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Aesthetic learning experiences within the urban environment Andrews, Jeanette Louise 1976-02-18

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AESTHETIC LEARNING EXPERIENCES WITHIN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT: A FEASIBILITY STUDY by Jeanette Louise Andrews B.Ed, (secondary), University of British Columbia, 1967 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in the Department of the Faculty of Education, Graduate Division We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1976 (o) Jeanette Louise Andrews, 1976 ii In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Depa rtment The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ftor.AnLu J91C iii ABSTRACT This thesis is an extension of a research project begun by the investigator in 197k., anGl attempts to advance the establishment of an environmentally-based aesthetic edu cation program as an alternative learning approach in urban secondary schools. The goals in the investigator's curricu lum design were devoted to: 1. heightening visual perception and awareness to aesthetic and social phenomena within the urban environment, 2. increasing the degree of discrimination of aes thetic qualities perceived, and 3. stimulating the development and understanding of creative abilities through the experience of acquiring infor mation and visual imagery gathered from the local, urban en vironment and using that material in the creation of art work within a studio setting. As a classroom art teacher this investigator's con cerns have been to bridge the gap between educational theory and practice. In an endeavour to adapt better the curriculum design to classroom implementation, the investigator has taken a related learning task and self-tested it as a preliminary step essential to conducting a similar learning task with her student group. It was the investigator's belief that a teacher who has prior knowledge and experience of a given learning task should be more understanding, empathic, and better able to guide the learner13 progress through the various learning stages of the task. To undertake this research project the writer ass umed an investigator-artist role. The focus of urban play grounds was the subject for the artist's attention. As in vestigator, the writer recorded her observations, working strategies, and reactions throughout all stages of the learn ing process. A series of seven watercolour paintings res ulted from the project. The reported analysis was "project ive" in nature and endeavoured to examine both the objective and subjective components highlighted in the learning exper ience. Findings and recommendations for instruction were organized along an assumed natural learning continuum in order that teachers interested in implementing a similar learning program would have a consistent overview of the pro cess stages through which they would guide the students. A product analysis of the art work is also supplied to confirm earlier investigator assumptions concerning the character istics of the work fostered' by such a program. The report is presented in a verbal-visual form graphically to support the written statements of the "process" and "product" analy ses. As a consequence of this study the investigator-teacher's future action will reflect insights useful in con? ducting similar teaching and testing procedures and projective V analysis when introducing the original curriculum proposal, the feasibility of which has now been determined. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURESChapter 1 . INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Study . 1 Statement of the Problem ......... 2 Outline of the Research Approach and Focus 3 Organization of the Report and Reader Interests l\. Proposed Application of Findings ..... 7 2. A PROJECTIVE RESEARCH APPROACH 9 The Proposed Process Analysis 12 The Proposed Product Analysis 16 3. A GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE WORKING STRATEGIES . . 18 The Artistic Goal-Orientation Described . . 18 Performance Stages of Artistic Activity Described 19 Acquaintance with the Focus and Image Gathering 19 Reflective and Subjective Approaches . . 20 Painting Experiences 21 k. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS 23 A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE GATHERING AND COMPOSITION BUILDING STAGE . 23 Increased Visual Awareness of the Focus . . 2l\. vii Chapter Page Merits of the Various Recording Modes Employed 27 Social Awareness and Subjective Reactions Highlighted 29 Summary 36 CATEGORIES USEFUL TO THE PROCESS ANALYSIS . . 1+1+ A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DRAWING STAGE . . 1+5 Compositional Concerns Identified 1+5 Subjective Concerns Identified . 1+8 Summary 50 A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PAINTING STAGE . 60 Technical Concerns Identified ....... 60 Physical Concerns Identified 61 Subjective Reactions Identified 61+ Surface Counters and the Relationship Between Surface Counters .... 66 Relationships Between Surface Counters and Representational Counters 69 Summary 71 5. AN EVALUATIVE STAGE AND PRODUCT ANALYSIS .... 63 Findings 8Recommendations for Instruction 81+ Evaluative Models Described 81Product Analysis 89 6. CONSULTATION MODE, A VERBAL DIARY FORM, A TIMETABLE PROPOSAL, FURTHER TOPICS FOR STUDY RELATED TO THE FOCUS 92 Consultation Mode 9viii Chapter Page A Verbal Diary Form . 91+ A Timetable Proposal 96 Further Topics for Study Related to the Focus . 98 7. CONCLUSIONS 9 REFERENCES 101 APPENDIX 3 ix LIST OP TABLES Table Page 1. Image Sources for Compositions Developed 2k. 2. A Timetable Proposal 97 X LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Assorted Photographic Images Gathered of Recreational Activities and Equipment 38 2. Newspaper Image and Drawn Image for "Hide and Seek" 39 3. Drawn and Photographic Images Gathered for "Contemplation*' I4.O l+. Newspaper Images and Photographic Images Gathered for "Apron Strings" and "Communion" b.1 5. Newspaper Images Gathered for "Merry Go Round" . I4.2 6. Newspaper Images Gathered for "Merry Go Round" . Ii3 7. Skeletal Studies 51 8. Drawing Composition: "Hide and Seek" ...... 52 9. Drawing Composition: "Communion" 53 10. Drawing Composition: "Ascension" ........ $l± 11. Drawing Composition: "Death of Life1" 55 12. Drawing Composition: "Contemplation" 56 13. Drawing Composition: "Apron Strings" 57 H4.. Drawing Composition: "Merry Go Round" 58 15. Grid Pattern Over An Original Sketch 59 16. Painting Composition: "Hide and Seek" 73 17. Painting Composition: "Communion" 714. 18. Painting Composition: "Ascension" 75 19. Experimental Painting Exercise: "Death of Life" 76 20. Painting Composition: "Death of Life!' 77 xi Figure Page 21. Painting Composition: "Contemplation" 78 22. Painting Composition: "Apron Strings" 79 23. Painting Process I: "Merry Go Round" 80 2li. Painting Process II: "Merry Go Round" 81 25. Painting Composition: "Merry Go Round" 82 26. A Reflective Verbal Diary Form 95 xii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to dedicate this work to Professors Sam Black, James Gray, and Graeme Chalmers. For, from their examples, I have come to recognize the purpose of my efforts. It is not what one knows that is of consequence, but it is the knowledge that one gives and fosters in others that is of lasting importance. And, these three educators have dis played this gift. I also wish to thank and acknowledge Mr. Robert A. Andrews, my father, for his assistance with developing the photographic material presented in this thesis. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background to the Study For several years this investigator's research inter ests have evolved around the feasibility of developing an en vironmentally-based aesthetic education program for the sec ondary school level. In the process her studies have led her to consider three necessary research components. These staged components are as follows: 1. The development of an alternative art education program and the writing of a curriculum proposal entitled, "Aesthetic Explorations in the Urban Environment," (Appendix, page 103). 2. The implementation of a self-initiated testing project based on a learning task related to the curriculum. 3. The testing of a similar learning task on a group of high school students within the investigator's teaching assignment, to compare the findings of the two testing pro jects and to judge the effectiveness of, and the problems in volved with implementing the instructional recommendations offered in the self-testing analysis. The second research stage is the subject of this thesis, and should have a direct bearing upon the group study when it is initiated in the field. 1 . 2. Statement of the Problem The investigator recognized the need for the theories presented in the curriculum design to be tested on the part of both teacher and students to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the proposal and to reveal findings and to make recommendations for instruction that would facilitate the practical and effective implementation of such an alternative program. It was felt that a previous involvement in the learn ing task on the teacher's part might provide her with insights for directing the program and for evaluating the program's outcomes in the school. The investigator's reasoning was that not only would she, the teacher, be able to compare later the strategies, reactions, and results with those of her stud ents, but that her parallel involvement might also provide a good example and stimulus to the student learning group. The investigator believes that first-hand experiences preliminary to, and associated with, expected student learning situations are an asset to understanding and to guiding the students' ex periences in similar situations. Such an investigation forms the basis of this report. The question of research signifi cance which best reflects the problem to be addressed in this investigation is: What are the nature of the projective, ob jective, and subjective factors associated with developing a curriculum based on aesthetic exploration in the urban en vironment? Outline of the Research Approach and Focus The major goals of the curriculum design, "Aesthetic Explorations in the Urban Environment," fall into three broad areas of student response: 1. heightening visual perception and awareness to aesthetic and social phenomena within the urban environment, 2. increasing the degree of discrimination of aes thetic qualities perceived, and 3. stimulating the development and understanding of creative abilities through the experience of acquiring infor mation and visual imagery gathered from the local, urban en vironment and using that material in the creation of art work within a studio setting. Through a systematic investigation of the environment by employing the recording mode of a visual-verbal diary, im ages and ideas were acquired through sketched, photographic, and written notations, which later evolved into more formal and personal artistic expressions (see Figures 16-25, pp. 73-ti2). By focusing upon a limited range of content, and pro vided with a variety of strategic approaches; the artist-investigator focused in a reflective way upon the aesthetic possibilities and social circumstances within the city's play ground settings. To conduct the study an investigator-artist role was assumed, by the researcher. In the hopes of advancing the educational propositions and hypotheses outlined in the original curriculum proposal, see Appendix.* . the investigator attempted both a process and a product analysis in a field study she conducted in her local, urban environment. The investigator-artist selected a single focus--urban playgrounds—and, then, explored the local environment attempting to gather and to modify the im ages and information perceived, into personal artistic state ments. A series of seven watercolour paintings resulted. In the written study an attempt was made to record the "process" strategies employed and to evaluate the educa tional and artistic outcomes of those strategies. Upon com pletion of the exercise the investigator endeavoured to ana lyze the "products" or resultant art series to determine if such an approach could yield results characteristically diff erent from art work solely stimulated and executed within the confines of a classroom. In presenting this projective analy sis the investigator's efforts were directed towards examin ing and reporting the blend of objective and subjective com ponents. Organization of the Report and  Reader Interests As a classroom art teacher, the investigator's concern has always been for.bridging the gap between educational theory, growing out.of recent academic research findings, and the practical tasks; of teaching. Therefore, the form of pre sentation selected by the investigator has been one designed primarily to facilitate the teaching community's understand ing of the theories and findings as they are related to rec ommendations for instruction and implementation within a classroom. The investigator has arranged the information reported along the natural learning continuum of the artistic task un dertaken. In that way, it was posited that the classroom tea cher would nave a logical and sequential overview of the learn ing structure that might be anticipated in a similar learning situation and could better co-ordinate the relevant instruc tional strategies at each stage. The main contribution, in tended by the writer of this report, is to provide information for the advancement of curriculum development in art education. Of particular interest to the academic community, might be findings related to the description of the creative process which may serve to enlarge the already substantial body of knowledge on that subject. Incidental to the two fore going purposes of this study, the reader may find the graphic reports of the resulting artistic series of appreciative value. In this thesis presentation the investigator has prov ided a verbal-visual report in which she describes and analyses the investigation's development. Photographic documentation of the art work resulting from the project to support graphically the written statements is also provided. Through the project, the investigator has attempted to test the validity of a num ber of assumptions she developed earlier related to the form 6. of working mode. An attempt has been made to summarize a number of relevant findings revealed by the exercise and to provide recommendations for instructional strategies intended to maximize the benefits of such a program for the learners involved. In her conclusions, the investigator endeavoured to outline the general advantages and disadvantages reflected through her projective research approach to the theories of the curriculum, as those theories were conducted in this one learning experiment. In presenting the report to the reader, the investi gator has arranged the material in the following sequence: 1. A description of the projective analysis approach employed based on objective and subjective components, with proposals for both "process" and "product" analyses. 2. A general description of the process stages for orientation purposes. 3. A detailed, projective analysis of the various process stages of the artistic activity reporting highlights of objective and subjective findings and related recommenda tions for instruction in- a similar learning situation. A description of the evaluative stages and an outline of some current modes of critical inquiry. 5. A product analysis related to assumptions prev iously stated by the investigator. 6. A description of the consultation mode and recom mendations for improving the form. 7. 7. Proposals for a verbal diary form and timetable schedule applicable to the learning task described. ti. An outline of furtner studies suggested within the focus area. 9. Conclusions drawn related to the value of the ori ginal curriculum design, as reflected in the project under study. Proposed Application of Findings „< In order to compare and expand the findings of the projective analysis of this report with those of a student group testing study, in the immediate future the investigator intends to conduct the following research: 1. Conducting her students through a similar learn ing task concerned with the playground focus. Topics for fur ther study may be found on page 98. 2. Recording observations of students' process stra tegies, through direct observation and with the aid of the verbal diary form (Figure 26, page 95). 3. Recording and analyzing teacher strategies and drawing comparisons with recommendations for instruction made in this study, and evaluating the effectiveness of those stra tegies in relation to the outcomes of the learning task des cribed. I4.. Evaluating the overall program proposal in light of the teacher and student experiences, and making recommend ations for change. 8. 5. Analyzing the students' artistic products in re lation to the investigator's assumptions regarding their an ticipated character. i Chapter 2 A PROJECTIVE RESEARCH APPROACH The investigator has previously stated that her re search approach would be one of documenting her experiences associated with an environmental field study as she recorded, then, analyzed her personal strategies, reactions, and forms of interaction. Such a participant-observer approach, has been previously advocated as a research mode for advancing instructional strategies in art education by Hugh W. Stumbo in his article "Three Bases for Research and Teaching in the Arts: Subjective, Objective, and Projective." Stumbo syn thesizes subjective and objective research approaches into a "projective" research mode. He advocates raising the stud-2 ent3* consciousness, which he calls "attention" to both ob jective and subjective features involved in the artist's work ing process. In this way, he claims, educational growth can be achieved. ... If the artist could reflect upon the objective and subjective features of the goal-oriented endeavor, he could learn a great deal about the nature of his instinctive or spontaneous reason. Such knowledge would afford insights concerning his style of life as well as his style of painting, drawing, or sculpting, and would allow him to make calculated changes in his future artistic endeavors. Artists have long expressed the opinion that their most productive projects have been those in which they were completely "engaged," i.e., free from objective controls and self-consciousness. If it is true (1) that 9. 10. this kind of an experience is most suitable for creative activity, (2) that much of the meaning of this kind of activity goes unnoticed by the creator, and (3) that an explication of that meaning would be valuable to the growth of the creative person, then it seems reasonable that the development of a procedure for bringing that meaning to the level of conscious awareness would be a valuable contribution to the field of teaching in the arts. In Stumbo's definition, a projective analysis has the follow ing characteristics: 1. The analysis cannot run concurrent with the pro ject activity; it "is always reflective in that it recon structs projects that have already been experienced."^" 2. The undertaking or project must be; c planned or goal^-driented; specific and not hypothetical. 3. One must attend to both objective and subjective features of the activity in the analysis^ or description of the experience, because all artistic activity is a blend of the two--inseparable at the time of creation. I±. "Only the context of meanings and the projects that are to be described may be appealed to as criteria for 7 . evaluation." It seems reasonable to assume that this form of analy sis would be more easily assumed by a mature artist with well-developed instinctive artistic reactions, for example, an artist-teacher. When such a level of understanding has been gained, he or she.would be more capable of guiding the young and less experienced art student towards explicating a simi lar level of awareness or consciousness of the meaning in a 11 similar creative act. Stumbo goes on to argue that ''meanings*1 may be un covered that can aid similar, future art teaching and art learning experiences. The function of research and teaching in art is to explicate meaning inherent in specific projects in which the art class in question is engaged. Know ledge of these meanings enables students to achieve a more complete understanding of their specific art teaching projects. "Meaning" is the fundamental concept for research and teaching in art and the g achievement of such meaning is the fundamental aim. For, as Stumbo goes on to explain: "... Art education is 9 the result of communicating art."' And, he believes that " ... it is possible for one person to direct the attention of another person, that is, it is possible to communicate and thereby to educate."1^ Stumbo's clear challenge is that: Although no one has successfully demonstrated just how an explication of the blending of the objective and the subjective in research and teaching in art can be accomplished, it seems clear that such an undertaking would be worth the effort.^ It has been this investigator's intention to attempt to meet just that challenge based on Stumbo's premise, that: ... the more information one has concerning any project the more he will be able to control future projects of the same nature, and that the greatest amount of information about any project can be gained through a projective analysis, i.e. an analysis of the conjoined subjective and objective features, then it would follow that the ability to control future projects can be increased through projective analyses.^ 12. The Proposed Process Analysis The investigator has attempted to record, analyze, and evaluate the working strategies employed during the exer cise in an attempt to ascertain the relative feasibility of employing a curriculum based on "Aesthetic Explorations in the Urban Environment." Research attention was directed to ward the following: 1. The various working approaches stimulated by means of such strategy possibilities as: a. the variety of visual recording means em ployed (sketching, phonography, memory, verbal notations) and the relative merits of each/ b. the use of image resources other than those gained from direct environmental observation; c. the use of reflective and imaginative think ing in evolving and completing the final image compositions; d. technical considerations made, and approaches used, in executing the drawing and the painting stages; e. focusing and selecting strategies employed; f. the nature of conscious evaluative strategies employed during the working period; g. strategies specifically employed to sustain and evolve a single, selected focus. 2. Difficulties arising from each of the various strategies. For example: What are some of the difficulties 13. of sustaining a focus and a continuity within a series of related pieces? How can these difficulties be overcome? 3. The relative worth of each strategy to the art ist's development of operating modes and to the ensuing pro ducts. ii. The stages during which teacher-pupil interac tion, in the form of private or group consultations, is most desirable or essential to assist the progress of* the learning experience. What forms should this assistance take and what value can be expected from such planned dialogue or interac tion? From such encounters, will the student gradually learn to adopt such a self-initiated dialogue with himself during tne working process? 5. Evaluation of the worth of a diary approach em ployed in the process stage to promote a more conscious aware ness of working strategies and ultimately to determine the probable worth of such an approach in assisting with formative evaluation on the teacher's part, and with the development of a more conscious level of awareness as to the effectiveness of various working procedures on the part of the students. Can reflections on artistic activity be promoted, recognized, and used educationally by the students? The investigator-artist endeavoured to maintain a com prehensive diary of personal strategies, reactions, insights, and the forms of interaction engaged in with advisory personnel. Critical diary results are reported, in a verbal-visual form in an attempt to illustrate better the evolution of the art istic series from the data gathering stage, through the stage of completion of the drawn image and, then, to the completion of the paintings. The medium of photography was employed to provide the visual data to support written statements of find ings. Based on her experience the investigator has made rec ommendations regarding the worth and use of a diary approach in a classroom situation. A sample verbal diary form will be supplied. (See Figure 26, p. 95'») 6. Establishment of relevant criteria for evaluating progress achievements in such a learning mode. 7. Development of a plausible timetable schedule re quired to achieve adequate educational results in a similar project conducted within a classroom situation. (See Table 2, p. 97.) 8. Demonstration of ways to develop further diver gent learning experiences related to the initial focusing exercises. The investigator believes that it is the teacher's in structional task to facilitate the students' movement through a series of process stages in the learning task. In this study the investigator, from knowledge obtained through the experi encing of a given learning task, has endeavoured to establish recommendations for the types of interaction that would help 15. promote achievement or growth in each learning stage of the process. Students may be working largely instinctively, and the investigator believes that a more "conscious" directional approach will aid high school students in reaching task ob jectives. A teacher who has previously experienced such a task and who has conducted a projective analysis of the pro cess experienced appears more likely to be able to guide such an exercise better than one who has only circumstantial know ledge of some of the problems the students will likely en counter. Such a teacher, familiar with the artistic process, should be able to anticipate better the students' learning stages and to lead them into experiencing the process stages more fully and consciously and, hopefully, more effectively. By stimulating reflective thinking following portions of the process the teacher might be able to help the students obtain a working awareness of the worth and effectiveness of the var ious strategies they have employed. It is with this intent that the investigator will outline her personal findings and make recommendations regarding various teaching strategies that she believes would be beneficial to promote in a similar learning task within a high school classroom situation. It appears that one's approach and attitude must vary considerably from stage to stage in the task outlined. There fore, students must be aware of the nature of different stages to be able to move easily and effectively from one to the 16. other. If the whole process is left to chance, the various process stages required could leave them bewildered, frust rated, and without substantial educational gain. The Proposed Product Analysis The investigator began the research assuming that an environmentally-based aesthetic approach would stimulate a different imagery emphasis than that of a totally classroom-based program. It was thought that such imagery would likely display all or some of the following characteristics: 1. A clearer and more accurate description of how  things actually look. Initial drawings, from the image gath ering phase, may be more highly representational and detailed in appearance than classroom based drawings. 2. Familiar objects and scenes may show new awareness of aesthetic phenomena and insights into the social meaning imparted in the environmental experiences. Work in this pro gram was generally expected to reflect more social awareness than work promoted in classroom situations. 3. The drawing of cliche'd images and the repetition of a few standard images will likely be eliminated by the ex periencing of a wider range and ever-changing set of stimuli than is normally available within a classroom setting. 