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Defining the role of the assisting teacher in implementation Krutow, Brenda Dianne 1981

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\ DEFINING THE ROLE OF THE ASSISTING TEACHER IN IMPLEMENTATION by BRENDA DIANNE KRUTOW B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Studies) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1981 Brenda Dianne Krutow, 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a llowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Brenda Dianne Krutow Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date September, 1981 ABSTRACT The purpose was to outline how the role of an "a s s i s t i n g teacher" i n curriculum implementation can be defined. The role of the "a s s i s t i n g teacher" was defined because i t i s an imple-mentation strategy used within the B r i t i s h Columbia context. Four sources were used to define the role of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n t h i s study. 1. Research l i t e r a t u r e on implementation r o l e s , s 2. Evaluation or needs assessment reports, 3. Current and proposed c u r r i c u l a , and 4. A selected school d i s t r i c t context. Because the purpose of t h i s study was to demonstrate how these sources could be used concretely to define a r o l e , the present (1968) and the proposed (1983) secondary s o c i a l studies c u r r i c u -l a i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the province-wide s o c i a l studies assessment (1977), and School D i s t r i c t No. 41 (Burnaby) were analyzed s e l e c t i v e l y . The following questions guided the research: 1. What i s the role of the a s s i s t i n g teacher as implied by selected research l i t e r a t u r e ? 2. What i s the role of the a s s i s t i n g teacher as implied by the 1977 B r i t i s h Columbia Social Studies Assessment 3. What i s the role of the teacher and the a s s i s t i n g teacher as implied by the proposed (1983) s o c i a l studies curriculum for B r i t i s h Columbia? 4. What i s the role of the a s s i s t i n g teacher as perceived i n the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t ? 5. What role description do these four sources help define? S e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s assessment documents, and s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a were analyzed. To determine the a c t u a l and/or i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e acher as p e r c e i v e d i n the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h f i v e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r and c o - o r d i n a t o r , and with e i g h t secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads. The study concluded w i t h g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and a process f o r d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n c u r r i c u l u m implementation. T h i s process may have g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y f o r . d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r i n c u r r i c u l u m areas other than s o c i a l s t u d i e s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS-PAGE LIST OF TABLES I PROBLEM AND METHOD • 1 The Problem - 2 Methodology 4 The Relevant Questions 4 Interview Sample • 6 Interview Procedure and Instruments 7 Data A n a l y s i s 9 Assumptions • 1° L i m i t a t i o n s H I I RESEARCH AS A SOURCE 1 3 Knowledge ° 14 A c t i o n . . 21 Implied Role 25 I I I ASSESSMENT AS A SOURCE 28 Implementation Problem/Needs 28 Implied Role 34 IV CURRICULUM AS A SOURCE 39 Comparison of C u r r i c u l a 39 Implied Role 4 9 V PAGE V CONTEXT AS A SOURCE 56 A s s i s t i n g Teacher 57 Role P e r c e p t i o n 57 D i f f e r e n c e s Between A c t u a l and I d e a l 89 C r i t e r i a f o r Success 97 Department Heads 102 View of F u l l Implementation 10 3 Role Perception. 105 C r i t e r i a f o r Success 112 Job D e s c r i p t i o n 114 Role P e r c e p t i o n 114 Knowledge and A c t i o n 114 Implied Role 118 VI CONCLUSION 124 BIBLIOGRAPHY 127 APPENDICES 132 APPENDIX A L e t t e r o f I n t r o d u c t i o n A s s i s t i n g Teacher 132 APPENDIX B L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Department Heads 133' APPENDIX C I n d i v i d u a l Interview Schedule 134 APPENDIX D Written. Consent Form 136 APPENDIX E Group Interview Schedule 137 APPENDIX F Sample Interview - T r a n s c r i p t A 141 APPENDIX G Sample Interview - T r a n s c r i p t : B 16 6 v'i LIST OF. TABLES PAGE Table 1 Role as S p e c i f i e d by A s s i s t i n g Teachers... 88 Table 2 I d e a l Role as S p e c i f i e d by Department Heads I l l Table 3 I d e a l Role as S p e c i f i e d by the Job D e s c r i p t i o n 117 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o thank P r o f e s s o r s Peter Moody, Angus Gunn, and George Tomkins f o r s e r v i n g on my t h e s i s committee. T h e i r comments and advice have been a p p r e c i a t e d . I e s p e c i a l l y wish and t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , and s c r u t i n y , my study to thank Dr. Walter Without Dr. Werner c o u l d not have been Werner, my a d v i s o r ' s support, guidance completed. I a l s o wish t o thank the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s i n c l u d i n g t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r and c o - o r d i n a t o r , and the secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads who gave t h e i r time t o share t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . I a l s o wish t o thank Robert Ward who p r o v i d e d guidance i n the e d i t i n g o f the manuscript. ) F i n a l l y , I wish t o thank Karyn P e t r i e f o r her meticulous work i n t y p i n g the manuscript. v i i i DEDICATED TO JOYCE SCHULZ Her p r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l guidance, support and d e d i c a t i o n have helped me to r e a l i z e the meaning of "teacher" and " f r i e n d " . 1 CHAPTER I Problem arid Method Research l i t e r a t u r e h i g h l i g h t s the importance of v a r i o u s r o l e s i n implementation. Some of these r o l e s i n c l u d e those of t e a c h e r s , students, p r i n c i p a l s , and d i s t r i c t support p e r s o n n e l . In p a r t i c u l a r , d i s t r i c t support personnel are an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of s u c c e s s f u l implementation (Daft and Becker: 1978, Rand Study: 1975) ; where s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have p r o v i d e d t h i s support, the implementation process has been f a c i l i t a t e d . There i s , however, l i t t l e r e s e a r c h which d e s c r i b e s how the r o l e of such p e r s o n n e l i s to be d e f i n e d . ( F u l l a n : 1978) Within, the B r i t i s h Columbia context, v a r i o u s k i n d s of d i s t r i c t support personnel are i n v o l v e d i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the implementation of c u r r i c u l a . These personnel i n c l u d e d i r e c t o r s of i n s t r u c t i o n , s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , c o n s u l t a n t s and a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . Since implementation of p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a i s p r i m a r i l y a d i s t r i c t t a sk, s c h o o l ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Handbook f o r  Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1979: 406) d i s t r i c t s may need to develop a s t r a t e g y f o r d e f i n i n g implementation r o l e s f o r these support p e r s o n n e l . For example, the s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m has been. in. r e v i s i o n , s i n c e 1978, and has presented, many problems to those people i n v o l v e d . In. 1980, r e a c t i o n t o the t h i r d d r a f t was p r o v i d e d by d i s t r i c t and s c h o o l s t a f f members, and by. v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups. Most of the r e a c t i o n s given by classroom teachers i n d i c a t e a l a c k of. s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the scope and sequence o f t h e c o n t e n t , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among g o a l s , and t h e emphas i s upon, t e a c h i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , i s s u e s : and s k i l l s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n and r e a c t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e may be some d i f f i c u l t y i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y w i l l be a d d r e s s e d d i r e c t l y by t h o s e d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l who have t h e r o l e o f t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p r o p o s e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . The P r o b l e m The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o o u t l i n e a p r o c e d u r e f o r d e f i n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e " a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r " i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The " a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r " r o l e i s s e l e c t e d because i t i s u s e d w i t h i n , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r i n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s t o f a c i l i t a t e t e a c h e r s when i m p l e m e n t i n g c u r r i c u l u m . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r o c e s s f o r o u t l i n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r i s w o r t h y o f s t u d y . The. m a j o r q u e s t i o n a s k e d i s : How c a n t h e r o l e o f t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n be d e f i n e d ? The s o u r c e s , s e l e c t e d f o r d e f i n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a r e : 1. S e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r o l e s i ( C h a p t e r I I ) 2. E v a l u a t i o n o r needs a s se s sment r e p o r t s ; ( C h a p t e r I I I ) 3. P r o p o s e d c u r r i c u l u m t o be i m p l e m e n t e d ; ( C h a p t e r I V ) a n d 4 . S c h o o l d i s t r i c t c o n t e x t (Chapter . V ) . Because t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o o u t l i n e a p r o c e s s by 3 which these sources can be used c o n c r e t e l y t o d e f i n e the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation, these sources need to be made very s p e c i f i c f o r data c o l l e c t i o n purposes. I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t the f o l l o w i n g have been chosen i n t h i s study: s e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , the presen t (1968); and the proposed (1983) secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, the p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s assessment (1977), and School D i s t r i c t No. 41 (Burnaby). C e r t a i n terms have been used i n the f o l l o w i n g manner through-out the study: 1. C u r r i c u l u m - the guide books which are d i s t r i b u t e d and mandated by 'the M i n i s t r y of Educat i o n ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Handbook f o r Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1979: 406) 2. Innovation - something new, i n t h i s case, changes between the o l d and the new c u r r i c u l a ( F u l l a n and Park: 1981) 3. Implementation - the p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e i n the classroom of a c u r r i c u l u m ( F u l l a n : 1979) 4. A s s i s t i n g Teacher r o l e - the knowledge necessary and a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by a person who i s appointed by a scho o l d i s t r i c t t o h e l p and support classroom t e a c h e r s i n implementing an i n n o v a t i o n w i t h i n the s c h o o l . ( F u l l a n and Pomfret: 1977) Ac c o r d i n g t o F u l l a n and Pomfret, two r o l e components are know-ledge and behavior ( r e f e r r e d t o as " a c t i o n " i n t h i s s t u d y ) ; these two components are used i n t h i s t h e s i s f o r d e f i n i n g r o l e . 4 Methodology Questions. The study uses four sources to outline the process by which the role of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation can be defined. The following methodological questions guided the research of these four sources: 1.0 What i s the role of a s s i s t i n g teachers i n implementation as concluded i n the selected research l i t e r a t u r e ? (Chapter II) 2.0 What i s the role of a s s i s t i n g teachers i n implementation as implied by the s o c i a l studies assessment reports? (Chapter III) 2.1 What implementation problems/needs are i d e n t i f i e d ? 2.2 What generalizations are implied for role (know-ledge,, and action) d e f i n i t i o n by these needs? 3.0 What i s the role of the teacher and the a s s i s t i n g teacher in. implementation as implied by the s o c i a l studies curricula? (Chapter IV) 3.1 What changes are there between the current and proposed secondary s o c i a l studies c u r r i c u l a ? 3.2 . What generalizations are implied for role (know-ledge and action) d e f i n i t i o n by these changes? 4.0 What i s the role of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementa-t i o n as perceived i n the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t ? (Chapter. V) 4.1 What perceptions of the actual and; ide a l role are. stated by selected Burnaby School D i s t r i c t personnel? 5 4.2 What g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are i m p l i e d f o r r o l e (knowledge and a c t i o n ) - d e f i n i t i o n by these p e r c e p t i o n s ? 5.0 What r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n do these sources (1-4) h e l p d e f i n e ? (Chapter VI) 5.1 What i s a process f o r d e f i n i n g a r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t i s both c u r r i c u l u m and con t e x t s p e c i f i c ? In order t o pursue q u e s t i o n 1, i t was necessary t o examine s e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h literature... From the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , a r o l e d e f i n i t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g knowledge and a c t i o n ) was suggested. In addition., t h i s r o l e d e f i n i t i o n p r o v i d e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and key q u e s t i o n s which c o u l d be u s e f u l f o r an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . Question 2 was answered by examining the B r i t i s h Columbia  S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment (1977) . These assessment documents pr o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on problems and needs of classroom t e a c h e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o implementation. These problems and needs, i n t u r n have been used t o d e s c r i b e the i m p l i e d r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and key qu e s t i o n s are used t o focus the knowledge and a c t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . To answer q u e s t i o n 3, i t was necessary t o d e f i n e a s t r a t e g y f o r c l a r i f y i n g change between c u r r i c u l a . To determine what has been i n n o v a t i v e w i t h i n the proposed, s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m (1983), the r e s e a r c h e r d e f i n e d changes i n terms of content, s t r a t e g i e s , g o a l s and assumptions between the o l d and the new c u r r i c u l a . These changes imply changes i n r o l e s (knowledge and ac t i o n ) f o r t e a c h e r s , which i n t u r n , imply a r o l e f o r the 6 a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . Question 4 was answered by d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher as perceived, w i t h i n the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t . W i thin t h i s d i s t r i c t c o ntext t h r e e elements were used: i n t e r v i e w s with a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , and t h e i r super-v i s o r and. c o - o r d i n a t o r ; i n t e r v i e w s with the secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads; and i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from the g e n e r a l job d e s c r i p t i o n , of an. a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . The a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r and c o - o r d i n a t o r p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r perceived: a c t u a l and i d e a l r o l e i n implementation, reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and i d e a l r o l e , and the c r i t e r i a used t o judge the success of t h e i r r o l e . The department heads have been i n t e r v i e w e d to determine t h e i r view of f u l l implementation, and t h e i r c r i t e r i a used to judge the success of implementation. F i n a l l y , the a n a l y s i s of the job d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e d the D i s t r i c t ' s p e r c e i v e d r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t eacher i n implementation. Question, 5 was answered by o u t l i n i n g the process of a n a l y s i s which c o u l d be used f o r d e f i n i n g a r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n of the a s s i s t -i n g teacher i n implementation. The Interview Sample. F i v e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r and c o - o r d i n a t o r were i n t e r v i e w e d . These seven people r e p r e s e n t e d a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n chosen because they were working a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w s , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , as a s s i s t i n g t eachers i n the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t , and had r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e i t h e r completely or p a r t i a l l y a t the secondary l e v e l . E i g h t secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads were i n t e r v i e w e d . 7 (There are eleven . s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads i n Burnaby, but one chose not t o p a r t i c i p a t e and two f a i l e d t o r e t u r n t h e i r . completed i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s ) J A l l i n t e r v i e w e e s were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. They were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study and t o share t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher; 2. They were working in. the area of secondary e d u c a t i o n ; 3. They had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the implementation of c u r r i c u l u m . Interview Procedure and instruments. The r e s e a r c h e r c o n t a c t e d the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s a t Schou Educa t i o n Centre by use of a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n (Appendix A ) . Through l a t e r phone c o n t a c t , appointments f o r i n t e r v i e w s were made. The r e s e a r c h e r c o n t a c t e d the secondary department heads i n t h e i r s c h ools by use of a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n (Appendix B) and through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . At the time of the p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t they were g i v e n a copy of the Group Interview Schedule (Appendix E) and the r e s e a r c h e r d i s c u s s e d the purpose of the study and answered any q u e s t i o n s . An i n t e r v i e w (approximately t h i r t y t o f o r t y - f i v e minutes) was conducted, i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h each of the seven a s s i s t i n g t eachers a t Schou Education Centre. Each person was asked to sign, a w r i t t e n , consent, form/ (Appendix D) which allowed the r e s e a r c h e r to use data c o l l e c t e d . An I n d i v i d u a l Interview Schedule (Appendix C) was p r o v i d e d to each i n t e r v i e w e e a t t h a t time and was used to guide the responses of each i n t e r v i e w e e . P r i o r t o each i n t e r v i e w , the purpose of the study was e x p l a i n e d and any q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c l a r i t y and d e f i n i t i o n were d i s c u s s e d . S i x of the seven i n t e r v i e w s were taped and t r a n s c r i b e d . One person p r e f e r r e d not to have the i n f o r m a t i o n taped, so the r e s e a r c h e r wrote those responses. Two samples of the seven t r a n s c r i p t s are i n c l u d e d i n Appendices F and G, the former emphasizes the i d e a l r o l e , and•the l a t t e r emphasizes the a c t u a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . A l l names (e.g., t e a c h e r s , a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , other p e r s o n n e l , schools) were d e l e t e d and were i n d i c a t e d by ( ) i n the t r a n s c r i p t s . A l l t r a n s c r i p t s were coded to ensure anonymity and numbered I - V I I . Utterances i n each t r a n s c r i p t were numbered s e q u e n t i a l l y . The r e s e a r c h e r (R) and i n t e r v i e w e e (I) were desi g n a t e d b e f o r e each utterance'. For example: I I I 250 R 251 I 252 R 253 I So t h e r e f o r e Uh the content area becomes l e s s important I t h i n k so. I t h i n k t h a t uh I t h i n k t h a t you have t o have t o be a change agent i n a sense. The nine department heads agreed to meet j o i n t l y a t a d i s t r i c t department head meeting. They asked q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t_he purpose of the study and the Group Interview Schedule. A f t e r approximately f o r t y - f i v e minutes, the department heads i n d i v i d u a l l y completed the Group Interview Schedule. Those that'wished to complete the schedule a t home d i d so and then mailed t h e i r responses to the r e s e a r c h e r . 9 The i n t e n t of the interview, schedule was to generate d i s c u s s i o n concerning p e r c e i v e d a c t u a l and/or i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation. Because of t h a t i n t e n t , a l l the q u e s t i o n s were l e f t open-ended. The r e s e a r c h e r ' s r o l e was to f a c i l i t a t e the d i s c u s s i o n by f o c u s i n g on the r o l e of the a s s i s t -i n g teacher i n implementation. I t was a n t i c i p a t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t her p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s about the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation, c o u l d i n t e r f e r e with the p e r c e p t i o n s of the i n t e r v i e w e e . In order to overcome t h i s , two procedures were f o l l o w e d : 1. The r e s e a r c h e r s e t down her p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s and assumptions about implementation. (These are r e p o r t e d i n Assumptions, pages 10 and 11). 2 . The r e s e a r c h e r used i n t e r v i e w i n g techniques t h a t would check the i n t e r v i e w e e s ' meaning of statements. During the i n d i v i d u a l and group i n t e r v i e w s , the r e s e a r c h e r asked f o r e l a b o r a t i o n of comments which l a c k e d c l a r i t y , and re-phrased comments to ensure t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r understood the i n t e r v i e w e e ' s meaning i n h e r e n t i n the comment. Data A n a l y s i s . A n a l y s i s of data began when the r e s e a r c h e r reviewed the seven t r a n s c r i p t s and the e i g h t hand-written responses from, the i n t e r v i e w schedules. These were thoroughly read and r e - r e a d to determine commonalities i n responses. The r e s e a r c h e r c a t e g o r i z e d the comments from, t r a n s c r i p t s under the f o l l o w i n g headings:. 10 1. a c t u a l knowledge, 2. a c t u a l a c t i o n , 3. i d e a l knowledge, 4. i d e a l a c t i o n , 5. d i f f e r e n c e s between a c t u a l and i d e a l , and 6. c r i t e r i a t o judge success. The r e s e a r c h e r c a t e g o r i z e d w r i t t e n responses from the group i n t e r v i e w schedule as f o l l o w s : 1. view o f f u l l implementation, 2. i d e a l knowledge, 3. i d e a l a c t i o n , and 4. c r i t e r i a t o judge success of implementation. The r e s e a r c h e r noted the frequency of each comment and thus p r i o r i t i z e d the comments by frequency as w e l l as importance p l a c e d upon the comments by the i n t e r v i e w e e s . Frequency has been noted i n Chapter V by i n d i c a t i n g the number of people who made t h a t p a r t i c u l a r response (e.g., N=8, N=7 ). W i t h i n each category, the data have been presented i n Chapter V by frequency - from t h a t which was mentioned by a l l respondents to t h a t which was mentioned by the fewest. Assumptions. The people who ...participated i n the study were experien.tia.lly c l o s e t o the r e s e a r c h e r . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s hade taught or were t e a c h i n g . Although none were working w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r a t t h a t " t i m e , they c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d peers because they had experienced classroom l i f e . The r e s e a r c h e r , however, has never h e l d the p o s i t i o n of a s s i s t i n g teacher or department head. Because the researcher's perceptions could influence the responses of the interviewees, she therefore f e l t that i t was necessary to make e x p l i c i t some of her assumptions regarding implementation. The following assumptions were held by the researcher p r i o r to beginning the interviews: 1. Implementation has to do with "adult learning". (Bolam: 1980) 2. One of the important strategies to help adults learn i s people who can " f a c i l i t a t e " adult learning i n terms of the d i s t r i c t and curriculum context. (Fullan and Pomfret: 1977) 3. Implementation should be a co-operative endeavour between teachers, department heads, administrators, and d i s t r i c t resource s t a f f . (Berman .and McLaughlin: 1978) 4. The curriculum and teaching strategies w i l l change and be adapted during implementation. (Fullan and Pomfret: 1977) 5. Implementation i s a slow and continuous process. •(Berman and McLaughlin: 1978) 6. Implementation roles can be defined with a curriculum and context s p e c i f i c focus. (Fullan: 1979) To be curriculum s p e c i f i c requires that one look at content, strategies, goals and assumptions. To be context s p e c i f i c , i t i s necessary to examine expectations, d e f i n i t i o n s and needs that may have implications for role d e f i n i t i o n . Limitations. This study focuses only on the a s s i s t i n g teacher as a school . d i s t r i c t r o l e . I t does not examine the roles of the student, classroom t e a c h e r , other, s c h o o l s t a f f , or the M i n i s t r y of Education i n implementation, even though the r e s e a r c h e r r e c o g n i z e s the importance of these r o l e s f o r implementation. The r e s e a r c h e r i s u s i n g the n o t i o n of r o l e i n a l i m i t e d sense. T h i s study focuses o n l y on the knowledge and a c t i o n aspects of r o l e and does not i n c l u d e p e r s o n a l i t y or p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s t o other s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s l i m i t e d t o a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . Caution should be used i n a p p l y i n g the procedure f o r c u r r i c u l a i n other s u b j e c t a r e a s . 13 CHAPTER I I Research as a Source' When d e f i n i n g an implementation r o l e f o r an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r , one needs t o examine the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e c o n c erning the nature of i n t e r n a l change agents. T h i s l i t e r a t u r e may p r o -v i d e some d e s c r i p t i o n of the knowledge r e q u i r e d and the a c t i o n s necessary f o r such r o l e s . An implementation s t r a t e g y which i s accepted i s t h a t of u s i n g a "change agent t o f a c i l i t a t e the implementation p r o c e s s " (Havelock: 1973). The term "change agent" r e f e r s t o "a person who f a c i l i t a t e s planned change..." (Havelock: 1973: 5), and who i s "a s p e c i a l i s t i n the t e c h n i c a l p rocesses of f a c i l i t a t i n g change, a h e l p e r t o the c l i e n t system" (Chin: 1976). Many other terms are used t o d e s c r i b e t h i s person such as: c o n s u l t a n t ( F u l l a n and Parks: 1981; Ferguson: 1969), implementation agent (Common: 1980), c u r r i c u l u m d i r e c t o r (Grieve: 1980), resource personnel (McLaughlin and Marsh: 1978), s u p e r v i s o r ( S e r g i o v a n n i : 1975), h e l p i n g teacher and i n s t r u c t i o n a l a s s i s t a n t (Rauh: 1978), a d v i s o r (Manolakes: 1975; S c h e i n f e l d : 1979), l i n k i n g agent (Lieberman: 1980) and c o - o r d i n a t o r ( P o r t e r f i e l d and P o r t e r f i e l d : 1979). Though these terms are not used i n the l i t e r a t u r e as e q u i v a l e n t , they do h i g h l i g h t the importance of i n d i v i d u a l s who he l p teachers i n the implementation p r o c e s s . For the purpose of t h i s study, the term a s s i s t i n g teacher i s used t o d e s c r i b e the people who h e l p and support t e a c h e r s i n implementation. 1 4 To c o n c r e t e l y d e f i n e the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r , the l i t e r a t u r e d e f i n e s some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n terms of know-ledge and a c t i o n f o r t h i s person. Berman and McLaughlin d i s c o v e r t h a t : A c e n t r a l aspect of implementation i s the t e a c h e r s ' a c q u i s i t i o n of new s k i l l s , b e havior, and a t t i t u d e s ; t h i s t a s k - s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g can be g r e a t l y f a c i l i -t a t e d by an e f f e c t i v e p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r . The director.'s s p e c i a l s k i l l s and knowledge can c l a r i f y p r o j e c t g o a l s and o p e r a t i o n s , minimize the day-to-day d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by classroom teachers and f u r n i s h the concret e i n f o r m a t i o n they need t o l e a r n . (Berman and McLaughlin: 1 9 8 0 : 6 8 ) The knowledge possessed, t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , determines the a c t i o n s t h a t i s c a r r i e d out by t h i s person; but f o r the purpose of t h i s study, these two aspects of the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . Knowledge The knowledge r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g teacher t o f a c i l i -t a t e implementation appears t o be f o u r f o l d . T h i s i n c l u d e s knowledge d e r i v e d from classroom experience, an understanding of human r e l a t i o n s , knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m t o be implemented and an understanding of implementation p r o c e s s e s . Knowledge d e r i v e d from classroom experience may be advantageous f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s i f some of h i s / h e r t e a c h i n g experience had o c c u r r e d i n the d i s t r i c t t h a t they are h i r e d as a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . As Rauh p o i n t s out: « ... the n o t i o n of the h e l p i n g teacher i s c o n s i s t e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the l o c a l d i s t r i c t use of experienced t e a c h e r s as resource people and problem s o l v e r s f o r l o c a l d i s t r i c t staff-development e f f o r t s . (Rauh: 1 9 7 8 : 1 5 9 ) 15 The advantages of having a s s i s t i n g teachers who had previously taught within the school d i s t r i c t seem to be not only that they know the working of the school d i s t r i c t , but also that they know the teachers and vice versa. Havelock summarizes the main advan-tages of the assignment of the a s s i s t i n g teachers' positions from within the school d i s t r i c t when he states: 1. He knows the system;, he knows where the power l i e s , where the strategic leverage points are; he i s better able to i d e n t i f y the gatekeepers, the opinion leaders, and the innovators than a newcomer. 2. He speaks the language, l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y ; he knows the sp e c i a l ways i n which members discuss things and refer to things; he has the accent, the tone, and the s t y l e . 3. He understands the norms (the commonly held b e l i e f s attitudes, behaviors) and, at least i n part, he probably follows them and believes them himself. 4. He i d e n t i f i e s with the system's needs and aspirations. Because he i s a member, the system's need i s also his pain. Thus, he has a personal incentive f o r helping. 5. He i s a f a m i l i a r figure, a known qu a l i t y . Most of what he does i s understandable and predictable as "member" behavior; therefore he doesn't post the threat of "the new" and "the unfamiliar 1'. (Havelock: ,1973: 50) The reasons why classroom experience i s perceived as being useful to a s s i s t i n g teachers are: they may be sens i t i v e to classroom teachers needs, they may have the a b i l i t y to provide v i s i b l e and relevant assistance, and they may be accepted more readil y by classroom teachers. Also, the suggestions offered by the a s s i s t i n g teacher may be taken more seriously by classroom teachers. Rauh fe e l s that t h i s type of assistance would "... have more legitimacy with the classroom teachers" (Rauh: 1978: 170), while Berman and McLaughlin found that: r 1 6 Peers are g e n e r a l l y the most e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r s when i t came to a d v i s i n g the implementers-to-be about problems they c o u l d expect, suggesting ways to remedy them, and encouraging new p r o j e c t s t a f f t h a t "they can do i t too". (Berman and McLaughlin: 1 9 8 0 : 6 5 ) I f a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s are working w i t h i n the sch o o l d i s t r i c t , but not v i s i b l y a v a i l a b l e t o o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e , t h e i r v a l u e i s di m i n i s h e d . A s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s need t o be v i s i b l e so t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l seek them out and know t h a t the a s s i s t i n g teacher w i l l o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e (Leithwood: 1 9 7 9 : 4 6 ) . They "... must be viewed as i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g , and ab l e t o h e l p . . . " "(Manolakes: 1 9 7 5 : 5 5 ) . The a s s i s t a n c e i s p e r c e i v e d as r e l e v a n t i f i t meets the needs of the te a c h e r . As Leithwood p o i n t s out: Teachers w i l l not be l o y a l t o p r o j e c t s u n l e s s a s s i s t -ance i s p e r c e i v e d as being capable of meeting t h e i r needs as they see them. (Leithwood : 1 9 7 9 : 4 8 ) I t i s suggested t h a t the a s s i s t i n g teacher should be a person to whom s t a f f c o u l d t u r n f o r support, i d e a s , and suggestions when t r y i n g out something new i n the classroom s e t t i n g . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e , however, i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be of g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e when i t i s pr o v i d e d upon request by the classroom t e a c h e r . As Rauh c l a i m s : The h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s were to work with t e a c h e r s who requested t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , responding t o the expressed needs of the teachers i n terms of curriculurru.imple-mentation, the development of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , and the improvement of t e a c h i n g s k i l l s . (Rauh: 1 9 7 8 : 1 6 1 ) In order f o r the a s s i s t a n c e t o be r e l e v a n t , i t i s suggested t h a t i t be a v a i l a b l e when a problem o c c u r s , on an o n - c a l l b a s i s . As Berman and McLaughlin s t a t e , i f "... l o c a l r e source personnel 17 were ab l e to f u r n i s h frequent: though s h o r t , on-the-spot a s s i s t -ance, they were l e s s l i k e l y than o u t s i d e c o n s u l t a n t s to p r e c l u d e important l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the s t a f f ; consequently, p r o j e c t s p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e classroom a s s i s t a n c e were more l i k e l y t o be continued by t e a c h e r s " (Berman and McLaughlin: 1980: 65) . Classroom experience i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be u s e f u l f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s because they may be more r e a d i l y accepted by classroom t e a c h e r s and t h e r e f o r e the u s e f u l n e s s of the a s s i s t i n g t eachers may be i n c r e a s e d . Rauh mentions a reason why classroom experience seems to be an advantage. She s t a t e s t h a t , "... h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s who were experienced, p r a c t i c i n g teachers w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t seemedLto enjoy the g r e a t e s t degree of e a r l y acceptance" (Rauh: 1978: 163). The. second type of knowledge which may be r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s i s an understanding of human r e l a t i o n s . The concept of a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s seems to be based on h e l p i n g and s u p p o r t i n g classroom t e a c h e r s . In order to p r o v i d e t h i s , i t may be b e n e f i c i a l f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher to develop p o s i t i v e human r e l a t i o n s with classroom t e a c h e r s so as t o f a c i l i t a t e implementa-t i o n . As S e h e i n f e l d :writes: ... the p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d v i s o r and teacher was an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t . . . we found t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e method f o r teacher growth was one i n which the t e a c h e r - a d v i s o r worked s i d e by s i d e w i t h the teacher i n the classroom, engaging w i t h the c h i l d r e n and s h a r i n g i n the time-consuming work... ( S e h e i n f e l d : 1979: 118) I f an a s s i s t i n g teacher. Is t o p r o v i d e the h e l p and support t h a t seems to be r e q u i r e d , i t may be necessary f o r t h i s person t o be a b l e t o develop a r e l a t i o n s h i p which al l o w s f o r p r o v i d i n g the k i n d of h e l p - w i t h o u t - t h r e a t t h a t i s not c o n s t r u e d as super-v i s o r y . That person should be seen as a peer r a t h e r than an administrator« (Havelock: 1 9 7 3 ) ; Rauh a l s o contends t h a t : A h e l p i n g teacher i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f member r whose primary f u n c t i o n i s to a s s i s t o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n a peer-support r o l e . . . . ( R a u h : 1 9 7 8 : 1 5 8 ) The r e l a t i o n s h i p s which develop between the a s s i s t i n g teacher and the classroom t e a c h e r s are seen as a s s e t s i n imple-mentation. I f teachers are aware t h a t "someone out there r e a l l y c a r e s " (Havelock: 1 9 7 3 : . 1 3 4 ) , then they may be "more pr e d i s p o s e d to change and innovate than those who are not conscious of such support" (Leithwood: 1 9 7 9 : 4 8 ) The t h i r d type of knowledge which seems t o be r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g t eacher i s knowledge o f the c u r r i c u l u m t o be implemented. T h i s knowledge may e n t a i l an understanding of what i s i n n o v a t i v e between the p r e s e n t and proposed c u r r i c u l a and hence what the classroom teacher may have to l e a r n - ( H a v e l o c k : 1 9 7 3 : 7 8 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m e n t a i l s content e x p e r t i s e of the prese n t c u r r i c u l u m , as w e l l as of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m . The classroom t e a c h e r s may a l s o have to know the aims of o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s knowledge may heighten t h e i r understanding of the ph i l o s o p h y upon which the new c u r r i c u l u m i s based. The classroom t e a c h e r s may then be b e t t e r equipped t o teach the co n t e n t . As F u l l a n r e c o g n i z e s : ... implementation concerns the knowledge and understanding which users would have to possess i n order t o use the change. I t r e l a t e s t o the 19 cognitive aspect of implementation such as the knowledge and understanding about the philosophy, assumptions, goals and means of the innovation, necessary i n order to u t i l i z e i t . (Fullan: 1979: 43) Havelock and Havelock also point out: They should have an understanding of the contents of these guidelines and a recognition of the rationale for the programme they are about to enter. (Havelock and Havelock: 1973: 175) A s s i s t i n g teachers may provide assistance to classroom teachers by helping to f a m i l i a r i z e and make available the needed materials and resources. Resources come in many forms: they may be available as p r i n t materials, people, or products. Knowing when, where, and how to acquire them are e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s for the change agent to have ... (Havelock: 1973: 77) A new curriculum may also imply changes i n teaching s t r a t e -gies. This aspect of the curriculum may be d i f f i c u l t to implement (McLaughlin and Marsh: 1978) but can be f a c i l i t a t e d by an a s s i s t i n g teacher who has knowledge of methodology and can help the classroom teacher acquire the s k i l l s necessary to teach the curriculum using a s p e c i f i c approach or strategy. Another aspect of curriculum knowledge involves programme planning and development. Classroom teachers may require a s s i s t -ance with developing programmes which complement the new curriculum and with planning t h e i r programmes to f a c i l i t a t e implementation of the innovation. This point i s emphasized by Miles and Fullan when they claim: OD (organizational development) s p e c i a l i s t s played important roles, i n o v e r a l l program planning, development of s p e c i f i c program packages, t r a i n i n g of others... as needed. (Miles and Fullan: 1980: 87) / 20 Even though the a s s i s t i n g t e acher may take a l e a d e r s h i p : \. r o l e i n these a c t i v i t i e s , : i t i s necessary t o remember t h a t t h e i r r o l e mainly e n t a i l s a helping, r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e r e f o r e , they should be working c o - o p e r a t i v e l y with t e a c h e r s t o a c q u i r e the necessary knowledge. As F u l l a n . a n d Parks s t a t e : Care should be taken t o c o u n t e r a c t the tendency of a one-way emphasis i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n s u l t a n t s and. s c h o o l s t a f f i n which c o n s u l t a n t s a c q u i r e or produce c u r r i c u l u m f o r t e a c h e r s . ( F u l l a n and Parks: 1981: 44) F i n a l l y , i t has been suggested t h a t the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s c o u l d p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e to classroom t e a c h e r s i f they have a c l e a r understanding of implementation p r o c e s s e s . T h i s knowledge may be as important as c u r r i c u l u m knowledge. I t would be advantageous i f the a s s i s t i n g teacher has knowledge of both. •Fullan.and Parks r e i n f o r c e t h i s p o i n t when they s t a t e : We suggest t h a t c o n s u l t a n t s would have t o become knowledgeable about and balance two d i s t i n c t aspects of implementation, one concerning the c u r r i c u l u m , and the other r e l a t i n g t o the change p r o c e s s . ( F u l l a n and Parks: 1981: 4 3) Knowledge of implementation processes c o n s i s t s of having a c l e a r i d e a of the meaning of implementation such as the d e f i n i t i o n used by F u l l a n which i s "the a c t u a l use or p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e of a p a r t i c u l a r c h a n g e " . ( F u l l a n : 1979: 41). In a d d i t i o n , the a s s i s t i n g t e acher may need t o know the approaches t o implementa-tion, which c o u l d be used such as "mutual a d a p t a t i o n " or " f i d e l i t y " ( F u l l a n : 1979: 44). F i n a l l y the f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o implementation, which F u l l a n l i s t s as " p r e - h i s t o r y , d i s t i n c t i o n between content and r o l e change, c l a r i t y of g o a l s / means, i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g l i n k e d t o implementation problems, 2 1 meetings, l o c a l m a t e r i a l s : adaptation, and a v a i l a b i l i t y , a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e support, o v e r l o a d o f changes expected to be implemented and t i m e - l i n e f o r implementation": (Fullan:: 1 9 7 9 : 4 5 ) are a l s o important. Lieberman summarizes the types of knowledge r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g teacher when she writes:. T h e i r r o l e i s to open s c h o o l people t o f r e s h i d e a s , l i n k them t o knowledge, and he l p them use t h i s know-ledge. They need t o know how to work wit h i n d i v i d u a l s and groups, be s e n s i t i v e t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and understand the power r e l a t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t the people i n v o l v e d . They need t o move the ideas through a process of awareness t o a c t u a l use, being always aware of the concerns t h a t stand i n the way of movement. (Lieberman: 1 9 8 0 : 2 3 8 ) A c t i o n In c o n j u n c t i o n with the knowledge r e q u i r e d , the a s s i s t i n g teacher may a l s o c a r r y out c e r t a i n a c t i o n s which are necessary to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o classroom t e a c h e r s . G e n e r a l l y , the re s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n order f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher t o be e f f e c t i v e , he/she may pr o v i d e and c o - o r d i n a t e whatever type of a s s i s t a n c e i s r e q u i r e d . