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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Evaluation of the effects of Bilingual instruction on the acquisition of English in young East Indian… Moody, Janet Louise 1974

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AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF BILINGUAL INSTRUCTION ON THE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH IN YOUNG EAST INDIAN CHILDREN by JANET LOUISE MOODY B. A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of A r t s i n the F a c u l t y of Education. We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1 9 7 4 In p resent ing t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission fo r ex tens ive copying o f t h i s t hes i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h is rep resen ta t i ves . I t is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t hes i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be al lowed w i thout my w r i t t e n permiss ion. Department of Educational Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada October 1, 1974 . Date ' ABSTRACT This i s an evaluation of the second year of a special three year program to assist immigrant children from the Punjab. It describes a homogeneous class of 20 children, a l l East Indian, ranging i n age from 5 to 8. The teacher was also East Indian and was free to use Punjabi whenever she f e l t a child did not comprehend in English. The language development and self-concept development of children in this class was compared with that of East Indian pupils in regular classes. Classroom programming was documented and records were kept by the teacher of the progress made by each child throughout the year. A video-rtape was made of the class at the beginning and end of the, year. A reading assessment was also conducted on children who were i n the experimental class during 1972 -1973, and who were subsequently moved to a regular class the following year. Only 10 of the original 20 children were s , t i l l in the experimental class at the end of the year. > • In language acquisition the experimental group did make substantial gains as compared to the control group i i over the year, but on only one t e s t were the r e s u l t s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In the area of self-concept, the experimental group did show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference on one of the two tests given. Results of the reading tests showed'some i n d i c a t i o n that the experimental group were not functioning as well as the control group. Further t e s t i n g also provided information on the auditory discrimination and a r t i c u l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s of these children. . Fluency i n t h e i r own language (Punjabi) was investigated. I t was held that the program was successful and that i t should be continued with modifications. Dr. R. F. Conry, Thesis Committee Chairman. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract . . . » . . . i i Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . i v L i s t of Tables . . . . . . . . . . v L i s t of Figures . . . . . . . . . . v i i L i s t of Appendices . . . . . . . . . v i i i Acknowledgments i x Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . x Quote . x i i Chapter 1 The Problem 1 2 Related Research 1 1 3 Hypotheses and Their Development 4 4 4 Procedure 5 1 5 Results 6 4 6 Discussion and Recommendations 9 7 References . . . . » . . . 1 0 6 Appendices 113 i v LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE 1 The Punjabi Alphabet . . . . . 28 2 The Punjabi Alphabet (Vowels) . . 30 3 Experimental Design f o r Experimental Group (A) Control Group (B) . . . 52 4 Experimental Design f o r Experimental \ Group (C) Control Group (D) . . . 53 5 Age and Length of Time i n Canada . 55 6 Results of Class Observation . . 65 7 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Vocabulary Test f o r Young Children. 74 8 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children (Vocabulary Subtest) . . 75 9 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Constants . . . . . . . . . 76 10 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic A b i l i t y (Verbal Expression Subtest) 77 11 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Binet (Response to Pictures - Verbal Fluency - Enumeration) . . . . 78 12 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r When Do I Smile Test . . . . . 80 13 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Goodenough Draw A Man Test . . . 81 14 CorrelationsBetMeen I n t e l l e c t u a l Capacity Measures and Normalized Residual Gain Scores . . . . . 82 'V :l LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE 15 Examples from Wepman of Auditory Discrimination Errors (According to Test Number) . . . . . . . 8-7-16 Percentage of Incorrect Responses on A r t i c u l a t i o n Test ( I n i t i a l Sounds) 89 17 Percentage of Incorrect Responses on A r t i c u l a t i o n Test (Medial Sounds) 90 18 Percentage of Incorrect Responses on A r t i c u l a t i o n Test (Final Sounds) 91 1 19 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Irwin-Musselman A r t i c u l a t i o n Test , 92 20 Raw Scores and Grade Scores on Selected Subtests of the Metropolitan Achievement Test 95 \ v i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE 1 Percentage of Time Spent i n Each of Three Classroom Behaviors . 70 2 Percentage of Time Spent i n Five Off-Task Behaviors . . . . 71 3 bomparison of I. Q. Ratings — Coloured Progressive Matrices (Raven) Versus Teacher Rating Experimental Group . . . . 99 U Comparison of I. Q. Ratings Coloured Progressive Matrices (Raven) Versus Teacher Rating Control Group . . „ . „ . 100 v i i LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A Schedule of Testing f o r Experimental and Control Groups 113 B A Vocabulary Test f o r Young Children 115 C Vocabulary Subtest—Wechsler Intelligence Scale f o r Children 120 D Verbal Expression S u b t e s t — I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . 121 E Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Form L-M - Response to Pictures Year III '. . 122 F Goodenough Draw A Man Test Scoring C r i t e r i a . . .. . . 125 G When Do I Smile Test . . . . 129 r H Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test Form II . . . . . . 130 I Irwin-Musselman A r t i c u l a t i o n Test 131 J Valett's P r o f i l e f or the Stanford-Binet . . c a e . . . a 132 I K Time Sampling Data Sheet . .' . 133 L Kosier Behavior Rating S c a l e — Pupil Off-Task Behaviors . . . 13k Scores f o r Boehm Test of Basic Concepts - Part A . • „ 135 M N Response Patterns oft Matched Experimental and Coritrol Subjects on the Binet . . . • . 136 v i i i Acknowledgment of Assistance I would l i k e to acknowledge the d i r e c t i o n and encouragement given to me by the members of my thesis committee, Drs. R. F. Conry, Chairman, E. Goetz and P. R. Koopman, I would also l i k e to recognize the co-operation of Mrs. Susie Sandhu, teacher of the East Indian class at Moberly School Annex, the teachers involved with children i n the control classes, Dr. E. N. E l l i s , Head, Planning Evaluation, Vancouver School Board, and Mrs. Jasbir Ahluwalia, who spent many hours working as an interpreter. F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my fiance', Stephen, f o r the strength he has lent me during the l a s t months, and my parents f o r t h e i r understanding, encouragement and support throughout my college years. ix FORWARD In October, 1969, I was f i r s t employed at the Vancouver School Board as a school psychologist, and was appointed to the schools i n the southern slqpe area of the c i t y . In these schools there was and continues to be a large population of East Indian children, both recent immigrants and those native to Canada. Many of the children were having problems learning English and functioning i n our school system. As I worked with these children I became more and more curious as to why they were experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s . During the summer of 1971, I worked fo r the school board as a consultant and evaluator on a summer program funded by a Federal Government Opportunities f o r Youth Grant, The program—"Under the Mango Tree" was f o r East Indian children, although some other ethnic groups attended. With a s t a f f of >both Caucasian and East Indian leaders we jattempted to help these [children to understand the Canadian culture better, and to^attain some language s k i l l s . The program was judged to be a success, and during the following year the Vancouver School Board passed a recommendation that a class be formed f o r East Indian children, aged f i v e to nine, with an East Indian teacher. During the 1972-73 school year I was involved with the class and i t s evaluation. In 1973-74 I again evaluated the clas s , but t h i s time i n greater d e t a i l . Through my association with the teacher and with the East Indian community, I have come to know many East Indian people and to learn about l i f e i n India, as well as the problems they face i n Canada. I t i s my hope that t h i s research w i l l provide some information to help other administrators and teachers who have East Indian children i n t h e i r schools, and that i t may spark the i n t e r e s t of other researchers to do further work in both evaluation of the i r problems and in curriculum development. \ J. L. M. x i "...Every language i s a vast pattern system d i f f e r e n t from others, i n which are c u l t u r a l l y ordained the forms and categories by which the personality not only communicates, but also analyzes nature, notices or neglects types of relationships and phenomena, channels his reasoning and builds the house of his consciousness.. Benjamin Lee Whorf Language Thought and R e a l i t y \ . x i i Chapter 1 The Problem During the past decade many people from a l l corners of the globe have emigrated to Canada, and a large proportion of them have chosen Vancouver as t h e i r home. Many of the New Canadians are East Indian and have s e t t l e d i n the southern slope area of the c i t y where the Sikh Temple i s located. Nearly a l l these families come from Punjab State, a poor r u r a l area i n Northern India where they are part of a home and l i f e s t y l e d i f f e r e n t from our own; t h e i r values and customs are fo r e i g n to our way of thinking; they speak a language not at a l l l i k e ours; t h e i r n u t r i t i o n and general health are poor; t h e i r schooling i s inadequate. Most East Indian c h i l d r e n and many adults have never seen a large urban centre u n t i l deplaning i n a . Canadian c i t y . Upon a r r i v i n g there, the East Indian must adjust to a home and surroundings which are f a r d i f f e r e n t from his homeland. E l e c t r i c l i g h t s , stoves and r e f r i g e r a t o r s , radio and t e l e v i s i o n are new and fa s c i n a t i n g , as i s indoor plumbing. Even a kitchen 2. table i s a new experience, In Indian v i l l a g e s there i s no set formal eating time, but rather these children are much less structured, accustomed to eating whenever hungry, stooped on the f l o o r or s i t t i n g on a s t o o l . Their l i v e l i h o o d i s mainly farming and c r a f t s , s i m p l i s t i c i n terms of Western technology. The dress of the East Indian people i s quite d i f f e r e n t from that of the white culture and i s often r i d i c u l e d by Westerners. The g i r l s wear a tunic (kameez) and tight-bottomed pants t i e d at the waist with a drawstring (shalwar), while footwear i s usually gold lame s l i p p e r s . Women cover t h e i r heads and faces with shawls, t h i s being a s o c i a l rather than a r e l i g i o u s custom. The head-gear of the East Indian males often consists of s i x yards of material wrapped around to form a turban, worn because of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . A f i n e black powder (surma) to l i n e the eyes i s worn by both men and women. I t makes the eyes look bigger and also i s believed to keep away the e v i l s p i r i t s . The majority of the Vancouver southern slope East Indians are Jatsikhe, a caste having peasant roots. Marriages, t y p i c a l l y , are arranged. Over $0% of the Indian f a m i l i e s i n Canada marry t h e i r c h i l d r e n to spouses from India. This tends to r u l e out the assumption that the longer the East Indian community remains i n Canada, 3. the greater the a s s i m i l a t i o n of Canadian patterns of behavior w i l l be. The East Indian woman i s generally-more shy and reserved than her Western counterpart. She i s s t i l l strongly bound by the language and t r a d i t i o n s of her homeland. Very few learn to speak English. In f a c t , the majority of the adults, e s p e c i a l l y the women, make l i t t l e or no e f f o r t to learn English or to become assimilated i n t o the community. From the standpoint of one who has observed the community comes the following quote: I gained the impression that they have taken l i t t l e from Canadian culture save a material way of l i f e which does not involve white outsiders (Mayer, 1959, p. 26.) This a t t i t u d e s t i l l remains l a r g e l y true. Punjabi i s the o f f i c i a l language of the Punjab and most Punjabi speaking people experience d i f f i c u l t y i n learning the English language. Their alphabet i s quite d i f f e r e n t , containing 35 l e t t e r s — t h e f i r s t three l e t t e r s vowels, and the remaining 32 consonants. Gender, verbs, posession, a r t i c l e s and word order are a l l quite d i f f e r e n t from English language structure. East Indian c h i l d r e n are brought up mainly on curried rather than f r e s h or p l a i n l y cooked vegetables. Some curried meat i s eaten such as chicken, mutton or pork. A t h i n bread c a l l e d a chapatti or r o t i i s eaten with the curried d i s h . 4. In India today, 75% of the people can neither read nor write. Since India became independent i n August, 1947, there has been great activity in education, but in her zest for quantity perhaps she has lacked quality. Rapid advances have been made both i n f a c i l i t i e s and opportunities at a High School and College level, but at the Elementary level this has been a neglected chapter. Very few nursery schools where the child would be subjected to different learning experiences, the stimulation of toys and the l i k e , something village parents cannot afford, are available in India. Again, the idea of nursery schools causes social cultural conflict in India. To quote the Sargent Report: Even i f proper f a c i l i t i e s were provided i t would be by no means an easy matter to persuade the Indian mother to subordinate her natural affections in the interest of a more healthy physical and mental environment for her children (Mathur, 1967, p. 15.) To better understand the problems East Indian children face in an urban Western Canadian school system, their primary schooling w i l l be discussed in some d e t a i l . Primary education for children i n India spans the years 6 - 11, i s free, supposedly compulsory and conducted in the mother tongue. In the outlying areas, education during these years i s centered around the principle of 'Basic Education', f i r s t conceived by 5. Ghandi i n 1937, where l i t t l e emphasis i s placed on bookish l e a r n i n g . I t i s simply criminal on our part to make him (the c h i l d ) s i t at a place or i n a corner f o r hours together, and bore him with what we c a l l teaching i n an attempt to put into his brain a l l that i s bookish and dry. (Nanda, 1969, p. 60.) Rather, Basic Education i s centered around some type of manual and productive work or c r a f t , and a l l the other a b i l i t i e s to be developed, or t r a i n i n g to be given, should as f a r as possible be r e l a t e d to the basic c r a f t , chosen with regard to the c h i l d ' s environment. Not only i s the c h i l d preparing himself f o r a trade with which to eke out his existence, he i s also contributing to the economic l i f e of the school. Here we f i n d a basic c o n f l i c t i n Indian versus Canadian education. Our country, Canada, i s at an advanced stage of technology, while India i s at a stage where she must b u i l d her national strength; manual labour leading to production thus being of prime importance. Crafts, India argues, are su i t a b l e f o r children at a l l l e v e l s of i n t e l l i g e n c e , and the c h i l d gains confidence as he achieves success i n whatever he i s doing. Secondary education extends from the ages 11-17, although about 50% of the children drop out of school by the time they reach t h i s l e v e l . Compulsory subjects e x i s t — arithmetic, some English, general science, s o c i a l s t u d i e s — are taken, plus c r a f t s ; the school operating on the premise 6. that the c h i l d should engage i n manual production f o r at l e a s t an hour per day. Only the very most outstanding i n basic academics go on to co l l e g e . In regard to t h e i r curriculum, most c h i l d r e n i n out-l y i n g area of India do not l e a r n English. There i s l i t t l e emphasis on games or P. E. Concerning s o c i a l studies and history, t h e i r approach i s very i n s u l a r , oriented towards a growth of patriotism and national strength. Very l i t t l e geography i s taught, giving these children a l i m i t e d sense of l o c a t i o n and place. In mathematics, there seems generally to be l i t t l e independent work, the slower students copying the answers of the brighter c h i l d , often with very l i t t l e understanding. Grasping abstract concepts proves d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s e . c h i l d r e n , i t seems. In India, s t a t i s t i c s report that mathematics i s the subject i n which the greatest number of f a i l u r e s occur, t h i s being l a r g e l y accounted f o r by a lack of proper grounding i n fundamentals. Much of t h e i r learning i s by rote, l i t t l e emphasis being placed on the development of reasoning skills„(Moody, 1971). - The q u a l i t y of teachers and the teacher/pupil r a t i o presents another problem. In the r u r a l areas there are many one or two teacher schools, often having as many as seventy-five pupils; per teacher. Teachers receive very l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g experience. The emolument fo r 7. the basic school teachers i s very low and the working conditions poor, but most of a l l the p o s i t i o n lacks pr e s t i g e . There i s also a general absence of inspectors or consultants to guide basic teachers, and provide help when needed (Moody, 1971). One wonders how much enthusiasm an often d i s s a t i s f i e d , poorly-trained teacher can impart to her students. The experimenter has observed that lack of co-operation exists between many parents and teachers. These parents, i l l i t e r a t e themselves, are apathetic about i n s i s t i n g that t h e i r c h i l d r e n attend school. Often i t is a question of economics, f o r a t age s i x , a c h i l d can begin to supplement the family income and the family cannot therefore "afford™ to send him to school. Many parents f e e l the education t h e i r c h i l d receives w i l l not r e a l l y benefit him i n l a t e r l i f e . Education f o r Indian women i s s t i l l not considered e s s e n t i a l to t h e i r r o l e , although of course t h i s idea i s changing r a p i d l y i n the large urban centres. The Information Centre at the Sikh Temple reports there are between 10,000 and 12,000 East Indian people l i v i n g i n Vancouver. The childre n of these East Indian f a m i l i e s , both newly a r r i v e d and older s e t t l e r s , are attending our public schools and concern has a r i s e n regarding t h e i r appropriate placement. One must consider not only language, but s o c i a l a. and c u l t u r a l factors as v e i l . A large number of these chi l d r e n are unable to function s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a regular classroom s e t t i n g , but placing them i n a Special Education Class f o r "Slow Learners" or i n a New Canadian Class does not seem to be the s o l u t i o n and, i n f a c t , i n Vancouver children are not e l i g i b l e to be placed i n a New Canadian class u n t i l aged 9. What are the possible reasons these c h i l d r e n are experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n learning to understand, speak, and f i n a l l y to read and write English? Are these children what i s termed " c u l t u r a l l y disadvantaged" or " c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t " , defined by Heilman (1972) as: an economically deprived c h i l d who i s not p r o f i t i n g from the established curriculum and who i s not learning to read? The term includes speakers of d i a l e c t s from a l l r a c i a l groups - black, white, Indian-American, Mexican-American, Puerto-Rican, etc. (p. 57.) Do they have a background and l i f e s t y l e so d i f f e r e n t from our own that they cannot cope with a c i t y environment? As the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Education pamphlet states: I t i s perhaps d i f f i c u l t to imagine what kind of experience i t i s f o r a c h i l d to be transported bodily not so much from one country to another as from one c u l t u r a l environment to another, so r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t that at the early stages at l e a s t there seems to be no point of s i m i l a r i t y to help e s t a b l i s h some confidence and f e e l i n g of security,..And hardly has he set foot i n the amazing new country before he i s hustled o f f to school, away from the sheltered companionship of h i s own r e l a t i v e s and the support of people who speak his own language (Stoddard & Stoddard, 196S, p. 15.) 