1+. There will likely develop a greater concern for object-space relationships and for object-to-object relation ships. The attention to the interaction of phenomena should 17. be increased. In general, the investigator anticipated a heightened aware ness of environmental details, aesthetic phenomena, and the social significance of situations through promoting directed and heightened aesthetic experiences within the local environ ment. Two potential weaknesses of the approach that the in vestigator assumed could develop, if not carefully avoided, and that could be reflected in the artistic products are: 1. the randomness of imagery sponsored by an over abundance of stimuli, if aesthetic focusing and selection pro cesses are not promoted, and 2. the direct copying of images without letting the visual data evolve through reflective and imaginative think ing, after the initial data gathering stage, thereby creating an impersonal interpretation. Through an analysis of the resulting art work, of seven watercolour paintings, the foregoing assumptions have been tested to determine if art work stimulated through envir onmentally-based explorations is characteristically different from art work stimulated and executed solely within the class room. From this investigation, warrantability of the follow ing hypothesis may be determined: that art teachers wishing to promote such an artistic emphasis could facilitate that development through a similar learning approach. Chapter 3 A GENERAL OUTLINE OP THE WORKING STRATEGIES Before proceeding with a detailed description of the "meanings" revealed in a projective analysis of this field study, a general outline of the project and its broad stages may be useful as an orientation for^theTeader. The Artistic Goal-Orientation Described The initial focus chosen was the local, urban play ground, which included a large municipal park, several comm unity parks and school playgrounds, and a local May Day fair. The object of the work was to use these resources as a stimu lus to image gathering exercises, which hopefully would pro mote the ultimate creation of a personal series of watercolour paintings evolving from the chosen stimulus. It was reasoned that the focus was an appropriate one as the prospective stud ents of the author's high school could, at some future time, use the locations in a similar manner. The author considered also the propositions that all young people have had some ex perience with playgrounds and that such facilities possibly provide access to the widest range of humanity within any given community. 18. 19. Man only plays when he is human in the full sense of the word, and he is only completely human when he is playing.^3 — Friedrich Schiller Then, what better focus could one select for study than people at play in the local environment to achieve a greater understanding of social conditions or for a subject for crea tive interpretation? Performance Stages of Artistic Activity Described The subsequent artistic activity that the author en gaged in fell into the following general performance stages: 1. that of acquaintance with the focus of playgrounds and of image gathering, 2. that of reflective and subjective approaches, and 3. that of painting experiences. Acquaintance with the focus and image gathering. Fre quent visits were made to numerous playground locations in the local community gathering a wide range of images with a variety of recording methods. The methods used included sketching, photography, memory, and written notations. The initial image series included: written notations of objective features and subjective reactions; sketches and photographs of plants, birds, flowers, people in various activities, and physical features of the areas--both natural and man-made. Little cen sorship of images was employed at this stage. An endeavour to record objectively the essential characteristics of the locations was attempted. 20. Reflective and subjective approaches. Following sev eral weeks of observation and copious recording of as many random impressions as possible, the artist engaged in a per iod of reflective thinking on the encounters experienced. Im ages gathered were re-examined and the mind was allowed to play imaginatively with the social and aesthetic significance read into the sources by the investigator. Mental links, were made beyond these immediate encounters into the reporter's own past to synthesize experiences and to form generalizations about roles and experiences of life as played out in play grounds. Such generalizations gave impetus to the formation of verbal captions for the compositions and to the building of short episodes or visual compositions to express the separate concepts that seemed significant to express. Personal inter pretations of the experiences were encouraged at this stage. The reflective and subjective nature of this stage was a strong contrast to the previous stage of objective exploration and inquiry. A series of seven drawing compositions evolved by tne end of this stage. (See Figures 8-llj., pp. 52-58.) Dur ing this period additional visual images were often required to complete the expression of an idea that had formed. These subsequent image gathering sessions proved to be far more selective than the initial stage of image gathering. At this stage, the author had become more aware and conscious of the features of the focus under consideration. A degree of 21 . heightened awareness had already been reached. Meaning, im age selection, compositional layouts of figures and ground were the author's main concerns in the final stages of the drawing. Painting experiences. Once the finalized drawings were transposed onto the watercolour paper the problems of watercolour technique and colour interpretation dominated the writer's concerns. Over a period of two summer months the painting stage was completed. (See Figures 16-25, pp. 73-82.) As suggested by Hugh W. Stumbo the artist "engaged" totally in his or her work is goal-oriented towards the act of painting. He is functioning in an integrated manner when objective and subjective operations merge naturally. It is through a reflective and projective analysis of these three stages of the process revealed in a copious series of recorded step-by-step reflections that the investigator believes she has been able to isolate many of the objective and subjective findings or meanings of this project that Stumbo alluded to in his article. In the following sections of this thesis presentation the investigator has endeavoured to outline the:,more significant findings of the research exer cise, followed consecutively with the implications she sees these findings have for improving art education instruction, and what forms implementation of the recommendations should 22. take in a similar project with high school students in her community. As findings and recommendations have been reported at some length the investigator will endeavour to integrate the two during a step-by-step reporting of tne process stages in the following chapter. In a projective analysis of her reflective diary not ations the writer discovered that she was able to translate or interpret her instinctive and spontaneous actions into what might be described asr an artistic dialogue or process descrip tion. In reflection, she was able to record her awareness of a wide range of objective and subjective responses that went into creating the painting series. Tne investigator, in fact, was surprised at the quantity and quality of reasoning and responses engaged in during the experience. Chapter L\. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS Within this chapter the investigator has endeavoured to employ Stumbo's projective analysis mode to report on the three main process stages through which the painting series evolved. Those stages were as follows: 1. the image gathering and composition building stage, 2. the drawing stage, and 3. the painting stage. An attempt has been made to convey both the objective and subjective findings in a projective analysis mode and, then, to make recommendations for instruction in light of the findings. In outlining some of the projective findings the investigator has found it useful to apply a series of cate gories for describing works of art based on those developed by the CEMREL (Central Midwestern Regional Educational Lab oratory) group. However, in the main, the investigator has tried to distinguish the objective components from the sub jective components of the creative process under study. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE GATHERING AND COMPOSITION BUILDING STAGE A detailed analysis of both the recorded verbal, 23 21*-. discourse pattern of the artistic process and the components of the compositional images revealed several significant find ings relevant to the teaching of art. Recommendations con cerning the implications to instructional implementation fol low the finding to which it is related. Increased Visual Awareness of the Focus Findings: During the exercise, visual awareness was increased at least to the focus selected—playground related images—in both actual playground settings and to related subjects in other visual sources. It appears that once the focus is well-embedded in the learner's mental system for in quiry he can carry this awareness of the focus beyond the ad opted locale chosen for study to other encounters during that period of intense focusing. In analyzing the representational components of the author's compositions it was found that the following sources were used to generate the total composi tional images that evolved for the series: Table 1. Image Sources for Compositions Developed Image Sources Employed in % Use of Source in Representations Creating Representa tional Image Composi-1. objects taken fairly literally tions of the Series from an actual park source 18% 2. objects modified considerably, but generated from an actual park source 18% 3. objects generated from memory or imagination 291±. objects abstracted from a previous drawing, or from a newspaper, book 29% or magazine source 5. objects taken and modified from another image or source of artistic production 6% 25. It should be noted that each final compositional image was generally a conglomerate in source of components. The per centages indicated refer to the source use for the total compositional series of seven paintings. Numerous images, beyond those calculated here, were gathered and not selected for use in the series. For a more graphic illustration of the variety of images and sources used to evolve the compo sitions see Figures 1-6, pp. 38-1+3. Recommendations for instruction; The investigator recognizes that the preceding percentage use of resources would vary considerably in relation to the various encounters and experiences of each individual student even within a sim ilar learning task. Experiences in the aesthetic realm are highly personalized and individual. While aesthetic experi ences may be similar they are never duplicated from individ ual to individual. The same resources will be used in a var iety of ways and means by different individuals. However, the teacher should be aware of phenomenolog-ical aspects of increased awareness to the focus and should assist the students in directing their awareness in a similar broadening fashion. If such a transfer of awareness to other image sources can occur, and if one deems that such a develop ment is a positive type of experience to promote, the question arises of how the teacher can promote this form of transfer of awareness to numerous other situations and resources. In this 26. respect, the investigator would recommend a number of strate gies. It is recommended that the teacher who is considering an environmental inquiry around a given focus first build up an extensive image bank around the focus that is to be stud ied or promoted. The investigator-teacher, while involved in the study of playgrounds, began to establish a picture file and slide series around the theme, which could be used in the future with her students. Art history books can also be sources of stimuli to the learner. The teacher should be come familiar with artists and their individual image patt erns. For example, the teacher could provide a student with a list of artists who have dealt with a given theme: the circus grounds or fair. Where the teacher cannot provide the student with a bank of actual, related images he should be able to direct the student to sources where he will likely encounter the focus beyond the firsthand environmental experi ences he has organized for the class. It should be stated that these auxiliary resources should not be employed as sub stitute experiences for firsthand encounters with the focus, but should be used to augment and complement the major envir onmental encounters. Similarly, the teacher may wish to set up an alternative or additional series of environmental loc ales which the highly motivated student may visit independ ently of the group visits. Students who initiate additional excursions could come together to share their reactions and 27. images to broaden the general focus still further. Such sharing and discussion sessions are an essential part of helping the learner sharpen his awareness to the focus and its attributes. For, it seems reasonable to conclude that a student exploring the environment with a well-established sense of direction and purpose is more likely to detect im age sources for his use than a student working more randomly in the environment. Merits of the Various Recording Modes Employed Findings; The artist found that by employing a var iety of image gathering means, she was able to heighten her awareness to different qualities composing the objects repre sented in the images. The merits of the various recording means appeared as follows: A. Photographic Mode Photographic images were found to be useful in recording: 1. action poses and fleeting facial expressions which would escape recording by drawing notations, 2. colour features of the environment, 3. textural details of the physical setting, li. pattern relationships, for example, a broad carpeting of flowers, 5. the general features in expanses of park settings, and 6. compositional relationships. B. Drawing Mode Sketching was generally employed to record the foll owing subjects and features: 1. people captured in fairly still poses, 2. subjective interpretations of human facial express ions and poses, 3. linear studies of subjects to simplify figures into the most essential forms, and li. single subjects and to emphasize certain features of a given image. C. Verbal Notations Verbal notations usually accompanied the photographic and drawn interpretations and, generally, took the form of: 1. subjective comments on the artist's impressions of the encounters, 2. reflections on social meanings or on the implied sig nificance of the situation viewed; these were the first ideas and feelings of social import consciously stated for examination, and 3. notations recording highlighted features of texture, colour, pattern, etc. in a given image. D. Memory Not ail impressions were recorded in concrete means. Images were formed, to be later drawn upon when their relev ance became important to the work. 29. In comparing the four recording modes it was found that drawn images and verbal notations were used for record ing more subjective interpretations of the environmental en counters and that photography was used to more accurately record environmental details. In conclusion, it appears that a variety of recording strategies may be helpful in promoting heightened awareness to different types of features and aes thetic qualities of the environment and may be preferable to employing a single recording mode for promoting image devel opment. Recommendations for instruction: The results of the study appear to indicate that a variety of recording modes is preferable to a single mode in promoting a wide range of vis ual and social awareness and in assisting the growth of art istic image development. Therefore, it is recommended tnat the art teacher encourage and provide instruction and experi ence in such recording modes within the students' learning tasks. It is further recommended that provision be made in tne learning process for discussion of the relative merits and uses of each recording device for providing imagery in formation for their future use. Social Awareness and Subjective Reactions Highlighted Findings: The investigator recorded a series of sub jective reactions highlighted in the initial stages. Although 30. the investigator had confidently selected the given focus, she still experienced feelings of uncertainty resulting from a randomness of strategies employed in the initial stages of image gathering. The early recordings were extremely varied in subject matter--birds, people, flowers, play equipment--and lacked the development of strong relationships between the various images that develops later from reflection and personal interpretation of the encounters experienced. How ever, in retrospect, this approach with its accompanying feel ings of uncertainty may be necessary to allow for more openness or receptiveness to a wider variety of experiences than would be had if the artist were to focus on a narrower and more restricted subject. And, it appears that a narrowing of the focus will ultimately occur as the process proceeds into a stage of reflection and the establishment of a cogni tive development of relationships between the separate images perceived. Throughout the stage of image gathering social aware ness intensified. Having gone to the parks as an observer rather than as a participant in regular playground activities, the author became strongly aware of and even self-conscious of her differing role. At first, feelings of self-isolation dominated. Through a series of questions she raised with her self she was soon able to transfer her awareness of self to an awareness of others within the setting. She had already recognized her role and began to ponder a similar set of 31. questions about the roles of those people she perceived around her. Some of the questions raised were: How were others enjoying the park? What did others come to the park to do? What activities were available? What feelings were other people appearing to express? What roles were other people appearing to play? What types and ages of people were evident in the park? How do roles change at different stages of life? How do people exhibit their roles, aspirations* and feelings while at play? Such mental reflections helped to narrow the focus and more selectively to direct the writer's awareness. In searching for answers to the previous questions more specific themes emerged and formed the basis for the compositions. The work became a form of social commentary. Generalizations about states of the human condition were highlighted. The images were gathered, selected, and arranged to narrate various roles people assumed and displayed in their lifetimes as seen in the playgrounds. Even the playground theme took on a more symbolic and expressive meaning. The series became "Play Ground," a series of compositions expressive of the roles people play as evident in the parks or grounds. Themes developed and titles evolved that were expressive of this social content. Separ ate reactions- started to come together to form more complete 32. feelings and ideas expressive of the social awareness that had developed. The visual images that had been gathered were re-examined for symbolic suggestiveness. Input from the art ist's memories of her childhood became interwoven with gath ered images and feelings in the compositions. She mentally drew similarities between roles she observed and roles she re called playing in her youth. She endeavoured to develop an empathy for the new and unfamiliar roles that she perceived. Images past and present were filtered through the artist's subjective regions and emerged in new and more expressive visual forms. Titles of the final composition series reflect this emphasis on social content. The works are titled: "Hide and Seek" (Figure 8, p. 52). "Communion" (Figure 9» p. 53). "Ascension" (Figure 10, p. 5k)* "Death of Life" (Figure 11, p. 55). "Contemplation" (Figure 12, p. 56). "Apron Strings" (Figure 13, p. 57). "Merry Go Round" (Figure 11+., p. 58). An increase in social awareness was also reflected in the verbal notations of the verbal-visual diary. Social find ings highlighted by the artist's observations were as follows: 1. The playground is an area of the environment where all types and ages of people come together. 2. The human life-cycle of birth, life, and death is 33. reflected in the park, .and parallels nature's pattern. 3. Opposite elements''Of the human condition come to gether in the park, more so than they do in day-to-day work routines. For example: youth and old age rich and poor happiness and sadness freedom and control ii. People use the park setting for activities des igned to get in touch with themselves. They go there to seek awareness of their own thoughts, emotions, and physical being. 5. People are more informal and natural in parks. For the most part, they have thrown off their "job" roles. Instead, they are free to explore ana play other roles, such as athlete, nature lover, etc. 6. There is also evidence of aspects of escapism in roles displayed in the park. However, one cannot ultimately escape all controls and roles. In conclusion, the writer found the playground to be a good choice of focus for increasing social awareness and empathy and hopes that similar experiences would lead the young student to similar awarenesses. Recommendations for instruction: The art teacher can help tne young students learn to deal witn and use their sub jective reactions during this stage in a number of ways. Stud ents should be encouraged to talk about the feelings they are 3k. experiencing during the environmental encounters. The teacher can ease the students' feelings of anxiety by helping them be aware that feelings of uncertainty, self-consciousness, and ambiguity are normal during initial encounters and helping them understand the reasons why such reactions occur. They should be encouraged to adopt a manner of flexibility, open ness, and tolerance of ambiguity during their explorations, and encouraged not to go into the experience with a totally pre-determined approach. They should be prepared to be moul ded by the experiences that they will have during the encoun ters. Students must be helped to relate subjectively to the situations in order to create import in their art work. As Suzanne Langer states in her book Problems in Art,^ import arises out of the artist's ability to express his feelings about life through an art form. As Langer explicitly states, ". . . all artistic ideas are ideas of something felt . . The teacher may be of assistance to the students in encouraging increased social awareness and empathy by provid ing the class with a series of questions, similar to those pre viously outlined on page 31, for the students to direct their awareness to the social significance of the visual stimuli en countered during their environmental explorations. A set of related questions could even be designed cooperatively by tea cher and students for use by the students to conduct interviews of the park's inhabitants'to deepen social contact and under standing. 35. Once images are gathered and feelings surface the teacher could initiate discussions to draw out relationships and meanings between feelings and images. Through such an exercise the students may begin to recognize and achieve the "positive" use of their subjective reactions to their encoun ters. This aspect of the creative process cannot be too highly valued and encouraged because it forms the "raison  d'etre" of all art work. Students need a period of physical relaxation and con templation of the encounters for the creative linking of sep arate images and feelings into complete and expressive compo sitional wholes. The initial aesthetic experiences in the environment bring emotional impact and insight to the artist. However, students and artists alike need to contemplate and internalize the experience to crystallize and deepen the mean ing—idea and emotion—they wish ultimately to communicate or express. As Langer expressed, artists' renderings are biased because they record what they deem important.^ The artist needs to find personal meaning in the experience for it to be worthy of further interpretation or expression in an art form. This transformation usually follows the initial aesthetic ex periences. And, the teacher can help to promote such a trans formation by requiring the students to draw attention to their reactions and to the meanings they hold for them and, then, by helping the learners draw relationships between the reac tions and meanings they have been able to identify and the visual data they have gathered. In this way, the teacher can 36. also assist the students in narrowing and clarifying their personal choice of focus. Students should be encouraged to record their subjective reactions in the form of verbal not ations in a verbal-visual diary of environmental experiences to aid the teacher and students in promoting such a unifica tion of experience, meaning, and expression. In group situations, attention could be directed to the universal nature of human feelings and conditions. Stud ents should be encouraged to examine the most common ones ex perienced and to discuss how these ideas and emotions can be communicated through symbolic, visual language. Works of art of an historical nature could be of use in helping direct the discovery of the universality of the human condition and ex perience, as expressed by artists .of all ages. Subjective reactions and social awareness highlighted in environmental encounters should form an important topic for artistic discussion and interpretation within the art class room. And the art teacher should develop considerable skill in initiating and directing such a discussion. Summary Prom the foregoing analysis it appears that the art teacher's concerns and skills during the initial stages of the exercise should be directed towards facilitating the learners' growth in four major areas: 1. helping direct the learners' focusing skills and perception, 37. 2. instructing in, and discussing, the use of a variety of recording modes, 3. encouraging the development of awareness to sub jective reactions and social content, and Ii. helping the learners synthesize their reactions and draw meanings from their experiences. Figure 1. Assorted Photographic Images Gathered of Recreational Activities and Equipment 39. Figure 2. Newspaper Image and Drawn Image for "Hide and Seek" 1+1. k2* Figure 5« Newspaper Images Gathered for "Merry Go Round" kk. CATEGORIES USEFUL TO THE PROCESS ANALYSIS In order to analyze the process strategies during periods of intense artistic production it appears useful to establish a scheme of descriptive categories of artistic con cerns. With some modification the descriptive categories de signed by CEMREL to describe works of art would appear to be useful for this study. These categories, if applied to areas for artistic concern in creating a work of art, form a good basis from which to build a comprehensive scheme of categor ies for describing artistic concerns in the production stage. CEMREL*s categories for describing a work of art are useful if one defines "counters" to be: publicly identifiable elements in a work such as a colour area, a space area, or a figure. The CEMREL categories are: 1. Describe the surface counters. __.,_2« Describe the relationships among the surface 3. Describe the representational counters, when present. . . . It. Describe the relationships among the representa tional counters. 5. Describe the relationships among the surface and representational counters. 6. Speculate on the possible meanings of the counters and their interrelationships in the form of a paraphrase. • • • 7. Compare the meaning discovered with a re-exper iencing of the work of art. 8. Make a judgment about the significance of the work.17 The investigator has discovered, in analyzing her reactions and concerns recorded during the intense production stage, that two more categories would be useful in describing the various concerns highlighted in her discourse. They are as follows: 1. subjective reactions, and 2. technical concerns and physical awareness. In grouping the concerns consciously revealed in the artist's verbal notations of the artistic process, it became clear that the concerns in the period of drawing up the orig inal pencil compositions varied considerably from those in the painting stage. These differences have been related in a detailed description of the foregoing categories highlighted in the two working stages. It should be noted that these differences were very easy to identify because the two stages were conducted consecutively and separately from one another. When there is more of an integration of the drawing stage with the painting stage these differences may be less exist ent and/or less apparent. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OP THE DRAWING STAGE As the ideas for the compositions became clearer att ention turned to new concerns. One set of concerns dealt with elements and principles of composition; another with achieving subjective satisfaction through the personal integrity ex pressive in the work. Objective compositional decisions and judgments were interwoven with subjective interpretive decis ions and judgments to evolve the final plans or drawings. Compositional Concerns Identified Findings: The following compositional concerns were 1+6. found to be highlighted in this stage: 1. figure-ground relationships and figure to figure spatial relationships, 2. directional pulls and thrusts and the general flow of movement within the work, 3. proportional relationships--size relationships between components, b,. linear qualities—simplicity and fluidity,, In addition, various images underwent a period of selection, clarification, and refinement in order to increase the express ive power of the compositional whole. Specific images or de tails needed to complete the compositions were sought out. (See Figure 7# p. 51.) Component images were selected for symbolic effect. Some ideas were dropped when the images would not evolve into a total expression of the artist's idea. Conscious awareness of the foregoing factors, both elements and principles of compositional design, enabled the artist to work more intentionally to achieve unified compositional eff ects in each drawing. Finally, the investigator's concerns turned to the colour schemes and stylistic approach necessary to communicate the intended expression in the final painting. Before pro ceeding with the painting stage, the artist sought out works by such watercolourists as Turner, Chagall, and Kandinsky to study their handling of the medium. The works of Francis Bacon and the German Expressionists were examined for stylistic l|7. treatment of the imagery. The artist found such studies relevant to and influential on her work. If one were to categorize these concerns under CEMREL's descriptive categories the following concerns would seem to have been highlighted during the drawing stage: 1. Concern for the representational counters. 2. Concern for the relationships among the represen tational counters. 3. Concern for relationships among the surface and representational counters. I4.. Concern for meanings of the counters and their interrelationships in the form of a paraphrase. 5. Concern for judging the significance of the work. As the drawings were simple, linear pencil studies, the tech nical concerns or problems were few at this stage. Some care did need to be taken in drawing the compositions to an accur ate scale larger than the original sketch. For this purpose, a grid ratio was developed to enlarge the work to the final size (see Figure 15, p. 59). More difficult technical con cerns were to be attempted during the painting stage. Recommendations for instruction: It appears evident from the findings that for a high level of concern for compo sitional design factors to occur the students must first be able to understand some basic art concepts and to be able to identify elements and principles of design at work in pieces 1+8. of art work. Therefore, it is recommended that the teacher direct some instructional time to the explanation of composi tional design elements and principles, so that such an under standing is attained by the students. Once key concepts are acquired, attention can be directed towards the recognition and attainment of unified design elements and principles within their own compositions. The teacher should emphasize the necessity for selection and refinement of the images to achieve unified compositional wholes. The students might discuss the question--what principles help to create unity in a work of art? At this stage the teacher would be recommended to help the student bridge the gap between the drawing and painting stages by initiating a discussion around anticipated colour schemes, stylistic approach, and symbolic treatment intended to express certain meanings of the work. Related to these discussions, art criticism sessions'icould be introduced to increase the students1 awareness to many of the preceding factors of artistic concern and to graphically illustrate to the students how other artists have developed effective works by attending to similar concerns and problems. Subjective Concerns Identified Findings; Several subjective responses were also evi dent in this stage of the process. The artist was concerned with achieving an art form unique and expressive of the k9* artist's ovm reelings and ideas. Tills personal integrity of the expressive form was a very strong concern of the artist. Tne artist also relied somewhat on her subjective feelings to intuit or sense the completeness or expressiveness of the various compositions. For, not all judgments can be achieved by objective means alone. Artistic import can be felt—by the intensity of tne emotional impact experienced by the viewer. This artist experienced true pleasure in being able to capture or crystallize her own ideas and feelings in a visual form of expression. Recommendations for instruction: To check that artistic integrity is being honoured in the form of personal expression, the art teacher could engage the student in a dis cussion of the intended meaning--idea or feeling--behind the work under creation. Verbal interpretations of the works, in turn, could be compared with the student's subjective reac tions to the environmental experience, as reported in the ver bal diary notations. Students should be able to give a justi fication for the work. In judging the effectiveness of their work students should be encouraged to analyze objectively the compositional structure of their work, as well as to be sensitive to receiv ing intuited reactions to the import or intensity of the work under consideration. Philosophical discussions regarding the function and 50. purpose of art are not beyond the capacity of secondary school students and may help them in forming an understanding ofboth the creative and appreciative processes they can engage in. And, the subjective nature of art is of great importance to stress. Summary Successful works of art are achieved through a balance of technical and compositional considerations and factors ex pressive of the artist's ideas and feelings. Therefore, the art teacher should encourage self-expression and, also, direct the young artist's technical and compositional concerns and skills in the work at hand. Both subjective and objective factors of creation should be developed in a parallel fashion. Figure 7. Skeletal Studies Figure 8. Drawing Composition: "Hide and Seek" Figure 9. Drawing Composition: "Communion" 51+. Figure 11. Drawing Composition: "Death of Life" Figure 12. Drawing Composition: "Contemplation" 56 Figure 13. Drawing Composition: "Apron Strings Figure Drawing Composition: "Merry Go Round" Figure 15. Grid Pattern Over An Original Sketch 60. A PROJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PAINTING STAGE Artistic concerns in the painting stage varied con siderably from the foregoing stage. The artistic considera tions may be definitively grouped under the following cate gories: 1 . technical concerns and physical awareness, 2. subjective reactions, 3. concerns for surface counters, 1+. concerns for the relationships between surface counters, and 5. concerns with using surface counters to emphasize and support the meanings of the representational counters. Technical Concerns Identified Findings: A long list of technical procedures app eared in the process descriptions of all the paintings. Some of the more common technical problems appeared to be: 1. mixing colours desired, 2. applying large washes of colour evenly—especially backgrounds around objects, 3. increasing tonal contrasts for clarity of read ability of the painting from a distance, ]+. the difficulty of painting very small features over painting larger features, 61 . 5. controlling watercolours so as not to let them run into other areas of the picture, 6. maintaining a consistent painting style while working on a painting over several days, 7. the difficulty of maintaining a spontaneous and not overworked painting style when attempting works of a highly detailed representational char acter, 8. working hard and soft edges of objects, 9. controlling the translucence and the opacity of the paint, as desired, and 10. the necessity to account for the technical stages. Recommendations for instruction: Unlike strategies for making aesthetic decisions, strategies of a technical nature can be developed in a more direct and didactic manner by a teacher well-versed in the handling of the media employed. For this reason, it is a general recommendation that art teach ers have a background in the handling of a wide range of media and that they be well aware of the different requirements in the handling of each. Even two different painting media hold differing problems for manipulation. And, satisfaction with a work does result, in part, from the technical quality one is able to achieve. Physical Concerns Identified Findings: Certain periods in the working process drew 62. attention to the artist's physical state. These periods were as follows: 1. At the beginning of the painting stage the artist was struggling very consciously and carefully with the tech niques of the painting act, as it had been some time since she had engaged in such artistic endeavours. The work pro ceeded very slowly and methodically until the necessary amount of practice brought with it the confidence and familiarity associated with mastery of the materials that comes with con siderable experience. Attention was given to the physical skill needed to execute the painting to the technical stand ard desired. At times even such concerns drew attention away from the output of emotive power needed to execute a painting with import and tended to disengage the artist from the in tensity of the painting process. 2. Considerable attention was given to the physical control demanded of the artist to achieve both spontaneous (loose) and very detailed (tight) approaches and to be able to make smooth transitions between the two styles within a given painting. For example, the artist found it necessary to util ize scraps of paper to practice the free painting style of the leafy ground cover in "Hide and Seek," (see Figure 16, p. 73), and, then, to practice the restrained line work in the girl's hair and moth of the same painting. Such transitions required considerable modifications of the artist's physical and mental approaches. 63. 3. Fatigue also posed a considerable difficulty to the artist. Due to the rather detailed style of the paint ings executed, the extreme concentration produced fatigue after several hours of work and required the artist to set aside the work frequently. In periods of physical relaxation solutions to many of the work's problems came to mind as the picture was more casually contemplated separate from the painting process. To stimulate such thought it was found to be helpful to set the pictures in general view. More object ivity was brought to bear on the work through frequent absten tions from the painting act. Work was resumed after the fa tigue had gone, as overworking of an area with excess paint occurred most often when the artist's sense of direction be came vague due to physical and/or mental fatigue. Recommendations for instruction; In order to assist the students through the difficult beginning stages of work, consideration should be given to the fact that the initial pieces of work may carry evidence of technical awkwardness and a slowness in execution, as the students master the phys ical control required to adequately handle the medium. Warm up exercises of a short duration or less sustained pieces could be assigned in the beginning. Approaching the work from a variety of stylistic and technical modes could help the stu dents acquire increased skills and understandings. An analy sis of the varied results could then be conducted to yield 6i|.. valuable information for their future use. Work and rest periods should be balanced, first by the teacher and, then, by the student himself as he learns to recognize his own signs of fatigue. Such rest periods can become valuable periods of contemplation and bring increased awareness of the qualities of the work. Future strategies may be determined during such respites, as well. Reflection upon the working process in the form of discussion with the teacher and even the entire class may help the teacher discover areas of concern that may or may not be evident in the work itself, and which may re quire some remedial instruction. Subjective Reactions Identified Findings: Within the painting stage a number of sub jective reactions arose and were identified in the projective analysis conducted. At a rather basic level of subjective response the artist experienced the following rather common reactions to the exercise: 1. nervousness with beginning the painting work, 2. enjoyment of the painting act itself—manipulating the materials, 3. general feelings of satisfaction and dissatisfac tion with one's own level of skill demonstrated or revealed in the working process, Ij.. frustration with loss of directional sense, and 5. anxiety caused by technical difficulties encountered. 65. At a somewhat higher level of subjective reaction were those responses classified under satisfaction or dissat isfaction felt with specific features of the work the reac tion was to. These reactions were closely tied in with judgmental reactions and decision-making. Satisfaction was achieved when technical effects acnieved supported the sym bolic meanings intended or implied. Recommendations for instruction: Wnen satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the work is expressed the teacher should try to help the student determine the causal reasons for the reaction. Once these causal relationships are identi fied objectively the knowledge can be called upon to justify or explain the preference or be retrieved for consideration for use in creating another work in the future. Therefore, it is important for the teacher and the student to explore the question of the satisfaction or dissatisfaction with wjhat features. The causal relationships could be studied too. The investigator believes that subjective reactions based on intuited knowledge should be balanced with insights gained about qualities of the work which have been determined through verbal interaction employing critical analysis of qualities of response based on the students' work. Paralleling CEMREL's categories for describing works of art the artist's remaining major concerns grouped mainly around the following areas: 66. 1. concerns for surface counters of the pictures, 2. concerns for the relationships between surface counters in the picture, 3. concern with having surface counters express the meanings of the representational counters of the picture. Surface Counters and the Relationship  Between Surface Counters Findings: Concern for the relationships between sur face counters outnumbered concerns for single surface count ers by three to one. The author suspects that as the relation ships between surface counters may pose the more difficult problems to solve than how to treat individual surface count ers they may have drawn more attention and concern in the ex ercise. And, in fact, the trained artist may solve individ ual surface counter problems more instinctively and, there fore, they may be less scrutinized in the working process. Being less complex in nature, single surface counter problems may require less conscious consideration and, therefore, be noted less in the diary notations. Some typical examples of concern for relationships between surface counters were as follows: 1. attempts were made to create interest in the paint ing "Hide and Seek" (see Figure 16, p. 73), while maintaining compositional unity, by employing variations in the two 67. dominant colours used, i.e. blue and brown colour pattern, 2. strong diagonals were adopted in a number of the pieces to join together more effectively the compositional components, i.e. "Ascension" (see Figure 18, p. 75)» 3. local colours were modified to relate better to adjacent colour areas and to unite with the overall colour scheme, i.e. in "Death of Life" (see Figure 20, p. 77)., the falling out figure and the skeleton were drawn together by the common blue grey, it. contrast of clarity and vagueness of texture and detail were manipulated to increase the illusion of depth in several paintings, i.e. "Hide and Seek" (see Figure 16, p. 73), and "Merry Go Round" (see Figure 25, p. 82), 5. limited colour schemes were used to create more unity in the works, i.e. "Ascension" (see Figure 18, p. 75)» and, 6. concern was shown for relationships of surface counters by trying to paint in an overall approach to the sur face. Concern for the larger principles of compositional design such as unity, balance, movement, did increase the att ention to compositional relationships between the surface counters. Some examples of the surface counters considered were: 1. a strong concern for creating textural illusions with brushstroke technique and pen and ink detail was highlighted 68. in a number of works, i.e. "Hide and Seek" (see Figure 16, p. 73), 2. in "Hide and Seek" (Figure 16, p. 73) concern was noted over wanting the sky area to appear that it was disap pearing off the top of the paper; a cream mat was chosen to increase the illusion, 3. in "Death of Life" (Figure 20, p. 77) the very smooth application of the background wash was used to in crease the effect of airiness and movement, in "Merry Go Round" (Figure 25, p. 82) blurred spots were introduced to represent the halo effect of circus lighting and to attempt to introduce more spontaneity and movement into the piece, 5. in "Communion" (Figure 17, p. 71+) yellow tinting was added to the old man's coat to create? an old, smoked eff ect, 6. in "Communion" (Figure 17, p. 7k) a decision was made not to use linear ink work in the girl's figure to give a softer, more airy effect, and 7. dry brushwork was used to increase the effect of rough texture on the ground, and concrete bench, in 'Commun ion' (Figure 17, p. 7k)• Such elements of composition and design play an important part in the pattern of considerations and concerns in the working process. Appropriateness of line, form, colour, texture, tone, etc., came under consideration at all stages of the 69. painting act. Recommendations for instruction: As concerns for sur face counters and the relationships between surface counters are a necessary and integral part of any painting process, it is recommended that students develop a clear understanding of concepts germane to the field. It would be advised that stu dents acquire vocabulary and an understanding of artistic terminology highlighting the elements and principles of com position. For, without the awareness of such concepts stud ents are limited to working in an intuitive approach, and are unable to step outside the work and examine it more rationally and objectively. It is hoped that once students have a work ing knowledge of general artistic concepts works can be ana lyzed far more fully and effectively and solutions resolved readily. The investigator ...positsL-' that art criticism cannot be conducted effectively without the development of such know ledge . Relationships Between Surface Counters  and Representational Counters Findings: CEMREL*s categories of describing the rep resentational counters and their relationships to one another were of- majoridoncern.largely in the drawing composition stage. At that stage, the representational counters were delineated along with their intended meanings and symbolism. However, in the painting stage considerable attention was given to having 70 the surface counters reinforce the meanings expressed in the representational counters. For example, while the represen tational counters in almost all of the works denote rather ominous imagery, the colour schemes and technical application of the paint soften the overall mood of the works. The bright colours of the surface counters and a rather delicate style of paint application were employed to lighten the mood and relieve much of the pessimism that might be implied by the representational counters. Instead, a pragmatic view of life, complete with recognition of the roles people play and the inevitable life-cycle, is intended as the general message of the works. For instance, in "Death of Life" (Figure 20, p. 77) the skeleton figure with its symbolic implications is softened by depicting it in soft blues, browns, and yellows and by employing soft, open edges within the figure which fade away into the background. Handling of various aspects of the surface counters was governed by the symbolic meanings intended. In "Death of Life" (Figure 20, p. 77) the open breast area of the girl im plies the growth of adolescence. In addition, textures and tones play an important role in emphasizing numerous antithe ses which form a strong part of the implied meaning of the works. In "Ascension" (Figure 18, p. 75), white denotes inno cence and freedom. The kite, although white, is represented in a boxed or coffin shape. Perhaps one of the most poignant examples where antithesis is reinforced by colour, texture, 71. and tone is in "Merry Go Round" (Figure 25, p. 82). A con trast is stated between the harsh reality of the looming horse in the foreground and the dreamy background. To ach ieve that effect the foreground horse is—more opaquely painted, darker in tone, rougher in texture, more three-dim ensional in treatment, and stronger and earthier in colour. The dreamier effect of the background is achieved with the use of--amore translucent paint application, lighter tones, softer textures, a flatter appearance, and pastel colours. It was found that subtle interpretations of this sort can be come part of the artist's concerns if he endeavours to con sciously consider them within the decision-making stages of his work. ^ Recommendations for instruction: As already demon strated, a sensitive treatment of the surface counters can help to clarify and highlight the meanings implied by the rep resentational counters depicted in the work, and can work to increase the emotive power of a piece. Therefore, discussion of such subtle treatments for their ability to impart meaning should be an important part of any analysis of their work. i Summary I It is hoped that by outlining in some det-ail the find-i ings of this projective analysis, that the reader will ulti mately become aware of the important and complex |nature of i what might be expected of an art teacher in directing and 72. increasing the awareness to aesthetic concerns of the stud ents in his charge. For this task is as complex and subtle as the task of painting itself. It requires attention to numerous aspects of the learning process. And, the investi gator would not claim in this report to have touched upon all the ingredients making up the creative process. But, it is hoped that the findings from this projective analysis have enlarged the already large body of knowledge related to the phenomenon of creativity and that some useful recommendations related to the guidance of the creative process have been realized. It is also hoped that the concerns have not been re ported in too fragmented a form, because the creative process must also be considered and understood as nearly as possible in its entirety. The more the teacher can help the students gain a knowledge of the various components of the process and how they must work together to form a unified whole, the greater the growth that will likely occur for the learners. 73 Figure 18. Painting Composition: "Ascension" Figure 19. Experimental Painting Exercise: "Death of Life" Figure 20. Painting Composition: "Death of Life Figure 22. Painting Composition: "Aprong Strings" 79. 81 Chapter 5 AN EVALUATIVE STAGE AND PRODUCT ANALYSIS At some stage following the completion of a series of works a period of re-examination and judgment regarding the aesthetic merits of the work should be scheduled. Such a strategy is widely supported by contemporary art educators as a key stage in the development of the students1 powers of dis crimination. For this writer's purposes the writings of CEMREL, Monroe Beardsley, Gene Mittler, and Edmund B. Feldman form the basis around which art criticism could be organized within the classroom setting. Findings: Evaluative processes occurred throughout the learning experience--in making selections from countless images to be gathered, in deciding on which images to include in the final compositions, in selecting the technical approa ches, and finally in judging the works. Comparative judgments form a part of tne working process. The wider the experien tial base, the more extensive the comparisons made. Some examples of judgmental processes that occurred in the artist's working process were: 1. During the working period satisfaction and dissat isfaction with certain features of a piece occurred. These features, upon examination, could usually be defined and 63. -61;. justified by referring directly to the qualities visible in the work. After completion of the series judgmental processes turned to the following :> _ 1. Comparisons were drawn between effects actually achieved and effects originally envisioned prior to the pro duction. 2. Comparisons were also drawn between works in the series. 3. Comparisons were made between the works and simi lar works by other artists. Recommendations for instruction: To engage fruitfully in art criticism it should be stressed that, at all times in the activity, direct reference must be made to the features and qualities visible within the works in order to conduct a valid examination. For, as Suzanne Langer states: But a work of art does not point us to a meaning beyond its own presence. What is expressed can not be grasped apart from the sensuous or poetic form that expresses it. 18 Now, it seems relevant to consider models for art criticism applicable for use in the classroom. Evaluative Models Described Considerable concensus exists among a number of art educators on forms that critical inquiry should take. CEMREL encourages us to examine a number of factors in describing any 85. work of art. These factors have already been outlined in the foregoing pages of this study (see p. I4J4.). An integral part of that formula stresses 1) comparing the meaning discovered with a re-experlencing of the work of art, and 2) making a judgment about the significance of the work. These two under takings would seem to form an important part of any art criti cism process. However, CEMREL does little to define just how these endeavours should be undertaken. For more thorough working methods of art criticism the writer, therefore, has turned to the writings of Edmund Feldman, Monroe Beardsley, and Gene Mittler. An examination of each writer's contribu tion will be described within the following pages in the hopes of outlining several models worthy of consideration and use in directing art criticism sessions. In the article "Experiences in Critical Inquiry: Approaches for Use in the Art Methods Class," Gene Mittler supports the CEMREL recommendation that the two most import ant functions of art criticism are: 1. to interpret the meanings of the work, and 2. to make and support judgments about the aesthetic merits of the work. To form these interpretations and judgments he suggests that students first have the opportunity to perceive the aesthetic qualities already observed. For as B.O. Smith writes: It is important here for the students to understand that when they decide upon criteria, they are,?by this choice determining what facts about the work 86. of art are relevant and worth considering. They are also deciding at the same time the justification they will give for their judgment of the work of art in question. If the students are asked why they think the particular work is beautiful or good, they can answer logically only by reference to the criteria they have chosen and the facts observed about the work of art itself.19 Gene Mittler goes on to explain that the evaluative function involves attempts to discover reasons to support value judg ments, while the interpretive function deals with efforts to 20 explain or clarify works of art." Mittler draws upon Edmund B. Feldraan's work to outline a very detailed mode of observing strategy, generally broken down into four major sequential stages to isolate and attend to aesthetic qualities within the work. ;«-"•;. Feldman's stages of art criticism are as follows: 1. Description is a process of taking inventory, of noting what is immediately presented to the viewer. This might involve a survey of the various aspects of representational subject matter found in the work as well as a scrutiny of the colors, shapes, lines, and textures used. 2. Analysis is a process during which students attempt to determine the relationships among the various elements observed in the work. Of particu lar importance here is an examination of the struc tural qualities employed. 3. Interpretation is a process of determining the possible meanings of the work under consideration. ]±. Judgment is a decision-making process in which the observer determines the degree of aesthetic merit noted in the work. This decision is based on the information accumulated during the previous operations.21 Such writers believe that appreciation of art work grows from acquiring an awareness of the aesthetic qualities 87. of the work and an understanding of the meanings inherent in the work. They recommend that opportunities be available to develop skills of critical inquiry. To complement this task the art teacher must develop skills in initiating and sus taining classroom dialogue around works of art, to help the students verbalize insights gained from such encounters. The development of art concepts as well as perceptual skills are needed during critical confrontations with art works. Gene Mittler goes on further to point out that in the process of art criticism one must attempt to examine, under stand, and judge the work under study from a number of angles or theories. He elaborates upon Edmund Feldman's analytical strategies by examining the work thrice over in each stage for its literal, visual, and expressive qualities. In this way, he has attempted to form an easy and systematic way of looking at aesthetic qualities in a wide range of works of art. However, one must turn to Monroe Beardsley's article, 22 "Critical Evaluation," when contemplating a detailed means of teaching modes of value judgment of works of art. Beards-ley's suggestions can be condensed down to a three objective or canonic scheme for evaluating the merits and defects of a work of art. His concerns are organized around the following three canons: 1. Canon of Unity, under which the unity or disunity of a work is determined, 88. 