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Construction and validation of a programmed instruction booklet : methods of adult education Betts, Diane Elmira 1975

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CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION BOOKLET: METHODS OF ADULT EDUCATION by DIANE ELMIRA BETTS B.N. U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MUSTER OFFSETS i n the F a c u l t y of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of /4~DUkT P-DOe/s-T-lorJ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A-pfti^- 3 o ; qq s ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was to construct and v a l i d a t e a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n booklet f o r the use of u n i v e r s i t y students studying to become a d u l t educators. The concept of methods of a d u l t education and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r methods as devised by Dr. C. Verner were used as course content. The branching or i n t r i n s i c model was s e l e c t e d and a c r i t e r i o n t e s t and frames were constructed. The booklet was e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d through a developmental t e s t and two f i e l d t e s t s . Sixty-two students e n r o l l e d i n three c l a s s e s of Education 412, during the 1974 summer and 1975 wi n t e r sessions a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the v a l i d a t i o n procedure. The developmental t e s t group c o n s i s t e d of twelve students who sat w i t h the programmer, one at a time, as they s t u d i e d the booklet and completed a pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t . The f i e l d t e s t was designed as a course take home assignment and students were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e t u r n i n g w r i t t e n answers to a pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t . Ten students volunteered to study the booklet during the f i r s t f i e l d t e s t . The second f i e l d t e s t assigned twenty students to a pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t only c o n t r o l group design and twenty students to an experimental group design who s t u d i e d the booklet and completed a pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t . A n a l y s i s of the data f o l l o w i n g the developmental and f i r s t f i e l d t e s t s revealed many areas of weakness i n the booklet frames and i n the i i c r i t e r i o n t e s t . Consequently many major r e v i s i o n s were made to both. Examination of the data f o l l o w i n g the second f i e l d t e s t i n d i c a t e d the booklet met the standards of an e f f e c t i v e teaching program. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ' . v i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION . 1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM 1 THE PROBLEM 3 Importance 'for Adult Education 3 DEFINITION OF TERMS 5 PLAN OF THE THESIS 6 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7 PROGRAMMED VS. CONVENTIONAL INSTRUCTION 8 BRANCHING VS. LINEAR PARADIGMS 13 VARIABLES IN PROGRAM CONSTRUCTION 17 Overt vs. Covert Responses 18 Large Step vs. Small Step 21 I I I PROCEDURE 24 CONSTRUCTION OF THE BOOKLET 24 Subject S e l e c t i o n 24 Paradigm S e l e c t i o n 25 Content Development 30 VALIDATION OF THE BOOKLET 33 i v Chapter Page DsDevelopmenfLaleTest 34 FiEiel'deTests 36 DaDatanAftalysis 39 IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 41 CRITERION TEST 41 DEVELOPMENTAL TEST DATA 44 FIRST FIELD TEST DATA 52 SECOND FIELD TEST DATA 55 V SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND RESEARCH, AND CONCLUSIONS 60 BIBLIOGRAPHY 68 APPENDIXES A Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n a l Booklet: Methods of Adul t Education 72 B V a l i d a t i o n Statement I5;2j C Sample V a l i d a t i o n Progress Charts 1§6> D Sample F i r s t C r i t e r i o n Test Wfij E Sample Revised C r i t e r i o n Test 1^3 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Comparison of Programmed Inst r u c t i o n and Conventional Ins t r u c t i o n 10 2 The Results of 112 Studies Comparing Programmed Ins t r u c t i o n with Conventional I n s t r u c t i o n 12 3 Summary of Results of T-test for C r i t e r i o n Test . . . . 42 4 Summary of Results using the Kuder Richardson Formula 20 . 4 43 5 Item D i f f i c u l t y Index for Mult i p l e Choice Questions . . 45 6 Results of Test Scores, Developmental Test Group . . . . 48 7 Results of T-test f o r C r i t e r i o n Test Scores, Developmental Test Group 48 8 Results of C r i t e r i o n Test Scores, F i r s t F i e l d Test Group 52 9 Results of T-test f o r C r i t e r i o n Test Scores, F i r s t F i e l d Test Group 53 10 Results of C r i t e r i o n Test f o r Control and Experimental Groups 57 11 Summary of Results of Anovar 57 12 Summary of C r i t e r i o n Test Scores—Experimental Group . . 58 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page I Interrelationships of the Steps i n Programming 30 II The Programming Process 31 I I I The Validation Process 35 IV Experimental Design for Second F i e l d Test 37 V lfeM«iefecdfo£rSetfsr.fofoStM'edestandn6rStiies.eFol<kSwdiM'gng the Developmental Test 46 VI Matrice of Errors made on the Post C r i t e r i o n T e s t — Developmental Test Group 50 VII Matrice of Errors made on the Cri t e r i o n Test, F i r s t F i e l d Test Group 54 VIII Matrice of Errors for Students and Frames, Second Fi e l d Test Group 56 IX Matrice of E'Brors on F i n a l C r i t e r i o n Test, Experimental Group 59 v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to give thanks to Dr. James Thortifconfiorhhisaadvice, patience and a s s i s t a n c e during the c o n s t r u c t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n of the bookl e t , Methods of Adult Education, and f o r h i s guidance during the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n I have appreciated the i n t e r e s t and encouragement of Dr. C. Verner, Dr. G. Dickinson, and Dr. S. Blank. The a s s i s t a n c e of A. Blunt w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l data was an i n v a l u a b l e a i d . So many of my f e l l o w students i n a d u l t education took time to o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e , complete the c r i t e r i o n t e s t s and/or p a r t i c i p a t e i n the v a l i d a t i o n procedure, and to each of them I am most g r a t e f u l . I am als o indebted to the many people who helped w i t h the t y p i n g of the many suc c e s s i v e d r a f t s o f the booklet and the t h e s i s , e s p e c i a l l y to Mrs. C a r o l Moreno and Mrs. L. Cochrane. And f i n a l l y , my very s p e c i a l thanks to my husband Gord, w i t h -out whose constant support and encouragement t h i s t h e s i s would not have been completed. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Problem The exponential r a t e at which new knowledge i s being generated i s unique to our modern s o c i e t y , and i s of such magnitude that i t a f f e c t s every person and has an impact on every area of human l i f e . "The r a t e at which man acquires knowledge doubled the f i r s t time around 1700, and again around 1900. The t h i r d doubling occurred i n 1950 and the f o u r t h i n 1960" (3:181). The knowledge to be gathered and dissemin-ated i s i n c r e a s i n g at such an astounding pace that most educators are overwhelmed. S c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s alone now number more than 30,000 and 600,000 s c i e n t i f i c papers are being published each year. The impact upon i n d i v i d u a l s and upon s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s only beginning to be understood. One of the outcomes of t h i s change has been the r e a l i z a t i o n by most a d u l t s that they are i n constant need of updated education. "One-h a l f of what a c o l l e g e graduate l e a r n s i s obsolete i n 10 years; one-h a l f of what a c o l l e g e graduate needs to know i n 10 years i s not yet a v a i l a b l e " (3:213). I t i s no longer p o s s i b l e , i n such h i g h l y developed c o u n t r i e s as ours, f o r a man or a woman to stop l e a r n i n g . Education must be a c o n t i n u i n g l i f e l o n g process. 1 2 At the same time there i s an exploding world p o p u l a t i o n which i s e x e r t i n g intense pressure on an already crowded ed u c a t i o n a l system w i t h i t s l i m i t e d resources, teacher and space shortages. Thus, the dilemma: on the one hand more people are demanding access to expanding knowledge through f u r t h e r education; w h i l e on the other hand, there i s an acknowledged shortage of educators. Education i t s e l f .must change to meet the needs and requirements of our s o c i e t y . A proposed s o l u t i o n i s to u t i l i z e new methods of i n s t r u c t i o n designed to i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y of communication. " E d u c a t i o n a l technology, a systematic method of p r o v i d i n g s o l u t i o n s that are tech-n i c a l l y and economically f e a s i b l e to e d u c a t i o n a l problems, i s the means by which e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n can most e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y be implemented'.'" (3:214) . Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s one of the new technologies considered by many to be an e f f e c t i v e instrument i n meeting the demands of contemporary education. "Some e n t h u s i a s t i c advocates of t h i s method of i n s t r u c t i o n have h a i l e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n as the most important e d u c a t i o n a l development s i n c e the i n v e n t i o n of the p r i n t i n g press" (25:1). At the l e a s t , there i s l i t t l e doubt that "pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n has emerged as the f i r s t t rue system of i n s t r u c t i o n a l technology education has had" (17:VI) and i t i s capable of making a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the educational process. "Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s the f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n of l a b o r a t o r y techniques, u t i l i z e d i n the study of the l e a r n i n g process, to the p r a c t i c a l problems of education" (:(19YVII). I t can be described as a systematic methodological approach to the education of the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r , 3 based upon a psychological analysis of the teaching-learning process. The major p r i n c i p l e s of learning which underlie the concept of pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n , stated i n general terms, are: (1) planned sequenced i n s t r u c t i o n based on well-defined behavioural objectives; (2) a c t i v e response by the learner at each step of the program; (3) immediate feed-back to the response; (4) self-paced;;;;andd(5)'i)empir.iGaiLly.ydeve!Lopedf1 through a v a l i d a t i o n procedure. Thus, programmed i n s t r u c t i o n with i t s c o r r e l a t i v e technology o f f e r s education a challenge; i f further research continues to bear out the p o s i t i v e preliminary findings then new pro-gramsieoughthtotbebdevel'Op.ededandnduir^eduG allow for t h e i r presentation. At present t h i s appears to be an obvious and plausable s o l u t i o n to the numerous education and t r a i n i n g problems of today. The Problem The study problem was to develop a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n booklet on the topic Methods of Adult Education based, p r i m a r i l y , on the Verner conceptuallsGheme.9.,anddt0.otes,fetits.steachMggeffecdivenesss through a v a l i d a t i o n process. The booklet was designed for the use of u n i v e r s i t y students studying to be future adult educators. Many of the students are themselves adults, having returned to u n i v e r s i t y to upgrade t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or to educate themselves for a new career. Importance for Adult Education: The education explosion taking place today i n adult education i s without precedent i n the world's h i s t o r y . Adult educators, faced 4 w i t h one of the greatest e d u c a t i o n a l jobs ever given a group of educators, are beginning to t u r n to programmed i n s t r u c t i o n as a todllinnsoOivihg, the problem. Business, i n d u s t r y and the m i l i t a r y are already making extensive use of i t and, f i n a l l y , a d u l t educators are f o l l o w i n g t h e i r l e a d . A d u l t educators have long recognized that a d u l t education i s uniquely d i f f e r e n t from the education of c h i l d r e n . The a d u l t l e a r n e r b r i n g s w i t h him a background of l i f e experiences a c h i l d does not have. However, the a d u l t has more at stake when he becomes a student. F a i l u r e can be very traumatic i n terms of self-esteem, job s e c u r i t y , and/or s o c i a l esteem. Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n appears p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d to the needs of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . The hetefogeneityoSfaadihltlibearinersccreates a need f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g programs designed to meet the s p e c i f i c goals of each student. In a d d i t i o n , programmed m a t e r i a l s a l l o w the a d u l t a chance to progress a t h i s own r a t e of speed. Perhaps the most important b e n e f i t of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s that i t has given many ad u l t s t h e i r f i r s t f e e l i n g s of success i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n e l i m i n a t e s much of phecpsy.ohologicailikrfskt.fiacformfrom education and can provide most a d u l t l e a r n e r s w i t h the kind of experiences needed to ensure success. Despite these f a c t s , f u t u r e a d u l t educators are not re q u i r e d to r e c e i v e systematic t r a i n i n g i n the use of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s . Nor are these m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r r e q uired e d u c a t i o n a l experiences. F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h azdevice i s necessary before an o b j e c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n 5 of i t s value as a v i a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l can be made. I f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s to be used by these students i n t h e i r future teaching r o l e , programmed materials should be included i n t h e i r undergraduate course work. In addition, programmed i n s t r u c t i o n can make a s i g n i f i -cant co n t r i b u t i o n to the content areas of the student's own learning program. The problem i s the lack of av a i l a b l e materials. For these reasons i t was decided to construct and v a l i d a t e a programmed i n s t r u c -t i o n booklet. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1. Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s "any form of pre-prepared, pre-sequenced i n s t r u c t i o n directed toward a s p e c i f i c educational o b j e c t i v e " : (25:V), that has the following e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) written behavioural objectives, (2) l o g i c a l l y sequenced units of information, (3) active response by the student (4) immediate feedback to the student, (5) emperically tested and (6) self-paced. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a question and answer method of i n s t r u c t i o n that can be transmitted i n almost any sort of f a b r i c — t e a c h i n g machine, books, f i l m s , e t c . , — a n d can be auditory, v i s u a l , simulatory and/or d e s c r i p t i v e . 2. BranchedgPr'Ogrammi'ngg, aeco-rddln'ggtooitssinventoKrNN'rmanii Crowder, 1954, has no learning theory base but i s founded on the con-cept of perceptive learning: you lea r n that which you perceive. In-s t r u c t i o n i s oegaQi'zededintotdog<hgali^l|tequ^neededndili§tofo£nfofiiia£iOnon which are presented to the student one at a time. The student's under-standing of the material j u s t presented i s tested, usually i n the form 6 of a multiple choice question, and the student i s directed to the next l o g i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l unit for him based on the correctness of h i s answer. 3. V a l i d a t i o n Process. A process through which a program i s e m p i r i c a l l y tested on a sample student target population, before p u b l i c a t i o n , to point out areas of weakness needing r e v i s i o n and to determine the program's effectiveness as a teaching instrument. 4. C r i t e r i o n Test. A test given to the student upon comple-t i o n of a program which requires the student to perform the behaviour i d e n t i f i e d i n the objectives. I t s purpose i s to measure for achievement of the objectives by the student and to t e s t s t h e f e f l e c t i v e n e s s e o f s s c" the program. Plan of the Thesis The remainder of t h i s thesis i s organized as follows: Chapter II reviews the research i n three selected areas of programmed i n s t r u c -t i o n , Chapter III describes i n d e t a i l the procedure used for the con-s t r u c t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n materials, the data from the developmental and f i e l d tests are analyzed i n Chapter IV, and a summary of the r e s u l t s , conclusions and implications for further research are contained i n Chapter V. The booklet, Methods of Adult  Education coffipris€sAAfp"eridi-xAA. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The f i r s t reported s c i e n t i f i c experiment using programmed mafcMmeswwasbbyLLitfc&ei&nlit9M using machines as i n s t r u c t i o n a l aids f o r a d u l t s studying e d u c a t i o n a l psychology. The c o n c l u s i o n , that programmed m a t e r i a l s f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g , demonstrated the p o t e n t i a l programmed i n s t r u c t i o n could have f o r education. However, p r i o r to 1948 only s i x a r t i c l e s on programs or programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices appeared i n education l i t e r a t u r e . In the e n t i r e decade preceding 1958 only 37 s t u d i e s were reported i n t h i s f i e l d . An e x p l o s i o n of i n t e r e s t i n programmed i n s t r u c t i o n began i n the m i d - f i f t i e s ; and 37 s t u d i e s are reported i n 1958 (1:16). The trend has continued unabated to present day, as educators have begun to r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has f o r our education system. Much of the i n i t i a l research r e l a t i n g to programmed i n s t r u c t i o n was designed to determine whether or not programmed m a t e r i a l s do, i n f a c t , teach. There i s no doubt that the multitude of s t u d i e s have accumulated a convincing array of evidence showing that programmed m a t e r i a l s are e f f e c t i v e teaching devices. Two a d d i t i o n a l conclusions that areaapparent from a survey of t h i s research i s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of programmed m a t e r i a l s f o r a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , e.g., adademic, r e c r e a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and f o r a v a r i e t y of 7 8 d i f f e r e n t groups of l e a r n e r s , e.g., c h i l d r e n (both normal and exception-a l ) , c o l l e g e students and a d u l t s (42:103). This review w i l l e s s e n t i a l l y focus on those s t u d i e s i n programmed i n s t r u c t i o n which r e l a t e s p e c i -f i c a l l y to a d u l t students i n three areas: ( i ) how does programmed i n s t r u c t i o n compare w i t h conventional i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques f o r teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s ; (2) how do the two major i n s t r u c t i o n a l paradigms, l i n e a r and branching, compare and; (3) what has research shown con-cerning two of the v a r i a b l e s of program c o n s t r u c t i o n ; namely, response mo.de and s i z e of step? Programmed vs. Conventional I n s t r u c t i o n In view of the growing i n t e r e s t i n teaching machines and pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n i t i s important to determine whether they are, as i s commonly b e l i e v e d , a more e f f e c t i v e or more e f f i c i e n t method of i n s t r u c t i o n than conventional teacher-dominated classroom techniques. There has been a m u l t i t u d e of s t u d i e s conducted on t h i s research question. " I n f a c t , the comparison study has been the most popular experiment i n the h i s t o r y of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n " (20:167). S e v e r a l authors, such as Stolurow (52) and H a r t l e y (20) f e e l t h i s i s an inappro-p r i a t e question and research y i e l d s meaningless data because of the f a i l u r e to d e f i n e conventional i n s t r u c t i o n , and thus,, i t i s u s u a l l y t r e a t e d as analogous to l e c t u r i n g . However, an examination of the vast number and v a r i e t y of experiments on t h i s q u e stion provides a b a s i s f o r making some conclusions. A s e r i e s of three experiments were conducted i n October, Novem-ber and December 1960, by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Business Machine Corporation 9 (IBM) using 112 IBM and customer engineers. S i x experimental c l a s s e s t o t a l i n g seventy men were i n s t r u c t e d by means of a programmed textbook o n l y , w h i l e two c o n t r o l c l a s s e s of forty-two men were i n s t r u c t e d by the l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n technique. The r e s u l t s showed that programmed i n s t r u c t i o n reduced the t r a i n i n g time needed by 27%. On a comprehensive .£est o§sthefimaterialccoveredvethe gexperimentatbmgrouposhowedwadleafning gain of 10% above the c o n t r o l group w i t h a smaller d i s p e r s i o n of scores. In a d d i t i o n , 83% of the students favoured using programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n f u t u r e courses i n place of conventional i n s t r u c t i o n , and 93% found i t l e s s d i f f i c u l t . The r e s u l t s obtained i n d i c a t e the p o t e n t i a l advantage i n time, cost and achievement that "programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has f o r the t r a i n i n g of ad u l t s (26:161-197). S e v e r a l other researchers, Day (42:13), B l y t h (25:45), Hughes and MacNamara (34:227), have noted t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and higher l e a r n i n g scores when compared w i t h conventional i n s t r u c t i o n . In each of the experiments the programmed i n s t r u c t e d groups showed higher l e a r n i n g achievement scores than the c o n v e n t i o n a l l y taught groups, and the researchers used t h i s as evidence of a s u p e r i o r teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . The r e s u l t s of a comparison study c a r r i e d out at Du Pont, using j u n i o r mechanics i n an engineering course designed to teach the men how to read engineering drawings, are summarized i n Table I . Those who re c e i v e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n spent 25% l e s s time i n l e a r n i n g the subj e c t and achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores on the p o s t - t e s t than those who re c e i v e d conventional group i n s t r u c t i o n (34). 10 Table I Comparison of Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n and Conventional I n s t r u c t i o n * Programmed Conventional Program vs. Method Method Convention Average man hours per t r a i n e e 12.8 17.0 25% l e s s Average examination scores 91% 81% 13% more However, not a l l researchers agree w i t h the above conclusions. I n experiments conducted by Wendt, Hough, Larue and Donelson, and Smith (45, 23, 34, 4(E) there was no increase i n l e a r n i n g noted f o r the pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n groups, although a l l reported evidence s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e d that the time r e q u i r e d to achieve t h i s l e a r n i n g can be r e -duced through the a p p l i c a t i o n of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . In a compara-t i v e experiment by Maurice Larue and E l a i n e Donelson designed to determine the e f f i c i e n c y of a programmed textbook, a teaching machine, and conventional classroom l e c t u r e 70 a d u l t male m i l i t a r y personnel completed a nineteen hour segment of a Fundamentals of Computers s e c t i o n i n a weapon system t r a i n i n g course. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n gain achievement scores between the three groups. However, the machine t r a i n e d group showed a 24% time saving and the programmed book group 28% when compared to the l e c t u r e group, without any r e d u c t i o n i n p r o f i c i e n c y (34:241-246). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g achieve-ment or r e t e n t i o n between groups i n s t r u c t e d i n conventional classroom l e c t u r e s when compared to those i n s t r u c t e d by programmed textbooks were 11 noted i n experiments using a i r f o r c e p o l i c e (25:52), i n s t a l l e r - r e p a i r -men at General Telephone (25:45), A i r Force cadets (41), and u n i v e r s i t y freshmen (45) • However, a l l experiments noted the t r a i n i n g time re q u i r e d to o b t a i n the same l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y was s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced i n the programmed i n s t r u c t i o n groups; the a i r force p o l i c e t r a i n i n g by 1/2 to 2/3, the i n s t a l l e r repairmen by 40-45%, the a i r fo r c e cadets by 44-47% and the u n i v e r s i t y freshmen r e q u i r e d 1/4 the time taken by t h e i r c o n v e n t i o n a l l y taught counterparts. Thus programmed i n s t r u c t i o n techniques were found to be conside r a b l y more e f f i c i e n t than the conventional l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, when e f f i c i e n c y was defined as a saving of i n s t r u c t i o n a l time. Bushness made an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n a comparative e x p e r i -ment using a group of a d u l t workers experienced i n c o n t i n u i n g education. N i n e t y - s i x journeymen e l e c t r i c i a n s were assigned to one of three modes of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r three hours a week f o r eighteen weeks. The three modes of i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e d , (1) i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e l f - p a c e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , (2) combination of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t r u c t o r lead d i s c u s s i o n and, (3) conventional l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n technique w i t h the use of advanced a u d i o v i s u a l a i d s . A s i g n i f i c a n t saving of i n s t r u c -t i o n a l time favouring the two groups using programmed i n s t r u c t i o n was found, but i n the combination group that p a i r e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h d i s c u s s i o n , the t r a i n i n g time was reduced the most, w h i l e the students were more h i g h l y motivated and more p o s i t i v e (34:110-113). These s t u d i e s were chosen to i l l u s t r a t e the wide range of a p p l i c a t i o n s programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has f o r a d u l t education. However, 12 there are a number of l i m i t a t i o n s to these comparison experiments. They are d i f f i c u l t to c a r r y out p r e c i s e l y because of the number of v a r i a b l e s i n t e r a c t i n g i n two groups that can never be f u l l y i t e m i z e d or c o n t r o l l e d , e.g., the n o v e l t y of u s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s has an unknown i n f l u e n c e on students. I n s i n g l e comparison s t u d i e s n e i t h e r the method used nor the teacher i n v o l v e d can be repre-s e n t a t i v e of a l l methods oat a l l teachers. Therefore, the r e s u l t s of any s i n g l e comparison study must remain s p e c i f i c to that study as c a r r i e d out, and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s must be made w i t h c a u t i o n . Despite the f a c t that i t i s not i n p r i n c i p l e d i f f i c u l t to do a comparison experiment, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to do i t p r e c i s e l y , and c l e a r l y , i t i s r i s k y to g e n e r a l i z e from the r e s u l t s of a s i n g l e study. A d i f f e r -ent approach would be to look at a l a r g e number of these comparison experiments and consider g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s that emerge. H a r t l e y (20) reviewed 112 such s t u d i e s and the r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 2. Table 2 The R e s u l t s of 112 Studies Comparing Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h Conventional I n s t r u c t i o n Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n Group  Number of Studies No Measures Recording S i g n i f i c a n t l y S i g n i f i c a n t S i g n i f i c a n t l y Recorded These Measures Superior D i f f e r e n c e Worse Time taken 90 Test r e s u l t s 110 Retest r e s u l t s 33 Note: Figures i n the 1st column d i f f e r because not a l l three measures are recorded f o r everyone of the 112 s t u d i e s . 