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Aesthetic learning experiences within the urban environment 1976

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AESTHETIC LEARNING EXPERIENCES WITHIN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT: A FEASIBILITY STUDY by Jeanette Louise Andrews B.Ed, (secondary), University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts i n the Department of the Faculty of Education, Graduate Divi s i o n We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1976 (o) Jeanette Louise Andrews, 1976 i i In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ftor.AnLu J91C i i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s an e x t e n s i o n o f a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t begun by the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n 197k., a n G l a t t e m p t s t o advance the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y - b a s e d a e s t h e t i c edu- c a t i o n program as an a l t e r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g approach i n urban secondary s c h o o l s . The g o a l s i n the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s c u r r i c u - lum d e s i g n were devoted t o : 1 . h e i g h t e n i n g v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and awareness t o a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l phenomena w i t h i n the urban environment, 2. i n c r e a s i n g the degree o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f aes- t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s p e r c e i v e d , and 3. s t i m u l a t i n g the development and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s t h r o u g h the e x p e r i e n c e o f a c q u i r i n g i n f o r - m a t i o n and v i s u a l imagery g a t h e r e d from the l o c a l , urban en- viron m e n t and u s i n g t h a t m a t e r i a l i n the c r e a t i o n o f a r t work w i t h i n a s t u d i o s e t t i n g . As a c l a s s r o o m a r t t e a c h e r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s con- c e r n s have been t o b r i d g e the gap between e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . I n an endeavour t o adapt b e t t e r the c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n t o c l a s s r o o m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the i n v e s t i g a t o r has ta k e n a r e l a t e d l e a r n i n g t a s k and s e l f - t e s t e d i t as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p e s s e n t i a l t o c o n d u c t i n g a s i m i l a r l e a r n i n g t a s k w i t h h e r s t u d e n t group. I t was the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s b e l i e f t h a t a t e a c h e r who has p r i o r knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e o f a g i v e n l e a r n i n g t a s k s h o u l d be more u n d e r s t a n d i n g , empathic, and b e t t e r a b l e t o guide the l e a r n e r 1 3 progress through the various learning stages of the task. To undertake th i s research project the writer ass- umed an i n v e s t i g a t o r - a r t i s t r o l e . The focus of urban play- grounds was the subject for the a r t i s t ' s attention. As i n - vestigator, the writer recorded her observations, working strategies, and reactions throughout a l l stages of the learn- ing process. A series of seven watercolour paintings res- ulted from the project. The reported analysis was "project- ive" i n nature and endeavoured to examine both the objective and subjective components highlighted in the learning exper- ience. Findings and recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n were organized along an assumed natural learning continuum in order that teachers interested i n implementing a similar learning program would have a consistent overview of the pro- cess stages through which they would guide the students. A product analysis of the art work i s also supplied to confirm e a r l i e r investigator assumptions concerning the character- i s t i c s of the work fostered' by such a program. The report i s presented i n a verbal-visual form graphically to support the written statements of the "process" and "product" analy- ses. As a consequence of this study the investigator- teacher's future action w i l l r e f l e c t insights useful i n con? ducting similar teaching and testing procedures and projective V analysis when introducing the o r i g i n a l curriculum proposal, the f e a s i b i l i t y of which has now been determined. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x Chapter 1 . INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Study . 1 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . 2 Outline of the Research Approach and Focus 3 Organization of the Report and Reader Interests l\. Proposed Application of Findings . . . . . 7 2 . A PROJECTIVE RESEARCH APPROACH 9 The Proposed Process Analysis 12 The Proposed Product Analysis 16 3 . A GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE WORKING STRATEGIES . . 18 The A r t i s t i c Goal-Orientation Described . . 18 Performance Stages of A r t i s t i c A c t i v i t y Described 19 Acquaintance with the Focus and Image Gathering 19 Reflective and Subjective Approaches . . 2 0 Painting Experiences 21 k. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS 23 A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE GATHERING AND COMPOSITION BUILDING STAGE . 23 Increased Visual Awareness of the Focus . . 2l\. v i i Chapter Page Merits of the Various Recording Modes Employed 27 Social Awareness and Subjective Reactions Highlighted 29 Summary 36 CATEGORIES USEFUL TO THE PROCESS ANALYSIS . . 1+1+ A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DRAWING STAGE . . 1+5 Compositional Concerns I d e n t i f i e d 1+5 Subjective Concerns I d e n t i f i e d . 1+8 Summary 50 A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PAINTING STAGE . 60 Technical Concerns I d e n t i f i e d . . . . . . . 60 Physical Concerns I d e n t i f i e d 61 Subjective Reactions I d e n t i f i e d 61+ Surface Counters and the Relationship Between Surface Counters . . . . 66 Relationships Between Surface Counters and Representational Counters 69 Summary 71 5. AN EVALUATIVE STAGE AND PRODUCT ANALYSIS . . . . 63 Findings 83 Recommendations for Instruction 81+ Evaluative Models Described 81+ Product Analysis 89 6. CONSULTATION MODE, A VERBAL DIARY FORM, A TIMETABLE PROPOSAL, FURTHER TOPICS FOR STUDY RELATED TO THE FOCUS 92 Consultation Mode 92 v i i i Chapter Page A Verbal Diary Form . 91+ A Timetable Proposal 96 Further Topics f o r Study Related to the Focus . 98 7. CONCLUSIONS 99 REFERENCES 101 APPENDIX 103 i x LIST OP TABLES Table Page 1. Image Sources for Compositions Developed 2k. 2 . A Timetable Proposal 97 X LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Assorted Photographic Images Gathered of Recreational A c t i v i t i e s and Equipment 38 2. Newspaper Image and Drawn Image for "Hide and Seek" 39 3 . Drawn and Photographic Images Gathered for "Contemplation*' I4.O l+. Newspaper Images and Photographic Images Gathered for "Apron Strings" and "Communion" b.1 5. Newspaper Images Gathered f o r "Merry Go Round" . I4.2 6 . Newspaper Images Gathered for "Merry Go Round" . Ii3 7 . Skeletal Studies 51 8 . Drawing Composition: "Hide and Seek" . . . . . . 52 9 . Drawing Composition: "Communion" 53 1 0 . Drawing Composition: "Ascension" . . . . . . . . $l± 1 1 . Drawing Composition: "Death of L i f e 1 " 55 12. Drawing Composition: "Contemplation" 56 1 3 . Drawing Composition: "Apron Strin g s " 57 H4.. Drawing Composition: "Merry Go Round" 58 1 5 . Grid Pattern Over An O r i g i n a l Sketch 59 1 6 . Painting Composition: "Hide and Seek" 73 1 7 . Painting Composition: "Communion" 714. 1 8 . Painting Composition: "Ascension" 75 1 9 . Experimental Painting Exercise: "Death of L i f e " 76 20. Painting Composition: "Death of Life!' 77 x i Figure Page 21. Painting Composition: "Contemplation" 78 22. Painting Composition: "Apron Strings" 79 23. Painting Process I: "Merry Go Round" 80 2li. Painting Process I I : "Merry Go Round" 81 25. Painting Composition: "Merry Go Round" 82 26. A Reflective Verbal Diary Form 95 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to dedicate t h i s work to Professors Sam Black, James Gray, and Graeme Chalmers. For, from their examples, I have come to recognize the purpose of my e f f o r t s . I t i s not what one knows that i s of consequence, but i t i s the knowledge that one gives and fosters i n others that i s of l a s t i n g importance. And, these three educators have d i s - played t h i s g i f t . I also wish to thank and acknowledge Mr. Robert A. Andrews, my father, f o r his assistance with developing the photographic material presented i n this thesis. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background to the Study For several years t h i s investigator's research i n t e r - ests have evolved around the f e a s i b i l i t y of developing an en- vironmentally-based aesthetic education program for the sec- ondary school l e v e l . In the process her studies have led her to consider three necessary research components. These staged components are as follows: 1. The development of an alternative art education program and the writing of a curriculum proposal e n t i t l e d , "Aesthetic Explorations i n the Urban Environment," (Appendix, page 103). 2. The implementation of a s e l f - i n i t i a t e d testing project based on a learning task related to the curriculum. 3. The testing of a similar learning task on a group of high school students within the investigator's teaching assignment, to compare the findings of the two testing pro- jects and to judge the effectiveness of, and the problems i n - volved with implementing the i n s t r u c t i o n a l recommendations offered i n the s e l f - t e s t i n g analysis. The second research stage i s the subject of this thesis, and should have a d i r e c t bearing upon the group study when i t i s i n i t i a t e d i n the f i e l d . 1 . 2. Statement of the Problem The investigator recognized the need f o r the theories presented i n the curriculum design to be tested on the part of both teacher and students to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the proposal and to reveal findings and to make recommendations f o r i n s t r u c t i o n that would f a c i l i t a t e the p r a c t i c a l and e f f e c t i v e implementation of such an alternative program. I t was f e l t that a previous involvement i n the learn- ing task on the teacher's part might provide her with insights for d i r e c t i n g the program and for evaluating the program's outcomes i n the school. The investigator's reasoning was that not only would she, the teacher, be able to compare l a t e r the strategies, reactions, and r e s u l t s with those of her stud- ents, but that her p a r a l l e l involvement might also provide a good example and stimulus to the student learning group. The investigator believes that first-hand experiences preliminary to, and associated with, expected student learning situations are an asset to understanding and to guiding the students' ex- periences i n similar situations. Such an investigation forms the basis of t h i s report. The question of research s i g n i f i - cance which best r e f l e c t s the problem to be addressed i n t h i s i nvestigation i s : What are the nature of the projective, ob- je c t i v e , and subjective factors associated with developing a curriculum based on aesthetic exploration i n the urban en- vironment? Outline of the Research Approach and Focus The major goals of the curriculum design, "Aesthetic Explorations i n the Urban Environment," f a l l into three broad areas of student response: 1. heightening v i s u a l perception and awareness to aesthetic and s o c i a l phenomena within the urban environment, 2 . increasing the degree of discrimination of aes- thetic q u a l i t i e s perceived, and 3. stimulating the development and understanding of creative a b i l i t i e s through the experience of acquiring i n f o r - mation and v i s u a l imagery gathered from the l o c a l , urban en- vironment and using that material i n the creation of art work within a studio setting. Through a systematic investigation of the environment by employing the recording mode of a visual-verbal diary, im- ages and ideas were acquired through sketched, photographic, and written notations, which l a t e r evolved into more formal and personal a r t i s t i c expressions (see Figures 16 -25, pp. 73- ti2). By focusing upon a l i m i t e d range of content, and pro- vided with a variety of strategic approaches; the a r t i s t - investigator focused i n a r e f l e c t i v e way upon the aesthetic p o s s i b i l i t i e s and s o c i a l circumstances within the c i t y ' s play- ground settings. To conduct the study an i n v e s t i g a t o r - a r t i s t role was assumed, by the researcher. In the hopes of advancing the educational propositions and hypotheses outlined i n the o r i g i n a l curriculum proposal, see Appendix.* . the investigator attempted both a process and a product analysis i n a f i e l d study she conducted i n her l o c a l , urban environment. The i n v e s t i g a t o r - a r t i s t selected a single focus--urban playgrounds—and, then, explored the l o c a l environment attempting to gather and to modify the im- ages and information perceived, into personal a r t i s t i c state- ments. A series of seven watercolour paintings resulted. In the written study an attempt was made to record the "process" strategies employed and to evaluate the educa- t i o n a l and a r t i s t i c outcomes of those strategies. Upon com- plet i o n of the exercise the investigator endeavoured to ana- lyze the "products" or resultant art series to determine i f such an approach could y i e l d r e s u l t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f - erent from art work solely stimulated and executed within the confines of a classroom. In presenting t h i s projective analy- s i s the investigator's e f f o r t s were directed towards examin- ing and reporting the blend of objective and subjective com- ponents. Organization of the Report and Reader Interests As a classroom art teacher, the investigator's concern has always been for.bridging the gap between educational theory, growing out.of recent academic research findings, and the p r a c t i c a l tasks; of teaching. Therefore, the form of pre- sentation selected by the investigator has been one designed primarily to f a c i l i t a t e the teaching community's understand- ing of the theories and findings as they are related to rec- ommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n and implementation within a classroom. The investigator has arranged the information reported along the natural learning continuum of the a r t i s t i c task un- dertaken. In that way, i t was posited that the classroom tea- cher would nave a l o g i c a l and sequential overview of the learn- ing structure that might be anticipated i n a similar learning si t u a t i o n and could better co-ordinate the relevant i n s t r u c - t i o n a l strategies at each stage. The main contribution, i n - tended by the writer of t h i s report, i s to provide information for the advancement of curriculum development i n art education. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the academic community, might be findings related to the description of the creative process which may serve to enlarge the already substantial body of knowledge on that subject. Incidental to the two fore- going purposes of t h i s study, the reader may f i n d the graphic reports of the r e s u l t i n g a r t i s t i c series of appreciative value. In t h i s thesis presentation the investigator has prov- ided a verbal-visual report i n which she describes and analyses the investigation's development. Photographic documentation of the art work r e s u l t i n g from the project to support graphically the written statements i s also provided. Through the project, the investigator has attempted to test the v a l i d i t y of a num- ber of assumptions she developed e a r l i e r related to the form 6 . of working mode. An attempt has been made to summarize a number of relevant findings revealed by the exercise and to provide recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies intended to maximize the benefits of such a program for the learners involved. In her conclusions, the investigator endeavoured to outline the general advantages and disadvantages r e f l e c t e d through her projective research approach to the theories of the curriculum, as those theories were conducted i n thi s one learning experiment. In presenting the report to the reader, the i n v e s t i - gator has arranged the material i n the following sequence: 1. A description of the projective analysis approach employed based on objective and subjective components, with proposals for both "process" and "product" analyses. 2. A general description of the process stages for orientation purposes. 3. A detailed, projective analysis of the various process stages of the a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y reporting highlights of objective and subjective findings and related recommenda- tions for in s t r u c t i o n in- a similar learning s i t u a t i o n . A description of the evaluative stages and an outline of some current modes of c r i t i c a l inquiry. 5 . A product analysis related to assumptions prev- iously stated by the investigator. 6 . A description of the consultation mode and recom- mendations f o r improving the form. 7. 7. Proposals for a verbal diary form and timetable schedule applicable to the learning task described. ti. An outline of furtner studies suggested within the focus area. 9. Conclusions drawn related to the value of the o r i - g i n a l curriculum design, as r e f l e c t e d i n the project under study. Proposed Application of Findings „< In order to compare and expand the findings of the projective analysis of t h i s report with those of a student group tes t i n g study, i n the immediate future the investigator intends to conduct the following research: 1. Conducting her students through a similar learn- ing task concerned with the playground focus. Topics for f u r - ther study may be found on page 9 8 . 2. Recording observations of students' process s t r a - tegies, through d i r e c t observation and with the aid of the verbal diary form (Figure 26, page 9 5 ) . 3. Recording and analyzing teacher strategies and drawing comparisons with recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n made in this study, and evaluating the effectiveness of those st r a - tegies i n r e l a t i o n to the outcomes of the learning task des- cribed. I4.. Evaluating the o v e r a l l program proposal i n l i g h t of the teacher and student experiences, and making recommend- ations f o r change. 8. 5 . Analyzing the students' a r t i s t i c products i n re- l a t i o n to the investigator's assumptions regarding their an- t i c i p a t e d character. i Chapter 2 A PROJECTIVE RESEARCH APPROACH The investigator has previously stated that her re- search approach would be one of documenting her experiences associated with an environmental f i e l d study as she recorded, then, analyzed her personal strategies, reactions, and forms of i n t e r a c t i o n . Such a participant-observer approach, has been previously advocated as a research mode for advancing i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies i n art education by Hugh W. Stumbo in his a r t i c l e "Three Bases for Research and Teaching i n the Arts: Subjective, Objective, and Projective." Stumbo syn- thesizes subjective and objective research approaches into a "projec t i v e " research mode. He advocates r a i s i n g the stud- 2 ent3* consciousness, which he c a l l s "attention" to both ob- jective and subjective features involved i n the a r t i s t ' s work- ing process. In this way, he claims, educational growth can be achieved. . . . I f the a r t i s t could r e f l e c t upon the objective and subjective features of the goal-oriented endeavor, he could learn a great deal about the nature of his i n s t i n c t i v e or spontaneous reason. Such knowledge would a f f o r d insights concerning h i s style of l i f e as well as his style of painting, drawing, or sculpting, and would allow him to make calculated changes i n h i s future a r t i s t i c endeavors. A r t i s t s have long expressed the opinion that their most productive projects have been those i n which they were completely "engaged," i . e . , free from objective controls and self-consciousness. I f i t i s true (1) that 9. 10. this kind of an experience i s most suitable for creative a c t i v i t y , (2) that much of the meaning of this kind of a c t i v i t y goes unnoticed by the creator, and (3) that an explication of that meaning would be valuable to the growth of the creative person, then i t seems reasonable that the development of a procedure for bringing that meaning to the l e v e l of conscious awareness would be a valuable contribution to the f i e l d of teaching i n the a r t s . In Stumbo's d e f i n i t i o n , a projective analysis has the follow- ing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. The analysis cannot run concurrent with the pro- ject a c t i v i t y ; i t " i s always r e f l e c t i v e i n that i t recon- structs projects that have already been experienced."^" 2. The undertaking or project must be; c planned or goal^-driented; s p e c i f i c and not hypothetical. 3. One must attend to both objective and subjective features of the a c t i v i t y i n the analysis^ or description of the experience, because a l l a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y i s a blend of the two--inseparable at the time of creation. I±. "Only the context of meanings and the projects that are to be described may be appealed to as c r i t e r i a for 7 . evaluation." It seems reasonable to assume that t h i s form of analy- s i s would be more e a s i l y assumed by a mature a r t i s t with well- developed i n s t i n c t i v e a r t i s t i c reactions, for example, an art i s t - t e a c h e r . When such a l e v e l of understanding has been gained, he or she.would be more capable of guiding the young and less experienced art student towards explicating a simi- l a r l e v e l of awareness or consciousness of the meaning i n a 11 similar creative act. Stumbo goes on to argue that ''meanings*1 may be un- covered that can aid similar, future art teaching and art learning experiences. The function of research and teaching i n art i s to explicate meaning inherent i n s p e c i f i c projects i n which the art class i n question i s engaged. Know- ledge of these meanings enables students to achieve a more complete understanding of their s p e c i f i c a rt teaching projects. "Meaning" i s the fundamental concept for research and teaching i n art and the g achievement of such meaning i s the fundamental aim. For, as Stumbo goes on to explain: " . . . Art education i s 9 the r e s u l t of communicating a r t . " ' And, he believes that " . . . i t i s possible f o r one person to d i r e c t the attention of another person, that i s , i t i s possible to communicate and thereby to educate." 1^ Stumbo's clear challenge i s that: Although no one has successfully demonstrated just how an explication of the blending of the objective and the subjective i n research and teaching i n art can be accomplished, i t seems clear that such an undertaking would be worth the e f f o r t . ^ It has been this investigator's intention to attempt to meet just that challenge based on Stumbo's premise, that: . . . the more information one has concerning any project the more he w i l l be able to control future projects of the same nature, and that the greatest amount of information about any project can be gained through a projective analysis, i . e . an analysis of the conjoined subjective and objective features, then i t would follow that the a b i l i t y to control future projects can be increased through projective a n a l y s e s . ^ 12. The Proposed Process Analysis The investigator has attempted to record, analyze, and evaluate the working strategies employed during the exer- cise i n an attempt to ascertain the r e l a t i v e f e a s i b i l i t y of employing a curriculum based on "Aesthetic Explorations i n the Urban Environment." Research attention was directed to- ward the following: 1. The various working approaches stimulated by means of such strategy p o s s i b i l i t i e s as: a. the variety of v i s u a l recording means em- ployed (sketching, phonography, memory, verbal notations) and the r e l a t i v e merits of each/ b. the use of image resources other than those gained from d i r e c t environmental observation; c. the use of r e f l e c t i v e and imaginative think- ing i n evolving and completing the f i n a l image compositions; d. technical considerations made, and approaches used, i n executing the drawing and the painting stages; e. focusing and selecting strategies employed; f. the nature of conscious evaluative strategies employed during the working period; g. strategies s p e c i f i c a l l y employed to sustain and evolve a single, selected focus. 2 . D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from each of the various strategies. For example: What are some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s 1 3 . of sustaining a focus and a continuity within a series of related pieces? How can these d i f f i c u l t i e s be overcome? 3. The r e l a t i v e worth of each strategy to the a r t - i s t ' s development of operating modes and to the ensuing pro- ducts. i i . The stages during which teacher-pupil interac- tion, i n the form of private or group consultations, i s most desirable or essential to a s s i s t the progress of* the learning experience. What forms should t h i s assistance take and what value can be expected from such planned dialogue or interac- tion? From such encounters, w i l l the student gradually learn to adopt such a s e l f - i n i t i a t e d dialogue with himself during tne working process? 5. Evaluation of the worth of a diary approach em- ployed i n the process stage to promote a more conscious aware- ness of working strategies and ultimately to determine the probable worth of such an approach i n a s s i s t i n g with formative evaluation on the teacher's part, and with the development of a more conscious l e v e l of awareness as to the effectiveness of various working procedures on the part of the students. Can r e f l e c t i o n s on a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y be promoted, recognized, and used educationally by the students? The i n v e s t i g a t o r - a r t i s t endeavoured to maintain a com- prehensive diary of personal strategies, reactions, insights, and the forms of inte r a c t i o n engaged i n with advisory personnel. C r i t i c a l d i a r y r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d , i n a v e r b a l - v i s u a l form i n an attempt t o i l l u s t r a t e b e t t e r the e v o l u t i o n o f the a r t - i s t i c s e r i e s from the d a t a g a t h e r i n g s t a g e , t h r o u g h the stage of c o m p l e t i o n o f the drawn image and, t h e n , t o the c o m p l e t i o n of the p a i n t i n g s . The medium of photography was employed t o p r o v i d e the v i s u a l d a t a t o s u p p o r t w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t s o f f i n d - i n g s . Based on h e r e x p e r i e n c e the i n v e s t i g a t o r has made r e c - ommendations r e g a r d i n g the w o r t h and use o f a d i a r y approach i n a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . A sample v e r b a l d i a r y form w i l l be s u p p l i e d . (See F i g u r e 26, p. 95'») 6. E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g p r o g r e s s achievements i n such a l e a r n i n g mode. 7 . Development o f a p l a u s i b l e t i m e t a b l e s c h edule r e - q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e adequate e d u c a t i o n a l r e s u l t s i n a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t c o n ducted w i t h i n a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . (See T able 2, p. 9 7 . ) 8. D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f ways t o d e v e l o p f u r t h e r d i v e r - gent l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o the i n i t i a l f o c u s i n g e x e r c i s e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s the t e a c h e r ' s i n - s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k t o f a c i l i t a t e the s t u d e n t s ' movement th r o u g h a s e r i e s o f p r o c e s s s t a g e s i n the l e a r n i n g t a s k . I n t h i s s t u d y the i n v e s t i g a t o r , from knowledge o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the e x p e r i - e n c i n g o f a g i v e n l e a r n i n g t a s k , has endeavoured to e s t a b l i s h recommendations f o r the t y p e s of i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t would h e l p 1 5 . promote achievement or growth i n each learning stage of the process. Students may be working largely i n s t i n c t i v e l y , and the investigator believes that a more "conscious" d i r e c t i o n a l approach w i l l aid high school students i n reaching task ob- j e c t i v e s . A teacher who has previously experienced such a task and who has conducted a projective analysis of the pro- cess experienced appears more l i k e l y to be able to guide such an exercise better than one who has only circumstantial know- ledge of some of the problems the students w i l l l i k e l y en- counter. Such a teacher, f a m i l i a r with the a r t i s t i c process, should be able to anticipate better the students' learning stages and to lead them into experiencing the process stages more f u l l y and consciously and, hopefully, more e f f e c t i v e l y . By stimulating r e f l e c t i v e thinking following portions of the process the teacher might be able to help the students obtain a working awareness of the worth and effectiveness of the var- ious strategies they have employed. I t i s with this intent that the investigator w i l l outline her personal findings and make recommendations regarding various teaching strategies that she believes would be b e n e f i c i a l to promote i n a similar learning task within a high school classroom s i t u a t i o n . I t appears that one's approach and attitude must vary considerably from stage to stage i n the task outlined. There- fore, students must be aware of the nature of d i f f e r e n t stages to be able to move e a s i l y and e f f e c t i v e l y from one to the 16. other. I f the whole process i s l e f t to chance, the various process stages required could leave them bewildered, f r u s t - rated, and without substantial educational gain. The Proposed Product Analysis The investigator began the research assuming that an environmentally-based aesthetic approach would stimulate a di f f e r e n t imagery emphasis than that of a t o t a l l y classroom- based program. I t was thought that such imagery would l i k e l y display a l l or some of the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. A clearer and more accurate description of how things actually look. I n i t i a l drawings, from the image gath- ering phase, may be more highly representational and detailed i n appearance than classroom based drawings. 2. Familiar objects and scenes may show new awareness of aesthetic phenomena and insights into the s o c i a l meaning imparted i n the environmental experiences. Work i n thi s pro- gram was generally expected to r e f l e c t more s o c i a l awareness than work promoted i n classroom sit u a t i o n s . 3. The drawing of cliche'd images and the r e p e t i t i o n of a few standard images w i l l l i k e l y be eliminated by the ex- periencing of a wider range and ever-changing set of stimuli than i s normally available within a classroom setting. 1+. There w i l l l i k e l y develop a greater concern for object-space relationships and for object-to-object r e l a t i o n - ships. The attention to the inte r a c t i o n of phenomena should 17. be increased. In general, the investigator anticipated a heightened aware- ness of environmental d e t a i l s , aesthetic phenomena, and the s o c i a l significance of situations through promoting directed and heightened aesthetic experiences within the l o c a l environ- ment. Two pote n t i a l weaknesses of the approach that the i n - vestigator assumed could develop, i f not c a r e f u l l y avoided, and that could be r e f l e c t e d i n the a r t i s t i c products are: 1. the randomness of imagery sponsored by an over- abundance of s t i m u l i , i f aesthetic focusing and selection pro- cesses are not promoted, and 2. the d i r e c t copying of images without l e t t i n g the v i s u a l data evolve through r e f l e c t i v e and imaginative think- ing, after the i n i t i a l data gathering stage, thereby creating an impersonal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Through an analysis of the r e s u l t i n g art work, of seven watercolour paintings, the foregoing assumptions have been tested to determine i f art work stimulated through envir- onmentally-based explorations i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from art work stimulated and executed solely within the class- room. From t h i s investigation, warrantability of the follow- ing hypothesis may be determined: that art teachers wishing to promote such an a r t i s t i c emphasis could f a c i l i t a t e that development through a similar learning approach. Chapter 3 A GENERAL OUTLINE OP THE WORKING STRATEGIES Before proceeding with a detailed description of the "meanings" revealed i n a projective analysis of this f i e l d study, a general outline of the project and i t s broad stages may be useful as an orientation for^theTeader. The A r t i s t i c Goal-Orientation Described The i n i t i a l focus chosen was the l o c a l , urban play- ground, which included a large municipal park, several comm- unity parks and school playgrounds, and a l o c a l May Day f a i r . The object of the work was to use these resources as a stimu- lus to image gathering exercises, which hopefully would pro- mote the ultimate creation of a personal series of watercolour paintings evolving from the chosen stimulus. I t was reasoned that the focus was an appropriate one as the prospective stud- ents of the author's high school could, at some future time, use the locations i n a similar manner. The author considered also the propositions that a l l young people have had some ex- perience with playgrounds and that such f a c i l i t i e s possibly provide access to the widest range of humanity within any given community. 