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Industrial education in the elementary school curriculum Hickling, Kenneth Joseph 1979

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INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM by KENNETH JOSEPH HICKLING B.Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1979 (c) Kenneth Joseph H ick l ing , 1979 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publ icat ion of th i s thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date J ) ; ABSTRACT The main purpose of th is study was the design of a curriculum which placed an emphasis on problem solving through the pract ica l approach of woodworking. In more philosophical terms, i t can be described as an attempt to unite thinking with doing. In order to accomplish th i s aim a necessary part of the study became the examination of the curriculum development process in theoret ical terms, followed by the implementation of th i s process in the design of the proposed curriculum and f i n a l l y the evaluation of the proposed curriculum in formative terms. In reviewing the l i t e r a tu re support was found for a structured or organised framework for curriculum development. This concept of curriculum development was adapted for th i s study. Problem solving was given a major emphasis in the proposed curriculum, with s k i l l development considered important, though secondary to problem solving. Creat i v i ty and design were regarded as contributing elements to the problem solving component, and projects were planned in such a way that the ch i l d would be given the opportunity for creative input and involved in the design of the project; thus problem solving became an integral part of the project. For the purpose of formative evaluation, projects from the proposed curriculum and a 1960 Grade 7 Woodworking program, were i i i i i judged in respect to the i r problem solving and s k i l l development components. The results of the evaluation c lea r l y i l l u s t r a t e d the difference in emphasis of the two programs. The 1960 program scored highly in s k i l l development and received a low score for problem solving from independent judges. The proposed curriculum was given an above average score for s k i l l development and a high score for problem solv ing. In conclusion i t was noted that: (1) Experience played a major part in the classroom teacher 's approach to curriculum development, and that th i s would have important implications with regard to beginning teachers. (2) The project evaluation format, with some refinements, could be u t i l i z e d in other areas of Industr ial Education. (3) The proposed curriculum with i t s emphasis on " th ink ing " could be of benefit in programs for g i f ted ch i ldren. It was also recommended that the proposed curriculum be implemented in an elementary school in order that the process of summative evaluation may be accomplished. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 1 INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 1 Introduction 1 Background to the Study 2 Vancouver Mobile Program 2 Mobile Program Research Reports 3 Purpose of the Study 5 Delimitations 5 An Assumption 6 Statement of the Problem 6 Signif icance of the Study 7 Organization of the Study 8 2 PERSPECTIVE: THE STARTING POINT FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 9 Introduction 9 Perspective 9 Human Nature 11 The Learning Process 13 Society 16 Industr ial Education 18 Summary 19 3 RELATED LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK . . . 21 Introduction 21 Curriculum . 22 Curriculum Development 24 Industr ial Education 26 Chi ld Development 29 Developmental Process 29 Differences in Children 31 In te l lectua l Structures 32 Ch i l d ' s Role in the Developmental Process . . . . 33 Synopsis 34 Subsidiary Terms 34 Experience 34 Creat i v i t y 35 Cognitive 37 A c t i v i t y 38 Constructive a c t i v i t y 39 Manual a c t i v i t y 40 Summary 40 V Chapter Page 4 RATIONALE AND FORMATIVE EVALUATION PROCESS . . . . 42 Introduction 42 Values . . . 42 Educational Needs of Children 44 Problem Solving 45 Content 46 Technology 46 Fine Arts 47 Science 47 Leisure Education 48 Human Relationships 48 Training and Education 49 Summary 49 Content Evaluation 50 C reat i v i t y 51 Design 52 Problem Solving 52 F l e x i b i l i t y and Ind iv idua l izat ion 53 S k i l l s 53 Evaluation Procedure 54 5 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED CURRICULUM 56 Introduction 56 Rationale 56 Objectives 57 Curriculum Objectives 58 Long Range Objectives 59 Short Range Objectives 60 Curriculum Structure . . . 61 Curriculum Content 62 Student Evaluation 63 Formative Evaluation 64 Project Evaluation 65 Pencil Holder and Sandpaper Block 66 Abstract Sculpture and Cross-Paring Exercise . . . 70 Spice Rack and Wall Shelf 74 Car Design and Bird House 78 Project Evaluation Summary 82 Curriculum Development Process: An Observation 86 vi Chapter Page 6 SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 87 Introduction 87 Curriculum Development Process - Theoretical . . . . 87 Perspective 88 Concepts 89 Curriculum Development Process - Implementation . . 90 Values 90 Educational Needs 91 Objectives 91 Content 92 Evaluation of Student Work 92 Formative Evaluation of the Curriculum 93 Impl i cations 94 Curriculum Development 94 Industr ial Education . 95 Gifted Children 96 Recommendations 96 Concluding Statement 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY 98 APPENDIX A: The Proposed Curriculum I l l APPENDIX B: Project Evaluation Form 145 APPENDIX C: Objectives Grade 7 Woodwork Program 1960 147 vi i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Result of Evaluation: Pencil Holder and Sandpaper Block 69 2 Result of Evaluation: Abstract Sculpture and Cross-Paring Exercise . . . . 73 3 Result of Evaluation: Spice Rack and Wall Shelf 77 4 Result of Evaluation: Car Design and Bird House 81 5 Project Evaluation Results 84 6 Evaluation of Problem Solving and S k i l l s Components . . 85 vi i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1.1 Pencil Holder 67 1.2 Sandpaper Block 68 2.1 Abstract Sculpture 71 2.2 Cross-Paring Exercise 72 3.1 Spice Rack 75 3.2 Wall Shelf 76 4.1 Car Design 79 4.2 Bird House 80 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The wr i ter wishes to express his sincere gratitude to his supervisor, Dr. Naomi Hersom, for the expert counsel and cheerful encouragement she provided throughout the course of th i s study. Appreciation i s also extended to Dr. Tetsuo Aoki who provided the i n i t i a l impetus and to Professor Will iam Logan for his support as committee chairman and, for the i r valuable assistance in the process of project evaluation, to Dr. Ronald Jones, Dr. David Bain and Mr. James Mercer. Special thanks are due to the t yp i s t , Edith Ferguson, for her unt i r ing patience and care in preparing the manuscript. CHAPTER ONE INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM Introduction Pr io r to 1960, Industr ial Education was part of the prov inc ia l curriculum for Grade 7 boys. The demise of Industr ial Education at th i s level occurred when on the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Education (Chant, 1960) the Grade 7 students were re-assigned from the Junior High School to the Elementary School. This report also recommended the discontinuation of Industr ial Education and Home Economics in the re -a l l ocat ion of ins t ruct iona l time for Grade 7 students. The rat ionale offered for the termination of these subjects was the lack of f a c i l i t i e s for courses in these f i e l d s , and the fact that provision for pupils interested in these subjects would be offered l a te r (Grade 8). In addit ion, mention was made of the f inanc ia l saving "brought about by dropping Industr ial Education and Home Economics from the required subjects in Grade 7" (Chant, 1960, p. 410). These recommendations were implemented in the f i ve years fol lowing 1960 and since that time Industr ial Education has not been an o f f i c i a l part of the prov inc ia l elementary school curriculum. 1 2 Background to the Study There has been, in recent years, a renewed interest in the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of pract ica l and constructional a c t i v i t i e s for elementary school ch i ldren. This interest has been responsible for the introduction of Industr ial Education programs in the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t ; one of these, the Mobile Industr ial Education program i s discussed in the fol lowing paragraphs. Vancouver Mobile Program In 1973 the Vancouver School Board introduced into the elementary school system, two mobile workshops which provided f a c i l i t i e s for ins t ruct ion in Industr ial Education and Home Economics at the elementary school l e v e l . This was in response to a concern with the lack of ins t ruct ion in these subjects, expressed by the Co-ordinators of Industr ial Education, Home Economics and Intermediate Education, and pr inc ipa l s and teachers in the elementary schools. I t was the opinion of those concerned that these subjects have an important place in the education of chi ldren in Grades 6 and 7, providing, they bel ieved, opportunities for learning of a d i f fe rent kind from other school subjects by allowing chi ldren to work with the i r hands and by giving them a creat ive out let for t he i r energies (Hopwood, E l l i s , 1974). As o r i g i n a l l y conceived the purpose of the Industr ial Education workshop was to introduce pract ica l a c t i v i t i e s to the elementary school student, with the general objectives of the program stated as fo l lows: 3 (1) To develop a desirable degree of confidence in one's own a b i l i t y . (2) To develop an att i tude of concern for safety. (3) To develop a concept of systematic planning and procedures. (4) To develop the a b i l i t y to transfer between theory and pract ice. (5) To develop communicative and interpret ive s k i l l s through pract ica l experience. (6) To develop a pos i t ive i dent i t y with adults. (Ralston, 1973) The program was also viewed as a p i l o t study, to explore whether or not there i s a place for i ndus t r i a l education in the elementary school curriculum; to examine i t s potential fo r g i r l s as well as boys; to determine what could be achieved at the d i f fe rent grade levels and what type of a c t i v i t i e s were best suited to the d i f fe rent grade l eve l s ; and to establ i sh the nature of projects and a c t i v i t i e s best suited to accomplish the desired object ives. Mobile Program Research Reports Surveys made by the Vancouver School Board Research Department in 1974 and 1976 answered many of the above questions. Foremost among the responses was a c lea r l y stated desire by p r i nc ipa l s , teachers and students, to have Industr ial Education included in the elementary school program (Hopwood, E l l i s , 1974; Stevens, 1976). The 1974 report of the mobile program was an assessment of the 4 program, based on the opinions of the pr inc ipa l s and teachers at s ix of the schools v i s i t e d , plus the opinions of two outside observers who were expert teachers in the subject. On the basis of these opinions the report recommended the re- introduct ion of Industr ial Education into a l l Vancouver elementary schools, and that, as a long term object ive, provision should be made in a l l schools for the teaching of Industr ial Education as part of the regular curriculum (Hopwood, E l l i s , 1974). The 1976 report u t i l i z e d a larger population than had been surveyed in 1974, s o l i c i t i n g opinions from students, teachers and pr inc ipa l s of a l l schools involved in the mobile program, and from pr inc ipa l s of schools who had not been exposed to the mobile program. The report made no recommendations whatsoever, but in i t s conclusion supported the recommendations of the 1974 report by s p e c i f i c a l l y stat ing that a l l groups of respondents expressed a c lear preference for the inclus ion of ins t ruct ion in Industr ial Education in the elementary school program (Stevens, 1976). The 1976 report also recorded that very few schools were of fer ing Industr ial Education a c t i v i t i e s and that lack of trained teachers, f a c i l i t i e s and equipment were c i ted as reasons for the a c t i v i t i e s not being offered. Since that time, t ra in ing programs for teachers, and the supply of tools and materials have made possible the introduction of programs in twenty Vancouver elementary schools, ranging from two benches and tools in a primary classroom, to a f u l l workshop in a school basement. This program growth is expected to continue in the hope that eventually the recommendations of the 5 1974 report w i l l be f u l f i l l e d and that every elementary school in Vancouver w i l l have an Industr ial Education program. Purpose of the Study The growth of Industr ial Education programs in the elementary schools, not only in Vancouver but in other school d i s t r i c t s , has brought about the need for curriculum development in th i s subject area. It i s th i s need, along with the w r i t e r ' s involvement in both the mobile program and the establishment of programs in the schools, that has served as the cata lyst for th i s study. The purpose of the study was threefold: (1) to examine the process of curriculum development in theoret ical terms; (2) to implement the process of curriculum development in the design of an Industr ial Education woodworking program; and (3) to evaluate the proposed program in formative terms. Delimitations (1) The study was re s t r i c ted to program development at the Grade 7 l e v e l , recognizing at the same time the d e s i r a b i l i t y of curriculum development in Industr ial Education for a l l elementary school chi ldren both primary and intermediate. (2) The proposed program deals with a spec i f i c aspect of Industr ial Education, that i s , woodworking. Recognition i s given, however, to other areas of Industr ial Education that may appear to 6 have been neglected: technology; industry; career education; and the world of work. Technology was not ignored in that the proposed program attempts to r e f l e c t as Olson (1963) suggests, the s p i r i t of technology: The att i tude and appl icat ion of search and research, the inventiveness, the c r e a t i v i t y , the experimenting and developing, the problem so lv ing, a l l of which are part of and fundamental to an advancing technology (p. 89). Industry, career education and the world of work were viewed as the vocational aspects of Industr ial Education, and as such were considered to be of secondary importance, pa r t i cu l a r l y at the elementary school l e v e l . However, one could have argued, that in a world that i s changing so rap id ly , no one can predict the exact nature of job opportunities for the ch i l d now in elementary school. An Assumption It i s the rapidly changing world that offers a challenge to the curriculum developer in posing the question, "What i s the best curriculum for preparing a ch i l d for the future?" The wr i te r believes that a well designed Industr ial Education program can make a s i gn i f i can t contr ibution to a c h i l d ' s preparation for that future. Statement of the Problem The problem undertaken in th i s study was the design of such a program - an Industr ial Education woodworking program suitable for students at the Grade 7 l e v e l . In solving th i s problem, a necessary part of the study became the examination and implementation of the curriculum development process in re la t ion to the classroom teacher. 7 S ignif icance of the Study The s ign i f icance of the study can be discussed at a number of leve l s . F i r s t l y , the study provides an answer to a problem - a curriculum in a spec i f i c subject at a spec i f i c grade l e v e l , with the potential for adaptation at other levels in the elementary school. The proposed curriculum also places a major emphasis on providing the opportunity for chi ldren to solve problems, an opportunity that Dewey (1956), Manning (1971), Postman (1973) and Heasley (1974) assert, must be provided in an educational program. If the proposed program i s successful in providing that opportunity then i t could act as a guide for program development, not only in other Industr ial Education subjects, but also in other subject areas. Another s i gn i f i can t aspect of the study is the process of curriculum development as i t applies to an indiv idual classroom teacher. The study provides an account of an approach to what Oberg (1975) describes as the "complex and mult i-faceted process" of classroom teachers ' curriculum planning. S ignif icance can also be pointed out in respect to the ' g i f t e d ' c h i l d . A program that places an emphasis on c r ea t i v i t y and problem solving could make a s i gn i f i can t contr ibution to the curriculum for such ch i ldren, pa r t i cu l a r l y as the program allows for the pract ica l and concrete appl icat ion of ideas, a facet often neglected in the academic education of the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l ' c h i l d . 8 Organization of the Study The f i r s t part of the study constitutes the examination of the curriculum development process in theoret ical terms. In Chapter 2 the l i t e r a t u r e pertaining to human nature, the learning process, soc iety, and Industr ial Education i s examined and the w r i t e r ' s perspectives described. Chapter 3 deals with the def in i t i ons of the terms used in the study. The l a t t e r part of the study i s concerned with the implementation of the curriculum development process. The rat ionale for the proposed curriculum i s outl ined in Chapter 4. The curriculum is described and a formative evaluation is presented in Chapter 5, and in Chapter 6 the study i s analysed and conclusions drawn. CHAPTER TWO PERSPECTIVE: THE STARTING POINT FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Introduction This chapter comprises a review of the l i t e r a t u r e in re la t ion to the i n i t i a l process of curriculum development in theoret ical terms, that i s , the development of a perspective. The f i r s t section of the discussion focuses on the need for a perspective as the s tar t ing point, in curriculum development. The fol lowing sections explore the perspectives considered important to the study; a perspective of human nature; a perspective of the learning process; a perspective of society; and a perspective of the subject to be taught. F i n a l l y , the preceeding sections are summarized. Perspective Before a curriculum developer sets out on the road to program development, he must f i r s t f ind a signpost which w i l l point the way, a signpost which i s the s tart ing point of the journey to be undertaken. In less metaphorical terms, the wr i te r sees th i s signpost as the perspective that the curriculum developer has at the outset of the program planning project. This opinion i s supported by many wr iters in the f i e l d ; Uhl (1936) states quite simply that curriculum construction requires a "point of view", a statement that is perhaps more c l ea r l y enunciated 9 10 by Schaffarzick (1975) who says that i t i s " theoret ica l foundations", that " incorporate views about learning, about the character i s t i c s of learners, about the subject to be taught about society, about human relat ionships and group processes, or about any other topics that bear on the work to be done (p. 216)." I t could also be suggested that pract ica l foundations in addit ion to theoret ical foundations would also play a role in inf luencing the views stated by Schaffarzick. Together, theoret ica l and pract ica l foundations would make up the "phi losophical be l iefs " which Heasley (1974) c i te s as those which give d i rect ion to the curriculum maker. I t i s these be l ie f s which for Heasley form the foundations on which the curriculum w i l l be developed. These be l i e f s , when once establ ished, w i l l point to the "goals, object ives, experiences and evaluations of the proposed curriculum (p. 116)." Heasley's philosophical be l ie f s encompass the considerations of Taba (1962), who stresses that, in curriculum development, we must consider the nature of humans, the nature of the learning process, the nature of the environment, and the nature of society. In a s imi la r vein Combs (1958) believes that, "the methods we use to solve our problems, of curriculum