootka education stressed the learning of social behavior and r i t u a l knowledge because the Nootka people f e l t they were important for the development of a good and useful member of the community. 5:20  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding differences in usage of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  Nootka adults encouraged the use of children's games such as "play feasts" and "shaman dances" because these games were a useful form of training for adult life.  98 5:30  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding differences in function of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  With the coming of the fur trade Nootka parents encouraged t h e i r children to learn Chinook jargon because a knowledge of this language functioned to enhance success in an economic a c t i v i t y , the fur trade. 6:00  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences based on findings, by predicting the outcome in another time, place or for other individuals  in  a s i m i l a r setting regarding Nootka c h i l d rearing in relation to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events. 6:10  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the structure of chiId rearing.  Example:  If a knowledge of the Chinook language was important in trading with non-Indians, probably the Nootka people would stress the learning of this language by t h e i r children. 6:20  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the usage of c h i l d rearing. Example:  If oral instruction was the most important mode of education among the Nootka, probably scolding was used mainly to d i s c i p l i n e t h e i r children. 6:30  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the function of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  If the combination of demonstration and practice functioned as important aspects of the learning process, probably the habit of l i s t e n i n g to oral instruction made Nootka children and adults receptive to such teaching.  99 7:00  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, results of inquiry on Nootka c h i l d rearing related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s or events.  7:10  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, inquiry findings into the structure of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  Nootka games can be constructed or a Nootka "myth" containing a lesson for Indian children can be written. 7:20  The c h i l d w i l l communicate t o o t h e r S j findings of inquiry into the usage o f c h i l d rearing.  Example:  Nootka games involving marksmenship with spears or bows can be demonstrated and an explanation of how these games were used to develop s k i l l s necessary for adult l i f e can be given. 7:30  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others findings of inquiry into the function of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  A section can be written in a simulated anthropological journal on the function of parents, siblings and grandparents in the education of Nootka children.  APPENDIX E OBJECTIVES FOCUSED ON THE CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE AND UTILIZING THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY  101 1:00  The c h i l d w i l l engage in observation of documents, s l i d e s , pictures and simulated a r t i f a c t s to obtain data on Nootka language related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  1:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the structure of language.  Example:  L i n g u i s t i c a l l y the Nootka are related to the Kwakiutl, the two groups forming what is known as the Wakashan language stock. 1:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the usage of 1anguage.  Example:  The Nootka used the term "topa t i " to name a l l the various kinds of property which were family possessions and subject to certain rules of inheritance and ownership. 1:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of observed data on the function of language.'  Example:  In the Nootka language, the repetition of a s i g n i f i c a n t s y l l a b l e functioned to describe numbeiretn objects and frequency in action e.g. "waw" means "to utter a shout", while "waw-waw" indicates a sustained speech. 2:00  The c h i l d w i l l c l a s s i f y data on language related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events of the Nootka Indians.  2:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to structure of language.  Example:  The Nootka language can be c l a s s i f i e d into three d i a l e c t i c d i v i s i o n s : Nootka proper, spoken from Cape Cook to the east shore of Barclay Sound; N i t i n a t , used further south at Pachiena and Nitinat Lake; and Makah, used at Cape Flattery.  ::  102 2:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the usage of language.  Example:  Nootka words can be c l a s s i f i e d according to the endings used in the words. Trees and grasses end in "pt" while general end in "oop" and "toop". 2:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the function of 1anguage.  Example:  The Nootka language functioned for communication within the t r i b e while the Chinook jargon functioned for communication in commerce with neighbouring tribes and non-Indian traders. 3:00  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to comprehend d e f i n i t i o n of terms related to Nootka language by using them in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  3:10  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label language according to i t s structure.  Example: ,  Chinook jargon, topa t i , potlatch 3:20  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label language used for a specific activity.  Example:  Chinook jargon was used primarily by the Nootka Indians and non-Indians during t h e i r trading a c t i v i t i e s . 3:30  The c h i l d w i l l use terms to label aspects of language functioning in s p e c i f i c ways.  Example:  Chinook jargon functioned to enhance the effectiveness of trade a c t i v i t i e s for the Indian and non-Indian.  103 The c h i l d w i l l contrast Nootka language in two or more a c t i v i t i e s and events. The c h i l d w i l l contrast language by i d e n t i f y i n g differences in structure.  Example:  The word "potlatch" is taken from Chinook jargon and is a corruption of the Nootka word "patshatl" meaning giving. The c h i l d w i l l contrast language by noting differences in usage. Exampl e: There was a difference in the usage of the term potlatchcby the Indians and by the non-Indians. When the Indians used the word "potlatch" they thought of a consider^ able number of ceremonies and f e s t i v a l s each having i t s own Indian name. When the nonIndians used the term "potlatch" they thought mainly of the disposal of property. The c h i l d w i l l contrast language by noting differences in function. Example: With the coming of the fur trade, many Indians were quick to adopt English words.' The adoption-M English words functioned to enhance the Indian's prestige and in= crease his effectiveness in commerical activities. The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding differences in Nootka language related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events. The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding differences in structure of langauage.  Example:  To many non-Indians, the Nootka language sounded harsh and rough because the pronounciation was done almost e n t i r e l y with  104 trje teeth and each s y l l a b l e was articulated by pauses. The words abounded in consonants and words often ended in " t l " and " t z " . 5:20  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding differences in the usage of 1anguage.  Example:  As the maritime fur trade progressed, Chinook jargon was increasingly used by non-Indians and the Nootka because they found i t d i f f i c u l t to communicate with each other using t h e i r native language. 5:30  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding differences in function of language.  