1 8 . 19. Man only plays when he i s human i n the f u l l sense of the word, and he i s only completely human when he i s playing.^3 — F r i e d r i c h S c h i l l e r Then, what better focus could one select f or study than people at play i n the l o c a l environment to achieve a greater understanding of s o c i a l conditions or for a subject for crea- tive interpretation? Performance Stages of A r t i s t i c A c t i v i t y Described The subsequent a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y that the author en- gaged i n f e l l into the following general performance stages: 1. that of acquaintance with the focus of playgrounds and of image gathering, 2. that of r e f l e c t i v e and subjective approaches, and 3. that of painting experiences. Acquaintance with the focus and image gathering. Fre- quent v i s i t s were made to numerous playground locations i n the l o c a l community gathering a wide range of images with a variety of recording methods. The methods used included sketching, photography, memory, and written notations. The i n i t i a l image series included: written notations of objective features and subjective reactions; sketches and photographs of plants, birds, flowers, people i n various a c t i v i t i e s , and physical features of the areas--both natural and man-made. L i t t l e cen- sorship of images was employed at thi s stage. An endeavour to record objectively the essential c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the locations was attempted. 20. Reflective and subjective approaches. Following sev- e r a l weeks of observation and copious recording of as many random impressions as possible, the a r t i s t engaged i n a per- iod of r e f l e c t i v e thinking on the encounters experienced. Im- ages gathered were re-examined and the mind was allowed to play imaginatively with the s o c i a l and aesthetic significance read into the sources by the investigator. Mental links, were made beyond these immediate encounters into the reporter's own past to synthesize experiences and to form generalizations about roles and experiences of l i f e as played out i n play- grounds. Such generalizations gave impetus to the formation of verbal captions for the compositions and to the building of short episodes or v i s u a l compositions to express the separate concepts that seemed s i g n i f i c a n t to express. Personal i n t e r - pretations of the experiences were encouraged at thi s stage. The r e f l e c t i v e and subjective nature of thi s stage was a strong contrast to the previous stage of objective exploration and inquiry. A series of seven drawing compositions evolved by tne end of t h i s stage. (See Figures 8-llj., pp. 52-58.) Dur- ing this period additional v i s u a l images were often required to complete the expression of an idea that had formed. These subsequent image gathering sessions proved to be f a r more selective than the i n i t i a l stage of image gathering. At thi s stage, the author had become more aware and conscious of the features of the focus under consideration. A degree of 21 . heightened awareness had already been reached. Meaning, im- age selection, compositional layouts of figures and ground were the author's main concerns i n the f i n a l stages of the drawing. Painting experiences. Once the f i n a l i z e d drawings were transposed onto the watercolour paper the problems of watercolour technique and colour interpretation dominated the writer's concerns. Over a period of two summer months the painting stage was completed. (See Figures 16-25, pp. 73-82.) As suggested by Hugh W. Stumbo the a r t i s t "engaged" t o t a l l y i n his or her work i s goal-oriented towards the act of painting. He i s functioning i n an integrated manner when objective and subjective operations merge nat u r a l l y . I t i s through a r e f l e c t i v e and projective analysis of these three stages of the process revealed i n a copious series of recorded step-by-step r e f l e c t i o n s that the investigator believes she has been able to i s o l a t e many of the objective and subjective findings or meanings of this project that Stumbo alluded to i n h i s a r t i c l e . In the following sections of this thesis presentation the investigator has endeavoured to outline the:,more s i g n i f i c a n t findings of the research exer- cise, followed consecutively with the implications she sees these findings have for improving art education i n s t r u c t i o n , and what forms implementation of the recommendations should 22. take i n a similar project with high school students i n her community. As findings and recommendations have been reported at some length the investigator w i l l endeavour to integrate the two during a step-by-step reporting of tne process stages i n the following chapter. In a projective analysis of her r e f l e c t i v e diary not- ations the writer discovered that she was able to translate or interpret her i n s t i n c t i v e and spontaneous actions into what might be described asr an a r t i s t i c dialogue or process descrip- t i o n . In r e f l e c t i o n , she was able to record her awareness of a wide range of objective and subjective responses that went into creating the painting series. Tne investigator, i n f a c t , was surprised at the quantity and q u a l i t y of reasoning and responses engaged i n during the experience. Chapter L\. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS Within this chapter the investigator has endeavoured to employ Stumbo's projective analysis mode to report on the three main process stages through which the painting series evolved. Those stages were as follows: 1. the image gathering and composition building stage, 2. the drawing stage, and 3. the painting stage. An attempt has been made to convey both the objective and subjective findings i n a projective analysis mode and, then, to make recommendations fo r i n s t r u c t i o n i n l i g h t of the findings. In o u t l i n i n g some of the projective findings the investigator has found i t useful to apply a series of cate- gories f o r describing works of art based on those developed by the CEMREL (Central Midwestern Regional Educational Lab- oratory) group. However, i n the main, the investigator has t r i e d to d i s t i n g u i s h the objective components from the sub- jective components of the creative process under study. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE GATHERING AND COMPOSITION BUILDING STAGE A detailed analysis of both the recorded verbal, 23 21*-. d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n o f the a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s and the components of the c o m p o s i t i o n a l images r e v e a l e d s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d - i n g s r e l e v a n t t o the t e a c h i n g o f a r t . Recommendations con- c e r n i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o l - low the f i n d i n g t o whi c h i t i s r e l a t e d . I n c r e a s e d V i s u a l Awareness o f the Focus F i n d i n g s : D u r i n g the e x e r c i s e , v i s u a l awareness was i n c r e a s e d a t l e a s t t o the f o c u s s e l e c t e d — p l a y g r o u n d r e l a t e d i m a g e s — i n b o t h a c t u a l p l a y g r o u n d s e t t i n g s and t o r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s i n o t h e r v i s u a l s o u r c e s . I t appears t h a t once the f o c u s i s well-embedded i n the l e a r n e r ' s m e n t a l system f o r i n - q u i r y he can c a r r y t h i s awareness of the f o c u s beyond the ad- opted l o c a l e chosen f o r study t o o t h e r e n c o u n t e r s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e f o c u s i n g . I n a n a l y z i n g the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l components o f the a u t h o r ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s i t was found t h a t the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s were used t o ge n e r a t e the t o t a l composi- t i o n a l images t h a t e v o l v e d f o r the s e r i e s : T a ble 1. Image Sources f o r C o m p o s i t i o n s Developed Image Sources Employed i n % Use o f Source i n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s C r e a t i n g R e p r e s e n t a - t i o n a l Image Composi- 1. o b j e c t s t a k e n f a i r l y l i t e r a l l y t i o n s o f t h e S e r i e s from an a c t u a l p a r k source 18% 2 . o b j e c t s m o d i f i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , but g e n e r a t e d from an a c t u a l p a r k source 18% 3. o b j e c t s g e n e r a t e d from memory or i m a g i n a t i o n 2 9 % 1±. o b j e c t s a b s t r a c t e d from a p r e v i o u s d r a w i n g , o r from a newspaper, book 2 9 % or magazine source 5. o b j e c t s t a k e n and m o d i f i e d from another image or source o f a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n 6% 2 5 . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t each f i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n a l image was g e n e r a l l y a conglomerate i n source of components. The p e r - centages i n d i c a t e d r e f e r t o the source use f o r the t o t a l c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e r i e s o f seven p a i n t i n g s . Numerous images, beyond those c a l c u l a t e d h e r e , were g a t h e r e d and not s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the s e r i e s . F o r a more g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the v a r i e t y o f images and sources used t o e v o l v e the compo- s i t i o n s see F i g u r e s 1 - 6 , pp. 38-1+3. Recommendations f o r i n s t r u c t i o n ; The i n v e s t i g a t o r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the p r e c e d i n g p e r c e n t a g e use o f r e s o u r c e s would v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the v a r i o u s e n c o u n t e r s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f each i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t even w i t h i n a sim- i l a r l e a r n i n g t a s k . E x p e r i e n c e s i n the a e s t h e t i c r e a l m are h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d and i n d i v i d u a l . W h i l e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i - ences may be s i m i l a r they are never d u p l i c a t e d from i n d i v i d - u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l . The same r e s o u r c e s w i l l be used i n a v a r - i e t y o f ways and means by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . However, the t e a c h e r s h o u l d be aware o f phenomenolog- i c a l a s p e c t s o f i n c r e a s e d awareness t o the f o c u s and s h o u l d a s s i s t the s t u d e n t s i n d i r e c t i n g t h e i r awareness i n a s i m i l a r b r o a d e n i n g f a s h i o n . I f such a t r a n s f e r of awareness t o o t h e r image s o u r c e s can o c c u r , and i f one deems t h a t such a d e v e l o p - ment i s a p o s i t i v e type o f e x p e r i e n c e t o promote, the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s o f how the t e a c h e r can promote t h i s form of t r a n s f e r of awareness t o numerous o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s . I n t h i s 26. respect, the investigator would recommend a number of strate- gies. I t i s recommended that the teacher who i s considering an environmental inquiry around a given focus f i r s t b u ild up an extensive image bank around the focus that i s to be stud- ied or promoted. The investigator-teacher, while involved i n the study of playgrounds, began to e s t a b l i s h a picture f i l e and sli d e series around the theme, which could be used in the future with her students. Art history books can also be sources of stimuli to the learner. The teacher should be- come f a m i l i a r with a r t i s t s and their i n d i v i d u a l image patt- erns. For example, the teacher could provide a student with a l i s t of a r t i s t s who have dealt with a given theme: the circus grounds or f a i r . Where the teacher cannot provide the student with a bank of actual, related images he should be able to d i r e c t the student to sources where he w i l l l i k e l y encounter the focus beyond the firsthand environmental experi- ences he has organized for the class. It should be stated that these a u x i l i a r y resources should not be employed as sub- s t i t u t e experiences for firsthand encounters with the focus, but should be used to augment and complement the major envir- onmental encounters. S i m i l a r l y , the teacher may wish to set up an alternative or additional series of environmental l o c - ales which the highly motivated student may v i s i t independ- ently of the group v i s i t s . Students who i n i t i a t e additional excursions could come together to share their reactions and 27. images to broaden the general focus s t i l l further. Such sharing and discussion sessions are an ess e n t i a l part of helping the learner sharpen his awareness to the focus and i t s a t t r i b u t e s . For, i t seems reasonable to conclude that a student exploring the environment with a well-established sense of d i r e c t i o n and purpose i s more l i k e l y to detect im- age sources for h i s use than a student working more randomly i n the environment. Merits of the Various Recording Modes Employed Findings; The a r t i s t found that by employing a var- i e t y of image gathering means, she was able to heighten her awareness to d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s composing the objects repre- sented i n the images. The merits of the various recording means appeared as follows: A. Photographic Mode Photographic images were found to be useful i n recording: 1. action poses and f l e e t i n g f a c i a l expressions which would escape recording by drawing notations, 2. colour features of the environment, 3. textural d e t a i l s of the physical setting, l i . pattern relationships, for example, a broad carpeting of flowers, 5. the general features i n expanses of park settings, and 6 . compositional r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B. Drawing Mode Sketching was generally employed to record the f o l l - owing subjects and features: 1. people captured i n f a i r l y s t i l l poses, 2. subjective interpretations of human f a c i a l express- ions and poses, 3. l i n e a r studies of subjects to simplify figures into the most essential forms, and l i . single subjects and to emphasize certain features of a given image. C. Verbal Notations Verbal notations usually accompanied the photographic and drawn interpretations and, generally, took the form of: 1. subjective comments on the a r t i s t ' s impressions of the encounters, 2. r e f l e c t i o n s on s o c i a l meanings or on the implied s i g - n ificance of the s i t u a t i o n viewed; these were the f i r s t ideas and feelings of s o c i a l import consciously stated for examination, and 3. notations recording highlighted features of texture, colour, pattern, etc. i n a given image. D. Memory Not a i l impressions were recorded i n concrete means. Images were formed, to be l a t e r drawn upon when the i r r e l e v - ance became important to the work. 29. In comparing the four recording modes i t was found that drawn images and verbal notations were used for record- ing more subjective interpretations of the environmental en- counters and that photography was used to more accurately record environmental d e t a i l s . In conclusion, i t appears that a variety of recording strategies may be h e l p f u l i n promoting heightened awareness to d i f f e r e n t types of features and aes- thetic q u a l i t i e s of the environment and may be preferable to employing a single recording mode for promoting image devel- opment. Recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n : The r e s u l t s of the study appear to indicate that a variety of recording modes i s preferable to a single mode in promoting a wide range of v i s - ual and s o c i a l awareness and i n a s s i s t i n g the growth of a r t - i s t i c image development. Therefore, i t i s recommended tnat the art teacher encourage and provide i n s t r u c t i o n and experi- ence i n such recording modes within the students' learning tasks. I t i s further recommended that provision be made i n tne learning process for discussion of the r e l a t i v e merits and uses of each recording device for providing imagery i n - formation for their future use. Social Awareness and Subjective Reactions Highlighted Findings: The investigator recorded a series of sub- jective reactions highlighted i n the i n i t i a l stages. Although 30. the investigator had confidently selected the given focus, she s t i l l experienced feelings of uncertainty r e s u l t i n g from a randomness of strategies employed i n the i n i t i a l stages of image gathering. The early recordings were extremely varied i n subject matter--birds, people, flowers, play equipment-- and lacked the development of strong relationships between the various images that develops l a t e r from r e f l e c t i o n and personal interpretation of the encounters experienced. How- ever, i n retrospect, this approach with i t s accompanying f e e l - ings of uncertainty may be necessary to allow for more openness or receptiveness to a wider variety of experiences than would be had i f the a r t i s t were to focus on a narrower and more r e s t r i c t e d subject. And, i t appears that a narrowing of the focus w i l l ultimately occur as the process proceeds into a stage of r e f l e c t i o n and the establishment of a cogni- tive development of relationships between the separate images perceived. Throughout the stage of image gathering s o c i a l aware- ness i n t e n s i f i e d . Having gone to the parks as an observer rather than as a participant i n regular playground a c t i v i t i e s , the author became strongly aware of and even self-conscious of her d i f f e r i n g r o l e . At f i r s t , f eelings of s e l f - i s o l a t i o n dominated. Through a series of questions she raised with her- s e l f she was soon able to transfer her awareness of s e l f to an awareness of others within the setting. She had already recognized her role and began to ponder a similar set of 3 1 . questions about the roles of those people she perceived around her. Some of the questions raised were: How were others enjoying the park? What did others come to the park to do? What a c t i v i t i e s were available? What feelings were other people appearing to express? What roles were other people appearing to play? What types and ages of people were evident i n the park? How do roles change at d i f f e r e n t stages of l i f e ? How do people exhibit their r o l e s , aspirations* and feelings while at play? Such mental r e f l e c t i o n s helped to narrow the focus and more se l e c t i v e l y to d i r e c t the writer's awareness. In searching for answers to the previous questions more s p e c i f i c themes emerged and formed the basis f o r the compositions. The work became a form of s o c i a l commentary. Generalizations about states of the human condition were highlighted. The images were gathered, selected, and arranged to narrate various roles people assumed and displayed i n their l i f e t i m e s as seen i n the playgrounds. Even the playground theme took on a more symbolic and expressive meaning. The series became "Play Ground," a series of compositions expressive of the roles people play as evident i n the parks or grounds. Themes developed and t i t l e s evolved that were expressive of t h i s s o c i a l content. Separ- ate reactions- started to come together to form more complete 3 2 . feelings and ideas expressive of the s o c i a l awareness that had developed. The v i s u a l images that had been gathered were re-examined for symbolic suggestiveness. Input from the a r t - i s t ' s memories of her childhood became interwoven with gath- ered images and feelings i n the compositions. She mentally drew s i m i l a r i t i e s between roles she observed and roles she re- c a l l e d playing i n her youth. She endeavoured to develop an empathy for the new and unfamiliar roles that she perceived. Images past and present were f i l t e r e d through the a r t i s t ' s subjective regions and emerged i n new and more expressive v i s u a l forms. T i t l e s of the f i n a l composition series r e f l e c t t h i s emphasis on s o c i a l content. The works are t i t l e d : "Hide and Seek" (Figure 8 , p. 5 2 ) . "Communion" (Figure 9» p. 5 3 ) . "Ascension" (Figure 1 0 , p. 5k)* "Death of L i f e " (Figure 1 1 , p. 5 5 ) . "Contemplation" (Figure 1 2 , p. 5 6 ) . "Apron Strings" (Figure 1 3 , p. 5 7 ) . "Merry Go Round" (Figure 11+., p. 5 8 ) . An increase i n s o c i a l awareness was also r e f l e c t e d i n the verbal notations of the verbal-visual diary. Social f i n d - ings highlighted by the a r t i s t ' s observations were as follows: 1. The playground i s an area of the environment where a l l types and ages of people come together. 2 . The human l i f e - c y c l e of b i r t h , l i f e , and death i s 33. r e f l e c t e d i n the park, .and p a r a l l e l s nature's pattern. 3. Opposite elements' 'Of the human condition come to- gether i n the park, more so than they do i n day-to-day work routines. For example: youth and old age r i c h and poor happiness and sadness freedom and control i i . People use the park setting for a c t i v i t i e s des- igned to get i n touch with themselves. They go there to seek awareness of th e i r own thoughts, emotions, and physical being. 5 . People are more informal and natural i n parks. For the most part, they have thrown o f f their "job" r o l e s . Instead, they are free to explore ana play other r o l e s , such as athlete, nature lover, etc. 6. There i s also evidence of aspects of escapism i n roles displayed i n the park. However, one cannot ultimately escape a l l controls and r o l e s . In conclusion, the writer found the playground to be a good choice of focus for increasing s o c i a l awareness and empathy and hopes that similar experiences would lead the young student to similar awarenesses. Recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n : The art teacher can help tne young students learn to deal witn and use th e i r sub- jective reactions during th i s stage i n a number of ways. Stud- ents should be encouraged to talk about the feelings they are 3k. experiencing during the environmental encounters. The teacher can ease the students' feelings of anxiety by helping them be aware that feelings of uncertainty, self-consciousness, and ambiguity are normal during i n i t i a l encounters and helping them understand the reasons why such reactions occur. They should be encouraged to adopt a manner of f l e x i b i l i t y , open- ness, and tolerance of ambiguity during th e i r explorations, and encouraged not to go into the experience with a t o t a l l y pre-determined approach. They should be prepared to be moul- ded by the experiences that they w i l l have during the encoun- ters. Students must be helped to relate subjectively to the situations i n order to create import i n th e i r art work. As Suzanne Langer states i n her book Problems i n A r t , ^ import arises out of the a r t i s t ' s a b i l i t y to express his feelings about l i f e through an art form. As Langer e x p l i c i t l y states, ". . . a l l a r t i s t i c ideas are ideas of something f e l t . . The teacher may be of assistance to the students i n encouraging increased s o c i a l awareness and empathy by provid- ing the class with a series of questions, similar to those pre- viously outlined on page 31, for the students to d i r e c t their awareness to the s o c i a l significance of the v i s u a l stimuli en- countered during their environmental explorations. A set of related questions could even be designed cooperatively by tea- cher and students for use by the students to conduct interviews of the park's inhabitants'to deepen s o c i a l contact and under- standing. 3 5 . Once images are gathered and feelings surface the teacher could i n i t i a t e discussions to draw out relationships and meanings between feelings and images. Through such an exercise the students may begin to recognize and achieve the " p o s i t i v e " use of th e i r subjective reactions to th e i r encoun- ters. This aspect of the creative process cannot be too highly valued and encouraged because i t forms the "raison d'etre" of a l l art work. Students need a period of physical relaxation and con- templation of the encounters for the creative l i n k i n g of sep- arate images and feelings into complete and expressive compo- s i t i o n a l wholes. The i n i t i a l aesthetic experiences i n the environment bring emotional impact and insight to the a r t i s t . However, students and a r t i s t s alike need to contemplate and i n t e r n a l i z e the experience to c r y s t a l l i z e and deepen the mean- i n g — i d e a and emotion—they wish ultimately to communicate or express. As Langer expressed, a r t i s t s ' renderings are biased because they record what they deem important.^ The a r t i s t needs to f i n d personal meaning i n the experience for i t to be worthy of further interpretation or expression i n an art form. This transformation usually follows the i n i t i a l aesthetic ex- periences. And, the teacher can help to promote such a trans- formation by requiring the students to draw attention to th e i r reactions and to the meanings they hold for them and, then, by helping the learners draw relationships between the reac- tions and meanings they have been able to i d e n t i f y and the v i s u a l data they have gathered. In this way, the teacher can 36. also a s s i s t the students i n narrowing and c l a r i f y i n g their personal choice of focus. Students should be encouraged to record t h e i r subjective reactions i n the form of verbal not- ations i n a verbal-visual diary of environmental experiences to aid the teacher and students i n promoting such a u n i f i c a - tion of experience, meaning, and expression. In group situations, attention could be directed to the universal nature of human feelings and conditions. Stud- ents should be encouraged to examine the most common ones ex- perienced and to discuss how these ideas and emotions can be communicated through symbolic, v i s u a l language. Works of art of an h i s t o r i c a l nature could be of use i n helping d i r e c t the discovery of the u n i v e r s a l i t y of the human condition and ex- perience, as expressed by a r t i s t s .of a l l ages. Subjective reactions and s o c i a l awareness highlighted in environmental encounters should form an important topic for a r t i s t i c discussion and interpretation within the art class- room. And the art teacher should develop considerable s k i l l i n i n i t i a t i n g and d i r e c t i n g such a discussion. Summary Prom the foregoing analysis i t appears that the art teacher's concerns and s k i l l s during the i n i t i a l stages of the exercise should be directed towards f a c i l i t a t i n g the learners' growth i n four major areas: 1. helping d i r e c t the learners' focusing s k i l l s and perception, 37. 2. i n s t r u c t i n g i n , and discussing, the use of a variety of recording modes, 3. encouraging the development of awareness to sub- jective reactions and s o c i a l content, and I i . helping the learners synthesize their reactions and draw meanings from their experiences. Figure 1. Assorted Photographic Images Gathered of R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s and Equipment 39. Figure 2. Newspaper Image and Drawn Image f o r "Hide and Seek"  1+1. k2* Figure 5 « Newspaper Images Gathered f o r "Merry Go Round"  kk. CATEGORIES USEFUL TO THE PROCESS ANALYSIS In order to analyze the process strategies during periods of intense a r t i s t i c production i t appears useful to est a b l i s h a scheme of descriptive categories of a r t i s t i c con- cerns. With some modification the descriptive categories de- signed by CEMREL to describe works of art would appear to be useful for thi s study. These categories, i f applied to areas for a r t i s t i c concern i n creating a work of art, form a good basis from which to bui l d a comprehensive scheme of categor- ies for describing a r t i s t i c concerns i n the production stage. CEMREL*s categories f o r describing a work of art are useful i f one defines "counters" to be: p u b l i c l y i d e n t i f i a b l e elements i n a work such as a colour area, a space area, or a fig u r e . The CEMREL categories are: 1. Describe the surface counters. __.,_2« Describe the relationships among the surface 3. Describe the representational counters, when present. . . . It. Describe the relationships among the representa- t i o n a l counters. 5 . Describe the relationships among the surface and representational counters. 6. Speculate on the possible meanings of the counters and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the form of a paraphrase. • • • 7. Compare the meaning discovered with a re-exper- iencing of the work of a r t . 8. Make a judgment about the significance of the work.17 The investigator has discovered, i n analyzing her reactions and concerns recorded during the intense production stage, that two more categories would be useful i n describing the various concerns highlighted i n her discourse. They are as follows: 1. subjective reactions, and 2. technical concerns and physical awareness. In grouping the concerns consciously revealed i n the a r t i s t ' s verbal notations of the a r t i s t i c process, i t became clear that the concerns i n the period of drawing up the or i g - i n a l p e ncil compositions varied considerably from those i n the painting stage. These differences have been related i n a detailed description of the foregoing categories highlighted i n the two working stages. I t should be noted that these differences were very easy to i d e n t i f y because the two stages were conducted consecutively and separately from one another. When there i s more of an integration of the drawing stage with the painting stage these differences may be less e x i s t - ent and/or less apparent. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OP THE DRAWING STAGE As the ideas for the compositions became clearer a t t - ention turned to new concerns. One set of concerns dealt with elements and p r i n c i p l e s of composition; another with achieving subjective s a t i s f a c t i o n through the personal i n t e g r i t y ex- pressive i n the work. Objective compositional decisions and judgments were interwoven with subjective int e r p r e t i v e decis- ions and judgments to evolve the f i n a l plans or drawings. Compositional Concerns I d e n t i f i e d Findings: The following compositional concerns were 1+6. found to be highlighted i n t h i s stage: 1. figure-ground relationships and figure to figure s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , 2. d i r e c t i o n a l p u l l s and thrusts and the general flow of movement within the work, 3. proportional r e l a t i o n s h i p s - - s i z e relationships between components, b,. l i n e a r q u a l i t i e s — s i m p l i c i t y and f l u i d i t y , , In addition, various images underwent a period of selection, c l a r i f i c a t i o n , and refinement i n order to increase the express- ive power of the compositional whole. Sp e c i f i c images or de- t a i l s needed to complete the compositions were sought out. (See Figure 7# p. 51.) Component images were selected for symbolic e f f e c t . Some ideas were dropped when the images would not evolve into a t o t a l expression of the a r t i s t ' s idea. Conscious awareness of the foregoing factors, both elements and p r i n c i p l e s of compositional design, enabled the a r t i s t to work more i n t e n t i o n a l l y to achieve u n i f i e d compositional e f f - ects i n each drawing. F i n a l l y , the investigator's concerns turned to the colour schemes and s t y l i s t i c approach necessary to communicate the intended expression i n the f i n a l painting. Before pro- ceeding with the painting stage, the a r t i s t sought out works by such watercolourists as Turner, Chagall, and Kandinsky to study t h e i r handling of the medium. The works of Francis Bacon and the German Expressionists were examined for s t y l i s t i c l|7. treatment of the imagery. The a r t i s t found such studies relevant to and i n f l u e n t i a l on her work. If one were to categorize these concerns under CEMREL's descriptive categories the following concerns would seem to have been highlighted during the drawing stage: 1. Concern for the representational counters. 2. Concern for the relationships among the represen- t a t i o n a l counters. 3 . Concern for relationships among the surface and representational counters. I4.. Concern for meanings of the counters and their i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the form of a paraphrase. 