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A conception of global home economics education Smith, Mary Gale 1990

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A CONCEPTION OF GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION By Mary Gale Smith B.Ed. ( S e c ) , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Centre f o r the Study of Cu r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 @ Mary Gale Smith, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT L i v i n g i n a n i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w o r l d h a s p r o m p t e d m a n y e d u c a t o r s t o c a l l f o r i n - f u s i n g o r i n t e g r a t i n g a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l u m . S u c h a c t i o n , t o b e e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e , d e m a n d s c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y a n d t h e e x p o s u r e o f t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s a n d b a s i c v a l u e s . I n t e g r a t i n g a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e a n d home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n i s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h r o u g h c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s a n d c o n c e p t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e p u r p o s e o-f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e v e l o p a n d d e - f e n d a c o n c e p t i o n o-f g l o b a l home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n b y e x p l o r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : I s a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i c i t i n t h e m i s s i o n o-f home e c o n o m i c s ? I s g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n i m p l i c i t i n home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n ? W h a t a r e t h e p l a c e s o f c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o n s u m e r e d u c a t i o n , a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n i n home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n ? W h a t i s g l o b a l home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n ? A n d w h a t j u s t i f i c a t i o n o r r a t i o n a l e c a n b e o f f e r e d f o r g l o b a l home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n ? F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e ( C o o m b s , 1 9 8 8 a ) i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e m i s s i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s ( B r o w n & P a o l u c c i , 1 9 7 9 ) , t h a t c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d b y B r o w n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , a n d t h a t t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n s c a n o f f e r c o m p l e m e n t a r y a p p r o a c h e s t o g l o b a l p r o b l e m s . A i i c o n c e p t i o n o-f g l o b a l home economics e d u c a t i o n i s proposed t h a t i s an expansion o-f e x i s t i n g work (Brown, 1980), and advo c a t e s the s y s t e m a t i c i n t e g r a t i o n o-f g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n and home economics e d u c a t i o n , con-firms the p r a c t i c a l problem o r i e n t a t i o n recommended by Brown, and adopts the s t r a t e g y of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Impl i c a t i o n s -for c u r r i c u l u m development, t e a c h e r s , t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , and s c h o o l s are b r i e - f l y e x p l o r e d w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s f o r -further r e s e a r c h . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of -figures... vi Chapter Page 1 I n t r odu c t i on . . . 1 Background to the Problem.. 1 Rati o n a l e -for the Study 3 The Purpose of the Study 7 Research Questions. 8 Procedures 9 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 11 2 Background to the Study 12 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s of the L i t e r a t u r e . . 12 Reasons f o r G l o b a l i z i n g Home Economics Education... 15 Summary 21 3 A Global P e r s p e c t i v e and the M i s s i o n of Home Economics 23 The Concept of P e r s p e c t i v e 23 Global as a M o d i f i e r 25 A Global P e r s p e c t i v e 28 The M i s s i o n of Home Economics 39 An E x p l o r a t i o n of some of the Key Words in the Mis s i o n Statement 41 Is a Global P e r s p e c t i v e I m p l i c i t in the M i s s i o n of Home Economics? 46 Summary 52 4 Global Education and Home Economics Education 53 Def i n i t ions of Global Educat i on 53 Conceptions of Global E d u c a t i o n . . . 56 The C o n s t r u c t i v i s t Global P e r s p e c t i v e and the Conceptions of Global Education 63 Summary 66 C o n s t r u c t i v i s t Global Education and Home Economics Education 68 Summary 79 5 A n a l y s i s of the Reasons f o r I n t e g r a t i n g Global Education and Home Economics Education 80 C i t i z e n s h i p Education 81 Education f o r C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Understanding... 87 Consumer Education and Home Economics Educ a t i o n . . . . 94 Environmental Education and Home Economics Educat i on 98 Summary 103 6 Global Home Economics Education 107 In t e g r a t i o n of Global Education and Home Economics Education 108 P r a c t i c a l Reasoning 113 The F a m i l y — T h e Unique Focus of Global Home Economics Education 126 i v Home Economics Education Versus Global Home Economics Education 133 Global Home Economics Education and Other Content Areas 13? Summary. 142 7 J u s t i f i c a t i o n o-f the Conception o-f Global Home Economics Education 143 The Intent o-f Global Home Economics Education 144 Relevance, Adequacy, and Coherence 147 Other Standards of Defense 148 Summary • 151 8 Summary and Con c l u s i o n s 152 A Conception of Global Home Economics Education.... 152 Impl i cat i ons 1 54 For Further Research 158 Fi n a l Comments 159 B i b l i o g r a p h y . . 162 v LIST OF FIGURES Fi pure • Page 1. Types o-f Problems 115 2. P r a c t i c a l Problems 116 v i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM Living in an emerging global community has been i d e n t i f i e d by f u t u r i s t s (e.g., Ferguson, 1980; McLuhan , 1968; T o f f l e r , 1980) as one of the major challenges facing people today. In response to a rapidly changing world, the nature of global interdependence, interrelationships, and interconnectedness has surfaced as an issue in education. Although global education has more often been associated with social studies, i t has not been overlooked in home economics education. Since i t s inception in 1908, the International Federation for Home Economics (IFHE) has worked to "increase awareness and s o l i d a r i t y world wide" (Clark, 1985, p. 81). Although international exchange was the main focus in i t s early days, p a r t i c i p a t i o n in World Food Day, established in 1981, and World Home Economics Day, f i r s t celebrated in 1983, brought increased opportunities to promote global awareness at the local l e v e l . Canadian home economists have also expressed interest in global concerns. Boxen and Krondl (1974) argued that: Modern teaching in the f i e l d of Home Economics must view the worldwide forces acting on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of basic survival needs and not remain narrowly focussed on their consumption within the family, (p. 11) 1 T h e C a n a d i a n Home E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n ( C H E A ) d e v e l o p e d a r e s o u r c e k i t e n t i t l e d T h e W o r l d Home E c o n o m i c s D a y K i t d e s i g n e d t o b r i n g g l o b a l i s s u e s i n t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s ( C h a n n e r , 1 9 8 7 ) . R e c e n t c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t a n a l y s i s h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t g l o b a l c o n c e p t s a r e a p a r t o-f C a n a d i a n home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l a ( P e t e r a t , 1 9 8 9 ) . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e A m e r i c a n Home E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n i n c l u d e d s o m e g l o b a l c o n c e r n s i n t h e i r c o n c e p t s a n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s - f o r h i g h s c h o o l home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l a < A H E A , 1 9 6 7 ) . C u r r e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s i s A H E A ' s G l o b a l C o n n e c t i o n s p r o j e c t , a c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h a i m s t o p r o d u c e c o m p e t e n t , r e s p o n s i b l e g l o b a l c i t i z e n s < H o g a n , 1 9 8 7 ) . T w o s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s h a v e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s o-f g l o b a l a w a r e n e s s , a n d m a i n t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y - f a v o u r a b l e p e r s p e c t i v e t o w a r d g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n ( B a b i c h , 1 9 8 6 ; F r a z i e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n c r e a s i n g l y home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o i n c l u d e g l o b a l c o n c e p t s i n t h e i r p r o g r a m s o r t o a d o p t t h e g o a l o-f i m p a r t i n g t o s t u d e n t s a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A r e v i e w o-f t h e l i t e r a t u r e l i n k i n g home e c o n o m i c s a n d home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d / o r g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s i s v i e w e d b y m a n y a s a n a p p r o p r i a t e g o a l ( B r a n d e s , 1 9 8 6 ; C h e r r y , 1 9 8 7 ; D e a c o n , 1 9 8 7 ; F i r e b a u g h , 1 9 8 5 ; F r a z i e r , 1 9 8 3 ; G r e e n , 1 9 8 2 a , 1 9 8 2 b ; H a r r i m a n , 1 9 8 4 ; H e r r m a n , 1 9 8 7 ; J o h n s o n , 1 9 8 7 ; K o b l i n s k y , 1 9 8 7 ; M c K o w n , 1 9 8 6 ; M e n d e n h a l 1 , 1 9 8 7 ; M i l l a r , 1 9 8 7 ; 2 Montgomery, 1987; Mumaw, 1988; Murray, 1986, 1987; Nash, 1987; Nelson, 1987; Simpson, Montgomery, & Uaughn, 1987; Swope, 1981; Vaughn, 1987; Wilk, 1987; Williams, 1987a, 1987b). Recently, Baugher <1989a), arguing that "whether we recognize it or not, we are now in the process of creating a new global paradigm <p. 120)", has c a l l e d -for a new vision o-f what home economics education should be. RATIONALE FOR T H E STUDY The integration o-f home economics education and global education can be problematic. Contributing to this is the re l a t i v e newness o-f global education: Because concern -for global matters is an emerging and not an established goal -for educational systems, there are no r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , comprehensive, se 1-f-c on t a i n e d de-f i n i t i on s , descriptions, and analyses o-f what global education i s , how i t d i f f e r s -from traditional studies o-f other countries, what i t s objectives should be, what is now worth endorsing as l i k e l y to contribute to these objectives, and so on. (Goodlad, 1979, p. xv i i ) There is no consensus on terminology in global education and a general lack o-f agreement on d e f i n i t i o n a l substance exists (Babich, 1986). Definitional confusion is compounded by a lack of consistency in the designation of the f i e l d . It is variously referred to as "international studies", "world studies", "global education", or "education for a global perspective". 3 An a d d i t i o n a l problematic i s the l a r g e r debate r e g a r d i n g the purpose or -function o-f education. Many conceptions e x i s t ranging -from a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c emphasis on the uniqueness and personal f u l f i l l m e n t of each i n d i v i d u a l , to views which s t r e s s education as a v e h i c l e f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n or c i t i z e n s h i p or even s o c i a l change. If home economics education i s to be i n t e g r a t e d with global education, there must be c o n s i s t e n c y in the fundamental b e l i e f s about education and the educated person. Whether home economics education should be i n t e g r a t e d with global education i s another q u e s t i o n . Is global education j u s t a fad? What i s i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , i t s r a t i o n a l e ? These are important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Because education has a profound i n f l u e n c e on students, i t i s un e t h i c a l to y i e l d to the l a t e s t pressure without q u e s t i o n . Concern has been expressed that g l o b a l education can be j u s t a "slogan system" which i s adopted without regard f o r the un d e r l y i n g values or s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s being served <Popkewitz, 1980). Pet e r a t and McLean (1982) have warned that "we need to r a t i o n a l i z e our programs m o r a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y so that we are able to act in terms of some v i s i o n or ideal r a t h e r than merely r e a c t to s o c i e t a l trends and p r e s s u r e s " (p. 186). Brown (1985) cautioned that t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y and expedience have often been d e c i d i n g f a c t o r s in home economics edu c a t i o n . She poin t e d out that home economics has always had a pol i t i cal-moral 4 stance that r e q u i r e s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . F r i e s e n and Wieler (1988) d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n to what they regard as the need •for c a r e f u l examination of "new" ideas f o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n to ongoing (or past) p r a c t i c e and f o r some e x p l i c a t i o n of premises behind new approaches. I d e a l l y a conception would be o f f e r e d p r i o r to, or in c o n j u n c t i o n with, the development of g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , and a c t i v i t i e s . Developing a conception means making e x p l i c i t the value base and examining the assumptions and b e l i e f s of a c u r r i c u l a r p r o p o s a l . Authors who recommended the i n t e g r a t i o n of global concepts and home economics education, presented several arguments. These arguments tended to be i n t e r r e l a t e d and inter c o n n e c t e d and w i l l be presented here in order of t h e i r frequency of appearance in the l i t e r a t u r e , which may or may not be i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r importance. 1. A global p e r s p e c t i v e i s i m p l i c i t in the mission of home economics. 2. Because we l i v e in a global community, education f o r global c i t i z e n s h i p i s necessary. 3 . E t h n i c / c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y in the world r e q u i r e s education f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understandi ng. 4. I n c r e a s i n g economic interdependence r e q u i r e s that students be aware of the economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r consumer dec i s i ons. 5. Environmental concerns are an important part of resource management. (Smith, 1988) 5 These reasons f o r g l o b a l i z i n g home economics provide i n s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u d i n g global p e r s p e c t i v e s in e d u c a t i o n a l programs because none of them e x p l i c i t l y addresses the fundamental premise or the u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h i c b a s i s of global home economics edu c a t i o n . It i s not c l e a r that a global p e r s p e c t i v e i s i m p l i c i t in the miss i o n of home economics. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n of what i s meant by a global p e r s p e c t i v e nor i s there r e c o g n i t i o n that many global p e r s p e c t i v e s may e x i s t . The value s and r e p e r c u s s i o n s of advocating g l o b a l c i t i z e n s h i p have not been exp l o r e d . Which of the m u l t i p l e meanings of c i t i z e n s h i p education a p p l i e s ? Should c i t i z e n s h i p education be l i m i t e d to l o c a l or n a t i o n a l concerns or should i t a l s o include an i n t e r n a t i o n a l or global dimension? Global education has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r f o s t e r i n g a t t i t u d e s that are at odds with p a t r i o t i s m and n a t i o n a l l o y a l t y (The Ad Hoc Committee on Global Education, 1987). The danger of c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m being regarded as synonymous with moral r e l a t i v i s m must be addressed. Whether the vast and complex i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s of the world can be rendered s e n s i b l e in the classroom i s a l s o a question which needs e x p l o r i n g . If we are to teach about environmental concerns, how are we to avoid the s e n s a t i o n a l i s m and emotionalism attached to the to p i c that can clo u d r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g . And how do we determine what, or whose, i n t e r e s t s are being served? Thus, although each of these f i v e arguments, which dominate the 6 l i t e r a t u r e at the moment, appear to speak in -favour of i n t e g r a t i n g home economics education and global education, they need f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The values and assumptions embedded in each need to be uncovered and eva l u a t e d . Curriculum theory and design has long been dominated by the t e c h n o c r a t i c r a t i o n a l i t y of the means-end T y l e r i a n model but i t i s my co n t e n t i o n that u n l e s s the u n d e r l y i n g v a l u e s , assumptions, and b e l i e f s in home economics c u r r i c u l a r p r o p o s a l s are made e x p l i c i t , there i s the danger that global concepts in home economics c u r r i c u l a w i l l be t r e a t e d in a s i m p l i s t i c , t e c h n i c a l manner and as i f the y a re unproblematic, p r e d i c t a b l e , and c o n t r o l l a b l e . I am not alone in my concern. As Brown <1?84) poi n t e d out, often the a c t i o n s of home economists concentrate on g i v i n g information and t e c h n i c a l how-to-do r u l e s , i g n o r i n g complex conceptual and value q u e s t i o n s of the type c e n t r a l to global education and to the heart of home economics education. T H E PURPOSE OF T H E STUDY The purpose of t h i s study i s to develop and defend a conception of global home economics education; to argue f o r teaching global home economics; and to examine the value s and assumptions behind i n t e g r a t i n g global education and home economics educa t i o n , as well as to address i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teaching p r a c t i c e . 7 C l a r i f i c a t i o n of the term " g l o b a l " i s n e c e s s a r y as ther e does not appear to be a u n i v e r s a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concept i n terms of e d u c a t i o n . However, th e r e does appear to be ge n e r a l agreement on: the d e s i r a b i l i t y of G l o b a l L e a r n i n g ( l e a d i n g to Gl o b a l u n i t y ) , about the f e a s i b i l i t y of G l o b a l L e a r n i n g ( t h r o u g h the s h a r i n g of knowledge and s k i l l s ) , and about the urgency of G l o b a l L e a r n i n g ( i n view of the t h r e a t t o human s u r v i v a l ) . ( O l i v e r , 1987, pp. 94-95) Change always p r e s e n t s e d u c a t o r s w i t h a dilemma. There e x i s t s the t e m p t a t i o n to embrace the l a t e s t t e a c h i n g i n n o v a t i o n because i t pr o m i s e s to c r e a t e a b e t t e r w o r l d . Seldom i s much thought g i v e n t o the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i d e o l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t these new approaches l o g i c a l l y e n t a i l . As a r e s u l t , such piecemeal e f f o r t s and concommitant i n t e r n a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s may spawn even more problems than they s o l v e . ( F r i e s e n & W i e l e r , 1988, p. 47) R e c o g n i z i n g the need f o r c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n , t h i s attempt to a r t i c u l a t e and to j u s t i f y a p a r t i c u l a r approach to home economics e d u c a t i o n i s an e x e r c i s e i n s e e k i n g c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y and an answer to the v a l u e q u e s t i o n "What s h o u l d home economics e d u c a t i o n be?". RESEARCH QUESTIONS R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t d e v e l o p i n g a c o n c e p t i o n l i k e d e v e l o p i n g a r a t i o n a l e " i s an e x p l o r a t o r y and communicative a c t i o n , one i n which o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n s may a l t e r and 8 •further q u e s t i o n s w i l l emerge" (P e t e r a t & McLean, 1982, p. 186), the -focal q u e s t i o n s a r e : 1. Is a global p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i c i t in the mission of home economics? 2. Is global education i m p l i c i t in home economics educat i on? 3. What are the p l a c e s of c i t i z e n s h i p , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding, consumer d e c i s i o n -making, and environmental concerns in home economics education? 4. What i s global home economics education? 5 . What j u s t i f i c a t i o n or r a t i o n a l e can be o f f e r e d f o r global home economics education? The aim of t h i s t h e s i s i s to develop a c a r e f u l l y e l a b o r a t e d conception of global home economics education that may serve as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r teaching global home economics. PROCEDURES T h i s r e s e a r c h i s a p h i l o s o p h i c i n q u i r y i n v o l v i n g : conceptual a n a l y s i s of the key concepts; an e x p l o r a t i o n of the important i s s u e s ; the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a conception; and a defence of that c o n c e p t i o n . A c r i t i c i s m of a n a l y t i c philosophy i s that conceptual a n a l y s i s o f t e n i s a task that does not change anything and thus goes nowhere. However, I agree with P o r t e l l i (198?) and D a n i e l s C1987), that the l a r g e r g o als of t h i s approach have changed. A n a l y t i c philosophy i s viewed in t h i s i n q u i r y as a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e to the development of a conception of global 9 home economics ed u c a t i o n . I concur with Walker and S o l t i s <1?86) who s t a t e d that c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g means developing ways of t h i n k i n g and t a l k i n g about s o m e t h i n g , i n c l u d i n g making d i s t i n c t i o n s , d e f i n i n g , naming, and n o t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s . A s u c c e s s f u l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s an extremely v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the understanding of any phenomenon. <p. 2?) T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n of a conception w i l l t r y to capture the essence of global home economics education which may be use f u l f o r teachers of home economics. A conception of global home economics education w i l l be a statement of what ouo,ht to be . 11 wi 1 1 c 1 ar i f y and argue f o r a p a r t i c u l a r value p o s i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , normative and/or contextual dimensions w i l l be examined. In other words, the conception w i l l r e q u i r e an i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n or defense. I w i l l seek to demonstrate that the conception i s adequate, i s r e l e v a n t to the educational e n t e r p r i s e , and i s coherent. The values and assumptions embedded in the conception w i l l be exposed. Part of the defense w i l l be to e s t a b l i s h connections with the p r a c t i c a l problem of teaching home economics, and to show the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a c c e p t i n g t h i s conception of global home economics education. T h i s defense or j u s t i f i c a t i o n , in essence, w i l l become a r a t i o n a l e f o r teaching global home economi c s . 10 S I G N I F I C A N C E OF T H E STUDY T h i s study i s important -for a number of reasons. It re c o g n i z e s t h a t : 1. Educators have an i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t r y to understand what they are doing and why. 2. Sound r a t i o n a l e s do o f f e r some p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e in narrowing the o p t i o n s as to what and how to teach. 3. Persons w i e l d i n g power (e.g., advocates of c u r r i c u l u m f o r schoo l s ) have an e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to j u s t i f y t h e i r a c t i o n s and that j u s t i f i c a t i o n must be grounded in u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e , human d i g n i t y , e q u a l i t y . . . . (Newrnann, 1977, pp. 30-31) The aim of producing a p a r t i c u l a r conception of global home economics education and developing a r a t i o n a l e or j u s t i f i c a t i o n , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y to create consensus. It i s no s e c r e t that home economics educators c u r r e n t l y hold c o n f l i c t i n g and unclear conceptions of the aim of home economics education, of the questi o n s with which i t should be concerned, of knowledge r e l e v a n t to the f i e l d , of ap p r o p r i a t e procedures and norms of i n q u i r y . (Brown, 1980, p . 14) I hope to s t i m u l a t e thought and d i s c u s s i o n among home economics educators about the need f o r conceptual c l a r i f i c a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of educational p r a c t i c e . 11 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND TO T H E STUDY PRELIMINARY A N A L Y S I S OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E Since the e a r l y 1970s, there has been an increase in i n t e r e s t in i n t e g r a t i n g g l o b a l issues and education programs. Prompted by the image o-f the global v i l l a g e and the r e a l i z a t i o n that problems to be faced (e.g., nuclear war, p o l l u t i o n , world p o p u l a t i o n , resource d e p l e t i o n , and hunger) are no longer l o c a l , or n a t i o n a l , but of a global nature, d i f f e r e n t educational responses to global i s s u e s appeared. The e a r l y educational responses to global i s s u e s , o f t e n generated by United N a t ions agencies such as UNESCO, promoted education f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l understanding. They were p r i m a r i l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t r a d i t i o n a l , academic, d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s (Heater, 1980; Hicks & Townley, 1982). The focus was on language study, geographical s t u d i e s of other c o u n t r i e s , and h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l examinations of the world. In the United S t a t e s , w r i t e r s such as Lee Anderson (1979, 1982), James Becker (1979, 1982) and W i l l a r d Kniep (1986) among o t h e r s , have promoted global education, arguing t h a t : In an i n t e r r e l a t e d world wherein our s u r v i v a l and w e l l - b e i n g i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to our c a p a c i t y to understand and deal r e s p o n s i b l y and e f f e c t i v e l y 12 with other peoples and n a t i o n s and with a host o-f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s , g l o b a l s t u d i e s can be viewed as bas i c e d u c a t i o n . (Becker, 1982, p. 230) They view global education as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i v i n g in a global s o c i e t y . Kniep (1936) i d e n t i f i e d the s u b s t a n t i v e focus of global education as the domains of global systems, of global i s s u e s and problems, of human values and c u l t u r e s , and of global h i s t o r y . Global education i s a l s o d e f i n e d in terms of i t s v i s i o n or goal to develop in students a global p e r s p e c t i v e . Hanvey (1976) s t a t e d : Education f o r a gl o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s that l e a r n i n g which enhances the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to understand h i s or her c o n d i t i o n in the community and the world and improves the a b i l i t y to make e f f e c t i v e judgments, (p. i) The approach taken by many American w r i t e r s c e n t e r s on the concept of interdependence, s t r e s s i n g the need f o r a global p e r s p e c t i v e that embraces the whole world r a t h e r than some of i t s p a r t s . T h i s commitment to a global p e r s p e c t i v e i s a l s o part of World S t u d i e s , the favoured terminology in B r i t a i n (Heater, 1980). In the l a t e 1980s, the st r o n g e s t advocates from the United Kingdom f o r global l e a r n i n g appear to have been Pike and Selby (1986, 1988). They have argued that "schools are human p o t e n t i a l d u s t b i n s " (1988, p. 47) and must change: Learning f o r the t w e n t y - f i r s t century must recognise and r e f l e c t the systemic and h o l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s of the world which that century w i l l w itness, r a t h e r than upholding the mechanistic t r a d i t i o n s of ni n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c h o o l i n g . (1988, p. 57) 13 Development educa t i o n , peace education, and m u l t i -c u l t u r a l education are a l s o viewed as responses to global is s u e s (Hicks & Town l e y , 1982). For example, peace educator, E l i s e Boulding (1988), has e n t i t l e d her l a t e s t work B u i l d i n g a Global C i v i c C u l t u r e and Reardon's (1988) teacher designed c u r r i c u l a -for peace education i s e n t i t l e d Educating f o r Global R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In 1988, I undertook a study to analyze the nature of the v a r i o u s reasons f o r responding to global concerns in home economics education (Smith, 1988). I found some e a r l y appeals to broaden the focus of home economics: f o r example, to include the near and f a r environment (AHEA, 1967); "to view worldwide f o r c e s a c t i n g on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of b a s i c s u r v i v a l needs" (Boxen & Krondl, 1974, p. 11); to "improving our i n t e r n a t i o n a l competence" (Engberg, 1977, p. 20); and, "to look more c r i t i c a l l y at c u r r e n t s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s in the l i g h t of global r e a l i t i e s " (Meeman, 1979, p. 32). Brown (1980), in c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g home economics education as part of the "continuous examination of the u n d e r l y i n g r a t i o n a l i t y of the f i e l d " (p. v ) , r e f e r r e d to developing a global point of view and a gl o b a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g exposure to world human s u f f e r i n g and hunger have brought p l e a s f o r i n t e r e s t and coo p e r a t i o n in developed and a f f l u e n t c o u n t r i e s ( P e t e r s , 1984; Swope, 1981). A movement away from ethnocentrism was emphasized by McKown (1986) who has used the term "global t h i n k i n g " and Deacon (1987) who has l i s t e d 14 s t r e n g t h e n i n g our global p e r s p e c t i v e and understanding as one o-f the major tasks -facing home economists as the t w e n t y - f i r s t century approaches. Raines (1988) has expanded on t h i s notion in arguing f o r the p r o f e s s i o n to change from "ego-centered" to "eco-centered" . In a r t i c l e s a d d r e s s i n g global concerns or issu e s and home economics education, there has been a general consensus that i n t e g r a t i n g the two i s an ap p r o p r i a t e educational g o a l . REASONS FOR GLOBALIZING HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION In the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed, the arguments or reasons f o r i n t e g r a t i o n of global concepts i n t o home economics c u r r i c u l a c l u s t e r around f i v e general themes. One of the themes r e l a t e s to home economics in general by f o c u s s i n g on the mission of home economics, while the other four r e l a t e more to home economics educational concerns. 1. A a l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s i m p l i c i t in the mis s i o n of home  economics. In 1979, Brown and Pao l u c c i produced a mission statement which has been widely adopted by home economists in the United S t a t e s and Canada. They argued tha t : The mission of home economics i s to enable f a m i l i e s , both as i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and g e n e r a l l y as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , to b u i l d and maintain systems of a c t i o n , which lead 1) to maturing in i n d i v i d u a l s e 1 f - f o r m a t i o n and 2) to e n l i g h t e n e d , c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the c r i t i q u e and 15 •formulation o-f s o c i a l g o als and means -for accomplishing them. <p. 23) T h i s c e n t r a l purpose o-f home economics i s o-f ten summarized as enhancing the w e l l - b e i n g or q u a l i t y of l i f e of f a m i l i e s (Herrman, 1987; Johnson, 1987; Kobli n s k y , 1987). Some argue that the concept of f a m i l y i s u n i v e r s a l ( i . e . , some concept of f a m i l y , as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , e x i s t s in a l l s o c i e t i e s ) and thus, home economists cannot l i m i t themselves to f a m i l i e s in the near environment. They must a l s o consider the needs of f a m i l i e s worldwide ( F r a z i e r , 1983; Herrman, 1987). The need f o r the b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e — f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r — u n a v o i d a b l y makes the mission of home economics of global relevance and home economists cannot be s a t i s f i e d as long as there are f a m i l i e s whose needs are.not being met. Vu l n e r a b l e f a m i l i e s in our own neighbourhoods and in developing c o u n t r i e s need a s s i s t a n c e ( B u v i n i c , L y c e t t e , & McGreevey, 1983; Johnson, 1987; Kob l i n s k y , 1987; Sen & Grown, 1987; Swope, 1981). Thus, i t i s argued, concern f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of ba s i c human needs (Green 1982a; Hoskins, 1986; Murray & C l a r k , 1982), h e a l t h and welfare (Roberts, 1987), and q u a l i t y of l i v i n g (Deacon, 1987) of f a m i l i e s worldwide speaks to the relevance of the mission of home economics. The major c r i t i c a l human problems r e l a t e d to t h i s argument are h u n g e r and p o v e r t y , t h e i r e f f e c t on i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s , and the r e c o g n i t i o n that remediation of s t a r v a t i o n and s u f f e r i n g in 16 the world cannot take place u n l e s s and u n t i l -families in developed and a f f l u e n t c o u n t r i e s become i n t e r e s t e d in i n t e r n a t i o n a l cooperation ( P e t e r s , 1984; Swope, 1981). Roberts (1987) and Rybus (1987) emphasize the importance of being aware of world hunger and poverty, whereas Vaughn (1987) contends that r e d u c t i o n of hunger and poverty must be the goal of home economics. Other c o n d i t i o n s that a f f e c t the w e l l - b e i n g of f a m i l i e s are e x p l o i t a t i o n (Simpson, Montgomery, & Vaughn, 1987) and the need f o r p o p u l a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e ( K o b l i n s k y & Vaughn, 1985; Murphy, 1985). In response to the gap between c u r r e n t s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s and ideal human c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s argued that i t i s our p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n to empower i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s (Brown & P a o l u c c i , 1979; Deacon, 1987; Green, 1982a; Vaines, 1980). T h i s r e q u i r e s a movement from a mechanistic and fragmented view of the world to a global p e r s p e c t i v e (Deacon, 1987); from t h i n k i n g mainly about o u r s e l v e s in i s o l a t i o n to "global t h i n k i n g " which r e c o g n i z e s the interdependence of the peoples of the world (McKown, 1986); and from an " e g o - c e n t r i c " p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n to an "eco-centered" r e a l i t y mode of a r e f l e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l (Vai nes, 1988). 17 2. B e c a u s e we l i v e i n a Q l o b a l community, e d u c a t i o n -for  o l o b a l c i t i z e n s h i p i s n e c e s s a r y . T h i s theme focuses on the f a c t that we cannot ignore the i n t r i c a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the near and global environments. Telecommunications media make us immediately aware of events around the world. We are i n c r e a s i n g l y r e a l i z i n g that the natu r a l environment we share does not recogn i z e n a t i o n a l boundaries. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of consumer-goods from a wider range of c o u n t r i e s reminds us d a i l y of our interconnectedness and interdependence. The consumer c h o i c e s we make have economic and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r other peoples in the world, and f o r our n a t i o n a l economy. Koblinsky (1987) argues that "today's students are tomorrow's l e a d e r s and d e c i s i o n makers [ s i c ] " (p. 60), t h e r e f o r e , a t t e n t i o n must be given to the f a c t that "education b u i l d s a t t i t u d e s , values and a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s that shape p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a c t i o n s over many decades" <p. 60). Thus, "we have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to educate f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace, j u s t i c e , and world c i t i z e n s h i p " (Nash, 1987, p. 85). The major concept r e l a t e d to t h i s argument i s s o c i a l / p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Emphasis i s pl a c e d on the development of a s o c i a l conscience so that students can make informed p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s and take p o s i t i v e s o c i a l a c t i o n . F r a z i e r (1983) r e f e r s to a c h i e v i n g a " g l o b a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e l i f e - s t y l e " which "means that people 18 worldwide can have s a t i s f y i n g l i f e - s t y l e s in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h and not at the expense of o t h e r s " (p. 168). 