Example:  In Nootka society the oral expression of language functioned as the central core of education because the chief mode of instruction was l e c t u r i n g , scolding and story t e l l i n g . 6:00  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences based on findings  by predicting the  outcome in another time, place or for other individuals in a s i m i l a r setting regarding Nootka language in relation to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events. 6:10  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the structure of 1 anguage.  If Chinook jargon was made up of words from non-Indian groups such as the English, French and Hawaiian and from t r i b a l dialects on the northwest coast, probably many Nootkan words were found in Chinook jargon. 6:20  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the usage of language. Example: If songs were used for informal amusement, in dances, in games, in potlatches, in secret prayers, in incantations and in ceremonies probably songs occupied an important place in the l i f e of the Nootka.  6:30  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the function of 1anguage. Example:  105 If language functioned as an estimate of the degree of c i v i l i z a t i o n a t r i b e has attained, probably the language of the Nootka was considered poor by non-Indians since i t could not have greater breadth than the ideas the Nootka themselves have been able to form. 7:00  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, results of inquiry on Nootka language related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  7:10  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, inquiry findings structure of language.  into the  Example:  A dictionary of Nootka and Chinook words and t h e i r English meanings can be compiled. 7:20  Thee hi 1 d w i l l communicate to others, findings the usage of 1anguage.  of inquiry into  Example:  During class discussion and group work on the maritime fur trade, the c h i l d can use words taken from Chinook jargon - e. g. chuck-water. 7:30  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, findings of inquiry into the function of 1 anguage.  Example:  The function of Nootka legends such as "The Transformer" and "Raven and Snipe", in the education of Nootka children can be explained.  APPENDIX F OBJECTIVES FOCUSED ON THE CONCEPT OF WORLD VIEW AND UTILIZING THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY  107 1:00  The c h i l d w i l l engage in observation of documents, s l i d e s , pictures and simulated a r t i f a c t s to obtain data on Nootka world view related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  1:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the structure of world view.  Example:  Facial painting for adornment, was universal among the Nootka. It was done by f i r s t applying a l i b e r a l coating of deer tallow. On top of t h i s , dry ochre or charcoal was applied. 1:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the usage of world view.  Example:  Among the Nootka Indians, the suspension of abalone-shell from pierced ears, and the wearing of abalone-shell rings or long smoothly finished bone pins through a hole in the septrum of the nose, were used for personal adornment. 1:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of observed data on the function of world view.  Example:  Among some Nootka, there was a b e l i e f in a supernatural "Chief" who functioned as the provider of food and manufacturing materials. 2:00  The c h i l d w i l l c l a s s i f y data on Nootka world view related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events of the Nootka Indians.  2:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the structure of world view.  Example:  The Nootka "land of the dead" can be c l a s s i f i e d into two areas. One " l a n d " , under the guardianship of an unnameable Great Chief, was where those s l a i n in battle were sent. The other "land" was controlled by the S p i r i t of Death and was underground. To this place the soul of sick persons wandered.  108 2:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the usage of world view.  Example:  Nootka religious b e l i e f s can be c l a s s i f i e d into those that were used to explain the past, the present and the future. 2:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y relevant to the function of world view.  data  Example:  The Nootka shaman's functions can be c l a s s i f i e d as a healer, as a prophesizer, as a magician and as a c a s t e r - o f - s p e l l s . 3:00  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to comprehend d e f i n i t i o n of terms related to Nootka world view by using them in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  3:10  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label world view according to structure.  Example:  soul catcher, shaman, bathing r i t u a l , s p i r i t helpers. 3:20  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label world view used for s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y .  Example:  The shaman used the soul-catcher to suck out objects that were believed to cause disease in his patients. The shaman also used i t to capture the wandering souls of sick persons. 3:30  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label world view functioning in s p e c i f i c ways.  Example:  The function of the soul catcher was te aid the shaman in "curing" his patients.  109 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l contrast Nootka world view in terms of two or more a c t i v i t i e s and events.  4:10  The c h i l d w i l l contrast aspects of world view by identifying differences in structure.  Example:  Prior to contact, Nootka personal adornments were made from natural products such as abalone shell and bone. With the coming of the white man, manufactured products became popular such as metal c o l l a r s and brass buttons. 4:20  The c h i l d w i l l contrast world view by noting differences in usage. Example: The fur traders used spoons for eating but the Nootka used them for necklaces and for objects of personal adornment.  4:30  The c h i l d w i l l contrast world view by noting differences in function.  Example:  The Nootka believed that there were a multitude of deities whose function was to control the world. A supernatural "Chief" functioned as the provider of food sources and manufactured materials. The deities Moon and Sun functioned as providers of health and good luck. \  5:00  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses explaining differences in Nootka world view related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  5:10  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding differences in structure of world view.  Example:  At the beginning of the fur trade the Nootka believed the white men were Indians returning from the dead or creatures from the supernatural because of t h e i r manner of dress and the wonderful a r t i c l e s they possessed.  110 5:20  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses differences in usage of world view.  regarding  Example:  Although the metal knife played an important part in the preparation of food, at the beginning of the fur trade, the Nootka did not use metal knives to cut t h e i r salmon because they thought i t would be offensive to t h e i r salmon dei ty. 5:30  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses differences in function of world view.  regarding  Example:  With the coming of the fur trade, pieces of metal were adopted f o r personal adornment because the Indians considered i t a t t r a c t i v e , and because i t served as an indicator of the wearer's wealth, and prestige. 6:00  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences based on findings by predicting the outcome in another time, place or for individuals in a s i m i l a r setting regarding Nootka world view in relation to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  6:10  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the structure of world view.  