5. Concern for judging the significance of the work. As the drawings were simple, l i n e a r pencil studies, the tech- n i c a l concerns or problems were few at th i s stage. Some care did need to be taken i n drawing the compositions to an accur- ate scale larger than the o r i g i n a l sketch. For t h i s purpose, a g r i d r a t i o was developed to enlarge the work to the f i n a l size (see Figure 15, p. 5 9 ) . More d i f f i c u l t technical con- cerns were to be attempted during the painting stage. Recommendations f o r i n s t r u c t i o n : I t appears evident from the findings that for a high l e v e l of concern for compo- s i t i o n a l design factors to occur the students must f i r s t be able to understand some basic art concepts and to be able to i d e n t i f y elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design at work i n pieces 1+8. of art work. Therefore, i t i s recommended that the teacher d i r e c t some i n s t r u c t i o n a l time to the explanation of composi- t i o n a l design elements and p r i n c i p l e s , so that such an under- standing i s attained by the students. Once key concepts are acquired, attention can be directed towards the recognition and attainment of u n i f i e d design elements and p r i n c i p l e s within t h e i r own compositions. The teacher should emphasize the necessity for selection and refinement of the images to achieve u n i f i e d compositional wholes. The students might discuss the question--what p r i n c i p l e s help to create unity i n a work of art? At thi s stage the teacher would be recommended to help the student bridge the gap between the drawing and painting stages by i n i t i a t i n g a discussion around anticipated colour schemes, s t y l i s t i c approach, and symbolic treatment intended to express certain meanings of the work. Related to these discussions, art c r i t i c i s m sessions'icould be introduced to increase the students 1 awareness to many of the preceding factors of a r t i s t i c concern and to graphically i l l u s t r a t e to the students how other a r t i s t s have developed e f f e c t i v e works by attending to similar concerns and problems. Subjective Concerns I d e n t i f i e d Findings; Several subjective responses were also e v i - dent i n thi s stage of the process. The a r t i s t was concerned with achieving an art form unique and expressive of the k9* a r t i s t ' s ovm reelings and ideas. Tills personal i n t e g r i t y of the expressive form was a very strong concern of the a r t i s t . Tne a r t i s t also r e l i e d somewhat on her subjective feelings to i n t u i t or sense the completeness or expressiveness of the various compositions. For, not a l l judgments can be achieved by objective means alone. A r t i s t i c import can be f e l t — b y the i n t e n s i t y of tne emotional impact experienced by the viewer. This a r t i s t experienced true pleasure i n being able to capture or c r y s t a l l i z e her own ideas and f e e l i n g s i n a v i s u a l form of expression. Recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n : To check that a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y i s being honoured i n the form of personal expression, the art teacher could engage the student i n a d i s - cussion of the intended meaning--idea or feeling--behind the work under creation. Verbal interpretations of the works, i n turn, could be compared with the student's subjective reac- tions to the environmental experience, as reported i n the ver- bal diary notations. Students should be able to give a j u s t i - f i c a t i o n for the work. In judging the effectiveness of t h e i r work students should be encouraged to analyze objectively the compositional structure of their work, as well as to be sensitive to receiv- ing i n t u i t e d reactions to the import or i n t e n s i t y of the work under consideration. Philosophical discussions regarding the function and 50. purpose of art are not beyond the capacity of secondary school students and may help them i n forming an understanding o f b o t h the creative and appreciative processes they can engage i n . And, the subjective nature of art i s of great importance to stress. Summary Successful works of art are achieved through a balance of technical and compositional considerations and factors ex- pressive of the a r t i s t ' s ideas and f e e l i n g s . Therefore, the art teacher should encourage self-expression and, also, d i r e c t the young a r t i s t ' s technical and compositional concerns and s k i l l s i n the work at hand. Both subjective and objective factors of creation should be developed i n a p a r a l l e l fashion. Figure 7. S k e l e t a l Studies Figure 8. Drawing Composition: "Hide and Seek" Figure 9. Drawing Composition: "Communion" 51+. Figure 11. Drawing Composition: "Death of L i f e " Figure 12. Drawing Composition: "Contemplation" 56 Figure 1 3 . Drawing Composition: "Apron S t r i n g s Figure Drawing Composition: "Merry Go Round" Figure 1 5 . G r i d Pattern Over An O r i g i n a l Sketch 60. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PAINTING STAGE A r t i s t i c concerns i n the painting stage varied con- siderably from the foregoing stage. The a r t i s t i c considera- tions may be d e f i n i t i v e l y grouped under the following cate- gories: 1 . technical concerns and physical awareness, 2. subjective reactions, 3 . concerns for surface counters, 1+. concerns for the relationships between surface counters, and 5 . concerns with using surface counters to emphasize and support the meanings of the representational counters. Technical Concerns I d e n t i f i e d Findings: A long l i s t of technical procedures app- eared i n the process descriptions of a l l the paintings. Some of the more common technical problems appeared to be: 1. mixing colours desired, 2. applying large washes of colour e v e n l y — e s p e c i a l l y backgrounds around objects, 3. increasing tonal contrasts f o r c l a r i t y of read- a b i l i t y of the painting from a distance, ]+. the d i f f i c u l t y of painting very small features over painting larger features, 61 . 5. c o n t r o l l i n g watercolours so as not to l e t them run into other areas of the picture, 6. maintaining a consistent painting style while working on a painting over several days, 7. the d i f f i c u l t y of maintaining a spontaneous and not overworked painting style when attempting works of a highly detailed representational char- acter, 8. working hard and soft edges of objects, 9. c o n t r o l l i n g the translucence and the opacity of the paint, as desired, and 10. the necessity to account for the technical stages. Recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n : Unlike strategies for making aesthetic decisions, strategies of a technical nature can be developed i n a more di r e c t and di d a c t i c manner by a teacher well-versed i n the handling of the media employed. For t h i s reason, i t i s a general recommendation that art teach- ers have a background i n the handling of a wide range of media and that they be well aware of the d i f f e r e n t requirements i n the handling of each. Even two d i f f e r e n t painting media hold d i f f e r i n g problems for manipulation. And, s a t i s f a c t i o n with a work does r e s u l t , i n part, from the technical quality one i s able to achieve. Physical Concerns I d e n t i f i e d Findings: Certain periods i n the working process drew 62. attention to the a r t i s t ' s physical state. These periods were as follows: 1. At the beginning of the painting stage the a r t i s t was struggling very consciously and c a r e f u l l y with the tech- niques of the painting act, as i t had been some time since she had engaged i n such a r t i s t i c endeavours. The work pro- ceeded very slowly and methodically u n t i l the necessary amount of practice brought with i t the confidence and f a m i l i a r i t y associated with mastery of the materials that comes with con- siderable experience. Attention was given to the physical s k i l l needed to execute the painting to the technical stand- ard desired. At times even such concerns drew attention away from the output of emotive power needed to execute a painting with import and tended to disengage the a r t i s t from the i n - tensity of the painting process. 2. Considerable attention was given to the physical control demanded of the a r t i s t to achieve both spontaneous (loose) and very detailed (tight) approaches and to be able to make smooth tra n s i t i o n s between the two styles within a given painting. For example, the a r t i s t found i t necessary to u t i l - ize scraps of paper to practice the free painting style of the leafy ground cover i n "Hide and Seek," (see Figure 16, p. 73), and, then, to practice the restrained l i n e work i n the g i r l ' s hair and moth of the same painting. Such tra n s i t i o n s required considerable modifications of the a r t i s t ' s physical and mental approaches. 63. 3. Fatigue also posed a considerable d i f f i c u l t y to the a r t i s t . Due to the rather detailed style of the paint- ings executed, the extreme concentration produced fatigue after several hours of work and required the a r t i s t to set aside the work frequently. In periods of physical relaxation solutions to many of the work's problems came to mind as the picture was more casually contemplated separate from the painting process. To stimulate such thought i t was found to be h e l p f u l to set the pictures i n general view. More object- i v i t y was brought to bear on the work through frequent absten- tions from the painting act. Work was resumed after the f a - tigue had gone, as overworking of an area with excess paint occurred most often when the a r t i s t ' s sense of d i r e c t i o n be- came vague due to physical and/or mental fatigue. Recommendations fo r i n s t r u c t i o n ; In order to a s s i s t the students through the d i f f i c u l t beginning stages of work, consideration should be given to the f a c t that the i n i t i a l pieces of work may carry evidence of technical awkwardness and a slowness i n execution, as the students master the phys- i c a l control required to adequately handle the medium. Warm up exercises of a short duration or less sustained pieces could be assigned i n the beginning. Approaching the work from a variety of s t y l i s t i c and technical modes could help the stu- dents acquire increased s k i l l s and understandings. An analy- s i s of the varied r e s u l t s could then be conducted to y i e l d 6i|.. valuable information f o r t h e i r future use. Work and r e s t periods should be balanced, f i r s t by the teacher and, then, by the student himself as he learns to recognize h i s own signs of fatigue. Such re s t periods can become valuable periods of contemplation and bring increased awareness of the q u a l i t i e s of the work. Future strategies may be determined during such respites, as well. Reflection upon the working process i n the form of discussion with the teacher and even the entire class may help the teacher discover areas of concern that may or may not be evident i n the work i t s e l f , and which may re- quire some remedial i n s t r u c t i o n . Subjective Reactions I d e n t i f i e d Findings: Within the painting stage a number of sub- jective reactions arose and were i d e n t i f i e d i n the projective analysis conducted. At a rather basic l e v e l of subjective response the a r t i s t experienced the following rather common reactions to the exercise: 1. nervousness with beginning the painting work, 2. enjoyment of the painting act i t s e l f — m a n i p u l a t i n g the materials, 3. general feelings of s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c - tion with one's own l e v e l of s k i l l demonstrated or revealed i n the working process, Ij.. f r u s t r a t i o n with loss of d i r e c t i o n a l sense, and 5 . anxiety caused by technical d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered. 65. At a somewhat higher l e v e l of subjective reaction were those responses c l a s s i f i e d under s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t - i s f a c t i o n f e l t with s p e c i f i c features of the work the reac- ti o n was to. These reactions were clos e l y t i e d i n with judgmental reactions and decision-making. S a t i s f a c t i o n was achieved when technical e f f e c t s acnieved supported the sym- bo l i c meanings intended or implied. Recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n : Wnen s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the work i s expressed the teacher should try to help the student determine the causal reasons for the reaction. Once these causal relationships are i d e n t i - f i e d objectively the knowledge can be c a l l e d upon to j u s t i f y or explain the preference or be retrieved f o r consideration for use i n creating another work i n the future. Therefore, i t i s important for the teacher and the student to explore the question of the s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with wjhat features. The causal relationships could be studied too. The investigator believes that subjective reactions based on i n t u i t e d knowledge should be balanced with insights gained about q u a l i t i e s of the work which have been determined through verbal i n t e r a c t i o n employing c r i t i c a l analysis of q u a l i t i e s of response based on the students' work. P a r a l l e l i n g CEMREL's categories for describing works of art the a r t i s t ' s remaining major concerns grouped mainly around the following areas: 66 . 1. concerns f o r surface counters of the pictures, 2. concerns f o r the relationships between surface counters i n the picture, 3. concern with having surface counters express the meanings of the representational counters of the picture. Surface Counters and the Relationship Between Surface Counters Findings: Concern f o r the relationships between sur- face counters outnumbered concerns f o r single surface count- ers by three to one. The author suspects that as the r e l a t i o n - ships between surface counters may pose the more d i f f i c u l t problems to solve than how to treat i n d i v i d u a l surface count- ers they may have drawn more attention and concern i n the ex- erci s e . And, i n fac t , the trained a r t i s t may solve i n d i v i d - ual surface counter problems more i n s t i n c t i v e l y and, there- fore, they may be less scrutinized i n the working process. Being l e s s complex i n nature, single surface counter problems may require less conscious consideration and, therefore, be noted less i n the diary notations. Some t y p i c a l examples of concern f o r relationships between surface counters were as follows: 1. attempts were made to create i n t e r e s t i n the paint- ing "Hide and Seek" (see Figure 1 6 , p. 7 3 ) , while maintaining compositional unity, by employing variations i n the two 6 7 . dominant colours used, i . e . blue and brown colour pattern, 2 . strong diagonals were adopted i n a number of the pieces to join together more e f f e c t i v e l y the compositional components, i . e . "Ascension" (see Figure 18 , p. 75)» 3 . l o c a l colours were modified to relate better to adjacent colour areas and to unite with the o v e r a l l colour scheme, i . e . i n "Death of L i f e " (see Figure 2 0 , p. 77)., the f a l l i n g out figure and the skeleton were drawn together by the common blue grey, it. contrast of c l a r i t y and vagueness of texture and d e t a i l were manipulated to increase the i l l u s i o n of depth i n several paintings, i . e . "Hide and Seek" (see Figure 16 , p. 7 3 ) , and "Merry Go Round" (see Figure 2 5 , p. 8 2 ) , 5 . l i m i t e d colour schemes were used to create more unity i n the works, i . e . "Ascension" (see Figure 18 , p. 75 )» and, 6 . concern was shown f o r relationships of surface counters by trying to paint i n an o v e r a l l approach to the sur- face. Concern for the larger p r i n c i p l e s of compositional design such as unity, balance, movement, did increase the a t t - ention to compositional relationships between the surface counters. Some examples of the surface counters considered were: 1. a strong concern for creating textural i l l u s i o n s with brushstroke technique and pen and ink d e t a i l was highlighted 68. i n a number of works, i . e . "Hide and Seek" (see Figure 16, p. 73), 2. i n "Hide and Seek" (Figure 16, p. 73) concern was noted over wanting the sky area to appear that i t was disap- pearing o f f the top of the paper; a cream mat was chosen to increase the i l l u s i o n , 3. i n "Death of L i f e " (Figure 20, p. 77) the very smooth application of the background wash was used to i n - crease the e f f e c t of air i n e s s and movement, in "Merry Go Round" (Figure 25, p. 82) blurred spots were introduced to represent the halo e f f e c t of circus l i g h t i n g and to attempt to introduce more spontaneity and movement into the piece, 5. i n "Communion" (Figure 17, p. 71+) yellow t i n t i n g was added to the old man's coat to create? an old, smoked e f f - ect, 6. i n "Communion" (Figure 17, p. 7k) a decision was made not to use l i n e a r ink work i n the g i r l ' s figure to give a softer, more a i r y e f f e c t , and 7. dry brushwork was used to increase the ef f e c t of rough texture on the ground, and concrete bench, i n 'Commun- ion' (Figure 17, p. 7k)• Such elements of composition and design play an important part i n the pattern of considerations and concerns i n the working process. Appropriateness of l i n e , form, colour, texture, tone, etc., came under consideration at a l l stages of the 69. painting act. Recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n : As concerns f o r sur- face counters and the relationships between surface counters are a necessary and i n t e g r a l part of any painting process, i t i s recommended that students develop a clear understanding of concepts germane to the f i e l d . I t would be advised that stu- dents acquire vocabulary and an understanding of a r t i s t i c terminology h i g h l i g h t i n g the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of com- posi t i o n . For, without the awareness of such concepts stud- ents are l i m i t e d to working i n an i n t u i t i v e approach, and are unable to step outside the work and examine i t more r a t i o n a l l y and objectively. It i s hoped that once students have a work- ing knowledge of general a r t i s t i c concepts works can be ana- lyzed f a r more f u l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y and solutions resolved r e a d i l y . The investigator ...positsL-' that art c r i t i c i s m cannot be conducted e f f e c t i v e l y without the development of such know- ledge . Relationships Between Surface Counters and Representational Counters Findings: CEMREL*s categories of describing the rep- resentational counters and th e i r relationships to one another were of- majoridoncern.largely i n the drawing composition stage. At that stage, the representational counters were delineated along with th e i r intended meanings and symbolism. However, i n the painting stage considerable attention was given to having 70 the surface counters reinforce the meanings expressed i n the representational counters. For example, while the represen- t a t i o n a l counters i n almost a l l of the works denote rather ominous imagery, the colour schemes and technical application of the paint soften the o v e r a l l mood of the works. The bright colours of the surface counters and a rather delicate style of paint application were employed to lighten the mood and rel i e v e much of the pessimism that might be implied by the representational counters. Instead, a pragmatic view of l i f e , complete with recognition of the roles people play and the inevitable l i f e - c y c l e , i s intended as the general message of the works. For instance, i n "Death of L i f e " (Figure 20, p. 77) the skeleton figure with i t s symbolic implications i s softened by depicting i t i n soft blues, browns, and yellows and by employing soft, open edges within the figure which fade away into the background. Handling of various aspects of the surface counters was governed by the symbolic meanings intended. In "Death of L i f e " (Figure 20, p. 77) the open breast area of the g i r l im- p l i e s the growth of adolescence. In addition, textures and tones play an important r o l e i n emphasizing numerous antithe- ses which form a strong part of the implied meaning of the works. In "Ascension" (Figure 18, p. 75), white denotes inno- cence and freedom. The k i t e , although white, i s represented i n a boxed or c o f f i n shape. Perhaps one of the most poignant examples where antithesis i s reinforced by colour, texture, 7 1 . and tone i s i n "Merry Go Round" (Figure 25, p. 8 2 ) . A con- tr a s t i s stated between the harsh r e a l i t y of the looming horse i n the foreground and the dreamy background. To ach- ieve that e f f e c t the foreground horse is—more opaquely painted, darker i n tone, rougher i n texture, more three-dim- ensional i n treatment, and stronger and earthier i n colour. The dreamier e f f e c t of the background i s achieved with the use of--amore translucent paint application, l i g h t e r tones, softer textures, a f l a t t e r appearance, and pastel colours. I t was found that subtle interpretations of t h i s sort can be- come part of the a r t i s t ' s concerns i f he endeavours to con- sciously consider them within the decision-making stages of his work. ^ Recommendations f o r i n s t r u c t i o n : As already demon- strated, a sensitive treatment of the surface counters can help to c l a r i f y and highlight the meanings implied by the rep- resentational counters depicted i n the work, and can work to increase the emotive power of a piece. Therefore, discussion of such subtle treatments f o r their a b i l i t y to impart meaning should be an important part of any analysis of t h e i r work. i Summary I I t i s hoped that by out l i n i n g i n some det-ail the f i n d - i ings of t h i s projective analysis, that the reader w i l l u l t i - mately become aware of the important and complex |nature of i what might be expected of an art teacher i n d i r e c t i n g and 72. increasing the awareness to aesthetic concerns of the stud- ents i n h i s charge. For this task i s as complex and subtle as the task of painting i t s e l f . It requires attention to numerous aspects of the learning process. And, the i n v e s t i - gator would not claim i n t h i s report to have touched upon a l l the ingredients making up the creative process. But, i t i s hoped that the findings from this projective analysis have enlarged the already large body of knowledge related to the phenomenon of c r e a t i v i t y and that some useful recommendations related to the guidance of the creative process have been r e a l i z e d . It i s also hoped that the concerns have not been re- ported i n too fragmented a form, because the creative process must also be considered and understood as nearly as possible i n i t s entirety. The more the teacher can help the students gain a knowledge of the various components of the process and how they must work together to form a u n i f i e d whole, the greater the growth that w i l l l i k e l y occur for the learners. 73  Figure 18. P a i n t i n g Composition: "Ascension" Figure 19. Experimental P a i n t i n g E x e r c i s e : "Death of L i f e " Figure 2 0 . P a i n t i n g Composition: "Death of L i f e  Figure 22. Painting Composition: "Aprong Strings" 79.  81  Chapter 5 AN EVALUATIVE STAGE AND PRODUCT ANALYSIS At some stage following the completion of a series of works a period of re-examination and judgment regarding the aesthetic merits of the work should be scheduled. Such a strategy i s widely supported by contemporary art educators as a key stage i n the development of the students 1 powers of d i s - crimination. For t h i s writer's purposes the writings of CEMREL, Monroe Beardsley, Gene M i t t l e r , and Edmund B. Feldman form the basis around which art c r i t i c i s m could be organized within the classroom setting. Findings: Evaluative processes occurred throughout the learning experience--in making selections from countless images to be gathered, i n deciding on which images to include i n the f i n a l compositions, i n selecting the technical approa- ches, and f i n a l l y i n judging the works. Comparative judgments form a part of tne working process. The wider the experien- t i a l base, the more extensive the comparisons made. Some examples of judgmental processes that occurred i n the a r t i s t ' s working process were: 1. During the working period s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t - i s f a c t i o n with certain features of a piece occurred. These features, upon examination, could usually be defined and 63. - 61;. j u s t i f i e d by r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t l y to the q u a l i t i e s v i s i b l e i n the work. After completion of the series judgmental processes turned to the following :> _ 1. Comparisons were drawn between e f f e c t s a c t u a l l y achieved and ef f e c t s o r i g i n a l l y envisioned p r i o r to the pro- duction. 2. Comparisons were also drawn between works i n the ser i e s . 3. Comparisons were made between the works and simi- l a r works by other a r t i s t s . Recommendations f o r i n s t r u c t i o n : To engage f r u i t f u l l y i n art c r i t i c i s m i t should be stressed that, at a l l times i n the a c t i v i t y , d i r e c t reference must be made to the features and q u a l i t i e s v i s i b l e within the works i n order to conduct a v a l i d examination. For, as Suzanne Langer states: But a work of art does not point us to a meaning beyond i t s own presence. What i s expressed can- not be grasped apart from the sensuous or poetic form that expresses i t . 18 Now, i t seems relevant to consider models for art c r i t i c i s m applicable for use i n the classroom. Evaluative Models Described Considerable concensus exists among a number of art educators on forms that c r i t i c a l inquiry should take. CEMREL encourages us to examine a number of factors i n describing any 85. work of a r t . These factors have already been outlined i n the foregoing pages of this study (see p. I 4 J 4 . ) . An i n t e g r a l part of that formula stresses 1 ) comparing the meaning discovered with a re-experlencing of the work of a r t , and 2) making a judgment about the significance of the work. These two under- takings would seem to form an important part of any art c r i t i - cism process. However, CEMREL does l i t t l e to define just how these endeavours should be undertaken. For more thorough working methods of art c r i t i c i s m the writer, therefore, has turned to the writings of Edmund Feldman, Monroe Beardsley, and Gene M i t t l e r . An examination of each writer's contribu- t i o n w i l l be described within the following pages i n the hopes of o u t l i n i n g several models worthy of consideration and use i n d i r e c t i n g art c r i t i c i s m sessions. In the a r t i c l e "Experiences i n C r i t i c a l Inquiry: Approaches for Use i n the Art Methods Class," Gene M i t t l e r supports the CEMREL recommendation that the two most import- ant functions of art c r i t i c i s m are: 1. to interpret the meanings of the work, and 2. to make and support judgments about the aesthetic merits of the work. To form these interpretations and judgments he suggests that students f i r s t have the opportunity to perceive the aesthetic q u a l i t i e s already observed. For as B.O. Smith writes: It i s important here for the students to understand that when they decide upon c r i t e r i a , they are,?by this choice determining what facts about the work 86. of art are relevant and worth considering. They are also deciding at the same time the j u s t i f i c a t i o n they w i l l give f o r t h e i r judgment of the work of art i n question. I f the students are asked why they think the p a r t i c u l a r work i s b e a u t i f u l or good, they can answer l o g i c a l l y only by reference to the c r i t e r i a they have chosen and the facts observed about the work of art i t s e l f . 1 9 Gene M i t t l e r goes on to explain that the evaluative function involves attempts to discover reasons to support value judg- ments, while the interpretive function deals with e f f o r t s to 20 explain or c l a r i f y works of a r t . " M i t t l e r draws upon Edmund B. Feldraan's work to outline a very detailed mode of observing strategy, generally broken down into four major sequential stages to i s o l a t e and attend to aesthetic q u a l i t i e s within the work. ;«-"•;. Feldman's stages of art c r i t i c i s m are as follows: 1. Description i s a process of taking inventory, of noting what i s immediately presented to the viewer. This might involve a survey of the various aspects of representational subject matter found i n the work as well as a scrutiny of the colors, shapes, l i n e s , and textures used. 2. Analysis i s a process during which students attempt to determine the relationships among the various elements observed i n the work. Of p a r t i c u - l a r importance here i s an examination of the struc- t u r a l q u a l i t i e s employed. 3. Interpretation i s a process of determining the possible meanings of the work under consideration. ]±. Judgment i s a decision-making process i n which the observer determines the degree of aesthetic merit noted i n the work. This decision i s based on the information accumulated during the previous operations.21 Such writers believe that appreciation of art work grows from acquiring an awareness of the aesthetic q u a l i t i e s 87. of the work and an understanding of the meanings inherent i n the work. They recommend that opportunities be available to develop s k i l l s of c r i t i c a l inquiry. To complement t h i s task the art teacher must develop s k i l l s i n i n i t i a t i n g and sus- taining classroom dialogue around works of a r t , to help the students verbalize insights gained from such encounters. The development of art concepts as well as perceptual s k i l l s are needed during c r i t i c a l confrontations with art works. Gene M i t t l e r goes on further to point out that i n the process of art c r i t i c i s m one must attempt to examine, under- stand, and judge the work under study from a number of angles or theories. He elaborates upon Edmund Feldman's a n a l y t i c a l strategies by examining the work thrice over i n each stage for i t s l i t e r a l , v i s u a l , and expressive q u a l i t i e s . In t h i s way, he has attempted to form an easy and systematic way of looking at aesthetic q u a l i t i e s i n a wide range of works of art. However, one must turn to Monroe Beardsley's a r t i c l e , 22 " C r i t i c a l Evaluation," when contemplating a detailed means of teaching modes of value judgment of works of a r t . Beards- ley's suggestions can be condensed down to a three objective or canonic scheme for evaluating the merits and defects of a work of a r t . His concerns are organized around the following three canons: 1. Canon of Unity, under which the unity or disunity of a work i s determined, 88. 2. Canon of Complexity, under which the degree of complexity or s i m p l i c i t y of the work i s examined, 3. Canon of Intensity, under which the work i s anal- yzed f o r the in t e n s i t y or lack of in t e n s i t y of human regional 23 q u a l i t i e s within the work, i . e . v i t a l i t y , tenderness, etc. Beardsley supports the use of "objective reasons" when evalu- ating a work and stating c r i t i c a l arguments. To Beardsley a reason i s objective " . . . i f i t ref e r s to some character- i s t i c — t h a t i s , some quality or in t e r n a l r e l a t i o n , or set of q u a l i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s — w i t h i n the work i t s e l f , or to some meaning-relation between the work and the world." He d i s - counts the less supportable reasoning of genetic i n t e n t i o n a l - 25 ism and of affec t i v i s m for evaluating works of ar t . He ad- vocates h i s canons because they can be supported by objective reasoning. Descriptive statements can be developed to supp- ort value-judgments. In a l l cases, art educators seem to agree that actual features of the work need to be analyzed to determine the effe c t s of a work and what components created the response. Statements of value must be supportable by d i r e c t reference to q u a l i t i e s i n the work under consideration. Q u a l i t i e s not d i r - e c t l y v i s i b l e within the work may not be c a l l e d upon to supp- ort the judgment. In conclusion, i t appears that adequate support e x i s t s for conducting art c r i t i c i s m sessions within the regular school programmes and that such inquiry should deal with the problems 89. of describing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging works of art, so that when future encounters are made the students have strategies for confrontation. The.investigator also believes that such inquiry i s useful when conducted i n relation: to the students' own art works. For, i n addition, the r e s u l t s may y i e l d valuable information regarding the effectiveness of the working processes undertaken and may also suggest modifications of strategies i n the future. This f i n a l stage i s a c r i t i c a l part of the learning process, due to i t s form- ative nature. Product Analysis Findings; In the introduction of thi s study the invest- igator speculated on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the works that might be produced by such a learning task. Many of these assumptions were confirmed by an analysis of the r e s u l t i n g a r t i s t i c products. In general, the works created could be described as having the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. The representational counters of the work did re- f l e c t d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s than might have developed i f the a r t i s t were to have worked from her imagination and memory. A considerable degree of information on the appearance of objects was gained through d i r e c t observation, recorded, and used, which otherwise would have been omitted--making some aspects of the work highly r e a l i s t i c . A r t i s t i c license and 90 personal interpretation of the encounters did play an import- ant part i n modifying the images to express meanings and symbolism the a r t i s t wished to communicate. The a r t i s t ' s work was not, therefore, a "copy" of the appearance of the representational objects depicted i n the work. 2. Social awareness and insight were evident i n a l l the works that evolved. The r e s u l t i n g compositions were highly symbolic and expressive of the a r t i s t ' s reactions to the s o c i a l encounters experienced. 