2. Canon of Complexity, under which the degree of complexity or simplicity of the work is examined, 3. Canon of Intensity, under which the work is anal yzed for the intensity or lack of intensity of human regional 23 qualities within the work, i.e. vitality, tenderness, etc. Beardsley supports the use of "objective reasons" when evalu ating a work and stating critical arguments. To Beardsley a reason is objective "... if it refers to some character istic—that is, some quality or internal relation, or set of qualities and relations—within the work itself, or to some meaning-relation between the work and the world." He dis counts the less supportable reasoning of genetic intentional-25 ism and of affectivism for evaluating works of art. He ad vocates his canons because they can be supported by objective reasoning. Descriptive statements can be developed to supp ort value-judgments. In all cases, art educators seem to agree that actual features of the work need to be analyzed to determine the effects of a work and what components created the response. Statements of value must be supportable by direct reference to qualities in the work under consideration. Qualities not dir ectly visible within the work may not be called upon to supp ort the judgment. In conclusion, it appears that adequate support exists for conducting art criticism sessions within the regular school programmes and that such inquiry should deal with the problems 89. of describing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging works of art, so that when future encounters are made the students have strategies for confrontation. The.investigator also believes that such inquiry is useful when conducted in relation: to the students' own art works. For, in addition, the results may yield valuable information regarding the effectiveness of the working processes undertaken and may also suggest modifications of strategies in the future. This final stage is a critical part of the learning process, due to its form ative nature. Product Analysis Findings; In the introduction of this study the invest igator speculated on the characteristics of the works that might be produced by such a learning task. Many of these assumptions were confirmed by an analysis of the resulting artistic products. In general, the works created could be described as having the following characteristics: 1. The representational counters of the work did re flect different qualities than might have developed if the artist were to have worked from her imagination and memory. A considerable degree of information on the appearance of objects was gained through direct observation, recorded, and used, which otherwise would have been omitted--making some aspects of the work highly realistic. Artistic license and 90 personal interpretation of the encounters did play an import ant part in modifying the images to express meanings and symbolism the artist wished to communicate. The artist's work was not, therefore, a "copy" of the appearance of the representational objects depicted in the work. 2. Social awareness and insight were evident in all the works that evolved. The resulting compositions were highly symbolic and expressive of the artist's reactions to the social encounters experienced. 3. The works did not reflect cliched images, although they were generally expressive of universal subject matter. Images selected underwent considerable modification, but still carried the limited focus of human roles expressed through play and the inescapable nature of the life-cycle with its consequences. The works reflected a personal interpretation of such universal human conditions. The artist managed to avoid a use of random imagery sponsored by the abundance of stimuli available in the urban environment. Image selection and narrowing of the focus was evident within the work. Ii. Object-space relationships were considered, as the compositions appear to be well-designed, balanced, and have a good flow of movement within them. 5. The technical handling of the painting style also appears to be personal and unique to the artist. In summary, the exercise appears to have promoted the type of work intended in the design. In this respect, the 91. exercise appears to be one worthy of testing within the class« room setting. Chapter 6 CONSULTATION MODE, A VERBAL DIARY FORM, A TIMETABLE PROPOSAL, FURTHER TOPICS FOR STUDY RELATED TO THE FOCUS Consultation Mode Findingst Throughout this report the investigator has made detailed recommendations for the types of teacher-pupil interaction that might be useful to the students through out various stages of the process. Within her own experience the writer found that consultation sessions engaged in with two of her advisors generally focused around the following issues: 1. explanations of the representational counters in terms of symbolic meaning and discussion of the focus selected, 2. discussion of technical approaches, 3. ways of increasing social awareness, ii. discussion of the relevance of the painting titles, as expressive of the theme, 5. concern over spatial relationships, 6. concern for surface counters and their relation ships, i.e., qualities of line, colour, form, text ure, tone, etc., 92. 93. 7. concern for the relationship between surface counters and representational counters, 8. discussion of working strategies, 9. discussion of stylistic approach, 10. concerns for personal expression, and 11. judgmental discussions evolving around technical, literal, and emotional qualities perceived within the works. While the consultation sessions covered a variety of topics and problems, it is the writer's belief that a teacher who has first experienced the exercise can anticipate the learning stages better and work to set up a more systematic examination of the processes and products during consultation sessions. While the consultations that the writer experienced were extremely helpful, they were still somewhat random in the approach of both the writer and the advisors. More frequent and critically chosen periods would be advised. Recommendations for instruction: It is the writer's belief that consultation sessions should be organized system atically and that at each successive stage in the learning process the teacher and student should focus upon different aspects of promoting the learner's movement profitably through the task stages. If the reader reacquaints himself with the process analysis and the recommendations for instruction, he will have more of an understanding of these strategical nuances. 91+. The diary approach of recording the learner's work ing strategies and reactions can form an important adjunct to such consultation activity and can help the teacher focus on the learner's concerns and attempted approaches. These comments should not be evaluated summatively, but should form an essential part of the formative evaluation of the experi ence. For these are statements of his conscious level of awareness at a given stage in the learning process. The question is—can the teacher through discourse with the stud ent expand this awareness and help the student draw relation ships between the insights gained? Such knowledge is readily available for transfer to new learning situations. A Verbal Diary Form This study has helped the writer become aware of those areas which are significant for recording in a verbal diary form. It appears that a more systematic recording mode of strategies and reactions, than is ordinarily used by the artist, might be helpful in hastening the growth of awareness on the part of students. Predetermined categories for observa tion might be helpful in directing the learner's attention more systematically from the start of the exercise and, later, such an organization of ideas and reactions may be more readily used in consultation with the teacher. When combined with an analysis of the resulting art work, a systematic examination of strategies and reactions may form a fairly comprehensive 95. description of the learning process that the student has undergone. Therefore, this investigator has taken on the task of designing a verbal diary form for use by students undertaking environmental learning experiences. The follow ing formula is given as one suggestion for use in similar tasks. Figure 26: A Reflective Verbal Diary Form Components of the Activity to be Examined are: Comments 1. Working stage or strategy described 2. Location, date, time used 3. Aesthetic insights gained ij.. Social insights gained 5. Personal reactions highlighted 6. Effective product achievements • 7. Ineffective product results 8. Causal relationships perceived between activity and outcomes 9. New insights and direction gained from consultation 96. The intention is that the learners would write up the diary page at the conclusion of each working session. A reflective analysis of the encounters would be recorded in a conscious, verbal form. Then, the resulting art work and the verbal diary notations would be available for the insti gation of a planned consultation session. The diary form is seen as being very useful when students are conducting in dependent environmental explorations apart from the teacher's scrutiny. Through the diary form the teacher can be filled in on the student's activity during the period of absence. A Timetable Proposal Based on the resulting experience of the artist, a proposed timetable schedule has been drawn up as a very gen eral guideline of a time schedule of sufficient duration to complete a similar learning task. The artist-teacher is evolving the plan around a three-hour per week school time schedule for the activity and is expecting that the students would devote at least an equal quantity of their time to the work on an independent basis. Given these requirements the following timetable is offered in Table 2, following. 97. Table 2. A Timetable Proposal Process Stages Defined Average Time Allotment 1 . Half a dozen outings to gather images 2-3 weeks 2. Assembling images gathered into various categories and con templating the image pattern several days 3. Developing ideas and feelings to express 1-2 weeks li. Rough sketching of compositional plans 1-2 weeks 5. Refining and finalizing drawings before painting 2 weeks 6. Undertaking the paintings 1 week each Stages 3 and I4. may tend to combine in the working process. The artist-teacher envisions the completion of the unit in approximately a three to four month period. The artist-teacher also recognizes that the student mayfnot work through these stages in just the same manner. Students may need to back track to earlier stages if sufficient planning has not been done to prepare him for successive stages. programme would try to integrate the consultation sessions with the preceding plan and that the verbal diary formula would give the teacher a fairly accurate idea of the progress each student is making along the expected time continuum. A mini mum of at least one consultation session should be planned for It is assumed that the art teacher conducting such a 98. the conclusion of each of these working stages. It is to be expected that variations in meeting the time allotments would vary with such factors as: the interest level and depth of involvement shown, student abilities and working rates, wea ther conditions, etc. Further Topics for Study Related to the Focus While this artist's focus narrowed around the play ground and the evidence of role playing and the visual pres ence of the life-cycle, the same locale could be used to study a variety of other aspects of the playground environment. Other learning tasks could focus around such related themes as 1. a single aesthetic concept, i.e., colour, texture, motion, light, etc., 2. the natural flora and fauna and their relationship to the park, 3. the relationship between the man-made and natural elements of the park, ii. the relationship of the park to the rest of the community, 5. park styles and facilities; making visual and functional assessments, 6. seasonal differences as reflected in the park, 7. uses people make of parks, 6. stages of human development as visible in the park, and 9« play as a child's way of learning. Chapter 7 CONCLUSIONS This study lends support to the viewpoint that a teacher at the high school level will likely be more effect ive, empathic, and technically able to relate and to guide his students as! his productive activities are maintained or expanded through similar learning encounters. The knowledge sought in this study is of use in directing a similar learn ing experience within the classroom setting. The findings should help to identify content for learning. The investigator has attempted to record her activi ties, observations, and reactions, to analyze them and to report them in an organized form useful to the teaching comm unity. Findings and recommendations for teaching-learning strategy have been organized along a learning continuum model, so that teachers considering implementing a similar learning task may focus on the appropriate concerns in any given stage of the learning task. The investigator has attempted to report the series of strategies undertaken in completing the task in the hopes of more clearly defining the sorts of actions and reactions that may be common to the experience. In this way, a programme 99. 100. of instruction can be oriented to the needs of the learner within a particular stage of the activity. The overall worth of the project should now be deter mined by conducting a similar experiment with a high school group focusing on the implementation of the instructional recommendations drawn from the findings of this study. Until that study is done the present findings and subsequent recom mendations can not be compared and judgments made regarding the educational value of the exercise to the student body. The direction of future research required by this study app ears obvious. However, in the investigator's personal experience it was found that the exercise did help her, as an artist-teacher, reach the goals of the original curriculum design, as stated in the introduction, the goals of: 1. heightening visual perception and awareness to aesthetic and social phenomena within the urban environment, 2. increasing the degree of discrimination of aes thetic qualities perceived within the environment and within the works of art created, and 3. stimulating the development and understanding of creative abilities through the experience of acquiring imagery created from the local, urban environment and using that im agery in the creation of works of art with a strong social content. 101 FOOTNOTE REFERENCES 1Hugh W. Stumbo, "Three Bases for Research and Teaching in the Arts: Subjective, Objective, and Projective," cited in George Pappas, ed., Concepts in Art and Education (London: Collier-Macmillan Ltd., 1970^, pp. 1+65-1+73. 2'Attention1 is used synonymously with the word 'con sciousness.' Stumbo, p. 1+68. •^Stumbo, p. 1+68. ^"Stumbo, p. 1+71. ^Stumbo, p. 1+69. 6Stumbo, p. 1+69. •7 Stumbo, p. 1+71 . g Stumbo, p. 1+70. ^Stumbo, p. 1+6$. I 0 Stumbo, p. 1+66. II Stumbo, p. 1+70. 1 2 Stumbo, p. 1+73. 1^Friedrich Schiller cited by Richard Dattner A/A, design  for play (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1969), p. 1. 1^Suzanne Langer, Problems in Art (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957). 1 5 ^Langer, p. 113. 16 Langer, p. 9l+. 1^Manuel Barkan, Laura H. Chapman, Evan J. Kern, Guidelines  Curriculum Development for Aesthetic Education (CEMREL, Inc., February 1970), p. 50. 18 Langer, pp. 133-131+. 102. 9B. Othanel Smith, "The Logic of Teaching in the Arts," in Ralph Smith, ed., Aesthetics and Criticism in Art Educa tion (Chicago: Rahd McNally and Company, 1966), cited by Gene Mittler, "Experiences in Critical Inquiry: Approaches for Use in the Art Methods Class," Art Education, Vol. 26, No. 2, February 1973, p. 18. 20Mittler, p. 18. 21 Edmund B. Feldman, Art as Image and Idea (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967), cited by Mittler, p. 18. 22Monroe C. Beardsley, "Critical Evaluation," cited by Ralph Smith, ed., AestheticSr arid Criticism in Art Education (Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1966), pp. 315-331. 23 •^Beardsley, p. 323. 2^Beardsley, p. 322. pel •^Genetic intentionalism refers to the intent of the artist in creating the work. Affective reasoning refers to the subjective liking or disliking of a work. Neither reason alone, Beardsley judges, provides sufficient justification for a critical value judgment. 103. APPENDIX AESTHETIC EXPLORATIONS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT An Education 580 Study Presented to the Faculty of Education, Graduate Division, the University of British Columbia In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts Jeanette Louise Andrews April 1975 10b,. PREFACE Urban development has created a need for citizens to be able to consider aesthetic qualities within their environ ment in an educated manner, if our cities are to be humane places fostering productive living styles. What seems to be needed is a consensus of value for the aesthetic state of the environment and for the social role art fulfills in society. The growing ideology of ecology needs to be extended to pre serving and enhancing the aesthetic qualities of the urban community. If art education is to sponsor the development of such awareness and valuing of aesthetics to urban life, it needs to develop into its curriculum a program aimed at developing a knowledge of urban constructs, as well as fos tering the growth of perceptual, discriminatory, and crea tive powers, so necessary in dealing with the environment in an artistic manner. In this study, the author has pro posed an alternative curriculum design intended as a guide for secondary art teachers contemplating extending the concern for aesthetic education to the urban environment. An attempt has been made to express the author's ideology, as well as to present a systematic approach for implementing such a program. Theory and methodology are stated explicitly, giving the reader specific outlines of ii 105. iii substantive and behavioral objectives, instructional and evaluative strategies, and descriptions of student and teacher roles. Finally, the author offers a model teaching-learning unit to the reader to illustrate the organization and approach envisioned. The author has drawn upon the work of eminent educa tors and art educators to influence the design of the curric ulum. However, it is the author's intent to present a com prehensive and practical design that can be implemented by the classroom teacher, yet broad enough to be modified to meet the specific needs of the students and community con cerned. The author would also like to express sincere appre ciation to her adviser, Dr. James U. Gray, for his interest, criticism, artd expert guidance, and especially for his encour agement. For, without that encouragement this design would never have reached this more finished form. It is hoped that art teachers will find this curric ulum proposal relevant and useful to their needs and to the needs of their students and their community. 106. TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter Page 1. INTRODUCTION: THE CHASM BETWEEN ACADEMIA AND THE,SECONDARY CLASSROOM ART TEACHER 1 DETECTION OF A PROBLEM. 1+ Oh, If Only We Could See a Host of Golden Daffodils 1 2+ A New Concept of Aesthetics Is Needed: Aesthetics As a Functional Commodity..... 6 2. A PROPOSED SOLUTION „ 13 Aesthetic and Environmental Education.. 13 An Approach to Curriculum Design 18 3. A PROPOSED DESIGN FOR URBAN AESTHETIC EDUCATION 22 Aligning Art Education With Generic Educational Aims and Goals 22 Specific Objectives Considered. „ 23 Curriculum Content 21+ Behavioral Objectives Stated..... 35 The Role of the Student.. i+3 The Role of the Teacher 1+7 A General Statement of Method 1+9 Specific Structuring Modes: Strategies and Constraints 65 1+. IMPLEMENTING A TEACHING-LEARNING UNIT 71 Behavioral Objectives Highlighted in the Unit 71 The Teaching-Learning Unit Described 7k-Evaluative Strategies as Related to Content and Behavioral Expectations 78 iv 1 07. v Page WEAKNESSES FORESEEN IN THE CURRICULUM DESIGN 83 CONCLUSION108. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION: THE CHASM BETWEEN ACADEMIA AND THE SECONDARY CLASSROOM ART TEACHER During the past decade discontentment with the direction of art education has been raised by a number of art educators at the academic, theoretical level. A search is being conducted for valid and accountable goals for art education. Through the work of CEMREL (Central Midwestern Regional Education Laboratory) in St. Louis attention has been directed towards aesthetic education as a preparation for contemporary life. In addition, other directions have been suggested by academics. As Vincent Lanier writes in "A Plague On All Your Houses: The Tragedy of Art Education," ...the art curriculum of the public school class still remained almost completely studio, despite some experimentation in individual schools and dis tricts and the wealth of new ideas such as aesthetic education, visual literacy, environmental design, structured and sequenced art content, related arts, humanities, and film arts which were written about and Jalked about by (mostly college faculty) people • • • • This is not to say that studio-oriented courses do not provide some educational benefits. But, the worth of alternate programs is largely untested within the public school system and the additional benefits that these programs could offer are largely being ignored. 109. 2 Obviously, a gap exists between the theorists and the practitioners. Now let us postulate the causes of such a hiatus within the field. Disagreement as to direction exists even among the theorists. Added to this problem, is the failure of many theorists to carry their expressions beyond generalizations or goal-oriented terms. They often fail to provide the reader with the needed structure for implementation or testing of their theories. Many alternate programs have not been implemented due to a lack of clarity and specificity of recommendations. And too, there is a tendency among many classroom teachers to perpetuate older and tested programs whose outcomes may no longer be even partially relevant to today's world. Further problems exist along the lines of communication. Teacher training and in-service programs often fail to develop in their participants the needed skills and knowledge to bring about effective curriculum development and reform. If systematic and general curriculum reform is to occur there is a need for academics and classroom teachers "to meet on the same ground" and to be able to plan co-operatively the future directions of art education. Only when this communion occurs will changes result generally at the classroom level and the chasm be closed. And this requires modifications of concerns, skills, and activities of each group to bridge this increasingly wider chasm. In the following pages, the author will attempt to present a personal philosophy related to a new alternate 110. 3 direction for art education, to state the general goals and specific objectives of such a curriculum, and then, to offer suggestions of teaching-learning strategies to implement and evaluate the attainment of such objectives. As the proposal has not yet been tested in a classroom situation, weaknesses or difficulties in implementing such a program can only be anticipated at this point. It is the author's intention to conduct such an experiment in the near future. Meanwhile, one can only hypothesize that: the more systematic and planned an approach one designs, the more likely the desired outcomes will be achieved in some measure, in contrast to what is probable if philosophy, objectives, and methods are of a nebulous quality and growth is left to the natural system of maturation. As Vincent Lanier suggests in Teaching Secondary Art, a book of methodology, there are five minimal components of the total teaching process. In order for learning to occur there must be the following components: 1. an aim or aims, 2. subject matter involving knowledge, skills, or attitudes, 3. the students' interest must be aroused or motivated, Ii. a sequence of presentation and activity, and the participation of students, and 5. a manner of evaluating or measuring the effective ness of the program in the light of the aims.2 111. l+ The author will endeavour to deal with these components in the following curriculum design. DETECTION OP A PROBLEM Oh, If Only We Could See a Ho3t of Golden Daffodils! With the first feeling of spring most people are prone to draw about them some signs of the new season. I have often brought a vase of daffodils into my classroom in anticipation of the proximity of spring. I have watched young children draw near to inhale through their senses of sight, smell, and touch the qualities offered by the spring bouquet. Have you ever tried to share that experience with a child? We all try to use just such an experience to capture a mood, which will stimulate our imagination or activity or which will perhaps provide a respite from our present work. Look again at those daffodils standing motion less and confined within the vase. Where is the gentle swaying? Where are the grassy fields? How often as teachers do we try to bring to our students some real object from that environment "out there" in the hopes that we might be able to convey to them concepts of the real world? How often do we only tell them about the world out there? How much of the world cannot be brought adequately into the classroom? How often do we contrive learning experiences that somehow fall short of the "real experience" that can be had beyond our four walls? A daf fodil removed from its natural setting can never convey its 112. 5 total qualities and its complex relationship with its environment. Too often in our contrived and artificial setting, students learn facts about things, but are denied the experience of discovering the real and complex relation ships of things to one another. "The community is the child's home, but despite that fact, they often know very little about it."^ When are we going to make the world visible to the young? And yet, we purport to be preparing the youth "to take their place in the world." Education has been thought of as taking place mainly within the confines of the classroom.... However, the most extensive facility imaginable for learning is our urban environment. It is a classroom without walls...offering a boundless curriculum with unlimited expertise. If we can make our urban environment comprehensible and observable, we will have created classrooms with endless windows on the world. If the subjects of the curriculum are intended in some way to introduce students to the social world and its way of looking at things, then it is highly improbable that very much can be accomplished unless ©ne leaves the school. The world is so complex, rich, and varied that no school can dupli cate it. The expertise available in the city is so exact and specialized that teachers could not compete with the professionals in the field. More over, the life of the city, its excitement and its rhythm, provide an irresistible attraction to children....1 think we have to accept the fact that schools are finding students less and less motivated • within the schools because the stimulation of the school is so much less than that of the city, of their lives outside. And as Louis E. Raths expressed in his book Teaching For Learning, one of the major goals of education is " relate the life of the community to the work of the school, and that of the school to the community...."^ if this were 113. 