Example: If the Nootka were style conscious and e a s i l y influenced by the whims of fashion, probably the fur trader had d i f f i c u l t y predicting whether certain trade a r t i c l e s , such as beads and t r i n k e t s , would be popular for the season.  6:20  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the usage of world view.  Example: If the Nootka believed that supernatural beings were sensitive to odours and uncleanliness, probably the Indians used frequent bathing and fasting to achieve the purity they f e l t the s p i r i t s desired.  Ill  6:30  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the function of world view.  Example:  If the Nootka spent much of t h e i r free time in a t h l e t i c games, guessing games and games of pure chance, probably games functioned as an important source of recreation. 7:00  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, the results of inquiry on Nootka world view related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  7:10  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, inquiry findings into the structure of world view.  Example:  A documented display of Nootka musical instruments.can be made. 7:20  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, findings of inquiry into the usage of world view.  Example:  An explanation can be given of how the shaman's paraphernalia was used in curing of his patients. 7:30  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others findings of inquiry into the function of world view.  Example:  The function of carved art motifs on Nootka storage boxes, clothing, screens, totem poles, e t c . can be explained.  APPENDIX G OBJECTIVES FOCUSED ON THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE CHANGE AND UTILIZING THE ANALYTIC MODE OF INQUIRY  113 1:00  The c h i l d w i l l engage in observation of documents, s l i d e s , pictures, and simulated a r t i f a c t s to obtain data on Nootka culture change related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  1:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the structure of culture change.  Example:  With the coming of the maritime fur-trade i n t e r - t r i b a l trade was enlarged and extended. 1:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate knowledge of data observed on the usage of culture change.  Example:  With the coming of the maritime fur trade, some of the chiefs f i r s t in contact with the coastal traders used the fur trade to strengthen t h e i r economic and social positions and to manipulate the new source of wealth to t h e i r own advantage. 1:30  Thetchild w i l l demonstrate knowledge of observed data on the function of culture change.  Example:  The fur trade brought increased wealth which functioned to strengthen e x i s t i n g social and economic systems among the Nootka Indians. 2:00  The c h i l d w i l l c l a s s i f y data on culture change related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events of the Nootka Indians.  2:10  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the structure of culture change.  Example:  The Nootka "borrowed" many elements from the white trader's culture that could be c l a s s i f i e d under the f i v e aspects of culture - e.g. technology - guns; c h i l d rearing - w r i t i n g ; world view - fashion; language - English. 2:20  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the usage of culture change.  Example:  114  With the coming of the fur trade, certain elements of Nootka culture remained in use, while other elements were discarded because the fur traders provided better ways and means for doing things. Nootka cultural elements can be c l a s s i f i e d into those that remained in use and those that were no longer used - e.g. with the introduction of iron blades, shell blades were no longer used for hunting. 2:30  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate the a b i l i t y to c l a s s i f y data relevant to the function of culture change.  Example:  The maritime fur trade brought culture changes to the Nootka Indians that can be c l a s s i f i e d according to those changes that functioned to enhance existing social and economic systems, e. g. increased wealth, - and those changes that functioned to destroy e x i s t i n g social and economic systems - e.g. disease, l i q u o r , increased warfare. 3:00  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate a b i l i t y to comprehend d e f i n i t i o n of terms of Nootka culture change by using them in oral or written descriptions of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  3:10  The c h i l d w i l l use appropriate terms to label culture change according to structure.  Example:  metal c o l l a r s , button blankets, borrowing, imitation. 3:20  The c h i l d w i l l use terms to label culture changed used for a specific activity.  Example:  With the coming of the fur trade the "button blanket" was used as a popular garment for formal wear. 3:30  The c h i l d w i l l use terms to label aspects of culture change functioning in s p e c i f i c ways.  Example:  The "copper or iron c o l l a r s " worn by the chiefs functioned primarily as a symbol of prestige.  115 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l contrast Nootka culture change in terms of two or more a c t i v i t i e s and events.  4:10  The c h i l d w i l l contrast aspects of culture change by i d e n t i f y i n g differences in structure.  Example:  After the fur traders arrived,the Indian population decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the introduction of white man's diseases such as measdes. 4:20  The c h i l d w i l l contrast culture change by noting differences in usage.  Example:  With the coming of the fur trade, potlatches were used more frequently and became more lavish than in the past. 4:30  The c h i l d w i l l contrast culture change by noting differences in function.  Example:  Before the fur trade, most of the hunter's time was spent in a subsistence a c t i v i t i e s . After the fur trade he spent most of his time in an economic a c t i v i t y , k i l l i n g sea otter for trade.  5:00  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses regarding the differences in Nootka culture change relateddto s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  5:10  The c h i l d w i l l generate and t e s t hypotheses differences  in s t r u c t u r e Oiffdculture change.  regarding Example:  116 With the coming of the f u r trade the t r a d i t i o n a l bases o f power were breaking down. Not only were the supernatural sanctions f o r the priviledged secular status minimi zed,but the religious functions of priviledged status were weakened because of a general undermining? of inherited power.  5:20  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses differences in usage of culture change.  regarding  Example:  The Nootka Indians were eager to use the white trader's goods because they increased prestige in the native system and gave the Indians an opportunity to maintain in t h e i r own eyes, an equivalence with non-Indians. 5:30  The c h i l d w i l l generate and test hypotheses  regarding  differences in function of culture change.  Example:  The new wealth brought by the fur trade functioned to enhance previous cultural forms because of the significance of wealth and the way that i t permeated every phase of native l i f e . The importance of barter, of trade, of property exchange, of wealth and a l l i t s social functions served to minimize the novelty o f commerce with Europeans. 6:00  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences based on findings by predicting the outcome in another time, place or for other individuals  in  a s i m i l a r setting regarding Nootka culture change in relation to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events. 6:10  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the structure of culture change.  Example:  If the maritime fur trade was confined to a seaborne commerce, probably the trade brought goods, new materials and new techniques without the disruptive effects of .'colonization.  117 6:20  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the usage of culture change.  