3. The works did not r e f l e c t cliched images, although they were generally expressive of universal subject matter. Images selected underwent considerable modification, but s t i l l c a r ried the l i m i t e d focus of human roles expressed through play and the inescapable nature of the l i f e - c y c l e with i t s consequences. The works r e f l e c t e d a personal interpretation of such universal human conditions. The a r t i s t managed to avoid a use of random imagery sponsored by the abundance of stimuli available i n the urban environment. Image selection and narrowing of the focus was evident within the work. I i . Object-space relationships were considered, as the compositions appear to be well-designed, balanced, and have a good flow of movement within them. 5. The technical handling of the painting style also appears to be personal and unique to the a r t i s t . In summary, the exercise appears to have promoted the type of work intended i n the design. In this respect, the 91. exercise appears to be one worthy of testing within the class« room setting. Chapter 6 CONSULTATION MODE, A VERBAL DIARY FORM, A TIMETABLE PROPOSAL, FURTHER TOPICS FOR STUDY RELATED TO THE FOCUS Consultation Mode Findingst Throughout t h i s report the investigator has made detailed recommendations f o r the types of teacher- pupil i n t e r a c t i o n that might be useful to the students through- out various stages of the process. Within her own experience the writer found that consultation sessions engaged i n with two of her advisors generally focused around the following issues: 1. explanations of the representational counters i n terms of symbolic meaning and discussion of the focus selected, 2. discussion of technical approaches, 3. ways of increasing s o c i a l awareness, i i . discussion of the relevance of the painting t i t l e s , as expressive of the theme, 5. concern over s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , 6. concern f o r surface counters and the i r r e l a t i o n - ships, i . e . , q u a l i t i e s of l i n e , colour, form, text- ure, tone, etc., 92. 93. 7. concern f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between surface counters and representational counters, 8. discussion of working strategies, 9. discussion of s t y l i s t i c approach, 10. concerns f o r personal expression, and 11. judgmental discussions evolving around technical, l i t e r a l , and emotional q u a l i t i e s perceived within the works. While the consultation sessions covered a variety of topics and problems, i t i s the writer's b e l i e f that a teacher who has f i r s t experienced the exercise can anticipate the learning stages better and work to set up a more systematic examination of the processes and products during consultation sessions. While the consultations that the writer experienced were extremely h e l p f u l , they were s t i l l somewhat random i n the approach of both the writer and the advisors. More frequent and c r i t i c a l l y chosen periods would be advised. Recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n : I t i s the writer's b e l i e f that consultation sessions should be organized system- a t i c a l l y and that at each successive stage i n the learning process the teacher and student should focus upon d i f f e r e n t aspects of promoting the learner's movement p r o f i t a b l y through the task stages. I f the reader reacquaints himself with the process analysis and the recommendations for i n s t r u c t i o n , he w i l l have more of an understanding of these s t r a t e g i c a l nuances. 91+. The d i a r y approach o f r e c o r d i n g the l e a r n e r ' s work- i n g s t r a t e g i e s and r e a c t i o n s can form an i m p o r t a n t a d j u n c t t o such c o n s u l t a t i o n a c t i v i t y and can h e l p the t e a c h e r f o c u s on the l e a r n e r ' s concerns and attempted approaches. These comments s h o u l d n o t be e v a l u a t e d summatively, but s h o u l d form an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f the e x p e r i - ence. F o r these are sta t e m e n t s o f h i s c o n s c i o u s l e v e l o f awareness a t a g i v e n stage i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . The q u e s t i o n i s — c a n the t e a c h e r t h r o u g h d i s c o u r s e w i t h the s t u d - ent expand t h i s awareness and h e l p the s t u d e n t draw r e l a t i o n - s h i p s between the i n s i g h t s g a i n e d ? Such knowledge i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r t r a n s f e r t o new l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . A V e r b a l D i a r y Form T h i s s t u d y has h e l p e d the w r i t e r become aware o f those a r e a s w h i c h are s i g n i f i c a n t f o r r e c o r d i n g i n a v e r b a l d i a r y form. I t appears t h a t a more s y s t e m a t i c r e c o r d i n g mode of s t r a t e g i e s and r e a c t i o n s , than i s o r d i n a r i l y u sed by the a r t i s t , might be h e l p f u l i n h a s t e n i n g the growth o f awareness on the p a r t o f s t u d e n t s . P r e d e t e r m i n e d c a t e g o r i e s f o r o b s e r v a - t i o n might be h e l p f u l i n d i r e c t i n g the l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y from the s t a r t o f the e x e r c i s e and, l a t e r , such an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i d e a s and r e a c t i o n s may be more r e a d i l y u s ed i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the t e a c h e r . When combined w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t i n g a r t work, a s y s t e m a t i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t r a t e g i e s and r e a c t i o n s may form a f a i r l y comprehensive 95. description of the learning process that the student has undergone. Therefore, t h i s investigator has taken on the task of designing a verbal diary form for use by students undertaking environmental learning experiences. The follow- ing formula i s given as one suggestion for use i n similar tasks. Figure 26: A Reflective Verbal Diary Form Components of the A c t i v i t y to be Examined are: Comments 1. Working stage or strategy described 2. Location, date, time used 3. Aesthetic insights gained ij.. S ocial insights gained 5. Personal reactions highlighted 6. E f f e c t i v e product achievements • 7. Ineffective product r e s u l t s 8. Causal relationships perceived between a c t i v i t y and outcomes 9. New insights and d i r e c t i o n gained from consultation 96. The intention i s that the learners would write up the diary page at the conclusion of each working session. A r e f l e c t i v e analysis of the encounters would be recorded i n a conscious, verbal form. Then, the r e s u l t i n g art work and the verbal diary notations would be available for the i n s t i - gation of a planned consultation session. The diary form i s seen as being very useful when students are conducting i n - dependent environmental explorations apart from the teacher's scrutiny. Through the diary form the teacher can be f i l l e d i n on the student's a c t i v i t y during the period of absence. A Timetable Proposal Based on the r e s u l t i n g experience of the a r t i s t , a proposed timetable schedule has been drawn up as a very gen- er a l guideline of a time schedule of s u f f i c i e n t duration to complete a similar learning task. The artist-teacher i s evolving the plan around a three-hour per week school time schedule for the a c t i v i t y and i s expecting that the students would devote at least an equal quantity of their time to the work on an independent basis. Given these requirements the following timetable i s offered i n Table 2, following. 97. Table 2. A T i m e t a b l e P r o p o s a l P r o c e s s Stages D e f i n e d Average Time A l l o t m e n t 1 . H a l f a dozen o u t i n g s t o g a t h e r images 2-3 weeks 2. A s s e m b l i n g images g a t h e r e d i n t o v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s and con- t e m p l a t i n g the image p a t t e r n s e v e r a l days 3. D e v e l o p i n g i d e a s and f e e l i n g s t o e x p r e s s 1-2 weeks l i . Rough s k e t c h i n g o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l p l a n s 1-2 weeks 5. R e f i n i n g and f i n a l i z i n g drawings b e f o r e p a i n t i n g 2 weeks 6. U n d e r t a k i n g the p a i n t i n g s 1 week each Stages 3 and I4. may t e n d t o combine i n the w o r k i n g p r o c e s s . The a r t i s t - t e a c h e r e n v i s i o n s the c o m p l e t i o n o f the u n i t i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t h r e e t o f o u r month p e r i o d . The a r t i s t - t e a c h e r a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the s t u d e n t mayfnot work t h r o u g h these s t a g e s i n j u s t the same manner. S t u d e n t s may need t o back- t r a c k t o e a r l i e r s t a g e s i f s u f f i c i e n t p l a n n i n g has n o t been done t o p r e p a r e him f o r s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s . programme would t r y t o i n t e g r a t e the c o n s u l t a t i o n s e s s i o n s w i t h the p r e c e d i n g p l a n and t h a t the v e r b a l d i a r y f o r m u l a would g i v e the t e a c h e r a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e i d e a o f the p r o g r e s s each s t u d e n t i s making a l o n g the e x p e c t e d time continuum. A m i n i - mum o f a t l e a s t one c o n s u l t a t i o n s e s s i o n s h o u l d be p l a n n e d f o r I t i s assumed t h a t the a r t t e a c h e r c o n d u c t i n g such a 98. the conclusion of each of these working stages. I t i s to be expected that variations i n meeting the time allotments would vary with such factors as: the int e r e s t l e v e l and depth of involvement shown, student a b i l i t i e s and working rates, wea- ther conditions, etc. Further Topics for Study Related to the Focus While t h i s a r t i s t ' s focus narrowed around the play- ground and the evidence of role playing and the v i s u a l pres- ence of the l i f e - c y c l e , the same locale could be used to study a variety of other aspects of the playground environment. Other learning tasks could focus around such related themes as 1. a single aesthetic concept, i . e . , colour, texture, motion, l i g h t , etc., 2. the natural f l o r a and fauna and the i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the park, 3. the rel a t i o n s h i p between the man-made and natural elements of the park, i i . the rel a t i o n s h i p of the park to the rest of the community, 5. park styles and f a c i l i t i e s ; making v i s u a l and functional assessments, 6. seasonal differences as r e f l e c t e d i n the park, 7. uses people make of parks, 6. stages of human development as v i s i b l e i n the park, and 9« play as a child' s way of learning. Chapter 7 CONCLUSIONS T h i s study l e n d s s u p p o r t t o the v i e w p o i n t t h a t a t e a c h e r a t the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l w i l l l i k e l y be more e f f e c t - i v e , e mpathic, and t e c h n i c a l l y a b l e t o r e l a t e and t o gui d e h i s s t u d e n t s as! h i s p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are m a i n t a i n e d or expanded t h r o u g h s i m i l a r l e a r n i n g e n c o u n t e r s . The knowledge sought i n t h i s s tudy i s o f use i n d i r e c t i n g a s i m i l a r l e a r n - i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . The f i n d i n g s s h o u l d h e l p t o i d e n t i f y c o n t e n t f o r l e a r n i n g . The i n v e s t i g a t o r has attempted t o r e c o r d h e r a c t i v i - t i e s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , and r e a c t i o n s , t o a n a l y z e them and t o r e p o r t them i n an o r g a n i z e d form u s e f u l t o the t e a c h i n g comm- u n i t y . F i n d i n g s and recommendations f o r t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y have been o r g a n i z e d a l o n g a l e a r n i n g continuum model, so t h a t t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r i n g i m p l e m e n t i n g a s i m i l a r l e a r n i n g t a s k may f o c u s on the a p p r o p r i a t e concerns i n any g i v e n stage o f the l e a r n i n g t a s k . The i n v e s t i g a t o r has attempted t o r e p o r t the s e r i e s o f s t r a t e g i e s u n d e r t a k e n i n c o m p l e t i n g the t a s k i n the hopes o f more c l e a r l y d e f i n i n g the s o r t s o f a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s t h a t may be common t o the e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s way, a programme 99. 100. of i n s t r u c t i o n can be oriented to the needs of the learner within a p a r t i c u l a r stage of the a c t i v i t y . The o v e r a l l worth of the project should now be deter- mined by conducting a similar experiment with a high school group focusing on the implementation of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l recommendations drawn from the findings of this study. U n t i l that study i s done the present findings and subsequent recom- mendations can not be compared and judgments made regarding the educational value of the exercise to the student body. The d i r e c t i o n of future research required by t h i s study app- ears obvious. However, i n the investigator's personal experience i t was found that the exercise did help her, as an artist-teacher, reach the goals of the o r i g i n a l curriculum design, as stated in the introduction, the goals of: 1. heightening v i s u a l perception and awareness to aesthetic and s o c i a l phenomena within the urban environment, 2. increasing the degree of discrimination of aes- theti c q u a l i t i e s perceived within the environment and within the works of art created, and 3. stimulating the development and understanding of creative a b i l i t i e s through the experience of acquiring imagery created from the l o c a l , urban environment and using that im- agery i n the creation of works of art with a strong s o c i a l content. 101 FOOTNOTE REFERENCES 1Hugh W. Stumbo, "Three Bases f o r R e s e a r c h and T e a c h i n g i n the A r t s : S u b j e c t i v e , O b j e c t i v e , and P r o j e c t i v e , " c i t e d i n George Pappas, ed., Concepts i n A r t and E d u c a t i o n (London: C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n L t d . , 1970^, pp. 1+65-1+73. 2 ' A t t e n t i o n 1 i s used synonymously w i t h the word 'con- s c i o u s n e s s . ' Stumbo, p. 1+68. •^Stumbo, p. 1+68. ^"Stumbo, p. 1+71. ^Stumbo, p. 1+69. 6Stumbo, p. 1+69. •7 Stumbo, p. 1+71 . g Stumbo, p. 1+70. ^Stumbo, p. 1+6$. I 0 Stumbo, p. 1+66. I I Stumbo, p. 1+70. 1 2 Stumbo, p. 1+73. 1 ^ F r i e d r i c h S c h i l l e r c i t e d by R i c h a r d D a t t n e r A/A, d e s i g n f o r p l a y (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The MIT P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 1. 1^Suzanne L a n g e r , Problems i n A r t (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1 9 5 7 ) . 1 5 ^ L a n g e r , p. 1 13 . 16 L a n g e r , p. 9l+. 1 ^ M a n u e l Barkan, L a u r a H. Chapman, Evan J . K e r n , G u i d e l i n e s C u r r i c u l u m Development f o r A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n (CEMREL, I n c . , F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 5 0 . 18 L a n g e r , pp. 133-131+. 102. 9B. Othanel Smith, "The Logic of Teaching i n the Arts , " i n Ralph Smith, ed., Aesthetics and C r i t i c i s m i n Art Educa- tion (Chicago: Rahd McNally and Company, 1966), c i t e d by Gene M i t t l e r , "Experiences i n C r i t i c a l Inquiry: Approaches for Use i n the Art Methods Class," Art Education, Vol. 26, No. 2, February 1973, p. 18 . 2 0 M i t t l e r , p. 1 8 . 21 Edmund B. Feldman, Art as Image and Idea (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967), c i t e d by M i t t l e r , p. 18 . 2 2Monroe C. Beardsley, " C r i t i c a l Evaluation," c i t e d by Ralph Smith, ed., AestheticSr arid C r i t i c i s m i n Art Education (Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1966), pp. 315-331. 23 •^Beardsley, p. 323 . 2^Beardsley, p. 322. pel •^Genetic intentionalism refers to the intent of the a r t i s t i n creating the work. Aff e c t i v e reasoning ref e r s to the subjective l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g of a work. Neither reason alone, Beardsley judges, provides s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a c r i t i c a l value judgment. 103. APPENDIX AESTHETIC EXPLORATIONS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT An E d u c a t i o n 580 Study P r e s e n t e d t o the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , Graduate D i v i s i o n , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia I n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree M a s t e r o f A r t s J e a n e t t e L o u i s e Andrews A p r i l 1975 10b,. PREFACE Urban development has c r e a t e d a need f o r c i t i z e n s t o be a b l e t o c o n s i d e r a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r e n v i r o n - ment i n an educated manner, i f our c i t i e s a r e t o be humane p l a c e s f o s t e r i n g p r o d u c t i v e l i v i n g s t y l e s . What seems t o be needed i s a consensus o f v a l u e f o r the a e s t h e t i c s t a t e o f the environment and f o r the s o c i a l r o l e a r t f u l f i l l s i n s o c i e t y . The growing i d e o l o g y o f e c o l o g y needs t o be extended t o p r e - s e r v i n g and enhancing the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f the urban community. I f a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t o sponsor the development o f such awareness and v a l u i n g o f a e s t h e t i c s t o u r b a n l i f e , i t needs t o d e v e l o p i n t o i t s c u r r i c u l u m a program aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g a knowledge o f urban c o n s t r u c t s , as w e l l as f o s - t e r i n g the growth o f p e r c e p t u a l , d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , and c r e a - t i v e powers, so n e c e s s a r y i n d e a l i n g w i t h the environment i n an a r t i s t i c manner. In t h i s s t u d y , the a u t h o r has p r o - posed an a l t e r n a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n i n t e n d e d as a guide f o r secondary a r t t e a c h e r s c o n t e m p l a t i n g e x t e n d i n g the conc e r n f o r a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n t o the u r b a n environment. An attempt has been made t o e x p r e s s the a u t h o r ' s i d e o l o g y , as w e l l as t o p r e s e n t a s y s t e m a t i c approach f o r im p l e m e n t i n g such a program. Theory and methodology a r e s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y , g i v i n g the r e a d e r s p e c i f i c o u t l i n e s o f i i 1 0 5 . i i i s u b s t a n t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l and e v a l u a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r r o l e s . F i n a l l y , the a u t h o r o f f e r s a model t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g u n i t t o the r e a d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n and approach e n v i s i o n e d . The a u t h o r has drawn upon the work o f eminent educa- t o r s and a r t e d u c a t o r s t o i n f l u e n c e the d e s i g n o f the c u r r i c - ulum. However, i t i s the a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t t o p r e s e n t a com- p r e h e n s i v e and p r a c t i c a l d e s i g n t h a t can be implemented by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , y e t broad enough t o be m o d i f i e d t o meet the s p e c i f i c needs o f the s t u d e n t s and community con- c e r n e d . The a u t h o r would a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s s i n c e r e appre- c i a t i o n t o h e r a d v i s e r , Dr. James U. Gray, f o r h i s i n t e r e s t , c r i t i c i s m , artd e x p e r t g u i d a n c e , and e s p e c i a l l y f o r h i s encour- agement. F o r , w i t h o u t t h a t encouragement t h i s d e s i g n would never have r e a c h e d t h i s more f i n i s h e d form. I t i s hoped t h a t a r t t e a c h e r s w i l l f i n d t h i s c u r r i c - ulum p r o p o s a l r e l e v a n t and u s e f u l t o t h e i r needs and t o the needs o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s and t h e i r community. 106. TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter Page 1. INTRODUCTION: THE CHASM BETWEEN ACADEMIA AND THE,SECONDARY CLASSROOM ART TEACHER 1 DETECTION OF A PROBLEM. 1+ Oh, I f Only We C o u l d See a Host o f Golden D a f f o d i l s 1 2+ A New Concept o f A e s t h e t i c s I s Needed: A e s t h e t i c s As a F u n c t i o n a l Commodity..... 6 2. A PROPOSED SOLUTION „ 13 A e s t h e t i c and E n v i r o n m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n . . 13 An Approach t o C u r r i c u l u m D e s i g n 18 3. A PROPOSED DESIGN FOR URBAN AESTHETIC EDUCATION 22 A l i g n i n g A r t E d u c a t i o n W i t h G e n e r i c E d u c a t i o n a l Aims and G o a l s 22 S p e c i f i c O b j e c t i v e s C o n s i d e r e d . „ 23 C u r r i c u l u m Content 21+ B e h a v i o r a l O b j e c t i v e s S t a t e d . . . . . 35 The R o l e o f the S t u d e n t . . i+3 The R o l e o f the Teacher 1+7 A G e n e r a l Statement o f Method 1+9 S p e c i f i c S t r u c t u r i n g Modes: S t r a t e g i e s and C o n s t r a i n t s 65 1+. IMPLEMENTING A TEACHING-LEARNING UNIT 71 B e h a v i o r a l O b j e c t i v e s H i g h l i g h t e d i n the U n i t 71 The T e a c h i n g - L e a r n i n g U n i t D e s c r i b e d 7k- E v a l u a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s as R e l a t e d t o Content and B e h a v i o r a l E x p e c t a t i o n s 78 i v 1 07. v Page WEAKNESSES FORESEEN IN THE CURRICULUM DESIGN 83 CONCLUSION 83 108. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION: THE CHASM BETWEEN ACADEMIA AND THE SECONDARY CLASSROOM ART TEACHER During the past decade discontentment with the di r e c t i o n of art education has been raised by a number of art educators at the academic, t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l . A search i s being conducted for v a l i d and accountable goals for art education. Through the work of CEMREL (Central Midwestern Regional Education Laboratory) i n St. Louis attention has been directed towards aesthetic education as a preparation for contemporary l i f e . In addition, other directions have been suggested by academics. As Vincent Lanier writes i n "A Plague On A l l Your Houses: The Tragedy of Art Education," ...the a r t curriculum of the public school class s t i l l remained almost completely studio, despite some experimentation i n i n d i v i d u a l schools and d i s - t r i c t s and the wealth of new ideas such as aesthetic education, v i s u a l l i t e r a c y , environmental design, structured and sequenced a rt content, re l a t e d arts, humanities, and f i l m arts which were written about and Jalked about by (mostly college faculty) people • • • • This i s not to say that studio-oriented courses do not provide some educational benefits. But, the worth of alternate programs i s la r g e l y untested within the public school system and the additional benefits that these programs could o f f e r are l a r g e l y being ignored. 1 0 9 . 2 Obviously, a gap exists between the theorists and the p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Now l e t us postulate the causes of such a hiatus within the f i e l d . Disagreement as to d i r e c t i o n exists even among the t h e o r i s t s . Added to t h i s problem, i s the f a i l u r e of many theorists to carry t h e i r expressions beyond generalizations or goal-oriented terms. They often f a i l to provide the reader with the needed structure f o r implementation or testing of t h e i r theories. Many alternate programs have not been implemented due to a lack of c l a r i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y of recommendations. And too, there i s a tendency among many classroom teachers to perpetuate older and tested programs whose outcomes may no longer be even p a r t i a l l y relevant to today's world. Further problems exi s t along the l i n e s of communication. Teacher t r a i n i n g and i n - service programs often f a i l to develop i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s the needed s k i l l s and knowledge to bring about e f f e c t i v e curriculum development and reform. I f systematic and general curriculum reform i s to occur there i s a need for academics and classroom teachers "to meet on the same ground" and to be able to plan co-operatively the future directions of art education. Only when t h i s communion occurs w i l l changes r e s u l t generally at the classroom l e v e l and the chasm be closed. And t h i s requires modifications of concerns, s k i l l s , and a c t i v i t i e s of each group to bridge t h i s increasingly wider chasm. In the following pages, the author w i l l attempt to present a personal philosophy r e l a t e d to a new alternate 110. 3 d i r e c t i o n for art education, to state the general goals and s p e c i f i c objectives of such a curriculum, and then, to o f f e r suggestions of teaching-learning strategies to implement and evaluate the attainment of such objectives. As the proposal has not yet been tested i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n , weaknesses or d i f f i c u l t i e s i n implementing such a program can only be anticipated at t h i s point. I t i s the author's intention to conduct such an experiment i n the near future. Meanwhile, one can only hypothesize that: the more systematic and planned an approach one designs, the more l i k e l y the desired outcomes w i l l be achieved i n some measure, i n contrast to what i s probable i f philosophy, objectives, and methods are of a nebulous q u a l i t y and growth i s l e f t to the natural system of maturation. As Vincent Lanier suggests i n Teaching Secondary Art, a book of methodology, there are f i v e minimal components of the t o t a l teaching process. In order for learning to occur there must be the following components: 1. an aim or aims, 2. subject matter involving knowledge, s k i l l s , or attitudes, 3. the students' i n t e r e s t must be aroused or motivated, Ii. a sequence of presentation and a c t i v i t y , and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of students, and 5. a manner of evaluating or measuring the e f f e c t i v e - ness of the program i n the l i g h t of the aims. 2 111. l+ The author w i l l endeavour to deal with these components i n the following curriculum design. DETECTION OP A PROBLEM Oh, I f Only We Could See a Ho3t of Golden Daf f o d i l s! With the f i r s t f e e l i n g of spring most people are prone to draw about them some signs of the new season. I have often brought a vase of d a f f o d i l s into my classroom i n ant i c i p a t i o n of the proximity of spring. I have watched young children draw near to inhale through th e i r senses of sight, smell, and touch the q u a l i t i e s offered by the spring bouquet. Have you ever t r i e d to share that experience with a child? We a l l try to use just such an experience to capture a mood, which w i l l stimulate our imagination or a c t i v i t y or which w i l l perhaps provide a respi t e from our present work. Look again at those d a f f o d i l s standing motion- l e s s and confined within the vase. Where i s the gentle swaying? Where are the grassy f i e l d s ? How often as teachers do we try to bring to our students some r e a l object from that environment "out there" i n the hopes that we might be able to convey to them concepts of the r e a l world? How often do we only t e l l them about the world out there? How much of the world cannot be brought adequately into the classroom? How often do we contrive learning experiences that somehow f a l l short of the " r e a l experience" that can be had beyond our four walls? A daf- f o d i l removed from i t s natural setting can never convey i t s 112. 5 t o t a l q u a l i t i e s and i t s complex r e l a t i o n s h i p with i t s environment. Too often i n our contrived and a r t i f i c i a l setting, students learn facts about things, but are denied the experience of discovering the r e a l and complex r e l a t i o n - ships of things to one another. "The community i s the chi l d ' s home, but despite that f a c t , they often know very l i t t l e about i t . " ^ When are we going to make the world v i s i b l e to the young? And yet, we purport to be preparing the youth "to take t h e i r place i n the world." Education has been thought of as taking place mainly within the confines of the classroom.... However, the most extensive f a c i l i t y imaginable for learning i s our urban environment. It i s a classroom without w a l l s . . . o f f e r i n g a boundless curriculum with unlimited expertise. I f we can make our urban environment comprehensible and observable, we w i l l have created classrooms with endless windows on the world. If the subjects of the curriculum are intended i n some way to introduce students to the s o c i a l world and i t s way of looking at things, then i t i s highly improbable that very much can be accomplished unless ©ne leaves the school. The world i s so complex, r i c h , and varied that no school can d u p l i - cate i t . The expertise available i n the c i t y i s so exact and spe c i a l i z e d that teachers could not compete with the professionals i n the f i e l d . More- over, the l i f e of the c i t y , i t s excitement and i t s rhythm, provide an i r r e s i s t i b l e a t t r a c t i o n to children....1 think we have to accept the fac t that schools are finding students l e s s and less motivated • within the schools because the stimulation of the school i s so much less than that of the c i t y , of the i r l i v e s outside. And as Louis E. Raths expressed i n hi s book Teaching For Learning, one of the major goals of education i s "...to r e l a t e the l i f e of the community to the work of the school, and that of the school to the community...."^ i f t h i s were 113. 6 the case, both the student and the community could change and grow. However, such development i s dependent upon actual i n t e r a c t i o n between the human and physical elements of the environment and upon the understanding that i s acquired through such experiences. A more integrated r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and his environment could be r e a l i z e d . L i t t l e opportunity i s provided i n the school curriculum for the student to explore and to discover h i s own unique and c o l l e c - tive relationships to his world. When can he come to know that interdependence between himself and the environment? There i s a need for the young to get to know themselves and to know themselves i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r environment, to over- come a growing s o c i a l trend of a l i e n a t i o n . There i s no difference i n kind between man at the f r o n t i e r and the young student at h i s own f r o n t i e r , each attempting to understand. Let the educational process be l i f e i t s e l f as f u l l y as we can make i t . ' A New Concept of Aesthetics Is Needed; Aesthetics As a Functional Commodity ...art may be described as an a c t i v i t y which a makes our environment more emotionally e f f i c i e n t . This p r i n c i p l e i s frequently lacking i n our Twentieth Century communities. With the development of the i n d u s t r i a l age, and the subsequent technological age, an unnatural d i v i s i o n has occurred between art and l i f e . "The d i v i s i o n of 'art and l i f e has meant that the v i s u a l arts have been placed outside the mainstream of l i f e and th e i r most basic values have been dis t o r t e d . " ^ 1 1 1 4 . . 7 Our large urban communities lack the organic har- monies and balances of nature. They have become mechanistic and constantly f a i l to provide the organic r e l a t i o n s h i p s that the human organism needs to survive and to f l o u r i s h . As Doris Marie Carter writes i n her a r t i c l e , "The use of v i s i o n as the primary mode of perception i n the teaching of environmental education:" The q u a l i t y of the American environment i s deteriorating at a rapid pace. One of the most ominous threats to the death of the environment l i e s i n man's f a i l u r e to provide human and sensory s o l u t i o n s Q t o the spread of uncontrolled techno-science. Over the past few decades there has been a growing awareness of the detrimental effects man i s having upon the environment and a re-appraisal of man.fs methods of dealing with environmental and community concerns. Most people are well-aware that we are using up or destroying our natural resources and that we are creating "concrete jungles" out of our c i t i e s . We are becoming increasingly aware thsit the environment and human beings cannot withstand these abuses forever, i n the name of "progress." The general populace would now la r g e l y agree with the ecologists who stress conservation of the natural resources. After a l l , the indiscriminate use of our resources could lead to the curtailment of many human a c t i v i t i e s and could ultimately r e s u l t i n human a f f l i c t i o n or extinction. For example, the present f u e l shortage has already r e s t r i c t e d t r a v e l , the hours of business and production, and the heating 1 1 5 . 