3. E t h n i c / C u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i n the w o r l d r e q u i r e s e d u c a t i o n f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s reason r e c o g n i z e s t h a t i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y and i m m i g r a t i o n are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a g l o b a l community. Thus, a l l over the w o r l d e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e groups are l i v i n g i n c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h each o t h e r . Canada has embraced t h i s d i v e r s i t y by a d o p t i n g a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s the view of the " m e l t i n g pot" of n a t i o n a l i t i e s i s g i v i n g way t o a c k n o w l e d g i n g c u l t u r a l / e t h n i c / r a c i a l d i v e r s i t y as a s t r e n g t h (LaBrecque, 1985; Saunders, 1985). Mumaw <1983) contends t h a t , "we must now educate so t h a t we can f u n c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l y in a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y as w e l l as in a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e w o r l d " (p. 170). C r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s the concept a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s argument. Emphasis i s g i v e n to the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the d i v e r s i t y in t r a d i t i o n s , customs, s k i l l s , and b e l i e f s of c u l t u r e s and the r e d u c t i o n of s t e r e o t y p i n g and p r e j u d i c e ( D e t e r d i n g & K e l l y , 1985; Howard & White-hood, 1985; K o b l i n s k y 1987; LaBrecque, 1985; Montgomery, 1987; Saunders, 1985; Simpson, Montgomery, & Vaughn, 1987; W i l l i a m s , 1987a). 19 4. I n c r e a s i n g e c o n o m i c i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e r e q u i r e s t h a t s t u d e n t s be aware o-f the e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s o-f t h e i r consumer d e c i s i o n s . T h i s argument i s r e a l l y p a r t o-f l i v i n g in a g l o b a l community but i s o f t e n g i v e n s e p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t . For example, Mumaw (1988) i n c l u d e s i n her r a t i o n a l e , l i v i n g i n a g l o b a l community, i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y , and e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y . She contends t h a t " b a s i c human needs d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g f o o d , c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h e a l t h , and o t h e r a s p e c t s of l i f e are no l o n g e r i s o l a t e d e v e n t s " <p. 171). K o b l i n s k y (1987) argues t h a t the w e l l - b e i n g of No r t h Americans i s t i e d c l o s e l y t o tr a d e w i t h l e s s e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e f o r e , knowledge of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e i s s u e s becomes important i n making informed c h o i c e s . Consumer d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s the concept a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s argument w i t h a t t e n t i o n to the economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of such dec i s i ons. 5. E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f r e s o u r c e  management. T h i s theme i s a l s o r e l a t e d to g l o b a l c i t i z e n s h i p and the w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s but i s at times c o n s i d e r e d as a s e p a r a t e c o n c e r n . Murray (1987) d i s c u s s e s the environment, t e c h n o l o g y , and energy and t h e i r impact on 20 people. She i n d i c a t e s that while widespread concern -for the s t a t e of the environment i s r e l a t i v e l y new, p o l l u t i o n and d i m i n i s h i n g environmental q u a l i t y c o n s t i t u t e s i g n i f i c a n t dimensions of the global s i t u a t i o n . R e s o u r c e management i s the main concept a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s theme. F r a z i e r (1983) in o u t l i n i n g f i v e p a r t s of a g l o b a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e l i f e - s t y l e adopts mainly a resource use and environmental point of view. The impact of p o p u l a t i o n on the environment (Harriman, 1984; Kobl i n s k y & Vaughn, 1985; Mangold & What l e y , 1975) i s a l s o part of t h i s argument. SUMMARY T h i s review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d that global concepts are viewed by many to be a part of home economics. However, t h e i r place in home economics c u r r i c u l a needs f u r t h e r d e f i n i n g . Is a global p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i c i t in the mission of home economics? Does i t f o l l o w that global education i s then i m p l i c i t in home economics education? Is c i t i z e n s h i p education part of home economics education? Is education f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding part of home economics education? Are the global i m p l i c a t i o n s of consumer decision-making part of home economics education? Does resource management in home economics education include environmental concerns? These are the quest i o n s that quide the c e n t r a l problem of t h i s t h e s i s — t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of global education and home economics education. They are viewed as the spec i - f i c q u e s t i o n s which w i l l a s s i s t in the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a conception of global home economics educat i on. 22 CHAPTER 3 A GLOBAL P E R S P E C T I V E AND T H E MISSION OF HOME ECONOMICS Be-fore examining the mission o-f home economics -for evidence of a global p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s necessary to have a c l e a r understanding of what i s meant by a global p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s means f i r s t being a t t e n t i v e to, and cognizant o f , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the concept of " p e r s p e c t i v e " and having some understanding of the contemporary use of " g l o b a l " as a m o d i f i e r . THE CONCEPT OF P E R S P E C T I V E The concept of p e r s p e c t i v e i n c l u d e s the notion of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y : To have a p e r s p e c t i v e i s always to have a p e r s p e c t i v e on or about some o b j e c t , i s s u e , problem, s t a t e of a f f a i r s or the l i k e . In other words a p e r s p e c t i v e always has an obj e c t of some s o r t . Ule would not know what to make of someone's c l a i m i n g to have a unique p e r s p e c t i v e but being unable to say what i t i s a p e r s p e c t i v e on. (Coombs, 1988a, p. 1) The synonyms f o r p e r s p e c t i v e , f o r example, viewpoint, l e n s , point of view, and outlook, i n d i c a t e that a p e r s p e c t i v e i s r e a l l y a framework f o r understanding that i n c l u d e s such t h i n g s as v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , and e x p e r i e n c e s . Having a p e r s p e c t i v e i n v o l v e s having a p a r t i c u l a r angle, d i r e c t i o n or point of view from which the object i s viewed. When one's p e r s p e c t i v e i s not a v i s u a l one, the point of view i s provided by the conceptual framework in terms of which the object 23 i s viewed, i . e . , by the concepts, b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and valu e s in terms of which the object i s understood. (Coombs, 1988a, p. 1) T h i s f e a t u r e of a p e r s p e c t i v e can be f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d by r e c o g n i z i n g that a p e r s p e c t i v e i s always a l i m i t e d view in that i t i s from a p a r t i c u l a r stance. T h i s i s not to say that t h i s i s n e c e s s a r i l y bad, but that i t i s l i m i t e d , s e l e c t i v e , and p a r t i a l . Use of the concept p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i e s that there w i l l be m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s . Talk of p e r s p e c t i v e s has point only when there can be more than one p e r s p e c t i v e on the same o b j e c t , that i s to say, there can be more than one way of viewing the o b j e c t , n e i t h e r of which i s true or f a l s e . P e r s p e c t i v e s may be more or l e s s f r u i t f u l , adequate, r e s p o n s i b l e , or humane, but they cannot be true or f a l s e . A f a l s e view about and object does not count as a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , but merely as a mistaken p e r c e p t i o n or set of b e l i e f s . (Coombs, 1988a, p. 1) A v a r i e t y in p e r s p e c t i v e s may a l s o a r i s e from the d i f f e r e n c e in the manner or way they are h e l d . E x p l i c i t l y or d e l i b e r a t e l y h e l d p e r s p e c t i v e s are used l i k e a tool and can be l a i d a s i d e , f o r example, a moral p e r s p e c t i v e , an economic p e r s p e c t i v e , or an environmental p e r s p e c t i v e . I m p l i c i t or taken f o r granted p e r s p e c t i v e s are ones that are not even recog n i z e d as p e r s p e c t i v e s . They are embedded in r o l e s , language, b i o g r a p h i e s , and expe r i e n c e s . In summary, to have a p e r s p e c t i v e i s to have a point of view on some o b j e c t . It i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , narrowness and l i m i t a t i o n , and p l u r a l i t y . 24 GLOBAL AS A MODIFIER I n c r e a s i n g l y the word global i s appearing in the media and in popular l i t e r a t u r e as a d e s c r i p t o r . Economists r e f e r to the global economy, c 1 i m a t o l o g i s t s d i s c u s s global warming, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s r a i s e i s s u e s that are global in scope. The word evokes the image of the globe, that s p h e r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the earth that was, and perhaps s t i l l i s , a f i x t u r e in elementary classrooms. Most d i c t i o n a r i e s s t a t e that the term global i s an a d j e c t i v e r e l a t i n g to or i n v o l v i n g the e n t i r e world. Thus, to make something global i s to make i t worldwide in scope or a p p l i c a t i o n . In e d u c a t i o n , global i s the term favoured in the United S t a t e s . "World" as in "world s t u d i e s " or "world mindedness" appears to be used more f r e q u e n t l y in Great B r i t i a n (Heater, 1980; Hicks & Townley, 1982) with the work of Pike and Selby (1986, 1988) being the e x c e p t i o n . T h e i r l a t e s t p u b l i c a t i o n , e n t i t l e d Global Teacher. Global Learner, i n c l u d e s what they r e f e r to as an i r r e d u c i b l e global p e r s p e c t i v e and the four dimensions of " g l o b a l i t y " . To many, the term global i m p l i e s wholeness or completeness as opposed to being i s o l a t e d , separated, or d i s t a n c e d . T h i s means viewing the world as a s i n g l e i n t e r r e l a t e d system, embracing the whole world r a t h e r than the p a r t s , but r e c o g n i z i n g that the wholeness i s c o n s t i t u t e d by interdependent and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d p a r t s . Pradervand 25 <1?87) argues that "...oneness always was the fundamental s t r u c t u r e of the u n i v e r s e , but we simply behaved...as i f we l i v e d in a universe made up of m i l l i o n s of separate e n t i t i e s " <p. 15). Pike and Selby (1988) have i d e n t i f i e d t h i s as the s p a t i a l dimension of global i t y . The sense of wholeness i s not l i m i t e d to p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s . For something to be g l o b a l , i t can be broadly p e r c e i v e d , i n c l u s i v e , and comprehensive. Economic, e t h i c a l / m o r a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and h i s t o r i c a l viewpoints would be meshed to complete the p i c t u r e . Woyach and Remy (1982) use the term " t r a n s n a t i o n a l " as being synonomous with g l o b a l . Thus, extending or going beyond, or transcending, n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l boundaries i s a f e a t u r e of global which should not be confused with " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " , where the emphasis i s "between" n a t i o n s . I m p l i c i t here i s the notion that global i n t e r e s t s are i n c l u s i v e not d i v i s i v e as n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s can be . Hicks and Townley <1982) suggest that there i s an element of change embedded in the contemporary use of the term. " < E) nv i ronmen t and the many t h r e a t s to the ea r t h ' s d e l i c a t e ecosystems... f i r s t gave r i s e to the image of the global v i l l a g e <p. 5 ) " . Thus, the use of global as a m o d i f i e r often r e f e r s to changes in the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the world. Part of t h i s change i s due to the r a p i d increase in communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks 26 that have u n i t e d many p a r t s o-f the world and that have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to the concerns about r e l a t e d n e s s and wholeness. An extension of t h i s i s what Pike and Selby (1988) c a l l the temporal dimension of global i t y , which r e c o g n i z e s that change i s rooted in the past, and r e l a t e d to the present and f u t u r e . Although global can be taken to imply, completeness and u n i v e r s a l i t y , i t i s u n q u a l i f i e d and n e u t r a l . I disagree with Pike and Selby (1988) who argue that an issue i s global only i f i t a f f e c t s "the l i v e s of people and/or the h e a l t h of the planet in a harmful or p o t e n t i a l l y harmful way, such as environmental p o l l u t i o n , racism, and the threat of nuclear war" (p. 22). It would be more accurate to s t a t e that an issue i s global i f i t a f f e c t s the l i v e s of people and/or the h e a l t h of the planet n e g a t i v e l y or p o s i t i v e l y . The harmfulness, or the p o t e n t i a l i t y f o r harm, i s what makes i t an issue or a matter of d i s p u t e , but i s not d e f i n i t i v e of global . In summary, the a d j e c t i v e global i s d e s c r i p t i v e of contemporary phenomena that are worldwide in causal scope or a p p l i c a t i o n or involve a view of the world as a s i n g l e system, (e.g., global t r a v e l , global communication, and glo b a l economy). It i s a comprehensive term that, in many cont e x t s , i s a l s o presumed to c a r r y with i t the themes of change, interdependence, i n c l u s i v i t y , and connectedness. 27 A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE To combine global with p e r s p e c t i v e means to have a p a r t i c u l a r , s e l e c t i v e p o i n t o-f view on the world as a whole. Many global p e r s p e c t i v e s e x i s t . The d i f f i c u l t y with much of the l i t e r a t u r e on g l o b a l education i s that the term global p e r s p e c t i v e i s used f r e q u e n t l y without an e x p l a n a t i o n of what makes up the p a r t i c u l a r global p e r s p e c t i v e . It often seems that authors assume there i s only one g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . To gain a b e t t e r understanding of a global p e r s p e c t i v e I w i l l examine mainly the work of three authors: Hanvey (1976), Pike and Selby <1986, 1988), and Coombs <1988a). With the p u b l i c a t i o n of An A t t a i n a b l e Global Perspec t i ve in 1976, Robert Hanvey became one of the more important f i g u r e s in North American global education because most of the developments in glob a l education are e i t h e r based on h i s work or are a r e a c t i o n to i t . He s e t s out two aims or purposes of education f o r a global p e r s p e c t i v e as: <a) "...enhanc(ing) the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to understand h i s or her c o n d i t i o n in the community and the world" <p. i) and <b> "...improv(ing) the a b i l i t y to make e f f e c t i v e judgments" <p. i ) . Then he o u t l i n e s f i v e elements of an at ta i nable global p e r s p e c t i v e : D i m e n s i o n 1 - - P e r s p e c t i v e C o n s c i o u s n e s s - - t h e r e c o g n i t i o n or awareness on the part of the i n d i v i d u a l that he or she has a view of the world that i s not u n i v e r s a l l y shared, that t h i s view of 28 the world has been and contin u e s to be shaped by i n f l u e n c e s that o f t e n escape conscious d e t e c t i o n , and that o t h e r s have views of the world that are profoundly d i f f e r e n t from one's own. <p. 4) Dimension 2 — " S t a t e of the Planet" Awareness— awareness of p r e v a i l i n g world c o n d i t i o n s and developments, i n c l u d i n g emergent c o n d i t i o n s and trends, e.g. po p u l a t i o n growth, m i g r a t i o n s , economic c o n d i t i o n s , r e s o u r c e s and p h y s i c a l environment, p o l i t i c a l developments, sci e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y , law, h e a l t h , i n t e r - n a t i o n and i n t r a - n a t i o n c o n f 1 i c t s , e t c . <p. 6) Dimension 3 — C r o s s - c u l t u r a l Awareness—awareness of the d i v e r s i t y of ideas and p r a c t i c e s to be found in human s o c i e t i e s around the world, of how such ideas and p r a c t i c e s compare, and i n c l u d i n g some l i m i t e d r e c o g n i t i o n of how the ideas and ways of one's own s o c i e t y might be viewed from other vantage p o i n t s , (p. 8) Dimension 4—Knowledge of Global Dynamics—some modest comprehension of key t r a i t s and mechanisms of the world system, with emphasis on t h e o r i e s and c o n c e p t s t h a t may i n c r e a s e i n t e l l i g e n t c onsciousness of global change, (p. 13) Dimension 5—Awareness of Human Choices—some awareness of the problems of choice c o n f r o n t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , n a t i o n s and the human s p e c i e s as consciousness and knowledge of the global system expands. <p. 32) Thus, the obj e c t of h i s global p e r s p e c t i v e i s the l i f e c o n d i t i o n s in the community and the world. The p a r t i c u l a r angle of t h i s g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s guided by the values and b e l i e f s embodied in the f i v e dimensions which form a conceptual framework. In us i n g the term " a t t a i n a b l e " , Hanvey attempts to be r e a l i s t i c and to give credence to the p o s s i b i l i t y of m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s : As conceived here a global p e r s p e c t i v e i s not a quantum, something you e i t h e r have or don't have. It i s a blend of many th i n g s and any given 2? i n d i v i d u a l may be r i c h in c e r t a i n elements and r e l a t i v e l y l a c k i n g i n o t h e r s . The e d u c a t i o n goal b r o a d l y seen may be to s o c i a l i z e s i g n i f i c a n t c o l l e c t i v i t i e s o-f people so t h a t the important elements of a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e are r e p r e s e n t e d in the group. Viewed in t h i s way a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e may be a v a r i a b l e t r a i t p o s s e s s e d in some form and degree by a p o p u l a t i o n , w i t h the p r e c i s e c h a r a c t e r of t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e d e t e r m i n e d by the s p e c i a l i z e d c a p a c i t i e s , p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e s of the group's members. The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s n o t i o n , of c o u r s e , i s t h a t d i v e r s i f i e d t a l e n t s and i n c l i n a t i o n s can be encouraged and t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t s are not r e q u i r e d . Every i n d i v i d u a l does not have to be brought to the same l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral development i n orde r f o r a p o p u l a t i o n t o be moving i n the d i r e c t i o n of a more g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e , ( p. 2) There appear to be two main c r i t i c i s m s of Hanvey's work. P i k e and S e l b y <1986, 1988) charged t h a t i t i s not f o r c e f u l enough i n l i g h t of g l o b a l r e a l i t i e s . The other-concern a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t Hanvey s e t s out two purposes but o n l y d e a l s w i t h the f i r s t . The second purpose, t h a t of making e f f e c t i v e judgments, i s not e l a b o r a t e d . In order to make e f f e c t i v e judgments, a s e t of s t a n d a r d s or v a l u e s i s r e q u i r e d . The importance of t h i s p o i n t i s r e v e a l e d in the a n a l y s i s by Coombs <1988a). P i k e and S e l b y <1986, 1988) found Hanvey's " a t t a i n a b l e " g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n s u f f i c i e n t l y f o r c e f u l in i t s promotion of the need f o r a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e in e d u c a t i o n . A r g u i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s must be p r e p a r e d t o u n d e r s t a n d and to p a r t i c i p a t e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y i n the g l o b a l system, they propose an " i r r e d u c i b l e " g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . They o f f e r f i v e aims which c o n s t i t u t e t h i s i r r e d u c i b l e g l o b a l 30 p e r s p e c t i v e and contend that " i f any o-f the f i v e are not met, then the school i s f a i l i n g in part to address and prepare students f o r contemporary r e a l i t y " (p. 34): 1. Systems consciousness. Students should acquire the a b i l i t y to think in a systems mode, abandoning s i m p l e d u a l i t i e s such as c a u s e / e f f e c t , p r o b l e m / s o l u t i o n , 1 o c a l / g l o b a l . T h i s mode of thought should enable them to acquire an understanding of the systemic nature of the world, and a h o l i s t i c conception of t h e i r own c a p a c i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l . 2. P e r s p e c t i v e consciousness. Students should recognise that they have a world view that i s not u n i v e r s a l l y shared and that there are dangers in using t h e i r own framework of thought and pe r c e p t i o n as a y a r d s t i c k f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g and judging the v a l u e s , l i f e s t y l e s and world view of ot h e r s . They should a l s o develop r e c e p t i v i t y to other p e r s p e c t i v e s . 3. Health of planet awareness. Students should acquire an awareness and understanding of the global c o n d i t i o n and of global trends and developments (e.g., wealth d i s t r i b u t i o n , types of developments, environmental impact of human a c t i v i t y ) . They should develop an informed understanding of the concepts of j u s t i c e , human r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and be able to apply that understanding to the global c o n d i t i o n . In c o n s i d e r i n g the h e a l t h of the p l a n e t , students should a l s o develop the c a p a c i t y f o r f u t u r e proj ec t i on. 4. Involvement consciousness and preparedness. Students should become aware that the c h o i c e s they make and the a c t i o n s they take, i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , have r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r the global present and the global f u t u r e . They should develop the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s k i l l s necessary f o r becoming e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s in democratic decision-making at a v a r i e t y of l e v e l s , g r a s s - r o o t s to g l o b a l . 5. Process-mindedness. Students should understand that l e a r n i n g and personal development are continuous journeys with no f i x e d or f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n ; and that new ways of seein g the world are r e v i t a l i s i n g but r i s k y . New v i s i o n may b r i n g some th i n g s i n t o focus but obscure others and i t w i l l , in any case, become obs o l e t e in time. (Pike & Selby, 1986, p. 42) 31 The s i m i l a r i t i e s between Hanvey's a t t a i n a b l e global p e r s p e c t i v e and Pike and Selby's i r r e d u c i b l e global p e r s p e c t i v e are unmistakable. They are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l on four p o i n t s . Pike and Selby have dropped c r o s s - c u l t u r a l awareness from t h e i r l i s t and i n s e r t e d process-mindedness. Both value democracy and acknowledge that p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the decision-making process can only be v a l i d i f i n d i v i d u a l s possess c e r t a i n s k i l l s . Hanvey does not s p e c i f y the standards or value s which would guide decision-making. While Pike and Selby (1986) note that "there are dangers in usi n g t h e i r own framework of thought and p e r c e p t i o n as a y a r d s t i c k f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g and judging ...values" (p. 42), and a l l u d e to " j u s t i c e , human r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " <p. 42), they do not s u f f i c i e n t l y o u t l i n e what an acceptable y a r d s t i c k would be. The d i f f i c u l t y with both i s that the u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l base i s not r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e . When advocating a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e as an educational aim, why t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e should be adopted should be made c l e a r and these reasons must be e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e . Adopting a p e r s p e c t i v e means a commitment to c e r t a i n standards, p r i n c i p l e s , or valu e s that w i l l form the b a s i s f o r a conceptual framework. These standards, p r i n c i p l e s , or val u e s should be su b j e c t to s c r u t i n y and students must be able to give good reasons f o r a c c e p t i n g them. Two home economists have used the phrase "a global p e r s p e c t i v e " in t h e i r s t u d i e s . F r a z i e r (1985) set out to 32 " i d e n t i f y home economists who have developed a global p e r s p e c t i v e " (p. 5) but then proceeded to use the phrase "global awareness". T h i s . conceptual s l i p p a g e i s c o n f u s i n g because awareness does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that one has adopted a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e . However, the f i v e components of global awareness/perspective that she o u t l i n e d are noteworthy: 1. Balanced Development....bal ance of l o c a l resource supply and demand... energy demands do not s t r a i n l o c a l supp1y...open exchange of ideas with other c o u n t r i e s as a two-way process...workers s p e c i a l i z e in some tasks, moderate dependence on ot h e r s , (p. 19) 2. V o l u n t a r y S i m p l i c i t y . . . . i n e l udes s t r a t e g i e s f o r c r e a t i n g a s a t i s f y i n g l i f e s t y l e through c a r e f u l , t h o u g h t f u l , and d e l i b e r a t e c h o i c e . . . i n v o l v e s s t r e a m l i n i n g and s i m p l i f y i n g personal p o s s e s s i o n s . <p. 22) 3. A p p r o p r i a t e Technology....the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of any technology i s dependent on the degree to which i t i s compatible with the c u l t u r e , (p. 28) 4. I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e c i p r o c i t y . . . I n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , each c u l t u r e has much to g i v e , each has much to g a i n . (p. 33) 5. S u s t a i n a b l e L i f e s t y l e s . . . . i n v o l v e s an i n t r i c a t e balance of a l l i n f l u e n c e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a c u l t u r e . <p. 36) Although these f i v e components appear to be q u i t e t e c h n i c a l , F r a z i e r f r e q u e n t l y mentioned "reasoned a c t i o n " and " r a t i o n a l thought". While the valu e s or t h e o r i e s which would guide t h i s a c t i o n and thought are not s p e c i f i e d , i t appears that u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s and some notion of common good would preva i1 . Babich (1986) in her study of the global education a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of Iowa home economics teachers, 33 d e f i n e s a global p e r s p e c t i v e as c o n s i s t i n g "of the inf o r m a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s , awareness, and s k i l l s which taken together, can help i n d i v i d u a l s understand the world, how they a f f e c t o t h e r s , and how others a f f e c t them" (p. 46). Her d e f i n i t i o n i s problematic because i t does not address why i t i s d e s i r a b l e to have a global p e r s p e c t i v e and seems to imply that any global p e r s p e c t i v e or worldview i s adequate. T h i s would allow each person to use t h e i r own value system as a b a s i s f o r making judgments. Educators who advocate the adoption of a p a r t i c u l a r global p e r s p e c t i v e or po i n t of view as an educational o b j e c t i v e , must recognize the normative or value dimension which r e q u i r e s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to T a y l o r (1961) j u s t i f y i n g a point of view r e q u i r e s d i s t i n q u i s h i n g c a r e f u l l y four t h i n g s : 1. S t a t i n g the canons of reasoning which de f i n e a point of v i ew. 2. D e c i d i n g to adopt the canons of reasoning of a point of view ( i . e . , d e c i d i n g to take the point of v i ew) . 3. J u s t i f y i n g the statements made in 1. 4. J u s t i f y i n g the d e c i s i o n made in 2. (p. 115) In f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s p o s i t i o n , T a y l o r (1961) s t a t e s : The task of 1, namely the statement of the canons of normative reasoning, c o n s i s t s in e x p l i c a t i n g an i d e a l . To s t a t e the canons of reasoning that d e f i n e a normative poin t of view i s to s p e c i f y the r u l e s of relevance and of v a l i d i n ference which anyone would f o l l o w , i f he were f u l l y r a t i o n a l , in v e r i f y i n g and v a l i d a t i n g value judgments of a c e r t a i n k i n d . They are the r u l e s a person would f o l l o w i f he were always to give good (and a 34 f o r t i or i r e l e v a n t ) r e a s o n s i n judgments and in a r g u i n g a g a i n s t o t h e r s , (p. 11?) j u s t i f y i n g h i s the judgments of Coombs (1988a) in t i t l i n g h i s work Towards a D e f e n s i b l e C o n c e p t i o n of a G l o b a l P e r s p e c t i v e s e t s out to a n a l y z e c o n c e p t i o n s of a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t h e i r normative p o s i t i o n s and f o r evi d e n c e of r u l e s of r e l e v a n c e ["...the c r i t e r i a by which we determine whether a reason o f f e r e d by someone in j u s t i f y i n g a g i v e n v a l u e judgement i s r e l e v a n t " ( T a y l o r , 1961, p. 109)3 and r u l e s of v a l i d i n f e r e n c e ["...the c r i t e r i a which determine whether a reason we have a l r e a d y found to be r e l e v a n t i s good..." ( T a y l o r , 1961, p. 1 0 9 ) ] . He b e g i n s by i d e n t i f y i n g the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s of a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e from the l i t e r a t u r e : I n s t r u m e n t a l C o n c e p t i o n ....imp1 i e s knowledge of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l w o r l d , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the w o r l d , and of the mechanisms of change w i t h i n i t . (p. 2) P l u r a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n . . . . encompasses a l l of the b e l i e f s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n . , . . a w a r e n e s s . . .of v i e w s of t h e w o r l d . . . . o f d i v e r s i t y i d e a s and p r a c t i c e s . . . . of problems of c h o i c e . . . . i n c l u d e s the b e l i e f t h a t the v a l u e s of o t h e r groups have the same c l a i m t o v a l i d i t y as the v a l u e s of one's own group and t h a t one ought not to judge the l i f e c o n d i t i o n s , p r o j e c t s and a s p i r a t i o n s of o t h e r groups s o l e l y in terms of the v a l u e s of one's own group, ( p. 3 ) U n i v e r s a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n . . . . a l 1 of the b e l i e f s embodied in the i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n .... the b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e are two s o r t s of v a l u e s : u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s t h a t must be acknowledged by a l l p e o p l e , and l o c a l v a l u e s which v a r y from group to group. The v a l u e s g e n e r a l 1y taken t o be u n i v e r s a l i n c l u d e e q u i t y , r e s p e c t f o r human d i g n i t y , economic development, peace and s e c u r i t y and the r i g h t s p r o c l a i m e d i n t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s d e c l a r a t i o n of human r i g h t s . Problems of human 3 5 groups and t h e i r s o l u t i o n s are to be i d e n t i f i e d in terms of these u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s . <p. 3) In determining the Instrumental Conception of a global p e r s p e c t i v e Coombs <1988a) i n c l u d e s two of Hanvey's dimensions: "State of the Planet" Awareness and Knowledge of Global Dynamics. These correspond with Pike and Selby's Health of Planet Awareness and System Consciousness. Babich's conception of a global p e r s p e c t i v e appears to belong to t h i s category. E s s e n t i a l l y t h i s conception concentrates on the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge. The d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s when one c o n s i d e r s that t h i s knowledge c o u l d be used f o r any purpose. There are no guides or canons of reas o n i n g . As Coombs p o i n t s out: It i m p l i e s nothing about what a l t i t u d e one should take toward human problems, that i s to say, i t in c o r p o r a t e s no normative outlook - n e i t h e r a theory of the good nor a moral theory. <p. 2) The P l u r a l i s t conception as o u t l i n e d by Coombs b a s i c a l l y encompasses a l l of the dimensions of Hanvey's a t t a i n a b l e g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e and e s s e n t i a l l y a l l of what i s proposed in Pike and Selby's i r r e d u c i b l e g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s conception i s a l s o found l a c k i n g . Again I quote from Coombs. The d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s conception i s that i t ' s [ s i c ] theory of what s o r t s of things are good f o r persons i s too t h i n to provide c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g human problems or s o l u t i o n s to such problems. N e i t h e r does i t embody any procedural r u l e s f o r making such i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s in a r e s p o n s i b l e way. T h i s w e a k l y n o r m a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e seems as l i k e l y to stymie as to promote r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n to improve the human 36 c o n d i t i o n , -for one cannot proceed c o n f i d e n t l y t o b r i n g about good -for per s o n s based on one's own p e r c e p t i o n o-f the good. (p. 3) The u n i v e r s a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n i s a s'trongl y normative p o s i t i o n which i n c l u d e s a moral p o i n t o f view and a t h e o r y of good. Who c o u l d argue a g a i n s t such u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s as r e s p e c t f o r human d i g n i t y , peace, s e c u r i t y , and j u s t i c e . However, making r e f e r e n c e t o the w i d e s p r e a d abuse of human r i g h t s t h a t e x i s t s i n the w o r l d at p r e s e n t , Coombs exposes the weakness of t h i s c o n c e p t i o n : The f a i l u r e t o i n c o r p o r a t e w i t h i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e any reasoned view about why the u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s are to be a c c e p t e d c a s t s doubt on the e d u c a t i o n a l d e f e n s i b i 1 i t y of p r o m u l g a t i n g t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . Moreover, t h i s same d e f i c i e n c y p r o h i b i t s the u n i v e r s a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e from p r o v i d i n g guidance in c a s e s where p e r c e i v e d u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s come i n t o c o n f l i c t , or when groups are i n c o n f l i c t over the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or s t a t u s of some v a l u e , ( p. 4) F i n d i n g the e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t i o n s of a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e as an e d u c a t i o n a l goal incomplete or l a c k i n g a b a s i s f o r r a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the h a n d l i n g of v a l u e i s s u e s , Coombs p r e s e n t s a new c o n c e p t i o n which he c a l l s a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t c o n c e p t i o n : A person who has a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l see a l l of the p e o p l e s of the w o r l d as h a v i n g equal moral w o r t h . In a d d i t i o n she w i l l b e l i e v e t h a t an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the task of b e t t e r i n g the l i v e s of persons i s the task of c o n s t r u c t i n g elements of a genuine w o r l d moral community out of our d i s p a r a t e v a l u e h e r i t a g e s . More p a r t i c u l a r l y , a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e would i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : 1. A l l of the b e l i e f s embodied in the i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n . 2 . The b e l i e f t h a t we can a r r i v e at and j u s t i f y moral judgments through r a t i o n a l 37 d e l i b e r a t i o n and d i a l o g [ s i c ] when we have at l e a s t a minimum o-f common human experience. 3. The b e l i e f that we have at present only the bare bones of a world moral community, but that i t i s p o s s i b l e to expand our range of common moral understanding and commitment without c o e r c i o n or i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , i . e . , by r a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n and d i a l o g and by shared p r o j e c t s seen as mutually desi r a b l e . 4. The b e l i e f that in seeking to solve human problems we must work to b u i l d a moral community. 