Example:  If the Nootka used the non-Indians clothing, and adopted t h e i r customs / language and habits, the Indians probably did so in an e f f o r t to imitate white men. 1  6:30  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding the function of culture change.  Example:  If the fur trader functioned as a supplier of necessary items, probably the Indians would become dependent upon him. 7:00  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, results of inquiry on Nootka culture change related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  7:10  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, inquiry findings the structure of culture change.  into  Example:  Models can be made of the Nootka houses before and a f t e r the fur trade. The building materials and the house construction can be shown. 7:20  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, inquiry findings the usage of culture change.  into  Example:  A series of sketches with captions can be made on the differences in usage of Indian clothing with the coming of the fur trade. The focus can be on the changes caused by the introduction of the "two and a h a l f point" blanket. 7:30  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, inquiry findings the function of culture change.  Example:  into  118 An anthropological report can be written on the differences in function of the potlatch before and after the fur trade.  APPENDIX H OBJECTIVES FOCUSING ON THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND UTILIZING THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY  120 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison of social organization through p a r t i c i p a t i o n in related a c t i v i t i e s and events in Nootka Indian l i v e s .  4:10  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y elements of structure of social organization.  Example:  The student w i l l s e l e c t the role of c h i l d , slave, commoner, woman or chief for a simulation. 4:20  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y elements of usage of social organization.  Example:  In a simulation, the c h i l d w i l l participate in the a c t i v i t i e s he would be engaged in i f he was the slave. 4:30  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l  identify  elements of function of s o c i a l organization.  Example:  Through simulating a potlatch, the c h i l d w i l l take part in a c t i v i t i e s which functioned to enhance the social status o f the host. 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l make comments or actions, expressing feelings and understandings which demonstrate that integration of a f f e c t i v e and cognitive response to Nootka social organization is taking place.  5:10  In selecting the role of c h i l d , slave, commoner, woman or chief, the c h i l d w i l l expresssfeeling and understanding of the identity of that person in Nootka social  organization.  Example: A g i r l playing the role of a Nootka woman might say, "I wish I was a man so that I could go on the whale hunt too."  121 5:20  In selecting-the role of c h i l d , slave,'commoner, woman or c h i e f , the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the usage of that person in Nootka social organization.  Example:  A boy playing the role of slave might say, " I ' l l work hard and skin as many sea otter as I can, then the chief might set me f r e e . " 5:30  In selecting the role of c h i l d , slave, commoner, woman or c h i e f , the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the function of that person in Nootka social  organization.  Example: A boy playing the role of a chief giving a potlatch might say, " I ' l l give away f i v e hundred blankets so I can become the most powerful c h i e f . " 6:00  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences based on participation experience, predicting feelings and understandings regarding Nootka social organization in another time and place or for other individuals  6:10  in s i m i l a r setting.  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding feelings and understandings  of structure of social  organization.  Example: The c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka commoner at the time of the missionaries might say, "If I can figure out a way to get shark l i v e r o i l for lubrication in the saw mills then I can get ahead of Towick, my ri v a l . " 6:20  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding feelings and understandings of usage of social organization. The c h i l d , playing the role of a c h i e f ,  Example:  122 commenting on his a c t i v i t i e s in the tribe might say, "I wish the fur traders had not brought the guns. We lose so many men when we f i g h t . " 6:30  The c h i l d w i l l make inferences regarding feelings and understandings of function of social organization.  Example:  The c h i l d playing the role of chief commenting on his protection function might say, "If I'm going to save my people from enemy attacks, I think we had better move nearer to the f o r t . " 7:00  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others feelings and understandings of Nootka social organization related to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and events.  7:10  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, feelings and understandings regarding the structure of social organization.  Example:  In a simulation involving the preparation .for a potlatch, the c h i l d can communicate the various roles of c h i e f , commoner, woman, slave and c h i l d . 7:20  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, feelings regarding the usage of social organization.  and understandings  Example:  In a diary entry of a slave the c h i l d can express feelings of pride in performing a c t i v i t i e s such as skinning a large number of sea otter in one day. 7:30  The c h i l d w i l l communicate to others, feelings and understandings regarding the function of social organization. A c h i l d can take part in a dramatization of the role of a c h i e f , after the coming of the fur trade? making the decision to relocate the v i l l a g e for protection.  Example:  APPENDIX I OBJECTIVES FOCUSING @N THE CONCEPT OF TECHNOLOGY AND UTILIZING THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY  124 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison of technology through participation in related a c t i v i t i e s and events in Nootka Indian l i v e s .  4:10  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y elements of structure of technology.  Example:  The student w i l l make the tools necessary for a simulation of the sea otter hunt. 4:20  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y elements of usage of technology.  Example:  In a simulation, the c h i l d w i l l use i the tools as he would i f he was a sea otter hunter. 4:30  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l identify elements of function of technology.  Example:  Through role playing the preparation of a Nootka family meal, the c h i l d w i l l participate in a c t i v i t i e s which functioned in providing subsistence f o r the Nootka people. 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l make comments or actions expressing feelings and understandings which demonstrate that integration of a f f e c t i v e and cognitive response to Nootka technology is taking place.  5:10  By working with the t o o l s , weapons, food, c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r , transportation, e t c . , of the Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the structure of techno!ogy. Example: A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka carver might say, "I wish I had a metal blade instead of this shell that I've been using for my D-adze."  125 5:20  By working with the t o o l s , weapons, food, clothing, s h e l t e r , transportation, e t c . , of the Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the usage of technology. Example: A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka Indian might say, "It was a good idea to trade my sea otter pelt for this metal c h i s e l . Now I can use i t to carve cedar more e a s i l y and more neatly."  