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e may be i n whatever form i s most u s e f u l t o the s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r . The a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . t o f a c i l i t a t e implementation, can be summarized as those a c t i o n s which are undertaken within, t h e classroom and those which are based o u t s i d e the classroom. The classroom-based a c t i o n s i n c l u d e h e l p i n g with t e a c h e r - i d e n t i f i e d problems,' doing demonstrations, o b s e r v i n g c l assroom a c t i v i t i e s and p r o v i d i n g feedback f o r t e a c h e r s . The a c t i o n s o u t s i d e the classroom p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t o f p r o v i d i n g i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ; i t may a l s o i n c l u d e o r g a n i z i n g and a t t e n d i n g meetings w i t h t e a c h e r s . The major classroom-based a c t i o n r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g teacher seems to be h e l p i n g classroom t e a c h e r s with whatever problems they i d e n t i f i e d , whenever problems occur (Arends, e t a l : 1 9 7 8 , Berman.and McLaughlin: 1 9 7 8 , Bolam: 1 9 8 0 , F u l l a n : 1 9 7 9 , Joyce and Showers: 1 9 8 0 ) . The Berman and McLaughlin summary of the Rand Study f i n d s t h a t implementation i s f a c i l i -t a t e d and s u s t a i n e d when " l o c a l r e s ource p e r s o n n e l " p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e which i s c o n c r e t e , on-going and teacher s p e c i f i c . They s t a t e : L o c a l r esource personnel promoted mutual a d a p t a t i o n by o f f e r i n g r e l e v a n t , p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e on an o n - c a l l b a s i s . Furthermore, because l o c a l r e s ource personnel were ab l e to f u r n i s h f r e q u e n t , though s h o r t , on-the-spot a s s i s t -ance, they were l e s s l i k e l y than o u t s i d e c o n s u l t a n t s to p r e c l u d e important l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the s t a f f ; consequently, p r o j e c t s p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e classroom a s s i s t a n c e were more l i k e l y t o be continued by t e a c h e r s . (Berman and McLaughlin: 1 9 7 8 : 6 6 ) Doing demonstrations, o b s e r v i n g classroom a c t i v i t i e s and p r o v i d i n g feedback to classroom t e a c h e r s are d i s c u s s e d as being continuous and simultaneous (Berman and McLaughlin: 1 9 7 8 , Bolam: 1 9 8 0 , Joyce and Showers: 1 9 8 0 , and Lawrence: 1 9 7 4 ) . These authors echo the Rand Study when they emphasize demonr s t r a t i o n s , t r i a l s , and feedback as more e f f e c t i v e than those i n which classroom t e a c h e r s o n l y absorb ideas i n a workshop s e t t i n g and are then expected t o apply.; them a t some f u t u r e time i n t h e i r classrooms. Joyce and Showers d i s c u s s these components of t r a i n i n g which c o u l d be p a r t i a l l y undertaken o u t s i d e the classroom (e.g. demonstrations and p r a c t i c e ) and p a r t i a l l y i n s i d e the 23 classroom (e.g. p r a c t i c e , feedback and c o a c h i n g ) : I f the theory of a new approach i s w e l l presented, the approach i s demonstrated, p r a c t i c e i s p r o v i d e d under simulated c o n d i t i o n s w i t h c a r e f u l and c o n s i s t e n t feedback, and t h a t p r a c t i c e i s f o l l o w e d by a p p l i c a t i o n i n the classroom w i t h coaching and f u r t h e r feedback, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s w i l l be a b l e to expand t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e t o the p o i n t where they can u t i l i z e a wide v a r i e t y of approaches to t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l u m . (Joyce and Showers: 1980: 384) These classroom-based a c t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g t eacher are as important to f a c i l i t a t e implementation as a c t i o n s based out-s i d e the classroom. However, a c t i o n s o u t s i d e the classroom seem to be r e q u i r e d as complements and supplements t o classroom-based a c t i o n s . T h i s p o i n t i s r e i n f o r c e d by S c h e i n f e l d when he notes t h a t : Workshops p r o v i d e d an e x c e l l e n t entree f o r working with t e a c h e r s and f o r h e l p i n g teachers t o begin c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one another, but were no s u b s t i t u t e f o r an i n t e n s i v e , classroom-based, one-to-one r e l a t i o n -s h i p between teacher and a d v i s o r . None of the t e a c h e r s who made s i g n i f i c a n t s t r i d e s d i d so p r i m a r i l y through a workshop experience a l o n e . In g e n e r a l , we found t h a t a combination of workshop and one-to-one work with t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n i n classrooms proved t o be the o p t i m a l s t r a t e g y . ( S c h e i n f e l d : 1979: 118) The most commonly mentioned a c t i o n which i s undertaken o u t s i d e of the classroom i s i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s or workshops. These words seem_to be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . I n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s may be of g r e a t e r v a l u e i f they are on-going (McLaughlin and Marsh: 1978). The v a l u e of workshops i s enhanced i f they begin p r i o r t o implementation and continue throughout the implementation process ( F u l l a n : 1979). Research shows t h a t the purpose of i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s p r i o r t o implementation i s to i n t r o d u c e the i n n o v a t i o n t o the classroom t e a c h e r s and h e l p them d e f i n e and p l a n f o r implementation (Berman and McLaughlin: 1978). 24 I n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s which are undertaken d u r i n g implementation appear to be f o r the purpose of s o l v i n g problems which t e a c h e r s are e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t h e i r classroom. As F u l l a n s t a t e s : More important i s t o work out follow-up i n - s e r v i c e , p e r i o d i c workshops with t e a c h e r s as they experience implementation problems. These workshops can be more s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o what the problems a r e . ( F u l l a n : 1979: 47) Whatever the purpose of i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , i t seems to be of g r e a t e r v a l u e t o classroom t e a c h e r s i f they are co-opera-t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n d e c i d i n g the content of the workshop i n order to s a t i s f y t h e i r s p e c i f i c needs. Teacher involvement i s emphasized by Bolam when he s t a t e s : ... the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s d e s i r e more i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , i f they can p a r t i c i p a t e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the o b j e c t i v e s , and i n p l a n n i n g and choosing i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ; i f the program focus i s p r a c t i c a l and classroom/school s p e c i f i c ; i f f e l l o w t e a c h e r s and l o c a l c o n s u l t a n t s are used as resource people; i f the c o n d i t i o n s (e.g. time) are conducive to l e a r n i n g ; and i f t h ere i s some d i r e c t f ollow-up and support f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of what i s l e a r n e d . (Bolam: 1980: 47) Anderson and Sconzo a l s o w r i t e : ... i n - s e r v i c e programs which teac h e r s are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g onLthe a c t i v i t i e s are g e n e r a l l y more s u c c e s s f u l than those conducted by o u t s i d e personnel without teacher a s s i s t a n c e . (Anderson and Sconzo: 1978: 84) In c o n j u n c t i o n with i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , meetings may be u s e f u l . These meetings seem to be l e s s f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d where teach e r s can d i s c u s s and work on problems as w e l l as share and exchange i d e a s . These meetings are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be u s e f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s with other t e a c h e r s who are working toward implementing an i n n o v a t i o n . McLaughlin and Marsh emphasize t h i s p o i n t when they s t a t e : 25 Frequent p r o j e c t meetings, were another ..support . s t r a t e g y t h a t a i d e d t e a c h e r e f f o r t s to: adapt p r o j e c t p r e c e p t s to t h e i r classrooms and a s s i m i l a t e new s t r a t e g i e s . P r o j e c t meetings p r o v i d e d a forum whereby te a c h e r s c o u l d l e a r n from one another's e x p e r i e n c e . P r o j e c t meetings a l s o supported the a f f e c t i v e needs of t e a c h e r s as they attempted to implement change. As one teacher commented, r e g u l a r monthly meetings are a b s o l u t e l y c r i t i c a l f o r reinforcement and b u i l d i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r co-workers. (McLaughlin and Marsh: 1978: 79) The types of a c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d are not p r i o r i t i z e d . They are a l l important and necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l implementation. I t i s , however, v i t a l t o the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher t h a t he/she be a b l e to s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r y out the a c t i o n s t h a t may be r e q u i r e d by the classroom t e a c h e r . Rauh summarizes these a c t i o n s when she w r i t e s : She. v i s i t s the classroom o b s e r v i n g the c h i l d r e n and the teacher a t work; she b r i n g s new m a t e r i a l s , r e s o u r c e s , methods and ideas to the a t t e n t i o n of the t e a c h e r s ; she c o n f e r s w i t h the teacher and helps her p l a n e f f e c t i v e ways to improve the e d u c a t i o n a l program; she becomes a t r u s t e d co-worker and f r i e n d t o whom the teacher can go w i t h any problem. A l l her e f f o r t s are aimed at p r o v i d i n g c o n d i t i o n s which encourage teac h e r s to develop t h e i r b e s t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and i n c r e a s e t h e i r competency. (Rauh: 1978: 59) Implied Role The r e s e a r c h emphasizes the importance of i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l p t e a c h e r s i n the implementation p r o c e s s , and i s a u s e f u l source f o r d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g : t e a c h e r . From the r e s e a r c h , s p e c i f i c , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s concerning the i m p l i e d r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t eacher can be made. These g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are l i s t e d below. I n a d d i t i o n , key q u e s t i o n s accompany the g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n s . These key questions: are not knowledge or a c t i o n 26 s p e c i f i c , but emphasize the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of both. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 1. A range of t e a c h i n g experience w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s c o n s i d e r e d to be u s e f u l f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s because they may then be more s e n s i t i v e t o the needs of the c l a s s -room teacher s . i What are the classroom t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d needs i n implementation? i i How can a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h e i r classroom experience to h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s i n p l a n n i n g and implementing classroom programmes? i i i How can a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h e i r classroom experience to p r o v i d e r e l e v a n t a s s i s t a n c e to teachers when a problem occurs? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 2. Knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m to be implemented and of the implementation process a l s o seems to be u s e f u l f o r the a s s i s t i n g t eacher to f a c i l i t a t e implementation. i What i s i n n o v a t i v e r e g a r d i n g the c u r r i c u l u m ? i i What does the i n n o v a t i o n imply r e g a r d i n g l e a r n i n g f o r the classroom teacher? i i i What approach to implementation seems to p r e v a i l w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? i v How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher use the knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m and of the implementation process to h e l p 'Classroom t e a c h e r s with p l a n n i n g and implementing classroom programmes? 27 v How can t h i s knowledge be used i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 3. A s s i s t a n c e t o classroom t e a c h e r s should be based w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l classrooms as w e l l as o u t s i d e the c l a s s -room i n order to f a c i l i t a t e implementation. ( i What type of a s s i s t a n c e i s * i d e n t i f i e d by classroom t e a c h e r s as most worthwhile i n meeting t h e i r needs i n implementation? i i How can the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s meet the needs of teachers i n t h e i r classrooms? i i i How can. the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s work wit h classroom teachers i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? i v How can. the a s s i s t i n g teacher h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s by p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e throughout the implementation process? In. summary, the knowledge and a c t i o n t h a t d e f i n e the r o l e of. the a s s i s t i n g teacher are i n t e r r e l a t e d . The a s s i s t i n g teacher should have a c l e a r understanding of the c u r r i c u l u m to be implemented as w e l l as of the implementation p r o c e s s . T h i s person would be of g r e a t e s t value to classroom t e a c h e r s i f the a c t i o n s o f the a s s i s t i n g teacher are d i r e c t e d t o meeting the needs of the classroom, t e a c h e r s . 28 CHAPTER I I I Assessment as a Source One important source f o r d e f i n i n g an implementation r o l e i s needs assessment or e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s r e l a t e d t o the s u b j e c t to be implemented. These r e p o r t s may i d e n t i f y implementation problems and needs t h a t h e l p d e f i n e an implementation r o l e . The B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment was under-taken i n 1977 by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . The purpose of the assessment was t o " . . . a s s i s t c u r r i c u l u m personnel a t p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l s i n r e v i s i n g c u r r i c u l u m and p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development." (Aoki.et a l : 1977: Volume 1: P a r t 1 : 1 ) . As these documents p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n and suggest improvements f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n the p r o v i n c e , they p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which may be u s e f u l f o r implementation p l a n n i n g , and f o r d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation. T h i s chapter f i r s t examines the problems of implementation as found i n the Assessment Report o f 1977. From these s t a t e d implementation problems, the chapter then d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i e d r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher t o f a c i l i t a t e implementation. Sta:ted implementation Problems The assessment i d e n t i f i e d some teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may i n f l u e n c e implementation. Seventy-one percent of the secondary t e a c h e r s have seven or more years t e a c h i n g experience; these t e a c h e r s are f a m i l i a r w i t h the 1968 c u r r i c u l u m and, 29 t h e r e f o r e , may not-be i n favour of implementing a r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l u m . Only f o r t y - s i x p ercent of the teach e r s had an academic background i n h i s t o r y , geography or another s o c i a l s c i e n c e , and almost one-half of the teach e r s had taken o n l y one s o c i a l s t u d i e s methods course. The Report, t h e r e f o r e , recommended t h a t : Since S o c i a l S t u d i e s i s a d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t t o teach and s i n c e the academic and met h o d o l o g i c a l background of many teach e r s i s l i m i t e d , p r o v i s i o n of adequate, r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e c o n s u l t a t i v e and support s e r v i c e s should be regarded as a n e c e s s i t y . (Adki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 20) Because t e a c h e r s ' knowledge of s o c i a l s t u d i e s was a c q u i r e d mainly through classroom e x p e r i e n c e , t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t many teache r s may encounter problems i n p l a n n i n g and implementing t h e i r classroom programmes and may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . (Adki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 17) Secondary teac h e r s g e n e r a l l y are s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t s and o f t e n have taught o n l y t h e i r s p e c i a l t y . As enrollments d e c l i n e , however, secondary t e a c h e r s may need t o teach o u t s i d e t h e i r area of s p e c i a l t y . The Report i n d i c a t e s t h a t " f i f t y - f i v e p e rcent of the te a c h e r s r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n E n g l i s h or another academic a r e a . " (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 17) For teachers who do not have a s o c i a l s c i e n c e background, implementa-t i o n may be a problem. Besides these d i f f e r e n c e s i n academic backgrounds and t e a c h i n g experience, t h e r e are a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ways c u r r i c u l u m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by the te a c h e r s themselves. The Report d i s c o v e r s t h a t : "...teachers do not appear t o be implementing the scope and sequence p r e s c r i b e d i n the guidebooks." (Aoki e t a l : . 1977: Volume 1: P a r t 2: 14) I t a l s o f e e l s t h a t i t i s 30 u n l i k e l y "... t h a t a s i n g l e S o c i a l S t u d i e s programme e x i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s . Instead, t h e r e are probably a v a r i e t y of programmes r e s u l t i n g , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , from the v a r i o u s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s teachers have made of the p r e s e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d programme." (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Volume 3: 25) These v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are, i n f a c t , a p a r t of implementation. In the Report, teac h e r s i d e n t i f y a need f o r g r e a t e r pro-f e s s i o n a l and programme development o p p o r t u n i t i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n - s e r v i c e workshops. I t s t a t e s : " A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teach e r s i n t e r v i e w e d overwhelmingly express the need f o r g r e a t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l development...". (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 31) The Report f u r t h e r s t a t e s : "... teache r s want the M i n i s t r y of Educat i o n t o pr o v i d e c u r r i c u l u m workshops and c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s t o a s s i s t them i n de v e l o p i n g l o c a l programmes...". (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 39) In s h o r t , t e a c h e r s express a need f o r the M i n i s t r y of Education t o be: 1. encouraging s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o p r o v i d e adequate time f o r teach e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , 2. p r o v i d i n g funds f o r c u r r i c u l u m development, 3. sponsoring extended c u r r i c u l u m workshops, 4. encouraging s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o c o - o r d i n a t e . development of l o c a l c ourses, and 5. p r o v i d i n g c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s . (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report:40) T h e r e f o r e , t o reach a high e r l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l development, the Report recommends: That the M i n i s t r y of Edu c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h D i s t r i c t Superintendents of s c h o o l s , ensure involvement of c l a s s -31 room teachers d i r e c t l y i n the development and e v a l u a -t i o n of S o c i a l S t u d i e s programmes t h r o u g h . p r o v i s i o n of adequate time f o r the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : p r o f e s s i o n a l development workshops, s t a f f committees and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . An expansion of the r o l e s of S o c i a l S t u d i e s department heads and d i s t r i c t c o n s u l t a n t s i n t e a c h e r s i n - s e r v i c e i s envisaged. Such e f f o r t s should not become j u s t an ' a f t e r s c h o o l ' undertaking, but should be p a r t of the ongoing p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m of t e a c h e r s . (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 44) I n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n i s a l s o an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l growth as w e l l as c u r r i c u l u m implementation. The Report s t a t e s t h a t : One change which t e a c h e r s would l i k e t o see put i n t o p r a c t i c e i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new programmes through comprehensive i n - s e r v i c e . (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 20) And to t h i s end, the f o l l o w i n g recommendation was made: That the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and d i s t r i c t s t a f f s view c u r r i c u l u m implementation as an important p a r t of t e acher i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n ( i . e . , i s s u i n g of new c u r r i c u l u m guides, new t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l adoptions, e t c . ) . F i n a n c i a l support f o r these programmes should be regarded as a p r i o r i t y need. (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 44) Not o n l y do t e a c h e r s see the need f o r i n - s e r v i c e , they a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t i t must be both r e l e v a n t and u s e f u l . Of the teachers questioned^ s i x t y - s i x p ercent r a t e d the workshops t h a t they had attended i n the p r e v i o u s three years as o n l y moderately u s e f u l . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t e a c h e r s may be r e l u c t a n t to devote more time to i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . . (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Volume 3: P a r t 1: 56) Teachers, however, do i d e n t i f y aspects of i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s as b e n e f i c i a l . These are: the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s k i l l s and methodology f o r t e a c h i n g these s k i l l s , the o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i s e new methods, and the exchange of ideas and experiences 3 2 w i t h f e l l o w t e a c h e r s . (Aoki e t a l : 1 9 7 7 : Volume 3 : P a r t 1 : 5 2 ) In p a r t i c u l a r , the t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e these as b e n e f i c i a l because they improve t h e i r t e a c h i n g . Teachers i d e n t i f y f e l l o w t e a c h e r s as the most h e l p f u l i n - s e r v i c e group. (Aoki e t a l : 1 9 7 7 : Volume 3 : P a r t 1 : 5 2 ) T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g many teach e r s found workshops as moderately u s e f u l . A c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r may be t h a t f e l l o w teachers experience s i m i l a r problems, and thus can share these e x p e r i e n c e s . Teachers are c o l l e a g u e s and are aware of the needs of other t e a c h e r s . They work wit h the same m a t e r i a l s , teach the same grade l e v e l and experience the same problems. They are more aware of day-to-day experiences of the classroom. A o k i r e p o r t s : F e l l o w teachers are regarded as more capable of p r o v i d i n g worthwhile i n - s e r v i c e than o t h e r groups of people. T h i s f i n d i n g may r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r s are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o c o n s u l t w i t h one another, or i t may suggest t h a t other types of i n -s e r v i c e groups are not as s e n s i t i v e t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l development needs of t e a c h e r s as they might be, or t h a t the groups are not c r e d i b l e t o t e a c h e r s because they are p e r c e i v e d by them as being 'out-of-touch' with classroom r e a l i t i e s . (Aoki e t a l : 1 9 7 7 : Volume 3 : P a r t 1 : 5 7 ) The Report i d e n t i f i e s the need f o r support personnel so as to h e l p a l l e v i a t e s p e c i f i c problems. For example, the l i m i t e d academic and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l background of some teach e r s i s i d e n t i f i e d as a problem which c o u l d a f f e c t implementation. T h e r e f o r e , the Report suggests t h a t support personnel c o u l d h e l p a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem. I t s t a t e s : The magnitude of the teachers* task i n the realm of S o c i a l S t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n cannot be underestimated. The nature of the s u b j e c t i t s e l f demands t h a t the teacher possess knowledge of the d i s c i p l i n e s as w e l l 33 as a broad range of i n s t r u c t i o n a l competencies. For t h i s reason i t i s necessary t h a t t e a c h e r s a t a l l grade l e v e l s be p r o v i d e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e from the M i n i s t r y of Ed u c a t i o n , teacher e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u -t i o n s , the B.C.T.F. P r o f e s s i o n a l Development D i v i s i o n , d i s t r i c t s t a f f p e r s o n n e l , and other i n t e r e s t e d groups. I t i s o n l y by f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n among a l l concerned t h a t t e a c h e r s can become s u c c e s s f u l c a t a l y s t s of l e a r n i n g i n the S o c i a l S t u d i e s classroom. (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 22) Support personnel a l s o may h e l p f a m i l i a r i z e t e a c h e r s w i t h the s o c i a l s t u d i e s g u i d e l i n e s and m a t e r i a l s ; t h i s may a l l o w f o r more c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m . Not o n l y do teach e r s see the need f o r support p e r s o n n e l , but they f e e l t h a t t h i s support should be on-going. To t h i s end, the Document recommends: That the M i n i s t r y of Educat i o n p r o v i d e on-going c o n s u l t a t i v e support t o l o c a l d i s t r i c t s i n , f o r example, (a) the t r a i n i n g o f pe r s o n n e l i n the f i e l d o f resource m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n , (b) l o c a l r e source assessment, (c) the c o - o r d i n a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n t o other s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s of the r e s u l t s of such a s s e s s -ments, together w i t h assessments of p r o v i n c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d r e s o u r c e s , (d) the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n schools and d i s t r i c t s , and (e) the intended use of p r o v i n c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d m a t e r i a l s . (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 46) The Report a l s o recommends: That the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , . u n i v e r s i t i e s , B.C.T.F., and l o c a l s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s r e c o g n i z e p r o f e s s i o n a l development as a major commitment f o r the improvement of S o c i a l S t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. To t h i s end, the M i n i s t r y and these other i n s t i t u t i o n s should i n v e s t i g a t e means of p r o v i d i n g and s u b s t a n t i a l l y improving f i n a n c i a l support and encouragement f o r enhancing and c o - o r d i n a t i n g S o c i a l S t u d i e s p r o f e s s i o n a l development. T h i s should be seen as an attempt to 34 develop not j u s t new t e a c h i n g r e s o u r c e s , but a new sense of teacher r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , i n v o l v i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n making d e c i s i o n s f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s programmes. (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Summary Report: 43-44) Implied Role The S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment d e f i n e s some areas o f d i f f i -c u l t y f o r implementation and suggests t h a t support personnel may be needed t o a l l e v i a t e some of these problems. The Document a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h a t d i s t r i c t support personnel are p a r t i c u l a r l y use-f u l . F or the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s they are c a l l e d a s s i s t i n g , t e a c h e r s . The assessment of B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i a l s t u d i e s p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the problem of implementation and the needs of the classroom t e a c h e r s . These problems and needs have i m p l i c a t i o n f o r r o l e d e f i n i t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s frame, some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may be u s e f u l when d e f i n i n g an implementation r o l e . These g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s generate 0 key q u e s t i o n s which may be u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g the a s s i s t i n g teacher f a c i l i t a t e implementation. The key qu e s t i o n s are not knowledge or a c t i o n s p e c i f i c , but emphasize the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of both. Below are the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which are i m p l i e d by the Report and the key qu e s t i o n s which, when answered, may h e l p t o d e f i n e the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 1. Teaching experience i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a v a l u a b l e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s so t h a t they w i l l be s e n s i t i v e t o the needs of the classroom t e a c h e r s i n implementation. i What classroom experience would be most worth-while f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher? i i How can the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h e i r c l a s s -room experience to h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h p l a n n i n g and implementing classroom programmes? i i i How can the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h e i r classroom experience i n p l a n n i n g and conducting u s e f u l and r e l e v a n t i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? i v How can the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h e i r classroom experience to p r o v i d e u s e f u l and r e l e v a n t a s s i s t a n c e t o t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r classroom?. v How can the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s work wit h classroom t e a c h e r s on r e v i e w i n g and r e v i s i n g the c u r r i c u l u m to s a t i s f y t e a c h e r s 1 needs? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 2. Academic background i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s as w e l l as c u r r i c u l u m development and implementation i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e background t o h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h implementation. i How can t h i s knowledge be used to h e l p implement the new c u r r i c u l u m on a d i s t r i c t b a s i s ? i i How can t h i s knowledge be used i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? i i i How can t h i s knowledge be used t o h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h p l a n n i n g and implementing classroom programmes? i v How can t h i s knowledge be used by the a s s i s t i n g teacher t o h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s develop a c l e a r and c o n s i s t e n t n o t i o n o f implementation? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 3. Knowledge of the c u r r i c u l a i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be important. i What i s i n n o v a t i v e between the presen t and proposed c u r r i c u l a ? > i i What does the i n n o v a t i o n imply f o r teacher l e a r n i n g ? i i i What can the a s s i s t i n g teacher do t o f a c i l i t a t e t eacher l e a r n i n g ? v i v How can the knowledge of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m be used t o h e l p t e a c h e r s expand the g u i d e l i n e s so t h a t they are more u s e f u l t o tea c h e r s ? v How can the knowledge of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m be used by the a s s i s t i n g t eacher t o h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s become f a m i l i a r and be able t o use the new p r e s c r i b e d and a u t h o r i z e d m a t e r i a l s ? v i How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher use the knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 4. Teachers' n o t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m are content and m a t e r i a l s - b a s e d ; t h e r e f o r e , implementation hinges on teacher knowledge of content and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of u s e f u l m a t e r i a l s , i What knowledge of content and'materials i s r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g teacher? 37 i i What m a t e r i a l s which complement the content are a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the sc h o o l d i s t r i c t ? i i i What new m a t e r i a l s are r e q u i r e d t o implement the, new c u r r i c u l u m ? i v How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher f a c i l i t a t e the i n t r o d u c t i o n and f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n of the new m a t e r i a l s and content f o r the classroom teacher? v How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher use m a t e r i a l s and content i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 5. P r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s are c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavour and e s s e n t i a l as a focus t o f a c i l i t a t e implementation. i What kinds of p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s are i d e n t i f i e d by classroom teachers as being most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r meeting t h e i r needs?, i i How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i s i o n of r e l e v a n t and u s e f u l i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? i i i How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher encourage c l a s s -room t e a c h e r s 1 involvement i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? i v How can the a s s i s t i n g t eacher use the knowledge of teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (experienced t e a c h e r s , t e a c h e r s new t o s u b j e c t area, etc.) i n p l a n n i n g and conducting p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s ? 38 In summary, the knowledge and a c t i o n s t h a t d e f i n e the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher are i n t e r r e l a t e d . The a s s i s t i n g t e acher should be able to assess the context i n t o which a c u r r i c u l u m i s to be implemented. The a c t i o n s should take i n t o account the problems a s s o c i a t e d with implementation as w e l l as the needs of the classroom t e a c h e r s . T h i s knowledge and sub-sequent a c t i o n may a l l e v i a t e problems, s a t i s f y needs and hence f a c i l i t a t e implementation. 39 CHAPTER IV ' C u r r i c u l u m as a Source Another important source f o r d e f i n i n g an implementation r o l e i s the c u r r i c u l u m to be implemented. A comparison of the present and proposed c u r r i c u l a w i l l h e l p to determine what i s i n n o v a t i v e , and t h e r e f o r e what new knowledge and a c t i o n may be r e q u i r e d by the classroom teacher and the a s s i s t i n g t eacher t o f a c i l i t a t e implementation. The c u r r i c u l a s p e c i f i c a l l y chosen are the present (1968) and the proposed (1983) s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a i n B r i t i s h Columbia. These c u r r i c u l a are analyzed a c c o r d i n g to content, s t r a t e g i e s , g o a l s and assumptions. T h i s a n a l y s i s comprises the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . The second s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the r o l e of the classroom teacher and the a s s i s t i n g teacher as i m p l i e d by the i n n o v a t i o n . T h i s i m p l i e d r o l e i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and key q u e s t i o n s which may be used to guide the a s s i s t i n g t eacher i n f a c i l i t a t i n g implementation. Comparison of C u r r i c u l a The comparison of the c u r r i c u l a i s from the c o n c r e t e to the a b s t r a c t . The aspect of the c u r r i c u l a which seems t o be most concret e i s content which i n v o l v e s the scope and sequence, themes and s k i l l s . T h i s i s compared u s i n g the grade e i g h t course. S t r a t e g i e s are compared i n terms of t e a c h i n g , l e a r n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g r e q u i r e d by t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . A comparison 40 of g o a ls i n v o l v e s the aims of the programme and the intended l e a r n i n g outcomes of the. secondary c u r r i c u l a . F i n a l l y , the s t a t e d and i m p l i e d assumptions are compared. Content. The scope and sequence f o r grade e i g h t has changed q u i t e d r a s t i c a l l y . The o n l y u n i t r e l a t e d t o scope and sequence which remains i n the proposed c u r r i c u l u m i s the Renaissance. Below i s a t o p i c l i s t of the u n i t s p r e s c r i b e d by the p r e s e n t and proposed s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a . Present C u r r i c u l u m ..Proposed- C u r r i c u l u m Developing T r o p i c a l World ( A s i a , People and C u l t u r e s (World A f r i c a , L a t i n America) Renaissance, p a s t : Graco-Roman t o Reform-E v o l u t i o n and R e v o l u t i o n (Renaissance a t i o n ; Canada p a s t : Immigra-B r i t i s h or French Revolution) t i o n , 1604-1867; Canada p r e s e n t : B.C. or l o c a l , Canada; World, p r e s e n t : U.S.A. (Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide  S o c i a l S t u d i e s K - l l : 1980: 18) The thematic approach i s a l s o d i f f e r e n t a t t h i s grade. The present c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z e s the scope and sequence around h i s t o r y and geography. The proposed c u r r i c u l u m however, uses a grade theme (e.g., g r a d e - e i g h t - People and C u l t u r e s ) as an o r g a n i z e r around which a l l u n i t s e v o l v e . There are c o n s i s t e n t l y f o u r u n i t s from Grade Seven to Grade E l e v e n - Canada Past, Canada Present, World Past and World Present. These u n i t s are not h i s t o r y o r geography s p e c i f i c but attempt t o emphasize s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . The proposed c u r r i c u l u m emphasizes more than content, but a l s o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , i s s u e s and s k i l l s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n of s k i l l s t o teach a t each grade i s a l s o 41 q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Both c u r r i c u l a i n d i c a t e t h a t s k i l l s should be taught i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the° scope and sequence i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , but o n l y the proposed c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s t e a c h e r s w i t h a l i s t of s k i l l s . These s k i l l s are l i s t e d w i t h i n each grade l e v e l and i n an appendix to the c u r r i c u l u m . They are c a t e g o r i z e d as those which should be i n t r o d u c e d , developed, or maintained. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t p r o v i d e s a summary of the types of s k i l l s presented i n the proposed c u r r i c u l u m . The s k i l l s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e : Primary R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : I I n q u i r y Processes I I I n t e r p r e t i n g Maps and Globes I I I . Understanding Time and Chronology Shared R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : I L o c a t i n g "Information I I O r g a n i z i n g Information I I I E v a l u a t i n g Information IV A c q u i r i n g Information Through Reading V A c q u i r i n g Information Through L i s t e n i n g and Observing VI Communicating O r a l l y and i n W r i t i n g VII I n t e r p r e t i n g P i c t u r e s , C h a r t s , Graphs, Tables V I I I I n t e r p e r s o n a l S k i l l s (Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s K - l l " : 1980: 11) S t r a t e g i e s . Teaching s t r a t e g i e s are not p r e s c r i b e d i n e i t h e r c u r r i c u l a . However, i n d i c a t i o n as to a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s are i m p l i e d by o u t l i n i n g what should be accomplished. Both c u r r i c u l a seem to imply t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which encourage pro b l e m - s o l v i n g and i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g and t h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . The p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i f i e s an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y by s t a t i n g : 42 The view has been, taken that understanding in. each d i s c i p l i n e i s most e f f e c t i v e l y secured through the inductive method, through a study i n depth of repre-sentative areas and periods i n history, rather than through a rapid and hence sketchy, survey of tremend-ously broad areas and periods. (Secondary School Curriculum Guide Social Studies: 1968: 1) The proposed curriculum i s less s p e c i f i c since i t indicates how information should not be learned. It declares: It must be stressed that the students should learn to develop the generalizations and concepts with the assistance of the teacher, not learn them by r o l e . (Proposed Curriculum Guide Social Studies K - l l : 1980:10) Even though teaching strategies are not prescribed i n either c u r r i c u l a , both indicate that the teacher should i n s t r u c t according to the competencies of the students. This suggests that teachers may have to adjust or modify not only t h e i r teaching strategies, but also the curriculum i n order to meet the needs of students. The present curriculum implied t h i s i n the following statement: No less a thoughtful consideration has been given to the in t e r e s t s and maturity of the pupils. I t i s perhaps a tragedy that a programme which has so much to contribute to t h e i r general education has f a i l e d to achieve i t s objectives by attempting to contribute too much detailed knowledge. Fundamental to the new programme i s the p r i n c i p l e of selection and the provision of a wide variety of resources and a broad framework of content to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s s e l e c t i o n . Hopefully, these features w i l l make possible the development of appropriate and s i g n i f i c a n t courses for a l l pupils i n a l l secondary schools. (Secondary School Curriculum Guide Social Studies: 1968: 1) The proposed curriculum i s more pr e s c r i p t i v e as demonstrated by the following paragraph: It i s recognized that a cer t a i n proportion of students, for p a r t i c u l a r reasons, may not be able to achieve the basic programme,identified for a s p e c i f i c grade. These students w i l l require some modification of the grade l e v e l sequence. The purpose of such modification, however, should be remedial and designed to allow the student to achieve the appropriate grade l e v e l competencies. These modifications should also be consistent with the rationale and goals of t h i s curriculum. The establishment of discrete streams or courses from which no return to the basic programme i s intended i s not consistent with Ministry p o l i c y . (Proposed Curriculum Guide Social Studies K - l l : 1980: 7) Teaching strategies to a large extent determine learning strategies. The c u r r i c u l a recommend problem-solving and inductive reasoning as a teaching strategy; therefore, learning strategies should complement t h i s by allowing students to learn to develop competencies i n problem-solving and inductive reasoning. Learning strategies thus seem to be sim i l a r i n that both c u r r i c u l a suggest students should learn by developing "... some f a c i l i t y i n using methods of inquiry...", "the capacity for the sorts of speculative and creative thought which enables one to think hypothetically..." and -by being provided with "... a forum i n which students may learn to deal, with value questions..." (Secondary School Curriculum  Guide Social Studies: 1968: 3). The proposed curriculum implies similar processes when i t states that students should learn "... through-the exercise of c r i t i c a l thinking and problem-solving s k i l l s — " (Proposed Curriculum Guide Social Studies K - l l : 1980: 3) Teaching and, learning strategies at least p a r t i a l l y are determined by the amount of prescribed content and the time allotment. Both c u r r i c u l a prescribe a considerable amount of content as well as recommend that other units can be included. The present curriculum recommends that students should.be involved"-with independent study (Secondary School Curriculum Guide Social  Studies: 1968: 15) but no time allotment i s indicated. The proposed curriculum prescribes twenty to twenty-five percent for "extension" and indicates the purpose of t h i s i n the following passage: 44 The p r e s c r i b e d content f o r the grade i s designed t o r e q u i r e 75-80% of the c l a s s time a v a i l a b l e f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s f o r the v a s t m a j o r i t y of stu d e n t s . The remaining time may be used, t o e x p l o r e the p r e s c r i b e d components i n g r e a t e r depth or to study d i s t r i c t , s c h o o l or teacher developed u n i t s . The l a t t e r must be c o n s i s t e n t with the i n t e n t s of the proposed S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m as a whole. (Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s K - l l : 1980:88) Re l a t e d to t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s are e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . E v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s are not p r e s c r i b e d i n e i t h e r c u r r i c u l a . The proposed c u r r i c u l u m i n d i c a t e s t h a t e v a l u a t i o n can be undertaken i n ways oth e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l w r i t t e n -form (Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s K - l l : 1980: 12). However, t h i s i s not mentioned i n the present c u r r i c u l u m . The presen t s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e s the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . T h e s e . c r i t e r i a a r e : 1. Evaluation, must f a c i l i t a t e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n 2. E v a l u a t i o n must encompass every o b j e c t i v e valued by  the s c h o o l 3. E v a l u a t i o n must produce r e c o r d s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the  purposes f o r which r e c o r d s are e s s e n t i a l 4. E v a l u a t i o n must f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g arid t e a c h i n g 5. E v a l u a t i o n must p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i n g feedback i n t o  the l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m development and  e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . The proposed c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i f i e s the purposes of e v a l u a t i o n as being t h r e e f o l d : p r e - t e s t e v a l u a t i o n t o determine e n t r y p o i n t , f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n f o r d i a g n o s i s , and summative e v a l u a -t i o n t o determine l e v e l of achievement (Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s K - l l : 1980: 12). Both c u r r i c u l a b e l i e v e t h a t the o b j e c t i v e of e v a l u a t i o n i s to p r o v i d e feedback t o students, t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s . 45 N e i t h e r c u r r i c u l a p r e s c r i b e t e a c h i n g , l e a r n i n g or e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . However, the format of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m with f o u r columns (content, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , i s s u e s and s k i l l s ) , a l l p r e s c r i b e d and c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r r e l a t e d , i m p l i e s t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s which may d i f f e r from what i s p r e s e n t l y t a k i n g p l a c e . T h i s format i m p l i e s t h a t the l e c t u r e method, f o r example, may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o achieve the necessary i n t e r -r e l a t i o n . L e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s may have t o a d j u s t a c c o r d i n g l y i f students are accustomed t o a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y . E v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s may a l s o have t o a l t e r i n order t o ev a l u a t e students.' understanding of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the fou r columns. Goals. A comparison of the goals of the present and proposed s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a i n c l u d e s a comparison of the aims and intended student outcomes of the programmes. The " g l o b a l aim" of s o c i a l s t u d i e s seems t o be to he l p prepare students t o become c i t i z e n s . To t h i s end, goals are l i s t e d i n the present and proposed c u r r i c u l a as f o l l o w s : PRESENT PROPOSED Secondary, grades 8 - 1 1 .Goal I - Know,:.and understand 1. 2. Knowledge Methods of A c q u i r i n g Knowledge Use of Knowledge and S p i r i t of I n q u i r y Values Questions D i s c i p l i n e Approach f a c t o r s which shape .Canada and Canadians 4. 5. 3. Goal I I Know and understand d i v e r s e p a t t e r n s of human a c t i v i t y i n world Goal I I I Know and understand r o l e s , r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l as member of s o c i e t y GOal IV Develop w i l l i n g n e s s and c a p a c i t y t o use knowledge, understanding and i n q u i r y processes as member of s o c i e t y (Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l .Studies K - l l : 1980: 17) The proposed c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s are more s p e c i f i c a l l y focused on p r e p a r i n g students to become c i t i z e n s , than those o u t l i n e d i n the p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m (Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s . K - l l : 1980: 17). G e n e r a l l y , however, the goals are s i m i l a r . The intended l e a r n i n g outcomes f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s and, t h e r e f o r e , are d i f f i c u l t t o compare. The present c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e s the student outcomes by expanding and c l a r i f y i n g the goals of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s programme; whereas, the proposed c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t s , student outcomes i n r e l a t i o n to the f o u r columns (content, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , i s s u e s and s k i l l s ) o f the c u r r i c u l u m guide. T h e r e f o r e , the intended l e a r n i n g outcomes of the proposed c u r r i c u -lum become more grade s p e c i f i c and l e s s content-based than the p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m . Because the o r i e n t a t i o n of the outcomes of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m seem to be more c o n c r e t e , the outcomes may be more e a s i l y assessed or e v a l u a t e d by classroom t e a c h e r s . Assumptions. The assumptions of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a are s t a t e d and i m p l i e d , and have i m p l i c a t i o n f o r implementation. An i m p l i e d assumption i n v o l v e s the sequencing of c o n t e n t . The present c u r r i c u l u m i s d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to h i s t o r y and geography. The h i s t o r y s e c t i o n s are sequenced c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , d e a l i n g w i t h the h i s t o r y of the world and then the h i s t o r y of Canada. The geography, s e c t i o n s are arranged to d e a l w i t h a n a l y s i s of other c o u n t r i e s and then a g e o g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s of Canada. T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t students learn, by s t u d y i n g t h a t which i s f o r e i g n (the world) -and then a p p l y i n g t h a t to what i s Canadian. The proposed c u r r i c u l u m focuses on s t u d y i n g Canada and the world 47 j o i n t l y . The h i s t o r i c a l analysis (Proposed Curriculum Guide Social Studies K - l l : 1980: 10) ; i s chronological through the secondary grades, but the analysis of Canada Present and World Present are not necessarily geographical. There i s , therefore, an assumption that student learning i s enhanced i f presentation i s from the f a m i l i a r to the unfamiliar. Ah assumption which i s consistent i n both c u r r i c u l a i s that the student materials determine what i s taught and learned. The present curriculum indicates the importance of materials as found in the following, statement: Fundamental to the new programme i s the p r i n c i p l e of selection and provision of a wide variety of resources, ... . (Secondary School Curriculum Guide Social Studies: 1968: 1) : The proposed curriculum does not include a l i s t of materials but indicates t h e i r importance as seen i n the following statement: The knowledge to be taught and learned i s i m p l i c i t i n the prescribed content i n r e l a t i o n to the grade focus and w i l l be e x p l i c i t l y stated i n the learning resources selected to support t h i s curriculum. (Proposed Curriculum Guide Social Studies K - l l : 1980: 2) Both c u r r i c u l a seem to indicate that the Ministry of Education's notion of curriculum i s material-based. F i n a l l y , the assumption that the curriculum may have to be adapted i s apparent i n both c u r r i c u l a . The present curriculum i d e n t i f i e s the classroom teachers as the people who should adapt the curriculum. This i s an important point because i t assumes teachers to be curriculum planners. However, no i n d i c a t i o n i s made as to what kinds of changes may be required, nor i s there any i n d i c a t i o n as to whose needs w i l l be met by the changes. 48 I t s t a t e s : No c l a i m i s made t h a t t h i s c u r r i c u l u m guide i s the ' l a s t word' i n the development o f a S o c i a l S t u d i e s Programme. Rather i t i s a begin n i n g - an i n t e r i m step i n what must be a c o n t i n u i n g assessment of approach, scope and r e s o u r c e s . Not a l l of the p e r c e i v e d weaknesses of the pre v i o u s programme can be remedied by a p r i n t e d document. T h i s c u r r i c u l u m guide should be of a s s i s t a n c e i n the development of improvements. With the p r i n t i n g of t h i s document the c h a l l e n g e passes from the developer of t h i s programmed (s i c ) t o the p r a c t i t i o n e r s - the classroom t e a c h e r s . (Secondary School C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s : 1968 The pre s e n t c u r r i c u l u m f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t : ... i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s i t i s the i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher who must i n t e r p r e t p r i n t e d statements and t r a n s l a t e them i n t o a c t i o n . (Secondary School C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s : 1968: 3) T h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g c o n s i d e r i n g the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment (1977) r e c o g n i z e s t h a t there has been l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y of programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c u l a r i l y because of the many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s (Aoki e t a l : 1977: Volume 3: 25). I t seems, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t e a c h e r s should not be l e f t completely w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g and adapting the c u r r i c u l u m . The proposed c u r r i c u l u m a l s o r e c o g n i z e s the need for.. a d a p t a t i o n . However, t h i s c u r r i c u l u m s t a t e s t h a t the M i n i s t r y of Education should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r adapting the c u r r i c u l u m to meet the needs of stud e n t s . The teacher i s expected t o adopt got adapt the c u r r i c u l u m . The: need.:f or and purpose of..the a d a p t a t i o n s i s s t a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: The M i n i s t r y i s accountable f o r en s u r i n g t h a t p r o v i s i o n s are made f o r a l l students to be c h a l l e n g e d and t o achieve t h e i r f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of each teacher t o ensure t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l l y adopted res o u r c e s are used a p p r o p r i a t e l y 49 and to ensure t h a t the. v a s t m a j o r i t y of students achieve the b a s i c outcomes. L e a r n i n g outcomes l i s t e d i n a d d i t i o n t o the core are intended to • .. c h a l l e n g e those students who r e q u i r e enrichment. The M i n i s t r y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t while the v a s t m a j o r i t y of students should be capable of mastering the b a s i c l e a r n i n g outcomes, there are c e r t a i n students who, because of p h y s i c a l , emotional or i n t e l l e c t u a l h a n d i -caps, are not capable of a c q u i r i n g these b a s i c s k i l l s . The M i n i s t r y i s i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g how p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m can be m o d i f i e d and.adapted to meet the needs of these c h i l d r e n . (Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide  S o c i a l S t u d i e s K - l l : 1980: 3) Both c u r r i c u l a are c o n s i s t e n t i n i d e n t i f y i n g the need f o r a d a p t a t i o n . However, the p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m i d e n t i f i e s the teacher and the proposed c u r r i c u l u m i d e n t i f i e s the M i n i s t r y of Education as being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r adapting the c u r r i c u l u m . The r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e recommends t h a t c u r r i c u l a are more succe s s -f u l l y implemented when a d a p t a t i o n takes p l a c e mutually between the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n (teachers, students) and the e x t e r n a l agencies ( M i n i s t r y of Education) ( F u l l a n : 1979: 44). N e i t h e r c u r r i c u l a seems to c o n s i d e r t h i s i n order to f a c i l i t a t e implementation. T h i s comparison of the c u r r i c u l a suggests what i s i n n o v a t i v e . The i n n o v a t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a l when the present and proposed s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a are compared. T h i s has d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the knowledge and a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by classroom t e a c h e r s and the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n order to implement the proposed c u r r i c u l u m . Implied Role The innovation, i m p l i e s changes in. terms of knowledge and action, f o r t e a c h e r s . The new knowledge and action, are mainly i n terms of content and s t r a t e g i e s . . The goals and p h i l o s o p h y as 50 s t a t e d are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those of the p r e s e n t secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . However, the assumptions upon which the proposed c u r r i c u l u m i s based a l s o have i m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n content may r e q u i r e the l e a r n i n g of new knowledge f o r classroom t e a c h e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the classroom teachers w i l l .have to l e a r n the new scope and sequence of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m i n o r d e r to teach i t . As w e l l , the t e a c h e r s w i l l have t o l e a r n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the content, s k i l l s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and i s s u e s . The change i n the emphasis from history/geography to more s o c i a l s c i e n c e s may r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g f o r t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment (1977) found t h a t most teac h e r s do not have an academic background i n h i s t o r y , geography or another s o c i a l s c i e n c e . The d i f f e r e n c e s in. content r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to the d i f f e r e n c e s in...strategies and the i m p l i e d changes i n the a c t i o n s of the c l a s s -room te a c h e r . Because the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n p r e s c r i b e s t h a t scope andusequence must be taught i n r e l a t i o n to generaliza^. t i o n s , i s s u e s and s k i l l s , classroom t e a c h e r s may have to l e a r n how to a c t u a l i z e t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n i n t h e i r classroom by use of new t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Because the thematic approach to s o c i a l s t u d i e s has s h i f t e d , the t e a c h e r s a l s o may have to a d j u s t t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s to accommodate a thematic approach i n order to r e i n f o r c e the theme f o r a p a r t i c u l a r grade l e v e l . < Teaching s t r a t e g i e s may have to be changed f u r t h e r i f t eachers are to p r o v i d e m o d i f i e d programmes f o r students who 51 r e q u i r e i t . I f the new knowledge i n terms o f content and the subsequent changes i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s are to be implemented, then l e a r n -i n g s t r a t e g i e s and e v a l u a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s w i l l change as w e l l . Students w i l l be l e a r n i n g not o n l y d i f f e r e n t content but a l s o may be taught i n a d i f f e r e n t way. Teachers may have t o change t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n order to e v a l u a t e whether students have l e a r n e d the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the f o u r columns. Teachers may a l s o have to e v a l u a t e more f r e q u e n t l y i n order to meet the t h r e e f o l d purpose of e v a l u a t i o n ( p r e - t e s t , formative and summative e v a l u a t i o n ) . The changes i n intended l e a r n i n g outcomes may r e q u i r e t e a c h e r s to l e a r n not o n l y the new intended l e a r n i n g outcomes but a l s o to focus and perhaps a d j u s t t h e i r t e a c h i n g so students can achieve these outcomes o v e r a l l . However, because the proposed c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s g r e a t e r s p e c i f i c i t y about what should be taught and l e a r n e d , t h i s s p e c i f i c i t y may enhance the achievement of the intended l e a r n i n g outcomes by students. F i n a l l y , the changes i n the assumptions between the p r e s e n t and proposed s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r classroom t e a c h e r s . The change i n sequencing assumes t h a t students' understanding i s enhanced by p r e s e n t i n g knowledge from the f a m i l i a r to the u n f a m i l i a r . Teachers, t h e r e f o r e , may have to a d j u s t t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s to f a c i l i t a t e student l e a r n i n g a c c o r d i n g l y . A l s o , t e a c h e r s may have to present the content i n such a way t h a t t i e s the f a m i l i a r to the u n f a m i l i a r w i t h i n each grade i n s t e a d of a c r o s s grade l e v e l s . The assumption made by the M i n i s t r y of Education t h a t 52 c u r r i c u l u m i s materials-based: assumes t h a t t h i s , view i s c o n s i s t e n t with t e a c h e r s ' n o t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m , and t h i s may not be the case. Teachers should be given an o p p o r t u n i t y t o preview and e v a l u a t e m a t e r i a l s p r i o r t o implementation. The f i n a l assumption r e g a r d i n g the n e c e s s i t y of the M i n i s t r y of E ducation to adapt the c u r r i c u l u m to meet the needs of some students a l s o has i m p l i c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s . Because teac h e r s are no longer i n v o l v e d with adapting the c u r r i c u l u m , they w i l l be expected to adopt.'.it as i s . T h i s has very important i m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r implementation c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s -t h a t t h i s approach to implementation i s o f t e n u n s u c c e s s f u l . The changes i n terms of knowledge and a c t i o n f o r classroom teachers has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . Because the r o l e of a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s i s p r i m a r i l y t o h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h implementation, a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s may be a b l e to f a c i l i t a t e implementation i f they f u l l y understand the changes r e q u i r e d by classroom t e a c h e r s as i m p l i e d by the proposed c u r r i c u l u m . To t h i s end, the knowledge and a c t i o n s of the a s s i s t -i n g t e acher should be such so as t o ease the t r a n s i t i o n from the present c u r r i c u l u m to the proposed c u r r i c u l u m and,, t h e r e f o r e , f a c i l i t a t e implementation. Below are. a l i s t o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which are i m p l i e d by the i n n o v a t i o n and may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . From these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , key q u e s t i o n s develop which may be used by a s s i s t i n g teachers to guide t h e i r knowledge and a c t i o n and hence f a c i l i t a t e implementation. 5 3 G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 1. The proposed c u r r i c u l u m i m p l i e s changes i n terms of knowledge and a c t i o n f o r the classroom t e a c h e r s and the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . i What i s i n n o v a t i v e between the presen t and proposed c u r r i c u l a and what does t h i s imply i n terms of knowledge and a c t i o n r e q u i r e d by the classroom t e a c h e r s and the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s ? i i How can a s s i s t i n g teachers h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s a c q u i r e the r e q u i r e d knowledge? i i i How can the a s s i s t i n g teachers h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s a c t u a l i z e the- new a c t i o n s i n t h e i r classrooms? i v How can a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h e i r knowledge of the i n n o v a t i o n t o .help classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h p l a n n i n g and implementing classroom programmes? v How can a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h e i r knowledge of the i n n o v a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 2. The proposed s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m focuses on the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n g e n e r a l , i n c l u d i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l f o c u s . i What i s the academic background of the classroom 0 t e a c h e r s i n the d i s t r i c t ? i i How can a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s to o r i e n t t h e i r t e a c h i n g around the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i f t h e i r academic background i s not i n t h a t area? 54 i i i How can the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use classroom t e a c h e r s who have an academic background i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o f a c i l i t a t e a c q u i s i t i o n of a s o c i a l s c i e n c e o r i e n t a t i o n ? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 3. The M i n i s t r y of Education's n o t i o n of c u r r i c u -lum i s m a t e r i a l s - b a s e d . i What new m a t e r i a l s are p r e s c r i b e d i n the proposed c u r r i c u l u m ? i i What do the new m a t e r i a l s imply i n terms of know-ledge and a c t i o n f o r the classroom teacher? i i i How can a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s f a c i l i t a t e a c q u i s i t i o n , f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of these m a t e r i a l s p r i o r t o implementation? i v How can a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h i s n o t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? v How can. a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use the knowledge of the m a t e r i a l s to h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h p l a n n i n g and implementing classroom programmes? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n - 4. Knowledge of. implementation processes and programme p l a n n i n g seems to be u s e f u l f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s to f a c i l i t a t e implementation. i What approach to implementation i s i m p l i e d by the proposed c u r r i c u l u m ? i i What approach t o implementation seems to p r e v a i l w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? i i i Is the approach to implementation c o n s i s t e n t between the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and what does t h i s imply f o r the a s s i s t -i n g t e a c h e r s ? i v How can a s s i s t i n g teachers use t h i s knowledge to h e l p classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h p l a n n i n g and imple-menting classroom programmes? v How can a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s use t h i s knowledge i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? In. summary, the context of the c u r r i c u l u m i s an important source f o r d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation. T h i s source p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g what i s i n n o v a t i v e and, t h e r e f o r e , what may be r e q u i r e d i n terms of new knowledge and a c t i o n s f o r classroom t e a c h e r s . The a s s i s t i n g t eacher should c o n s i d e r the i n n o v a t i o n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n f o r classroom teachers when d e f i n i n g t h e i r r o l e , i n order ..to f a c i l i t a t e implementation of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m . 56 CHAPTER V Context as a Source One important source i n d e f i n i n g an implementation r o l e i s the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . W i t h i n Burnaby School D i s t r i c t No. 41, the f i v e secondary a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , t h e i r c o - o r d i n a t o r and super-v i s o r , and the secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads pr o v i d e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the a c t u a l and i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . The job d e s c r i p t i o n of the a s s i s t i n g teacher a l s o p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i s t r i c t e x p e c t a t i o n of the i d e a l r o l e . In o r d e r t o c l a r i f y the d e f i n i n g of an implementation r o l e t here are f o u r sources i n t h i s chapter. The f i r s t s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the a c t u a l and i d e a l r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s ; i t a l s o i n c l u d e s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and i d e a l , , and t h e i r c r i t e r i a f o r judging the success of implementation. The second s e c t i o n i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the department heads' view of f u l l implementation, p e r c e p t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r ' s i d e a l r o l e , and the c r i t e r i a used t o judge the success of implementation. A job d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e s the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g . ; teacher i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n . Based upon these d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c o n t e x t , the f o u r t h s e c t i o n summarizes the i m p l i e d r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n terms of knowledge and a c t i o n s . 57 A s s i s t i n g Teachers Role P e r c e p t i o n . The a c t u a l and primary r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i s p e r c e i v e d to be one of support and h e l p i n g the c l a s s -room teach e r s i n whatever ways the classroom t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f y . VI 25 R: How would you d e s c r i b e your r o l e as an a s s i s t i n g teacher i n t h a t r e s p e c t 26 I: Support 27 R: Uh hum 28 I: p e r i o d , support there i s no change you can even you can't even s t a r t t a l k i n g about change bef o r e you have the t e a c h e r s uh t r u s t I 48 I : Everybody r e a l l y does t h e i r own t h i n g and I'm r e a l l y a support r o l e j u s t to (Pause) show them m a t e r i a l s , c o n s u l t w i t h m a t e r i a l s , and g i v e them ideas and i t s not I don't say w e l l here's a program and t h i s i s what we should be doing I t was s t r e s s e d by the i n t e r v i e w e e s (N=7) t h a t t h e i r r o l e i s not ' e v a l u a t i v e . II 46 I: But an a s s i s t i n g teacher i s i n the support r o l e and t h e r e f o r e you know i t s not an e v a l u a t i v e r o l e . To show t h a t the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t eacher i s one of support, a d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n of p e r c e i v e d r o l e i s o u t l i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f .knowledge and a c t i o n . Knowledge which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e i r r o l e i n c l u d e s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , academic background, human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s , know-ledge of. the c u r r i c u l u m , knowledge of how the s c h o o l board f u n c t i o n s , and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and p u b l i c -a t i o n s . These types of knowledge are p r i o r i t i z e d from g r e a t e s t to l e a s t a c c o r d i n g to frequency, as w e l l as by the l e v e l of importance p l a c e d upon each by the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . 58 The knowledge to which a l l i n t e r v i e w e e s (N=7) -gave g r e a t e s t p r i o r i t y i s t h a t d e r i v e d from t h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . IV 109 I : t h a t but um j u s t as important i f not more so i s the experience, the experience you've had at v a r i o u s grade l e v e l s , I've taught a l l grade l e v e l s from K to 12 and I t h i n k t h a t ' s the more important t h i n g Reasons gi v e n f o r i t s importance i n c l u d e p r a c t i c a l i t y of suggest-ions given to t e a c h e r s , s e n s i t i v i t y t o classroom s i t u a t i o n s and most i m p o r t a n t l y , c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h classroom t e a c h e r s . I 291 R: Um (Pause) of a l l the t h i n g s you of a l l these r e s o u r c e s you draw on you drew upon to h e l p you i n your job what knowledge was most u s e f u l f o r you to have to do your job V 292 293 294 295 296 297 R: 298 299 300 160 I: R: I: (Pause) n a t u r a l classroom experience i t was Ya, ya Why? Because you're d e a l i n g w i t h people i n the classroom t h a t have to have a p r a c t i c a l So you have more of a s e n s i t i v i t y t o them as te a c h e r s because you lve been oh ya d e f i n i t e l y a teacher oh ya you c o u l d n ' t have an a s s i s t i n g t eacher t h a t hasn't been a teacher t h a t hasn :'t been i n the classroom because I don't care how much u n i v e r s i t y you've got and how much t r a i n i n g and how wonderful you are, t h e r e ' s a l o t of t h i n g s t h a t happen, i n t h a t classroom t h a t you have to be very s e n s i t i v e t o as a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t -ance teacher, I c o u l d develop the most i n c r e d i b l e programme f o r anyone of your students, but i f I'm not aware t h a t you've got twenty-nine others 59 V 161 R: Urn hmm 162 I: t h a t programme i s u s e l e s s , i t has to be something t h a t I know from e x p e r i e n c e , a teacher w i t h a reasonable amount of i n t e r e s t and d e d i c a t i o n , can implement wi t h the other t h r e e , f o u r r e a d i n g groups t h a t they are al r e a d y , I'm assuming, t r y i n g t o handle 16 3 R: Urn hmm 164 I : and I don't t h i n k you get t h a t by watching people or whatever 16 5 R: or a three week pract i c u m 166 I: no, no you r e a l l y you r e a l l y have t o spend t h a t time and t h a t ' s where you develop your t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s too, t h a t ' s where you develop a l l those d i f f e r e n t ways of t r y i n g to teach a c e r t a i n s k i l l 167 R: Urn hmm 168 I: i s through the f i v e years you've taught you p l a y w i t h i t , as every t r e a c h e r does and e v e n t u a l l y come to a s t r a t e g y t h a t works f o r you w i t h c e r t a i n k i d s , then you've got other ones t h a t you've a l s o t r i e d t h a t you can , modify, t h a t ' s the b a s i c i s the theory, you've got t o have t h a t , and you've got t o have the classroom experience and a t more grade l e v e l s 169 R: Urn hmm 170 I: than j u s t one or two, t h a t was the hardest t h i n g t h a t I found going i n t o l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e was t h a t my experience was p r e -dominantly primary, I had never taught grade s i x or seven, I had taught up to f i v e and t h a t I f e l t was r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t a t the beginn i n g of doing l e a r n i n g assistance,- you l o s e a l o t o f c r e d i b i l i t y i f you haven't been i n the classroom too 171 R: Um hmm 172 I : i f you've been there arid the teach e r s know you've been t h e r e , the qu e s t i o n s never come up i f you say they ought t o be able t o handle i t , they say, oh w e l l okay I ' l l g i v e i t a shot, i f you've never been i n the classroom and you say they ought t o be able t o handle i t , they go away saying who's she 60 V.. 173 R: What does she know? 174 I: Ya, ya she doesn't know that I've got Johnny climbing on the walls and so and so, you know 175 R: Um hmm 176 I: so you, your c r e d i b i l i t y stands and f a l l s on classroom experience Knowledge i d e n t i f i e d as second most important (N=6) i s that knowledge acquired while at university or what the interviewees described as academic background. The people f e e l that t h i s i s a prerequisite to teaching and that t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge can be applied i n the classroom. V 158 I: Well, I think f i r s t of a l l you've got to have the university t r a i n i n g , you've got to have the t h e o r e t i c a l background i n assessment and reading i n s t r u c t i o n , so that's b a s i c a l l y your university courses uh but they don't do you a heck of a l o t of good i f you haven't taught and i f I was i n power i n i n any sense, deciding who would get into learning a s s i s t -ance., you wouldn't get into i t unless u n t i l you've taught f i v e years i n the classroom Also, i t i s suggested that courses i n curriculum were es s e n t i a l because t h i s can support and enhance your subject area knowledge and provide knowledge which many teachers do not have. IV- 96 R: Okay, um any other types of knowledge, for example uh univer s i t y course work or 97 I: Oh, I think that's that's c r u c i a l , I think you have to have a background i n the area 98 R: Um hmm 99 I: A university background i n the area 100 R: s p e c i f i c a l l y to do t h i s job 101 I: I think you have to have a background i n curriculum 102 R: Um hmm 61 IV 103 I: For example you c o u l d take a degree, you c o u l d have a masters i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i t doesn't mean you can do t h i s job because a l o t of people have no c u r r i c u l u m back-ground whatsoever 104 R: Um hmm 105 I: No concept of what i t means to p l a n an a r t c u r r i c u l u m so 106 R: So you f i n d t h a t what you tapped most o f t e n was your masters i n c u r r i c u l u m 107 I: Um hmm (Pause) ... The i n t e r v i e w e e s (N=6) then c i t e human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s as important because these are c o n s i d e r e d necessary f o r working and g e t t i n g along with classroom t e a c h e r s . I l l 124 I : I t h i n k t h a t the o t h e r t h i n g t h a t we would' look f o r uh would be uh human r e l a t i o n s s k i l l s a b i l i t y t o work wit h people, t o develop r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people, to work with s m a l l groups, process groups, process k i n d s of s k i l l s and to me um a c t u a l l y one i s not more important than the o t h e r . I t h i n k a l l of those t h i n g s are e q u a l l y important uh because t h e r e are people i n the system who are very good uh i n t h e i r content area 125 R: Uh huh 126 I: e x c e l l e n t uh and may even be e x c e p t i o n a l l y competent teac h e r s as w e l l but i f you s t i l l have you s t i l l have to be a b l e to work with your c o l l e a g u e s and you know you s t i l l have to be a b l e t o develop non-threatening r e l a t i o n s h i p s with your c o l l e a g u e s . 127 R: Uh huh 128 I: uh an e x c e p t i n g k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p and i f you can't do t h a t then i t s u n l i k e l y t h a t people are going to d i s c l o s e t h e i r areas, t h e i r p e r c e i v e d areas of weakness. II 126 I: would be a l l p r e r e q u i s i t e s (Pause) and a person who can you know has good human r e l a t i o n s h i p ^ s k i l l s t h a t they can b u i l d on 127 R: . Um hmm 62 II 128 I: Some c r e d i b i l i t y amongst uh the peers i n other words you have t o have a person who b a s i c a l l y i s known by te a c h e r s t h a t she's working wit h , or he's working w i t h i s i s much s u p e r i o r t o having an unknown come i n because the unknown's going t o be t e s t e d (Pause) VI 56 I: t o work as an a s s i s t i n g t e acher you need a l o t o f people s k i l l s , s o c i a l s k i l l s 57 R: Uh hum 58 I: which are more important c e r t a i n times than your c u r r i c u l u m knowledge because uh f i r s t i f you know uh t h a t something i s suppose t o be taught a t one l e v e l and you know very w e l l t h a t i t ' s not, w e l l t h a t ' s not going t o h e l p 59 R: Uh hum 6 0 I: What you need i s a l o t of more s o c i a l s k i l l s 61 R: Uh hum 62 I: and ah then academic s k i l l s 6 3 R: Uh hum 64 I: d e f i n i t e l y and t h a t you can have you can have something very i n t u i t i v e b e f o r e you s t a r t but you develop those s k i l l s extremely f a s t 65 R: Do you? The i n t e r v i e w e e s (N=4) then l i s t knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m as important.