47 37 6 41 54 15 6 24 .3 13 These s t u d i e s , i n g e n e r a l , tend to support the f i n d i n g s of the other s t u d i e s described i n t h i s s e c t i o n , and the f o l l o w i n g summary statements may be drawn from the data: 1. Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s e q u a l l y as e f f e c t i v e an i n s t r u c -t i o n a l technique as conventional classroom techniques, and i n many instances has been found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e . 2. Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , i n most cases, has r e s u l t e d i n a saving of i n s t r u c t i o n a l time r e q u i r e d to achieve the same l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y . The major i m p l i c a t i o n of these s t u d i e s i s that programmed i n s t r u c t i o n worked as w e l l as, or b e t t e r t h a n , c c o n v e n t i o n a l i i n s t r u c t i o n i n a d u l t education programs. Branching Vs. L i n e a r Paradigms Two b a s i c auto i n s t r u c t i o n a l models have been i d e n t i f i e d , (1) the l i n e a r model which u s u a l l y d i s p l a y s a f i x e d sequence of l e a r n i n g s t e p s , r e q u i r i n g a l l subjects to t r a v e r s e a l l items, and (2) Crowder's branching model which uses a v a r i a b l e sequencing of items, based on student response to posed m u l t i p l e choice questions. A review and assessment of the research comparing the two modes of program presenta-t i o n was conducted. The l i t e r a t u r e search revealed that most of these experiments were c a r r i e d out over a comparatively narrow f i e l d . Many i n v e s t i g a t o r s used only s m a l l numbers of students, others d e a l t w i t h only one type of l e a r n e r , or a very l i m i t e d number of programs, or only one type of s u b j e c t matter. In almost a l l cases only one aspect was examined and 14 the p o s s i b l e I n f l u e n c e of the other v a r i a b l e s was ignored. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , that the r e s u l t s are o f t e n i n c o n c l u s i v e and the f i n d i n g s of one experimenter are oft e n r e f l e c t e d by another i n the same f i e l d (22:83). However, i t i s worthwhile to examine some of the b e t t e r s t u d i e s i n order to note any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which may emerge. Coulson and Silberman ( 8 ) , using students e n r o l l e d i n a psychology course at Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , i n v e s t i g a t e d three dimensions along which one teaching machine may d i f f e r from another, (1) student response mode, (2) s i z e of item step and (3) item sequence c o n t r o l , or f i x e d sequence vs. branching. The ei g h t y subjects were t r a i n e d under one of e i g h t d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g procedures, the e i g h t t r a i n i n g procedures represent-in g the e i g h t combinations of the three experimental v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s f o r v a r i a b l e s (1) and (2) w i l l be discussed l a t e r . The branch-i n g f a c t o r d i d not appear to a f f e c t l e a r n i n g achievement Scores when compared to the f i x e d sequence, but made p o s s i b l e a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n r e q u ired t r a i n i n g time. The researchers concluded that when both the amount learned and the r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g time are considered, the branching procedure appears to o f f e r an o v e r a l l advantage over non-branching. Silberman et a l . , (39), i n two experiments that were con-cerned w i t h methods of branching, i n d i c a t e d that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between f l e x i b i l i t y of m a t e r i a l s and the r a t e of l e a r n i n g that favours the f l e x i b l e m a t e r i a l s over the f i x e d sequence. Backward branching, however, which allows review o n l y , was not found to be s u p e r i o r to the f i x e d sequence. These conclusions are r e f l e c t e d by H a r t l e y (21), who compared the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a l i n e a r ppogram e n t i t l e d , "A R e v i s i o n 15 Course i n Logarithms" w i t h that of an o p t i o n a l branch program on the same sub j e c t . The r e s u l t s showed both programs were e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e , and there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the times taken to achieve the r e s u l t s . One hundred and twenty students from Ohio U n i v e r s i t y , r e g i s t e r e d i n I n d u s t r i a l A r t s and I n d u s t r i a l Technology courses, were subjects i n an experimental study by S k u l l (40) to determine which of two programs, l i n e a r or branching, would be more e f f e c t i v e i n the teaching and r e t e n -t i o n of s e l e c t e d t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n to high and low a c h i e v i n g c o l l e g e students. S k u l l found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g occurred, i n favour of the branching group, although t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d i d not appear on the r e t e n t i o n t e s t s . F o l l o w i n g a l i t e r a t u r e review of s t u d i e s which i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s question Arnold Rae (29) concluded that past s t u d i e s revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the t e r m i n a l performances of students who worked through l i n e a r or branching programs, but branching programs req u i r e d l e s s time to complete the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n . However, an experiment conducted by Rae using 189 freshmen engineering students from U.C.L.A. showed no d i f f e r e n c e i n e i t h e r l e a r n i n g time or t e s t scores between the branching or the l i n e a r methods. The e s s e n t i a l elements of a number of s t u d i e s have been examined i n which the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l i n e a r and branching programs have been compared. An u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i a f o r determining the r e l a t i v e merits of programs i s mastery of the subject matter as evidenced by f i n a l c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores. The evidence i s confusing and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . 16 At the present time, therefore, i t can be said there i s no experimental evidence that c l e a r l y supports a claim to superiority by either li n e a r or branching programs (25:14). However, perhaps there are certain circumstances i n which one type of program would be more effec t i v e than the other. J. Hebenton (22) was able to organize a programmed learning scheme which was both broadly based and of comparative long duration (over 30,000 student study hours). The students ranged from the semi-s k i l l e d workers to clerks and typists to engineering graduates.and executives. The subject matter had an equally wide front, and varied from academic subjects, (>egg,,hb-asicEEnglis'lj) f°toraiM$3geffi£neu&dBj:e§fes ^egg.^nnetwor.kaanalysVis) ^otdeleisureus'ubj:e"ctse(g.,g. sagaiMng) Jhexfieepre-sentation modes included books and machines, l i n e a r and branching. Because the obijeettwassto obtain results from the natural programmed learning s i t u a t i o n , nothing was suggested to the student that an experi-ment was i n progress. Relevant factors i n the choice of l i n e a r vs. branching were found and grouped under three headings as follows: student (1) student: i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l , educational standard, verbal a b i l i t y . (2) s-ubject matter: whether concrete or abstract, p r a c t i c a l or theoretical. (3) purpose: memorizing, understanding, forming judgements. The results produced a guide to the optimum use of l i n e a r vs. branching programs and are summarized below: 17 L i n e a r Low Low Low Concrete P r a c t i c a l Memorizing Information Parameters Relevant to L i n e a r Vs. Branching I n t r i n s i c or Branching student i n t e l l i g e n c e student emotional l e v e l student v e r b a l l e v e l s ubject subject purpose purpose hig h high h i g h a b s t r a c t t h e o r e t i c a l unders tanding judgement Thus, research f a i l s to support a c o n c l u s i o n that e i t h e r l i n e a r or branching programs are i n h e r e n t l y b e t t e r than the other but parameters have been e s t a b l i s h e d which serve as a u s e f u l guide f o r program w r i t e r s and program users. V a r i a b l e s i n Program Co n s t r u c t i o n R e l i a b l e c r i t e r i o n measures, which define a good program frcx shoM'dfSecbasedoon,researchbfihdingson Thee-inffliuenceiof.stheTmany.nfTc „ M d ^ e n i e f l } vaciabiLesntforrexample ,erespom'sepmode,mpacingacfegd-f e e <3 -back, reinforcement schedule,andestepzsize$:con anprogramrsmefficiency . i . -and on i t s teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s of prime concern to program w r i t e r s , program users and program researchers. Unfortunately, a l i t e r a t u r e review tends to bear out the conclusions of Paschal Strong who s t a t e d , "The g r e a t e s t weakness of research i n programmed i n s t r u c t i o n l i e s i n the area of program v a r i a b l e s " (34:224). However, i t i s important to review and assess c u r r e n t s t u d i e s i n t h i s area f o r any o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a 18 t h a t might emerge. This review w i l l focus on those s t u d i e s i n pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n that r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y to two v a r i a b l e s : response mode and step s i z e . Overt an Covert Responses Overt vs. Covert Responses The i s s u e of response mode i s fundamental to general l e a r n i n g theory. The importance and f u n c t i o n of overt responses i n l e a r n i n g has been debated by both l e a r n i n g theoristsaarideeducators,aaridiisaa b a s i c and p e r s i s t e n t disagreement among l e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s . " I t separates those who i d e n t i f y w i t h the S-S theory from those which i d e n t i f y w i t h an S-R theory" (44:421). I t would be u s e f u l , t h e r e f o r e , to determine the degree to which f i n d i n g s on mode of response,oorccovert vs. overt responses, apply to programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . This v a r i a b l e i s of par-t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s i n c e i t forms a p o i n t of departure between l i n e a r and branching programs, l i n e a r g e n e r a l l y u s i n g a constructed response and branching a m u l t i p l e choice technique. A great number of stu d i e s have been designed to y i e l d data regarding the comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s of constructed and s e l e c t e d modes of response i n programmed i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s . In a study u s i n g u n i v e r s i t y students studying the h i s t o r i c a l foundations of the modern secondary school c u r r i c u l u m Hough (23) reported no d i f f e r e n c e s on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t between students taught by means of constructed and s e l e c t e d response programs. Fry (16) on the other hand, found that i n the teaching of Spanish vocabulary to high school students the constructed response mode was more e f f e c t i v e when the c r i t e r i o n of l e a r n i n g was 19 r e c a l l , but there was no d i f f e r e n c e when the c r i t e r i o n t e s t was of the m u l t i p l e choice v a r i e t y . The covert response mode was found to take s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s time f o r completion of programmed m a t e r i a l s without corresponding decrease on theeimmedii!a,teerefeent±6.nnmeas.ur.eeinnann experiment by Lambert, M i l l e r and Wiley. (3$i)i . anlnxanrexperimentaalready d e s c r i b e d , by Coulson and Silberman (8) which i n v e s t i g a t e d three v a r i a b l e s along which one teaching machine may d i f f e r from another, the response mode d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the amount le a r n e d , although the r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g time was considerably l e s s f o r m u l t i p l e choice responses over constructed responses. Thus, the o v e r a l l advantage appears to be w i t h the m u l t i p l e choice mode. S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s are reported by Rae (25:46) using engineering students at U.C.L.A. as s u b j e c t s , S t o l u r o n and Walder (44) using content from a d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l course, and Paschal Strong (34) f o l l o w i n g a review of nine r e c e n t l y p ublished s t u d i e d i n v o l v i n g m u l t i p l e choice vs. w r i t t e n response. Evans, Glaser and Homme (7:543) conducted a study at the U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h u s i n g content c a l l e d 'Fundamentals of Music' to compare the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o n s t r u c t i o n method of responding w i t h no overt response. The group making no overt response spent l e s s time i n l e a r n i n g but the response mode d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e f i n a l t e s t scores. A f i n d i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h these r e s u l t s was obtained by the same researchers (14) when a program designed to teach the con-s t r u c t i o n of short deductive proofs i n symbolic l o g i c was administered to c o l l e g e students. I t appeared that w i t h i m p l i c i t responses subjects completed t h e i r programs i n about 65% of the time taken by students who 20 had to record t h e i r responses. These s t u d i e s , comparing overt and covert responses i n d i c a t e that students proceed through a program more r a p i d l y w i t h covert responses. Comparison of the post t e s t performance of students employ-i n g no w r i t t e n responses w i t h that of students who learned by making w r i t t e n responses have g e n e r a l l y y i e l d e d e q u i v o c a l r e s u l t s . Eigan and Margulus (34) attempted to account f o r these divergent r e s u l t s by va r y i n g two response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the relevance of the re q u i r e d response to the m a t e r i a l taught and the i n f o r m a t i o n l e v e l of the r e -quired response. While no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed between response modes at the low in f o r m a t i o n l e v e l so at the intermediate or high i n f o r m a t i o n l e v e l s when the responses were i n c i d e n t a l , overt responses y i e l d e d more s u p e r i o r student performance f o r intermediate and high i n f o r m a t i o n l e v e l s when the responses were r e l e v a n t . Thus i t appears the best response mode depends on p a r t i c u l a r s i n the s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the amount of time a v a i l a b l e and d i f f i -c u l t y of the content. The experimental evidence comparing covert and overt modes of response i s i n c o n s i s t e n t . Consequently, absolute conclusions are not p o s s i b l e . However, i n general, i t would appear c o v e r t t r e s p o n s e s s o f f e r a savings i n time when compared to overt responses, without any l o s s i n leaEndingppcof±£'±engy. As a consequence, when time i s taken i n t o account, covert responses tend to be more e f f i c i e n t inttermsoofaamouhtllearned per u n i t then response modes r e q u i r i n g overt behavior (37, 17). This i s not an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e f i n d i n g , and ' i t i s necessary to consider 21 p a r t i c u l a r s of the s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , namely, the i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l of the l e a r n e r , the d i f f i c u l t y of the l e a r n i n g t a s k , and the amount of time a v a i l a b l e . However, these f i n d i n g s do have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n . I t appears that overt responding to every frame i s not e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g (25:67). Students motivated to l e a r n can a c t i v e l y respond i n ways other than a c t u a l l y w r i t i n g answers, such as t h i n k i n g . This can not only r e s u l t i n a savings i n l e a r n i n g time, but a savings i n teaching m a t e r i a l s . The conservation on cost of programmed textbooks by simply r e q u i r i n g covert responses of the students, thus a l l o w i n g the reuse of programmed textbooks, should be an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r programmers. Large Step Vs. S a a l l Step Large Step vs. Small Step One of the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of programmed m a t e r i a l s i s t hat a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l u n i t of sequenced i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented to the student at a time, tQowhichhth'e esltudent must respond before being presented w i t h the second u n i t of i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s common p r a c t i c e to l i m i t each p r e s e n t a t i o n frame to cover only one concept or p a r t of a concept. A b a s i c question to be asked i s : what g u i d e l i n e s does research o f f e r concerning the s i z e of step? Are l a r g e steps more or l e s s e f f e c t i v e than s m a l l ones? There has been a m u l t i t u d e of s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s question. In one of the f i r s t experiments designed to provide a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the process of programming, Evans, Glaser and Homme (7), 1959, 22 i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of the number of steps i n a program upon l e a r n -i n g time, frequency of e r r o r s during l e a r n i n g and upon immediate and delayed t e s t performance. The r e s u l t s show t h a t , w i t h i n l i m i t s , i n c r e a s i n g the number of steps i n a program r e s u l t e d i n decreases i n the number of e r r o r s on immediate and delayed performance t e s t s . I n a d d i t i o n , s m a l l e r steps, e.g., the use of more items to cover the same subject matter, r e s u l t e d i n l e s s time per step, but greater t o t a l l e a r n i n g time, and fewer e r r o r s occurred during the course of l e a r n i n g . The authors p o i n t out that the optimum s i z e of step might be expected to vary as a f u n c t i o n of the type of subject matter being programmed. Beyond a c e r t a i n p o i n t i n c r e a s i n g the number of steps d i d not r e s u l t i n improved performance. One of the few pieces of s o l i d experimental evidence t r e a t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n length of step a n a l y t i c a l l y comes from the experiments of Maccaly, S h e f f i e l d , and Margolius (29:533) w i t h step by step pro-cedural demonstrations. The experimenters found that short steps were b e t t e r than long ones, at l e a s t i n i t i a l l y . However, they a l s o concluded that an optimum p a t t e r n f o r average students would be enforced progression from s h o r t e r to longer steps. Other experiments undertaken to date agree w i t h t h i s c o n c l u s i o n ; that g e n e r a l l y s m a l l s e q u e n t i a l steps r e s u l t i n more l e a r n i n g than do long steps (30, 13, 20 25, 34). A f u r t h e r f i n d i n g i s t h a t , i n general, s m a l l e r steps r e q u i r e l e s s time per step but more t o t a l time (30, 13, 20, 25). In a p r e v i o u s l y described experiment conducted by Coulson and Silberman ( 8 ) , which i n v e s t i g a t e d three dimensions along which one 23 teaching machine may d i f f e r from another, the s i z e of item step (small vs. large) was s t u d i e d . The researchers showed the s m a l l step groups learned more, and concluded that there was a s u p e r i o r i t y i n t o t a l amount learned w i t h s m a l l steps. This data tends to support one of Skinner's notions regarding teaching methods, namely the importance of s m a l l steps i n w r i t i n g items. However, the data a l s o i n d i c a t e s that s i z e of step may not be as appropriate a d e s c r i p t i o n of what i s i n v o l v e d as redundancy would be. I t appears that the s m a l l steps are r e a l l y a d d i t i o n a l items r e l a t i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r concept (42:143). I t seems apparent that r e s o l u t i o n of the question of s i z e of step a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e s a complex of f a c t o r s which need to be f u r t h e r analyzed, and i t can be concluded that more experimentation w i t h b e t t e r f o r m u l a t i o n of f a c t o r s i s needed before p r e c i s e statements about the advantage of s m a l l steps over l a r g e steps can be made. Summary This b r i e f review of s e l e c t e d s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d three areas of research i n programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . In general i t would appear pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n o f f e r s a savings i n time over conventional i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h no l o s s i n p r o f i c i e n c y , and that n e i t h e r l i n e a r or branching programs are i n h e r e n t l y b e t t e r than the other. I n a d d i t i o n , covert responses appear as e f f e c t i v e as overt responses and s m a l l steps are s u p e r i o r to l a r g e steps. Among the i m p l i c a t i o n s these s t u d i e s have f o r the area of program technology was the demonstration t h a t a s c i e n t i f i c key to program c o n s t r u c t i o n has not yet been developed. O b j e c t i v e measures, based on r e l i a b l e experimental evidence would be of great a s s i s t a n c e i n preparing programmed m a t e r i a l s and would r e s u l t i n the development of more accurate, more appropriate and more e f f e c t i v e programs. CHAPTER I I I PROCEDURE Con s t r u c t i o n of the Booklet The development of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s can be d i v i d e d i n t o four phases: program s e l e c t i o n , program c o n s t r u c t i o n , program e v a l u a t i o n and program implementation. Before c o n s t r u c t i o n of a program on any subject or segment of a course of study begins there are three b a s i c questions that must be answered: (1) "Should the subject be programmed, (2) i f the answer i s yes, then what program-ming technique or paradigm should be used, and (3) what medium or combination of media should be used to present the programmed mater-i a l " (12:11). Each of these questions were considered before beginning c o n s t r u c t i o n of Methods of Adu l t Education, and are discussed here. Subject S e l e c t i o n The concept of methods i s course content f o r Education 412 o f f e r e d at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia through Correspondence Study, the extension d i v i s i o n n i g h t time course, and a r e g u l a r on campus day course. I t normally r e q u i r e s at l e a s t one c l a s s s e s s i o n to present the concept of methods and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. Because there are a number of new d e f i n i t i o n s and a cons i d e r a b l e amount of content a c q u i s i t i o n presented i n a l i m i t e d amount of c l a s s - t i m e , students are 24 25 o f t e n confused and unclear of f a c t s . Because t h i s concept I s fundamental to the study and understanding of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a d u l t education a c t i v i t i e s , students who do not have an exact comprehension of the d e f i n i t i o n of methods would l i k e l y experience d i f f i c u l t y when reviewing current l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of a d u l t education, w r i t i n g course r e q u i r e d papers, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , or p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Br-§gr-ammpjanningvig. The d e c i s i o n to programmtheht-opi)ci"MebhoHsd6foAdMelEducatJion'1 was made a f t e r a f e a s i b i l i t y study that showed the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a pro-gramnwouid'ls^tisf.yfa' p r e s ' e n t n s t u d e r i e n l e a ^ programmed m a t e r i a l s already a v a i l a b l e that could s a t i s f y the i n s t r u c -t i o n a l requirements. To determine the s u i t a b i l i t y of the t o p i c f o r programming; that i s , whether the m a t e r i a l to be taught and the teaching s i t u a t i o n lend themselves economically and e d u c a t i o n a l l y to the develop-ment of a program, a l i t e r a t u r e review was conducted and a c h e c k l i s t of suggested c r i t e r i a devised, as f o l l o w s : (see f o l l o w i n g page). The c r i t e r i o n c h e c k l i s t s t r u c t u r e s the in f o r m a t i o n i n a s y s t e -matic, convenient and c o n s i s t e n t manner and i s a u s e f u l guide when determining i f a subject would be appropriate to program. Based on the r e s u l t s of the c r i t e r i o n c h e c k l i s t i t was decided to program Methods  of Adult Education. Paradigm S e l e c t i o n The f i r s t step i n program c o n s t r u c t i o n was to c o n s u l t w i t h c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s , who helped i d e n t i f y the sources of content on 26 C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i n g Subjects f o r Programming 1 C r i t e r i a Present (yes) Absent (no) 1. I s the subject content r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e ? / 2. Is the s u b j e c t r e q u i r e d course content? / 3. Are mastery c r i t e r i a f o r the subject r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e ? / 4. Can the subject be taught w i t h -out the need f o r complementing i n s t r u c t i o n , or t r a i n i n g a i d s , such as awkward or dangerous equipment? / 5. Does the student's education and experience l e v e l permit the use of programmed m a t e r i a l s ? / 6. I s the s u b j e c t taught f r e q u e n t l y enough to j u s t i f y the expense and the development of a program? / 7. I s the student p o p u l a t i o n ade-quate to j u s t i f y the expense? / 8. W i l l the average completion time be l e s s than 10 hours? / 9. I s the subject matter adaptable to programming? / 10. Is there a l e a r n i n g need f o r a program? / * Sources: 15, 5, 12. 