6 the case, both the student and the community could change and grow. However, such development is dependent upon actual interaction between the human and physical elements of the environment and upon the understanding that is acquired through such experiences. A more integrated relationship between man and his environment could be realized. Little opportunity is provided in the school curriculum for the student to explore and to discover his own unique and collec tive relationships to his world. When can he come to know that interdependence between himself and the environment? There is a need for the young to get to know themselves and to know themselves in relation to their environment, to over come a growing social trend of alienation. There is no difference in kind between man at the frontier and the young student at his own frontier, each attempting to understand. Let the educational process be life itself as fully as we can make it.' A New Concept of Aesthetics Is Needed; Aesthetics As a  Functional Commodity may be described as an activity which a makes our environment more emotionally efficient. This principle is frequently lacking in our Twentieth Century communities. With the development of the industrial age, and the subsequent technological age, an unnatural division has occurred between art and life. "The division of 'art and life has meant that the visual arts have been placed outside the mainstream of life and their most basic values have been distorted."^ 1114.. 7 Our large urban communities lack the organic har monies and balances of nature. They have become mechanistic and constantly fail to provide the organic relationships that the human organism needs to survive and to flourish. As Doris Marie Carter writes in her article, "The use of vision as the primary mode of perception in the teaching of environmental education:" The quality of the American environment is deteriorating at a rapid pace. One of the most ominous threats to the death of the environment lies in man's failure to provide human and sensory solutionsQto the spread of uncontrolled techno-science. Over the past few decades there has been a growing awareness of the detrimental effects man is having upon the environment and a re-appraisal of man.fs methods of dealing with environmental and community concerns. Most people are well-aware that we are using up or destroying our natural resources and that we are creating "concrete jungles" out of our cities. We are becoming increasingly aware thsit the environment and human beings cannot withstand these abuses forever, in the name of "progress." The general populace would now largely agree with the ecologists who stress conservation of the natural resources. After all, the indiscriminate use of our resources could lead to the curtailment of many human activities and could ultimately result in human affliction or extinction. For example, the present fuel shortage has already restricted travel, the hours of business and production, and the heating 115. 8 of domestic dwellings, in some parts of the world. Such effects are immediately recognized and measures are taken to remedy the problems. Par fewer people concern themselves with the effects of sensory pollutants upon the physical, mental, and emotion al states of human beings and upon our capacity for function ing from day to day. The efficiency: of human thinking and action can be greatly modified by the aesthetic qualities of the environment, in which we are obliged to exist and live. ...human personality is fed and nurtured by the quality of its environment. Similarly, the aesthetic quality of the environment is the basis from which subsequent responses to art are made. Thus the quality of a people's art is enhanced or inhibited by the aesthetic nurturing they receive. If the human organism is to become stimulated to think, rather than to become distracted, confused, or distressed by the sensory messages it receives from the environment, surely the level of human behavior and accomplishment will be raised. Pew people today appreciate this view of aesthetics as an utilitarian or functional commodity. When the aesthetic qualities of our environment become debased and our senses become bombarded, we decry it as a "pity" and anaesthetize our senses against the onslaught. In this way, our experi ences work as depressants rather than as stimulants to pro ductive thinking and to human development. In earlier cultures "art was not yet a means, as it is now, to step out of the routine of everyday life to pass some moments in contemplation; it had to be enjoyed as an 116. ' 9 element of life itself, as an expression of life's signif-12 icance." More recently, aesthetic values have become viewed as enriching, but rather extraneous--rather than as basic and functional to human existence. We now largely associate aesthetic experiences with the visual and perform ing arts, while ignoring the qualities and values df exper iences attainable from our everyday interaction with the environment. We have seen how aesthetic values have taken a "back-seat" in a long row of priorities towards human advancement via technology. "Although art offers the clue to many of our troubles it is considered irrelevant compared 13 to technology." A concern for the aesthetic qualities of the environ ment and their effects upon human states of being is a recent development. Scientists and psychologists have begun to research the effects of sensory pollutants upon human effi ciency. As June McPee states "...a lack of art may be of greater consequence than a lack of technology, leading to deficiencies and diseases whose pathology is still imper fectly understood."^" There is also a growing expertise in the area of town planning and architecture. In these fields, more people are showing concern for the human considerations in the devel opment and the renewal of the urban setting. And governments are now taking measures to safeguard more of our natural environment. But this evolution is occurring very slowly, and 11 1 until now, this concern for aesthetic values has been the battle of a few individuals against the forces of techno logical progress and of human ignorance or apathy. What is - needed is a wider recognition and valuing of the aesthetic qualities of the environment on the part of the general populace. Community concern is a powerful force in any fight for change. General awareness of this problem will eventually come when the effects are more strongly felt. However, the author believes that the time is ripe to increase social awareness for aesthetic qualities within the community. We are presently more conservation minded and we have the technical "know how" to adapt our knowledge and skills towards human ends. Surely now we should look towards the humanization of the urban environment and a concern for the quality of experience that is had by all people. We need to create a more compatible environment for human development. To accomplish this goal, the author believes, we need to expose a new concept--or revive and old one--of aesthetics. Then, perhaps, we can benefit from art in two ways; " it influences our environment and as it serves as social communication. ""^ The need for aesthetic literacy—developed powers of perception and discrimination—can be supported on the grounds of two more recent developments, as well. Where independent choice can be exercised by consumers, there is a need for citizens to observe discretion in their consuming 118. 11 habits of mass media and of products designed for sale. In contemporary society, nonverbal symbols are used to transmit ideas; express qualities, feelings, and emotions; note varied rank, status, and social roles; and to persuade changes in behavior and decision-making. Advertising, package design, pub lishing layout, clothing and jewelry, furniture and household accessories, motels, drive-ins, amusement centers, housing, business buildings, main streets, and cities all communicate values and ideas depend ing upon the quality of both the symbolism used and the design. Mass media extend this communication multifold. Education for critical evaluation of this vast impact of nonverbal visual communication is drastically needed unless we are willing to ig nore its impact on the uncritical viewer. For too long we have been concerned primarily with the material needs of man and have virtually forgotten the higher qualities of life and the non-material needs of human beings. Once basic physical needs are recognized Abraham Maslow's concept of "self-actualization" gains importance as a human need. Now the machine is freeing vast numbers for leisure that have neither,cultural pattern nor cultural training to use. ' If leisure is to be permanently enriching, one needs to have a knowledge of the possibilities for human involvement and endeavour and to have the ability to make discriminative choices of activity. Therefore, it appears that for reasons of human ecology, consumer awareness, and for the impending prospect of increases in leisure time, a need for aesthetic education is gaining importance. In presenting solutions to the foregoing circumstances it seems apparent that there is a need for art educators to 119. 12 deal with the following concerns: 1. finding a way of aligning art educational objec tives with generic educational aims and goals, to form a relevant and integrated learning pattern; 2. in turn, that a relevant educational approach will deal with urban living problems and, therefore, provide a bridge from childhood to adult responsibility for the environment; and 3. that art education will provide a program that will foster the development of an understanding of concepts and the development of skills to deal with the urban environ ment from an aesthetic stance. 120. Chapter 2 A PROPOSED SOLUTION Aesthetic and Environmental Education The challenge has been presented to education. There was a time in the history of the city when the power to shape it was the prerogative of the few. Now, within the framework of the various forms of democracy, sound planning for the city's present and future can only proceed if there is strong public initiation of, and support for, enlightened policies. But this in turn presupposes an informed and participating electorate that is able to recognize what he wants, and to articulate its aspirations; such an electorate must be pre pared to take part in the planning process. In order to play this role, the citizen must have tools—information, knowledge, discrimination, and a desire to be involved. The teacher is the vital link in theoprocess. Urban education is the vital dimension. Education has been slow to adjust itself to the demands and conditions of the Twentieth Century. The exist ing system has failed to equip the young to deal with the present problems. Education, in general, has increased the division between art and life by stressing and maintaining a highly verbal, rational approach to learning. Visual and sensory education has been neglected, atrophying non-verbal, intuitive powers. We are neglecting the gift of comprehending things by what our senses tell us about them. Concept is split from percept, and thought moves among abstractions. Our eyes are being reduced to instruments by which to measure and to identify— 13 121 . Ik hence a dearth of ideas that can be expressed in images and an incapacity to discover meaning in what we see. Naturally we feel lost in the pre sence of objects that make sense only to undiluted vision, and we l<j>8k ? or help to the more familiar medium of words. If from an environment point of view the lack of visual education has proved disastrous it has wider implications than most people realize. It almost2gertainly affects creativity in a general sense. Art education has largely been satisfied with and even accommodated the division between art and life. For too long, art education programs have stressed only self-expression and creative growth in the plastic arts. There has been a general failure in promotion awareness of aesthet ics in everyday life situations; within the environmental design; and in developing an awareness and appreciation of man's continuity with the past through art history studies. We have done little to consider preserving and advancing humanity through the aesthetic preservation and development of man's natural and man-made environment. We cannot allow people to grow up as visual and aesthetic illiterates and expect them to be aware of their aesthetic responsibilites as citizens. We can hold greater hope for the survival and devel opment of our civilization through the heightening of per ceptual awareness, discrimination, and creative powers of our future citizens. It (open education) recognizes the dual role art plays in the classroom, that of sensitizing children's awareness to form and expression as •aesthetic values and also that of clarifying and 122. enriching all comprehension which may evolve from visual thinking. Thus art education is seen est ablishing a basis for visual literacy, critical 22 thinking, and the intrinsic appreciation of beauty. In developing perception "...the images developed will largely 23 condition the response and the measure of concern." In the development of the image, education in seeing will be quite as important as the reshaping of what is seen. Indeed, they together form a circular, or hopefully a spiral, process: visual education impelling the citizen to act upon his visual world, and this action causing him to see even more acutely. ALftighly developed art of urban design is linked to the creation of a critic al and attentive audience. If art and audience grow together, then our cities will be a source o|. daily enjoyment to millions of their inhabitants. ^ The degree to which people can respond aesthet ically and cognitively to artistic communication depends upon the amount of information they have learned to use and the extent of the comparative understanding of artistic symbolization and structure which they have developed. We have recently seen the emergence of new programs of environmental studies, with an emphasis upon knowing the elements and operations of the urban community and upon the conservation of the natural environment. This approach has proved valuable in exposing children and students alike to the complex relationships that exist in their local setting, and to a broader understanding of what the earth can support. They have acquired knowledge of natural phenomena, of cul tural and ethnic differences, and of political and economic processes. They have often been exposed to cultural programs and arts and crafts programs offered within their community. However, far too little emphasis, it appears, has been placed upon the development of aesthetic awareness and 123. 16 discrimination in either art or environmental education programs. In the schools, care for the physical-visual environment has not been handed down as a way of life. As a result, not only has a generation of adults been spawned who show a callousness toward their physical environment, but most important there are few educators prepared to teach environ mental constructs...few schools provide sufficient instruction in understanding the all-over environ ment, and that there is considerable lack^of well-conceived material on the college level. As Doris Marie Carter goes on to write: ...if art education is to have meaning in the future curriculum it must concentrate on the qual ity of the future environment, it must develop a broader awareness of its role to make man-centered, global, and full of human joy. To accomplish this end, the author believes we need to ini tiate a curriculum of environmental education, with a greater concern for promoting an understanding and appreciation for the aesthetic commodity. Of interest is the fact that, while this concept is not altogether original, few art edu cators have practically planned and implemented an extensive program of aesthetic environmental studies at either the elementary or secondary level. Moreover,/ few teachers are adequately prepared to function in such a setting. We are presently in a pioneer stage, which requires considerably more involvement on the part of art teachers. In programs of environmental studies, perception is focused upon practical phenomena and processes related to ecology and to business and social operations. While these studies are valuable, we should not neglect the appeal and 1 2I4-. 17 growth offered from the exploration of the environmental aesthetic qualities, with a conscious intent of sensory awareness. For through a sensitive and thoughtful approach to one's environment valuable knowledge can be acquired, as well as emotional enrichment had from a quality aesthetic experience. As John Dewey wrote: Everything depends upon the quality of the exper ience which is had. The quality of any experience has two aspects. There is an immediate aspect of agreeableness or disagreeablenes^g and there is its influence upon later experience. From such experiences one can acquire a knowledge of such environmental features as the design elements of both man= made and natural phenomena and a knowledge of the complex interrelationships of these elements. Gradually, one's concepts of totality and universality will develop. Such insights may better able one to make comparative judgments and decisions concerning the qualities of the environment,;, which one wishes to conserve or change. Such awareness can also provide the "springboard" to creative vision and activity. Moreover, one may discover one's relationship to the environ ment, become a more integral part of it, and develop the skills to use the environment and one's past experiences as an "image bank" for creative expression. The author believes that solutions to our problems cannot be envisioned until we adequately "know" our environment—both its assets and its liabilities. Then, we might ponder upon possibilities. Before delineating the author's specific curriculum design, a brief summary of general philosophical approach to 125. 18 curriculum design will be presented in the next section. An Approach to Curriculum Design The writer cannot support the stand taken by some educators that behavioral objectives are paramount in import ance. Along with the development of skills, the breadth and depth of content is of vital importance. There must be a concern for what is being responded to, as well as the responses that are generated. The critical blending of content and behavioral objectives to form a sequential hier archy of learning experiences is also stressed in the writ ings of Hilda Taba.29 Hilda Taba's emphasis in curriculum design is a comprehensive view of learning. She cites a. broad range of educational objectives, from content objectives through behavioral ones. These objectives are organized under the following categories: 1. knowledge, 2. cognitive skills, 3. academic and groups skills, and ii. attitudes and feelings. It is her belief that learning situations should elicit growth in a variety of behavioral objectives—concept forma tion, value.clarification, and divergent skills—which may occur multidimensionally in a lesson unit. She also stresses that objectives occur in different degrees of complexity and that they form a developmental sequence or hierarchy for at-126. 19 tainment. However, while she presents a logical sequence for • 'ST-concept development,she has not been able to present such a logical hierarchy of attainment for objectives in the crea tive or affective domains. She does, however, encourage the principles of divergent thinking and value clarification. In terms of learning strategy, she supports active learning experiences employing an inquiry method, allowing for as much autonomous student-directed strategy as possible. Open-ended experiences are favoured allowing for heterogene ity of responses and levels of activity according to the student's ability, experience, and background. All strate gies, instructional and evaluative, are based on a sound rationale and set of learning objectives. It is upon this general base, that the author has modeled the curriculum proposal. In addition to Hilda Taba's curriculum development guide, the author has found the work of Michael Day and of Elliot Eisner of particular relevance in designing the pro posal. Michael Day presents a similar learning hierarchy designed towards the attainment of art education goals. He outlines three phases of instruction, accompanied by differ ing evaluative procedures. These phases help to clarify and to simplify the multitude of instructional objectives into a chronological sequence and hierarchy. This model has general application, but is not an absolute. It is not Day's intent for the model to be rigidly adhered to. The phases are as follows: 30 127. 20 1. phase of exploration During this phase of experimentation the intuitive is highlighted. Definite directions or assignments are not made. No demonstrable skills or products are required for evaluation at this point. 2. stage of precision This is the phase of greatest teacher direction. During this period specific performance criteria are assign ed. Skills should be developed and demonstrated and assign ments fulfilled. 3. stage of generalization Students work their most independently during this phase. The objective is to classify ideas and techniques acquired in the previous phases and to use them for expres sive objectives. The teacher's role being to act as "... a consultant and critic to assist students with the formula tion and expression of their own ideas."-*1 Elliot Eisner supports the emphasis on behavioral objectives, especially those of an expressive nature. He also categorizes objectives into productive, critical, and historical realms of artistic learning, with each situation requiring unique instructional approaches and appropriate means of evaluation. It seems apparent that content and behavioral objec tives must assume a balance within the curriculum. In sub sequent sections of this proposal the program objectives will be outlined and, then, instructional and evaluative strategies 128. 21 indicated to implement the attainment of such objectives. 129 Chapter 3 A PROPOSED DESIGN FOR URBAN AESTHETIC EDUCATION Aligning Art Education With Generic Educational Aims and Goals 32 Contrary to Vincent Lanier's belief^ the author believes that art education can be related to the central issues of education—".. .tlae development of those concepts and skills necessary to understand and alter society." J Through the development of an understanding and appreciation of the social role of aesthetics and art forms in contempor ary life, a case can be built for the advancement of aesthe tic considerations in environmental planning. In addition, certain basic skills are required to promote effectively this kind of involvement. They are: the abilities to con ceptualize, discriminate, form values and attitudes, and find creative solutions and practical procedures for imple menting those solutions. The writer believes that art education can play a supportive and integral role in coming to grips with social change. The interdependences between art, man, and the environment can be examined to ascertain the contribution and place that art does and could play amongst the scheme of social, economic, and political elements. By including the examination of such overarching concepts as change, interdependence, cultural differences, 22 130. 23 lifestyles, order, and communication, art education can align itself with major educational topics, but at the same time can expose the unique social attributes of aesthetics within our environment. Art education can also align itself to a considerable degree with the attainment of generic behavioral objectives in all areas—cognitive, affective, and psycho motor. Through such an approach art education can abandon its present peripheral position for one more integral with generic educational aims^" and to one more germane to con temporary life. Specific Objectives Considered A concurrent development of cognitive, affective, psychomotor, working, and social skills is required for the development of self-sufficient and industrious citizens. Cognitive and affective levels cannot be separated in art education. Perceptual and appreciative growth must be devel oped simultaneously. In art experience the total organism is involved, providing growth on a fully integrated basis. Sensory experience is multidimensional and meanings can be achieved through synaesthetic perception—simultaneous, cross-sensory perception—intuitively achieved and totally 35 integrated. As Hilda Taba suggests, for learning or growth to occur the curriculum must involve knowledges, skills, and attitudes. She classifies objectives, therefore, under the following categories: 131. 1. knowledges - content, 2. skills - cognitive, psychomotor, working habits, and social skills, and 3. attitudes - affective. The author, too, has used this classification in stating the objectives. The specific content objectives have been out lined later with distinctions made between overarching con cepts, ideas and topics for study, and sampling of factual data suggested. The author has also classified and delin eated skill and attitude objectives in behavioral terminology in an effort to provide a clearer and more orderly focus for consideration and use. Curriculum Content Vincent Lanier advocates an initial focus on •i.areas in which the adolescent comes into contact with the visual arts in his daily exper ience. Starting with the student's home and tele vision and films, and broadening out in ever-widening circles to include art in the total com munity, content can be organized in clusters of projects in each or some of these areas. This method has, theoretically, the greatest potential for arousing the interest of the student. b It would seem reasonable to predict that learning can be fac ilitated and accelerated by focusing upon the development of a greater understanding and appreciation of what is already familiar: the locale and phenomena one regularly interacts with. Therefore the content of study would vary from school to school and would be determined by the opportunities avail able in the immediate proximity of the school. Mass media 132. 25 and the community already influence the student in an unsched uled or uncontrolled way. The endeavour in this program is to harness the potential of the community for more planned educational outcomes. Content opportunities must also be researched and evaluated by the teacher in advance of the learning period, if the teacher is to adequately structure a quality learning situation for the student's use. The content of study could evolve around such general areas as: 1. the natural environment, 2. the man-made habitat, 3. the mass culture and popular arts, I)., the designers and creative processes of the community—their roles and techniques, and 5. the traditional visual and performing arts, past and present. As Vincent Lanier expresses in his article "Aesthetic Education: The New Elitism?" the content of study is a critical issue in developing programs of aesthetic education. I would submit that the most important factor in dealing with aesthetic responses within the framework of education is the content in hand, or the nature of the stimulus that is providing the aesthetic response. ' He recommends an initial study of the popular arts rather than the more tradtional modes to foster aesthetic understand ing and appreciation. Vincent Lanier suggests that young people today have "...a reasonably well developed affective response structure and some cognitive relationship to aesthe tic stimuli which we casually or perhaps arrogantly ignore 133. 26 because, I suspect, the styles of the stimuli which provoke these reponses do not exist within the framework of what we accept as the visual arts," and that he is "...interested in teaching children why and how they respond to what they already appreciate...."^ The author also believes we should focus upon the everyday 'aesthetic experiences that can be had in the natural and man-made settings. One might look to the writings of June McFee on environmental awareness and the urban setting— studies appropriate for urban students.J In other words, the author is advocating the study of the student's immediate locale as the content for aesthetic environmental programs. In The Greening of America by Charles Reich, we see how the young generation is eager for non-verbal communication and experience, which will re-sensitize them and raise their level of conscious awareness. The most direct way to restore sensitivity is, of course, to begin a series of exposures to forgot ten sensations. The Consciousness III person does a great deal of this.- He burns incense in his home to restore the sense of smell. He attends a T-group or sensitivity group to restore awareness of other people; the experiments may range from telling person al feelings and experiences to touching other people's bodies....He takes "trips" out into nature; he might lie for two hours and simply stare up at the arching branches of a tree. He finds that motorcycling restores a sense of free motion. He might cultivate visual sensitivity, and the ability to meditate, by staring for hours at a globe lamp. He discovers Bach and Mozart. He seeks out art, literature, drama, for their value in raising consciousness. However, one might suspect that in many cases the young like the old are not yet directly confronting the concrete issues i3a. 27 that need social change to uplift our quality of life. And how often are sensations experienced without awakening the process of thoughtful analysis and reflection? Vincent Lanier suggests that youngsters might grow in aesthetic response by a "...process of learning to height en, illuminate and broaden one's responses to aesthetic stimuli."