9. Perhaps many East Indian c h i l d r e n are i n f a c t of l i m i t e d a b i l i t y — s l o w l e a r n e r s . This i s most d i f f i c u l t to assess using our present tests and evaluative procedures. Does the East Indian adults' resistance to a s s i m i l a t i o n into Canadian society as w e l l as t h e i r opposition to learning English contribute to t h e i r children's problems i n school? Other ethnic groups, notably the Orientals, have s i m i l a r language handicaps, and yet reports from teachers suggest they learn to understand and to speak English more quickly, and are more r e a d i l y assimilated into the community. Parent involvement i s considered a v i t a l l i n k to reaching immigrant children (Burnstein, 1972, Douglas, 1964). Further, Gordon (1970) found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between English language a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n and language modelling of the mother. Does n u t r i t i o n and general health influence learning? More and more research i s aimed at i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t of n u t r i t i o n on cognitive development. Rose (1972) reports that a n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i t i n childhood r e s u l t s i n permanent changes i n brain chemistry f o r which a subsequent adequate d i e t does not compensate. Also, undernourishment of the mother i s r e f l e c t e d i n low brain weight of the o f f - s p r i n g . The answer to the causes of these problems can only be speculated upon. However, t h i s study would attempt to 10. produce beginning answers towards ways to educate these children i n Canada—to teach comprehension, speaking, reading and w r i t i n g English, taking into account both the l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l differences. What type of schooling should we provide f o r these children? Since one suspects f a c i l i t y i n t h e i r own language i s often l i m i t e d and since they have not come i n contact with much of our everyday vocabulary, should these childre n be i n a s p e c i a l class where they can become more fluent i n t h e i r native tongue before learning English? Would simultaneous i n s t r u c t i o n i n both Punjabi and English be b e n e f i c i a l ? Would an East Indian teacher, f l u e n t i n both English and Punjabi, but perhaps more important, possessing an understanding of the children's c u l t u r e , f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r learning of English? 11. Chapter 2 Related Research The experimenter's review of the research revealed l i t t l e that was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to teaching English to primary East Indian immigrant ch i l d r e n . The majority of the l i t e r a t u r e i n the area of teaching English to primary c h i l d r e n i s i n r e l a t i o n to the Navajo and Pueblo Indian i n the United States, the Spanish-speaking Mexican American, and i n some cases, the Negro; and s i m i l a r i t i e s between these groups and East Indians i s sometimes questionable. Considerable research has been done i n New Mexico, where 40$ of the children come from these r a c i a l groups. E f f e c t of B i l i n g u a l i s m . The question regarding the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l i s m on c h i l d r e n i s very c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Jensen (1972) claims that the b i l i n g u a l c h i l d may become handicapped i n his i n t e l l e c t u a l develop-ment, h i s tendency to think i n one language and speak i n another causing him to become mentally uncertain and confused. I t i s claimed that such a c h i l d w i l l also be handicapped i n speech development (Lynn, 1945), language development (Smith, 1942) and educational progress 12 (Jensen, 1972). Further, Jensen (1972) feels that the child may develop serious emotional i n s t a b i l i t y and social maladjustment. After being exposed to a second language i n school, the child may develop a sense of shame and g u i l t regarding the language of his family and may direct this into feelings of arrogance, contempt, hatred, rejection, and avoidance, toward his parents. He may regard his parents as reactionary, impractical, ineffective, and unpatriotic; whereas his parents may consider him to be disrespectful toward his superiors and his cultural heritage. The child may compare his parents unfavourably with other parents who speak better and may feel ashamed to bring home his playmates (Jensen, 1972). Other researchers take an opposing viewpoint, claiming that bilingualism aids the intel l e c t u a l development of the child (Jones, I960), augments vocabulary (Totten, I960), furthers educational development ( Carrow, 1957, Marshall and P h i l l i p s , 1942, & Smith, 1942), and creates a better adjusted child (Weinrich, 1953, Finocchiaro, 1966). In fact, much of the misconception linking childhood bilingualism with in t e l l e c t u a l impairment may have originated from low scores on intelligence tests which relied upon language f a c i l i t y . Jensen (1972) asserts that: whatever maladjustment i s present i s l i k e l y caused not by bilingualism but by immature emotional constitutions, excessive family tensions, or by sociological considerations, such as being in an in f e r i o r social status group or by having poor teachers and schools (pp. 36O-36I.) 13. Teaching i n the Native Language. L i t t l e empirically sound research on the e f f e c t s of using a native language i n the teaching of English as a second language i s a v a i l a b l e , probably because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t r o l l i n g nuisance variables i n a f i e l d experiment. S;ome researchers see a d e f i n i t e and important l i n k between culture and language, and advocate the teaching of a c h i l d i n i t i a l l y i n h i s native tongue, with emphasis on c u l t u r a l heritage (Smith, 1968, Alfaro and Hawkins, 1972, & Gudschinsky, 1971). In San Ysidro, C a l i f o r n i a (Neff, I 9 6 0 ) , one teacher worked with a class of f i r s t - g r a d e pupils who were, f o r the most part, Spanish-speaking Americans. He strongly advocated teaching pupils to speak as well as to read Spanish f i r s t , and English only a f t e r they have developed some vocabulary i n Spanish. S i m i l a r l y , i n Dade County, F l o r i d a (Czaden, 1 9 6 6 ) , where 46,552 Spanish-speaking c h i l d r e n were enrolled i n public school i n 1966, many were i n i t i a l l y placed i n s p e c i a l classes i n language a r t s to help them to develop l i t e r a c y i n t h e i r native language and an appreciation of t h e i r own c u l t u r e . Other researchers advocate a somewhat more modified approach, whereby i n s t r u c t i o n i n both English and the native language takes place concurrently. In C a l i f o r n i a , Holland (1966) tested Spanish-speaking elementary school c h i l d r e n with a Spanish-English adaptation of the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children (WISC), to 14. analyze language b a r r i e r as an educational problem, From his findings he concluded the generally low verbal develop-ment i n both Spanish and English i s more l i k e l y the conse-quence of bil i n g u a l i s m i n an underprivileged ethnic group. Holland further hypothesized that b i l i n g u a l education f o r b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n would be a worthwhile experiment. He reasoned that i f teachers could supplement the language of the classroom with that of the home and neighbourhood, there might be more optimal r e s u l t s achieved than at present when nearly a l l classrooms are i n s t r u c t i n g e x c l u s i v e l y i n English. Pryor (1967) reports that r e s u l t s of a Texas program comparing b i l i n g u a l education with t r a d i t i o n a l English favoured the former, and recommendations were made to expand and continue the program. Cervenka (1967) compared a random sample of 97 f i r s t - g r a d e r s , some being taught by English American teachers (control group) and some by Mexican American teachers f l u e n t i n Spanish and English (experimental group). An analysis of tests,to measure English language competency and b i c u l t u r a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n showed the experimental subjects were as competent i n English as those learning only i n English, and they were also better adjusted s o c i a l l y . In a study done i n Arizona (Hoffman, 1968), i n s t r u c t i o n i n both English and the native Navajo Indian tongue took place concurrently. At 1 5 the Rough Rock School, Rough Rock, Arizona, c h i l d r e n were encouraged to use t h e i r native tongue. An i n d i v i d u a l Oral Test of Second Year English Objectives designed at Rough Rock was administered to 118 of the 1 5 0 native Navajo-speaking primary c h i l d r e n i n May, 1 9 6 8 . More than 5 0 % scored 90% or better, approximately 7 5 % scored 8 5 % or better, and only 7% scored l e s s than 75%. R e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t , based on comparative data, i s . 9 7 according to the Kuder-Richardson Formula. The two objectives of the Rough Rock program were to develop fluency i n English and to assure that each c h i l d would view both his native tongue and a second language as useful t o o l s , rather than committing himself to one c u l t u r e or the other. The program i t s e l f was prepared by Dr. Robert D. Wilson, L i n g u i s t , Department of English, U. C. L. A., C a l i f o r n i a . The material was presented to the c h i l d r e n i n the f o l l o w i n g way: 1 . From simple to complex i n terms of s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e . From concrete to abstract i n terms of semantic content. From whole to parts i n phonological form. 2. Each question i s presented as a dialogue with both questions and t h e i r related answers to be learned by the student on the basis that a common s o c i a l function i s dialogue. 3. Correction of speech i s l i m i t e d to v i o l a t i o n of obligatory language r u l e s . 16. 4. The constant objective i s the creation of s y n t a c t i c a l l y correct, phonologically well-formed and meaningful sentences. 5. The c h i l d has the greatest share of speaking time. Meaning i s provided through pretending, r e a l s i t u a t i o n s , games, v i s u a l and t a c t i l e a i d s . 6. Teacher approval i s the main motiva-t i o n . (Hoffman, 1968, p. 12.) The present author questions item 6, as surely the increas ing a b i l i t y of a c h i l d to communicate i n a new language must be very self-rewarding. During the f i r s t year, formal lessons were given i n the Navajo tongue and an a c t i v i t y corner containing Navajo d o l l s , p i c t u r e s , books, c r a f t s and music was provided. There were many f i e l d t r i p s , dramatizations and f i l m s t r i p s used. The tape recorder was also found to be invaluable as w e l l as the record "Beginning Fluency i n English as a new Language"'—Bowman Records, Inc.. In New Mexico, a program was designed to introduce into f i r s t grade curriculum the native language of the c h i l d (Spanish) as w e l l as English. I t was f e l t t h i s was a way to c l a r i f y d i f f i c u l t concepts f o r the c h i l d , to give emphasis to the c h i l d ' s culture and native language, and to r e i n f o r c e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward himself and his c u l t u r a l heritage (Valencia, 1970). An evaluation done i n New Mexico (Muller & Leonetti, 1970) compared three primary programs—an English program where only English was taught, a Spanish-English program 17. where i n s t r u c t i o n was presented i n both English and Spanish, and a control c l a s s . The r e s u l t s were not conclusive but indicated that the Spanish-English program was providing a valuable set of learning experiences i n both the cognitive and a f f e c t i v e domains. Mackey ( 1 9 7 1 ) , working with German-speaking c h i l d r e n learning English, found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Torrance (1970) disagrees with the notion of con-current b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n as a method of teaching a new language to immigrants, due to the phenomenon of "interference". A consistent f i n d i n g i n educational psychology i s that under most circumstances new associa-tions cause a person to forget old associations learned e a r l i e r i n time, and that the older associations i n t e r f e r e with the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the new associations. In other words associations compete, with.one association i n t e r f e r i n g with the r e t e n t i o n of others. Voluminous research supports the conclusion that the negative t r a n s f e r or interference from the competition of old and new responses r e s u l t s i n f o r g e t t i n g (Torrance, 1970, p. 58.) Further, Y o r i (1969) proposes that due to unfamilia-r i t y with material and a lack of t r a i n i n g , the memory span i n a f o r e i g n language i n t o the ea r l y stages of i t s acquirement i s u s u a l l y shorter than i n our native language. The findings i n d i c a t e that new concepts may eventually be acquired i n the second language nearly as quickly as i n the f i r s t , but e x i s t i n g concepts do not gain new language terms quickly and i n i t i a l progress i s therefore slow. One 18. could propose, therefore, that people should be taught the new language d i r e c t l y and not v i a t r a n s l a t i o n process. Special Glasses. Should young foreign immigrants be placed i n " s p e c i a l classes f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n En g l i s h " or i n a regular class with s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n being incor-porated i n t o t h e i r d a i l y programs? Several investigators have been concerned with t h i s question. Klyhn (1969) believes that placing a young c h i l d i n an i s o l a t e d environment to lear n English does not make maximum use of resources. He f e e l s that i t serves to i s o l a t e a large group of non-English speakers and reduces language exposure. He does comment, however, that the c h i l d ' s teacher must then prepare s p e c i a l English materials and work with these sp e c i a l c h i l d r e n f o r short periods d a i l y . He also suggests the use of a " l i s t e n i n g corner" where ch i l d r e n can l i s t e n to tapes, aided i f necessary by an English c h i l d - t u t o r . The New Canadian could l i s t e n to the tapes many times, and English speaking c h i l d r e n could l i s t e n to them too, thereby reducing segregation. The Stoddarts (1968), on the basis of t h e i r teaching experience i n London which often involved East Indian c h i l d r e n among others (Malpass, 1968), suggest that c h i l d r e n of infant school age (5-7) w i l l probably need l i t t l e s p e c i a l teaching to help them speak English, i f they are put i n an infant class where A c t i v i t y methods are employed and where 19. c h i l d r e n work together i n small groups. On the other hand, junior immigrant pupils (7-11) are not involved i n as many-a c t i v i t i e s where children work and tal k together, because the classroom structure i s more formal and the teacher addresses the class as a whole. In Canadian schools, a c t i v i t y and small groups are observed i n the Kindergarten s e t t i n g ; but the s i x or seven year old, Grade one or two c h i l d i s often i n a structured classroom more geared to independent seat work than to o r a l a c t i v i t y , with a c q u i s i t i o n of the three R's i n a large group process, with l i t t l e time f o r free a c t i v i t y . A "s p e c i a l c l a s s " f o r English i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h i s age group i s therefore f e l t to be necessary. There i s no doubt that intensive language teaching i s most e f f e c t i v e and that the biggest gains are made when the teacher sees h i s pupils often (Derrick, 1968, p. 17.) The most common p o l i c y of a s s i s t i n g non-English speaking pupils i n Vancouver during the l a s t few years, due i n part to a great i n f l u x of immigrants and a shortage of trained second language teachers, has involved removing ch i l d r e n from t h e i r regular classes f o r periods of time on a d a i l y or a weekly basis and having a "primary New Canadian Resource Teacher" work with them i n groups, as described by Reid and Guinet (1971). S i m i l a r l y , Finocchiaro (1966) evaluated a program i n New York involving Spanish-speaking Americans, where every day f o r 15 minutes, a teacher 20. b i l i n g u a l i n English and Spanish v i s i t e d classes and presented s p e c i a l l y prepared materials, using Spanish about 65% of the lesson time. Children were encouraged to respond i n both languages. Curriculum stressed verbal i n t e r a c t i o n and stimulation using games, physical a c t i v i t i e s , audio-visual aids and so on. Also, the regular class teacher was shown how materials presented i n the b i l i n g u a l c l a s s could be co-ordinated with regular classroom work. Results indicated greater acceptance by children and parents of second language learning and the Spanish-speaking children acquired greater self-confidence and c u l t u r a l awareness, Wilson (1968) evaluated a program i n which eight to ten non-English speaking c h i l d r e n were taken from t h e i r regular classroom each day f o r approximately one-half hour of s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . Materials were c a r e f u l l y sequenced and were based on a u d i o - l i n g u a l p r i n c i p l e s of learning. Results of the study provided strong evidence of the f a c t that children r e c e i v i n g t h i s kind of i n s t r u c t i o n compare favourably i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to speak English with children of t h e i r own age group who speak English as a native language, Method of I n s t r u c t i o n . Method of i n s t r u c t i o n i s also a very important part of second language learning—one must ask i f the program i s c a r e f u l l y planned and suited to the needs of each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d or i s i t haphazard i n both 21. organization and presentation. The immigrant c h i l d needs to learn English f o r the purpose of communication, and reports i n the l i t e r a t u r e generally concur that the learning of a new language follows a l o g i c a l sequence: understanding, speaking, reading and f i n a l l y w r i t i n g ( H i l l , 1967). A language program should not be designed to f i l l a student with information but rather to change h