w i l l depend upon what we believe about the nature of the people we seek to teach (p. 21)." And Purves (1975) uses the word understanding; he states that a curriculum r e f l e c t s , "the maker's understanding of the nature and goals of society (p. 107)." Whether i t i s an "understanding of the nature," a " b e l i e f about the nature," a "ph i l i s oph i ca l b e l i e f , " " theoret ica l foundations," or 11 Unl ' s simple "point of view", i t would seem that as a s tar t ing point, the curriculum developer must have what the wr i ter chooses to c a l l , a perspective. It i s a perspective that w i l l influence the many decisions to be made in the task of constructing a curriculum, and one which w i l l be considered and established in the fol lowing paragraphs. For the purpose of th i s study, the topics for which a perspective w i l l be established are those suggested by Taba and Schaffarz ick; human nature, the learning process, society, and the subject to be taught. Human Nature I t would seem log ica l that in a plan or a purpose such as a proposed curriculum which i s to be used by human beings, the designer would have given consideration to the nature of human beings. Such considerations as, can they and should they be cont ro l led, or should they be given the opportunity for self-determination? If the designer viewed the potential user of his curriculum through the lens of a behaviorist telescope, control would be the focal point, his curriculum would be designed to meet the needs of stimulus, response and reinforcement. I f , on the other hand, the view i s through the eyes of a humanist, freedom would be emphasized, and a d i f fe rent curriculum would resu l t . Lefrancois (1972), discussing the viewpoint of the behaviorist and the humanist, sees i t as a " c o n f l i c t between a pos it ion that favours cont ro l l ing man for his benefit through the thoughtful appl icat ion of a science of behavior, and one which seems to assert 12 that science should enhance man's capacity for self-determination (p. 154)." H i t t (1969), commenting on a symposium sponsored by the Div is ion of Philosophical Psychology of the American Psychology Associat ion, points out the d i v i s i on that exists between the two camps of phenomenology and behaviorism. They would appear to hold two d i f fe rent views of man. The behaviorist sees him as a "passive organism governed by external s t i m u l i , " and as someone who can be "manipulated through proper - control of the s t i m u l i . " The phenomenologist views man as "the source of his acts," someone who i s " f ree to choose in each s i t u a t i on , " a person "who i s control led by his own consciousness (p. 652)." H i t t further believes that an analysis of behaviorism and phenomenology leads to the conclusion that the acceptance of e i ther viewpoint has important implications for the educat ional i s t . And, as evidence lends support to both arguments, i t would seem a meeting ground should be found "where the best of both sides i s welded into a balanced whole (p. 658)." In th i s regard, H i t t would be supported by Mueller (1974) who believes that when one considers the requirements for developing the whole c h i l d , the d i s t i nc t i on between humanist and behaviorist becomes blurred. The wr i ter believes H i t t ' s meeting ground can be established in a perspective that takes the pos i t ive view of Rogers (1969) in seeing the "basic nature of the human being, when functioning f r ee l y , i s constructive and trustworthy (p. 290)." And, at the same time, supporting the contention of Bridges (1974) who, having started teaching as a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t and who experimented with a humanist, 13 se l f discovery approach, believes that humanism i s gravely endangered i f i t becomes a "convenient rat ionale for abandoning the learner to his own devices (p. 366)." Skinner (1972) would agree with Bridges in th i s respect when he states that "the free school i s no school at a l l . Its philosophy s ignal izes the abdication of the teacher (p. 108)." Somewhere between these extremes i s the "meeting ground", a point where the best of both humanism and behaviorism i s united in a balanced whole. A curriculum developer with such a perspective would seek to f ind a balance between d i rect ion and guidance, and choice and discovery. It i s th i s balance which w i l l be a major concern of the proposed curriculum. The Learning Process If we accept, as the wr i ter does, the human and the learner as one and the same, then our perspective holds true for both. What has to be established in regard to the learner i s a perspective of the learning process. The learning process, as seen by the wr i te r , i s a process of growth; the growth of the whole ch i l d as a resu l t of the c h i l d ' s interact ion with people, things, events; in other words, interact ion with the tota l environment. I f , for a moment, one can be allowed to ta lk of education and learning as a s ingle en t i t y , then one has the support of Shedd, Newberg and DeLone (1971), who state quite emphatically that "education worthy of the name i s growth (p. 155)." Llewellyn and Robinson (1974) ta lk of the pos i t ive growth that can be fostered in 14 a l l three areas of development, s o c i a l , personal and cognit ive by a well conceived program. They also see the three areas being " i n te r re la ted within the i nd i v idua l , not i so lated (p. 53)." This i s a contention that is supported by Mukerji (1977) who states that " a l l learning i s bas ica l l y entwined and has components of i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and emotionality (p. 317)." Holt (1976) l ikewise, does not see the physical and the i n t e l l e c tua l as separate e n t i t i e s , or in opposition to each other. He believes that "such d i s t i nc t ions are unreal and harmful. Only in words can the mind and body be separated. In r e a l i t y they are one; they act together (p. 5). " These viewpoints would support a perspective that sees the learning process as the growth of the whole c h i l d . For the curriculum developer, a key issue in the planning process, would be the perspective held of the interact ion between the ch i l d and the curriculum. Is i t act ive or passive? Is i t knowledge to be stored or problems to be solved? Whether the subject i s Greek, Mathematics or Woodworking, the answer to these questions would greatly a f fect the emphasis of the planned curriculum. The perspective held by Whitehead (1929) is c l ea r l y stated when he speaks of a c t i v i t y of thought in his "Aims of Education." In t ra in ing a ch i l d to a c t i v i t y of thought, above a l l things we must beware of what I w i l l c a l l ' i n e r t ideas ' , that i s to say, ideas that are merely received into the mind without being u t i l i z e d or tested, or thrown into fresh combinations (p. 2). For Whitehead the mind i s never passive, i t i s perpetual motion, and his aims did not envisage rows of passive students facing a teacher 15 dispensing " i n e r t ideas." When we consider that the reca l l or regurgitat ion of these ideas, without actua l l y using them, i s the lowest cognit ive mental operation, (according to Bloom's taxonomy) then we must agree with Whitehead that ideas should be u t i l i z e d . Dewey (1956), a staunch supporter of the act ive par t i c ipat ion of the ch i l d in the learning process, states that "subject matter never can be got into the ch i l d from without. Learning i s act ive. I t involves reaching out of the mind. It involves organic ass imi lat ion s tart ing from within (p. 9). " It i s , perhaps, th i s "reaching out of the mind:" which Dewey means when he speaks of the s p i r i t of inquiry. And i t i s inquiry that Bruner (1960) believes i s the process of learning, a be l i e f f i rmly substantiated in his curriculum "Man; A course of study," a curriculum in which the major thrust i s towards inquiry and problem solving. Both Lefrancois (1972) and Gorman (1972) believe that learning must involve the invest igat ion of problems and the interact ion with objects; and since a c h i l d ' s natural method of learning involves a c t i v i t y , classroom learning should involve a c t i v i t y that is both physical and mental. I t i s Kelley (1947) who perhaps best encompasses the views of the learning process in his statement:-Learning must s ta r t with concretions - with what we may c a l l the how-to-do. It i s in th i s world of act ion, since perceptions are d irect ions for act ion , that new experiences are accumulated. Certain abstractions w i l l be usefu l , and w i l l natural ly a r i se . Operating in th i s moving world of how-to-do, the learner w i l l be confronted with natural problems which he must solve. As he 16 contrives he w i l l do many things that w i l l not work. This w i l l c a l l for re-evaluating what has been done and new t r i a l s . The attempt, the evaluation, the success a l l play the i r part in taking a person from inadequacy to adequacy. The whole process i s growth in i t s widest meaning; growth which enables the whole organism to become more competent to cope with l i f e , ( p . 72). F i n a l l y , the curriculum developer would be expected to hold the perspective that his curriculum was a necessary part of the learning process, and i t i s to Comenius that we turn for support in th i s be l i e f . Comenius in "The Great D idact ic " stated that, "while the seeds of knowledge of v i r tue and of piety are natura l ly implanted within us, the actual knowledge, v i r tue and piety are not so given. These must be acquired." Hence, " a l l who are born to man's estate have need of i n s t ruc t i on . " The " i n s t ruc t i on " in the proposed curriculum w i l l attempt to encompass the perspective held of the learning process; in that i t w i l l involve the learner in a c t i v i t y , both mental and phys ica l , in problem solving and in the process of inquiry. I t i s a curriculum that i s designed with the intent ion of achieving the pos i t ive growth of the whole c h i l d . Society Whether the planned curriculum i s for a province, a d i s t r i c t , a school, or, as in th i s study, a subject area, the curriculum developer holds a perspective on soc iety, a perspective which influences decisions made in the planned program. Today, as in past generations, we face the problem of 17 reconci l ing s e l f - i n t e re s t with group welfare, and of establ ishing values that apply to a new age. It i s , as Dewey pointed out in 1936, "The problem of the re la t i on between indiv idual freedom and co l l e c t i ve well being (p. 165)," a problem that should have important s ign i f icance in the plans of the curriculum developer. Baker (1966) states that, "In any society there must be order and cont ro l ; otherwise, aimless and random a c t i v i t y prevai l s and anarchy and chaos resu l t (p. 151)." Baker sees control as a necessary part of a society, but believes that order and control are eas i l y atta ined, once i t i s seen, through discussion and experience, how v i t a l i t i s to a properly functioning society. Madden (1972) also recognizes the fact that in every society some form of control i s i nev i tab le , but that i t i s possible to "maximize freedom and make controls less aversive and more humane (p. 104)." Once again the problem of the "meeting ground" a r i ses , th i s time between freedom and cont ro l ; that i s , i f we accept the perspective that as members of society we must reconci le s e l f -interest and group welfare. The wr i te r believes that an indust r ia l education program can bring about th i s r e conc i l i a t i on , working as i t does in an environment of tools and machines, where safety for the indiv idual and the group i s of paramount importance. Herein l i e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of discussion and experience bringing about a rea l i za t i on of the need for s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and group co-operation, factors necessary to a properly functioning society. 18 Industr ial Education A perspective of the subject to be taught, would simply be, in the opinion of the wr i te r , a be l i e f in that subject, and in the fact that i t could accomplish the goals and objectives outl ined in previously stated perspectives; fo r example H i t t ' s meeting ground of behaviorism and humanism. This study i s concerned with Industr ial Education and the wr i te r bel ieves, as does McPherson (1978), that one of the funda-mental concepts of Industr ial Education i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of integrat ing i n t e l l e c tua l and pract ica l experiences. One thinks here of experiences that can develop the f u l l potential of every i nd i v idua l . In th i s vein Scobey and Graham (1974) speak of "experiences that are personally integrat ing, that i s , which are t ru l y learned and which ef fect behavior as indiv iduals and as members of society (p. 38)." These experiences should also be a means of awakening i n t e l l e c t ua l inqui ry, of giv ing meaning and values and of cu l t i va t i ng appreciations (Bonsor and Mossman, 1923). Industr ial Education can provide these means, as well as the rat ional analysis of values and decision making opportunities which Estvan (1971) believes are an important part of the curriculum. The purpose of th i s study i s to design such a curriculum, a program that supports the perspective that Industr ial Education can provide a benef ic ia l learning experience for every c h i l d . 19 Summary A perspective i s , the wr i te r bel ieves, the s tart ing point for curriculum development. It i s the signpost which w i l l guide the developer through the curriculum planning process. It should not be jus t a theoret ical standpoint, but should be a be l i e f supporting a course of act ion. For the purpose of th i s discussion the wr i ter considers theory as the speculative thought, the idea. The course of action i s when theory i s put into pract ice, when one's perspective i s used to influence or to bring about change. As Apple (1975) points out, i t should be a perspective that distinguishes "between merely understanding the world and changing i t (p. 115)," adding that we must, of course, have an understanding of that world in order to bring about change. The perspectives established in the previous pages are that "understanding of the world." I t i s a be l i e f which supports a course of action - the proposed curriculum. The perspectives which influence the proposed curriculum are summarized as fo l lows: -Human Nature. An opportunity should be provided for a ch i l d to function f r ee l y , to choose and to discover; at the same time direct ions and guidance should be offered. Learning Process. This i s a process in which a c t i v i t y , both mental and phys ica l , play a major part in bringing about the uni f ied growth of the c h i l d . 20 Society. The c o n f l i c t between s e l f - i n t e re s t and group welfare i s best resolved in a s i tuat ion which allows for experience and encourages discussion. Industr ial Education. A well designed Industr ial Education program can: provide the opportunity for choice and discovery; o f fe r guidance and show d i rec t i on ; integrate i n t e l l e c tua l and pract ica l experiences; bring about an awareness and understanding of se l f and social d i s c i p l i ne through experience and discussion in a working environment. A well designed Industr ial Education program can contribute to the pos i t ive growth of the c h i l d . CHAPTER THREE RELATED LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Introduction In th i s chapter the l i t e r a t u r e i s reviewed and concepts developed in re la t ion to the theoret ica l terms used in the process of curriculum development. This, in the opinion of the wr i te r , i s a necessary step in the process of curriculum development, a step by which the curriculum developer c l a r i f i e s his thinking in re la t ion to the terminology which w i l l be used when discussing curriculum plans. In the case of the proposed curriculum, concepts need to be developed for these terms:-Curriculum Curriculum Development Industr ial Education Child Development Experience Creat i v i t y Cognitive A c t i v i t y These terms w i l l be dealt with in subsequent sections, the f i n a l section summarizing the concepts developed. 21 22 Cum'cul urn What i s curriculum? This i s a question for which there are as many answers as there are curriculum developers. Eisner (1975) puts the posit ion quite c l ea r l y when he states that, There is not now, and there very well might never be, an architectonic theory of curriculum capable of resolving and integrating the con f l i c t s in in terpretat ion, fact and value emerging from d i f fe rent theories with in the several soc ia l sciences. Theoretical consistency in curriculum development, even i f i t could be achieved, might in fact be an educational Pyrrhic v ictory (p. 165). For the purpose of th i s study, curriculum i s considered in respect to a s ingle course, the proposed curriculum. This does not s i gn i f y a narrow concept of curriculum, but rather one that sees a s ingle course as being part of the "whole", and as contr ibuting to the growth of the whole c h i l d . This i s perhaps a r e f l ec t i on of the viewpoint of Silberman (1970) who states that "we must examine a concept of curriculum that not only emphasizes the acqu i s i t ion of basic s k i l l s , but, at the same time, stresses the growth of independent th ink ing, a sense of r e spons i b i l i t y , and a humanistic view of the world (p. 106)." I t could be argued that th i s i s more a statement about curriculum content, than a de f i n i t i on of what curriculum i s . I t i s , however, in the opinion of the wr i t e r , an excel lent concept guide to the Industr ial Education curriculum developer. For a descr ipt ion of what curriculum i s , we turn to Young (1977), who defines curriculum as " . . . a plan out l in ing the 23 objectives and content of a subject which is ava i lab le to learners in school (p. 8) . " Resnick (1975) states that "a curriculum can be thought of as a series of a c t i v i t i e s e x p l i c i t l y designed to change the knowledge and competence of those who engage in i t (p. 35)." And Heasley (1974) views curriculum as " . . . a plan of experiences designed by and for educators to nurture various aspects of the tota l development of chi ldren (p. 44)." What these wr iters are saying, though in d i f fe rent words, points to the concept held by the wr i te r , namely, that the curriculum i s a plan of a c t i v i t i e s to be used as a guide by teachers to foster the development and growth of ch i ld ren. The inc lus ion of the word guide may be noted here. Purves (1975) believes that we should look at curriculum more as a guide for teachers, that i s , i f we recognize the teacher as a human being capable of making decisions. Ol iver (1965) makes the point more strongly when he says that "regardless of what a curriculum guide states, the teacher makes the f i n a l choice as to what w i l l be presented and what emphasis w i l l be given to the content, materials and a c t i v i t i e s selected (p. 103)." And Rubin (1977) believes that the curriculum i s shaped by the values of the indiv idual doing the teaching. Such a point of view would cer ta in l y concern the curriculum developer, as well as influence a concept of curriculum. In the case of the wr i ter the influence of th i s point of view brings him to see the teacher as part of the interact ion of curriculum, an interact ion that involves the plan of a c t i v i t i e s , the c h i l d , the teacher, the experiences and the materials. I t i s an interact ion 24 which deals with human beings and i s consequently forever changing; i t i s not a s t a t i c s i tua t ion . Curriculum must, therefore, be f l e x i b l e ; i t cannot be a r i g i d plan. The proposed curriculum attempts to meet these concerns and to support the concept of curriculum established here. Curriculum Development Curriculum development, l i k e curriculum, i s viewed from many d i f fe rent posit ions - from the technical r a t i o n a l i t y of the early p rac t i t i oner s , to the contemporary "transcendence" of the reconceptual ists. H i s t o r i c a l l y in North America curriculum development as a major emphasis in education had i t s