- T h i s knowledge i n c l u d e s content, m a t e r i a l s and te a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which apply t o the p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t area, I t i s c o n s i d e r e d important because o f t e n the a s s i s t i n g teacher i s working with teachers i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t area and t h e r e f o r e , the a s s i s t i n g teacher should know the c u r r i c u l u m . I l l 124 I: ... I t h i n k o b v i o u s l y they would know t h e i r content area very w e l l and uh most of the 63 I I I 124 I V VI 30 I: 31 R: 32 I: 33 R: 34 I: 35 R 36 I 37 R 38 I 39 R: 40 48 I: I 49 R: 50 I: 51 R 52 I 53 R 54 I people we b r i n g i n tend t o be f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e c t area or grade l e v e l ... the use of the m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e i s no c u r r i c u l u m Um hmm i n l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e so th e r e I haven't been i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m implementation except f o r the f a c t t h a t w i t h the r e a d i n g programme being implemented l a s t year Uh hmm umm the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t has t o be aware of the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m i n order t o implement t h e i r own t o supplement i t . Rig h t , the Ginn 720, i s t h a t what you're ya r e f e r r i n g to? Ya, uh hmm, so I've been i n v o l v e d a l s o as as a teacher done a l o t of work on ah i n u s i n g new m a t e r i a l s Uh hmm and p i l o t i n g programmes and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t Uh hum you have to have uh w e l l uh you can have p r e - r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s l i k e the knowledge of the, l i k e i n my case l i n g u i s i t i c content Uh hum has to be taught and d e f i n i t e l y d i f f e r e n t areas t h a t have to be taught Uh hum those are what I c a l l p r e - r e q u i s i t e knowledge Uh hum t h a t you have to have a t one p o i n t you have to know the c u r r i c u l u m i n whatever p r o v i n c e you are here or whatever and uh but the l i n g u i s t the c u r r i c u l u m content i s one p r e -r e q u i s i t e , but t h a t i s not the onl y s k i l l or knowledge you have to have 64 Knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be l e s s important t o implementation f o r two reasons. F i r s t , people are able t o l e a r n the content. Second, the major d i f f i c u l t y o f implementation r e l a t e s not to l e a r n i n g the content but to a p p l y i n g t h i s knowledge t o a c t u a l use i n the classroom. I l l 249 R: So t h e r e f o r e 250 I: uh 251 R: the content area becomes l e s s important 252 I : I t h i n k so. I t h i n k t h a t uh I t h i n k t h a t you have t o be a change agent i n a sense 253 R: Uh hum 254 I: t h a t when people are t r y i n g t o implement c u r r i c u l u m or develop p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t h ey're r e a l l y t a l k i n g about change i n one form or another and uh I t h i n k t h a t uh we're r e a l l y t a l k i n g about h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s here, d e v e l o p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h w i t h people which are designed to h e l p them adapt 255 R: Uh hum 256 I: and change, 257 R: Uh hum 258 I: modify um i n l i g h t of whatever i t i s they're t r y i n g t o d e a l w i t h and i f you can't c r e a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people which i s going to make t h a t happen um then i t doesn't matter how much you know (Giggle) 259 R: r i g h t 260 I: you know i t s i r r e l e v a n t -.1 t h i n k t h a t the content can be l e a r n e d 261 R: Uh hum 262 I: I t h i n k t h a t most people can you can p i c k up a Ginn programme and you can l e a r n what the content, we're a l l , we're a l l i n t e l l i g e n t people you know t h a t ' s a gi v e n um I t h i n k and we can we can um you know we're very good i n terms of t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge. 65 I I I 263 Uh hum 264 We know we know a l o t . Where we have t o develop our s k i l l s um I t h i n k um i s i n the area of a p p l i e d knowledge Three people mention knowledge of how the s c h o o l board f u n c t i o n s as important, s i n c e i t w i l l h e lp i n a c q u i r i n g necessary r e s o u r c e s (money and m a t e r i a l s ) f o r classroom t e a c h e r s V 200 I: 201 R: 202 203 204 205 R 206 VI 84 85 R: 86 I: Ya ya, and j u s t being aware of the processes t h a t are i n e x i s t e n c e as f a r as what i s a v a i l -a ble i n the d i s t r i c t and where i t i s and how to get i t , a l o t of teach e r s are not aware of the f u n c t i o n i n g s and who has what, t h e y ' l l phone me and say hey I r e a l l y need t h i s k i n d of, a t e s t and I know t h a t they can get i t from student s e r v i c e s , so I can r e f e r them t o the r i g h t people. Um hmm J u s t t h a t g e n e r a l knowledge of what happens i n the d i s t r i c t , r e s o u r c e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e , programmes t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r k i d s . Um hmm J u s t advice i n t h i n g s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e through the d i s t r i c t and m a t e r i a l s t h a t are here i n the b u i l d i n g because I don't t h i n k even those of us who work here were aware, u n t i l we a c t u a l l y s a t down and catalogued a l l the m a t e r i a l s , how much was here. What oth e r knowledge do I f i n d important b e s i d e s the s o c i a l s k i l l s ? Oh, t h a t i s so c r u c i a l and academic s k i l l s , the knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m , the knowledge of how a board f u n c t i o n (pause) some, w e l l I f i n d i n my my case what's important t o know i t i s uh how to get money from where, grants from where Uh hum because we have d i f f e r e n t types of grants and 66 VI 86 I: how t o um and how do you say t h a t now 87 R: Uh hum 88 I: they budget d i f f e r e n t l y F i n a l l y , two people s t a t e t h a t they should be aware of c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r s u b j e c t area as w e l l as i n educa t i o n i n g e n e r a l . T h i s i n c l u d e s m a t e r i a l s r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d which may be used as a supplementary classroom resource and educa t i o n l i t e r a t u r e which may pro v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o c u r r e n t trends i n educat i o n o v e r a l l . T h i s knowledge i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be important because classroom t e a c h e r s o f t e n do not have the time t o review r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e , t h i s would be w i t h i n the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t eacher t o p r o v i d e t h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o the classroom t e a c h e r . IV 163 I: Oh w e l l , l i k e I s a i d b e f o r e , the experience i n the d i s t r i c t and a l s o the master's program uh a l s o j u s t keeping up with c u r r e n t trends 164 R: Ya 165 I: Ya t h a t ' s very important, you know the pro-f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t I belong t o , the l i t e r a t u r e , um the people I meet um t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y u n i v e r s i t y c o n t a c t s , I t h i n k t h a t s important 166 R: Uh hum and t h a t ' s kept you up-to-date 167 I: Ya 168 R: So you can handle 16 9 I: Right 170 R: being a t . t h i s job 171 I : I, I, I, make a p o i n t o f keeping m y s e l f . w e l l informed as t o what's going on V . 148 I: ... i t ' s c r u c i a l t o know as much about as many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s as you p o s s i b l y can, to be as c u r r e n t because the people i n the 67 V 148 I : classroom don't have time to be d e a l i n g with p u b l i s h e r s and t o s t a y c u r r e n t on what's new and, w e l l both the g i r l i n E.S.L. have j u s t k i n d of kept a running t h i n g a l l year w i t h the p u b l i s h e r s as as soon as you get something new I want to see i t , e v e r y t h i n g new you get, I want to see because t h a t ' s what we see as p a r t of our job When i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked to d e s c r i b e the types of know-ledge t h a t would be i d e a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r o l e s , a l l s t a t e d t h a t they would need to know b a s i c a l l y the same types of t h i n g s as they d i d i n t h e i r a c t u a l r o l e . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s -i n g because the a s s i s t i n g teachers^ p r i m a r i l y work with and p r o v i d e support f o r the classroom t e a c h e r s . T h e r e f o r e the knowledge tapped most o f t e n by the a s s i s t i n g teacher i s t h a t d e r i v e d from t h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Um hmm okay um so I t h i n k you a l s o again answered the knowledge and a c t i o n b a s i c a l l y t h a t i s um what types of knowledge and a c t i o n would be necessary t o f u l f i l l t h i s i d e a l r o l e , I t h i n k you've covered t h a t Yes cause I was s a y i n g t h a t I t h i n k I t shouldn't change Ya I t h i n k we've t a l k e d about t h a t because t h a t ' s t h a t ' s a g r e a t need Um hmm I t h i n k t h a t i f we change t h a t r o l e , then we're going to change um change the d i r e c t i o n ft Um hmm of what we're doing because i f you g i v e t h a t person uh and the o n l y t h i n g I can see i s i s more a u t h o r i t y and t h a t Do you t h i n k t h a t would be an a s s e t so t h a t the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s c o u l d be more c o u l d be given a l i t t l e more uh freedom i n being able to go i n t o a classroom and and j u s t work with the teacher without the teacher a s k i n g II 151 R: 152 I: 153 R: 154 I: 155 R: 156 I: 157 R: 158 I: 159 R: 68 II 160 I: Well i n some cases a good a s s i s t i n g . t e a c h e r can do t h a t 161 R: Um hmm 162 I: A l o t , because you have um developed s t r a t e -g i e s where because of your p e r s o n a l i t y because o f the t h i n g s you say uh you can c a s u a l l y say w e l l I ' l l j u s t drop i n and g i v e t h a t , and the person w i l l not f e e l t h reatened what so ever 16 3 R: Um hmm 164 I: and say or sure come any time you want 165 R: Um hmm 166 I: And um i t s j u s t the manner i n which t h a t person presented themselves i f on the other hand the a s s i s t i n g -teacher has f r e e l i c e n s e and.the teac h e r s i n the d i s t r i c t know t h i s then they r e a l i z e there i s some a u t h o r i t y there and I t h i n k there i s always a b i g problem wi t h e v a l u a t i o n and t h e r e ' s always a b i g problem of a n x i e t y and t h r e a t 16 7 R: Um hmm 168 I: And uh t h a t ' s why I say the l e v e l a t which we're a t now uh there s t i l l i s a t h r e a t by some people and there s t i l l i s a n x i e t y when we're i n um i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n 169 R: Um hmm 170 I: But I t h i n k t h a t t h a t i s l e s s so t h a t i t would be i f .a p a r t i c u l a r person had moire r e i g n 171 R: Um hmm 172 I: Or a t l e a s t the uh was viewed by teach e r s i n our d i s t r i c t as having a l o t more 173 R: Um hmm 174 I : r e i g n Some a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s d i d mention however, c e r t a i n modi-f i c a t i o n s i n the i d e a l types o f knowledge necessary f o r t h e i r r o l e . For example, th r e e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s are r e s p o n s i b l e 69 f o r h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s who teach v: k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade twelve i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t area. These a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s agree t h a t i f they are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t grade-span then they should have comparable t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d to be an advantage because the a s s i s t i n g t eacher would know not only what the students are l i k e but a l s o the c u r r i c u l u m a t t h a t grade l e v e l . I 399 R: Super, okay the l a s t one, I t h i n k b a s i c a l l y we've covered the knowledge, i t s b a s i c a l l y what knowledge would you need t o f u l f i l l t h a t r o l e , and and you s a i d t h a t there would be no new knowledge b a s i c a l l y 400 I: Ya I t h i n k probably um an i d e a l background would be a whole v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s you know t e a c h i n g a t the primary i f you're d e a l i n g w i t h the whole spectrum having taught a t the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . 401 R: Um hmm 402 I: So t h a t you have an i d e a what the teach e r s are doing a t each l e v e l 403 R: Um hmm 404 I: and a l s o so t h a t you have an i d e a of r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m too V 289 R: Um hmm um, i f you had um, i f you c o u l d draw on other types o f knowledge f o r t h i s i d e a l r o l e t h a t happens t o be from two or three years and f u l l time, e t c . what types of know-ledge, other than those t h a t you've d e s c r i b e d i n i n the t h i n g s t h a t you t h i n k are u s e f u l now, are those the types of uh knowledge t h a t you t h i n k would be u s e f u l without the r e s t r i c t i o n s ? 290 I: um everyone has t h i n g s t h a t they're they know more about than o t h e r areas than they know more about than o t h e r s I know t h a t t h e r e are c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t 1 , 1 am now i n v e s t i g a t i n g 291 R: Um hmm 70 V 292 I: because I haven't taught a l o t of i t and I need the background f o r t h i s j ob, t h i n g s l i k e uh w e l l secondary uh I t h i n k i d e a l l y f o r a person i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i f they ;'re going t o , i f they want you to do a spectrum K t o 12 i t ' s almost u n r e a l i s t i c um t h a t ' s a l o t t o expect one person to have the knowledge, not o n l y of the o r a l language t h a t a k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d needs but the r e f e r e n c e and study s k i l l s t h a t a grade twelve student needs 29 3 R: Um hmm 294 I: and how to b u i l d both ends uh but I t h i n k t h a t classroom t e a c h i n g experience a t both l e v e l s would be r e a l l y v a l u a b l e because I don't have i t 295 R: Um hmm 296 I : and I can see a problem f o r myself i n d e a l i n g at the secondary l e v e l , I've never taught there A l s o , one person mentions t h a t i d e a l l y i t would be h e l p f u l i f a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s have a more g e n e r a l background i n ' c u r r i c u l u m development, implementation and e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d to.be an advantage because r a t h e r than c o n c e n t r a t i n g on content s p e c i a l i s t s : i f the a s s i s t i n g teacher i s to h e l p the classroom tea c h e r s i n implementation, the a s s i s t i n g teacher can be of g r e a t e r a s s i s t a n c e i f they have knowledge of what implementation e n t a i l s . I l l 330 I: Ya, I t h i n k so and as I'm l o o k i n g a t t h a t as w e l l I'm t h i n k i n g about knowledge versus behavior and you've asked me a few q u e s t i o n s about knowledge, um one of the t h i n g s t h a t I t h i n k uh would be very h e l p f u l f o r the people coming i n t o these r o l e s , i s the k i n d of background t h a t I see some people l i k e y o u r s e l f and uh some ot h e r s g e t t i n g a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s now which has to do w i t h c u r r i c u -lum i n a g e n e r a l k i n d of sense. I t h i n k t h a t um f i r s t o f f the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t come here don't always have s p e c i f i c courses on c u r r i c u l u m development and implementation, 71 I I I 330 I: uh most of them have courses i n t h e i r content area and have methods cou r s e s , t h a t s o r t of t h i n g 331 R: Uh hum 332 I: but they haven 11 taken i n a g e n e r a l i s t courses i n t h i s area of c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p - ; ment and uh I t h i n k t h a t I see more and more people g e t t i n g courses i n those areas and t a k i n g t a k i n g programmes along t h a t l i n e and I t h i n k t h a t ' s r e a l l y u s e f u l 333 R: Uh hum 334 I: t h a t ' s going t o be very u s e f u l i n the next f i v e years to ten y e a r s , t h a t people are going to be coming i n t o i n t o the system and i n t o these r o l e s w i t h a p r e t t y good n o t i o n of what p r o f e s s i o n a l development i s about, what i n - s e r v i c e education i s about, 335 R: Uh hum 336 I: what uh c u r r i c u l u m development i s about, and what c u r r i c u l u m implementation i s about as w e l l and uh some of the problems i n b r i d g i n g the gap between one and the other 337 R: Uh huh 338 I: J. uh and those people I t h i n k are going to be . much more p r i v i l e d g e d uh much b e t t e r o f f than a l o t of the ones who have come i n w i t h a good understanding of t h e i r of t h e i r c u r r i c u -lum, 339 R: Uh hum 340 I: t h e i r content area but who haven't had the time or the experiences of r e a l l y g r a p p l i n g w i t h what does t h i s r e a l l y mean, you know what are the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r people uh what happens t o people when they go through a change process In summary, the knowledge p e r c e i v e d by the a s s i s t i n g : , .•: . . teachers to be necessary f o r t h e i r r o l e c o n s i s t s of t e a c h i n g experience, a t the grade l e v e l s f o r which they are r e s p o n s i b l e , academic background i n c l u d i n g g e n e r a l knowledge of c u r r i c u l u m 72 development, human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s , knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m and how the sch o o l board f u n c t i o n s , and currency o f knowledge i n the f i e l d . A c t i o n i s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . In p a r t i c u l a r e i g h t types of a c t i o n are i d e n t i f i e d . These i n c l u d e ? working with t e a c h e r s , doing demonstration l e s s o n s , l o c a t i n g and s u p p l y i n g r e s o u r c e s , v i s i t i n g classrooms, p r o v i d i n g i n - s e r v i c e workshops, a t t e n d i n g meetings with t e a c h e r s , d e v e l o p i n g human r e l a t i o n s s k i l l s and keeping up-to - d a t e . These a c t i o n s are p r i o r i t i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o frequency and importance as i n d i c a t e d by a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . A c c o r d i n g to the i n t e r v i e w e e s (N=7) the major task of the a s s i s t i n g t eacher i s i n h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s with the needs the classroom t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f y . Because the primary f u n c t i o n of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i s t o p r o v i d e support f o r the classroom t e a c h e r s , t h i s a c t i o n i s seen as one of prime importance. I 286 I: Ya mostly with t e a c h e r s , success i n d e a l i n g with the t e a c h e r s . I t h i n k w e l l j u s t being very s e n s i t i v e t o what they want, l i s t e n i n g to what they want and not t r y i n g t o t e l l them what I t h i n k they should do 287 R: Um hmm 288 I: L i s t e n i n g t o what they are sa y i n g and what I th i n k t r y i n g t o p e r c e i v e t h e i r needs and t r y i n g t o h e l p f i l l t h a t need e V 218 I: and j u s t t h e - f a c t t h a t I'm here, they can draw, they c a n " c a l l on me and they know t h a t although i t may not be p e r f e c t , because they haven't had a chance t o come i n and check i t out themselves, a t 'least t h e y ' l l have some-t h i n g t o s t a r t w i t h i n two or th r e e days. 219 R: Um hmm 220 I: So t h a t , 73 V 221 R: the immediacy 222 I: Ya, ya 223 R: of being able t o phone you and get the s t u f f and not because f a c t i t , 99% of the classroom t e a c h e r s j u s t don't have the time t o do t h a t k i n d 224 I: No 225 R: of running around. 226 I : No and i t ' s very d i f f i c u l t as a classroom teacher t o get the time t o come down here and wade through a l l the s t u f f on the s h e l f when you're hunting f o r something f a i r l y s p e c i f i c on math word problems or something 227 R: Um hmm 228 I: and those of us t h a t are here can v i r t u a l l y 1 p u l l i t o f f the s h e l f b l i n d f o l d e d , because we know where i t i s 229 R: Um hmm 230 I: and e x a c t l y what i t looks l i k e . 231 R: Um hmm 232 I: So t h a t k i n d of t h i n g has been r e a l l y h e l p f u l , I t h i n k I've had a l o t of good feedback on people s a y i n g i t ' s so n i c e t o have somebody down th e r e 233 R: Uh hmm 234 I : t o phone 235 R: Uh hmm, t h a t can help 236 I: Ya, ya O r i g i n a l l y the primary f u n c t i o n of the a s s i s t i n g teacher was t o he l p new t e a c h e r s , but because of d e c l i n i n g enrollments few new te a c h e r s are- h i r e d . Instead, t e a c h e r s are now p l a c e d i n t o s i t u a t i o n s which are new to them; f o r example, a teacher may be asked t o teach a d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t or grade. 74 I I I 84 I: But we do have a l o t of te a c h e r s i n new kinds of t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h i n g a t grade l e v e l s they've never taught a t b e f o r e , um teaching, content they haven't taught b e f o r e so t h e r e ' s s t i l l the same k i n d of need, I t h i n k , i t . j u s t has taken a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form. So I t h i n k t h a t the f i r s t um r o l e i f you l i k e , f i r s t e x p e c t a t i o n s uh i s t h a t these people who are as s i g n e d t o these p o s i t i o n s work uh very c l o s e l y with those t e a c h e r s who are i n new s i t u a t i o n s who are t r y i n g t o cope with something t h a t ' s d i f f e r e n t o r t h a t they're not f e e l i n g comfortable w i t h or even i f i t s something they have been t e a c h i n g f o r q u i t e a while but s t i l l don't f e e l l i k e they've got the k i n d of a handle on i t t h a t they'd l i k e t o 85 R: Uh hum 86 I: um I guess my a t l e a s t my e x p e c t a t i o n i s t h a t they would work very d i r e c t l y with.those people i n the classroom on a one to one uh b a s i s showing them, demonstrating, g i v i n g them feedback, going through s u p e r v i s o r y k i n d s of uh processes w i t h them o 87 R: Uh hum 88 I: um but r e a l l y a hands on, p r a c t i c a l , r o l l up your s l e e v e s k i n d of approach t o working w i t h t e a c h e r s and t h a t ' s the one t h a t ' s been hard I t h i n k t o e s t a b l i s h i n the d i s t r i c t because uh uh i t r e a l l y e n t a i l s b e i n g out i n schools w i t h people on s i t e , uh i n an open s o r t of r e l a t i o n s h i p and i f people a r e n ' t r e a l l y aware of who those people are and can d i s a s s o c i a t e them from the e v a l u a t i v e , i n s p e c t o r a l k i n d of concept, i t s very hard f o r them t o say hey I would l i k e you t o come i n t o my classroom. R e l a t e d t o working w i t h t e a c h e r s are th r e e other a c t i o n s : doing demonstration l e s s o n s (N=6), l o c a t i n g and s u p p l y i n g resources (N=5), and v i s i t i n g classrooms (N=5). The a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s d i s c u s s these a c t i o n s as i n t e r - r e l a t e d . Because these a c t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y classroom-based, the knowledge d e r i v e d from t e a c h i n g experience would.be. v a l u a b l e f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e acher t o s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplish these t a s k s . 75 Working wi t h teachers sometimes e n t a i l s doing demonstra-t i o n l e s s o n s and classroom, v i s i t a t i o n s . The purpose of demonstration l e s s o n s i s p r i m a r i l y t o demonstrate the use of m a t e r i a l s . Classroom v i s i t a t i o n s are done t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s with a s s i s t a n c e i n areas i d e n t i f i e d by t e a c h e r s . II 25 R: What do you see as the c u r r e n t , as what they do a you know day-to-day b a s i s type o f t h i n g 26 I : Okay, they spend a l o t of time i n the c l a s s -room, working d i r e c t l y with t e a c h e r s 2 7 R: Um hmm 28 I: and t h i s means a s s i s t i n g the t e a c h e r s i n p r e p a r i n g l e s s o n s 29 R: Um hmm 30 I: Demonstrating, p l a n n i n g u n i t s , p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l s , o b s e r v i n g , and t r y i n g t o o f f e r suggestions i f there happens to be a problem i n terms o f student behavior \ I I I 186 I: Uh hum, ya I t h i n k so, um t h a t has changed over the years as w e l l , um i n the sense t h a t uh (Pause) uh I t h i n k now as I s a i d most of the I t h i n k more time i s b e i n g spent now w i t h the t e a c h e r s i n the schools i n the classrooms than was i n the p a s t , uh so I t h i n k t h a t would c h a r a c t e r i z e , t h a t k i n d of d i r e c t c o n t a c t that, demonstrating uh how to do c e r t a i n kinds of t h i n g s , g i v i n g t e a c h e r s feedback on t h i n g s , t a k i n g m a t e r i a l s to them, and showing them and demonstrating the use of them, um help i n t a k i n g the ..part the c l a s s I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e ' s more of t h a t 187 R: Uh hum 188 I: happening now than uh than i n the p a s t , where i n the past I t h i n k more time was spent c o n s u l t i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l s a t the c e n t r e , uh working on c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s , um d e v e l o p i n g resource u n i t s L o c a t i n g and s u p p l y i n g r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e s o r d e r i n g , a d v i s i n g , e v a l u a t i n g and even d e v e l o p i n g m a t e r i a l s (N=4). These 76 a c t i o n s r e q u i r e knowledge of the classroom s i t u a t i o n but a l s o knowledge of the m a t e r i a l s p r e s c r i b e d or a u t h o r i z e d i n the cu r r i c u l u m , as w e l l as.knowledge of c u r r i c u l u m development, implementation and e v a l u a t i o n . V 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 R I R I R: I: R: I: R I R I R: I: R: We l l , uh as an a s s i s t i n g teacher I've been i n v o l v e d i n uh (Pause) b r i n g i n g i n new m a t e r i a l s , a d v i s i n g people on new m a t e r i a l s Uh humm demonstrating Um humm the use of the m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e i s no c u r r i c u l u m Um hmm i n l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e so the r e I haven't been i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m development except f o r the f a c t t h a t w i t h the re a d i n g programme being implemented l a s t year Uh hmm umm the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t has to be aware of the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m i n order t o implement t h e i r own t o supplement i t . Right, the Ginn 720, i s t h a t what you.'.re ya r e f e r r i n g to? Ya, uh hmm, so I've been i n v o l v e d a l s o as as a teacher done a l o t of work on ah i n u s i n g new m a t e r i a l s Uh hmm and p i l o t i n g programmes and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t Um hmm, Uh hmm You've almost completely answer-ed the f i r s t q u e s t i o n s which i s a n i c e t i e i n between one, from one to the other um the c u r r e n t r o l e o f the a s s i s t i n g teacher uh c o u l d you d e s c r i b e what i t i s t h a t you do, i t doesn't 77 V 41 R: n e c e s s a r i l y have t o be an implementation of a new programme but some of the t h i n g s you do which a s s i s t the L.A.C. teach e r s i n implementa-t i o n . 42 I: Okay, w e l l uh my, L.A.C. i s a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t than the r e g u l a r c l a s s because by d e f i n i t i o n t hey're supplementing 43 R: Um hmm 44 I: a programme t h a t a c h i l d has i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s , i n r e a d i n g g e n e r a l l y math sometimes 4 5 R: Um hmm 46 I : content areas l e s s f r e q u e n t l y - u h and as a r e s u l t of t h a t , there i s no standard m a t e r i a l and t h e r e i s no standard c u r r i c u l u m 4 7 R: Um hmm 48 I: so I do a l o t of work with t e a c h e r s i n a s s e s s -i n g where the student i s i n the standard c u r r i c u l u m 4 9 R: Um hmm 50 I: and then f i n d i n g m a t e r i a l . a n d programmes t h a t would be s u i t a b l e and i n t e r e s t i n g t o the student 51 R: Um hmm 52 I: depending on i n t e r e s t areas 53 R: Um hmm 54 I: uh to supplement 55 R: Um hmm 56 I: what he's doing i n the r e g u l a r programme, so the r e ' s a a l a r g e component of my work as an a s s i s t i n g i s i s with d e a l i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l s 57 R: Um hmm 58 I: c h o i c e of m a t e r i a l s , advice t o teach e r s on on what k i n d of m a t e r i a l s t o use, s u p p l y i n g the m a t e r i a l s , 59 R: Um hmm 78 V 60 . I : and then doing demonstration l e s s o n s u s i n g them 61 R: Um hmm 62 I: f o r recommendations r e g a r d i n g c h o i c e of one versus another depending on the s t u d e n t s , a l o t of programme advice The other types of a c t i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d as i n - s e r v i c e / workshops, meetings wi t h t e a c h e r s , human r e l a t i o n s p r o c e s s e s , and h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s keep c u r r e n t . These a c t i o n s take a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t s l a n t , i n t h a t they may e n t a i l working with more than one teacher and may not be conducted i n the classroom. I n - s e r v i c e and/or workshop a c t i v i t i e s are mentioned by f i v e and f o u r people r e s p e c t i v e l y . These two words are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , and take p l a c e at the p r o f e s s i o n a l development ce n t r e or i n the s c h o o l s . I l l 189 R: Uh hum 190 I: and doing workshops so I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e ' s been a s l i g h t s h i f t o f emphasis over the l a s t few years 191 R: R i g h t , i n s t e a d of i t t a k i n g p l a c e here, i t s t a k i n g p l a c e i n a classroom more so 192 I: That's>that's r i g h t . I t h i n k t h a t uh probably more i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n the classroom uh (Pause) I was t h i n k i n g about i n - s e r v i c e i n the schools as w e l l I t h i n k t h a t there i s a reason-able amount of i n - s e r v i c e t a k i n g p l a c e i n the schools uh and of course t h e r e ' s s t i l l a f a i r amount of i n - s e r v i c e going on r i g h t here The purpose of the i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s v a r i e s , depending on the need p e r c e i v e d by the classroom t e a c h e r s and a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . The p e r c e i v e d r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i s to help classroom t e a c h e r s i n whatever ways they i d e n t i f y . There-f o r e , the classroom, teachers should h e l p i d e n t i f y the purpose 79 of the i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s a s . i t r e l a t e s t o t h e i r needs. One purpose of i n - s e r v i c e : i s t o presen t new m a t e r i a l s t o the teachers o r f a m i l i a r i z e t e a c h e r s with a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . Another reason . is- t o help t e a c h e r s a d j u s t t o a new t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n i f they had r e c e n t l y changed t h e i r s u b j e c t area or grade l e v e l . F i n a l l y , i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r teachers t o expand t h e i r knowledge of the s u b j e c t area. What-ever the purpose, i n - s e r v i c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s g r e a t e s t i f i t i s i n c o n j u n c t i o n with, r e l e a s e time. IV 6 9 I: F i r s t of a l l i t doesn't have any p r e t t y p i c t u r e s , they a r e n ' t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g a l l t h i s p r i n t ^ so you r e a l l y have t o have workshops i n c o n j u n c t i o n with i t . 70 R: Okay, and do you f i n d t h a t you have been almost i n almost every sec, elementary s c h o o l working wi t h t h i s or they've been here, or how have you c o n t a c t e d these people 71 I: Okay, um mainly through d i s t r i c t wide workshops t h a t have taken p l a c e here a t Schou 72 R: Um hmm 73 I: and t h a t ' s been on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s , i f they want t o come t h a t ' s they're o p t i o n , a l s o I've had p r o f e s s i o n a l uh day workshops i n the schools and again t h a t ' s been a t t h e i r request I I 368 I: I don't t h i n k so, we've had some people who have t r a n s f e r r e d from secondary t o um elementary and t h a t ' s p a r t of our i n - s e r v i c e program r i g h t now and t h a t ' s p a r t of the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher t o he l p these people IV 82 R: Um, Do you f i n d t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n with those programs, I mean I mean i n c o n j u n c t i o n with r e l e a s e time 83 I: Oh a b s o l u t e l y um hmmm 84 R: So i f you had e x t r a funding f o r t h a t , t h a t would h e l p 80 IV 85 I: D i s t r i c t p r o f e s s i o n a l day had a f a n t a s t i c t u r n out but when f o u r o ' c l o c k comes around e s p e c i a l l y elementary t e a c h e r s , they have so many areas t h a t they have t o be concerned w i t h and r e a l l y not t h a t i n t e r e s t e d i n i n coming t o a workshop i n a r t and I t h i n k a r t i s very very important, I mean l e t ' s face i t , w e l l 85 p e r -cent of our knowledge i s absorbed v i s u a l l y The s i x t h a c t i o n mentioned by fo u r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s i s meeting with teachers on a more i n f o r m a l b a s i s than through i n - s e r v i c e . I t s purpose i s t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s with a forum f o r exchanging and s h a r i n g i d e a s , and p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r tea c h e r s t o know other t e a c h e r s i n the d i s t r i c t or other d i s t r i c t s who work on s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s . These i n f o r m a l meetings may take p l a c e a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l development c e n t r e , or a t v a r i o u s schools throughout the d i s t r i c t . uh t h e r e have been i n - s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d or developed by people w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e people came or went or whatever j u s t l i k e everyone e l s e and I've moved towards more dev e l o p i n g of a s s o c i a t i o n of t e a c h e r s and and g e t t i n g people together as a group Um hmm r e g u l a r l y so t h a t they c o u l d have - an opportun-i t y t o share w i t h each other on an i n f o r m a l a b a s i s as p o s s i b l e Uh, the t h i n g s t h a t you have done, um t h a t have been u s e f u l o r s u c c e s s f u l uh f o r example, a p a r t i c u l a r format f o r a workshop or um dev e l o p i n g uh a forum so t h a t people c o u l d communicate wi t h each other and exchange ideas or s k i l l s o r a l r i g h t the um, what I found t h a t was an i n d i c a t o r of success was an a c t i o n a l s o , i t i s i n t h a t p o i n t when I came i n Burnaby, there was no,, teach e r s do not know each other Uh hum V 74 I: 75 R: 76 I: VI 241 R: 242 I: 243 R: 81 VI 244 I: a t a l l , they don't know who was t e a c h i n g what, who was t e a c h i n g who or whatever i n each s c h o o l so um the f i r s t year what we d i d i t i s more or l e s s t r y i n g t o get to know each o t h e r , so each time we met to know who was from where and the format we used was immersion weekends VI 257 I: other than, other than we i t i s uh we had a b u l l e t i n coming running f o r awhile then the b u l l e t i n d i e d out because of time t h a t ' s a l l but we have to r e p l a c e the b u l l e t i n we have the what we c a l l the s h a r i n g s e s s i o n s which everybody b r i n g s something t h a t worked a game or a s t e n c i l whatever, every month we go from one s c h o o l to another and we have 258 R: C o n c e n t r a t i o n on the secondary schools or 259 I: both 2.60 R: f o u r t o twelve f 261 I : both ya what other t h i n g s worked a l s o uh we have a l o t of ah d i n n e r s In order to work s u c c e s s f u l l y with classroom t e a c h e r s , '_ i n t e r v i e w e e s (N=3) h i g h l i g h t the n e c e s s i t y of p o s i t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I l l 269 R: Okay, which a l s o r e l a t e s t o the next one which i s the a c t i o n s so uh the a c t i o n s t h a t are most u s e f u l i s b a s i c a l l y your a b i l i t i e s or your s k i l l s t o d e a l w i t h people 270 I: I t h i n k so 271 R: prove your competency 272 I: Uh hum, Uh hum ya I t h i n k t h a t um being able to i n t e r a c t w i t h people, i n t e r f a c e with people i n a way which makes them f e e l comfortable with you 273 R: Um hum 274 I:. uh i n a way which i n s t i l l s c o n f i d e n c e uh i n them f o r , y o u 275 R: Uh hum 82 I I I 276 I: uh um and then once you get beyond that, then I think you can demonstrate your competence i n other areas as well, work with them i n other ways by demonstrating, by showing, by giving them feedback IV 196 R: okay um when you're carrying through t h i s job as an a s s i s t i n g teacher, i s there one type of action or i s there one thing that you do uh that was more successful with your as an a s s i s t i n g teacher for example um did you f i n d that providing in-service was most useful or providing a p a r t i c u l a r type of booklet was most useful or your classroom v i s i t a t i o n s were most useful or perhaps you can't narrow i t down to one s p e c i f i c thing 197 I: I can't narrow i t down to one s p e c i f i c thing I think i t s a combination of a l l of those things but I think the most important thing i s personal contact 198 R: Um hmm 199 I: so the teachers have confidence i n you that they want your services again, that they l i k e you so on, I think thats r e a l l y important, one to one contact 200 R: Um hmm, so your interpersonal s k i l l s are r e a l l y important 201 I: Um 202 R: have to be developed 203 I: Um hmm F i n a l l y , two a s s i s t i n g .teachers state that part of t h e i r actions entailed providing teachers with current materials and l i t e r a t u r e , as well as information regarding trends and confer-ences i n t h e i r f i e l d . The a s s i s t i n g teacher acts as a resource person. VI 144 I : well what other actions besides observing, giving demonstrations lesson, t r a i n i n g work-shop uh also not only that what else that I found very i n t e r e s t i n g i n i n that they they l i k e i t i s keep keeping them aware of what's happening 83 VI 145 R: Ummm 146 I : throughout the p r o v i n c e and i n Canada and i n the world um i n f r a n c h f o r example and send them every now and then l i t t l e b u l l e t i n s say l i s t e n t h a t ' s what's happening, you can get money i f you go there 147 R: Uh hum 148 I : and ah you can get t h i s workshop g i v e them a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s s i g n them on workshops, conferences, books a r t i c l e s and whatever 149 R: A resource person 150 I: uh hum and t e l l them w e l l t h a t ' s a v a i l a b l e i t ' s f o r you sending them a p i l e of bef o r e summer time l i k e you can have a bursuary i f you take such and such a course, you can have t h i s i f you can take such and such, h e l p i n g i n t h e i r exchange w i t h students t h e r e ' s so many t h i n g s 151 R: Uh hum 152 I: a c t i o n , phoning 153 R: I t a l l takes time In s h o r t , the a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g t e acher c o n s i s t of working with t e a c h e r s , doing demonstration l e s s o n s , l o c a t i n g and s u p p l y i n g r e s o u r c e s , v i s i t i n g classrooms, doing i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , meeting with t e a c h e r s , d e v e l o p i n g human r e l a t i o n s and keeping t e a c h e r s c u r r e n t . To d e s c r i b e the i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e acher, these people were asked t o d e s c r i b e the a c t i o n s which may c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s r o l e . A l l agree t h a t the i d e a l a c t i o n s i n c l u d e what they are doing a t p r e s e n t . I I 135 R: I f the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s had a b s o l u t e l y no r e s t r i c t i o n s on them whatsoever as f a r as a job d e s c r i p t i o n , what would you see as the i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher 84 I I 136 I : W e l l , I t h i n k t h a t i f we're going to c a l l t h i s person an: a s s i s t i n g t eacher, I t h i n k t h a t as the r o l e i s d e f i n e d r i g h t now, I t h i n k i t i s i t i s a good one 137 R: Um hmm 138 I: Because, you need someone i n the classroom who um can work with'with t h e i r peers 139 R: Um hmm 140 .1: And we're l o o k i n g a t some te a c h e r s who r e q u i r e um someone i n t h e r e f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons, perhaps they've changed grades 141 R: Um hmm 142 I: Perhaps they're coming back to the d i s t r i c t a f t e r a l ong p e r i o d . o f absences, perhaps they're a person who j u s t haven't been f o r a long p e r i o d of time, too e f f e c t i v e and perhaps t h e i r a n x i e t y has been r a i s e d by the p r i n c i p a l and the f a c t t h a t now t h a t they have ... to seek some changes 143 R: Um hmm y 144 I: and improvement uh i n t h e i r i n t h e i r p r o f e s s -i o n a l development, t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l development and t h e r e f o r e we have to have a person t h a t i s f a i r l y low key and I t h i n k t h a t to s e t up these dynamics of working wi t h those 1 kinds of people who are out there you know by uh i n many i n s t a n c e s t h a t t h i s i s the k i n d of f u n c t i o n t h a t those people are going to do work i n the s c h o o l 145 R: Um hmm 146 I : Support the s c h o o l , uh you know he l p the p r i n c i p a l , h e l p the teacher and uh, i f you change t h a t then I t h i n k you're going to change a u t h o r i t y l i n e and then i t beco.nes a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n a l l t o g e t h e r Most of the people i n t e r v i e w e d (N=6) d i d suggest a m o d i f i c a t i o n i n terms of time. They would do the same kin d s of t h i n g s , but w i t h more time. 85 I I I 280 I: ... to the i d e a l um t h e r e ' s never enough time of course you know and the uh reason t h a t we don't reach i d e a l i s l a r g e l y because uh the., l i m i t a t i o n s of time and the people and t h a t ' s a . r e a l i t y t h a t we j u s t have t o d e a l with t h a t ' s a l l and except t h a t , um but i n my concept of the i d e a l would be t h a t these people are work-i n g um f a c e to f a c e , hand to hand wi t h people and t r y i n g t o do the kinds of t h i n g s they're t r y i n g t o do i n the s c h o o l s , ... At present, a s s i s t i n g teacher p o s i t i o n s are one year a p p o i n t -ments. The a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s agree however, t h a t a two to three year appointment would be more advantageous f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher and classroom t e a c h e r s because i t would p r o v i d e b e t t e r c o n t i n u i t y of programmes over the y e a r s . I 156 I: Ya, ya, I b e l i e v e so, I t h i n k they're going to have the p o s i t i o n next year but uh I t h i n k i t should be so t h a t you have some uh i d e a of c o n t i n u i t y i t should be a t l e a s t two years so t h a t you can s e t up ideas f o r next year, t h e r e ' s got t o be c o n t i n u i t y . In one year, the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s c o u l d s e t the groundwork; classroom t e a c h e r s c o u l d come to know and t r u s t the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . In a d d i t i o n , programmes or a c t i v i t i e s i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g the f i r s t year are o n l y i n t h e i r b e g i n n i n g stages of implementation. T h e r e f o r e , i f the programmes are to have any c o n t i n u i t y , i t i s important t h a t the appointments should be longer than one year. IV 215 I : ... but t h e r e should be one person so t h a t t h e r e ' s c o n t i n u i t y e s t a b l i s h e d 216 R: Um hmm 217 I: so you can e s t a b l i s h these p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , so you can c a r r y them over, so some s i g n i f i c a n t change can. come about, t h a t would be the f i r s t t h i n g I'd do 218 R: No one on...a year appointment 1 86 IV 219, I ; I. t h i n k a one year appointment i s um (giggle) I t h i n k you know, i t takes one year to e s t a b l i s h the p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , to get programmes s t a r t e d and um you need, you need a longer p e r i o d of time One a s s i s t i n g teacher summarizes the value of an a p p o i n t -ment being longer than one year i n the f o l l o w i n g way: V 237 R: Um hmm, Okay, you've d e s c r i b e d a l o t about what you see your r o l e i s c u r r e n t l y , the a c t u a l day-to-day, week-to-week type t h i n g s you do, the uh r e s o u r c e s you draw upon and what not and o b v i o u s l y you're r e s t r i c t e d by a job d e s c r i p -t i o n and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , take away a l l the r e s t r i c t i o n s , what would you see your i d e a l r o l e , i f you c o u l d do whatever you wanted uh without any r e s t r i c t i o n s , what would you do i f you c o u l d d e f i n e your uh a s s i s t i n g teacher r o l e or i s i t what you do? 238 I: Uh, a l o t of i t would be what I do with a l o t more time to do i t i n . 239 R: Um hmm 240 I: I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a c r y i n g need f o r i n - s e r v i c i n g and awareness b u i l d i n g a t the secondary l e v e l 0 241 R: Um hmm 242 I: t h a t somebody needs to do and I can see i t being w i t h i n the realm of a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a s s i s t i n g t eacher um I would l i k e t o maybe change the t i t l e because l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , i f they don't have i t i n t h e i r s c h o o l , they don't t h i n k i t ' s r e l e v a n t 243 R: Um hmm 244 I: and i f you d i d something wi t h people t e a c h i n g m o d i f i e d programmes, th e r e ' s hundreds of them out t h e r e , 245 R: Um hmm 246 I:, and then they would see i t as r e l e v a n t um and i t i t i s , I t h i n k t h a t b a s i c a l l y i t ' s a time c o n s t r a i n t , a l o t of the t h i n g s t h a t are happening now, the m a t e r i a l s a d v i c e and the i n - s e r v i c i n g are r e a l l y good and I t h i n k v a l u a b l e to the d i s t r i c t 87 V 247 R: . Um hmm 248 I: um the time to do i t a t a broader ..spectrum i s j u s t not t h e r e . 24 9 R: So you would l i k e to see your p o s i t i o n f u l l time f o r one t h i n g , 250 1: Uh hum um hmm 251 R: and longer than a year? 252 I: Yes, d e f i n i t e l y um 253 R: Do you f i n d t h a t 254 I: a one year p o s t i n g f o r v i r t u a l l y any of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , you've j u s t begun to develop the t r u s t of the t e a c h e r s and your own knowledge of t h e i m a t e r i a l s and and the workings of the system 255 R: Um hmm 256 I : a t the end of one year you can see the d i r e c t i o n you need t o go 257 R: Um hmm 258 I: you can see where the weaknesses are and what needs to be f i l l e d and a f t e r j u s t one year (Pause) i t ' s k i n d of a waste to throw t h a t f i n g e r on t h i n g s t h a t you've f i n a l l y developed t h a t ' s taken a l l year and g i v e i t to somebody e l s e to f i g h t the same b a t t l e . 