i s behavior. He i s not taught about the language but instead how to make r e a l i s t i c English language responses to s t i m u l i . H i l l (1967) looked c a r e f u l l y at d i f f e r e n t ways of teaching English as a second language. The Direct or Natural Method does away with the study of grammar r u l e s , translations and so on, and t r i e s to follow s i m i l a r l i n e s to those one follows when one learns his or her own native language as a c h i l d . Students understand by l i s t e n i n g , speak by speaking. The material i s simple a t f i r s t and gradually becomes more d i f f i c u l t . H i l l found t h i s system to be too unstructured. Vocabulary Selection was therefore introduced, as i t was f e l t too much fo r e i g n language was poured on ch i l d r e n and they were not able to absorb i t . Vocabulary was therefore c a r e f u l l y selected and graded, but t h i s presented some d i f f i c u l t i e s as w e l l . Even i f a c h i l d knew a l l the words i n a sentence he might not, due to idioms and structure, understand i t s meaning. Out of 2 2 . concern about t h i s problem grew the S t r u c t u r a l Approach, which consists of s e l e c t i n g and grading the "structures" of language i n additi o n to the "words". Vocabulary i s s t i l l selected but the main emphasis i s on teaching students a command of the structures. Once the structures have been selected and graded, any method can be used to teach them. Since the St r u c t u r a l Approach became fashionable at a time when the Oral Approach was popular, the two are often l i n k e d . The Oral Approach simply advocates that the simplest way to lear n a language i s to s t a r t o r a l l y . I n i t i a l l y , the teacher presents a l l new material o r a l l y and the students only l i s t e n , l a t e r using i t themselves i n speech before any reading or writing i s attempted. With young pupils i t i s usu a l l y wise not to engage i n any reading or w r i t i n g f o r the f i r s t months, so that the pupils can become fl u e n t with a small vocabulary and group of st r u c t u r e s . The theory behind t h i s i s that i t i s natural to le a r n to understand what one hears and to speak f i r s t before reading and w r i t i n g . Spoken language was developed before w r i t i n g , and i n f a c t the majority of the people i n the world s t i l l cannot read or write but communicate o r a l l y without d i f f i c u l t y . The D r i l l Method states simply that we lear n a thing by hearing i t , speaking i t or reading i t many times. Here imaginative teachers are mandatory, or students of a new 23. language r o l l out words mechanically with no meaningful association at a l l . The St r u c t u r a l Approach i s often combined with the S i t u a t i o n a l Approach, which advocates that vocabulary and structure can only become meaningful through the use of concrete a s s o c i a t i v e material. For example, the word "eating" i s not self-explanatory to a non-English speaker, but must be accompanied by demonstra-t i o n of the appropriate a c t i o n . The Stoddarts (1968) i n t h e i r work with East Indian and Pakistani immigrant children l i v i n g i n B r i t a i n advocate the use of what might be c a l l e d the Structured-O r a l - S i t u a t i o n a l Approach, b e l i e v i n g that to teach a foreign language there must be both structure and f l e x i b i l i t y The teacher must f i r s t e s t a b l i s h a baseline entering behavior i . e . , does the c h i l d know any English at a l l ? A plan of what i s to be learned during the course i s then l a i d out, with plenty of room f o r change and adaptation. The material i s divided i n t o small steps, and sequenced i n order of d i f f i c u l t y . Testing i s done at regular i n t e r v a l s , not to f i n d out what a c h i l d has learned but to help him to learn. This i s b a s i c a l l y a task analysis approach. I t has been shown (Sa i t z , 1966) that i f you teach something, immediately te s t i t and give the student the correct answer, t h i s helps him to f i x i n h i s memory what he has learned. However, tests should not be received as a mechanical r e p e t i t i o n of 24. material taught, but should integrate what has been learned i n d i f f e r e n t ways. For example, can a c h i l d who has learned the words "dress", "window" and " b o o k " i d e n t i f y them by name, i n a p i c t u r e , but more importantly can he make a sentence about them, thus i n d i c a t i n g his o v e r a l l comprehen-sion i n context. An experimental approach to the teaching of English as a second language i n Toronto (Gladstone, 1968) also suggests; some p r a c t i c a l considerations f o r teaching East Indian c h i l d r e n . I t might be assumed that i f a person has the need and opportunity to i n t e r n a l i z e the value and s o c i a l system of a culture he w i l l l e a r n the language quickly and with under-standing. But an I t a l i a n person i n Toronto ( l i k e an East Indian i n Vancouver) may have no need f o r English. A community of 50,000 I t a l i a n s may provide him with work, shopping f a c i l i t i e s , l i v i n g accommodation and entertainment, a l l within his own l i n g u i s t i c framework. Many educators i n Toronto f e l t that a basic concern was getting non-English speaking youngsters to i d e n t i f y with the New Canadian value system. Language at Main Street School i s defined as "an o r a l communication of some r e a l condition" (Gladstone, 1967, p. 230.) The c h i l d r e n (ten n a t i o n a l i t i e s ) were divided into s i x areas c a l l e d Communication Groups, with the pupil/teacher r a t i o being 12:1. In each group the twelve childre n were placed heterogeneously i n terms of t h e i r age 25 and ethnic background. I t was found that only vocabulary items based on r e a l and meaningful experience were under-stood by the chi l d r e n ; f o r while one translates- a word, one cannot translate values inherent i n a word. A l l subject matter, whether t a l k i n g or singing, emanated from some community excursion the group had taken. From September 6 to September 18, 1967, s i x groups had taken 115 f i e l d t r i p s to 72 d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , ranging from a walk through the neighbourhood to working a day on a farm. To bring r e a l experiences and f i e l d t r i p s back to the groups, the teachers used cameras and tape recorders. Food and i t s preparation was f e l t to be an extremely important aspect of any cul t u r e , and the s t a f f and pupils ate together, thereby stimulating conversation and affording an opportunity to see the kinds of food eaten. Six i n t e r e s t a r e a s — s c i e n c e , s o c i a l studies, music, physical education, a r t s and c r a f t s , and drama were provided. No attempt was made to use a sophisticated approach to any of these d i s c i p l i n e s , but the c h i l d was allowed to discover, explore and experiment. The school was open from 7:00 a.m. to 5^00 p.m., and included a games room that had such a c t i v i t i e s as chess and table tennis. Academically, the c h i l d r e n engaged only i n o r a l a c t i -v i t i e s . There was no formal d r i l l . When a c h i l d asked a teacher to write what he was saying, he moved to the next 26. s t e p — r e a d i n g . While the or a l was s t i l l stressed, now under the photograph or drawing, the teacher wrote what the p u p i l sa i d . These pages were put together to form h i s f i r s t reader. When he was f e l t to be ready, a high-interest, low vocabulary book was provided. The general consensus of the s t a f f was that reading and wri t i n g were secondary considerations i n comparison to o r a l language development. This approach i s analogous to a Piaget-based B r i t i s h Infant School. Twice a week the c h i l d r e n were dismissed 50 minutes early so that the s t a f f could evaluate and work on day plans. Formal evaluation was d i f f i c u l t . The s t a f f did not consider that there were any c u l t u r e free tests suitable f o r the i r students. Therefore, when a c h i l d entered school he was interviewed using a tape recorder. At eight to ten week in t e r v a l s he was re-interviewed to assess his progress i n language development. Anecdotal records were also kept by the teacher. L i n g u i s t i c Considerations. In teaching English to East Indian primary aged c h i l d r e n , or i n f a c t to any group of non-English speakers, i t i s commonly accepted that the i n s t r u c t o r should have some understanding of the differences between the sounds and structure of the two languages, Punjabi i s one of the 15 major Indian languages, and i s the o f f i c i a l language of the Punjab Province located i n Northwestern India. Most of the Punjabi speakers are of the 27. Sikh r e l i g i o n , which preaches one universal God f o r a l l mankind. E. P. Newton (1961) states that the written form of Punjabi i s known as Gurmukhi. The alphabet has 35 l e t t e r s . (Tables l&2)The f i r s t three are vowels and the remaining 32 are consonants. Many of the Punjabi sounds are made farther to the f r o n t of the mouth than corresponding sounds i n English. There are many aspirations (adding an /h/ sound) and no vowel sound i s allowed to intervene between a conson-ant and the a s p i r a t e . There i s a tendency to nasalize the vowel of every s y l l a b l e containing /n/. A deep g u t t e r a l /h/ i s used a f t e r / r / (rath becomes rhath). Except f o r /n/, / l / , / r / , /h/, the consonant i s doubled when an accented vowel precedes and an unaccented vowel follows; e.g., Punjabi becomes Punjabbi. The /kh/, /g/, / l / , and /n/ are quite often drawn out. The Punjabi intonation i s characterized by a l e v e l and a staccato movement. The parts of speech i n Punjabi are the same as i n English except that there i s no a r t i c l e i n Punjabi. There i s no neuter gender, no verb equivalent to "to have" and the idea of possession i s expressed i n many ways. Adjectives and verbs vary f o r the masculine and feminine forms:(e.g., a l i t t l e g i r l — n i k e e kurhdee; a l i t t l e b oy—nika munda; the g i r l i s coming—kurhdee ontheeya; the boy i s coming— munda othaya). The preposition almost always follows TABLE 1 THE PUNJABI ALPHABET 28. Form Name Power "8 TT X Td 7T 5 Y r "5" J ura a r i a i r i sassa ha ha kakka7 khakka gagga ghagga ngannga chacha chhachha j a j j a j h a j j a nyanya tainka thajLtha dadda/ dhadda nana s, as i n sun h, as i n home k, as i n king kh, an aspirated k g, as i n g i r l gh, aspirated g - loghouse ng, as i n king ch, as i n children chh, an aspirated ch j , asr i n judge jh, an aspirated j ny, as i n Spanish - senor t, s l i g h t l y harsher than the English t th, an aspirated t d, s l i g h t l y harsher than the English d dh, an aspirated d n, s l i g h t l y harsher than the English n 2 9 . Table 1 (continued) Form Name ower 3" "ET T TH 7i T J 3 W "3" H TrT K T a : t a t t a that tha dadda' dhadda' nanna' pap pa' phappha/ babba' bhabba7 mamma yayya rara l a l l a wawa rara t , s l i g h t l y s o f t e r than the English t th, an aspirated t d, s l i g h t l y s o f t e r than the. English d dh, an aspirated d n, s l i g h t l y s o f t e r than the English n p, as i n pay ph, an aspirated p b, as i n boy bh, an aspirated b m, as i n may y, as i n yes r, l i k e the French r , with the tongue v i b r a t i n g on the palate 1, as i n love v, w, something between the two r, cerebral r , produced by placing the t i p of the tongue on the so f t palate and exploding breath TABLE 2 THE PUNJABI ALPHABET VOWELS I n i t i a l N o n - I n i t i a l ' Power -y-y\ no sign f o r short a a, as i n woman; u, as i n but "~ a, as i n f a r i , as i n f i n "r/j ^ i , as i n machine ^ — u, as i n f u l l ^ r : u, as i n r u l e ^ e, as i n they A a i , as i n a i s l e ^ o, as i n go, horse ~yy^ m ^ a u > a s i n German "haus" The three vowel sounds with a d d i t i o n a l signs c a l l e d "lagh" or "matr" are made to represent ten vowel sounds. 31. instead of precedes a word to which i t r e f e r s . The writer proposes that the basic aim i s to teach the Punjabi c h i l d the i n d i v i d u a l sounds of English, thus ensuring that he can recognize a l l phonemes when heard i n the speech of a native speaker. Nida (1965) suggests that one should spend at l e a s t 15 to 20 hours concentrating on hearing the sounds of a language before beginning to speak and Goetz (1970) reports that a b i l i t y to discriminate between sounds increases with repeated p r a c t i c e . Individual sounds, however, are not the most d i f f i c u l t f o r the c h i l d , but he seems to have decided d i f f i c u l t y i n the way he integrates these sounds with rhythm and intonation. Sometimes the c h i l d has d i f f i c u l t y with word st r e s s ; i n Punjabi, only vowels are stressed i n words. There i s no / z / i n the Punjabi language. Many East Indian children push t h e i r tongues r i g h t out between t h e i r teeth when making the / s / sound, and when making the / z / sound tend to c u r l up t h e i r tongues, before the t i p touches the gums. The sounds /0 / such as the unvoiced / t h / i n thumb, and / such as the voiced / t h / i n smooth do not ex i s t i n Punjabi. Children often substitute / t / or / s / f o r /Q / and / d / f o r f$/. There i s no / f / i n Punjabi and the c h i l d often s u b s t i -tutes /p/. The Punjabi speaker tends to use his two l i p s instead of hi s l i p and upper teeth. 3 2 . In the Punjabi language there i s no /w/ although there i s one l e t t e r which i s something between /v/ and /w/. Instead of using well-rounded l i p s the c h i l d tends to f l a t t e n his l i p s , which d i s t o r t s the phoneme. Also, the Punjabi c h i l d tends to sub s t i t u t e / s / f o r /J~/ such as i n f i s h . With / l / Punjabis tend to make t h i s sound r e t r o f l e x i v e l y , with the t i p of the tongue turned up and back, touching the palate. Reading. Once the New Canadian c h i l d has mastered or a l language s k i l l s , a t t e n t i o n i s then turned to reading, perhaps the most important academic s k i l l taught i n school today, i n terms of determining one's future academic t r a i n i n g and job placement. Stemmler (1966) states: The annual reports f i l e d by a l l school d i s t r i c t s with the Texas Educational Agency, reveal that approximately BO per cent of a l l beginning f i r s t graders from a non-English speaking background f a i l the f i r s t grade because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to read...The T.E.A. estimates that between 40 per cent and 60 per cent of the approximately 100,000 entering non-English speaking f i r s t graders each year w i l l have dropped out of school permanently by the end of the elementary grades (p. 33.) As few school d i s t r i c t s believe i n the premise of of f e r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n to New Canadians i n the primary grades, many of these childr e n are placed i n a regular classroom where comprehension and speaking as well as reading and w r i t i n g are expected to develop simultaneous-l y . Blossom (1967) commented that the ad d i t i o n of reading to a c h i l d struggling to be b i l i n g u a l i s almost l i k e 33. introducing a t h i r d language. In 1943 Lamoreaux and Lee said the f o l l o w i n g : A c h i l d must have attained a c e r t a i n f a c i l i t y with language. I f a c h i l d has a l i m i t e d speaking vocabulary, some of the words i n his reading w i l l not come e a s i l y and n a t u r a l l y , f o r he i s not i n the habit of using them (p. 45.) Taking the argument one step f a r t h e r , Halliday (1968) commented: One thing i s c l e a r : success or f a i l u r e does not depend on s i z e of vocabulary alone. A r e s t r i c t e d word stock i n active use may be a symptom of a less broadly based and therefore l e s s adequate knowledge of the language system and i t s use; but i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y even t h i s , and i t i s no more than t h i s — i t i s not even a c r i t e r i o n of l i n g u i s -t i c d e f i c i e n c y . I f l i n g u i s t i c d e f i c i e n c y means anything, i t i s an inadequate range of grammatical resources, a r e s t r i c t i o n on the syntactic options that are a v a i l a b l e to the c h i l d f o r a c t i v e use, and a r e s t r i c t i o n on the part he i s able to make language play i n his l i f e (p. 97.) Fleming (1968), i n reviewing the f i n d i n g s of a number of i n v e s t i g a t o r s , found there was not a p a r t i c u l a r l y high r e l a t i o n s h i p between measures of speaking and reading. But as he further noted, findings such as these lead us to believe that our measures of assessing fluency i n o r a l language may be inadequate. I t i s not merely the number of words, the number of sentences or the length of sentences which constitutes fluency, but rather i t i s the way i n which words are strung together. As f a r back as 1948, Tireman was involved i n the now well known San Jose Experimental school. His l o n g i t u d i n a l 34. study involved Spanish-speaking American c h i l d r e n . Selecting s p e c i a l teachers and teaching by the Direct Method (doing away with the teaching of formal grammatical rules and t r y i n g to follow s i m i l a r patterns of learning that c h i l d r e n follow when learning t h e i r f i r s t language), his aim was to teach pre-schoolers a 500-700 word English vocabulary by using games, a c t i v i t i e s , songs and conver-sations. The childr e n involved i n t h i s program were l a t e r assessed at the end of Grade 1 and 2. Average achievement was s l i g h t l y above the national norms on the Gates Reading Tests and the New Stanford Achievement Test. At the beginning of Grade 3 , however, there was.a steady downward divergence from the national norms of about one and one-h a l f years. The control groups showed a s i m i l a r decline in achievement scores, but were often two to three years below the national norms at the beginning of Grade 3 and higher. Cooper (1958) conducted a study i n the U. S. t e r r i t o r y of Guam, where the majority of pupils entered f i r s t grade speaking only Chamarro, a native language influenced by Spanish, F i l i p i n o , Micronesian, Japanese and American-Eng l i s h . The school program was conducted i n English; reading was taught from the Scott Foresman s e r i e s . The experimental groups involved an o r a l E nglish approach using two time periods: (a) one f u l l year of conversation before beginning to read and (b) one-half year of 35. conversation before beginning to read. Both control groups had a t r a d i t i o n a l program using basal readers. At the end of one year, as might be expected, both experimental groups excelled i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to speak E n g l i s h . At the end of four years, however, the con t r o l basal groups showed a small but s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t lead i n reading over both control groups as measured by the C a l i f o r n i a Reading Tests, Although teaching comprehension and verbal s k i l l s before reading seems to have some p o s i t i v e e f f e c t i n teaching non-English speaking c h i l d r e n to read English, many have f e l t and continue to f e e l t h i s i s only a p a r t i a l answer to the problem. People from many d i s c i p l i n e s have speculated about the chances f o r success i f the mother tongue were used i n the i n i t i a l stages of teaching language s k i l l s and also beginning reading. One might question the appropriateness of using t h i s approach with East Indian c h i l d r e n , however, since the i r a lphabetical characters d i f f e r completely from the English. A c h i l d u s u a l ly enters school with a vocabulary of 2,000;- 6,000 words as well as phrasing, proper use of sentences and good grammatical s t r u c t u r e . Using t h i s base, we teach reading as "talk written down". A l l t h i s i s often forgotten with non-English speakers, f o r when English only i s used, a l l his pre-school language i s negated. Yoes (1967) described two programs using a b i l i n g u a l 36. approach f o r Mexican-American