5:30  By working with the t o o l s , weapons, food, clothing, s h e l t e r , transportation e t c . , of the Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the function of technology.  Example:  A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka Indian who is using a gun for hunting might say, "This gun makes i t much easier for me to k i l l animals. Now I can provide my family with a l l the food we need."  APPENDIX J OBJECTIVES FOCUSING ON THE CONCEPT OF CHILD REARING AND UTILIZING THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY  127 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison of c h i l d rearing through participation in related a c t i v i t i e s and events in Nootka Indian l i v e s .  4:10  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y elements o'f structure of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  A c h i l d w i l l learn one of the household s k i l l s a Nootka g i r l would be taught - e.g. preparing cedar bark for weaving, preserving cod, weaving mats. 4:20  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l identify elements of usage of c h i l d rearing.  1  4:30  Example:  In a role play of a Nootka housewife, the c h i l d w i l l use the s k i l l he has learned to produce a finished product - e.g. cedar bark mat, button blanket, smoked cod.  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y elements of function of c h i l d rearing.  Example:  Through dramatizing Nootka children's games, the student w i l l participate in a c t i v i t i e s which functioned primarily as a means of teaching s k i l l s necessary for subsistence. 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l make comments or actions expressing feelings and understandings which demonstrate that integration of a f f e c t i v e and cognitive response to Nootka c h i l d rearing is taking place.  5:10  Through playing the role of a Nootka c h i l d , the student w i l l express feeling and understanding of the structure of Nootka c h i l d rearing.  Example:  A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka g i r l might say, "I wish I was a boy so that I could learn e x c i t i n g things l i k e fishing  128 for salmon and herring, and hunting the sea otter and the s e a l . " 5:20  Through playing the role of a Nootka c h i l d , the student wil1 5  express f e e l i n g and understanding of the usage of Nootka c h i l d rearing.  Example:  A student playing the role of a Nootka youth in a simulation of the sea o t t e r hunt might say, "I am glad my father taught me how to use this gun. Now I can k i l l many sea o t t e r . " 5:30  Through playing the role of a Nootka c h i l d , the student w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the function of Nootka c h i l d rearing. A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka boy or g i r l learning to become a shaman might say, "I w i l l practice hard and learn my songs, prayers and r i t u a l s so that I can get many s p i r i t helpers who w i l l aid me in becoming a good shaman."  APPENDIX.K OBJECTIVES FOCUSING ON THE CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE AND UTILIZING THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY  130  4:00  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison of language through participation in related a c t i v i t i e s and events in Nootka Indian l i v e s .  4:10  Through a running comparison, the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y the elements of structure of language.  Example:  In the Nootka language most instruments such as tools end in " i k " - e.g. hissik means saw while kleetchaik means rudder. The c h i l d w i l l learn some Nootka names for tools f o r use in a role play. 4:20  Through a running comparison, the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y the elements of usage of language.  Example:  In a simulation of a fur trading session, the child w i l l use some Chinook words that the Nootka Indians employed while dealing with non-Indians. 4:30  Through a running comparison, the c h i l d w i l l i d e n t i f y the elements of function of language.  Example:  In a dramatization of a s p i r i t encounter, the c h i l d w i l l employ the r i t u a l words " h a i l hai! h a i l " , which functioned to assure submission of the s p i r i t and the enhancement of the Indian's s p i r i t u a l power.  5:00  The c h i l d w i l l make comments or actions expressing feelings and understandings which demonstrate that integration of affective and cognitive response to Nootka language is taking place.  5:10  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the structure of language.  Example:  131 A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka Indian who is trying to master the Chinook language might say, "I'm glad many Nootka words are found in the Chinook language. It certainly makes i t easier to learn to speak Chinook." 5:20  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express feeling and understanding of the usage of language. Example: The c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka Indian who trades with non-Indians might say, " A l l the white men look the same to me. I w i l l use the words, 'Boston Men' and 'King George Men' to help me tel 1 them apart."  5:30  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the function, o f language. Example: A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka Indian might say, "I w i l l speak the Chinook language with the white traders. Since none of the other people of my tribe can speak this language, I w i l l be able to make the best deal and become the wealthiest."  APPENDIX L OBJECTIVES FOCUSING ON THE CONCEPT OF WORLD VIEW AND UTILIZING THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY  133 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison of world view through participation in related a c t i v i t i e s and events in Nootka Indian 1i ves.  4:10  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l identify elements of structure of world view.  Example:  The Nootka Indians had many r i t u a l s associated with many aspects, of l i f e including the sea otter hunt, the whale hunt, the welcoming of the f i r s t game e t c . , The c h i l d w i l l s e l e c t a r i t u a l and w i l l prepare i t for a role play. 4:20  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l identify elements of usage of world view.  Example:  In a simulation, the c h i l d , assuming the role of a hunter, w i l l use the r i t u a l s necessary for the preparation of the sea otter hunt. 4:30  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l identify elements of function of world view.  Example:  Through a dramatization of the f i r s t salmon r i t e s , the c h i l d w i l l participate in a c t i v i t i e s which functioned primarily in providing sustanence. 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l make comments or actions expressing feelings and understandings which demonstrate that integration of affective and cognitive response to Nootka world view is taking place.  5:10  Through, playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l feeling.and understanding of the structure of world view. A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka Indian might say, "I wish I were a shaman, then I'd know a l l about the s p i r i t s and have more s p i r i t helpers than anyone in my t r i b e . "  express Example:  134 5:20  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express feeling and understanding of the usage of world view. Example: A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka Indian seeking s p i r i t helpers might say, "I w i l l beat my drum and use my songs to make the s p i r i t s come closer to me and t e l l me t h e i r secrets."  5:30  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the function of world view. Example: The c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka chief who has received non-Indian clothing in trade for sea otter pelts might say, "I w i l l wear this bright red coat with the brass buttons, put on a powdered wig and carry this shiny sword. When I am dressed l i k e t h i s , the people of my t r i b e w i l l think that I am the best dressed, wealthiest and most powerful chief on the coast."  