beginnings in the 1920's with the work of people l i k e Bobbit, Bonsor and K i l pa t r i c k . Bobbit ' s ideas were a major influence in the f i e l d for a number of years, an influence that can be seen in Ty le r ' s work in 1949. It was Tyler who, according to Goodlad (1966), "put the capstone on one epoch of curriculum inquiry (p. 5), " and i t was the Tyler rat ionale that served as a guide to many educators of the time including such people as Taba, Goodlad and Popham. In the 19601s a number of educators, notably Eisner, Kliebard and Schwab, questioned Ty le r ' s technical concept of curriculum development and pointed out the l im i ta t ions of such an approach. Schwab, in pa r t i cu l a r , has c r i t i c i z e d d i r e c t l y the technical notion of curriculum. He feels that ex i s t ing theories are inadequate when dealing with human beings. Schwab suggests that these theories are* abstract and ideal ized representations of r e a l i t y , and, therefore, 25 questions the i r usefulness when dealing with the real world of curriculum. It i s a debate that continues and one which has impl ications for the curriculum developer. We must, therefore, as Hampson (1975) suggests, "analyse the arguments of both sides ca re fu l l y (p. 13)." In the fol lowing paragraphs th i s analysis w i l l be made and a concept developed. Joyce (1971) found that most curriculum developers use i n t u i t i v e procedures, "while some use highly self-conscious systems procedures (p. 313)." Though th i s i s true, in r e a l i t y , l i t t l e support can be found in the l i t e r a t u r e for recommending the use of i n t u i t i v e procedures. Popham (1974) actua l ly advocates a systems analysis approach to curriculum development where decisions would not be affected by "erroneous perceptions of r e a l i t y and unconscious biases." He believes that i n t u i t i v e decision making should not be part of curriculum development where "imprudent decisions can penalize thousands of students (p.267)." Tyler advocated in 1950 and reaffirmed in 1964 the use of a c lear cut and pragmatic rat ionale for curriculum construction, one that involves select ing object ives, developing learning experiences, organizing learning experiences, and providing for evaluation. S im i l a r l y , Purves (1975) sees curriculum development as producing a set of components, "a ra t iona le , a set of object ives, a set of mater ia ls, a set of a c t i v i t i e s , a sequence of those a c t i v i t i e s and mater ia ls, and a means to evaluate or provide feedback about the curriculum (p. 107)." Eisner (1975), on the other hand, sees no de f in i te blue pr in t for curriculum development but rather that the various rationales and 26 concepts provide, "mnemonic devices that enable a curriculum construction group in the i r more passive and r e f l e c t i v e moments to remember what might be an important consideration (p. 164)." This would seem to suggest that i n t u i t i v e decisions may well play the i r part in the development of cu r r i cu l a . The wr i ter believes that such i s the case, and that, even in an organized framework of development, the indiv idual w i l l make certa in decisions that re ly on i n t u i t i o n , on those ideas that often appear in " r e f l e c t i v e moments." The w r i t e r ' s concept of curriculum development supports the need for an organized framework, but one in which research, experience and i n t u i t i o n would play the i r part in the decision making, a framework that would not concern i t s e l f en t i re l y with product iv i ty and ob jec t i v i t y but would also be concerned with chi ldren and the eth ica l re spons ib i l i t y of education. Industr ial Education Industr ial Education can claim to have i t s or ig ins in the distant past when man f i r s t passed on the knowledge of how to fashion a club or wield an axe. As a part of formal education, however, Industr ial Education has a more recent h i s tory, that began with the influence of men l i k e Pestalozzi and Froebel who placed a great deal of emphasis on pract ica l a c t i v i t i e s as a part of education. In North America, Bonsor (1923) was a leading advocate of Industr ial Education, pa r t i cu l a r l y in the elementary school. He believed that Industr ial Education "taught with 27 proper regard to the broad relat ionships of i t s problems and content (p. 75)," had a great potential for bringing about the unity of school and l i f e experiences. Industr ial Education, in the form of constructive and occupational work, also found a supporter in Dewey, who believed that Industr ial Education offered plenty of opportunities and motivation for reading, wr i t ing and number work. Today's research supports the be l ie f s of these men in showing that the inclus ion of Industr ial Education a c t i v i t i e s , promotes a greater interest i n , and a higher degree of motivation for learning as i t i s related to the whole educational program. Many of these experimental studies have shown an increased enthusiasm toward school, a markedly pos i t ive achievement growth and a greater retention of subject matter when a c t i v i t y oriented Industr ial Education courses are included in the school program (Champion, 1965; Downs, 1968; Ingram, 1966; Pershern, 1967). It i s th i s pos i t ive approach that the wr i ter takes as a s tart ing point in the formation of a concept of Industr ial Education, a concept that w i l l be the basis of the proposed curriculum. Such a pos i t ive approach, would not allow the Industr ial Education program to be simply a vehicle f o r the development of psychomotor s k i l l s , or a recreational a c t i v i t y , or a super f i c i a l manipulative or c raf t s a c t i v i t y , or a program for those of l imited a b i l i t y . According to Scobey and Graham (1974), programs in Industr ial Education can in fact contribute to the achievement of a major educational objective - perception of se l f as a competent person. The l a t t e r could perhaps be achieved in a program that i s designed to awaken i n t e l l e c tua l inquiry, to give 28 meanings and value, to cu l t i va te appreciat ion, and to lead to further interests (Bonsor and Mossmann, 1923). Such a program, the wr i ter bel ieves, i s possible in Industr ial Education, a program that would have chi ldren working with hands and mind, acquiring basic s k i l l s and using them in constructive problem so lv ing, and a program that brings together the i n te l l e c tua l and the phys ica l , f o r , as Holt (1976) states, "they are not separate en t i t i e s in opposition to each other, . . . only in words can the mind and body be separated. In r e a l i t y they are one; they act together (p. 5). " It should be a program that helps establ i sh the sense of a job well done, which Maritain (1965) fee ls i s important to a person's development, bel ieving that i f th i s regard for work i s missing ". . . a n essential basis of human morality i s lacking (p. 43)." F i na l l y , the program should help the ch i l d to develop a fee l ing of success, which Llewellyn and Robinson (1974) believe i s c ruc ia l to healthy personal ity growth. They claim that th i s fee l ing of success can be accomplished i f the ch i l d i s engaged in a "productive s i t ua t i on , " a s i tuat ion which has as i t s guiding theme "From mastery of mater ia ls, to mastery of s e l f through materials (p. 48)." For the wr i te r , the concept for the proposed Industr ial Education program i s one that embraces the viewpoints of the aforementioned wr i te r s . It i s a be l i e f that the pos i t ive growth of the ch i l d can be accomplished in a program that uses materials to o f fe r both a physical and mental stimulus, a program that permits i nd i v idua l i za t i on of goals, ins t ruct ion and evaluation, emphasising accomplishment rather than f a i l u r e , a program designed with the intention of helping the ch i l d achieve a pos i t ive se l f concept. 29 Chi ld Development In curriculum construction the wr i te r believes a concept of development must be understood in two contexts; f i r s t l y , what is development, secondly, how does development take place? Development, in the f i r s t instance, i s seen as the change in an indiv idual phys ica l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and emotionally. This change i s a continuous, though sporadic, process which occurs throughout one's l i f e . This i s the change indiv iduals make in adapting to the environment, in reconci l ing s e l f with society and in attempting to rea l i ze the i r f u l l e s t potential as people (Lefrancois, 1972). Change, i t would seem, i s an acceptable concept of development both for the behaviorist who talks of "changes in behavior" brought about by a control led environment, and for the phenomenologist who sees change as the " s e l f - a c t ua l i z i n g process of becoming." Developmental Process The important question fo r the teacher and curriculum developer i s , how does th i s development, or change, take place, and what are the factors determining development? In h i s t o r i c a l terms, the study of ch i l d development i s a recent addit ion to the f i e l d of s c i e n t i f i c inquiry. The need for such study was brought about in the la te nineteenth century when improvement in medicine lowered the rate of infant morta l i ty , and the indust r ia l revolution made ch i l d labour largely unnecessary. Thus, chi ldren became a center of interest in education and other d i s c i p l i ne s . People became aware of the value of studying ch i l d 30 development with the influence of the work of men l i k e Darwin and Freud, and l a te r as Lefrancois (1972) suggests, the ch i l d became "pa r t l y successful in replacing the rat as a subject of psychological invest igat ion (p. 170)." The early developmental perspectives were centered on two main issues, heredity and environment. The former was based on a be l i e f that the c h i l d ' s future development was already determined at b i r t h . The l a t t e r looked on the ch i l d at b i r th as a blank s l a te , (Tabula Rasa, John Locke) on which the environment would determine development. A great deal of research and thought has been devoted to ch i l d develop-ment since those early times, resu l t ing in the conclusion that both heredity and environment play a part, and are determining factors in development (Mueller, 1974), a fact which i s supported by Piaget when he states that development i s part of an " i n te rac t i ve re lat ionsh ip between b io log ica l endowment and environmental s t imul i and demands." It i s the question of which of the two plays a greater part in development that s t i l l causes some debate. For the educator who has no control over genetic factors , however, be l i e f in the influence of the environment i s e s sent ia l . The problem to be solved by the educator is simply, What type of environment i s best suited to the c h i l d ' s development? In order to solve th i s problem, the wr i te r proposes to examine three factors concerning the development of ch i ldren; f i r s t l y , the difference in ch i ldren; secondly, the nature of the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c tua l processes; and t h i r d l y , the c h i l d ' s role in the process of development. 31 Differences in Children Are chi ldren a l l the same? If we were to take an extreme perspective and view the ch i l d as a mere organism, then curriculum development would simply be a matter of sett ing up an environment in which our techniques would permit us to shape up the behavior of the organism almost at w i l l (Skinner, 1954). Though th i s may be considered a drast ic statement, i t i s generally accepted that teachers use behavior modif ication in some form or another, even though they may c r i t i c i s e i t as an overal l inhumane educational approach. A t ru l y e f fec t i ve teacher, Madden (1973) states, " w i l l combine the science of behavior with the ar t of l i v i n g , " in order to create an environment, "where chi ldren not only take excitement from discovery, but learn to be nice people (p. 601)." One aspect in the science of behavior that has support from both humanists and behaviorists i s that of pos i t ive reinforcement, a behavioral technique where humanism i s taken into account (Skinner, 1972; Madden, 1973; Madsen, 1973). We must, however, remind ourselves that a ch i l d is a human being and not a s c i e n t i f i c object. The ch i l d i s a l i v i n g , breathing being whose complex behavior cannot be described by st imul i and response alone, and whose act ive mind cannot be reduced to hypothetical structures. Bonner (1965) states that "In his haste to encapsulate man's behavior in s t a t i s t i c a l equations, to describe only his adaptive and coping behavior, the psychologist has merely succeeded in emptying man of his essential humanity (p. 19)." The Skinnerian psychology i s also disputed by McKeachie (1974) who asserts that 32 development requires more than an emphasis on immediate reinforcement and teaching machines. He maintains that the complexity of the problem should remind us of the " fasc inat ing uniqueness of the learner (p. 49)." Humaneness and uniqueness are, in the opinion of the wr i te r , two important concepts in considering ch i l d development in re la t ion to curriculum construction. Children are not a l l the same, though we may be allowed some general isat ions, for example, chi ldren enjoy success. Children are unique ind iv idua l s , each with d i f fe rent developmental rates and l eve l s , a fact which should persuade teachers to take a more f l e x i b l e and tolerant att i tude towards a c h i l d ' s work (Gorman, 1972), and a fact which should be provided for in a curriculum design. In te l lectua l Structures In order to examine the question of a c h i l d ' s i n te l l e c tua l structures, we can turn to the work of Piaget. One excel lent example of a c h i l d ' s thinking i s P iaget ' s experiment with the conservation of l i q u i d . In th i s experiment the ch i l d i s shown two ident ica l containers each f i l l e d to the same level with a l i q u i d , one of the containers i s poured into a th in tube the other into a shallow dish, the ch i l d i s then asked i f the amounts of l i q u i d are the same. A ch i l d up to the age of s ix or seven w i l l almost always say that they are now d i f fe ren t , and when they are poured back into the or ig ina l containers w i l l now say they are the same. The ch i l d would appear to contradict himself, and one's i l l - cons ide red opinion 33 would be that the ch i l d was not very br ight. The more correct opinion, according to Piaget ' s theory, i s that the ch i l d does not yet have the i n t e l l e c tua l structure which enables him to grasp the concept of l i q u i d conservation. Concepts such as conservation are factors that become part of the c h i l d ' s repertoire: or i n t e l l e c t ua l s t ructure, which i s b u i l t , according to Piaget, from the c h i l d ' s interact ion with the environment, and which i s part of the c h i l d ' s continuing development. Ch i l d ' s Role in the Developmental Process Interaction i s probably the key word in the question of whether the ch i l d i s an act ive or passive part ic ipant in the process of development. Piaget would obviously be a supporter of the ancient be l i e f that " learning i s doing." This i s pa r t i cu l a r l y evident in his "concrete operations" stage, the developmental level of chi ldren from the age of seven to twelve years; the important feature of th i s period being a c t i v i t y in re la t ion to the environment. Piaget himself ta lks of act ions, action and a c t i v i t y as being necessary in the development of ch i ldren. This i s a concept that sees chi ldren taking an act ive part in the i r development, and one which would allow the ch i l d the opportunity to experiment, to t ry things out, to pose questions and to seek answers, to compare and contrast, and to engage in act ive dialogue with the teacher (Ginsberg and Opper, 1969; G r i f f i t h s , 1972; Bruner, 1974). 34 Synopsis In proposing a curriculum the wr i ter has taken into account the concept that environment does play an important part in a c h i l d ' s development. As to that environment, the curriculum attempts to provide for the d i f ferences. in ch i ldren, the i r d i f fe rent developmental rates, the i r s tructural developmental l e v e l , and for the i r act ive par t i c ipat ion in the process of development. Subsidiary Terms The foregoing paragraphs have dealt with what are considered the major conceptual terms of the study. In the fol lowing sections the remaining terms, though no less important, w i l l be dealt with less extensively. Experience The wr i te r understands the word experience to have at least two meanings, as i t i s used in educational language. The f i r s t i s "experience" in the terms of the curriculum developer, what Tyler would c a l l the learning experience. These are experiences that would comprise the actual content of the curriculum as prescribed by the curriculum developer. The select ion and organisation of these learning experiences const itute an important aspect of curriculum development according to Tyler. These learning experiences are the type of experience that Kelley (1947) has in mind when he states that "one cannot learn by authority but only by experience (p. 12)." Agreement with th i s statement would suggest support for the argument that an experience from which we learn would l o g i c a l l y be a learning experience. 