children i n Texas. The f i r s t i n Edinburg (Lower Rio Grande V a l l e y ) , involved pre-schoolers who were i n s t r u c t e d i n Spanish f o r 30 minutes per day. He reports that the most noticeable benefit of the Spanish o r a l language program was the decrease of bewilder-ment i n school of the Spanish-speaking children, and a corresponding increase i n t h e i r awareness, self-assertiveness and confidence. Readiness f o r school tasks such as reading developed more r e a d i l y with the use of the language they understood. In Harlandale, South San Antonio, Texas, a b i l i n g u a l f i r s t - g r a d e program was t r i e d . For one and one-h a l f hours per day, reading i n s t r u c t i o n was i n Spanish. Everything taught i n English was then r e p l i c a t e d i n Spanish. Yoes reports that personal and s o c i a l adjustment improved and experience i n Spanish helped pupils develop c e r t a i n concepts that might have been delayed. Two approaches to teaching reading i n the national language (Spanish) to c h i l d r e n of l i n g u i s t i c minorities (Indian) i n three t r i b a l s e t t i n g s i n Mexico were studied (Modiano, 1966.) In Modiano fs f i r s t group there was considerable oral Spanish used i n school the f i r s t year, and reading was begun i n the mother tongue (an Indian d i a l e c t ) . Reading i n Spanish and the regular prescribed c u r r i c u l a was not introduced u n t i l the second year. In the second group a 3 7 . monolingual approach was followed. A l l i n s t r u c t i o n including reading was i n Spanish. Results indicated that the 13 groups l i t e r a t e i n t h e i r mother tongue p r i o r to reading i n Spanish scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the 13 monolingual groups as measured on a Spanish Language Test, s p e c i a l l y constructed fo r t h i s project. When the proportion of students deemed by t h e i r teachers to be able to read with comprehension i n Spanish was compared to the proportion who had learned to read i n t h e i r mother tongue, the scores of the l a t t e r group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher. Modiano concluded that c h i l d r e n of l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t i e s l e a r n to read with greater comprehen-sion i n t h e i r national language ( i n t h i s case Spanish), when f i r s t l i t e r a t e i n t h e i r own tongue ( i n t h i s case an Indian d i a l e c t ) , as they l e a r n only one new s k i l l — r e a d i n g , through material which has meaning instead of memorizing strange symbols and sounds. Although some educators and l i n g u i s t s agree a t l e a s t to some extent with the p r i n c i p l e s mentioned so f a r , West (1964) speculated that the important thing to teach people i s that reading i s pleasure; and you need not have heard words and spoken words before reading them i n p r i n t . The vocabulary of speech i s so small, so slowly and labouriously b u i l t up compared with that of reading, that by the time the learner reaches the minimum vocabulary within which a group of reading books can be produced, he i s too old f o r that s o r t of material (p. 149.) 33. West, on the basis of anecdotal data, f e e l s reading vocabulary i s bigger than the vocabulary of speech, and i s b u i l t up more r a p i d l y f o r f i v e reasons: (1) In speech structure, one must put words together c o r r e c t l y . In reading, the words are already put together and one has only to recognize them, (2) Speaking vocabulary i s more l i m i t e d because you are concerned with things i n the c l a s s -room and so on. (3) Words have multi-meanings and t h i s i s i n f e r a b l e i n reading much more than i n speech. (4) Vocabulary i s d i f f e r e n t i n reading and speaking. ( 5 ) The order i n which words are selected i n speech and i n reading i s very d i f f e r e n t . The o r a l course tends to catenate or b u i l d up words into c h a i n s — p a r t s of the body, and so on. A reading vocabulary i s empirical. A word i s taken i n because one MUST have i t . There i s no other way, f o r example, of con-veying a p a r t i c u l a r emotion (p, 151.) Although West's approach may have some v a l i d i t y , i t i s c e r t a i n l y open to question. For example, i n a basal s e r i e s (Grade 1) such as New Method Bridge Series, there are 450 words and approximately 350 of them could be assumed to have been taught i n c l a s s . When the words are unfamiliar, the c h i l d w i l l tend to read word by word, sounding each out, and his comprehension w i l l be lacking. In her book Teacher, describing ways of teaching Maori children to read and write English, S y l v i a Ashton-Warner (1966) presents a program which has many ideas that could be 39. implemented i n teaching E n g l i s h — f i r s t o r a l and then w r i t t e n — t o East Indian c h i l d r e n . She has devised the idea of a 'Key Vocabulary' based on the concept of 'Organic Teaching', or a bridge from the inner world out. She says: F i r s t words must have an intense meaning. F i r s t words must be already part of the dynamic l i f e , And f i r s t words must be made of the s t u f f of the c h i l d himself, whatever and wherever the c h i l d (Ashton-Warner, 1966, p. 35.) In t h i s plan the c h i l d learns words he wants to know and which have some meaning to him; often, she suggests, those r e l a t e d to fear and sex, two of the primary d r i v e s . Once the c h i l d has begun to amass a group of words, he can then begin to write h i s own s t o r i e s . These s t o r i e s can be read by pupils to each other. Therefore, one develops reading material concerned with the c h i l d ' s own world and thus i n t e r e s t i n g and suit a b l e f o r him. Wblk's (1972) research was stimulated when she asked h e r s e l f : How can we close the gap between a b i l i t y to speak and a b i l i t y to read? One hundred s p e c i a l l y - s e l e c t e d teachers were chosen, whose s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t was to co-ordinate the English as a second language program i n t h e i r school. Each teacher was then to observe the reading habits of one non-English speaking c h i l d f o r one year. The age of the c h i l d r e n ranged from seven to 14, Grades 2 to 6, some s l i g h t l y older than primary age but nonetheless the problems 40. no doubt would be s i m i l a r . The teachers l i s t e n e d to the children read, discussed passages, checked comprehension and looked at the r e s u l t s of Standardized Reading Tests, In o r a l reading, the reading d i s a b i l i t i e s most c o n s i s t e n t l y reported were: "ignores punctuation", "stresses the wrong word", "reads word by word", " i n c o r r e c t rhythm and misplace-ment of accent" and "when reading r a p i d l y , frequently changes word order". In mechanics of reading, the children were found to mispronouce sounds—/ch/ as /sh/, / t h / as /d/ or /s/, /y/ as / j / , /v/ as /b/ and /m/ (at the end of a word) as /n/. Mispronunciation of vowel sounds created confusion when a c h i l d r e l i e d upon his pronunciation as a cue to meaning; e.g., "cot" f o r "cat", "leave" f o r " l i v e " . Conso-nant blends, that i s / c l / , / b l / and / t r / , were mispronounced by dropping the second consonant, while they frequently added /e/ to the beginning of / s t / and /sp/. There were omissions. The l e t t e r / s / was dropped i n the i n i t i a l , medial and f i n a l p o s i t i o n of a word and /d/, / t / , and / i n g / were dropped or blu r r e d . Past tenses were u s u a l l y converted to present and there were su b s t i t u t i o n s , reversals and s h i f t s i n l e t t e r order. In terms of word attack s k i l l s , many children applied word attack s k i l l s to the beginning of a word and then guessed at the r e s t . The concept of contractions was not understood. Comprehension or the expressed ret e n t i o n of the o v e r a l l 41. meaning of reading material was the most serious problem. Even i f one could say a word, i t had no meaning. Abstract words were d i f f i c u l t f o r c h i l d r e n to understand, and homonyms and antonyms had no meaning f o r them. Many simple words were not known. Verbs presented even more problems, and the understanding of idiomatic expressions was weak. Many also had trouble with d i r e c t speech. Guerra (1966) summed up the considerations i n teaching c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n to speak and to read English. He writes about the Mexican-American c h i l d who f a i l s i n beginning to read E n g l i s h i n C a l i f o r n i a schools but his comments r e a l l y apply to any ethnic group. The problem as he sees i t i s m u l t i - f a c e t e d — l i n g u i s t i c , environmental and emotional. Juanito's mind must deal with a basic c o n f l i c t of l o y a l t i e s between the English speaking culture of his school and the Spanish speaking heritage of his home. What confuses him—and i n his juvenile immaturity t h i s seems i r r e c o n c i l a b l e — i s that the differences of language and culture must be incompatible with the American way of l i f e to which he emotionally yearns to belong (p. 20.) I n t e l l e c t u a l Capacity. A question often raised i s whether or not many East Indian childr e n are i n f a c t of l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . Orvik (1973) f e e l s that c u l t u r a l factors i n t e s t - t a k i n g behavior influence score differences i n the non-verbal domains of i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning, such as the Raven Progressive Matrices. As f a r back as 1936 i t was discovered that the I. Q. of 42. American negroes, when tested by white t e s t e r s , was on an average s i x points lower than when tested by a negro (Watson, 1972.) Possibly using an East Indian adult to test an East Indian c h i l d would produce s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . I t may be that our psychological non-verbal t e s t instruments are too c u l t u r a l l y loaded and are too involved with abstract thinking processes to. give us a r e l a t i v e l y accurate I. Q. measure f o r an East Indian c h i l d . Many Punjabi childr e n come from a farming community and are more dependent on"and capable of dealing only with concrete perceptual f a c t s . Vernon (1969) reported that Ugandan children d i d poorly on s p e e d — t h i s i s due to the e f f e c t of spending the f i r s t year or two of l i f e bound to the mother's back, the c h i l d thereby r e c e i v i n g very l i t t l e manipulative or kinesthetic experience. East Indians have a s i m i l a r way of carrying t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Bhatnagar (1971) sums up the problem of measuring an East Indian c h i l d : I t might seem then that when teachers are asked about the p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y of an immigrant p u p i l , we should answer that there i s no s c i e n t i f i c means of f i n d i n g out and that their best bet i s to watch how the c h i l d progresses as he begins to pick up standard English and to s e t t l e into school. But t h i s i s obviously rather u n f a i r since the i n i t i a l progress he makes depends so much on what kind of help the school i s able to give, whether home circum-stances are favourable or not...In addi t i o n the whole s i t u a t i o n of t e s t i n g i s l i k e l y to be un f a m i l i a r i n some of the ethnic groups from which immigrant c h i l d r e n come. The tester may be a stranger of a d i f f e r e n t race and t h i s arouses anxiety or suspicion. The c h i l d may 43. be asked to solve a d i f f i c u l t problem on his own and to do so as quickly as possible. In some s o c i e t i e s competetive i n i t i a t i v e by ind i v i d u a l s i s discouraged; d i f f i c u l t problems should be discussed by the elders of the t r i b e and one should not do anything h a s t i l y . There i s no pressure of time i n a g r i c u l t u r a l economics. We seldom r e a l i z e when te s t i n g English children how dependent we are on the previous t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n at school that they should have got used to t r y i n g to answer s i l l y questions quickly, because the teacher says so. The immigrant may lack t h i s background and f a i l not because he is mentally incapable of coping with the problem, but because the way i t i s given i s unfamiliar (Bhatnagar, p. 15.) Summary. I t i s clea r that teaching English as a second language to young children i s a complex issue. The eff e c t of bil i n g u a l i s m on o v e r a l l cognitive development i s debatable. C o n f l i c t exists regarding mode of i n s t r u c t i o n — use of the native tongue versus complete immersion i n the new language. The method of i n s t r u c t i o n i s another area of concern, as i s the question of whether i n s t r u c t i o n should be i n an integrated or a segregated environment. L i n g u i s t i c s i s a further consideration, while i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to language a c q u i s i t i o n has been and continues to be a co n t r o v e r s i a l subject. L a s t l y , reading y and the question of how and when i t should be presented poses many problems. Chapter 3 Hypotheses and Their Development S p e c i f i c S t a t i s t i c s S i r Walter Moberly School, situ a t e d a t Fraser Street and East 59th Avenue and i t s Annex with Grades 1 - 4 , situated nearby, are the two schools i n Vancouver with the highest East Indian population. In 1971, of the 1,183 students attending the school, 14% were East Indians, 11,5% at the Main school and 24.8% at the Annex. At the Main school, of the 11.5% approximately 40% were born i n Canada, while 60% were recent immigrants. At the Annex, of the 24.8'%, 43% were born here and 52% were recent a r r i v a l s . At the Main school the teachers were questioned as to the academic progress of t h e i r East Indian students. Twenty-six percent of the students were reported to be one year behind i n t h e i r age/grade l e v e l , 14% two or more years behind on the basis of grade place-ment. The Annex teachers were questioned as w e l l . There 21% of the pupils were behind one year, 17% two or more years. Combining both schools, 51% were reported to be achieving at a standard l e v e l , 30% one year behind and 19% two or more years behind. 45. At the Main school, 9% spoke only English; 80% both English and t h e i r native tongue. In 3&% of the cases no English was spoken i n the home. At the Annex, 14% spoke only English; 64% English and t h e i r own language. T h i r t y -four percent indicated only Punjabi was spoken i n the home. In regard to e f f o r t , however, 15% were rated by t h e i r teachers as showing above average e f f o r t , 63% average e f f o r t and close to 25% below average e f f o r t . Their o v e r a l l deportment was described as excellent, 95% of the children being rated average or above average i n regard to behavior (Moody, 1971.) Objectives Presented with the problems of the East Indian children, the East Indian Khalsa-Diwan Society met i n the spring of 1971 with personnel from the Vancouver School Board, the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Moberly Elementary School and the Metropolitan Health Board to organize a summer enrichment program p a r t l y s t a f f e d by East Indians, whose basic aim was to further the language development of East Indian c h i l d r e n . The program was successful (Moody, 1971) and l a i d the framework f o r the following recommendation passed by the Vancouver School Board i n the f a l l of 1971: I t i s recommended that the School Board e s t a b l i s h , f o r a period of a t l e a s t three years, an experimental c l a s s f o r East Indian c h i l d r e n where the language of 46. i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be both Punjabi and English, The language development of the pupils i n t h i s class should be c a r e f u l l y evaluated and compared with that of East Indian pupils i n regular classes.(Durwood, Moody & E l l i s , 1973, p. 2.) The following objectives were formulated f o r the program: (1) To demonstrate the v i a b i l i t y of t h i s learning environment and resource a l l o c a t i o n f o r the learning of English by newly a r r i v e d immigrant c h i l d r e n from the Punjab. (2) To f a c i l i t a t e greater provisions f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i fferences i n needs, learning s t y l e and learning r a t e . (3) To improve the self-concept of each c h i l d and to promote h i s personality development. (4) To improve the l e v e l of human i n t e r a c t i o n among these c h i l d r e n and to f o s t e r supportive (rather than h o s t i l e ) r e l a t i o n -ships . ( 5 ) To develop i n pupils a l e v e l of f a c i l i t y i n English so that a t l e a s t one-half of them would merit assignment to a regular primary class by September, 1 9 7 3 . (6) To enhance the p u p i l s ' understanding and appreciation of Canadian culture without detriment to t h e i r esteem of East Indian c u l t u r e . An evaluation of the f i r s t year of the program was done i n the spring of 1973 (Durwood, Moody & E l l i s , 1 9 7 3 ) . 47. Hypotheses During the second year the program was evaluated i n greater depth. There were seven hypotheses formulated: Hypothesis A An East Indian b i l i n g u a l classroom i n s t r u c t o r increases New Canadian East Indian primary children's a c q u i s i t i o n of English. Hypothesis B An East Indian b i l i n g u a l classroom i n s t r u c t o r increases an East Indian c h i l d ' s self-concept more than does a Caucasian classroom i n s t r u c t o r . Hypothesis C A c q u i s i t i o n of English by East Indian c h i l d r e n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity. Hypothesis D The i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity of New Canadian East Indian primary aged c h i l d r e n i n Punjabi i s p o s i t i v e l y correlated with a c q u i s i t i o n of English. Hypothesis E East Indian primary aged children experience d i f f i c u l t y with auditory d i s c r i m i n a t i o n when compared with Caucasian c h i l d r e n . Hypothesis F East Indian primary aged c h i l d r e n experience d i f f i c u l t y i n a r t i c u l a t i o n of English. 48. Hypothesis G B i l i n g u a l classroom i n s t r u c t i o n (English-Punjabi) f o r one year accelerates one's achievement i n reading the following year when he i s i n regular c l a s s . Operational D e f i n i t i o n s (1) A c q u i s i t i o n of English: (a) L a b e l l i n g - as measured by a c h i l d ' s performance on A Vocabulary Test f o r Young Children (VTYC) - #1-50 by A. F. Watts (20 a d d i t i o n a l items were added by the w r i t e r , bringing the number of items to 70). (b) D e f i n i t i o n s - (i) a b i l i t y to define (state the meaning of) a word as measured by items 1 to 20 of the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler In t e l l i g e n c e Scale  for Children (WISC) . ( i i ) a b i l i t y to describe the items 1-4 of the verbal expression subtest of the I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s (ITPA). (c) Verbal Fluency - as measured by the response to pictures, Stanford-Binet I n t e l l i g e n c e Test (Binet) -Form L-M, Year 3-6 #1V, picture 1 or 3, Answers w i l l be scored using the c r i t e r i o n of enumeration. (d) Long Term Sequential Memory - as measured by a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to r e c i t e from memory the following constants: 49. (i) days of week - i n order ( i i ) months of year - i n order ( i i i ) one's own address (iv) . one's birthdate (2) Increase i n Self-Concept: (a) Self-concept as measured by a c h i l d ' s p e n c i l drawn representation of himself and scored according to the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test (GDAM) c r i t e r i o n . (b) Self-concept as measured by the When Do I Smile Test (WDIS), administered i n Punjabi, (3) I n t e l l e c t u a l Capacity: Measured by the Raven Coloured Progressive  Matrices, a non-verbal, c u l t u r a l l y reduced measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e ( i n t e l l e c t u a l c apacity), (4) I n t e l l e c t u a l Capacity i n Punjabi: Indexed by selected subtests of an i n d i v i d u a l l y administered i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t . (5) Auditory Discrimination: Measured by the Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination - Form I I . (6) A r t i c u l a t i o n of English: Measured by an a r t i c u l a t i o n test (Irwin and Musselman, 1962.) (7) Achievement i n Reading: Reading as measured by the Metropolitan Achievement Test (1971) (Primary I - subtests - word knowledge, 5 0 . word analysis, reading); (Primary I I - subtests -word knowledge, word a n a l y s i s , reading and s p e l l i n g ) . ( 8 ) B i l i n g u a l Classroom Instructor: A female East Indian primary teacher holding a B. C. Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e , who i s f l u e n t i n both English and Punjabi. (9) Caucasian Classroom I n s t r u c t o r : A female primary teacher holding a B. C. Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e , who i s f l u e n t i n English only. ( 1 0 ) Regular Classroom: A normal Vancouver public school classroom where the teacher speaks only English. (11) East Indian Primary Aged Children: The c h i l d population from which pupils were sampled f o r t h i s study. (12) Caucasian Children: Primary aged childre n i n the sample used t o normalize the Wepman Test. 51. Chapter 4 Procedure Design The design for the evaluation i s presented i n Tables 3 & 4. A more d e t a i l e d schedule of t e s t i n g i s presented i n Appendix A. The classroom students included i n the experiment were the following: Experimental Group A - A classroom of b i l i n g u a l (English-Punjabi) primary aged East Indian c h i l d r e n who are re c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n from an East Indian teacher speaking both English and Punjabi. Control Group B - Nine regular clasrooms of primary aged children, a l l of which contain primary aged East Indian c h i l d r e n who are r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n from a Caucasian teacher who speaks only English, Experimental Group C - Ten ch i l d r e n who were i n the Punjabi-English New Canadian class i n the 1972-73 school year and have been placed i n a regular classroom with an English-speaking teacher f o r the 1973-74 school year. Control Group D - Ten chi l d r e n who were i n regular classrooms f o r the 1972-73 school year and who acted as TABLE 3 Experimental Design Experimental Group (A) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I 1 1 — — 1 r 1 T 1 1 1 — 1 0,0 pr> >t>. o t>- cr> ,00 u t> u o- r^r- c o rH o-fOO O O Os <D Q\ cdON Q) CJ\ cdON P<0N 03 ON 3 ON 3 ON COrH O H S H Q H ^ rH H g H < rH S rH -D rH Control Group (B) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I 1 — — 1 1 r — 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' X rH P n •<r\ *cr\ . .-4- .-4- o -H -4- <u-d-ftt^ - p o > o 0 0 j - , o r - . N r>.c^  c r> rHr> 0J O O ON O ON CD ON CG ON 0) ON cd ON CXON CC ON 2 2 ON COrH O H S H Q H ^ H EnrH S H < rH g r H >-3rH ^ r H I - Academic year begins 3 & 4 - C o l l e c t pre-test data 7,8,9,10 - Time sampling II - C o l l e c t post t e s t data 12 - Academic year ends ro I I i > o > o a o 80 M P J O- M CD CD CD 3 O 3 H» c+ H« O O a C+ CD CD JD 03 as (D 3 CO t r CD cm 3 w Sept, 1973 Oct. 1973 Nov. 1973 Dec • 1973 Jan. 1974 Feb. 1974 March 1974 A p r i l 1974 May 1974 June 1974 July 1974 o 3 cr *1 O C3 o V71 O N Sept. 1973 Oct. 1973 Nov. 1973 Dec. 1973 Jan. 1974 Feb. 1974 March 1974 A p r i l 1974 May 1974 June 1974 ro X B <D 3 c+ 03 O o c o \J1 O N ro July 1974 oa o ro t?d X CD H" 3 CD 3 c+ 03 a CD H-c m 3 54. the c o n t r o l group f o r the above Group C at that time. They are continuing i n regular classrooms during the 1973-74 school year. The classroom teachers included i n the experiment were the following: Experimental Group A - A female b i l i n g u a l (English-Punjabi) East Indian teacher. Control Group. B - Nine female monolingual (English) Caucasian teachers, employed at s i x d i f f e r e n t Vancouver Elementary schools. Experimental Group C - Four female monolingual (English) Caucasian teachers, employed at two d i f f e r e n t Vancouver Elementary schools. Control Group D - Four female monolingual (English) Caucasian teachers employed at three d i f f e r e n t Vancouver Elementary schools. Sample When the study was begun i n September, 1973, there were 19 c h i l d r e n i n the experimental c l a s s , and to these were matched 19 controls i n neighbouring schools. Matching was done on the v a r i a b l e s of age, sex and length of time i n Canada. Table 5 shows the mean and standard deviation of age and length of time i n Canada—pre- and posttesting t i m e — for both the experimental and control groups. There were s i x g i r l s i n both groups and four boys. In June, 1974 only 10 TABLE 5 Age and Length of Time i n Canada (In Months) Group Pretest Posttest X Age SD I Length SD I Age SD X Length SD Experimental 81.6 14.7 21.5 28.5 89.3 14.8 30.5 28.5 Control 80.6 14.2 21.9 26.6 88.2 14.0 30.9 26.6 56. of the o r i g i n a l experimental c l a s s remained, while 18 of the 19 control ch i l d r e n remained at t h e i r same school. Controls (a) I t was impossible to randomly assign the 20 East Indian children to the experimental group due to the nature of the problem. (b) The c o n t r o l group was matched to the experimental group on the variables of age, sex and length of time i n Canada. A measure of I . Q. was taken on each c h i l d , as t h i s v a r i able could have a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on the a c q u i s i t i o n of language. (c) The teacher v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study could not be c o n t r o l l e d . The teachers were not randomly assigned due to t h e i r need f o r s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g or t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the program. (d) In respect to maturation, since a l l groups were considered homogeneous a t the onset, they should not be expected to mature at systematically d i f f e r e n t r a t e s . (e) Hopefully, a t t r i t i o n was c o n t r o l l e d by the use of the Information Centre at the Sikh Temple. The parents were made aware of the type of program i n which t h e i r c h i l d would p a r t i c i p a t e and i t s value to him and to the community as a whole. (f) A l l tests have only one form, but since the adminis-t r a t i o n s were widely spaced, r e c a l l of s p e c i f i c t e s t items 57. between pretest and posttest should be greatly reduced. (g) Because the East Indian community i s not completely centered around one p a r t i c u l a r school i n Vancouver, i t was not possible f o r the children i n the experimental and control groups to attend one school only. (h) Since the teacher of Group A was a member of the East Indian community and was aware of the nature of the program, the S e l f - F u l f i l l i n g Prophecy could not be controlled f o r . (i) Results of the Reading Achievement Test were confounded by s o c i a l p u p i l - p u p i l , pupil-teacher i n t e r a c t i o n of the classroom i n which they were placed. However, such a follow-up served to reveal some of the lacks of the b i l i n g u a l program not c l e a r l y evident while i t was i n progress. Treatment Group A. and Group B received, as f a r as was possible, the same educational program; but because the ch i l d r e n involved i n Group B were i n regular classroom s i t u a t i o n s , there were bound to be some i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The main difference, however, was that i n Group A the teacher used Punjabi whenever she f e l t a c h i l d was not comprehending i n English. Both the experimental and control classrooms were equipped with manipu-l a t i v e material (D.L.M.), simple picture and story books, audio v i s u a l equipment, tape recorders and so on. Throughout the year, the experimental teacher only used the Distar Language Arts Program. 53. The following i s an example of a possible day plan for f i v e or six-year-olds early i n the school year. Listening s k i l l s are being developed, v e r b a l i z a t i o n i s beginning and c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s being considered. 9:00-9:15 Opening - R o l l C a l l - appropriate Yes, No, or Boy, G i r l responses. 9:15-9:35 Peabody Language Development K i t - Cards A , A , 5 7 A , A. , A , A and A' etc. Hold up cards to 3 9 13 16 20 see i f the c h i l d knows the correct name. Variations on basic theme. Associated paper and pe n c i l task. 9:35-10:00 Movie - The Farm (Comprehension of narration w i l l be l i m i t e d , but movie w i l l r e i n f o r c e previous exercise and serve as c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n ) . 10:00-10:30 Discussion of c e r t a i n basic concepts. 10:30-10:45 Recess. 10:45-11:15 Film about school. Associated paper and p e n c i l task. 11:15-11:45 Gym Period. Set up equipment i n stations with simple a c t i v i t i e s . Use mime and give simple i n s t r u c t i o n s using known vocabulary. Suggested games - Bean Bags i n tubs, somersaults on mats, walking on balance boards, Simon says, e t c . 11:45-1:00 Clean-up and Lunch Break. In Group A an East Indian b i l i n g u a l aide w i l l eat with the chi l d r e n and i n Group B a Caucasian aide w i l l eat with them. 1:00-2:00 Art - Take large b o t t l e . Put glue on i t . Cover i t with d i f f e r e n t colours of t i s s u e paper. Twenty ch i l d r e n randomly assigned from a regular cl a s s w i l l j o i n Group A f o r t h i s period. This i s to avoid s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . 59. 2:00-2:30 Auditory Training. L i s t e n t o Record 6 - Sounds Around Us, Peabody Language Development K i t . Associated paper and p e n c i l task. 2:30-3:00 Glean-up. Free Period. Measurement Three categories of dependent, v a r i a b l e s were used. 1. A c q u i s i t i o n of English was tested by: (A) Vocabulary Test f o r Young Children (Watts, 1946) -Many te s t s are a v a i l a b l e which tap a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to define a word presented o r a l l y but few that i n v e s t i g a t e whether a c h i l d can respond to various non-verbal s t i m u l i . F i f t y items were selected from 100 items on t h i s t e s t from areas i n which these East Indian c h i l d r e n might be expected to have some knowledge. Twenty a d d i t i o n a l items were added by the experi-menter to increase the r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t . As the reference group (English children) was not f e l t to be comparable to the group considered i n t h i s study, no norms were used. Areas measured were (a.) face and features (visual input; verbal output), (b) actions with the hands and fingers ( v i s u a l input; verbal output),, (c) household a r t i c l e s (visual input; verbal output), (d) actions with hands (visual input; verbal output), (e) shapes (vis u a l input; verbal output), (f) coins (vi s u a l input; verbal output), (g) sounds (auditory input; verbal output), (h) adjectives ( v i s u a l and t a c t i l e input; verbal output). (Appendix B) 60. (B) Vocabulary Subtest f o r the Wechsler Intelligence  Scale for Children (1949) - A f a i r l y large r u r a l sample (37.2%) was used i n the standardization of the WISC. The beginning words on the vocabulary subtest were considered to be those with which an East Indian c h i l d would be f a m i l i a r , (auditory input; verbal output). (Appendix C) (C) Verbal Expression Subtest of the I l l i n o i s Test  of Psycholinguistic A b i l i t y (1968) - The objects presented i n t h i s subtest are ones with which the c h i l d would l i k e l y be f a m i l i a r . Such items tend to produce good o r a l language, (visu a l input; verbal output). (Appendix D) (D) Response to Pictures (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test - Form L-M, I960) - Pictures are a good way to stimulate language i n c h i l d r e n . The scoring c r i t e r i o n f o r t h i s subtest i s c l e a r and concise, (vi s u a l input; verbal output). (Appendix E) (E) Constants - To give some idea of whether a c h i l d can r e t a i n information presented to him many times over the year. 2. Increase i n self-concept was measured by: (A) Goodenough Draw a Man Test (1963) - This t e s t was given f i r s t to act as an ice-breaker. I t i s also considered to be an i n d i c a t o r of self-concept. Scoring c r i t e r i a are s p e c i f i c . (Appendix F) 61. (B) When Do I Smile Test (1972) - This t e s t was used as the d i r e c t i o n s are simple and the items r e a d i l y understood (in Punjabi) by each c h i l d . (Appendix G) 3. Reading achievement was measured by: (A) Metropolitan Achievement Test (1971) (reading subtests). R e l i a b i l i t y i s high f o r each subtest—.85 to .95» Two des c r i p t i v e variables were used; 1. Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination (1953) -This t e s t was used p a r t l y due.to i t s s i m p l i c i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n and subject response. The tes t r e t e s t administration showed a r e l i a b i l i t y of +.91. The test was standardized by using 533 unselected f i r s t , second and t h i r d grade children, i n both urban and non-urban communities. (Appendix H) 2. Irwin-Musselman A r t i c u l a t i o n Test (1962) - This test was simple to administer and easy f o r the chi l d r e n to understand. R e l i a b i l i t y i s .980. (Appendix I ) The input measure I n t e l l e c t u a l Capacity was measured using two instruments. 1. Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices ( 1 9 6 2 ) -I t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a non-verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e test to administer to East Indian c h i l d r e n . A large ( 4 T x 4 0 form-board on which were presented the f i r s t two items of the Raven's was used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes with each c h i l d . As he could manipulate the pieces, i t was hoped t h i s might help him to see c l e a r l y what was wanted on the t e s t . 62. 2. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (I960) (selected subtests) - A short form of the Binet was designed to give some idea of how each c h i l d was functioning i n Punjabi. V a l l e t t ' s (1965) p r o f i l e (Appendix J ) was used to pick constructs which were f a i r l y constantly tested across age groups. A l l t e sts were administered and scored by the experimenter. A l l t e s t s were administered according to s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s outlined i n each t e s t . A l l tests were scored according to the standardized c r i t e r i a outlined f o r each t e s t . Performance on, each test was scored according to the norms when norms were provided f o r a t e s t . Process Measures were evaluated i n the following way. In order to c o n t r o l somewhat f o r class d i f f e r e n c e s , four times during the year—March, A p r i l , May and June, and at d i f f e r e n t times during the day, the experimental c l a s s and each control class were v i s i t e d f o r a 20 minute i n t e r v a l . Nine areas were looked at (Appendix K ). Each c h i l d was also looked at i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r f i v e minutes (Kosier, 1973.) (Appendix L) Analysis of Data An analysis of covariance rather than a t tes t was used i n t h i s study due to the f a c t that i t was impossible to match 63. the subjects on va r i a b l e s l i k e l y important to the study such as I.Q., or to.assign them to the experimental or control groups at random. The analysis of covariance can analyze the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the differences between means of f i n a l experimental data, and can also take into, account some pertinent independent v a r i a b l e s , i n t h i s case each c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity as measured by the Raven and the Binet. When computing c o r r e l a t i o n s , a 'residual gain' score rather than a 'raw score' gain was used. Dubois (1957) as well as other i n v e s t i g a t o r s recommends t h i s . I f one expresses the posttest score as a deviation from the posttest-on-pretest regression l i n e , a gain i s r e s i d u a l i z e d . Therefore, the part of the pretest score l i n e a r l y predicted from the pretest i s p a r t i a l l e d out. Cronbach and Furby (1970) state that: 'Raw change' or 'raw gain' scores formed by subtracting pretest scores from posttest scores lead to f a l l a c i o u s conclusions, p r i m a r i l y because such scores are systematically r e l a t e d to any random error of measurement (p. 68.) 6 4 . Chapter 5 Results In an evaluation of t h i s kind, there are many variables f o r which one cannot c o n t r o l . However, i n order to document apparent differences between the cont r o l and experimental classes that could have affected the pre-post t e s t data, the experimenter conducted systematic observations of each class involved i n the study. Each class was observed for one 20 minute period at four d i f f e r e n t times during the y e a r — i n February, March, A p r i l and May. One observation was done i n the afternoon, one a f t e r recess, and two before recess when i t was f e l t the bulk of the academic work would be i n progress. One exception to t h i s was the observation of kindergarten c h i l d r e n , as children attend only mornings or afternoons. In t h i s case, the observations were made at d i f f e r e n t times i n the afternoon. Nine facets of informa-t i o n were documented on the basis of the observations (Appendix K ), and r e s u l t s of numbers 1 to 7 were tabulated. (Table 6) The a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by the ch i l d r e n ranged from the presentation by the teacher of very basic academic s k i l l s to very creative a r t work engaged i n by the children 65. TABLE 6 Results of Class Observation Source 1. Use of Distar Language 2. Use of Peabody Language Development Kit s 3 . Presence of Part Time Aide i n Classroom 4. Children Receiving S p e c i a l Remedial Help 5. N a t i o n a l i t y of Teacher 6. Type of Classroom 7. Percentage of Time Spent i n Oral A c t i v i t y (Teachers - Pupils) Experimental Class  (N-l) Yes Yes Yes None East Indian Control Classes 8" 1 Integrated 4 Day 0 5 (N=9) 0/9 6/9 3/9 3/9 Caucasian Japanese Integrated Day Open Area T r a d i t i o n a l This could not be tabulated accurately, as e s p e c i a l l y i n the integrated day s i t u a t i o n the children worked independently and conversed with peers or the teacher when they needed help, or wished to share information with each other. 66. independently, or i n very small groups. There were some main differences noted by the observer i n the experimental program as compared to the control class programs. The teacher of the experimental program did use Punjabi when she f e l t a c h i l d was not comprehending what she was saying to him i n English. Rather than providing him with a d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n , however, she attempted to equate the English to the Punjabi through explanation and gesture, thereby supplying him with comprehension as well as vocabu-l a r y . This was e s p e c i a l l y noticeable with newly arri v e d students. In terms of programming,(Appendix K ) Distar Language was a very important part of t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . The classroom was r e p l e t e with equipment to stimulate language development, including such things as a Language Master and a l i s t e n i n g post. The teacher made a concentrated e f f o r t to present new material using a multi-sensory approach, and she stressed rote l e a r n i n g . The buddy system (a Caucasian c h i l d from a regular class paired with an East Indian c h i l d ) was an i n t e g r a l part of t h e i r program as w e l l . I n i t i a l l y , the buddies v i s i t e d the experimental class where they helped t h e i r East Indian friends with speaking, reading, f i n e motor work and so on. As the year progressed, the childre n i n the East Indian class spent time i n regular classes, f i r s t f o r a r t or music, and more academic subjects as t h e i r English improved. 