APPENDIX M OBJECTIVES FOCUSING ON THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE CHANGE AND UTILIZING THE INTEGRATIVE MODE OF INQUIRY  136  4:00  The c h i l d w i l l do a running comparison of culture change through participation in related a c t i v i t i e s and events in Nootka Indian l i v e s .  4:10  Through a running comparison, the c h i l d w i l l  identify  elements of structure of culture change among the Nootka Indians.  Example:  For a role play, the student w i l l construct wood-carving tools as they would appear before and after the fur traders arrived. 4:20  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l  identify  elements of usage of culture change among the Nootka Indians.  Example:  In a simulation of the sea otter hunt, before and after the fur traders a r r i v e d , the student w i l l use the t o o l s , weapons and techniques Indians of the time u t i l i z e d . 4:30  Through a running comparison the c h i l d w i l l  identify  elements of function of culture change among the Nootka Indians.  Example:  By taking part in a simulation of the sea otter hunt before and after the fur traders a r r i v e d , the c h i l d w i l l be p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a c t i v i t i e s that changed from a primarily subsistence function, to an economic function. 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l make comments or actions expressing  feelings  and understandings which demonstrate that integration of affective and cognitive response to Nootka culture.change is taking place.  5:10  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the structure of culture change.  Example:  137 A c h i l d , playing the role of a Nootka woman might say, "I l i k e the cloth the white traders has brought. It i s l i g h t , comfortable, warm and c o l o u r f u l . I'm going to make a l l my family's clothing for us." 5:20  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express feeling and understanding of the usage of culture change.  Example':  A c h i l d , playing the role of a Nootka c h i e f , might say, "I am happy the white traders want sea otter p e l t s . I am no longer going to use these pelts to make robes. Instead, I think I w i l l trade them for the many wonderful things the white man has to o f f e r . "  5:30  Through playing the role of a Nootka Indian, the c h i l d w i l l express f e e l i n g and understanding of the function of culture change.  Example:  A c h i l d playing the role of a Nootka hunter might say, "Before the fur traders arrived I spent most of my time Runting for food for my family. Now, I spend most of my time hunting for sea otter so that I can trade with the white man and grow r i c h . "  APPENDIX N AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES FOCUSED ON ATTITUDE TOWARDS SOCIAL STUDIES  139 1:00  The c h i l d w i l l receive social studies inquiry experiences focused upon the. Nootka Indians.  Example:  The c h i l d w i l l be w i l l i n g to take part in social studies inquiry experiences. 2:00  The c h i l d w i l l respond to social studies inquiry experiences focused upon the Nootka Indians.  Example:  The c h i l d w i l l wish to take part further in the simulation games. 3:00  The c h i l d w i l l va!ue social studies inquiry experiences focused upon the Nootka Indians.  Example:  The c h i l d w i l l demonstrate preference to taking part in social studies inquiry experiences as opposed to working in other subject areas. 4:00  The c h i l d w i l l organize response to social studies experiences focused upon the Nootka Indians.  inquiry  Example:  The c h i l d w i l l make statements regarding the nature of social studies inquiry experiences and give reasons for responding to them. 5:00  The c h i l d w i l l i n t e r n a l i z e the value of social studies experiences focused upon the Nootka Indians.  inquiry  APPENDIX 0 A DESCRIPTION OF THE TEACHER-MADE-SIMULATION GAMES USED IN TREATMENT B  141 THE OTTER BOX In this simulation the children assumed the role of a Nootka Indian engaged in hunting the sea o t t e r and in trading the pelts.  The  children "hunted" four times, in - 1783, 1795, 1810 and 1823, to note changes that had taken place. Working in groups of four, the children assumed the role of a Nootka Indian - the hunter, the whaler, the warrior or the a r t i s t . students studied t h e i r Role Cards for 1783.  The  They discovered that in  1783 the Indians welcomed the fur trade because i t brought the precious metals that had so many uses and functions such as making better t o o l s , weapons and enhancing wealth, prestige and social status.  Mainly, out  of a desire for metal, the four Indians hunted the sea otter.  Using  their " p r i m i t i v e " nets, clubs stone-bladed tools e t c . , they went on a seven day hunt. A brown "Otter Box" containing Hunt Result Cards for 1783 was given to each group of four students.  Taking turns, the students  reached into the box and selected a Hunt Result Card which described their success on that day'"s hunt e.g. was too far away for you to k i l l one sea o t t e r . "  "You spotted a sea o t t e r but i t  i t " or "You were able to net and club  The students received a Pelt Card for each successful  catch and daily record of the number of animals taken was kept by each student for each hunt year indicating the number of animals taken and the reasons for the hunt results.  For the year 1783 most students obtained  only two or three pelts because of " p r i m i t i v e " equipment and because of lack of experience of some of the hunters.  A class discussion of the  hunt followed. The children were then given a Cargo and Price IList for 1783. The value of metal was high - two f l a t iron blades per p e l t .  From the  Price L i s t of sixteen items they selected those they most desired and traded t h e i r sea otter pelts.  A class discussion of the items selected,  plus t h e i r uses, and the changes they would produce, followed the trading session. The same procedures, but using new Hunt Result Cards, Cargo and Price L i s t s , e t c . , were followed for the hunt in 1795, 1810 and 1823. The children kept t h e i r roles and " l i v e d " through a forty year period by  142 studying each year's Role Card. By 1795 they obtained metal tools and weapons and were able to kill  more sea otter.  By 1810 they spent more time hunting and with the  use of the gun were able to obtain many sea otter p e l t s .  The Indians  became very wealthy and traded t h e i r pelts for a variety of goods including food and clothing.  They became increasingly dependent on the fur trader  to supply t h e i r familys' needs.  By 1823, however, due to over-hunting,  the sea otter became almost e x t i n c t .  Although the value of the pelts  was very high, l i t t l e trading was carried on since the Indians could obtain few i f any p e l t s .  To the dismay of the Indians the maritime fur  trade was over. To check the v a l i d i t y of the game, the students studied the h i s t o r i c a l documents from the journals of the maritime fur traders?.  THE BROWN BAG The Brown Bag was incorporated into the Otter Box Game.  Following  the hunt for 1810 each group of four students received a Brown Bag containing simulated a r t i f a c t s - molasses, whiskey, beads, c l o t h , needles, r i c e , c h i s e l s , soap, sheet copper.  These items were supposed to be some of the goods they  received in trade.  Each c h i l d decided which member of his family - himself,  his wife, his children or his slaves would receive each item. described  The c h i l d  or demonstrated how the item was used and how i t changed the  possessor's way of l i f e .  A class discussion of the items followed.  THE LAND HUNT GAME For this simulation, the children working in groups of four, played the role of Indians engaged in the hunt of fur-bearing land animals.  This  board game u t i l i z e d d i c e , markers and pelt cards for indicating the number of animals taken.  