27 the subject to be taught. Once the l i t e r a t u r e review was completed and a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d , a general statement of objec-t i v e s and programmspeGi-f-icat&omsnwa-sadevis^ of the t a r g e t l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs on the sub j e c t . The s e l e c t i o n of programming paradigm or model was based, i n p a r t , on the i n f o r m a t i o n . "The programming paradigm or model s u p p l i e s the b a s i c c o n c e p t i c a l framework through which the i n d i v i d u a l items are connected" (30:40). I t i s chosen w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the o b j e c t i v e s , subject matter, t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n and a b i l i t i e s of the program w r i t e r . The v a r i o u s models or paradigms were examined to s e l e c t the most s u i t a b l e f o r Methods of Adult Education. There are a great v a r i e t y of programming techniques, but most programs tend to be of two or three main types. At present "there i s l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l b a s i s to favour one general type of program over another" (27:28). While research has shown no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g e f f i c i e n c y between l i n e a r and branching programs (35:73, 37:15, 22:83), the f a c t remains that e i g h t out of every ten courses produced are l i n e a r (27:73). There i s good reason to suppose the greater number of l i n e a r programs i s due to the f a c t that l i n e a r programs are b e l i e v e d by many to be e a s i e r to organize, use simplerraidssanddareetheecheapestttooreproduGee. Someeauthbrss conclude that the choice of model i s a matter of personal preference (35:73) a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the various c r i t e r i a l i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y . Although l i n e a r p r o gramsearerusuaMylconsideredeeffectivevfof a l l age and a b i l i t y l e v e l s , branching programs are more s u i t e d to the o l d e r , more i n t e l l i g e n t student (Crowder recommends over age 13), (4:70, 28 22:88) who g e n e r a l l y consider i t more c h a l l e n g i n g and more i n t e r e s t i n g (12:62). This may be, i n p a r t , because the branching sequence achieves i t s ends more q u i c k l y than the l i n e a r . In a d d i t i o n , "branching programs are based on the assumption that t r a i n i n g i s a process of understanding, where students are f u l l y conscious of the reasons f o r t h e i r c o r r e c t responses as w e l l as the reasons f o r any e r r o r s . Thus, l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s from an i n t e r n a l process of reasoning" (37:6). Perhaps t h i s has more appeal.to the older student. The subject matter and o b j e c t i v e s place r e s t r a i n t on the choice of program model. Although the branching model would seem to be p e r t i n e n t to a wide range of programmed u n i t s , i t has p a r t i c u l a r appeal f o r pro-grams.einianaareaewherereonstantndecisiohomakihgnis iEeq'u$cede<(i30387§7; 22:88) or w i t h m a t e r i a l that i n v o l v e s complex problem s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s (20:87) or a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t i e s (12:62). Since the i n s t r u c t i o n paradigm s t r e s s e s t e s t i n g and d e c i s i o n making there i s a surface r e l a t i o n s h i p to the program's o b j e c t i v e s . The three b e h a v i o u r a l end products f o r Methods  of Adult Education are the l e a r n i n g of f a c t s , l e a r n i n g to s o l v e problems and l e a r n i n g to make p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , and thus, would appear more s u i t e d to the branching model. I t i s more s u i t a b l e where broad concepts or l a r g e r pieces of i n f o r m a t i o n are given, whereas the l i n e a r model i s best where the subject matter i s made up of many small u n i t s of informa-t i o n (4:68). At the same time branching can, w i t h advantage, be used f o r groups of students amongst whom there i s a wide range of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , s i n c e the m a t e r i a l i s capable of adapting to d i f f e r e n t l e a r n e r needs (33:57). However, i t must be noted, there i s as yet l i t t l e 29 or no o b j e c t i v e date a v a i l a b l e to support these suggestions, and they must be regarded as t h e o r e t i c a l hypothesis based only on experience (37:17). Branching t e x t s have been prepared i n such d i v e r s e f i e l d s as a l g e r b r a , trigonometry, physics , c b h e M s t r y ,ll'aw,aaridCGont'£actbbidldge (9:296). The branching model was s e l e c t e d because i t appeared to be the most u s e f u l methodology when c o n s i d e r a t i o n was made of the various c r i t e r i a . However, i t seems c l e a r that standards f o r the adequacy of a program ought to be concerned p r i m a r i l y i n terms of i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n a t t a i n i n g defined e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r than by s p e c i f y i n g the format, sequencing or other aspect of the means whereby these ends are achieved (29:566). The l a s t question to be considered was what medium should be used to present the program. The m a j o r i t y of programs i n use today are of the "paper and p e n c i l " book type. This i s , by f a r , the most economical medium and, because i t r e q u i r e s only the booklet f o r equipment, the e a s i e s t and most convenient f o r students to use. I t has not been recom-mended that a beginning programmer, as the w r i t e r , attempt a program using advanced media (12:16). Since a simple branching booklet does not r e q u i r e the very s p e c i a l i z e d and lengthy t r a i n i n g necessary to develop a m a t h e t i c a l or machine a s s i s t e d program, the branching booklet was s e l e c t e d as more s u i t a b l e to the a b i l i t i e s of the program w r i t e r and more useable by the students. 30 Content Development Each step i n programming process leads n a t u r a l l y i n t o the next. The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been i l l u s t r a t e d %ya]jysaught X>§u3i2'4j)iuahd are represented d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y i n Figure I . subject s e l e c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s and assumptions ( l i t e r a t u r e review) r e v i s x o n o b j e c t i v e s paradigm s e l e c t i o n e v a l u a t i o n J i n i t i a l t e s t i n g o r d e r i n g of subject matter c o n s t r u c t i o n of items Figure I . I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the Steps i n Programming* * Source: 30: 31 However, the process i s not merely one d i r e c t i o n a l as suggested here, and at many points i n the development of Methods of Adult Education the w r i t e r was forced to reexamine previous steps and make r e v i s i o n s . A more r e a l i s t i c programming process i s represented diagramatically i n Figure II as developed by Hartley.(20:15). objectives target population development task and behavioural analysis of measures of . prof aicmency course construction j , 1. v a l i d a t i o n empirical t e s t i n g and evaluation t + • J implementation r e v i s i o n Figure I I . Programming Process* * Scarce; 2C The objectives or aims of the program were s p e c i f i e d p r e c i s e l y i n measurable behavioural terms as suggested by Rob;at Mager: Preparing  Ins|ructi:o.5a^bQbji'eGtlves. ThTheeterminalrdriteBionefeesfrawasoooris't'r.wet!ed based on the objectives, to ensure that the knowledge and s k i l l s which the student i s expected to demonstrate upon mastery of the program would be tested. Once the s p e c i f i c responses that constitute successful com-p l e t i o n of the c r i t e r i o n behaviour by the student were i d e n t i f i e d a de t a i l e d task analysis was begun. "This means,imneeffeet, that the programmer s t a r t s with the f i n a l c r i t e r i o n task and works backwards, 32 step by step, to the p o i n t where he/she has s p e c i f i e d i n a systematic f a s h i o n e v e r y t h i n g that the student must go through i n order to reach the t e r m i n a l behaviour (11:54). The task a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f y i n g the s p e c i f i c responses that c o n s t i t u t e c r i t e r i o n behaviour, the p a r t i c u l a r c u e - s t i m u l i w i t h which these responses w i l l become a s s o c i a t e d and the sequencing or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l requirement of the task to be learned (42:85). The s p e c i f i c a t i o n of t h i s sequence of d i s c r i m i n a t i v e s t i m u l i and c l a s s of responses i s most e f f i c i e n t l y accomplished using a f l o w c h a r t . "The flow c h a r t s p e c i f i e s a l l the d i s c r i m i n a t i v e s t i m u l i to which the l e a r n e r w i l l have to attend and a l l the responses that he w i l l have to make. I t serves as a l o g i c a l device f o r f o r c i n g the programmer to t h i n k about l e a r n i n g from the p o i n t of view of the l e a r n e r and as a source of prompts f o r frame w r i t i n g " (11:54). The t h i r d step i n program c o n s t r u c t i o n was to arrange the subject matter i n t o a l o g i c a l order which i s conducive to r a p i d l e a r n -i n g and good r e t e n t i o n . The flow chart provided the b a s i s f o r d e c i d i n g upon the optimum l e a r n i n g sequences and appropriate teaching s t r a t e g i e s . The arrangement of the subject matter i n t o a l o g i c a l order can be f u r t h e r analysed i n t o three d i s t i n c t steps. F i r s t a h i e r a r c h y of the m a t e r i a l s must be e s t a b l i s h e d so that the l e a r n e r w i l l f i r s t master elementary s k i l l s which'he w i l l l a t e r use to develop more complex ones. Second the h i e r a r c h y of m a t e r i a l s must be composed of steps s m a l l enough to be taken r e a d i l y by the l e a r n e r without being so s m a l l as to impede l e a r n i n g . F i n a l l y the program must provide f o r s u f f i c i e n t 33 c o n d i t i o n i n g at each step i n order to be sure that each step w i l l be adequately learned (7:550). Upon completion of the task analyses and the sequencing of the subject matter, the s p e c i f i c frames were w r i t t e n . The concept of a technology of education introduces the i d e a of the frame as a b e h a v i o u r a l u n i t , r ather than a simple u n i t of p r e s e n t a t i o n . As a consequence the frame has a very d e f i n i t e f u n c t i o n to perform and i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s f u n c t i o n i t must perf o r c e f u l f i l a number of b e h a v i o u r a l requirements. "Thus, each frame must i n v o l v e a predetermined and p r e d i c t e d change i n the behaviour of the student working through the sequence and the change must a l s o be r e l e v a n t and meaningful to the s u c c e s s f u l meeting of the o b j e c t i v e s " (20:103). In the branching model a frame contains a concept of i n f o r m a t i o n and a m u l t i p l e choice question to t e s t the student's understanding of the concept j u s t presented. From the l i s t of p o s s i b l e answers provided, the student s e l e c t s h i s choice and f o l l o w s the r o u t i n g d i r e c t i o n s beside t h i s answer. A wrong answer frame e x p l a i n s the probable cause of e r r o r and gives a f r e s h e x p l a n a t i o n of the con-cept. The r i g h t answer frame i n c l u d e s a short r e c a p i t u a t i o n covering the reasons or thought processes by which the r i g h t answer should have been obtained and then a new concept i s presented and understanding t e s t e d . V a l i d a t i o n of the Booklet "At any stage of i t s development a program represents the programmer's assumptions as to what m a t e r i a l the student must have i n 34 order to meet the t e r m i n a l c r i t e r i o n behaviours. As the program i s developed i t i s teste d to see i f these assumptions are v a l i d " (2:244). The e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the program were t e s t e d i n two ways, through s u b j e c t i v e evaluations of subje c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s and a programming expert and through a v a l i d a t i o n process. This i s an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of programmed m a t e r i a l s ; they must be e m p i r i -c a l l y t e s t e d through a v a l i d a t i o n process, and modified on the b a s i s of the l e a r n e r ' s responses. The purpose of the process i s twofold; f i r s t l y i t p o i nts out weaknesses i n the programmandnprpv-idesedaliatonowhirGhcto^ base r e v i s i o n s and improvements, and secondly, i t determines the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the pro grammas aa teaehihgninstcumen'tnfofothehstuderitstfofowhom -i t was designed to i n s t r u c t . The v a l i d a t i o n process i s of concern to a l l programmers, but, un f o r t u n a t e l y , the l i t e r a t u r e on the t o p i c i s o f t e n ambiguous and va r y i n g p o i n t s of view are f r e q u e n t l y found. Markle e x p l a i n s the con-f u s i o n by s t a t i n g , "There are no f i r m r u l e s . Each programmer i s on h i s own." (20:140). The-testing procedure used f o r the booklet Methods of Adul t Education f o l l o w s the plan l a i d out by Brethower and i s represented .schematically i n Figure I I I . Developmental Test The purpose of the developmental t e s t i s to check how f a r the f i r s t v e r s i o n of the programmp.roducedei'slsinifacfectsuitablelfo fothose f o r whom i t i s w r i t t e n . I t i n v o l v e s g i v i n g the program to a sampling 35 major minor No Problems I n i t i a l I n d i v i d u a l -> R e v i s i o n > Group P r i n t Write Tryout Tryout_ Problems Developmental Test F i e l d Test Figure I I I . The V a l i d a t i o n Process of the students, one at a time, i n order to discover any se r i o u s defects i n the programmetot.revealawhibhclf rameseneede>£evisiehsnandndotdetermine" whether more or l e s s frames are r e q u i r e d to make the programme an e f f e c t i v e teaching instrument. The developmental t e s t group was comprised of twelve students e n r o l l e d i n Education 412 during the 1974 summer s e s s i o n at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.aniTheesitudehitstwereasedectedr-randomlyafromuaent •totall'Situdent enrollmenttbd: 2'2utakingTithescou-rses WrTbeyswe<reta£ \fcheti t l _ 'pointaintltheiri'cbursewb-rkrwheiresitherisu'biiectt wbulduho-rmaliLyube itaught-1,y hadt.thghdes'i.gnatfed p.re^gnt-ryprequif ememtsuandmdidsnoitdknow ithe mat'erial beingi.tau'ghfcng Thegstudenfcs weiree'atLl %ypdcallofyifcheat a^gethpopaiLat i o n pfpstudenitsofortwhomttheopro!g'ramtwaspd'egeiop Teds developed. The programmer sat w i t h each student w h i l e the student worked through the program and h i s / h e r progress was noted by the programmer on the v a l i d a t i o n progress 'chart (see sample, Appendix C). The t o t a l completion time was recorded. F o l l o w i n g student completion of the program 3 6 the programmer and the student discussed i n d e t a i l problem areas i n the b o o k l e t , student e r r o r s and t h e i r probable cause, and the student's o p i n i o n of the programme.ThfeeeproductstwereranaiLysedefromoeaehcstuderit, the programmer's notes on the students' feedback, the v a l i d a t i o n progress Chartg, and the pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores. The booklet was adjusted many times during the developmental t e s t i n g procedure between the t r y - o u t s w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l students, based on the a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data. I n t h i s manner m a t e r i a l s which were ambiguous were c l a r i f i e d , b e t t e r examples given and steps that were too la r g e were broken down i n t o s e v e r a l smaller steps. A very marked taper-i n g o f f i n the discovery of new weaknesses or problem areas i n the program was noted as the developmental t e s t i n g proceeded. F i e l d Tests Fo l l o w i n g the development t e s t procedure, and r e v i s i o n s , the program was f i e l d t e s t e d . The purpose of the f i e l d t e s t i s to assess whether the program s a t i s f a c t o r i l y achieves i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s when i t i s used w i t h those f o r whom i t was w r i t t e n under c o n d i t i o n s i n which i t i s l i k e l y to be used i n p r a c t i c e . The f i r s t f i e l d t e s t group was comprised of ten students e n r o l l e d i n Education 412 during the 1974 summer s e s s i o n and were s e l e c t e d randomly from the t o t a l student popu-l a t i o n of 22 t a k i n g the course, the other students having been random-ly'rassigriedefiopthetdeveiLopmental testin'gggroup . ThT-he tsit'ud'etfts'ewere t y p i c a l of the tar g e t p o p u l a t i o n of students f o r whom the program was w r i t t e n , were at a p o i n t i n t h e i r course work where the subject would 37 normally be taught, had the d e s i r e d pre-entry requirements, and d i d not know the m a t e r i a l being taught. A l l students completed a pre-t e s t and were then given the program to work through p r i v a t e l y . The main measures c o l l e c t e d from each student were the pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores, and the students' o p i n i o n of the program. The data a n a l y s i s from the f i r s t f i e l d t e s t i n d i c a t e d the need f o r f u r t h e r major r e v i s i o n s i f the program was to meet the standards of an e f f e c t i v e teaching instrument. An a r t i s t was h i r e d to provide i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the major concepts presented i n the b o o k l e t , frame sequencing was reordered and problem frames were r e v i s e d . A t a b l e of s p e c i f i c a t i o n s revealed weaknesses i n the c r i t e r i o n t e s t and a new format was constructed.(Appendix E). In March, 1975 the program underwent a second f i e l d t e s t . The subjects were f o r t y a d u l t education students e n r o l l e d i n two courses of Education 412 o f f e r e d d u r ing the w i n t e r s e s s i o n at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The experimental design used i n the f i e l d t e s t i s shown' Magi-gu^eilVt.lly(S.eeFals!o-eAp.pTendix B, pp. 154-55). Group I (n=20) Group I I (n=20) Test time I c r i t e r i o n t e s t c r i t e r i o n t e s t Test time I I (one week l a t e r ) c r i t e r i o n t e s t program & <Srii.ter.jion t e s t Figure IV. Experimental Dgsign f o r Second F i e l d Test Group I wasedesa!gnateddtheecont'rol)lgEoup?,Grouppllltheeexperi'mentaail group. 38 The f o r t y students were t y p i c a l of the ta r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of students f o r whom the program was developed, were at a p o i n t i n t h e i r course work where the subject would normally be taught, had the designated pre-entry requirements and d i d not know the m a t e r i a l being taught. The program was presented as r e q u i r e d course reading and worked through by the students at home. Both groups provided two c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores, obtained a week apart. In a d d i t i o n , Group I I recorded t h e i r progress through the booklet by no t i n g t h e i r response to each item. Their completion time f o r the program was als o obtained. The data a n a l y s i s from the second f i e l d t e s t i n d i c a t e d that the program met the c r i t e r i a of an e f f e c t i v e teaching instrument. A v a l i d a -t i o n statement, (Appendix B), was prepared to accompany the booklet. " I n g e n e r a l , a v a l i d a t i o n statement traces the h i s t o r y of a program through i t s research, development, and f i e l d t e s t s t a t e s , and defines i t s e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e n t , i n d i c a t i n g w i t h what groups and under what co n d i t i o n s the program has been shown to work" (34:210). S p e c i f i c a l l y the V a l i d a t i o n Statement contains the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : (1) the b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s , (2) a d e s c r i p t i o n of the tar g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r whom the program i s intended, (3) a d e s c r i p t i o n of the t e s t p o p u l a t i o n s , (4) r e s u l t s of the f i e l d t e s t s to i l l u s t r a t e the program's performance as a teaching instrument, (5) author q u a l i f i -c a t i o n s , a l l consultants l i s t e d , (6) average student completion time and (7) suggestions f o r program use. "KAbasiic premise which u n d e r l i e s the v a l i d a t i o n statement i s that the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of any i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedure can be best 39 r e a l i z e d i f those who may use i t have adequate i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the outcomes which i t s use may be counted on to produce" (27:2). Data A n a l y s i s The instruments used f o r data c o l l e c t i o n were the c r i t e r i o n referenced pre and post t e s t s (Appendix E) and the v a l i d a t i o n progress chart (Appendix C). The i n t e r n a l consistency of the c r i t e r i o n t e s t was assessed using the p o i n t b i - s e r l a l c o r r e l a t i o n to o b t a i n an i n t e r -item a n a l y s i s r e l i a b i l i t y and a c o r r e l a t i o n between each item score and the t o t a l t e s t score. The Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was a p p l i e d to determine the o v e r a l l r e l i a b i l i t y score of the t e s t on the b a s i s of i n t e r n a l consistency. The data was coded onto mark sense cards and the m u l t i p l e choice s c o r i n g program ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia MC Score, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre, March, 1975) was used f o r the a n a l y s i s . Two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the c r i t e r i o n t e s t , u sing the t e s t - r e t e s t over time procedure, was used to measure f o r t o t a l t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . An item d i f f i c u l t y index, and a complete response p a t t e r n t o the m u l t i p l e choice questions i n P a r t B of the c r i t e r i o n t e s t was obtained using the SSLE LRNZ Lertap program, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia computing centre. The scores on the pre and post t e s t s were examined f o r evidence of a gain i n achievement. This was assessed f o l l o w i n g the developmental t e s t and f i r s t f i e l d t e s t by r e l a t i n g the t e s t scores obtained a f t e r the student completed the program to the l e a r n e r ' s i n i t i a l l e v e l of knowledge as determined by pre t e s t . The measures employed were 40 the t - t e s t and the gain score index (both crude gain and r a t i o of crude gain to t o t a l p o s s i b l e gain were c a l c u l a t e d ) . The a n a l y s i s of variance was a p p l i e d to the t e s t scores of the c o n t r o l and experimental group f o r the second f i e l d t e s t to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the e f f e c t of the program. This data was key-punched onto computer cards and the A n a l y s i s of Variance and Co-variance program was used f o r the a n a l y s i s (author, Malcolm G r e i g , U.B.C. Anovarrprogramiji,UUB3CC. comp.utinggcentreiy,October?, 19.74'')). THeeDuncans M u l t i p l e Range t e s t was computed to determine which of the c e l l s of the experimental design was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the vari a n c e found to be s i g n i f i c a n t by the a n a l y s i s of vari a n c e . A matrice of e r r o r s , based on student responses on the post c r i t e r i o n t e s t was drawn up f o r the developmental t e s t group and the f i e l d t e s t groups to p o i n t out areas of weakness i n the program and i n the t e s t . I n a d d i t i o n , the 90/90 standard, that i s , 90% of the student's scores reached 90% or more on the post t e s t , was a p p l i e d as evidence of the teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program (11, 20). The v a l i d a t i o n progress charts from the developmental t e s t group and experimental group i n the second f i e l d t e s t were examined to deter-mine student progress through the program, and the c o l l e c t i v e student e r r o r r a t e was computed. A matrice of e r r o r s f o r students and frames was drawn up to r e v e a l areas i n the program needing r e v i s i o n . The average student completion time f o r the booklet was determined using a mean score of t o t a l times a v a i l a b l e . Chapter IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The C r i t e r i o n Test The main instrument used f o r data c o l l e c t i o n was a c r i t e r i o n referenced pre and post t e s t constructed to measure the achievement of the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s of the booklet. The c r i t e r i o n t e s t used during the developmental t e s t and f i r s t f i e l d t e s t c o n s i s t e d of ten short answer questions (Appendix D). A l l students completed the c r i t e r i o n t e s t before beginning study of the boo k l e t , and again when f i n i s h e d . No estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y was made of the c r i t e r i o n t e s t . Data c o l l e c t e d through completion of the c r i t e r i o n t e s t revealed r e v i s i o n s were necessary. A t a b l e of s p e c i f i c a t i o n s was devised based on the content of the booklet and i n d i c a t e d a need to i n c l u d e more items i n the t e s t to be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n taught. I t was decided the f i r s t three questions would serve a more u s e f u l pur-pose as a s e l f - c h e c k t e s t by the students at a r e l e v a n t p o i n t i n the program and that the diagrams i n question 7 were i n a p p r o p r i a t e to the nature of the l e a r n i n g content. The second c r i t e r i o n t e s t (Appendix E) c o n s i s t e d of s i x short answer questions and twenty-five m u l t i p l e choice questions. The s i x short answer questions i n Part A are objectively,eeas.ilyaaridrEeli.ably 41 42 scored. I n c o r r e c t responses and blanks were given no score. A score of one was given f o r each c o r r e c t response except f o r items one and s i x . The t o t a l p o s s i b l e score f o r item one was four points,aand f o r item s i x e i g h t p o i n t s (two p o i n t s f o r each s e c t i o n ) . The twenty-five m u l t i p l e choice items contained a minimum of three and a maximum of four a l t e r n a -t i v e s . The t o t a l p o s s i b l e score was f i f t y , c o n s i s t i n g of P a r t A-25,and Par t B-25. The instrument appeared to have content v a l i d i t y when the items were judged f o r t h e i r representativeness and relevance i n measuring the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . This was assessed by the p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment of two subject matter experts and based on the devised t a b l e of s p e c i f i c a -t i o n s . ThewconstructnvaOlidiliynof ether instrument nwashnotoexamMedvai >.