8 of domestic dwellings, i n some parts of the world. Such eff e c t s are immediately recognized and measures are taken to remedy the problems. Par fewer people concern themselves with the ef f e c t s of sensory pollutants upon the physical, mental, and emotion- a l states of human beings and upon our capacity for function- ing from day to day. The effi c i e n c y : of human thinking and action can be greatly modified by the aesthetic q u a l i t i e s of the environment, i n which we are obliged to exis t and l i v e . ...human personality i s fed and nurtured by the qua l i t y of i t s environment. S i m i l a r l y , the aesthetic qu a l i t y of the environment i s the basis from which subsequent responses to art are made. Thus the qual i t y of a people's art i s enhanced or i n h i b i t e d by the aesthetic nurturing they receive. I f the human organism i s to become stimulated to think, rather than to become distracted, confused, or distressed by the sensory messages i t receives from the environment, surely the l e v e l of human behavior and accomplishment w i l l be rai s e d . Pew people today appreciate th i s view of aesthetics as an u t i l i t a r i a n or functional commodity. When the aesthetic q u a l i t i e s of our environment become debased and our senses become bombarded, we decry i t as a " p i t y " and anaesthetize our senses against the onslaught. In thi s way, our experi- ences work as depressants rather than as stimulants to pro- ductive thinking and to human development. In e a r l i e r cultures "art was not yet a means, as i t i s now, to step out of the routine of everyday l i f e to pass some moments i n contemplation; i t had to be enjoyed as an 116. ' 9 element o f l i f e i t s e l f , as an e x p r e s s i o n o f l i f e ' s s i g n i f - 12 i c a n c e . " More r e c e n t l y , a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s have become view e d as e n r i c h i n g , b u t r a t h e r e x t r a n e o u s - - r a t h e r t h a n as b a s i c and f u n c t i o n a l t o human e x i s t e n c e . We now l a r g e l y a s s o c i a t e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the v i s u a l and p e r f o r m - i n g a r t s , w h i l e i g n o r i n g the q u a l i t i e s and v a l u e s d f exper- i e n c e s a t t a i n a b l e from our everyday i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e environment. We have seen how a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s have t a k e n a " b a c k - s e a t " i n a l o n g row o f p r i o r i t i e s towards human advancement v i a t e c h n o l o g y . " A l t h o u g h a r t o f f e r s the c l u e to many o f our t r o u b l e s i t i s c o n s i d e r e d i r r e l e v a n t compared 13 t o t e c h n o l o g y . " A c o n c e r n f o r the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f the e n v i r o n - ment and t h e i r e f f e c t s upon human s t a t e s o f b e i n g i s a r e c e n t development. S c i e n t i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s have begun t o r e s e a r c h the e f f e c t s o f s e n s o r y p o l l u t a n t s upon human e f f i - c i e n c y . As June McPee s t a t e s "...a l a c k o f a r t may be o f g r e a t e r consequence than a l a c k o f t e c h n o l o g y , l e a d i n g to d e f i c i e n c i e s and d i s e a s e s whose p a t h o l o g y i s s t i l l imper- f e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d . " ^ " There i s a l s o a growing e x p e r t i s e i n the a r e a o f town p l a n n i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r e . I n th e s e f i e l d s , more p e o p l e are showing c o n c e r n f o r the human c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the d e v e l - opment and t h e r e n e w a l o f the u r b a n s e t t i n g . And governments are now t a k i n g measures t o s a f e g u a r d more o f our n a t u r a l environment. But t h i s e v o l u t i o n i s o c c u r r i n g v e r y s l o w l y , and 11 1 u n t i l now, t h i s concern f o r aesthetic values has been the battle of a few individ u a l s against the forces of techno- l o g i c a l progress and of human ignorance or apathy. What i s - needed i s a wider recognition and valuing of the aesthetic q u a l i t i e s of the environment on the part of the general populace. Community concern i s a powerful force i n any f i g h t f or change. General awareness of thi s problem w i l l eventually come when the e f f e c t s are more strongly f e l t . However, the author believes that the time i s ripe to increase s o c i a l awareness for aesthetic q u a l i t i e s within the community. We are presently more conservation minded and we have the technical "know how" to adapt our knowledge and s k i l l s towards human ends. Surely now we should look towards the humanization of the urban environment and a concern f o r the qua l i t y of experience that i s had by a l l people. We need to create a more compatible environment for human development. To accomplish t h i s goal, the author believes, we need to expose a new concept--or revive and old one--of aesthetics. Then, perhaps, we can benefit from art i n two ways; "...as i t influences our environment and as i t serves as s o c i a l communication. ""^ The need for aesthetic l i t e r a c y — d e v e l o p e d powers of perception and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n — c a n be supported on the grounds of two more recent developments, as well. Where independent choice can be exercised by consumers, there i s a need fo r c i t i z e n s to observe d i s c r e t i o n i n the i r consuming 118. 11 habits of mass media and of products designed for sale. In contemporary society, nonverbal symbols are used to transmit ideas; express q u a l i t i e s , f e e l i n g s , and emotions; note varied rank, status, and s o c i a l r o l e s ; and to persuade changes i n behavior and decision-making. Advertising, package design, pub- l i s h i n g layout, clothing and jewelry, furniture and household accessories, motels, drive-ins, amusement centers, housing, business buildings, main streets, and c i t i e s a l l communicate values and ideas depend- ing upon the q u a l i t y of both the symbolism used and the design. Mass media extend t h i s communication m u l t i f o l d . Education f o r c r i t i c a l evaluation of t h i s vast impact of nonverbal v i s u a l communication i s d r a s t i c a l l y needed unless we are w i l l i n g to i g - nore i t s impact on the u n c r i t i c a l viewer. For too long we have been concerned primarily with the material needs of man and have v i r t u a l l y forgotten the higher q u a l i t i e s of l i f e and the non-material needs of human beings. Once basic physical needs are recognized Abraham Maslow's concept of " s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " gains importance as a human need. Now the machine i s freeing vast numbers fo r l e i s u r e that have n e i t h e r , c u l t u r a l pattern nor c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g to use. ' I f l e i s u r e i s to be permanently enriching, one needs to have a knowledge of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for human involvement and endeavour and to have the a b i l i t y to make discriminative choices of a c t i v i t y . Therefore, i t appears that f o r reasons of human ecology, consumer awareness, and f o r the impending prospect of increases i n l e i s u r e time, a need f o r aesthetic education i s gaining importance. In presenting solutions to the foregoing circumstances i t seems apparent that there i s a need for art educators to 119. 1 2 deal with the following concerns: 1 . finding a way of aligning art educational objec- t i v e s with generic educational aims and goals, to form a relevant and integrated learning pattern; 2 . i n turn, that a relevant educational approach w i l l deal with urban l i v i n g problems and, therefore, provide a bridge from childhood to adult r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the environment; and 3. that art education w i l l provide a program that w i l l foster the development of an understanding of concepts and the development of s k i l l s to deal with the urban environ- ment from an aesthetic stance. 120. Chapter 2 A PROPOSED SOLUTION A e s t h e t i c and E n v i r o n m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n The c h a l l e n g e has been p r e s e n t e d t o e d u c a t i o n . There was a time i n the h i s t o r y o f the c i t y when the power t o shape i t was the p r e r o g a t i v e o f the few. Now, w i t h i n the framework o f the v a r i o u s forms o f democracy, sound p l a n n i n g f o r the c i t y ' s p r e s e n t and f u t u r e can o n l y p r o c e e d i f t h e r e i s s t r o n g p u b l i c i n i t i a t i o n o f , and s u p p o r t f o r , e n l i g h t e n e d p o l i c i e s . But t h i s i n t u r n presupposes an i n f o r m e d and p a r t i c i p a t i n g e l e c t o r a t e t h a t i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e what he wants, and t o a r t i c u l a t e i t s a s p i r a t i o n s ; such an e l e c t o r a t e must be p r e - p a r e d t o t a k e p a r t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n o r d e r t o p l a y t h i s r o l e , the c i t i z e n must have t o o l s — i n f o r m a t i o n , knowledge, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and a d e s i r e t o be i n v o l v e d . The t e a c h e r i s the v i t a l l i n k i n t h e o p r o c e s s . Urban e d u c a t i o n i s the v i t a l d i m e n s i o n . E d u c a t i o n has been slow t o a d j u s t i t s e l f t o the demands and c o n d i t i o n s o f the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . The e x i s t - i n g system has f a i l e d t o e q u i p the young t o d e a l w i t h the p r e s e n t p r o b l e m s . E d u c a t i o n , i n g e n e r a l , has i n c r e a s e d the d i v i s i o n between a r t and l i f e by s t r e s s i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h l y v e r b a l , r a t i o n a l approach t o l e a r n i n g . V i s u a l and s e n s o r y e d u c a t i o n has been n e g l e c t e d , a t r o p h y i n g n o n - v e r b a l , i n t u i t i v e powers. We a r e n e g l e c t i n g the g i f t o f comprehending t h i n g s by what our senses t e l l us about them. Concept i s s p l i t from p e r c e p t , and thought moves among a b s t r a c t i o n s . Our eyes are b e i n g r e d u c e d t o i n s t r u m e n t s by w h i c h to measure and t o i d e n t i f y — 13 121 . Ik hence a dearth of ideas that can be expressed i n images and an incapacity to discover meaning i n what we see. Naturally we f e e l l o s t i n the pre- sence of objects that make sense only to undiluted v i s i o n , and we l<j>8k ? or help to the more f a m i l i a r medium of words. If from an environment point of view the lack of v i s u a l education has proved disastrous i t has wider implications than most people r e a l i z e . I t almost 2gertainly a f f e c t s c r e a t i v i t y i n a general sense. Art education has l a r g e l y been s a t i s f i e d with and even accommodated the d i v i s i o n between art and l i f e . For too long, art education programs have stressed only s e l f - expression and creative growth i n the p l a s t i c a r t s . There has been a general f a i l u r e i n promotion awareness of aesthet- i c s i n everyday l i f e situations; within the environmental design; and i n developing an awareness and appreciation of man's continuity with the past through art h i s t o r y studies. We have done l i t t l e to consider preserving and advancing humanity through the aesthetic preservation and development of man's natural and man-made environment. We cannot allow people to grow up as v i s u a l and aesthetic i l l i t e r a t e s and expect them to be aware of the i r aesthetic r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s as c i t i z e n s . We can hold greater hope for the survival and devel- opment of our c i v i l i z a t i o n through the heightening of per- ceptual awareness, discrimination, and creative powers of our future c i t i z e n s . It (open education) recognizes the dual r o l e art plays i n the classroom, that of s e n s i t i z i n g children's awareness to form and expression as •aesthetic values and also that of c l a r i f y i n g and 122. enriching a l l comprehension which may evolve from v i s u a l thinking. Thus art education i s seen est- abli s h i n g a basis for v i s u a l l i t e r a c y , c r i t i c a l 22 thinking, and the i n t r i n s i c appreciation of beauty. In developing perception "...the images developed w i l l l a r g e l y 23 condition the response and the measure of concern." In the development of the image, education i n seeing w i l l be quite as important as the reshaping of what i s seen. Indeed, they together form a c i r c u l a r , or hopefully a s p i r a l , process: v i s u a l education impelling the c i t i z e n to act upon h i s v i s u a l world, and t h i s action causing him to see even more acutely. ALftighly developed art of urban design i s linked to the creation of a c r i t i c - a l and attentive audience. I f art and audience grow together, then our c i t i e s w i l l be a source o|. d a i l y enjoyment to m i l l i o n s of their inhabitants. ^ The degree to which people can respond aesthet- i c a l l y and cognitively to a r t i s t i c communication depends upon the amount of information they have learned to use and the extent of the comparative understanding of a r t i s t i c symbolization and structure which they have developed. We have recently seen the emergence of new programs of environmental studies, with an emphasis upon knowing the elements and operations of the urban community and upon the conservation of the natural environment. This approach has proved valuable i n exposing children and students a l i k e to the complex relationships that exist i n th e i r l o c a l setting, and to a broader understanding of what the earth can support. They have acquired knowledge of natural phenomena, of c u l - t u r a l and ethnic differences, and of p o l i t i c a l and economic processes. They have often been exposed to c u l t u r a l programs and arts and c r a f t s programs offered within t h e i r community. However, f a r too l i t t l e emphasis, i t appears, has been placed upon the development of aesthetic awareness and 1 2 3 . 16 d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n e i t h e r a r t o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n programs. I n the s c h o o l s , c a r e f o r the p h y s i c a l - v i s u a l environment has n o t been handed down as a way o f l i f e . As a r e s u l t , n o t o n l y has a g e n e r a t i o n o f a d u l t s been spawned who show a c a l l o u s n e s s toward t h e i r p h y s i c a l environment, but most i m p o r t a n t t h e r e are few e d u c a t o r s p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h e n v i r o n - m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t s . . . f e w s c h o o l s p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t i n s t r u c t i o n i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the a l l - o v e r e n v i r o n - ment, and t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e l a c k ^ o f w e l l - c o n c e i v e d m a t e r i a l on the c o l l e g e l e v e l . As D o r i s M a r i e C a r t e r goes on t o w r i t e : . . . i f a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t o have meaning i n the f u t u r e c u r r i c u l u m i t must c o n c e n t r a t e on the q u a l - i t y o f the f u t u r e environment, i t must d e v e l o p a b r o a d e r awareness o f i t s r o l e t o make man- c e n t e r e d , g l o b a l , and f u l l o f human j o y . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s end, the a u t h o r b e l i e v e s we need t o i n i - t i a t e a c u r r i c u l u m o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n , w i t h a g r e a t e r c o n c e r n f o r p r o m o t i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the a e s t h e t i c commodity. Of i n t e r e s t i s the f a c t t h a t , w h i l e t h i s concept i s not a l t o g e t h e r o r i g i n a l , few a r t edu- c a t o r s have p r a c t i c a l l y p l a n n e d and implemented an e x t e n s i v e program o f a e s t h e t i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s a t e i t h e r the e l e m e n t a r y o r secondary l e v e l . Moreover,/ few t e a c h e r s are a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d t o f u n c t i o n i n such a s e t t i n g . We a r e p r e s e n t l y i n a p i o n e e r s t a g e , w h i c h r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l y more i n v o l v e m e n t on the p a r t o f a r t t e a c h e r s . I n programs o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s , p e r c e p t i o n i s f o c u s e d upon p r a c t i c a l phenomena and p r o c e s s e s r e l a t e d t o e c o l o g y and t o b u s i n e s s and s o c i a l o p e r a t i o n s . W h i l e these s t u d i e s a r e v a l u a b l e , we s h o u l d n o t n e g l e c t the a p p e a l and 1 2I4-. 17 growth offered from the exploration of the environmental aesthetic q u a l i t i e s , with a conscious intent of sensory awareness. For through a sensitive and thoughtful approach to one's environment valuable knowledge can be acquired, as well as emotional enrichment had from a quality aesthetic experience. As John Dewey wrote: Everything depends upon the quality of the exper- ience which i s had. The qu a l i t y of any experience has two aspects. There i s an immediate aspect of agreeableness or disagreeablenes^g and there i s i t s influence upon l a t e r experience. From such experiences one can acquire a knowledge of such environmental features as the design elements of both man= made and natural phenomena and a knowledge of the complex in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these elements. Gradually, one's concepts of t o t a l i t y and u n i v e r s a l i t y w i l l develop. Such insights may better able one to make comparative judgments and decisions concerning the q u a l i t i e s of the environment,;, which one wishes to conserve or change. Such awareness can also provide the "springboard" to creative v i s i o n and a c t i v i t y . Moreover, one may discover one's re l a t i o n s h i p to the environ- ment, become a more in t e g r a l part of i t , and develop the s k i l l s to use the environment and one's past experiences as an "image bank" for creative expression. The author believes that solutions to our problems cannot be envisioned u n t i l we adequately "know" our environment—both i t s assets and i t s l i a b i l i t i e s . Then, we might ponder upon p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Before delineating the author's s p e c i f i c curriculum design, a b r i e f summary of general philosophical approach to 1 2 5 . 18 curriculum design w i l l be presented i n the next section. An Approach to Curriculum Design The writer cannot support the stand taken by some educators that behavioral objectives are paramount i n import- ance. Along with the development of s k i l l s , the breadth and depth of content i s of v i t a l importance. There must be a concern for what i s being responded to, as well as the responses that are generated. The c r i t i c a l blending of content and behavioral objectives to form a sequential h i e r - archy of learning experiences i s also stressed i n the writ- ings of Hilda Taba. 2 9 Hilda Taba's emphasis i n curriculum design i s a comprehensive view of learning. She c i t e s a. broad range of educational objectives, from content objectives through behavioral ones. These objectives are organized under the following categories: 1. knowledge, 2. cognitive s k i l l s , 3. academic and groups s k i l l s , and i i . attitudes and f e e l i n g s . It i s her b e l i e f that learning situations should e l i c i t growth i n a variety of behavioral objectives—concept forma- tion, v a l u e . c l a r i f i c a t i o n , and divergent s k i l l s — w h i c h may occur multidimensionally i n a lesson u n i t . She also stresses that objectives occur i n d i f f e r e n t degrees of complexity and that they form a developmental sequence or hierarchy for at- 126. 19 t a i n m e n t . However, w h i l e she p r e s e n t s a l o g i c a l sequence f o r • 'ST- concept d e v e l o p m e n t , s h e has n o t been a b l e t o p r e s e n t such a l o g i c a l h i e r a r c h y o f a t t a i n m e n t f o r o b j e c t i v e s i n the c r e a - t i v e o r a f f e c t i v e domains. She does, however, encourage the p r i n c i p l e s o f d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g and v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n . I n terms o f l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y , she s u p p o r t s a c t i v e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s employing an i n q u i r y method, a l l o w i n g f o r as much autonomous s t u d e n t - d i r e c t e d s t r a t e g y as p o s s i b l e . Open-ended e x p e r i e n c e s are f a v o u r e d a l l o w i n g f o r h e t e r o g e n e - i t y o f r e s p o n s e s and l e v e l s o f a c t i v i t y a c c o r d i n g t o the s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y , e x p e r i e n c e , and background. A l l s t r a t e - g i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l and e v a l u a t i v e , are based on a sound r a t i o n a l e and s e t o f l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s upon t h i s g e n e r a l base, t h a t the a u t h o r has modeled the c u r r i c u l u m p r o p o s a l . I n a d d i t i o n t o H i l d a Taba's c u r r i c u l u m development g u i d e , the a u t h o r has f o u n d the work o f M i c h a e l Day and o f E l l i o t E i s n e r o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e i n d e s i g n i n g the p r o - p o s a l . M i c h a e l Day p r e s e n t s a s i m i l a r l e a r n i n g h i e r a r c h y d e s i g n e d towards the a t t a i n m e n t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n g o a l s . He o u t l i n e s t h r e e phases o f i n s t r u c t i o n , accompanied by d i f f e r - i n g e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s . These phases h e l p t o c l a r i f y and to s i m p l i f y the m u l t i t u d e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s i n t o a c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence and h i e r a r c h y . T h i s model has g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n , but i s n o t an a b s o l u t e . I t i s n o t Day's i n t e n t f o r the model t o be r i g i d l y a dhered t o . The phases a r e as f o l l o w s : 3 0 127. 20 1. phase of exploration During t h i s phase of experimentation the i n t u i t i v e i s highlighted. D e f i n i t e directions or assignments are not made. No demonstrable s k i l l s or products are required f o r evaluation at t h i s point. 2. stage of p r e c i s i o n This i s the phase of greatest teacher d i r e c t i o n . During t h i s period s p e c i f i c performance c r i t e r i a are assign- ed. S k i l l s should be developed and demonstrated and assign- ments f u l f i l l e d . 3. stage of generalization Students work the i r most independently during t h i s phase. The objective i s to c l a s s i f y ideas and techniques acquired i n the previous phases and to use them fo r expres- sive objectives. The teacher's r o l e being to act as "... a consultant and c r i t i c to a s s i s t students with the formula- t i o n and expression of t h e i r own ideas."-* 1 E l l i o t Eisner supports the emphasis on behavioral objectives, e s p e c i a l l y those of an expressive nature. He also categorizes objectives into productive, c r i t i c a l , and h i s t o r i c a l realms of a r t i s t i c learning, with each s i t u a t i o n requiring unique i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches and appropriate means of evaluation. It seems apparent that content and behavioral objec- t i v e s must assume a balance within the curriculum. In sub- sequent sections of t h i s proposal the program objectives w i l l be outlined and, then, i n s t r u c t i o n a l and evaluative strategies 128. 2 1 indicated to implement the attainment of such objectives. 129 Chapter 3 A PROPOSED DESIGN FOR URBAN AESTHETIC EDUCATION Aligning Art Education With Generic Educational Aims and Goals 32 Contrary to Vincent Lanier's b e l i e f ^ the author believes that art education can be related to the central issues of education—".. .tlae development of those concepts and s k i l l s necessary to understand and a l t e r society." J Through the development of an understanding and appreciation of the s o c i a l role of aesthetics and art forms i n contempor- ary l i f e , a case can be b u i l t for the advancement of aesthe- t i c considerations i n environmental planning. In addition, cer t a i n basic s k i l l s are required to promote e f f e c t i v e l y t h i s kind of involvement. They are: the a b i l i t i e s to con- ceptualize, discriminate, form values and attitudes, and f i n d creative solutions and p r a c t i c a l procedures f o r imple- menting those solutions. The writer believes that art education can play a supportive and i n t e g r a l r o l e i n coming to grips with s o c i a l change. The interdependences between art , man, and the environment can be examined to ascertain the contribution and place that art does and could play amongst the scheme of s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l elements. By including the examination of such overarching concepts as change, interdependence, c u l t u r a l differences, 22 130. 23 l i f e s t y l e s , o r d e r , and communication, a r t e d u c a t i o n can a l i g n i t s e l f w i t h major e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c s , b u t a t the same time can expose th e u n i q u e s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f a e s t h e t i c s w i t h i n our environment. A r t e d u c a t i o n can a l s o a l i g n i t s e l f t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree w i t h the a t t a i n m e n t o f g e n e r i c b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n a l l a r e a s — c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and p s ycho- motor. Through such an approach a r t e d u c a t i o n can abandon i t s p r e s e n t p e r i p h e r a l p o s i t i o n f o r one more i n t e g r a l w i t h g e n e r i c e d u c a t i o n a l a i m s ^ " and t o one more germane t o con- temporary l i f e . S p e c i f i c O b j e c t i v e s C o n s i d e r e d A c o n c u r r e n t development o f c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , psychomotor, w o r k i n g , and s o c i a l s k i l l s i s r e q u i r e d f o r the development o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and i n d u s t r i o u s c i t i z e n s . C o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e l e v e l s cannot be s e p a r a t e d i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . P e r c e p t u a l and a p p r e c i a t i v e g r o w t h must be d e v e l - oped s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I n a r t e x p e r i e n c e the t o t a l o r g a n i s m i s i n v o l v e d , p r o v i d i n g growth on a f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d b a s i s . Sensory e x p e r i e n c e i s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l and meanings can be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h s y n a e s t h e t i c p e r c e p t i o n — s i m u l t a n e o u s , c r o s s - s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n — i n t u i t i v e l y a c h i e v e d and t o t a l l y 35 i n t e g r a t e d . As H i l d a Taba s u g g e s t s , f o r l e a r n i n g o r growth t o o c c u r the c u r r i c u l u m must i n v o l v e knowledges, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s . She c l a s s i f i e s o b j e c t i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , under the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : 131. 1. knowledges - content, 2. s k i l l s - cognitive, psychomotor, working habits, and s o c i a l s k i l l s , and 3. attitudes - a f f e c t i v e . The author, too, has used t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n stating the objectives. The s p e c i f i c content objectives have been out- l i n e d l a t e r with d i s t i n c t i o n s made between overarching con- cepts, ideas and topics for study, and sampling of f a c t u a l data suggested. The author has also c l a s s i f i e d and d e l i n - eated s k i l l and attitude objectives i n behavioral terminology i n an e f f o r t to provide a clearer and more orderly focus f o r consideration and use. Curriculum Content Vincent Lanier advocates an i n i t i a l focus on •i.areas i n which the adolescent comes into contact with the v i s u a l arts i n h i s d a i l y exper- ience. Starting with the student's home and t e l e - v i s i o n and f i l m s , and broadening out i n ever- widening c i r c l e s to include art i n the t o t a l com- munity, content can be organized i n clusters of projects i n each or some of these areas. This method has, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , the greatest p o t e n t i a l for arousing the i n t e r e s t of the student. b I t would seem reasonable to predict that learning can be f a c - i l i t a t e d and accelerated by focusing upon the development of a greater understanding and appreciation of what i s already f a m i l i a r : the l o c a l e and phenomena one regu l a r l y interacts with. Therefore the content of study would vary from school to school and would be determined by the opportunities a v a i l - able i n the immediate proximity of the school. Mass media 1 3 2 . 25 and the community already influence the student i n an unsched- uled or uncontrolled way. The endeavour i n t h i s program i s to harness the pot e n t i a l of the community for more planned educational outcomes. Content opportunities must also be researched and evaluated by the teacher i n advance of the learning period, i f the teacher i s to adequately structure a q u a l i t y learning s i t u a t i o n f o r the student's use. The content of study could evolve around such general areas as: 1. the natural environment, 2 . the man-made habitat, 3 . the mass culture and popular a r t s , I)., the designers and creative processes of the community—their roles and techniques, and 5. the t r a d i t i o n a l v i s u a l and performing a r t s , past and present. As Vincent Lanier expresses i n h i s a r t i c l e "Aesthetic Education: The New E l i t i s m ? " the content of study i s a c r i t i c a l issue i n developing programs of aesthetic education. I would submit that the most important factor i n dealing with aesthetic responses within the framework of education i s the content i n hand, or the nature of the stimulus that i s providing the aesthetic response. ' He recommends an i n i t i a l study of the popular arts rather than the more tra d t i o n a l modes to foster aesthetic understand- ing and appreciation. Vincent Lanier suggests that young people today have "...a reasonably well developed a f f e c t i v e response structure and some cognitive r e l a t i o n s h i p to aesthe- t i c stimuli which we casually or perhaps arrogantly ignore 133. 26 because, I s u s p e c t , t h e s t y l e s o f t h e s t i m u l i w h i c h provoke t h e s e r e p o n s e s do n o t e x i s t w i t h i n the framework o f what we a c c e p t as the v i s u a l a r t s , " and t h a t he i s " . . . i n t e r e s t e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n why and how t h e y r e s p o n d t o what they a l r e a d y a p p r e c i a t e . . . . " ^ The a u t h o r a l s o b e l i e v e s we s h o u l d f o c u s upon the everyday 'aesthetic e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t can be had i n the n a t u r a l and man-made s e t t i n g s . One might l o o k t o the w r i t i n g s o f June McFee on e n v i r o n m e n t a l awareness and the u r b a n s e t t i n g — s t u d i e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r u r b a n s t u d e n t s . J I n o t h e r words, the a u t h o r i s a d v o c a t i n g the s t u d y o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s immediate l o c a l e as t h e c o n t e n t f o r a e s t h e t i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l programs. I n The G r e e n i n g o f A m e r i c a by C h a r l e s R e i c h , we see how the young g e n e r a t i o n i s eager f o r n o n - v e r b a l communication and e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h w i l l r e - s e n s i t i z e them and r a i s e t h e i r l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s awareness. The most d i r e c t way t o r e s t o r e s e n s i t i v i t y i s , o f c o u r s e , t o b e g i n a s e r i e s o f exposures t o f o r g o t - t e n s e n s a t i o n s . The C o n s c i o u s n e s s I I I p e r s o n does a g r e a t d e a l o f t h i s . - He burns i n c e n s e i n h i s home t o r e s t o r e t h e sense o f s m e l l . He a t t e n d s a T-group o r s e n s i t i v i t y group t o r e s t o r e awareness o f o t h e r p e o p l e ; the e x p e r i m e n t s may range from t e l l i n g p e r s o n - a l f e e l i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s t o t o u c h i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s bodies....He t a k e s " t r i p s " out i n t o n a t u r e ; he might l i e f o r two ho u r s and s i m p l y s t a r e up a t the a r c h i n g branches o f a t r e e . He f i n d s t h a t m o t o r c y c l i n g r e s t o r e s a sense o f f r e e m o t i o n . He might c u l t i v a t e v i s u a l s e n s i t i v i t y , and the a b i l i t y t o m e d i t a t e , by s t a r i n g f o r h o u r s a t a g l o b e lamp. He d i s c o v e r s Bach and M o z a r t . He seeks out a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , drama, f o r t h e i r v a l u e i n r a i s i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s . However, one might s u s p e c t t h a t i n many ca s e s the young l i k e the o l d a r e not y e t d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t i n g the c o n c r e t e i s s u e s i3a. 27 that need s o c i a l change to u p l i f t our q u a l i t y of l i f e . And how often are sensations experienced without awakening the process of thoughtful analysis and r e f l e c t i o n ? Vincent Lanier suggests that youngsters might grow i n aesthetic response by a "...process of learning to height- en, illuminate and broaden one's responses to aesthetic stimuli."^" 1* S p e c i f i c methods f o r achieving such ends and suggestions on how a given locale or stimulus may be focused upon and explored are described i n Chapter 1+. As Lanier has claimed, there i s a growing trend on the part of art education researchers, such as Manuel Barkan and Stanley Madeja to ref i n e the area of aesthetic education through the use of programed i n s t r u c t i o n a l media.^ Their emphasis i s upon t r a i n i n g or conditioning aesthetic responses by a highly contrived learning experience i n an e f f o r t to create an understanding and appreciation f o r the f i n e a r t s . However, l i k e Vincent Lanier, the author i s i n c l i n e d to suggest that more immediate and " r e a l " experiences are a v a i l - able within the learner's environment which can promote aes* t h e t i c education and which can be used as a jumping-off point into more,"elite" aesthetic experiences. And, one should not overlook the delight i n independent discovery and the personal nature of the aesthetic response. The author would suggest that the aesthetic properties and q u a l i t i e s i n a l o c a l shop window may i n i t i a l l y provide a more relevant and meaningful experience than a study of " ; .1 ancient icons, f o r a teenager of t h i s century. In the f i r s t 1 3 5 . 