^"1* Specific methods for achieving such ends and suggestions on how a given locale or stimulus may be focused upon and explored are described in Chapter 1+. As Lanier has claimed, there is a growing trend on the part of art education researchers, such as Manuel Barkan and Stanley Madeja to refine the area of aesthetic education through the use of programed instructional media.^ Their emphasis is upon training or conditioning aesthetic responses by a highly contrived learning experience in an effort to create an understanding and appreciation for the fine arts. However, like Vincent Lanier, the author is inclined to suggest that more immediate and "real" experiences are avail able within the learner's environment which can promote aes* thetic education and which can be used as a jumping-off point into more,"elite" aesthetic experiences. And, one should not overlook the delight in independent discovery and the personal nature of the aesthetic response. The author would suggest that the aesthetic properties and qualities in a local shop window may initially provide a more relevant and meaningful experience than a study of " ; .1 ancient icons, for a teenager of this century. In the first 135. 28 place, the learner can often bring a few initial concepts and facts to a study of a local phenomena, which help stim ulate participation and discussion and cut down on the often boring and irrelevant monologue that students are often con fronted with in traditional classroom experiences. With close study the familiar pieces of the environment can take on unexpected depths of meaning. Perhaps, when the "familiar" is more deeply understood and appreciated the less familiar concepts of art history will appear of greater relevance and interest, and can be integrated into the study. As the student discovers universal properties in his environment and the .interdisciplinary nature of elements, he will grad ually grow to appreciate and understand less familiar con cepts and be able to incorporate them more easily and into a more meaningful pattern of personal knowledge for future use. Specific Substantive Information An objective of the program is to foster an attain ment of awareness and understanding of the subsequent infor mation. Such matter has been broken down into topics for study with some suggested sampling items provided under some of the topics. While the overarching concepts and the topics outlined are to be covered in the course by all students, the sampling items allow for options and choices be be selected by the teacher or student, depending upon available resources, student background, and student interest. 136. 29 Overarching Concepts to be Explored The major goal of the curriculum is to develop an understanding and appreciation of the social role of art in contemporary, urban society. Basic postulates on which this proposal is based are: 1. Man is potentially creative -Man needs to create order in his environment. Man needs to express himself and to communicate with others. 2. Through his art, man is responsible for creating change within his environment. 3. Human lifestyles are changed through art. Ij.. There is a balance or interdependence between man, his environment, and art. Such interrelated assumptions should provide a unifying stream of thought within the content or knowledge area of the program. And, as Vincent Lanier writes in Teaching Secondary  Art, "...some degree of cultural generalization is valid and necessary. ^ Promoting an Understanding of Aesthetics Through the Investi gation of Specific Topics Aesthetic experiences are universal and aesthetic responses can be achieved by all human organisms in their everyday experiences. These responses can be broadened and intensified by educating the human organism's powers of per ceptual acuity and discernment. Aesthetic experiences are 137. 30 enriching and educational, and make for a higher quality of existence. The author believes that all persons have the capacity to have the quality of their aesthetic responses enhanced. Such responses provide the meaning (communication) and the order required by the human organism to survive and to advance in life's endeavours. Living suggests a progres sive or advancing process in the life cycle. Aesthetic experiences contribute to the process of living, over mere • existing. In the following pages the author will attempt to delineate specific categories and topics for exploration. Category I - Visual Art Elements and Principles Basic to the course of study would include the investigation of: A. The elements of design - line, tone, form, space, colour, texture, decoration, pattern, and function B. . The principles of - balance, movement, direction, contrast, symmetry, unity, mood& and illusion C. The distinction of similarities and differences between natural and man-made phenomena D. Aesthetic experiences and responses 1. Consideration of subjective and objective criteria for evaluating art works.; 2. Consideration of the general social role art has played in past and present cultures. e. g. - the expressive or emotive power of art, - art as communication--a language for 1 38. 31 interpreting reality, and - man's dependence and relationship to aesthetic qualities Then, a consideration of the future role or function of art E. The scope and variety of aesthetic elements of the environment, both man-made and natural F. The development of an articulate vocabulary to discuss aesthetic concepts Category II - Environmental Topics Aesthetic phenomena exhibited in the design of the urban community that would come under study include: A. Ethnic and cultural differences within the community Sampling suggestions - Chinese community Indian community Eskimo community German community Italian community Youth culture Slum culture Comparative studies could be made between several cultures. Attention should be given to the role each group plays in the overall community design and the avenues or processes for development each has. Variety in lifestyles can be expressed through aesthetic expressions, distinctive to a given cultural group. B. The influence of mass media and the popular arts 139. 32 (film, newspapers, magazines, comics, and television) 1. Modern "languages" to interpret reality Sampling - all or several of the above media 2. Adolescent consumer trends - pooling student habits and views 3. role and techniques I4.. Consumer manipulation . - the psychological power of these media C. The processes of environmental preservation and change 1. Focusing upon established aesthetic processes operable within the community Sampling options - town planning architecture commercial advertising product designing interior design landscape design 2. Consideration of the various roles the artist . .-: can assume in designing within the community Focusing upon artists* perceptions and concerns about their environment and upon their visions and activities Sampling options - artists involed in the fine arts, as well as practitioners in the above processes D. A study of function and style in architecture Sampling suggestions - recreational centres li+O. 33 -* business offices industrial plants shopping centres residental buildings Consideration of the building requirements of contemporary urban centres and societies E. The development of urban centres 1. Directions and modes of expansion 2. Re-development and preservation 3. Political, economic, and artistic avenues of change Sampling oriented towards the local community initially. Later, with time permitting, attention could be given to international trends in town planning. F. Man has consistently attempted to put "order" into his life and at the same time to be "expressive" through the creation of common, everyday art forms. A study of this need and its manifestations in the community might focus on the following samples - shopwindow displays garden layouts home decorating styles dress trends Every man is potentially an artist. G. A gtudy of product design and production methods 1. The changing role of the craftsman 2. Crafts revival during the past decade 11+1. 31+ Sampling orientation could vary considerably. 3. A consideration of "function" and "style" in evaluating craft products H. The emerging role of "women in the arts" 1. Distinct concern and differences displayed in their work 2. Difficulties that confront women in the arts I. Man's art heritage and function in society The range studied would vary depending upon community resources. 1. A study of exhibits by formal art agencies, A comparison could be made between non-profit and com mercial agencies, revealing differences and similarities between the role of each and the products exhibited. J. Aesthetic qualities offered by natural environments 1. Natural areas within the man-made habitat Sampling suggestions - parks gardens plazas K. A consideration of the emerging trend of "conceptual" art L. The role of the critic in contemporary society Category III - Man's Responsibility for His Environment A. A consideration of sensory pollutants in our urban environment and the effects on human life The quality of life can be modified by the aesthetic atmosiphere of a community. A wide range of sampling could 11+2. 35 be introduced for inspection under this topic. Behavioral Objectives Stated In the following pages the author has enumerated the behavioral objectives focused upon in the proposed program. For convenience, these objectives are categorized under Hilda Taba's classifications of: cognitive, affective, psychomotor, working, and social skills. Cognitive Skills Cognition is the process of knowing or perceiving. Behavioral changes, within the cognitive domain, that are the objective of this program are the following: 1. To sensitize and develop skills of sensory perception, e. g. sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste To develop the ability " perceive simultan eously and syncretistically the total sensory import of experience...."^" This multidimensional awareness of the environment must be intuitively attained. To develop a broadened and heightened capacity for aesthetic response—a sense of awe, wonder, and insight, 2i To develop the ability to generalize or concept ualize from perceptual experiences, and to have the ability to relate concepts as well as to understand them And then, to have the ability to ultimately apply such principles to real problems and situations (see appendix) 3. To increase alternative ways of organizing qual-11+3. 36 ities perceived To develop the ability to think in purely visual as well as verbal terms 1+. To increase the ability to make critical judg ments and decisions concerning the aesthetic qualities found in the environment, e. g. the ability to perceive and dis criminate between aesthetic assets and liabilities And, to develop a greater understanding of the subjective and objective nature of value judgments 5. To foster the development of the imagination in envisioning changes to the environment 6. To foster an understanding of how perception of the environment can be meaningful and valuable to personal development 7. To increase the ability to integrate aesthetic considerations into life generally 8. To foster the development of personal imagery to express one's concepts, ideas, and feelings Psychomotor or Manipulative Skills 1. To develop basic recording and reporting skills or techniques, e. g. drawing arid painting skills, writing skills, photographic and developing techniques Working Strategies or Habits 1. To develop descriptive, analytical, and creative skills, both visual and verbal, to interpret aesthetic exper-37 iences 2. To develop and use a working vocabulary to dis cuss aesthetic qualities 3. To increase problem-formulating and problem-solving abilities related to aesthetic considerations 1+.. To increase the ability to use aesthetic exper iences as stimuli to creative activity within conventional art modes 5>. To have the ability to court ambiguity and not to judge prematurely Social Skills 1. To develop such social skills as honest commun ication, decision-making, persuasion, conciliation, and management 2. To develop the ability to think through and deal with possible consequences of one's decisions and actions during the learning experiences and encounters with the environment 3. To be self-directed, self-reliant, and responsible li. To develop powers of self-evaluation Attitude Development; the Affective Objectives All other objectives are retarded without the moti vational power created by the development of affective behav iors. The importance of this area of development to the growth of the learner cannot be too strongly emphasized. 38 For, it is the positive development of these powers that will affect the behaviors and actions of the learner when external coercion is not applied. For these attitudes are responsible for the self-motivational force that is so highly valued in today's educational philosophy. B. N. Lee and M. C. Merrill define an affective objective as: A behavioral objective that deals with affect focuses on the attitudes, feelings, emotions-^ interests, or appreciations of the students.^"-3 It is the author's belief that the affective domain can be "fed" by an awareness and understanding of the role and value of art to society. These attitudes can be strengthened through the enhanced ability of the learner to respond intui tively to potentially aesthetic experiences and by the rational development of Concepts pertaining to the worth or function of art and aesthetics to society. Therefore, the affective domain is developed by both intuitive and rational cognitions or perceptions. Affective growth should occur concurrently with the attainment of positive responses to aesthetic experiences on the sensory and intuitive level (non-verbal perception) and with the rational (or verbally expressible) understanding of aesthetic principles and the recognition of the relevance and worth of both to social existence. Affective Objectives Descriptive statements of desired attitudes are as follows: 11+6. 39 1. An acceptance of and appreciation for- cultural and ethnic differences, as expressed in aesthetic forms 2. To develop an appreciation for man's cultural heritage and development 3. To develop an appreciation of the intrinsic and personal nature of aesthetic experiences, both productive and appreciative To develop the recognition of the worth of aesthetic experience as part of a full life I+. To foster the development of one's own aesthetic values and to form a commitment to and an involvement with them 5. To foster a commitment to learning 6. To develop an attitude of openness and curiosity to participate in new and uncertain experiences 7. To develop the ability to appreciate and become involved in change To face the future with optimism and commitment 8. To foster intellectual and emotional autonomy, including the development of personal awareness and style 9. To expand the learner's interest in environmental concerns and to foster an attitude of independent study and research 10. To foster the development of a positive and real istic self-concept. 11. Through group work, to give the learner the opportunity to earn respect and status among his peers, and 114-7. 1+0 to develop regard for others 12. To foster a commitment to use knowledge and abilities for social purposes 13. To foster an understanding of the incongruities of human experiences Accounting for Affective Objectives in the Teaching-learning Setting The previous objectives have been stated in rather general, directional terms only. They are merely descriptive statements of the attitudes desired. Affective objectives must ultimately be framed with reference to the following characteristics, as abstracted from Writing Complete Affec tive Objectives by B. H. Lee and M. D. Merrill;^ Behavior: 1. The attitude must be demonstrated in an approach behavior. When someone's activity tends to bring him into contact with (tends to cause him to approach) a particular subject, we call that activity an approach behavior.^"' 2. The behavior should be highly probable to expect from the students involved. 3. The behavior should be directly or indirectly observable. Testing Conditions: 1+. A testing situation or conditions must exist to observe the behavior with the possibility for alternative behaviors to be exercised. 114-8. hi 5. There should be a free choice situation or as little influence as possible to affect or influence the students' choice of action. 6. No-cues must be given as to the behavior desired. Criteria: 7. The degree of change wanted is indicated by the number of times the behavior must be exhibited or by how many students will exhibit the approach behavior for the objective to be minimally achieved. 8. A realistic estimate of change should be given, knowing the students* initial behavior. 9. A pattern of behavior must be exhibited.., 10. A descriptive statement of the desired attitudes must accompany the preceding criteria. In the initial statements regarding the affective objectives, the final criterion has been indicated. It would be unrealistic to set out the complete criteria possible for each objective, as a multitude of indeterminate variables can govern the selection of the most appropriate statement of criteria. For example, the initial behaviors of a given group of students may vary considerably from another and the appropriate testing conditions available may vary, depending upon local circumstances. Criteria for determining the effec tiveness of the teaching-learning situation in respect to affective behaviors must be formulated in relation to a given situation. However, in the final chapter delineating the teaching-learning strategies organized around a given topic, taken from the list of content objectives, the author will endeavour to suggest ways of providing an effective testing situation and criteria for evaluating the attainment of related affective behavioral changes or objectives. Unlike cognitive and psychomotor objectives, affec tive objectives are not described or indicated to the students. The endeavour of the teacher must be to gather information more systematically and to judge more objec tively the attainment or development of affective objectives —thus providing a more reliable evaluation. As attitudes cannot be measured directly the teacher must look to the behavior of the students as indicators of attitude. One can infer attitudes from what one observes people say and do. The teacher must decide what behavior will be accepted as evidence of an attitude. Having delineated the specific course objectives, let us turn now to outlining the roles assumed by the learner and teacher in attempting to implement the attainment of those objectives. Paralleling Michael Day's three phases of exploration, precision, and generalization the learner would be encouraged to take the roles of reporter, critic, artist, and citizen during the learning experience. The teacher, conceived as a facilitator of learning, should complement and stimulate the learner to question and analyze his experiences, in order to clarify and deepen the meanings attained. Now let us examine these roles which are so vitally linked to the stated substantive and behavioral 150. objectives. t The Role of the Student The author believes that students are natural learners. During the pre-school years, young children vigor ously explore their environment with a high level of wonder and sensitivity. They delight in "discovery." They natur ally assume an active exploratory approach to learning and acquire much valuable information and skill from this method, even before they enter formal educational institutions. Interest and enthusiasm are seldom lacking. In fact, adults often find their exuberance too challenging and often exhaust ing. Most parents experience a "why?" stage of learning with their young children. Why does this stage seldom last? Surely, it's not because there are no more questions asked or no more answers to be supplied. How can we maintain this inherent zest and mode of inquiry? First and simply, the author would suggest that we encourage the youngster's natural mode of learning. Allow him to retain an active role in pursuing'.his own education. Encourage his interests and his curiosity. Provide situ ations where he can actively explore and discover new rela tionships in his environment. In a program of aesthetic education, the author per ceives the learner in four major roles or learning occupations The Learner as Recorder and Reporter 151. kk In this role, the learner would be encouraged to utilize his sensory and cognitive powers to consciously perceive his environment in a new and more intense way, to draw in information, and create an "image bank" for future use. Various modes of recording and reporting images could be employed such as: descriptive and creative writing, sketching, photography, and sound taping. Such records or reports could be shared with others or used as starting points for critical or creative endeavours. As recorder and reporter he many need to develop such perceptual skills as: 1. accepting sensory information without prejudging it, 2. sorting, analyzing, and processing information, 3. focusing on essential elements, li. looking for interrelationships, and 5. looking for alternate ways of perceiving. The Lfarner as Critic Critical skills, like productive skills, can also be facilitated through instruction.^" The role of critic should evolve naturally out of the learner's previous role as recorder and reporter. Oppor tunities should be provided in which he is encouraged to formulate, reassess, and express his values. Especially in urban settings, the student can be presented with situations where comparative judgments regarding aesthetic qualities can be formulated. He should be encouraged to bring to such 152. situations his abilities to analyze (both intuitively and rationally), to speculate, to consider evidence, and the ability to ask questions. In this role, it is hoped he will be helped to distinguish between the subjective and objec tive criteria he uses to make his evaluations. The Learner as Artist and Designer The learner's inventiveness should be encouraged. Every individual is potentially creative—he can envision change. Being creative involves firstly, a mental process and, then, the act of "doing" something to actually bring about change• To encourage and develop the imaginative bent, the author believes we can try to help the student in two ways: 1. by trying to help the student focus on new and more intense ways of looking at the environment in the hopes of sparking the discovery of new aesthetic relationships, and 2. by trying to help the student pose questions about his environment. He may then start to ask "what if?" and "how could we?" in addition to "why?" Again, we have focused upon the learner's skills as recorder and critic. If he contemplates environmental changes, he may also need to be exposed to the political and communica tion skills necessary to bring about real change. Once the learner can envision some solutions or changes, we would be remiss in not allowing him the actual 153. experience of expressing his idea or trying it out in a real situation, to test the power of his strategies. • How many students have grown apathetic because they are told they are not old enough to try something or take responsibility! The author does not advocate putting students into positions where they do not yet possess the skills to do an adequate job. However, the sooner they are able to assume a small degree of responsibility for their actions, the sooner they will adopt a vested interest in the activity and a concern for their effort. Creative activities might involve the traditional productive arts, drawing up plans and suggestions for urban renewal, or actual work experience opportunities in the community. The Learner as Responsible Citizen The extent to which he gets the kind of environ ment he wants, in which he feels at home and rewarded, depends on his ability to define his goals, to make known his aspirations, and to support the methods by which these may be attained.^ Rather than conceive of the learner as a future citizen, the author believes it is essential to consider the young as citizens with a potential for increasing their involvement and effectiveness in dealing with environmental realities. At an early age, the young should be encouraged to employ their citizenship in the community in positive forms. In a sense, all citizens have the same tusk of .' directing and adapting to the changing environment. All citizens, young and old, can be involved in advancing con-a 154. hi scious choice where products, physical facilities, shelter, and communication are concerned. Early involvement must be sponsored by the community if "citizenship competence" is to be achieved. This constant interrelationship between child , and community helps to produce a more community-minded adult, an adult more aware of his respon-sibilities^toward the betterment of his own It is essential that the young citizen be made to feel he is a part of the community. With an introduction of an envir onmental studies program the end of the High School course the student would be expected to know rather more than the average citizen,of the major problems of the local community.'3 While actual civic problem-solving may be premature, problem-raising and solution speculating can develop an awareness, interest, and concern that may provide the impetus for future civic work. In theory and practice, this course is meant to be a beginning to effective and responsible citizenship. The Role of the.Teacher role. This role may involve giving information and explain ing concepts, providing initial quality stimuli to engage the learner in actual experience, engaging the student in conversation which will help him clarify his thinking and; decide upon his course of action, and listening to the student's opinions. The teacher is conceived in a helping or facilitating 155. 1+8 The art teacher thus will be to children a guide yet a model, a friend yet an adult, a source of knowledge yet a provoker of fancy, one who; sees the world agpan artist yet permits the child his own vision.-5 He must have the understanding and skill to feed strengths with challenge and to help students improve their weaknes ses. However, caution should be observed. Expose the learner to sensory stimuli, but allow him the thrill of discovering for himself through his own experiences. Engage the learner in discussion, but allow him to formulate and to express his ideas. Encourage and support creative activ ity, but allow him to envision his own direction. In this way, one can help the learner maximize his learning from his participation in the learner's roles. Then, one will be fostering his autonomy and self-discipline. As all locales differ and as there are few background books and no texts "the environmental-studies teacher is not only a research student of his neighbourhood, he also has a 53 constant task of curriculum research and development." He must be able to expose the unique features of the locality, as well as being able to recognize universal concepts that are reflected in and govern the locale. He must be able to research and compile background information, organize pro grams and strategies, plan diagrams, photos, slides, illus trations, tapes, and films, to be used by the learner in his process of discovering himself and his relationship to his environment. 156. Through such a program "the art teacher can then become a central figure in cultural transmission and devel opment."^" However, in order to fulfill this role the teacher must bring to the task special attitudes, abilities, and knowledge. The teacher must be an avid learner and he must have already developed personally along the lines described in the section on educational objectives. He should have a knowledge and understanding of the environment. And he should be an involved citizen in the community and be able to transmit his enthusiasm for the program. The teacher trained for such a program should have a multidisciplined or team teaching background with a considerable degree of field work. The teacher must be able to approach the studies in a similar mode as the learner. He can hold no fixed answers for the student and is essentially faced with the same environment as the learner—with the rewards and problems and with the task of seeking ways to understand arid to cope with the environment. The teacher must be able to feel comfortable in an exploratory mode or learner role. Finally, before offering a teaching-learning model for illustration, let us examine the remaining factors to be considered in a curriculum design—the general methodology and the specific structuring modes employed. A General Statement of Method There is no learning without structure.... 157. 