5. The d i s p o s i t i o n to acquire and use the kinds of knowledge, a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , and s e n s i t i v i t i e s that are necessary f o r r e s p o n s i b l e d e l i b e r a t i o n and d i a l o g about value i s s u e s , (pp. 4-5) It appears that elements of the u n i v e r s a l i s t conception w i l l guide r a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n and dialogue because in g i v i n g good reasons f o r i d e n t i f y i n g problems i n e v i t a b l y some u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s w i l l p r e v a i l . In o u t l i n i n g the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , Coombs makes e x p l i c i t that t h i s g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e which i s the only one that can be j u s t i f i a b l y adopted as an educational goal i s a moral p o i n t of view. A c c o r d i n g to T a y l o r (1961): To take the moral point of v i e w . . . i s to commit ones e l f to the ideal of always g i v i n g good and r e l e v a n t reasons When j u s t i f y i n g moral judgments, moral p r e s c r i p t i o n s , moral standards, and moral r u l e s . One might not be able to f u l f i l l t h i s i d e a l , but to have adopted the moral point of view i s to have p l a c e d o n e s e l f in the p o s i t i o n of s t r i v i n g to r e a l i z e i t and of having one's reasoning su b j e c t to c o r r e c t i o n in l i g h t of i t . The d e c i s i o n to take the moral p o i n t of view i s simply the d e c i s i o n to be as r a t i o n a l as one can concerning moral matters. Such a d e c i s i o n i s j u s t i f i e d p r e c i s e l y because t h i s i s what the d e c i s i o n c o n s i s t s i n . To decide not to take the moral point of view would be to decide not to be as r a t i o n a l as p o s s i b l e in moral matters. It would be a d e c i s i o n to be l e s s than r a t i o n a l and 38 hence would be an i r r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n . (pp. 121-122) In summary, o-f the conceptions o-f a global p e r s p e c t i v e as i d e n t i f i e d by Coombs <1988a), the c o n s t r u e t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e appears most s u i t a b l e f o r educ a t i o n . It inc l u d e s a moral poin t of view, and as such r e q u i r e s normative reasoning i e . , making judgments on the b a s i s of good reasons r a t h e r than f o r c e , s e l f - i n t e r e s t , f e a r , punishment, and so f o r t h . Based on the ideal of c r e a t i n g a moral community which sees a l l people as having equal moral worth and the ideal of a m e l i o r a t i n g l i f e c o n d i t i o n s of people, t h i s global p e r s p e c t i v e i s e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e . THE MISSION OF HOME ECONOMICS H i s t o r i c a l l y , home economics, sometimes c a l l e d domestic s c i e n c e , grew out of a movement which sought to improve l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s in a s o c i e t y wrought with many changes brought on by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . It was d u r i n g the Lake P l a c i d Conferences which took place over a ten-year p e r i o d from 1899 to 1908 that home economics was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as: a study of the laws, c o n d i t i o n s , p r i n c i p l e s and i d e a l s concerned with man's immediate p h y s i c a l environment and h i s nature as a s o c i a l being and e s p e c i a l l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two f o r the purpose of improving the q u a l i t y of h i s d a i l y l i f e . <Lake P l a c i d Proceedings, 1908) Thus, s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n , home economics has been concerned with improving the w e l l - b e i n g and q u a l i t y of l i f e of f a m i l i e s . However, as Badir <1988), Brown (1985), and 39 o t h e r s have po i n t e d out, the improvement in q u a l i t y o-f d a i l y l i f e tended to concentrate more on the m a t e r i a l q u a l i t y of l i f e . As a r e s u l t the p r o f e s s i o n developed as one that gave emphasis to d i s s e m i n a t i n g s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and t e c h n i c a l know-how. Using the concept of q u a l i t y of l i f e adds a p o l i t i c a l / e t h i c a l dimension to home economics which has been commonly ignored <Arcus, 1?8?a; Brown, 1985). In the past t h i r t y y ears, i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n has been given to the examination of the purpose and the philosophy of home economics. As p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d in chapter 2, the Brown and Pao l u c c i (1979) r e p o r t , Home Economics: A Def i n i t i on. contained the f o l l o w i n g mission statement: The mission of home economics i s to enable f a m i l i e s , both as i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and g e n e r a l l y as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , to b u i l d and maintain systems of a c t i o n , which lead 1) to maturing in i n d i v i d u a l s e 1 f - f o r m a t i o n and 2) to e n l i g h t e n e d , c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the c r i t i q u e and for m u l a t i o n of s o c i a l g o als and means f o r accomplishing them. (p. 23) T h i s mission statement a r t i c u l a t e s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions that guide home economics p r a c t i c e . It i s assumed that f a m i l i e s are important to s o c i e t y , that f a m i l i e s need a s s i s t a n c e , that home economists can o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e in the form of education, that people are capable of working together, and that they can shape s o c i e t y (Hargrove, 1938). 40 AN EXPLORATION OF SOME OF THE KEY UIORDS IN THE MISSION STATEMENT M i s s i on A mission statement o-f a p r o f e s s i o n a l group i n d i c a t e s the shared values to which the group i s committed. It i s a normative statement of what p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e "ought" to be. The c e n t r a l purpose or i n t e n t of home economics i s of t e n termed i t s mission because home economics i s a p r o f e s s i o n which seeks to perform some mission of s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y or some segment of s o c i e t y (Brown, 1980; Brown & P a o l u c c i , 1979). A mission i s more than a goal because i t u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a c o n t i n u i n g set of p r o j e c t s or e f f o r t s . A m i s s i o n - o r i e n t e d f i e l d i s one in which "knowledge or knowing i s f o r the sake of doing something with the knowledge which i s d i f f e r e n t from a d i s c i p l i n e o r i e n t e d f i e l d which views knowledge as an end" (Vaines, 1980, p. 112). The scope of problems i s broad, knowledge i s drawn "from whatever d i s c i p l i n e s have something r e l e v a n t to c o n t r i b u t e " (Brown, 1980, p. 19), and a c t i o n i s taken. Enable The choice of the verb "enable" to d e s c r i b e the s e r v i c e of home economist i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Had the authors used the verb "help", which would not be incongruent, as the p r o f e s s i o n has f r e q u e n t l y been r e f e r r e d to as a h e l p i n g 41 p r o f e s s i o n , the type o-f p r a c t i c e recommended would be qu i t e d i f f e r e n t . Enable connotes empowering, making p o s s i b l e , or pr e p a r i n g . T h i s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from help which connotes a i d i n g , a s s i s t i n g , r e s c u i n g , or s a v i n g . Enable assumes the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of those who are • being enabled. At the very l e a s t , i t r e q u i r e s the consent of those i n v o l v e d . To enable human beings i s to give them the power to act on t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and change i t , i f they so choose. (Hargrove, 1938, p. 87) There i s an e t h i c a l dimension in the use of enable in the mission statement. The Concept of A c t i o n and the Systems of A c t i o n A m i s s i o n - o r i e n t e d p r o f e s s i o n i s a l s o a c t i o n o r i e n t e d . The a c t i o n i n v o l v e d in the p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e of home economists should not be mindless, i t should involve r a t i o n a l i t y . As home economists we must engage in p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n with a l l that the concept of a c t i o n i m p l i e s (the f o r m u l a t i o n of g o a l s , the i n i t i a t i v e , the s o c i a l context and consequences in the p r a c t i c e of the p r o f e s s i o n , the communication of meaning, e t c . ) . We cannot merely behave f o r then we separate thought and a c t i o n , theory and p r a c t i c e ; we conform to p r e v a i l i n g norms without question or i n i t i a t i v e ; we act out of n e c e s s i t y ( i n c l u d i n g the n e c e s s i t y to p r o t e c t vested i n t e r e s t s in our own f i e l d ) . Nor can we, with i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral i n t e g r i t y , be mindless a c t i v i s t s out of compulsion to meet our own needs. (Brown & Paolucci , 1979, p. 22) The mission statement p r o v i d e s the focus f o r a c t i o n , but r e c o g n i t i o n i s given to the need f o r e t h i c a l a c t i o n , a c t i o n which i s subject to s c r u t i n y . Three systems of a c t i o n are 42 proposed as means to - f a c i l i t a t e the achievement of the m i ss i on . The m i ssion or general g o a l ( s ) of the p r o f e s s i o n must take i n t o account the systems of a c t i o n which the f a m i l y has h i s t o r i c a l l y had w i t h i n i t and w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d to p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y w e l l - b e i n g as well as to the ideas and i d e a l s of s o c i e t y : 1. Purposive, r a t i o n a l a c t i o n (means-ends a c t i o n ) or work to secure the animal n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l , and to secure the g o als of c i v i l i z e d l i v i n g . 2. Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n , i . e . , language and s o c i a l norms and values with the u n d e r l y i n g meaning i n v o l v e d . In l i g h t of the l o s s of freedom f o r the f a m i l y to a c t , f a m i l i e s need to i n s t i t u t e a t h i r d system of ac t i on : 3. Emancipative a c t i o n which p r o v i d e s c r i t i c a l c onsciousness of s o c i a l f o r c e s and which then formulates s o c i a l g o als and v a l u e s and judges c r i t i c a l l y the means by which to accomplish those goals and v a l u e s . (Brown & Paolucc i , 1979, p. 22) Purposive, r a t i o n a l a c t i o n , a l s o c a l l e d instrumental a c t i o n , i n v o l v e s t e c h n i c a l "how t o " . It i s oppressive but necessary to some degree f o r meeting the needs of the s p e c i e s . It i s r u l e o r i e n t e d with the end given and p a r t i c i p a n t s are d i r e c t e d through a u t h o r i t y . (Vaines, 1980, p. 113) Managing p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and p r o v i d i n g f o r the p h y s i c a l needs of the i n d i v i d u a l and the f a m i l y i s the domain of t h i s system of a c t i o n . Communicative a c t i o n "which enables both understanding (of one another and of c u l t u r a l meaning and norms) and the development of consensus about norms of conduct" (Brown, 1980, p. 79) i s needed to e s t a b l i s h the p h y s i c a l requirements of the f a m i l y which r e q u i r e 43 p u r p o s i y e - r a t i o n a l a c t i o n and can lead to emancipatory a c t i o n . Emancipatory a c t i o n : enables the f a m i l y and i t s i n d i v i d u a l members to use reason in enlightenment about e x i s t i n g dogmatic b e l i e f s , f a l s e views, and e x p l o i t a t i o n s which cause human s u f f e r i n g in d e v eloping consciousness of the common i n t e r e s t of those i n v o l v e d - in determining the circumstances surrounding the concrete case of imposed s u f f e r i n g - in developing s t r a t e g i e s most l i k e l y to produce consequences c o n s i s t e n t with common i n t e r e s t s (given the e x i s t i n g circumstances) and ac c o r d i n g to the r i s k s those i n v o l v e d are w i l l i n g to take - in engaging in the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e to change the dogmatic b e l i e f , the f a l s e view, or the e x p l o i t a t i o n . (Brown, 1980, p. 79) Home economists in p r o v i d i n g human s e r v i c e s guided by the miss i o n would " b u i l d and maintain" a l l three systems of a c t i o n and u t i l i z e the ap p r o p r i a t e one depending on the circumstances of a s i t u a t i o n . Choosing which system of a c t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e should be guided by e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . I n d i v i d u a l Se1f-formation Brown and Pao l u c c i h o l d that people g e n e r a l l y make themselves but what a person makes of himself or h e r s e l f i s i n f l u e n c e d by the world in which he or she l i v e s . The primary s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n in the formation of the s e l f i s the home and f a m i l y and i t i s here that home economists focus t h e i r s e r v i c e s . The i n d i v i d u a l s e1f-formation they 44 would l i k e to see develop i s that which moves toward the goal of c r e a t i n g autonomous, moral agents. In s aying that home economics should develop these p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of persons to become f r e e , moral agents, I do so with the f i r m c o n v i c t i o n that we can j u s t i f y m o r a l l y only the f o s t e r i n g freedom of thought, m u t u a l i t y in r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r s , and moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's own a c t i o n s . We should c o n t r i b u t e to developing persons who can make e n l i g h t e n e d r a t i o n a l c h o i c e s f r e e of i n t e r n a l and s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s on thought, who le a r n to f i n d a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of t h e i r own i d e n t i t y and c a p a c i t i e s in r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r s ( i n c l u d i n g but not l i m i t e d to the f a m i l y ) , and whose commitments and s o c i a l understandings enable them to act in the i n t e r e s t of the common good. (Brown, 1985, p. 42) S o c i a l Goals When Brown and Pao l u c c i included in the mission statement the notion that f a m i l i e s can c r i t i q u e and formulate s o c i a l g o a l s , they moved the f a m i l y from a s o c i a l u n i t which "adapts" to s o c i e t y to one which " c o n f r o n t s " s o c i e t y . C r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n on taken - f o r - g r a n t e d norms or p r a c t i c e s , on what change means, and so f o r t h , i s r e q u i r e d to remove f a m i l i e s from domination and e x p l o i t a t i o n . The aim i s a f r e e s o c i e t y . A f r e e s o c i e t y . . . i s one in which there are in each set of concrete circumstances, s o c i a l l y organized arrangements which assure that b a s i c d e c i s i o n s about what i s r i g h t and j u s t would meet with the agreement of a l l a f f e c t e d by these d e c i s i o n s i f they were able to p a r t i c i p a t e on a f r e e and equal base. (Brown, 1980, p. 48) In summary, the Brown and Pao l u c c i (1979) mission statement and f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s of the mission of home 45 economics by Brown (1980, 1984, 1985, 1988) have made e x p l i c i t that home economists work -from a p o l i t i c a l moral p o s i t i o n to d e l i v e r important s e r v i c e s to s o c i e t y through t h e i r concern with the home and the f a m i l y . The inten t of the mission of home economics i s to produce i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s who are autonomous, moral agents working toward freedom and happiness in a democratic s o c i e t y . IS A GLOBAL P E R S P E C T I V E I M P L I C I T IN T H E MISSION QF HOME  ECONOMICS? It has been r e p e a t e d l y suggested that a global p e r s p e c t i v e i s i m p l i c i t in the mission of home economics. Some have merely suggested that " f a m i l y " i s a u n i v e r s a l concept, and thus, the focus of home economics i s global in nature. Others look more toward the a c t i o n of home economists, f o r example, F r a z i e r (1985) argues: With t h i s as a mission statement, home economics has a vested i n t e r e s t in addressing the e f f e c t of global ism on the i n d i v i d u a l and the f a m i l y . T h i s i n t e r e s t i s two-fold. Home economics i s concerned with p r e p a r i n g the f a m i l y to cope with i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l interdependency and with h e l p i n g the f a m i l y as a c o l l e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p u b l i c p o l i c y as i t a f f e c t s f a m i l i e s , (p. 4) What I propose to do i s to examine the mission of home economics f o r evidence that i t was w r i t t e n from a global p e r s p e c t i v e . To do t h i s , I w i l l review the elements of the c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e as o u t l i n e d by Coombs (1988a) and then examine the mission of home economics as 46 e x p l i c a t e d by Brown and P a o l u c c i (1979) and Brown (1980, 1985) f o r -features o-f the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e . As p r e v i o u s l y argued, the only e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e globa l p e r s p e c t i v e that can l e g i t i m a t e l y be adopted in education or home economics, which Brown (1980) has c l a s s e d as " m i s s i o n - o r i e n t e d - f i e l d s o-f study and... personal s e r v i c e pro-f ess i ons" (p. 28) because they seek to change people, i s the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e (Coombs, 1988a). In r e v i e w , a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as -follows: 1. Awareness or Know!edoe Dimension A c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i n c l u d e s an awareness or knowledge dimension, t h i s means some understanding o-f global c o n d i t i o n s , developments, and trends, -for example, p o p u l a t i o n growth, wealth d i s t r i b u t i o n , environmental concerns, and so -forth, and some modest understanding of the systemic nature of the world. 2. A Moral P o i n t of View A c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i n c o r p o r a t e s a moral point of view based on the b e l i e f that a l l peoples of the world have equal moral worth. 3. B u i l d i n Q a world moral community A c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i n c l u d e s the b e l i e f that the task of b e t t e r i n g the l i v e s of people i n v o l v e s b u i l d i n g a world moral community. 4? 4 . Value D e l i b e r a t i o n and J u s t i f i c a t i o n A c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i n v o l v e s r e s p o n s i b l e value d e l i b e r a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n . It in c l u d e s the b e l i e f that through r a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n and dialogue i t i s p o s s i b l e to j u s t i f y moral judgments to expand the range of common moral commitment. 5. Di sposi t i ons A c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i n c l u d e s the d i s p o s i t i o n s to acquire and use the kinds of knowledge, a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , and s e n s i t i v i t i e s that are necessary f o r r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of value i s s u e s . Awareness or Knowledge Dimension The mission statement i n c l u d e s the phrase "en l i g h t e n e d , c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n " . The use of "enlightened" i m p l i e s freedom from ignorance and connotes a f u l l comprehension of problems i n v o l v e d . It can a l s o embody the notion of j u d i c i o u s n e s s and a sense of improving or making b e t t e r . Since e n l i g h t e n e d means being informed or i l l u m i n a t e d , i t f o l l o w s that the awareness or knowledge dimension i s a part of the mission of home economics. A Moral Point of View It appears that the mission statement by Brown and Paol u c c i (197?) was an attempt to r e f o c u s a p r o f e s s i o n which had contended that i t s aim was to improve the q u a l i t y of 48 l i f e of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s (which in r e a l i t y i s an e t h i c a l - m o r a l stance) but which had become stuck in a mode of t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y and customary p r a c t i c e . Brown,-in p a r t i c u l a r , has f r e q u e n t l y expressed concern r e g a r d i n g the lack of r e f l e c t i v e and c r i t i c a l thought w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . The m i s s i o n , which e n v i s i o n s home economics promoting " i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - f o r m a t i o n " ( i . e . , the c r e a t i o n of autonomous, moral agents) and promoting " p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the c r i t i q u e and f o r m u l a t i o n of s o c i a l g o a l s " , embeds the f i e l d in value and e t h i c a l d e l i b e r a t i o n s . Brown (1985) c o n s i d e r s "values, as concepts with a normative aspect, c e n t r a l to the conceptual framework of the d i s c i p l i n e of home economics and to p r a c t i c e in the f i e l d " (p. 628). Arcus (1986) contends that f o r the purposes of home economics, the words e t h i c s and m o r a l i t y mean the same and can be used interchangeably. For the mission statement to include a moral point of view a c c o r d i n g to T a y l o r (1961), i t means a commitment "to the ideal of always g i v i n g good and r e l e v a n t reasons when j u s t i f y i n g moral judgments, moral p r e s c r i p t i o n , moral standards, and moral r u l e s " (p. 121). A moral point of view i s i m p l i c i t in the mission statement because in order to " b u i l d and maintain systems of a c t i o n , which lead 1) to maturing in i n d i v i d u a l se 1 f-format i on and 2) to e n l i g h t e n e d , c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the c r i t i q u e and f o r m u l a t i o n of s o c i a l g o a l s " , a commitment to a way of 49 l i f e in which a moral value system takes precedence over other value systems i s assumed. B u i l d i n o a W o r l d M o r a l Community Although Brown and P a o l u c c i ' s mission statement (197?) does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r to b u i l d i n g a world moral community, the goals embodied in the m i s s i o n , that i s , c r e a t i n g autonomous moral agents who can c r i t i q u e , formulate and take a c t i o n on s o c i a l g o als in the i n t e r e s t of c r e a t i n g a s o c i e t y f r e e of ignorance, b l i n d compulsions, and unnecessary forms of s o c i a l domination, c o u l d be construed as working toward a world moral community. It i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that b u i l d i n g a world moral community may be i m p l i c i t in the notion of democracy so f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to by Brown (1980, 1985). She i s l i k e l y to agree with Giroux's (1988) c l a r i f i c a t i o n of democracy as an " a c t i v e s o c i a l movement" (p. 171). It i s important to acknowlege that the notion of democracy cannot be grounded in some a h i s t o r i c a l , transcendent notion of t r u t h or a u t h o r i t y . Democracy i s a s i t e of s t r u g g l e and i s informed by competing i d e o l o g i c a l conceptions of power, p o l i t i c s , and community. T h i s i s an important r e c o g n i t i o n because i t helps to r e d e f i n e the r o l e of the c i t i z e n as an a c t i v e agent in q u e s t i o n i n g , d e f i n i n g , and shaping one's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p o l i t i c a l sphere and the wider s o c i e t y . (Giroux, 1988, p. 170) P a r t i c i p a t i o n in a democracy presupposes the i n i t i a t i o n of i t s members in t o a c e r t a i n k i n d of moral c u l t u r e — a set of 50 v a l u e s , p r i n c i p l e s , and a t t i t u d e s which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o-f a democratic/moral community. V a l u e D e l i b e r a t i o n and J u s t i f i c a t i o n As a-f-firmed p r e v i o u s l y , one of the key phrases in the mission statement i s that a c t i o n in home economics should lead "to e n l i g h t e n e d c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the c r i t i q u e and f o r m u l a t i o n of s o c i a l g o a l s " . Use of " c r i t i q u e " i m p l i e s e v a l u a t i n g or a s s i g n i n g value, thus value d e l i b e r a t i o n i s d e f i n i t e l y a dimension of the mission of home economics. J u s t i f i c a t i o n i s in v o l v e d because the mission i s a moral poin t of view which r e q u i r e s good reasons be given f o r moral judgments or e v a l u a t i o n s . Di s p o s i t i ons The general acceptance w i t h i n the home economics p r o f e s s i o n of the mission as conceptual ized by Brown and Paolucci <1979) i s evidence of some degree of d i s p o s i t i o n to acquire and to use the kinds of knowledge, a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , and s e n s i t i v i t i e s that are necessary f o r r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of value i s s u e s . However, the mission statement alone cannot i n f l u e n c e p r a c t i c e , e s p e c i a l l y when "what the statement of mission means i s too f r e q u e n t l y not comprehended in terms of moral imp1 i c a t i o n s . . . a n d there i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n between what i s s a i d and what i s done in p r a c t i c e " (Brown, 1985, p. 927). 51 But the aim o-f producing a mission statement and f u r t h e r conceptual and i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l o r a t i o n s by Brown has been to increase w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n the d i s p o s i t i o n of i t s members to probe beneath the sur f a c e and to use reason to give "more adequate pol i t i c a l - m o r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i r e c t i o n to home economics" (Brown, 1985, p. 958). SUMMARY T h i s a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s s u b s t a n t i a l evidence that the mission statement prepared by Brown and Paolucci (1979) in Home Economics: A D e f i n i t i o n , a r t i c u l a t e s a p o s i t i o n or point of view of p o l i t i c a l moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o n s i s t e n t with the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e o u t l i n e d by Coombs (1988a). What f o l l o w s i s the need to explore whether or not there i s a conception of global education which i s c o n s i s t e n t with the c o n s t r u e t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e , and whether or not t h i s conception i s i m p l i c i t in the conception home economics edu c a t i o n . 52 CHAPTER 4 GLOBAL EDUCATION AND HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION The i n t e n t of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t w o - f o l d : (a) to determine i f a c o n c e p t i o n of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n e x i s t s t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and <b) to examine Ulhat i s Home Economics E d u c a t i o n ? . a c o n c e p t i o n d e v e l o p e d by M a r j o r i e Brown, p u b l i s h e d i n 1980, f o r e v i d e n c e of a c o n c e p t i o n of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . DEFINITIONS OF GLOBAL EDUCATION I have chosen to use " d e f i n i t i o n " in the heading here because th e r e i s p r e s e n t l y an absence of c o n c e p t u a l work in the f i e l d of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n . A d d i n g to the c o n f u s i o n i s the " j u n g l e of nomenclature" ( H e a t e r , 1980) and the l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y in the use of terms. " G l o b a l e d u c a t i o n " , " w o r l d - c e n t e r e d e d u c a t i o n " , " g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e s in e d u c a t i o n " , " e d u c a t i o n f o r wor1d-mindedness", " g l o b a l l e a r n i n g " , " g l o b a l l i t e r a c y " , " w o r l d s t u d i e s " , " i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n " , and so f o r t h are o f t e n used synonymously. In f a c t , g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n may be a misnomer. Anderson (1979) i n d i c a t e d t h a t he p r e f e r r e d " e d u c a t i o n f o r a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e " but because i t was too cumbersome i t f r e q u e n t l y became " g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n " . Thus, g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n became the p o p u l a r t e r m i n o l o g y in A m e r i c a , a term 53 coined f o r expediency and fraught with c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Is glo b a l education a formal or informal a c t i v i t y ? Is i t viewed as a broad concept or as a narrow concept? Does i t involve short term information g i v i n g or i s i t a long term process of value change? Is i t a s u b s t a n t i v e program or a methodology? Is i t neu t r a l or committed to c e r t a i n values? Is i t p r i m a r i l y academic, t h e o r e t i c a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l in o r i e n t a t i o n or i s i t a c t i o n l i n k e d ? Does i t mean education f o r a global p e r s p e c t i v e ? Is i t and i n i t i a t i v e used to inform and i n f l u e n c e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t areas, or i s i t a course of s t u d i e s l i k e mathematics education or home economics education? In developing a conception of gl o b a l education, one would seek to c l a r i f y and a r t i c u l a t e a p a r t i c u l a r approach to education and to o f f e r a defence by showing the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f , and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r , a c c e p t i n g t h i s c o n c e ption. To my knowledge t h i s has not yet been done. Instead, d e s c r i p t i v e or programmatic d e f i n i t i o n s are o f f e r e d l i s t i n g the aims, g o a l s , or substance of c u r r i c u l a r p r o p o s a l s . For example, Babich (1986) in her study d e f i n e d global education as: Global education i s the process by which people acqu i re : - the a b i l i t y to c o n c e p t u a l i z e and understand the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system a knowledge of w o r l d c u l t u r e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l events an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the d i v e r s i t y and commonalities of human values and i n t e r e s t s . <p. 14) 54 Kniep (1986) d e f i n e d global education by i d e n t i f y i n g i t s s u b s t a n t i v e f ocus to i n c l u d e : 1. The domain of glob a l systems: economic, global p o l i t i c a l , e c o l o g i c a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l . 2. The domain of global i s s u e s and problems: development i s s u e s , peace and s e c u r i t y i s s u e s , environmental i s s u e s , and human r i g h t s i s s u e s . 3. The domain of human values and c u l t u r e s : u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s and d i v e r s e human va l u e s . 4. The domain of glob a l h i s t o r y . <pp. 437-446) He argues that u n l e s s these four elements are in c l u d e d , educational programs w i l l f a l l short of being t r u l y g l o b a l . Heater U980) d e f i n e d "world s t u d i e s " as: S t u d i e s that draw upon a number of d i s c i p l i n e s , mainly in the f i e l d of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s , whose subje c t matter i s not l i m i t e d by geographical r e s t r i c t i o n s , t a k i n g the whole world as the source of m a t e r i a l f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . . T h e s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l from the great p o t e n t i a l range may be determined by any or a l l of the f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i s i n g p r i n c i p l e s : 1. S o c i e t i e s and c u l t u r e s other than those of the student. 2. Issues and problems of c u r r e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e whose impact extends beyond a s i n g l e c o n t i n e n t . 3. The i n t e r r e 1 a t e d n e s s of l i f e , events and i n s t i t u t i o n s beyond the c o n f i n e s of any n a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e s of these s t u d i e s include an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the need to view many is s u e s in a global context, the enhancement of t o l e r a n c e between peoples and a d e s i r e f o r a more j u s t s o c i e t y . (p. 5) A t e n t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n of global education i s o f f e r e d by Pradervand <1987) as: The means of communicating a v i s i o n of a world that works f o r a l l , and what i t means in terms of personal commitment to reach i t , in a way that gets people to act on that v i s i o n . <p. 16) 55 Werner (1988) de-fined g l o b a l education in terms o-f the goals on which there appears to be c o n s i d e r a b l e consensus: A major purpose o-f gl o b a l education i s to increase the student's awareness and understanding o-f global problems and i s s u e s that a f f e c t people wor1dwide... .A second purpose i s to help students a r t i c u l a t e and reason about moral que s t i o n s that are r a i s e d through an understanding of our interdependence with other peoples and the r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between our l i f e s t y l e s and the i r s . ... .The t h i r d purpose i s to encourage r e f l e c t i o n and r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n on what we as i n d i v i d u a l s and groups of teachers and students can do to chip away at apathy, ignorance, p r e j u d i c e and i n j u s t i c e in our own classrooms and communities. <pp. 1-2) These examples of d e f i n i t i o n s found in the l i t e r a t u r e i l l u s t r a t e the d i v e r s i t y in s c h o o l s of thought that f u e l s conceptual confusion in the f i e l d and confirms that global education i s an " i l l - i d e n t i f i e d phenomenon" <Barrows, 1981, p. 1.). And while some admit to be p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r c e r t a i n valued ends in ed u c a t i o n , they do not recognize the shallowness of d i c t i o n a r y l i k e d e f i n i t i o n s . While there can be no doubt that d e c i s i o n s of value must be made in education, and that some w i l l be extremely c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n s , to make them by d e f i n i t i o n seems h a r d l y to be the most r a t i o n a l approach. Important q u e s t i o n s of value r e q u i r e c r i t i c a l and c a r e f u l judgment, not merely s o l u t i o n by d e f i n i t i o n a l f i a t . ( S o l t i s , 1968, p. 11) CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBAL EDUCATION There has been a general lack of conceptual c l a r i t y and an absence of conception development in the f i e l d of global e d u c a t i o n . It i s very l i k e l y that global education i s 56 s i m i l a r to an e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t e s t e d concept (Gal l i e , 1964). It i s not my i n t e n t i o n to develop f u l l y a conception of g l o b a l education but, in order to assess whether global education i s i m p l i c i t in home economics education as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Brown (1980), I need to set g u i d e l i n e s as to what I mean by g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n . Grant, S l e e t e r , and Anderson (1986) found that m u l t i p l e conceptions of m u l t i c u l t u r a l education e x i s t . They p o i n t e d out that i t i s important f o r educators not to assume that a l l programs promote s i m i l a r outcomes, because " r e g a r d l e s s of the term they use, the e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l meanings they advocate o f t e n d i f f e r " (p. 48). 1 agree that the same co u l d be s a i d of globa l education, t h e r e f o r e , what becomes important i s the i n t e n t . The meaning of global education comes from the outcomes being sought. The f o l l o w i n g typology o u t l i n e s f i v e conceptions of global education. The f i v e c onceptions are s t r u c t u r e d from the conceptions of m u l t i c u l t u r a l education found by Grant, S l e e t e r , and Anderson (1986) and S l e e t e r and Grant (1987). T h i s typology i s by no means exhaustive. There are no doubt other ways that global education can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d or i d e n t i f i e d , and the p r o b a b i l i t y e x i s t s that none of the f o l l o w i n g conceptions alone guide global education p r a c t i c e . 5 ? 