28 p l a c e , the l e a r n e r can o f t e n b r i n g a few i n i t i a l c o n c e p t s and f a c t s t o a st u d y o f a l o c a l phenomena, w h i c h h e l p s t i m - u l a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n and c u t down on t h e o f t e n b o r i n g and i r r e l e v a n t monologue t h a t s t u d e n t s a re o f t e n con- f r o n t e d w i t h i n t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e s . W i t h c l o s e study the f a m i l i a r p i e c e s o f the environment can t a k e on u n e x p e c t e d depths o f meaning. Perhaps, when the " f a m i l i a r " i s more d e e p l y u n d e r s t o o d and a p p r e c i a t e d the l e s s f a m i l i a r c o n c e p t s o f a r t h i s t o r y w i l l appear o f g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e and i n t e r e s t , and can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the s t u d y . As the s t u d e n t d i s c o v e r s u n i v e r s a l p r o p e r t i e s i n h i s environment and the . i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y n a t u r e o f ele m e n t s , he w i l l g r a d - u a l l y grow t o a p p r e c i a t e and u n d e r s t a n d l e s s f a m i l i a r con- c e p t s and be a b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e them more e a s i l y and i n t o a more m e a n i n g f u l p a t t e r n o f p e r s o n a l knowledge f o r f u t u r e u s e . S p e c i f i c S u b s t a n t i v e I n f o r m a t i o n An o b j e c t i v e o f the program i s t o f o s t e r an a t t a i n - ment o f awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the subsequent i n f o r - m a t i o n . Such m a t t e r has been broken down i n t o t o p i c s f o r study w i t h some suggested s a m p l i n g i t e m s p r o v i d e d under some o f the t o p i c s . W h i l e the o v e r a r c h i n g c o n c e p t s and the t o p i c s o u t l i n e d a r e t o be c o v e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e by a l l s t u d e n t s , t h e sa m p l i n g i t e m s a l l o w f o r o p t i o n s and c h o i c e s be be s e l e c t e d by the t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t , depending upon a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , s t u d e n t background, and s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t . 136. 2 9 O v e r a r c h i n g Concepts t o be E x p l o r e d The major g o a l o f the c u r r i c u l u m i s t o d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the s o c i a l r o l e o f a r t i n contemporary, u r b a n s o c i e t y . B a s i c p o s t u l a t e s on w h i c h t h i s p r o p o s a l i s based a r e : 1. Man i s p o t e n t i a l l y c r e a t i v e - Man needs t o c r e a t e o r d e r i n h i s environment. Man needs t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f and t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s . 2 . Through h i s a r t , man i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g change w i t h i n h i s environment. 3. Human l i f e s t y l e s a r e changed t h r o u g h a r t . Ij.. There i s a b a l a n c e o r i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e between man, h i s environment, and a r t . Such i n t e r r e l a t e d a ssumptions s h o u l d p r o v i d e a u n i f y i n g stream o f thought w i t h i n the c o n t e n t o r knowledge a r e a o f the program. And, as V i n c e n t L a n i e r w r i t e s i n Te a c h i n g Secondary A r t , "...some degree o f c u l t u r a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s v a l i d and n e c e s s a r y . ^ Promoting an U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f A e s t h e t i c s Through the I n v e s t i - g a t i o n o f S p e c i f i c T o p i c s A e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s a r e u n i v e r s a l and a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e s can be a c h i e v e d by a l l human organisms i n t h e i r e veryday e x p e r i e n c e s . These r e s p o n s e s can be broadened and i n t e n s i f i e d by e d u c a t i n g the human organism's powers o f p e r - c e p t u a l a c u i t y and d i s c e r n m e n t . A e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s a re 137. 30 enriching and educational, and make for a higher quality of existence. The author believes that a l l persons have the capacity to have the qual i t y of the i r aesthetic responses enhanced. Such responses provide the meaning (communication) and the order required by the human organism to survive and to advance i n l i f e ' s endeavours. Living suggests a progres- sive or advancing process i n the l i f e cycle. Aesthetic experiences contribute to the process of l i v i n g , over mere • e x i s t i n g . In the following pages the author w i l l attempt to delineate s p e c i f i c categories and topics for exploration. Category I - Visual Art Elements and P r i n c i p l e s Basic to the course of study would include the in v e s t i g a t i o n of: A. The elements of design - l i n e , tone, form, space, colour, texture, decoration, pattern, and function B. . The p r i n c i p l e s of - balance, movement, d i r e c t i o n , contrast, symmetry, unity, mood& and i l l u s i o n C. The d i s t i n c t i o n of s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between natural and man-made phenomena D. Aesthetic experiences and responses 1. Consideration of subjective and objective c r i t e r i a for evaluating art works.; 2. Consideration of the general s o c i a l r o l e art has played i n past and present cultures. e. g. - the expressive or emotive power of a r t , - art as communication--a language f o r 1 3 8 . 31 interpreting r e a l i t y , and - man's dependence and re l a t i o n s h i p to aesthetic q u a l i t i e s Then, a consideration of the future r o l e or function of art E. The scope and variety of aesthetic elements of the environment, both man-made and natural F. The development of an a r t i c u l a t e vocabulary to discuss aesthetic concepts Category II - Environmental Topics Aesthetic phenomena exhibited i n the design of the urban community that would come under study include: A. Ethnic and c u l t u r a l differences within the community Sampling suggestions - Chinese community Indian community Eskimo community German community I t a l i a n community Youth culture Slum culture Comparative studies could be made between several cultures. Attention should be given to the ro l e each group plays i n the o v e r a l l community design and the avenues or processes for development each has. Variety i n l i f e s t y l e s can be expressed through aesthetic expressions, d i s t i n c t i v e to a given c u l t u r a l group. B. The influence of mass media and the popular arts 1 3 9 . 32 ( f i l m , newspapers, magazines, comics, and t e l e v i s i o n ) 1. Modern "languages" to interpret r e a l i t y Sampling - a l l or several of the above media 2 . Adolescent consumer trends - pooling student habits and views 3 . Advertis-.ing role and techniques I4.. Consumer manipulation . - the psychological power of these media C. The processes of environmental preservation and change 1. Focusing upon established aesthetic processes operable within the community Sampling options - town planning architecture commercial advertising product designing i n t e r i o r design landscape design 2 . Consideration of the various roles the a r t i s t . .-: can assume i n designing within the community Focusing upon a r t i s t s * perceptions and concerns about t h e i r environment and upon the i r visions and a c t i v i t i e s Sampling options - a r t i s t s involed i n the f i n e arts, as well as p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the above processes D. A study of function and style i n architecture Sampling suggestions - recreational centres l i+O. 33 -* business o f f i c e s i n d u s t r i a l plants shopping centres residental buildings Consideration of the building requirements of contemporary urban centres and societi e s E. The development of urban centres 1. Directions and modes of expansion 2. Re-development and preservation 3 . P o l i t i c a l , economic, and a r t i s t i c avenues of change Sampling should.be oriented towards the l o c a l community i n i t i a l l y . Later, with time permitting, attention could be given to international trends i n town planning. F. Man has consistently attempted to put "order" into h i s l i f e and at the same time to be "expressive" through the creation of common, everyday art forms. A study of this need and i t s manifestations i n the community might focus on the following samples - shopwindow displays garden layouts home decorating styles dress trends Every man i s p o t e n t i a l l y an a r t i s t . G. A gtudy of product design and production methods 1. The changing role of the craftsman 2. Crafts r e v i v a l during the past decade 11+1. 31+ Sampling orientation could vary considerably. 3. A consideration of "function" and " s t y l e " i n evaluating c r a f t products H. The emerging role of "women i n the a r t s " 1. D i s t i n c t concern and differences displayed i n thei r work 2. D i f f i c u l t i e s that confront women i n the arts I. Man's art heritage and function i n society The range studied would vary depending upon community resources. 1. A study of exhibits by formal art agencies, A comparison could be made between non-profit and com- mercial agencies, revealing differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s between the role of each and the products exhibited. J. Aesthetic q u a l i t i e s offered by natural environments 1. Natural areas within the man-made habitat Sampling suggestions - parks gardens plazas K. A consideration of the emerging trend of "conceptual" art L. The ro l e of the c r i t i c i n contemporary society Category III - Man's Responsibility f o r His Environment A. A consideration of sensory pollutants i n our urban environment and the effects on human l i f e The quality of l i f e can be modified by the aesthetic atmosiphere of a community. A wide range of sampling could 11+2. 3 5 be introduced f o r inspection under th i s topic. Behavioral Objectives Stated In the following pages the author has enumerated the behavioral objectives focused upon i n the proposed program. For convenience, these objectives are categorized under Hilda Taba's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of: cognitive, a f f e c t i v e , psychomotor, working, and s o c i a l s k i l l s . Cognitive S k i l l s Cognition i s the process of knowing or perceiving. Behavioral changes, within the cognitive domain, that are the objective of t h i s program are the following: 1. To sensitize and develop s k i l l s of sensory perception, e. g. sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste To develop the a b i l i t y "...to perceive simultan- eously and s y n c r e t i s t i c a l l y the t o t a l sensory import of experience...."^" This multidimensional awareness of the environment must be i n t u i t i v e l y attained. To develop a broadened and heightened capacity for aesthetic response—a sense of awe, wonder, and insight, 2i To develop the a b i l i t y to generalize or concept- u a l i z e from perceptual experiences, and to have the a b i l i t y to r e l a t e concepts as well as to understand them And then, to have the a b i l i t y to ultimately apply such p r i n c i p l e s to r e a l problems and situations (see appendix) 3 . To increase a l t e r n a t i v e ways of organizing qual- 11+3. 36 i t i e s p e r c e i v e d To d e v e l o p the a b i l i t y t o t h i n k i n p u r e l y v i s u a l as w e l l as v e r b a l terms 1+. To i n c r e a s e the a b i l i t y t o make c r i t i c a l j u d g - ments and d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s f o u n d i n the environment, e. g. the a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e and d i s - c r i m i n a t e between a e s t h e t i c a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s And, t o d e v e l o p a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f v a l u e judgments 5 . To f o s t e r the development o f the i m a g i n a t i o n i n e n v i s i o n i n g changes t o t h e environment 6. To f o s t e r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how p e r c e p t i o n o f the environment can be m e a n i n g f u l and v a l u a b l e to p e r s o n a l development 7. To i n c r e a s e the a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o l i f e g e n e r a l l y 8. To f o s t e r the development o f p e r s o n a l imagery t o e x p r e s s one's c o n c e p t s , i d e a s , and f e e l i n g s Psychomotor o r M a n i p u l a t i v e S k i l l s 1. To d e v e l o p b a s i c r e c o r d i n g and r e p o r t i n g s k i l l s o r t e c h n i q u e s , e. g. d r awing arid p a i n t i n g s k i l l s , w r i t i n g s k i l l s , p h o t o g r a p h i c and d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s Working S t r a t e g i e s o r H a b i t s 1. To d e v e l o p d e s c r i p t i v e , a n a l y t i c a l , and c r e a t i v e s k i l l s , b o t h v i s u a l and v e r b a l , t o i n t e r p r e t a e s t h e t i c e x p e r - 3 7 iences 2. To develop and use a working vocabulary to d i s - cuss aesthetic q u a l i t i e s 3 . To increase problem-formulating and problem- solving a b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d to aesthetic considerations 1+.. To increase the a b i l i t y to use aesthetic exper- iences as stimuli to creative a c t i v i t y within conventional art modes 5>. To have the a b i l i t y to court ambiguity and not to judge prematurely Social S k i l l s 1. To develop such s o c i a l s k i l l s as honest commun- ic a t i o n , decision-making, persuasion, c o n c i l i a t i o n , and management 2. To develop the a b i l i t y to think through and deal with possible consequences of one's decisions and actions during the learning experiences and encounters with the environment 3 . To be s e l f - d i r e c t e d , s e l f - r e l i a n t , and responsible l i . To develop powers of self-evaluation Attitude Development; the A f f e c t i v e Objectives A l l other objectives are retarded without the moti- vational power created by the development of a f f e c t i v e behav- i o r s . The importance of t h i s area of development to the growth of the learner cannot be too strongly emphasized. 38 F o r , i t i s the p o s i t i v e development o f t h e s e powers t h a t w i l l a f f e c t t h e b e h a v i o r s and a c t i o n s o f the l e a r n e r when e x t e r n a l c o e r c i o n i s n o t a p p l i e d . F o r t h e s e a t t i t u d e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e t h a t i s so h i g h l y v a l u e d i n t o d a y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . B. N. Lee and M. C. M e r r i l l d e f i n e an a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e a s : A b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e t h a t d e a l s w i t h a f f e c t f o c u s e s on the a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , e m o t i o n s - ^ i n t e r e s t s , o r a p p r e c i a t i o n s o f the students.^"- 3 I t i s the a u t h o r ' s b e l i e f t h a t the a f f e c t i v e domain can be " f e d " by an awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r o l e and v a l u e o f a r t t o s o c i e t y . These a t t i t u d e s can be s t r e n g t h e n e d t h r o u g h the enhanced a b i l i t y o f the l e a r n e r t o r e s p o n d i n t u i - t i v e l y t o p o t e n t i a l l y a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s and by the r a t i o n a l development o f Concepts p e r t a i n i n g t o the w o r t h o r f u n c t i o n o f a r t and a e s t h e t i c s t o s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , the a f f e c t i v e domain i s d e v e l o p e d by b o t h i n t u i t i v e and r a t i o n a l c o g n i t i o n s or p e r c e p t i o n s . A f f e c t i v e growth s h o u l d o c c u r c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the a t t a i n m e n t o f p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s on the s e n s o r y and i n t u i t i v e l e v e l ( n o n - v e r b a l p e r c e p t i o n ) and w i t h the r a t i o n a l ( o r v e r b a l l y e x p r e s s i b l e ) u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s and the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n c e and w o r t h o f b o t h t o s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e . A f f e c t i v e O b j e c t i v e s D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s o f d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e s a r e as f o l l o w s : 11+6. 39 1. An acceptance of and appreciation for- c u l t u r a l and ethnic differences, as expressed i n aesthetic forms 2. To develop an appreciation f o r man's c u l t u r a l heritage and development 3. To develop an appreciation of the i n t r i n s i c and personal nature of aesthetic experiences, both productive and appreciative To develop the recognition of the worth of aesthetic experience as part of a f u l l l i f e I+. To foster the development of one's own aesthetic values and to form a commitment to and an involvement with them 5. To foster a commitment to learning 6. To develop an attitude of openness and c u r i o s i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n new and uncertain experiences 7. To develop the a b i l i t y to appreciate and become involved i n change To face the future with optimism and commitment 8. To f o s t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional autonomy, including the development of personal awareness and style 9. To expand the learner's i n t e r e s t i n environmental concerns and to foster an attitude of independent study and research 10. To foster the development of a p o s i t i v e and r e a l - i s t i c self-concept. 11. Through group work, to give the learner the opportunity to earn respect and status among his peers, and 114-7. 1+0 to develop regard for others 12. To foster a commitment to use knowledge and a b i l i t i e s for s o c i a l purposes 13. To foster an understanding of the incongruities of human experiences Accounting for A f f e c t i v e Objectives i n the Teaching-learning Setting The previous objectives have been stated i n rather general, d i r e c t i o n a l terms only. They are merely descriptive statements of the attitudes desired. A f f e c t i v e objectives must ultimately be framed with reference to the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as abstracted from Writing Complete Affec- tiv e Objectives by B. H. Lee and M. D. M e r r i l l ; ^ Behavior: 1. The attitude must be demonstrated i n an approach behavior. When someone's a c t i v i t y tends to bring him into contact with (tends to cause him to approach) a p a r t i c u l a r subject, we c a l l that a c t i v i t y an approach behavior.^"' 2. The behavior should be highly probable to expect from the students involved. 3. The behavior should be d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y observable. Testing Conditions: 1+. A testing s i t u a t i o n or conditions must exist to observe the behavior with the p o s s i b i l i t y for alternative behaviors to be exercised. 114-8. hi 5. There should be a free choice s i t u a t i o n or as l i t t l e influence as possible to a f f e c t or influence the students' choice of action. 6. No-cues must be given as to the behavior desired. C r i t e r i a : 7. The degree of change wanted i s indicated by the number of times the behavior must be exhibited or by how many students w i l l exhibit the approach behavior for the objective to be minimally achieved. 8. A r e a l i s t i c estimate of change should be given, knowing the students* i n i t i a l behavior. 9. A pattern of behavior must be exhibited.., 10. A descriptive statement of the desired attitudes must accompany the preceding c r i t e r i a . In the i n i t i a l statements regarding the a f f e c t i v e objectives, the f i n a l c r i t e r i o n has been indicated. I t would be u n r e a l i s t i c to set out the complete c r i t e r i a possible for each objective, as a multitude of indeterminate variables can govern the selection of the most appropriate statement of c r i t e r i a . For example, the i n i t i a l behaviors of a given group of students may vary considerably from another and the appropriate testing conditions available may vary, depending upon l o c a l circumstances. C r i t e r i a for determining the effec- tiveness of the teaching-learning s i t u a t i o n i n respect to a f f e c t i v e behaviors must be formulated i n r e l a t i o n to a given s i t u a t i o n . However, in the f i n a l chapter delineating the teaching-learning strategies organized around a given topic, taken from the l i s t of content objectives, the author w i l l endeavour to suggest ways of providing an e f f e c t i v e testing si t u a t i o n and c r i t e r i a for evaluating the attainment of r e l a t e d a f f e c t i v e behavioral changes or objectives. Unlike cognitive and psychomotor objectives, a f f e c - tiv e objectives are not described or indicated to the students. The endeavour of the teacher must be to gather information more systematically and to judge more objec- t i v e l y the attainment or development of a f f e c t i v e objectives — t h u s providing a more r e l i a b l e evaluation. As attitudes cannot be measured d i r e c t l y the teacher must look to the behavior of the students as indicators of a t t i t u d e . One can i n f e r attitudes from what one observes people say and do. The teacher must decide what behavior w i l l be accepted as evidence of an attitude. Having delineated the s p e c i f i c course objectives, l e t us turn now to o u t l i n i n g the roles assumed by the learner and teacher i n attempting to implement the attainment of those objectives. P a r a l l e l i n g Michael Day's three phases of exploration, precision, and generalization the learner would be encouraged to take the roles of reporter, c r i t i c , a r t i s t , and c i t i z e n during the learning experience. The teacher, conceived as a f a c i l i t a t o r of learning, should complement and stimulate the learner to question and analyze h i s experiences, i n order to c l a r i f y and deepen the meanings attained. Now l e t us examine these roles which are so v i t a l l y linked to the stated substantive and behavioral 150. objectives. t The Role of the Student The author believes that students are natural learners. During the pre-school years, young children vigor- ously explore t h e i r environment with a high l e v e l of wonder and s e n s i t i v i t y . They delight i n "discovery." They natur- a l l y assume an active exploratory approach to learning and acquire much valuable information and s k i l l from this method, even before they enter formal educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . Interest and enthusiasm are seldom lacking. In f a c t , adults often f i n d t h e i r exuberance too challenging and often exhaust- ing. Most parents experience a "why?" stage of learning with t h e i r young children. Why does t h i s stage seldom l a s t ? Surely, i t ' s not because there are no more questions asked or no more answers to be supplied. How can we maintain t h i s inherent zest and mode of inquiry? F i r s t and simply, the author would suggest that we encourage the youngster's natural mode of learning. Allow him to r e t a i n an active r o l e i n pursuing'.his own education. Encourage h i s in t e r e s t s and h i s c u r i o s i t y . Provide s i t u - ations where he can a c t i v e l y explore and discover new r e l a - tionships i n h i s environment. In a program of aesthetic education, the author per- ceives the learner i n four major r o l e s or learning occupations The Learner as Recorder and Reporter 1 5 1 . kk In t h i s r o l e , the learner would be encouraged to u t i l i z e h i s sensory and cognitive powers to consciously perceive h i s environment i n a new and more intense way, to draw i n information, and create an "image bank" for future use. Various modes of recording and reporting images could be employed such as: descriptive and creative writing, sketching, photography, and sound taping. Such records or reports could be shared with others or used as star t i n g points for c r i t i c a l or creative endeavours. As recorder and reporter he many need to develop such perceptual s k i l l s as: 1. accepting sensory information without prejudging i t , 2. sorting, analyzing, and processing information, 3. focusing on ess e n t i a l elements, l i . looking f o r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and 5 . looking f o r alternate ways of perceiving. The Lfarner as C r i t i c C r i t i c a l s k i l l s , l i k e productive s k i l l s , can also be f a c i l i t a t e d through instruction.^" The r o l e of c r i t i c should evolve n a t u r a l l y out of the learner's previous r o l e as recorder and reporter. Oppor- t u n i t i e s should be provided i n which he i s encouraged to formulate, reassess, and express h i s values. E s p e c i a l l y i n urban settings, the student can be presented with situations where comparative judgments regarding aesthetic q u a l i t i e s can be formulated. He should be encouraged to bring to such 1 5 2 . situations h i s a b i l i t i e s to analyze (both i n t u i t i v e l y and r a t i o n a l l y ) , to speculate, to consider evidence, and the a b i l i t y to ask questions. In t h i s r o l e , i t i s hoped he w i l l be helped to d i s t i n g u i s h between the subjective and objec- t i v e c r i t e r i a he uses to make his evaluations. The Learner as A r t i s t and Designer The learner's inventiveness should be encouraged. Every i n d i v i d u a l i s p o t e n t i a l l y c r e a t i v e — h e can envision change. Being creative involves f i r s t l y , a mental process and, then, the act of "doing" something to a c t u a l l y bring about change• To encourage and develop the imaginative bent, the author believes we can try to help the student i n two ways: 1. by trying to help the student focus on new and more intense ways of looking at the environment i n the hopes of sparking the discovery of new aesthetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and 2. by trying to help the student pose questions about h i s environment. He may then st a r t to ask "what i f ? " and "how could we?" i n addition to "why?" Again, we have focused upon the learner's s k i l l s as recorder and c r i t i c . I f he contemplates environmental changes, he may also need to be exposed to the p o l i t i c a l and communica- tio n s k i l l s necessary to bring about r e a l change. Once the learner can envision some solutions or changes, we would be remiss i n not allowing him the actual 1 5 3 . experience of expressing h i s idea or tr y i n g i t out i n a r e a l s i t u a t i o n , to test the power of hi s strategies. • How many students have grown apathetic because they are t o l d they are not old enough to try something or take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ! The author does not advocate putting students into positions where they do not yet possess the s k i l l s to do an adequate job. However, the sooner they are able to assume a small degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for th e i r actions, the sooner they w i l l adopt a vested inter e s t i n the a c t i v i t y and a concern for t h e i r e f f o r t . Creative a c t i v i t i e s might involve the t r a d i t i o n a l productive arts, drawing up plans and suggestions for urban renewal, or actual work experience opportunities i n the community. The Learner as Responsible C i t i z e n The extent to which he gets the kind of environ- ment he wants, i n which he f e e l s at home and rewarded, depends on h i s a b i l i t y to define h i s goals, to make known hi s aspirations, and to support the methods by which these may be a t t a i n e d . ^ Rather than conceive of the learner as a future c i t i z e n , the author believes i t i s essential to consider the young as c i t i z e n s with a pot e n t i a l f o r increasing t h e i r involvement and effectiveness i n dealing with environmental r e a l i t i e s . At an early age, the young should be encouraged to employ the i r c i t i z e n s h i p i n the community i n pos i t i v e forms. In a sense, a l l c i t i z e n s have the same tusk of .' di r e c t i n g and adapting to the changing environment. A l l c i t i z e n s , young and old, can be involved i n advancing con- a 1 5 4 . h i scious choice where products, physical f a c i l i t i e s , shelter, and communication are concerned. Early involvement must be sponsored by the community i f " c i t i z e n s h i p competence" i s to be achieved. This constant i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d , and community helps to produce a more community- minded adult, an adult more aware of h i s respon- s i b i l i t i e s ^ t o w a r d the betterment of h i s own community. p w I t i s essential that the young c i t i z e n be made to f e e l he i s a part of the community. With an introduction of an envir- onmental studies program - ...at the end of the High School course the student would be expected to know rather more than the average c i t i z e n , o f the major problems of the l o c a l community.'3 While actual c i v i c problem-solving may be premature, problem- r a i s i n g and solution speculating can develop an awareness, in t e r e s t , and concern that may provide the impetus for future c i v i c work. In theory and practice, t h i s course i s meant to be a beginning to e f f e c t i v e and responsible c i t i z e n s h i p . The Role of the.Teacher r o l e . This r o l e may involve giving information and explain- ing concepts, providing i n i t i a l q uality stimuli to engage the learner i n actual experience, engaging the student i n conversation which w i l l help him c l a r i f y h i s thinking and ; decide upon h i s course of action, and l i s t e n i n g to the student's opinions. The teacher i s conceived i n a helping or f a c i l i t a t i n g 1 5 5 . 1+8 The art teacher thus w i l l be to children a guide yet a model, a f r i e n d yet an adult, a source of knowledge yet a provoker of fancy, one who; sees the world agpan a r t i s t yet permits the c h i l d h i s own vision.- 5 He must have the understanding and s k i l l to feed strengths with challenge and to help students improve th e i r weaknes- ses. However, caution should be observed. Expose the learner to sensory s t i m u l i , but allow him the t h r i l l of discovering for himself through his own experiences. Engage the learner i n discussion, but allow him to formulate and to express h i s ideas. Encourage and support creative a c t i v - i t y , but allow him to envision his own d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s way, one can help the learner maximize his learning from hi s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the learner's r o l e s . Then, one w i l l be fo s t e r i n g his autonomy and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . As a l l locales d i f f e r and as there are few background books and no texts "the environmental-studies teacher i s not only a research student of h i s neighbourhood, he also has a 5 3 constant task of curriculum research and development." He must be able to expose the unique features of the l o c a l i t y , as well as being able to recognize universal concepts that are r e f l e c t e d i n and govern the l o c a l e . He must be able to research and compile background information, organize pro- grams and strategies, plan diagrams, photos, s l i d e s , i l l u s - t r a t i o n s , tapes, and films, to be used by the learner i n h i s process of discovering himself and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to his environment. 1 5 6 . Through such a program "the art teacher can then become a central figure i n c u l t u r a l transmission and devel- opment."^" However, i n order to f u l f i l l t h i s role the teacher must bring to the task special attitudes, a b i l i t i e s , and knowledge. The teacher must be an avid learner and he must have already developed personally along the l i n e s described i n the section on educational objectives. He should have a knowledge and understanding of the environment. And he should be an involved c i t i z e n i n the community and be able to transmit h i s enthusiasm for the program. The teacher trained for such a program should have a m u l t i d i s c i p l i n e d or team teaching background with a considerable degree of f i e l d work. The teacher must be able to approach the studies i n a similar mode as the learner. He can hold no f i x e d answers for the student and i s e s s e n t i a l l y faced with the same environment as the l e a r n e r — w i t h the rewards and problems and with the task of seeking ways to understand arid to cope with the environment. The teacher must be able to f e e l comfortable i n an exploratory mode or learner r o l e . F i n a l l y , before o f f e r i n g a teaching-learning model for i l l u s t r a t i o n , l e t us examine the remaining factors to be considered i n a curriculum design—the general methodology and the s p e c i f i c structuring modes employed. A General Statement of Method There i s no learning without structure.... 1 5 7 . 