< e x t e n s i v e l y , however, c o n f i r m a t i o n of the teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s 6*f the program through the experimental design would tend to i n d i c a t e that the instrument possessed some degree of construct v a l i d i t y . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the t o t a l t e s t was assessed using t h e . t - t e s t and a summary of r e s u l t s i s shown i n Table 3. Table 3 Suinma.ryyoifResuiisso.fft?*Testf'forCeriterd!onTfEest Time 1 -x Tri.uie 2, Tr Time 2 x d f E-value P 13. 7 15.45 19 34 .262 The 'E-'value was s i g n i f Icantc.totthe ir.'OS l e v e l e o f l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The t e s t scores f o r the second t e s t time were s l i g h t l y higher which i s a normal r e g r e s s i o n toward the mean and the e f f e c t s of having taken the 43 same t e s t twice. However, the r e g r e s s i o n was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t . The o v e r a l l r e l i a b i l i t y o f the t o t a l t e s t was, t h e r e f o r e , considered s a t i s f a c t o r y . The Kuder Richardson Formula 20 was a p p l i e d to estimate the r e l i a b i l i t y on the b a s i s of i n t e r n a l consistency. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 4. Table 4 Summary of Results using the Kuder Richardson Formula 20 Standard Standard Number of items Mean E r r o r D e v i a t i o n R e l i a b i l i t y 43 12.825 .677 4.284 60 Thus the c r i t e r i o n t e s t was accepted as a r e l i a b l e instrument f o r the purposes of t h i s study. An item a n a l y s i s was shown,, .by applying the p o i n t b i - s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n t o the scores of the two groups obtained at t e s t time I . This c o r r e l a t i o n i s used when one dichotomous v a r i a b l e i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the continuous v a r i a b l e and i s a shorteruversronoofofhehprpduct-st moment c o r r e l a t i o n formula. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t , although the t o t a l t e s t was r e l i a b l e , m u l t i p l e choice items 4, 9, 12, 15, 22, and 23 f a i l e d to meet an acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y . Therefore, i t i s recommended that f o r f u t u r e use of the program these items be reexamined and deleted or r e v i s e d . An item d i f f i c u l t y index, which shows the percentage of students s c o r i n g each answer a l t e r n a t i v e , by checking the complete response p a t t e r n 44 f o r each student was obtained. The r e s u l t s , as shown i n Table 5, i n d i c a t e a need to pay a t t e n t i o n to answer choice 3 on questions 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, and 22, and answer choice 1 on questions 14 and 23 to determine i f b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e s can be devised. The data to be analysed on the program came from three sources: 12 students from the developmental t e s t i n g procedure (one student's data had to be e l i m i n a t e d , as explained l a t e r ) , 10 students from the f i r s t f i e l d t e s t , and 40 students from the second f i e l d t e s t (20 c o n t r o l group students, 20 experimental group stu d e n t s ) . Developmental Test Data The v a l i d a t i o n progress charts (Appendix C) were analysed f o r e r r o r s and the c o l l e c t i v e student e r r o r r a t e comp.utedd. Number of i n c o r r e c t responses _ _ _ _ _ x 1 0 Q % T o t a l number of responses - | ^ r x 100% = 6.9% 649 " V a l i d a t i o n subjects should get a c o l l e c t i v e average of 85% of the responses c a r r i e d on branching programs, i . e . , the c o l l e c t i v e e r r o r r a t e should not exceed 15%" (5:52). A c o l l e c t i v e e r r o r r a t e of 6.9% was, t h e r e f o r e , accepted as s a t i s f a c t o r y . A matrice of e r r o r s f o r students and f o r frames was drawn up (Figure V). A l a r g e number of i n c o r r e c t responses on a frame meant the frame was c a r e f u l l y examined f o r p o s s i b l e r e v i s i o n . An i n c o r r e c t response Table 5 Item D i f f i c u l t y Index f o r M u l t i p l e Choice Questions* Test Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 " 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Answer 1 15% 35% 65% 10% 50% 35% 50% 65% 20% 40% 55% 10% 10% 55% 55% 35% 25% 10% 50% 10% 10% 20% 5% 35% 55_% Choice 2 65 25 15 40 35 30 50 30 75 40 40 40 30 60 30 45 25 85 25 25 45 55 10 35 15 3 20 40 20 50 15 35 0 5 5 20 5 50 60 35 15 20 50 5 25 65 40 5 10 30 30 4 5 20 75 - -* The r i g h t answer f o r each question i s underlined. 4> 4 6 Students Frames Figure V. M a t r i c e of E r r o r s f o r Students and Frames Fol l o w i n g the Developmental t e s t . 47 must have provided the student w i t h enough remedial i n f o r m a t i o n that he/she was able to answer the q u e s t i o n c o r r e c t l y on h i s second attempt . . . i f i t d i d not the wrong answer frame was always r e v i s e d . When the e r r o r frames were examined i t was revealed r e v i s i o n s were necessary. A l l 45 e r r o r s had occurred on only 22 frames. Thus, 100% of the e r r o r s occurred on only 3.39% of the frames. Frames 60, 24, 20, and 39 were enlarged to i n c l u d e a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n , because of the l a r g e number of response e r r o r s on these frames. Wrong answer frames that l e d the student to a second wrong answer frame (frames 14, 16, 32, and 63) were immediately r e v i s e d to i n c l u d e a d d i t i o n a l informa-t i o n or to e x p l a i n the concept i n a d i f f e r e n t , more simple, way. The pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores were examined to provide evidence of the teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program. The most funda-mental k i n d of data which r e f l e c t s t h i s i s the gain scores (11, 20, 31). The crude gain and the r a t i o of crude gain to t o t a l p o s s i b l e gain were used. The obvious advantage of the l a t t e r score i s that i t provides a way of e s t i m a t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of l e a r n i n g by c o n t r o l l i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i n i t i a l s t a t u s of l e a r n i n g and thus provides an o b j e c t i v e index of the program's e f f i c i e n c y . The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 6. The t - t e s t was used to t e s t the chance p r o b a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e i n the means between the pre and post t e s t scores (Table 7). Therefore, the d i f f e r e n c e between the scores on the pre t e s t and the post t e s t are s i g n i f i c a n t to the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 48 Table 6 Results of Test Scores, Developmental Test Group Student Pre t e s t Scores Post t e s t Scores Crude Gain Ratio of Crude Gain to T o t a l Gain 1 6.7% 80. W/o 73.3% 78.6% 2 .13,0 77.8 64.8 74.5 3 66.7 86.7 80.0 85.7 4 6.7 86.7 80.0 85.7 5 13.0 93.0 80.0 85.0 6 11.0 80.0 69.0 89.0 7 15.0 92.0 77.0 90.0 8 11.0 93.0 82.0 92.0 9 8.9 86.6 77.7 85.4 10 6.6 84.4 77.8 83.3 11 13.0 82.0 69-0 79-0 Table 7 Res u l t s of ff-Test f o r C r i t e r i o n Test Scores Pre t e s t X " Post Test X df D S ED P(.01) 10.15 85.64 10 830.6 1.778 42.46 3.165 49 The average gain i n achievement as shown by the crude gain scores i s 75.5% and by the r a t i o of crude gain to t o t a l gain scores i s 84.38%. The scores on the post c r i t e r i o n t e s t v a r i e d from 77.8% to 93% w i t h only 27% of the students r e c e i v i n g 90% or more. The aim of the program was to achieve the 90/90 standard; i . e . , 90% of the students should o b t a i n 90% on the c r i t e r i o n post t e s t . The r e s u l t s showed that although the students were l e a r n i n g from the program, i t d i d not meet the standard set f o r programmed m a t e r i a l s , and t h e r e f o r e , f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s were necessary before i t could be considered s a t i s f a c t o r y . A m a t r i x of e r r o r s made by students on the post c r i t e r i o n t e s t was drawn up (Figure VI) and examined f o r evidence of weak areas i n the program and on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t . The l a r g e number of e r r o r s that occurred on questions 2^B and 3^C i n d i c a t e d that the d e f i n i t i o n of the term " s e l f d i r e c t e d study" needed f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and consequently frame 20 was expanded to i n c l u d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a b e t t e r m u l t i p l e choice question to t e s t understanding of the concept. The other major problem area appeared i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the diagrams i n question 7. I t was decided to r e v i s e diagrams 7b and 7d to place greater emphasis on the concept of l e a r n e r and agent movement. The student and the programmer discussed i n d e t a i l s p e c i f i c problem areas f o l l o w i n g the completion of the program by the student, and ideas f o r c o r r e c t i n g any weaknesses i n the program were worked on together. I n a d d i t i o n , the students were asked f o r any other p o s i t i v e or negative feedback that might be u s e f u l i n improving the program and f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n of the program as a l e a r n i n g instrument. This data was then used to r e v i s e the program. Students Questions • 1 1 ..J .!._!_ a A ZiO £,'D X 1 1 1 — — 4 2 X X 1 1 ' X 3 , A 3,B 3 i ; C L A j i B . / 'c X f — L l _ 1 x? X _ L 1 1 X 1 i i ! 1 1 X E A 28 ac 1 i 1 X 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 3A 3 8 3JC. 3 A 4B. 4 c 4 D £ X i 1 .. 1 . X X i i X i • 1 _ J _ 1 1 1 X _ L 3 X X X 1 U A 7 A 7 0 i c XI 2. i i 1 L K _ L 1 X x _ ! x i r X r " I -X X M i l l ID 7 e 7 e X X x _ x ! i f G Z "4 A X i i" 1 X y x 1 1 1 ! i i .1... i 1 ! 3 I i i ! ; ! ! i a> 5 ' 1 1 <o 14.L_.;3 M M j 4: z i" 1 1 _ 1 7 1 (r 1 i 1 1 i ! Figure VI. Matrice of E r r o r s made on the Post C r i t e r i o n Developmental Test Group. Test, I 51 Eleven of the twelve students i n the developmental t e s t group [had strong p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n s w i t h s e v e r a l becoming openly e x c i t e d about t h i s "new" way to l e a r n . Many of the students i n d i c a t e d a need, or d e s i r e to discuss t h e i r l e a r n i n g w i t h someone, suggesting that programmed i i n s t r u c t i o n might b e n e f i t from supplemental classroom d i s c u s s i o n . A l l eleven students f e l t they had been s t i m u l a t e d and challenged by the program. The eleven students were extremely h e l p f u l i n t h e i r suggestions, o f t e n spending an a d d i t i o n a l hour or more working to overcome problems ; i n the booklet. Because many f e l t a schematic diagram of the c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n model f o r methods would be h e l p f u l , one waseiiiserted w i t h frame 59. There were uneasy r e a c t i o n s to the i n i t i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of app r e n t i c e -ship and i n t e r n s h i p but students became more comfortable w i t h them f o l l o w i n g r e v i s i o n s . With student's help many frames had a d d i t i o n a l explanations i n c l u d e d , w h i l e many other frames had minor grammatical i e r r o r s c o r r e c t e d . As a r e s u l t of the student's e f f o r t s , the program was g r e a t l y improved. One f r u s t r a t i o n many students experienced was the noise f a c t o r i n the b u i l d i n g w h i l e they were being t e s t e d . Most s a i d i t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e i r c o ncentration. The t w e l f t h student was ass s t r o i i g l y n n e g a t i v e as the previous eleven were p o s i t i v e . He was a very aggressive and argumentative young man who d i d not l i k e the id e a of being " t o l d " to l e a r n something. He f e l t such words as ' a d u l t 1 and 'adult education' could not be defined and he was angry that he could not argue w i t h the ideas and d e f i n i t i o n s i n the booklet. He confessed to cheating on the pre t e s t and refused I 52 to f o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n s f o r using a branching booklet. Consequently [his scores could not be used as data. Perhaps some of h i s f r u s t r a t i o n was caused by h i s f a i l u r e to accept the student r o l e again, having been a teacher f o r many y e a r s , but h i s v i o l e n t negative r e a c t i o n does i n d i -cate that programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s not s u i t a b l e f o r every adult l e a r n e r . The completion times v a r i e d from a low of 45 minutes to a high ;of 75 minutes; the average completion time was 66 minutes. F i r s t F i e l d Test Data The pre and post t e s t scores were analysed f o r evidence of a gain i n achievement (Table 8). Table 8 Results of C r i t e r i o n Test S c o r e s — F i r s t F i e l d Test Group Student Pre t e s t Scores Post t e s t Scores Crude Gain R a t i o of Crude Gain to T o t a l Gain 1 6.7% 100%0% 93.3% 100%0% 2 13.3 84.4 71.1 82.0 3 24.4 88.9 64.5 85.3 4 15.5 60.0 44.5 52.7 5 11.0 91.42 80.4 91.4 6 4.4 77.8 73.4 79.1 7 15.5 97.8 82.3 97.4 8 11.0 100.0 89.0 100.0 9 incomplete 100.0 - -10 4.4 incomplete - -53 The t - t e s t was used to t e s t the chance p r o b a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e i n the means between the pre and post t e s t scores (Table 9), Table 9 Results of t-Test f o r C r i t e r i o n Test Scores PretfeestXX Post t e s t X df D SE T P(.Ol) 12.73 87.54 598.5 5.46 13.70 3.499 The average gain i n achievement, as shown by the crude gain score i s 74.8% and by the r a t i o of the crude gain to t o t a l gain i s 86%. The t - t e s t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n d i c a t i n g the program d i d i n f a c t i n f l u e n c e post t e s t scores. However, the post c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores ranged from 60% to 100%, w i t h only 55% of the students s c o r i n g 90% or more. This d i d not meet the 90-90 c r i t e r i o n .standard s e t f o r programmed m a t e r i a l s and i n d i c a t e d major r e v i s i o n s were i necessary. A matrice was drawn up to show e r r o r s made on the post c r i t e r i o n t e s t (Figure VII) and analysed to determine areas of weakness i n the program and c r i t e r i o n t e s t . I t was decided a b e t t e r c r i t e r i o n t e s t was ^needed and one was devised (Appendix E). The f i e l d t e s t students' opinion of the program v a r i e d from the developmental t e s t groups i n two aspects; they were not bothered by noise I s i n c e they were f r e e to take the booklet home or to a q u i e t corner, and they expressed more f r u s t r a t i o n because there was no opportunity to d i s -cuss the booklet upon i t s completion. Several students made a request Students 1 | i e !K 4' 5 c n 8 H to 2iB 2 i c 2 » D ! ! i i | I i i i I ! ! ! ' r i ! 1 j i ! ! I i i i ! ! t ! — i i • i i i i 1 ! i i ! ! I • i ! ! i 1 3LA 3 ^ B J T A l i e l i e ! 1 ! _ 4 i ! 1 i ! M_L i — ! ! i i i i i i i I i i 1 : i : ! • 1 i 1 ! ! j ' I X v • 1 ; ! i ! x \ ; i 13 ! 1 ! ! ! ! M l ! i ! 1 ll ! 1 < M M i 1 ! j i U l 2J .B Zc 3 A J B J _ _ £ J ! ' i 1 1 ! • M ! \% X i i 1 ! 1 V i ! i i r 1 i i | | j ! ! !• ! ! i i I ! ! | i i ! 1 • 4 c 1 i j i ! i ! • i i i i A i i ! i ' i •> i t . i i i - i 1 1 1 ! i i i i j 4 8 4 C ! X M i l i j i i 12 — 1 i i M M >< i ! i i j 11 4 D i ! i M i i i ! . 1 i 4 E i i 1 i X 1 i i ll . ! 1 5 i * ~ ! ! i 1 t i I A 6 c 1 ; ; ! M M i ! ! ! i | — ! ! ! 1 | j i i 1?.. (> ! ! ! 1 ! i X i | | | i a 7 A 7! 8 ~ n x ~ M M i ! 1 j !' I M M X i M ! 1 1 ! -5-. L — 7 ' C ! ! 1 M M 7,0 i i ; i X : i X 11 _ 7 E 7F i j i • i V j j • i i i ! 1 _ 1 j ; i l X X i i ' z ! i i i i i j i | : i i > • i i -1 S : 5 8 3. }(c: Z 1 ' ' -— Figure V I I . M a t r i c e of E r r o r s made on the C r i t e r i o n F i e l d Test Group. Test, F i r s t 55 to set up a s p e c i a l time to meet w i t h the v a l i d a t o r i n order to d i s c u s s the booklet. Again the students appeared to have enjoyed the booklet and f e l t that they would l i k e the opportunity to use other programmed jbooklets or m a t e r i a l s . Second F i e l d Test Data The v a l i d a t i o n progress Charts f o r the 20 experimental group students were examined to determine the c o l l e c t i v e student e r r o r r a t e . number of i n c o r r e c t responses x 100% t o t a l number of responses 4 7 x 100% = 3.85% 1220 A c o l l e c t i v e e r r o r r a t e of 3.85% does not exceed the 15% standard e r r o r r a t e f o r branching programs and was, t h e r e f o r e , accepted as s a t i s -f a c t o r y . A matrice of e r r o r s f o r students and f o r frames was drawn up (Figure V I I I ) and examined to r e v e a l any areas of weakness i n the book-l e t . Because of the low student e r r o r r a t e i t was decided the program frames d i d not r e q u i r e f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s . The t o t a l t e s t scores and group means f o r the C o n t r o l Group and the Experimental Group are summarized i n Table 10. 56 Students Frames 1 1 ^ 4 5 ^ 7 8 1 /ff-il 12 13 14 1? It. 17 18 11 C o l r n T A i . 1 ! i ! ; _ _ X X X - - . - . X - _ 4 1 . 14 : ! - i 1^ . ; M i l l ZiZ -is i • • • ;. I i i i ., \n • • • i i i z _!..& l l XX-1 1 ! ! - X - - X X X . X ! i 7 i :• : ; i ! M M \ \ \ I : -' I" M i ! I '• i ! ! M i l l : -' i X « i !' i ; ! i i M I I u • i i 1 : ; ! 1 i ! i : --J/4 . • i • ; M i l ! ! -. IS j ! i ! ! i j i i i ' M i l l [ J / 4 ! i I i I i ! i ; ! i M M • i l l ! • • ! 1 i . _'/? '13 xzx X ' '-' X X i i i ; • ' ! . . • ! I i : : • : ' I I I ! -_]?? X ' • i i I ! i 1 i ! i _;±Z j . : ; ; 1 . i 1 • i- ! ! M i I _>» 1 1 ; i ; : ' ! ! ! M i l l I -J.ZS 1 '- i ' » 1 i i .' I M l M i ' i - . '*l M :• X ;' i .-. ; 1 i i ! ! : - J -—X^  ; ! ; • ! ' • ' M l _3.6 i I ' i : . \ i ! • ! I _ 3 I 1 ! ! i i M i . i _32 "I ! ! ! X ! : 1 ' 1 I X _33 ! j 1 ! 1 1 : ! 1 ! i i ! M " 3* __3S : . _ X X i X X X i ~ x : > " X X : : ' ! 1 •! X .4 _j& 1 . . i ' i i i : ! i • i i 1 1 X M 1 M 1 1 I 1 ; i 1 • i ! ! 1 ! i -_42 '1 ! j j • i _43 1 ! ! i i X • ! I i 1 ; ; | j | 1 Al, ~ ; X X ; i i : ; ZzZ _47 1 I- ! ! i t i j I ! <W : i i i i ! "i : . ! i i i M 1 . -_41 i i i ! ! i i i ; ! . : i i ! fo j ! ! 1 1 T i X 1 i I M i ffl 1 1 1 ' i I 1 M M i • i ! i - ' 1 ! i ! ! i ! 1 i ' i 1 : ; i • : ' i ' i ! 1 U "-"• ; i ' ! i : i , • : . i i i ; . -i ! i 1 : ! ! ; i I I ' l l ! ... _ i I : • i ! ! 1 : ' i i ! 1 i "-_4e • i . • i i : : 1 : t ; -41 tZ * X yy x* :x .43 ' i i ; . -45 i M M .__ .^44 .. : 1 i i i 1 i M i ' 41 3.1.64 1 4 - 2 3 5 4 - 3 3- 3.1.1 - 3 Figure VI'H.. M a t r i c e of E r r o r s f o r Students and Frames, Second F i e l d Test.Grpup. 57 Table 10 Results of C r i t e r i o n Test f o r C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups Contr o l Group A Experimental Group B T o t a l Test Score > X TotalTTestSScore X Test Time I 274 13.7 272 13.6 i Test (one Time I I week l a t e r ) 309 15.45 932 46.6 The a n a l y s i s of var i a n c e of t e s t scores was used to determine i f a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the c e l l s i n the experimental design. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 11. Table 11 Summary of Results of ANOVAR Source of Variance F Value df P ! I n t e r a c t i o n between A & B 4.19 1 <.00001 The r e s u l t s show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the . 01 l l e v e l oo~f confidence f o r one of the c e l l s i n the experimental design. The Duncans M u l t i p l e Range t e s t confirmstfchattt'heccellrriespojas/ible^ found to be s i g n i f i c a n t by the A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was the post t e s t scores f o r the experimental group. This a n a l y s i s shows the treatment (program) was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the gains i n mean value that occurred f o r the experimental group. 58 The t e s t scores obtained from the experimental group were examined f o r evidence of the teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program and are summarized i n Table 12. Table 12 Summary of C r i t e r i o n Test S c o r e s — E x p e r i m e n t a l Group X R a t i o of Crude Gain to Test Time 1 X Test Time 2 X X Crude Gain Score T o t a l Gain 27.2 93.2 64 78.1 The average gain i n achievement as shown by the gain scores i s 64% and by the r a t i o of crude g a i n to t o t a l gain score i s 78.1%. The scores on the post c r i t e r i o n t e s t v a r i e d from a low of 80% to a high of 100% w i t h 90% of the students s c o r i n g 90% or more on the f i n a l t e s t . Thus, the program can be s a i d to have s u c c e s s f u l l y met the standards of an e f f e c t i v e programmed i n s t r u c t i o n booklet and was accepted as an e f f e c t i v e teaching instrument. A matrice of e r r o r s made by the experimental group on the f i n a l c r i t e r i o n t e s t was drawn up (Figure I X ) . This i n d i c a t e s that the pro-gram would probably b e n e f i t from expanded i n f o r m a t i o n on the Correspondence Study, D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study and Laboratory Methods as r e f l e c t e d by the number of i n c o r r e c t responses made on questions 6, 7, and 13, Pa r t B, which deal w i t h these concepts. The average student completion time f o r the program was c a l c u l a t e d to be 68 minutes. Students i ! 1 9/O I I <2 ! I-...J. ! | . to) \ t Izl i | 1 1 ! i i i i X I X | i 1 i X i - j 2i 13! _ \Zi i z t a ! 1 X »i 1 i I -1 ID ?: ! ! X X A ! i 1 i X j X 1 J - | \K\ X SM 1 : 1 ! - ! i 1 -I -. i - ; _ i _._ — 1 1 ! i X ' ! X I \9 | Z 3. A X I i X 1 i l l . _ i X j \Z\ ! X M 1 X 1 1 X St . 1 3 ! It X X ! X I ! 1? X XX XX ! i i IS i X .. 1 X I I — 1 i X X i X j /!«> I 1 -/ 1 1 1 1 _ L i / .2 2 LX i 1 1 X z X X j X i (o ! / 4 ! ! . X ! 1 XL 2 . . M L i / L ! X 11 i X 1 i 1 j n / 8 1 i X 1 i ! ! X i X i 1 Z j ! . i 1 1 M i \ -l a b ! 2 i a 1214 2 5 i i 1 1 1 • IX X 2 ! \ / j j t 1 _ _,_ X * i r X \Z\ X i X — "H'i \ n ~ 1 ! i -! i i ! i 1 | i 1 1 _-[_|_ ! ! i M L i ' i 1 i i L J i ! L i 1 [ 2 !*7 Vs. 4 | 1 ! Z L4 3 - 5 ;.4 Li.5 i j 1:1 1 i Figure IX. M a t r i c e of E r r o r s on F i n a l C r i t e r i o n T e s t — : Group. •Experimental Chapter V SUMMARY The s c a r c i t y of a v a i l a b l e programmed i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s f o r students st u d y i n g to become adul t educators, and a b e l i e f i n the impor-tance of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a d u l t education l e d to the construc-t i o n o f t h i s booklet. The t o p i c , Methods of A d u l t Education, was s e l e c t e d f o l l o w i n g a f e a s i b i l i t y study that showed the c o n s t r u c t i o n of such a program would s a t i s f y a present student l e a r n i n g need and a c r i t e r i o n c h e c k l i s t determined the content was s u i t a b l e f o r programming, that i s , that the m a t e r i a l to be taught and the teaching s i t u a t i o n l e n t i themselves economically and e d u c a t i o n a l l y to the development of the program. A l i t e r a t u r e review of a l l r e l e v e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was completed and a general statement of o b j e c t i v e s and program s p e c i f i c a t i o n s was •devised based on an understanding of the t a r g e t l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs on the subject. The branching paradigm or model was chosen w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the o b j e c t i v e s , s u b j e c t matter, target p o p u l a t i o n and a b i l i t i e s of the program w r i t e r . The paper and Ibook type of medium was s e l e c t e d as the most economical medium and the e a s i e s t and most convenient f o r the program w r i t e r to c o n s t r u c t and the students to use. The t e r m i n a l c r i t e r i o n t e s t , based on the b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s , was w r i t t e n and a d e t a i l e d task a n a l y s i s undertaken. The flow chart was 60 61 used to provide the b a s i s f o r d e c i d i n g upon the optimum l e a r n i n g sequences land appropriate teaching s t r a t e g i e s . The f i n a l step i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the booklet was the w r i t i n g of the s p e c i f i c frames. The program was evaluated by subject matter s p e c i a l i s t s and a programming expert before being e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d through a v a l i d a t i o n process. The purpose of the process i s two f o l d ; f i r s t l y i t i p p i n t s out i weaknesses i n the program and provides data on which to base r e v i s i o n s and improvements, and secondly, i t determines the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program as a teaching instrument f o r the students f o r whom i t was designed to i n s t r u c t . The t e s t i n g procedure i n v o l v e d a developmental t e s t and two f i e l d t e s t s . The developmental t e s t group was composed of twelve students e n r o l l e d i n Education 412 during the 1974 summer se s s i o n at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The students were given the program, one at a time, w i t h the programmer observing t h e i r progress as they worked through the program. Three products were analysed f o r each student; the programmer's notes on student feedback, the v a l i d a t i o n progress chart and the pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores. The a n a l y s i s revealed t h a t , although the booklet d i d i n f a c t teach, i t d i d not meet the standards set f o r pro-grammed i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . F o l l o w i n g major r e v i s i o n s to the frames the program was f i e l d t e s t e d u s i n g ten students e n r o l l e d i n Education 412 during the 1974 summer s e s s i o n at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The program was given as a take home assignment. The main measures c o l l e c t e d f o r each student were the pre and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores and the student's 62 o p i n i o n of the program. The data a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d the need f o r [further major r e v i s i o n s i f the program was to meet the standards of an e f f e c t i v e teaching instrument. An a r t i s t was h i r e d to i l l u s t r a t e the major concepts, frame sequencing was reordered, problem frames r e v i s e d ,and the c r i t e r i o n t e s t redesigned. Two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the c r i t e r i o n t e s t , on the same subjects using the t e s t - r e t e s t overttimiepproeedure,wwasuusedttoobbtainddatatto determine the r e l i a b i l i t y score f o r the c r i t e r i o n t e s t . The i n t e r -i t e m r e l i a b i l i t y score and the item d i f f i c u l t y index were a l s o computed. A n a l y s i s revealed the c r i t e r i o n t e s t was an acceptable t e s t i n g i n s t r u -ment. In March 1975, the program underwent a second f i e l d t e s t . The subjects were f o r t y a d u l t education students e n r o l l e d i n two courses of Education 412. Twenty students were designated as the c o n t r o l group, and completed the c r i t e r i o n t e s t on two occasions, a week apart. The remaining twenty students, designated the experimental group, completed the c r i t e r i o n t e s t twice on the same time i n t e r v a l , but worked through the program between t e s t times. The data a n a l y s i s from the second f i e l d t e s t i n d i c a t e d that the program met the c r i t e r i a of an e f f e c t i v e teach-i n g instrument and was accepted as s a t i s f a c t o r y . A v a l i d a t i o n statement, d e f i n i n g the program's ed u c a t i o n a l i n t e n t and i n d i c a t i n g w i t h what groups and under what c o n d i t i o n s the program has been shown to work, was prepared to accompany the booklet. 