88 TABLE I Role as S p e c i f i e d by A s s i s t i n g Teachers ACTUAL KNOWLEDGE DERIVED FROM: ACTUAL ACTION INCLUDED: Teaching experience (N=7) Working wi t h t e a c h e r s (N= 7) Academic background (N=6) Doing demonstration l e s s o n s (N= 6) Human R e l a t i o n s (N=6) L o c a t i n g and s u p p l y i n g C u r r i c u l u m (N=4) r e s o u r c e s (N= 5) F u n c t i o n i n g of School Classroom v i s i t a t i o n s (N= 5) Board (N=3) I n - s e r v i c e (N= 5) Currency i n f i e l d (N=2) Meeting w i t h t e a c h e r s (N= 4) Supervisory/human r e l a t i o n s processes (N= 3) Keeping c u r r e n t (N= 2) IDEAL KNOWLEDGE DERIVED FROM: IDEAL ACTION INCLUDED: Same as a c t u a l (N=6) Same as a c t u a l (N= 7) Teaching experience (k i n d e r g a r t e n to grade twelve) (N=2) 89 D i f f e r e n c e s between a c t u a l and i d e a l . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and i d e a l are s l i g h t . , As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the suggested changes i n knowledge are t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , i f the a s s i s t i n g teacher i s expected t o work with t e a c h e r s from k i n d e r -garten t o grade twelve, then i d e a l l y the a s s i s t i n g t eacher should have taught t h a t spectrum. Second, more u n i v e r s i t y course work i n the g e n e r a l area of c u r r i c u l u m development, implementation and e v a l u a t i o n would p r o v i d e i d e a l background knowledge f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . There are no reasons given as to why t h i s has not been a c t u a l i z e d . In terms of a c t i o n , t here are no suggested changes except t h a t some a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s would l i k e t o have more than one ,year t o do these a c t i o n s . The reasons g i v e n r e l a t e t o the sc h o o l board and w i l l d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , when d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the i d e a l r o l e , i d e n t i f y t hree major d i f f e r e n c e s from t h e i r d e s c r i p -t i o n of t h e i r a c t u a l r o l e : s u p p o r t i v e versus l e a d e r s h i p ; a s s i s t a n t versus c o n s u l t a n t ; and permanent versus temporary. One person mentions t h a t i d e a l l y the r o l e should be l e s s of a support r o l e and more of a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . She f e e l s t h i s i s necessary f o r two reasons. F i r s t , some teach e r s see the need f o r more l e a d e r s h i p . Second;,, as a l e a d e r the a s s i s t i n g t eacher would f e e l more comfortable going i n t o the tea c h e r ' s classroom. Two a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s mention t h a t the name " a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r " should be changed to c o n s u l t a n t , s u p e r v i s o r or c o - o r d i n a t o r . They f e e l t h a t a change i n name would again denote a p o s i t i o n which c a r r i e s more a u t h o r i t y . 90 303 R: Okay super um (Pause) say j u s t say there were no job d e s c r i p t i o n and the r e was no one t e l l i n g you what you had what you should or should not do - your j o b i s without r e s t r i c t i o n s 304 I: Humm Humm 305 R: What would be the i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher? 306 I: (Pause) oh t h a t ' s a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n 307 R: I f you d i d n ' t have anybody t e l l i n g you t h a t t h i s i s the way normally a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s i n E.S.L. work, 308 I: Um hmm 309 R: i f you c o u l d j u s t do what you had gut r e a c t i o n s or experience or whatever work the b e s t or do you do t h a t 310 I: I t h i n k I would probably be l e s s of a support-i v e r o l e and more of uh a le a d e r r o l e 311 R: Um hmm 312 I: I t h i n k I f i n d t h a t a b i t of a disadvantage a-c o n f l i c t and people may be l o o k i n g t o you as a b i t o f a le a d e r but then a d m i n s i t r a t i o n ' s s a y i n g w e l l you're r e a l l y not, you're support-i v e and you shouldn't be f o c u s s i n g on y o u r s e l f 313 R: Um hmm 314 I: Which I s o r t of get from here and the r e 315 R: Um hmm Um hmm 316 I: You're completely s u p p o r t i v e , you're on the same l e v e l as the te a c h e r s and you're not p a i d anymore 317 R: Um hmm 318 I : Whereas te a c h e r s are l o o k i n g f o r you as a b i t of a l e a d e r s h i p so I see a b i t of a c o n f l i c t I t h i n k I would r a t h e r be um i n other d i s t r i c t s they're c a l l e d s u p e r v i s o r s , o r c o n s u l t a n t s o r c o - o r d i n a t o r s or whatever 319 R: Um hmm 320 I: and you've got a b i t more of a handle on t h i n g s 91 I 321 R: Um and a b i t more c l o a t 322 I: Yes, t o , t o , a b i t more power 323 R: to implement some of the t h i n g s or to do some of the t h i n g s you want 324 I: Yes, yes and be able t o : g o and say you know to be a b l e to f e e l more comfortable going i n t o classrooms and say I'm here because I want to see what you're doing One person b e l i e v e s t h a t the p o s i t i o n should be permanent, but reviewed each year. The reason given i s t h a t the value of the p o s i t i o n would be enhanced i f t e a c h e r s knew t h a t the p o s i t i o n was to continue from one year t o the next. I t i s f e l t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t more s i g n i f i c a n t change c o u l d come about. IV 242 R: Okay um so b a s i c a l l y you're s a y i n g t h a t i f you c o u l d change i t you'd expand the appointment to up to three y e a r s , do you t h i n k t h a t should be the maximum 243 I: I, I a c o n t i n u i n g appointment w i t h reviewed every three y e a r s , l i k e r i g h t now uh the p o l i c y i s i t s a one year appointment, two y e a r s , w e l l you know d e f i n i t e l y a f t e r two years l e t ' s get some f r e s h people, I would change t h a t whole concept and make i t uh a c o n t i n u i n g appointment but review i t a l l the time, put your r e p o r t s i n make sure t h a t you have the support, make sure you're being e f f e c t i v e , i n other words you know, you can um um be removed of t h a t p o s i t i o n i f you're not e f f e c t i v e 244 R: Um hmm, i f you f e e l you need a change 245 I: E x a c t l y or whatever, ya r i g h t These p e r c e p t i o n s of the i d e a l r o l e , however, are i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the a c t u a l role.: I f the suggested changes are a c t u a l i z e d then the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher would no.longer be s u p p o r t i v e and would become more e v a l u a t i v e . The a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s have been asked to account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and i d e a l r o l e . Even though t h r e e emphasize t h a t the a c t u a l i s i d e a l , a l l gave reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s . The impediments to a c t u a l i z a t i o n , as l i s t e d by the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , r e l a t e t o the s c h o o l board, the t e a c h e r s and the p u b l i c . The s c h o o l board i s most o f t e n c i t e d as the reason f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the i d e a l and a c t u a l . The a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s l i s t monitary c o n s t r a i n t s , d e c l i n i n g e n r o l l m e n t , assignment of p o s i t i o n s , and l e n g t h of assignment as the main reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s . Monitary c o n s t r a i n t s r e l a t e t o d e c l i n i n g e n r o l l m e n t s . T h i s a f f e c t s the number of a s s i s t i n g teacher p o s i t i o n s as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t - t h e p o s i t i o n s are appointed f o r one year. Because Burnaby has a l i m i t e d budget and has a d e c l i n i n g e n r o l l -ment, th e r e has been some decrease i n the scope of programmes o f f e r e d . The a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s (N=6) s t a t e t h a t the reason why t h e i r p o s i t i o n s are one;year appointments i s because the School Board must a l l o c a t e the funds i n order to keep as many programmes as p o s s i b l e . When a need e x i s t s f o r an a s s i s t i n g t eacher i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t area, a p o s i t i o n i s formed f o r one year to meet t h a t need. I f the a s s i s t i n g t eacher p o s i t i o n s are more than one year appointments, then fewer s u b j e c t areas can be r e p r e s e n t e d by an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . B a s i c a l l y , i f Burnaby i s not r e s t r i c t e d by d e c l i n i n g e nrollment and a l i m i t e d budget, there would be more a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s and f o r longer p e r i o d s of time. But because these f a c t s do e x i s t , the a s s i s t i n g teacher p o s i t i o n s must be developed a c c o r d i n g to the p e r c e i v e d needs of the d i s t r i c t . 93 I I 98 I 99 R: 100 I: 101 R: 102 I: 103 R: 104 105 R 106 107 108 there are sometimes and I t h i n k everybody understands i n our d i s t r i c t how a s s i s t i n g t eachers are I don't know are a s s i g n e d i s r e a l l y based on p r i o r i t i e s and needs Um hmm and I t h i n k some people r e a l i z e yes math was a p a r t i c u l a r need i n 1977 or whatever Um hmm When they had a new c u r r i c u l u m i n math and we had a math person f o r a couple of years and um t h i n g s were done i n terms of i n - s e r v i c e and m a t e r i a l s , a l l those kinds of t h i n g s t h a t we work on f o r uh s u c c e s s f u l implementation Um hmm and then f o l l o w i n g t h a t one r e a l i z e s w e l l yes the r e ' s now coming on board t h e r e ' s language a r t s so o b v i o u s l y t h e r e has to be a new focus Um hmm o r - t h e r e ' s E n g l i s h coming on i n secondary Um hmm or whatever and so people I t h i n k understand t h a t t h a t ' s how we operate i n our d i s t r i c t t h a t there are some r o l e s t h a t seem t o continue because there are a r e a l need base .there, but there are other r o l e s uh where i t seems to be a t a time where and we have t o look a t what uh c u r r i c u l u m i s new, you know being adopted from the M i n i s t r y of Educat i o n and address those k i n d of needs 109 R: Um hmm 110 I: And um i t would be r i d i c u l o u s t o c a r r y on i n math i f we have a new programme i n s o c i a l s and e n g l i s h and not a d d r e s s i n g those kinds of needs 111 R: Um hmm, so i t s mainly uh assignment by need These f a c t o r s i n t e r p l a y and r e s u l t i n one year appointments f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher p o s i t i o n s . One a s s i s t i n g teacher 94 ^ summarizes t h i s p o i n t when she states:. IV 316 R: Um Hmm okay um. b a s i c a l l y the d i f f e r e n c e between your a c t u a l and your i d e a l i s time spent 317 I: Um hmm 318 R: as f a r as not having one year appointments 319 I: Ya, c o n t i n u i t y ya t h a t ' s r i g h t 320 R: Um hmm so how do you account f o r t h i s , i s i t mainly the f a c t t h a t t h a t the money i s n ' t a v a i l a b l e t o t o c a r r y these p o s i t i o n s through or t h a t everybody wants a l i t t l e p i e c e of the p i e and a r t can't have i t every year or 321 I: there i s n ' t the money, everybody wants a p i e c e of the p i e t h a t ' s r i g h t and j u s t the p o l i t i c s of the s i t u a t i o n 327 I: Uh.Coquitlam has been re v i e w i n g the s i t u a t i o n , the same person's going i n f o r the t h i r d year um (Pause) I you know I guess probably the most important t h i n g i s the d e c l i n i n g e n r o l l -ment here and uh t h a t has a l a r g e b e a r i n g 328 R: Um hmm 329 I: and uh, j u s t the shear p o l i t i c s , I guess people don't f e e l t h a t i t s you know i t s t h a t important 330 R: Um Hmm okay any oth e r reasons why, perhaps, there are d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t you can t h i n k of between your view of the a c t u a l and your view' of the i d e a l , b a s i c a l l y i t i t can be summar-i z e d as p o l i t i c s 331 I: Uh, not i t can't be summarized as p o l i t i c s 332 R: Okay 333 I: i t can be summarized as d e c l i n i n g e nrollment, i t can be summarized as p o l i t i c s , budgeting, uh um uh other people f e e l i n g t h a t they should have you know the: same type of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a l l those f a c t o r s 334 R: Um hmm, they a l l come i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n 95 I t a l s o has been suggested t h a t some teach e r s are r e l u c t a n t t o change (N=l) and t h e r e f o r e are.not motivated to seek out a s s i s t a n c e t o h e l p them a c t u a l i z e the change (N=l). I f people are more w i l l i n g t o accept change and new i d e a s , i n c l u d i n g the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , more change c o u l d come about and a t a f a s t e r pace. One i n t e r v i e w e e mentions t h a t many people are more com-f o r t a b l e w i t h keeping t h i n g s as they are and t h e r e f o r e new t h i n g s are not t r i e d . T h i s i n t e r v i e w e e s t a t e s : I I I 420 I: and i t has to do w i t h the whole - bus i n e s s of change as w e l l t h a t , um um I don't t h i n k we are by nature, we don't seem to be by nature l e t ' s put i t t h a t way 421 R: Uh hum 4 22 I : r i s k t a k e r s 423 R: Uh hum 424 I : um we tend to we we have developed a compet-ence and an e x p e r t i s e i n a p a r t i c u l a r area and we d e r i v e a l o t of s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n um we d e r i v e a l o t of p o s i t i v e feedback from our e x p e r t i s e i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r area and I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a h e s i t a n c y on the p a r t of many people to venture out 425 R: Uh hum 426 I : from t h a t to t r y new kinds of t h i n g s , f o r f e a r t h a t I'm going to be g i v i n g up the b a s i s of s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r one which might r e s u l t i n a l o t of n e g a t i v e feedback 427 R: Uh hum 4 28 I: and um t h a t ' s a t h a t ' s a tough one to d e a l with i n e d u c a t i o n , to get people to take those k i n d s of r i s k s uh the leaps of f a i t h 429 R: Uh hum 430 I: as a f r i e n d of mine r e f e r s t o them, uh to j u s t t r y on your behaviors and t r y and g i v e up t h a t o l d t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e and t r y on some new k i n d s of t h i n g s 96 I I T 431 R: Uh hum 432 I: and experiment with them, but uh t h a t ' s one of the h u r d l e s and the oth e r h u r d l e i s t o have people i n the system or o u t s i d e of the system r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h a t other r o l e t h a t your experimenting with or t r y i n g to take on, i s a l e g i t i m a t e and v a l i d one 433 R: Uh hum 4 34 I: and you have t o d e a l with t h a t so on the one hand your d e a l i n g with your own s e l f - e s t e e m and on the other you're^ d e a l i n g with uh other people's p e r c e p t i o n s o f , you know, what i s t h a t , what are you doing and you know and how does t h a t f i t i n t o the context of educ a t i o n , I don't understand how t h a t f i t s i n the context of educa t i o n and t e a c h i n g 435 R: Uh hum 436 I: and t h e r e f o r e i t s not v a l i d and how do you d e a l with t h a t as w e l l I t has a l s o been mentioned (N=2) t h a t the p u b l i c ' s percep-t i o n s of ed u c a t i o n have impeded the a c t u a l i z a t i o n of the i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . One person s t a t e s t h a t the p u b l i c i s " t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d " and t h e r e f o r e "... i s as b i g a c o n s t r a i n t on the d i f f e r e n c e s between, the a c t u a l and the i d e a l as um as some of the monitary kinds of c o n s t r a i n t s " ( I I I : 406). I t seems t h a t the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s accounted f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and i d e a l by i d e n t i f y i n g impediments such as the s c h o o l board, the t e a c h e r s , and the p u b l i c . These impediments are e x t e r n a l to t h e i r p o s i t i o n and beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t none of the i n t e r v i e w e e s accounted f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r a c t u a l and i d e a l r o l e by i d e n t i f y i n g a l a c k on t h e i r p a r t i n terms of knowledge and a c t i o n . 97 C r i t e r i a t o judge success. In order to determine how a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s judge the success of t h e i r r o l e , they- have been asked to d e s c r i b e the c r i t e r i a t h a t they use. A s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s mention f i v e d e v i c e s t h a t they use to e v a l u a t e t h e i r s u c c e s s . These de v i c e s i n c l u d e request f o r m a t e r i a l s and a s s i s t a n c e , teacher feedback, evidence o f v i s i b l e change, degree of teacher openness and the extent t o which o b j e c t i v e s are met. The a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s mainly judge t h e i r success by the number of requests from tea c h e r s f o r m a t e r i a l s and a s s i s t a n c e (N=5). That i s , i f teach e r s request more m a t e r i a l s o r more a s s i s t a n c e , and the s e r v i c e s of the a s s i s t i n g teacher are i n demand, then t h a t i n d i c a t e s t o the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t they have been h e l p f u l or s u c c e s s f u l . I l l 234 235 R 236 I 237 R 238 I and what they're s a y i n g t o me and um uh t h a t k i n d o f feedback, um I guess i t s a l s o d e t e r -mined wi t h an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r , i t s d e t e r -mined t o a l a r g e extent by uh how much i n demand I am (Giggle) (Giggle) and i f I'm busy then you know you're doing a good job then I must be doing something r i g h t i f a . l o t of people are c a l l i n g f o r my s e r v i c e or c o n t a c t i n g me about whatever, then uh t h a t ' s probably an i n d i c a t o r o f 239 R: Uh hum 240 of success The number of requests f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r ' s s e r v i c e s 98 r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o another ' c r i t e r i o n used i n judging success. T h i s i s teacher feedback (N=5). I f teach e r s r e q u e s t f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e by the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r , then the a s s i s t i n g t eacher has an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the type o f a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n was i n f a c t a p p r o p r i a t e and r e l e v a n t . Feedback and requests by te a c h e r s i n t e r r e l a t e . IV 172 R: Um hmm so uh okay um the next one uh, how do you judge the success of your r o l e , by t h a t I mean i s there some c r i t e r i a t h a t you use to know or to judge whether you have been s u c c e s s f u l e i t h e r uh teacher feedback f o r example would be one aspect 173 I: Uh hmm 174 R: t h a t would t e l l you whether i n f a c t what you d i d was p o s i t i v e l y r e c e i v e d or you know i s . there some c r i t e r i a t h a t you use to judge your success 175 I: Ya I t h i n k teacher feedback i s r e a l l y important whether i t ' s v e r b a l or i n l e t t e r s , I have a l o t of l e t t e r s , a l o t of v e r b a l feedback a l s o I t h i n k r e q u e s t i n g my s e r v i c e s again um how many times am I asked t o go back i n t o t h a t classroom 176 R: Um hmm 177 I: are they r e q u e s t i n g more l i t e r a t u r e , um do they seem t o uh f e e l t h a t i t s important t o you know a meaningful programme, um the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , the Burnaby A r t Teachers a s s o c i a t i o n how s u p p o r t i v e have they been and um and a l l t h a t i s important i n e v a l u a t i n g a s u c c e s s f u l programme, what's -happening Three a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t they judge t h e i r success i f there i s v i s i b l e evidence i n the classroom t h a t the teacher i s attempting t o a c t u a l i z e the suggestions made by the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . The f a c t t h a t there i s a v i s i b l e change i n the classroom i n d i c a t e s t o the: a s s i s t i n g teacher t h a t they have 99 been of value. IV 179 I: and also going back into, the classroom, and saw something happening and yes there are changes coming about 180 R: Um hmm, when you v i s i t the next time you can see 181 I: Ya r i g h t 182 R: what you have suggested i s i n fact i n e f f e c t 183 I: exactly ya Two a s s i s t i n g teachers mention that they can judge t h e i r success by the attitudes of the teachers. As the a s s i s t i n g teacher develops a p o s i t i v e rapport with the teachers, the teachers become more open and honest and begin to discuss t h e i r problems and areas of weakness. This i s perceived as being an indicator of success. VI 203 R: Okay, now obviously there are things that you do that are r e a l l y successful and things you do that sometimes thought : would catch and l i g h t up people and they don't, what c r i t e r i a do you use to judge whether you are or not , successful with what you're doing? / 204 I: The success r i g h t , how do I judge the success? Um 205 R: What c r i t e r i a do you use for example do teacher give you feedback on what they found success-f u l or 206 I: yes they do yes uh that's one of the f i r s t i ndicator i s that teachers do get i n touch with you 207 R: Uh hum 208 I: and do eventually talk about t h e i r r e a l problems and where are the weaknesses and t h e i r strength and everything cause I guess at the beginning t h e i r just t e l l i n g low s u p e r f i c i a l s t u f f 209 R: Uh hmm 100 VI 210 I: and as you get to know them: more: and more and they know the way you behave whatever, well then they can dome to you and say well l i s t e n um I don't r e a l l y do that i n my class so that's the f i r s t sign of the that they would l i k e you there These above four c r i t e r i a are summarized by one a s s i s t i n g teacher i n the following segment. The summary indicates how cl o s e l y the c r i t e r i a i n t e r r e l a t e . V 177 R: Um hmm, Okay, the next question i s , b a s i c a l l y you've described a l o t of things that you do, how do you judge, by what c r i t e r i a do you judge whether t h e i r successful or. not, for example, do teachers phone up and say that worked, i t was great, thanks a l o t , do you get feedback from people, do you get r e i n -forcement that you're going along the r i g h t vein or i s there some mechanism or something you've developed with the teachers you work with, i n order to be able to judge the success of what you're doing? 178 I: Um I think b a s i c a l l y informally 179 R: Um hmm 180 I: people w i l l phone and ask for more of some-thing 181 R: Um hmm 182 I: p a r t i a l l y i t ' s , um you see people opening more and more to you as you provide something and they f e e l comfortable with i t and i t works for them and they ask for two more things and then you get so you're i n the school once a week 183 R: Um hmm 184 I: bringing them something, so just that growth from the very f i r s t thing was a hesitant phone c a l l , to them not being surprised when you're dropping i n once a week 185. R: Um hmm 186 I: saying you know bringing something, d e l i v e r i n g something, just that openness 101 V 187 R: Um hmm 188 I : to ask f o r h e l p and to accept h e l p when i t comes, i s i s one t h i n g t h a t you can see t h a t you are having an i n f l u e n c e 189 R: Um hmm 190 I: um I get r e g u l a r feedback a t l e a r n i n g a s s i s t -ance meetings from t e a c h e r s , we do e v a l u a t i o n s of the i n - s e r v i c e and I'm i n the process of dev e l o p i n g an e v a l u a t i o n t h i n g f o r the end of the year f o r our l a s t meeting t h a t I„',m going to ask them t o , a combination, how d i d you l i k e the t o p i c s , how d i d you l i k e the s t r u c -t u r e , how d i d you l i k e what you were asked t o do, because a l o t of them were asked t o •-. c o n t r i b u t e a p i e c e of an i n - s e r v i c e um and where do we go from here, some needs assessment as t o what d i r e c t i o n t o take next year assuming t h e r e ' s someone i n the p o s i t i o n t h a t ' s a b l e t o c a r r y through, I would l i k e t o leave them some d i r e c t i o n / 191 R: Um hmm 192 I: that.:the a s s o c i a t i o n would l i k e t o go 19 3 R: Um 194 I: so those, t h a t one s o r t of formal way, b a s i c a l l y i n f o r m a l , t e a c h e r s responding t o you One i n t e r v i e w e e f e e l s t h a t some a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s judge t h e i r success by the extent t o which t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s are met. When an a s s i s t i n g teacher r e f l e c t s back on t h e i r years work, he/she f e e l s t h a t he/she judges success by determining whether or not he/she has achieved the o b j e c t i v e s t h a t were s e t f o r t h a t year. I l l 224 When you're working w i t h people on a one to one b a s i s o r a s m a l l group b a s i s , i t s i t s more d i f f i c u l t t o do t h a t and I t h i n k t h a t um I guess we a l l judge our success by the k i n d of feedback t h a t we do get from people um by the exte n t of which t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s we s e t f o r o u r s e l f are i n f a c t achieved and uh I t h i n k t h a t everybody has some kin d s of o b j e c t i v e s i n mind 102 I I I 225 R: 226 I: 227 R: 228 I : 232. I: In summary, the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s seem to judge t h e i r success mostly on.a s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s . The c r i t e r i a they use i n c l u d e s the number of teacher r e q u e s t s , teacher feedback, v i s i b l e change, development of teacher openness and the extent to which o b j e c t i v e s have been met. However, these c r i t e r i a seem to r e l a t e t o day-to-day s i t u a t i o n a l o c c u r r e n c e s . The a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , however, d i d not i n d i c a t e how these c r i t e r i a r e l a t e to judging the success of t h e i r r o l e i n h e l p i n g the classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h implementation. Department Heads To o b t a i n the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e acher, e i g h t secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads have been i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s took p l a c e a t a department head meeting, where they were asked t o complete a group Uh hum of what they would l i k e t o accomplish Uh hum f o r t h e i r year, um w i t h some those are f a i r l y c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s and with o t h e r s there k i n d s o f , they c a r r y them around i n ; t h e i r head so I t h i n k t h a t um (Pause) i t s a, i t s a sub-j e c t i v e assessment of success I t h i n k um and i t s based p r e t t y much on feedback from o t h e r people, um i t s based on i n t e r n a l feedback t h a t I g i v e myself as to whether or not I have met my o b j e c t i v e s o r , i f I've f a l l e n s h o r t of m Y o b j e c t i v e s or I've exceeded them um and i t ' s based on feedback from my c o l l e a g u e s as w e l l , not the ones t h a t I'm working with out i n the system, but the ones t h a t I'm working with , you know, uh i n the c e n t r e here 103 i n t e r v i e w schedule. They o u t l i n e d t h e i r view of f u l l implementation, p e r c e p t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r ' s i d e a l r o l e and the c r i t e r i a used to judge the success of implementa-t i o n . View of F u l l Implementation. The secondary department heads have been asked to g i v e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of what " f u l l " implementation of the proposed s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m whould mean. T h i s has been done to e l i c i t t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of imple-mentation and t h e r e f o r e to determine the i m p l i e d r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation. G e n e r a l l y , the responses of the department heads can be grouped i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . These are the implementation of the c u r r i c u l u m as i t r e l a t e s to 1) the classroom t e a c h e r , 2) the s c h o o l board, and (3) the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . In r e g ard t o the classroom t e a c h e r , a l l e i g h t department heads agree t h a t f u l l implementation w i l l take p l a c e when the classroom t e a c h e r s are i n compliance w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m guide. S p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s i n v o l v e s the scope and sequence of the content (N=4). For f u l l implementation, t e a c h e r s a l s o may have to modify t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t y l e t o f i t the new c u r r i c u l u m (N=3). One department head f e e l s : I I guess i t r e a l l y means t h a t t h e r e are more changes than j u s t the "content" t h a t i s being taught but a l s o t h a t t e a c h i n g s t y l e s change. I f t h a t doesn't happen, k i d s w i l l continue to be turned of S.S. as w e l l as being uninformed. Another aspect of f u l l implementation i s the c u r r i c u l u m ' s p h i l o s o p h y , o b j e c t i v e s / g o a l s and s k i l l s (N=2). I t has been suggested t h a t these should be "evident" i n t e a c h e r s ! t e a c h i n g 104 and students' r e s u l t s . I t a l s o has been suggested t h a t f u l l implementation means t h a t teachers f o l l o w the time parameters t h a t have been suggested i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide (N=2). For example, i f the course o u t l i n e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r grade i n c l u d e s f o u r s e c t i o n s , each encompassing t w e n t y - f i v e per cent of the course, then the t e a c h e r s should be f u l f i l l i n g the requirements f o r t h a t s e c t i o n w i t h i n t w e n t y - f i v e per cent of the hours a l l o t t e d f o r i n t h e i r c o urse. I f t h i s does not take p l a c e i t i s reasonable to assume t h a t p a r t s of the content may not be covered. Two people mention t h a t f u l l implementation means the classroom teacher f e e l s comfortable i n u s i n g the new m a t e r i a l s . I t i s suggested t h a t t h i s would i n d i c a t e "acceptance of the new c u r r i c u l u m by use of m a t e r i a l s " . Two department heads mention t h a t f u l l implementation i s not s o l e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the classroom t e a c h e r , but a l s o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , of ;.the s c h o o l board. T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s -seen i n terms of f i n a n c i a l support and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of programmes. F i n a n c i a l support would a s s i s t implementation because the r e q u i r e d m a t e r i a l s can then be purchased and made a v a i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t g u a n t i t i e s . C o - o r d i n a t i o n of programmes by the s c h o o l board i s seen as necessary so t h a t elementary, j u n i o r and s e n i o r secondary tea c h e r s are p r o v i d e d with a programme which i s c o n s i s t e n t through-out the d i s t r i c t , both w i t h i n grade l e v e l s and among grade l e v e l s . F u l l implementation would mean involvement on the p a r t of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n as w e l l (N=l). The c u r r i c u l u m may r e q u i r e review and r e v i s i o n i n order to f a c i l i t a t e f u l l implementation 105 and t h e r e f o r e the M i n i s t r y of Education should r e q u i r e continuous feedback from a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s concerning the successes and f a i l u r e s of the new c u r r i c u l u m . The department heads seem to use a v a r i e t y of meanings f o r the term f u l l implementation. T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t they are not c l e a r nor c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r concept of imple-mentation. T h i s has d e f i n i t e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher because implementation i s d i f f i c u l t t o f a c i l i t a t e on a d i s t r i c t - w i d e b a s i s u n l e s s a c l e a r and c o n s i s t e n t view of implementation i s i d e n t i f i e d . In summary, department heads seem t o agree t h a t f u l l implementation means t h a t the new c u r r i c u l u m i s taught a t a l l grade l e v e l s . Though mainly the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of classroom t e a c h e r s , f u l l implementation r e q u i r e s involvement by the s c h o o l board and the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . I d e a l Role of A s s i s t i n g Teachers. Department heads suggest t h a t i d e a l l y the primary r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher should be as a resource person f o r the classroom t e a c h e r . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s i d e a l r o l e can be d e s c r i b e d by o u t l i n i n g the department heads' p e r c e p t i o n of the knowledge and a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . Knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m , a l l department heads agree, would be the most c r u c i a l (N=8). New or m o d i f i e d t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s suggested i n the c u r r i c u l u m (N=8) appear to be the most importantc.f or the department heads. A knowledge of the m a t e r i a l s ( p r i n t and a u d i o - v i s u a l ) p r e s c r i b e d by the c u r r i c u l u m i s a l s o deemed necessary (N=6). T h i s 106 i n c l u d e s a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h how to get the m a t e r i a l s . Knowledge i s a l s o seen as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the c u r r i c u l u m content (N=4). In a d d i t i o n , one department head sees knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m as i n c l u d i n g an a b i l i t y t o p l a n t e a c h i n g u n i t s which compliment or supple-ment the c u r r i c u l u m , as w e l l as - an understanding of the p h i l o s o p h y , g o a l s , s k i l l s and e v a l u a t i o n methods of the c u r r i c u l u m . Besides knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m , the department heads see knowledge a c q u i r e d from clasroom experience as important. T h i s i n c l u d e s experience i n t e a c h i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s as w e l l as other s u b j e c t areas and experience a t a v a r i e t y of grade l e v e l s (N=8). Two department heads f e e l t h a t a minimum number of years of s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ( f i v e or t e n years) be r e - .. q u i r e d . An academic background i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s seen as p r e f e r a b l e over a background i n h i s t o r y or geography (N=6). Knowledge ob t a i n e d from other academic course work such as c u r r i c u l u m development or l e a r n i n g theory i s a l s o seen as b e n e f i c i a l . Experience i n c u r r i c u l u m development, c u r r i c u l u m design and implementation (N=4) i s a l s o seen as important f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . Knowledge of and the a b i l i t y t o conduct i n - s e r v i c e programmes i s f u r t h e r mentioned as u s e f u l (N=8). An understanding of p o l i t i c a l processes of the s c h o o l board i s seen as h e l p f u l because i t f a c i l i t a t e s the a c q u i r i n g of the r e s o u r c e s necessary to implement the c u r r i c u l u m (N=3). 107 T h i s knowledge would h e l p the a s s i s t i n g t eacher t o lobby f o r funds r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g i n new c u r r i c u l u m . F i n a l l y , the a s s i s t i n g t eacher may have t o have knowledge of human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s (N=2): T h i s would h e l p the a s s i s t i n g teacher t o work, not o n l y w i t h classroom t e a c h e r s , but a l s o w i t h s c h o o l board o f f i c i a l s . In summary, the department heads s t a t e f i v e types of knowledge which should c h a r a c t e r i z e the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . These i n c l u d e knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m , classroom experience, academic background, an understanding of loc a l -p o l i t i c a l p r o c esses, and human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s . A c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be as important as knowledge by the department heads f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher t o f a c i l i t a t e implementation. The secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads have i d e n t i f i e d e i g h t types of i d e a l a c t i o n s which should c h a r a c t e r i z e t h a t r o l e . The major emphasis suggested by the department heads r e l a t e s t o working with t e a c h e r s (N=8). Department heads see t h i s a c t i o n as v i s i t i n g s c h ools t o pro v i d e v i s i b l e t e acher support (N=5). E i g h t see another a c t i o n as r e l a t e d t o d e a l i n g with the m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d by the c u r r i c u l u m f o r implementation. The a c t i o n s t h a t r e l a t e t o m a t e r i a l s f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher are f a m i l i a r i z i n g themselves w i t h the m a t e r i a l s , i n t r o d u c i n g ^ the m a t e r i a l s t o department heads and classroom t e a c h e r s , making the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e p r i o r t o implementation, determining which m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t l y i n use are s t i l l a p p r o p r i a t e , f i n d i n g supplementary materials,, d e v e l o p i n g m a t e r i a l s which may not be 108 a v a i l a b l e b u t are r e q u i r e d , p r o v i d i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e b i b l i o -graphy of m a t e r i a l s and p r o v i d i n g l o c a l l y developed m a t e r i a l s . Because of the emphasis p l a c e d on m a t e r i a l s , i t seems t h a t the department heads p e r c e i v e d the c u r r i c u l u m as p r i m a r i l y being i n terms of m a t e r i a l s . S i x department heads i d e n t i f y a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g t eacher as r e l a t e d to modifying t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s suggested t h a t the a s s i s t i n g teacher may need to help classroom t e a c h e r s modify t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n order to be able to implement the new c u r r i c u l u m . Although th e r e i s consensus t h a t t e a c h e r s may have to modify t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s , there i s no consensus as t o the degree of change t h a t may be r e q u i r e d . The a s s i s t i n g t eacher may be i n v o l v e d i n f a m i l i a r i z i n g the t e a c h e r s with the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the c u r r i c u l u m document such as the p h i l o s o p h y , g o a l s , content, s k i l l s and e v a l u a t i o n ( N = 4 ) . I t seems t h a t the department heads expect t h i s t o take p l a c e p r i o r to implementation and to be given l e s s emphasis than f a m i l i a r i z i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h new m a t e r i a l s and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . To f a m i l i a r i z e the classroom-teachers w i t h the proposed c u r r i c u l u m , the department heads a l l agree t h a t the most u s e f u l forum would;.be ".workshops". Workshops, i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l development o p p o r t u n i t i e s have been used i n t e r -changeably by the department heads. These workshops should begin p r i o r t o implementation. One department head emphasizes t h i s i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: 109 I I When the new curriculum, a r r i v e s , teachers, w i l l be i n r e c e p t i v e mood f o r workshops., e t c . I t i s a b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l f o r the workshops, new t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , e t c . t o be prepared ahead of time. A team o f a s s i s t -i n g t eachers should, be given a t l e a s t s i x months t o prepare f o r the new c u r r i c u l u m . The purpose f o r workshops i s made l e s s c l e a r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a l l the department heads emphasize the need f o r workshops but o n l y two people g i v e any i n d i c a t i o n as to what the workshops are intended to accomplish. One person mentions t h a t they may be used t o change t e a c h i n g methods and another suggests t h a t the workshops c o u l d be h e l d t o a s s i s t t eachers with new content areas. Another suggested forum i s meetings wi t h department heads and the s o c i a l study s t a f f (N=3). The purpose i s t o c o - o r d i n a t e the j u n i o r and s e n i o r secondary teachers so as to b r i n g g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y between the two l e v e l s . One person has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the most u s e f u l a c t i o n of the a s s i s t i n g teacher would be to s t r i k e a committee t o develop a c u r r i c u l u m which i s c o n s i d e r -ed to be implementable. T h i s "mutual a d a p t a t i o n " ( F u l l a n : 1979), approach i s thought t o be the onl y p o s s i b l e method f o r implement-a t i o n t o take p l a c e . IV Being s e r i o u s but f a c e t i o u s - a new c u r r i c u l u m committee s t r u c k w i t h m a j o r i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u r r e n t s o c i a l s t u d i e s teachers t h a t c o u l d come up wi t h a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s new and p r o g r e s s i v e but something t h a t most t e a c h e r s can l i v e w i t h . I f e a r the p r e s e n t p r o p o s a l i s going t o be b a s t a r d i z e d s e v e r e l y throughout the p r o v i n c e and l i t t l e c o n f o r m i t y from s c h o o l to sch o o l or d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t w i l l occur f o r the f i r s t few years a f t e r i m p l i m e n t a t i o n ( s i c ) o c c u r s . Four department heads have expressed a concern f o r i n s u f f i c i e n t funds. T h e r e f o r e , the a s s i s t i n g t eacher may be 110 i n v o l v e d i n l o b b y i n g the. s c h o o l board f o r funds f o r m a t e r i a l s , f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s markers, and f o r teacher r e l e a s e time. The a s s i s t i n g teacher may a l s o be i n v o l v e d w i t h other s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o share and exchange ideas and personnel to f a c i l i t a t e implementation (N=2). In summary, the department heads suggest s e v e r a l a c t i o n s f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s which are o r i e n t e d around working with teachers to f a m i l i a r i z e them, wit h the c u r r i c u l u m . These i n c l u d e working with new m a t e r i a l s , i n t r o d u c i n g new t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e forums, l o b b y i n g the s c h o o l board f o r funds, and v i s i t i n g o ther s c h o o l boards f o r a d d i t i o n a l i d e a s . Department heads expect the a s s i s t i n g teacher to be a c t i v e i n implementation. TABLE 2 I d e a l R o l e as S p e c i f i e d by Depar tment Heads IDEAL KNOWLEDGE INCLUDES: IDEAL ACTIONS INCLUDES Knowledge o f c u r r i c u l u m (N=8) C l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e (N=8) Academic b a c k g r o u n d W o r k i n g w i t h t e a c h e r s (N=8) F u n c t i o n i n g o f S c h o o l . B o a r d Human r e l a t i o n s (N = 6 ) (N= 3 ) (N=2) F a m i l i a r i z i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h new c u r r i c u l u m (N=8) P r o v i d i n g workshops (N=8) O r g a n i z i n g and a t t e n d m e e t i n g s (N=8) L o b b y i n g f o r funds (N= 3 ) V i s i t i n g o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s .