50 Without structure, without support, the learner w i l l ; c be either panic-stricken or apathetic....If the f i r s t axiom of education i s that there i s no learning with- out order, then the second axiom i s that there i s no learning without disorder. Structure i s required, but so i s unstructure. As John Bremer goes on to point out i n his book,' On Educa- t i o n a l Change, i t i s the period of "unstructure" which should provide the greatest learning p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a sit u a t i o n . For during active discovery the learner creates order out of the disordered data and materials; sensations and images he gathers from the environment. He forms mean- ings and concepts of r e a l i t y from h i s experiences. The environment becomes observable and comprehensible. The author perceives three major stages to f a c i l i t a t e learning, two structured and one unstructured; 1. a p r e - a c t i v i t y planning stage, 2. an a c t i v i t y and discovery stage, and 3. a re c a p i t u l a t i o n and evaluation stage, leading again into the f i r s t stage. The f i r s t and l a s t stages are periods of structure; organized and executed i n collaboration with the teacher and learner/ or learners. The middle stage i s designed with as much freedom as possible to maximize the benefits of the learner's e f f o r t s of inquiry and action. In t h i s way, freedom i s used as a means to growth. Freedom when combined with a well-structured sense of purpose should promote intense and voluntary involvement. I t i s the author's b e l i e f that no teacher can teach another 1 5 8 . person anything, but only expose a person to cert a i n stimuli and f a c i l i t a t e the learning process through s o c i a l i n t e r - action or Socratic dialogue. The learner i s responsible for h i s own i n t e n s i t y and d i r e c t i o n of learning. He has the free dom to discover and make decisions, but the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the consequences of h i s own actions; For the material to become knowledge and for the learner to improve his s k i l l s he must have f i r s t - o r d e r experiences—he must interact d i r e c - t l y with the environment. In summary, the emphasis i n the learning mode i s on i n t e r e s t , involvement, awareness, par- t i c i p a t i o n , and f i n a l l y communication. Modern i n t e r a c t i o n i s t arguments...lend support to the view that the human being has an innate tendency to orientate himself to s t i m u l i , to inves- tigate and s a t i s f y himself about puzzling phenomena, in Piagetian terms, to accommodate and assimilate new experience. From an educational point of view, we may conclude that a normal c h i l d w i l l respond a c t i v e l y to new material, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t involves puzzles or questions, and that children w i l l show •interest' i n learning situations devised i n that form. 5 Now, l e t us examine the three learning stages to assess the i r part i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the learning outcomes. Pr e - a c t i v i t y Planning Mode During t h i s phase, the necessary structure i s created that w i l l provide the freedom and d i r e c t i o n needed during the a c t i v i t y or discovery stage. Factors to be considered i n t h i s stage are: 1. age appropriateness f o r the experience, 2. class size and group composition, 159. 52 3. deciding on both broad and s p e c i f i c educational objectives, l i . deciding on the focus or content to be studied, 5. deciding on the methods or strategies to be used, 6. place, time, transportation, routines, safety, equipment, supplies, and f a c i l i t i e s , 7. deciding on the involvement of a u x i l i a r y per- sonnel, and 8. acquiring basic recording s k i l l s and needed background information. Once these factors have been decided upon and organized the learning a c t i v i t y may begin. Before proceeding to a discussion of the a c t i v i t y stage, i t may be b e n e f i c i a l to the reader to elaborate b r i e f l y upon several of the foregoing topics. 1. Age appropriateness for the program The environment i s unsuited as a regular learning environment for the young c h i l d . Jean Piaget, developmental psychologist, suggests that a program of environmental studies i s best suited to the sixteen to eighteen age group. At t h i s age, students are better able to r e l a t e abstract concepts to the world and better able to categorize impressions. Their powers of discrimination are more developed and they are better able to handle the complexity of r e l a t i o n s h i p s present- ed by the world. ...there i s a case f o r Environmental Studies for the sixteen to eighteen age group. The integrated study of the l o c a l environment offers opportunities 160. 53 to be divergent; encourages p r o b a b i l i s t i c think- ing; suggests i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y analogies* and poses complex problems i n concrete form. Not only are i n t e l l e c t u a l strategies more sophisticated at t h i s age, but i n t e r e s t i n community a f f a i r s and t h e i r impend- ing break from school l i f e and involvement i n community l i f e n a t u r a l l y draw them to consider seriously the issues pre- sented i n such a study. "As the young adult increasingly foresees h i s domestic and vocational future i n the l o c a l community, h i s i n t e r e s t i n i t grows. The senior high schooler i s more reconciled to parent and adult l i f e and i s a n t i c i p a t i n g the s o c i a l r o l e s of adult l i f e . Community learning can help s a t i s f y the r e s t l e s s desire of the adoles- cent to be part of the "real 1' world. He i s s t i l l c r i t i c a l , but has usually outgrown the dismissive and sometimes reb e l - l i o u s stage of early adolescence. He i s more concerned with finding p r a c t i c a l solutions to problems he perceives. He i s d i s i n c l i n e d to take the environment at face value and w i l l see the l o c a l i t y i n terms of the problems which l i e below the conventional surface. He may also have already developed some background and i n t e r e s t i n s p e c i f i c l o c a l problems. Through mass media, the young have been exposed to contemporary trends and issues. He w i l l have the desire and the patience to work at a problem long enough to be s a t i s f i e d with h i s answers. He w i l l be more i n c l i n e d to use an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to examine many features at once. 161 . Sk While a sustained program of environmental studies seems appropriate and b e n e f i c i a l for the senior adolescent, environmental excursions to observe and to manipulate concrete features of the community can be adapted for the young c h i l d to promote understanding of observable and simple eause-and- e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However, the lesson outlined i n unit form i n the l a s t chapter of t h i s study i s oriented towards the senior high schooler. Elementary school teachers may wish to study the suggestions with an eye to creating a more si m p l i f i e d pattern of learning experiences^.for the very young c h i l d . 2. Deciding on broad and s p e c i f i c educational objectives Students and teachers should collaborate on the establishment of purposeful aims, both tangible and intan- g i b l e . The avoidance of a predetermined, f i x e d curriculum has advantages. Elimination of compulsion or requirements usually serves to reduce resistance and h o s t i l i t y and to increase willingness and openness to try new experiences. ' However, the educational features of any contemplated exper- ience should be distinguished. I t i s essential that the learner anticipate personal value i n executing the a c t i v i t y . I f the project appears relevant to the learner—suggesting that an increase i n s k i l l s or insight may be incurred during the learning occupation--he usually becomes self-motivated and external control i s seldom required. Suggestions for 162. 5 5 inquiry and a c t i v i t y may be planted by either the teacher or the students and, then, elaborated upon and c l a r i f i e d by the co-operative e f f o r t s of the group. The work must appear i n t e r e s t i n g , relevant, and challenging. In t h i s stage, s k i l l s of problem-formulating, brain- storming, decision-making, and hypothesizing w i l l be employ- ed. The group should anticipate an element of "newness" or "unknown" that exploration w i l l discover. It i s important that the learner adopt a mental posture of perceptual alertness f o r discovery. I t i s help- f u l i f he makes a conscious e f f o r t to heighten h i s sensory awareness and to mobilize both i n t u i t i v e and r a t i o n a l powers to assimilate the sensory messages received. Such a sen- s i t i v e and d i s c i p l i n e d approach to inquiry i s aided by having a sense of purpose and the confidence of having some s t r a - tegies. 3. Deciding on the methods or strategies to be used Questions, rather/than answers, are the begin-ning of learning.... Learning methods and strategies are an e s s e n t i a l part of the structure i n organizing f o r any learning exper- ience. The author favours an h e u r i s t i c approach to environ- mental experience, i n which the learner f r e e l y explores a si t u a t i o n to discover r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However, the learner goes prepared into t h i s unstructured period, with a sense of purpose, an idea to focus upon, and with a variety of methods he can employ or experiment with i n exploring the p o s s i b i l - 1 6 3 . i t i e s of a s i t u a t i o n . Learning experiences and outcomes should allow for diverse approaches and responses. A more detailed description of strategies and con- s t r a i n t s , supplied by art educators and by environmental educators, i s supplied following a description of the two remaining stages of learning. Varying the approach not only maintains i n t e r e s t , but also provides the learner with a repertoire of learning strategies from which he may learn to select the methods most l i k e l y to bear greater r e s u l t s . In essence, not only does the student learn about h i s world, but he also learns how to learn more about his world. I t might be useful for the student to plan a flow chart, o u t l i n i n g a sequence of strategies he might employ and resources he might explore, to accompany him during the a c t i v i t y . One can never t o t a l l y anticipate p r e c i s e l y what the learner w i l l f i n d i n the f i e l d , but one can anticipate enough to e s t a b l i s h a general structure for the learner's use, which w i l l increase his p o s s i b i l i t y of success or growth. The learner's approach should be organized s u f f i - c i e n t l y , to provide him with the confidence that he can perform the proposed task. However, planning should not be so r i g i d that i t prevents taking advantage of educational opportunities that may appear unexpectedly during the envi- ronmental encounter. A c t i v i t y and Discovery Mode This i s a p l a y f u l p e r i o d — a time "...to explore, 161*.. 57 question, play with, wonder about, hear about, read about, 62 experiment with, come to conclusions." "The c h i l d needs 6 3 the freedom to explore d i f f e r e n t ways of learning." A f l u i d in-school and out-of-school r e l a t i o n s h i p must be es- t a b l i s h e d — a n d between planning, discovering, r e c a p i t u l a t i n g , and evaluating. The emphasis i n t h i s discovery phase i s to a c t i v e l y employ the learner's cognitive, a f f e c t i v e , and psychomotor s k i l l s i n r e a l situations and on r e a l problems. Problems should not just be examined, but presented as p o s i t i v e , creative challenges to the learner. They should be looked at i n terms of prospects and opportunities to create human- i s t i c solutions. It i s assumed that such s k i l l s w i l l increasingly become more e f f e c t i v e i n dealing with the envi- ronment through t h e i r exercise, and that they w i l l tend to atrophy i n passive learning s i t u a t i o n s . Powers gain impor- tance over information, as we cannot foresee the learner's future. By providing him with q u a l i t y learning experiences, one can help to foster informed powers of mind and a sense of potency i n action. And, i t i s believed that through an active, p a r t i c i p a t o r y approach to learning that the educar t i o n a l objectives already outlined can be r e a l i z e d . In t h i s phase the learner i s encouraged to assume such p a r t i c i p a t o r y roles as recorder, reporter, c r i t i c , a r t i s t , designer, and responsible c i t i z e n . In this discov- ery mode, the learner's cognitive, a f f e c t i v e , and psycho- 165. 58 motor s k i l l s are employed i n the following ways: 1. exploring and recording, 2. co-ordinating sensory impressions and r e f l e c t i n g upon experience, 3. thinking c r e a t i v e l y and giving expression to such thoughts, and self-evaluation of creative endeavours. Now, l e t us examine each of these categories i n greater d e t a i l . 1. Exploring and recording Experience i s i n i t i a l l y f i l t e r e d through the senses. The learner explores h i s environment and receives bodily sensations, or sensory impressions through observing, l i s t e n i n g , smelling, tasting, and touching. The experience should not end with mere sensory stimulation. Perception must become activated to bring the experience to a conscious l e v e l . However, sensory impressions should be f r e e l y accepted without being prematurely judged. 2. Co-ordinating sensory impressions and r e f l e c t i n g upon experience. This stage r e s u l t s i n a degree of perceptual and aesthetic awareness. Sensations which have been reported to the brain are recorded, then, manipulated both i n t u i t i v e l y and r a t i o n a l l y i n such operations as analyzing, c l a s s i f y i n g , synthesizing, d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g , and comparing. Relationships between separate impressions are established. The learner 1 6 6 . 59 continuously builds h i s symbolic framework or image bank of impressions. During a phase of r e f l e c t i v e thinking the learner comtemplates upon the impressions and st r i v e s to make the experience i n t e l l i g i b l e . Through an i n t e r n a l i z e d dialogue the mind attaches meaning to the impressions by incorpora- ting them into the learner's already exi s t i n g pattern of knowledge. BNy a valuing process, the organism t r i e s to esta b l i s h the personal significance of the new impressions or information. New concepts are formed and values are further c l a r i f i e d or reassessed, to create a modified and enriched concept of r e a l i t y . New experiences have become re l a t e d and integrated with past experiences. New insights have been formed which can be applied to future experience. A c t i v i t i e s should be organized i n such a manner as to require both verbal and non-verbal responses from the learner, f o s t e r i n g the development of both i n t u i t i v e and r a t i o n a l powers. The dual method of problem-solving i s a normal human attribute but because of educa- t i o n a l conditioning i n favour of verbal methods the v i s u a l part becomes atrophied i n the course of time, k Both v i s u a l and verbal recording and reporting s k i l l s can be employed i n studying and communicating aesthetic q u a l i t i e s of the environment. Aesthetic awareness should f i r s t be i n t u i t e d . Total r e l a t i o n s h i p s can only be r e a l i z e d on an i n t u i t i v e l e v e l . 167. 60 "Our i n t u i t i v e f a c u l t i e s do not r e l y on the step-by-step 65 comparative method of the process of reason." I n t u i t i o n has the simultaneous and instantaneous comprehension of re l a t i o n s h i p s , that provides for aesthetic impact. The student's own creative a c t i v i t y can also be evaluated by an i n t u i t i v e approach, as well as by a more r a t i o n a l one. The verbal approach becomes useful i n communicating and sharing insights with others, as w i l l be outlined i n the section on the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n and evaluation mode. Descrip- t i v e , a n a l y t i c a l , and creative writing should be considered valuable modes fo r interpreting aesthetic experience, and can enhance v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 3. Thinking c r e a t i v e l y and giving expression to such thought The a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge i s not enough i n i t s e l f to nourish a r t i s t i c thoughts. We must take the information that we have gained through investigation and release^^t to the magnificent world of the imagination. Through a free play mental process, new combinations of images evolve that are expressive of personal ideas and emotions. These unique images can be expressed through both verbal and v i s u a l symbolism. In t h i s stage, the learner i s encouraged to use his imagination to elaborate upon what he has experienced and to give expression to h i s v i s i o n s . He may delineate a problem-solving task, make decisions concern- ing future action (by considering i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s , and consequences), suggest hypotheses for possible solutions to 168. 61 personal or s o c i a l problems, gather information and s k i l l s to reach solutions, and put large projects into operation. There can be an interplay between imagination and r e a l i t y . "The c h i l d must at a l l ^ : stages learn from h i s own c r e a t i v i t y 67 and v e r i f y what he has learned i n the world of r e a l i t y . " ' l i . Self-evaluation of creative endeavours and personal assessment of s k i l l s In t h i s stage the learner assesses the effectiveness of h i s processes and products. I f the learner i s to become a whole, autonomous person i t i s necessary for him to make realistic'assessment of h i s work. It must also be r e a l i z e d that "the expression of the a r t i s t i s p e c u l i a r l y h i s own and there i s a sense i n which no one else can provide a complete and f i n a l measure of h i s success." The teaching-learning unit outlined i n Chapter I4. i s aimed at i l l u s t r a t i n g the proposed use of such s k i l l s . In that model there are opportunities for the simultaneous and h i e r a r c h i c a l development 'of;;multiplLe c.siki.ljLiŝ jargfe objectives . ... - A major aim of the learning experiences i s to f i n d 69 order and structure. The stress here i s on an organic, integrated approach— the integration of art and l i f e , the integration of work, play, and learning, the integration of the c h i l d within l i f e and his environment, 169. 62 Environmental Studies, i n f a c t , has the educational advantage that i t s topics start from the same point as the problems of adult l i f e arid work. the integration of purpose with a c t i v i t y (theory and p r a c t i c e ) , the integration of separate f a c t s , concepts, and p r i n c i p l e s from a range of d i s c i p l i n e s ( i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y knowledge), to grasp the "wholeness" of existence, and the integration of past, present, and future. The r e s u l t should be a more integrated and e f f e c t i v e human organism who i s at home i n h i s world. Recapitulation and Evaluation Mode Recapitulation and evaluation procedures can be "...used to teach as well as to test."^" 1" The author envi- sions a further stage of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n and evaluation within a structure of private and group consultations. Through s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , awareness and valuing of the experience can often be heightened and extended to a more conscious and useful l e v e l . Discussion can c l a r i f y awareness of unique and shared insights; of personal and common values. The aim of the dialogue i s to make "the student consciously aware of what he has said i n order to stimulate him to do some more 72 r e f l e c t i o n on i t . " Concepts and values may be c l a r i f i e d and modified through discussion. " I t cannot be too often stressed that the very process of questioning the bases for one's preferences forces upon the consciousness an examina- tio n and appraisal of the v a l i d i t y of one's entire value 170. 63 structure."''' 3 The learner may also be directed towards a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the objective and subjective c r i t e r i a he employed i n valuing, and an understanding of the difference between fact and opinion. The f i r s t point then i n helping children to develop values i s to give them an opportunity to talk about th e i r l i f e experiences.... Secondly, the teacher has to l i s t e n and demonstrate that„, he has l i s t e n e d to the value-type expressions. Through discussion the young can be made to r e a l i z e their development, thereby gaining confidence and becoming more s e l f - d i r e c t e d . An informal record of impressions from experiences could be compiled i n a visual-verbal diary or notebook. The student's own i n d i v i d u a l i t y should dictate the form and content of the book. Individuals and groups may present more formal reports of observations, conclusions, and visions i n such forms as o r a l , written, and v i s u a l presentations, or a combination. V i s u a l presentations organized i n a way appropriate to i l l u s t r a t e some concept may be accompanied by comments bearing upon the concept. General features from the whole project could be compared with similar or contrast- ing features, and with already complete projects, and with anticipated themes of projects to come. In t h i s way, a conceptual learning continuum can be established. There should be common concern for learning outcomes. In terms of measuring i n d i v i d u a l growth, the teacher and learner may wish to maintain a learning log of projects 1 7 1 . attempted and an anecdotal evaluation. Such a log might indicate such information as: 1. a statement of the a c t i v i t y and the objectives, 2. date and time required, 3. a self-evaluation comment, 1+.. a teacher-evaluation comment, and 5. a program evaluation comment. Such an evaluation might try to comment on happiness with r e s u l t s , creativeness, s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , extent and in t e n s i t y of perception, communication s k i l l s , effectiveness of s t r a t - egy, and co-operative s k i l l s . Evaluation should be made i n terms of the objectives agreed upon i n the p r e - a c t i v i t y planning stage. Ultimately, the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n and evaluation stage should lead back into a p r e - a c t i v i t y planning mode. As experiences should be sequential and cumulative, r e s u l t s from any given experience should suggest directions for further research. The experiences may form a background for further environmental work and may even open students' per- ceptions of future employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Sequential and divergent learning i s dependent upon evaluation and objective formulation. The teacher should encourage the learner's a b i l i t y to locate and u t i l i z e additional resources f o r learning as hi s a b i l i t y and int e r e s t indicate. Eventually, independent long-term project involvement may r e s u l t . Learning should lead into other studies or into 1 7 2 . 6 5 further indepth study. Because everything i n the community i s i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y and interlocked, i t i s natural to assume that^one well-planned project w i l l lead to many more. This phase can become meaningful and relevant to the future development of the i n d i v i d u a l and the program. Concepts, values, and strategies may be modified i n the l i g h t of t h i s phase. Sp e c i f i c Structuring Modes: Strategies and Constraints While freedom and discovery are promoted, a strategy f o r approaching the learning experience or a c t i v i t y i s e s s e n t i a l to promote r e l i a b l e learning. With educational objectives, content, and r o l e s i n mind, the teacher and learner must evolve some modes for approaching the environ- ment, i n which freedom and discovery can be employed to educational advantage. Then, the structure becomes the method or instrument for a personal development of concepts, values, and learning s k i l l s . E l l i o t Eisner, R. A. Salome, and D. G. Watts provide some rather e x p l i c i t structuring modes or strategies which would appear useful i n the teaching of aesthetic and environ- mental constructs. In D. G. Watt's book Environmental Studies, he out- l i n e s the following strategies i n organizing for the discovery of environmental concepts and the development of perceptual s k i l l s : 1. "explaining the i n d i v i d u a l " 173. 66 In t h i s approach the teacher devises a series of questions to illuminate the students' backgrounds and values to themselves. Through an anonymous survey introduced early i n the course the clas s ' views could be exposed, and would provide some information for co-ordinating lessons. A year end survey might be taken for comparison., purposes. 2. "piecing together the jigsaw" - an inductive approach In t h i s approach the students try to discover the connections between f a m i l i a r features of the neighbourhood. It enables a wide range of materials to be learned. 3. "hub and spoke" - a deductive approach The group operates from a central point (geograph- i c a l ) from which most major features can be viewed. The learners radiate from the point to investigate features. Interesting themes are i s o l a t e d and explored further. I;, " c i r c u l a r " - an extensive approach Only those major features which can be interconnected by the use of a c i r c l e are selected for study. The learning group concludes th e i r study by returning to the i n i t i a l feature they began with. 5* " s p i r a l " - an intensive approach The s p i r a l approach i s similar to the c i r c u l a r s t r a t - egy, except that an ever-increasing higher l e v e l of under- standing i s required. 6. "interlocking s p i r a l themes" - a comparative and contrasting approach 67 Two or more themes are pursued simultaneously and the learning group endeavours to discover i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 7. "peeling the onion" - an intensive approach The learning group attempts to make an exhaustive analysis of a single t o p i c . ( 0 E l l i o t Eisner organizes learning a c t i v i t i e s around three basic types of objectives: 1. "behavioral or i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives" E l l i o t Eisner points out that t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l mode i s useful, i f not the superior mode of learning many technical s k i l l s such as loading and operating a camera and learning darkroom procedures. Individual learning outcomes should be a l i k e and displayed i n i d e n t i c a l behavior. However, while use f u l , t h i s mode of learning should, not comprise the core of art education programs. 2. "expressive objectives" I t does not seek to anticipate what kind of p a r t i c u l a r response or product the student w i l l produce. Instead, i t aims at constructing an encounter, creating a setting, forming a s i t u a - tion which w i l l stimulate diverse and l a r g e l y unanticipated responses and solutions from stu- dents. What students learn from such encounters becomes-post-facto-the expressive objectives.'' 3. "Type 3 objectives" High l e v e l design constraints are placed upon the learner i n the form of a problem. His task i s to take t h i s problem and within the constraints that accompany i t , arrive at one or more solutions that provide a s a t i s f y i n g reso- l u t i o n . ' 1 7 5 . 68 The number of possible solutions becomes i n f i n i t e . And the constraint i s designed to work as a stimulus to creative 79 thought—to provide a focus. R. A. Salome, i n h i s a r t i c l e "Perceptual Training as a Factor i n Children's Art," suggests that art educators can do more to t r a i n v i s u a l awareness. He goes on to suggest that: Studies i n the psychology of perception i n d i c - ate that certain functions can be improved through i n s t r u c t i o n which develops the a b i l i t y to ebserve and respond s e l e c t i v e l y to v i s u a l s t i m u l i . In h i s a r t i c l e , he presents Ralph Pearson's four l e v e l s of v i s i o n concept, which i s as follows: 1. " p r a c t i c a l v i s i o n " Objects are perceived and given verbal l a b e l s , c l a s - s i f i e d , and remembered. This mode of v i s i o n i s i n general pr a c t i c e . 2. "curious v i s i o n " Objects are examined more clos e l y than one normally attends to sti m u l i , but perception s t i l l may be b l i n d to pattern r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3 . "imaginative or r e f l e c t i v e v i s i o n " This mode of v i s i o n c a l l s up past images and can add to or change the image, through the free play of the imagina- t i o n . Ii. "pure v i s i o n " This mode i s perceiving objects as ends i n them- 81 selves. 1 7 6 . 6 9 One wonders i f the human organism does not employ other sensory modes of awareness i n the same manner. If v i s u a l awareness i s to be improved, somehow the learner must adopt these various modes of perception. Salome concludes h i s a r t i c l e by suggesting experiences designed to u t i l i z e these various perceptual modes. I t appears that i n the i n i t i a l stages of increasing v i s u a l awareness the learner w i l l consciously have to exercise a greater i n t e n s i t y for looking at and manipulating images, devoid as possible from a verbal approach, u n t i l h i s i n t u i t i v e powers work hab i t u a l l y and r e g u l a r l y . To acquire the more a r t i s t i c habits of imaginative and pure v i s i o n , the learner might adopt a number of approach- es: 1. The learner might approach the environment look- ing for p a r t i c u l a r aesthetic features or phenomena, rather than i d e n t i f y i n g objects, e. g. texture 2. The learner might employ "curious v i s i o n " - - studying a single object from a number of d i f f e r e n t vantage points. 3 . The learner might Remove an object from i t s o r i g i n a l setting and, then, study i t i n new settings of h i s choice. Ji. The learner might study an object from a distant and from a short vantage point. 5 . The learner might 'study an object by recording i t i n various media. 1 7 7 . 70 6. The learner may work from a single recorded image--making modifications to i t s appearance i n successive works. I t i s implied, and maybe should be stated, that the devel- opment of v i s u a l awareness i s contingent upon the actual use of v i s u a l perception i n a variety of learning experiences. In conclusion, these modes combined with various focusing clues can provide a wealth of learning opportunities, and can be adapted for use i n any l o c a l e . By presenting the philosophy, theory, and method- ology that has been outlined i n the preceding pages, the author has endeavoured to i l l u s t r a t e how art can be an in t e g r a l part of environmental studies without becoming the mechanical servant of other subjects i n the study. Now, i t seems p r a c t i c a l to of f e r a model teaching-learning unit for examination to i l l u s t r a t e the proposed implementation of such concepts. s 17o. Chapter I4. IMPLEMENTING A TEACHING-LEARNING UNIT Following i s an examination of a plan for imple- mentation of a content unit of work, to r e a l i z e how content and behavioral objectives are integrated during the actual teaching-learning strategies. For the example, the author has selected the f i r s t of the environmental content topics-- ethnic and c u l t u r a l differences, with a s p e c i f i c study of the Chinese Community of East Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia as the sample. The f i r s t task of any teacher when planning a unit i s to define the s p e c i f i c objectives, both content and behavioral, to which one w i l l be addressing one's teaching strategies and subsequently the learning strategies of the student or students involved. Depending upon the depth and breadth of analysis assigned to the topic, the teacher would begin the unit planned by delineating the behavioral objec- tives one wished to be concerned with. Behavioral Objectives Highlighted i n the Unit I The Cognitive Hierarchy A. To sensitize and develop s k i l l s of sensory perception B. To develop the a b i l i t y to generalize and conceptual- ize C. To discriminate aesthetic assets from l i a b i l i t i e s (the appreciative domain) 71 1 7 9 . 72 D. To f o s t e r the development o f p e r s o n a l imagery to express one ' s c o n c e p t s , i d e a s , and fee l ings-* I I The A f f e c t i v e Domain A . To deve lop an acceptance o f and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s , as expressed i n a e s t h e t i c forms and l i f e s t y l e s B . To expand the l e a r n e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l concerns and to f o s t e r an a t t i t u d e o f independent s tudy and r e s e a r c h I I I Psychomotor or M a n i p u l a t i v e S k i l l s A . To deve lop b a s i c r e c o r d i n g and r e p o r t i n g s k i l l s , such as those r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l photography and s k e t c h i n g IV S o c i a l S k i l l s A . To f o s t e r communicat ion o f c o n c e p t s , i d e a s , and f e e l i n g s to the group,, B . To deve lop c a p a c i t i e s f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , . a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y C . To deve lop powers o f s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n V Working S k i l l s and S t r a t e g i e s A . To deve lop d e s c r i p t i v e , a n a l y t i c a l , and c r e a t i v e s k i l l s , b o t h v i s u a l and v e r b a l , to i n t e r p r e t a e s t h e t i c e x p e r - iences.^ B . To deve lop and use a working v o c a b u l a r y to d i s c u s s a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s G. To i n c r e a s e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s D. To i n c r e a s e the a b i l i t y to use a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s 180. 73 as s t i m u l i t o c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y w i t h i n c o n v e n t i o n a l a r t modes . The o v e r a r c h i n g and dominant o b j e c t i v e t h a t i s d e s i r e d as an outcome o f t h i s u n i t i s the a f f e c t i v e one o f — an a c c e ptance o f and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s , as e x p r e s s e d i n a e s t h e t i c forms and l i f e s t y l e s , as d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h the study o f the C hinese Community o f E a s t Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o lumbia. W h i l e t h i s o b j e c t i v e may be the emphasis o f the u n i t , t h a t i s n o t t o say t h a t o t h e r b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s cannot be d e v e l o p e d and are n o t n e c e s - s a r y i n t h e i r development t o b r i n g about the a t t a i n m e n t o f the paramount c o n c e r n . As H i l d a Taba s u g g e s t s , the summit o f a h i e r a r c h y o f o b j e c t i v e s cannot be r e a c h e d w i t h o u t the a t t a i n m e n t o f numerous and o f t e n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l ( c o n c e r n e d w i t h the complete gamut o f b e h a v i o r a l s k i l l s ) l o w e r l e v e l o b j e c t i v e s . T h e r e f o r e , the a u t h o r w i l l endeavour t o d e s c r i b e , s t e p - b y - s t e p , how the a t t a i n m e n t o f the main a f f e c t i v e o b j e c - t i v e s depend upon p r e v i o u s b e h a v i o r a l developments i n o t h e r domains. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , the a u t h o r w i l l d e s c r i b e i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l and h i e r a r c h i c a l sequence the f o l l o w i n g components t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n s t r u c t u r i n g a t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g u n i t : '.'1. t e a c h i n g o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , 2. l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , 3. c o n t e n t and b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , and I4.. d i a g n o s t i c or e v a l u a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . 181. Ik The Teaching-Learning Unit Described I P r e - a c t i v i t y I n s t r u c t i o n a l Strategies The teacher selects the behavioral objectives and content objectives to be focused upon. He subsequently i organizes the teaching-learning strategy designed to a t t a i n the objectives. II Teaching and Learning Strategies During the A c t i v i t y Stage A. The introductory stage, which i n t h i s unit i s teacher i n i t i a t e d 1. Classroom teaching strategies The teacher either takes or asks the students to meet him at a given place, the learning station, i n the heart of downtown Chinatown. The students are asked to come equipped with th e i r cameras, a sketchbook and drawing materials, and a map of downtown Vancouver. 2. Teaching strategies at the learning station The teacher assigns an i n i t i a l problem to the students to take an hour walk out from t h e i r p osition and to define the v i s i b l e extent of Chinatown by marking the area out on the i r c i t y map and returning to t h e i r s t a r t i n g point for discussion. For t h i s task to be accomplished, the teacher i s assuming that the students already have: a. developed some v i s u a l concepts concerning t h e i r own North American l i f e s t y l e and culture, and b. the a b i l i t y to discriminate between the i r v 182. 75 own c u l t u r a l signs and symbols and those of a d i f f e r e n t culture. It i s assumed that the lesson can be b u i l t from t h i s base, i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l fashion. B. The inquiry and discovery stage, with an emphasis on the learning strategies of f a c t gathering, discriminating differences, and categorizing while i n t e r a c t i n g with the environment The learner moves outward from h i s point i n t e r - acting with the environment and delineating the area on his map. However, i f the student i s to complete t h i s task one must assume that a number of processes w i l l occur i n the interim. The student w i l l have i n i t i a l l y gathered v i s u a l images through a variety of cognitive means. He may have developed a complete view of the environment i n t u i t i v e l y through synaesthetic perception. He may also have broken down the observations into viewing d i s t i n c t aesthetic phenomena. Also, he may have l a b e l l e d items with verbal symbols. This discovery period becomes i n i t i a l l y a f a c t or image gathering p e r i o d — t h e f i r s t i n a hierarchy of cognitive stages towards concept formation. Depth of cognitive insight w i l l vary with the i n d i v i d u a l . In order to define the ph y s i c a l / v i s u a l extent of the p a r t i c u l a r community, the student must advance h i s thinking to a somewhat higher l e v e l of cognitive reasoning. He must be able to d i s t i n g u i s h between the new or foreign features from the more f a m i l i a r features of h i s own western culture. 183. 76 However, one cannot g u a r a n t e e , a t t h i s p o i n t , t h a t the st u d e n t has an a c c u r a t e concept o f the Chinese c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s . The s t u d e n t may have i n c l u d e d q u a l i t i e s o t h e r than the c u l t u r e s t u d i e d , m e r e l y because they are u n f a m i l i a r or d i f f e r from h i s l i f e s e t . C. L e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s d u r i n g the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n stage The s t u d e n t s r e t u r n and compare maps t o d i s c o v e r i f they have any common p e r c e p t s . The t e a c h e r p r e c i p i t a t e s the d i s c u s s i o n by a s k i n g , "What are the outermost l i m i t s o f the community-under s t u d y ? " Answers are compared. The t e a c h e r ' s n e x t q u e s t i o n might be, " I f t h e r e appear t o be common bound- a r i e s , what c r i t e r i a were used t o e s t a b l i s h the l i m i t s ? " Common g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e then i t e m i z e d and d i s c u s - sed. The s t u d e n t s might l i s t such d i f f e r i n g f e a t u r e s a s : a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l i n g s t o r e p r o d u c t s c a l l i g r a p h y and s i g n s the predominance o f Chinese p e o p l e w i t h d i f f e r i n g p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s c l o t h i n g s t y l e s sounds f o o d s m e l l s c o l o u r schemes, p a t t e r n s , and symbols At t h i s p o i n t , a v e r y g e n e r a l concept o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s d e f i n e d i n v e r b a l terms. To r e f i n e and ex t e n d the conc e p t , 18k. 77 more subtle c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must be perceived and noted. To implement a further stage of concept refinement and to promote the ultimate aim of appreciation of c u l t u r a l differences the teacher suggests a further task, and the a c t i v i t y changes from pure observation to the addition of recording images. D. Learning strategies aimed at r e f i n i n g concepts and developing appreciation The students are required to record either photo- graphically or i n sketch form, or by both means, features which denote c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Chinese culture: the images intending to communicate or express th e i r perceptions and conceptualizations of what they denote to be t y p i c a l l y Chinese i n character. This stage i s where perceptions and conceptualizations reveal unique q u a l i t i e s , depending upon the experiences or encounters the individ\ial had. This i s not to say that there w i l l not be some commonality of con- ceptualization, and just as there i s never a complete common- a l i t y of perception, conceptualization must have some unique a t t r i b u t e s . This i n d i v i d u a l i t y of conceptualization i n the aesthetic domain i s i d e a l l y suited as a basis for creative work and for the basis of an appreciative realm. E. Learning strategies during the divergent stage Prom this point i t i s the intent of the program to encourage these unique percepts into more divergent outlets of expression. The photography i t s e l f , may become the i n d i - 185. 78 v idiual• s means of self-expression, or the i n i t i a l images recorded may be translated or projected into other art forms --paintings, sculptures, f i l m s , etc. The i n d i v i d u a l would undoubtedly begin to focus on s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s or images that i n t e r e s t him and provide a stimulus to h i s thinking. In a similar way, as the student's focus became more i n d i - vidualized the teacher-student i n t e r a c t i o n would necessitate a one to one r e l a t i o n s h i p . True creative growth occurs when the way i s not t o t a l l y clear and the i n d i v i d u a l i s permitted, through personal choice and evaluation, to combine, add, or delete certain variables and make a state- ment which was not predetermined. Evaluative Strategies as Related to Content and Behavioral Expectations Instruction .and evaluation must be rooted i n clear educational aims, goals, and objectives, i f either i n s t r u c - t i o n or evaluation i s to be systematically employed to the learner's greatest advantage. With these guides delineated and c l e a r l y i n mind i n s t r u c t i o n a l and evaluative strategies should complement each other and promote strategies aimed at reaching an ever higher p o s i t i o n i n a hierarchy of growth fac t o r s . I t i s the author's intent to primarily employ eval- uation strategies i n a "formative" manner, ^ as an a i d to making wise and v a l i d educational decisions regarding future i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n and to evaluating the effectiveness of the present program. 186. 79 Most art educators w i l l agree unequivocally that there are as yet no s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a l i d or r e l i a b l e o b j e c t i v e tests or scales of measure- ment i n a r t . ^ While i t would seem u n l i k e l y , i f not impossible, to formally and accurately measure growth numerically i n art education through summative tests, i t does seem useful to be able to diagnose the attainment or growth i n the areas of content and behavioral objectives. However, the indicators of growth may be recognized by a number of less formal means. For few formal testing procedures e f f e c t i v e l y focus on the goals and objectives of the curriculum and can v a l i d l y measure the attainment of a multitude of simultaneously attained objec- t i v e s , including divergent areas of learning. In establishing l e s s formal, formative evaluation procedures l e t us examine the various objectives about which the author has been concerned i n the model teaching-learning u n i t . Here there w i l l be suggestions for evaluating the various content and behavioral objectives. What evaluative strategies can be employed and what evidence would be accepted as indicators of growth? By the very nature of the involvement, growth w i l l occur i n multiple areas and r e s u l t s w i l l tend to be i d i o - syncratic and diverse, making for a d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining exact measurements for a group of students. Therefore, the teacher must be able to diagnose growth on an informal basis. In assessing growth the teacher must look to both the process and the product of the learning a c t i v i t y . 1 8 7 . 80 Examples of informal evaluation procedures applic- able to the teaching-learning unit described are: I Af f e c t i v e Objectives Evidence of a f f e c t i v e growth that the author would consider as i n d i c a t i o n of an appreciation for d i f f e r i n g cultures i s the voluntary i n i t i a t i o n by each student i n at leas t one follow-up a c t i v i t y . Such a c t i v i t i e s might be: A. art work stemming from the i n i t i a l probe, B. further probing or research into some p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the culture, C. taking the opportunity to view the culture's a c t i v - i t i e s when further experiences are provided (e. g. a f i l m on China, a musical production, an art e x h i b i t ) , D. making comparative studies of t h e i r own culture with that of the culture under study, and E. checking out l i b r a r y books rel a t e d to the topic. However, i t must also be r e a l i z e d that "...attitudes, values, and tastes take time to develop and sometimes come to f r u i - t i o n years af t e r actual teaching ceases. II Substantive Objectives The attainment of content objectives could be evaluated by the following means: A. by an analysis of concepts expressed i n conversation, by the taping of classroom discussions i n answer to explor- atory questions posed by the teacher (e. g. "What evidence of a r t i s t i c expression was v i s i b l e i n the community?") B. by an analysis of the verbal-visual diary for an 188. 81 expression of concepts i n either written or graphic forms, C. through an assigned in t e r p r e t a t i v e essay written about th e i r experiences and findings, D. by pre-testing and post-testing through written examination for an expansion of related f a c t s , ideas, and concepts. III Psychomotor and Manipulative Objectives The technical s k i l l s of photography and developing can be evaluated by three processes: A. by having the students enumerate the technical pro- cedures i n loading and using a camera/ or i n developing p r i n t s , B. by subsequently observing the students 1 actual manipulation of the equipment and materials, and C. by judging the technical q u a l i t y of the p r i n t s . IV Working and Social S k i l l s Candid observations of the student's approach behavior during the a c t i v i t y period would be indicators of the student's degree of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Self-evaluation s k i l l s can be developed, as well as noted, during teacher-student discussions by the posing of value c l a r i f i c a t i o n style questions to draw out judgments by the student related to the effectiveness and r e s u l t s of h i s work. For example, the teacher might ask, "In what respects do you f e e l that your work has improved i n the l a t e s t project?" An aesthetic vocabulary can also be promoted during periods of discussion and i t s growth evaluated 189. 82 as wel l . The verbal-visual diary i s another indicator of growth i n t h i s area. V Cognitive Objectives Powers of concept formation can be analyzed through the strategies already outlined under the topic of content objectives. The attainment of expressive or creative objec- t i v e s , r e f e r r i n g to the development of personal imagery, can be evaluated through a close observation of strategies innovated by the student and by the r e s u l t i n g products created. Product evaluations should be conducted i n a con- su l t a t i o n period where strategies and products can be openly discussed. Written or taped notes could be taken by the teacher. As i l l u s t r a t e d , formative evaluation i s conducted continuously during the process of teaching and learning and i s primarily for the improvement of those processes. Student feedback can take a variety of forms—questionnaires, tests, products", comments, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In art educa- ti o n such communication can take both verbal and non-verbal forms. If evaluation i s to complement i n s t r u c t i o n i n a formative way i t must be a continuous process of assessment of attainment and re-assessment of i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n . Within art education programs evaluational procedures have generally been the most vague and neglected area of teacher concern and p r a c t i c e . In a l l c u r r i c u l a approaches teachers must have clear ideas or proposals for what they are eval- 190. 83 uating aa well as v a l i d evaluative procedures to assess r e s u l t s . Because, as E l l i o t Eisner states* "To evaluate i s to be aware of what one values, what one does, and what 86 the consequences of one's doing y i e l d s . " The e f f e c t i v e teacher needs both i n s t r u c t i o n a l and evaluative s k i l l s . In summary, the author needs to draw the reader's attention to one f i n a l reservation. WEAKNESSES FORESEEN IN THE CURRICULUM DESIGN The rat i o n a l e , the curriculum proposal including goals and objectives, and methods for implementation and evaluation have been c a r e f u l l y designed. But u n t i l the program i s implemented and the hypothesis examined i n a classroom setting, one can only speculate that such a system- a t i c approach to the problem addressed i n the introduction w i l l yield'the desired r e s u l t s . And while formative evalua- ti o n procedures may prove invaluable i n guiding i n s t r u c t i o n a l practice, the lack of sophisticated,^summative evaluation procedures may prove to lessen the v a l i d i t y of any evaluations. Formative assessments appear rather tenuous evidence of suc- cess. I r o n i c a l l y , while short-term indicators of growth may be easier to evaluate than long-term effects of such a pro- gram, the long-term e f f e c t s may never e f f e c t i v e l y be measured. CONCLUSION During the past decade a growing need has developed for an e n t i r e l y new emphasis on the goals, content, and 191 . 8b, teaching strategies of art education c u r r i c u l a . In the pre- ceding curriculum design an attempt has been made to provide a sound th e o r e t i c a l foundation i n terms that classroom teachers can understand and employ. The author has attempted to supply a systematic approach i n the planning of the scope, sequence, and integration of teaching-learning strategies. For i t i s believed that the more systematic and encompassing the c u r r i c - ulum design i s , the more l i k e l y i t i s that desired educational goals w i l l be attained. This i s the premise under which the author i s operating i n providing d i s t i n c t i v e goals and objec- ti v e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l and evaluative strategies, and r o l e s . For support for the rationale the author has drawn upon such educators as Louis Raths, John Bremer, Hilda Symonds, D. Watts, Vincent Lanier, June McFee, and Doris Carter. In proposing a design style the author has been influenced by such curriculum experts and designers as Hilda Taba, E l l i o t Eisner, John Dewey, and Jerome Bruner. For evaluation strategies the work of David Ecker, Hilda Taba, E l l i o t Eisner, Arthur E l f l a n d , Michael Day, and James Wise were adapted. The author's dual aim i n proposing the foregoing curriculum design has been one of o f f e r i n g an alternative art education program with an emphasis on the content objec- tives of acquiring facts and concepts r e l a t e d to the s o c i a l role art f u l f i l l s i n our society and on the process s k i l l s to use e f f e c t i v e l y aesthetic considerations i n one's d a i l y l i f e . I t i s hoped that teachers w i l l use t h i s curriculum 1 9 2 . 85 guide w i t h i n s i g h t ; make the necessary adjustments i n the s p e c i f i c content samples and l e a r n i n g experiences; and c r e a t e the necessary t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c h i e f i n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m . 1 9 3 . FOOTNOTE REFERENCES Chapter 1 "^Vincent L a n i e r , "A Plague On A l l Your Houses: The Tragedy o f A r t E d u c a t i o n , " A r t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 27, No. 3, March 191kt P. 12. A b s t r a c t e d from V i n c e n t L a n i e r , T e a c h i n g Secondary A r t ( S c r a n t o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Textbook Company, 19Tli). -'Louis E. R a t h s , T e a c h i n g F o r L e a r n i n g (Columbus, Ohio: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1969), p. 51. R i c h a r d S a u l Wurman, ed.. Y e l l o w Pages o f L e a r n i n g R e s o u r c e s , c i t e d by John Bremer, "ABC's o f C i t y L e a r n i n g , " BCATA J o u r n a l f o r A r t Tea c h e r s , V o l . 15, No. 1, p. 1. ""John Bremer, ,On E d u c a t i o n a l Change ( A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a : N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Ele m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1973), p. 26. ^ R a t h s , p. 2i+. 7 Jerome S. Br u n e r , on Knowing e s s a y s f o r the l e f t hand (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : the Belknap P r e s s o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1962), p. 126. Q K u r t Rowland, E d u c a t i n g the Senses (London: Gi n n and Company L t d . ) , n. d., p. 9. 9 Rowland, p. 17. 1 0 D o r i s M a r i e C a r t e r , "The use o f v i s i o n as the p r i m - a r y mode o f p e r c e p t i o n i n the t e a c h i n g o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l educa- t i o n , " A r t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 26, No. 5, May 1973, p. 20. 1 1 J u n e McFee, "Why do we t e a c h a r t i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s ? " S t u d i e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , NAEA, V o l . 9, No. 2, W i n t e r 1968, p. 3. 12 J . H u i z i n g a , c i t e d i n Rowland, p. 16. 13 Rowland, p. 10. "^Rowland, p. 10. 86 191+. 87 "^^McFee, "Why do we teach art i n the public schools?" p. 1. McFee, "Why do we teach art i n the public schools?" p 0 l . "^June McFee, "Society, Art, and Education," c i t e d i n George Pappas, ed.,.Concepts i n Art and Education (London: Collier-Macmillan Limited, 1970), p. 81. Chapter 2 1 A Hilda Symonds, ed., The Teacher and the C i t y : Urban Studies Project (Agincourt, Ontario: Methuen Publica- tions, 1 9 7 D , P. 5. "^Rudolf Arnheim, c i t e d i n Rowland, p. 18. 20 Rowland, p. 22. 21 " McFee, "Society, Art, and Education," p. 8 l . 22 Mabel Kaufman, "Art i n open education," Art Educa- tion, Vol. 25, No. 9, December 1972, p. 21. 2 3 Symonds, p. 9° ^"Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City, c i t e d in Symonds, p. 9. 25 McFee, "Why do we teach art i n the p u l i c schools?" pp. 3-1+. 2 6 Carter, p. 20. 27 Carter, p„ 21. 28 John Dewey, Experience and Education (1938j r p t . New York: C o l l i e r Books, 1963), p. 27 . 2<^See Hilda Taba, Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, Inc., 1962). 3°Michael Day, "The Use of Formative Evaluation i n the Art Classroom," Art Education, Vol. 27, No. 2, Feb. 1971+, P. 1+. 3 1Day, p. 1+. Chapter 3 and 1+ 1 9 5 . 88 ^ 2 L a n i e r , "A Plague On A l l Your Houses," p. 13. - ^ L a n i e r , "A Plague On A l l Your Houses," p. 13. - ^ A r t h u r D. E l f l a n d , " E v a l u a t i n g G o a l s f o r A r t E d u c a t i o n , " A r t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 27, No. 2, Feb. 1971+-* P. 9. E l f l a n d d e f i n e s aims, g o a l s , and o b j e c t i v e s i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. An e d u c a t i o n a l a i m : i s a statement o f g e n e r a l purpose t h a t c u t s a c r o s s s u b j e c t a r e a s . 2. S u b j e c t g o a l s j u s t i f y why t h a t s u b j e c t s h o u l d be t a u g h t . They p o i n t t o the unique e d u c a t i o n a l advantages o f the f i e l d . a n d suggest p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the con- t e x t u a l r o o t s . 3. O b j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e a s i n g l e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . 35see R. N e a l A p p l e b y , " S y n a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n f o r sense a b i l i t y , " A r t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 27, No. 3, March 1974, pp. 22 -25 . L a n i e r , T e a c h i n g Secondary A r t , p. 9l i . 37 V i n c e n t L a n i e r , " A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n : The New E l i t i s m ? " A r t s and A c t i v i t i e s . DecemDer'1972, n. p." L a n i e r , " A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , " n. p. J See McFee, " S o c i e t y , A r t , and E d u c a t i o n , " pp. 71 - 90. ^ C h a r l e s A R e i c h , The G r e e n i n g o f Ameri c a ( T o r o n t o : Bantam Books o f Canada L t d . , 1 9 7 D , p. 279. " ^ L a n i e r , " A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , " n. p. 42, " L a n i e r , " A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , " n. p. h ^ L a n i e r , T e a c h i n g Secondary A r t , p. 10. A p p l e b y , p. 2 l i . ^ B . N. Lee and M. D. M e r r i l l , W r i t i n g Complete A f f e c - t i v e O b j e c t i v e s : A S h o r t Course (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wads- w o r t h P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1972), p. 2. j L A b s t r a c t e d from Lee and M e r r i l l . kl Lee and M e r r i l l , p. 17. ^ E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "The Promise o f Teacher E d u c a t i o n , " A r t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 25, No. 3, March 1972, p. 12. 196. 89 1+9 Symonds, p. 2. 50 Joseph D. H a s s e t t and A r l i n e W e isberg, Open Educa- t i o n : A l t e r n a t i v e s W i t h i n Our T r a d i t i o n (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y ! P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1972), pp. 123-121+. -^D. G. Watts, E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s (New Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1969), p. 86. 52 Kaufman, p. 21 . ^ 3 W a t t s , p. 107. ^ M c P e e , " S o c i e t y , A r t , and E d u c a t i o n , " p. 89. 55 Bremer, On E d u c a t i o n a l Change, pp. 17 - 1 8 . ^ 6 W a t t s , pp. 92 -93 . 57 ^'Watts, p. 71. ^ 8 W a t t s , p. 76. 59 A l t e r n a t i v e S c h o o l s : P i o n e e r i n g D i s t r i c t s C r e a t e O p t i o n s f o r S t u d e n t s ^ A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a : A P u b l i c a t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972) , p. 35. 60 R x c h a r d S a u l Wurman, ed., Y e l l o w Pages o f L e a r n i n g Resources (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The MIT P r e s s , 1972), p. 2. ^ M e t h o d s may f a l l i n t o such v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s a s : 1. e x t e n s i v e and i n t e n s i v e f i e l d s t u d i e s , 2. s i m u l a t e d f i e l d s t u d i e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l , 3. h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d t o u n s t r u c t u r e d approaches, and 1+. e x p o s i t i o n , i n d u c t i v e , and d e d u c t i v e approaches. C a t e g o r i e s , o f c o u r s e , a l s o combine t o form a l e a r n i n g a pproach. 62 H a s s e t t and Weisberg, p. 57. 6 "\ H a s s e t t and Weisberg, p. 97. 6 l + R o w l a n d , p. 28. 65 Rowland, p. 27. 6A E a r l W. Linderman, I n v i t a t i o n t o V i s i o n : Ideas and I m a g i n a t i o n f o r A r t (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. brown Companyj P U b i i s n e r s , 19b7J, p. 11. 1 9 7 . 90 67 Rowland, p. 31 . 68 Marion Quin Dix, "Planning Art Experiences," Edwin Z i e g f i e l d , ed., Education and Art: A Symposium (Switzerland: UNESCO, 1953 ) , p. 36 . ~ 69 For a system of organic teaching see Sylvia Ashton- Warner, Teacher (New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1 9 6 3 ) . 7°Watts, p. 18 . 71 James F. Wise, "Techniques for assessing growth i n aesthetic education," Art.Education, Vol. 21 , No. 1, January 1968, p. 27 . 7 2Raths, p. i+7• 7 3Wise, p 0 27 . Raths, p. \\$o 7 5 Wurman, p. 86 . 7 6See Watts, pp. 7 9 - 8 2 . 77 E l l i o t W. Eisner, "Do Behavioral Objectives and Accountability Have a Place i n Art Education? 1 1 Art Education, Vol. 26 , No. 5, May 1973, p. k* 7ft Eisner, "Do Behavioral Objectives and Accountability Have a Place i n Art Education?" p. I4.. 79 Eisner, "Do Behavioral Objectives and Accountability Have a Place i n Art Education?" pp. 3 -5 . 80 R. A. Salome, "Perceptual Training as a factor i n children's a r t , " Art Education. Vol. 19 , No. 9, December 1966, p. 27 . Ralph M. Pearson, How To See Modern Pictures, c i t e d i n Salome, p. 28 . 82 L. Kochka, c i t e d i n Exemplary Programs i n Art Education (CEMREL), p. 113. ®^See Day, pp. 3 - 7 . Day's terms originated with Michael Scriven. Michael Day favours formative evaluation over summative measurement. E l l i o t Eisner also supports t h i s approach to evaluation, as do such educators as Lee Cronbach, Jerome Bruner, Benjamin Bloom, and Hilda Taba. 1 9 8 . 91 ^ " L a n i e r , T e a c h i n g S e c o n d a r y A r t , p . l J+ l . 8 ^ E l f l a n d , p . 8 . ^ E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "How c a n y o u m e a s u r e a r a i n b o w ? T a c t i c s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e t e a c h i n g o f a r t , " A r t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 2 i i , N o . $ , May 1971, p.. 37. 1 9-9. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT SOURCES NOT CITED IN THE TEXT Bremer, Anne and Bremer, John. Open E d u c a t i o n : A B e g i n n i n g . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Win s t o n , 1972. Bremer, John and von M o s c h z i s k e r , M i c h a e l . The Sc h o o l W i t h - out W a l l s : P h i l a d e l p h i a ' s Parkway Program. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Wi n s t o n , I n c . , 1971'. B r o o k o v e r , W i l b u r B. and E r i c k s o n , E d s e l L. S o c i e t y S c h o o l s and. L e a r n i n g . B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . , 1969. Dewey, John. Democracy and E d u c a t i o n . 1916; r p t . T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n Canada, L t d . , 19J4-J4-. E c k e r , D a v i d W. " E v a l u a t i n g the A r t s C u r r i c u l u m : the Brook- l i n e E x p e r i e n c e . " A r t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 27, No„ 2, Feb. 1971*, PP. l l - l i + . Gray I I I , W i l l i a m A. " S i m i l a r Models f o r P r o v i d i n g A l t e r n a - t i v e Approaches f o r P u b l i c S c h o o l i n g . " Vancouver, B r i t i s h C olumbia: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , handout, pp. 1-15. Hausman, Jerome J . "The P l a s t i c A r t s , H i s t o r y and D e s i g n - Three . C u r r e n t s T o w a r d : I d e n t i f y i n g Content f o r A r t E d u c a t i o n . " ed., George Pappas. Concepts i n A r t and E d u c a t i o n . London: C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n L i m i t e d , 1970, pp. 26 - l i 5 . H a v i g h u r s t , R o b e r t J . and Neugarten, B e r n i c e L. S o c i e t y and E d u c a t i o n . B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . , 1957* Hunkins, F r a n c e s P. Q u e s t i o n i n g S t r a t e g i e s and Techni q u e s . B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . , 1972. I l l i c h , I v a n D. C e l e b r a t i o n o f Awareness: A C a l l f o r I n s t i t u - t i o n a l R e v o l u t i o n . Garden C i t y , N e w Y o r k : Anchor Books, Doubleday, and Company, I n c . , n. d. Jones, Frank E. The S o c i a l Bases o f E d u c a t i o n . T o r o n t o : Canadian Conference on C h i l d r e n , 1965. Koop, Wendy. "The A r t o f Everyman." Athene, V o l . 5, No. 3, August 1951, pp. 52-58. L a n i e r , V i n c e n t . " O b j e c t i v e s o f Teac h i n g A r t . " A r t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 25, No. 3, March 1972, pp. 15-19. 92 <2O0. ""93 Lovano-Kerr, Jessie. "Designing General Education Courses i n Art and Environment." Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University, class handout, source unspecified. MacGregor, Ronald N. "Designing Teacher Education Programs i n Art and Environment." Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta, class handout, source unspecified. "Modern C i t i e s Are Not C i t i e s . " A review. Manus. Vol. XXVI, No. lj.9, December 5 , 1973, pp. 3-I+. Shostak, Peter and Daugs, Donald R. Outdoor Education: Handbook K -7. V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: Shoell Enterprises Ltd., 1973. Smith, Ralph A. "Silberman and the B r i t i s h on Aesthetic Enterprise." Art Education, Vol. 26, No. 7, October 1973, PP. 19-22. Stevens, Jack. "The Community School." Queen Mary School, North Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, handout. Taba, Hilda. Teaching Strategies and Cognitive Functioning i n Elementary School Children. Cooperative Research Project No. 2I4.OI4., San Francisco State College, Feb. 1966. Theobald, Robert. An Alternative Future For America. Chicago: Swallow Press, Inc., 196ti. Zimbardo, P h i l i p and Ebbesen, Ebbe B. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, 1969. 20%. APPENDIX H i l d a Taba sees concepts, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , and judgments as p r o d u c t s o f c o g n i t i v e t h o u g h t . She o u t l i n e s t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f thought p r o c e s s e s w h i c h form a s e q u e n t i a l and d e v e l o p m e n t a l h i e r a r c h y . Those c a t e g o r i e s may be sum- m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s : Task I - Concept F o r m a t i o n Overt A c t i v i t y C o v e r t M e n t a l O p e r a t i o n 1. Enumerating and l i s t i n g D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g 2. G r o u p i n g I d e n t i f y i n g common p r o p e r t i e s 3. L a b e l i n g and c a t e g o r i z i n g D e t e r m i n i n g the h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r o f i t e m s Task I I - I n f e r r i n g and G e n e r a l i z i n g ( g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and p r i n c i p l e s ) O v ert A c t i v i t y C o v e r t M e n t a l O p e r a t i o n 1. I d e n t i f y i n g p o i n t s D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g , d i s t i n g u i s h - i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n from i r r e l e v a n t 2. E x p l a i n i n g i d e n t i f i e d R e l a t i n g p o i n t s t o each o t h e r ; i t e m s o f i n f o r m a t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g cause and e f f e c t Making i n f e r e n c e s o r Going beyond what i s g i v e n ; g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s f i n d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s , e x t r a - p o l a t i n g 91+ 2 0 2 . 95 Task III - Application of P r i n c i p l e s (explain something new, predict consequences of events, hypothesize about causes) Overt A c t i v i t y Covert Mental Operation 1. Predicting consequences, Analyzing the nature and the explaining unfamiliar phe- dimensions of the problem or nomena, hypothesizing condition 2. Explaining and supporting Determining the causal l i n k s the predictions and hypoth- leading to a prediction or eses hypothesis 3. V e r i f y i n g the predictions Using l o g i c a l reasoning to and hypotheses determine the necessary conditions and the degree of u n i v e r s a l i t y of the prediction or hypothesis The preceding outline of cognitive tasks i s a precis taken from Hilda Taba, Teaching Strategies and Cognitive Function- ing i n Elementary School Children (San Francisco State College, Cooperative Research Project No. 2J4.OI4., Feb. 1966), pp. 37-^3.

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