35 Kliebard (1975) would disagree, bel ieving that the word experience is so vague and subjective that i t has no place as a part of the curriculum. In th i s respect he would have some support from Goodlad (1966) who prefers the term " learning opportunity" to learning experience, as the word experience for Goodlad implies what happens to the learner. I t i s th i s l a t t e r concept of the word experience that the wr i te r considers as the most important; experience as i t relates to the c h i l d , for i t w i l l be the ch i l d who brings experience to and takes experience from the environment that we set. Whether or not th i s environmental sett ing or learning opportunity becomes a learning experience, in the terms of the curriculum developer's aims, w i l l depend, in a large measure, upon the c h i l d . Does i t f i t into the c h i l d ' s experience and purpose (Kel ley, 1947)? For the curriculum developer, the task would be to plan a program that would f i t into the c h i l d ' s previous experience and purpose, and consequently become, for that c h i l d , a learning experience of a pos i t ive nature with regard to the intent of the program developer. Such a program would support a concept of experience as being the acqu i s i t ion of intended knowledge, s k i l l s and att i tudes through the c h i l d ' s perception of, and act ive par t i c ipat ion i n , the program - accepting that many other learnings may occur unintent ional ly. Creat i v i ty C reat i v i t y has been defined as the capacity to innovate, to invent, to rearrange elements in a way that they have never been arranged before, such that the i r beauty or value i s enhanced (Haimowitz and Haimowitz, 1974). The creative potential 36 i s something that i s possessed by a l l humans to a certa in extent, and the release of th i s potential can bring about a fee l ing of sa t i s fac t ion (Rubin, 1963). If one accepts these statements, i t would be feas ib le to conclude that a curriculum should be designed to encourage creativeness, and that such a curriculum would be benef ic ia l to a l l students, not ju s t a c reat ive ly g i f ted minority. For the curriculum developer in Industr ial Education the advice of Hausman (1973) should be valuable, when he suggests that the art program, . . . should do more than develop technical s k i l l and understanding. Development of such competence i s important, but i t i s more important that we encourage the development of the i nd i v i dua l ' s c r ea t i v i t y - his a b i l i t y to discover new re la t ions , to reformulate ideas and fee l ings , to devise new means and approaches to his own a r t i s t i c r ea l i za t i on (p. 271). A curriculum designed to sa t i s f y Hausman's requirements would also f ind support from Haimowitz and Haimowitz (1974) who believe that c r ea t i v i t y can be fostered given the r ight opportunity and environment. By th i s they mean, good teachers who are s k i l l f u l leaders, freedom for both teacher and student to part ic ipate and innovate, and the design of tasks and problems that require less imitat ion but which require more creative solut ions. It i s in the l a t t e r , the design of tasks and problems, that the curriculum developer can make his contr ibution by planning a program which allows for open-ended learning a c t i v i t i e s , i n v i t i n g creat ive thinking and problem solving. This would mean giving the ch i l d the 37 opportunity to explore, to experiment and to manipulate, what Holden (1977) would describe as the " ac t i ve , part ic ipatory hands on side in which chi ldren phys ica l ly encounter materials (p. 122)." For the curriculum developer, th i s may mean accepting the advice of Huebner (1975) and acting with courage and "with the awareness that creation requires r i sk taking as well as s t a t i s t i c a l evidence (p. 272)." Industr ial educators, in the opinion of the wr i t e r , should take that r i s k , and attempt to design programs that make allowances for the creative potential of ch i ldren. Cognitive Cognitive i s a word not usually associated with Industr ial Education, due in part to the image of Industr ial Education as a subject for those students rejected from the academic classroom, those students label led as d i s c i p l i n e problems or non-learners (Smoker, 1971; Heasley, 1974). It i s also at t r ibutab le to a concept that fragments the cognit ive, a f fec t i ve and psychomotor developmental processes; a concept that would separate thinking from doing, and one which considers the ro le of Industr ial Education as the development of psychomotor s k i l l s . Industr ial Education can, however, contribute to cognit ion, or i n te l l e c tua l development i f , as Dewey suggests, the program adopts a problem solving approach which challenges the ingenuity of the c h i l d . This type of program Dewey contends would develop both character and an indiv idual who i s used to fusing imagination with s k i l l . Industr ial Education programs could accomplish these aims 38 i f , in the opinion of the wr i te r , they combine thinking with doing, and i f they were designed in such a way that they contributed to cognit ive development, balanced with the a f fec t i ve and psychomotor domains of learning. A c t i v i t y A c t i v i t y i s a word that i s used extensively in educational language. We speak of cu r r i cu la r a c t i v i t i e s , ex t ra -cur r i cu la r a c t i v i t i e s , learning a c t i v i t i e s , manual a c t i v i t i e s - a l i s t that continues "ad i n f in i tum. " The 1930's even saw the introduction of the " a c t i v i t y school " , a school whose program was aimed pr imar i ly at the growth and development of chi ldren as ind iv idua l s , and which considered the c h i l d ' s in teres t s , needs and capacit ies in a program that encouraged natural a c t i v i t y , i n i t i a t i v e , s e l f - d i r e c t i on and se l f -cont ro l (Draper, 1936). This type of program would be out of place in the f i c t i o n a l classroom of Mr. Gradgrind, who believed very much in the bas ics: -Now what I want i s fact s . Teach these boys and g i r l s nothing but fact s . Facts alone are wanted in l i f e . Plant nothing else and root out everything else. You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon fac t s , nothing else w i l l ever be of any service to them. This i s the p r inc ip le on which I bring up my own ch i ldren, and th i s i s the p r inc ip le on which I bring up these ch i ldren. St ick to the fact s , s i r . (Charles Dickens, M'Choakumchilds Schoolroom). Though f i c t i o n a l , i t i s a c lear descr ipt ion of what Whitehead (1949) envisages when he sees a classroom where " i n e r t ideas" are dispensed, 39 ideas that are not tested or used. In a more recent c r i t i c i s m Postman and Weingartner (1973) c i t e the passive student as a major problem in the schools, " . . . they s i t and l i s t e n to the teacher. They are required to remember (p. 19)." For Postman, chi ldren should be learning processes, not f ac t s , they should be learning to think c r i t i c a l l y , and be able to cope with a dynamic changing world. It would seem that test ing and using ideas and learning to think c r i t i c a l l y requires the act ive par t i c ipat ion of the c h i l d . I f th i s i s so, then a c t i v i t y becomes an important part of program planning; a c t i v i t y that requires the exertion of energy, both physical and i n t e l l e c t u a l . In Industr ial Education, perhaps more so than in any other subject, the opportunity ex ists to c ap i t a l i z e on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a c t i v i t y , as stated above, and in doing so, to accomplish one of Goldman's (1971) c r i t e r i a for a relevant curriculum - act ive rather than passive experiences. These experiences should be a tota l experience in that they incorporate constructive a c t i v i t y , manual a c t i v i t y and i n te l l e c tua l a c t i v i t y . Constructive a c t i v i t y i s the bui lding of projects, the making of parts and putting the parts together to form a whole. We must beware, however, that the technical processes of construction do not become the sole aim, thus causing the mental phases of the a c t i v i t y to diminish (Bonsor, 1923). Bonsor regarded brainwork as an important factor in Industr ial Education a c t i v i t i e s , and he suggested that hand-work should be subordinate and supplementary to brainwork. In th i s statement Bonsor i s supporting a concept that separates the hand and 40 bra in, a d i v i s i ve be l i e f of the time. Today, we are more supportive of the concept that hand and brain work together, which i s what Maritain (1965) has in mind when he suggests that manual a c t i v i t y i s an aid to achieving psychological equi l ibr ium as well as furthering ingenuity and accuracy of mind. Manual a c t i v i t y of th i s type would not be found in the t r ad i t i ona l lock-step,teacher planned and presented, project approach. In order to meet the requirements of Maritain we would need to extract the best examples from technology and as Olson (1963) suggests " . . . r e f l e c t the s p i r i t of technology, the att i tude and appl icat ion of search and research, the inventiveness, the c r e a t i v i t y , the experimenting and developing, the problem solving . . . (p. 89)." An Industr ial Education program that accomplished these l a t t e r aims would also succeed in welding construct ive, manual and i n t e l l e c t ua l a c t i v i t i e s into a un i f ied whole. Summary In the preceeding paragraphs, concepts have been dealt with as separate elements; in the summary an attempt i s made to bring them together into a whole or tota l concept. For the wr i te r , curriculum development begins with ch i ld ren; chi ldren who are ind iv idua l s , with d i f fe rent rates of development, d i f fe rent structural levels of development, d i f fe rent ways of perceiving and act ing, but a l l with the need for the development of a pos i t ive self-concept. A well planned curriculum can contribute to the achievement of that pos i t ive self-concept in a program that allows 41 for i nd i v i dua l i t y and provides the opportunity for creative expression. Industr ial Education can provide that opportunity i f i t encourages act ive par t i c ipat ion in explorat ion, experimentation and problem solv ing. Such a curriculum would be designed as a guide, allowing for the f l e x i b i l i t y of both teacher and c h i l d . I t would be a curriculum designed from and with an organised framework, influenced by research, experience and i n t u i t i on - remembering at a l l times that we are dealing with ch i ldren. CHAPTER FOUR RATIONALE AND FORMATIVE EVALUATION PROCESS Introduction The purpose of th i s chapter i s to achieve what Jenkins and Shipman (1976) believe i s the central task in the study of cur r i cu la -the explanation and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the curriculum. To th i s end the wr i ter proposes to examine values, needs, and content, with a view to explaining and j u s t i f y i n g them in re la t ion to the proposed curriculurn. Values Few would question the fact that we each face any s i tuat ion with a pre-determined set of values. This would cer ta in ly be so for the curriculum developer. Ol iver (1965), in f ac t , believes that values are necessary to give d i rect ion to curriculum development, and Goodlad (1966) places select ion of values as the f i r s t step in the organised framework of curriculum development. Today, as in the past, we have a c o n f l i c t of values. The Roman persecution of the Chr i s t ians, the slave trade, and ch i l d labour during the Industr ial Revolution are examples of past value c o n f l i c t s . Today, in what has been described as the technological society ( E l l u l , 1964), we have the problems of automation, conservation, 42 43 the work e th ic , po l l u t i on , unemployment, and materialism; a l l of which, according to Baker (1966), face man with a c o n f l i c t of the senses and the s p i r i t , with the v ictory often going to the former and a consequent loss of values. This c o n f l i c t would not, however, resu l t so much in a loss of values, as in a re -d i rect ion of values toward material gain. I t i s , Dawson (1961) contends, a c i r c u l a r d i r ec t i on , in which the material needs and demands of the consumer are a r t i f i c i a l l y determined by the advert i sers, who are in turn agents of the producers. Such a d i rec t i on , Dawson argues, lacks the higher moral aims and values "which alone can j u s t i f y the immense development of indus t r ia l power and organisation (p. 158)." The question in the minds of these wr i te r s , and others, i s the use man makes of technology, which i s in i t s e l f man-made and not an automonous force (Mesthene, 1970). As a man-made ent i ty Mesthene believes i t can be control led and become a force for good. It i s th i s control that Anderson (1978) has in mind when he states that in considering the Industr ial Education curriculum, "We must focus our a b i l i t i e s on those values of c r i t i c a l importance; human under-standing, sense of purpose in l i f e , secur ity and a knowledge that man determines the d i rect ion of technology (p. 243)." Such values of c r i t i c a l importance can and should be considered in any Industr ial Education program whether i t be Mechanics 12, Electronics 11 or a woodworking program for grade sevens. As d i f f i c u l t and as i d e a l i s t i c as they may seem, they should be, in the opinion of the wr i te r , a motivating force behind the curriculum developer's and 44 the teacher 's intent ions. In the proposed curriculum, emphasis i s placed on purposeful a c t i v i t y , with the intent that through such a c t i v i t y , the values of human understanding, pride in workmanship, sense of purpose, and a view of technology as a force for good in re la t ion to both the indiv idual and society, can be achieved. Educational Needs of Children To f ind a s ta r t ing point for the establishment of needs, we can as Heasley (1974) suggests, consider that "although chi ldren do d i f f e r mentally, phys ica l ly , emotionally, s o c i a l l y , and c u l t u r a l l y , they a l l have s im i la r needs and motivations and learn in about the same way (p. 103)." It i s these s i m i l a r i t i e s which can provide the s tart ing point for the curriculum developer. Many of these s i m i l a r i t i e s , however, ex i s t in the survival needs, while our concern i s with the educational needs. There i s a close association between values and needs, the i den t i f i c a t i on of needs being in the opinion of Kliebard (1975), a serious value question. It can be agreed that a curriculum developer brings to the problem, a set of values which w i l l influence decisions with regard to needs. The f i r s t decision i s that the proposed curriculum i s necessary and w i l l , therefore, f u l f i l a need in the education of the c h i l d . The question of th i s need, one would hope, would have been thoroughly examined and researched, but ult imately i t becomes a value question for the curriculum developer. 45 Problem Solving In the l i t e r a t u r e a great deal of discussion i s centered on the need for chi ldren to develop the a b i l i t y to solve problems, Heasley (1974) believes i t i s one of the greatest needs in our technological age. Manning (1971), ta lk ing of the place of problem solving in the curriculum, asserts that i t has a d i s t i n c t contr ibution to make to the educational program and that i t , "const i tutes a more balanced preparation for l i f e (p. 39)." According to Postman and Weingartner (1973) chi ldren w i l l need frequent opportunities to think about problems, to make choices and to f ind so lut ions, in order to improve the i r problem solving s k i l l s . And in 1946 Dewey stated that the "prime need of every person at present i s a capacity to think; the power to see problems, to re late facts to them, to use and enjoy ideas (p. 90)." The wr i te r believes th i s need, as stated by Dewey and others, always ex ists and is of prime importance. The problem for the curriculum developer i s to design programs which meet th i s need. The proposed curriculum i s designed for chi ldren who are ju s t entering what Piaget would c a l l the stage of formal operations, the level at which the opportunity for putting abstract thought into concrete pract ice i s des i rable, and where a c t i v i t y should be both physical and mental (Lefrancois, 1972). This i s the level at which, according to Gorman (1972), the ch i l d can best grasp "p r inc ip le s and relat ionships i f he can induce them from spec i f i c examples or instances (p. 28)." At th i s l e v e l , problem solving s i tuat ions and experiences would seem to present an ideal opportunity 46 for achieving the above mentioned aims. Therefore,a well-planned Industr ial Education program, in which the ch i l d i s involved in purposeful constructive a c t i v i t i e s , could f u l f i l the need for presenting problem solving a c t i v i t i e s and the opportunity for putting abstract thought into concrete pract ice. Content So far in th i s chapter, certa in values and needs have been establ ished; in the fol lowing paragraphs content i s examined in re la t ion to these values and needs. Scobey and Graham (1974) in discussing the broad implications of Industr ial Education and i t s i n te rd i s c i p l i na r y character, state that in Industr ial Education "content i s related to industry, technology, career education and the world of work. It i s c losely related to art and science. It contributes to le i sure education. I t develops att i tudes conducive to better human relat ionships (p. 34)." These are as stated broad implications and cover the whole spectrum of Industrial Education. It i s poss ible, however, even in a minor program to touch on these areas and in doing so help achieve the established values and needs. Technology For example, in an Industr ial Education program a teacher could deal with industry by discussing fo res t ry , lumber manufacturing, or the production of plywood; technology could become the focus on the development of a par t i cu la r tool or machine, and by examining the various jobs related to woodworking, metalworking, e t c . , the world of 47 work and career education would become more f am i l i a r . In addit ion the chi ldren should undertake projects related to the above areas (e.g. How waste wood has been u t i l i z e d in such things as pa r t i c l e board and in su la t ion) . Throughout the discussion and project work, emphasis should be placed on the pos i t ive and humanitarian uses of technology. Fine Arts The close re lat ionship between the f ine arts and Industr ial Education referred to by Scobey and Graham i s a concept supported by Bonser (1923). He believed that th i s union was accomplished in good design where the elements of function and beauty are equally blended. This be l i e f i s endorsed by Bonsor's recommendation that chi ldren should be involved in design in every project they make. That l a t t e r could eas i l y be accomplished in a program where projects are designed in such a way that the ch i l d i s involved in design, from a small part in the introductory projects, to a major role in the l a t t e r part of the program. Science The re lat ionship to science in Industr ial Education i s s e l f -evident in the constant use of mathematics and measurement, and in constructed projects where strength of mater ia ls, j o i n t s and fastenings become important. The way to bring these matters to a c h i l d ' s r ea l i z a t i on i s through discussion and, where the opportunity permits, through experimentation. 48 Leisure Education The contr ibution Industr ial Education makes to le i sure education i s debatable, (and one which the wr i te r does not intend to discuss in th i s study), as so much depends upon the type of Industr ial Education program offered, the l a te r a c ce s s i b i l i t y of tools and mater ia ls, and the motivation and success of the ch i l d on the program. Human Relationships Success in the program would also be a major factor in developing att i tudes conducive to better human re lat ionsh ips , i f we consider that through success the ch i l d can develop self-awareness and self-acceptance, factors which Mueller (1974) believes are necessary preconditions for awareness and pos i t ive acceptance of others. Success of th i s type would imply educational s i tuat ions in which: The threat to the se l f of the learner is at a minimum while at the same time the uniqueness of the indiv idual i s regarded as worthwhile and i s deeply respected, and the person i s free to explore the materials and resources which are avai lable to him in the l i g h t of his own interests and po ten t i a l i t y (Moustakas, 1974; p. 136). While the wr i ter agrees with the basic concept of the above statement, i t must be pointed out that in an Industr ial Education program where safety i s a major concern, the freedom to explore would only be possible a f te r the basic s k i l l s had been acquired. Many of the ideas proposed by Moustakas can be real ized in an Industr ial Education program where i nd i v idua l i za t ion of goals, 49 inst ruct ion and evaluation can be accomplished. Evaluation in par t i cu la r would play an important part in the c h i l d ' s success, th i s topic being discussed in more deta i l in Chapter 5. The w r i t e r ' s contention, however, is that success would contribute to the development of a pos i t ive self-concept and a consequent greater human understanding, and that a degree of success could be achieved in a program, designed for f l e x i b i l i t y and i nd i v i dua l i z a t i on , and where evaluation was not so much based on objective c r i t e r i a as on the advice of the apostle Paul to the Phi 11ippians (Chap. 4, verse 8): "Whatsoever things are of good report; i f there be any v i r tue , and i f there be any praise, think on these things." Training and Education Scobey and Graham also point out that in the content and method of Industr ial Education we have the components of both t ra in ing and education. Training they see as the s k i l l s which may be achieved through rote memorization, imitat ion or habitual act ion. Such s k i l l s could include the proper use of saw or hammer. Education refers to the associat ive and interpret ive s k i l l s . These s k i l l s can be achieved through creat ive and i n t e l l e c tua l i n teract ion. This means that observation and analysis are used to extend the concrete experiences, as a consequence, Industr ial Education becomes a thinking as well as a doing subject. Summary In summing up, i t can be stated that the rat ionale for the proposed curriculum i s the be l i e f that with a properly designed 50 Industr ial Education program the best type of learning can take place; learning that i s act ive not passive; learning that involves par t i c ipat ion in a task not the mere absorption of f ac t s ; learning that i s achieved by ind iv iduals in d i f fe rent ways and at d i f fe rent developmental rates; learning that i s best achieved when students are exc i ted, involved, want to know the answers and have the opportunity to discover, experiment, create and construct. In th i s type of learning s i t ua t i on , the wr i ter contends that, the opportunity for establ ishing the outl ined values and needs i s enhanced. Content Evaluation The purpose of th i s section i s to establ i sh a means of evaluating the content in re la t ion to selected aims. As stated above, a major aim should be to provide chidren with the opportunity to discover, experiment, create and construct. With these a c t i v i t i e s in mind, i t i s proposed to examine and evaluate the content of the proposed curriculum in re la t ion to the opportunities offered for c r e a t i v i t y , design and problem solv ing. Before we can begin to evaluate, we must know in which d i rect ion we are going, or what i t i s we wish to evaluate (Hersom, 1978). In other words we must be able to ident i f y the spec i f i c curriculum object ives. To aid in th i s search, Hersom suggests that the fol lowing need to be examined:-(1) The scope or level at which the curriculum i s being examined. (2) The par t i cu la r part or parts of the curriculum to be evaluated. (3) The appropriate evaluation arrangements that therefore need to be made (p. 271). 