(N=2) 112 C r i t e r i a to Judge Success of Implementation. The department heads have been asked t o d e s c r i b e c r i t e r i a t h a t they would use to judge whether or not the new c u r r i c u l u m has been implemented. T h i s q u e s t i o n a l s o suggests t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f an a p p r o p r i a t e implementation s t r a t e g y f o r Burnaby. The most common c r i t e r i o n (N=4) i s t e s t s . D i a g n o s t i c t e s t s may be given t o students as they e n t e r secondary s c h o o l (N=2). T h i s would determine whether students have a c q u i r e d the knowledge and whether teac h e r s have been t e a c h i n g what i s s p e c i f i e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . A l s o , i t i s suggested (N=l) t h a t t e s t s should be cross-grade and/or c r o s s - d i s t r i c t . One person mentions t h a t student/teacher feedback c o u l d be used t o judge the success of implementation. However, no i n d i c a -t i o n i s given as t o how or why t h i s would be done. Success of implementation can be judged i f teach e r s make use of the suggestions i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s have t r u l y accepted the new c u r r i c u l u m as being v a l i d (N=3). Teachers may have t o modify t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e -g i e s t o those suggested i n the c u r r i c u l u m i n order t o implement the c u r r i c u l u m . IV Whether or not the c u r r i c u l u m was accepted by the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of teachers i n B.C., and taught i n a method t h a t c o u l d achieve the goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes d e s i r e d , i . e . the new c u r r i c u l u m would be seen by most as an improvement, as l o g i c a l and not j u s t a change t h a t has to be d e a l t w i t h - one i n which, a teacher j u s t does the same o l d t h i n g s i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t arrangement or sequence. F u r t h e r , implementation may be f a c i l i t a t e d i f te a c h e r s are not o n l y u s i n g the m a t e r i a l s p r e s c r i b e d but a l s o u s i n g them i n the suggested manner..' 113 I I The new c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s must be used, by teach e r s and each teacher's t e a c h i n g s h o u l d s h i f t i n the d i r e c -t i o n o f the new c u r r i c u l u m t e a c h i n g methodology (note: s h i f t not move completely;' there are many e x c e l l e n t t e a c h e r s i n the d i s t r i c t who have adopted a t e a c h i n g s t y l e t h a t s u i t s them p e r s o n a l l y ; t h e r e i s no evidence t h a t the "new" methodology i s b e t t h e r than what they are doing now). One person mentions t h a t success o f implementation c o u l d be judged by examining course o u t l i n e s which have been developed a t the sc h o o l and then the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . I f consensus i s reached among the teach e r s as t o the o u t l i n e s , and these o u t l i n e s i n t u r n complied w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m guide, then t h a t would en- . . hance implementation. F i n a l l y , one person mentions t h a t implementation c o u l d be judged by " o b s e r v a t i o n " . However, no i n d i c a t i o n i s given as t o what would be observed or by whom. The i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from the department heads i n d i c a t e s , a l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n the c r i t e r i a t h a t would be used t o judge the success of implementation. By examining t h e i r responses, i t seems t h a t they l a c k e d c l a r i t y i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of implementation s t r a t e g y . T h i s has d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n terms of knowledge and a c t i o n . I t would be advantageous i f the a s s i s t i n g teacher had a c l e a r view o f implementation as w e l l as understood the sc h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s p h i l o s o p h y i n r e l a t i o n t o an implementation s t r a t e g y , and t h e r e f o r e , c r i t e r i a t o judge success. T h i s knowledge may help the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n p l a n n i n g i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s f o r the teach e r s i n the sch o o l d i s t r i c t . 114 Job D e s c r i p t i o n A s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s do not always have a p u b l i c job d e s c r i p t i o n . In September, 1980, a job s p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher was d r a f t e d by some of the personnel a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l development c e n t r e (Schou Education C e n t r e ) , but i s has not been r e v i s e d o r become an o f f i c i a l document. The purpose of i n c l u d i n g t h i s job d e s c r i p t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t context i s to determine the d i s t r i c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . Role P e r c e p t i o n . The r o l e i s p r i m a r i l y t o a s s i s t classroom t e a c h e r s i n two ways: to p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e , and to implement i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . Knowledge and A c t i o n . The. minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s r e l a t e s c l o s e l y t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d by the a s s i s t i n g t eachers themselves. The knowledge s p e c i f i e d i n the job d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s t e a c h i n g experience, knowledge of c u r r i c u l u m , s k i l l i n human r e l a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l background. The a s s i s t i n g teacher i s expected t o possess knowledge of c u r r i c u l u m , but i t i s not c l e a r whether t h i s r e l a t e s t o a p a r t i c u l a r grade l e v e l or s u b j e c t area, or c u r r i c u l u m i n a general, sense. Both types of knowledge may be an a s s e t t o an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . Human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s are v a l u a b l e when working with classroom t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and s c h o o l board o f f i c i a l s . Knowledge d e r i v e d from e d u c a t i o n a l background i s a l s o expected. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n as t o the minimum requirements, but o n l y t h a t the ed u c a t i o n should be a p p r o p r i a t e to the a s s i s t i n g 115 teacher p o s i t i o n . The a c t i o n s i n c l u d e b e i n g a resource person i n r e l a t i o n t o m a t e r i a l s , e x p l a i n i n g and demonstrating i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, working w i t h l o c a l l y developed programmes, i n f o r m i n g s t a f f of c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n s , conducting and a s s i s t i n g w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s , r e t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s , keeping c u r r e n t i n terms of new m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, and a t t e n d -i n g and a s s i s t i n g with committees which r e l a t e t o the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . Some classroom t e a c h e r s may wish to implement l o c a l l y developed programmes. The a s s i s t i n g teacher may p r o v i d e a s s i s t -ance i n d e s i g n i n g , d e v e l o p i n g and implementing these programmes. The a s s i s t i n g teacher may be requested to p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s . The purpose of the a c t i v i t i e s i s _ i d e n t i f i e d by the classroom t e a c h e r s and may i n c l u d e o r i e n t a t i o n to c u r r i c u l a r changes, p r e s e n t a t i o n of new m a t e r i a l s , demonstration of d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods or p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e . I f t e a c h e r s change t h e i r t e a c h i n g assignment e i t h e r by grade l e v e l or s u b j e c t area, these t e a c h e r s may r e q u i r e some r e t r a i n i n g i n order to adapt t o t h i s new s i t u a t i o n . The a s s i s t i n g t e a cher, may be requested t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e to these teachers to f a c i l i t a t e an e a s i e r t r a n s i t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , the a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g teacher are g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d around p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e to the classroom t e a c h e r . I t i s suggested however, t h a t the a c t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g teacher should be i d e n t i f i e d and requested by the classroom t e a c h e r . The a s s i s t i n g teacher p o s i t i o n s have been developed t o a i d classroom teachers and the assignment of an a s s i s t i n g t e acher t o a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t area seems to p a r a l l e l the implementation of new c u r r i c u l u m . T h e r e f o r e , the d i s t r i c t p e r c e i v e s the a s s i s t i n g teacher as being a f a c i l i t a t o r of implementation. 117 TABLE 3 I d e a l Role as S p e c i f i e d by the Job D e s c r i p t i o n IDEAL KNOWLEDGE INCLUDES: IDEAL - ACTION INCLUDES: Teaching experience Knowledge of c u r r i c u l u m Human r e l a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l background Working with m a t e r i a l s E x p l a i n i n g / d e m o n s t r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods Working with l o c a l l y developed programmes Informing s t a f f o f c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n s Conducting and a s s i s t i n g with p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s R e t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s Keeping c u r r e n t on new m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods 118 Implied Role .The context of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on ex p e c t a t i o n s of the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementa-t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n s of implementation, and p e r c e i v e d needs of v a r i o u s groups. These e x p e c t a t i o n s , d e f i n i t i o n s , and p e r c e i v e d needs have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r o l e d e f i n i t i o n . E x t r a p o l a t e d from the d i s t r i c t c o n t e x t are some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which can be used when d e f i n i n g an implementation r o l e . From these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , key q u e s t i o n s a r i s e around which the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s ' know-ledge and a c t i o n can be focused f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g implementation. The key qu e s t i o n s are not knowledge or a c t i o n s p e c i f i c but i n t e r r e l a t e . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 1. People p e r c e i v e t e a c h i n g experience as an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o the a s s i s t i n g teacher p o s i t i o n because t h e i r focus of implementation i s on the classroom teacher and t h e i r n o t i o n o f implementation i s classroom based. i How can the a s s i s t i n g t eacher use the knowledge d e r i v e d from t e a c h i n g experience t o p l a n and conduct r e l e v a n t i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? i i How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher use the knowledge P d e r i v e d from t e a c h i n g experience t o h e l p t e a c h e r s i n the classroom? i i i What a c t i o n s o f the a s s i s t i n g t eacher would be s t d i s p l a y t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o the classroom s i t u a t i o n ? 119 i v How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher work w i t h classroom t e a c h e r s on r e v i e w i n g and r e v i s i n g c u r r i c u l u m t o s a t i s f y t h e i r needs? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 2 . People p e r c e i v e the knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m as important. i What i s i n n o v a t i v e between the presen t and pro-posed c u r r i c u l a ? i i What does the i n n o v a t i o n imply f o r student l e a r n i n g ? i i i What does the i n n o v a t i o n imply f o r teacher l e a r n i n g ? i v What can the a s s i s t i n g teacher do t o f a c i l i t a t e a d u l t l e a r n i n g ? v What forum would be s t f a c i l i t a t e a d u l t l e a r n i n g ? v i What are the i d e n t i f i e d -needs:, o f the teach e r s i n r e l a t i o n to the implementation of the innova-t i o n ? v i i How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher use the knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m i n p l a n n i n g and implementing i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? v i i i How do teachers d e f i n e f u l l implementation and what does t h i s imply f o r the knowledge necessary and a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by the a s s i s t i n g teacher? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 3.. Peoples' p e r c e p t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m i s m a t e r i a l s based and t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r n o t i o n of implementation hinges on the o 120 a v a i l a b i l i t y and u s e f u l n e s s o f m a t e r i a l s . i What knowledge o f m a t e r i a l s i s r e q u i r e d by t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r ? i i What m a t e r i a l s a r e p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? i i i How i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s h a n d l e d w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and how c a n t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r f a c i l i t a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n ? i v How c a n s u p p l e m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l s be a c q u i r e d ? v What new m a t e r i a l s a r e r e q u i r e d t o implement t h e c u r r i c u l u m ? v i How c a n t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r f a c i l i t a t e i n t r o -d u c t i o n and f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h t h e new m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ? v i i How c a n t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r use m a t e r i a l s i n p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? v i i i How c a n m a t e r i a l s be m o d i f i e d i n o r d e r „ t o f i t t h e d i s t r i c t c o n t e x t ? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 4. P e o p l e p e r c e i v e human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s as i n t e g r a l t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . i What does t h e ' a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r need t o know a b o u t t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f i n t h e d i s t r i c t and how c a n t h i s knowledge e n a b l e t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r t o work b e t t e r w i t h t e a c h e r s ? i i What human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s a r e r e q u i r e d by t h e a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r t o work w i t h s c h o o l b o a r d p e r s o n n e l ? 121 Generalization 5. Academic background i n curriculum development, evaluation and implementation i s perceived as an a t t r i b u t e to f a c i l i t a t e implementation. i How can t h i s knowledge be used to f a c i l i t a t e the development of materials and course outlines? i i How can t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge be used i n planning and conducting in-service programmes? Generalization 6. Definitions of implementation are vague, and notions of implementation strategies are inconsistent and varied. i How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher f a c i l i t a t e imple-mentation by c l a r i f y i n g meanings of implementation? i i How can a consistent notion of implementation strategies f a c i l i t a t e implementation on a d i s t r i c t basis? i i i What implementation strategies are consistent with the curriculum and the school d i s t r i c t ? i v How can knowledge of people's perceptions regarding the meaning of implementation be used to define the actions of the a s s i s t i n g teacher? Generalization 7. C r i t e r i a used to judge success i n implementation are s i t u a t i o n a l and lack consistency. i How can the knowledge of the school d i s t r i c t help the a s s i s t i n g teacher e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a to judge implementation? 122 i i What types o f knowledge would the a s s i s t i n g t e acher need t o know t o judge the success of implementation? i i i How can the a s s i s t i n g teacher use t h i s knowledge i n p l a n n i n g and conducting i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? i v How can the a s s i s t i n g teachers.' a c t i o n s c l a r i f y the classroom t e a c h e r s ' view of implementation? v How can the a c t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g teacher h e l p the classroom t e a c h e r s e s t a b l i s h c o n s i s t e n t c r i t e r i a t o judge the success of implementation? G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 8. Implementation i s viewed as a c o - o p e r a t i v e undertaking among teachers ( i n c l u d i n g department heads), a s s i s t -i n g t e a c h e r s , l o c a l s c h o o l board personnel;, and oth e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . i How can the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r ' s knowledge of the l o c a l s c h o o l board and other s c h o o l boards be used to f a c i l i t a t e implementation? i i How can the awareness of reso u r c e s i n oth e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s be used i n p l a n n i n g i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? i i i What a c t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g teacher may promote c o - o p e r a t i o n among v a r i o u s groups? i v In what ways can the a s s i s t i n g teacher promote involvement of the l o c a l s c h o o l board i n imple-mentation? In summary, the knowledge and a c t i o n s t h a t d e f i n e the r o l e 123 of the a s s i s t i n g teacher are c o n t e x t u a l l y r e l a t e d . To implement a c u r r i c u l u m the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s ' a c t i o n can. take i n t o account the e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s of the v a r i o u s groups t h a t com-p r i s e a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . They may experience fewer problems i f a s s i s t e d i n d e f i n i n g the meaning of implementation, as w e l l as c l a r i f y i n g the processes of implementation. r i 124 CHAPTER VI Co n c l u s i o n Because implementation r o l e s are not always c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was to o u t l i n e how a r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation may be d e f i n e d i n c u r r i c u l u m and c o n t e x t s p e c i f i c terms. Four data sources were used: s e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on implementation r o l e s ; the presen t (1968) and the proposed (1983) secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a f o r B r i t i s h Columbia; the province-wide s o c i a l s t u d i e s assessment (1977); and School D i s t r i c t No. 41 (Burnaby). These f o u r data sources were analyzed t o determine what each may imply f o r the r o l e o f the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . Research l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g some knowledge and a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l p t e a c h e r s with implementation. The s o c i a l s t u d i e s assessment r e p o r t s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on implementation problems and needs i n the context of B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . The c u r r i c u -lum to be implemented, was compared with the presen t c u r r i c u l u m to determine what was i n n o v a t i v e , and t h e r e f o r e what changes may be r e q u i r e d o f classroom t e a c h e r s ; the i n n o v a t i o n a l s o had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the knowledge and a c t i o n r e q u i r e d of the a s s i s t -i n g teacher when h e l p i n g classroom t e a c h e r s w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m . P e r c e p t i o n s of the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementation were p r o v i d e d by the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t : secondary s c h o o l a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the a c t u a l and 125 i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r , secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads gave p e r c e p t i o n s of what the i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher should be i n order to f a c i l i t a t e imple-mentation, and the job d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s e x e m p l i f i e d the d i s t r i c t ' s g e n e r a l p e r c e p t i o n of the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . The most obvious commonalities among' the f o u r data sources are s t a t e d here as g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s f o r d e f i n i n g an implementation r o l e f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 1. A range of grade l e v e l t e a c h i n g experience w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t may a l l o w the a s s i s t i n g teacher to be s e n s i t i v e t o a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of needs of d i f f e r e n t c l a s s -room t e a c h e r s , and to p r o v i d e h e l p which classroom t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r to be u s e f u l and r e l e v a n t . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 2. The a s s i s t i n g teacher needs c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i f i c knowledge (present c u r r i c u l u m and proposed c u r r i c u l u m ) , as w e l l as knowledge of implementation processes i n order to be a b l e t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o classroom t e a c h e r s . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 3. As an e n t r y p o i n t f o r p l a n n i n g i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , the a s s i s t i n g teacher may need.>;to c o n s i d e r t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i s p r i m a r i l y m a t e r i a l s - b a s e d and t h a t implementation i s classroom-based. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 4. The a s s i s t i n g teacher may need to h e l p s c h o o l and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t a f f in. d e f i n i n g , and understanding a n o t i o n of implementation processes and c r i t e r i a f o r judging the success of implementation. 126 The process f o r d e f i n i n g the. r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n the implementation of the proposed s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m i n the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t may be used f o r c u r r i c u l a i n other s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The c u r r i c u l u m and c o n t e x t s p e c i f i c data d e f i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s are not t r a n s f e r a b l e to other s i t u a t i o n s but the process of c o l l e c t i n g c u r r i c u l u m and c o n t e x t s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n may be u s e f u l f o r d e f i n i n g implementation r o l e s of a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s i n other c o n t e x t s . For example, a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t may choose t o use an a s s i s t i n g teacher to f a c i l i t a t e the implementation of a new p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . In d e f i n i n g the k i n d s of knowledge and a c t i o n t h a t may be necessary, the a s s i s t i n g t eacher heeds to understand the present and proposed c u r r i c u l a so t h a t the nature of the inno-v a t i o n i s c l a r i f i e d , and how t h i s i n n o v a t i o n r e l a t e s t o the c o n t e x t u a l needs and p e r c e p t i o n s . o f J c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . The c o n t e x t u a l needs and perceptions., may be found through assessment and e v a l u a t i o n documents as w e l l as i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i s process of g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which i s c u r r i c u l u m and context s p e c i f i c may be used to f a c i l i t a t e implementation of a new c u r r i c u l u m w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t . 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I n t e r v i e w s : P e r c e p t i o n s of  P r o f e s s i o n a l s and P o l i c y Makers. S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d , Center f o r Research and Development i n Teaching, S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. Lawrence, Gordon. P a t t e r n s of E f f e c t i v e I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n : A State of the A r t Summary of Research on M a t e r i a l s and Procedures f o r Changing Teacher  Behaviors i n I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n . T a l l a h a s s e e : Florida...State Department of Education, 1974. Leithwood, K. A., M. Holmes, and.D.J. Montgomery. H e l p i n g Schools Change S t r a t e g i e s D e r i v e d from F i e l d E x p e r i e n c e . Toronto: O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r St u d i e s i n Education, 1979. Mann, Dale. Making Change Happen. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 1976. Government P u b l i c a t i o n s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Handbook f o r Elementary and Secondary Sch o o l s . V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y o f Edu c a t i o n , Science and Technology, 1979. D r a f t I I Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s K - 11. V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y of Education, D i v i s i o n of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch., 1980. D r a f t . Secondary School C u r r i c u l u m Guide S o c i a l S t u d i e s - 1968. V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y of Ed u c a t i o n , 1968. 132 APPENDIX A LETTER OF INTRODUCTION A s s i s t i n g Teachers May, 1981 Dear I am on leave of absence from Burnaby and am completing an M.A. i n E d u c a t i o n . For a t h e s i s t o p i c I have chosen to d e f i n e the r o l e of the " a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r " i n implementation. I am u s i n g f o u r sources to d e f i n e t h i s r o l e : 1. Research l i t e r a t u r e on implementation r o l e s , 2. S o c i a l S t u d i e s needs assessment, 3. Present (1969) and proposed (1983) s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a , 4. School d i s t r i c t context (Burnaby School D i s t r i c t , No. 41). Because a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m implementation, I would l i k e t o i n t e r v i e w you to determine your p e r c e i v e d a c t u a l and i d e a l r o l e s i n implementation. The i n t e r v i e w w i l l be tape recorded. Please c o n t a c t me i f you want more i n f o r m a t i o n or are w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. I would l i k e t o c o l l e c t the data between May 19th and May 29th. Yours t r u l y , Brenda D. Krutow 133 APPENDIX B LETTER OF INTRODUCTION Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Department Heads May, 1981 Dear I am on leave of absence from Burnaby and am completing an M.A. i n E d u c a t i o n . For a t h e s i s t o p i c I have chosen to d e f i n e the r o l e of the " a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r " i n implementation. I am u s i n g f o u r sources to d e f i n e t h i s r o l e : 1. Research l i t e r a t u r e on implementation r o l e s , 2. S o c i a l S t u d i e s needs assessment, 3. Present (1969) and proposed (1983) s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a , 4. School d i s t r i c t c o ntext (Burnaby School D i s t r i c t No. 41). Because secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c u r r i c u l u m implementation, I would l i k e your o p i n i o n on the i d e a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n implementing the S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . The i n t e r v i e w w i l l be handwritten on a group i n t e r v i e w schedule; i f t h i s i s completed i t w i l l be assumed t h a t consent has been g i v e n . Please c o n t a c t me i f you want more i n f o r m a t i o n or are w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. I would l i k e t o c o l l e c t data at the department head meeting scheduled i n May, 1981. Yours t r u l y , Brenda D. Krutow APPENDIX C INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Secondary A s s i s t i n g Teachers and S u p e r v i s o r PURPOSE: These q u e s t i o n s s o l i c i t your o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r o l e o f the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . The focus i s on the a c t u a l and i d e a l knowledge and a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . T h i s i n t e r v i e w takes approximately one hour. The i n t e r v i e w w i l l be tape recorded. BACKGROUND: The study demonstrates how an implementation r o l e can be d e f i n e d ( i n t h i s case the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher) from four sources of i n f o r -mation: 1. Research l i t e r a t u r e on implementation r o l e s , 2. S o c i a l S t u d i e s needs assessment, 3. Present (1969) and proposed (1983) s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a , 4. School d i s t r i c t c o ntext (Burnaby School D i s t r i c t , No. 41). Because a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m implementation, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study may be b e n e f i c i a l f o r p l a n n i n g the implementation of new c u r r i c u l u m . PARTICIPATION IN THE INTERVIEW IS VOLUNTARY. YOU MAY WITHDRAW AT ANY TIME AND/OR REFUSE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS. YOU WILL NOT BE IDENTIFIED AND THE TAPE RECORDING WILL BE ERASED UPON COMPLETION OF THE STUDY. 135 INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Secondary A s s i s t i n g Teachers and S u p e r v i s o r 1.0 What i s the c u r r e n t r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s implement c u r r i c u l u m ? 1.1 What knowledge c h a r a c t e r i z e s your r o l e ? 1.2 What a c t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e your r o l e ? 1.3 Where and how do you get the knowledge and a c t i o n s t h a t were r e q u i r e d t o he l p t e a c h e r s ? 2.0 How do you judge the success of your r o l e ? 2.1 What knowledge was most u s e f u l ? Why? 2.2 What a c t i o n s were most u s e f u l ? Why? 3.0 What would be an i d e a l r o l e f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e acher i n h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s implement c u r r i c u l a ? 3.1 What knowledge should c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s i d e a l r o l e ? 3.2 What a c t i o n s should c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s i d e a l r o l e ? 4.0 What are the d i f f e r e n c e s between your a c t u a l r o l e and your i d e a l r o l e o f an a s s i s t i n g teacher? 4.1 How do you account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and i d e a l r o l e ? APPENDIX D 136 WRITTEN CONSENT FORM Secondary A s s i s t i n g Teachers and S u p e r v i s o r PURPOSE: These q u e s t i o n s s o l i c i t your o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r o l e o f the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . The focus i s on the a c t u a l and i d e a l knowledge and a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . T h i s i n t e r v i e w takes approximately one hour and i t w i l l be tape . recorded. BACKGROUND: The study demonstrates how an implementation r o l e can be d e f i n e d ( i n t h i s case the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher) from f o u r sources of i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. Research l i t e r a t u r e on implementation r o l e s , 2. S o c i a l ' S t u d i e s needs assessment,! 3. Present (1969) and proposed (1983) s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a , 4. School d i s t r i c t c o ntext (Burnaby School D i s t r i c t , No. 41). Because a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m implementation, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study may be b e n e f i c i a l f o r p l a n n i n g the implemen-t a t i o n of new c u r r i c u l u m . PARTICIPATION IN THE INTERVIEW IS VOLUNTARY. YOU MAY WITHDRAW AT ANY TIME AND/OR REFUSE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS. YOU WILL NOT BE IDENTIFIED AND THE TAPE RECORDING WILL BE ERASED UPON COMPLETION OF THE STUDY. PARTICIPATION IN THIS STUDY WILL NOT PREJUDICE YOUR EMPLOYMENT NOW OR AT ANY TIME IN THE FUTURE. Signature of Interviewee: Signature of I n t e r v i e w e r : Date: APPENDIX E GROUP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Department Heads PURPOSE: These q u e s t i o n s s o l i c i t your o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g what should be the r o l e of an a s s i s t i n g t eacher f o r implementing the proposed (1983) s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . The focus i s on the know-ledge and a c t i o n s t h a t may be r e q u i r e d by an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . The i n t e r v i e w r e q u i r e s approximately one hour. The i n t e r v i e w w i l l be handwritten on a group i n t e r v i e w schedule. BACKGROUND: The study demonstrates how an implementation r o l e can be d e f i n e d ( i n t h i s case the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher) from.four sources of i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. Research l i t e r a t u r e on implementation r o l e s , 2. S o c i a l S t u d i e s needs assessment, 3. Present (1969) and proposed (1983) s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a , 4. School d i s t r i c t context (Burnaby School D i s t r i c t , No. 41). Because secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s department heads have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c u r r i c u l u m implementation, the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study may: be b e n e f i c i a l f o r p l a n n i n g the implementation of new c u r r i c u l u m . PARTICIPATION AND COMPLETION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE IS VOLUNTARY. YOU MAY WITHDRAW AT ANY TIME AND/OR REFUSE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS. -YOU AND YOUR SCHOOL ARE NOT IDENTIFIED. IF THE QUESTIONNAIRE IS COMPLETED IT WILL BE ASSUMED THAT CONSENT HAS BEEN GIVEN. GROUP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Department Heads 138 1.0 What should be the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher i n h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s implement the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m ? 1.1 What types of knowledge should c h a r a c t e r i z e the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher? 1.2 What types of a c t i o n should c h a r a c t e r i z e the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher? GROUP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Department Heads 139 2.0 By what c r i t e r i a would you judge whether or not the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m was implemented? 2.1 What knowledge would be most h e l p f u l i n implementing the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m ? 2.2 What a c t i o n s would be most h e l p f u l i n implementing the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m ? 140 GROUP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Department Heads 3.0 What does " f u l l " implementation mean? 141 APPENDIX F SAMPLE INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT A* 1 (*Total number of t r a n s c r i p t s was seven) INTERVIEWEE (I) INTERVIEWER (R) LOCATION DATE Mr. F. Brenda Krutow Schou Education Centre May 22, 1981 1 R: I t h i n k i t ' s on. F i r s t of a l l , j u s t a few i n t r o d u c t o r y q u e s t i o n s . How long uh you a l r e a d y s a i d you were i n v o l v e d i n , been i n v o l v e d with p r o f e s s i o n a l develop-ment uh 2 I: Four ye a r s , I t h i n k i t ' s f o u r y e a r s . 3 R: Four y e a r s . Were you i n v o l v e d i n any other c a p a c i t y b e f o r e t h a t i n the Burnaby sc h o o l system? 4 I: Uh hum yup, I was the s u p e r v i s o r of p u p i l personnel s e r v i c e s f o r two years p r i o r t o t h a t . 5 R: Uh hum 6 I: Which i n v o l v e d uh.(Pause) Mainly i t i n v o l v e d working wit h uh c o u n s e l l o r s , s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l o r s , secondary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s and ah programmes which had to do with ah t r a n s f e r and placement of students i n the d i s t r i c t . 7 R: Uhmm 8 I: So t h a t ' s what I was i n i t i a l l y 9 R: Uh hum 10 I: brought- i n t o the d i s t r i c t f o r 11 R: Uhm 12 I: and uh th e r e were a number of a u x i l i a r y t h i n g s . connected t o t h a t as w e l l but t h a t was kinda the c o r e . 13 R: R i g h t . In your ah r o l e as um c o o r d i n a t o r i s i t , of the p r o f e s s i o n a l development? 14 I: S u p e r v i s o r of s t a f f development. 15 R: S u p e r v i s o r of s t a f f development, t h a t ' s the t i t l e i s i t ? 1 T h i s t r a n s c r i p t emphasizes the i d e a l r o l e o f the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . 142 16 I: A c t u a l l y t h a t ' s not the whole t i t l e , the whole t i t l e i s s u p e r v i s o r of s t a f f development and programme i n s e r v i c e . 17 R: Oh my goodness, sounds very uh (Pause) o u t s t a n d i n g . 18 I: Yes 19 R: Anyway i n t h a t r o l e have you ever been i n v o l v e d i n implementation? 20 I: Uh 21 R: e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y ? 22 1 : 1 suppose i n d i r e c t l y um, not not d i r e c t l y , I wouldn't say d i r e c t l y , i n d i r e c t l y i n the sense t h a t uh I t h i n k i t i s k i n d of a c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e , and a s u p e r v i s i n g and. m o n i t o r i n g r o l e and which from time to time e n t a i l s b r i n g i n g people t o g e t h e r 23 R: Uh hum 24 I: who have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r content area and ah b r i n g i n g them tog e t h e r and g e t t i n g them working together ah and p l a y i n g a k i n d of c o - o r d i n a t i n g f a c i l i t a t i n g t a t t l e ( i n a u d i b l e ) r o l e 25 R: Uh hum 26 I: w i t h t h a t group of people so t h a t my involvement tends not to be content s p e c i f i c but process o r i e n t e d 27 R: Uh hum 28 I: uhm and so the involvement uh i n whatever tends to be of t h a t nature as opposed to the a c t u a l d i r e c t uh uh r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of implementating a p a r t i c u l a r (pause) p i e c e of c u r r i c u l u m , programme whatever. 29 R: Do you t h i n k t h a t i s , again t h i s i s t h i s i s another i n t r o d u c t o r y q u e s t i o n , do you t h i n k t h a t ' s a route um or a way t h a t a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s are e v e n t u a l l y going to go, to be process o r i e n t e d i n s t e a d of programme um, to look a t uh a p p l y i n g s k i l l s r a t h e r than to a p a r t i c u l a r content area to um secondary teac h e r s f o r example i n having three or f o u r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y d e a l with secondary 30 I: Uh hum, ya I I t h i n k so uh I t h i n k t h a t um a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s probably w i l l um have to be both. I t h i n k t h a t they're k i n d of a t t h a t l e v e l of of s c h o o l o p e r a t i o n , where you have to have s k i l l s i n both areas. 143 31 R: Uh hum 32 1 : 1 t h i n k t h a t most of them probably w i l l uh have some d e f i n e d e x p e r t i s e i n t h e i r area and w i l l and by v i r t u e of t h a t w i l l have some uh s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n working i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r area but a t the same time I t h i n k t h a t uh I t h i n k t h a t we would probably look f o r people who have some process s k i l l s 33 R: Uh hum 34 I: uh who have some human r e l a t i o n s s k i l l s and are a b l e to work with s m a l l groups of people or l a r g e groups of people um and because of the r e l a t i v e l y few a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t we have 35 R: Uh hum 36 1 : 1 t h i n k t h a t those become p a r t i c u l a r l y important um i n implementation 37 R: Uh hum 38 I: because you j u s t can't assume a l l of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t , you have to work through i t with other people 39 R: Uh hum 40 I: uh 41 R: Where the department heads i n t h a t response 42 I : That's r i g h t , t h a t ' s r i g h t , ya 4 3 R: would be very important 44 I: ya ya t h a t ' s r i g h t . So I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e w i l l c e r t a i n l y be i n s t a n c e s where uh an a s s i s t i n g teacher w i l l be s p e c i f i c ah s p e c i f i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r working with another teacher or ah p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some k i n d of programme which i s designed to implemen-t a t e s p e c i f i c uh i n n o v a t i o n but f o r the most p a r t I t h i n k they would be working through i t w i t h other people. 45 R: Uh hum 46 I : ah and ah k i n d of d i r e c t i n g them c o - o r d i n a t i n g them, uh c o n s u l t i n g w i t h them, answering q u e s t i o n s , demonstrating, t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . 47 R: 48 I: Uh hum, uh I'm j u s t going t o stop j u s t f o r a sec Sure 144 49 R: Otherwise I w i l l end up with ( ) v o i c e on two tapes. (Pause) B a s i c a l l y you've s t a r t e d t o answer the f i r s t q u e s t i o n um the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher what b a s i c a l l y , f o r example, do they have a job d e s c r i p t i o n ? uh we have a g e n e r a l job d e s c r i p t i o n f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s Uh hum which a c t u a l l y i s s t i l l i n i t s d r a f t form. Um I guess I've put one tog e t h e r j u s t l a s t f a l l f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i f , t h a t ' s about as f a r as i t ' s gone. Uh hum So we do have a g e n e r a l uh d r a f t uh d e s c r i p t i o n of of a l l a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . Uh hum Uh i t s not uh i t s not s p e c i f i c t o primary o r i n t e r -mediate or E.S.L. or anything e l s e . Right I t ' s we've d e l i b e r a t e l y kept i t g e n e r a l enough Uh hum to cover a l l of them. So i n t h a t you've you d e s c r i b e d uh the board's, or Pro D, Schou Centre's e x p e c t a t i o n s of the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . In g e n e r a l terms, ya, I'd say so. Uh hum I don't know um how much v a l i d i t y I would put on t h a t statement because as I'd say a t t h i s p o i n t uh I wrote the job d e s c r i p t i o n , I submitted i t t o some oth e r people and they s a i d yes t h i s looks p r e t t y good 65 R: Uh hum 66 I: Um you know l e t s j u s t k i n d of keep t h i s uh on r e c o r d f o r the time being um but we've never r e f i n e d i t and I t h i n k t h a t i f i t ever came a p o i n t where we have t o w r i t e a p o l i c y or something l i k e t h a t we probably would r e f i n e i t . 