As the children played the game they followed instructions  on certain squares or i f they landed on a Chance or Tumpline Card square they selected the appropriate card.  The cards and squares indicated the problems  and the successes of the hunt e.g.  "Your canoe over-turned and you l o s t a  143 pelt.  Give up one pelt c a r d " , or "You trapped two beaver today.  two pelt cards!"  Take  The student that arrived f i r s t at the trading post  with his pelt cards received the best price and, therefore, was the winner. A class discussion of the problems associated with the hunt, and the importance of the hunt to Indian families took place after the game.  THE SLIDE GAME Working in groups of four, the students were given f i f t e e n slides and individual viewers.  The slides were of goods obtained from the trading  post and included - pipes, candles, c l o t h , wool, dishes, pots, f l o u r , s a l t , sugar, bread, crackers, tobacco, traps, knives, scissors.  The c h i l d deter-  mined which member of his family would use each item and how the item changed their l i f e .  Each c h i l d recorded his conclusions on a Slide Summary Sheet.  A class discussion  then followed on the effects the trade items had on Nootka  Indian L i f e .  END-OF-LIFE The purpose of this exercise was to f a m i l i a r i z e the children with some of the negative effects of the fur trade.  For each c h i l d to determine  how he ended his Indian " l i f e " , each group of four students was given End of L i f e Cards.  Each c h i l d selected one card at random.  six  Four of the  cards explained that the Indian was affected by l i q u o r , was involved in fights or was infected by non-Indian diseases - measles, T . B . , or chicken pox.  These cards indicated the Indian and members of his family died or  were permanently impaired. died of old age.  The remaining two cards indicated the Indian  A class discussion  Population S t a t i s t i c s  (1835-1963)  of the End of L i f e Cards and Indian  followed this exercise.  APPENDIX P A DESCRIPTION OF STUDENT-MADE-SIMULATION GAMES USED IN TREATMENT C  145  THE CULTURE CHANGE GAME This card game aimed at giving practice to learnings on culture change.  The deck contained f i f t y cards divided into f i v e categories  derived previously in e a r l i e r social studies units:  a) technology b)  social organization c) language d) c h i l d rearing e) world view.  There  were ten cards in each category and each card contained a d i f f e r e n t sentence describing culture change as related to one of the above concepts e.g. "We use metal blades for our tools"  (technology).  The students read  the sentence and determined what category the card belonged. threes, the children started with f i v e cards each.  Working in  Taking turns to play,  each student threw a card away and selected a new one.  The children had  to obtain three or more of a kind before the cards could be put down.  The  f i r s t student to clear his hand was the winner.  THE SEA OTTER HUNT GAME The Sea Otter Hunt was a board game s i m i l a r to The Otter Box and covered the same forty year period.  The game traced changes in Nootka  technology associated with the sea otter hunt.  Working in groups of four,  the students played the game with dice, markers and Chance, Trap and Pelt Cards.  Many squares were marked Chance or Trap indicating that the appro-  priate card had to be selected. etc.  These cards showed hunting r e s u l t s , problems,  The children played the game four times, using a new Chance and Trap  Card for each hunt. For the hunt in 1783 the c h i l d r e n , playing the role of Indians, used " p r i m i t i v e " tools and weapons and as a r e s u l t , obtained only a few p e l t s . For the hunt in 1795 they used metal bladed tools and were able to obtain more p e l t s .  In 1810 with the introduction of the gun the hunters experienced  great success.  By 1823, however, the hunters had l i t t l e success because the  sea otter was almost extinct due to overhunting.  146 THE TRADE AND POTLATCH GAME This game was used in conjunction with the Sea Otter Hunt Game and t r i e d to show how the sea otter pelt increased in value; what the Indians received in trade for t h e i r pelts and how t h e i r new wealth was used i . e . potlatching.  Following the hunt for 1783 the c h i l d r e n , playing  the role of Indians, "traded" t h e i r pelt cards, receiving one chisel card for one pelt card.  The children then held a potlatch to determine who had  the greatest wealth in each group.  For the hunt in 1799 the hunters r e -  ceived f i v e chisel cards for one pelt card and a potlatch was held again. The same procedure was followed for the 1810 and the 1823 hunts except blanket cards replaced chisel cards.  In. 1810 they received ten blanket  cards for each pelt card while in 1823 they received twenty-five blanket cards.  At the end of the game a class potlatch was held where each group  pooled t h e i r wealth to determine which group was the wealthiest and thus the most powerful.  THE FAMILY GAME For this game the children assumed the roles of Indian family members who must select trade items that would be most useful to them. Working in groups of four, the students each received and studied a Role Card for the man, the woman, the c h i l d or the slave.  From a bag of sim-  ulated a r t i f a c t s , the children selected the trade items appropriate for their r o l e .  They then demonstrated or explained how they would use the  item and how i t would change t h e i r l i f e .  THE CLASSIFICATION GAME This game aimed at reinforcing learning on culture change associated with the f i v e concepts of culture.  Working in groups of four, the students  c l a s s i f i e d f i f t e e n slides of trade items according to the changes these items would produce in one of the f i v e areas of Nootka culture:  technology, social  147 organization, e t c .  The children were timed and the group with the  greatest number of slides correctly c l a s s i f i e d was the winner.  THE DEATH GAME The "Death Game" required a dice and a series of f i f t e e n "Death Cards".  Each card described some negative e f f e c t of the fur trade such as  increased fighting and increased i l l n e s s due to infection with white man's diseases. Working in groups of four, the students took turns r o l l i n g the dice. If  an odd number appeared, the student had to select a "Death Card" which  he read aloud to the group. was permanentely impaired. players had " d i e d " . old age.  Usually, the possessor of the card "died" or The game was played until three of the four  The remaining player was the winner, and l i v e d to an  APPENDIX Q CHILDREN'S COMMENTS ON TREATMENT A  149 Children"s comments on this major organizing center which u t i l i z e d predominantly the analytic mode of inquiry included: "I l i k e learning about Indians but I wish we d i d n ' t have to read those documents." "It was fun looking at the slides with those small viewers." "I  l i k e colouring the pictures best."  "I think teachers should use more of these things (simulated a r t i f a c t s ) to teach l o c i a l studies. They make learning more i n t e r e s t i n g . "  APPENDIX R CHILDREN'S COMMENTS ON TREATMENT B  151 Children's comments on this major organizing center u t i l i z i n g predominantly the integrative mode of inquiry and teacher-made-simulation i ncluded: "What are we going to do today? going hunting again."  I hope we're  "These games make learning about Indians a lot of fun." "I r e a l l y l i k e d being an Indian only I f e l t kinda l e t down when I ' d i e d ' at the end." "I f e l t bad when I d i d n ' t get as many sea otter on that l a s t hunt. Everything was going so well t i l l then." "The Indians sure had a rough time." "I think I learned better with these games. I don't l i k e reading and answering questions a l l the time l i k e we usually do in social studies."  APPENDIX S CHILDREN'S COMMENTS ON TREATMENT C  153 Children's comments on this major organizing center u t i l i z i n g predominantly the integrative mode of inquiry and student-made-simulations included:  "The Indians sure had a l o t of problems. Maybe the fur traders shouldn't have come. Then maybe so many Indians wouldn't have died." "You r e a l l y have to know a l o t about the Indians before you can make up the games." "I l i k e makin' up the games better than playing them." "I  l i k e the card game.  