51 Using these guidelines in re la t ion to th i s study, we can f i r s t determine the level as being that of formative evaluation. This i s the level at which we examine and evaluate the plans we have made to bring about certa in e f fec t s , not the effects themselves. The l a t t e r , though d i f f i c u l t to divorce from the plan, are of necessity a part of summative evaluation. The second question to be addressed i s , Which part of the curriculum w i l l be, or can be evaluated? A major thrust of the proposed curriculum i s the emphasis on c r e a t i v i t y , design and problem solv ing, the l a t t e r elements being incorporated in the project work. It i s these projects which are a fundamental part of the overal l plan, and i t i s proposed to evaluate a se lect ion of projects in re la t ion to the opportunity they o f fe r for students to be involved in c r e a t i v i t y , design, and problem solving. These elements, along with others relevant to the formative evaluation of the proposed curriculum are examined in the fol lowing paragraphs. C reat i v i t y The close re lat ionship between c r e a t i v i t y , design and problem solving becomes very apparent when one attempts to establ i sh a c lear de f i n i t i on of each. A creative idea i s often the consequence of a problem to be solved, and design i s the planned solut ion to that problem. For the purpose of evaluation, however, i t i s necessary to establ i sh s ingle measureable elements of the main items in respect to the program projects. From the many def in i t ions of c r ea t i v i t y the elements of invention, innovation and rearrangement are extracted, each defined as fol lows: 52 (a) Invention - opportunity for use of o r i g ina l ideas. (b) Innovation - opportunity to make changes (to a greater degree). (c) Rearrangement - opportunity to make changes (to a lesser degree). Design In the dict ionary design is defined as follows - to plan and fashion a r t i s t i c a l l y and s k i l l f u l l y . A simpler concept i s to see design as the act of planning for work to be done; or designing, as the planning and organisation of a project. With th i s l a t t e r concept i t i s possible to examine a project .and evaluate i t s potential fo r the c h i l d ' s involvement in planning and organisation. These elements can be defined as fo l lows: -(d) Planning - opportunity for th inking, drawing and decision making. (e) Organisation - opportunity for deciding how work i s to be done. (e.g. tools to be used). Problem solving Defining problem solving offers a dilemma i f we consider i t as f inding the solut ion to a doubtful or d i f f i c u l t question. For what may be a d i f f i c u l t question to one ch i l d i s simple to another. The very act of safely securing a piece of wood to be carved would present a problem to some ch i ld ren, whi l s t others would consider the 53 measurement and layout of a construction project a d i f f i c u l t problem. Problem solving i s also an inherent part of both c r ea t i v i t y and design, as throughout the process of creating and designing problems would have to be solved - from the simple to the complex. For example, in the organisation of a project the ch i l d i s faced with the problem of tool se lect ion and construction procedure, whereas in the process of innovation a high degree of cognit ive action in the form of problem solving would take place. I t i s therefore the w r i t e r ' s contention that i f the areas of c r ea t i v i t y and design are adequately provided f o r , then problem solving would be an integral part of the program. For the purpose of evaluation, the problem solving component can be assessed from the sum of the ratings given to c r ea t i v i t y and design. F l e x i b i l i t y and Ind iv idua l izat ion It has been previously stated that f l e x i b i l i t y and i nd i v i dua l i z a -t ion are important aspects of program design. They, l i k e problem solv ing, would also be accounted for in a program that encompassed c r ea t i v i t y and design. To be f l e x i b l e , a project must allow for changes to be made, and i t i s the opportunity for change that contributes to the creative potential of a project. S im i l a r l y , the more f l e x i b l e the project, the greater the opportunity for the expression of indiv idual ideas. Therefore, a project that offered the opportunity for c r ea t i v i t y and design would consequently be f l e x i b l e and open to indiv idual in terpretat ion. S k i l l s In the evaluation, projects from the Vancouver School Board's Grade 7 Woodworking program of 1960 w i l l also be rated, in order that 54 some comparison can be made with the proposed program. The 1960 program was designed according to the objectives outl ined in the Department of Education, Industr ial Arts Curriculum Guide, 1957 (Appendix B), in which an important emphasis i s placed upon, the a b i l i t y to read and interpret working drawings related to the projects, and the a b i l i t y to fol low inst ruct ions. I t would also seem that accuracy of measurement and precis ion in handling the tools would const itute an important objective in the projects from the 1960 program. In order that a f a i r comparison can be made the above objectives w i l l be included in the evaluation, and w i l l be defined as the fol lowing elements:-(f) opportunity to develop the a b i l i t y to interpret working drawings related to the projects. (g) opportunity to develop the a b i l i t y to fol low instruct ions - wr i t ten , printed and o r a l . (h) opportunity for accuracy of measurement and tool use. The sum of the ratings for these three elements can be used to give an ind icat ion of the s k i l l s component in each project. Evaluation Procedure The th i rd of Hersom's evaluation c r i t e r i a - the appropriate arrangements, are as fo l lows: Ten elements have been selected fo r evaluation; invention, innovation and rearrangement as elements of c r e a t i v i t y ; planning and organisation as elements of design; problem solv ing; interpretat ion of working drawings; a b i l i t y to 55 fol low inst ruct ions; accuracy of measurement and tool use; and s k i l l s . Four projects from the proposed program and four from the 1960 program w i l l be rated in respect to the above elements. The evaluators w i l l be chosen from d i f fe rent areas of interest and expert ise; the facu l ty of Educational Sociology; the facul ty of Educational Psychology; and the facul ty of Industr ial Education. Each evaluator w i l l rate the set of eight projects according to the c r i t e r i a set out on the evaluation sheet (Appendix B), using the fol lowing f i ve point scale: 1 = not at a l l 2 = to a very l i t t l e extent 3 = to some extent 4 = to a considerable extent 5 = to a very great extent The results of the evaluation w i l l be discussed in Chapter 5, along with comparisons of the projects in the l i g h t of the respective object ives. CHAPTER FIVE DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED CURRICULUM Introduction The purpose of th i s chapter i s to describe and analyse the proposed curriculum and to comment on the curriculum development process. In the f i r s t part, the curriculum rat ionale i s out l ined, followed by a discussion of the object ives. Structure and content are then explained and a means of evaluating student performance is examined. Then the curriculum in i t s formative stage is judged according to the procedures described in Chapter 4. F i n a l l y , observations are made of the curriculum development process as i t relates to th i s study. Rationale The proposed curriculum i s intended to meet a growing need for guidance to teachers who are faced with the task of teaching Industr ial Education in the elementary school program. The of fer ing of Industr ial Education programs in the elementary schools i s becoming more wide-spread, not only in Vancouver, but in other school d i s t r i c t s in B r i t i s h Columbia. Curriculum guides presently in existence are those of the pre-1960 era, which place a heavy emphasis on s k i l l development and u t i l i z e highly structured projects. Though s k i l l development 56 57 has i t s place in an Industr ial Education program, the wr i te r believes that more emphasis should be placed on problem solv ing, and that the program should provide an out let for a c h i l d ' s creative potential (see Chapter 4). The proposed curriculum attempts to f u l f i l these requirements, and to provide as outl ined in the plans of the Canadian National Committee for the International Year of the Ch i ld , "a mi l ieu in which ch i ld ren ' s a c t i v i t i e s , c r e a t i v i t y , imagination, ideas and thinking can be widely portrayed and demonstrated." Objectives The many ways that curriculum developers derive the i r curriculum goals and objectives are pointed out by Schaffarzick (1975): Some conduct extensive, painstaking analyses of the knowledge and s k i l l s to be taught and the learners to be educated. Others carry out broad assessments of s o c i a l , educational, or learners ' needs. Others conduct c r i t i c a l analyses of avai lable programs. And s t i l l others re ly heavily on personal experience, common sense observations, and general views of soc iety, knowledge, and learners ' needs and capab i l i t i e s (p. 238). This difference of opinion in the method of select ing objectives is also apparent when curriculum theor ists discuss the need for objectives. Kliebard (1975) regards objectives as an unnecessary part of curriculum development. He believes that the concern for object ives, standardization and e f f i c i ency , which comprise what he ca l l s the "production model for education," can in the end s t i f l e i n te l l e c tua l cu r io s i t y . In Apple 's (1975) view, a concern for e f f i c iency i s more often than not the motivation for stat ing goals and object ives. This leads, he adds, to a control led 58 environment in which neither the i nd i v i dua l ' s behavior or thought w i l l "deviate from the prescribed goals (p. 122)." The concern expressed by these writers i s in re la t ion to objectives stated in spec i f i c behavioral terms, objectives that take away the learner ' s freedom of act ion. What is needed i s a balance between objectives behavioral ly stated and objectives which can be more open-ended (Hunkins, 1977). Objectives of th i s type, when properly conceived and s k i l l f u l l y presented, would, as Ol iver (1965) suggests, " . . . serve as guides, as d i rect ions , as incentives, as c r i t e r i a (p. 112)." And for these reasons, he believes that the study of objectives i s an important part of curriculum theory. The proposed curriculum includes objectives on the premise that they are a necessary part of curriculum design. They have been derived, as Schaffarzick describes, with a re l iance upon personal experience, common sense observations, and general views of soc iety, knowledge and learners. I t i s intended that they f u l f i l the ro le of showing d i r ec t i on , supplying motivation, and sett ing c r i t e r i a . Curriculum Objectives The objectives for the proposed curriculum are divided into two categories; the long range objectives which cover the whole program; the short range objectives which re late to projects within the program. The l a t t e r can be considered as "stepping stones" toward the accomplishment of the long range object ives. In the fol lowing paragraphs the long range objectives w i l l be stated and explained, followed by some examples of short range object ives. 59 Long Range Objectives (1) To develop competence in the safe use of hand too l s . This can be considered as the s k i l l s object ive, where emphasis i s placed on the safe handling of the too l s . Accuracy would also be considered, pa r t i cu l a r l y in the l a te r stages of the course. Other factors generated in th i s objective would be a respect for tools and property, the safety of others, and the value of co-operation. (2) To develop a respect fo r , and understanding of, good design and workmanship. Good workmanship is eas i l y recognized, and i t i s in th i s respect that chi ldren should always be encouraged to do the i r best. Good design can be recognized when c r i t e r i a are established according to spec i f i c values. The basic tenets of design - function followed by form, w i l l be used as the prime c r i t e r i o n , with the intent of establ i sh ing an understanding of design. (3) To develop a concept of systematic planning and organisation. Successful completion of any project, whether i t be woodworking or essay wr i t ing i s often dependent upon good planning and organisation. This i s a concept that should become quite apparent to the student as the course progresses. (4) To develop the a b i l i t y to solve problems and to provide an out let for a c h i l d ' s creat ive potent ia l . An inherent part of every project should be a problem, or problems to be solved. The project must also provide an opportunity for s e l f -60 expression. By allowing for these s i tuat ions , and by encouraging chi ldren to think out pract ica l problems for themselves, the basis of good judgment and i n t e l l i g en t action would be developed. (5) To develop confidence and a pos i t ive self-concept. In order to foster feel ings of personal worth allowances need to be made for indiv idual d i f ferences. Much of the re spons ib i l i t y in th i s area f a l l s upon the teacher who has the problem of creating an environment which i s conducive to developing values of se l f -worth, and of f inding ways to bring about a c h i l d ' s personal success. (6) To develop an awareness of the environmental factors of waste and resource deplet ion. Emphasis should be placed on the maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l mater ia ls, and encouragement given to the ingenious use of "scraps". Short Range Objectives The short range objectives are s imi la r in purpose to "intended learning outcomes", unl ike the l a t t e r they are not stated in spec i f i c behavioral terms. It i s intended that th i s difference allows for an open-ended objective and not one that i s r e s t r i c t i v e . This i s pa r t i cu l a r l y important where the emphasis i s on providing the ch i l d with the opportunity to think and to solve problems. As an example, a comparison can be made between the short range objective (S.R.O.) and an intended learning outcome (I.L.O.), re la t ing to the use of coated abrasives:-61 S.R.O. To develop an understanding of the d i f fe rent types of coated abrasives, the i r use and effects in the process of wood f i n i s h i ng . I.L.O.(l) Given s ix grades of coated abrasive the student w i l l be able to ident i f y at least four. , I.L.0.(2) The student w i l l be able to select the correct grade of coated abrasive for a spec i f i c wood f i n i sh ing task. I t should also be pointed out that although th i s par t i cu la r S.R.O. i s stated in re la t ion to the f i r s t project of the proposed curriculum, a ch i l d may complete several projects before i t i s achieved. Another example of an S.R.O. i s taken from the abstract sculpture pro ject : -To develop the a b i l i t y to handle a chisel competently and safely. In th i s example the emphasis i s on the competent and safe use of the t o o l , rather than the operation of carrying out a prescribed exercise. This pa r t i cu la r project allows the ch i l d to use the chise l in a var iety of ways a f te r having been instructed in correct and safe procedures. Curriculum Structure The program i s organised on four l eve l s , each level bui lding on the s k i l l s and knowledge acquired at the previous l e v e l . A b r ie f descr ipt ion of each level fo l lows: -62 (1) Introduction to basic hand tool s k i l l s measurement and design. Problem solving and creative input are an integral part of projects at a l l levels to a lesser or greater degree. Three of the four suggested projects should be completed at th i s l e v e l . (2) Introduction to constructed projects, with more emphasis on accuracy of measurement and tool use. (3) Woodcarving and art forms are used at th i s stage to place the emphasis on c r ea t i v i t y . The f i n a l project in th i s section i s a design problem which serves as preview to level four. (4) At th i s level the students design and bui ld projects of the i r own choice. Some design problems are presented in the program, but i t i s not necessary to r e s t r i c t the students to these ideas. Curriculum Content The f i r s t , and perhaps most important, c r i t e r i o n to be considered in se lect ing the content of a program, i s the contr ibut ion the content makes to the achievement of the program object ives. Consideration should also be given to other c r i t e r i a such as; the s u i t a b i l i t y of the content for the developmental level of the chi ldren for whom i t i s intended; whether or not i t w i l l interest the ch i ldren; and the contr ibut ion i t makes to other subject areas. I f the object ives, however, have been ca re fu l l y and thoughtful ly selected, and the content does contribute towards these object ives, then most of the c r i t e r i a w i l l be s a t i s f i e d . The content of the proposed program consists of a series of 63 projects designed to contribute towards the achievement of the stated object ives. Each project, along with others, has been f i e l d tested on at least two hundred occasions with chi ldren at the grades s ix and seven l e v e l . From these tests the s u i t a b i l i t y of the projects was determined in re la t ion to the c r i t e r i a outl ined above. Those projects which best met the c r i t e r i a were selected for the program. The project sequence attempts to introduce new s k i l l s and knowledge, to bu i ld on previously acquired s k i l l s and knowledge, to maintain interest and motivation, and to progressively encourage problem solving and c r ea t i v i t y . Individual differences are catered for in each project by using a f l e x i b l e open-ended design approach, rather than a structured lock-step format. The main emphasis of the content, fo r obvious reasons, i s on pract ica l and purposeful a c t i v i t y through project construction. It would be poss ible, at the teacher 's d i s c re t ion , to include projects of the research - report type. Suggestions for the l a t t e r are included at each level in the program. Student Evaluation The proposed curriculum makes no provision for formal evaluation, that i s , evaluation defined as tests or evaluative measures which determine how much information a ch i l d has retained. An example of such a test would be one in which the ch i l d was required to name the various parts of the hand plane; or to give the names of s ix trees from each of two categories, coniferous and deciduous. As an emphasis of the proposed curriculum i s on f l e x i b i l i t y 64 and ind i v idua l i za t ion with the intent of developing a better s e l f -image for the c h i l d , then i t can be argued that a form of evaluation that "plays the role of ch i l d sorter (Holden, 1977)," would not be conducive to achieving that intent. Therefore, evaluation would of necessity be a shared judgment between ch i l d and teacher as ind iv idua l s , examing an i nd i v i dua l ' s progress. This approach to evaluation would require ch i l d and teacher to co-operate in shared assessments with the teacher f a c i l i t a t i n g , encouraging, helping, aiding and ass i s t ing (Combs, 1978), rather than concentrating on a process for establ i sh ing whether or not behaviorally stated goals had been achieved. In an Industr ial Education program the opportunity ex i s t s for the type of evaluation suggested. This i s due to the indiv idual aspect of p ract ica l a c t i v i t y , and the nature of the interact ion between teacher and ch i l d where dialogue and constructive c r i t i c i s m can form the basis of the evaluation process. Formative Evaluation The former section has dealt with evaluation in respect to the ch i l d who uses the proposed curriculum. The fol lowing section examines the formative evaluation of the curriculum as described in Chapter 4. 