63 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e The programmed i n s t r u c t i o n b o o k l e t , Methods of Adult Education, meets the standards of an acceptable i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l . However, there i s always room f o r improvement and the data a n a l y s i s from the second f i e l d t e s t r e v e a l s areas i n program frames and i n the c r i t e r i o n t e s t that ought to be reexamined f o r p o s s i b l e r e v i s i o n . Although most students enjoyed the experience of l e a r n i n g from the program and f e l t challenged by i t , a few were moderately to s t r o n g l y negative. This would i n d i c a t e that perhaps programmed m a t e r i a l s ought to be accompanied by an a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l source f o r those students who r e q u i r e or want i n t e r p e r s o n a l contact. In a d d i t i o n , most students expressed a d e s i r e to discus s the program's content f o l l o w i n g t h e i r study, suggest-i n g t hat i n t e g r a t e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , supplemented by classroom d i s c u s s i o n , may be re q u i r e d to meet the student's s o c i a l needs. Convincing e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers to e x p e r i -ment w i t h programmed m a t e r i a l s mssabsiowaprocessrocThe.begiLnn'inginn. step i s to educate the p o t e n t i a l users, that i s f u t u r e adult teachers, by i n c o r p o r a t i n g these m a t e r i a l s i n t o t h e i r undergraduate program. I t i s hoped that students w i l l f i n d t h i s booklet b e n e f i c i a l i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of the f i e l d of a d u l t education and through i t s use w i l l become more f a m i l i a r , and perhaps more comfortable w i t h programmed m a t e r i a l s . 64 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research The r e s u l t s of research on programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and i t s major p r i n c i p l e s and assumptions have not always been c o n c l u s i v e nor e n t i r e l y ^consistent. D i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s i n the same area have produced s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i s p a r a t e f i n d i n g s . Much past research has been useless because the research techniques have more o f t e n than not been inadequate through poor c o n t r o l of the independent v a r i a b l e s and inadequate measurement of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . Lambert, summarizing a c o l l e c t i o n of research s t u d i e s on programmed i n s t r u c t i o n s t a t e s , "one i s s t r u c k by the over-whelming reports of no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the various treatments and v a r i a b l e s . " He goes on to suggest, however, that the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s may w e l l be i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the research i t s e l f (37:10). The number of r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s i n any teaching s i t u a t i o n i s enormous. I n view of the number of i n t e r a c t i n g v a r i a b l e s , extremely p a i n s t a k i n g systematic research i s r e q u i r e d i f the r e s u l t s are not to i be c o n t r a d i c t o r y and i n c o n c l u s i v e . T y p i c a l l y , p u b l i s h e d work has used r a t h e r short chunks of programs, student populations have been i n -adequately sampled and novelty e f f e c t s have been almost impossible to c o n t r o l (20:178). i C u r r e n t l y program w r i t i n g i s more a r t than science. There i s a great need f o r s p e c i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of program v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g and the i n t e r a c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s . This knowledge would be of i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e to the program w r i t e r and would i e l i m i n a t e much of the expensive and time consuming ' t r i a l and e r r o r ' 65 design of program c o n s t r u c t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n . I t i s hoped that these i m p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be put to an experimental t e s t , and that the r e s u l t -i n g research w i l l generate a much more s u b s t a n t i a l set of programming p r i n c i p l e s and f i r m e r g u i d e l i n e s f o r the f u t u r e development of programs. Conclusions Business, i n d u s t r y and the m i l i t a r y have long recognized the advantages programmed i n s t r u c t i o n o f f e r s to t r a i n i n g problems. The educational system has been more conservative i n i t s acceptance and has only begun to f e e l the impact of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . E a r l y uses of t h i s device have p r i m a r i l y been experimental and on a compara-t i v e l y s m a l l s c a l e when measured against the t o t a l amount of i n s t r u c t i o n o f f e r e d . A 1963 survey of school use of programmed m a t e r i a l s conducted i by the Center f o r Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n , U.S.A., revealed t h a t only 11% of the 1886 responding school systems were making use of some m a t e r i a l s . Of these only 1% s t a t e d they would not use such m a t e r i a l s again, w h i l e 75% reacted favourably or e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to programmed m a t e r i a l s and l e s s than 5% were s t r o n g l y opposed. I t would appear that f a m i l i a r i t y apparently bred content (17:35). Today, more than ever b e f o r e , a c h i e v i n g greater e f f i c i e n c y i n i n s t r u c t i o n should be of prime concern to a l l educators. The c r i t i c a l shortage of s k i l l e d teachers, and expanding l e a r n e r p o p u l a t i o n have begun to s t i m u l a t e an increased i n t e r e s t i n programmed i n s t r u c t i o n as one pro-posed s o l u t i o n to i n c r e a s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of the teaching process. By 66 wise use of programs the teacher can not only multiply h i s own presence, but can teach at a l e v e l of p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l much higher than his own. By means of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i t i s now possible to implement the teaching p r i n c i p l e s t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n has always endorsed but found d i f f i c u l t to apply i n crowded classrooms. The heterogeneity of adult learners, t h e i r frequently e r r a t i c attendance at c l a s s , t h e i r past school experiences during which many f a i l e d so often, and the lack of relevant learning materials, s p e c i f i -c a l l y designed for the adult, a l l serve to emphasize the need to create learning programs for adult students. Programmed materials, incorpor-ated into an i n s t r u c t i o n a l system, are e s s e n t i a l i f i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c -t i o n for adults i s to become a r e a l i t y . At the present time use of programmed materials i s i n the experimental stage and i s accompanied by a l l the forms of growing pains which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y accompany rapid development of new techniques |in a society (25:v'i). There are problems of f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e programs, of student s a t i s f a c t i o n , andtofclteacherrfiearloifiTlgsirngtcohtirolcMsiGlass learning. Teachers, freed from the necessity of much mechanical routine [and d r i l l , must le a r n a new r o l e of enriching the educational progress of the i n d i v i d u a l student. There i s a need for more challenging pro-grams that somehow w i l l involve the student i n the program planning process. I Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s the systematic a p p l i c a t i o n of teaching-learning p r i n c i p l e s to i n s t r u c t i o n to produce an increased e f f i c i e n c y i n communication and a more e f f e c t i v e mode of i n s t r u c t i o n . I t has not 6 7 produced the s t a r t l i n g r e v o l u t i o n i n education that was p r e d i c t e d f o r i t by i t s many ardent and e n t h u s i a s t i c adherents, but i t has emerged :as a true and r a d i c a l i n n o v a t i o n i n i n s t r u c t i o n and o f f e r s one mos* i hopeful answer to the numerous ed u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g problems con-f r o n t i n g us today. I t would appear that programmed i n s t r u c t i o n is. a permanent f i x -t u r e i n our edu c a t i o n a l system. I t s problems are those attendant upon anything new, i t takes time to l e a r n how to d e r i v e maximum b e n e f i t from i t s use w i t h minimum d i f f i c u l t y . There i s l i t t l e doubt, however, that programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n i t s present form can make a s u b s t a n t i a l con-i t r i b u t i o n to the e d u c a t i o n a l process f o r a d u l t s , wherever i t occurs. B i b l i o g r a p h y (1) Advisory Committee on Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n , Guide to the Use of Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n ^ Curriculum S e r i e s #4. H a r r i s b u r g , Pennsylvania: Dept. of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , 1961. (2) Brethower, Dale, David Markle, Geary Rummler, A l b e r t Schrader and David Smith. Programmed Learning: A Pfacticum. Ann Arbour, Michigan: Ann Arbour P u b l i s h e r s , 1964. (3) C a l v i n , A l l e n . Bold New Venture. London: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r ess, 1969. (4) C a l l e n d e r , P a t r i c i a . Programmed Learning: I t s Development and S t r u c t u r e . London: Longsman, Green, and Co. L t d . , 1969. (5) Canadian N a t i o n a l Telecommunications. Course i n Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . Volumes 1-7 (undated). (6) Carpenter, F. "The Teaching Machine: Recent Research and Develop-ments and Their I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Education," Teaching Machines  arid Programmed Learning, ed. A.A. Lumsdaine and Robert Gla s e r , Washington: N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1960, pp. 598-601. (7) C a r r , W.J. "A F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s of S e l f I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices," Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning, ed. A.A. Lumsdaine and Robert G l a s e r , Washington: N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1960, pp. 540-562. (8) Coulson, J.E. and H.F. Silberman. "Results of an I n i t i a l E x p e r i -ment i n Automated Teaching," Teaching Machines and Programmed  Learning. ed. A.A. Lumsdaine and Robert Glaser. Washington: N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1960, pp. 462-468. (9) Crowder, Norman. "Automatic Tutoring by I n t r i n s i c Programming," Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning, ed. A.A. Lumsdaine and Robert Glaser. Washington: N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1960, pp. 294-298. (10) Deep, Donald. " I n d i v i d u a l i z e d Learning f o r A d u l t s — t h e I.L.A. P r o j e c t , " Adult Leadership. V o l . XX; No. 8, February, 1972, p. 291. (11) E l l i s , Henry. "Some Problems i n the C o n s t r u c t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s , " S t r a t e g i e s of Research  arid Learning i n Educ a t i o r i a l S e t t i n g s . ed. P h i l i p DuBois and King Wientge. 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(30) Lysaught, Jerome and Clarence W i l l i a m s . A Guide to Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1963. (31) McGuigan, F. and Robert P e t e r s . "Assessing the E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Programmed Texts—Methodology and Some Fi n d i n g s . " J o u r n a l  of Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . V o l . 3, No. 1, pp. 23-29. (32) Noble, Grant. "A Study of the R e l a t i o n s h i p between A b i l i t y , Performance, A t t i t u d e , I n c l i n a t i o n s and Speed of Progress Using I n t r i n s i c Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . " Programmed Learning  J o u r n a l . V o l . 6, No. 1, Jan. 1969, pp. 109-119. (33) Noble, Grant. " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s and I n t r i n s i c Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . " Programmed Learning J o u r n a l . V o l . 6, No. 1, Jan. 1969, pp. 40-57. (34) O f i e s t , G a b r i e l and Wesley Meierhenry. Trends i n Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . Washington: N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of U.S.A. & N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n , 1964. (35) Paeglar, J e r r y . The Theory and P r a c t i c e of Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . P a r i s : UNESCO, 1972. 71 (36) Payne, David. The S p e c i f i c a t i o n and Measurement of Learning Outcomes. Waltham, Mass.: B l a i s d e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968. (37) Provus, Malcolm and Douglas Stone. Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n i n the Classroom. Chicago: Curriculum Advisory S e r v i c e Inc., 1963. i(38) Sepedi, John. I ' l n d i v i d u a l i z i n g ABE Programs Through Learning Packets," Adult Leadership. V o l . 20, No. 8, Feb. 1972, pp. 289-290. (39) Silberman, Harry, Ralph Melaragno, John Coulson and Donald Estavan. " F i x e d Sequence vs. Branching A u t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods." J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. V o l . 52, No. 3, 1961, pp. 166-172. (40) S k u l l , Howard. Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n : A Comparison of Learning and Retention of Information Learned Through the Use of Small  Step (Linear) Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n and Large Step (Branch-ing) Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . Un|iubiMsh;edoEdMDrkdisseriation, UMvers-ityOof Mafckland, 1969. (41) Smith, Norman. "The Teaching of Elementary S t a t i s t i c s by the Conventional Classroom Method vs. Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. V o l . 55, No. 9, June 1962, pp.417-421. (42) Stolurow, Lawrence. Teaching by Machine. Co-operative Research Monograph No. 6 OE34010. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, 1961, pp. 1-173. (43) Stolurow, Lawrence. " I m p l i c a t i o n s of Current Research and Future Trends," J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. V o l . 55, No. 9, June, 1962, pp. 517-527. ;(44) Stolurow, L., and C.C. Walker. A Comparison of Overt and Covert Response i n Programmed Learning, J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  Research. V o l . 55, No. 9, June 1962, pp. 421-430. (45) Wendt, P a u l and Rust Groswinn. " P i c t o r i a l and Performance Frames i n Branching Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n , " J o u r n a l of Educational Research. V o l . 55, No. 9, June 1962, pp. 430-433. APPENDIX A A PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION BOOKLET METHODS OF ADULT EDUCATION 73 i i CONTENTS PAGE ABOUT THE BOOK i i i INTRODUCTION 1 METHOD - DEFINITION 7 INDIVIDUAL METHODS 12 SELF TEST^ QUESTIONS 27 GROUP METHODS (Small) 28 (Large) r. . . . 54 COMMUNITY METHODS 61 SELF TEST 2 QUESTIONS 67 BIBLIOGRAPHY 76 74, ABOUT THE BOOK This i s a Programmed Instruction Booklet to help you learn about the Methods used i n adult education. It i s the f i r s t of two dealing with the processes of adult education according to the Verner conceptual scheme. The series includes: Book I : MtMdfehodsj£fAcA'dqitLt  Education and Book II : Tggestoft&aespSf^^ . Upon completion of t h i s text, you should be able to: 1. Define the term Method as i t applies to adult education. 2. Describe the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme for Methods. 3. Identify, l i s t and d i s t i n g u i s h between the types of Methods included under the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s I ndividual, Group and Community Methods. 4. Identify the Method most appropriate to use i n given s i t u a t i o n s . In order to understand and learn from t h i s booklet, you should have a basic knowledge of education terminology - that i s ; you should know the meanings of such words as behavior and at t i t u d e change, manipu l a t i v e s k i l l , cognitive s k i l l , educational objectives, learning tasks etc. These terms are found i n most standard educational texts and i t i s assumed readers are f a m i l i a r with them. In addition, readers should be able to define the term adult education and d i f f e r e n t i a t e formalized adult education from other a c t i v i t i e s from which adults may lea r n . 75 . i v This type of p u b l i c a t i o n i s c a l l e d a branching booklet because, even though the pages are numbered consecutively, you w i l l NOT read them consecutively. After reading a page, you w i l l e i t h e r be directed to turn to another page or you w i l l be presented with a problem and several choices of answer. A f t e r choosing an answer, you w i l l turn to the page number l i s t e d following the answer. Example: This book i s a Programmed Inst r u c t i o n booklet about: Methods Page 1 Techniques Page i i i If you have chosen the answer Methods, follow the i n s t r u c t i o n s and turn to Page 1 ( i f you selected Techniques, return to Page i i i and reread the page). 76 1 INTRODUCTION The term Adult Education i s very d i f f i c u l t to de f i n e because education f o r adults occurs i n so many d i f f e r e n t forms under the sponsorship of such a wide v a r i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies. For the purposes of t h i s b o o k l e t , we w i l l use the d e f i n i t i o n : An a c t i v i t y i s i d e n t i f i e d as adu l t education when i t i s part of a systematic, planned, i n s t r u c t i o n a l program f o r ad u l t s (5:2). Thus, f o r a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y to be c a l l e d a d u l t education, there must be an educational agent who s y s t e m a t i c a l l y plans and designs a sequence of l e a r n i n g tasks to help an adu l t achieve a s p e c i f i c l e a r n -i n g o b j e c t i v e . Based on t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , do you t h i n k watching a t e l e v i s i o n show on the " H i s t o r y of Canada" would be adult education? Yes Page 3 No Page 4 Oh! Oh! You are not f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . This t e x t i s not put together l i k e an o r d i n a r y p u b l i c a t i o n . Although the pages are numbered i n sequence; that i s 1, 2, 3,.etc., you DO NOT read them i n sequence. The inform a t i o n w i l l make sense only i f you f o l l o w the i n s t r u c t i o n s which are l i s t e d at the bottom of each page. Please r e t u r n to Page 1 and s e l e c t the page l i s t e d a f t e r your chosen answer to read next. (Con't from Page 1) Your Answer: Yes While we agree w i t h you that an a d u l t would undoubtedly l e a r n something from watching an educational T.V. program, the l e a r n i n g that does occur i s l a r g e l y by chance and i s casual and undirected and, t h e r e f o r e , i s u s u a l l y i n e f f i c i e n t and u n c e r t a i n . I t i s not p a r t of a systematic, planned, i n s t r u c t i o n a l program and so i s NOT a € u l t educa-t i o n as defined by Verner. Return to Page 1 and s e l e c t the other answer. (Con't from Page 1 ) Your Answer: No We agree with you. While some learning w i l l normally occur watching t e l e v i s i o n , i t i s NOT part of a systematic, planned, instruc-t i o n a l program and, therefore, i s not considered adult education as defined by Verner. To review, i n adult education there i s an educational agent who establishes an organized relationship with an adult learner for the purposes of systematic learning. Suppose an adult decided to learn about the History of Canada and read a dozen books on the topic. Would this be considered adult education? Yes Page 5 No Page 6 (Con't from Page 4) Your Answer: Yes Not r e a l l y . Remember, f o r an a c t i v i t y to be c a l l e d adult educa-t i o n , there must be an e x t e r n a l e d u c a t i o n a l agent who maintains a r e l a -t i o n s h i p f o r purposes of l e a r n i n g w i t h the a d u l t . Adult education i s l i m i t e d , not by what l e a r n i n g has occurred or f a i l e d to occur, but by the goal and the process behind the l e a r n i n g . Look at the s i t u a t i o n on Page 4 again and s e l e c t the other answer. 81a (Con't from Page 4) Your Answer: No Right on! An adult can learn by reading, watching t e l e v i s i o n as well as by most other day to day a c t i v i t i e s . However, s e l f - l e a r n i n g and chance learning do not constitute adult education. Adult education i s l i m i t e d , not by what learning has occurred or f a i l e d to occur, but by the goal and the process behind the learning. Remember, for an a c t i v i t y to be c a l l e d adult education, there must be (1) a sustained r e l a t i o n s h i p between an agent and an adult learner f o r the purposes of l e a r n i n g , and (2) a systematically planned serie s of learning tasks to help an adult achieve a s p e c i f i c learning objective. Please turn to Page 7. 82a 82b 7 (Con't from Page 6) Now that we have a d e f i n i t i o n of a d u l t education, i t i s time to look at how a d u l t s can be organized to achieve v a r i o u s educational ob-j e c t i v e s . The f i r s t element i n the n o t i o n of processes f o r a d u l t education i s METHOD. Method i d e n t i f i e s the ways i n which people are organized i n order to conduct an educational a c t i v i t y . I t i s defined as the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a p o t e n t i a l body of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the purpose of s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i f f u s i n g knowledge. (6 :9 ) I t i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of o r g a n i z i n g l e a r n e r s i n order that the i n s t i -t u t i o n i s able to provide i t s s e r v i c e s to them. Which of the f o l l o w i n g do you f e e l i s another way of d e f i n i n g the term iMeitJbp^s 1. A r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e a r n e r and the i n s t i t u t i o n through which the educational task i s accomplished. Page 8 2. The v a r i e t y of ways i n which the l e a r n i n g task i s managed so as to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g . Page 9 3. The r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d between the l e a r n e r s to augment the teaching and make l e a r n i n g more c e r t a i n . Page 10 Answer to S e l f Test^ question 1 and S e l f T e s t 2 question ( i n your own.-words) Method i s defined as the way i n which the i n s t i t u t i o n organizes a p o t e n t i a l body of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the purpose of conducting an educational a c t i v i t y . s 8 3 (Con't from Page 7) Your Answer: A r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e a r n e r and the i n s t i t u t i o n through which the educational task i s accomplished. You got i t I The Method of a d u l t education i d e n t i f i e s the ways i n which people are organized i n order to conduct an educational a c t i v i t y ; t hat i s , how the educational i n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the l e a r n e r s . Remember, Method describes the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e job of o r g a n i z i n g l e a r n e r s , NOT the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent's r o l e of arranging the l e a r n e r s so that the l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be accomplished. Thus, Method does not concern i t s e l f w i t h managirig^the l e a r n i n g task or w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e a r n e r s and the agent - only w i t h the o r g a n i -z i n g of the l e a r n e r s so that an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y can occur. Which of the f o l l o w i n g terms do you f e e l belongs to the d e f i n i t i o n of Method ? 1. Role P l a y i n g Page 11 2. cjDd.fste$ission Group Page 12 3. Panel D i s c u s s i o n Page 13 (Con't from Page 7) Your Answer: The v a r i e t y of ways i n which the l e a r n i n g task i s managed so as to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g . Sorry, but Method does not concern i t s e l f w i t h the l e a r n i n g task. The ways i n which the l e a r n i n g task i s managed i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the educational agent, not of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Remember, Method r e f e r s to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of o r g a n i z i n g l e a r n e r s so they are able to r e l a t e to the educational i n s t i t u t i o n . Return to Page 7 and s e l e c t another answer. 