50 Without structure, without support, the learner will ; c be either panic-stricken or apathetic....If the first axiom of education is that there is no learning with out order, then the second axiom is that there is no learning without disorder. Structure is required, but so is unstructure. As John Bremer goes on to point out in his book,' On Educa tional Change, it is the period of "unstructure" which should provide the greatest learning possibilities of a situation. For during active discovery the learner creates order out of the disordered data and materials; sensations and images he gathers from the environment. He forms mean ings and concepts of reality from his experiences. The environment becomes observable and comprehensible. The author perceives three major stages to facilitate learning, two structured and one unstructured; 1. a pre-activity planning stage, 2. an activity and discovery stage, and 3. a recapitulation and evaluation stage, leading again into the first stage. The first and last stages are periods of structure; organized and executed in collaboration with the teacher and learner/ or learners. The middle stage is designed with as much freedom as possible to maximize the benefits of the learner's efforts of inquiry and action. In this way, freedom is used as a means to growth. Freedom when combined with a well-structured sense of purpose should promote intense and voluntary involvement. It is the author's belief that no teacher can teach another 158. person anything, but only expose a person to certain stimuli and facilitate the learning process through social inter action or Socratic dialogue. The learner is responsible for his own intensity and direction of learning. He has the free dom to discover and make decisions, but the responsibility for the consequences of his own actions; For the material to become knowledge and for the learner to improve his skills he must have first-order experiences—he must interact direc tly with the environment. In summary, the emphasis in the learning mode is on interest, involvement, awareness, par ticipation, and finally communication. Modern interactionist arguments...lend support to the view that the human being has an innate tendency to orientate himself to stimuli, to inves tigate and satisfy himself about puzzling phenomena, in Piagetian terms, to accommodate and assimilate new experience. From an educational point of view, we may conclude that a normal child will respond actively to new material, particularly if it involves puzzles or questions, and that children will show •interest' in learning situations devised in that form.5 Now, let us examine the three learning stages to assess their part in facilitating the learning outcomes. Pre-activity Planning Mode During this phase, the necessary structure is created that will provide the freedom and direction needed during the activity or discovery stage. Factors to be considered in this stage are: 1. age appropriateness for the experience, 2. class size and group composition, 159. 52 3. deciding on both broad and specific educational objectives, li. deciding on the focus or content to be studied, 5. deciding on the methods or strategies to be used, 6. place, time, transportation, routines, safety, equipment, supplies, and facilities, 7. deciding on the involvement of auxiliary per sonnel, and 8. acquiring basic recording skills and needed background information. Once these factors have been decided upon and organized the learning activity may begin. Before proceeding to a discussion of the activity stage, it may be beneficial to the reader to elaborate briefly upon several of the foregoing topics. 1. Age appropriateness for the program The environment is unsuited as a regular learning environment for the young child. Jean Piaget, developmental psychologist, suggests that a program of environmental studies is best suited to the sixteen to eighteen age group. At this age, students are better able to relate abstract concepts to the world and better able to categorize impressions. Their powers of discrimination are more developed and they are better able to handle the complexity of relationships present ed by the world. ...there is a case for Environmental Studies for the sixteen to eighteen age group. The integrated study of the local environment offers opportunities 160. 53 to be divergent; encourages probabilistic think ing; suggests interdisciplinary analogies* and poses complex problems in concrete form. Not only are intellectual strategies more sophisticated at this age, but interest in community affairs and their impend ing break from school life and involvement in community life naturally draw them to consider seriously the issues pre sented in such a study. "As the young adult increasingly foresees his domestic and vocational future in the local community, his interest in it grows. The senior high schooler is more reconciled to parent and adult life and is anticipating the social roles of adult life. Community learning can help satisfy the restless desire of the adoles cent to be part of the "real1' world. He is still critical, but has usually outgrown the dismissive and sometimes rebel lious stage of early adolescence. He is more concerned with finding practical solutions to problems he perceives. He is disinclined to take the environment at face value and will see the locality in terms of the problems which lie below the conventional surface. He may also have already developed some background and interest in specific local problems. Through mass media, the young have been exposed to contemporary trends and issues. He will have the desire and the patience to work at a problem long enough to be satisfied with his answers. He will be more inclined to use an interdisciplinary approach to examine many features at once. 161 . Sk While a sustained program of environmental studies seems appropriate and beneficial for the senior adolescent, environmental excursions to observe and to manipulate concrete features of the community can be adapted for the young child to promote understanding of observable and simple eause-and-effect relationships. However, the lesson outlined in unit form in the last chapter of this study is oriented towards the senior high schooler. Elementary school teachers may wish to study the suggestions with an eye to creating a more simplified pattern of learning experiences^.for the very young child. 2. Deciding on broad and specific educational objectives Students and teachers should collaborate on the establishment of purposeful aims, both tangible and intan gible. The avoidance of a predetermined, fixed curriculum has advantages. Elimination of compulsion or requirements usually serves to reduce resistance and hostility and to increase willingness and openness to try new experiences. ' However, the educational features of any contemplated exper ience should be distinguished. It is essential that the learner anticipate personal value in executing the activity. If the project appears relevant to the learner—suggesting that an increase in skills or insight may be incurred during the learning occupation--he usually becomes self-motivated and external control is seldom required. Suggestions for 162. 55 inquiry and activity may be planted by either the teacher or the students and, then, elaborated upon and clarified by the co-operative efforts of the group. The work must appear interesting, relevant, and challenging. In this stage, skills of problem-formulating, brain storming, decision-making, and hypothesizing will be employ ed. The group should anticipate an element of "newness" or "unknown" that exploration will discover. It is important that the learner adopt a mental posture of perceptual alertness for discovery. It is help ful if he makes a conscious effort to heighten his sensory awareness and to mobilize both intuitive and rational powers to assimilate the sensory messages received. Such a sen sitive and disciplined approach to inquiry is aided by having a sense of purpose and the confidence of having some stra tegies. 3. Deciding on the methods or strategies to be used Questions, rather/than answers, are the begin ning of learning.... Learning methods and strategies are an essential part of the structure in organizing for any learning exper ience. The author favours an heuristic approach to environ mental experience, in which the learner freely explores a situation to discover relationships. However, the learner goes prepared into this unstructured period, with a sense of purpose, an idea to focus upon, and with a variety of methods he can employ or experiment with in exploring the possibil-163. ities of a situation. Learning experiences and outcomes should allow for diverse approaches and responses. A more detailed description of strategies and con straints, supplied by art educators and by environmental educators, is supplied following a description of the two remaining stages of learning. Varying the approach not only maintains interest, but also provides the learner with a repertoire of learning strategies from which he may learn to select the methods most likely to bear greater results. In essence, not only does the student learn about his world, but he also learns how to learn more about his world. It might be useful for the student to plan a flow chart, outlining a sequence of strategies he might employ and resources he might explore, to accompany him during the activity. One can never totally anticipate precisely what the learner will find in the field, but one can anticipate enough to establish a general structure for the learner's use, which will increase his possibility of success or growth. The learner's approach should be organized suffi ciently, to provide him with the confidence that he can perform the proposed task. However, planning should not be so rigid that it prevents taking advantage of educational opportunities that may appear unexpectedly during the envi ronmental encounter. Activity and Discovery Mode This is a playful period—a time " explore, 161*.. 57 question, play with, wonder about, hear about, read about, 62 experiment with, come to conclusions." "The child needs 6 3 the freedom to explore different ways of learning." A fluid in-school and out-of-school relationship must be es tablished—and between planning, discovering, recapitulating, and evaluating. The emphasis in this discovery phase is to actively employ the learner's cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in real situations and on real problems. Problems should not just be examined, but presented as positive, creative challenges to the learner. They should be looked at in terms of prospects and opportunities to create human istic solutions. It is assumed that such skills will increasingly become more effective in dealing with the envi ronment through their exercise, and that they will tend to atrophy in passive learning situations. Powers gain impor tance over information, as we cannot foresee the learner's future. By providing him with quality learning experiences, one can help to foster informed powers of mind and a sense of potency in action. And, it is believed that through an active, participatory approach to learning that the educar tional objectives already outlined can be realized. In this phase the learner is encouraged to assume such participatory roles as recorder, reporter, critic, artist, designer, and responsible citizen. In this discov ery mode, the learner's cognitive, affective, and psycho-165. 58 motor skills are employed in the following ways: 1. exploring and recording, 2. co-ordinating sensory impressions and reflecting upon experience, 3. thinking creatively and giving expression to such thoughts, and self-evaluation of creative endeavours. Now, let us examine each of these categories in greater detail. 1. Exploring and recording Experience is initially filtered through the senses. The learner explores his environment and receives bodily sensations, or sensory impressions through observing, listening, smelling, tasting, and touching. The experience should not end with mere sensory stimulation. Perception must become activated to bring the experience to a conscious level. However, sensory impressions should be freely accepted without being prematurely judged. 2. Co-ordinating sensory impressions and reflecting upon experience. This stage results in a degree of perceptual and aesthetic awareness. Sensations which have been reported to the brain are recorded, then, manipulated both intuitively and rationally in such operations as analyzing, classifying, synthesizing, differentiating, and comparing. Relationships between separate impressions are established. The learner 166. 59 continuously builds his symbolic framework or image bank of impressions. During a phase of reflective thinking the learner comtemplates upon the impressions and strives to make the experience intelligible. Through an internalized dialogue the mind attaches meaning to the impressions by incorpora ting them into the learner's already existing pattern of knowledge. BNy a valuing process, the organism tries to establish the personal significance of the new impressions or information. New concepts are formed and values are further clarified or reassessed, to create a modified and enriched concept of reality. New experiences have become related and integrated with past experiences. New insights have been formed which can be applied to future experience. Activities should be organized in such a manner as to require both verbal and non-verbal responses from the learner, fostering the development of both intuitive and rational powers. The dual method of problem-solving is a normal human attribute but because of educa tional conditioning in favour of verbal methods the visual part becomes atrophied in the course of time, k Both visual and verbal recording and reporting skills can be employed in studying and communicating aesthetic qualities of the environment. Aesthetic awareness should first be intuited. Total relationships can only be realized on an intuitive level. 167. 60 "Our intuitive faculties do not rely on the step-by-step 65 comparative method of the process of reason." Intuition has the simultaneous and instantaneous comprehension of relationships, that provides for aesthetic impact. The student's own creative activity can also be evaluated by an intuitive approach, as well as by a more rational one. The verbal approach becomes useful in communicating and sharing insights with others, as will be outlined in the section on the recapitulation and evaluation mode. Descrip tive, analytical, and creative writing should be considered valuable modes for interpreting aesthetic experience, and can enhance visual interpretation. 3. Thinking creatively and giving expression to such thought The acquisition of knowledge is not enough in itself to nourish artistic thoughts. We must take the information that we have gained through investigation and release^^t to the magnificent world of the imagination. Through a free play mental process, new combinations of images evolve that are expressive of personal ideas and emotions. These unique images can be expressed through both verbal and visual symbolism. In this stage, the learner is encouraged to use his imagination to elaborate upon what he has experienced and to give expression to his visions. He may delineate a problem-solving task, make decisions concern ing future action (by considering interests, abilities, and consequences), suggest hypotheses for possible solutions to 168. 61 personal or social problems, gather information and skills to reach solutions, and put large projects into operation. There can be an interplay between imagination and reality. "The child must at all^: stages learn from his own creativity 67 and verify what he has learned in the world of reality." ' li. Self-evaluation of creative endeavours and personal assessment of skills In this stage the learner assesses the effectiveness of his processes and products. If the learner is to become a whole, autonomous person it is necessary for him to make realistic'assessment of his work. It must also be realized that "the expression of the artist is peculiarly his own and there is a sense in which no one else can provide a complete and final measure of his success." The teaching-learning unit outlined in Chapter I4. is aimed at illustrating the proposed use of such skills. In that model there are opportunities for the simultaneous and hierarchical development 'of;;multiplLe c.siki.ljLis^jargfe objectives . ... -A major aim of the learning experiences is to find 69 order and structure. The stress here is on an organic, integrated approach— the integration of art and life, the integration of work, play, and learning, the integration of the child within life and his environment, 169. 62 Environmental Studies, in fact, has the educational advantage that its topics start from the same point as the problems of adult life arid work. the integration of purpose with activity (theory and practice), the integration of separate facts, concepts, and principles from a range of disciplines (interdisciplinary knowledge), to grasp the "wholeness" of existence, and the integration of past, present, and future. The result should be a more integrated and effective human organism who is at home in his world. Recapitulation and Evaluation Mode Recapitulation and evaluation procedures can be "...used to teach as well as to test."^"1" The author envi sions a further stage of recapitulation and evaluation within a structure of private and group consultations. Through social interaction, awareness and valuing of the experience can often be heightened and extended to a more conscious and useful level. Discussion can clarify awareness of unique and shared insights; of personal and common values. The aim of the dialogue is to make "the student consciously aware of what he has said in order to stimulate him to do some more 72 reflection on it." Concepts and values may be clarified and modified through discussion. "It cannot be too often stressed that the very process of questioning the bases for one's preferences forces upon the consciousness an examina tion and appraisal of the validity of one's entire value 170. 63 structure."'''3 The learner may also be directed towards a clarification of the objective and subjective criteria he employed in valuing, and an understanding of the difference between fact and opinion. The first point then in helping children to develop values is to give them an opportunity to talk about their life experiences.... Secondly, the teacher has to listen and demonstrate that„, he has listened to the value-type expressions. Through discussion the young can be made to realize their development, thereby gaining confidence and becoming more self-directed. An informal record of impressions from experiences could be compiled in a visual-verbal diary or notebook. The student's own individuality should dictate the form and content of the book. Individuals and groups may present more formal reports of observations, conclusions, and visions in such forms as oral, written, and visual presentations, or a combination. Visual presentations organized in a way appropriate to illustrate some concept may be accompanied by comments bearing upon the concept. General features from the whole project could be compared with similar or contrast ing features, and with already complete projects, and with anticipated themes of projects to come. In this way, a conceptual learning continuum can be established. There should be common concern for learning outcomes. In terms of measuring individual growth, the teacher and learner may wish to maintain a learning log of projects 171. attempted and an anecdotal evaluation. Such a log might indicate such information as: 1. a statement of the activity and the objectives, 2. date and time required, 3. a self-evaluation comment, 1+.. a teacher-evaluation comment, and 5. a program evaluation comment. Such an evaluation might try to comment on happiness with results, creativeness, self-discipline, extent and intensity of perception, communication skills, effectiveness of strat egy, and co-operative skills. Evaluation should be made in terms of the objectives agreed upon in the pre-activity planning stage. Ultimately, the recapitulation and evaluation stage should lead back into a pre-activity planning mode. As experiences should be sequential and cumulative, results from any given experience should suggest directions for further research. The experiences may form a background for further environmental work and may even open students' per ceptions of future employment possibilities. Sequential and divergent learning is dependent upon evaluation and objective formulation. The teacher should encourage the learner's ability to locate and utilize additional resources for learning as his ability and interest indicate. Eventually, independent long-term project involvement may result. Learning should lead into other studies or into 172. 65 further indepth study. Because everything in the community is inter disciplinary and interlocked, it is natural to assume that^one well-planned project will lead to many more. This phase can become meaningful and relevant to the future development of the individual and the program. Concepts, values, and strategies may be modified in the light of this phase. Specific Structuring Modes: Strategies and Constraints While freedom and discovery are promoted, a strategy for approaching the learning experience or activity is essential to promote reliable learning. With educational objectives, content, and roles in mind, the teacher and learner must evolve some modes for approaching the environ ment, in which freedom and discovery can be employed to educational advantage. Then, the structure becomes the method or instrument for a personal development of concepts, values, and learning skills. Elliot Eisner, R. A. Salome, and D. G. Watts provide some rather explicit structuring modes or strategies which would appear useful in the teaching of aesthetic and environ mental constructs. In D. G. Watt's book Environmental Studies, he out lines the following strategies in organizing for the discovery of environmental concepts and the development of perceptual skills: 1. "explaining the individual" 173. 66 In this approach the teacher devises a series of questions to illuminate the students' backgrounds and values to themselves. Through an anonymous survey introduced early in the course the class' views could be exposed, and would provide some information for co-ordinating lessons. A year end survey might be taken for comparison., purposes. 2. "piecing together the jigsaw" - an inductive approach In this approach the students try to discover the connections between familiar features of the neighbourhood. It enables a wide range of materials to be learned. 3. "hub and spoke" - a deductive approach The group operates from a central point (geograph ical) from which most major features can be viewed. The learners radiate from the point to investigate features. Interesting themes are isolated and explored further. I;, "circular" - an extensive approach Only those major features which can be interconnected by the use of a circle are selected for study. The learning group concludes their study by returning to the initial feature they began with. 5* "spiral" - an intensive approach The spiral approach is similar to the circular strat egy, except that an ever-increasing higher level of under standing is required. 6. "interlocking spiral themes" - a comparative and contrasting approach 67 Two or more themes are pursued simultaneously and the learning group endeavours to discover interrelationships. 7. "peeling the onion" - an intensive approach The learning group attempts to make an exhaustive analysis of a single topic.(0 Elliot Eisner organizes learning activities around three basic types of objectives: 1. "behavioral or instructional objectives" Elliot Eisner points out that this instructional mode is useful, if not the superior mode of learning many technical skills such as loading and operating a camera and learning darkroom procedures. Individual learning outcomes should be alike and displayed in identical behavior. However, while useful, this mode of learning should, not comprise the core of art education programs. 2. "expressive objectives" It does not seek to anticipate what kind of particular response or product the student will produce. Instead, it aims at constructing an encounter, creating a setting, forming a situa tion which will stimulate diverse and largely unanticipated responses and solutions from stu dents. What students learn from such encounters becomes-post-facto-the expressive objectives.'' 3. "Type 3 objectives" High level design constraints are placed upon the learner in the form of a problem. His task is to take this problem and within the constraints that accompany it, arrive at one or more solutions that provide a satisfying reso lution. ' 175. 68 The number of possible solutions becomes infinite. And the constraint is designed to work as a stimulus to creative 79 thought—to provide a focus. R. A. Salome, in his article "Perceptual Training as a Factor in Children's Art," suggests that art educators can do more to train visual awareness. He goes on to suggest that: Studies in the psychology of perception indic ate that certain functions can be improved through instruction which develops the ability to ebserve and respond selectively to visual stimuli. In his article, he presents Ralph Pearson's four levels of vision concept, which is as follows: 1. "practical vision" Objects are perceived and given verbal labels, clas sified, and remembered. This mode of vision is in general practice. 2. "curious vision" Objects are examined more closely than one normally attends to stimuli, but perception still may be blind to pattern relationships. 3. "imaginative or reflective vision" This mode of vision calls up past images and can add to or change the image, through the free play of the imagina tion. Ii. "pure vision" This mode is perceiving objects as ends in them-81 selves. 176. 69 One wonders if the human organism does not employ other sensory modes of awareness in the same manner. If visual awareness is to be improved, somehow the learner must adopt these various modes of perception. Salome concludes his article by suggesting experiences designed to utilize these various perceptual modes. It appears that in the initial stages of increasing visual awareness the learner will consciously have to exercise a greater intensity for looking at and manipulating images, devoid as possible from a verbal approach, until his intuitive powers work habitually and regularly. To acquire the more artistic habits of imaginative and pure vision, the learner might adopt a number of approach es: 1. The learner might approach the environment look ing for particular aesthetic features or phenomena, rather than identifying objects, e. g. texture 2. The learner might employ "curious vision"--studying a single object from a number of different vantage points. 3. The learner might Remove an object from its original setting and, then, study it in new settings of his choice. Ji. The learner might study an object from a distant and from a short vantage point. 5. The learner might 'study an object by recording it in various media. 177. 70 6. The learner may work from a single recorded image--making modifications to its appearance in successive works. It is implied, and maybe should be stated, that the devel opment of visual awareness is contingent upon the actual use of visual perception in a variety of learning experiences. In conclusion, these modes combined with various focusing clues can provide a wealth of learning opportunities, and can be adapted for use in any locale. By presenting the philosophy, theory, and method ology that has been outlined in the preceding pages, the author has endeavoured to illustrate how art can be an integral part of environmental studies without becoming the mechanical servant of other subjects in the study. Now, it seems practical to offer a model teaching-learning unit for examination to illustrate the proposed implementation of such concepts. s 17o. Chapter I4. IMPLEMENTING A TEACHING-LEARNING UNIT Following is an examination of a plan for imple mentation of a content unit of work, to realize how content and behavioral objectives are integrated during the actual teaching-learning strategies. For the example, the author has selected the first of the environmental content topics--ethnic and cultural differences, with a specific study of the Chinese Community of East Vancouver, British Columbia as the sample. The first task of any teacher when planning a unit is to define the specific objectives, both content and behavioral, to which one will be addressing one's teaching strategies and subsequently the learning strategies of the student or students involved. Depending upon the depth and breadth of analysis assigned to the topic, the teacher would begin the unit planned by delineating the behavioral objec tives one wished to be concerned with. Behavioral Objectives Highlighted in the Unit I The Cognitive Hierarchy A. To sensitize and develop skills of sensory perception B. To develop the ability to generalize and conceptual ize C. To discriminate aesthetic assets from liabilities (the appreciative domain) 71 179. 