67. To l i s t each observed a c t i v i t y i n the control classes does not seem appropriate. However, some a c t i v i t i e s which the author deemed to be b e n e f i c i a l i n stimulating language, growth and which the c h i l d r e n appeared to enjoy w i l l be mentioned. There was considerable singing of very simple songs whereby the words seemed to come a l i v e to them. For the smaller child r e n the t e l e v i s i o n show Sesame Street was eagerly awaited, and was apparently b e n e f i c i a l when followed up by teacher discussion then or the next day. On one occasion, a teacher brought to the class a large picture of an East Indian wedding ceremony. I t was e x c i t i n g to see how the East Indian c h i l d r e n became keenly involved i n the discussion and were anxious to contribute t h e i r thoughts and ideas. Also, providing the story i s kept simple, most New Canadian ch i l d r e n enjoy being read to. As these c h i l d r e n begin to l e a r n to read, the idea of physical responses to written i n s t r u c t i o n s i s a popular one. For example, the teacher p r i n t s on the blackboard nBoysI Wave your l e f t hand," and they must do so. The value of language experience i n reading was seen too, as once again these c h i l d r e n became involved i n something meaningful to them. The use of small i n d i v i d u a l chalkboards was another way i n which they seemed to f i n d s e c u r i t y when learning to write sounds. 63. In both experimental and c o n t r o l classes one f a c t was patently evident. New Canadian ch i l d r e n seem to require more immediate feedback on t h e i r performance than other Canadian c h i l d r e n do. This apparently provides them with s e c u r i t y and confidence. In terms of General Comments (Appendix K ), some points were noted during the observations. In the c o n t r o l classes, there were often several East Indian c h i l d r e n and they did tend to stay together. On several occasions one noted some di s c r i m i n a t i o n against them, which seemed due mainly to body odor. This re s u l t e d i n East Indian c h i l d r e n not being picked as partners by other ethnic groups, as well as some derogatory comments. In the experimental c l a s s the observer could not help but f e e l that the atmosphere was a happy one. This was due i n part to the teacher; a warm, thoughtful and concerned woman. The c h i l d r e n appeared contented i n the c l a s s , and often many would have l i k e d to continue working at recess. Their deportment and manners were exce l l e n t . They seemed to be coping w e l l with an integrated day and were learning to work independently. During school assemblies or f i l m times they seemed to assimilate w e l l with childr e n from other r a c i a l backgrounds. Throughout the year there continued to be a considerable amount of Punjabi spoken among the c h i l d r e n . This could have been caused p a r t l y by the continual 69. admittance i n t o the class of newly a r r i v e d immigrants who knew no English at a l l , thus necessitating the use of Punjabi for communication purposes. As w e l l as observation of each c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l l y , each c h i l d was observed four times f o r a period of 5 minutes each time, following the same schedule as that of the class observation. Using the Kosier Behavior Rating Scale (Appendix L ), the author determined the a c t i v i t y i n which the c h i l d was to be involved and then, using a stop watch, recorded on and o f f behavior, and i n regard to the o f f behavior the a c t i v i t y i n which he was engaged. Figure 1 shows the percentage of time spent i n each of the three settings by both the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between experimental and control groups i n the three s e t t i n g s . Figure 2 shows which of the pupil off-task behaviors the students engaged i n , and the percentage of time spent i n each by the experimental and control groups. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two groups on daydreaming, t a l k i n g with other students, f i d d l i n g with objects or physical contact. The difference between the experimental and con t r o l groups on leaving desk behavior was s i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 5 l e v e l . Throughout the year, the teacher of the experimental class kept an ongoing record on each c h i l d . Comments were recorded regarding a l l facets of language development, FJ.GU R E .1 PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT IN EACH OF THREE CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS BEHAVIOR F I G U R E 1 PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT IN FIVE OFF-TASK BEHAVIORS |:if|:j EXPERIMENTAL CLASS DAYDREAMS TALKS WITH FIDDLES LEAVES PHYSICAL OTHER WITH DESK CONTACT STUDENTS OBJECTS OFF-TASK BEHAVIOR 72. reading, arithmetic, gross and f i n e motor s k i l l s , s o c i a l development, a t t e n t i o n span, n u t r i t i o n , cleanliness and home s i t u a t i o n . She also noted any important medical implications. A f o l d e r vras kept with samples of each c h i l d ' s work throughout the year. Also, under the d i r e c t i o n of the teacher two tapes were made, one at the beginning of the school year and one at the end, so progress i n language development could be l i s t e n e d to. As the v a l i d i t y of the instruments that are used to assess both I. Q. and English language a c q u i s i t i o n of non-English speaking c h i l d r e n i s questionable, a video-tape of the experimental c l a s s was made i n the f a l l and again i n the l a t e spring, to present a u d i t o r a l l y and v i s u a l l y any su b j e c t i v e l y noticeable improvement that had been made by these c h i l d r e n i n the areas of language development and s e l f -concept. The tapes w i l l be a v a i l a b l e through the Audio-Vi s u a l Department, Vancouver School Board. Seven of the c h i l d r e n had administered by t h e i r teacher the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts - Part A - Form 1 & 2, i n early December and i n l a t e June.(Appendix M) , The subjects showed considerably more improvement between pre- and posttesting on Form 1 rather than Form 2, due to the f a c t that Form 2 i s the more d i f f i c u l t . 73. The experimental groups' average number of days absent was s l i g h t l y higher than that of the r e s t of the school, as was t h e i r number of l a t e a r r i v a l s . Each month members of Moberly Annex s t a f f , together with School Board personnel and two East Indian mothers from the community, met at a noon hour meeting to assess the progress of the c l a s s , discuss future plans and deal with any problem that might have ari s e n . The l a s t meeting of the year was a luncheon, hosted by the East Indian teacher and students, at which they served many of t h e i r native dishes. Directors and trustees of the School Board were also i n v i t e d , and everyone enjoyed the event immensely. The r e s u l t s of the analysis of covariance are shown on Tables 7 to 11 . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the experimental and co n t r o l groups on the VTYC, WISC, Constants or ITPA, but the difference between the experimental and control groups on the verbal fluency measure of the Binet was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The mean of the experimental group was 10,95, and of the control group 6.65. In the write-up accompanying the When Do I Smile Test (Maguire, Goetz & Manos, 1972), i t was reported that although almost a l l items were responded to at the happy end of the sc a l e , three items—Numbers 11, 14 and 1 9 — indicated some tendency toward the other pole. An item TABLE 7 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r VTYC Source SS df MS F Prob Program 62.86 1 62.86 1.54 0.232 Covariates 708.14 3 236.05 5.79 0.007 Error 611 . 8 6 15 40 . 7 9 TABLE 8 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r WISC (Vocabulary Subtest) Source SS df MS Program 7.23 1 7.23 Covariates 122.72 3 40.91 Error 196.58 15 13.11 0.55 3.12 Prob 0.475 0.057 TABLE 9 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Constants Source SS df MS F Prob Program 45.05 1 45.05 1.13 0.304 Covariates 411.11 3 137.03 3.45 0.043 Error 595.69 15 39.71 TABLE 10 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r ITPA (Verbal Expression Subtest) Source SS df MS Prob Program Covariates Error 13.55 120.53 186.66 1 1 15 13.55 40.18 12.44 1.09 3.22 0.314 0.052 TABLE 11 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Binet (Response to Pictures - Verbal Fluency - Enumeration) Sourc e SS df MS F Prob Program 71.83 1 71.83 6.78 0.019 Covariates 43.20 3 14.40 1.36 0.292 Error 158.79 15 10.59 79. analysis run on the t e s t r e s u l t s of both experimental and contr o l groups indicated, however, that a l l 21 items should be keyed at the happy end of the scale, a score of 21 therefore suggesting a very p o s i t i v e self-concept. The i n t e r n a l consistency of the te s t was .83. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups.(Table 12) The difference between the experimental and control groups on the GDAM tes t was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . (Table 13) The mean score of the experimental group was 15.93 and of the control group 12.66, To t e s t Hypotheses C and D, the raw score attained from administration of the Raven's and the mental age score attained from the administration of the Binet were correlated with the normalized r e s i d u a l gain score f o r each measure of English language acquisition.(Table 14) It can be seen that there was a low but p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the Binet (mental age) and the Raven's (raw score). A low negative c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the Binet and the ITPA verbal expression subtest, and the Binet and the Binet verbal fluency subtest, while a low but po s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the Binet and Constants.and the Binet and the WISC vocabulary subtest and the Binet and the VTYC. When c o r r e l a t i n g language a c q u i s i t i o n scores with the Raven's, a l l the language measures with the exception of Constants correlated negatively. TABLE 12 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r WDIS Source SS df MS _F Prob Program 46.33 1 46.33 1.11 0.308 Covariates 162.69 3 54.23 1.30 0.309 Error 623.42 15 41.56 TABLE 13 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r GDAM Source SS df MS F Prob Program 50.20 1 50.20 5.34 0.028 Covariates 80.24 3 26.75 3.06 0.060 Error 131.16 15 3.74 TABLE 14 Correlations between I n t e l l e c t u a l Capacity Measures and Normalized Residual Gain Scores 1 Stanford Binet 1.00 (MA) 2 Ravens 0.26 1.00 (raw score) 3 Constants 0.29 0.26 1.00 4 VTYC 0.43 -0.01 0.10 1.00 5 WIS'C: 0.26 -0.34 0.12 0.25 1.00 (vocabulary subtest) 6 ITPA -0.11 -0.06 -0.23 0.30 0.18 1.00 (verbal subtest) 7 Stanford Binet -0.04 -0.10 -0.16 0.27 0.17 0.43 1.00 (response to pictures verbal fluency enumeration) S3. In terms of t e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , there was a low pos i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between VTYC, WISC (vocabulary sub-t e s t ) , ITPA (verbal expression subtest) and Binet,•verbal fluency; and a higher correlation—.4301, between the Binet verbal fluency and the ITPA (verbal expression subtest). An analysis of covariance was used to compare the o v e r a l l score f o r Constants between pre- and posttesting for both the experimental and control groups, and there was found to be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups.(Table 9) Further analysis on i n d i v i d u a l Constants produced s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Each c h i l d was administered selected items of the Stanford Binet Intelligence Test, Form L-M, by a Punjabi English-speaking woman. The c h i l d was asked each question i n Punjabi, responded i n Punjabi, and then each response was translated into English f o r the experimenter. From the number of items administered, a Mental Age (MA) was computed f o r each c h i l d . For example, at Year VI, three items rather than s i x items were given, and therefore each correct item was given four months c r e d i t rather than two months as i n the case when the f u l l s i x items are administered. Watson (1951) surveyed studies r e p o r t i n g the r e s u l t s of abbreviated scales (Terman&Merrill, 1962; Wright, 1942). 84. No r a t i o n a l e was given f o r the s e l e c t i o n of c e r t a i n items on the shortened Binet. Watson found that the difference between means f o r f u l l scale I. Q.'s as compared with abbreviated I.Q.'s was somewhat higher, but i n no case s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The shortened form of the Binet used f o r t h i s study was one designed by the experimenter and was based on the Item C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Binet (Valett, 1963), and therefore the r e s u l t i n g MA f o r each c h i l d must be interpreted with caution.(Appendix J) The V a l e t t was used as a basis f o r item s e l e c t i o n because as well as wanting to gain some idea of a c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l mental age i n Punjabi, the experimenter was interested i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the development l e v e l of the subjects i n various areas. Because items V a l e t t i d e n t i f i e d as measuring the constructs—visual-motor a b i l i t y , memory and concentration, vocabulary and verbal fluency, and judgment and reasoning—are on the Binet at almost every age l e v e l , t e s t items at each age l e v e l measuring the constructs were chosen. I f there was no item i n a construct at a p a r t i c u l a r age l e v e l , e.g., Vi s u a l Motor at year V l l l but the c h i l d passed the item at the l e v e l j u s t below, i . e . , V i s u a l Motor at Year V l l , he was credited f o r the non-e x i s t i n g item. Examination of Appendices NI, N2, N3, N4 and N5 indicates chronological age (CA) of each experimental and control c h i l d , 85. t h e i r basal ( a l l items passed at the l e v e l ) , t h e i r c e i l i n g ( a l l items f a i l e d at the l e v e l ) , as well as the items passed or f a i l e d at each l e v e l . In the experimental group, 60% of the chi l d r e n were found to be functioning below t h e i r chronological age l e v e l . In r e l a t i o n to the l e v e l at which t h i s t e s t expects children to be functioning at a given age l e v e l , 70% of the subjects exhibited d i s a b i l i t i e s i n the v i s u a l motor area; 70% on tasks involving memory and concentration s k i l l s ; and on vocabulary and verbal fluency, judgment and reasoning, 90% of the ch i l d r e n f a i l e d to meet the c r i t e r i o n for t h e i r age l e v e l . In the control group, 50% of the subjects were found to have an MA less than t h e i r CA. In the v i s u a l motor area 60% of the children were found to be experiencing d i f f i c u l t y , while i n the area of memory and concentration 70% of the subjects exhibited problems. I n the areas of both vocabulary and judgment and reasoning, 70% of the children were found to be functioning below t h e i r appropriate age l e v e l . The auditory d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of both the experimental and contr o l c h i l d r e n was tested, using the Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test, Form 11, to investigate Hypothesis E. Before the Wepman was administered, each c h i l d ' s hearing was screened at 20 dB with a frequency range of 500 Hz to 8,000 Hz. 86. The examiner experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n t e s t i n g non-English speaking c h i l d r e n . During the f i r s t administration, eight children were found to be s u f f e r i n g a hearing l o s s , These c h i l d r e n were subsequently tested three more times. By the t h i r d t r i a l only one c h i l d was s t i l l f a i l i n g the screening, and was therefore judged to have a hearing loss severe enough to be further investigated. The Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test, Form II (Appendix H) was used to assess each c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to recognize the differences that e x i s t between phonemes used i n English speech, some of which are very f i n e . The t e s t compares 13 i n i t i a l consonants, 13 f i n a l consonants, four medial vowels and ten f a l s e choices (the two words are the same). In both the experimental and the control groups, 6 0 % of the subjects scored appropriately f o r t h e i r age l e v e l and 4 0 % scored below t h e i r age l e v e l . In the experimental group, 11.4% of the errors involved medial vowels, 17.14% involved i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants, and 71.4% high frequency i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonant sounds (Table 1 5 ) . In the l a t t e r case, the greatest number of errors was made on words i n which i t was necessary to discriminate between /v/ and /th/.. In the c o n t r o l group 5.4% of the errors were made on medial vowels, 32.4% on i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants, and 87. TABLE 15 Examples from Wepman of Auditory Discrimination Errors (according to test number) Vowels I n i t i a l & F i n a l Consonants Experimental 3. led - lad 13. pet - p i t 37. map - nap 24. shot - shop_ 2. cab - cad 29. p i t - k i t Control 12. g a l l - goal 3. pe t - pd^ t 37. map - nap 24. shot - sho£ 29. £it - k i t 2. cab - cad 30. g u i l e - d i a l 14. l i t - l i c k I n i t i a l & F i n a l Consonants (High Frequency Sounds) 23. lave - lathe 20. f r e t - threat 5* sake - shake 31. rash - wrath 33. fag - sag 3&>. muss - mush 23. lave - lathe 20. f r e t - threat 5. sake - shake 40. cuff - cuss 3 3 . fag - sag 16. lass - l a t h 8 8 . 62.1% on high frequency i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonant sounds (Table 15). In the control group, the subjects had the greatest d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the high frequency sounds / f / and / t h / . This pattern of errors i s not uncommon among Caucasian students. A b i l i t y to discriminate between high frequency sounds i s one of the l a t e r auditory s k i l l s to develop i n the human being, and therefore errors i n t h i s area are common f o r the primary aged c h i l d . However, the f a c t that almost one-half of the subjects i n each group f a i l e d to show o v e r a l l adequate development f o r t h e i r age i n the area of auditory d i s c r i m i n a t i o n seems to ind i c a t e a dispropor-t i o n a t e l y high number, and tends to support Hypothesis E. To test Hypothesis F, the Irwin-Musselman A r t i c u l a t i o n Test (1962) was administered to each subject (Appendix I ) . However, instead of presenting a picture to the c h i l d which he might or might not be able to i d e n t i f y , the word was presented o r a l l y , and he was asked to repeat i t . A l l responses were taped. The sounds tested consisted of a l l the consonants i n the i n i t i a l , medial and f i n a l positions, a l l of the vowels, and a l l of the dipthongs. Tables 16 - 18 present the percentage of errors made by both groups. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the experimental and control groups (Table 19). 89. TABLE 16 Percentage of Incorrect Responses on A r t i c u l a t i o n Test ( I n i t i a l Sounds) I n i t i a l Combined Word Sound Experimental Control Groups 1. Pig P. _ — — — 2. boy- b • — — — — 3. teeth t — — — — — 4. door d k — - - - — 5. cage — — — — — 6. garage — — — 7 . f i s h — - - - -8. valentine V 9 — - - — 9. thumb 20 20 20 10. t h i s or that 60 30 45 11. saucer 5 — — — 12. zebra z. 30 • — 15 13. ship 40 — 20 14. hand - - - - - -15. church. 