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 R: I: R: I: R: I: R I R I R I: R: I: 67 R: (Giggle) 145 : (Giggle) : J u s t a b i t : And t i g h t e n i t up ya ya : Uh uh : But we do have a g e n e r a l k i n d of job d e s c r i p t i o n f o r you, these people, which I c o u l d g i v e you a copy o f , i f you'd l i k e : I would, yes thank-you. : r e c o g n i z i n g i t as d r a f t : Okay, I ' l l put i t i n b i g b o l d l e t t e r s : and not widely c i r c u l a t e d i t a t t h i s p o i n t (Giggle) : (Giggle) F i n e , no problem, i n t h a t what do you d e s c r i b e as the c u r r e n t r o l e o f the a s s i s t i n g t eacher, what i s i t t h a t you expect them to do? : Um (Pause) we k i n d of look f o r b i o n i c people (Giggle) i n an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . They do a l o t of t h i n g s I guess the ah i t s probably changes over the years as w e l l l i k e o r i g i n a l l y the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s were, i n the system t o h e l p new teach e r s : Uh hum : who were coming i n : j u s t new te a c h e r s : p r i m a r i l y ya um they would have done some other t h i n g s as w e l l , but t h a t was the primary r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher now o b v i o u s l y they're not g e t t i n g a whole l o t of new teachers i n t o the system. : Uh hum : But we do have are a l o t of teach e r s i n new kinds of te a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h i n g a t grade l e v e l s they've never taught a t b e f o r e , um t e a c h i n g content they haven't taught b e f o r e , so t h e r e ' s s t i l l the same k i n d of need, I t h i n k , i t s j u s t has taken a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form. So I t h i n k t h a t the f i r s t um r o l e i f you l i k e , f i r s t e x p e c t a t i o n s uh i s t h a t these people who are assigned t o these p o s i t i o n s work uh very c l o s e l y w i t h those t e a c h e r s who are i n new s i t u a t i o n s who are t r y i n g t o cope wi t h something t h a t ' s d i f f e r e n t or t h a t they're not f e e l i n g comfortable with or even i f i t s something they have been t e a c h i n g f o r q u i t e a while but s t i l l don't f e e l l i k e they've got the k i n d of a 146 84 I: handle on i t t h a t they'd l i k e to 85 R: Uh hum 86 I: um I guess my a t l e a s t my e x p e c t a t i o n i s t h a t they would work very d i r e c t l y with those people i n the classroom on'a one t o one uh b a s i s showing them, demonstrating, g i v i n g them feedback, going through s u p e r v i s o r y kinds of uh processes w i t h them 87 R: Uh hum 88 I: um but r e a l l y a hands on, p r a c t i c a l , r o l l up your s l e e v e s k i n d of approach to working w i t h t e a c h e r s and t h a t ' s the one t h a t ' s been hard I t h i n k to e s t a b l i s h i n the d i s t r i c t because uh uh i t r e a l l y e n t a i l s being out i n schools with people on s i t e , uh i n an open s o r t of r e l a t i o n s h i p and i f people a r e n ' t r e a l l y aware of who those people are and can d i s a s s o c i a t e them from the e v a l u a t i v e , i n s p e c t o r a l k i n d of concept, i t s very hard f o r them to say hey I would l i k e you to come i n t o my classroom. 89 R: Uh hum I t ' s t h r e a t e n i n g . 90 I : I t ' s very t h r e a t e n i n g . 91 R: Uh hum 92 I: Yup, I t h i n k t h a t we've made c o n s i d e r a b l e progress over the l a s t few years i n t r y i n g i n g e t t i n g t h a t t h a t k i n d of a r o l e accepted by t e a c h e r s i n the system, more so i n elementary than i n secondary, t h a t ' s l a r g e l y because we haven't had t h a t many people as a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s i n secondary i n the p a s t . 93 R: Un hum 94 I: t h a t t h a t ' s changing and has changed (Eause) so t h a t ' s c e r t a i n l y one of the b i g b i g g i e s uh i n terms of r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n . 95 R: Uh hum 96 1 : 1 guess um they do a v a r i e t y of other t h i n g s as w e l l uh i n c l u d i n g c o n s u l t i n g with m a t e r i a l s , a l o t of people come i n here and they t a l k about m a t e r i a l s , what can they use f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n and they have t h i s s i t u a t i o n e t c . can can you h e l p , and I t h i n k t h a t t h a t ' s a major a c t i v i t y of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . 97 R: Uh hum 1 147 98 I: They plan.... conduct i n s e r v i c e um (Pause) here as w e l l as i n the s c h o o l s , do a v a r i e t y of workshops as you are aware, and um (Pause) uh l e t s see what e l s e t h e r e ' s something e l s e t h a t o c c u r r e d to me, the c o n s u l t a t i v e r o l e , 99 R: cough, cough, excuse me. 100 I: the workshop r o l e , the a s s i s t i n g r o l e , uh s i t t i n g i n on meetings and uh d e c i s i o n s making meeting r e g a r d i n g m a t e r i a l s t h a t k i n d of t h i n g , uh t h e r e ' s something e l s e t h a t I'm f o r g e t t i n g here, i t popped i n t o my mind, I've s l i p p e d i t , but I ' l l come back t o i t . 101 R: Okay 102 I: But anyway, those are I t h i n k those are the key, the key k i n d of t h i n g s t h a t these people do, the one t h i n g t h a t I'd l i k e t o emphasize i s working d i r e c t l y w i t h teac h e r s um ah as much as p o s s i b l e on a face t o face um b a s i s i n the combat zone (Giggle) 103 R: (Giggle) i n the classroom? 104 I: ya, i n the classroom, ya. The oth e r t h i n g , I^know what the other one was they a l s o get i n v o l v e d i n deve l o p i n g and modifying c u r r i c u l u m 105 R: Uh hum 106 I: and doing t h a t k i n d of a t h i n g and I t h i n k t h a t one of the t h i n g s t h a t we a l l have d i f f i c u l t y with i s how much time do we spend doing t h a t versus how time do we spend with teac h e r s as they t r y to do what they're t r y i n g t o do 107 R: Uhm 108 I: i n the classroom. I t s very easy t o get drawn i n t o the development of c u r r i c u l u m and the m o d i f i c a t i o n of i t to the m a t e r i a l s , uh de v e l o p i n g resource u n i t s , k i t s and t h a t s o r t of t h i n g and get ..working behind a desk with paper 109 R: Uh hum 110 I: and I t h i n k t h a t i n some systems, I have a f e e l i n g t h a t we're a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t from some of the other s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h a t i n some of them there i s a l o t of energy expended on t h a t k i n d of t h i n g . 111 R: Uh hum 148 112 113 R: 114 I: 115 R: 116 I: 117 R: 118 There i s a l o t of emphasis on de v e l o p i n g products, you know paper products which can be used i n the classroom and we do some of. t h a t as w e l l and I t h i n k t h a t the t h i n g s we do are p r e t t y good um, but I don't t h i n k we do as much as oth e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s because of the other emphasis on working w i t h people'. Uh hum You don't end up wit h a product you know a t a n g i b l e product w i t h t h a t um but I t h i n k t h a t you develop people Uh hum befo r e t h a t way than you do the other way. Okay, um what types of t h i n g s do the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s need t o have, need t o know, the the knowledge I have here but b a s i c a l l y what types of t h i n g s do they have to know, do they have t o have a c e r t a i n e d u c a t i o n l e v e l uh take courses, r e f - r e f r e s h e r type course, um (Pause) We haven't been very um demanding i n terms of t h a t , ah I t h i n k t h a t um I'm not sure what kinds of courses a t u n i v e r s i t y of s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g uh makes f o r a person t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p e rt a t being uh an a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . 119 R: Uh hum 120 I: I guess uh we expect them t o be t e a c h e r s . 121 R: Uh huh 122 I: To know something about t e a c h i n g , ah and to have some demonstrated competence as a classroom t e a c h e r . I guess t h a t ' s one of the t h i n g s we f i r s t look f o r i n people who have c r e d i b i l i t y i n the system and they u s u a l l y have c r e d i b i l i t y because they are r e c o g n i z e d as being uh p a r t i c u l a r l y good a t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . 123 R: Uh hum 124 I: In the classroom, and uh t h a t ' s a number one c r i t e r i a , I t h i n k . Obviously they would know t h e i r content area very w e l l and uh most of the people t h a t we b r i n g i n tend t o be f o r a p a r t i c u l a r content area or grade l e v e l and I t h i n k t h a t the other t h i n g t h a t we would look f o r uh would be uh human r e l a t i o n s h i p s with people, t o work wit h s m a l l groups, process group, process kinds of s k i l l s and t o me um a c t u a l l y one i s not more important than the o t h e r . I t h i n k a l l of those t h i n g s are e q u a l l y important uh because t h e r e are people i n the system who are very good uh i n t h e i r content area 149 125 R: Uh huh 126 I : e x c e l l e n t uh and may even be e x c e p t i o n a l l y competent teache r s as w e l l , but i f you s t i l l have, you s t i l l have to be able to work with your c o l l e a g u e s and you know you s t i l l have to be a b l e to develop non-t h r e a t e n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h your c o l l e a g u e s 127 R: Uh huh 128 I: uh an e x c e p t i n g k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p and i f you can't do t h a t then i t s u n l i k e l y t h a t people are going to d i s c l o s e t h e i r areas t h e i r p e r c e i v e d areas of weakness. 129 R: Uh huh. When you're t a l k i n g about t h i s i s i t , do you c o n s i d e r the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher as an e v o l u t i o n a r y one, you seem to (Pause) have on a number of o c c a s i o n s mentioned going i n t o the classroom and the f a c t t h a t i t s not a t h r e a t e n i n g r o l e but t h i s i s n ' t something t h a t , a l r i g h t t h e r e ' s an a s s i s t i n g teacher, he or she i s not t h r e a t e n i n g t h e r e f o r e she, he or she can go i n t o the classroom. Does t h i s take p l a c e r i g h t away or does i t take the f i r s t h a l f of the year or the f i r s t year to develop i n t o t h a t ? 130 I: I t h i n k t h a t uh hum ya I t h i n k i t i s an e v o l u t i o n a r y k i n d of t h i n g a c t u a l l y , um. I t ' s my impression I haven't any data to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s , but I,to my impression t h a t the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t we have now are spending a l o t more time i n classrooms than the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t we had uh when I f i r s t s t a r t e d t h i s 131 R: Uh hum 132 I: uh i n t h i s b u s i n e s s , and ah I t h i n k t h a t uh t h a t the reason f o r t h a t i s t h a t uh uh over a p e r i o d of time people have been i n c r e a s i n g l y s u c c e s s f u l i n e s t a b l i s h -i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people i n the system and t h a t has t r a n s f e r r e d over, there has a c t u a l l y been t r a n s f e r from one year to the other uh i n the sense t h a t uh w e l l i n a v a r i e t y of sense, i n one, i n one r e s p e c t , uh we w i l l have an a s s i s t i n g teacher one year who w i l l be s a y i n g , w e l l next year you know t h i s person or t h a t person or somebody e l s e w i l l be doing t h i s and I t h i n k i t would be a good i d e a i f you know con t a c t e d them and got t o know them and so t h e r e ' s t h a t k i n d of t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y and a l s o the f a c t t h a t the people are i n the s c h o o l s becoming more v i s i b l e 133 R: Uh hum 134 I: and r e c o g n i z e d uh as being there f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose. There are more people uh f e e l i n g comfortable and s a y i n g uh w e l l why don't you come over to my c l a s s -room as w e l l I'd l i k e you to see t h i s or t h a t or the 150 134 I: other t h i n g and so i t s k i n d of spreading out l i k e a b i n o m i a l expansion. 135 R: Uh hum 136 I : (Giggle) You know uh t h a t way and a l o t of the t e a c h e r s here w i l l come back and say, w e l l gee, I'd l i k e t o see so and so and w h i l e I was t h e r e somebody e l s e t a l k e d t o me about t h i s or t h a t or the other t h i n g 137 R: Uh hum 138 .1: and so they get, they get more uh involvement t h a t way but, t h a t i s the time I t h i n k i t s taken a few years f o r t h a t t o happen and I t h i n k t h a t probably your your i d e a t h a t uh uh i t takes a few months b e f o r e you get there i s c o r r e c t , but I t h i n k t h a t time i s d e c r e a s i n g 139 R: Uh hum 140 I: i t s g e t t i n g s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r because people are r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the people who are a t t a c h e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l development or Schou Educa t i o n Centre or whatever and b a s i c a l l y p r e t t y humanitarian people, non-threatening people, they are t e a c h e r s , they are tea c h e r s l i k e us. They a r e n ' t uh uh a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or a u t h o r i t a r i a n f i g u r e s who are going to be here and r e p o r t i n g on us. 141 R: R i g h t . They don't c a r r y the i n s p e c t o r s s t i c k . 142 I: That's r i g h t , ya e x a c t l y . 14 3 R: Okay, I j u s t , you mentioned t h a t a uh a number of times i n t a l k i n g with the people some of them mentioned t h a t the f i r s t h a l f of the year or the f i r s t p o r t i o n of t h e i r assignment was r e a l l y hard to get i n t o the c l a s s -room 14 4 I : Uh hum ya 145 R: because people d i d n ' t know them, I was j u s t wondering what your p e r c e p t i o n of t h a t 146 I : ya 147 R: so I k i n d of stuck another l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t wasn't suppose to be. 148 I: ya 149 R: but, anyway, 151 150 151 R: 152 I: 153 R: 154 155 R: 156 I: 157 R; 158 I: 159 R; 160 161 R: 162 I: 163 R: 164 I: 165 R: 166 I: 167 R: 168 I: 169 R: 170 I: 171 R: ya, I t h i n k t h a t they would probably s t i l l experience i t t h a t way um uh and i t s my .but i t s k i n d of an out-s i d e r l o o k i n g a t the people who are here now and how they're working, i t s my impression t h a t they have been abl e to get i n more q u i c k l y and more e a s i l y than some others have Uh hum i n the past and t h a t i s because of the p r e - h i s t o r y r i g h t t h a t has o c c u r r e d uh um (Pause) and so um w e l l I t h i n k they s t i l l experience i t , i t s f r u s t r a t i n g not being able to get i n t h e r e as q u i c k l y as they'd l i k e Uh hum uh i t s happening more, more e a s i l y I f i t takes them th r e e or f o u r months to get i n , j u s t t h i n k what i t was l i k e f o r the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . t h a t ' s r i g h t four years ago t h a t ' s r i g h t , ya t h a t ' s r i g h t Well ( ) has been, she s a i d t h i s i s her f o u r t h year yes and she s a i d t h a t now she can go i n t o any classroom anywhere i n the d i s t r i c t yes, r i g h t yes -without a problem you know j u s t pop her head i n the door and people are s a y i n g , come on i n ya she s a i d when she f i r s t s t a r t e d i t was r e a l l y a problem yes so j u s t i n t h a t i n t h a t one i n d i v i d u a l That's r i g h t you can see 152 172 I: 173 R: 174 I: 175 R: 176 I: 177 178 180 181 182 179 R t h a t ' s r i g h t how the process i s and i f ( ) was to e x i t t h i s year and uh somebody p i c k e d up her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , I don't t h i n k t h a t you p e r s o n a l l y would have n e a r l y the problem t h a t she had f o u r years ago Uh hum I t h i n k t h a t she, whoever i t was, would f a l l i n t o t h a t uh because of the r e p u t a t i o n t h a t ' s r i g h t t h a t ah developed the r e ' d be some because i t i s a new person r i g h t and people would have to get to know who he or she was but uh not n e a r l y what ( ) had to d e a l with 183 R: Uh hum 184 I: when she begun 185 R: Uh hum, Okay, um you've t a l k e d about a number of t h i n g s t h a t the people do uh going i n t o the classroom, conduct-i n g workshops i s t h a t b a s i c a l l y what a c t i o n s you would say or behaviors t h a t would c h a r a c t e r i z e the r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t eacher 186 I: Uh hum, ya I t h i n k so, um t h a t has changed over the years as w e l l , um i n the sense t h a t uh (Pause) uh I t h i n k now as I s a i d most of the I t h i n k more time i s being spent now with the teachers i n the schools i n the classrooms than was i n the p a s t , uh so I t h i n k t h a t would c h a r a c t e r i z e , t h a t k i n d of d i r e c t c o n t a c t t h a t demonstrating uh how to do c e r t a i n k i n d s of t h i n g s , g i v i n g t e a c h e r s feedback on t h i n g s , t a k i n g m a t e r i a l s to them, and showing them and demonstrating the use of them, um h e l p i n t a k i n g the p a r t the c l a s s I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e ' s more of t h a t 187 R: Uh hum 188 I : happening now than uh than i n the p a s t , where i n the past I t h i n k more time was spent c o n s u l t i n g with m a t e r i a l s a t the c e n t r e , uh working on c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s , um d e v e l o p i n g resource u n i t s 153 189 R: Uh hum 190 I : and doing workshops so I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e ' s been a s l i g h t s h i f t o f emphasis over the l a s t few years 191 R: Right, i n s t e a d of i t t a k i n g p l a c e here, i t s t a k i n g p l a c e i n a classroom more so 192 I: That's t h a t ' s r i g h t . I t h i n k t h a t uh probably more i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n the classroom um (Pause) I was t h i n k i n g about i n s e r v i c e i n the schools as w e l l I t h i n k t h a t there i s a reasonable amount of i n s e r v i c e t a k i n g p l a c e i n the schools uh and of course t h e r e ' s s t i l l a f a i r amount of i n s e r v i c e going on r i g h t here 193. R: Uh hum 194 I: as w e l l 195 R: Uh hum 196 I: but I t h i n k t h a t uh a l l of those, the the behaviors and the a c t i o n s of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s are probably r e f l e c t e d i n a l l of those t h i n g s , i t s j u s t a matter of emphasis, the emphasis has changed 197 R: Uh hum 198 I: over the years 199 R: Uh hum 200 I: I t h i n k , I t h i n k t h a t ' s what's has happened 201 R: Okay, um where do they get and how do they get t h i s knowledge uh assuming o b v i o u s l y when they are a s s i g n e d an a s s i s t i n g teacher p o s i t i o n they have proven t h e i r competency 202 I: Uh hum 203 R: i n the classroom, um so they get t h a t from day to day l i f e i n the classroom and t h a t can be t r a n s f e r r e d to an a s s i s t i n g teacher r o l e because they have to have c e r t a i n knowledge, o b v i o u s l y which can be d e r i v e d some of which can be d e r i v e d from the classroom 204 I : Uh hum 205 R: and c e r t a i n s k i l l s a t t h e i r uh f i n g e r t i p s i n order to use, but i s there some s o r t of p r o f e s s i o n a l develop-ment t h a t a c t u a l l y goes on f o r the a s s i s t i n g t eachers? 154 206 I: not uh not uh e x t e n s i v e l y , one of the t h i n g s t h a t we do l i k e uh i s to have the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s who are coming i n t o the r o l e to e i t h e r have gone through the s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s process or to go through i t when they are coming i n . We o f t e n have a programme i n August, i f we have some new people coming i n i n September we r e a l l y encourage them to to take p a r t i n t h a t , and I t h i n k t h a t ' s u s e f u l because one of the d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s between being a classroom teacher and being an a s s i s t i n g teacher i s t h a t you're now working with your c o l l e a g u e s and uh your w i t h a d u l t s as opposed to working w i t h students and uh I t h i n k t h a t there probably are some s k i l l s which uh are r e q u i r e d i n working w i t h one group which may not be as important with the other 207 R: Uh hum 208 I: um most of what they l e a r n i n t h a t way i s probably on the job, uh by going out and having experiences and coming back and t a l k i n g t o one another or t a l k i n g t o ( ) or t a l k i n g t o me or t a l k i n g t o whomever, has has done a f a i r amount of t h a t and what i t s l i k e t o work wit h another teacher who may be behaving or doing c e r t a i n kinds of t h i n g s . 209 R: Uh hum 210 I: and how to d e a l with t h a t um (Pause) there i s n ' t a whole l o t of uh p r o f e s s i o n a l development or workshops t h a t we, t h a t we implement s p e c i f i c a l l y t o gear them up f o r t h a t , um a s i d e from g i v i n g them an o r i e n t a t i o n t o the c e n t r e and t a l k i n g a b i t about t h e i r r o l e and g i v i n g them g i v i n g people a few ideas as t o how you approach people and how you get i n schools and and some some content and beyond t h a t i t s k i n d of d i r e c t experience 211 R: What about uh workshops or conferences through out the year? 212 I: Um, we don't um w e l l t h a t ' s not t r u e . I was going to say we don't send people to workshops, i f something comes up t h a t ' s seems to make sense and seems to f i t i n w i t h the r o l e , then we may i d e n t i f y people and say, why don't you take p a r t i n t h i s we t h i n k t h i s might be a r e a l l y good t h i n g to to go to experience, uh i t w i l l h e l p you i n t h i s r o l e and i t might h e l p you as a c l a s s -room teacher as w e l l , uh sometimes the a s s i s t i n g teacher themselves i d e n t i f y t h i n g s t h a t they would l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n and uh t h e y ' l l be e i t h e r encouraged or supported t o take p a r t i n t h a t um so the same o p t i o n s are t h e r e as e x i s t s f o r other teachers i n the system. I, t h i n k t h a t one of the t h i n g s t h a t might happen however, i s t h a t t h e i r c h o i c e of workshops p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s f o r themselves might be d i f f e r e n t w h i le they're i n the r o l e of an a s s i s t i n g teacher versus 155 212 I: wh i l e they're i n the r o l e o f a teacher 213 R: Uh hum 214 I: They, they may choose d i f f e r e n t kinds of t h i n g s 215 R: Uh hum, but i t s not discouraged 216 I: I t ' s not discouraged a t a l l , oh. no i t would d e f i n i t e l y be encouraged um 217 R: Okay, good, uh how do they judge the success of t h e i r r o l e f o r example they go out i n t o the classroom, they do t h e i r t h i n g w i t h a uh a demonstration or ah working wi t h a s m a l l group of teach e r s or one teacher what-ever, um how do they know whether i n f a c t they have been s u c c e s s f u l ? Do they have a l o t of teacher feedback um does i t i t take p l a c e t h a t i t ' s k i n d of a w r i p p l i n g e f f e c t t h a t when t h e i r e f f e c t i v e i n one, word of mouth 218 I: Uh hum 219 R: causes them t o get i n t o o t h e r classrooms, or how e x a c t l y by what c r i t e r i a 220 I: W e l l , t h a t ' s uh t h a t ' s r e a l l y hard because uh you know whenever your d e v e l o p i n g a product you have t h a t t h i n g a t the end and 221 R: Uh hum 222 I: you can look a t i t and uh we can, we can uh apply c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a t o i t to determine whether or not i t s good or not. 223 R: Uh hum-224 I: When you're working w i t h people on a one to one b a s i s or a s m a l l group b a s i s , i t s i t s more d i f f i c u l t t o do t h a t and I t h i n k t h a t um I guess we a l l judge our success by the k i n d of feedback t h a t we do get from people um by the extent of which t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s we s e t f o r o u r s e l f are i n f a c t achieved and uh I t h i n k t h a t everybody has some kin d s of o b j e c t i v e s i n mind 225 R: Uh hum 226 I: of what they would l i k e t o accomplish 227 R: Uh hum 228 I: f o r t h e i r year, um wit h some those are f a i r l y c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s and with o t h e r s there k i n d o f , they c a r r y them around i n t h e i r head 156 229 R: Uh hum 230 231 R: 232 I: 233 R: 234 I: 235 R: 236 I: 237 R: 238 239 R: 240 241 R: 242 I: 243 R: you know the t h i n g s they want t o accomplish Uh hum so I t h i n k t h a t um (Pause) i t s a, i t s a s u b j e c t i v e assessment of success I t h i n k um and i t s based p r e t t y much on feedback from other people, um i t s based on i n t e r n a l feedback t h a t I gi v e myself as to whether or* not I have met my o b j e c t i v e s o r , i f I've f a l l e n s h o r t of my o b j e c t i v e s or I've exceeded them um and i t ' s based on feedback from my c o l l e a g u e s as w e l l , not the ones t h a t I'm working with out i n the system but the ones t h a t I'm working with, you know uh i n the ce n t r e here Uh hum and what they're s a y i n g t o me and um uh t h a t k i n d of feedback, um I guess i t s a l s o determined with an a s s i s t i n g t eacher, i t s determined t o a l a r g e extent by uh how much i n demand I am (Giggle) (Giggle) and i f I'm busy then you know you're doing a good job then I must be doing something r i g h t i f a l o t of people are c a l l i n g f o r my s e r v i c e or c o n t a c t i n g me about whatever, then uh t h a t ' s probably an i n d i c a t o r of Uh hum of success. What uh types o f knowledge do you t h i n k i s most u s e f u l , the one i t says what knowledge was uh most u s e f u l uh by t h a t I mean i n the r o l e of an a s s i s t i n g teacher not judging the success but what i s the one t h i n g t h a t i s c r u c i a l or most s u c c e s s f u l to know, would i t be and I know you s a i d you have p r e v i o u s l y s a i d , you can't p r i o r i t i z e . ya okay Is t h e r e one t h i n g you c o u l d draw on or i s i t the combination of i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and t e a c h i n g experience? 157 244 245 R: 246 I: 247 248 253 254 249 R 250 I 251 R 252 I R: I: 255 R 256 257 R 258 I t h i n k i t s um, I I have to say i t s the human r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s t h a t are most'important because I don't t h i n k i f those don't e x i s t , n o t h i n g e l s e i s going t o happen Uh hum um I t h i n k t h a t uh I t h i n k t h a t the r o l e i f i t s going t o change over a p e r i o d of time might be towards more of a g e n e r a l i s t , than a, than a content Uh hum s p e c i a l i s t s So t h e r e f o r e uh the content area becomes l e s s important I t h i n k so. I t h i n k t h a t uh I t h i n k t h a t you have to be a change agent i s a sense Uh hum t h a t when people are t r y i n g t o implement c u r r i c u l u m or develop p r o f e s s i o n a l l y they're r e a l l y t a l k i n g about change i n one form or another and uh I t h i n k t h a t uh we're r e a l l y t a l k i n g about h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s here, d e v e l o p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h with people which are designed t o he l p them adapt Uh hum and change, Uh hum modify um i n l i g h t o f whatever i t i s they're t r y i n g t o d e a l w i t h and i f you can't c r e a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people which i s going t o make t h a t happen um then i t doesn't matter how much you know (Giggle) 259 R: r i g h t 260 you know i t s i r r e l e v a n t I t h i n k t h a t the content can be l e a r n e d 261 R: Uh hum 262 I: I t h i n k t h a t most people can you can p i c k up a Ginn programme and you can l e a r n what the content, we're a l l , we're a l l i n t e l l i g e n t people you know t h a t ' s a give n um I t h i n k and we can we can um you know we're 158 262 I: very good i n terms of t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge. 26 3 R: Uh hum 264 I: We know we know a l o t . Where we have to develop our s k i l l s um I think um i s i n the area of applied know-ledge 265 R: Uh hum „ 266 I: I think that that's probably i n terms of our teacher education where we may have f a l l e n down to some extent as well as we know a l o t but i t s taking that knowledge and applying i t , i n dealing with people the behavioral science component 26 7 R: Uh hum 268 I: I think i t s i t s i t s of major importance 269 R: Okay, which also relates to the next one which i s the actions so uh the actions that are most useful i s b a s i c a l l y your a b i l i t i e s or your s k i l l s to deal with people 270 I: I think so 271 R: prove your competency 272 I: Uh hum, Uh hum ya I think that um being able to interact with people, interface with people i n a way which makes them f e e l comfortable with you 273 R: Uh hum 274 I: uh i n a way which i n s t i l l s confidence uh i n them for you 275 R: Uh hum 276 . I: uh um and then once you get beyond that, then I think you can demonstrate your competence i n other areas as well, work with them i n other ways by demonstrating, by showing, by giving them feedback 277 R: Uh hum 278 I: You know other kinds of competencies come into play then, uh the supervisory kinds of competencies, I think are become important 159 279 R: Uh hum (Pause) You've discussed i n one and two b a s i c a l l y the role of the a s s i s t i n g teacher as i t relates to the job description, that granted i s i n draft form, but i s nonetheless and ya dictates to a certa i n extent the types of things the a s s i s t i n g teachers do, i f there were no r e s t r i c t i o n s , no job description uh no Burnaby School Board saying we expect an a s s i s t i n g to do A, B, or C. Do you think there i s any difference between what they do i n actual form and what they would do i d e a l l y or what you would l i k e to see them do i d e a l l y ? 280 I: Uh hum Uh hum (Pause) I think that uh I think we're getting close to the i d e a l um there's never enough,, time of course you know and the uh reason that we don't reach i d e a l i s largely because uh the l i m i t a t i o n s of of time and the people and that's a r e a l i t y that we just have to deal with that's a l l and except that, um but i n my concept of the i d e a l would be that these people.are working um face to face, hand to hand with people and try i n g to do the kinds of things they're t r y i n g to do i n the school's, teachers are t r y i n g to do i n the schools, you know the old um i t s not the old the new ( ) concept 281 R: Uh hum 282 I: that um professional development i s probably not very successful unless you b u i l d i n that coaching component that l a s t component and that's where I see people l i k e a s s i s t i n g teachers playing the c r i t i c a l role i n actually having the change and a l l that has gone before actually being successful 283 R: Uh hum 284 I: um and i f there was an i d e a l uh or i f we were to s t r i v e more towards that i d e a l that's that's what they'd be spending more time on than than some of the other kinds of things 285 R: Uh hum 286 I: so I think uh (Pause) but I recognize the constraints there as well, there are other things that need to be done you can't you know I don't think you can at t h i s point spend a l l of our time doing that 287 R: Uh hum 288 I : um and i f we move more to the i d e a l I think that we would probably have a few more people uh spending more time with people i n a coaching capacity doing that l a s t l e v e l of the ( ) paradigm 289 R: r i g h t 160 290 I : um and uh maybe l e s s time d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l u m maybe uh somebody e l s e can do t h a t 291 R: Uh hum 292 I: you know maybe we can have other people doing t h a t k i n d of t h i n g 293 R: i f you had an u n l i m i t e d budget 294 I: yes,, not a l i m i t e d budget but we don't you know and I accept t h a t 295 R: Uh huh 296 I: I j u s t accept t h a t and so t h a t where t h e i r uh other s k i l l s o f working w i t h people and through people become a p a r t as w e l l 297 R: Uh hum, so the uh types of t h i n g s t h a t those people would be doing would be more uh a l i t t l e b i t away from an a s s i s t i n g teacher almost to ah ah a c o n s u l t a n t type r o l e i n working one to one with t h a t f i n a l uh stage of development 298 I: ya, ya I'm a l i t t l e h e s i t a n t to use the word c o n s u l t a n t um I'm not sure why e x a c t l y except i t k i n d of conveys the expert to me and uh and uh I would l i k e to see the expert model i n e d u c a t i o n k i n d of d i e g r a d u a l l y 299 R: Uh hum 300 I: because I don't t h i n k t h a t there are experts and I t h i n k i t s more d i s f u n c t i o n a l than f u n c t i o n a l um (Pause) I guess um spending more time w i t h people, i n t e r f a c i n g w i t h people um i n s c h o o l s , g i v i n g them feedback, showing, demonstrating, working w i t h , l i s t e n i n g t o t h e i r concerns, encouraging, s u p p o r t i n g , 301 R: Uh hum 302 I: you know, a l l of those s o r t s of t h i n g s uh which takes a l o t of time 303 R: Uh hum 304 I: which i n the end you don't always have a t a n g i b l e t h i n g t o show people but 305 R: ya 306 I: t h a t ' s uh 161 307 R: other than the e f f e c t t h a t those people would have again again on on the w r i p p l i n g e f f e c t 308 I: ya t h a t ' s r i g h t 309 R: they would have e f f e c t on maybe other s t a f f members w i t h i n the s c h o o l 310 I: Uh hum 311 R: who would be able to see the e f f e c t 312 I: t h a t ' s r i g h t 313 R: i n t h e i r classroom 314 I: t h a t ' s r i g h t 315 R: as i t goes along 316 I: t h a t ' s r i g h t , t h a t ' s r i g h t ya. And I guess when we're t a l k i n g about i d e a l versus a c t u a l I guess what I'm s a y i n g i s I t h i n k we've moved a long way towards t h a t , um I don't t h i n k we've gotten to the p o i n t where we c o u l d 317 R: Uh hum 318 I: and i f , excuse me, i f we were to um r e a l i z e t h a t i d e a l um um a b i t more, there would simply be more time spent on t h a t 319 R: Uh hum 320 I: and l e s s time to accept the other kinds of t h i n g s 321 R: Uh hum okay, I t h i n k you've b a s i c a l l y covered t h r e e -one and three-two uh the knowledge t h a t would c h a r a c t e r i z e the r o l e i s not i s not t h a t d i f f e r e n t from what they have 322 I: Uh hum 323 R: i t ' s more the a l l o c a t i o n of time 324 I: Uh hum 325 R: t h a t would be d i f f e r e n t and the a c t i o n I t h i n k i s t h a t , the a l l o c a t i o n of time t o spend more time i n the classroom 326 I : ya 327 R: w i t h the teachers and l e s s time i n development and m a t e r i a l s and t h a t s o r t of t h i n g 162 328 I: ya 329 R: Would t h a t summarize what you were saying? 330 I: Ya, I t h i n k so and as I'm l o o k i n g a t t h a t as w e l l I'm t h i n k i n g about knowledge versus behavior and you've asked me a few qu e s t i o n s about knowledge, um one of the t h i n g s t h a t I t h i n k uh would be very h e l p f u l f o r the people coming i n t o these r o l e s , i s the k i n d o f background t h a t I see some people l i k e y o u r s e l f and uh some o t h e r s g e t t i n g a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s now which has to do with c u r r i c u l u m i n a g e n e r a l k i n d of sense. I t h i n k t h a t um f i r s t o f f the a s s i s t i n g t eachers t h a t come here don't always have s p e c i f i c courses on c u r r i c u l u m development and implementation, uh most of them have courses i n t h e i r content area and have methods courses, t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g 331 R: Uh hum 332 I: but they haven't taken i n a g e n e r a l i s t courses i n t h i s area of c u r r i c u l u m development and uh I t h i n k t h a t I see more and more people g e t t i n g courses i n those areas and t a k i n g t a k i n g programmes along t h a t l i n e and I t h i n k t h a t ' s r e a l l y u s e f u l 333 R: Uh hum 334 I: t h a t ' s going t o be very u s e f u l i n the next f i v e y ears t o ten y e a r s , t h a t people are going to be coming i n t o i n t o the system and i n t o these r o l e s w i t h a p r e t t y good n o t i o n of what p r o f e s s i o n a l development i s about, what i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n i s about, 335 R: Uh hum 336 I: what uh c u r r i c u l u m development i s about, and what c u r r i c u l u m implementation i s about as w e l l and uh some of the problems i n b r i d g i n g the gap between one and the other 337 R: Uh huh 338 I: uh and those people I t h i n k are going t o be much more p r i v i l e d g e d uh much b e t t e r o f f than a l o t of the ones who have come i n wit h a good understanding of t h e i r of t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m , 339 R: Uh hum 340 I: t h e i r content area but who haven't had the time or the experiences of r e a l l y g r a p p l i n g w i t h what does t h i s r e a l l y mean, you know what are the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r people uh what happens to people when they go through a change process 1 6 3 3 4 1 R: Uh huh 3 4 2 I: what happens whenever you're c o n f r o n t e d w i t h e x p e r i e n t i a l l y 34 3 R: Uh hum 344 I: phenomenogically, so I'm not sure e x a c t l y what's happening r i g h t now out out i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s r i g h t now but i t ' s my impression t h a t these people are d e a l i n g w i t h these these q u e s t i o n s and t r y i n g t o uh uh c l a r i f y f o r themselves j u s t what does happen to people, what ki n d s of s t r e s s e s , 34 5 R: Uh hum 346 I : you know are people t r y i n g to d e a l with 3 4 7 R: t h a t ' s p a r t of i t ya t h e r e ' s s t i l l a l o t of i v o r y tower 3 4 8 I: sure 3 4 9 R: t h i n g s t h a t go on out there 3 5 0 I: i t ' s s t i l l a p p l i e d knowledge 3 5 1 R: t h a t ' s g e t t i n g t o them 3 5 2 I: or i t ' s , I'm s o r r y , i t s i t s t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge, i t s s t i l l a t the l e v e l of t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge -3 5 3 R: but i t s becoming more and more p r a c t i c a l 354 I: yes uh hum sure , 3 5 5 R: you can see t h a t even, I s t a r t e d t h i s " d e g r e e uh f o u r years ago 356 I: ya 3 5 7 R: n i g h t s c h o o l , summer s c h o o l 358 I: ya ya 3 5 9 R: b e f o r e I took t h i s year o f f and you can see the change even from then to now 3 6 0 I: sure e x a c t l y 3 6 1 R: In such a s h o r t p e r i o d of time 3 6 2 I: ya 3 6 3 R: people are going out on t o campus not f o r the theory, they can spend hours s i t t i n g a t home r e a d i n g t h a t 164 364 I 365 R 366 I 367 R 368 I: 369 R: 370 371 I: R: 372 I 373 R 374 I 375 R: 376 I: 377 R: 378 I; Uh hum they want some i n f o r m a t i o n on how t o make i t p r a c t i c a l Uh hum r i g h t and how does t h i s process of implementation, how does t h i s process of e v a l u a t i o n , or whatever you happen t o be l o o k i n g a t , how i s i t a c t u a l i z e d Uh hum r i g h t r a t h e r than, t h i s i s suppose to happen A, B, C, and D w e l l get i t out i n t o the f i e l d t h a t doesn't happen. Why? yes r i g h t ya ya so t h i s s o r t o f p r a c t i c a l i t y t h a t ' s becoming t i e d to i t I t h i n k i s r e a l l y ya more important ya w e l l even even there t h e r e ' s a uh uh we're t a l k i n g about k i n d o f t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge r e g a r d i n g the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of something Uh hum and i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s somebody s t i l l has t o take t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge about how you do i t Uh hum and do i t and t h a t ' s where the a c t u a l i n t e r - p e r s o n a l s k i l l the the human component e n t e r s i n t o i t 379 R: Uh hum 380 I: um and being able t o make m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n your behavior, a d a p t a t i o n s i n your behavior i n the process of working w i t h people as you implement t h a t t h i n g 381 R: Uh hum 382 I: but um the f a c t t h a t t h a t ' s happening I t h i n k i s a very h e a l t h y 383 R: huuum 384 I: process r i g h t now, very h e a l t h y development i n educat i o n uh which i s going t o uh uh be an advantage f o r people who are coming i n t o r o l e s l i k e t h i s i n the f u t u r e 165 385 R: Umm yes I'm not r e a l l y very much aware on what they're doing on S.F.U. campus, a f r i e n d of mine took the implementation course from j u s t a moment, uh what's her name, i t s r i g h t on the t i p of my tongue and I can't t h i n k of her, a ( ) t h i s year and um s a i d t h a t I looked over the r e a d i n g course and some of the readings were very much the same as I d i d i n the course 386 I: Uh hum 387 R: cause I have taken o n l y one course i n implementation and uh then the o r i e n t a t i o n of my t h e s i s toward i t but some of the readings seemed very much the same 388 I: Uh hum 389 R: um t h e i r assignments were a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t than ours, ours were uh more uh t a k i n g a l l t h a t uh you've uh seen or been exposed t o i n implementation, what are the most c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t i n your p e r c e p t i o n the most c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t have to be answered as you go along the process 390. I: Uh hum 391 R: l i k e , what are the t h i n g s you have to look f o r and why um our l u c k i l y I had a p r o f e s s o r t h a t was very much i n tune w i t h , now you'know a l l t h i s theory 392 I: yup 393 R: make i t p r a c t i c a l 394 I: yes 395 R: go out and t a l k t o people and f i n d out what they do 396 I: Uh hum, yep 397 R: so I'm I'm not sure t h a t the S.F.U. programme i s the same as ours but I t h i n k i t s very c l o s e 398 I : Uh hum 399 R: I t h i n k everybody i s to the p o i n t t h a t , what they get they want to be of p r a c t i c a l use 400 I: yes r i g h t ya 401 R: Okay, the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and the i d e a l f o r number fo u r i s very minimal um mainly the reasons why are money, I t h i n k i n fo u r one the d i f f e r e n c e between the a c t u a l and the i d e a l t h a t y o u 've/talked about i s the a l l o c a t i o n of time and the reasons f o r i t , j u s t t o c a p s u l i z e what you've s a i d i s t h a t you don't have enough funding t o be able to have as many 166 4 01 R: people you know so t h a t you can a l l o c a t e some., person to spend f u l l time 402 I: ya I wouldn't l i k e t o emphasize t h a t too much though at the same time I don't I wouldn't l i k e i t t o go away (Giggle) I guess I don't want you going away saying oh ( ) says I don't get enough money (Giggle) 403 R: No, no, I'm not s a y i n g t h a t , t h a t ' s the onl y t h i n g you've s a i d 404 I: I t h i n k t h a t u m I t h i n k but but I guess i f you b o i l e d i t down to t h a t common denominator t h a t ' s t h a t ' s probably a p a r t of i t , I t h i n k t h a t um you c o u l d probably say t h i s of any o r g a n i z a t i o n i t would be n i c e t o have more people doing some of these k i n d s of t h i n g s and of course t h a t has an i m p l i c a t i o n f o r d o l l a r s and cents and I t h i n k t h a t i s t h a t i s d e f i n i t e l y p a r t of i t . I t h i n k another p a r t of i t , t h e r e ' s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l uh t h i n g here as w e l l um um I'm t r y i n g t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n how do you account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and the i d e a l , I t h i n k t h a t uh t h a t we have a concept I t h i n k we have concepts, our s e l f - c o n c e p t s and our concept of of what educa t i o n i s about, what t e a c h i n g i s about, uh um and uh our assumptions about . how people change and one of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and i d e a l I t h i n k i s embodied i n t h a t you know the k i n d of t h i n g t h a t people c a r r y around w i t h them um t h e i r n o t i o n s about themselves, t h e i r n o t i o n s about ot h e r people, um t h e i r concept of what ed u c a t i o n i s , what t e a c h i n g i s and I t h i n k t h a t most of our c o n s t r u c t s our s t r u c t u r e s our mental s t r u c t u r e s about t h a t , uh tend to be t r a d i t i o n a l , uh um c o n s e r v a t i v e um um I ' l l l eave i t a t those k i n d s of words but the r e are a l o t of other words t h a t c o u l d come to mind but they have r e a l l y n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s and I t h i n k i t s hard to break people out of t h a t you know to to look a t edu c a t i o n and a t t e a c h i n g and a t the p r o f e s s i o n i n a broader sense 4 05 R: Uh hum 406 I: and i f you can k i n d of b u r s t out t h a t t h a t mental c o n s t r a i n t , t h a t c o n c e p t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t , then you s t a r t s e e i n g a whole l o t of other p o s s i b i l i t i e s um i n terms of r o l e and f u n c t i o n and ways of d e a l i n g with people and the kinds o f t h i n g s t h a t people can do i n the c o n t e x t of ed u c a t i o n i n a s c h o o l system but we're s t i l l very t r a d i t i o n bound and the community i s t r a d i t i o n bound and we're r e a c t i n g we're d e a l i n g w i t h the community as w e l l um and so I t h i n k t h a t t h a t probably i s as b i g a c o n s t r a i n t on the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and the i d e a l as um as some of the monitary s t a f f i n g k i n d s of c o n s t r a i n t s 167 407 R: Uh hum, the e x p e c t a t i o n s they c a r r y w i t h them 408 I: t h a t ' s r i g h t ya the e x p e c t a t i o n s , the s e l f - c o n c e p t s , the concepts of t e a c h i n g and uh s c h o o l i n g and uh a l l of those kinds of t h i n g s 409 R: Uh hum 410 I: s e l f - c o n c e p t s I t h i n k probably have as much to do wit h i t as anything 411 R: Uh hum, yes i t s d e f i n i t e l y we c a r r y a whole uh a huge amount of uh prec o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s and ideas w i t h them with us,~' and I remember sc h o o l being such and such and t h e r e f o r e when I teach s c h o o l w i l l be 412 I: t h a t ' s r i g h t 413 R: I enjoy doing t h i s so t h e r e f o r e 414 I: ya 415 R: the k i d s t h a t I teach are going to enjoy doing t h i s 416 I: t h a t ' s r i g h t 417. R: or I d i d n ' t l i k e t h i s aspect so I'm going t o a v o i d t h a t i n my t e a c h i n g 418 I: r i g h t ya 419 R: so i t s very d i f f i c u l t t o remove y o u r s e l f from what 420 I: and i t has to do wit h the whole bus i n e s s of of change as w e l l t h a t , um um I don't t h i n k we are by nature, we don't seem t o be by nature l e t ' s put i t t h a t way 421 R: Uh hum 422 I: r i s k t a k e r s 423 R: Uh hum 424 I: um we tend t o we we have developed a competence and an e x p e r t i s e i n a p a r t i c u l a r , and we d e r i v e a l o t of s e l f -s a t i s f a c t i o n um we d e r i v e a l o t of p o s i t i v e feedback from our e x p e r t i s e i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r area and I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a h e s i t a n c y on the p a r t of many people t o venture out 425 R: Uh hum 168 444 I: Gee, we've wrambled a l l over the p l a c e here, a t l e a s t I f e e l l i k e I've wrambled a l l over, you haven't I have, um I can't t h i n k of anything r i g h t now 445 R: Super 446 I: I t h i n k we've covered a l o t of p o i n t s 44 7 R: I t h i n k so too. I'm g e t t i n g such a huge amount of data. 448 I: Uh hum 169 APPENDIX G SAMPLE INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT. B * l (*Total number of t r a n s c r i p t s was seven) INTERVIEWEE (I) INTERVIEWER (R) LOCATION DATE Ms. B., A s s i s t i n g Teacher Brenda Krutow Schou Educa t i o n Centre May 25, 1981 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 R: Um I have a couple of i n t r o d u c t o r y q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e the f i r s t one on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . How long have you been an a s s i s t i n g teacher? I: T h i s year. R: J u s t t h i s year? I: yup R: Were you p a r t of the Burnaby School Board p r e v i o u s to t h a t ? I: ' D i d I teach i n Burnaby? R: Yes. I: Uh huh, three years i n Burnaby. R: At secondary or elementary? I: Elementary. R: Uh hum, but your realm i s K t o 12 wit h I: yes R: your L.A.C. r i g h t I: yes R: Uh hum, so you do have exposure t o um p a r t , d i f f e r e n t aspects between I: Uh hum, uh hum R: K, elementary and secondary. I: ya 1 T h i s t r a n s c r i p t emphasizes the a c t u a l r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r . 