1. G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as B u s i n e s s as Usual w i t h Minimal Compliance to G l o b a l Awareness - e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n - academic r a t i o n a l i s m - c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n - s u b j e c t c e n t e r e d - based on a n a l y t i c a l - e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e - v a l u e s - m a s t e r y , t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l , c o n f o r m i t y , r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n and a u t h o r i t y - purpose - to m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo - assumptions - the -future w i l l not be r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the p r e s e n t - our o u t l o o k s and a t t i t u d e s w i l l not need to change - th e r e w i l l be change but we can handle i t - problems w i l l be overcome by a c c e l e r a t i n g the development o f , and the more e f f e c t i v e use o f , s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y - what e x i s t s , f o r example, the use of power to m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y and peace, i s adequate - p r a c t i c e s - o f f e r s t u d e n t s same t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h perhaps some d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d y of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s or st u d y about the T h i r d World 2. G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n i n the N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t - e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n - i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n , e d u c a t i o n i s an inst r u m e n t of s o c i e t y - v a l u e s - n a t i o n a l i s m , power, c o n t r o l , s u c c e s s , m a t e r i a l i s m , p a t r i o t i s m , e t h n o c e n t r i s m - purpose - to enhance the c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i o - c u 1 t u r a l i n f l u e n c e in i n t e r n a t i o n a l af f a i r s - to evoke l o y a l t y to the n a t i o n and enhance n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y 58 - assumptions - education should meet the employment needs of the n a t i o n ' s corporate and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e - knowledge of language, c u l t u r e , and so on, of other c o u n t r i e s can enhance one's business o p p o r t u n i t i e s and i n f l u e n c e worldwide - s t r o n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n government w i l l conserve and d i s t r i b u t e dwindling r e s o u r c e s and enforce order - p r a c t i c e s - language, c u l t u r a l study, and r e g i o n a l study of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s Global Education as I n d i v i d u a l Self-Development i n a Changing World - educational t r a d i t i o n - i n d i v i d u a l i s m , s e 1 f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n - values - i n d i v i d u a l w e l l - b e i n g , personal success, achievement, competition - purpose - enable students to p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y in an interdependent world - i n d i v i d u a l s u r v i v a l - assumptions - relevance in personal terms - p r a c t i c e s - language study, c u l t u r a l study, and r e g i o n a l study of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s Global Education as Human R e l a t i o n s and C i t i z e n s h i p - educational t r a d i t i o n - person centered, c o g n i t i v e processes - values - r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s , t o l e r a n c e , order, e q u a l i t y , cooperat i on - purpose - to evoke mutual understanding and cooperation to s olve g l o b a l problems - r e d u c t i o n of p r e j u d i c e and s t e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g 5? - assumptions - personal worth and se 1-f-under stand i ng i s an important step in developing r e s p e c t -for others - to crea t e well adjusted, r e s p e c t f u l members o-f soc i e ty - the world i s an inte r c o n n e c t e d system - u n i v e r s a l i t y of human values - p r a c t i c e s - study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between overdevelopment and underdevelopment - i n q u i r y l e a r n i n g - c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n - educational t r a d i t i o n - s o c i a l - r e c o n s t r u e t i o n i s t view of education as a means f o r i n i t i a t i n g s o c i a l reform - s o c i e t a i - c e n t e r e d - values - e q u a l i t y , j u s t i c e , human r i g h t s , peace, freedom, c a r i n g , l i b e r a t i o n - purpose - to improve q u a l i t y of l i f e in a l l c o u n t r i e s - to prepare students to chall e n g e o p p r e s s i o n , i n e q u a l i t y , and s t r u c t u r a l v i o l e n c e - to f o s t e r human r i g h t s and j u s t i c e - to promote s o c i a l change by c h a l l e n g i n g e x p l o i t a t i v e values - assump t i ons - education i s fundamentally p o l i t i c a l - a l l people are of equal moral worth - i n d i v i d u a l development cannot be separated from the s o c i a l c ontext, they are interdependent - s c h o o l s do not s u f f i c i e n t l y promote human r i g h t s and j u s t i c e u n l e s s they c h a l l e n g e s t r u c t u r e s - school s t r u c t u r e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s themselves are part of the oppressive s t r u c t u r a l v i o l e n c e thus, are a l s o open to challenge - the f u t u r e w i l l r e q u i r e a r a d i c a l change in d i r e c t i o n i n v o l v i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , e c o l o g i c a l concern, and su p p o r t i v e human r e l a t i o n s h i p s - p r a c t i c e s ^ organize c u r r i c u l u m around s o c i a l i s s u e s - problem g e n e r a t i n g and s o l v i n g - c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y 60 - teaching p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s k i l l s - education should be a purposeful dialogue between teacher and student - teaching a l l o w s students to a r t i c u l a t e and to reason about value i s s u e s (e.g., peace, development, the environment, human r i g h t s , and s t r u c t u r a l v i o l e n c e ) I emphasize that t h i s i s only a typology, somewhat a r b i t r a r y and s p e c u l a t i v e , in need of c o n f i r m a t i o n by f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . I was i n f l u e n c e d by Hicks (1982) who found in s u r v e y i n g c o l l e g e l e v e l c o urses: Many courses merely teach about the T h i r d World or about i s s u e s , others may do t h i s and a l s o look at t r a d i t i o n a l ' l i b e r a l ' solutions to problems. Some w i l l l i n k underdevelopment in the South with overdevelopment in the North, perhaps in terms of standards of l i v i n g . Only a few courses attempt to show a c t u a l l y that t h i s i s r e a l l y about j u s t i c e and o p p r e s s i o n , or even c o n s c i e n t i s a t i o n , needing r e f l e c t i o n and action, which lead to a n a l y s i s of our own m o t i v a t i o n s and p e r s p e c t i v e s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . <pp. 128-129) What should be noted i s that each r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of global education has a d i s t i n c t value base and a p a r t i c u l a r set of educational p r i o r i t i e s that i n f l u e n c e what i s inc l u d e d , and excluded, in school programs. From an i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , Global Education as Business as Usual and Global Education in the National Interest c o u l d be congruent with what Richardson <1982) i d e n t i f i e s as c o n s e r v a t i v e . N a t i o n a l i s t i c and t e c h n i c a l in p e r s p e c t i v e , these conceptions are bound by t r a d i t i o n . T h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in p r a c t i c e would be d i s t i n c t s u b j e c t areas, t e a c h e r - c e n t e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n , a passive view of s t u d e n t s , and textbook l e a r n i n g . Conformity to e x i s t i n g 61 v a l u e s i s the aim with the f u n c t i o n of s c h o o l s seen as pr e p a r i n g c h i l d r e n to take t h e i r place in the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o rder. The education system j u s t meets the needs of s o c i e t y . As a s o c i a l i z i n g agent, i t does not question the soc i al order. Global Education as Self-Development and Global Education as Human Relations and Citizenship would be c l o s e to what Richardson <1?82) has i d e n t i f i e d as l i b e r a l . With r o o t s in the c h i l d - c e n t e r e d t r a d i t i o n emphasizing personal development and l i b e r a t i o n , s o c i a l a daptation i s the g o a l , and thus s o c i e t y i s s t u d i e d to determine what students need in order to l i v e w e l l , to have d e s i r a b l e r e l a t i o n s with o t h e r s , and to get ahead. The valued end i s students who are able to use t h i n k i n g s k i l l s to sol v e problems and make d e c i s i o n s . Although remediation of problems and s i t u a t i o n s in s o c i e t y may be the r e s u l t , these conceptions are not r a d i c a l because they do not seek fundamental change in the nature of s o c i e t y , hence do not question the premises or values at work. They, along with Global Education as Social Reconstruction, assume that through awareness of the f o r c e s that work on them, students may be capable of a c t i n g d i f f e r e n t l y . The d i f f e r e n c e between Global Education as Self-Development, Global Education as Human Relations and Citizenship, and Global Education as Social Reconstruction i s that the f i r s t two focus p r i m a r i l y inward. In doing so, they avoid the issue s r a i s e d when one examines the 62 r e l a t i o n s h i p between personal and s o c i e t a l m o r a l i t y and the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s that e x i s t . Global Education as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a more r a d i c a l (Richardson, 1982) p o s i t i o n because i t aims to e f f e c t fundamental change c r e a t i n g a new s o c i a l order. I.t i s a f u t u r e o r i e n t e d , c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and r a t h e r than f o c u s s i n g on the world as i t i s , emphasis i s p l a c e d on what i t should be. In c o n t r a s t with the passive nature of the other conceptions of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n , i t aims towards the a c t i v e promotion of a b e t t e r world. In other words, education not j u s t about val u e s but f o r them. B e l i e v i n g that education can i n f l u e n c e the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s in the world, the valued end i s students who are able to look at problems with a s k e p t i c a l eye in order to r a i s e value, e t h i c a l , and moral q u e s t i o n s and seek m o r a l l y and e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . THE CONSTRUCTIVIST GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE AND THE CONCEPTIONS OF  GLOBAL EDUCATION In t h i s s e c t i o n , the i d e n t i f i e d conceptions of g l o b a l education w i l l be examined to see which ones appear to have adopted the e d u c a t i o n a l aim of imparting to students a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . 63 Awareness or Knowl edcie Dimension There i s an awareness or knowledge dimension to a l l of the h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d . G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as B u s i n e s s as U s u a l , G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n i n the N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t and G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as I n d i v i d u a l S e lf-Development are narrow i n f o c u s , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on imp r o v i n g knowledge of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and o t h e r p e o p l e s . Knowledge i s viewed as s e p a r a t e from a c t i o n . U n d e r s t a n d i n g i s the aim, w i t h c o n t r o l b e i n g a dominant theme. They p a r a l l e l the I n s t r u m e n t a l C o n c e p t i o n of a G l o b a l P e r s p e c t i v e as o u t l i n e d by Coombs (1988a). In G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as Human R e l a t i o n s and C i t i z e n s h i p and G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , knowledge i s not viewed as an end. I t i s s i m p l y a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of the broad f o c u s which i n c l u d e s c o o p e r a t i o n , peace, and the promotion of r i g h t s and freedoms. A deeper l e v e l of awareness i s promoted i n G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Often i t i s r e f e r r e d to as c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n , the term p o p u l a r i z e d by F r e i r e (1970a, 1970b), which i m p l i e s becoming aware of the o b s t a c l e s t h a t p r e v e n t one from h a v i n g a t r u e c o n c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . A Moral P o i n t of View Evidence of a moral p o i n t of view would be some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t v a l u e d e c i s i o n s would be j u s t i f i e d not on p r u d e n t i a l or economic grounds, but on moral grounds. The 64 conceptions which would meet t h i s c r i t e r i a are Global Education as Human R e l a t i o n s and C i t i z e n s h i p and Global Education as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . B u i l d i n g a World Moral Community Coombs" <1988a) c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n c l u d e s the b e l i e f "that an i n t e g r a l part of the task of b e t t e r i n g the l i v e s of persons i s the task of c o n s t r u c t i n g elements of a genuine world moral community" (p. 4 ) . Global Education as Human R e l a t i o n s and C i t i z e n s h i p with i t s commitment to u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s r e f l e c t s the u n i v e r s a l i s t conception of a global p e r s p e c t i v e (Coombs, 1988a). It in c l u d e s a commitment to a s i n g l e , unquestioned, moral community. Global Education as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , which seeks to improve the world and challenge e x p l o i t a t i o n and o p p r e s s i o n , i m p l i e s a conception of the good l i f e which i s d e d i c a t e d to moral r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the world s o c i e t y . Value D e l i b e r a t i o n and J u s t i f i c a t i o n The c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e promotes the d i s p o s i t i o n s "necessary f o r r e s p o n s i b l e d e l i b e r a t i o n and d i a l o g about value i s s u e s " (Coombs, 1988a, p. 5 ) . In other words, a conception of global education which aims to develop in students a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e would include a commitment to develop or f o s t e r that p e r s p e c t i v e by r a t i o n a l means. T h i s allows students through 65 awareness, communication, and t h o u g h t f u l r e f l e c t i o n to g i v e good r e a s o n s f o r a d o p t i n g t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e . The o n l y c o n c e p t i o n of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n which e x p l i c i t l y embodies t h i s n o t i o n i s G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as Human R e l a t i o n s and C i t i z e n s h i p a p p e a l s to u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s and t h e r e f o r e i s s u b j e c t t o the same c r i t i c i s m as the u n i v e r s a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n in t h a t " f a i l u r e to i n c o r p o r a t e . . . a n y reasoned view about why the u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s are to be a c c e p t e d c a s t s doubt on the e d u c a t i o n a l d e f e n s i b i 1 i t y " CCoombs, 1988a, p. 4 ) . Di s p o s i t i ons A l l of the c o n c e p t i o n s of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e the assumption t h a t knowledge or awareness may induce s t u d e n t s to a c t i n a c e r t a i n manner. The d i s p o s i t i o n s to a c t i n a moral and r a t i o n a l manner are most s t r o n g l y p r e s e n t in G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . SUMMARY For t h i s s t u d y , g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l mean e d u c a t i o n f o r a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e , an approach based not on the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of new c o u r s e s , but on the i n t e g r a t i o n of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n and s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s . I t i s a v a l u e laden c o n c e p t i o n committed to s o c i a l change. Of the c o n c e p t i o n s of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d , i t appears t h a t the f e a t u r e s of G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as Human R e l a t i o n s and 6 6 C i t i z e n s h i p and G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n as S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n come c l o s e s t t o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e e l e m e n t s of a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Thus, g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d to impart to s t u d e n t s a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e has i t s r o o t s i n , and t r i e s to combine, two broad e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s : <a> the p e r s o n a l change o r i e n t a t i o n ; and <b) the s o c i a l change p o s i t i o n . There i s a p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s on p e r s o n a l worth and p e r s o n a l growth, a l o n g w i t h an emphasis on the need to engage i n v a l u e d e l i b e r a t i o n and debate which examines the " g l o b a l n e s s " of our l i v e s , t h a t we tend to take f o r g r a n t e d . T h i s b l e n d i n g of humanism and s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e s a base f o r p r a x i s ( r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n ) . To summarize, the f e a t u r e s of what I w i l l , c a l l C o n s t r u c t i v i s t G l o b a l E d u c a t i o n a r e : 1. I t i s g l o b a l and as such c o n t a i n s the n o t i o n of the w o r l d as a s i n g l e system and i n c l u d e s the themes of change, in t e r d e p e n d e n c e , i n c l u s i v i t y , and c o nnectedness. 2. I t s aim i s to impart to s t u d e n t s a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , i t c o n t a i n s an awareness or knowledge d i m e n s i o n , a moral p o i n t of view, a commitment to normative r e a s o n i n g , and a commitment to b u i l d i n g a w o r l d moral community. 3 . As e d u c a t i o n , i t i s a normative concept i n v o l v i n g a wide range of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s aimed at 67 developing in students the - d i s p o s i t i o n s toward s o c i a l c r i t i q u e and the r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o-f value i s s u e s , with the in t e n t of l i b e r a t i n g people and promoting s o c i a l a c t i o n . It has i t s r o o t s in the two broad educational t r a d i t i o n s of humanism and s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . 4. The educated person i s conceived as one who has a s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r understanding of the world than the uneducated person, who has a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e , who i s able to think c r i t i c a l l y , who reaches informed, autonomous c o n c l u s i o n s and can r a t i o n a l l y j u s t i f y them to o t h e r s , and who i s i n c l i n e d towards t r a n s f o r m a t i v e , emancipative a c t i o n . 5. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between student and teacher i s one which allows r a t i o n a l , purposeful d i a l o g u e . CONSTRUCTIV IST GLOBAL EDUCATION AND HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION My in t e n t in t h i s s e c t i o n i s to examine What i s Home  Economics Education?. a p u b l i c a t i o n by M a r j o r i e Brown ( 1 9 8 0 ) , f o r the e l e m e n t s of what I have c a l l e d C o n s t r u e t i v i s t Global E d u c a t i o n . I have chosen Brown's work because, to my knowledge, i t i s the only comprehensive c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of home economics education p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . F o l l o w i n g an in depth a n a l y s i s of home economics as a p r o f e s s i o n and as a f i e l d of study, she c l a s s i f i e d home economics and education as personal s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n s . Both are m i s s i o n - o r i e n t e d toward a c t i o n , i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y 68 in scope and in knowledge base, and seek to a f f e c t the l i v e s of o t h e r s , and thus both are m o r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Her reason i n g l i n k s what home economics seeks to do with the concept of edu c a t i o n . She concluded her a n a l y s i s with the f o l l o w i n g statement: Home economics education i s concerned with s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y in which p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n i s based on commitment to some mission of value to s o c i e t y and on a depth and scope of understanding r e l e v a n t to that m i s s i o n , (p. 100) Brown co-authored the mission statement f o r the home economics p r o f e s s i o n which I concluded, in chapter 3, i m p l i c i t l y contained the elements of the c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . What I seek to do here i s to see i f there i s a s i m i l a r correspondence between the elements of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education and Brown's conception of home economics e d u c a t i o n . 1. Global Nature Whereas global education i n c l u d e s the d e s c r i p t o r g l o b a l , I concluded that i t i n c l u d e s the view of the world as a s i n g l e system and that i t w i l l include the themes of change, interdependence, i n c l u s i v i t y , and conn e c t i o n . Brown has used the term global f r e q u e n t l y in her document, f o r example, "global view" (pp. 28, 29, 37, 39, 95, 96, 97, 110) and Knowledge a c q u i r e d in the personal s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n s must enhance the f u n d a m e n t a l 69 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s p i r i n g to be 'p e r s o n a l , g l o b a l , and s y n t h e s i z i n g ' , (p. 2?) Viewing the world as a s i n g l e system means embracing the whole ins t e a d of the p a r t s . T h i s broadness and i n c l u s i v i t y i s what Brown i m p l i e s in her use of g l o b a l . She r e f e r s to a "wholeness of p e r s p e c t i v e " <e.g., p. 95), argues that there i s "no unique body of knowledge which can be c a l l e d home economics" <p. 83), and emphasizes t h a t : e x i s t i n g knowledge i s a p p r o p r i a t e d from whatever d i s c i p l i n e s have something r e l e v a n t to c o n t r i b u t e to the s o l u t i o n of the set of problems; that i s , each problem i s viewed in i t s whole context r a t h e r than in fragments. <p. 19) She expresses concern about the e x i s t i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n in home economics causing i s o l a t i o n i s m and fragmentation: Such fragmentation u n r e a l i s t i c a l 1 y narrows the p e r s p e c t i v e on the complex nature of problems f a m i l i e s face and on the s o l u t i o n s to those problems; in narrowing p e r s p e c t i v e , problems and t h e i r s o l u t i o n s are o v e r s i m p l i f i e d and out of touch with r e a l i t y . <p. 87) Examples o f f e r e d by Brown show the broad interdependent nature of problems f a c i n g the f a m i l y which are the focus of home economics e d u c a t i o n : Problems of n u t r i t i o n , f o r example, are not merely problems of bi o c h e m i s t r y ; they have t h e i r r o o t s and t h e i r s o l u t i o n in s o c i a l psychology, in economics, in p o l i t i c s , in psychology, in c u l t u r a l anthropology, in philosophy, in h i s t o r y , and even in language communication. <p. 37) and d e f i n i t i o n and s o l u t i o n of the f a m i l y ' s problems concerning food, c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r do not r e s t alone in lack of information about the p h y s i c a l e n t i t y . They l i e in the economic system or 6 70 economic - f a c t o r s , in s o c i a l c o n t r o l s , in the m o r a l i t y and c o m p e t e n c e o-f p r o d u c e r s and d i s t r i b u t o r s of goods, in c o l l e c t i v e i d e o l o g i e s , and in o t h e r s o c i a l f a c t o r s , (p. 60) I t appears t h a t Brown's use of the d e s c r i p t o r g l o b a l does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply v i e w i n g the w o r l d as a whole. Rather than the w o r l d , her frame of r e f e r e n c e i s the f a m i l y and problems of the f a m i l y . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y an i n d i c a t i o n of how e d u c a t i o n f o r a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e in home economics d i f f e r s from e d u c a t i o n f o r a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , a d i s t i n c t i o n I w i l l e x p l o r e l a t e r . However, wholeness, i n c l u s i v i t y , c o n n e c t i o n , and interdependence are p r e s e n t , i n d i c a t i n g some c o n f o r m i t y t o the themes embodied in the m o d i f i e r g l o b a l . 2 . A C o n s t r u c t i v i s t G l o b a l P e r s p e c t i v e There are s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s in Brown's paper to a " g l o b a l view", f o r example: T h i s p e r s o n a l and s u b j e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l comes from a g l o b a l s e t of views he/she h o l d s about human i n d i v i d u a l s , about human s o c i e t y , and about the r e l a t i o n between the two. <p. 28) The g l o b a l view of h e l p i n g those s e r v e d by home econo m i s t s was e x p r e s s e d by A l i c e Chown.... (p. 3?) A g l o b a l s e t of views i s not p e c u l i a r to p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r some g l o b a l view of the w o r l d i s h e l d by e v e r y p e r s o n a s a p r o d u c t of l i f e - e x p e r i e n c e i n s o c i e t y . A g l o b a l view c o n s i s t s of the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d c o n c e p t i o n s of what the w o r l d 'out t h e r e ' i s l i k e . ( p . 96) 71 The educated person i s conscious o-f the global view which dominates h i s / h e r s o c i e t y , (p. 9?) The question i s whether global view means the same as global p e r s p e c t i v e . I think that Brown by mentioning "a global set of v i e w s " e x p r e s s e s a n o t i o n c l o s e r to t h a t of " p e r s p e c t i v e n e s s consciousness" o u t l i n e d by Hanvey (1976) and Pike and Selby (1986, 1988) because i t acknowledges the p o s s i b i l i t y of p l u r a l i t y and the r e c o g n i t i o n that o t h e r s may have a view of the world that i s very d i f f e r e n t from ours. When I t a l k about a global p e r s p e c t i v e , I am r e f e r r i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of view on the world and i t does not appear that t h i s i s what she means. However, she does use "global view" synonymously with "personal o r i e n t a t i o n " and she does mention "students developing a d i f f e r e n t viewpoint to guide t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s and a c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the f a m i l y . . . " (p. 110). These cases may mean a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e but t h i s i s not made e x p l i c i t . To have a p e r s p e c t i v e i s to have a point of view on some o b j e c t . Because a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e has been deemed the most e d u c a t i o n a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e , an educational program which s a t i s f i e s the aim of imparting to students a c o n s t r u e t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e would i n c l u d e : an awareness or knowledge dimension; a moral point of view; a commitment to normative reasoning; a commitment to b u i l d i n g a world moral community; and a component which f o s t e r s the d i s p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r e d to take a c t i o n . 72 Awareness or Knowledge Dimension Awareness, knowledge, and understanding are u s u a l l y educational o b j e c t i v e s but the types of awareness, knowledge, and understanding must be s p e c i f i e d , otherwise, any notion may do. The kinds of knowledge i n c l u d e d in the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e are: awareness of p r e v a i l i n g world c o n d i t i o n s and developments, i n c l u d i n g emergent c o n d i t i o n s , and tr e n d s . . . some modest comprehension of key t r a i t s and mechanisms of the world system, with emphasis on t h e o r i e s and concepts that may increase i n t e l l i g e n t consciousness of global change. (Coombs, 1988a, p. 2) Brown emphasizes that "knowledge d i f f e r s not merely in s u b j e c t matter but in modes of awareness by which v a r i o u s things come to be known" <p. 92). She f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e s awareness by s t a t i n g : Within each mode of awareness, there are d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of knowledge and understanding which are d i s t i n g u i s h e d not in terms of q u a n t i t y but a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p l e x i t y and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s : <a) knowledge of s p e c i f i c information ...(b) understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s and t h e o r i e s which support the knowledge in <a) and a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t experience in the l i g h t of t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s and t h e o r i e s , and <c) understanding of the i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s by which both <a) and (b) are a c q u i r e d and can be c r i t i c i z e d . <p. 93) Thus, f o r home economics educa t i o n , Brown p o i n t s to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of cer ta i n k i nds of knowledge and understanding: (a) knowledge and understanding based on reason and (b) a breadth of knowledge and understanding, (pp. 93) Although Brown does not mention knowledge of world c o n d i t i o n s , she does s t a t e : Home economics e d u c a t i o n . . . seeks a broad s o c i a l consciousness and c r i t i c a l awareness o-f c o n d i t i o n s in s o c i e t y that h i s t o r i c a l l y damage the -family's a b i l i t y to act in the i n t e r e s t o-f human happiness. <p. 101-102) The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that the s o c i e t y she mentions c o u l d be a world s o c i e t y . Her concept of knowledge as broad based and t h e o r e t i c a l a l s o i n d i c a t e s some c o n s i s t e n c y with that of a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Moral Point of View In o u t l i n i n g what home economics education seeks to do, Brown argues f o r the importance of commitment to the mission of home economics (p. 100). In chapter 3, I concluded that the m i s s ion of home economics a r t i c u l a t e s a moral poin t of view. It i s l o g i c a l then, to assume that home economics education based on t h i s m i s sion would a l s o represent a moral point of view. Brown o f f e r s f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n when she s t a t e s : home economics education seeks to change persons, not by p r o f e s s i o n a l s who act as the change agent, but by communication....This communication between p r o f e s s i o n a l and c l i e n t i s one of search, of mutual enlightenment, of c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n in which a problem i s adequately d e f i n e d and i t s s o l u t i o n sought. It draws upon and makes use of the knowledge h e l d by the c l i e n t as well as that by the p r o f e s s i o n a l . <p. 101) She a l s o adds in a footnote that "<I)n r e f e r r i n g to ' p r a c t i c a l problems,' the meaning i s one of moral concern, i . e . , moral questions" <p. 144). Thus, the change sought in home economics education i s from a moral, e t h i c a l point of view. 74 B u i l d i n g A World Moral Community Coombs (1988a) r e c o g n i z e d that a world moral community was in i t s "barebones" stage but that i t c o u l d gain momentum with a grea t e r commitment to r a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n and dialogue which expands our common moral understanding (p. 5) . Brown argues W i t h g r e a t e r c o g n i t i v e and c o m m u n i c a t i v e competence r e g a r d i n g the -family, with more mature moral consciousness, and with r e a l i z i n g adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o-f one's own -feelings and m o t i v a t i o n s , the i n d i v i d u a l i s both (1) wiser and happier in h i s / h e r own -family l i f e and (2) more capable o-f i n t e r a c t i n g with others in behal-f o-f w e l l - b e i n g o-f the -fami 1 y and o-f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n toward a f r e e s o c i e t y , (p. 104) It appears that there are s i m i l a r i t i e s between Coombs' "world moral community" and Brown's "-free s o c i e t y " . Both agree that c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s among people are value r e l a t e d ; that there i s a need to develop what Coombs' c a l l s "common moral understanding and commitment" (p. 5) and Brown terms " r a t i o n a l l y motivated consensus" (p. 47); and that t h i s can be acc om p l i s h e d by " d i a l o g " (Co om b s) or "communicative a c t i o n " (Brown). D e l i b e r a t i o n and J u s t i f i c a t i o n That Brown conceives r a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of value i s s u e s as an i n t e g r a l part of home economics education i s e x p l i c i t in the f o l l o w i n g statement: home economics education j_s concerned with act ion...and with the problems of the f a m i l y . What i s d i s t i n c t i v e i s that i t seeks l e s s to solve s p e c i f i c immediate problems d i r e c t l y than to develop the c a p a c i t i e s of students (1) to def i n e 75 problems of the f a m i l y i n h i s t o r i c a l - s o c i a l c o n t e x t and (2) to p a r t i c i p a t e in e n l i g h t e n e d and r e f l e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o those problems.... Home economics e d u c a t i o n i s concerned w i t h d e v e l o p i n g c o n c e p t u a l s y s t e m s w h i c h t r a n s f o r m t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s way of v i e w i n g the f a m i l y and i t s r e l a t i o n t o s o c i e t y and to the c u l t u r e . These systems of c o n c e p t s are themselves t r a n s f o r m e d i n the p r o c e s s by which the person d e v e l o p s toward m a t u r i t y , a p r o c e s s i n which he/she changes i n the k i n d s of reason upon which b e l i e f s , v a l u e judgments, and a c t i o n s are j u s t i f i e d . <p. 104) Di s p o s i t i o n s E d u c a t i o n f o r a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e would i n c l u d e the aim of d e v e l o p i n g i n s t u d e n t s the d i s p o s i t i o n s to use t h e i r s k i l l s , knowledge, and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s f o r the r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of v a l u e i s s u e s . The c o m p a t i b i l i t y of Brown's view of e d u c a t i o n w i t h t h i s a s pect of a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s be s t i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g : S u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t i s o r g a n i z e d around problems of the f a m i l y both f o r h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s <a) to c o n c e p t u a l i z e the form and substance of such p r o b l e m s and <b) t o d e v e l o p c o m m i t m e n t s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and a g l o b a l view f o r d e l i b e r a t i v e a c t i o n in s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s t o problems of the f a m i l y . T h i s does not mean th a t s t u d e n t s are s c h o o l e d in answers to the problems. I t means tha t they g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the systems of c o n c e p t s , the k i n d s of v a l u e s , the f e e l i n g s and m o t i v a t i o n s , and the p r o c e s s e s and s t a n d a r d s of r a t i o n a l thought which enable them to be c r i t i c a l l y aware of problems as they a r i s e and of ways o f s e e k i n g t h e i r s o l u t i o n s t h r o u g h d e l i b e r a t i v e a c t i o n i n the p a r t i c u l a r c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n i n which each must be s o l v e d , ( p. I l l ) In summary, w h i l e a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s not made e x p l i c i t , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l s the e x i s t e n c e of elements of the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n Brown's c o n c e p t i o n of home economics e d u c a t i o n . Thus, i t i s 76 p o s s i b l e t h a t when Brown r e f e r s to s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p i n g a d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t w i t h which to c o n s i d e r and s o l v e problems of the f a m i l y , what she i s s u g g e s t i n g i s an o r i e n t a t i o n which p a r a l l e l s the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l perspec t i ve. 3. E d u c a t i o n a s Humanism a n d S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Brown i d e n t i f i e s human h a p p i n e s s as the u l t i m a t e goal of home economics and home economics e d u c a t i o n <pp. 101-102). In e x p l o r i n g the concept of human h a p p i n e s s , she cone 1udes: Having begun w i t h the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t human s t r i v i n g f o r h a p p i n e s s i s a n a t u r a l f a c t and t h a t c a u s i n g or i g n o r i n g human s u f f e r i n g i s m o r a l l y wrong, we then e s t a b l i s h e d the n e c e s s i t y of <1) mature ego i d e n t i t y , and (2) a f r e e s o c i e t y f o r human h a p p i n e s s . We a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d the r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of these two n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s : t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y development of mature ego i d e n t i t y and f o r m a t i o n of a f r e e s o c i e t y each r e q u i r e the o t h e r . <p. 78) Emphasiz i n g the need f o r e d u c a t i o n in the three systems of a c t i o n o u t l i n e d i n the m i s s i o n s t a t e m e n t , Brown ar g u e s : Adequate engagement of the f a m i l y i n these systems of a c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to the development of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h mature ego i d e n t i t y ( c a p a b l e of h a p p i n e s s and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the h a p p i n e s s of o t h e r s ) and t o the e v o l u t i o n of s o c i e t y toward a f r e e s o c i e t y , ( p. 101) What Brown appears to be i m p l y i n g i s t h a t i f s t u d e n t s are to be concerned about the freedom and l i b e r t y of o t h e r s , they must a l s o be i n v o l v e d in l i b e r a t i n g t h emselves. These two e d u c a t i v e g o a l s , the development of mature ego i d e n t i t y and 77 the -formation of a f r e e s o c i e t y , r e q u i r e a b l e n d i n g of the c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n s of humanism and s o c i a l r e construe t i on. 4. The Educated Person Based on the conception of humans "as c o n s c i o u s , p o t e n t i a l l y r a t i o n a l and moral agents, as persons of a c t i o n who c r e a t e t h e i r own f u t u r e by t h e i r a c t i o n s . . . " (p. 117), Brown summarizes the educated person as one who e x e r c i s e s the c a p a c i t y to adopt a non-instrumentai a t t i t u d e , who has knowledge and understanding based on reason and broad in scope, and who has a wholeness of p e r s p e c t i v e . <p. 97) The d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s view of the educated person and what I have o u t l i n e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education i s between having a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e and having a "wholeness of p e r s p e c t i v e " . I contend that the two are s i m i 1 a r . 