65 Project Evaluation For the purpose of formative evaluation eight projects were evaluated by three independent judges. In the fol lowing pages the results of the i r ratings are outl ined with b r ie f descriptions and discussions of the resu l t s . The format for presentation w i l l be to compare and contrast pairs of projects, selected from the 1960 curriculum and the proposed curriculum, in re la t ion to the i r equivalent pos it ion in the course structure. In the case of some of the projects th i s pos it ion is approximate. Pair ing i s also made on the s i m i l a r i t y of too l s , processes and s k i l l s required to accomplish the project. The items were, however, presented to the judges in random order to avoid bias in the i r rat ings. Although c r i t e r i a for evaluation were established the results were s t i l l a matter of subjective judgment, and as a consequence some discrepancies could be expected. The re su l t s , however, demonstrated a f a i r l y high degree of consistency, except in two cases where a difference of more than 5 points from the median (on a 25 point scale) appeared. These two cases w i l l be indicated in the analysis that fol lows. 66 Pencil holder (proposed) and Sandpaper block (1960). These projects are the f i r s t to be completed in each course. They both serve as an introduction to the basic handtools, and the processes of measurement, marking, cutt ing and f i n i s h i ng . The pencil holder also includes d r i l l i n g , and shaping with f i l e s . The difference in the two projects l i e s f i r s t l y in the u t i l i t y of the f in i shed project and secondly in the emphasis of intent. For the sandpaper block the scores indicate an emphasis weighted heavily towards s k i l l s with l i t t l e or no emphasis on c r ea t i v i t y and design. The scores for the pencil holder, with the exception of evaluation ' A ' , indicate a f a i r l y strong emphasis on c r ea t i v i t y and design and an above average rat ing for s k i l l development. The scores for the pencil holder project suggest that there i s a balance between problem solving and s k i l l development. (See f i g s . 1.1, 1.2 and table 1) m PROJECT 1 PENCIL HOLDER Purpose To Introduce the use o f bas ic hand t o o l s , the p ro jec t development process and some simple design problems. Process Measurement, c u t t i n g , shaping, d r i l l i n g , f i n i s h i n g . Tools Rule, square, hacksaw, f i l e , brace and b i t . Mater ia l P1ne, 20 x 80 x 170 n.m. Procedure Measure piece ISO m.m. long, mark with square and cut with backsaw. Cheek the cut with the square f o r Interest rather than too c r i t i c a l an examination a t t h i s stage. F i l e sides and edges. F i l e design edges using va r i e t y o f f i l e s . Students should be encouraged to experiment with a l l too l s on scrap wood. Lay out and d r i l l ho les. The number and pos i t i on o f holes Is opt ional and should provide an opportunity to discuss the bas ic elements of design. F i n i sh F i r s t with sandpaper and then apply coat o f danlsh o i l . S.R.O.'s (1) Understand the process o f measurement and c u t t i n g , using appropriate t o o l s . (2) Understand the use o f the f i l e f o r edge f i n i s h i n g and decorative purposes. (3) Know how to d r i l l holes to depth using brace and b i t . (4) Understand the use o f coated abrasives f o r wood f i n i s h i n g . (5) Know how to apply a f i n i s h coat o f danlsh o i l and the safety precautions f o r using th i s type o f ma te r i a l . PROJECT ! 119 P E M C 1 L H O L D E R * bmt . N U M S C T Gmd tAy«uJ- Ke!e£ OpKowAl WOODWORK SANDPAPER BLOCK GRADE 7 WOODWOPX SANDPAPER BLOCK GRADE 7 OPERATION: SAWING TO LENGTH. MATERIAL REQUIRED: I PIECE. V a 1 ^ > V WHITE PINE. DOUBlf DRESSED ID.O.) SUPPLIED OK MADE FROM ROUGH STOCK. PROCEDURE: 1. MARK THE FACE SIDE AND PACE EDGE AS DIRECTED. 2. IAY THE WOOD WITH THE FACE SIDE UP. MEASURE FROM ONE END 5 TIMES I", KEEPING VOUR RUIE UP ON ITS EDGE. J. SQUARE IINE5 ACROSS THE FACE SIDE (HANDIE OP SOUARE AGAINST PACE EDGE). 4. SOUASE UNES ACROSS THE FACE EDGE IHANDtE OF SOUARE AGAINST FACE EDGE I. J. SOUARE UNES. ACROSS OPPOSITE EDGE (HANDLE OF SOUARE AGAINST FACE EDGE I. •«. PREPARE UNES FOR SAWING ALONGSIDE THE PENCIL LINE USING A STRIKING KNIFE. 7. SAW OFF THE FIRST INCH PIECE. TEST THE CUT FROM F.S. AND F.E. •8. SAW OFF THE SECOND INCH, CORRECTING ERRORS OBSERVED PREVIOUSLY. 9. - CONTINUE SAWING, USING GREAT CARE TO GET A SQUARE CUT. 10. AFTER THE 5lh CUT, MEASURE THE REQUIRED LENGTH FOR THE SANDING BLOCK. 11. SOUARE LINES AROUND 13 AT LEAST) AND PREPARE FOR THE FINAL SAW-CUT, MAKING SURE WHICH IS THE WASTEWOOD SIDE OF THE LINE. 12. SAW ON THE WASTEWOOD SIDE OF THE LINE. 13. FINISH AS DIRECTED. VARIATION: 3 IDENTICAL BLOCKS. 1. MARK FACE SIDE AND FACE EDGE AS DIRECTED. 2. LAY THE WOOD WITH FACE SIDE UP. MEASURE FROM ONE END TWICE AS SHOWN. 3. SOUARE LINES ACROSS THE FACE SIDE USING PENCIL. 4. SOUARE LINES ACROSS THE FACE EDGE USING PENCIL. 3. SOUARE LINES ACROSS THE OPPOSITE EOGE USING PENCIL. •4. PREPARE LINES FOR SAWING USING A STRIKING KNIFE. 7. SAW OFF THE FIRST V," PIECE. TEST THE CUT FROM F.S. AND P.E. 8. SAW OFF THE SECOND PIECE CAREFULLY, CORRECTING ERRORS OBSERVED PREVIOUSLY. •9. DIVIDE THE REMAINING PIECE INTO 3 EQUAL PARTS AND SQUARE AROUND AS BEFORE. 10. CAREFULLY CUT INTO 3 IDENTICAL BLOCKS. 11. FINISH AS DIRECTED. PLAN ELEVATION ISOMETRIC VIEW OBUOOE VIEW-LAID OUT FOB SAWING 1 L / /"j""/ / / / / A FACE SIDE OBLIQUE VIEW OF VARIATION - MAKES IDENTICAL BLOCKS "1+ 1_ -si-FACE eoce 00 • CHECK WITH YOUS ' 1ACM«» M f O M CON1INUINO. 69 TABLE 1 RESULT OF EVALUATION - PENCIL HOLDER AND SANDPAPER BLOCK PROJECTS Project Pencil holder (proposed) Sandpaper Block (1960) Evaluator A B C A B C >-1— Invention 2 4 2 1 1 1 IATIVI Innovation 2 5 5 1 1 1 cc Rearrangement 3 5 4 2 1 1 Planning 3 5 3 1 1 2 co UJ Organization 2 3 4 2 1 1 Problem Solving ( tota l ) 12 22 18 7 5 6 CO 1 Interpretation of working drawings 2 3 2 4 5 5 SKIL A b i l i t y to fol low instruct ions 2 3 4 4 5 5 Accuracy 3 3 4 4 5 5 S k i l l s ( to ta l ) 7 9 10 12 15 15 70 Abstract sculpture (proposed) and Cross-paring exercise (1960) The purpose of these two projects i s to introduce the student to the use of the ch i s e l . In the cross-paring project the student makes a series of cuts with the d i f fe rent widths of chise l according to prescribed dimensions. The abstract sculpture allows the student to select chisel width and placement of chisel cuts. The difference in approach to th i s learning s i tuat ion i s ref lected in the scores, where the cross-paring project scores highly on s k i l l s and achieves a very low rat ing on c r ea t i v i t y and design; the abstract sculpture project, on the other hand, scores highly on c r ea t i v i t y and design and above average on s k i l l development. There i s consistency in the ratings by a l l of the evaluators on these two projects. (See f i g s . 2.1, 2.2 and table 2) PROJECT 3 ABSTRACT SCULPTURE Purpose As wel l as g i v ing the student the opportunity to use and experiment with a c h i s e l , th i s p ro jec t should Introduce another approach to design; a chance to examine form and shape both organic and mechanical, balance and harmony, symmetry and asymmetry, A good scrap book of p ic tures would be of value 1n showing the student what 1s meant by some o f the terminology. The emphasis, however, should be on working with the material and the t o o l s , and the student f ind ing f o r himself what can be achieved. ro New process Cutt ing and shaping a decorat ive r e l i e f sur face . New too l s Ch i se l and ma l l e t . C -s fD Mater ia l P1ne, Ju lutong, o r ramln, 50 x 50 m.m. x various lengths. Process Cut to required length and plane faces . Lay out and cut notches using backsaw and c M s e l . Ma l le t can be used 1f requ i red. Vary ch i se l width, d i r e c t i o n and depth o f cut as des i red . F i n i s h with sandpaper and o i l or s t a i n as requ i red. Note:- Emphasis must be placed on sa fety when working with what 1s p o t e n t i a l l y the most dangerous hand tool 1n the workshop. S.R.O. (1) Know how to use a ch i se l s a f e l y and, with pract ise,competent ly, (2) Develop competence 1n the use o f the plane. (3) Develop an understanding o f some design terminology I.e. form, shape, balance harmony. P R O J E C T 3 A B S T R A C T S C U L P T U R E a ' 72 WOODWORK CROSS PARING GRADE 7 / B \ t k *> * -—/ — s 8 — / — 7 S <• ->£-\ 1 1 i j e . i ' a i i \ MATERIAL REQUIRED: 1 PIECE T ' x r ' x 9 % ' ' W H I T E PINE R O U G H — T O BE CUT FROM STOCK BY PUPIL. PROCEDURE: 1. SAW REQUIRED PIECE OF W O O D FROM BOARD. 2. PLANE TO DIMENSIONS IF.S.. F.E.. WIDTH +, THICKNESS + ) . 3. SQUARE AND SHOOT END. MEASURE LENGTH AND SHOOT. . 4. DRAW ALL THE NOTCHES THAT RUN FROM EDGE TO EDGE, USING SQUARE. PENCIl. AND MARKING G A U G E . "5.- DRAW THE OTHER NOTCHES. PREPARE FOR SAWING IN WASTE. « . SAW A l l NOTCHES—GRAZING THE LINES—TO THE GAUGE MARK. •7. CHISEL OUT THE LONG NOTCHES IN VISE AS INSTRUCTED BY TEACHER. •8. CHISEL OUT THE SHORT NOTCHES O N PARING BOARD AS INSTRUCTED. 9. CHECK A l l THE CHISEUING CAREFULLY AND PREPARE FOR CLEANING UP. 10. CLEAN UP WORK AS FOLLOWS: l o j PLANE THE F.S. AND KEEP TT SQUARE TO THE F.E. l b ) PLANE THE SIDE OPPOSITE; KEEP IT SQUARE TO F.E., AND CHECK THE THICKNESS, GETTING IT EXACTLY RIGHT, fc) PLANE THE F.E. AND KEEP IT SQUARE WITH THE F.S. ( d l PLANE THE EDGE OPPOSITE; KEEP IT SQUARE T O THE F.S.. AND CHECK THE WIDTH. N O SANDPAPERING. 11. FINISH AS DIRECTED. Figure 2.2 73 TABLE 2 RESULT OF EVALUATION - ABSTRACT SCULPTURE AND CROSS-PARING PROJECTS Project Abstract sculpture (proposed) Cross-paring (1960) Evaluator A B C A B C >-I— Invention 4 4 5 1 1 1 EATIV] Innovation 4 4 5 1 1 1 cc <_> Rearrangement 4 4 5 1 1 1 zz. CD Planning 4 5 4 1 1 1 CO U J Organization 4 4 5 2 2 1 Problem Solving ( tota l ) 20 21 24 6 6 5 SKILLS I nterpretation of working drawings A b i l i t y to fol low instruct ions 3 3 4 2 1 2 5 4 5 5 5 5 Accuracy 4 4 3 5 5 5 S k i l l s ( to ta l ) 10 10 6 14 15 15 74 Spice rack (proposed) and Wall shelf (1960) These projects are paired for the i r s i m i l a r i t y in purpose, that i s , construction projects requir ing accurate measurement and tool use. In th i s l a t t e r respect, ( s k i l l development), the wall shelf achieved a very high score, and the spice rack rated jus t above average. It should be pointed out that, excepting in the case of evaluator ' B ' , the spice rack achieved a high score on the accuracy component. The ratings for c r ea t i v i t y and design show very d i f fe rent re su l t s , with the evaluators giving low marks to the wall shelf and high marks to the spice rack. This difference i s ref lected in the to ta l s for the problem solving component. (See f i g s . 3.1, 3.2 and table 3) 138 DESIGN PROBLEM 1 SPICE RACK Purpose To Introduce and help e s t ab l i sh the purpose o f funct ion as an important c r i t e r i o n 1n good design. Process Designing, p lanning, o rgan i sa t ion , c u t t i n g , assembly, f i n i s h i n g . Tools As requ i red . Mater ia l s P1ne, cedar, mahogany. S izes as requ i red . Design considerat ions Function - sp i ce J a r storage. S ize • what Is the height and diameter o f the spice Jars to be stored? How many sp ice Jars? What type and s i z e o f lumber 1s ava i l ab le? This w i l l determine the s i z e o f the sp ice rack and w i l l Influence proport ion and balance, the form o f the sp ice rack. Procedure As requ i red. D E S I G N P R O S U E M \ S P I C E R A C K WOODWORK WALL SHELF " A " GRADE 7 WOODWORK. WALL SHELF " A " GRAD* 7 MATERIAL REQUIRED: BACK—1 PIECE V « 2 " » 7" WHITE PINE O.O. SHEIF AND SUPPORT—I PIECE Vi" n*%" « 11" WHITE PINE 0.0. 7 — 1 % " FINISHING NAILS. PROCEDURE: SHEW AND SUPPORT— (. MARK F.S. AND MAKE AND MARK P.E. 2. GAUGE AND PLANE TO WIDTH +. ISEE SIDE ELEVATION. SHEIP.I 3. GAUGE AND PLANE TO THICKNESS +. (SEE FRONT ELEVATION.I •4. LAY OUT AS IN BOTTOM DIAGRAM. IF THE ENDS OF YOUR WOOD ARE NOT TOO RAGGED, FIRST SHOOT THEM AND DRAW EACH PIECE RIGHT UP TO THE END. IF THE ENDS ARE RAGGED YOU MUST LEAVE A LITTLE FOR SAWING AND SHOOTING. ALWAYS SOUARE LINES OVER THE EDGES FOR SOUARE WORKING. 3. SAW AND SHOOT THE SHELF TO LENGTH. CHISEL CURVES NEATLY. USE YOUR SOUARE AND MAKE A GOOD FINISHED JOB. SUPPORT— «. FINISH THE ENO BY SAWING OFF SOUARE IP NECESSARY. •7. SAW OFF MOST OF THE WASTE, AND CHISEL TO LINE, SQUARE. 8. BORE HOLE, DO NOT MAKE THE NOTCH YET. BACK— 9. MAKE AND MARK F.S. AND F.E. . 10. GAUGE AN0 PLANE TO WIDTH +. (SEE ELEVATION, BACK.) 11. GAUGE AND PLANE TO THICKNESS +. (SEE SIOE ELEVATION.) •12. SHOOT ONE END SOUARE. LAY OUT SHAPE OF ONE END. 13. SHAPE THE END BY HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL CHISELLING. 14. N.B. THE WOOD IS EXTRA LONG SO THAT YOU CAN REDRAW AND SHAPE THE END IP YOU SPOIL IT. 15. OBTAIN LENGTH WITH END SHOT. DRAW AND 5HAPE THE SECOND ENO. THERE IS NO EXTRA WOOD NOW FOR SECOND CHANCES. 1«. TRY THE BACK TO THE NOTCH IN THE SUPPORT. SAW OUT THE NOTCH IF IT IS CORRECT, KEEPING THE KERFS IN THE WASTE WOOD. SMOOTH WITH THE CHISEL, IF NECESSARY. ASSEMBLINO AND FINISHING— 17. FILE Al l THE CURVES. 18. MARK THE NAIL POSITIONS. PRICK THEM IN 1/1«". 19. CLEAN UP Al l PARTS WITH A FINELY SET PLANE. TEST. •20. SANDPAPER Al l EXPOSED SURFACES. 21. NAIl SACK TO SUPPORT. LEVEL OFF. / 21. NAIL SHELF TO BACK AND SUPPORT. SET A l l NAILS. v . ~ 23. FINISH AS DIRECTED. FRONT ELEVATION SHOWING NAILS HOLDING SHELF TO BACK SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING NAILS HOLDING SUPPORT ELEVATION OP BACK - FULL SHE * KNOTES NAIL POSITIONS -/ -I—/i—I. •XL V5» L_ J . 77 TABLE 3 RESULT OF EVALUATION - SPICE RACK AND WALL SHELF PROJECTS Project Spice rack (proposed) Wall Shelf (1960) Evaluator A B C A B C >-1— Invention 3 4 3 1 1 1 > t—1 h -<C Innovation 3 4 5 1 1 1 ' i cn CJ Rearrangement 4 5 4 1 1 1 CD Planning 3 5 5 1 2 2 u~> UJ Q Organization 3 3 5 2 2 1 Problem Solving ( tota l ) 16 21 22 6 7 6 1 Interpretation of working drawi ngs 3 4 3 5 5 5 _ l A b i l i t y to fol low instruct ions 3 2 2 5 5 5 Accuracy 4 3 5 5 4 5 S k i l l s ( tota l ) 10 9 10 15 14 15 78 Car design (proposed) and Bird house (1960) The reason for pair ing these projects i s t he i r s i m i l a r i t y of placement in the course structure, and the fact that both allow for freedom of choice on the part of the pup i l . The ratings show freedom of choice to a greater degree in the car design project with a high score for c r ea t i v i t y and design, and to a lesser degree in the b i rd house project. With regard to the l a t t e r project, note should be taken of the high score given by evaluator 'A ' fo r the elements of c r ea t i v i t y and design. The deviation of th i s score by more than 5 points from the median would indicate caution in i t s in terpretat ion. The rat ing for s k i l l development i s high for the b i rd house project and above average for the car design project. (See f i g s . 4.1, 4.2 and table 4) 135 PROJECT 10 CAR DESIGN Purpose In th i s p r o j e c t , the student 1s Introduced to some o f the problems o f des ign. Given a bas ic concept as a s t a r t i n g po in t , the student plans and constructs a car of h is own design. The use of drawings 1n the planning stage should be encouraged. A va r i e t y o f mater ia l s should be avala lbe to widen the design p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Process Designing, p lanning, o r gan i sa t i on , c u t t i n g , shaping, f i n i s h i n g . Tools As requ i red. Mater ia l P1ne wedge - two can be cut from 50 x 100 % 160 m.m. Procedure Plan and organise body shaping. Parts cut and shaped, e .g . fenders,, head l i ghts , s p o i l e r s , e t c . Addi t iona l shapes or parts 1n meta l , e .g . r o l l bars , antenna, e te . F in i sh ing o f par t s . Assembly. No te :« Round head wood screws can be used f o r ax les . Students can be shown correct procedure, p i l o t ho les , e t c . s . n .o . ' s (1) Understand the process o f planning and organisat ion as a poss ib le step In the so lu t ion to a design problem. Note: - Wheels o f various s i zes should be provided. They can be made using a c i r c l e - c u t t e r , o r cut from large dowel. P R O J E C T 1 0 C A R D E S I G N WOODWORK BIRD HOUSES GRADE 7 % DRILL NOTCH HOOF TO FIT >ZvF ^ DHILL-£HOLES r T i 1. USE MATERIALS % " TO THICK. Vi" IS BEST. 2. WHEN PAINTING, USE D U U FO*REST COLORS. 3. ALL BIRD HOUSES SHOULD HAVE A HINGED TOP OR BOTTOM FOR CLEANING. 4. SPRAY 5'/. D.D.T. TO DISINFECT AFTER NESTING SEASON. 5. N O PERCH IS NEEDED BEIOW OPENING: 6. WHEN MOUNTING KEEP AWAY FROM PREVAILING WINDS. •IRD F t O O R AREA HEIGHT Of MOUSE CIA . O f O P E N I N G O P E N I N G A B O V E H O O D MOUSE A B O V E G S O U N C ' BLUEBIRO 5" x 5" 8 " 1  xh" 6" 5' - 10' ROBIN 6" x 8 " 8 " — 6'-15' CHICKADEE 4 " x 4 " 8 " - 10" 1V4" 6" - 8" 6 ' - 15' HOUSE WREN 4 " x 4 " 6" • 8" 1" 1" x 6" 6 ' . 10' TREE SWALLOW 5" x 5" 6 " 1 % " 1" x 5" 10 ' - 15' Figure 4.2 81 TABLE 4 RESULT OF EVALUATION - CAR DESIGN AND BIRD HOUSE PROJECTS Car design Bird house Project (proposed) (1960) Evaluator A B C A B C >-I— Invention 4 3 5 3 1 1 > 1—1 I— <C Innovation 4 4 5 3 1 1 LU CC C_> Rearrangement 4 4 5 4 1 1 •z. Planning 4 4 5 3 1 2 CO LU Q Organization 4 5 5 3 3 5 Problem Solving ( tota l ) 20 20 25 16 7 10 Interpretation of working CO 1 drawings 4 4 2 4 5 5 _1 1—1 co A b i l i t y to fol low instruct ions 3 2 1 4 5 3 Accuracy 4 3 3 5 4 4 S k i l l s ( to ta l ) 11 9 6 13 14 12 82 Project Evaluation Summary An examination of the results as a whole (table 5) reveals a f a i r l y high consistency of ratings between the three evaluators, with the exception of evaluator A ' s rat ing for the elements of design and c r ea t i v i t y fo r the pencil holder and bird house projects. Some inconsistency was expected in an evaluation requir ing subjective judgment but despite th i s subjective factor the results indicate a f a i r l y high consistency for the purpose of in terpretat ion. Table 5 c lea r l y depicts the difference in emphasis between the two cu r r i cu l a , pa r t i cu l a r l y in the area of c r e a t i v i t y and design. The 1960 curriculum with a preponderance of low scores (1 = not at a l l ) ind icat ing l i t t l e or no emphasis on c r ea t i v i t y and design. Whereas the proposed curriculum has many high scores (4 = to a considerable extent) for these elements. In the rat ing for s k i l l s a balance can be seen between the two cu r r i cu l a , with the 1960 curriculum achieving a high ra t ing , and the proposed curriculum scoring above average resu l t s . In table 6 the tota l scores for each project and for the combined projects are tabulated, and percentages are calculated in re la t ion to the areas of problem solving and s k i l l s . From these results an analysis can be made of the cu r r i cu l a . The 1960 curriculum appears to meet the objectives of providing the opportunity for s k i l l development. In th i s aspect i t can be considered a well designed curriculum. The only reference to c r ea t i v i t y in the objectives of the 1960 curriculum (appendix C) i s the provis ion for " s a t i s f y i ng a boy's desire to create useful things." No mention i s made of problem so lv ing, and th i s i s ref lected in the low percentage score in th i s area. 83 The intent of the proposed curriculum i s to place a major emphasis on problem solving and an important, though lesser, emphasis on s k i l l development. The percentage scores indicate the achieve-ment of these aims. Therefore, i t can be concluded that at the formative stage the proposed curriculum accomplishes the objectives of providing the opportunity for problem solving and s k i l l development. TABLE 5 PROJECT EVALUATION RESULTS Elements Proposed Curriculum 1960 Curriculum Pencil hoider A B C Abstract sculpture A B C Spice rack A B C Car design A B C Sandpaper block A B C Cross paring A B C Wall shelf A B C Bird house A B C >; Invention 2 4 2 4 4 2 3 4 3 4 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 > fc: Innovation 2 5 5 4 4 5 3 4 5 4 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 DC O Rearrangement 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 § Planning ' o 3 5 3 4 5 3 3 5 5 4 4 5 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 2 LxJ Q . Organization 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 5 4 5 5 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 3 5 Problem solving (TOTAL) 12 22 18 20 21 18 16 21 22 20 20 25 7 5 6 6 6 5 6 7 6 16 7 10 Interpretation of drawings tn 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 4 4 2 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 _ l _ l 2 A b i l i t y to fol low instruct ions 2 3 4 3 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 1 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 3 Accuracy 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 S k i l l s (TOTAL) 7 9 10 10 10 10 10 9 10 1 1 9 6 12 15 15 14 15 15 15 14 15 13 14 12 TABLE 6 EVALUATION OF PROBLEM SOLVING AND SKILLS COMPONENTS Problem Solving S k i l l s Project A B C Total Project A B C Total Pencil holder 12 22 18 52 Pencil holder 7 9 10 26 Abstract sculpture 20 21 24 65 Abstract sculpture 10 10 6 26 QJ Spice rack 16 21 22 59 Spice rack 10 9 10 29 O CL Car design 20 20 25 65 Car design 11 9 6 26 O s-241 107 Total 241, possible 30C = 80. 