85 10 (Con't from Page 7) Your Answer: The r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d between the l e a r n e r s to augment the teaching and make l e a r n i n g more c e r t a i n . Let's take another look at the d e f i n i t i o n of Method: i t i d e n t i -f i e s the ways i n which people are organized i n order to conduct an edu-c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . The r e a l t i o n s h i p s that occur between the l e a r n e r s occur a f t e r they have been organized and are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the educ a t i o n a l agent. Method i s concerned w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of o r g a n i z i n g people so that they are able to r e l a t e to the educational i n s t i t u t i o n . Return to Page 7 and s e l e c t another answer. 11 (Con't from Page 8) Your Answer: Role P l a y i n g F i r s t , what i s r o l e playing? Role p l a y i n g i s the spontaneous a c t i n g out of a s i t u a t i o n or an i n c i d e n t by members of a group. I t describes how the members w i t h i n a group have been arranged by the i n s t r u c t o r i n order that the l e a r n i n g task be accomplished. But t h i s i s not a Method, i n s t e a d i t i s a Technique. Remember, Method r e f e r s to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n of organi z i n g l e a r n e r s i n r e l a t i o n to the i n s t i t u t i o n . Go back to Page 8 and s e l e c t another answer. 87 12 (Con't from Page 8) Your Answer: Di s c u s s i o n Group Very, Very Good! Method i d e n t i f i e s the ways i n which people are organized i n order to conduct an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . A D i s c u s s i o n Group in v o l v e s a number of i n d i v i d u a l s organized i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . Once the i n s t i t u t i o n has organized the l e a r n e r s i n t o a D i s c u s s i o n Group, the members may decide to r o l e p l a y , have a panel d i s c u s s i o n , l e c t u r e e t c . But i t i s the group f a c t o r which r e l a t e s to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and so i s c l a s s i f i e d as Method. People can be organized as i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , i n s m all and l a r g e groups, or c o l l e c t e d i n t o communities. Thus, the Methods of Adult Education can be c l a s s i f i e d as I n d i v i d u a l , Group, or Community Methods. I n d i v i d u a l Methods serve one person on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d b y the i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h the p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s i s on a 1:1 b a s i s . Which of the f o l l o w i n g do you f e e l i s an I n d i v i d u a l Method: Case study Page 14 Laboratory Page 15 Correspondence Study Page 16 88 13 (Con't from Page 8) Your Answer: Panel D i s c u s s i o n When we t a l k of a panel d i s c u s s i o n , what "set-up" do you v i s u a l i z e ? The usual one i s of a group s i t t i n g watching a few mem-bers dis c u s s a t o p i c . This arrangement describes how the l e a r n e r s behave i n r e l a t i o n to one another and to the educational agent. I t does NOT describe the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n s t i t u - t i o n and the learner., and t h e r e f o r e , i s not a Method but a Technique. Remember, Method r e f e r s to the way the l e a r n e r s are organized by the i n s t i t u t i o n , not by the educational agent. Go back to Page 8 and make a b e t t e r choice. 89 (Con't from Page Your Answer: Case study You are confused about the d e f i n i t i o n of Method. In the case study, the le a r n e r s have been organized i n t o a group and r e l a t e to the i n s t i t u t i o n as a group. Therefore, case study i s not a Method but i n s t e a d describes an i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e a r n e r s and the i n s t r u c t o r w i t h i n the Group Method. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent uses the case study as a Technique to a s s i s t the group to achieve a l e a r n i n g task. Return to Page 12 and s e l e c t an answer which b e t t e r describes a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e a r n e r and the o r g a n i z a t i o n on a 1:1 b a s i s . (Con't from Page 12) Your Answer: Laboratory A l a b o r a t o r y i s a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n which knowledge may be acquired and/or a p p l i e d by a number of i n d i v i d u a l s simultaneously i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y that i s an a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t of r e a l i t y . There-f o r e , i n a l a b o r a t o r y , the i n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t e s to the p a r t i c i p a n t s as a group, not on the 1:1 b a s i s of the I n d i v i d u a l Methods. Return to Page .TL<2 and have another t r y . 91a 91b 16 (Con't from Page 12) Your Answer: Correspondence Study. Good.' Correspondence Study r e f e r s to a s e r i e s of organized lessons or assignments developed s e q u e n t i a l l y and c a r r i e d out through an i n s t r u c t o r -student r e l a t i o n s h i p that i s maintained through the m a i l s . I t serves a la r g e number of persons simultaneously on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . Each l e a r n e r e s t a b l i s h e s a 1:1 r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n . Case study describes the technique the i n s t r u c t o r uses to accomplish the l e a r n i n g task, and i s th e r e f o r e , not a Method. A Laboratory Method i n v o l v e s a number of l e a r n e r s together, the i n s t i t u t i o n having e s t a b l i s h e d a group r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the l e a r n e r s . In I n d i v i d u a l Methods the l e a r n e r s remain as i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and are not brought i n t o the edu c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e f o r group i n s t r u c t i o n . A second I n d i v i d u a l Method i s c a l l e d D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study. In D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study, the edu c a t i o n a l agent acts as a f a c i l i t a t o r to a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y w i t h p e r i o d i c d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e i r progress and problems. Thus, the l e a r n e r gains knowledge, i n depth, i n a f i e l d of h i s own choice of study. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the edu c a t i o n a l agent w i t h the l e a r n e r i n Di r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study can be described as: 1. I n v o l v i n g shared l e a d e r s h i p . Page 17 2. Being a co n s u l t a n t . Page 18 3. Imposing a u t h o r i t y . Page 19 Answer to S e l f Test.^ Question 3B: Correspondence Study Answer to S e l f Test.. Question 3C: Di r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study 92 17 (Con't from Page 16) Your Answer: I n v o l v i n g shared l e a d e r s h i p . Sorry, but t h i s does not describe the r e l a t i o n s h i p developed between the agent and the l e a r n e r i n D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study. The l e a r n e r engages i n s e l f d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y , seeking out the agent only when he/she develops a problem, or needs advice or d i r e c t i o n . Return to Page 16 and make another choice. 93a 93b 18 (Con't from Page 16) Your Answer: Being a consultant. Good! The agent i n D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study Method acts as a consultant to the student. The agent d i r e c t s the l e a r n e r to appropriate sources of l e a r n i n g to meet the student's p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g needs, and p e r i o d i c a l l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e s d i r e c t contact i n order to o f f e r f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e , d i s c u s s i o n or to evaluate the l e a r n e r s progress. A T h i r d type of I n d i v i d u a l Method i s c a l l e d I n t e r n s h i p . In an i n t e r n s h i p program, an i n d i v i d u a l , under s u p e r v i s i o n , learns to apply knowledge and s k i l l s , already acquired, through d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g under f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . Thus, the i n t e r n i s a l e a r n e r who has come from an educational i n s t i t u t e w i t h knowledge and s k i l l s learned there and needing t o , p r a c t i c e these i n the work s e t t i n g . I t i s an I n d i - v i d u a l Method of o r g a n i z i n g l e a r n e r s because the i n t e r n s r e l a t e to the i n -s t i t u t i o n on a 1:1 b a s i s . A student wishes to l e a r n how to operate and r e p a i r computers. The student i s organized i n t o a program that i n v o l v e s much knowledge and s k i l l l e a r n i n g through a process of working w i t h computers under d i r e c t super-v i s i o n and guidance of an expert on the job s i t e . I s t h i s an i n t e r n s h i p program? Yes Page 20 No Page 21 I? 4 (Con't from Page 16) Your Answer: Imposing A u t h o r i t y . Sorry, but t h i s does not describe the r e l a t i o n s h i p developed between the agent and the l e a r n e r i n D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study. The agent does not impose a u t h o r i t y over the l e a r n e r . Instead, the le a r n e r i s engaged i n s e l f d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y , seeking out the agent only when he/she develops a problem, or needs advice or d i r e c t i o n . Return to Page 16 and make another choice. 1 (Con't from Page 18) Your Answer: Yes In the example gi v e n , d i d the l e a r n i n g occur p r i m a r i l y i n an educational i n s t i t u t i o n p r i o r to p r a c t i c e i n the work s e t t i n g or d i d most of the l e a r n i n g and the p r a c t i c i n g both occur on the job s i t e ? Recheck the d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e r n s h i p : p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g always  f o l l o w s the t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g - obtained i n a separate i n s t i t u -t i o n . Go back to Page 18 and s e l e c t another answer. I N T E R N S H I P 0 5 K I L L KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION ED. INSTITUTE APPLICATION UORK SETTING SKILL KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION 0- APPLICATION UOftK SETTINS I APPRENTICESHIP 96b 21 (Con't from Page 18) Your Answer: No You are r i g h t ! The student i n t h i s example acquires most of h i s / h e r knowledge or s k i l l s on the job s i t e , or under a c t u a l f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . The d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e r n s h i p r e s t r i c t s i t to those programs where the i n d i -v i d u a l has already completed knowledge and s k i l l l e a r n i n g before being given the opportunity to p r a c t i c e i n the work s e t t i n g . Thus, the i n t e r n comes from an educational i n s t i t u t i o n , such as a u n i v e r s i t y , and a p p l i e s what he/ she has already learned there i n a r e a l work environment. The student above i s being t r a i n e d under the Apprenticeship Method. Here the l e a r n e r acquires most of the knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d through d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g under immediate personal s u p e r v i s i o n of an expert i n a work s i t u t a t i o n or i n some commercial establishment. Which of the f o l l o w i n g statements a p p l i e s to the Apprenticeship Method? 1. The student learns b a s i c theory and s k i l l s through observation, i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e of work processes on the job. Page 22 2. The student i s f i r s t taught b a s i c theory and s k i l l s i n a classroom and then p r a c t i c e s these on the j o b . Page 23 S e l f Test^ Question 3A: Ap p r e n t i c e s h i p . S e l f T e s t 0 Question 6A: I n t e r n s h i p . INDIVIDUAL METHODS OF ADULT EDUCATION 1. Correspondence Study 2. In t e r n s h i p 3. Apprenticeship 4. D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study 97b 22 (Con't from Page 21) Your Answer: The student l e a r n s b a s i c theory and s k i l l s through obser-You've got i t ! In the Apprenticeship Method a l l l e a r n i n g and prac-t i c i n g of work processes occur i n the work s e t t i n g or on the j o b . The agent i s a s k i l l e d t e c h n i c i a n i n a commercial establishment, such as a plumber i n h i s shop, who forms a c o n t r a c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a student to t r a i n the student i n p r e s c r i b e d work processes on the job s i t e . There are four types of I n d i v i d u a l Methods: Correspondence Study, D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study, I n t e r n s h i p and Apprenticeship (See Chart opposite) The 4 I n d i v i d u a l Methods share s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Which item i n the f o l l o w i n g l i s t i s NOT a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : v a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e of work processes on the job. 1. The design and management of the l e a r n i n g experience i s accomplished through the use of Methods that serve one i n d i v i d u a l at a time. Page 24 2. The i n d i v i d u a l s do a l l or most of t h e i r l e a r n i n g outside the educational i n s t i t u t e . Page 25 3. The i n d i v i d u a l s have the b e n e f i t of sharing l e a r n i n g experiences w i t h other students. Page 26 Answer to S e l f Test^ Question 2 and S e l f Test^ Question 2: Cor-respondence Study, D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study, Apprenticeship and I n t e r n s h i p . (Con't from Page Your Answer: The student i s f i r s t taught b a s i c theory and s k i l l s i n classroom and then p r a c t i c e s these on the j o b . Sorry but t h i s does not r e f e r to the Apprenticeship Method. Remember, by d e f i n i t i o n the Apprenticeship Method i s one i n which knowledge and s k i l l s are learned "on the job s i t e " . Return to Page 21 and reread the d e f i n i t i o n and example given. 99 24 (Con't from Page 22) Your Answer: The design and management of the l e a r n i n g experience i s accomplished through the use of iMettfeojis that serve one i n d i v i d u a l a t a time. Whoa! Time to stop and t h i n k about the d e f i n i t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l Methods. I s n ' t the whole idea to teach one person at a time? That being so, the design and management of the l e a r n i n g experience must be accomplished through the use of Methods that are capable of teaching one person a t a time. You were asked to s e l e c t the item which was NOT a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of I n d i v i d u a l Methods. Return to Page 22 and make another s e l e c t i o n . 25 (Con't from Page 22) Your Answer: Individuals receive a l l or most of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n outside the educational i n s t i t u t i o n . Let's see. Where are the learners when studying by Correspon-dence Study? - at home? or i n the educational i n s t i t u t e ? Where are the learners when t h e i r study i s Directed Individual Study? - at home? or i n the educational i n s t i t u t e ? Where are the learners when working under an Apprenticeship contract? - with the expert at h i s shop? or i n the educational i n s t i t u t e ? And f i n a l l y , where does the Intern work? - i n the pr a c t i c e setting? or i n the educational i n s t i t u t e ? Get the point? You were asked to sel e c t the item which was NOT a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Individual Method. Return to Page 22 and sele c t another answer. 26 (Con't from Page 22) Your Answer: The i n d i v i d u a l s have the b e n e f i t of sharing l e a r n i n g experiences w i t h other students. Good! This statement i s NOT true of I n d i v i d u a l Methods. Those students l e a r n i n g under I n d i v i d u a l Methods u s u a l l y remain i s o l a t e d per-sons and are u n l i k e l y to meet w i t h other students to share experiences. There are many i n d i v i d u a l s seeking l e a r n i n g who cannot be brought i n t o an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g or assembled i n t o groups. Many l e a r n i n g tasks are best achieved when supervised on a 1:1 b a s i s . The i n s t i t u -t i o n may have o b j e c t i v e s that can be achieved more e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . For these students, the i n s t i t u -t i o n must adopt Metehoxfe that can accommodate i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . Go on to Page 27. 102 27 (Con't from Page 26) SELF TEST 1 QUESTION Here are a few questions designed to t e s t your understanding of what you have been l e a r n i n g . Answer the questions ( p r e f e r a b l y w r i t e the answers) and then check each answer on the page i n d i c a t e d . I f the answer i s not c o r r e c t be sure to read the frame on that page to under-stand why. 1. Define the term rMeHho.U. Page 7 2. L i s t 4 I n d i v i d u a l Methods Page 22 3. I d e n t i f y which I n d i v i d u a l Method i s being r e f e r r e d t o : A. A c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l e a r n e r and an expert through which the l e a r n e r i s t r a i n e d f o r p r e s c r i b e d work processes by p r a c t i c a l experience, under s u p e r v i s i o n , on the j o b . Page 21 B. Planned lessons i n which the l e a r n e r reads w i t h guidance of a s y l l a b u s , sub-mits w r i t t e n assignments to the i n s t r u c -t o r who r e a c t s to them, a l l through the m a i l . Page 16 C. The e d u c a t i o n a l agent acts as a consu l t a n t to a l e a r n e r engaged i n s e l f - l e a r n i n g . Page 16 A f t e r completing t h i s t e s t and checking your answers, go on to Page 28. 103a 103b 28 (Con't from Page 27) Method i d e n t i f i e s the ways i n which people are organized i n order to conduct an ed u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . There are three ways of o r g a n i z i n g people: on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , i n t o groups and in. communities. We have looked at four I n d i v i d u a l Methods: Correspondence Study, D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study, Apprenticeship and I n t e r n s h i p . Group Methods i n v o l v e a number of i n d i v i d u a l s i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y simultaneously. In Group Methods, there i s e s t a b l i s h e d a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p among the p a r t i c i p a n t s and between them and the ed u c a t i o n a l agent so that the l e a r n i n g process i s under continuous d i r e c t i o n . Which of the f o l l o w i n g do you f e e l i s an example of a Group Method: 1. Lecture Page 29 2. Int e r n s h i p Page 30 3. Class Page 31 29 (Con't from Page 28) Your Answer: Lecture You are confused about the d e f i n i t i o n of Method. Rethink the d e f i n i t i o n : Method describes a continuing r e l a t i o n s h i p f or systematic learning that i s established by the i n s t i t u t i o n with those learners i n the population whom i t seeks to educate. What does the term lecture describe? It describes the behavior of the educational agent and the learners within a group to one another; that i s , the educational agent t a l k s to the learners, who l i s t e n . It i s a Technique. Thus, l e c t u r e describes an agent-learner r e l a t i o n s h i p , NOT an i n s t i t u t i o n - l e a r n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and, therefore, i s NOT a Method. Return to Page 28 and choose a Group Method. 105 30 (Con't from Page 28) Your Answer: I n t e r n s h i p In i n t e r n s h i p , an i n d i v i d u a l student works under s u p e r v i s i o n i n a r e a l work s e t t i n g . The student r e l a t e s to the i n s t i t u t i o n as an i n d i v i d u a l . Group Methods describe a r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n to a group of i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y simultaneously. Back to Page 28 and make a b e t t e r choice. 1 0 6 31 (Con't from Page 28) Your Answer: Class Right on! A c l a s s d e f i n e s how l e a r n e r s are organized i n r e l a t i o n to the i n s t i t u t e ; that i s , i n d i v i d u a l s are organized i n t o a group i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y simultaneously. Formal ed u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h such a r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r l e a r n i n g by having the p a r t i c i p a n t s come to the i n s t i t u t i o n and by o r g a n i z i n g them i n t o groups according to age, a b i l i t y , subject matter or some other c r i t e r i o n . These groups are r e f e r r e d to as c l a s s e s . Since s i z e appears to be a major i n f l u e n c e on the nature of the l e a r n i n g accomplished, Group Methods are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o Small Group Methods and Large Group Methods. Although there i s no d e f i n i t e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s necessary to be c l a s s i f i e d as small or l a r g e , the usual p r a c t i c e appears to l i m i t a small group to 30 or l e s s . The exact number of members, however, i s of l e s s importance than the a b i l i t y of the Small Group Method to a l l o w face to face communications and i n t e r a c t i o n s among the group members. Thus, changes i n group patte r n s of behavior are more e a s i l y accomplished i n Small Group Methods than Large Group Methods. In which Group Method do you f e e l l e a r n e r s exert the most i n -flu e n c e on one another: 1. The Small Group Methods Page 32 2. The Large Group Methods Page 33 107a 107b' 32 (Con't from Page 31) Your Answer: The Small Group Method Yes. The small group i s able to a l l o w face to face communication and i n t e r a c t i o n s among the l e a r n e r s more e a s i l y than a l a r g e group, which tends to encourage passiveness and i s o l a t i o n . Thus, small groups are u s u a l l y more e f f e c t i v e f o r producing behavior and a t t i t u d e change because member i n t e r a c t i o n s supplement the i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures. There are three types of Small Group Methods: the g l a s s * the D i s c u s s i o n Group and the Laboratory. The c l a s s is the most f a m i l i a r group. Method, iffi Adul-6 !d-u'4_£Mffl-'..-and the t r a d i t i o n a l primary format f o r l e a r n i n g i n educational i n s t i t u -t i o n s . The c l a s s c o n s i s t s of a group of l e a r n e r s under the c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n of an e d u c a t i o n a l agent f o r study of a l i m i t e d area of subject matter. The c l a s s has a d e f i n i t e enrollment (20-30 members i s most common) and meets at s p e c i f i c times f o r a predetermined l e n g t h of time. The agent i s i n c o n t r o l of the content, d i r e c t i o n , and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c l a s s , and thus, determines what l e a r n i n g w i l l occur. Which of the f o l l o w i n g statements about the c l a s s i s NOT t r u e : 1. The e d u c a t i o n a l agent i s a subject matter s p e c i a l i s t . Page 34 2. The l e a r n e r s share the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l e a r n i n g experience. Page 35 3. I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the c l a s s focusses on the i n s t r u c t o r . Page 36 Answer to S e l f T e s t 2 Question 3!.: C l a s s , D i s c u s s i o n Group, Laboratory. 33 (Con't from Page 31) Your Answer: The Large Group Method Which i s more l i k e l y to happen i n a l a r g e group — a f e e l i n g of involvement or one of i s o l a t i o n ? Accept f o r now that a l a r g e group o f t e n encourages passiveness and a l a c k of commitment to the group. Go ON to Page 32. 34 (Con't from Page 32) Your Answer: The ed u c a t i o n a l agent i s a subject matter s p e c i a l i s t . Think again about one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l a s s : the general d i r e c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and the c o n t r o l of the l e a r n i n g experience i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agent. Therefore, the agent must be a subject matter s p e c i a l i s t s i n c e he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g . Remember, the c l a s s i s ax a u t h o r i t y - c e n t e r e d Method w i t h the educational agent at i t s head. Return to Page 32 f o r a b e t t e r choice. 110 35 (Con't from Page 32) Your Answer: The l e a r n e r s share the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l e a r n i n g experience. Ri g h t ! This statement about the c l a s s i s NOT t r u e . The c l a s s i s an a u t h o r i t y - c e n t e r e d Method and the d i r e c t i o n , c o n t r o l and o r g a n i -z a t i o n of the c l a s s i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the edu c a t i o n a l agent. The agent may choose to al l o w member i n t e r a c t i o n or to delegate some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g to the l e a r n e r s ; f o r example, when students prepare and present seminars. However, the agent i s the one re s p o n s i b l e f o r the l e a r n i n g experiences that occur i n a c l a s s . Could the c l a s s be chosen as a Group Method when the l e a r n i n g task i n v o l v e s changing group patte r n s of behavior — f o r example, people changing r a c i a l f e e l i n g s toward a m i n o r i t y group? Yes Page 37 No Page 38 (Con't from Page Your Answer: I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the c l a s s focusses on the i n s t r u c t o r . Sorry, but we can't agree that t h i s statement i s NOT t r u e . The c l a s s i s an a u t h o r i t y - c e n t e r e d Method i n which the educational agent c o n t r o l s the d i r e c t i o n and the i n t e r a c t i o n , so that i n t e r a c t i o n which occurs focusses on the i n s t r u c t o r . Return to Page 32 and s e l e c t another answer. 112a SOME CLASS INTERACTION PATTERNS o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 112b 37 (Con't from Page 35) Your Answer: Yes Good f o r you! The c l a s s i s a Small Group Method and is» tthere-f o r e an appropriate choice of Gjcojupp Meifcjiorcil when the nature of the l e a r n i n g task i s a change i n group patterns of behavior. The t r a d i -t i o n a l form of a c l a s s i s to place the l e a r n e r s n e a t l y i n rows f a c i n g the i n s t r u c t o r — a set-up u s e f u l i f the l e a r n i n g task i s content  a c q u i s i t i o n . However, the c l a s s can be a f l e x i b l e instrument f o r a v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s depending upon the i n s t r u c t o r ' s s k i l l s . I t can be managed to all o w f o r open communication among the members and f o r member i n t e r a c t i o n ; but the general d i r e c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and the c o n t r o l of the l e a r n i n g experience i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agent. Which of the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s do you f e e l i s NOT s u i t e d to the c l a s s method: 1. The Theory of R e l a t i v i t y . Page 39 2. Should Mandatory L i c e n s i n g be Required f o r Adu l t Educators? Page 40 Answer to S e l f Test- Question 5C: C l a s s . 