5. Student-Teacher R e l a t i o n s h i p Brown presents a view of student and teacher where: the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a r e c i p r o c a l one of one d i s t i n c t i v e , c o n s c i o u s , e x p e r i e n c i n g s u b j e c t to one or more other c o n s c i o u s , e x p e r i e n c i n g s u b j e c t s . As a c o n s c i o u s , e x p e r i e n c i n g s u b j e c t , each i s an i n d i v i d u a l center of t h i n k i n g , b e l i e v i n g , f e e l i n g , and a c t i n g a s s o c i a t e d with h i s / h e r own d i s t i n c t i v e p h y s i c a l body. As a person, each i s , at l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l y , a r a t i o n a l , moral human agent. The educator belongs to the same order as the educatee. (p. 98) 78 I assume that by r e c i p r o c a l Brown means a r e l a t i o n s h i p open to mutual exchange, a notion very s i m i l a r to dialogue as an exchange o-f ideas and o p i n i o n s . SUMMARY Brown concludes her study of home economics education with the f o l l o w i n g statement: The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n presented here suggests some changes. It would place more emphasis <1) on the f a m i l y as a source of the improvabi1ity of persons as i n d i v i d u a l s and of the human c o n d i t i o n g e n e r a l l y and (2) on c o n d i t i o n s in s o c i e t y which need to support the f a m i l y in i t s e f f o r t s and, in contemporary s o c i e t y , which need to change in order to do so. It would place l e s s emphasis on immediately u t i l i t a r i a n know-how knowledge and more emphasis on developing the conceptual systems and r a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s of students, (p. 131) While there appears to be c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s i s t e n c y between c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education and Brown's conception of home economics educa t i o n , some d i s t i n c t i o n s which need e x p l o r i n g are: What d i f f e r e n c e does having the emphasis on the f a m i l y as the source of improvabi1ity make? Would home economics education f o r a global p e r s p e c t i v e d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from what i s t a k i n g place in home economics education now? How does education f o r a global p e r s p e c t i v e in home economics education d i f f e r from education f o r a global p e r s p e c t i v e in other s u b j e c t areas? What would the r e l a t i o n s h i p of student and teacher mean f o r classrooms? Can any r e a l l y meaningful s o c i a l change occur as a r e s u l t of school i ng? 79 CHAPTER 5 A N A L Y S I S OF T H E REASONS FOR INTEGRATING GLOBAL EDUCATION AND HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION In chapter 2, I i d e n t i f i e d f i v e reasons, which emerged from the l i t e r a t u r e , f o r i n t e g r a t i n g global education and home economics ed u c a t i o n . The f i r s t reason r e l a t e d to home economics in general in that many home economists argued that the mission of home economics implied a global p e r s p e c t i v e and t h i s was s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n t e g r a t i n g global education and home economics education. The other four r e f e r r e d to other educational developments and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r home economics education and global education. These four r e l a t e d arguments focussed on: c i t i z e n s h i p education; education f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding; consumer education; and environmental education. I have e s t a b l i s h e d that elements of the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e are i m p l i c i t in the mission of home economics and that c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education i s s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i s t e n t with the conception of home economics education developed by Brown (1980). My int e n t in t h i s chapter i s to examine the other four arguments f o r i n t e g r a t i n g home economics education and global education to see: (1) whether they are part of home economics education; and <2> how they r e l a t e to what I have d e s c r i b e d as c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education. 80 C I T I Z E N S H I P E D U C A T I O N Several authors argued that because we 1 ive in a global community, education -for global c i t i z e n s h i p i s a necessary part o-f home economics education <e.g., F r a z i e r , 1983; Green, 1982a, 1982b; Ko b l i n s k y , 1987; Nash, 1987; Simpson, Montgomery & Vaughn, 1987). Nash (1987) r e f e r s to "world c i t i z e n s h i p " and the f a c t that " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the human c o n d i t i o n r e s t s with a l l of us" (p. 85); Simpson, Montgomery, and Vaughn (1987) contend that through involvement with Global Connections. AHEA's development education p r o j e c t , students " . . . w i l l become more r e s p o n s i b l e and s u c c e s s f u l c i t i z e n s of the global v i l l a g e . . . " (p. 47); F r a z i e r (1983) pres e n t s f i v e elements of a g l o b a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e l i f e - s t y l e which "...can help us adjust the way we l i v e so we are b e t t e r g l o b a l c i t i z e n s " (p. 168). In my p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s , I i d e n t i f i e d the major concept a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s argument as s o c i a l / p o l i t i c a l responsi b i 1 i ty. What i s problematic about t h i s argument i s the lack of s p e c i f i c a t i o n as to what view of c i t i z e n s h i p education i s b e i n g a d v o c a t e d , and e x a c t l y what i s meant by s o c i a l / p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . There i s a l s o the question of whether c i t i z e n s h i p education i s r e a l l y part of home economics education. My concern i s that the c a l l f o r global c i t i z e n s h i p education i s a r e a c t i o n to statements such as 81 "we no longer have any choice in the matter; every human being i s a l r e a d y a g l o b a l c i t i z e n " <The Canadian Red Cross S o c i e t y , 1990, p. 2) and given the p e r c e i v e d urgency, an i n e x p l i c i t conception o-f c i t i z e n s h i p education, without c o n s i d e r a t i o n o-f underpinning v a l u e s , i s o f t e n adopted. Is a good c i t i z e n conceived as one who obeys the r u l e s , conforms to the s o c i a l order, and does good deeds? Or i s he/she one who c h a l l e n g e s i n j u s t i c e , e x p l o r e s a l t e r n a t i v e s , and i s w i l l i n g to take a c t i o n ? AHEA's development education p r o j e c t , Global Connections (Mendenhal1, 1987), which l i n k s students to o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as P r o j e c t Mercy where they sew c l o t h i n g f o r r e f u g e e s , appears to belong to the former. In d e f i n i n g c i t i z e n s h i p education, one must have some conception of the ideal c i t i z e n . C i t i z e n s h i p as v o t i n g , behaving a p p r o p r i a t e l y , or doing good deeds i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y congruent with c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education. The views of Newmann (1977) are more a p p r o p r i a t e . His ideal c i t i z e n i s someone who cannot be deceived or manipulated by l e a d e r s and the media, but who reaches informed, autonomous c o n c l u s i o n s and can r a t i o n a l l y j u s t i f y them to o t h e r s . He or she i s aware of b a s i c assumptions, the p o s s i b i l i t y of b i a s or s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , and incomplete i n f o r m a t i o n . A c i t i z e n i s able to r e f l e c t upon the taken-for-gran ted understandings of s o c i e t y and i s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t in p u b l i c l i f e . Frances Moore Lappe (1990) r e f e r s to these d i f f e r e n t meanings as tra n s f o r m i n g the concept and p r a c t i c e 82 o-f c i t i z e n s h i p from " d u l l duty to...human a c t i o n " <p. 1). For Boulding <1988), the key concepts o-f c i t i z e n s h i p education are " s p e c i e s i d e n t i t y " , an a l l e g i a n c e to the "community of humankind" (p. 65); and " s o c i a l imagination", "the c a p a c i t y to v i s u a l i z e the present in f r e s h ways and the not-yet in p o s i t i v e ways, in order to r e l e a s e s o c i e t y from the p a r a l y s i s induced by t e c h n o l o g i c a l dependency" <p. 116). Rivage-Seul (1987) argues f o r "moral imagination", which can be an a n t i d o t e to t e c h n i c a l reason when i t r e f l e c t s F r e i r e ' s approach by "making human s u b j e c t i v i t y the measure of the moral" (p. 169), and f u l f i l l s the purpose of " c r i t i c a l probing of h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y and the u n v e i l i n g of i t s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s " (p. 169). Reardon (1988) i d e n t i f i e s c i t i z e n s h i p as one of three c e n t r a l value concepts in developing global r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . She argues that students must see themselves as a c t i v e c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a global community, seeking the a b o l i t i o n of v i o l e n c e , armed c o n f l i c t s , and war. The v a r i o u s conceptions of c i t i z e n s h i p education imply v a r i o u s n o t i o n s of knowledge. If knowledge i s c o n s i d e r e d i n e r t there i s a good chance t h a t : Good c i t i z e n s h i p . . . i s framed in terms of i t s n o n p o l i t i c a l elements such as p o l i t e n e s s and hard work. L o y a l t y and compliance are seen as paramount p o l i t i c a l v i r t u e s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a n s l a t e s i n t o passive forms such as keeping informed in order to make a wise choice on e l e c t i o n day. <Romanish, 1989, p. 59) 83 Brown (1988) i s c r i t i c a l o-f such passive o r i e n t a t i o n s because they: d i sen-f ranch i ze the i n d i v i d u a l as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t in p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n o-f pol i t i cal-moral problems. As a consequence, h e r / h i s own d e v e l o p m e n t as a p o t e n t i a l l y e n l i g h t e n e d and moral agent i s hindered. F u r t h e r , the community of those seeking to c r e a t e a more humane and more r a t i o n a l world i s d i s p l a c e d in favor of an e l i t e that dominates the s o c i a l power s t r u c t u r e , (pp. 26-27) Her view of knowledge as "...an a c t i v e process" (Brown, 1980, p. 52) i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global e ducation. C i t i z e n s h i p education must a l s o be examined in l i g h t of the f u n c t i o n of s c h o o l i n g . B u t t s (1980) p o i n t s out t h a t : C i v i c education has o f t e n s t r e s s e d a j i n g o i s t i c chauvinism or an e t h n o c e n t r i c p a t r i o t i s m ; or ' c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n ' has o f t e n meant a conformist A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of immigrant and e t h n i c groups, (p. 159) For Berlak (1977) the b a s i c dilemma of c i t i z e n s h i p education c e n t e r s on whether the f u n c t i o n of s c h o o l i n g i s s o c i a l c o n t i n u i t y or s o c i a l change, which would be c o n s i s t e n t education, he argues t h a t : Favouring the change p o s i t i o n , with c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global If c h i l d r e n ' s views of s o c i a l l i f e , t h e i r conceptions of p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y , and t h e i r u nquestioning assent to the e x i s t i n g system are l e f t u n a f f e c t e d by an educational experience, i t h a r d l y matters whether they have spent t h e i r time mastering h i s t o r i c a l texts,...working or observing in a f a c t o r y , community or government agency, or s i t t i n g in classrooms doing value c l a r i f i c a t i o n or moral development e x e r c i s e s , (pp. 34-35) 84 Thus, most important to him i s developing in students, consciousness and the c a p a c i t y to examine and to explore a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s same argument i s -found in the work o-f Giroux (1988) who l i n k s democracy and c i t i z e n s h i p : Central to a p o l i t i c s and pedogogy o-f c r i t i c a l c i t i z e n s h i p i s the need to r e c o n s t r u c t a v i s i o n a r y language and p u b l i c philosophy that puts e q u a l i t y , l i b e r t y , and human l i f e at the center of the n o t i o n s of democracy and c i t i z e n s h i p . . . . Democracy i s a s i t e of s t r u g g l e and i s informed by competing i d e o l o g i c a l conceptions of power, p o l i t i c s , and community. T h i s i s an important r e c o g n i t i o n because i t h e l p s to r e d e f i n e the r o l e of the c i t i z e n as an a c t i v e agent in q u e s t i o n i n g , d e f i n i n g , and shaping one's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p o l i t i c a l sphere and the wider s o c i e t y , (p. 170) Lappe <1990) r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r point of view when she d e s c r i b e s democracy as "the problem s o l v i n g p r a c t i c e of c i t i z e n s " ( p . 1 ) . M a r j o r i e Brown (1980) in her conception of home economics education does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r to c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , but she does make the f o l l o w i n g d i s t i n c t i o n between s o c i a l s t u d i e s (which i s more often a s s o c i a t e d with p o l i t i c a l or c i t i z e n s h i p education) and home economics education: S o c i a l s t u d i e s has a s o c i o - c i v i c concern and home economics education has a s o c i o - p e r s o n a l concern in the f a m i l y . The former seeks to develop a s o c i a l understanding of the f a m i l y and one's r e l a t i o n to i t as a c i t i z e n . The l a t t e r seeks to develop an understanding of the f a m i l y ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r i l l or f o r good of the i n d i v i d u a l person and of s o c i e t y and the i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l f o r c e s on t h i s p o t e n t i a l , (pp. 123-124) 85 She a l s o p o i n t s out that "we need to be able to d i s t i n g u i s h our f i e l d from others in the school as well as to point up areas of common i n t e r e s t " <p. 113) and that "conscious c r o s s i n g over of f l e x i b l e boundaries d e l i b e r a t e l y r e c o g n i z e d and agreed upon by both can enhance the education of students" <p. 125). It appears that c i t i z e n s h i p education i s one of those areas of common i n t e r e s t because i t re c o g n i z e s that c i t i z e n s act in both a p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c a p a c i t y . When a c t i n g in both c a p a c i t i e s the c i t i z e n serves the f a m i l y by engaging in a c t i o n which leads to the " se 1 f-format i on of the f a m i l y and of s o c i e t y as f r e e and democratic s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s " (Brown, 1980, p. 83). R e i n f o r c i n g that the home i s the moral center of s o c i e t y and that t h i s r e q u i r e s a c t i v e , q u e s t i o n i n g c i t i z e n s d e d i c a t e d to p r e s e r v i n g democracy, the r e f l e c t i v e reasoning and perennial p r a c t i c a l problem o r i e n t a t i o n of home economics education im p l i e s c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n . Thus, home economics education emphasizes the dual c a p a c i t i e s of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i f e and prepares the student to p a r t i c i p a t e in the publ ic sphere in order to r e l ieve human s u f f e r i n g and to promote human happiness in the p r i v a t e sphere. Although I i d e n t i f i e d t h i s as s o c i a l / p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in my l i t e r a t u r e review, because that was what appeared to be advocated by the home economics authors, I now r e a l i z e that there i s a l s o a moral component that they d i d not acknowledge. I agree with Purpel (1989) that there i s a 86 r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o l i t i c a l and moral, s i n c e democratic p r i n c i p l e s r e s t p r i m a r i l y on amajor moral p r i n c i p l e : the d i g n i t y and autonomy of the i n d i v i d u a l . <p. 71) In view of Brown's more recent work (1985, 1988), p o l i t i c a l / m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would be more a p p r o p r i a t e as the key concept. T h i s has been a cu r s o r y examination of c i t i z e n s h i p e ducation, but i t does reveal that in order to achieve the goa l s that Brown (1980) has set out f o r home economics education ( i . e . , democracy, freedom, f r e e or autonomous p e r s o n s , and human h a p p i n e s s ) , and the g o a l s of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education, one must engage in a p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e to change dogmatic b e l i e f s , e x p l o i t a t i o n , and oppression in both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e sphere. Recognizing that j u s t i c e , not power, i s the valued end, means i n c l u d i n g in home economics education a form of c i t i z e n s h i p education which promotes a c t i v e , q u e s t i o n i n g c i t i z e n s w i l l i n g to engage in c r i t i c a l thought and moral r e a s o n i n g , by p r o b i n g b e n e a t h the s u r f a c e of the taken-for-gran ted to reveal c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , to explore a l t e r n a t i v e s , and to take a c t i o n which c o n t r i b u t e s to the development of a world moral community. EDUCATION FOR C R O S S - C U L T U R A L UNDERSTANDING Several home economists and home economics teachers contend that home economics education ought to respond to 87 i n c r e a s i n g e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y and the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of our s o c i e t y ( D e t e r d i n g & K e l l y , 1985; Howard & White-hood, 1985; K o b l i n s k y , 1987; LaBrecque, 1985; M i l l e r , 1987; Montgomery, 1987; Mumaw, 1988; Saunders, 1985; Simpson, Montgomery, & Vaughn, 1987). T h i s i s expressed v a r i o u s l y as: "promoteing) c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding (Howard & White-Hood, 1985, p. 26); "promoteing) m u l t i c u l t u r a l awareness...<and) d i m i n i s h ( i n g ) s t e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g " (LaBrecque, 1985, p. 210); 11 apprec i at ( i ng) and r e s p e c t ( i n g ) d i v e r s i t y in t r a d i t i o n s , customs, s k i l l s and b e l i e f s of f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s of a l l c u l t u r e s " (Montgomery, 1987, p. 52); " . . . a s s i s t ( i n g ) them (students) in e f f e c t i v e l y understanding the i s s u e s . . . o f c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y " ( M i l l e r , 1987, p. 67). Mumaw (1988) best summarizes the sentiments by s t a t i n g "(W)e must now educate so that we can f u n c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l y in a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y as well as in a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e world" (p. 171). G e n e r a l l y , these authors use terms which are synonymous with m u l t i c u l t u r a l education and my concern i s v o i c e d by Grant, S l e e t e r , and Anderson (1986), who found that "when w r i t e r s w r i t e about m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s of the term they use, the e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l meanings they advocate o f t e n d i f f e r " (p. 48). I concur with the summary of t h e i r e a r l i e r work ( S l e e t e r & Grant, 1985) which s t a t e d the importance of being aware of these d i f f e r e n c e s "because authors do not n e c e s s a r i l y s p e l l out t h e i r g o als and 88 assumptions" <p. 436). When the value base i s n o t i c e a b l y absent, as i t i s in the w r i t i n g s o-f many home economics educators, such t o p i c s as "-foreign -foods" and "the -family in other c u l t u r e s " c o u l d e a s i l y o b j e c t i f y " o t h e r s " , r e i n f o r c i n g ethnocentrism and a "we-they" dualism. B u t t s (1980) found that m u l t i c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s o f t e n s t r e s s the d i v e r s i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s of segmented e t h n i c groups to the negl e c t of concern f o r b u i l d i n g a common v i a b l e p o l i t i c a l community, (p. 159) In my l i t e r a t u r e review (Smith 1988), I i d e n t i f i e d the key concept of t h i s argument f o r i n t e g r a t i n g g l o b a l concepts and home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n as c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding. I have s i n c e decided that "understanding" i s too broad a concept in t h i s circumstance and too i d e a l i s t i c as an educational g o a l . So much of c u l t u r e i s bound up in language, r e l i g i o n , and l i v e d experience, i t i s doubtful that anyone ou t s i d e a c u l t u r e can t o t a l l y understand i t . More a p p r o p r i a t e and more r e a l i s t i c terminology may be "knowledge", "awareness", or " a p p r e c i a t i o n of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y " , with the in t e n t of reducing p r e j u d i c e and ste r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g . I agree with Giroux (1988) who argues that; The c a l l f o r c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m i s empty u n l e s s i t i s r e c o g n i z e d that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups i s mediated through the dominant c u l t u r a l system. Thus, our task i s to unravel these r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups to emancipate them from the imposed kinds of d e f i n i t i o n s and emotional pain that m i n o r i t i e s 89 of c l a s s and c o l o r have a h i s t o r y of in t h i s country. (Giroux 1988, p. 19) C u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m , however, must not be confused with moral r e l a t i v i s m . The Ad Hoc Committee on Global Education (1987) emphasizes t h a t : The moral aims of global e d u c a t i o n — u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t o l e r a n c e , and resp e c t f o r o t h e r s — a r e not promoted by moral r e l a t i v i s m . To the extent that global education teachers equate " c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m " with moral r e l a t i v i s m , they d i s s e r v e t h e i r own g o a l s , (p. 247) Questions of moral r i g h t and wrong must be decided on u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s not r e l a t i v e to the b e l i e f s of each c u l t u r e . There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between fundamental values and the conventions or means f o r ensuring t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . For example, a l l would agree that the s i c k and the aged must be cared f o r but how they are cared f o r and who cares f o r them c o u l d vary from c u l t u r e to c u l t u r e . P l u r a l i s m permits the e x i s t e n c e of competing ideas and b e l i e f systems but we must have a commitment to common good which i n c l u d e s a core of shared v a l u e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a v i s i o n of the common good i s notably absent in today's s c h o o l s (Reese, 1988). "We have put our own good, as i n d i v i d u a l s , as groups, as a n a t i o n , ahead of the common good" (Be 11 ah, Madsen, S u l l i v a n , S w i d l e r , & T i p t o n , 1985, p. 285). T h i s c o n f l i c t between i n d i v i d u a l i s m and community i s a l s o noted by Goodlad (1986) who s t a t e s "to embrace the whole of humankind's experience commonly i s to tread on i n d i v i d u a l i t y " (p. 426) and Purpel (1989) who says there i s a 90 c l a s h between our genuine b e l i e f in a common humanity and a p r i d e in our uniqueness. We want to value and a f f i r m a l l c u l t u r e s and people yet we f i n d o u r s e l v e s s u s p i c i o u s , envious, even r e s e n t f u l of o t h e r s . . . ( P u r p e l , 1989, p. 51) B e l l ah et al . (1985) suggest that a way to overcome t h i s i s to r e s t o r e a s o c i a l - m o r a l ecology, "the web of moral understandings and commitments that t i e people together in community" (p. 335) which "might allow us to m i t i g a t e the harm that has been done to disadvantaged groups" (p. 289). T h i s s t r a t e g y conforms with the goal of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education of c r e a t i n g a world moral community. A f t e r an extensive review and a n a l y s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e , S l e e t e r and Grant (1985) developed the f o l l o w i n g typology suggesting s i x approaches to m u l t i c u l t u r a l educat i on: 1. Business as Usual with Minimal Compliance to C i v i l R i gh t s Law 2. Teaching the Ex c e p t i o n a l or C u l t u r a l l y Di f f e r e n t 3. Human R e l a t i o n s 4. S i n g l e Group S t u d i e s 5. M u l t i c u l t u r a l Education 6. Education that i s M u l t i c u l t u r a l and S o c i a l Reconstrue t i on. Each approach v a r i e s in purpose, assumptions, and p r a c t i c e s . The l a s t two would be most c o n s i s t e n t with C o n s t r u c t i v i s t Global Education. The M u l t i c u l t u r a l Education approach aims to reduce s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n by promoting knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , whereas Education that i s M u l t i c u l t u r a l and S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n prepares students to d i r e c t l y c hallenge 91 s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . M u l t i c u l t u r a l Education assumes a s s i m i l a t i o n i s u n d e s i r a b l e ; standard school c u r r i c u l a and p r a c t i c e s are b i a s e d ; and a l l aspects of s c h o o l i n g should r e f l e c t d i v e r s i t y , which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y lead to r e d u c t i o n in p r e j u d i c e and lead to s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l change. The un d e r l y i n g assumption of Education that i s M u l t i c u l t u r a l and S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u e t i o n i s t i s that s c h o o l s serve an unequal s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , and do not s u f f i c i e n t l y promote e q u i t y u n l e s s they openly c h a l l e n g e that s t r u c t u r e . P r a c t i c e s of M u l t i c u l u r a l Education would include r e - w r i t i n g c u r r i c u l a to r e f l e c t e t h n i c , gender, s o c i a l c l a s s , and handicap d i v e r s i t y ; to promote d i v e r s e l e a r n i n g s t y l e s ; to promote the use of more than one language; and to provide n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s . Education that i s M u l t i c u l t u r a l and S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n would organize c u r r i c u l u m around c u r r e n t s o c i a l i s s u e s ; engage students in problem-generating and problem-solving; and teach p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s k i l l s to members of oppressed groups . Home economists have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r imposing "western" standards on the e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l groups with whom they have worked (see Rogers, 1980, f o r example). Brown (1980) acknowledges t h i s in her statement "...mere i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g i s a messianic o r i e n t a t i o n which d e s t r o y s the c h a r a c t e r of one c u l t u r e and r e p l a c e s i t with another" (p. 59). She i s c r i t i c a l of the arrogant r o l e of some home economists in c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g help to f a m i l i e s s o l e l y in 92 terms of "passing on t e c h n i c a l information about the p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s " <p. 59). She r e f e r s to t h i s as " c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n " ( F r e i r e , 1973) because the invader (the i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v e r ) from h i s or her own h i s t o r i c a l - c u 1 t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e seeks to invade another h i s t o r i c a l - c u 1 t u r a l s i t u a t i o n and imposes h i s / h e r own system of v a l u e s . (Brown, 1980, p. 59) F r a z i e r (1983, 1985) o f f e r s a more e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e in i d e n t i f y i n g r e c i p r o c i t y as a key concept in i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . To her, global awareness must include the notion that we have much to l e a r n from other c u l t u r e s , and that we must be prepared to r e c e i v e as well as give in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l exchanges. In her conception of home economics education, Brown (1980) does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r to m u l t i c u l t u r a l or c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . However, she c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r s to the need f o r " c r i t i c a l awareness of c o n d i t i o n s in s o c i e t y that h i s t o r i c a l l y damage the f a m i l y ' s a b i l i t y to act in the i n t e r e s t of human happiness" (pp. 101-102). It can be argued that p r e j u d i c e and s t e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g are examples of such c o n d i t i o n s . She i s a l s o h i g h l y c r i t i c a l of education that c o n t r i b u t e s to s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y by presupposing that c e r t a i n socio-economic c l a s s e s and d i f f e r e n t r a c e s are p r e d e s t i n e d f o r d i f f e r e n t f u t u r e s . She i d e n t i f i e s t h i s as one of the q u e s t i o n s which home economics education must address. 93 Although t h i s i s a curso r y examination o-f m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to conclude that the va l u e s , assumptions, and p r a c t i c e s of M u l t i c u l t u r a l Education and Education that i s M u l t i c u l t u r a l and S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( S l e e t e r & Grant, 1985) are subsumed in Brown's conception of home economics education and in what I have i d e n t i f i e d as c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global e d u c a t i o n . Thus, the knowledge or awareness dimension i n c l u d e s the notion of r e c i p r o c i t y , which promotes t o l e r a n c e and resp e c t f o r peoples d i f f e r e n t from o u r s e l v e s , and reduces p r e j u d i c e and st e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g . As a moral poi n t of view with a commitment to normative reasoning, i t r e c o g n i z e s that c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m does not mean moral r e l a t i v i s m . B u i l d i n g a world moral community im p l i e s a commitment to a common good and the development of a s o c i a l / m o r a l ecology. And, the s o c i a l a c t i o n component i n c l u d e s c h a l l e n g i n g the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s in s o c i e t y which i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e i n e q u a l i t y , i n j u s t i c e , and o p p r e s s i o n . CONSUMER EDUCATION AND HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION In the l i t e r a t u r e advocating the i n t e g r a t i o n of global concepts and home economics education, another argument to emerge was the need to respond to i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic interdependence (Dickerson & Hester, 1984; Kob l i n s k y , 1987; Mumaw, 1988; Nance, 1985). Recognizing that the a v a i l a b i l i t y of consumer goods and s e r v i c e s 94 r e q u i r e s that consumers make c h o i c e s , consumer education which emphasizes the i m p l i c a t i o n s o-f those c h o i c e s on our w e l l - b e i n g and the w e l l - b e i n g of others was recommended. In my l i t e r a t u r e review (Smith, 1988), I i d e n t i f i e d the key c o n c e p t i n t h i s argument as b e i n g consumer decision-making with a t t e n t i o n to the economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of such d e c i s i o n s . The e t h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s have not been made e x p l i c i t . The assumption appears to be that the consumer i s one preoccupied with shopping and a c q u i r i n g m a t e r i a l goods. T h e r e f o r e , buying s k i l l s , such as g e t t i n g the most f o r one's money, are emphasized. What i s m i s s i n g i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of whether the product was necessary or worth having. As Brown (1980) po i n ts ou t : One of the p r e v a i l i n g i d e o l o g i e s , of our time i s that the f a m i l y e x i s t s as an o r g a n i z a t i o n to serve the corporate production e n t e r p r i s e . The home i s a place to s t o r e , s e r v i c e , r e c y c l e , and even t r a i n people f o r t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . The f a m i l y i s expected to be a good consumer in the i n t e r e s t of keeping the corporate production system going and i t s a d u l t members (at l e a s t ) must take part in t h i s externally-managed system in order to consume more. (p. 107) She i s c r i t i c a l of many home economists who accept c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g t h i s t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d . She s t a t e s : The e x i s t i n g economic system's i n s t i t u t i o n s dominate much of our thought and a c t i o n as home economists. (a) We accept the consumer s o c i e t y and seek in our programs to have people f i t into i t (a case of a d a p t i n g ) . The l i f e s t y l e of consumerism i s one that we endorse and expect to 95 be adopted p a s s i v e l y . But we seem not to u n d e r s t a n d r e a l i t i e s of the l i f e s t y l e of consumerism, i t s human consequences, or i t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r i g i n s . Numerous s o c i a l a n a l y s t s have u n v e i l e d consumerism as a l i f e s t y l e of s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e and hedonism in the p u r s u i t of pleasure and m a t e r i a l goods with out moral standards. (Brown, 1988, pp. 23-24) T h i s i n f a t u a t i o n with consumption, t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y , and the ideology of i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to the goals of home economics education and c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education. Happiness i s measured as consumption of commodities. M a t e r i a l goods are valued, not the development of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c r i t i c a l powers. M a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo, not reshaping s o c i e t y , i s the g o a l . Nance <1?85) recommends that home economics education must include the goal of l e a r n i n g to make consumption d e c i s i o n s from a global p e r s p e c t i v e . She argues t h a t : E f f e c t i v e consumer education which i n c o r p o r a t e s a global p e r s p e c t i v e must help i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s see what global interdependence means to t h e i r own personal w e l l - b e i n g . It should a l s o help them see how t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s , when combined with those of o t h e r s , a f f e c t the w e l f a r e of other human beings. (Nance, 1985, p. 311) If t h i s were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e then determining the "best buy" would not s a t i s f y the knowledge or awareness dimension. C o n s i d e r a t i o n would have to be given to: Why purchase the product? Do I r e a l l y need i t ? How and where was the product produced? Who produced the product? Is the p r i c e f a i r ? Are the p r a c t i c e s of the company i n v o l v e d f a i r and j u s t ? And so on. 96 It would be r e c o g n i z e d that consumer decision-making i n v o l v e s a moral poin t o-f view. D e c i s i o n s would be made based on a commitment to a world moral community. And, the aim would be to -foster in students the d i s p o s i t i o n s necessary to examine i s s u e s in l i g h t of fundamental value p r i n c i p l e s . Recognizing that a conception of consumer education, which adopts the goal of developing in students a global p e r s p e c t i v e , has not been a r t i c u l a t e d , Nance (1985) recommends: As the f i e l d of consumer education evolves and m a t u r e s . . . i t s purposes must be more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d in terms of relevance to our changing global economy and e c o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and interdependencies. And in an era of p a r t i c i p a t o r y consumerism in which consumer r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e c e i v e s as much, i f not more, emphasis as consumer p r o t e c t i o n , we must d i r e c t our educational e f f o r t s towards p r e p a r i n g our consumer c i t i z e n r y to make r e s p o n s i b l e c h o i c e s that can have p o s i t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a s u s t a i n a b l e global s o c i e t y . <p. 312) What becomes c l e a r i s the need to have an adequate conception of consumer education which exposes i t s value base. I n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s are indeed consumers in s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , there i s bound to be some o v e r l a p p i n g of home economics education and consumer education. I n t e g r a t i n g t h i s common i n t e r e s t with c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education would mean making e x p l i c i t the view of the ideal consumer not as a passive v i c t i m of the economic system, but as one who through increased awareness of the f o r c e s that 97 act on him/her i s able to see the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s that e x i s t in s o c i e t y , and as one who through r e f l e c t i v e moral reas o n i n g i s capable of a c t i n g in an e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e manner. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION As a p r o f e s s i o n , home economics s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n has been concerned with f a m i l i e s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with t h e i r environments, both l o c a l and g l o b a l . T h i s i s often r e f e r r e d to as the f a m i l y ecosystem: The study of the r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s of f a m i l y to i t s n a t u r a l and man-made environments, the e f f e c t of these s i n g l y or in unison as they shape the in t e r n a l f u n c t i o n i n g of f a m i l i e s , and the i n t e r p l a y s between the f a m i l y and other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the p h y s i c a l environment. (AHEA, 1979, p. 5) Thus, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to see env i romen t a l concerns forming the b a s i s of an argument f o r i n t e g r a t i n g home economics education and global e d u c a t i o n . Some i s o l a t e the impact of ove r p o p u l a t i o n on the environment <Harriman, 1984; Koblinsky & Vaughn, 1985; Mangold & Whatley, 1975). Murray (1987) r e f e r s to the d i m i n i s h i n g environmental q u a l i t y and i t s a f f e c t on the f a m i l y , while F r a z i e r (1983, 1985) con c e n t r a t e s on developing a " g l o b a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e l i f e s t y l e " . V a i n e s (1988) p o i n t s to the g r o w i n g environmental c r i s i s and the f r a g i l i t y of the e a r t h . A l l recognize the interdependence of resource a v a i l a b i l i t y and the development of human p o t e n t i a l s , and the need to take 98 a c t i o n s that lead to a more e q u i t a b l e resource d i s t r i b u t i o n . In my l i t e r a t u r e review (Smith, 1988), I i d e n t i f i e d the key concept of t h i s argument as resource management. The concepts resource management, environmental education, and ecology r e q u i r e some e x p l i c a t i o n because v a r y i n g conceptions may e x i s t . Manage of t e n connotes c o n t r o l , t h e r e f o r e , resource management co u l d imply f i n d i n g t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s with no regard f o r changes in human value s or ideas of m o r a l i t y . Brown (1980) in examining the name home economics notes that economics has the c l a s s i c a l meaning of "management or o r d e r i n g of the household" (p. 38). In regard to the concept "manage" she s t a t e s : "Manage" has d i f f e r e n t meanings. One i s to c o n t r o l or use j u d i c i o u s means to reach an end but another broader meaning i s to conduct c e r t a i n a f f a i r s (and there are modes of conducting a f f a i r s which are not the mode of c o n t r o l l i n g ) , (p. 38) The broader meaning of manage which i s grounded in a moral v i s i o n of everyday l i f e would value c o o p e r a t i o n , s h a r i n g , harmony, and j u s t i c e . Study of the environment and i t s problems i s most often a s s o c i a t e d with the s c i e n c e of ecology. The dominant view of s c i e n c e i s that a s s o c i a t e d with the s c i e n t i f i c method, a n a l y t i c t h i n k i n g , and the domination and c o n t r o l of nature. Capra (1982) makes the d i s t i n c t i o n between "deep ecology" and "shallow environmentaiism": Whereas shallow environmentaiism i s concerned with more e f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l and management of the natural environment f o r the b e n e f i t of "man", the 99 deep ecology movement r e c o g n i z e s that e c o l o g i c a l balance w i l l r e q u i r e pro-found changes in our p e r c e p t i o n o-f the r o l e o-f human beings in the p l a n e t a r y ecosystem, (pp. 411-412) Uaines (1988) arguing -for ecology as a u n i f y i n g theme in home economics c o n t r a s t s a mechanistic ( s c i e n t i f i c , shallow environmental) view of the world: where the world and people work l i k e machines. People are o b j e c t s to be manipulated, s o c i e t y i s to be c o n t r o l l e d and conformed to in order to make a "good" s o c i e t y . . . . E a r t h i s to be used. S e c u r i t y means more. (p. 14) with an e c o l o g i c a l view of the world: where e v e r y t h i n g i s r e l a t e d to e v e r y t h i n g some way. Organisms are embedded in community, inter-dependent, s u b j e c t s . Persons see themselves as p a r t of a w h o l e : a b l e n d i n g of p a s t / p r e s e n t / f u t u r e ; in process and r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n . S e c u r i t y i s c o o p e r a t i v e s h a r i n g , (p. 14) Others have a l s o r e j e c t e d r e d u c t i o n i s m and the mechanistic view in favour of images which represent the whole and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d world. "Spaceship e a r t h " (Boulding, 1970), appears most f r e q u e n t l y in the l i t e r a t u r e . Other metaphors include "web of l i f e " , "household e a r t h " , and " p l a n e t a r y f a m i l y " . The c e n t r a l purpose or u n i f y i n g v i s i o n i s s u r v i v a l . It i s r e c o g n i z e d " . . . t h a t our l i v e s and long-term w e l l - b e i n g are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to the l i v e s and w e l l - b e i n g of the whole p l a n e t , animals and p l a n t s included" (Pradervand, 1987, p. 15). In order to address e c o l o g i c a l problems in a manner which would be c o n s i s t e n t with con t r u e t i v i s t global education, a broad view must be 100 taken which r e c o g n i z e s the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s between the p a r t s and the whole, and between past, present, and -future. Reardon (1988) i d e n t i f i e s stewardship as the c e n t r a l value concept of a global i d e n t i t y which may c o n t r i b u t e towards the r e s o l u t i o n of the e n v i r o n m e n t a i / e c o l o g i c a l c r i s i s . Based on a reverence f o r the e a r t h , the aim i s to develop in students a sense of c a r i n g which w i l l reverse the v i o l e n c e i n f l i c t e d on the natural environment. Other s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d are often i n t e r r e l a t e d with other educational movements. V o l u n t a r y s i m p l i c i t y ( F r a z i e r , 1983, 1985), f o r example, l i n k s consumer education and the environment in order to combat waste which r e s u l t s from the "more i s b e t t e r " syndrome. It r e p r e s e n t s a value s h i f t from excess consumption to f r u g a l consumption, from i n d i v i d u a l i s m to e c o l o g i c a l awareness, and from m a t e r i a l i s m to p e r s o n a l , inner growth. There i s a l s o a s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n with c i t i z e n s h i p education (Bou l d i n g , 1988; Pradervand, 1987; Re a r d o n , 1988). "We need to c r e a t e a s e n s e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the whole p l a n e t , animals and nature includ e d , a sense of p l a n e t a r y c i t i z e n s h i p " (Pradervand, 1987, p. 16) . In her conception of home economics education, Brown (1980) d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y mention environmental problems. However, she does s t a t e that home economics education has a problem o r i e n t a t i o n and 101 in -formulating problems of the f a m i l y , i t i s necessary to p o s t u l a t e some d e s i r a b l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s f o r the f a m i l y and,...to i d e n t i f y c o n d i t i o n s which prevent or threaten t h i s d e s i r a b l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s . <p. 57) Since the w e l l - b e i n g of the f a m i l y i s d e s i r a b l e , e c o l o g i c a l d i s a s t e r s and the steady d e c l i n e in the q u a l i t y of the environment would c o n s t i t u t e problems that home economics education should address. Vaines (1988) suggests Symbiosis i s an important word in h e l p i n g us see the world as profoundly d i f f e r e n t . . . . S y m b i o s i s i s l i v i n g together in intimate a s s o c i a t i o n s with balanced i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s which b e n e f i t every l i v i n g system, (p. 6) She f u r t h e r argues: T h i s symbiosis can then become our new r e a l i t y ; f a m i l y as an environment, as well as in the environment, becomes c e n t r a l to Home Economics. <p. 12) T h i s c u r s o r y look r e v e a l s that i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s are part of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l / e c o l o g i c a l system. T h e r e f o r e , the h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to the he a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g of the pl a n e t a r y e c o l o g i c a l system. T h i s l i n k has been i m p l i c i t in home economics s i n c e i t s beginning. "Eco" as in "ecology" and in "economics" i s from the Greek, meaning the stewardship/management of a household. The conception of stewardship/management in home economics education, environmental education, and c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education would include value d e l i b e r a t i o n s seeking m o r a l l y and e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to the environmental t h r e a t s 102 and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n which t h r e a t e n s the w e l l - b e i n g of f a m i l i e s . SUMMARY A d v o c a t e s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g home economics e d u c a t i o n and g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y j u s t i f i e d t h i s a c t i o n by a r g u i n g t h a t a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e was i m p l i c i t in the m i s s i o n of home economics. A d d i t i o n a l arguments to support t h i s a c t i o n were: because we l i v e i n a g l o b a l community, e d u c a t i o n f o r g l o b a l c i t i z e n s h i p i s n e c e s s a r y ; e t h n i c / c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i n the w o r l d r e q u i r e s e d u c a t i o n f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; i n c r e a s i n g economic interdependence r e q u i r e s t h a t s t u d e n t s be aware of the economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r consumer d e c i s i o n s ; and envi r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s are an important p a r t of r e s o u r c e management. I examined the e d u c a t i o n a l movement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each of these a r g u m e n t s — c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , consumer e d u c a t i o n , and en v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n - - t o see whether t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were in common w i t h home economics e d u c a t i o n and how they r e l a t e d to c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n . What i s r e v e a l e d i s t h e n e e d t o have an a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of each e d u c a t i o n a l movement and of each s u b j e c t a r e a . When a reasoned c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e , in which u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t s and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s are made e x p l i c i t and c l e a r , a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s 1 0 3 between e d u c a t i o n a l movements and s u b j e c t a r e a s i s then r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . When i t i s n o t , as was the case h e r e , then the a n a l y s i s becomes more d i f f i c u l t . What I have t r i e d to p o i n t out i s t h a t when a reasoned c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r v a r y i n g views of e d u c a t i o n w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s , aims, and o b j e c t i v e s t o e x i s t . A l l of t h i s p o i n t s t o the ge n e r a l i m p e r a t i v e in e d u c a t i o n f o r c l a r i t y , c o h e r e n c e , and c o n c e p t u a l development which makes e x p l i c i t the v a l u e base. A l s o r e v e a l e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t h a t a l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n t " e d u c a t i o n s " o f t e n appear to be at c r o s s p urposes, t h i s does not have to be so. What becomes important i s the i n t e n t . I f the same view of the educated person and the f u n c t i o n of s c h o o l i n g i s h e l d , then i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r them to s e r v e as c o n n e c t o r s i n a c o o r d i n a t e d , i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t . Thus, c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n which f o s t e r s the development of a c t i v e , q u e s t i o n i n g c i t i z e n s w i l l i n g t o engage i n s o c i a l c r i t i q u e and to take m o r a l l y d e f e n s i b l e a c t i o n i n the i n t e r e s t of the f a m i l y , i s l o g i c a l l y a p a r t of home economics e d u c a t i o n and c o n c e p t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n f o r c r o s s -c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g which i n c l u d e s the n o t i o n s of r e c i p r o c i t y , of f o s t e r i n g t o l e r a n c e and r e s p e c t f o r d i v e r s i t y , of r e d u c i n g p r e j u d i c e and s t e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g , of d e v e l o p i n g a s o c i a l / m o r a l e c o l o g y , and of t a k i n g a c t i o n to reduce i n j u s t i c e and o p p r e s s i o n i s l e g i t i m a t e l y a p a r t of 104 home economics education and c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global e d u c a t i o n . Consumer education which develops the d i s p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r e d -for r e s p o n s i b l e consumer c h o i c e s in an interdependent, globa l s o c i e t y i s connected to both home economics education and c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education. Encouraging value d e l i b e r a t i o n s and m o r a l l y d e f e n s i b l e a c t i o n in regard to resource stewardship/management l i n k s environmental education with home economics education and c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global e d u c a t i o n . Home economics education has never been a s s o c i a t e d with one root d i s c i p l i n e . Instead, the sub j e c t matter i s d e r i v e d from a v a r i e t y of d i s c i p l i n e s . S ubstantive content of the home economics program in the school ... draws together knowledge from several d i s c i p l i n e s , not only the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s but a l s o the hermeneutic d i s c i p l i n e s of h i s t o r y and h u m a n i t i e s , and c r i t i c a l p h ilosophy. The content i s not only e m p i r i c a l in nature; i t d e a l s a l s o with meaning, with v a l u e s , with f e e l i n g s and m o t i v a t i o n s , and how v a r i o u s forms of knowledge are d e r i v e d and v e r i f i e d . (Brown, 1980, p. I l l ) So, i t i s not unusual to f i n d s i m i l a r educational purposes to other d i s c i p l i n e s (humanities, s c i e n c e s , and economics) in the arguments presented by home economists f o r i n t e g r a t i n g g l o b a l education and home economics education. Although i d e n t i f y i n g and examining the arguments f o r i n t e g r a t i n g global education and home economics education as separate and d i s t i n c t has been a use f u l procedure, i t i s a l s o r e d u c t i o n i s t . What has evolved i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that 105 a l l of the arguments are inte r c o n n e c t e d and t h e i r concerns and i n t e r e s t s o v e r l a p p i n g . G r i e g , P i k e , and Selby (198?) came to a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n when examining development educat i o n , environmental education, human r i g h t s education, and peace ed u c a t i o n . They noted that at the broad focus each of these 'educations', "...there i s an extremely marked degree of convergence..." <p.. 30) and " . . . t h a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l c o n c e p t s . . . a r e comp1 ernen t a r y , interdependent and mutually i l l u m i n a t i n g " (p. 30). I contend that t h i s i s a l s o true f o r c i t i z e n s h i p education, education f o r cr o s s - c u 1 u r a l understanding, consumer education, and environmental education in r e l a t i o n to home economics education and c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education. In summary, t h i s a n a l y s i s has r e v e a l e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of conceptual c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h i n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s and i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s of the v a r i o u s "educations" that are at the heart of global e d u c a t i o n . What needs f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i s ; m o r a l / p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g as the common f e a t u r e of global education and home economics education; the f a m i l y as the unique focus of home economics education; and " i n t e g r a t i o n " of home economics education and global educat i on. 106 CHAPTER 6 GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION The l i n e o-f reasoning in t h i s t h e s i s s t a r t e d with determining that a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e (Coombs, 1988a) i s the only global p e r p s e c t i v e which can be l e g i t i m a t e l y adopted as an educational g o a l . I then demonstrated that a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i s i m p l i c i t in the mission o-f home economics a r t i c u l a t e d by Brown and Pao l u c c i (1979). C o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education was subsequently i d e n t i f i e d as a conception of global education which adopts the goal of imparting to students a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e . Further a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d that many of the v a l u e s , assumptions, purposes, and p r a c t i c e s of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education are e i t h e r e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t in the conception of home economics education developed by Brown (1980). I concluded that because c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education and home economics education are i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y , there i s a l i k e l i h o o d of " c r o s s i n g over of f l e x i b l e boundaries" (Brown, 1980, p. 125) of c i t i z e n s h i p education, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l education, consumer educati o n , and environmental education in d e a l i n g with the inte r c o n n e c t e d p r a c t i c a l problems of global home economics educat i on. 107 My i n t e n t in t h i s c h a p t e r i s to begin w i t h a closer-e x a m i n a t i o n o-f the concept of integration w i t h r e s p e c t to c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n and home economics e d u c a t i o n . I w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g as the common element of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n and home economics e d u c a t i o n . I w i l l o f f e r f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the f a m i l y as the unique f o c u s of home economics e d u c a t i o n . I w i l l c o n s i d e r how i n t e g r a t e d g l o b a l home economics e d u c a t i o n would d i f f e r from home economics e d u c a t i o n as i t e x i s t s t o d a y . And f i n a l l y , I w i l l e x p l o r e t he d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between g l o b a l home economics and other-s u b j e c t a r e a s which may be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n . INTEGRATION OF GLOBAL EDUCATION AND HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION In d e c i d i n g how to best phrase the e d u c a t i o n a l response to the g l o b a l n a t u r e of our w o r l d , I s e t t l e d on " i n t e g r a t i o n " of g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n and home economics e d u c a t i o n . I c o u l d have s t a t e d i t as " i n c o r p o r a t i n g " or " i n f u s i n g " g l o b a l c o n c e p t s in home economics e d u c a t i o n , or " g l o b a l i z i n g " home economics e d u c a t i o n , or home economics e d u c a t i o n from a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and so on. In c h o o s i n g the term " i n t e g r a t i o n " , I am making c l e a r t h a t g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n i s n e i t h e r a d i s t i n c t f i e l d of s t u d y , nor a se p a r a t e s t u d y to be i n s e r t e d , nor an "add-on", but an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d y t o be blended i n t o home economics e d u c a t i o n to c o n s t r u c t a l a r g e r u n i t y . 108 Case <1985) in h i s study of l a w - r e l a t e d education, argued f o r i n t e g r a t i o n of l a w - r e l a t e d education and s o c i a l s t u d i e s education. Although global education i s qu i t e d i f f e r e n t from l a w - r e l a t e d education, I f i n d h i s conception of i n t e g r a t i o n i l l u m i n a t i n g and I f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r to h i s a n a l y s i s. Case i d e n t i f i e d two impediments to i n t e g r a t i o n : "congestion caused by a v a r i e t y of groups competing f o r space in the c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 54); and the lack of cohesion w i t h i n the f i e l d . The f i r s t impediment, competing c l a i m a n t s , has always been part of educ a t i o n . Home economics education has not been immune. It i s often threatened with replacement when new courses are brought on stream, f o r example, consumer education, h e a l t h and guidance education, and women's s t u d i e s , or i t i s threatened with d i l u t i o n when r e q u i r e d to add new components in response to s o c i a l problems, f o r example, sex education, drug education, s t r e s s management, and career education. However, as the a n a l y s i s in chapter 5 p o i n t s out and Case (1985) confirms: the competing c l a i m a n t s are p o t e n t i a l l y compatible with each other and with the goals of a general education. The c u r r e n t competion [ s i c ] among them and the p e r c e i v e d threat they p o s e . . . i s l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of the f a i l u i r e [ s i c ] to i n t e g r a t e them i n t o the e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m , (p. 55) The second impediment, "the absence...of coherent goals and the lack of an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach" (p. 55), a l s o e x i s t s in home economics edu c a t i o n . There i s tension 109 between the t r a d i t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l goals of p r o v i d i n g home management s k i l l s and the c r i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o-f s o c i a l c r i t i q u e . Tomkins (1986), in p r o f i l i n g home economics as a school subject in Canadian s c h o o l s , noted that some c u r r i c u l a i n cluded "the use of s o c i o l o g i c a l concepts" and a " f a m i l y s t u d i e s emphasis" but he concludes t h a t : Although the emphases noted were o s t e n s i b l y moving home economics beyond, i f not away, from the teaching of t r a d i t i o n a l cooking, sewing and household management s k i l l s , these t r a d i t i o n a l elements remained s i g n i f i c a n t in the c u r r i c u l a of most p r o v i n c e s . <p. 403) Brown <1980) a l s o emphasizes t h i s lack of cohesion: Home economics educators have sought to have the home economics program in the s c h o o l s be too many thi n g s to too many people. <i) It was to be a program of education f o r f o r m u l a t i n g and meeting problems of the f a m i l y . <2) It was to be a program of c r a f t s . . . . < 3 ) . . . s h o r t - t e r m t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . . . . ( 4 ) . . . s p e c i a l education f o r the h a n d i c a p p e d and d i s a d v a n t a g e d . ...<5).. .a comprehensive program....<p. 130) F r e q u e n t l y , home economics i s d i v i d e d i n t o narrowly focussed s p e c i a l i s t areas: foods and n u t r i t i o n ; c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s ; housing; i n t e r i o r design; f a m i l y s t u d i e s ; c h i l d care; career p r e p a r a t i o n programs; and so on. However, i f Brown's conception of home economics education i s accepted and adopted, much c o n f u s i o n , narrowness and fragmentation can be avoided. Her approach i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y and her goal i s to develop in students the d i s p o s i t i o n s f o r reasoned r e f l e c t i o n of value issues that a f f e c t the f a m i l y in the i n t e r e s t of a f r e e and democratic s o c i e t y . 110 Case (1985) makes the f o l l o w i n g d i s t i n c t i o n between " i n s e r t i o n " and " i n t e g r a t i o n " . In " i n s e r t i o n " , the innovation i s t r e a t e d as "an adjunct to or separate component of the s u b j e c t " <p. 57). In home economics education, t h i s would mean l o o k i n g f o r openings or p o s s i b i l i t i e s to add global content. In " i n t e g r a t i o n " the new subj e c t would "be t r e a t e d as a [ s i c ] i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y study" <p. 57). T h i s would involve weaving c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education i n t o e x i s t i n g and new home economics education programs. In f u r t h e r c l a r i f y i n g " i n t e g r a t i o n " , Case <1985) i d e n t i f i e s two p o s s i b l e s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n as " s e l e c t i v e " or "sy s t e m a t i c " . Paraphrasing h i s d e f i n i t i o n s to s u i t my purposes: s e l e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f y i n g s t r a t e g i c t o p i c s and m a t e r i a l s in home economics education and reworking them to r e f l e c t a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e ; whereas systematic i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n v o l v e s development of a comprehensive scope and sequence w i t h i n which global education and home economics education can be c o h e s i v e l y o r g a n i z e d . I agree with Case's <1985) argument that systematic i n t e g r a t i o n addresses the two p o s s i b l e impediments to i n c o r p o r a t i n g new educational developments i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m and that "there are impressive pedagogical and pragmatic reasons why systematic i n t e g r a t i o n should be the long-term s t r a t e g y " (p. 58). These reasons include the grea t e r l i k e l i h o o d that the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y m a t e r i a l s w i l l be used, the poss i b i1 i ty of 111 r e d u c i n g the t r e a t o-f competing c l a i m e n t s , and the r e c o g n i t i o n that c e r t a i n i s s u e s cannot be s t u d i e d in i sol at i on. The emphasis o-f systematic i n t e g r a t i o n i s the development of a c u r r i c u l u m framework "to s t r u c t u r e the marriage of the d i f f e r e n t g o a l s , c u r r i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s , and content areas" (Case, 1985, p. 60). Chapter 4 looked c l o s e l y at both gl o b a l education and home economics education f o r evidence of u n i f y i n g threads. The general goals i n c l u d e d a commitment to viewing the world as an inter c o n n e c t e d whole; imparting to students a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e ; and developing in students the d i s p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r s o c i a l c r i t i q u e , the r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of value i s s u e s , and t r a n s f o r m a t i v e , emancipatory a c t i o n . The c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d as humanism or the personal change o r i e n t a t i o n , because personal worth i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to c a r i n g f o r the worth of o t h e r s , and s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , because much of the oppression and u n f a i r treatment of others i s a part of s t r u c t u r a l v i o l e n c e . The content area was i d e n t i f i e d as those p r a c t i c a l problems and value issues which face the f am i 1 y . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n of global education and home economics education may be redundant because I have argued al r e a d y that global education i s i m p l i c i t in Brown's (1980) conception of home economics edu c a t i o n . However, 112 t h i s more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n i s necessary because Brown's conception of home economics education has not yet been widely adopted in c u r r i c u l u m development in Canada, and I fea r that teachers may think that adding a u n i t on f o r e i g n foods, or the f a m i l y in other c u l t u r e s , or doing something s p e c i a l on World Food Day, may c o n s t i t u t e global home economics ed u c a t i o n . Global education i s based on a new r e a l i t y , the global nature of the world, and i n v o l v e s a r e o r i e n t a t i o n of home economics education as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Brown (1980) to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e t h i s new re a l i t y . p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g The aim of i n t e g r a t e d global home economics education i s to f o s t e r in people the development of the knowledge, a b i l i t i e s , and d i s p o s i t i o n s necessary f o r making r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s about p r a c t i c a l problems. The r e s u l t of the decision-making process i s making judgments, a c t i n g on them, and being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them. A judgment i s r a t i o n a l to the extent that one has good reasons s u p p o r t i n g i t . The reasoning process f o r d e l i b e r a t i o n about p r a c t i c a l problems that I am advocating i s p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Thus, the p r a c t i c a l problem o r i e n t a t i o n which i s at the heart of global home economics education, r e q u i r e s an understanding of what c o n s t i t u t e s a p r a c t i c a l problem and how p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g d i f f e r s from other types of reas o n i n g . 113 P r a c t i c a l Problems The issues and concerns, problems, and quest i o n s which are the c e n t r a l -focus o-f global home economics education are p r a c t i c a l in nature as opposed to being t h e o r e t i c a l or academic. They involve q u e s t i o n s such as "what to do" and "what ought to be done". Re i d (197?) notes that p r a c t i c a l problems have many -features in common: F i r s t . . . t h e y are qu e s t i o n s that have to be answered—even i-f the answer i s to decide to do nothing....Second, the grounds on which d e c i s i o n s should be made are u n c e r t a i n . . . . T h i r d , in answering p r a c t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , we always have to take some e x i s t i n g s t a t e of a f f a i r s i n t o account.... F o u r t h . . . each question i s in some ways unique, belonging to a s p e c i f i c time and context, the p a r t i c u l a r s of which we can never e x h a u s t i v e l y d e s c r i b e . F i f t h , our question w i l l c e r t a i n l y compel us to a d j u d i c a t e between competing g o a l s and v a l u e s . . . . S i x t h , we can never p r e d i c t the outcome of the p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n we choose, s t i l l l e s s know what the outcome would have been had we made a d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e . F i n a l l y , the grounds on which we decide to answer a p r a c t i c a l question in a p a r t i c u l a r way are not grounds that point to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the a c t i o n chosen as an act in i t s e l f , but grounds that lead us to suppose that the a c t i o n w i l l r e s u l t in some d e s i r a b l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s . <pp. 188-18?) Reid (197?) p r o v i d e s a use f u l h e u r i s t i c to understand problems: 114 p r u d e n t i a l mor a 1 F i g . 1. Types o-f Problems (p. 191) Procedural p r a c t i c a l problems are ones that can be s o l v e d by t e c h n i c a l or instrumental a c t i o n . In home economics education, they are qu e s t i o n s about method, such as "How can I prepare n u t r i t i o u s meals -for my f a m i l y ? " , "Show me how to use a sewing machine, microwave oven, and so on.", "How do I r e c y c l e ? " , and "What do I do to provide a safe environment f o r my c h i l d r e n ? " . U n c e r t a i n p r a c t i c a l problems are ones which involve the question "What should I do?" or "What ought to be done?" (Re i d , 1979, p.190). In those c l a s s e d as p r u d e n t i a l , the reasons f o r a c t i o n are based on the wants, d e s i r e s , needs, and aims of the i n d i v i d u a l . "They ask f o r a d j u d i c a t i o n about p r e f e r e n c e s as well as procedures" (Reid, 1979, p. 192). In home economics education, they are que s t i o n s such as "What should I do about choosing a c a r e e r ? " , "Where should I l i v e ? " , and "What c l o t h i n g best s u i t s my needs?". The paramount i n t e r e s t i s in the i n d i v i d u a l , without concern f o r s o c i e t a l v a l u e s . In those c l a s s e d as moral, the s o l u t i o n w i l l a f f e c t the wants, 115 d e s i r e s , n e e d s , and aims of a w i d e r p o p u l a t i o n . A d j u d i c a t i o n takes i n t o account moral,, e t h i c a l , and p r u d e n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Coombs <1988b) i d e n t i f i e s two types of value judgments in response to p r a c t i c a l moral problems, i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l : The v a l u a t ional premises used in making an i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c a l judgment must s a t i s f y two c r i t e r i a of r a t i o n a l i t y : (1) A c t i n g on them must be c o n s i s t e n t with the demands of m o r a l i t y , and <2) A c t i n g on them must s a t i s f y the standards of best consequences to the degree p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the bounds of m o r a l i t y . . . . P r a c t i c a l r easoning l e a d i n g to s o c i a l judgment appeals to the same two bas i c standards, but the standards of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t takes on a s o c i a l r a t h e r than an i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r e n t , (p. 6) Adding t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , a h e u r i s t i c which c o n c e n t r a t e s s o l e l y on p r a c t i c a l problems would look l i k e t h i s : F i g . 2 P r a c t i c a l problems D e l i b e r a t i o n about i n d i v i d u a l moral problems in global home economics education would include such q u e s t i o n s as "What should I do about hunger and poverty?", "How can I ensure that people are t r e a t e d f a i r l y ? " , and "Why am I o b l i g a t e d to r e c y c l e ? " . S o c i a l moral problem d e l i b e r a t i o n s involve 116 i s s u e s such as, "What ought to be done about hunger and poverty?" and "What a c t i o n should be taken to reduce oppression and i n j u s t i c e ? " . Much o-f the c r i t i c i s m o-f home, economics education i s d i r e c t e d towards the c o n c e n t r a t i o n , p e r c e i v e d and r e a l , on the procedural p r a c t i c a l problems: teaching techniques; p e r p e t u a t i n g the "sewing and cooking" s t e r e o t y p e ; and m a i n t a i n i n g value n e u t r a l i t y . While many problems can not be s l o t t e d n e a t l y i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s o-f the above h e u r i s t i c , i t i s a use f u l device in r e c o g n i z i n g that there are p r a c t i c a l problems other than p r o c e d u r a l , and a c t i o n to be taken other than i n s t r u m e n t a l . The l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s of global home economics education, often c a l l e d p erennial p r a c t i c a l problems because they are complex, c o n t e x t u a l , c o n t i n u i n g , and ever changing, f a l l i n t o the u n c e r t a i n moral p r a c t i c a l problem category because they recognize the connection between the i n d i v i d u a l , the f a m i l y and s o c i e t y as a whole, and the need to take communicative and emancipative a c t i o n . These problems are not t e c h n i c a l but ones of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e , with i m p l i c a t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n c e s . " ( I ) t i s b a s i c . . . t o have a c l e a r understanding of our system f o r symbol m a k i n g — t o understand language processes, modes of i n q u i r y , t h e o r i e s of evidence, t h e o r i e s of t r u t h , e t c . " ( P u r p e l , 1989, p. 125) and to engage in c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g in the s t r o n g sense which f o s t e r s emancipatory reason (Paul et a l . , 1989). Recognizing 117 the n e c e s s i t y t o make v a l u e and moral judgments t h a t t r a n s c e n d t e c h n i c a l c r i t e r i a , g l o b a l home economics e d u c a t i o n e n t e r s the domain of m o r a l i t y and e t h i c s . The M o r a l l y E d u c a t e d P e r s o n A r c u s (1934, 1986, 1987a, 1987b) and Brown (1982, 1984, 1985, 1988) have argued s t r o n g l y f o r s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e t h i c s and reason as opposed to dogmatism and u n r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e . D a n i e l s (1981) argues t h a t "the p o i n t of m o r a l i t y i s to ' a m e l i o r a t e the human c o n d i t i o n ' through the use of reason r a t h e r than by use of punishment, f o r c e , c o e r c i o n , or the l i k e " ( p . 3 6 ) . S t o t t (1988) o f f e r s a s i m i l i a r view. To him m o r a l i t y r e f e r s " t o any t e a c h i n g t h a t c e n t r e s on n o t i o n s t h a t we ought to care f o r and about o t h e r s and hence, t h a t we s h o u l d be honest in our d e a l i n g s w i t h people and s h o u l d be a c t i v e l y concerned about s o c i a l j u s t i c e " ( p . 3 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o D a n i e l s (1981): There are at l e a s t f i v e s e t s of h i g h - o r d e r a t t a i n m e n t s which must be a c h i e v e d b e f o r e i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e t o l a b e l someone as " m o r a l l y e ducated". 