3% Total 107, possible 180 = 59. 4% Sandpaper block 7 5 6 18 Sandpaper block 12 15 15 42 Cross paring 6 6 5 17 Cross paring 14 15 15 44 O Wall shelf 6 7 6 19 Wall shelf 15 14 15 44 cn Bird house 16 7 9 32 Bird house 13 14 12 39 86 169 Total 86, possible 300 = 28.6 % Total 169, possible 180 = 93. 8% CO CJ1 86 Curriculum Development Process: an Observation Although the study was descr ipt ive in nature, certa in inferences, though l im i ted , can be drawn, pa r t i cu l a r l y with regard to the process of curriculum development as i t applies to the classroom teacher. The proposed curriculum had as i t s s tart ing point, p ract i ca l experience and i n t u i t i v e be l i e f s . Experience and be l ie f s were then exposed to the l i t e r a t u r e , the theoret ical information, and e i ther upheld, refuted or ref ined. This process was continuous pa r t i cu l a r l y in regard to refinement, when projects and approaches were t r i ed and tested in the l i g h t of theoret ical information, or more often as a resu l t of pract ica l experience. From th i s i n teract i ve process and the synthesis of pract ica l and theoret ical information the proposed curriculum was developed. In the designing of the curriculum the main re l iance was placed upon pract ica l experience, with some concern for theoret ica l information in the areas of ch i l d development, the learning process and curriculum development. This analysis of the w r i t e r ' s approach to the process of curriculum development would support the f indings of Oberg (1975), who in a study on the curriculum planning of classroom teachers, observed that the teacher placed considerable re l iance upon background and experience when working on the problem of curriculum development. Oberg also noted that although consideration was given by teachers to both pract ica l and theoret ical information, s l i g h t l y more emphasis was given to the former. CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction The study was threefold in purpose, f i r s t l y to examine in theoret ical terms the process of curriculum development; secondly to implement the process of curriculum development in the design of a woodworking program for Grade 7 students; and t h i r d l y to evaluate the proposed curriculum in formative terms. In the remainder of th i s chapter, each of the purposes are summarized, and implications and recommendations, where appropriate, are stated. The Curriculum Development Process - Theoretical The main focus of the study was the design of a woodworking program; a necessary function in the accomplishment of th i s aim was the examination of the curriculum development process. This can be described as the point at which the curriculum developer compared previously stored knowledge and pract ica l information with theoret ica l information. I t was in th i s examination, that ideas and concepts were ref ined, and a perspective of the curriculum development process was formulated. Perspective was considered to be important, not only to the curriculum development process as a whole, but as a s tar t ing point in curriculum development. 87 88 Perspective The concept of "perspective" as a s tart ing point for curriculum development was supported in the l i t e r a t u r e , though a d i f fe rent terminology was often employed. Whether described as a "point of view", a " theoret ica l foundation" or a "phi losophical b e l i e f " , i t represents the understanding of the world held by the curriculum developer, and i t i s th i s understanding which permeates the process of curriculum development. For the purpose of th i s study i t was determined that a de l iberate ly selected perspective would be derived from an examination of the work to be done. In respect to the selected perspective several questions were considered re la t ing to the nature of the c h i l d , the learning process, society and the subject to be taught. I t was concluded that an Industr ial Education program designed from such a perspective could: (1) provide the balance between humanism and behaviorism by allowing the opportunity for choice and discovery, and by of fer ing guidance and showing d i rect ion to teacher and student. (2) enhance the uni f ied growth of the ch i l d by providing experiences which integrate pract ica l and i n te l l e c tua l a c t i v i t i e s . (3) help resolve the c o n f l i c t between s e l f - i n t e re s t and group welfare by bringing about an awareness and understanding of s e l f and socia l d i s c i p l i ne in a workshop environment. An Industr ial Education program of th i s type would support the perspectives established for th i s study, and provide the course of action which i s intended to bring about change, that change which i s 89 considered necessary in the l i gh t of the curriculum maker's under-standing of the world. Concepts Further study of the l i t e r a t u r e , a l l i e d to previous experience, provided the background for the establishment of a conceptual framework. This i s the stage in which the curriculum developer c l a r i f i e d his thinking in re la t ion to the terms used in the process of curriculum development. In th i s study the ideas considered were curriculum and curriculum development, Industr ial Education, ch i l d development, experience, c r e a t i v i t y , cognition and a c t i v i t y . As in the case of most ideas and concepts there were many d i f fe rent viewpoints and interpretat ions to be found. Curriculum development as an example, provided a range of def in i t ions which extended from i n t u i t i v e procedures to a systems analysis approach, in select ing a concept of ch i l d development the curriculum developer contended with the viewpoints expressed by behaviorists and humanists. The resolut ion of these c o n f l i c t s , the wr i te r concluded, was in f inding what H i t t (1969) ca l led the "meeting ground". The concepts established on th i s meeting ground provided the framework for the proposed curriculum; a curriculum which was designed as a guide for both teacher and c h i l d ; a curriculum which was intended to foster the development of a c h i l d ' s pos i t ive s e l f -concept by allowing for i nd i v i dua l i t y and providing the opportunity for creat ive expression; a curriculum which attempted to integrate i n t e l l e c t u a l , constructive and manual a c t i v i t y by encouraging 90 explorat ion, experimentation and problem solv ing; a curriculum which was designed from an organised framework and which in i t s design was / influenced by research, experience and i n t u i t i o n . Curriculum Development Process - Implementation Having established perspectives and a conceptual framework, the second stage of the study was undertaken. This was the implementation of the curriculum development process from an organised framework. The l a t t e r framework, which was considered to be an important part of curriculum development, required the se lect ion of the values which gave d i rect ion to the development of the curriculum, the i den t i f i c a t i on of the educational needs of ch i ldren, and the se lect ion of objectives and content consistent with these values and needs. Values If, as i t has been stated, values give d i rect ion to the curriculum developer, then the se lect ion of values plays an important role as the f i r s t step in the organised framework of curriculum development. The values considered to be important for the purpose of th i s study and which were intended to provide guidance in the development of the proposed curriculum were; human understanding; a sense of purpose in l i f e ; and a knowledge that man determines the d i rect ion of technology. It was concluded that an awareness and understanding of these values could be achieved in a program that emphasized purposeful a c t i v i t y and pride in workmanship, and which allowed for consideration of technology as a potential force for good both in re la t ion to the indiv idual and society. 91 Educational Needs It was assumed that values and needs are c losely associated, in that the values considered important by a curriculum developer w i l l influence his se lect ion of a c h i l d ' s educational needs. The wr i ter placed a p r i o r i t y value on the capacity to think, to see and to solve problems. It followed that an educational need to be accounted for in the curriculum was the opportunity for the ch i l d to solve problems, and the encouragement of thinking. Since th i s was considered to be a prime educational need i t was given major emphasis in the proposed curriculum. Objectives A further stage in the organised framework of curriculum develop-ment was the se lect ion of object ives. This i s the f i r s t step in Ty le r ' s c lear cut and pragmatic rat ionale for curriculum construction where the curriculum developer selects object ives, experiences, a c t i v i t i e s , a sequence of a c t i v i t i e s and means of evaluation. The proposed curriculum includes objectives that are open-ended and which are designed to serve as guides, to give d i r ec t i on , to supply motivation and to set c r i t e r i a . As such they are considered a necessary and important part of curriculum construction. They are objectives which are intended to support the selected values and educational needs and which have been derived from, an examination of theoret ical viewpoints, personal experience, common sense observations, and general views of society, knowledge and learners. 92 Content The f i r s t c r i t e r i on to be considered in the se lect ion of content was the contr ibution the content makes to the achievement of the object ives. Consideration was also given to other c r i t e r i a , such as; the developmental level of the chi ldren for whom the content was intended; whether or not the content w i l l interest and motivate the ch i ld ren; the contribution the content makes to other subject areas. I t was assumed that most of the c r i t e r i a would be s a t i s f i ed i f the content contributed to the achievement of ca re fu l l y and thoughtful ly selected object ives. The major emphasis of the content in the proposed curriculum is on problem solving and pract ica l and purposeful a c t i v i t y through project construction. The projects included in the program were selected a f te r repeated f i e l d tests and a f te r consideration of the i r potential for sat i s fy ing the established c r i t e r i a . The projects selected u t i l i z e a f l e x i b l e design approach which allows for indiv idual interpretat ion and input. The project sequence attempts to introduce new s k i l l s and knowledge, to bu i ld on previously acquired s k i l l s and knowledge, to maintain interest and motivation, and to progressively encourage problem solving and c r e a t i v i t y . Evaluation of Student Work Because the emphasis of the proposed curriculum i s on f l e x i b i l i t y and i nd i v i dua l i z a t i on , no provision was made for evaluation in the form of tests or evaluative measures which attempt to determine how much information a ch i l d has retained. Evaluation, to be consistent with the perspectives chosen for th i s curriculum, has been designed to avoid 93 categorization of ch i ldren. Rather, the emphasis was placed on the development of a better self-image for the c h i l d . Therefore, evaluation i s seen to be a shared judgment between teacher and c h i l d , a process which considers the ch i l d as an i nd i v i dua l , and where interact ion between teacher and ch i l d in the form of dialogue and constructive c r i t i c i s m established the basis for evaluation. Formative Evaluation of the Curriculum A major emphasis within the proposed curriculum was the provis ion of opportunities for the ch i l d to think independently and c r i t i c a l l y , by means of act ive par t i c ipat ion in project construction. As part of the development of the curriculum i t was decided to evaluate a se lect ion of the cu r r i cu la r projects using the c r i t e r i a of c r e a t i v i t y , design and problem solv ing, a l l of which, i t was assumed, were part of and contributed to the thinking process. S k i l l development, considered important but secondary to problem so lv ing, was also included i n t h e evaluation process. Projects from the Vancouver School Board's 1960 Grade 7 Woodworking Program were evaluated in order that a comparison could be made with projects from the proposed curriculurn. C r i t e r i a for evaluation were selected and defined, and an evaluation form constructed. After f i e l d test ing and minor changes the forms with project diagrams (four from 1960 curriculum, four from the proposed curriculum) were d i s t r ibuted to three independent evaluators. The results of the evaluation depicted the difference in emphasis between the two programs; the 1960 curriculum was assigned a high 94 score for s k i l l development and a low score for problem solv ing; the proposed curriculum was assigned an average score for s k i l l development and a high score for problem solv ing. Imp!ications Although the study was descr ipt ive in nature, some important implications can be drawn. The l a t t e r concern the areas of curriculum development, Industr ial Education and programs for g i f ted ch i ldren. Curriculum Development In B r i t i s h Columbia the Curriculum Development Branch i s responsible to the Ministry of Education for the development of a l l prov inc ia l cur r i cu la used in publ ic elementary and secondary schools. The major re spons ib i l i t y for the inst ruct iona l program, however, l i e s at the school and classroom l e v e l . This in e f fect means that the classroom teacher has the problem of t rans lat ing provincia l curriculum guides into pract ica l learning s i tuat ions , which i s a form of curriculum development. I f , as the wr i ter found in th i s study, experience plays an important role in the process of curriculum development, then i t follows that the beginning teacher would f ind the complex problem of designing ins t ruct iona l programs even more ^ d i f f i c u l t through lack of experience. It i s suggested that th i s problem could be a l l ev ia ted i f the beginning teacher had the support and guidance of an experienced teacher, pa r t i cu l a r l y in the former's f i r s t year of employment. A further impl icat ion to be drawn from th is study i s the support for the technical concept of curriculum development, to the extent 95 that a structured or organised framework i s a necessary part of curriculum construction. This organisation should not be so le ly a concern for e f f i c i ency , but the support for a framework in which research, experience and i n t u i t i o n play the i r part in the decision making. Industr ial Education A prime concern of Industr ial Education programs, as evidenced by the 1960 woodworking curriculum, has been with s k i l l development. In the Secondary Schools Industr ial Education Curriculum Guide, published in 1977 by the B.C. Department of Education, mention i s made in the program goals of the need to develop creative potent i a l , both avocational ly and vocat ional ly. In the subsequent course objectives and intended learning outcomes, however, very few references are made to c r ea t i v i t y or problem solv ing. It i s poss ib le, therefore, that programs designed by teachers from th is guide could, l i k e the 1960 curriculum, be pr imar i ly concerned with s k i l l development. Though the l a t t e r i s an important and necessary concern in any Industr ial Education program, i t would be an unfortunate er ror , in the opinion of the wr i te r , i f Industr ial Education did not u t i l i z e the opportunity i t presents for integrating thinking and doing. The l a t t e r implies the inc lus ion of content in the form of projects which are designed to present the opportunity for c r e a t i v i t y , design and problem solv ing. The formative evaluation process used in th i s study could be used to determine the s u i t a b i l i t y of a project for inc lus ion in a course, whether the concern of the program planner be toward s k i l l development, problem so lv ing, or a balance of the two. 96 Gifted Children Some educators have expressed a concern with regard to the lack of challenge in regular school programs for the ch i l d who i s considered to have a high i n t e l l e c tua l potent ia l . In response to th i s concern some school d i s t r i c t s have i n i t i a t e d programs for " g i f t ed " ch i ldren. The w r i t e r ' s concern i s that these programs may be re s t r i c ted to academic and i n t e l l e c tua l content, and w i l l not re late abstract concepts to concrete a c t i v i t y . A program that offers a "hands on" approach and which at the same time i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y challenging w i l l be benef ic ia l to the g i f ted c h i l d , pa r t i cu l a r l y at the elementary school l e v e l . A su itably designed Industr ial Education program could f u l f i l these requirements. Recommendations The evaluation process used in th i s study was that of formative evaluation, the process by which the plans are evaluated for the i r potential to bring about desired e f fec t s . The next step in the curriculum evaluation process would be the summative evaluation of the plans in action and whether or not the i r potential i s being rea l i zed. In order to accomplish th i s end, the proposed curriculum should be implemented in a regular school program and an evaluation made in the l i gh t of the program object ives. Comparison could then be made with the results of the formative evaluation and the s u i t a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the l a t t e r determined. The proposed curriculum should be implemented in a program for g i f ted ch i ldren. This could provide the opportunity for further 97 research into the benefits of th i s type of a c t i v i t y and into the p o s s i b i l i t y of placing an even greater emphasis on research and design projects. Concluding Statement Industr ial Education i s not an o f f i c i a l part of the curriculum in the elementary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. Research, both past and present, and the w r i t e r ' s own experiences over the past f i v e years c l ea r l y indicate the benefits of th i s type of a c t i v i t y for chi ldren at the elementary l e v e l , both primary and intermediate. Thoughtfully designed Industr ial Education programs should be part of the education of every ch i l d from kindergarten to Grade 7. Every ch i l d should have the opportunity to explore with tools and materials; every ch i l d should have the experience of constructing, or putting things together. For constructing i s one of the ways we can learn log ic and organisation, the foundations of putting anything together, whether i t be a project, an essay or one's l i f e s t y l e . The design and implementation of such a program in the elementary school curriculum would o f fe r an interest ing challenge to indus t r ia l educators. It i s a challenge which has no simple answer, and one which is perhaps best summed up in the words of Dante: " I t i s no voyage for a l i t t l e Barque, th i s which my venturous prow goes c lear ing , nor for a p i l o t who would spare himself." BIBLIOGRAPHY 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abid in, Richard R. "What's Wrong with Behavior Modi f icat ion. " Journal of School Psychology 9:1 (1971): 38-42. Anastasi, Anne. "Psychological Tests: Uses and Abuses." Teachers College Record 62 (1961): 389-93. 