113 38 (Con't from Page 35) Your Answer: No I t i s c e r t a i n l y easy to see why you chose NO i f your mental image of a c l a s s i s a teacher standing i n f r o n t of rows of desks at which s i t qquEUfif l e a r n e r s l i s t e n i n g to a l e c t u r e — and, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , that i s oft e n what happens i n a c l a s s . However, l e t ' s take a second look a t the d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s — i t says only that i t c o n s i s t s of a group w i t h a d e f i n i t e enrollment meeting ait s p e c i f i e d times, f o r a pre-determined l e n g t h of time f o r study of a l i m i t e d area of subject matter, under the d i r e c t i o n of a continu i n g agent. What happens when the group meets depends upon the agent and l e a r n e r s . Remember, a c l a s s i s an example of a Small Group Method and, t h e r e f o r e , w i t h proper management under the guidance of a competent edu c a t i o n a l agent would be an appropriate choice of Group Method when the nature of the l e a r n i n g task was a change i n group patterns of behavior. Please t u r n to page 37. (Con't from Page 3 Your Answer: The Theory of R e l a t i v i t y What i s the major l e a r n i n g task? CONTENT ACQUISITION. O.K. i s content a c q u i s i t i o n an appropriate l e a r n i n g task f o r the c l a s s ? Of course. You were asked to choose a t o p i c NOT appropriate to a c l a s s method. Return to Page 37 and choose the other answer. 115a 115b 40 (Con't from Page 37) Your Answer: Should Mandatory Licensing be Required f o r Adult Educators? Great! This i s a topic which i s NOT suited to an authority-centered Method i n which a s p e c i a l i s t i n the subject matter i s responsible for a l l information-giving. Instead, i t would suggest a set-up where pa r t i c i p a n t s can discuss the issues and come to some group decision. Another Small Group Method i s the Discussion Group i n which learning i s achieved as a group i n a democratic atmosphere of shared leadership. The p a r t i c i p a n t s control the d i r e c t i o n and the content and share the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r learning among themselves and the educational agent. The Discussion Group lends i t s e l f to such tasks as problem s o l -ving, behavior and a t t i t u d e change and group decision-making. Which of the following statements about the Discussion Group do you f e e l i s NOT true: 1. It i s an important Method f or people who want to be a c t i v e l y involved i n the learning process. Page 41 2. It i s a good Method for developing c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s . Page 42 3. It i s an excellent Method f or acquiring an in-depth knowledge of a subject. Page 43 116 41 (Con't from Page 40) Your Answer: I t i s an important Methadi f o r people who d e s i r e to be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g process. Whoa'.' Time to stop and th i n k about some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the D i s c u s s i o n Group ; namely, shared l e a d e r s h i p , shared r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g , p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l . Do these suggest an a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d l e a r n e r or a passive one? You were asked to s e l e c t an answer which wasn't t r u e . Return to Page 40 f o r another choice. 1 1 7 (Con't from Page 40) Your Answer: I t i s a good Method! f o r developing c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . Group D i s c u s s i o n lends i t s e l f to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems and to t h e i r a n a l y s i s . In a d d i t i o n , Group D i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v e s the e n t i r e membership of the group i n t e r a c t i n g so that v a r i o u s p o i n t s of view are put f o r t h and c a r e f u l l y examined; Do you f e e l such a process w i l l be h e l p f u l f o r developing c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s ? Remember, before a person can v e r b a l l y present an idea or o p i n i o n , he must have thought about i t and done some s e l f -e v a l u a t i o n . You were asked to s e l e c t a statement that was NOT t r u e . Return to Page 40 f o r another choice. 118 43 (Con't from Page 40) Your Answer: It i s an excellent Method for acquiring an in-depth knowledge of a subject. We agree! The most e f f i c i e n t Method for acquiring an in-depth knowledge of a subject would be a Method where the d i r e c t i o n and con-t r o l of the learning i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of an expert i n the subject (e.g., the c l a s s ) . The Discussion Group has p a r t i c i p a n t control and content - not e f f i c i e n t for the a c q u i s i t i o n of in-depth knowledge of a subject. The Discussion Group does allow the learner to be a c t i v e l y involved i n the learning process and i s e f f e c t i v e for developing the c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Which of the following learning topics do you f e e l i s most appropriate to the Discussion Group Method? 1. F l u o r i d a t i o n - B e n e f i c i a l or Harmful? Page 44 2. How to Select and Use Audio-Visual Equipment. Page 45 119 44 (Con't from Page 43) Your Answer: F l u o r i d a t i o n - B e n e f i c i a l or Harmful? Great! The D i s c u s s i o n Group lends i t s e l f to the a n a l y s i s of a problem and to group d e c i s i o n making. I t i s u s e f u l when the o b j e c t i v e i s to help people make an i n t e l l i g e n t judgment on an i s s u e because v a r i o u s p o i n t s of view are put f o r t h and c r i t i c a l l y examined. The Di s c u s s i o n Group i s not e f f i c i e n t when the o b j e c t i v e i s content a c q u i -s i t i o n or i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g manipulative s k i l l s . The D i s c u s s i o n Group i s used e x t e n s i v e l y by such groups as U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n t i o n , l i b r a r i e s and Foundations (e.g., The Great Books Foundation). To review f o r a minute: In which Small Group Method does an educational agent c o n t r o l the l e a r n i n g experience. 1. Class Page 46 2. D i s c u s s i o n Group Page 47 Answer to S e l f Test„ Question 5b: D i s c u s s i o n Group. 120 45 (Con't from Page 43) Your Answer: How to S e l e c t and Use A u d i o - V i s u a l Equipment. Let's take a second look at the t o p i c . I t i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g content about equipment that i s a v a i l a b l e and i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g manipu-l a t i v e s k i l l s on how to use the equipment. Is the D i s c u s s i o n Group u s e f u l f o r content a c q u i s i t i o n and s k i l l l e a r n i n g ? No, i n s t e a d i t i s e x c e l l e n t f o r such processes as problem s o l v i n g aid group d e c i s i o n -making . Return to Page 43 and s e l e c t the other answer. 121a 121b 46 (Con't from Page 44) Your Answer: Cla s s Great! In the C l a s s , the general d i r e c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l of the l e a r n i n g experience i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the educa-t i o n a l agent. The D i s c u s s i o n Group has p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n . A t h i r d Small Group Method i s the Laboratory. The Laboratory i s defined as a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n which knowledge may be acquired and/or a p p l i e d by a number of i n d i v i d u a l s simultaneously i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y that i s an a r t i f i c i a l construct of r e a l i t y (6:15). The l e a r n i n g does not r e q u i r e any s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among the l e a r n e r s , e.g., a home economics p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n . Which of the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s would be most s u i t a b l e to the Laboratory Method: 1. Future Trends i n Soc i e t y and t h e i r Impact on Education. 2. I n t r o d u c t i o n to Genetics. 3. Nursing Care f o r the O b s t e t r i c a l P a t i e n t . Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Answer to S e l f Test- Question 5A: Laboratory. 122 47 (Con't from Page 44) Your Answer: The Discussion Group Hold on! What i s the important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Discussion Group: p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l l e d content and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for l e a r n -ing i s shared among the group members and the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. Return to Page 44 and se l e c t the other answer. 48 (Con't from Page 46) Your Answer: Future Trends i n Society and Their Impact on Education Sorry, but we can't agree that t h i s t o p i c r e q u i r e s a c t i v e involvement of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y that i s an a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t of r e a l i t y . Instead, i t suggests p a r t i c i p a n t s s i t t i n g i n a group, expressing t h e i r ideas and d i s c u s s i o n the t o p i c . Take another look a t the suggestions on Page 46 and t r y again. 124 49 (Con't from Page 46) Your Answer: I n t r o d u c t i o n to Genetics Sorry, but the main l e a r n i n g task i n an i n t r o d u c t o r y course i n Genetics i s to acquire knowledge, and the most e f f i c i e n t way would be i n the Class Method. The Laboratory Method sets up a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y that i s an a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t of r e a l i t y — not a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s t o p i c . Return to Page 46 f o r another choice. SMALL GROUP METHODS 1. Class 2. D i s c u s s i o n Group 3. Laboratory 125b 50 (Con't from Page 46) Your Answer: Nursing Care f o r the O b s t e t r i c a l P a t i e n t R i g h t . This t o p i c r e q u i r e s l e a r n i n g f a c t u a l knowledge (symptoms, medication given,etc.) and developing manipulative s k i l l s (how to admin-i s t e r medications, give nursing c a r e ) . There i s a l s o the task of applying the knowledge and the s k i l l s p r o p e r l y i n the a c t u a l work s e t t i n g . The best way to l e a r n t h i s i s to p r a c t i c e i n an a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t of r e a l i t y , that i s , i n the l a b o r a t o r y . The censor has j u s t refused to a l l o w a book to be s o l d i n your community. The school board has o f f e r e d you the use of a classroom to meet w i t h 18 community members who have asked you to look at the iss u e of censorship w i t h them. Which Small Group Method would b'e'tmos&eap.pxopriate: 1. The C l a s s Page 51 2. The D i s c u s s i o n Group Page 52 3. The Laboratory Page 53 51 (Con't from Page 50) Your Answer: The Class I t i s an easy choice to understand s i n c e the meeting place i s a classroom. However, the p h y s i c a l place of meeting does not a f f e c t the Method s e l e c t e d . The questions to be asked are: Would t h i s l e a r n i n g task lend i t s e l f to an i n s t r u c t o r c o n t r o l l e d l e a r n i n g experience or p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l l e d one? W i l l the group meet f o r a defined p e r i o d of time or u n t i l some group s o l u t i o n has been reached? What i s the nature of the l e a r n i n g task: content a c q u i s i t i o n ( h i s t o r y , methods of censorship) or group decision-making (what to do about the i s s u e of censorship)? Turn to Page 50 and s e l e c t another answer. 127 52 (Con't from Page 50) Your Answer: The Discussion Group Exactly. The class i s too formal a Method for this issue, and the learning task does not lend i t s e l f to an instructor-controlled learning experience. Neither does the task involve a manipulative s k i l l nor require a simulation of r e a l i t y as i n the Laboratory. The organi-zation of the Discussion Group results from group interests and progress and i t meets i n any convenient place at any time u n t i l the issue has been resolved. The issue here involves several problems that need to be iden-t i f i e d , investigated and solutions found. There must be group decision-making on a plan of action (censorship i s wrong and should be challenged, or i t i s right and should be supported). The Discussion Group gives each participant an opportunity to present his or her viewpoint and thus forces each in d i v i d u a l to do some straight thinking which helps people make i n t e l l i g e n t decisions or judgments. Please turn to Page 54. 53 (Con't from Page 50) Your Answer: The Laboratory Sorry. The Laboratory i s important when the l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e s a s i m u l a t i o n of r e a l i t y . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , l e a r n e r s are i n t e r e s t e d i n a v e r b a l e x p l o r a t i o n of the problem and the simulated work environment i s not necessary. Return to Page 50 f o r another choice. 129 54 (Con't from Page 52) At t h i s p o i n t , you should be able to define the term Method, i d e n t i f y the 4 I n d i v i d u a l Methods (Correspondence Study, D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study, I n t e r n s h i p and A p p r e n t i c e s h i p ) , and i d e n t i f y the 3 Small Group Methods ( C l a s s , D i s c u s s i o n Group, and Laboratory). Now i t ' s time to move on to the Large Group Methods. We have already discussed that the major d i f f e r e n c e between Small and Large Group Methods i s that Small Group Methods accommodate fa c e - t o - f a c e com-munications and i n t e r a c t i o n s more e a s i l y than do the Large Group Methods. The f i r s t Large Group Method i s the Meeting or Assembly. This u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of a s i n g l e or a s e r i e s of s i n g l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l sessions i n which the b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s between a speaker (or speakers) on a p l a t f o r m and an audience. There i s u s u a l l y l i t t l e group i n t e r a c t i o n \ i n a meeting, so that i t i s most u s e f u l f o r conveying i n f o r m a t i o n to a l a r g e group. The main behavior of the m a j o r i t y of l e a r n e r s attending the meeting i s : 1. To d i s c u s s Page 55 2. To l i s t e n Page 56 3. To problem so l v e Page 57 Answer to S e l f Test„ Question 6B: Meeting. 5 5 (Con't from Page 5 4 ) Your Answer: To di s c u s s Sorry. The meeting i s designed w i t h a speaker (or speakers) on a p l a t f o r m t a l k i n g to a passive audience. There i s u s u a l l y no oppor-t u n i t y given to the audience to d i s c u s s the i s s u e although the speakers may di s c u s s the t o p i c among themselves on the p l a t f o r m . Based on t h i s , go back to Page 5 4 and make another choice. 131a 131b 56 (Con't from Page 54) Your Answer: To l i s t e n You've got i t ! The meeting or assembly i s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g that involves a large number of i n d i v i d u a l s l i s t e n i n g to a speaker on a platform. It Ifs used mainly for conveying information to a large group of i n d i v i d u a l s . Two other Large Group Methods are: The Conference: This Method; usually consists of a series of meetings among p a r t i c i p a n t s of a s i m i l a r background (supervisors, farmers etc.) that allow them to consult together i n a formal fashion on problems to which they must give serious consideration. Work conferences should be designed to make possible a steady progress from problem s e l e c t i o n to diagnosis, to s o l u t i o n decisions to a c t i o n . The Convention: A large number of p a r t i c i p a n t s l i n k e d to a com-mon large organization come together f o r a l i m i t e d time to discuss and consider ideas which may strengthen the parent organization (decide upon p o l i c i e s , platforms, plan s t r a t e g i e s e t c . ) . The p r i n c i p a l advantage of a convention i s that i t gives the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s an opportunity to strengthen h i s commitment to the organization. Unfortunately, i t tends to be confined to conveying information, and i t l i m i t s d e c i s i o n -making to a few. It i s often used by p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . Which of the 3 Large Group Methods requires the greatest involve-ment from the p a r t i c i p a n t s . 1. The Meeting or assembly Page 58 2. The Conference Page 59 3. The Convention Page 60 Answer to Self T e s t 2 Question %'. Meeting, Convention, Conference. Answer to Self T e s t ? Question 6D: Convention. 132 57 (Con't from Page 54) Your Answer: To problem s o l v e . Speakers and organizers of the meeting may hope that the a u d i -ence w i l l do some problem—solving. However, the meeting i s designed w i t h a speaker (or speakers) on a p l a t f o r m t a l k i n g to a passive audience. This i s not e f f i c i e n t f o r problem-solving, only f o r conveying i n f o r -mation. Go back to Page 54 and s e l e c t another ch o i c e . 58 (Con't from Page 56) Your Answer: The Meeting or Assembly. Let us take a second look a t the d e f i n i t i o n of meeting: the important aspects of i t are the l i m i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n between the p l a t -form and the audience and the l a c k of communication among the audience members themselves. There i s very l i t t l e i n the way of involvement requested of the audience at a meeting. Go back to Page 56 and reread the d e f i n i t i o n s before making a be t t e r s e l e c t i o n . 134 59 (Con't from Page 56) Your Answer: The Conference E x a c t l y . The conference i s the only l a r g e ,@roup Method that i n v o l v e s the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n problem-solving s i t u a t i o n s and that has as i t s major purpose group p r o d u c t i v i t y . In f a c t , the s u c c e s s f u l work conference demands that problems, ra t h e r than t o p i c s , be d e a l t w i t h and that these problems be seen by the delegates as t h e i r problems. The meeting i n v o l v e s the l e a r n e r s i n a s i t u a t i o n where they s i t and l i s t e n to a speaker or speakers and the convention i s mainly con-cerned w i t h strengthening personal l o y a l t i e s to the parent o r g a n i z a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w i t h a l l Large Group Methods, the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t o f t e n remains anonymous and the primary l e a r n i n g achieved i s the a c q u i -s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . Please t u r n to Page 61. LARGE GROUP METHODS 1. Meeting or Assembly 2. Conference 3. Convention 60 (Con't from Page 56) Your Answer: The Convention Very c l o s e , and i t i s easy to see why you s e l e c t e d t h i s answer. The convention i s composed of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , u n i t e d through a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a common l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n , brought together to d i s -cuss and consider ideas which may strengthen the parent o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r o l e i s u s u a l l y reduced to l i s t e n i n g (as w i t h the Meeting) w i t h most of the a c t i o n and d e c i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g "behind the scenes." The l a r g e r the scope of the convention, the more l i k e l y t h a t each p a r t i c i p a n t may become q u i t e anonymous. Return to Page 56 and t h i n k through another choice. METHOD CLASSIFICATION SCHEME I n d i v i d u a l Group Small: Large: Community Apprenticeship I n t e r n s h i p D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study Correspondence Study C l a s s D i s c u s s i o n Group Laboratory Meeting or Assembly Conference Convention Community Development 136b (Con't from Page 59) People, as we have already l e a r n e d , can be organized as i n d i v i d u a l s , i n t o groups, and i n communities. Thus, Methods of Adult Education are c l a s s i f i e d as I n d i v i d u a l , Group and Community Methods. (See Chart Opposite) The community provides a s e t t i n g i n which the common problems encountered i n l i v i n g become the b a s i s f o r the edu c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . The l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s constructed w i t h i n the context of the s o c i a l sys-tem so that l e a r n i n g occurs i n a s e t t i n g of r e a l i t y . The only Community Method i s Community Development. In the Community Development Method, the adul t educator serves as a consultant and resource person to c i t i z e n groups, e i t h e r s e l f - o r g a n i z e d or brought together under the auspices of some o r g a n i z a t i o n , who need a s s i s t a n c e i n community development a c t i v i t y . The scope of the p r o j e c t i s unimportant: to be c l a s s i f i e d as Community Development, the study of and a c t i o n on 'si: community problems by a c i t i z e n group must r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g . Based on t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , would a c i t i z e n group working to im-prove the sewer system be an example of Community Development. Yes Page 62 No Page 63 Answer to S e l f Test„ Question 6C: Community Development. 137a *OCitlzen Group 137b 62 (Con't from Page 61) Your Answer: Yes Right on! The scope of the problem, whether improving sewers or encompassing r e j u v e n a t i o n of an e n t i r e area, i s not as important as the concept of s e l f - h e l p to diagnose and solve community problems. The Community Development Method uses the process of community problem-s o l v i n g as a v e h i c l e f o r accomplishing e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . While working on improving sewers,ithere i s the opportunity f o r the p a r t i c i -pants to l e a r n a l o t of f a c t s about community h e a l t h problems, about funding and t a x a t i o n and about the p o l i t i c a l process. Remember, Com-munity Development suggests group a c t i o n that r e s u l t s i n group l e a r n i n g . A group of c i t i z e n s are concerned about how a new property a c t , j u s t l e g i s l a t e d , w i l l a f f e c t them and t h e i r community. They have asked you, an a d u l t educator, to e x p l a i n the i m p l i c a t i o n s to them. Which Method, do you f e e l i s most a p p r o p r i a t e : 1. Meeting Page 64 2. D i s c u s s i o n Group Page 65 3. Community Development Page 66 63 (Con't from Page 61) Your Answer: No Do you f e e l that the c i t i z e n a c t i v i t y necessary to improve the sewer system would r e s u l t i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g anything about sewers, community h e a l t h etc.? Accept f o r now that the c i t i z e n s w i l l indeed l e a r n a great deal and turn to Page 62. 139a 64 (Con't from Page 62) Your Answer: Meeting We agree. The purpose of the meeting i s to convey i n f o r m a t i o n to a l a r g e group i n a r e l a t i v e l y short amount of time. The c i t i z e n s have asked to be given i n f o r m a t i o n not to di s c u s s the issu e or to act on i t . However, f o l l o w i n g the meeting some of the c i t i z e n s may decide they would l i k e to form a D i s c u s s i o n Group i n order to reach some group d e c i s i o n about the l e g i s l a t i o n , or even a Community Development Group — but, at t h e i r present stage, a Meeting w i t h an expert speaking on Prop-e r t y L e g i s l a t i o n i s a l l that i s warranted. Please t u r n to'page 67. 65 (Con't from Page 62) Your Answer: D i s c u s s i o n Group I t ' s easy to see why you made t h i s choice because the t o p i c does seem to lend i t s e l f to the D i s c u s s i o n Group Method. I t i s an i n c o r -r e c t answer because the c i t i z e n s want to acquire knowledge not engage i n group decision-making or problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s o l u t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the D i s c u s s i o n Group i s a small Group Method and t h i s t o p i c suggests a l a r g e group of c i t i z e n s would be i n t e r e s t e d . Return to Page 62. Have another look a t the l e a r n i n g si/tkat-ion -what i s i t the c i t i z e n s want to accomplish? Then s e l e c t a Method that allows f o r the accomplishment of the l e a r n i n g task. 66 (Con't from Page 62) Your Answer: Community Development Sorry, but we can't agree w i t h your choice. Community Develop-ment suggests group a c t i o n to diagnose and solve community problems. In t h i s example, the c i t i z e n s have only requested that they be given i n f o r m a t i o n — there i s no group a c t i o n i m p l i e d at t h i s stage. Return to Page 62. Have another look at the l e a r n i n g - s i t u a t i o n what i s i t the c i t i z e n s want to accomplish? Then s e l e c t a Method that allows f o r the accomplishment of the l e a r n i n g task. 67 (Con't from Page 62) SELF TEST 2 QUESTIONS Here are a few questions designed to t e s t your understanding of what you have been l e a r n i n g . Answer the questions ( p r e f e r a b l y w r i t e the answer) and check your response on the page i n d i c a t e d . I f the answer " i s not c o r r e c t be sure to read the frame to understand why. 1. Define the term Method as i t a p p l i e s to adul t education. Page 7 2. L i s t the 4 I n d i v i d u a l Methods. Page 22 3. L i s t the 3 Small Group Methods. Page 32 4. L i s t the 3 Large Group Methods. Page 56 5. Write the name of the most appropriate Small Group Method when the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purpose i s : a) s k i l l development Page 46 b) group d e c i s i o n making Page 44 c) a c q u i s i t i o n of in f o r m a t i o n Page 37 6. Write the name of the Method to which each of the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s r e f e r s : A) A p p l i c a t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n the work s e t t i n g always f o l l o w s the t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g of knowledge and s k i l l s . Page 21 B) A s i n g l e or s e r i e s of s i n g l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l sessions : i n which the b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s between a speaker (or speakers) on a p l a t f o r m and an audience. Page 54 68 (Con't from Page 67) Continued C) The study of and a c t i o n on community problems by a c i t i z e n group that r e s u l t s i n l e a r n i n g . Page 61 D) A l a r g e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s who are members of a common o r g a n i z a t i o n come together f o r a l i m i t e d time to consider ideas which may strengthen the parent o r g a n i z a t i o n . Page 56 Go on to page 69. 