1 . The person must come to un d e r s t a n d the r e q u i r e m e n t s of r e a s o n . . . . 2. The person must be s e n s i t i v e to ' m o r a l l y hazardous' a c t i o n s , i . e . , a c t i o n s which r a i s e moral q u e s t i o n s , be a b l e and i n c l i ned t o seek r e l e v a n t f a c t u r a l [ s i c ] i n f o r m a t i o n and to r e a l i z e the consequences of engaging in m o r a l l y hazardous a c t i o n s . 3. The person must be i n c l i n e d to seek moral a d v i c e and t o e v a l u a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s p r o f f e r e d . 4. The person must have the w i l l to do what she r e c o g n i z e s as the r i g h t t h i n g to do. 118 5. The person must have a sense o-f s e l f -worth. Lacking t h i s , the person i s u n l i k e l y to possess the r e q u i r e d understanding of what i t i s to be a person, and thus how one ought to t r e a t c r e a t u r e s who are persons, (p. 37) Paul (1938) argues that To c u l t i v a t e the k i n d of moral independence implied in being an educated moral person, we must f o s t e r in students moral h u m i l i t y , moral courage, moral i n t e g r i t y , moral perseverance, moral empathy, and moral fair-mindedness. (pp. 13-14) Thus, the aim of promoting .a moral point of view in global home economics education i s to f o s t e r the development of "morally educated" persons who are committed to c a r i n g f o r o t h e r s , to s o c i a l j u s t i c e , to s o c i a l c r i t i q u e and reasoning based on fundamental moral p r i n c i p l e s , and to r a t i o n a l , d e f e n s i b l e a c t i o n aimed at c r e a t i n g a f r e e and democratic soc i e t y . Values Reasonino The reasoning most of t e n mentioned in regard to s o l v i n g u n c e r t a i n p r a c t i c a l problems which involve a d j u d i c a t i o n of values has been v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d "value d e l i b e r a t i o n " , "values reasoning", "value a n a l y s i s " , "moral reasoning", and "normative r e a s o n i n g " . Arcus <1984, 1987b), f o r example, recommends " values-r e a s o n i n g " , the approach promoted by the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Values Education and Research (AVER) at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The attainments f o s t e r e d by v a l u e s education are summarized by AVER (1978) as: 119 - Being able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e value judgments, c l a i m s , or issu e s from other s o r t s of judgments, c l a i m s , or i s s u e s . - Understanding the s t r u c t u r e of l o g i c of value reasoning such that one can t e l l whether one's own and o t h e r s ' value arguments are sound. - Understanding the s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t kinds of value judgments a person can make. - Being able to te s t the adequacy of the standards or r u l e s one uses in making value judgments, (p. 3) "Value a n a l y s i s " o u t l i n e d by Hersh, M i l l e r , and F i e l d i n g (1980) i s a l s o a procedure used in moral ed u c a t i o n . The s i x e s s e n t i a l procedures in t h i s c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n sequence are : 1. I d e n t i f y i n g and c l a r i f y i n g the value q u e s t i o n . 2. Assembling purported f a c t s . 3. A s s e s s i n g the t r u t h of purported f a c t s . 4. C l a r i f y i n g the relevance of f a c t s . 5. A r r i v i n g at a t e n t a t i v e value d e c i s i o n . 6. T e s t i n g the value p r i n c i p l e implied in the dec i s i on.'(p. 103) These two examples i l l u s t r a t e methods used to educate people in the domain of m o r a l i t y . C r i t i c i s m s of these approaches are that they tend to be h i g h l y c o g n i t i v e , h y p o t h e t i c a l , and p r o c e d u r a l , and l a c k i n g in imagination, c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r emotion and c a r i n g , and a commitment to a c t i o n . They are akin to the weak sense of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as t e c h n i c a l reason (Paul et a l . , 1989) or to the "judging model" (Martin 1987, p. 212). For Noddings (1984) moral reasoning i s mathematical, detached, and uncaring, a view shared by Purpel (1989) who d e s c r i b e s i t as "a s e r i e s of mathematical procedures devoid of human context" (p. 80). Greene (1988) expresses concern as to "whether or not reasoning i s enough 120 when i t comes to a c t i n g . . . " (p. 11?) because "...there has been l i t t l e s i g n o-f any t r a n s f e r to s i t u a t i o n s in the 'r e a l w o r l d ' . . . " < p . 119). P r a c t i c a l Reasonino O r i e n t e d to Ca r i n o and A c t i o n In response to these c r i t i c i s m s , I am recommending p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . The everyday p r a c t i c a l problems of global home economics, o f t e n c a l l e d " p e r e n n i a l " by home economists, termed " u n c e r t a i n moral" by Reid (1979) would most l o g i c a l l y be co n s i d e r e d by p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Using the term " p r a c t i c a l " i m p l i e s a d i s p o s i t i o n to a c t i o n , d e c i d i n g what to do, as opposed to s p e c u l a t i o n or a b s t r a c t i o n , d e c i d i n g what to b e l i e v e . Case (1985) recommends a s t r a t e g y which addresses the lack of a c t i o n in moral reasoning. He suggests teaching moral reasoning in the context of p r a c t i c a l reasoning which ac c o r d i n g to Coombs, . . . i n v o l v e s c r e a t i n g a clim a t e where students a re: - f r e e to act on t h e i r p r a c t i c a l judgments and are aware of t h i s freedom, - expected to act on t h e i r p r a c t i c a l judgements and are aware of t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n , - h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s and are aware that t h i s i s the case. (p. 70) P r a c t i c a l reasoning, Coombs (1988b) argues i n v o l v e s d e c i d i n g what to do as the r e s u l t of c o n s i d e r i n g two l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t kinds of reasons: (1) m o t i v a t i n g reasons in the form of value standards accepted by the agent and (2) b e l i e f s about the degree to which the a c t i o n s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f u l f i l l or f a i l to f u l f i l l the value standards, (p. 1) 121 Noddings (1984) expresses concern that the m o t i v a t i n g reasons in the -form o-f value standards are o f t e n based in the e t h i c of j u s t i c e , where care i s a s s o c i a t e d with c a u t i o n and prudence, and ends with a judgment. She argues f o r an e t h i c of c a r i n g where care i s seen as concern and responsiveness, and importance i s p l a c e d on what happens a f t e r the judgment. Although her c r i t i c i s m may be accurate f o r v a l u e s reasoning, I argue that i t does not apply to p r a c t i c a l reasoning which i n c l u d e s a c t i n g on the judgment and being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r that a c t i o n . I a l s o take issue with Noddings c o n t e n t i o n that care and j u s t i c e are dichotomous and mutually e x c l u s i v e . I f i n d the argument of Shogan (1988) more comp e l l i n g . She contends that care as moral m o t i v a t i o n i n c l u d e s both the t r a i t s of benevolence and j u s t i c e . To her, c a r i n g can be i n t e r p r e t e d as "the d e s i r e f o r others'' w e l f a r e . . . a benevolent d e s i r e " (p. 17) and "a d e s i r e f o r f a i r treatment of o t h e r s . . . a j u s t d e s i r e " <p. 17). Thus, m o t i v a t i n g reasons in the form of value standards would be e i t h e r moral m o t i v a t i n g reasons r e l a t e d to s i t u a t i o n s when the we l f a r e of others i s at stake or moral j u s t i f y i n g reasons when "there i s a c o n f l i c t between s e n t i e n t beings or between s e n t i e n t beings and a standard, and the r e s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s a d j u d i c a t i o n so that those in the c o n f l i c t are t r e a t e d f a i r l y " <p. 17). Taking a c t i o n on the judgment and e v a l u a t i n g the consequences of such a c t i o n 122 r e g a r d i n g the welfare and j u s t treatment of others i s the r e s u l t of p r a c t i c a l r easoning from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . AHEA (198?) has r e c o g n i z e d p r a c t i c a l reasoning as a p o s s i b l e c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n because i t " i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u seful to so l v e home economics que s t i o n s and to f u n c t i o n i n t e l l i g e n t l y and e t h i c a l l y in everyday l i v i n g " (p. 62). The p r a c t i c a l r easoning processes are o u t l i n e d as: i * • « I. Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n I I . Problem A n a l y s i s and Problem-Framing.... I I I . P r a c t i c a l Reasoning.... A. Using P r a c t i c a l Reasoning Component Processes.... B. Seeking and O r g a n i z i n g Adequate and R e l i a b l e Information.... C. Seeking Consensus Among Family and/or Community Members.... D. C r e a t i n g A c t i o n s / S t r a t e g i e s / P r o d u c t s / Frames of Reference to Achieve Home Ec on om i c s Cr i t e r i a . . . . E. C r e a t i n g and E v a l u a t i n g Reasoned Argumen t s . . . . F. M o n i t o r i n g / E v a l u a t i n g Reasoning.... G. Drawing C o n c l u s i o n s to F u l f i l l C r i t e r i a H. J u s t i f y i n g C o n c l u s i o n s I. P lanning f o r A c t i o n / T e c h n i c a l Home Economics Problem S o l v i n g J . Taking Seasoned [ s i c ] and E t h i c a l A c t i o n K. E v a l u a t i n g and M o n i t o r i n g A c t i o n s <pp. 64-65) T h i s o u t l i n e of p r a c t i c a l r easoning may appear to be somewhat s t r u c t u r e d and p r o c e d u r a l , but Coombs (1988c) adds a c a u t i o n in c o n c l u d i n g : It should by now be obvious that p r a c t i c a l reasoning i s a complex and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y demanding task. Becoming good at i t r e q u i r e s that one learn to make s e n s i t i v e use of a v a r i e t y of concepts, d i s t i n c t i o n s , standards and p a t t e r n s of reasoning which have been devised and r e f i n e d through our c o l l e c t i v e experience. Moreover, employment of these concepts and standards cannot 1 2 3 be reduced to r o u t i n e -following o-f r u l e s . One must le a r n to e x e r c i s e good judgment in a p p l y i n g them. (p. 28) P r a c t i c a l r easoning i s not devoid of c a r i n g , imagination, or mystery. Imagination or emotion without reasoning i s b l i n d , and reasoning without imagination or emotion i s s t e r i l e . Greene (1988) emphasizes t h i s in her argument that moral education must be as s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h s e 1 f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n in a community as i t i s with the judgments persons are equipped to make at d i f f e r e n t ages. It has as much to do with i n t e r e s t and a c t i o n in concrete s i t u a t i o n s as i t does with the course of moral reasoning. It has as much to do with consciousness and imagination as i t does with p r i n c i p l e . (pp. 47-48) S t o t t (1988) echoes a s i m i l a r viewpoint when he s t a t e s that "the e n t e r p r i s e of moral education needs to be s h a r p l y reminded that mystery i s at i t s core, that at the heart of m o r a l i t y l i e r e l a t i o n s h i p s " (p. 63) f o r i f I have been moved by the beauty of a r i v e r , I cannot throw trash i n t o i t ; moved by the presence of a person, I cannot deceive him or her. It i s not at a l l that I ought not, i t i s that I must not; i t i s not a matter of obedience to a general p r i n c i p l e , but r a t h e r a s p e c i f i c f e e l of the r i g h t and good. (p. 63) Paul (undated) argues f o r the importance of c u l t i v a t i n g r a t i o n a l p assions in the teaching of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s f o r "we must care about something to do something about i t " (p. 7). The p r a c t i c a l problems on which global home economics education f o c u s s e s are complex, int e r c o n n e c t e d , and 124 i n t e r r e l a t e d . T h e i r s o l u t i o n s are c o n t i n g e n t and p r o v i s i o n a l . P r a c t i c a l r easoning o f f e r s a way to deal with the c o m p l e x i t i e s in an e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e manner. It i n c l u d e s care as moral m o t i v a t i o n , the need f o r imagination in determining new s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g in the s t r o n g sense (Paul et al . , 1989), and f o s t e r i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n s necessary to e x e r c i s e good judgment and to commit to a c t i n g on, and being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r , those judgments. Perhaps the reason f o r * p r a c t i c a l reasoning in global home economics education i s best summarized by Sul1 i van <1987): The i n s i g h t . . . o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n . . . i s p r e c i s e l y that human beings l i v e w i t h i n as well as use language and forms of s o c i a l l i f e , that they can both understand and take up a stance toward t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and, by so doing, help to organize and s t r u c t u r e i t . Persons are not simply counters in a systemic map or game, moved from without, but are moral agents in that they can question both t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s and take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the stances they adopt. Understanding r e q u i r e s a k i n d of enactment, and t h i s f u r t h e r e n t a i l s an i n e l u c t a b l y s o c i a l and, f i n a l l y , p o l i t i c a l dimension. Insight thus r e q u i r e s a d i s p o s i t i o n toward a c e r t a i n k i n d of e t h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p toward o t h e r s , a notion of s o c i e t y as aiming at a consensual and shared realm c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e c i p r o c i t y , (p. 395) 125 T H E F A M I L Y — T H E UNIQUE FOCUS OF GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION The conception o-f global home economics presented thus f a r i s based on the reasoning that a con t r u e t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i s i m p l i c i t in the mission o-f home economics (Brown and P a o l u c c i , 197?) and that c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education and home economics education (Brown, 1?80) have s i m i l a r v a l u e s , purposes, g o a l s , and o b j e c t i v e s . What then makes global home economics education di-f-ferent -from c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education? Brown (1?80) contends, and others w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n g e n e r a l l y agree, that "the problems with which home economics i s concerned are problems of the f a m i l y as a fam i1y" (p. 56). T h i s i s what makes home economics education unique v i s a v i s other s u b j e c t areas and global home economics education d i f f e r e n t from global education and any other i n t e g r a t i o n of global education. For example, global s o c i a l s t u d i e s education may focus on the problems that are f a c i n g our i n c r e a s i n g l y interdependent world but the problems would most l i k e l y be framed in economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , or h i s t o r i c a l terms a b s t r a c t i n g the human c o n d i t i o n , whereas in global home economics education the problems would be framed in terms of t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f a m i l y and the demands of everyday l i f e . 126 In formu1 a t i n g problems of the f a m i l y , Brown (1980) argues that i t i s necessary to p o s t u l a t e some d e s i r a b l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s f o r the f a m i l y and, through the use of evidence, to i d e n t i f y c o n d i t i o n s which prevent or threaten t h i s d e s i r a b l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s . <p. 57) She g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g account of a d e s i r a b l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s f o r the f a m i l y i f i t i s to c o n t r i b u t e to development of mature ego i d e n t i t y and the formation of a f r e e s o c i e t y . <a> For the f a m i l y as whole there should be: - a sense of s e l f - c o n t r o l and s e 1 f - d i r e c t i o n as a f a m i l y - a sense of intimacy - p r i v a c y or sanctuary - a sense of permanence in human re 1 at i ons (b) For the a d u l t man and woman, there should be a r e c i p r o c a l , genuine, l o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p in which romance (as c h i v a l r y and adventure) i s a c t i v e and e x p e c t a t i o n s are r e a l i s t i c , and in which there i s a sense of understanding and b i n d i n g commitment. (c) For c h i l d r e n , there should be a s t a b l e environment provided by a d u l t s in which genuine nurturant q u a l i t i e s are experienced in c o n j u n c t i o n with educative a u t h o r i t y ( i n which needs as d e f i n e d by c h i l d r e n themselves do not determine a l l that t h e i r education i s to be). (d) For any other members of the f a m i l y , should there be any, there should be a sense of belonging, of being understood, of having personal s i g n i f i c a n c e and autonomy in the f a m i l y . (e) For a l l members of the f a m i l y , there shou1d be: (1) a system of communicative a c t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y which enables both understanding (of one another and of c u l t u r a l meaning and norms) and the development of consensus about norms of conduc t. (2) a system of work or p u r p o s i v e -r a t i o n a l a c t i o n which manages resources of the f a m i l y and p r o v i d e s the p h y s i c a l requirements of the f a m i l y to meet g o a l s and standards e s t a b l i s h e d through communicative a c t i o n . 127 (3) a system o-f emancipative a c t i o n which enables the -family and i t s i n d i v i d u a l members to use reason, (pp. 78-7?) T h i s was w r i t t e n a year a f t e r the American Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n had adopted the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n r e c o g n i z i n g the f a m i l y in i t s v a r i o u s forms: F a m i l y i s d e f i n e d as a u n i t of i n t i m a t e t r a n s a c t i n g and interdependent persons who share some valu e s and g o a l s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s and r e s o u r c e s , and have commitment to one another over time. (AHEA 1979, p. 5) However, i t i s apparent from Brown's terminology, "man", "woman", " c h i l d r e n " , and "other members should there be any" (emphasis added), that she presents a view of the nuclear f a m i l y as the i d e a l . For global home economics education, t h i s would not be s u f f i c i e n t l y d i v e r s e because "the 'cereal-packet norm' f a m i l y i s but a m i n o r i t y genre of the household group n a t i o n a l l y and g l o b a l l y " (Pike & Selby, 1988, p. 265). The AHEA d e f i n i t i o n appears to be more i n c l u s i v e in that i t encompasses s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s , homosexual and heterosexual f a m i l i e s , r e c o n s t i t u t e d f a m i l i e s , extended f a m i l i e s , the f a m i l y as part of a c l a n or t r i b e , and so on. However, i t i s important to recognize that the demands of everyday 1 i f e remain. Ule change the i n s t i t u t i o n — t h r o u g h d i v o r c e , remarriage, open adoption, surrogate m o t h e r s — a l l kinds of changes in the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of fami1 i e s . . . . Change in the fami1y...doesn't change the need f o r food, c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r , c h i l d c a r e and f a m i l y connectedness. The s t r u c t u r e s of everyday l i f e remain the same. (Thompson 1988b, p. 52) 128 R e l a t i o n s h i p s , human a c t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s , and commitments, are c e n t r a l de-fining -features o-f -families not composi t i on . T h i s does not mean that the problems o-f the -family should be i s o l a t e d -from soc i al -cu 1 t u r a l r e a l i t y . "The process o-f -formulating problems the -family -faces i s one in which we must consid e r c o n d i t i o n s beyond the circumference o-f the -family" (Brown 1980, p. 57), otherwise we are prone to i d e n t i f y problems by t h e i r obvious m a n i f e s t a t i o n s but t h i s leads us to deal only with symptoms and to not even i d e n t i f y i n g the u n d e r l y i n g problem. (Brown 1980, p. 61) Brown (1980) l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g as some examples of problems f a c i n g the f a m i l y : * Recognizing i t s (the f a m i l y ' s ) own s i g n i f i c a n c e as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n * Becoming c r i t i c a l l y aware of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s need f o r l a s t i n g nurturant r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others * R e a l i z i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s e x u a l i t y as more than i n s t i n c t u a l r e l e a s e * R e a l i z i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c u l t u r e and the importance of c r i t i c a l t ransmission of the c u l t u r e to c h i l d r e n * Regaining and m a i n t a i n i n g a major r o l e in the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n * Developing a sense of confidence about making judgments of what to do in f a m i l y a f f a i r s . * R e a l i z i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of communicative a c t i o n in the f a m i l y and in s o c i a l processes outside the f a m i l y * Developing competence in communication f o r understanding and f o r consensual a c t i o n * Regaining and m a i n t a i n i n g p r i v a c y * Being c r i t i c a l l y aware of s o c i a l f o r c e s which a f f e c t the f a m i l y , of t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g ideas and i d e a l s , and of t h e i r consequences * Being c r i t i c a l l y aware of the misuse of t e c h n i c a l reason w i t h i n the f a m i l y and in s o c i e t y 129 * B e i n g c r i t i c a l l y aware o-f i d e o l o g i e s c o l l e c t i v e l y h e l d in s o c i e t y * R e a l i z i n g that s o c i e t y can be improved through human a c t i o n and being w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e in emancipative a c t i o n * P r o v i d i n g adequately -for p h y s i c a l needs of the f am i1 y . . . * Implementing nurturant v a l u e s in work at home ( i n c l u d i n g p r i d e in q u a l i t y of accomplishment) * Changing working c o n d i t i o n s outside the home to make them nurturant of the f a m i l y * A p p r e c i a t i n g the v a l u e of a e s t h e t i c contemplation and of a e s t h e t i c expression to the human psyche (pp. 79-80) Two tenets of Brown's conception are c e n t r a l to global home economics education. (a) The f a m i l y i s the primary agent of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and language/communication development through which i n d i v i d u a l s come to share a common moral i d e n t i t y . Thus, the f a m i l y i s the moral center of s o c i e t y . (b) The f a m i l y i s able to engage in s o c i a l c r i t i q u e and s o c i a l change, examining s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s in everyday l i f e and mass c u l t u r e which impinge on the welfar e and f a i r treatment of i n d i v i d u a l s and the f a m i l y . One f a c t o r of s o c i a l c r i t i q u e , that should be e x p l i c i t in Brown's conception, i s that the f a m i l y as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s part of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e r e f o r e must a l s o be open to examination and change i f r e q u i r e d . If the goal of global home economics i s the emancipation of f a m i l y from c o n d i t i o n s of domination, r e p r e s s i o n , and c o n t r o l , and the development of i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s which can i n f l u e n c e the formation of a more j u s t and democratic s o c i e t y , the 130 •family must a l s o be su b j e c t to c r i t i q u e because i t has been a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n o-f oppression and domination o-f women. It i s a l s o necessary to address the femaleness o-f the - f i e l d o-f home economics. Home economics education has b a s i c a l l y been the education of females by females and the f i e l d cannot but be i n f l u e n c e d by that f a c t . . Thompson (1988b) contends that "Home Economics r e f l e c t s women's ways of being in the world and women's ways of knowing" (p. 97). She be 1 i eves that Home Economics i s an attempt to l e g i t i m a t e women's ge n d e r - i n t e n s i v e (but by no means gender-exclusive) experience and to c o d i f y i t as a knowledge system". (p. 98) The f a m i l y has been co n s i d e r e d a p r i v a t e sphere r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s — b e a r i n g and r e a r i n g of c h i l d r e n , managing a household, s e r v i n g the needs of f a m i l y members, and m a i n t a i n i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s i s opposed to the p u b l i c s p h e r e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s - - p o 1 i t i c a 1 , e c o n o m i c , l e g a l , and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . The p r i v a t e sphere has been a s s o c i a t e d with women, whereas the p u b l i c sphere has been a s s o c i a t e d with men. The p r i v a t e sphere has been diminished, t r i v i a l i z e d , and g e n e r a l l y devalued ( M a r t i n , 1984; Nodding, 1987; Thompson, 1986, 1988a, 1988b). Gender r o l e s provide another focus of s o c i a l c r i t i q u e because both sexes have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making the rep r o d u c t i v e processes of s o c i e t y work w e l l . Family l i v i n g and c h i l d - r e a r i n g are not today, i f they ever were, s o l e l y in the hands of women. Nor 131 should they be. Thus both sexes need to le a r n to axrry on the r e p r o d u c t i v e processes o-f s o c i e t y j u s t as in the 1930s both sexes need to le a r n to c a r r y on the pro d u c t i v e ones.... today there i s every reason to b e l i e v e that they have the broadest moral, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i gn i -f i cance , that care, concern, connectedness and nurturance are as important -for c a r r y i n g on s o c i e t y ' s economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i e t a l processes as i t s re p r o d u c t i v e ones. (Martin 1987, p. 208) Those key values which -form the ethos of the p r i v a t e s p h e r e — c a r e , concern, connectedness, n u r t u r a n c e — a r e o-f ten re-ferred to as r e q u i s i t e to developing the s e n s i t i v i t i e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s to deal with the p r a c t i c a l problems o-f l i v i n g in a global world. Purpel <1988) notes that deep c a r i n g i s "...a key de-fining aspect o-f the f a m i l y " <p. 40) and argues that i t i s a l s o necessary to c r e a t i n g a c u r r i c u l u m f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e . In r e f e r e n c e to peace education, Boulding (1988) mentions c a r i n g and a l t r u i s m : A l t r u i s m i n v o l v e s wanting something good f o r another and h e l p i n g to b r i n g i t about, at some cost to the s e l f . The a l t r u i s t c a r e s . P a r e n t i n g i s the prototype of a l t r u i s t i c behaviour, (p. 73) Reardon's (1988) notion of stewardship of the earth i s one of a c a r i n g nurturant parent. The f a m i l y i s r e f e r r e d to as the p r i v a t e sphere, but t h i s does not mean that i t should be i s o l a t e d from the p u b l i c sphere. 'Taking care of one's own' i s an admirable motive. But when i t combines with s u s p i c i o n of, and withdrawal from, the p u b l i c world, i t i s one of the c o n d i t i o n s of despotism....(Be 11 ah et al ., 1985, p. 112) 132 Inherent in global home economics education i s the need to l i n k i n d i v i d u a l s and the -family to the p u b l i c world, and the need to view the educated person as one who can negot i a t e in both the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c spheres. In summary, what makes global home economics unique •from other s u b j e c t areas which may i n t e g r a t e global education i s i t s focus on the f a m i l y . The perennial p r a c t i c a l problems of the household group provide the t o p i c s f o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . T h i s would include such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as the p r o v i s i o n of ba s i c needs ( p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional, and s o c i a l ) , the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f a m i l y , the management of re s o u r c e s , and so f o r t h . F i n a l l y , global home economics education assumes that the f a m i l y ought to be the moral center of s o c i e t y and that the f a m i l y can be a f o r c e f o r change in the s o c i e t y . HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION VERSUS GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS  EDUCATION Brown and Paolucci (1979) rewrote the mission of home economics from a c r i t i c a l s c i e n c e p e r s p e c t i v e . In 1980, Brown a r t i c u l a t e d home economics education from a p r a c t i c a l problem o r i e n t a t i o n . Yet, in the past decade t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has not been widespread in c u r r i c u l u m change. Only four s t a t e s (Wisconsin, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Ohio) have r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m from a p r a c t i c a l problem p e r s p e c t i v e ( H u l t g r e n , 1990). To my 133 knowledge, no Canadian province has moved in t h i s d i r e c t i o n . There-fore, I o-f-fer the f o l l o w i n g comparison of global home economics education with a pre-Brown p i c t u r e of home economics edu c a t i o n . GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION - r e f l e c t i v e (Maines, 1988) - c r i t i c a l , oppos i t i onal , committed and engaged f o r c e r t a i n values -long term process of value change -teacher as f a c i l i t a t o r of r a t i o n a l , purposeful dialogue (Brown, 1980) PRE-BROWN HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION 1. P r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e a s : - t e c h n i c a l / i nstrumen tal - v a l u e - f r e e -short term i n f o r m a t i o n -g i v i n g -teacher as c o n t r o l l e r , l e c t u r e r 2. Metaphor of E d u c a t i o n a s : - f a c t o r y , domineering, procedural -human c o n v e r s a t i o n i n c l u d i n g the v o i c e s of those who have been m a r g i n a l i z e d and excluded (Aoki 1938; F r e i r e , 1973; Giroux, 1988; Goodlad, 1986), n u r t u r i n g , p a r e n t a l , normative 3. Aims of E d u c a t i o n a s : - n a t i o n a l i s t i c - i m p a r t i n g to students a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e (Coombs, 1988a) -t r a n s m i s s i o n of knowledge -empowering and l i b e r a t i n g studen ts - m a i n t a i n i n g s t a t u s quo - b u i l d i n g a world moral commun i ty 134 4. The educated person a s : -passi ve - v e s s e l to be f i l l e d with knowledge -capable of t e c h n i c a l a c t i o n -concerned with i n d i v i d u a l we 11-be i ng 5 . C u r r i c u l u m a s : -technology -value f r e e , unproblematic, non-con t r o v e r s i al -gender f r e e 6. Classrooms a s : - a u t h o r i t a r i a n , teacher domi nated 7 . U n d e r l y i n g v a l u e s a s : - c o n t r o l , domination, competition, power - i nstrumen t a i 8. Home economics a s : - t e c h n i c a l - mechanistic, c o n t r o l l i n g the env ironmen t -fragmented, one dimensional 9. Problems a s : -those of m a t e r i a l concern that can be s o l v e d by t e c h n i c a l reason -ac t i ve - c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r , p r a c t i c a l reasoner -capable of a l 1 three systems of a c t i o n (Brown & P a o l u c c i , 1979) -a global c i t i z e n concerned with the welfare and f a i r treatment of others as well as themselves -humanism and s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n -value laden, c o n t r o v e r s i a l ( B r i d g e s , 1982, 1936; C a r r i n g t o n & Troyna, 1988; Wei 1 i ngton, 1986) -gender s e n s i t i v e , gender balanced (Eyre, 1989; M a r t i n , 1981) -democratic ( B r i d g e s , 1988), l i b e r a t i n g (Shor 1980; Shor & F r e i r e , 198?) -connection, concern, c a r i n g , c o o p e r a t i o n , j u s t i c e , harmony -moral - p o l i t i c a l / m o r a l (Brown, 1985) - e c o l o g i c a l , stewardship of the env i ronmen t - i n t e g r a t e d , mu1ti-dimensional (Brown, 1984) - p e r e n n i a l , p r a c t i c a l i n v o l v i n g everyday l i f e and mass c u l t u r e r e q u i r i n g s o c i a l c r i t i q u e and prac t i cal reason 135 10. Knowledge as: -i n f o r m a t i o n and f a c t s separated from everyday 1 i fe -a commodity, an object to possess -content -absolu te 11. C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as: -a sk i1 1 12. S o c i e t y as: -r e g i onal/nat i onal -dominated by the s o c i a l e t h i c of instrumental ism - i n d i v i d u a l i s m and c o n t r o l 13. Fami1y as: -p a s s i v e , p r i v a t e , part of s t a t u s quo -a nuclear u n i t -material consumers - c o n s i s t i n g of what i s known as well as the process of knowing a c t i v e l y (Hultgren & Wilkosz, 1986) - s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d -concep ts - u n c e r t a i n - s o c i a l c r i t i q u e ( P e t e r a t , Slocum, & Jones, 1986) - g l o b a l , interdependent -moving toward the s o c i a l e t h i c commitment (Yanke1ovich, 1981) - r e l a t i o n a l and connected (Bel 1 ah et al ., 1985; Friedman, 1983) -moral c e n t e r , a c t i v e in both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c spheres, empowered toward a c t i o n - m u l t i p l e forms as per AHEA d e f i n i t i o n (1979) -as c r i t i c a l l y c onscious consumers The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of pre-Brown home economics education may be co n s i d e r e d by some as o v e r l y t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n s e r v a t i v e , but I contend, that with few exceptions, i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y what home economics education i s in today's s c h o o l s . The above j u x t a p o s i t i o n h i g h l i g h t s the d i s t i n c t i o n s between a continuum of "what i s " , pre-Brown home economics educa t i o n , and "what ought to be" or might be, global home economics edu c a t i o n . 136 Much o-f the e x p l o r a t i o n o-f global home economics education has taken place in chapter 4. In summary, pre-Brown home economics educat i on i s grounded t e c h n o c r a t i c r a t i o n a l i t y . B u i l t on a v i s i o n of c o n t r o l and a d e s i r e f o r e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s l i k e l y to produce r e s t r i c t e d , p r o c e d u r a l l y d r i v e n t h i n k e r s who c a n n o t t o l e r a t e u n c e r t a i n t y . In c o n t r a s t , global home economics education i s grounded in a normative paradigm of e t h i c s and m o r a l i t y . B u i l t on a v i s i o n of complexity, u n c e r t a i n t y , value c o n f l i c t s , and a commitment to p r a c t i c a l reasoning, i t aims to f o s t e r r e f l e c t i v e , c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r s , secure in d e a l i n g with the perennial p r a c t i c a l problems of everyday l i f e in a global s o c i e t y . GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION AND OTHER CONTENT AREAS In chapter 5, I examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between global home economics education and the content areas of c i t i z e n s h i p education, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l education, consumer education, and environmental education. I concluded that when adequate c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of v a r i o u s educations e x i s t , in which the u n d e r l y i n g assumptions and value s are made e x p l i c i t , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t designated educations to work toward a common g o a l . I a l s o concluded that what makes home economics education unique as a content area i s i t s focus on the f a m i l y . Other content areas which a l s o overlap with home economics education and which were 137 not addressed in chapter 5 are he a l t h education, s o c i a l s t u d i e s education, and business e d u c a t i o n . Perhaps, the best way to i l l u s t r a t e how global home economics education d i f f e r s -from other content areas which may a l s o i n t e g r a t e with global e d u c a t i o n , i s by o f f e r i n g the -following examples: P r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m — P l a n n i n g the g l o b a l -family. Global h e a l t h education would l i k e l y address the p r a c t i c a l problem o-f -family p l a n n i n g by educating about methods o-f b i r t h c o n t r o l , e x p l o r i n g r e p r o d u c t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on maternal h e a l t h , and reducing in-fant mortai i t y . Global s o c i a l s t u d i e s education would l i k e l y look at the e-ffects o-f p o p u l a t i o n g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , economically, demographical1y, and h i s t o r i c a l l y to recommend change in the publ i c sphere. Global home economics education would recognize the need f o r the three systems o-f a c t i o n in plann i n g the global' -family. Emancipatory a c t i o n would allow a n a l y s i s and c r i t i q u e o-f the •forces in s o c i e t y and the f a m i l y which a f f e c t f a m i l y p l a n n i n g . Communicative a c t i o n would determine s o c i e t a l and f a m i l i a l norms f o r f a m i l y s i z e . Instrumental a c t i o n would aim to achieve such norms. 