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APPENDIX A Creative Woodwork an Industr ial Education Program for Grade 7 Students CREATIVE WOODWORK, an INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM for GRADE 7 113 "NOT ONLY DOES MANUAL WORK FURTHER PSYCHOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM, BUT IT ALSO FURTHERS INGENUITY AND ACCURACY OF MIND, AND IS THE PRIME BASIS OF ARTISTIC ACTIVITY." Jacques Maritain Rationale Every ch i l d enjoys bu i ld ing, making, doing - the process and a c t i v i t y of working with the hands. The purpose of th i s program i s to provide chi ldren with the opportunity for purposeful, constructive a c t i v i t y . The program i s also intended to make chi ldren " th ink" by presenting problem-solving s i tuat ions and by providing opportunities for creative expression. The intent ion of the program i s to bring together the i n te l l e c tua l and the p r a c t i c a l ; the abstract and the concrete; to unite thinking with doing. 114 OBJECTIVES The objectives for the course are divided into two categories; the long range objectives which cover the whole course; the short range objectives which re late to projects within the course. Long Range Objectives (1) To develop competence in the safe use of hand too l s . (2) To develop a respect f o r , and an understanding of, good design and workmanship. (3) To develop a concept of systematic planning and organisation. (4) To develop the a b i l i t y to solve problems and to provide an out let for a c h i l d ' s creative potent ia l . (5) To develop confidence and a pos i t ive s e l f -concept. (6) To develop an awareness of the environmental factors of waste and resource deplet ion. Short Range Objectives The short range objectives are intended to provide guidelines at the project l e v e l . They can be considered as the "stepping stones" to the achievement of the course objectives as a whole. 115 Program Structure The program i s organised on four l eve l s , each level bui ld ing on the s k i l l s and knowledge acquired at the previous l e v e l . Level I Introduction to basic hand tool s k i l l s , measurement and design. Problem-solving and creative input are an integral part of projects at a l l levels to a lesser or greater degree. Three of the four suggested projects should be completed at th is l e v e l . Level II Introduction to constructed projects, with more emphasis on accuracy of measurement and tool use. Level III Wood carving and ar t forms used at th i s stage to place the emphasis on c r ea t i v i t y . Project 10: a design problem serves as a preview to level IV. Level IV At th i s level the students design and bui ld projects of the i r own choice. Some design problems are presented in the program, but i t i s not necessary to r e s t r i c t the student to these ideas. 116 Program Content The major emphasis of the program i s on pract ica l and purposeful a c t i v i t y through project construction. At the teacher 's d i s c re t ion , however, projects of the research report type could be part of the course. Some suggestions for the l a t t e r are included. Level I Project (1) Pencil holder (2) Wind chimes (3) Abstract sculpture (4) Totem pole Level II (5) Letter holder (6) Candle holder (7) Construct elephant Level III ( 8 ) Scrap-box wall plaque (9) Carved wall plaque (10) Car design Level IV Design Problem (1) Spice rack (2) Table lamp (3) Toy (4) Game 117 Research Reports Design scrap book - a co l l ec t i on of p ictures, drawings and ideas, of and about design. Level I History of Tools. Choose any hand t o o l , f ind out about i t s invention, use and development. Abstract Sculpture. Is i t a new art form? Totem Poles. What are they? Level II Wood and i t s many uses. The Forest Industry. Level III Any topic re la t ion to art forms in wood, pr imit ive a r t , wood carving, sculpture, etc. Level IV Any topic re la t ing to design, designers, inventors, etc. Program Organisation The organisation of the program would depend upon the t ime-tabl ing s i tuat ion in the school. It i s suggested that students should, par t i c ipate in the program at least once a week for a double period (80 to 120 mins.), and that the tota l time for the program should be approximately t h i r t y hours. 118 PROJECT 1 PENCIL HOLDER Purpose To introduce the use of basic hand too l s , the project development process and some simple design problems. Process Measurement, cutt ing, shaping, d r i l l i n g , f i n i s h i ng . Tools Rule, square, backsaw, f i l e , brace and b i t . Material Pine, 20 x 80 x 170 m.m. Procedure Measure piece 150 m.m. long, mark with square and cut with backsaw. Check the cut with the square for interest rather than too c r i t i c a l an examination at th i s stage. F i l e sides and edges. F i l e design edges using var iety of f i l e s . Students should be encouraged to experiment with a l l tools on scrap wood. Lay out and d r i l l holes. The number and posit ion of holes i s optional and should provide an opportunity to discuss the basic elements of design. Finish F i r s t with sandpaper and then apply coat of danish o i l . S.R.O.'s (1) Understand the process of measurement and cut t ing , using appropriate too l s . (2) Understand the use of the f i l e for edge f i n i sh ing and decorative purposes. (3) Know how to d r i l l holes to depth using brace and b i t . (4) Understand the use of coated abrasives for wood f i n i s h i ng . (5) Know how to apply a f i n i s h coat of danish o i l and the safety precautions for using th i s type of mater ia l . 1 1 9 PR.O J ELCT I PEHCIL HOLDER. o o o o b>r-\H - N u m b e r * or\d le^©u> o f K o l t i Op>Ho*veU o o O 0 120 PROJECT 2 WIND CHIMES Purpose To introduce the use of hand plane and hand d r i l l , and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of other materials in project design. New process Face planing, d r i l l i n g small holes. New tools Smooth plane, hand d r i l l . Material Pine, 20 x 80 x 170 m.m. Pine, Mahogany, e t c . , 20 x 20 x various lengths. Procedure Measure, mark and cut top support. Plane a l l faces - check for square - th i s i s not c r i t i c a l but student should understand the re lat ionship of planing and square faces. (The use of the marking gauge could be demonstrated). F i l e end grains, and design i f desired. Select and cut suspension pieces. Different woods, e.g. pine, mahogany, walnut, maple, bamboo; and metals, seashel ls, etc. could be made avai lable and the i r use encouraged. The d i f fe rent sounds made by the d i f fe rent materials when used as suspension pieces in a wind chime could be demonstrated at th i s stage. Lay out and d r i l l top support and suspension pieces. Accuracy in layout and d r i l l i n g should become apparent in the need for balance -pa r t i cu l a r l y i f a s ingle point suspension i s used. Finish with sandpaper and apply coat of c lear o i l or s ta in . Design In th i s project, design ideas can be incorporated in the shape of the supporting piece, layout of the suspension holes and the shaping and select ion of materials used for the suspension pieces. S.R.O.'s (1) Understand the use of the smoothing plane. (2) Understand the use of the hand d r i l l . PROJECT 2 WIND CHIMES V"o-p Support • » • » » » " D > o * o e . \ w i t s o e o £>Qtw.boo pto j ih'c 122 PROJECT 3 ABSTRACT SCULPTURE Purpose As well as giving the student the opportunity to use and experiment with a c h i s e l , th i s project should introduce another approach to design; a chance to examine form and shape both organic and mechanical, balance and harmony, symmetry and asymmetry. A good scrap book of pictures would be of value in showing the student what i s meant by some of the terminology. The emphasis, however, should be on working with the material and the too l s , and the student f inding for himself what can be achieved. New process Cutting and shaping a decorative r e l i e f surface. New tools Chisel and mallet. Material Pine, ju lutong, or ramin, 50 x 50 m.m. x various lengths. Process Cut to required length and plane faces. Lay out and cut notches using backsaw and ch i s e l . Mallet can be used i f required. Vary chisel width, d i rect ion and depth of cut as desired. Finish with sandpaper and o i l or s ta in as required. Note:- Emphasis must be placed on safety when working with what is potent ia l l y the most dangerous hand tool in the workshop. S.R.O.'s (1) Know how to use a chisel safely and,: with practise,competently. (2) Develop competence in the use of the plane. (3) Develop an understanding of some design terminology i . e . form, shape, balance harmony. CI 123 PROJECT 3 ABSTRACT SCULPTURE PROJECT 4 - TOTEM POLE The contemporary totem pole can be used as an a l te rnat i ve to the abstract sculpture. It u t i l i z e s the same chisel s k i l l s , but requires a more balanced and formal design. The s ize and type of material used could vary. A piece of 4" x 4", s ix feet long, could well o f fe r a team totem pole project! PROJECT 5 125 LETTER HOLDER Purpose To introduce the use of the coping saw and the process of assembly using glue and na i l s . New process Shaping, using coping saw. Assembly with glue and na i l s . New tools Coping saw, hammer. Materials Base - 20 x 75 x 130 m.m. Sides - 12 x 95 x 130 m.m. Pine, (sides could be p l y ) . Procedure Measure, mark and cut base piece from stock. Plane faces, -edges must be square for sides to f i t cor rect ly . Design, lay out and cut side pieces. F i l e design, i f desired. Finish parts with sandpaper. Assemble, glue and n a i l . F in i sh , o i l or s ta in . Note:- The use of varnish or shel lac as a f i n i s h could be introduced with th i s project. S.R.O.'s (1) Know how to use the coping saw. (2) Understand the process of assembly, using glue and na i l s . PROJECT 5 126 LETTER. HOLDER. 127 PROJECT 6 CANDLE HOLDER Purpose To introduce the use of bu t t - j o i n t for assembly and consequent need for accuracy in cutt ing. New process But t - jo in t construction and assembly. Tools As required. Material Back - 20 x 60 x 200 m.m. Support - 20 x 60 x 50 m.m. or 20 x 20 x various lengths. Pine, cedar, etc. Procedure From stock measure and cut pieces as required. D r i l l support piece to su i t candle s i ze. Plane smooth, i f necessary, shape and f i l e design, i f desired. Finish with sandpaper. Assemble, glue and n a i l . F in i sh , o i l or s ta in . Note:- Size of candle holder need not be re s t r i c ted to suggested s i ze . The same design p r inc ip le could be used for small plant pot holder. S.R.O.'s (1) Understand the use of a bu t t - j o i n t in the process of construction. PROJECT 6 128 CANDLE HOLDER 129 PROJECT 7 CONSTRUCTED ELEPHANT Purpose To intorudce the concept of constructed three dimensional form. New process Dowel j o i n t assembly. Tools As required. Materials Body - 50 x 50 x 80 m.m. Head and legs - 25 x 50 x 125 m.m. Mahogany or pine. Ears - leather or v i n y l . Procedure Cut and shape body. Cut and shape head and legs to required s i ze , (remember proportions) Cut ears from leather or other suitable mater ia l . D r i l l head and body for dowel j o i n t . Finish parts with sandpaper. Assembly; legs can be attached using pins (headless na i l s ) and glue. Glue and dowel head and ears. F inish with o i l or s ta in . Note:- Ta i l and tusks can be added, i f desired. S.R.O.'s (1) Understand use of dowel rod as a strengthening factor in a glued j o i n t . Deisgn This project could be u t i l i z e d as a design problem, where the students plan and construct a three dimensional animal. \30 PROJECT 7 ELEPHANT 131 PROJECT 8 SCRAP BOX WALL PLAQUE Purpose Further development of the a b i l i t y to solve a design problem. Process Se lect ion, shaping, assembly. Tools As required. Materials Plywood, various s i zes , scrap pieces, various types of wood cut into i r regu lar and varied shapes. Process Prepare plywood backing piece. Select pieces from scrap box and arrange on plywood to form a p icture. The l a t t e r could be abstract forms, a pleasing arrangement of shapes and colours, or a r e a l i s t i c form. F i l e and sandpaper pieces as required. Glue to ply. F inish with o i l or s ta in . Deisgn This project could be used as a design problem in which students plan and cut the i r own shapes for appl icat ion to ply backing piece. PROJECT 8 - SCRAP-BOX WALL PLAQUE This project requires imaginative preparation by the ins t ructor -a box of scrap pieces varying in thickness, wood type and shape (cut on a band saw). Plywood backing pieces of various sizes e.g. 15 x 30 cms., 20 x 30 cms. The student f i r s t prepares the plywood backing piece (sanding) and then selects pieces from the scrap-box to construct a p icture. The selected pieces may be f i l e d or re-shaped as desired. They should f i n a l l y be sanded and then glued to the ply. Clear danish o i l can be applied after glue has dr ied. 133 PROJECT 9 CARVED SALL PLAQUE Purpose To introduce the process of the safe use of the gouge. The use of the cross-cut and r ip saws can also be introudced in th i s project where larger stock i s required. New process Two dimensional carving. New tools Gouges, cross-cut and r i p saws. Material Pine, yellow or red cedar. 20 x 150, 180, 200, 250 x various lengths. Procedure Select design, draw or trace on to appropriate s ize of wood which has been cut from stock using cross-cut saw. Secure wood to bench and carve using appropriate s ize of gouge. F in ish with sandpaper. F inish with dark walnut s t a i n , or c lear danish o i l as desired. S.R.O.'s (1) Know how to use a gouge safe ly , and with pract i se , competently. (2) Understand the p r inc ip le of two dimensional carving. Design Students should be encouraged to f ind t he i r "own" design from the many books which are ava i lable in school l i b r a r i e s . The ins t ructor should also have a source of sketches and diagrams avai lable to the students. PROJECT 9 - CARVED WALL PLAQUE 135 PROJECT 10 CAR DESIGN Purpose In th i s project, the student i s introduced to some of the problems of design. Given a basic concept as a s tar t ing point, the student plans and constructs a car of his own design. The use of drawings in the planning stage should be encouraged. A var iety of materials should be avaialbe to widen the design p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Process Designing, planning, organisation, cut t ing , shaping, f i n i s h i n g . Tools As required. Material Pine wedge - two can be cut from 50 x 100 x 160 m.m. Procedure Plan and organise body shaping. Parts cut and shaped, e.g. fenders, headlights, spo i le r s , etc. Additional shapes or parts in metal, e.g. r o l l bars, antenna, etc. Finishing of parts. Assembly. Note:- Round head wood screws can be used for axles. Students can be shown correct procedure, p i l o t holes, etc. S.R.O.'s (1) Understand the process of planning and organisation as a possible step in the solut ion to a design problem. Note:- Wheels of various s izes should be provided. They can be made using a c i r c l e - c u t t e r , or cut from large dowel. P R O J E C T 10 136 CA\R DESIGN - S t e l e . 4il R.acin£j o a r d*S i£}n , 138 DESIGN PROBLEM .1 SPICE RACK Purpose To introduce and help establ i sh the purpose of function as an important c r i t e r i on in good design. Process Designing, planning, organisation, cut t ing , assembly, f i n i s h i ng . Tools As required. Materials Pine, cedar, mahogany. Sizes as required. Design considerations Function - spice j a r storage. Size - what i s the height and diameter of the spice jar s to be stored? How many spice jars? What type and s ize of lumber i s avai lable? This w i l l determine the s i ze of the spice rack and w i l l influence proportion and balance, the form of the spice rack. Procedure As required. D E S I G N P ^ O ^ L g M \ 139 S P I C E R A C K 140 DESIGN PROBLEM 2 TABLE LAMP Given basic concepts, the student should design and construct a functional table lamp in wood. This design project sets narrower l im i ta t ions in order that the student has a focal point and can make a s ta r t . Introduction of basic e l e c t r i c a l wiring is achieved in th i s project. DESIGN PROBLEM 3 TOY In th i s project, guidelines can be set: i . e . Design a simple wooden toy suitable for a ch i l d between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Or, the student can have the freedom to design a toy for any age l e v e l , simple or complex. DESIGN PROBLEM 4 GAME Design a game that can be played by one or more players. L imitat ions: your imagination. Many other design problems can be u t i l i z e d such as bird houses, l e t t e r holders, candlesticks and chess sets. Ideas are l imited only by the imagination; rea l i za t i on of ideas i s l imited only by ingenuity. _ DESIGN PROBLEM 4 14-3 G A M E : o o o o o o o o o o w o o o s o o o 144 This program i s intended to serve as a catalyst for th inking, and to convert abstract thought into concrete act ion. It i s a program that cap i ta l i zes on a c h i l d ' s natural desire to bu i ld and to construct. Through th i s desire the ch i l d can become aware of the beauty of wood, the challenge of problem solv ing, the excitement of designing and the t h r i l l of discovery. The ch i l d can also develop an appreciation of f ine workmanship, well cared for too l s , and good design. As with any course, i t s success rests upon the teacher, who i s responsible for providing the dedication and enthusiasm without which even the best designed curriculum can f a i l . To see more in l i f e i s to be abstract. To be more in l i f e i s to be concrete. Chinese proverb. APPENDIX B Project Evaluation Form 146 EVALUATION FORM WOODWORK GRADE 7 PROJECT - NAME No. Rating scale: 1. not at al1 2. to a very l i t t l e extent 3. to some extent 4. to a considerable extent 5. to a very great extent Please c i r c l e rat ing you consider appropriate. CREATIVITY (a) Invention; opportunity to use or ig ina l ideas 1 2 3 4 5 CREATIVITY (b) Innovation; opportunity to make changes. 1 2 3 4 5 CREATIVITY (c) Re-arrangement; opportunity to make changes, (to a lesser degree) 1 2 3 4 5 DESIGN (d) Planning; opportunity for th ink ing, drawing and decision making. 1 2 3 4 5 DESIGN (e) Organization; opportunity for deciding how work i s to be done. 1 2 3 4 5 (f) Problem so lv ing; (Total) SKILLS (g) Opportunity to develop the a b i l i t y to interpret working drawings related to the project. 1 2 3 4 5 SKILLS (h) Opportunity to develop the a b i l i t y to fol low ins t ruct ions , wr i t ten , printed and o r a l . 1 2 3 4 5 SKILLS ( i ) Opportunity for accuracy of measurement and tool use. 1 2 3 4 5 ( j ) S k i l l s (Total) EVALUATOR: DATE: APPENDIX C B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Industr ial Arts 7 Woodwork Objectives 1960 148 1960 WOODWORK GRADE 7 OBJECTIVES 1. To learn through ins t ruct ion and class co-operation the need of safe practices and respect for property. 2. To learn correct methods of using the common woodworking tools through a series of graded projects. 3. To cu l t i va te the craftsman's appreciation and respect for good tools and care fu l l y kept equipment. 4. To develop some a b i l i t y in the interpretat ion of the working drawings related to the projects made, and to fol low wr i t ten , printed and oral i n s t ruct ion. 5. To obtain, through pract ica l experience, some knowledge of the materials and equipment used in woodwork and wood-f i n i sh ing . 6. To sa t i s f y a boy's desire to create useful things. 7. To develop hobby and handyman interests and a b i l i t i e s . 

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