144 69 (Con't from Page 68) PART B F o l l o w i n g are 25 m u l t i p l e choice questions to f u r t h e r t e s t your knowledge on Methods of adult education. The c o r r e c t responses are l i s t e d on page 7.5. I f your choice i s not the c o r r e c t one be sure to read the page i n d i c a t e d to understand why. 1. Who has the r e s p o n s i b l i l i t y f o r s e l e c t i n g the Method to use i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n ? 1) The i n s i t u t i o n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 2) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. 3) The l e a r n e r s . 2. Which of the f o l l o w i n g statements about I n d i v i d u a l Methods i s NOT true? 1) The l e a r n e r s do a l l or most of t h e i r l e a r n i n g outside of the educational i n s t i t u t e . 2) The i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l adopt an I n d i v i d u a l Method when l e a r n e r s must be supervised on a 1:1 b a s i s . 3) The l e a r n e r s have the b e n e f i t of sharing l e a r n i n g experiences w i t h other students. 3. Which of the f o l l o w i n g terms belongs to the d e f i n i t i o n of Method? 1) Lecture. 2) Debate. 3) Assembly. 4. Which one of the f o l l o w i n g statements i s t r u e of Apprenticeship? 1) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent comes from an educational i n s t i t u t i o n to give "on the j o b " t r a i n i n g to the student. 2) The students are f i r s t taught b a s i c theory i n a classroom, then p r a c t i c e i n a commercial establishment. 3) Knowledge and s k i l l l e a r n i n g occur under s u p e r v i s i o n i n the work s e t t i n g . 145 70 (Con't from Page 69) The r o l e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n the D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study Method can be described as: 1) One of f a c i l i t a t o r . 2) One of shared l e a d e r s h i p . 3) One of d i r e c t e d a u t h o r i t y . The l e a r n e r i n the D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study Method: 1) Follows a set program of study designed by an agent. 2) Reads w i t h guidance of a s y l l a b u s and submits w r i t t e n assignments to the i n s t r u c t o r . 3) Acquires knowledge i n depth i n a f i e l d of h i s / h e r own choice. The r o l e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n the Correspondence Study Method can be described as: 1) One of con s u l t a n t . 2) One of d i r e c t e d a u t h o r i t y . 3) One of shared l e a d e r s h i p . Which one of the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s common to Group Methods and I n d i v i d u a l Methods? 1) There are e s t a b l i s h e d d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the l e a r n e r s and between them and the agent. 2) The l e a r n e r s are under continuous d i r e c t i o n from the.- i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. 3) Most of the l e a r n i n g experiences occur w i t h i n the ed u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . W i t h i n which Method i s the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l e a r n i n g experiences which occur? 1) C l a s s . 2) Lecture. 3) D i s c u s s i o n group. ¥ L 6 (Con't from Page 70) 10. Which Method i s being r e f e r r e d t o : Learning occurs w i t h i n the context of the s o c i a l system? 1) F i e l d t r i p . 2) Community development. 3) D i s c u s s i o n group. 11. Which one;.of the f o l l o w i n g statements concerning Large Group Methods i s true? 1) Large Group Methods tend to encourage a sense of passiveness and i s o -l a t i o n among the l e a r n e r s . 2) . Large Group Methods are e f f e c t i v e f o r producing a t t i t u d e changes among the l e a r n e r s . 3) Large Group Methods tend to encourage l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and member i n t e r a c t i o n . 12. The major d i f f e r e n c e between the D i s c u s s i o n Group and the Class i s : 1) The number of l e a r n e r s i n v o l v e d i n the c l a s s i s greater than the number in v o l v e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n group. 2) The set up of a c l a s s does not a l l o w f o r member i n t e r a c t i o n s , the set up i n the d i s c u s s i o n group encourages i t . 3) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n the c l a s s holds the c o n t r o l , i n the d i s c u s s i o n group the l e a r n e r s share the c o n t r o l . 13. Which of the f o l l o w i n g statements about the Laboratory Method i s not t r u e : 1) The student l e a r n s to apply knowledge to solv e problems. 2) The student l e a r n s to t e s t t h e o r i e s and make deductions. 3) The student l e a r n s to t r a n s f e r knowledge to new s i t u t a t i o n s . 14. A major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the D i s c u s s i o n Group Method i s : 1) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i s a s p e c i a l i s t i n the content area under d i s c u s s i o n . 2) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent acts as a d i r e c t o r f o r group a c t i o n . 3) There i s p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l of the d i r e c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n . 147 72 (Con't from Page 71) 15. Select the d e f i n i t i o n that best describes the Laboratory Method: 1) A s i t u a t i o n where l e a r n i n g takes place through the process of e x p e r i -ment. 2) Learning and the a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge and s k i l l s occur i n a s e t t i n g that i s an a r t i f i c i a l c onstruct of r e a l i t y . 3) P r e v i o u s l y learned knowledge i s a p p l i e d to gain more knowledge. 16. Which of the f o l l o w i n g statements a p p l i e s to the Conference Method? 1) I t s major purpose i s problem s o l v i n g through group p r o d u c t i v i t y . 2) I t s major purpose i s group d e c i s i o n making through group d i s c u s s i o n . 3) I t s major purpose i s to strengthen the p a r t i c i p a n t s l o y a l t y to the parent o r g a n i z a t i o n . 17. The p r i n c i p a l l e a r n i n g outcome of the Convention i s : 1) A p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge. 2) Problem s o l v i n g . 3) Strengthening the parent o r g a n i z a t i o n . 18. Select the most e f f i c i e n t Method when the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purpose i s to convey i n f o r m a t i o n : 1) Meeting. 2) Lecture. 3) D i s c u s s i o n Group. 19. The r o l e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n the Community Development Method can be described as that of: 1) A c o n s u l t a n t . 2) A d i r e c t o r . 3) A problem-solver. 20. The most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Community Development Method i s : 1) The scope of the p r o j e c t . 1 4 8 73 (Con't from Page 72) 2) The p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3) The concept of s e l f - h e l p . 21. An educational i n s t i t u t i o n has decided to begin a program whose purpose i s to teach a d u l t s how to p l a n , prepare and serve n u t r i t i o u s meals. Which Method would be most e f f i c i e n t ? 1) C l a s s . 2) Demonstration. • 3) Laboratory. 4) D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study. 22. An e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r s a s i x week program e n t i t l e d "Theory of Adult Education." Which Method would be most e f f i c i e n t ? 1) Lecture. 2) Seminar. 3) Laboratory. 4) C l a s s . 23. C i t i z e n s are being asked to vote acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the metric system. The community adult education centre decides the c i t i z e n s would b e n e f i t from hearing the pros and cons of the i s s u e presented by experts. Which Method would be most appropriate? 1) Community development. 2) Meeting. 3) D i s c u s s i o n group. 4) Debate. 24. The Registered Nurses A s s o c i a t i o n r e a l i z e s that the P u b l i c Health Nurses throughout the province have been experiencing problems developing a new program to combat drug abuse. The most appropriate Method to o f f e r a s s i s -tance to the nurses would be: 149 74 (Con't from Page 73) 1) Seminar. 2) Correspondence study. 3) Conference. 4) Clas s . A s k i l l e d t e c h n i c i a n has been o f f e r e d a teaching job i n the area of her e x p e r t i s e . She has approached an ed u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r a s s i s t a n c e to help her acquire minimum i n s t r u c t i o n a l s k i l l s . Which Method would be most e f f i c i e n t ? 1) D i r e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l Study. 2) Clas s . 3) Seminar. 4) Conference. 150 75 ANSWER KEY (Con't from Page 74) M u l t i p l e Choice Question Correct Answer Reference Page 1 1 7 2 3 22, 26 3 3 8 4 3 21, 22 5 1 18 6 3 16 7 2 16 8 2 22, 27 9 1 32 10 2 61 11 1 32 12 3 44, 46 13 2 46 14 3 40 15 2 46 16 1 56 17 3 56 18 1 54 19 1 61 20 3 62 21 3 46 22 4 32 23 2 64 » 24 3 56 25 1 16 151 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Knowles, Malcolm. The Modern P r a c t i c e of Adul t Education. New York: A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1970. 2. M i l l e r , Harry L. Teaching and Learning i n A d u l t Education. London: C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a n Co., 1964. 3. Morgan, Barton; G. Holmes, C. Bundy. Methods i n Adul t Education. I l l i n o i s , 1963. 4. S t i n s o n , Winona. A Systematic Review of Research Related to Methods of Adult Education. M.A. t h e s i s . U.B.C, 1967. 5. Verner, C o o l i e and Alan Booth. Adult Education. New York: The Center f o r A p p l i e d Research on Education, Inc., 1964. 6. Verner, C o o l i e . A Conceptual Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes Adult Education, Theory and Method. Washington, D.C: Adul t Education A s s o c i a t i o n of U.S.A., 1962. APPENDIX B VALIDATION STATEMENT VALIDATION STATEMENT Methods of Adult Education i s a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n b o o k l e t , designed using the branching format, and deals w i t h the f i r s t process of a d u l t education, i . e . , Methods, according to the Verner conceptual scheme as developed i n the f o l l o w i n g references: 1. Verner, C o o l i e and Alan Booth. Adult Education. New York: The Center f o r A p p l i e d Research on Education Inc., 1964. 2. Verner, C o o l i e . A Conceptual Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes A d u l t Education, Theory and  Method. Washington, D.C., Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of U.S.A., 1962. Upon completion of t h i s t e x t students should be able t o : 1. Define the term Method as i t a p p l i e s to adu l t education. 2. Describe the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r Methods. 3. I d e n t i f y , l i s t and d i s t i n g u i s h between the types of Methods in c l u d e d under the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s I n d i v i d u a l , Group and Community Methods. 4. I d e n t i f y the Method most appropriate to use i n given s i t u a -t i o n s . The booklet was intended f o r u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l students at the beginning of t h e i r study of the f i e l d of a d u l t education. I t was designed f o r use at a p o i n t i n t h e i r course work where they have acquired a b a s i c knowledge of edu c a t i o n a l terminology and are able to define the term a d u l t 153-154 education, and to d i f f e r e n t i a t e f o r m a l i z e d a d u l t education from other a c t i v i t i e s from which a d u l t s may l e a r n . I t i s recommended f o r use as b a s i c core i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . The booklet was f i r s t e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d through a v a l i d a t i o n process u s i n g students e n r o l l e d i n an Introductory Course i n Adult Education during the 1974 summer s e s s i o n at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The students were randomly d i v i d e d i n t o a developmental t e s t group and a f i e l d t e s t group. Three products were developed and analyzed from each student i n the developmental t e s t group; a V a l i d a t i o n progress c h a r t , the c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores and student feedback. The average student e r r o r r a t e was 6.9%. The average gain i n achievement using the r a t i o of crude gain to t o t a l p o s s i b l e gain on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores was 84.5%. The average post t e s t score was 85.3%. Eleven of twelve students gave extremely p o s i t i v e feedback. The main measures obtained from the f i r s i t d f i e i d d t e s . t t w e r e e p r e and post c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores and student feedback. The average gain i n achievement using the r a t i o of crude gain to t o t a l p o s s i b l e gain was 86%. The average post t e s t score was 89%. The f i e l d t e s t group were extremely p o s i t i v e about using the booklet as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l . The average time r e q u i r e d by students to complete the program was 66 minutes. Major r e v i s i o n s were made to the frame content, frame sequencing and c r i t e r i o n t e s t p r i o r to a second f i e l d t e s t i n March, 1975 i n v o l v i n g f o r t y students e n r o l l e d i n two i n t r o d u c t o r y courses i n a d u l t education at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the 155 c r i t e r i o n t e s t , using the t e s t - r e t e s t overtime procedure, demonstrated i t s r e l i a b i l i t y as a t e s t i n g instrument. The second f i e l d t e s t used the experimental design, w i t h twenty students assigned to the c o n t r o l group ( t e s t - r e t e s t only) and twenty to the experimental group ( t e s t -program-retest). The r e s u l t s confirmed thatbthelbookMetb^oMethods.cof A d u l t  Education, was an e f f e c t i v e teaching t o o l . The average student e r r o r r a t e on frames f o r the experimental group was 3.85%. The average post t e s t score f o r the c o n t r o l group was 30% and f o r the experimental group 93%. Ninety per cent of the experimental students scored 90% or more on the f i n a l c r i t e r i o n t e s t . The average student completion time f o r the program was 68 minutes. Based on t h i s performance t e s t data the programmed b o o k l e t , Methods of Adult Education, was accepted as meeting the standards set f o r e f f e c t i v e programmed m a t e r i a l s . Author Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : Graduate student, Adult Education, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A s s i s t e d by: Dr. James Thornton,AAssdistantPP'roiessor, F a c u l t y of Education, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Curriculum Consultants: Dr. C o o l i e Verner, P r o f e s s o r ofuEducation', The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Dr. Gary Dickinson, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Education, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Chairman, Department of Adult Education. Programming Consultants: Dr. Stanley Blank, P r o f e s s o r of Education, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. APPENDIX C SAMPLE VALIDATION PROGRESS CHART USED FOR THE DEVELOPMENTAL TEST AND FIRST FIELD TEST SAMPLE VALIDATION PROGRESS CHART USED FOR SECOND FIELD TEST, 157 APPENDIX .0-1 1. The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample V a l i d a t i o n Chart f o r a student w i t h no e r r o r s during the developmental and f i r s t f i e l d t e s t s . 1 1-58 APPENDIX C-2 2. The f o l l o w i n g i s the sample V a l i d a t i o n Progress Chart, f o r a student w i t h no e r r o r s , f o l l o w i n g r e o r d e r i n g of frame sequence f o r the second f i e l d t e s t . 10 13 16 19 APPENDIX D SAMPLE CRITERION TEST USED IN DEVELOPMENTAL TEST AND FIRST FIELD TEST 160 TEST^ QUESTIONS Here are a few questions designed to t e s t your knowledge of methods of a d u l t education. Write your answer on the sheet provided. 1. Define the term method 2. L i s t 4 I n d i v i d u a l Methods 3. I d e n t i f y which I n d i v i d u a l method i s being r e f e r r e d t o : A. A c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l e a r n e r and an expert through which the l e a r n e r i s t r a i n e d f o r p r e s c r i b e d work processes by p r a c t i c a l experience under s u p e r v i s i o n on the job B. Planned lessons i n which the l e a r n e r reads w i t h guidance of a s y l l a b u s , sub-mits w r i t t e n assignments to the i n s t r u c t o r who reacts to them, a l l through the m a i l C. The e d u c a t i o n a l agent acts as a consultant to a l e a r n e r engaged i n s e l f - l e a r n i n g . A f t e r completing t h i s t e s t please t u r n to t e s t 2 questions. m TEST 2 QUESTIONS Here are a few questions designed to t e s t your knowledge of methods of adu l t education. Write your answer on the sheet provided. 1. L i s t 3 ways i n which people can be organized to conduct education a c t i v i t i e s . 2. L i s t the 3 types of Small Group Methods. 3. L i s t the types of Large Group Methods. 4. Define the f o l l o w i n g terms ( i n your own words) a. I n t e r n s h i p b. Community Development c. Laboratory d. Meeting e. Method 5. What i s the major d i f f e r e n c e between the c l a s s and the D i s c u s s i o n Group. 6. Name the most appropriate Small Group Method when the l e a r n i n g task i s a. a manipulative s k i l l b. group d e c i s i o n making c. i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n Please turn the page f o r question 7. Key: n — 5 • o 7. Write the name of the method suggested by each of the f o l l o w i n g diagrams*. 162 l e a r n e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent movement edu c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n r e a l world s i m u l a t e d r e a l w o r l d s i t u a t i o n s one way communication two way communication two way communication agent dominated *Designed by Pat C u t s h a l l APPENDIX E SAMPLE REVISED CRITERION TEST USED IN SECOND FIELD TEST NAME _ NUMBER The f o l l o w i n g questions have been designed to t e s t knowledge on Methods of Adult 154 Education. There are two parts to be completed. Pa r t A i s composed of 6 short answer questions. Part B i s composed of 25 m u l t i p l e choice questions. PART A Questions 1 to 6 are short answer questions. Please w r i t e your answer on t h i s sheet i n the space provided. 1. Define the term Method as i t a p p l i e s to adult education. 2. L i s t the 4 I n d i v i d u a l Methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. 3. L i s t the 3 Small Group Methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. L i s t the 3 Large Group Methods: 1. 2. 3. Write the name of the most appropriate Small Group Method when the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purpose i s : 1. s k i l l development 2. group d e c i s i o n making 3. a c q u i s i t i o n of inf o r m a t i o n 6. Write the name of the Method to which each of the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s r e f e r s : 1. A p p l i c a t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n the work s e t t i n g always f o l l o w s the t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g of knowledge and s k i l l s . 2. A s i n g l e or s e r i e s of s i n g l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l sessions i n which the b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s between a speaker (or speakers) on a p l a t f o r m and an audience. 3;> The study of and a c t i o n on community problems by a c i t i z e n group that r e s u l t s i n l e a r n i n g . •  4. A l a r g e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s who are members of a common o r g a n i z a t i o n come together f o r a l i m i t e d time to consider" ideas which may strengthen the parent o r g a n i z a t i o n . Please go to Part B. 165 PART B Following are 25 m u l t i p l e choice questions to f u r t h e r t e s t your knowledge on Methods of Adult Education. Please mark the answer you f e e l i s c o r r e c t on the answer sheet provided. 1. Who has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l e c t i n g the Method to use i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n ? 1) the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 2) the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. 3) the l e a r n e r s . 2. Which of the f o l l o w i n g statements about I n d i v i d u a l Methods i s NOT true? 1) The l e a r n e r s do a l l or most of t h e i r l e a r n i n g outside of the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e . 2) The i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l adopt an I n d i v i d u a l Method when l e a r n e r s must be supervised on a 1:1 b a s i s . 3) The l e a r n e r s have the b e n e f i t of s h a r i n g l e a r n i n g experiences w i t h other students. 3. Which of the f o l l o w i n g terms belongs to the d e f i n i t i o n of Method? 1) Lecture 2) Debate 3) Assembly ' 4. Which one of the f o l l o w i n g statements i s true of Apprenticeship? 1) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent comes from an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n to give "on the j o b " t r a i n i n g to the student. 2) The students are f i r s t taught b a s i c theory i n a classroom, then p r a c t i c e i n a commercial establishment. 3) Knowledge and s k i l l l e a r n i n g occur under s u p e r v i s i o n i n the work s e t t i n g . 5. The r o l e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n the Directed I n d i v i d u a l Study Method can be described as: 1) One of f a c i l i t a t o r . 2) One of shared leadership. 3) One of d i r e c t e d authority. 6. The learner i n the Directed I n d i v i d u a l Study Method: 1) Follows a set program of study designed by an agent. 2) Reads with guidance of a syllabus and submits w r i t t e n assignments to the i n s t r u c t o r . 3) Acquires knowledge i n depth i n a f i e l d of his/her own choice. 7. The r o l e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n the Correspondence Study Method can be described as: 1) One of consultant. 2) One of directed authority. 3) One of shared leadership. 8. Which one of the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s common to Group Methods and Individual Methods? 1) There are established d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the learners and between them and the agent. 2) The learners are under continuous d i r e c t i o n from the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. 3) Most of the learning experiences occur within the educational i n s t i t u t i o n . 9. Within which Method i s the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent responsible for the l e a r n i n g experiences which occur? 1) Class. .2) Lecture. 3) Discussion group. 10. Which Method Is being referred tor Learning occurs within the context \ of the social system? i 1) Field trip. 2) Community development. i< 3) Discussion group. ' 11. Which one of the following statements concerning Large Group Methods is true? 1) Large Group Methods tend to encourage a sense of passiveness and iso-lation among the learners. 2) Large Group Methods are effective for producing attitude changes among the learners. 3) Large Group Methods:tend to encourage learner participation and member interaction. 12. The major difference between the Discussion Group and the Class i s : 1) The number of learners involved in the class is greater than the number involved in the discussion group. 2) The set up of a class does not allow for member interactions, the set up in the discussion group encourages i t . ... - 'i 3) The instructional agent in the class holds the control, in the discussion group the learners share the control. 13. Which of the following statements about the Laboratory Method is not true: 1) The student learns to apply knowledge to solve problems. 2) The student learns to test theories and make deductions. 3) The student learns to transfer knowledge to new situtations. 14. A major characteristic of the Discussion Group Method i s : 1) The instructional agent is a specialist in the content area under discussion 2) The instructional agent acts as a director for group action. 3) There is participant control of the direction and organization. ., .168 15. Select the d e f i n i t i o n that best describes the Laboratory Method: 1) A s i t u a t i o n where learning takes place through the process of e x p e r i -ment. 2) Learning and the a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge and s k i l l s occur i n a s e t t i n g that i s an a r t i f i c i a l construct of r e a l i t y . 3) Previously learned knowledge i s applied to gain more knowledge. 16. Which of the following statements applies to the Conference Method? 1) I t s major purpose i s problem so l v i n g through group p r o d u c t i v i t y . 2) I t s major purpose i s group decision making through group d i s c u s s i o n . 3) Its major purpose i s to strengthen the p a r t i c i p a n t s l o y a l t y to the parent organization. 17. The p r i n c i p a l learning outcome of the Convention i s : 1) Application of knowledge. 2) Problem solving. 3) Strengthening the parent organization. 18. Select the most e f f i c i e n t Method when the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purpose i s to convey information: 1) Meeting. , 2) Lecture. 3) Discussion Group. 19. The r o l e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n the Community Development Method can be described as that of: ( 1) A consultant. 2) A d i r e c t o r . 3) A problem-solver. 20. The most important characteristic, of the Community Development Method i s : 1) The scope of the project. 2) The pattern of organization. 3) The concept of s e ] f - h e l p . 21. An educational i n s t i t u t i o n has decided to begin a program whose purpose Is to teach adults how to plan, prepare and serve n u t r i t i o u s meals. Which Method would be most e f f i c i e n t ? 1) Class. 2) Demonstration. 3) Laboratory. 4) Directed Individual Study. 22. An educational i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r s a six week program e n t i t l e d "Theory of Adult Education." Which Method would be most e f f i c i e n t ? 1) Lecture. 2) Seminar. 3) Laboratory. A) Class. 23. C i t i z e n s are being asked to vote acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of the Introduction of the metric system. The community adult education centre decides the c i t i z e n s would benefit from hearing the pros and cons of the issue presented by experts. Which Method would be most approptiate? 1) Community development. 2) Meeting. 3) Discussion group. ( 4) Debate. 24. The Registered Nurses Ass o c i a t i o n r e a l i z e s that the P u b l i c Health Nurses throughout the province have been experiencing problems developing a new program to combat drug abuse. The most appropriate Method to o f f e r a s s i s -tance to the nurses would be: 1) Seminar. 2) Correspondence study. 3) Conference. A) Class. 25. A skilled technician has been offered a teaching job in the area of her expertise. She has approached an educational institution for assistance i " to help her acquire minimum instructional skills. Which Method would be most efficient? 1) Directed Individual Study. 2) Class. 3) Seminar. 4) Conference. / ' THANK YOU. 

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