133 P r a c t i c a l problem—World debt. G l o b a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n would s t u d y the h i s t o r i c a l and economic -fac t o r s t h a t have c r e a t e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n . They would deal w i t h such t h i n g s as economic i n d i c e s , per c a p i t a consumption, and economic r e c o v e r y d e s i g n s . How to reduce the d e b t , who i s r e s p o n s i b l e , and why, would l i k e l y be the i s s u e s . G l o b a l b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n would s t u d y the h i s t o r y o-f the w o r l d bank and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l monetary fund and how they o p e r a t e . I t would be concerned w i t h such t h i n g s as i n t e r e s t payments, exchange r a t e s , c ommodities, i n f l a t i o n , s u p p l y and demand, and so on. What happens i f the debt i s not p a i d , would l i k e l y be the i s s u e . G l o b a l home economics e d u c a t i o n would c o n s i d e r how the debt has impacted on f a m i l i e s i n those c o u n t r i e s c a r r y i n g massive debt l o a d s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n would be g i v e n to the consequences of the debt i n human t e r m s — t h e s t a r v a t i o n of c h i l d r e n and the d i s l o c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s . How f a m i l i e s s h o u l d a c t to a l l e v i a t e the p a i n and s u f f e r i n g and f r e e i n g people from u n f a i r burdens would be the p r a c t i c a l problems of c o n c e r n . 13? P r a c t i c a l P r o b l e m — H o u s i n g G l o b a l h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n would e x p l o r e h o u s i n g from a h e a l t h and hygiene p o i n t of view. Adequate h o u s i n g would l i k e l y be e v a l u a t e d in terms of i t s a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n the h e a l t h of the p e o p l e . B e s i d e s s h e l t e r , w a t e r , sewage d i s p o s a l , freedom from p e s t s , and the l i k e would be examined. G l o b a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s would s t u d y h o u s i n g t r e n d s , v a r i a t i o n s in h o u s i n g due to g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of m a t e r i a l s , c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , and so on. Adequate h o u s i n g would l i k e l y be e v a l u a t e d in terms of i t s e f f i c i e n c y to s h e l t e r p e o p l e . G l o b a l b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n would l i k e l y s t u d y the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of h o u s i n g , t h e i r advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s , and ho u s i n g r e l a t e d i s s u e s l i k e mortages, s e c u r i t y payments, l e a s e s , r e n t a l s , l a n d t i t l e s , and so f o r t h . G l o b a l home economics, in a d d i t i o n t o examining h o u s i n g f o r i t s a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e s h e l t e r , would t r y to come to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g about what a home means to the f a m i l y i n terms of everyday l i f e ( i n p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l , and c u l t u r a l terms) and then t r y to f i n d s ways to change c o n d i t i o n s i n s o c i e t y which are c o n s p i r i n g a g a i n s t the f a i r t reatment and w e l f a r e of the f a m i l y w i t h r e s p e c t to h o u s i n g . 140 In summary, s o c i a l s t u d i e s i s " s o c i o - c i v i c " (Brown, 1980, p. 123) in i t s concern. It concentrates on s o c i e t a l problems in the p u b l i c sphere, s t u d y i n g the pro d u c t i v e processes o-f s o c i e t y . Business education i s v o c a t i o n a l in nature and being r e l a t e d to the p u b l i c sphere concentrates on business e n t e r p r i s e , law, r e g u l a t i o n , consumption, and the l i k e . Health education operates in both the p u b l i c and the p r i v a t e spheres but w i t h i n the narrow context o-f prevention o-f disease or i l l - h e a l t h . Home economics education i s " s o c i o - p e r s o n a l " (Brown, 1980, p. 123) in i t s concern. Like h e a l t h education, i t prepares students f o r both spheres but w i t h i n the broader context of the w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . S o c i a l s t u d i e s and the other content areas tend to t r e a t the f a m i l y as an a b s t r a c t i o n or an obj e c t to be s t u d i e d as " o u t s i d e r s l o o k i n g i n " . Home economics education "...seeks to immerse students in the r e a l i t y of experience..." (Brown, 1980, p. 124), to work from the " i n s i d e out" so to speak, "...extending the e x p e r i e n c e of s t u d e n t s beyond t h a t t h e y have had i n d i v i d u a l l y " (Brown, 1930, p. 123). F i n a l l y , i t i s the depth of treatment that the f a m i l y r e c e i v e s that s e t s home economics apart from other s u b j e c t areas. In home economics educa t i o n , the e n t i r e focus of a t t e n t i o n concerns the f a m i l y . ( T h i s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n has been j u s t i f i e d over the years on the grounds that the f a m i l y , as a s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n in which most people p a r t i c i p a t e f o r most of t h e i r l i v e s , deserves at l e a s t as much thought and knowledge through education as other 141 arenas of a c t i o n in which people engage.) (Brown, 1930, p. 123) SUMMARY In t h i s chapter, I have o f f e r e d a conception of global home economics edu c a t i o n . By arguing f o r systematic i n t e g r a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education and home economics education as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Brown (1980), I have made c l e a r the degree of i n c o r p o r a t i o n that I favour. I have presented p r a c t i c a l r easoning as an e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e s t r a t e g y to deal with the moral and value laden p r a c t i c a l problems of global home economics education. I have r e i n f o r c e d the notion that the f a m i l y i s the unique f e a t u r e of global home economics education. By c o n t r a s t i n g pre-Brown home economics education with global home economics education and by i l l u s t r a t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between global home economics education and other content areas, I have made the conception of global home economics education more complete. 142 CHAPTER 7 JUSTIFICATION OF THE CONCEPTION OF GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION When a new conception o-f an educational program i s o f f e r e d , or a pr e v i o u s conception i s extended or e l a b o r a t e d , as i s the case here, there must be good reasons f o r i t s acceptance. In other words, a r a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n must be i n c l u d e d f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r approach to home economics educ a t i o n . Although most of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n has been in progress s i n c e I adopted a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e as the only e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e one f o r educational purposes, the inte n t of t h i s chapter i s to defend f u r t h e r the conception of global home economics education that I have c o n s t r u c t e d . G e n e r a l l y , the j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s inherent in the d e s i r e d ends or the inten t of the program. Brown (1980) cl a i m s that a " r a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the l e g i t i m a c y of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a i m ( c o n c l u s i o n ) must meet the general c r i t e r i a of r e l e v a n c e , adequacy, and coherence" (p. 7) . Other standards that a defence of a conception should demonstrate are the connection with a p r a c t i c a l problem, c o m p a t i b i l i t y with r e l e v a n t , a v a i l a b l e e m p i r i c a l data, parsimony, s i m p l i c i t y and p e r s p i c u i t y , and how the conception i s p l a u s i b l y b e t t e r than p o t e n t i a l r i v a l s ( D a n i e l s , 1987). 143 THE INTENT OF GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION The conception o-f home economics education that I am arguing f o r i s rooted in a v i s i o n of human l i b e r a t i o n , s o c i a l j u s t i c e , and democratic empowerment. To pursue the goals of g l o b a l home economics e d u c a t i o n — t o develop in students a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e which allows them as i n d i v i d u a l s and as members of f a m i l i e s to become autonomous moral agents who use p r a c t i c a l r easoning in working toward e s t a b l i s h i n g a world moral c o m munity—is to recognize that e t h i c s and m o r a l i t y are at i t s f o u n d a t i o n . These goals must be m o r a l l y r e a l i s t i c as opposed to m o r a l l y i d e a l i s t i c ( D a n i e l s , 1983). M o r a l l y r e a l i s t i c g o a ls are those which are p r e v e n t a t i v e or m e l i o r a t i v e in nature, such as r e c o g n i z i n g that a l l people have equal moral worth and should not be s u b j e c t e d to o p p r e s s i o n , i n t o l e r a n c e , and i n j u s t i c e s in s o c i e t y . In moral i d e a l i s m , goals are seen as i d e a l s , f o r example, u n i v e r s a l s i s t e r h o o d / b r o t h e r h o o d and u n i v e r s a l l o v e . M o r a l l y r e a l i s t i c g o a ls can be j u s t i f i e d because they seek to prevent harm. M o r a l l y i d e a l i s t i c g o a ls cannot be j u s t i f i e d because they demand that students change t h e i r minds. T h i s i s manipulative and a n t i t h e t i c a l to global home economics edu c a t i o n . It i s j u s t i f i a b l e to expect students not to harm ot h e r s , but i t i s not j u s t i f i a b l e to expect them to love one another. T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s important in p r e v e n t i n g a l a p s i n g from 144 j u s t i f i c a t i o n (moral r e a l i s m ) i n t o p r o p a g a n d a and i n d o c t r i n a t i o n (moral i d e a l i s m ) . In global home economics education, the r o l e o-f education i s to engage and inform students so they can address perennial p r a c t i c a l problems through moral d e l i b e r a t i o n in the form of p r a c t i c a l reasoning, and as a r e s u l t take r a t i o n a l a c t i o n . W e l l i n g t o n (1986) makes the d i s t i n c t i o n between " c o n t e n t - b a s e d " j u s t i f i c a t i o n and " p r o c e s s - b a s e d " j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The former presents arguments f o r the i n c l u s i o n or e x c l u s i o n of c e r t a i n t o p i c s in a c u r r i c u l u m . The l a t t e r j u s t i f i e s an educational program on the b a s i s of the s k i 1 1 s and processes which students can l e a r n . In global home economics education, content-based j u s t i f i c a t i o n would r e q u i r e p r o v i d i n g good reasons f o r c e n t e r i n g the c u r r i c u l u m on p r a c t i c a l problems. Procedural p r a c t i c a l problems, u n c e r t a i n p r u d e n t i a l p r a c t i c a l problems, and u n c e r t a i n moral p r a c t i c a l problems would be e q u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d . Those p r a c t i c a l problems c l a s s e d as u n c e r t a i n are s i m i l a r to c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s as d e f i n e d by Wellington (1986). He i d e n t i f i e s c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s as those that involve value judgments and that are co n s i d e r e d to be important by an a p p r e c i a b l e number of people. D i s c o u n t i n g arguments "that make use of e x t r i n s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as pr e p a r i n g c h i l d r e n f o r e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g in s o c i e t y . . . " , Hare (1982) contends, and I agree, that "an education defence would need to point to something i n t r i n s i c a l l y worthwhile in 145 c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s " <p. 245). F o l l o w i n g t h i s l i n e o-f reasoning, the j ust i-f i cat i on f o r i n c l u d i n g a l l types of p r a c t i c a l probems in global home economics education l i e s in pre v e n t i n g "...a d i s t o r t e d view of the d i s c i p l i n e . . . " (Hare, 1982, p. 246) that would p r e v a i l " i f one were l e d to b e l i e v e that c o n t r o v e r s y d i d not e x i s t " <Hare, 1982, p. 246). Narrow treatments misrepresent g i v i n g students a " t o t a l l y f a l s e impression of the s u b j e c t " ( W e l l i n g t o n , 1986, p. 3), and thus, are c o n t r a r y to a global home economics education. In global home economics education, "process-based" j u s t i f i c a t i o n would be grounded in the s k i l l s and processes which students can le a r n by p a r t a k i n g in p r a c t i c a l r e asoning. P r a c t i c a l r easoning i n v o l v e s developing in students "the knowledge, a b i l i t i e s , and d i s p o s i t i o n s necessary f o r making r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s about what they, t h e i r group, or t h e i r n a t i o n ought to do..." (Coombs, 1988b, p. 1). If students are to take a c t i o n on global problems, l e a r n i n g p r a c t i c a l reasoning can empower them to d e l i b e r a t e r a t i o n a l l y so that t h e i r a c t i o n s are based on good reasons. Rational d e l i b e r a t i o n i s defended on the b a s i s of i t s c e n t r a l i t y to education in g e n e r a l , and as one of the c r i t e r i a of an educated person. Not to i n i t i a t e students in p r a c t i c a l r easoning would be an i n t e l l e c t u a l i n j u s t i c e . 146 R E L E V A N C E . ADEQUACY. AND COHERENCE The three c r i t e r i a f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n s p e c i f i e d by Brown (1980) are re l e v a n c e , adequacy, and coherence. In regard to rel e v a n c e , she argues: To be r e l e v a n t , reasons in which a b e l i e f about the aim of home economics education i s grounded must p e r t a i n to some set of conceptions about educat i o n , about home economics, about persons who would be educated, about knowledge, and about the good l i f e ( s i n c e presumably home economics education c o n t r i b u t e s to the good l i f e ) , (p. 8) Global home economics education i s r e l e v a n t to the mission of home economics. I have argued tha t : the aim of global home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n — i m p a r t i n g t o s t u d e n t s a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e — i s i m p l i c i t in the mission of home economics (see chapter 3); that a conception of g l o b a l education based on the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i s i m p l i c i t in the conception of home economics education developed by Brown (see chapter 4); that an educated person i s an autonomous moral agent capable of p r a c t i c a l r e asoning; and that the good l i f e , in the moral sense, must include care and concern f o r the welfare and f a i r treatment of a l l people. For Brown (1980), adequacy " r e q u i r e s that we take a l l the i s s u e s i n t o account r a t h e r than o v e r s i m p l i f y i n g " (p. 8). In developing a conception of global home economics education, I have addressed a l l the conceptual issues that I i d e n t i f i e d in my l i t e r a t u r e review and I contend that t h i s 147 p r o v i d e s s u f f i c i e n t c l a r i t y . There are other i s s u e s s t i l l to be addressed such as the pedagogical i s s u e s of c u r r i c u l u m development, implementation, and teacher p r a c t i c e s . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d in the "For Further Research" s e c t i o n of the next chapter. A conception should a l s o demonstrate coherence wherein "...the ideas with which the reasons of an argument deal must be c o n s i s t e n t with one another and with the ideas in the c o n c l u s i o n " (Brown, 1980, p. 9). If my argument i s c o r r e c t , a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i s c o n s i s t e n t with the mission of home economics (Brown & P a o l u c c i , 1979). There i s c o n s i s t e n c y between what I have i d e n t i f i e d as c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education and home economics education (Brown, 1980). The p r a c t i c a l problem o r i e n t a t i o n of home economics education i s c o n s i s t e n t with the value issue o r i e n t a t i o n of global e d u c a t i o n . And, p r a c t i c a l reasoning as a s t r a t e g y f o r d e a l i n g with p r a c t i c a l problems in home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the v a l u e d e l i b e r a t i o n and commitment to a c t i o n c a l l e d f o r in global educat i on. OTHER STANDARDS OF D E F E N S E G e n e r a l l y , in c o n s t r u c t i n g or developing a conception, other f a c t o r s which are r e l e v a n t to the defense or j u s t i f i c a t i o n are: demonstrating a connection with a p r a c t i c a l problem; showing that your conception i s 148 compatible with r e l e v a n t , a v a i l a b l e e m p i r i c a l data; showing parsimony, s i m p l i c i t y , and p e r s p i c u i t y ; and c o n s i d e r i n g how t h i s conception i s p l a u s i b l y b e t t e r than p o t e n t i a l r i v a l s ( D a n i e l s , 1987). The p r a c t i c a l problem addressed in t h i s t h e s i s i s how to deal with global i s s u e s in home economics education in an e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e manner. I determined that the f i r s t step in a d d r e s s i n g t h i s p r a c t i c a l problem was to gain conceptual understanding. H i r s t and P e t e r s <1970) suggest that a measurement of conceptual a n a l y s i s i s "...the extent to which our understanding i s thereby increased about how things are in the world and of the p o s s i b l e stances that we can adopt towards our predicament in i t " (p. 13). Everyday l i f e in the world i s i n c r e a s i n g l y interdependent, in t e r c o n n e c t e d , and i n t e r r e l a t e d . A c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e i s advocated as a p o s s i b l e stance toward t h i s global predicament. Through adopting the moral point of view and p r a c t i c a l r e a s o ning, we can b e t t e r see our a c t i o n s as having short term and long range consequences f o r o u r s e l v e s and other l i v i n g systems, and work toward a moral v i s i o n of everyday l i f e in a world s o c i e t y . C o m p a t i b i l i t y with e m p i r i c a l data i s more d i f f i c u l t to assess. Torney-Purta (1989) and Post 1ethwaite (1989) have c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to the need f o r greater research in g l o b a l / i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . Most of the e m p i r i c a l data that are a v a i l a b l e p e r t a i n to c o l l e g e l e v e l students (Hicks, 149 1982; Torney-Purta, 1982). I n d i c a t i o n s are that most c o l l e g e students lack a global p e r s p e c t i v e and have a low le v e l of global awareness (Torney-Purta, 1982). The same s i t u a t i o n l i k e l y e x i s t s at the high school l e v e l . There i s a l s o evidence to show that in classrooms where there i s open dialogue about value i s s u e s , and students are encouraged to r e f l e c t and reason, they "seem to le a r n most about i n t e r n a t i o n a l t o p i c s " (Torney-Purta, 1989, p. 15). T h i s p o i n t s to the need to develop programs l i k e global home e c on om i c s e du c a t i on . A conception should a l s o d i s p l a y parsimony, s i m p l i c i t y , and p e r s p i c u i t y . In the i n t e r e s t of economy and s i m p l i c i t y , I l i m i t e d my frame of r e f e r e n c e in t h i s t h e s i s to Coombs' (1988a) c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e and Brown's (1980) home economics ed u c a t i o n . Because these two r e f e r e n t s c l e a r l y emphasize the need f o r e t h i c a l d e f e n s i b i 1 i t y in education, I argue that they are adequate to the purpose of c o n s t r u c t i n g a conception of global home economics education. I a l s o contend that by extending Brown's (1980) conception of home economics education, I have c o n t r i b u t e d to c l e a r e r b e l i e f statements about home economics education. My l i t e r a t u r e review (Smith, 1988) d i d not d i s c o v e r any other conceptions of global home economics education, so I w i l l not deal with p o t e n t i a l r i v a l s except to say that i f they are not grounded in a moral v i s i o n of everyday l i f e they would be inadequate. 150 SUMMARY I am defending the conception of global home economics education that I have a r t i c u l a t e d on the grounds that the goals are m o r a l l y r e a l i s t i c , that both the content and the processes are j u s t i f i a b l e , that i t i s r e l e v a n t , adequate, and coherent, and that i t g e n e r a l l y meets other standards of conception c o n s t r u c t i o n . It i s based on the assumption that s c h o o l s can i n i t i a t e movement toward greater s o c i a l j u s t i c e , changing the world f o r the b e t t e r . T h i s i s but one step in the " l i b e r a t i o n of human p o t e n t i a l " (MacDonald, 1988, p. 172), which some may conside r n a i v e , but I b e l i e v e that i t i s the only d e f e n s i b l e route to t r y . And we must...if we are concerned about these matters...cont i nue to work f o r what we b e l i e v e to be r i g h t . . . . w i t h the f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n that we may never see i t come to f r u i t i o n in our l i f e t i m e . (MacDonald, 1988, p. 173) 151 CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A CONCEPTION OF GLOBAL HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION A summary o-f global home economics education in point •form was o-f-fered in chapter 6. In review, I began by arguing that a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e (Coombs, 1988a) i s i m p l i c i t in the mission o-f home economics (Brown & P a o l u c c i , 1979). Noting the lack of conceptual development in g l o b a l education, I d i d some p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s and o u t l i n e d c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education as a conception of global education which be s t s r e p r e s e n t s the goal of imparting to students a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I then examined home economics education as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Brown (1980) f o r the f e a t u r e s of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education. I concluded that the values and t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings were s i m i l a r but that the f e a t u r e s of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education were more i m p l i c i t l y than e x p l i c i t l y present in Brown's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , my purpose in t h i s t h e s i s has been to make the f e a t u r e s of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l education in home economics education e x p l i c i t . In doing so, I have c o n s t r u c t e d a conception of global home economics edu c a t i o n . Global home economics education i s conceived as the systematic i n t e g r a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global education and home economics education 152 as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Brown (1980), with the r e s u l t i n g •features: 1. The scope o-f global home economics education i s g l o b a l , encompassing both near and -far environments and i n c l u d i n g the themes o-f interdependence, i n c l u s i v i t y , connectedness, and change. 2. The aim o-f global home economics education i s to impart to students a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t global p e r s p e c t i v e which i n c l u d e s a knowledge or awareness dimension, a moral point of view, a commitment to p r a c t i c a l reasoning, and a commitment to b u i l d i n g a world moral community. 3. Global home economics education i s a normative concept, i n v o l v e d in a wide range of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s aimed at developing in students the d i s p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r s o c i a l c r i t i q u e and r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of perennial p r a c t i c a l problems of f a m i l i e s , with the inten t of ensuring the welfare and f a i r treatment of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . 4. For global home economics education, the educated person i s conceived as one with a breadth of knowledge, capable of p r a c t i c a l reasoning and t r a n s f o r m a t i v e , emancipatory a c t i o n . 5. In global home economics education, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between student and teacher i s d e f i n e d as one which allows r a t i o n a l , purposeful d i a l o g u e . 153 IMPLICATIONS If the conception of global home economics developed in t h i s t h e s i s i s ac c e p t a b l e , i t holds c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r cu r r i c u l u m development, teachers, teacher education, and sc h o o l s . F o r C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t Developing c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t e d to p e r e n n i a l , p r a c t i c a l problems and p r a c t i c a l reasoning i s the prime i m p l i c a t i o n f o r c u r r i c u l u m development in global home economics educat i on. In the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of home economics from a p r a c t i c a l problem framework, the uniqueness of the knowledge base or c u r r i c u l u m content does not come from the uniqueness of the concepts, but ra t h e r from the f o r m u l a t i o n and o r d e r i n g of the knowledge f o r the problems which are to be addressed. T h i s r e q u i r e s a way of t h i n k i n g that c a l l s f o r a shake-up in our long h e l d views of how we "do" c u r r i c u l u m . Rather than determining the " l i s t " of c o n c e p t s to a d d r e s s f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by pre-determined o b j e c t i v e s , the primary focus i s determining the p r a c t i c a l problems to be addressed and then f i n d i n g ways the p r a c t i c a l problem can be explored, or e x p l o r i n g a concern upon which a p r a c t i c a l problem i s d e r i v e d . ( H u l t g r e n , 1990, p. 163) Exemplars of c u r r i c u l u m development from a p r a c t i c a l problem p e r s p e c t i v e are the four s t a t e s which have r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m u s i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h — W i s c o n s i n , Minnesota^ Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Ohio, in p a r t i c u l a r , has made p r a c t i c a l reasoning e x p l i c i t in i t s r a t i o n a l e . In global home economics educa t i o n , the s u b s t a n t i v e nature of the 154 p r a c t i c a l problems exp l o r e d would have to be suf f i c i en 11 y broad to be c o n s i d e r e d g l o b a l . Re i d (197?) suggests that c u r r i c u l u m problems are themselves p r a c t i c a l problems and should be approached through p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . By s t r e s s i n g a c t i o n , judgment, d e l i b e r a t i o n , a p p r e c i a t i o n , c r i t i c i s m , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , argument, and j u s t i f i c a t i o n , i t int r o d u c e s a f r e s h and more app r o p r i a t e c l i m a t e of metaphor i n t o c u r r i c u l u m theory and p r a c t i c e , which may help us to avoid the kinds of e r r o r s i n t o which we are l e d by t h i n k i n g in the imagery of e n g i n e e r i n g and design, (p. 206) The i m p l i c a t i o n of Reid's c l a i m i s that p r a c t i c a l reasoning c o u l d be an a p p r o p r i a t e process f o r committees to use in developing c u r r i c u l u m . Another i m p l i c a t i o n and c a u t i o n i s the need to consider the c a p a c i t i e s of the l e a r n e r s in developing any new c u r r i c u l u m . The conceptual complexity of the p r a c t i c a l problems must be i n t e l l i g i b l e to, and w i t h i n the c a p a c i t i e s of, the age group t a r g e t t e d . For Teachers Teachers are the gatekeepers of what happens in t h e i r classrooms. Thus, f o r global home economics education to be implemented, teachers w i l l have to adopt a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e , be i n i t i a t e d i n t o the p r a c t i c e of p r a c t i c a l reasoning, and be prepared to engage in r e c i p r o c a l , r a t i o n a l dialogue with students. Boulding 155 (1988) contends that the way we teach may be j u s t as important as what we teach. What she i s r e f e r r i n g to i s the i m p e r a t i v e -for t e a c h e r s to embody the i d e a l s and p e r s p e c t i v e s of globa l home economics education. A s i m i l a r point of view i s v o i c e d by Greene (1978) who s t a t e s : I am convinced t h a t , i f teachers today are to i n i t i a t e young people i n t o an e t h i c a l e x i s t e n c e , they themselves must att e n d more f u l l y than they normally have to t h e i r own l i v e s and i t s requirements; they have to break with the mechanical l i f e , to overcome t h e i r own submergence in the h a b i t u a l , even in what they conceive to be the v i r t u o u s , and ask the 'why' with which l e a r n i n g and moral reasoning begin, (p. 46) Roman i sh (1989) a l s o p o i n t s to the need f o r teachers to change: C r i t i c a l thought in i t s emancipatory form r e q u i r e s more than s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n and t e c h n i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Purposeful dialogue between and among teachers and l e a r n e r s f o r instance, i s seen as b a s i c to the development of c r i t i c a l thought by v i r t u a l l y a l l modern t h e o r i s t s . Yet ample evidence e x i s t s to i n d i c a t e that such encounters are t r u l y the e x c e p t i o n , (p. 54) The a t t i t u d e of home economics teachers would have to become more l i k e that of Jan Abramsen (1990), Pennsylvania teacher of the year, who s t a t e s : If I am a partner with my students in the l e a r n i n g process, i n v e s t i g a t i n g and transforming our world, then my r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e i r s must be interdependen11 y deepened and broadened. We must be n u r t u r i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g each other to be autonomous i n d i v i d u a l s r e f l e c t i n g upon common needs and i n t e r e s t s and t a k i n g a c t i o n s f o r the betterment of not only o u r s e l v e s , but our f a m i l i e s , neighborhoods, and global community, (pp. 143-144) 156 Teachers must a l s o s t r u g g l e with c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , such as the i n c o n s i s t e n c y between the p r o f e s s e d ideal and actual p r a c t i c e (e.g., v a l u i n g cooperation but e v a l u a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y ) . They must a l s o be aware of, and be w i l l i n g to c h a l l e n g e , the s o c i a l processes that work against the e t h i c a l purpose of s c h o o l i n g , such as the hidden c u r r i c u l u m . And, they must guard against hopelessness and despair (Giroux & Simon, 1989, p. 232). For Teacher Education For those i n v o l v e d in teacher education the major i m p l i c a t i o n i s how to overcome the sheer power of t r a d i t i o n a l modes of thought and p r a c t i c e . Many have w r i t t e n about the need f o r imparting to students a global p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e i r s t r a t e g i e s range from i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s courses (Lamy, 1982), to s t r u c t u r i n g teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( P e n a l o z a - F l o r e z , 1984), to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g (Wilson, 1982), to global awareness programs (Tucker, 1982), to r e c r u i t i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l l y more able students i n t o the education major (Torney-Purta, 1982), and to " c a r e f u l l y - p l a n n e d i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g [ s i c ] , i n v o l v i n g both c o g n i t i v e and e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g " (Pike & Selby, 1988, p. 275). 157 FOP Schools The i m p l i c a t i o n s -for s c h o o l s l i e in the values inherent in global education in general and global home economics education in p a r t i c u l a r . It means c r e a t i n g s c h o o l s based on the p r i n c i p l e s of c a r i n g , concern f o r the welfare and f a i r treatment of o t h e r s , e q u i t y , j u s t i c e , and l i b e r a t i o n . In summary, I have h i g h l i g h t e d some of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a c c e p t i n g my conception of global home economics educ a t i o n . The l i s t i s not exhaustive but i t g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n of the changes that are r e q u i r e d when pedagogy moves from a paradigm of t e c h n o c r a t i c r a t i o n a l i t y to one of r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e (Uaines, 1988), c r i t i c a l thought, and p o s s i b i l i t y (Giroux & Simon, 1989). FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Developing a conception of global home economics education i s merely the beginning. There i s a need f o r f u r t h e r research in conceptual c l a r i t y , in c u r r i c u l u m development and implementation, in g a t h e r i n g e m p i r i c a l data, and in examining education from a p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s study and the d i s c u s s i o n of i m p l i c a t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s are suggested f o r f u r t h e r research and i n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1. The c o n s t r a i n t s on i n t e g r a t i n g g l o b a l education and home economics education (see O'Connor, 1982, f o r example). 158 2. The r o l e of i n t e r e s t groups in advocating, and implementing global home economics education. 3. Conceptual a n a l y s i s of key concepts in global home economics education, f o r example, autonomy, democracy, r e c i p r o c i t y , moral ecology, v o l u n t a r y s i m p l i c i t y , and emancipatory a c t i o n . 4. The ambiguity between procedures and t h e i r outcomes. For example, can p r a c t i c a l reasoning lead to the improved welfa r e and f a i r treatment of othe r s ? 5. C o n f i r m a t i o n , e x t e n s i o n , m o d i f i c a t i o n , or r e f u t a t i o n of the h y p o t h e t i c a l conceptions of global education o u t l i n e d in the typology in chapter 4. 6. S t u d i e s to determine r e a d i n e s s f o r engaging in p r a c t i c a l reasoning and f a c t o r s that enhance the a c q u i s i t i o n and use of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . 7. Study of the global awareness and p e r s p e c t i v e s of high school students. FINAL COMMENTS My aim in t h i s t h e s i s was to work towards a r a t i o n a l e f o r g l o b a l home economics e d u c a t i o n . The term r a t i o n a l e can be used to i d e n t i f y attempts to a r t i c u l a t e and to j u s t i f y a p a r t i c u l a r approach to a subj e c t (Newmann, 1977, p. 1) or i t can be con s i d e r e d the ' r a i s o n d ' e t r e ' f o r an educational program (Case, 1985, p. 27). In e i t h e r circumstance, i t must not be p o o r l y conceived. For when we f a i l to provide 159 the r e q u i s i t e underpinnings f o r an educational program, we run the r i s k of promoting an unsound idea, of promising more that we can d e l i v e r , of pursuing outcomes that are u n e t h i c a l or e d u c a t i o n a l l y unsound or even di s h o n e s t , and of sup p o r t i n g programs on the b a s i s of f a l s e consciousness, r e i f i c a t i o n , or m y s t i f i c a t i o n (Shor, 1980). T h e r e f o r e , my quest became conceptual c l a r i t y . Seeking to provide a more concr e t e , complete shaping of an i d e a — i n t e g r a t i n g global concepts and home economics e d u c a t i o n — I addressed f i v e r esearch q u e s t i o n s : 1. Is a global p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i c i t in the mission of of home economics? 2. Is global education i m p l i c i t in home economics educat i on? 3. What are the p l a c e s of c i t i z e n s h i p , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding, consumer decision-making, and environmental concerns in home economics education? 4. What i s global home economics education? 5. What j u s t i f i c a t i o n or r a t i o n a l e can be o f f e r e d f o r global home economics education? The e x p l o r a t i o n of these q u e s t i o n s has provided the b a s i s f o r a working conception of global home economics education which I hope w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to c l e a r e r b e l i e f statements and lead to change in home economics education. It was a long, intense journey of c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n ( F r e i r e , 1970b) in that I have had to probe the 160 taken-for-granteds, explore c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and search -for a b e t t e r understanding o-f home economics ed u c a t i o n . I have learned immensely but I recognize that there i s much more to be learned. T h i s being an e x e r c i s e in p r a c t i c a l reasoning, i t i s "not immune to r a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m and change in l i g h t o-f -further experience and r e f l e c t i o n " (Coombs, 1988c, p. 29) . I w i l l conclude with a quote from Aoki (1987) which has guided me though t h i s experience. The e d u c a t e d p e r s o n , f i r s t and f o r e m o s t , understands that one's ways of knowing, t h i n k i n g , and doing flow from who one i s . Such a person knows that an a u t h e n t i c person i s no mere i n d i v i d u a l , an i s l a n d unto himself or h e r s e l f , but a being-in-re1 a t i o n with o t h e r s , and hence, at core, an e t h i c a l being. Hence, such a person knows that being an educated person i s more than p o s s e s s i n g knowledge or a c q u i r i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l or managerial s k i l l s , that being an educated person i s d w e l l i n g a r i g h t in thoughtful l i v i n g with o t h e r s . The educated person, thus, not only guards a g a i n s t disembodied forms of knowing, t h i n k i n g , and doing that reduce s e l f and ot h e r s to thi n g s , but a l s o s t r i v e s , guided by the a u t h o r i t y of the good in pedagogical s i t u a t i o n s , f o r embodied thoughtfu1ness that makes p o s s i b l e l i v i n g as human beings. 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