Let's play i t over."  "It took alot of work to make up the games but i t was fun."  154  BIBLIOGRAPHY  155 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Abt, Clark C. Serious Games: The Art and Science of Games that Simulate Life.,, New York: Viking, 1.970. Barnhart, Edward N. "A Comparison of Scaling Methods f o r Affective Judgements, "Psychological Review, XLIII (Sept. 1936), pp. 387-395. 'Becker, James, "Organizing for Change: The Individual Social Education (March 1973), p. 194.  in the System,"  Binnington, Doreen B. "The Development of an I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Curriculum Based on an Integration of Ethnomusicology and the Social Studies", (unpublished Doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1963). Boocock, Sarane S., and E.O. Schold, (eds.). Simulation Games in Learning. Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage Publications, 1968. 'Brodbelt, S. "Simulation is Social Studies: Education (Feb. 1969), pp. 176-178.  An Overview,"  Bruner, Jerome. Toward a Theory of Instruction. Belknap Press, 1966.  Cambridge,  Social  Massachusetts:  ^Campbell, Donald T. and Julian C. Stanley. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design f o r Research. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Co., 1963. Chase, W. Linwood, and G i l b e r t M. Wilson, "Preference Studies in Elementary School Social Studies," Journal of Education, CXL (April 1958), pp. 1-28. Cherryholmes, Cleo H. "Some Current Research on Effectiveness of Educational Simulations: implications for Alternative Strategies," American Behavi o r a l S c i e n t i s t X (Oct. 1966), pp. 4-7. Cohen, Karen C. Effects of the Consumer Game on Learning and Attitudes of Selected Seventh Grade Students in a Target-Area School (Baltimore, Md.: ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED038733, 1970). Cohen, Karen C. The Effects o f Two Simulation Games on the Opinions and Attitudes of Selected Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Students. (Baltimore Md: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED031766, 1969)  156 13  Curry, Robert, "Subject Preference of Fifth-grade Children," Peabody Journal of Education, XLI (July 1963), pp. 23-27.  14 Fisher, Stephen T . , David J . Weiss and Rene Dawis. "A Comparison of Likert and Paired Comparisons Techniques in Multivariate Attitude Scaling," Educational and Psychological Measurement, XXVIII (1968), pp. 81-94. 15 Goodlad, John I. The Development of a Conceptual System for Dealing with Problems of Curriculum and Instruction. Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1966. 1g G u i l f o r d , Joy Paul. Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s in Psychology and Education. New York: McGraw-Hil 1 , 1956. 17 Havighurst, Robert J . "How Education Changes Society," An International Forum VI, (Spring 1957). 1  Confluence:  18 Herman, Wayne L. "How Intermediate Children Rank the Subjects,: Journal of Educational Research, LVI (April 1963), pp. 339-345. 19 Herskovits, M e l v i l l e J . Cultural Anthropology, New York: Knapf, 1965. 20 Hodgetts, A.B. What Culture? What Heritage? for Studies in Education, 1968.  Toronto:  Alfred A.  Ontario  Institute  21 J e r s l i d , Arthur T. and R.J. Tasch. Childrens' Interest and What They Suggest for Education. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1949. 22 Joyce, Bruce R. Strategies for Elementary Social Science Education. Chicago: Science Research Associates Inc., 1965  23 Koch, H.L. "Study of Some Factors Conditioning the Social Distance Between the Sexes," Journal of Social Psychology, XX (Aug. 1944), pp. 79-107. 24 Krathwahl, David R., Benjamin S. Bloom and Bertram B. Massia. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Co., 1964.  25Lee, Robert S. and Arlene O'Leary.  "Attitude and Personality Effects o f a Three-day Simulation," Simulation and Games, II (Sept. 1971), pp. 309-347.  157 26  2 7  Linton, Ralph (ed). Acculturation in Seven American Indian Tribes. Glouster: Peter Smith, 1963.  L i n t o n , Ralph.  The Tree of Culture.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1955.  28 Nesbitt, William A. Simulation Games for the Social Studies Classroom, U.S.A.: Foreign Policy Association, 1971. 29 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education on Division of Instructional Services Curriculum Development Branch, Elementary Social Studies Year 1-7. V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, 1974. 30 Reynolds, Mary S. "Needed: A Social Studies Explosion," Journal of Geography, LXV (Dec. 1966), pp. 429-432. 31 Shaw, Marvin E. and J.M. Wright, Scales for the Measurement of Attitudes. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1967, p. 3. 32 Shelly, Anne Converse. "Total Class Involvement in Simulation Game Development" (unpublished Doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n , Michigan State University, 1973). 33 Social Sciences Education Framework f o r C a l i f o r n i a Public Schools. Sacramento: State Curriculum Committee, 1968. 34 Stadklev, Ronald, "A Comparative Study of Simulation Gaming and Lecture-Discussion Method" (unpublished Master's t h e s i s , Northern State College, 1969). 35 S t r i c k l a n d , Guy, Development of a School Attitude Questionnaire for Young Children (U.C.L. A. Graduate School of Education, Center for the Study of Evaluation, ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 043919, July 1970). 36 Torgerson, Warren S. 1958.  Theory and Methods of Scaling.  New York:  Willey,  Witroyl, Sam L. and George G. Thompson. "An Experimental Comparison of the Partial-Rank-Order and Paired-Comparison Approaches to Social A c c e p t a b i l i t y , " Journal of Educational Psychology. XX (Aug. 1944), pp. 79-107.  158  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY RESOURCES - NOOTKA INDIANS DURING THE FUR TRADE  ^Cook, James, Cook's Voyages Round the World, London: Sons, 1897.  Thomas Nelson and  C u r t i s , Edward S. The North American Indian, Vol. II. achusetts: University Press, 1916.  Cambridge, Mass-  Drucker, and Central Nootkan T r i b e s , Washington: :ker, P h i l i p . The Northern ai Smithonian I n s t i t u t i o n , 1951 4  D u f ff,, Wilson. The Indian His History t o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a : Provincial Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. Howay, Trade in Northwest Development. ly, F.W. The Fur Trac Macmillan Co., 1917.  6  New Westminster:  Indians Columbia ( B r i t i s h Columbia Teacher's Federation ans of B r i t i s h Colur Lesson Aid Service, S l i d e s , No. M100) Ingraham, Joseph. Journal of the Voyage of the Brigantine Hope from Boston to the Northwest Coast of America 1790-1792. Manuscripts of the Massachusetts H i s t o r i c a l Society, 1793. Jewitt, John. The Adventures of John Jewitt Only Survivor of the Crew of the Ship Boston During a Captivity of Nearly Three Years Among the Indians of Nootka Sound in Vancouver Island. London: Clement Wilson, 1896.  g Linton, Ralph (ed)) Acculturation in Seven American Indian Tribes. Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1963. 10  M c K e l v i e , Bruce A. Maquinna the Magnificent. Province, 1946.  Montreal:  Vancouver Daily  ^Meares, John. Extracts from Voyages Made in the Years 1788 and 1789 From China to the Northwest Coast of America, 2 vols. London: Legographic Press, 1791. 12  Mozino, Jose Mariano. Noticias De Nutka. Stewart L t d . , 1970.  Toronto:  McCleil 1 and and  159 Spair, Edward. "Some aspects of Nootka language and c u l t u r e , " American Anthropologist XIII (Jan. - March 1911), pp. 15-28. Sproat, Gilbert Malcolm. Scenes and Studies of Savage L i f e . Smith Elder and Co., 1868.  *  London:  Wike, Joyce Annabel. "The Effects of Maritime Fur Trade on Northwest Coast Indian Society" (unpublished Doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia University, 1951).  

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