10 - - 5 16. j a i l 10 — 5 17. music ro 40 30 35 18. nose n i - - - - - -19. l e a f 1 ID - - — r - -20. web 20 10 21. white M - — - - - -22. yellow J - - — 23. r i n g Y 20 20 20 90. TABLE 17 Percentage of Incorrect Responses on A r t i c u l a t i o n Test (Medial Sounds) Word Medial Sound Experimental Control G ombi ned Groups 1. Pig X 2. book IT __ 3. garage CL __ 4. valentine <£ WW 5. glove A _ _ 6. smooth IX _ 7. saucer 0 _ 8. mouse 3ir 9. church 10. j a i l e i — 11. music 10 10 10 12. nose ou _ 13. l e a f 10 5 14. web 15. white <2r. 91. TABLE 18 Percentage of Incorrect Responses on A r t i c u l a t i o n Test ( F i n a l Sounds) F i n a l Combined Word Sound Experimental Control Groups 1. Pig <3 10 _ _ 5 2. boy- Jr. — 10 5 3. teeth 0 30 — 15 4. door IT — — --5. cage 4 5 20 20 20 6. book K -- — — 7. garage 5, 10 — 5 8. f i s h 20 10 15 9. valentine h 40 30 35 10. glove V 30 — 15 11. thumb ion — — — 12. smooth 5 40 40 13. saucer -- — 14. mouse 5 20 10 15 15. zebra e — 10 5 16. ship p.- -- — — 17. hand d 10 • • 5 18. church -if, 20 — 10 19. j a i l 1 — — — 20. nose z. — — — 21. l e a f f 10 -- 5 22. web b 20 — 10 23. white t — — 24. yellow o 10 5 25. r i n g 10 5 TABLE 19 Summary Analysis of Covariance f o r Irwin-Musselman A r t i c u l a t i o n Test Source SS df MS _F Prob Program 146.02 1 146.02 3.69 0.07 Covariates 59.42 2 29.71 0.75 0.49 Error 633.48 16 39.59 93. The experimental group made 2.5 times as many errors as the control group on i n i t i a l sounds, 2.0 times as many errors on the medial sounds, and 2.3 times as many errors on the f i n a l sounds. The greatest number of a r t i c u l a t i o n errors i n both the experimental and the control groups was made on the sound i n both the i n i t i a l voiced / t h / sound /&/ as i n thumb and i n the f i n a l p o s i t i o n f o r the same phoneme /t^T/ as i n smooth. This was also the sound which received the highest error score on the a r t i c u l a t i o n t e s t . This supports the find i n g that a b i l i t y i n auditory discrimination i s highly related to development of speech accuracy (Wepman, 195&.) In the l i t e r a t u r e section, mention was made of several sounds i n English with which the East Indians have d i f f i c u l t y , (see page26) Findings from the a r t i c u l a t i o n testing supported t h i s supposed d i f f i c u l t y with (such as i n thumb and smooth) . Although there i s no / f / i n - t h e i r sound system and they usually substitute /p/ f o r / f / , t h i s was not found to be the case with an i n i t i a l / f / , and i n only one instance of a f i n a l / f / . The /w/ sound i s usually pronounced /v/, and t h i s was noted i n two of the 20 sub-j e c t s . There i s no / z / i n the Punjabi language. This sound did not seem to present problems when i n the f i n a l p o s i tion of a word, but three subjects d i d have d i f f i c u l t y when i t was t h e . i n i t i a l sound. L a s t l y , i t was reported 94. that East Indian c h i l d r e n often substitute / s / f o r / f / , such as i n f i s h . T h i r t y - f i v e percent of the subjects did experience problems with t h i s sound. Although not documented as usual errors made by Punjabi speakers, these childr e n (both experimental and control) experienced considerable d i f f i c u l t y with /n/ i n the f i n a l p o s i t i o n (valentine) f o r which they substituted /m/, and Jju/ i n the medial p o s i t i o n (music) which they omitted, pronouncing the word /Duz/JC rather than nyuzJ*' The / r / also seemed hard f o r them. They replaced i t with /w/, and /dz/ as i n cage was substituted by /z/ sound. The Irwin-Musselman Test does not provide norms, but one would suspect that the number of errors made by both the experimental and cont r o l groups was, as might be expected, somewhat higher than that of a Caucasian English-speaking population, which tends to support Hypothesis F. To t e s t Hypothesis G, an attempt was made to locate the ten c h i l d r e n from the 1972-73 Punjabi class who had moved to a regular c l a s s i n the f a l l of 1973, and t h e i r controls. There were only f i v e p a i r s remaining i n Vancouver. According to t h e i r age, they were administered the reading tests of Primary 1 or 11 of the Metropolitan Achievement Tests. As the sample was so small, no s t a t i s t i c a l analysis was run on the data, but raw score and Grade equivalent data can be found on Table 20. The r e s u l t s , however, TABLE 20 Raw Scores and Grade Scores on Selected Subtests of the Metropolitan Achievement Test Subtest M. A. T. Standard Score Grade Equiv. Standard Score Grade. Equiv. Standard Score Grade Equiv. Standard Score Grade Equiv. Standard Score Grade Equiv. E l Cl E l CI E2 C2 E2 C2_ n E3 C3 E4 C4. E4 C4 S i 1. Word Knowledge 36 52 1.6 2.5 45 67 2 .0 4 . 1 49 59 2.3 3.2 51 56 2 .5 2 .9 51 37 2.5 7.3 2. Word Analysis 35 49 1.6 2.5 33 46 1.8 2". 3 45 59 2.2 3 .6 67 53 4 . 7 3.4 49 61 2.5 3 .3 3 . Reading 21 43 1.1 1.9 34 51 1.5 2 .5 33 56 1.7 2 .9 54 56 2 .7 2 .9 51 60 2 .5 3.3 4 . Total Reading (#1 & #3) 23 45 1.4 2.1 40 53 1.9 2 .7 45 57 2.1 3.1 51 55 2 .5 2 .9 50 68 2 .5 4 .3 5. S p e l l i n g 49 64 2.3 3 .6 60 60 3.1 3.1 54 70 2 .6 5.1 96. suggest that the hypothesis may not be true, as i n a l l but two cases the control group had higher scores, and i n those two cases the experimental and control scores were equivalent. Also l e t t e r s were sent to each teacher involved with the ten ch i l d r e n , asking about h i s or her progress, e s p e c i a l l y i n reading, attendance and any other information they f e l t valuable. Four of the f i v e teachers who had chi l d r e n who were i n the experimental class l a s t year responded, and two of the f i v e teachers who had children who were i n the control c l a s s . The comments from the teachers i n the experimental class indicate that three-fourths of the c h i l d r e n are below t h e i r grade placement i n reading, e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of comprehension. S o c i a l l y they seem well adjusted, except f o r one g i r l who has d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t i n g to her peer group. The teachers of the two control c h i l d r e n who responded indicate reading s k i l l s are rather slow i n developing, but that a t t i t u d e and s o c i a l s k i l l s are s a t i s f a c t o r y . 97. Chapter 6 Discussion and Recommendations Discussion Results of the analysis of data, although r a r e l y s i g n i f i c a n t , do warrant some consideration. The r e s u l t s of the analysis of self-concept suggest Hypothesis B has some v a l i d i t y . I t has been noted that the East Indian people are somewhat reluctant to express t h e i r true emotions openly, and thus on the WDIS Test the children tended to respond i n what they f e l t was a s o c i a l l y desirable manner. The picture of themselves (GDAM) could be construed to be a more honest opinion of themselves than the responses on the WDIS t e s t . A subs t a n t i a l amount of gym work and work on body awareness could account f o r higher scores as w e l l . When doing the c o r r e l a t i o n analyses, Constants was the only language measure t o correlate p o s i t i v e l y with Raven's. This could be p a r t l y a function of the fa c t that the r e p e t i t i o n of Constants i s a rote language a c q u i s i t i o n whereas the other measures require more reasoning a b i l i t y and a much wider range of vocabulary competence. East 98. Indian c h i l d r e n , as was mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e , are accustomed to learning by r o t e . In regard to the Raven's, the experimenter s e r i o u s l y questions i t s use as a measure of i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity with East Indian c h i l d r e n . The c o r r e l a t i o n i n the experimental class between Raven's I. Q. scores and teacher r a t i n g of I. Q. was (r = -.10), and i n the control class (r = 0 ) . (Figures 3 & 4) It i s very evident that the r e s u l t s of the adminis-t r a t i o n of the Binet must be interpreted cautiously. The items selected f o r the shortened form of the Binet were normed f o r each l e v e l . The items chosen by the experimenter were not, so one cannot know whether these p a r t i c u l a r items represent a v a l i d c r i t e r i o n f o r a mental age score. Secondly, t h i s t e s t was normed on native American born white subjects. The l e v e l of expected function f o r t h i s group undoubtedly would be much d i f f e r e n t than f o r Canadian immigrant Indian born subjects. Lastly, although an East Indian woman f l u e n t i n Punjabi administered the t e s t , thereby reducing the confounding variable of examiner race, and although she administered the t e s t according to the correct procedure, i t i s not possible to equate the administration of the Binet i n English and i n Punjabi. However, the t r a n s l a t o r did f e e l that many of these c h i l d r e n were weak i n both the comprehension and the v e r b a l i z a t i o n . 115-124 DEFINITELY ABOVE AVERAGE H O - 1 1 4 HIGH AVERAGE 1 0 0 - K D 9 AVERAGE 0 9 5 - 9 9 • SOMEWHAT s BELOW m AVERAGE «/> C 73 m 8 5 - 9 4 SOMEWHAT BELOW AVERAGE 7 0 - 8 4 CONSIDERABLY BELOW AVERAGE BELOW 69 MENTALLY DEFECTIVE COLOURED PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (RAVEN) ESS ••Si's il :::* m mm ™ f 5 0 r» > 4 5 6 7 EXPERIMENTAL CLASS SUBJECTS lO -n O C 50 vO NO > CO C TO 1 1 5 - 1 2 4 DEFINITELY ABOVE AVERAGE H O - 1 1 4 HIGH AVERAGE l O O - 1 0 9 AVERAGE 9 5 - 9 9 SOMEWHAT BELOW AVERAGE 8 5 - 9 4 SOMEWHAT BELOW AVERAGE 7 0 - 8 4 CONSIDERABLY BELOW AVERAGE BELOW 69 MENTALLY DEFECTIVE COLOURED PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (RAVEN) TEACHER n O II m U vi z to H m -n m > 2- _ I >P m * 2» £5 73 co I; Z i "~~ n < O T. i -lg 10 73 4 5 6 7 CONTROL CLASS SUBJECTS I O 0 c 70 tn H O O 101. This was not believed to be caused by differences i n d i a l e c t , as there was no instance i n which the int e r p r e t e r and the subject could not understand each other. It can be argued, therefore, that the administration of the Binet does not give a v a l i d i n d i c a t i o n of an East Indian c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t \ i a l capacity or developmental' l e v e l . However, the experimenter opines i t does suggest that f o r whatever reason, many of these c h i l d r e n are not functioning i n t h e i r native language at the same l e v e l as an average Canadian c h i l d i n h i s native language, and t h i s provides us with information as to where we might s t a r t i n s t r u c t i o n . For example, i f we ask an 8-year-old East Indian c h i l d , i n Punjabi, to draw a c i r c l e and he cannot, we w i l l have some information with which to probe further. Is i t that he could not understand the verbal i n s t r u c t i o n — "Draw a c i r c l e " ? I f we draw a c i r c l e and t e l l him to make one just l i k e i t and he succeeds, we would begin to surmise he can perform adequately on that p a r t i c u l a r f i n e motor s k i l l but that the word " c i r c l e " or the phraseology of the sentence was incomprehensible to him. Recommendations On the basis of observation and s t a t i s t i c a l findings, the experimenter would l i k e to make the following recommendations.- Many apply to the experimental class only, but some to New Canadian classes i n general. 102. The Canadian Federal Government, when granting permission f o r young East Indian immigrants to enter Canada, should provide a c e r t a i n sum of monies fo r t h e i r education, thus allowing- school boards to hire extra teachers, purchase s p e c i a l material, and so on. This would help these childre n to progress more quickly, and would not hinder the learning of E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n . The parents of East Indian c h i l d r e n should be strongly encouraged to speak English. The mothers of pre-school East Indian children should be encouraged to place t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n nursery schools so they w i l l have a greater f a c i l i t y i n English upon entering school. The mother could attend the pre-school part time as w e l l . This would help them to become more f a m i l i a r with Canadian c u l t u r e , provide a chance for them to le a r n English, receive information on n u t r i t i o n and health care. I f a c h i l d i s enrolled i n a class such as the one at Moberly, the parents should be encouraged to have the c h i l d remain i n the c l a s s f o r at least a year. F i f t y percent of the o r i g i n a l class members moved out during the year and the same percentage of new students entered. This provides only "band-aid" help f o r many, and i s most disru p t i v e to the teacher i n terms of st r u c t u r i n g a program. The importance of regular attendance and punctuality should a l s o be stressed. More involvement i n the school by the parents would be h e l p f u l . The f a c t that the teacher i n the experimental class i s East Indian and speaks t h e i r language should help to reduce the home-school b a r r i e r . The East Indian c u l t u r e i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y more " p h y s i c a l l y " than "mentally" oriented. The introduc-t i o n of more c r a f t , woodworking and so on at the elementary l e v e l might be a f a c i l i t a t o r of English, and would perhaps provide these children with a c t i v i t i e s at which they could be successful. More f i e l d t r i p s should be included i n the curriculum of East Indian c h i l d r e n , to o r i e n t them to our culture and to make English words more meaningful to them. 103. The trend i n the East Indian class has been to use Punjabi only when necessary. As was suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s might be used as a mode of i n s t r u c t i o n , since lack of fluency i n t h e i r ovm language could be impeding progress i n learning English—which performance on the Binet tended to i n d i c a t e . As a p i l o t experiment, i t i s suggested that Punjabi be taught f o r 30 minutes each day. Concentrated help i n auditory d i s c r i m i n a t i o n should be given to these c h i l d r e n when they f i r s t enter the c l a s s , and should be continued as the year progresses. I t i s recommended that children i n the Punjabi class spend a longer period of time before beginning to read. As was previously stated, reading f o r a c h i l d attempting to become b i l i n g u a l i s " l i k e learning a t h i r d language". When learn i n g to read, the use of a Key Vocabulary or Language Experience approach might be more e f f e c t i v e than t r a d i t i o n a l readers. The f a c t that nearly a l l the c h i l d r e n who were i n the experimental c l a s s during the 1972-73 school year and were subsequently placed i n a regular class scored lower on the reading t e s t than d i d t h e i r matched controls suggests that some other method than a basal reading approach should be attempted. The objective l a i d down by the School Board that at l e a s t one-half of the pupils i n the Punjabi class merit assignment to a regular primary class a f t e r one year warrants f u r t h e r consideration. One has high expectations i f he anticipates that an 8-year-old immigrant c h i l d can receive only one year of intensive language i n s t r u c t i o n and then function s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a regular c l a s s . Perhaps.the c h i l d should extend h i s length of stay i n the East Indian c l a s s , but at the same time increase his in t e g r a t i o n time into regular c l a s s . The time sampling indicated that the c h i l d r e n i n the control classes spent 61% of t h e i r time engaged i n independent study, and the c h i l d r e n i n the experi-mental c l a s s 82%. I t i s suggested that the d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups should be greater, because i n a class to l e a r n English more time should be spent on group o r a l work than independent o r a l work or w r i t t e n seat work. 104. Although not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , day-dreaming was l e s s prevalent i n the experimental c l a s s e s . The integrated day program seems a s u i t a b l e one f o r the New Canadian c l a s s . As the c h i l d r e n can be worked with i n small groups, i n s t r u c t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e . The f a c t that the c h i l d r e n l i k e d the language t e s t Constants and were motivated by the Distar Language program, suggests that rote learning could be viewed as a good i n s t r u c t i o n a l technique. I t may be that we vary the language program fo r chi l d r e n too much, and present too much new material too f a s t . Implications f o r Further Research Evaluations of projects l i k e t h i s are often disappointing i n terms of s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s . Rather than contending with a l l the extraneous variables encountered when comparing c l a s s e s , one could frequently evaluate children's performance on a structured program such as Distar Language. This would give information as to what kinds of problems chi l d r e n had, and whether they were general or s p e c i f i c . The experimenter has used several I. Q, measures— The Raven's, the Columbia Mental Maturity Test (CMMT), the L e i t e r and the performance items of the WISC and WPPSIin order to a s c e r t a i n a reasonably v a l i d measure of East Indian children's i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity. None have been successful. I t i s suggested that the psychology department of one of the major Indian u n i v e r s i t i e s be contacted i n an attempt to gain i n s i g h t into t h i s dilemma. Infor-mation might a l s o be ascertained regarding instruments which would provide developmental l e v e l s appropriate to East Indian c h i l d r e n . Conclusion The r e s u l t s of t h i s evaluation suggest the c h i l d r e n i n the experimental class made gains i n self-concept. The contributing factors are undoubtedly many, but the f a c t that they had an East Indian teacher i s believed to be an important one. That these children have.a c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t from our own as w e l l as a language d i f f e r e n t from our own bears repeating. Perhaps the f a c t they gained i n self-concept and through t h i s kind of program they received an understanding of our culture without detriment to t h e i r own shows a step that must be taken before learning English can r e a l l y be accomplished. 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An essay on educational psychology. London: George C. Harrap & Co., 1944. Wechsler, D. Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1949. 112. Weinrich, V. Languages i n contact: findings and problems. New York: L i n g u i s t i c C i r c l e of New York, Wepman, J . M. Auditory Discrimination Test. Chicago: Unive r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1968, West, M. C r i t e r i a i n the s e l e c t i o n of s i m p l i f i e d reading books. English Language Teaching, July 1964, XVIII, 4, 146-15FT Wilson, R. Guides f o r teaching English as a second  language to elementary school p u p i l s . C a l i f o r n i a State Department of Education. Rep. § Br 5-1111. C a l i f o r n i a U n i v e r s i t y . Rep. #H 200 Cont. OEC -6-10-44, March 1968. Microfilm, ED 018803. Wolk, E. Reading d i s a b i l i t i e s of children learning English as a second language. Elementary English, March 1972, XLIX, i i i . Wright, C. A modified procedure f o r the abbreviated Stanford-Binet i n determining the i n t e l l i g e n c e of mental defectives. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1942, 47, 178-184. Yoes, D. J r . Reading programs f o r Mexican American children of Texas. Reading Teacher, 1966-67, v o l . 20, 313-318. Yorio, C. A. Some sources of reading problems f o r foreign language learners—Language Learning, 1969, v o l . 21, No. 1. 113. Appendix A Schedule of Testing f o r Experimental and Control Groups Group A " Date October 1973 A A November 1973 February, March, A p r i l , May. 1974 June 1974 Nature 1. VTYC 2. WISC (vocabulary subtest) 3. ITPA (verbal expression subtest) 4. Binet Response to Pictures, Item 4, # 1 or 3 5. Days of week Months of year One's own address One^s own birthdate 6. GDAM Test 7. Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices 1. Stanford-Binet I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale (selected subtests) • i n Punjabi 2. WDIS ( i n Punjabi) 1. Time Sampling 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. VTYC WISC (vocabulary subtest) ITPA (verbal expression subtest) Binet Response to Pictures, Item 4, # 1 or 3 Days of week Months of year One's own address One's own birthdate GDAM Test Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination Irwin-Musselman A r t i c u l a t i o n Test WDIS (administered i n Punjabi) 114. Group B B B B C Date October 1973 November 1973 February, March, A p r i l , May 1974 June June 1974 1974 Nature (same as Group A) (same as Group A) (same as Group A) (same as Group A) 1. Metropolitan Reading Test (1971) - Primary I (sub-tests - word knowledge, word a n a l y s i s , reading); Primary II (subtests -word knowledge, word analysis, reading and s p e l l i n g . ) D June 1974 (same as group C) A l l responses w i l l be taped. This serves as a motivation to the childre n and a l s o makes scoring more object i v e . 115. Appendix B NAME: DATE: SCHOOL: A VOCABULARY TEST FOR YOUNG CHILDREN (THE LANGUAGE AND MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN - A. F. WATTS pp. 280-281)  A - FACE and FEATURES Say "Which part of my face am I touching?" Point i n turn to: 1 2 3 4 5 * 6 * 7 * 8 Nose N o s t r i l s '_ Eyes Eyebrows Eyelashes_ Mouth Ear \ Finger SCORE: B - ACTIONS WITH THE HANDS AND FINGERS Say "Now watch what I am going to do, doing now?" What am I 1) Writing 2) Threading a Needle 3) Tapping the Table 4) Scratching your Head 5) Unfastening Your Button or Unbuttoning Your... * 6) Pointing N. B. Starred items added by the author. SCORE: 116. C - HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES Say "I wonder whether you can t e l l me what t h i s i s ? " 1 2 3 4 5 * 6 * 7 & $ * 9 Scissors Safety-pin Comb Razor-blade Tape Measure Napkin Fork Soap Matches D - ACTIONS WITH THE HANDS SCORE: Say "What am I going to do now? What do we c a l l t h i s ? " 1) Clapping your Hands 2) Rubbing your Elbow 3) Squeezing your Finger 4) Clenching your F i s t 5) Patting your Head * 6) Holding Hands • E - SHAPES SCORE: Say "Look at what I am going to draw and t e l l me what i t i s . " 1) Square 2) C i r c l e 3) Triangle 4) Diamond 5) Star 6) Oval (egg) SCORE: 117 F - CURRENCY Say "Now t e l l me what the value i s of what I am going to show you." 1) Penny . 2) N i c k e l 3) Dime 4) Quarter 5) Dollar SCORE: G - POSITIONS Say "Now look at t h i s square and t e l l me where I put the next one." 1) Inside i t 2) Below or Underneath i t 3) On the Right (Hand) Side (of i t ) 4) On the L e f t (Hand) Side (of i t ) 5 ) ( A l l ) Around i t or Outside i t .  * 6) On Top of i t SCORE: H - SOUNDS' Say "Listen to what I am going to do now. What do we c a l l i t ? " 1) Whistling ; 2) Whispering ... 3) Sighing 4) Snoring 5) Humming * 6) Crying _ * 7) Laughing SCORE: 118. I - ADJECTIVES Say "I am going to show you some things i n twos. I w i l l t e l l you what one i s and you can t e l l me what the other i s . " 1) Feel these. This i s rough, but t h i s i s ? (smooth) 2) Look at these p e n c i l s . This i s sharp, but that i s .....? (blunt) 3) Look at these l i n e s . This i s upright, but that i s ? (slanting) 4) Look at these pieces of paper. This one i s f l a t , but that one has been ? (folded) 5) Look at these two boys ( g i r l s ) He (she) i s dark, but he (she) i s ....? ( f a i r ) * 6) This b a l l i s b i g . This b a l l i s ? ( l i t t l e ) * 7) This boy i s short. This boy i s ? ( t a l l ) * 8) This man i s f a t . This man i s .......? (skinny) * 9) This g i r l i s happy. This g i r l i s ? (sad) * 1G) This book i s heavy. This book i s ? ( l i g h t ) SCORE: FABRICS Say "I wonder i f you know what these a r t i c l e s ar made of?" 1) Wool . 2) S i l k 3) Cotton 4) Leather 5) Linen * 6) Paper * 7) P l a s t i c SCORE: TOTAL SCORE: Appendix C Score 2 orO 5. VOCABULARY 1. Bicycle 2. Knife 3. Hat 4. Letter 5. Umbrella Score 2,1 or 0 6. Cushion 7. Nail 8. Donkey 9. Fur 0. Diamond 1. Join 2. Spade 3. Sword 4. Nuisance 5. Brave 6. Nonsense 7. Hero [8. Gamble 19. Nitroglycerine Z0. Microscope Zl. Shilling 22. Fable 23. Belfry 24. Espionage 25. Stanza 26. Seclude 27. Spangle 28. Hara-Kiri 29. Recede 30. Affliction 31. Ballast 32. Catacomb • 33. Imminent 34. Mantis 35. Vesper 36. Aseptic 37. Chattel 38. Dilatory 39. Flout 40. Traduce 4 121. Appendix D BASAL: N O N E VERBAL EXPRESSION CEILING: N O N E TOTAL SCC DEMONSTRATION Nail 1 l a b e l 6 Ma jo r Parts 2 Color 7 Numerosi ty 3 Shape 8 Other Characteristics 4 Composi t ion 9 Comparison 5 Function 10 Person, Place, or Thing 1. Ball 2. Block 3. Envelope 4. Button 122. Appendix E Stanford-Binet In t e l l i g e n c e Test Form L-M -Response to Pictures - Year III - 6 #4 E l — Picture #1 E2 — Picture #3 123. Appendix E l 124. Appendix E2 125. Appendix F Goodenough Scoring C r i t e r i a 1. Head Present: Features alone not c r e d i t e d . 2. Legs Present: Correct number. 3. Arms Present: Fingers alone are not s u f f i c i e n t , but the point i s credited i f there i s any space l e f t between the base of the fingers and that part of the body to which they are attached. 4a. Trunk Present: I f a s t r a i g h t l i n e i s indicated, 4b. i s always'minus. Where there i s no cl e a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the head and the trunk, but the features appear i n the upper end of a s i n g l e f i g u r e , score plus. 4b, Length of Trunk Greater Than Breadth: Measurement should be taken at the point of greatest length and of greatest breadth. 4c Shoulders D e f i n i t e l y Indicated: In f u l l - f a c e drawings, a change i n the d i r e c t i o n of the outline of the upper part of the trunk which gives the e f f e c t of concavity rather than convexity. The ordinary e l l i p t i c a l form i s not c r e d i t e d . Score s t r i c t l y . 5a. Attachment of Arms and Legs: Both arms and legs. attached to the trunk a t any point, or arms attached to the neck, or at the junction of the head and the trunk when the head i s omitted. I f the trunk i s omitted, the score i s always zero. 5b. Arms Attached to the Trunk: Arms attached to the trunk exactly at the shoulders. 6a. Neck Present: Any cl e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the neck as d i s t i n c t from the head and trunk. 6b. Outline of Neck Continuous with that of Head, or Trunk, or Both. 7a. Eyes Present: Either one or two. 7b. Nose Present: E i t h e r one or two. 7c. Mouth Present. 7d. Both Nose and Mouth i n Two Dimensions: Two l i p s must be shownr The l i n e showing the separation of the two l i p s must be i n d i c a t e d . 7e. N o s t r i l s Shown: Credit a p r o f i l e drawing i f the l i n e o u t l i n i n g the nose extends inward upon the upper l i p . 8a. Hair Shown: Distinguish between hat and h a i r . 8b. Hair Present: More than the Circumference of the Head— Hair represented by something better than a s c r i b b l e . Outline of head not showing. 126. 9a. Clothing Present: Row of buttons, hat s t r i p e s , e t c. 9b. At Least Two A r t i c l e s of Clothing Non-transparent: A hat which i s merely i n contact with the top of the head but does not cover any part of i t i s not credited. Buttons alone, without any other i n d i c a -t i o n of the coat, are not c r e d i t e d . 9c. E n t i r e Drawing Free from Transparencies: Both sleeves and trouser must be shown. 9d. At Least Four A r t i c l e s of Clothing D e f i n i t e l y Indicated: Hat, coat, s h i r t , c o l l a r , t i e , b e l t , or suspenders, shoes, etc. Shoes must show some d e t a i l other than buttons. 9e. Costume Complete Without Incongruities: Hat must be shown i f i t forms an e s s e n t i a l part of the costume as i n the case of a uniform. Need not be shown with business s u i t . Sleeves always shown. Either coat or sports s h i r t i s necessary. Both c o l l a r and necktie must be shown when these would o r d i n a r i l y form part of the costume. Shoes and trousers must always be shown. 10a. Fingers Present: Any number may be on both hands i f both are present. 10b. Correct Number of Fingers Shown: Five fingers on each i f both hands are shown. 10c. D e t a i l of Fingers Correct: Two dimensions. Length greater than breadth, angle subtended not more than 180* Credit on the one present. lOd. Opposition of Thumb Shown: Score s t r i c t l y . 1. Must d e f i n i t e l y be shorter than other l a t e r a l d i g i t s 2. Angle between i t and index f i n g e r must be at l e a s t twice as great as between any of the other d i g i t s . 3. Point of attachment must d i s t i n c t l y be nearer the wrist than that of any of the other d i g i t s . Must be on both hands i f both are shown. lOe. Hand D i s t i n c t from Fingers or Arm; I f hands are i n pockets, c r e d i t c h i l d with 10a, 10b, 10c and lOe only i n cases where the upper part of the hand i s v i s i b l e above the pockets. 11a. Arm J o i n t Shown: Elbow or shoulder or both. I f the elbow j o i n t i s taken as the basis f o r scoring, there must be an abrupt bend (not a curve) at approximately the middle of the arm. l i b . Leg J o i n t Shown: Knee or hip or both. Credit i f the inner l i n e s of the two legs meet at a point of junction with the body. 1 2 7 . 12a. Proportion: Area of the head not more than one-half or l e s s than one-tenth that of the trunk. Score rather l e n i e n t l y . 12b. Proportion: Arm As long as trunk but not to knee, not as wide as trunk. 12c. Proportion: Legs Not l e s s than the trunk i n length or greater than twice the trunk. Not as wide as the trunk. 12d. Proportion: Feet Feet and legs i n two dimensions. Feet not clubbed, length of foot must be greater than i t s height. Not more than one-third or less than one-tenth t o t a l length of l e g . I2e. Proportion: Two Dimensions Arms and Legs 13. Heel Shown: Cr e d i t f u l l - f a c e drawings i f foot i s shown i n perspective. 14a. Motor Coor: Line A A l l l i n e s reasonably firm, f o r the most part meeting each other cleanly at point of junction, without marked tendency to dross or overlap, or to leave gaps between the ends. A "sketchy" drawing i n which most of the o u t l i n e s consist of many short l i n e s i s o r d i n a r i l y credited, since t h i s i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c confined almost e n t i r e l y to drawings of a rather mature type. 14b. Motor Coor: Line B A l l l i n e s f i r m l y drawn with correct j o i n i n g . This point i s based upon a much more r i g i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r u l e s given f o r scoring of preceding point. Obviously i t can never be c r e d i t e d unless 14a i s also c r e d i t e d . The score i s i n a d d i t i o n to that f o r 14a. Scoring should be very s t r i c t . 14c. Motor Coor: Head Outline Must be more than primitive c i r c l e or e l i p s e . Score s t r i c t l y . 14d. Motor Coor: Trunk Outline Same as preceding point, but here with reference to the trunk. 14e. Motor Coor: Arms and Legs Must be i n two dimensions without tendency to narrow at j o i n t s . Without i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . 14f. Motor Coor: Features Eyes, nose and mouth must a l l be i n two dimensions. Features must be symmetrical i n a l l respects. There can be no i n c o r r e c t juxta-p o s i t i o n with the o u t l i n e of the head. Score s t r i c t l y . 15a. Ears Present: Two i n f u l l face drawings. 15b. Ears i n Correct P o s i t i o n and Proportion: Must be longer than wide. Aural canal must be somehow shown i n p r o f i l e drawings. Ear must be placed i n middle two-thirds of head. 128. Eye D e t a i l Eye D e t a i l Eye D e t a i l Eye D e t a i l 16a. 16b. ... 16c. Eye D e t a i l : Proportion. Longer than wide. I6d. Eye D e t a i l : Glance. Credit only i n p r o f i l e drawings. 17a. Both Chin and Forehead Shown: In f u l l f a c e drawings s u f f i c i e n t space should be l e f t f o r both. Scoring should be l e n i e n t . 17b. Projection of Chin Shown: Chin must be c l e a r l y d i f f e r -entiated from lower l i p . Usually not credited i n f u l l - f a c e drawings. 18a. P r o f i l e A: Head, trunk and feet must be i n p r o f i l e without error. Not more than one of the following errors may e x i s t : 1. One body transparency, as the outline of the trunk showing through the arm. 2. Legs not i n p r o f i l e . At l e a s t the upper part of one leg must be concealed by the other. 3. Arms attached to the outline of the back and extending forward. P r o f i l e B: The f i g u r e must be shown i n true p r o f i l e without error or bodily transparency, except that the shape of the eye may be ignored. Scoring Count 1 point f o r each correct score (1 - 18b), M u l t i p l y the number of points scored by 3. Then add 36 ( i f the head i s i n d i c a t e d ) . Age Norm 3- 6 2 4- 6 6 5- 6 10 6- 6 14 7- 6 18 8- 6 22 9- 6 26 10- 6 30 11- 6 34 12- 6 38 13- 6 42 129. APPENDIX G When Do I Smile Test (Grades 1 - 3 ) Warm-up A. How do you f e e l about eating i c e cream? B. How do you f e e l when you f a l l down on the playground? C. How do you f e e l about playing with d o l l s ? Items 1. How did you f e e l about coming to school t h i s morning? 2. How do you f e e l about the boys and g i r l s i n this class? 3. How do you think the boys and g i r l s i n this class f e e l about you? 4. How do you f e e l when you are i n school? 5. How do you f e e l about learning out of books? 6. How do you think the teacher f e e l s about the boys and g i r l s i n t h i s class? 7. How do the boys and g i r l s i n t h i s class f e e l about the teacher? 8. How do you f e e l about the things you do i n school? 9. How do you f e e l when the teacher gives you something new to do? 10. How do you f e e l when the teacher has you work together with other c h i l d r e n i n your class? 11. How do you f e e l when you get your report card? 12. How do you f e e l when the teacher c a l l s on you to answer a question i n class? 13. How do you f e e l about having your picture taken? 14. How do you f e e l about being i n v i t e d to a party? 15. How do you f e e l when you take your report card home? 16. How do you f e e l when you help your father or mother at home? 17. How do'you f e e l about your teacher and parents t a l k i n g together about you? 18. How do you f e e l when you v i s i t your best friend's home? A p p e n d i x H A U D I T O R Y D I S C R I M I N A T I O N T E S T 130.a F O R M I I X Y X Y 1. gea r - beer 2 1 . b a r - b a r -2. cad - cab 22. b u m - b u n 3. l e d - l a d 23. l ave - l a t h e 4 . t h i e f - sheaf 24. shot - shop 5. sake - shake 25. wedge - wedge 6. j a i l - j a i l 26. s u c k - sock 7. b a l l - b a l l 27. v ie - t h y 8. l a ke - l ake 28. r i c h - r i c h 9. bead - deed 29. p i t - k i t 10. r u b - r u g 30. g u i l e - d i a l 1 1 . w i n g - w i n g 3 1 . r a s h - w r a t h </ 12. g a l l - goa l 32. chew - chew 13. pe t - p i t 33. fag - sag V 14. l i t - l i c k 34. phase - phase 15. bug - bud 35. s i c k - t h i c k * 16. l as s - l a t h 36. w r e a th - r e e f 17. cope - coke 37. m a p - nap .18. poo l - t o o l 38. m u s s - m u s h 19. zone - zone 39. c a r t - t a r t 20. f r e t - t h r e a t 40. cu f f - r — i ~ cuss X Y E r r o r Score Copyr ight 1958, by Language Research Assoc. , I n c . , 175 E. Delaware Place, Chicago, 111. 60611. Pr in ted i n U.S.A. This form is copy r igh ted . The reproduc t ion of any par t o f i t by mimeograph, hectograph, or i n any o ther way, whether the reproduct ions are sold or are fu rn i shed f r e e f o r use, i s a v i o l a t i o n o f the copyr igh t law. Name of Child : Date Tested: Age: Grade: D i s a b i l i t i e s : E x a m i n e r ' s Name Date of Birth.: Name of School: •Hearing: Reading: Speaking: Other: I . Q . : Test: E r r o r Score: X Y F o r m I / 3 0 F o r m II / 3 0 / i o A d d i t i o n a l Comments: Appendix I Irwin-Musselman A r t i c u l a t i o n Test Word Sound  I n i t i a l Medial F i n a l o r 9 °~ 5 f A ^ LL $ O a* <3cr S ou z. o •3 1 . Pig P 2. boy- b i 3. teeth •b. 4. door d 5. cage K 6. book 7 . garage 8 . f i s h 9 . valentine V 1 0 . glove e 1 1 . thumb 1 2 . t h i s or that o 13. smooth 14. saucer s 15. mouse 1 6 . zebra z 1 7 . ship 1 8 . hand lh 1 9 . church §\ 2 0 . j a i l % 2 1 . music YY) 2 2 . nose n 1 23. l e a f 24. web 2 5 . white M 2 6 . yellow J 2 7 . r i n g A PROFILE FOR THE STANFORD BINET (L-M) Item Classifications by Robert E. Valett I N S T R U C T I O N S : D r a w a vertical line t h r o u g h the year for the obtained basal age. Circle a l l test items passed beyond this level. S U B J E C T ' S N A M E : C A : M A : . I Q Range:. . G r a d e : Date of Test: TEST Vpaf CONSTRUCTS Y e a r ' 2 2-6 3 3-6 4 4-6 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 AA SA I SAH SAH GENERAL COMPREHENSION 3 A 1 2 6 6 4 6 4 6 A 2 4 5 4 5 A 6 3 6 4 5 5 6 7 6 3 2 4 1 A 1 2* 1 6* 3* 1 2# 1 A A A 4 3 5 2 3* VISUAL-MOTOR 5 4* ABILITY 6 6 A 4 5 4 2 2 4 ARITHMETIC 1 A REASONING A 4-MEMORY & 2 5 4 2* 6* 2* 3 6^ 1 4 3 4 6 6 CONCENTRATION A A A 6 6SK 4 A 6 5 3 2 4* 1* 3* 1* 4 If 3 1 2 1 1 • 1 1 1 VOCABULARY & 6 4 A A 3 5 5 3 3 3 VERBAL FLUENCY A 5 6 8 5 A 1 1 3 1* 5* 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 4* .2 6 3* 2 4 27t» 4# 5 4 3 3 6 3 3 JUDGMENT & 3* 5 3* 5 4# 4 A 6 5 4 6 A 4 4 REASONING A A A 5 A A 5 7 5 5 -v 6 A 6 6 I t jms < idmii dst< red A A A 133. SCHOOL -DATE -TIME PERIOD -GRADE -Appendix K Time Sampling C. E. before recess a f t e r recess afternoon NAMES OF CHILDREN INVOLVED IN CLASS -1) Use of Dis t a r : (a) language - Y N 2) Use of Peabody Language Development K i t Y N 3) Presence of Part Time Aide i n Classroom Y N 4) Children r e c e i v i n g s p e c i a l remedial help. 5) Na t i o n a l i t y of Teacher. . 6) Type of Classroom: (a) t r a d i t i o n a l (b) open area (c) integrated day 7) Percentage of Time Spent i n Oral A c t i v i t y (a) teacher % (b) pupils % 8) A c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by students during time observed. 9) General Comments: 134. Appendix L Pupil Off-Task Behaviors 1. Makes Excessive Noise: Y e l l s , taps or r o l l s p e n c i l , slams desk, crumbles paper, sings, mumbles. 2. Talks with Other Students: S o c i a l i z e s at inappropriate times (does not include occasional questions). 3. Clowns: Makes unusual faces or sounds or remarks designed to a t t r a c t attention and laughter of peers. 4. Fiddles with Objects: Plays with rubber bands, paper c l i p s , erasers, doodles, combs hair, t i e s shoes. 5» Daydreams: Stares into space or out the window (does not include teacher story reading time). 6. F a i l s to Answer Question: Shrugs shoulders, says I don't know, or remains s i l e n t . 7. Physical Contact: Touches another c h i l d . 8. Leaves Desk: Wanders about the room. (Record # i n spaces instead of + mark) 135. Appendix M Boehm Test of Basic Concepts Part A Subject December . 1973 June, 1974 Form 1 Form 2 Form 1 Form 2 A 11/25 13/25 24/25 H/25 B 17/25 11/25 21/25 13/25 C 12/25 7/25 24/25 13/25 D 20/25 10/25 22/25 9/25 E 16/25 11/25 24/25 13/25 F 21/25 15/25 21/25 12/25 G 5/25 11/25 21/25 3/25 Appendix N Response Patterns of Matched Experimental and Control Subjects on the Binet 1. Subjects E l ; C l ; E2; C2 2. Subjects E3; C3; E4; C4 3. Subjects E5; C5; E6; C6 4. Subjects E7; C7; Eg; CB 5. Subjects E9; C9; E10; CIO APPENDIX N I RESPONSE PATTERNS OF MATCHED EXPERIMENTAL A N D C O N T R O L 5USJECT5 O N THE 31NET < O z CO o I I o> : t , l ( iliill 1 1 1 1 CO mm H i LL CL LL OL LL LL IN y -O Q- LL CL -0 l l l l i l l l l l l 11111 11111 H I in S3 1 *r o i <* o 1 CO •o 1 n Ci UI VISUAL-MOTOR MEMORY & CONCENTRATION VOCABULARY & FLUENCY JUDGMENT & REASONING U VISUAL - MOTOR MEMORY & CONCENTRATION VOCABULARY & FLUENCY JUDGMENT & REASONING O g o> o> co i i i CO ppl m m N IL Q_ LL ts. a. LL •o UL LL CL •o 1111 l i i i W m o 1 • •o • n o r» ui VISUAL-MOTOR MEMORY & CONCENTRATION VOCABULARY A FLUENCY JUDGMENT & REASONING U VISUAL-MOTOR MEMORY & CONCENTRATION VOCABULARY & FLUENCY JUDGMENT & REASONING A P P E N D I X N2 R E S P O N S E P A T T E R N S O F M A T C H E D E X P E R I M E N T A L A N D C O N T R O L S U B J E C T S O N T H E 3 ! N E T A P P E N D I X N3 R E S P O N S E P A T T E R N S O F M A T C H E D E X P E R I M E N T A L A N D C O N T R O L 5 U 3 J E C T 5 O N THE B I N E T A P P E N D I X N4 RESPON5H PATT2RN5 OF MATCHED E X P E R I M E N T A L A N D C O N T R O L SUSJECTS C N THE B1N.ET 141. A P P E N D I X N 5 R E S P O N S E P A T T E R N S O F M A T C H E D E X P E R I M E N T A L A N D C O N T R O L S U B J E C T S O N T H E B I N E T 

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