72 D. To foster the development of personal imagery to express one's concepts, ideas, and feelings-* II The Affective Domain A. To develop an acceptance of and appreciation for cultural and ethnic differences, as expressed in aesthetic forms and lifestyles B. To expand the learner's interest in environmental concerns and to foster an attitude of independent study and research III Psychomotor or Manipulative Skills A. To develop basic recording and reporting skills, such as those required for successful photography and sketching IV Social Skills A. To foster communication of concepts, ideas, and feelings to the group,, B. To develop capacities for self-direction, self-reliance, .and responsibility C. To develop powers of self-evaluation V Working Skills and Strategies A. To develop descriptive, analytical, and creative skills, both visual and verbal, to interpret aesthetic exper iences.^ B. To develop and use a working vocabulary to discuss aesthetic qualities G. To increase problem-solving abilities D. To increase the ability to use aesthetic experiences 180. 73 as stimuli to creative activity within conventional art modes . The overarching and dominant objective that is desired as an outcome of this unit is the affective one of— an acceptance of and appreciation for cultural and ethnic differences, as expressed in aesthetic forms and lifestyles, as developed through the study of the Chinese Community of East Vancouver, British Columbia. While this objective may be the emphasis of the unit, that is not to say that other behavioral objectives cannot be developed and are not neces sary in their development to bring about the attainment of the paramount concern. As Hilda Taba suggests, the summit of a hierarchy of objectives cannot be reached without the attainment of numerous and often multidimensional (concerned with the complete gamut of behavioral skills) lower level objectives. Therefore, the author will endeavour to describe, step-by-step, how the attainment of the main affective objec tives depend upon previous behavioral developments in other domains. To illustrate this point, the author will describe in chronological and hierarchical sequence the following components to be considered in structuring a teaching-learning unit: '.'1. teaching or instructional strategies, 2. learning strategies, 3. content and behavioral expectations, and I4.. diagnostic or evaluative strategies . 181. Ik The Teaching-Learning Unit Described I Pre-activity Instructional Strategies The teacher selects the behavioral objectives and content objectives to be focused upon. He subsequently i organizes the teaching-learning strategy designed to attain the objectives. II Teaching and Learning Strategies During the Activity Stage A. The introductory stage, which in this unit is teacher initiated 1. Classroom teaching strategies The teacher either takes or asks the students to meet him at a given place, the learning station, in the heart of downtown Chinatown. The students are asked to come equipped with their cameras, a sketchbook and drawing materials, and a map of downtown Vancouver. 2. Teaching strategies at the learning station The teacher assigns an initial problem to the students to take an hour walk out from their position and to define the visible extent of Chinatown by marking the area out on their city map and returning to their starting point for discussion. For this task to be accomplished, the teacher is assuming that the students already have: a. developed some visual concepts concerning their own North American lifestyle and culture, and b. the ability to discriminate between their v 182. 75 own cultural signs and symbols and those of a different culture. It is assumed that the lesson can be built from this base, in a hierarchical fashion. B. The inquiry and discovery stage, with an emphasis on the learning strategies of fact gathering, discriminating differences, and categorizing while interacting with the environment The learner moves outward from his point inter acting with the environment and delineating the area on his map. However, if the student is to complete this task one must assume that a number of processes will occur in the interim. The student will have initially gathered visual images through a variety of cognitive means. He may have developed a complete view of the environment intuitively through synaesthetic perception. He may also have broken down the observations into viewing distinct aesthetic phenomena. Also, he may have labelled items with verbal symbols. This discovery period becomes initially a fact or image gathering period—the first in a hierarchy of cognitive stages towards concept formation. Depth of cognitive insight will vary with the individual. In order to define the physical/visual extent of the particular community, the student must advance his thinking to a somewhat higher level of cognitive reasoning. He must be able to distinguish between the new or foreign features from the more familiar features of his own western culture. 183. 76 However, one cannot guarantee, at this point, that the student has an accurate concept of the Chinese characteris tics. The student may have included qualities other than the culture studied, merely because they are unfamiliar or differ from his lifeset. C. Learning and teaching strategies during the generalization stage The students return and compare maps to discover if they have any common percepts. The teacher precipitates the discussion by asking, "What are the outermost limits of the community-under study?" Answers are compared. The teacher's next question might be, "If there appear to be common bound aries, what criteria were used to establish the limits?" Common general characteristics are then itemized and discus sed. The students might list such differing features as: architectural styling store products calligraphy and signs the predominance of Chinese people with differing physical features clothing styles sounds food smells colour schemes, patterns, and symbols At this point, a very general concept or generalization is defined in verbal terms. To refine and extend the concept, 18k. 77 more subtle characteristics must be perceived and noted. To implement a further stage of concept refinement and to promote the ultimate aim of appreciation of cultural differences the teacher suggests a further task, and the activity changes from pure observation to the addition of recording images. D. Learning strategies aimed at refining concepts and developing appreciation The students are required to record either photo graphically or in sketch form, or by both means, features which denote characteristics of the Chinese culture: the images intending to communicate or express their perceptions and conceptualizations of what they denote to be typically Chinese in character. This stage is where perceptions and conceptualizations reveal unique qualities, depending upon the experiences or encounters the individ\ial had. This is not to say that there will not be some commonality of con ceptualization, and just as there is never a complete common ality of perception, conceptualization must have some unique attributes. This individuality of conceptualization in the aesthetic domain is ideally suited as a basis for creative work and for the basis of an appreciative realm. E. Learning strategies during the divergent stage Prom this point it is the intent of the program to encourage these unique percepts into more divergent outlets of expression. The photography itself, may become the indi-185. 78 v idiual• s means of self-expression, or the initial images recorded may be translated or projected into other art forms --paintings, sculptures, films, etc. The individual would undoubtedly begin to focus on specific qualities or images that interest him and provide a stimulus to his thinking. In a similar way, as the student's focus became more indi vidualized the teacher-student interaction would necessitate a one to one relationship. True creative growth occurs when the way is not totally clear and the individual is permitted, through personal choice and evaluation, to combine, add, or delete certain variables and make a state ment which was not predetermined. Evaluative Strategies as Related to Content and Behavioral  Expectations Instruction .and evaluation must be rooted in clear educational aims, goals, and objectives, if either instruc tion or evaluation is to be systematically employed to the learner's greatest advantage. With these guides delineated and clearly in mind instructional and evaluative strategies should complement each other and promote strategies aimed at reaching an ever higher position in a hierarchy of growth factors. It is the author's intent to primarily employ eval-uation strategies in a "formative" manner, ^ as an aid to making wise and valid educational decisions regarding future instructional direction and to evaluating the effectiveness of the present program. 186. 79 Most art educators will agree unequivocally that there are as yet no significantly valid or reliable objective tests or scales of measure ment in art. ^ While it would seem unlikely, if not impossible, to formally and accurately measure growth numerically in art education through summative tests, it does seem useful to be able to diagnose the attainment or growth in the areas of content and behavioral objectives. However, the indicators of growth may be recognized by a number of less formal means. For few formal testing procedures effectively focus on the goals and objectives of the curriculum and can validly measure the attainment of a multitude of simultaneously attained objec tives, including divergent areas of learning. In establishing less formal, formative evaluation procedures let us examine the various objectives about which the author has been concerned in the model teaching-learning unit. Here there will be suggestions for evaluating the various content and behavioral objectives. What evaluative strategies can be employed and what evidence would be accepted as indicators of growth? By the very nature of the involvement, growth will occur in multiple areas and results will tend to be idio syncratic and diverse, making for a difficulty in obtaining exact measurements for a group of students. Therefore, the teacher must be able to diagnose growth on an informal basis. In assessing growth the teacher must look to both the process and the product of the learning activity. 187. 80 Examples of informal evaluation procedures applic able to the teaching-learning unit described are: I Affective Objectives Evidence of affective growth that the author would consider as indication of an appreciation for differing cultures is the voluntary initiation by each student in at least one follow-up activity. Such activities might be: A. art work stemming from the initial probe, B. further probing or research into some particular aspect of the culture, C. taking the opportunity to view the culture's activ ities when further experiences are provided (e. g. a film on China, a musical production, an art exhibit), D. making comparative studies of their own culture with that of the culture under study, and E. checking out library books related to the topic. However, it must also be realized that "...attitudes, values, and tastes take time to develop and sometimes come to frui tion years after actual teaching ceases. II Substantive Objectives The attainment of content objectives could be evaluated by the following means: A. by an analysis of concepts expressed in conversation, by the taping of classroom discussions in answer to explor atory questions posed by the teacher (e. g. "What evidence of artistic expression was visible in the community?") B. by an analysis of the verbal-visual diary for an 188. 81 expression of concepts in either written or graphic forms, C. through an assigned interpretative essay written about their experiences and findings, D. by pre-testing and post-testing through written examination for an expansion of related facts, ideas, and concepts. III Psychomotor and Manipulative Objectives The technical skills of photography and developing can be evaluated by three processes: A. by having the students enumerate the technical pro cedures in loading and using a camera/ or in developing prints, B. by subsequently observing the students1 actual manipulation of the equipment and materials, and C. by judging the technical quality of the prints. IV Working and Social Skills Candid observations of the student's approach behavior during the activity period would be indicators of the student's degree of self-direction, self-reliance, and responsibility. Self-evaluation skills can be developed, as well as noted, during teacher-student discussions by the posing of value clarification style questions to draw out judgments by the student related to the effectiveness and results of his work. For example, the teacher might ask, "In what respects do you feel that your work has improved in the latest project?" An aesthetic vocabulary can also be promoted during periods of discussion and its growth evaluated 189. 82 as well. The verbal-visual diary is another indicator of growth in this area. V Cognitive Objectives Powers of concept formation can be analyzed through the strategies already outlined under the topic of content objectives. The attainment of expressive or creative objec tives, referring to the development of personal imagery, can be evaluated through a close observation of strategies innovated by the student and by the resulting products created. Product evaluations should be conducted in a con sultation period where strategies and products can be openly discussed. Written or taped notes could be taken by the teacher. As illustrated, formative evaluation is conducted continuously during the process of teaching and learning and is primarily for the improvement of those processes. Student feedback can take a variety of forms—questionnaires, tests, products", comments, and participation. In art educa tion such communication can take both verbal and non-verbal forms. If evaluation is to complement instruction in a formative way it must be a continuous process of assessment of attainment and re-assessment of instructional direction. Within art education programs evaluational procedures have generally been the most vague and neglected area of teacher concern and practice. In all curricula approaches teachers must have clear ideas or proposals for what they are eval-190. 83 uating aa well as valid evaluative procedures to assess results. Because, as Elliot Eisner states* "To evaluate is to be aware of what one values, what one does, and what 86 the consequences of one's doing yields." The effective teacher needs both instructional and evaluative skills. In summary, the author needs to draw the reader's attention to one final reservation. WEAKNESSES FORESEEN IN THE CURRICULUM DESIGN The rationale, the curriculum proposal including goals and objectives, and methods for implementation and evaluation have been carefully designed. But until the program is implemented and the hypothesis examined in a classroom setting, one can only speculate that such a system atic approach to the problem addressed in the introduction will yield'the desired results. And while formative evalua tion procedures may prove invaluable in guiding instructional practice, the lack of sophisticated,^summative evaluation procedures may prove to lessen the validity of any evaluations. Formative assessments appear rather tenuous evidence of suc cess. Ironically, while short-term indicators of growth may be easier to evaluate than long-term effects of such a pro gram, the long-term effects may never effectively be measured. CONCLUSION During the past decade a growing need has developed for an entirely new emphasis on the goals, content, and 191 . 8b, teaching strategies of art education curricula. In the pre ceding curriculum design an attempt has been made to provide a sound theoretical foundation in terms that classroom teachers can understand and employ. The author has attempted to supply a systematic approach in the planning of the scope, sequence, and integration of teaching-learning strategies. For it is believed that the more systematic and encompassing the curric ulum design is, the more likely it is that desired educational goals will be attained. This is the premise under which the author is operating in providing distinctive goals and objec tives, instructional and evaluative strategies, and roles. For support for the rationale the author has drawn upon such educators as Louis Raths, John Bremer, Hilda Symonds, D. Watts, Vincent Lanier, June McFee, and Doris Carter. In proposing a design style the author has been influenced by such curriculum experts and designers as Hilda Taba, Elliot Eisner, John Dewey, and Jerome Bruner. For evaluation strategies the work of David Ecker, Hilda Taba, Elliot Eisner, Arthur Elfland, Michael Day, and James Wise were adapted. The author's dual aim in proposing the foregoing curriculum design has been one of offering an alternative art education program with an emphasis on the content objec tives of acquiring facts and concepts related to the social role art fulfills in our society and on the process skills to use effectively aesthetic considerations in one's daily life. It is hoped that teachers will use this curriculum 192. 85 guide with insight; make the necessary adjustments in the specific content samples and learning experiences; and create the necessary teaching strategies consistent with the chief intent of the curriculum. 193. FOOTNOTE REFERENCES Chapter 1 "^Vincent Lanier, "A Plague On All Your Houses: The Tragedy of Art Education," Art Education, Vol. 27, No. 3, March 191kt P. 12. Abstracted from Vincent Lanier, Teaching Secondary  Art (Scranton, Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company, 19Tli). -'Louis E. Raths, Teaching For Learning (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., 1969), p. 51. Richard Saul Wurman, ed.. Yellow Pages of Learning  Resources, cited by John Bremer, "ABC's of City Learning," BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 1. ""John Bremer, ,On Educational Change (Arlington, Virginia: National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1973), p. 26. ^Raths, p. 2i+. 7 Jerome S. Bruner, on Knowing essays for the left  hand (Cambridge, Massachusetts: the Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1962), p. 126. Q Kurt Rowland, Educating the Senses (London: Ginn and Company Ltd.), n. d., p. 9. 9 Rowland, p. 17. 10Doris Marie Carter, "The use of vision as the prim ary mode of perception in the teaching of environmental educa tion," Art Education, Vol. 26, No. 5, May 1973, p. 20. 11June McFee, "Why do we teach art in the public schools?" Studies in art education, NAEA, Vol. 9, No. 2, Winter 1968, p. 3. 12 J. Huizinga, cited in Rowland, p. 16. 13 Rowland, p. 10. "^Rowland, p. 10. 86 191+. 87 "^^McFee, "Why do we teach art in the public schools?" p. 1. McFee, "Why do we teach art in the public schools?" p0l. "^June McFee, "Society, Art, and Education," cited in George Pappas, ed.,.Concepts in Art and Education (London: Collier-Macmillan Limited, 1970), p. 81. Chapter 2 1 A Hilda Symonds, ed., The Teacher and the City: Urban Studies Project (Agincourt, Ontario: Methuen Publica-tions, 197D, P. 5. "^Rudolf Arnheim, cited in Rowland, p. 18. 20 Rowland, p. 22. 21 " McFee, "Society, Art, and Education," p. 8l. 22 Mabel Kaufman, "Art in open education," Art Educa tion, Vol. 25, No. 9, December 1972, p. 21. 23 Symonds, p. 9° ^"Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City, cited in Symonds, p. 9. 25 McFee, "Why do we teach art in the pulic schools?" pp. 3-1+. 26 Carter, p. 20. 27 Carter, p„ 21. 28 John Dewey, Experience and Education (1938j rpt. New York: Collier Books, 1963), p. 27. 2<^See Hilda Taba, Curriculum Development: Theory and  Practice (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, Inc., 1962). 3°Michael Day, "The Use of Formative Evaluation in the Art Classroom," Art Education, Vol. 27, No. 2, Feb. 1971+, P. 1+. 31Day, p. 1+. Chapter 3 and 1+ 195. 88 ^2Lanier, "A Plague On All Your Houses," p. 13. -^Lanier, "A Plague On All Your Houses," p. 13. -^Arthur D. Elfland, "Evaluating Goals for Art Education," Art Education, Vol. 27, No. 2, Feb. 1971+-* P. 9. Elfland defines aims, goals, and objectives in the following manner: 1. An educational aim:is a statement of general purpose that cuts across subject areas. 2. Subject goals justify why that subject should be taught. They point to the unique educational advantages of the field.and suggest particular activities within the con textual roots. 3. Objectives describe a single learning activity. 35see R. Neal Appleby, "Synaesthetic education for sense ability," Art Education, Vol. 27, No. 3, March 1974, pp. 22-25. Lanier, Teaching Secondary Art, p. 9li. 37 Vincent Lanier, "Aesthetic Education: The New Elitism?" Arts and Activities. DecemDer'1972, n. p." Lanier, "Aesthetic Education," n. p. J See McFee, "Society, Art, and Education," pp. 71-90. ^Charles A Reich, The Greening of America (Toronto: Bantam Books of Canada Ltd., 197D, p. 279. " ^Lanier, "Aesthetic Education," n. p. 42, "Lanier, "Aesthetic Education," n. p. h ^Lanier, Teaching Secondary Art, p. 10. Appleby, p. 2li. ^B. N. Lee and M. D. Merrill, Writing Complete Affec tive Objectives: A Short Course (Belmont, California: Wads-worth Publishing Company, Inc., 1972), p. 2. j L Abstracted from Lee and Merrill. kl Lee and Merrill, p. 17. ^Elliot W. Eisner, "The Promise of Teacher Education," Art Education, Vol. 25, No. 3, March 1972, p. 12. 196. 89 1+9 Symonds, p. 2. 50 Joseph D. Hassett and Arline Weisberg, Open Educa tion: Alternatives Within Our Tradition (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey! Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972), pp. 123-121+. -^D. G. Watts, Environmental Studies (New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969), p. 86. 52 Kaufman, p. 21. ^3Watts, p. 107. ^McPee, "Society, Art, and Education," p. 89. 55 Bremer, On Educational Change, pp. 17-18. ^6Watts, pp. 92-93. 57 ^'Watts, p. 71. ^8Watts, p. 76. 59 Alternative Schools: Pioneering Districts Create  Options for Students ^Arlington, Virginia: A Publication of the National School Public Relations Association, 1972), p. 35. 60 Rxchard Saul Wurman, ed., Yellow Pages of Learning  Resources (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1972), p. 2. ^Methods may fall into such various categories as: 1. extensive and intensive field studies, 2. simulated field studies within the school, 3. highly structured to unstructured approaches, and 1+. exposition, inductive, and deductive approaches. Categories, of course, also combine to form a learning approach. 62 Hassett and Weisberg, p. 57. 6 "\ Hassett and Weisberg, p. 97. 6l+Rowland, p. 28. 65 Rowland, p. 27. 6A Earl W. Linderman, Invitation to Vision: Ideas  and Imagination for Art (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. brown Companyj PUbiisners, 19b7J, p. 11. 197. 90 67 Rowland, p. 31. 68 Marion Quin Dix, "Planning Art Experiences," Edwin Ziegfield, ed., Education and Art: A Symposium (Switzerland: UNESCO, 1953), p. 36. ~ 69 For a system of organic teaching see Sylvia Ashton-Warner, Teacher (New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1963). 7°Watts, p. 18. 71 James F. Wise, "Techniques for assessing growth in aesthetic education," Art.Education, Vol. 21, No. 1, January 1968, p. 27. 72Raths, p. i+7• 73Wise, p0 27. Raths, p. \\$o 75 Wurman, p. 86. 76See Watts, pp. 79-82. 77 Elliot W. Eisner, "Do Behavioral Objectives and Accountability Have a Place in Art Education?11 Art Education, Vol. 26, No. 5, May 1973, p. k* 7ft Eisner, "Do Behavioral Objectives and Accountability Have a Place in Art Education?" p. I4.. 79 Eisner, "Do Behavioral Objectives and Accountability Have a Place in Art Education?" pp. 3-5. 80 R. A. Salome, "Perceptual Training as a factor in children's art," Art Education. Vol. 19, No. 9, December 1966, p. 27. Ralph M. Pearson, How To See Modern Pictures, cited in Salome, p. 28. 82 L. Kochka, cited in Exemplary Programs in Art  Education (CEMREL), p. 113. ®^See Day, pp. 3-7. Day's terms originated with Michael Scriven. Michael Day favours formative evaluation over summative measurement. Elliot Eisner also supports this approach to evaluation, as do such educators as Lee Cronbach, Jerome Bruner, Benjamin Bloom, and Hilda Taba. 198. 91 ^"Lanier, Teaching Secondary Art, p. lJ+l. 8^Elfland, p. 8. ^Elliot W. Eisner, "How can you measure a rainbow? Tactics for evaluating the teaching of art," Art Education, Vol. 2ii, No. $, May 1971, p.. 37. 1 9-9. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT SOURCES NOT CITED IN THE TEXT Bremer, Anne and Bremer, John. Open Education: A Beginning. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1972. Bremer, John and von Moschzisker, Michael. The School With out Walls: Philadelphia's Parkway Program. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1971'. Brookover, Wilbur B. and Erickson, Edsel L. Society Schools  and. Learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1969. Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. 1916; rpt. Toronto: Collier-Macmillan Canada, Ltd., 19J4-J4-. Ecker, David W. "Evaluating the Arts Curriculum: the Brook-line Experience." Art Education, Vol. 27, No„ 2, Feb. 1971*, PP. ll-li+. Gray III, William A. "Similar Models for Providing Alterna tive Approaches for Public Schooling." Vancouver, British Columbia: University of British Columbia, Faculty of Education, handout, pp. 1-15. Hausman, Jerome J. "The Plastic Arts, History and Design-Three . Currents Toward:Identifying Content for Art Education." ed., George Pappas. Concepts in Art and Education. London: Collier-Macmillan Limited, 1970, pp. 26-li5. Havighurst, Robert J. and Neugarten, Bernice L. Society and  Education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1957* Hunkins, Frances P. Questioning Strategies and Techniques. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1972. Illich, Ivan D. Celebration of Awareness: A Call for Institu tional Revolution. Garden City, NewYork: Anchor Books, Doubleday, and Company, Inc., n. d. Jones, Frank E. The Social Bases of Education. Toronto: Canadian Conference on Children, 1965. Koop, Wendy. "The Art of Everyman." Athene, Vol. 5, No. 3, August 1951, pp. 52-58. Lanier, Vincent. "Objectives of Teaching Art." Art Education, Vol. 25, No. 3, March 1972, pp. 15-19. 92 <2O0. ""93 Lovano-Kerr, Jessie. "Designing General Education Courses in Art and Environment." Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University, class handout, source unspecified. MacGregor, Ronald N. "Designing Teacher Education Programs in Art and Environment." Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta, class handout, source unspecified. "Modern Cities Are Not Cities." A review. Manus. Vol. XXVI, No. lj.9, December 5, 1973, pp. 3-I+. Shostak, Peter and Daugs, Donald R. Outdoor Education: Handbook K-7. Victoria, British Columbia: Shoell Enterprises Ltd., 1973. Smith, Ralph A. "Silberman and the British on Aesthetic Enterprise." Art Education, Vol. 26, No. 7, October 1973, PP. 19-22. Stevens, Jack. "The Community School." Queen Mary School, North Vancouver, British Columbia, handout. Taba, Hilda. Teaching Strategies and Cognitive Functioning  in Elementary School Children. Cooperative Research Project No. 2I4.OI4., San Francisco State College, Feb. 1966. Theobald, Robert. An Alternative Future For America. Chicago: Swallow Press, Inc., 196ti. Zimbardo, Philip and Ebbesen, Ebbe B. Influencing Attitudes  and Changing Behavior. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1969. 20%. APPENDIX Hilda Taba sees concepts, generalizations, and judgments as products of cognitive thought. She outlines three categories of thought processes which form a sequential and developmental hierarchy. Those categories may be sum marized as follows: Task I - Concept Formation Overt Activity Covert Mental Operation 1. Enumerating and listing Differentiating 2. Grouping Identifying common properties 3. Labeling and categorizing Determining the hierarchical order of items Task II - Inferring and Generalizing (generalizations and principles) Overt Activity Covert Mental Operation 1. Identifying points Differentiating, distinguish ing relevant information from irrelevant 2. Explaining identified Relating points to each other; items of information establishing cause and effect Making inferences or Going beyond what is given; generalizations finding implications, extra polating 91+ 202. 95 Task III - Application of Principles (explain something new, predict consequences of events, hypothesize about causes) Overt Activity Covert Mental Operation 1. Predicting consequences, Analyzing the nature and the explaining unfamiliar phe- dimensions of the problem or nomena, hypothesizing condition 2. Explaining and supporting Determining the causal links the predictions and hypoth- leading to a prediction or eses hypothesis 3. Verifying the predictions Using logical reasoning to and hypotheses determine the necessary conditions and the degree of universality of the prediction or hypothesis The preceding outline of cognitive tasks is a precis taken from Hilda Taba, Teaching Strategies and Cognitive Function ing in Elementary School Children (San Francisco State College, Cooperative Research Project No. 2J4.OI4., Feb. 1966), pp. 37-^3. 


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