170 : Okay,. Have you ever been i n v o l v e d i n implementation, not n e c e s s a r i l y of. a c u r r i c u l u m but implementing a new te a c h i n g s t r a t e g y , a new package, t h a t has been developed f o r L.A. L.A.C. or uh some other types of new m a t e r i a l s or uh : yes : e i t h e r as a classroom teacher or an a s s i s t i n g t eacher, : Uh hum : or both? : Uh hum : Super, was i t i n your p o s i t i o n as an a s s i s t i n g teacher or as a classroom teacher? : W e l l , uh as an a s s i s t i n g teacher I've been i n v o l v e d i n uh (Pause) b r i n g i n g i n new m a t e r i a l s , a d v i s i n g people on new m a t e r i a l s : Uh humm : demonstrating : Um humm : the use of the m a t e r i a l s , there i s no c u r r i c u l u m : Um hmm : i n l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e so there I haven't been i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m implementation except f o r the f a c t t h a t with the rea d i n g programme being implemented l a s t year : Uh hmm : umm the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t has to be aware of the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m i n order t o implement t h e i r own t o supplement i t . : Right, the Ginn 720, i s t h a t what you're : ya : r e f e r r i n g to? Ya, uh hmm, so I've been i n v o l v e d a l s o as as a teacher done a l o t o f work on ah i n us i n g new m a t e r i a l s : Uh hmm : and p i l o t i n g programmes and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t : Um hmm. Uh hmm You've: almost completely answered the f i r s t q u e s t i o n s which i s a n i c e t i e i n between one, from one to the oth e r um the c u r r e n t r o l e of the a s s i s t i n g teacher uh c o u l d you d e s c r i b e what i t i s t h a t you do, i t doesn't n e c e s s a r i l y have to be an implementation of a new programme but some of the t h i n g s you do which a s s i s t the L.A.C. teach e r s i n implementation. : Okay, w e l l uh my, L.A.C. i s a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t than the r e g u l a r c l a s s because by d e f i n i t i o n they're supplementing : Um hmm : a programme t h a t a c h i l d has i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s , i n r e a d i n g g e n e r a l l y math sometimes : Um hmm : content areas l e s s f r e q u e n t l y uh and as a r e s u l t of t h a t , there i s no standard m a t e r i a l and there i s no standard c u r r i c u l u m : Um hmm : so I do a l o t of work with t e a c h e r s i n a s s e s s i n g where the student i s i n the standard c u r r i c u l u m : Um hmm : and then f i n d i n g m a t e r i a l and programmes t h a t would be s u i t a b l e and i n t e r e s t i n g t o the student : Um hmm : depending on i n t e r e s t areas : Um hmm : uh to supplement : Um hmm : what he's doing i n the r e g u l a r programme, so t h e r e ' s a a l a r g e component of my work as an a s s i s t i n g i s i s with d e a l i n g with m a t e r i a l s : Um hmm : c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s , a d v i c e t o t e a c h e r s on on what k i n d of m a t e r i a l s to use, s u p p l y i n g the m a t e r i a l s , Um. hmm and then doing demonstration l e s s o n s u s i n g them. Um hmm f o r recommendations r e g a r d i n g c h o i c e o f one ver s u s another depending on the students, a l o t of programme advice Um hmm um teachers come, I do some t r a i n i n g i n assessment, some advice f o r assessment Um hmm I am i n v o l v e d i n some (Pause) programming from an assessment t h a t a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher has done, I w i l l s i t down with them afterwards and then draw some c o n c l u s i o n from t h a t and move from t h e r e i n t o where, where are we going to go from here Um hmm and s o r t of there a l i a s o n between something between the L.A. teacher and the classroom teacher Um hmm uh between what's happening i n the c l a s s and what the L.A. teacher i s doing, sometimes do not support one another umm then I can k i n d of f u n c t i o n as a m o d i f i e r o f behavior i n both d i r e c t i o n s , uh been i n v o l v e d i n a l o t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l k i n d s of t h i n g s t h i s year a t the elementary l e v e l um l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s have not over the l a s t couple o f years been o r g a n i z e d as a group Um hmm uh there have been i n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d or developed by people w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e people came or went or whatever j u s t l i k e everyone-^else and I've moved towards more dev e l o p i n g of a s s o c i a t i o n of t e a c h e r s and and g e t t i n g people t o g e t h e r as a group Um hmm r e g u l a r l y so t h a t they c o u l d have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o share with each other on an i n f o r m a l a b a s i s as p o s s i b l e 173 77 R: Um hmm 78 I: and ah i n t h a t I c o - o r d i n a t e d groups of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t teachers d e v e l o p i n g an i n s e r v i c e package to present t o t h e i r peers 79 R: Um hmm 80 I: and I s u p p l i e d the m a t e r i a l s and the t y p i n g and and a l l the r e s t o f the background s t u f f , the l e t t e r s t h a t went out to everybody s a y i n g t h a t t h i s was happening, um i t s a l a r g e c o - o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n , p u t t i n g on i n s e r v i c e s i n some cases I was i n v o l v e d as g e n e r a l l y , I was i n v o l v e d but I d i d n ' t always a c t u a l l y do any of the t a l k i n g d u r i n g the i n s e r v i c e , i n some cases I d i d , i n some cases I was one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p r e s e n t i n g a chunk 81 R: Um hmm 82 I: of an i n s e r v i c e , the secondary l e v e l um I've been i n v o l v e d i n m a t e r i a l s , choosing m a t e r i a l s , a d v i s i n g m a t e r i a l s , d e v e l o p i n g a supply here, there hasn't been a l o t 83 R: Um hmm 84 I : i n the p a s t i n secondary a v a i l a b l e , so we're attempting to b u i l d t h a t component of the p o o l , a l o t of t h a t i s j u s t an ed u c a t i o n p r o c e s s , the secondary people are not used t o having a resource and so I've done a l o t of p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s 85 R: Um hmm 86 I : i n going around and sa y i n g look here's these m a t e r i a l s and you can get them from Schou, here's these kinds of t h i n g s , have you looked at t h i s or t h i s or t h i s 87 R: Um hmm 88 I: and do you know they're around, haven't done a l o t of i n s e r v i c i n g a t the secondary l e v e l we don't have a l o t o f people i d e n t i f i e d as l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s a t the secondary l e v e l , t here i s a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e component but i n a l o t o f sc h o o l s they have chosen t o b u i l d i t r i g h t i n t o the s c h o o l and you don't have a person i d e n t i f i e d , you may have h a l f a dozen people 89 R: umm 90 I: d e a l i n g w i t h l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e types o f students, m o d i f i e d programmes whatever but t h e r e ' s no one you can go to and say, you're c o - o r d i n a t i n g a l l t h i s f o r 174 90 I : your s c h o o l because they don't have t h a t k i n d of t h i n g which c r e a t e s a d i f f i c u l t y f o r me 91 R: Um hmm 92 I: ah because I can't d e a l with t h a t many people and get the i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h a t many many people so I've k i n d of s e l e c t e d out, worked wi t h some of the de p a r t -ment heads, the E n g l i s h department heads t o s o r t of use as a base 9 3 R: Um hmm 94 I: uh and b a s i c a l l y o t h e r than t h a t , I haven't done a l o t a t secondary because I'm h a l f time here and I'm t e a c h i n g h a l f time and there j u s t i s not time 95 R: You're t e a c h i n g h a l f time as w e l l ? 96 I: Ya 97 R: Is th e r e not another l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a s s i s t i n g teacher? 98 I: No 99 R: You're i t f o r the d i s t r i c t ? 100.. I: I'm i t , ya 101 R: H a l f time 102 I: ya 103 R: Uh hmm, i n t e r e s t i n g 104 I: Yes, so as a r e s u l t probably because of my own st r e n g t h s and i n t e r e s t s , I know the m a t e r i a l s on the programme and e v e r y t h i n g a t the elementary and f e e l t h a t I can be a v a l u a b l e resource t o those people 10 5 R: Um hmm 106 I: so I've conc e n t r a t e d i n t h a t area 107 R: Um hmm 108 I: and I've done a l o t a t the secondary l e v e l i n m a t e r i a l s and c o n t a c t w i t h people 109 R: Um hmm 110 I : to s o r t of form a base, i f someone continues i n t h i s p o s i t i o n but haven't done a l o t 175 111 R: Is t h i s going t o c a r r y on i n September? 112 I: I have no idea.. 113 R: Um hmm, so i t was j u s t k i n d o f a h a l f time 114 I: Ya 115 R: block 116 I: Ya 117 R: would you mind 118 I: No, no I don't um and I , I don't t h i n k the p o s i t i o n s have been made as of y e t 119 R: R e a l l y f o r September '81 120 I: they don't even have t h e i r p r i n c i p a l d e c i s i o n s made y e t 121 R: oh as f a r as 122 I : yes 123 R: t h e y ' l l know whether t h i s p o s i t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e or not next year through because i t has to of .been i n the budget, no 124 I: no 125 R: you're k i d d i n g 126 I : they don't budget f o r t h a t k i n d of time, they would budget maybe f o r ten s t a f f people f o r t h i s c e n t r e but they don't designate where the emphasis w i l l be and the emphasis s h i f t s from year t o year, f o r example t h i s year we have h a l f time L.A. h a l f time E.S.L. w e l l she i s , was put f u l l time h a l f way through the year, e n g l i s h , secondary e n g l i s h and a r t next year they may go s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , a r t and E.S.L. l i k e t here are a c e r t a i n number of s t a f f p o s i t i o n s decided and then they r e f i n e as t o what areas they're going t o h i t 127 R: Uh so as i t stands r i g h t now, you w i l l i n the d i s t r i c t next year i n some c a p a c i t y , i n some area, a t someplace 128 I: Yep (Giggle) 129 R: Uh t h a t ' s about as s p e c i f i c as I've got i t , cause I'm on Ed leave t h i s year, I t h i n k you've, pardon 130 I : go ahead 131 R: oh I was j u s t going t o c a r r y on 176 132 I: yep 133 R: Um I, I t h i n k you've p r e t t y w e l l answered knowledge and a c t i o n s uh knowledge what I mean by t h a t i s t h a t i s what types of t h i n g s d i d you have t o know to do the job of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r , the a c t i o n s you've covered 134 I: Um hmm 135 R: Uh but was there some s o r t of knowledge you had, be i t um your a b i l i t y to work wit h people, um your u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , uh education t h a t you have had through course work s i n c e you've got out of Ed. sch o o l you know, t h a t s o r t of t h i n g 136 I: Okay um f i r s t t h i n g I have a very s t r o n g b i a s as f a r as the knowledge r e q u i r e d by l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l and I don't r e a l l y c o n s i d e r myself as an a s s i s t i n g teacher any d i f f e r e n t than the people i n the classroom 137 R: Right 138 I: Um, I t h i n k we need t o have a very s t r o n g r e a d i n g background, very s t r o n g r e a d i n g because t h a t ' s b a s i c a l l y what we teach, we do some math but predominantly, probably 70% o f the people t h a t we see are r e f e r r e d t o us f o r r e a d i n g 139 R: Um hmm Um hmm 140 I: because t h a t ' s the prime concern because i f they can't read the math q u e s t i o n i t doesn't matter whether they can add and s u b t r a c t 141 R: Um hmm 142 I: because they don't know where t o put the numbers, um so I t h i n k t h a t ' s t h a t ' s the prime concern i s a know-ledge of the t h e o r e t i c a l background of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , um methodology, very s t r o n g methodology of course a l o t o f i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t other f a c t o r s t h a t have have i n f l u e n c e on r e a d i n g l i k e language and uh c u l t u r a l background 143 R: Um hmm 144 I: those kinds of t h i n g s 145 R: Um hmm 146 I: we need t o know about, we need t o be ab l e t o assess students, t h a t ' s very o f t e n as f a r as a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t needs t o go because the classroom teacher 177 146 I : i n a l o t of cases knows e x a c t l y what the problem i s and where she has to go w i t h i t , the support p r o v i d e d the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t i s the assessment t h a t confirms what the classroom teacher c o u l d have t o l d them 14 7 R: Um hmm 148 I : but t h a t support i s v e r y o f t e n very v a l u a b l e t o the teacher and to the parent, so t h a t ' s an important r o l e and programming from t h a t assessment t o say not j u s t t o be able t o get a bunch of numbers out but to be able to take those numbers and draw some c o n c l u s i o n s about where to s t a r t i n the programme and m a t e r i a l s , i t ' s c r u c i a l t o know as much about as many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s as you p o s s i b l y can, to be as c u r r e n t because the people i n the classroom don't have time to be d e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i s h e r s and to stay c u r r e n t on what's new and, w e l l both the g i r l i n E.S.L. have j u s t k i n d of kept a running t h i n g a l l year w i t h the p u b l i s h e r s as as soon as you get something new I want to see i t , e v e r y t h i n g new you get I want to see because t h a t ' s what we see as p a r t of p u r job 149 R: Um hmm 150 I : um and d e a l i n g w i t h people, being able to approach people with a d v i c e as to modifying t h e i r own behavior r e g a r d i n g m a t e r i a l s or t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and not be seen as e v a l u a t i v e or t h r e a t e n i n g 151 R: Um hmm 152 I: t o be able to approach them i n f o r m a l l y on, I'm here to help b a s i s 153 R: Um hmm 154 I: i s r e a l l y c r u c i a l and not to be seen as d i s t r i c t s t a f f because t h a t immediately 155 R: has a c e r t a i n c o n n o t a t i o n 156 I: has a c o n n o t a t i o n ya ya t h a t ' s about i t 157 R: Super, um the t h i r d one under number one, where and how d i d you get the knowledge and a c t i o n t h a t was r e q u i r e d to h e l p , i s i t p a r t i a l l y on the job t r a i n i n g , p a r t i a l l y having been the classroom as a classroom teacher i n L.A.C. i n the i n l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , your u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , where d i d you get t h i s um r e s e r v i o r of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t you can tap at any time i n order f o r you to be able to s u c c e s s f u l l y do your job? 178 158 I: W e l l , I t h i n k f i r s t o f a l l you've got to have the u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , you've got to have the t h e o r e t i c a l background i n assessment and r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , so t h a t ' s b a s i c a l l y your u n i v e r s i t y courses uh but they don't do you a heck of a l o t of good i f you haven't taught and i f I was i n power i n i n any sense, d e c i d i n g who would get i n t o l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e you wouldn't get i n t o i t u n l e s s u n t i l you've taught f i v e years i n the classroom 159 R: umm 160 I: because I don't care how much u n i v e r s i t y you've got and how much t r a i n i n g and how wonderful you a r e , t h e r e ' s a l o t of t h i n g s t h a t happen i n t h a t classroom t h a t you have to very s e n s i t i v e to as a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher, I c o u l d develop the most i n c r e d i b l e programme f o r any one of your students but i f I'm not aware t h a t you've got twenty nine o t h e r s 161 R: Um hmm 162 I: t h a t programme i s u s e l e s s , i t has to be something t h a t I know from experience, a teacher with a reasonable amount of i n t e r e s t and d e d i c a t i o n , can implement with the other t h r e e , f o u r r e a d i n g groups t h a t • they are a l r e a d y , I'm assuming, t r y i n g t o handle 16 3 R: Um hmm 164 I: and I don't t h i n k you get t h a t by watching people or whatever 165 R: or a three week p r a c t i c u m 166 I: no, no you r e a l l y you r e a l l y have to spend t h a t time and t h a t ' s where you develop your t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s too, t h a t ' s where you develop a l l those d i f f e r e n t ways of t r y i n g to teach a c e r t a i n s k i l l 167 R: Um hmm 168 I: i s through the f i v e years you've taught you p l a y with i t , as every teacher does and e v e n t u a l l y come to a s t r a t e g y t h a t works f o r you with c e r t a i n k i d s , then you've got o t h e r ones t h a t you've a l s o t r i e d t h a t you can modify, t h a t ' s the b a s i c i s the theory, you've got to have t h a t , and you've got to have the classroom experience and a t more grade l e v e l s 169 R: Um hmm 170 I : than j u s t one or two, t h a t was the h a r d e s t t h i n g t h a t I found going i n t o l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e was t h a t my experience was predominantly primary, I had never 179 170 I: taught grade six or seven, I had taught up to f i v e and that I f e l t was really- d i f f i c u l t at the beginning of doing learning:, assistance, you lose a l o t of c r e d i b i l i t y i f you haven't been i n the classroom too 171 R: . Um hmm 172 I: i f you've been there: and the teachers know you've . been there, the questions never come up i f you say they ought to be able to handle i t , they say, oh well okay I ' l l give i t a shot, i f you've never been i n the classroom and you say they ought to be able to handle i t , they go away saying who's she 173 R: What does she know? 174 I: Ya," ya she doesn't know that I've got Johnny climbing on the walls and so and so, you know 175 R: Um hmm 176 I: so you, your c r e d i b i l i t y stands and f a l l s on classroom experience 177 R: Um hmm, Okay, the next question i s , b a s i c a l l y you've described a l o t of things that you do, how do you judge, by what c r i t e r i a do you judge whether t h e i r successful or not, for example, do teachers phone up and say that worked, i t was great, thanks a l o t , do you get feedback from people, do you get reinforcement that you're going along the right vein or i s there some mechanism or something you've developed with the teachers you work with, i n order to be able to judge the success of what you're doing? 178 I: Um, I think b a s i c a l l y informally 179 R: Um hmm * 180 I: people w i l l phone and ask for more of something 181 R: Um hmm 182 I: p a r t i a l l y i t ' s , um you see people opening more and more to you as you provide something and they f e e l comfortable with i t and i t works for them and they ask for two more things and then you get so you're in the school once, a week 183 R: Um hmm 184 I: bringing them something, so just that growth from the very f i r s t thing was a hesitant phone c a l l , to them not being surprised when you're dropping i n once a week 180 185 R: Um hmm 186 I: saying you know b r i n g i n g something, d e l i v e r i n g something, j u s t t h a t openness 187 R: Um hmm 188 I: t o ask f o r he l p and to accept h e l p when i t comes, i s i s one t h i n g t h a t you can see t h a t you are having an i n f l u e n c e 189 R: Um hmm 190 I: um I get r e g u l a r feedback a t l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e meetings from t e a c h e r s , we do e v a l u a t i o n s of the i n s e r v i c e and I'm i n the process of dev e l o p i n g an e v a l u a t i o n t h i n g f o r the end of the year f o r our l a s t meeting t h a t I'm going t o ask them t o , a combination, how d i d you l i k e the t o p i c s , how d i d you l i k e the s t r u c t u r e , how d i d you l i k e what you were asked t o do, because a l o t of them were asked t o c o n t r i b u t e a p i e c e of an i n s e r v i c e um and where do we go from here, some needs assessment as t o what d i r e c t i o n t o take next year assuming t h e r e ' s someone i n the p o s i t i o n t h a t ' s a b l e t o c a r r y through, I would l i k e t o leave them some d i r e c t i o n 191 R: Um hmm 192 I : t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n would l i k e t o go 193 R: Um 194 I: so those, t h a t one s o r t of formal way, b a s i c a l l y i n f o r m a l , t e a c h e r s responding t o you 195 R: Uh hmm,what types of knowledge d i d you f i n d t o be most u s e f u l i n your r o l e uh you've t a l k e d about uh the f a c t t h a t i t ' s necessary t o have the s t r o n g r e a d i n g back-ground and t h a t o b v i o u s l y i s very u s e f u l , and uh your uh a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h people t h a t ' s o b v i o u s l y some-t h i n g t h a t ' s very u s e f u l , i s there any oth e r knowledge uh anything t h a t you knew or l e a r n e d throughout t h i s year t h a t you found t o be r e a l l y u s e f u l i n f u l f i l l i n g your p o s i t i o n as an a s s i s t i n g teacher? 196 I: The knowledge of the m a t e r i a l s t h a t were a v a i l a b l e i n the d i s t r i c t and how to go about g e t t i n g them 197 R: Um 198 I: I t h i n k 199 R: So your c o n t a c t with p u b l i s h e r s and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . 181 200 201 202 R: I: Ya ya, and j u s t being: aware of the processes t h a t are i n e x i s t e n c e as f a r as. what i s a v a i l a b l e i n the d i s t r i c t and where i t is: and how to get i t , a l o t of teachers are not aware of the f u n c t i o n i n g s and who has what, t h e y ' l l phone me and say hey I r e a l l y need t h i s k i n d of a t e s t and I know t h a t they can get i t from student s e r v i c e s , so I can r e f e r them t o the r i g h t people. Um hmm J u s t t h a t g e n e r a l knowledge of what happens i n the d i s t r i c t , r e s o u r c e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e , programmes t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r k i d s . 203 R: Um hmm 204 I : Teachers t h i n k , you know, t h i s , I j u s t c a n ' t cope w i t h t h i s k i d , he's i n grade s i x he's d r i v i n g me cr a z y and I can say to them, s i x b l o c k s down the s t r e e t i s a sc h o o l t h a t has a p r o t e c t i v e c l a s s a t a grade s i x l e v e l , t a l k to the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t from t h a t s c h o o l and s o r t of c o - o r d i n a t e , maybe t h i s c h i l d would be b e t t e r o f f walking s i x b l o c k s the oth e r d i r e c t i o n and a t t e n d i n g t h a t other s c h o o l . 205 R: Um hmm 206 I: J u s t a d v i c e i n t h i n g s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e through the d i s t r i c t and m a t e r i a l s t h a t are here i n the b u i l d i n g because I don't t h i n k even those of us who work here were a w a r e , u n t i l we a c t u a l l y s a t down and catalogued a l l the m a t e r i a l s , how much was here. 207 R: Um hmm and i t ' s a v a i l a b l e t o them. 208 I: Um hmm, Um hmm 209 R: Uh hmm 210 I: Yep 211 R: What a c t i o n s d i d you f i n d to be most u s e f u l ? 212 I : (Pause) M a t e r i a l s supply, m a t e r i a l s a d v i c e , the phone c a l l 213 R: Um hmm 214 I: uh s a y i n g quick h e l p , 215 R: Um hmm 216 I: I have a grade s i x boy r e a d i n g at a grade two l e v e l , j u s t moved i n t o my area, he l i k e s t h i s and t h i s and t h i s , send me something quick 182 217 R: Um hmm 218 I: and j u s t the f a c t t h a t I'm here, they can draw, they can c a l l on me and they know t h a t although i t may not be p e r f e c t , because they haven't had a chance t o come i n and check i t out themselves, a t l e a s t t h e y ' l l have something to s t a r t with i n two or three days. 219 R: . Um hmm 220 I: So t h a t , 221 R: the immediacy 222 I: Ya, ya 223 R: of being a b l e to phone you and get the s t u f f and not because face i t , 99% of the classroom t e a c h e r s j u s t don't have the time t o do t h a t k i n d 224 I: No 225 R: of running around. 226 I: No and i t ' s very d i f f i c u l t as a classroom teacher t o get the time t o come down here and wade through a l l the s t u f f on the s h e l f when you're hunting f o r something f a i r l y s p e c i f i c on math word problems o r something 227 R: Um hmm 228 I: and those of us t h a t are here can v i r t u a l l y p u l l i t o f f the s h e l f b l i n d f o l d e d , because we know where i t i s 229 R: Um hmm 230 I: and e x a c t l y what i t looks l i k e . 231 R: Um hmm 232 I : So t h a t k i n d of t h i n g has been r e a l l y h e l p f u l , I t h i n k I've had a l o t of good feedback on people saying i t ' s so n i c e t o have somebody down there 233 R: Uh hmm 2 34 I: to phone 235 R: Uh hmm, t h a t can help 236 I: Ya, ya 237 R: Um hmm, Okay, you've d e s c r i b e d a l o t about what you see your r o l e i s c u r r e n t l y , the a c t u a l day-to-day, week-to-week type t h i n g s you do, the uh reso u r c e s you draw upon and what not and o b v i o u s l y you're r e s t r i c t e d by a 183 job d e s c r i p t i o n and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , take away a l l the r e s t r i c t i o n s , what would you see your i d e a l r o l e , i f you c o u l d do whatever you wanted uh without any r e s t r i c t i o n s , what would you do i f you c o u l d d e f i n e your uh a s s i s t i n g t eacher r o l e or i s i t what you do? Uh, a l o t of i t would be what I do with a l o t more time to do i t i n . Um hmm I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a c r y i n g need f o r i n s e r v i c i n g and awareness b u i l d i n g a t the secondary l e v e l Um hmm t h a t somebody needs to do and I can see i t being w i t h i n the realm of a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a s s i s t i n g teacher um I would l i k e t o maybe change the t i t l e because l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , i f they don't have i t i n t h e i r s c h o o l , they don't t h i n k i t ' s r e l e v a n t Um hmm and i f you d i d something wi t h people t e a c h i n g m o d i f i e d programmes, t h e r e ' s hundreds of them out t h e r e , Um hmm and then they would see i t as r e l e v a n t um and i t i t i s , I t h i n k t h a t b a s i c a l l y i t ' s a time c o n s t r a i n t , a l o t of the t h i n g s t h a t are happening now, the m a t e r i a l s advice and the i n s e r v i c i n g are r e a l l y good and I t h i n k v a l u a b l e to the d i s t r i c t Um hmm um the time to do i t a t a broader spectrum i s j u s t not t h e r e . So you would l i k e t o see your p o s i t i o n f u l l time f o r one t h i n g , Uh hum um hmm and longer than a year? Yes, d e f i n i t e l y urn Do you f i n d t h a t a one year p o s t i n g f o r v i r t u a l l y any of the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , you've j u s t begun t o develop the t r u s t of the t e a c h e r s and your own knowledge of the m a t e r i a l s and and the workings of the system 184 255 R: Um hmm 256 I: a t the end of one year you can. see the d i r e c t i o n you need to go 257 R: Um hmm 258 I: you can see where the weaknesses are and what needs to be f i l l e d and a f t e r j u s t one year (Pause) i t ' s k i n d of a waste to throw t h a t f i n g e r on t h i n g s t h a t you've f i n a l l y developed t h a t ' s taken a l l year and g i v e i t to somebody e l s e to f i g h t the same b a t t l e 259 R: Um hmm, r e i n v e n t i n g the wheel 260 I: ya ya but I don't t h i n k i t ' s the k i n d of p o s i t i o n t h a t I would l i k e to see appointed l i k e a a d i s t r i c t super-intendent i s appointed, f o r GOd knows when 261 R: Um hmm 262 I: he c o u l d be e i g h t y , I don't t h i n k t h a t ' s r i g h t because t h e r e ' s a v a r i e t y of people around the d i s t r i c t t h a t have an i n c r e d i b i l e wealth of s k i l l s and i t ' s an a s s e t to the d i s t r i c t to r o t a t e the p o s i t i o n 26 3 R: Um hmm 264 I: because you, then you c o u l d take advantage of a wide spectrum 265 R: Um hmm 266 I: of peoples s k i l l s , so I would see i t on l i k e a two t o three year appointment 267 R: Um hmm 268 I: and then a a r o t a t i o n 26 9 R: Um hmm 270 I: somebody e l s e coming i n 271 R: But the o p t i o n l e f t open f o r t h a t person to uh c a r r y on i f 272 I: W e l l , oh 273 R: or you may t h i n k t h a t a f t e r three years t h a t ' s i t , the person should go onto, something e l s e and somebody and f r e s h b l o o d should come i n 274 I: I t h i n k I would le a n more to having i t a t h r e e year maximum t h i n g , 185 275 R: Um hmm 276 I: but there are so many people t h a t are i n classrooms and we a l l need a change 277 R: Um hmm 278 I: from time t o time, and i t ' s a good mechanism i n the d i s t r i c t to pr o v i d e our own teachers with a change of outlook 279 R: Um hmm 280 I: and a bre a t h e r and b u i l d t h a t enthusiasm back again because a f t e r you'be been t e a c h i n g f o r ten y e a r s , i t s t a r t s t o wain 281 R: Um hmm 282 I: you get t h a t break t o do something d i f f e r e n t f o r a couple of years and you're ready t o go again f o r another ten 283 R: Um hmm 284 I: so i t i t ' s a good r e l e a s e v a l v e l o o k i n g a t a d i s t r i c t p r o s p e c t i v e 285 R: Ya, i n s t e a d of the t h i r t y k i d s i n f r o n t of you a t the present 286 I: Ya, ya I t h i n k i t c o u l d probably prevent a l o t of burnout 287 R: Um hmm 288 I: of people, i f they had t h a t k i n d of r e l e a s e 289 R: Um hmm um, i f you had um, i f you c o u l d draw on other types of knowledge f o r t h i s i d e a l r o l e t h a t happens to be from two or th r e e years and f u l l time, e t c . what types of knowledge, other than those t h a t you've d e s c r i b e d i n i n the t h i n g s t h a t you t h i n k are u s e f u l now, are those the types of uh knowledge t h a t you t h i n k would be u s e f u l without the r e s t r i c t i o n s 290 I : um everyone has t h i n g s t h a t they're they know more about than other areas than they know more about than o t h e r s I know t h a t there are c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t I, I am now i n v e s t i g a t i n g 291 R: Um hmm 292 I: because I haven't taught a l o t of i t and I need the background f o r t h i s job, t h i n g s l i k e uh w e l l secondary 186 292 I: uh I t h i n k i d e a l l y f o r a person i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i f they're going t o , i f they want you to do a spectrum K to 12 i t ' s almost u n r e a l i s t i c um t h a t ' s a l o t to expect one person to have the knowledge, not o n l y of the o r a l language t h a t a k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d needs but the r e f e r e n c e and study s k i l l s t h a t a grade twelve student needs 293 R: Um hmm 294 I : and how to b u i l d both end uh but I t h i n k t h a t classroom t e a c h i n g experience a t both l e v e l s would be r e a l l y v a l u a b l e because I don't have i t 295 R: Um hmm 296 I: and I can see a problem f o r myself i n d e a l i n g a t the secondary l e v e l , I've never taught there 2 97 R: Um hmm 298 I: Uh 2 99 R: t h a t i s i f would you d e s c r i b e I mean would your i d e a l s i t u a t i o n be someone from K to 12 or would 300 I: Um 301 R: you i d e a l l y l i k e t o see t h a t i n two separate people perhaps 302 I: depending on the scope of the r o l e , i f the the r o l e of the person doing the secondary was to d e a l w i t h a l l the tea c h e r s t e a c h i n g m o d i f i e d we o n l y have e i g h t people t h a t are d e s i g n a t e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t s a t the secondary 303 R: Humm 304 I: and by i n s e r v i c i n g those e i g h t people, i t ' s a drop i n the bucket and they can't p o s s i b l y spread themselves t h i n l y enough through t h e i r whole s c h o o l , i f you were t r y i n g t o be more i n v o l v e d with everybody t e a c h i n g m o d i f i e d programmes or c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g problems then you need someone v i r t u a l l y f u l l t i m e a t the secondary l e v e l 305 R: Um hmm 306 I: and someone at the elementary l e v e l because a t the elementary l e v e l you have your l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s t h a t you're c o u n t i n g on spreading i n t o the classroom t e a c h e r s 307 R: Um hmm 187 308 I: but i f you're f u l l time you c o u l d do a l o t more of t h a t and I have done some t h i s year i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the other a s s i s t i n g teachers as they're i n a classroom and s e e i n g two k i d s not f i t t i n g i n t o any r e a d i n g groups and not being anything done wi t h them, I can go i n and work with them 309 R: Um hmm 310 I: the other, the i n t e r m e d i a t e a s s i s t i n g teacher and the classroom teacher and the L.A. and develop a programme f o r those two l e f t o v e r s 311 R: Um hmm 312 I: I t h i n k probably (Pause) by i n t e n s i f y i n g your area of s p e c i a l t y you would probably get more from the programme 313 R: Um hmm 314 I: by l i m i t i n g to a grade l e v e l u n l e s s you get somebody who's a b s o l u t e l y f a n t a s t i c and had taught t h a t spread but there a r e n ' t very many of those people around t h a t have taught r i g h t from k i n d e r g a r t e n grade one, where your emphasis i s very d i f f e r e n t , t o s e n i o r secondary 315 R: Umm, Well I know I had m o d i f i e d c l a s s e s and I remember one of the f i r s t was E n g l i s h which i s o u t s i d e of my area, I uh d i d my t r a i n i n g and o r i g i n a l l y taught i n the area of S o c i a l S t u d i e s and a l l of a. sudden I was g i v e n a m o d i f i e d E n g l i s h c l a s s w i t h " r e a l l y , r e a l l y low r e a d i n g l e v e l s , i t was a grade nine c l a s s and some of the k i d s 316 I: two 317 R: Ya some of them t h a t were r e a d i n g t h a t low and I had, I mean we've got a p r e s c r i p t i o n of A,B, and C novel and splays ant t h i s and t h a t and the other t h i n g s , these k i d s can't read i t much l e s s understand i t um and I was j u s t uh what do I do, f i r s t t h i n g i s work on r e a d i n g s k i l l s so I c a l l e d ( ) who happened to be a t uh ( ) a t the time and out she came, because I had t a l k e d to our l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher at a t ( ) we have one, had one, I'm not a t ( ) anymore, the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher s t i l l i s , oh w e l l i t ' s a new person, w e l l anyways, the p o s i t i o n i s s t i l l t h ere and she d i d n ' t have the m a t e r i a l , she c o u l d n ' t p r o v i d e me enough 318 I: Um hmm 319 R: m a t e r i a l s f o r two c l a s s e s to work on a r e a d i n g programme so um (. ) had the m a t e r i a l s and she came out and 1 8 8 3 1 9 R: h e l p e d me d e a l w i t h t h i r t y k i d s w o r k i n g on t h i r t y , w e l l n o t e x a c t l y , a b o u t t w e n t y - f o u r k i d s w o r k i n g on t w e n t y - f o u r d i f f e r e n t programmes and i t was s e n s a t i o n a l b u t I d i d n ' t even know t h a t e x i s t e d 3 2 0 I : Um hmm 3 2 1 R: u n t i l y o u g e t i n a p a n i c s i t u a t i o n , I ' m t e a c h i n g o u t s i d e o f my a r e a , I ' v e g o t t o g e t some h e l p , I d o n ' t know what t o do w i t h t h e s e k i d s . to make i t a w o r t h w h i l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r f i v e months and I f o u n d t h a t a f t e r we d i d a t h r e e week r e a d i n g programme most o f t h e k i d s i n c r e a s e d a t l e a s t one g rade l e v e l on t h e t e s t i n g 3 2 2 I : Um hmm 3 2 3 R: because we p r e and p o s t t e s t e d , i t was s e n s a t i o n a l and t h e k i d s c o u l d a c t u a l l y see t h a t t h e y had 3 2 4 I : grown w h i c h w h i c h i s y o u r f i r s t b a t t l e 3 2 5 R: Um hmm 3 2 6 I : i s i s g e n e r a l l y a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l k i d s t h a t a r e h a v i n g t r o u b l e i n r e a d i n g o r have f a i l e d f o r so l o n g t h a t t h a t ' s t h e i r s e l f e x p e c t a t i o n 3 2 7 R: T h a t ' s r i g h t 3 2 8 I : They d o n ' t e x p e c t t o be a b l e t o r e a d a n y t h i n g you g i v e them, t h e y d o n ' t e x p e c t t o be a b l e t o do a n y t h i n g 3 2 9 R: Um hmm 3 3 0 I : and i f you c a n j u s t g e t them o v e r t h a t s t e p t o where t h e y maybe, I w i l l be a b l e t o do i t t h i s t i m e 3 3 1 R: Um hmm 3 3 2 I : t h a t ' s 5 0 % o f y o u r p r o b l e m 3 3 3 R: Um hmm 3 3 4 I : because t h e y ' l l a t l e a s t g i v e i t a s h o t 3 3 5 R: r i g h t b e i n g a b l e t o r e a d t h e newspaper 3 3 6 I : Um hmm 3 3 7 R: w h i c h i s w r i t t e n a t about a g rade s i x l e v e l 3 3 8 I : y a 3 3 9 R: t h a t was a b i g s t e p upward f o r t h o s e k i d s 189 340 I: ya 341 R: so i t was r e a l l y r e a l l y worthwhile s l i g h t d i v e r s i o n , j u s t a b i t 342 I: but I t h i n k t h a t that's, something t h a t 34 3 R: I mean f o r the a s s i s t i n g teacher p o s i t i o n 344 I: t h a t t h a t they seem t o be p u t t i n g a l l t h i s time and e f f o r t i n the d i s t r i c t i n t o dropout p r e v e n t i o n and a l l t h i s student s c r e e n i n g and a l l the r e s t of t h i s 345 R: Um hmm 346 I: and they're s t i l l not g e t t i n g any h e l p do those people teach you i n the m o d i f i e d c l a s s e s , the k i d s t h a t are r e a l l y out of i t l i k e r e a l l y , r e a l l y out o f - i t a re, the r e are some s p e c i a l programmes happening a t the secondary l e v e l f o r them 347 R: Um hmm 348 I: which i s gre a t because there wasn't b e f o r e 349 R: but even 350 I: and i t ' s coming 351 R: L.A.C. once a day f o r one semester i s h a r d l y enough to have those k i d s develop p o s i t i v e r e a d i n g s k i l l s and to be able to to cope wi t h the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system, one hour i s not enough 352 I: and L.A.C. by d e f i n i t i o n i s suppose t o be i n support of the classroom system not i n s t e a d of the classroom programme 353 R: Um hmm 354 I: but i f i f you not g i v i n g the classroom teacher anything to do a t the k i d s l e v e l s , how can she do anything with them a t a l l 355 R: Um hmm 356 I: so th e r e ' s t h e r e ' s a r e a l need a t the secondary l e v e l t h a t I r e a l l y haven't been able t o meet simply because, a combination of w e l l mostly l a c k of time, but a l s o having not taught a t the l e v e l i t ' s very d i f f i c u l t t o develop the t r u s t and the s k i l l s 357 R: Um hmm 358 I: because you don't have a l l those people t h a t you al r e a d y know 190 359 R: Um Hmm 360 I: so t h e r e ' s t h e r e ' s a l o t of i t there and I've been working s o r t of i n c o n j u n c t i o n with (. ) and g e t t i n g t o know some of the people i n E n g l i s h , i t seems l i k e a l o g i c a l p l a c e to s t a r t but even t h a t i s i t takes a long time 361 R: Ya, I imagine i t would, uh hum I t h i n k we've covered the a c t u a l and the i d e a l now you've l i s t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l and the i d e a l um such as the f a c t t h a t i n a c t u a l i t y you're h a l f time f o r one year, i d e a l l y you'd l i k e t o be f u l l time f o r two to three y e a r s , those s o r t s of d i f f e r e n c e s , how do you account f o r them, why don't they have your p o s i t i o n f u l l time f o r two or three years? 362 I: because 36 3 R: T h i s i s anonymous by the way. 364 I: Ya, i n a crunch I t h i n k t h a t maybe, i t ' s my p r o s p e c t i v e of t h i n g s , s p e c i a l ed. i s the f i r s t t o go 365 R: Umm 366 I: i n a crunch because i t ' s very expensive 36 7 R: Um hmm 368 I: the teachers they have to h i r e are g e n e r a l l y f a i r l y h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d and expensive, the teacher student r a t i o i s low 369 R: Um hmm 370 I: which doubles the p r i c e and parents g e n e r a l l y of s p e c i a l education, students are not the bulk of tax payers, so i t ' s the e a s i e s t t o sweep under the c a r p e t and i n tough times, something has to get swept under the c a r p e t 371 R: Um. hmm 372 I: and I t h i n k t h a t ' s k i n d of a sympton of of why they don't have more s t a f f p o s s i b l y , my my p o s i t i o n was d e f i n i t e l y experimental t h i s year, i t was the f i r s t time they've ever had i t and i n t h i s k i n d of job d e s c r i p t i o n , a c t u a l l y I've never seen a job d e s c r i p t i o n , but f i r s t time t h e r e ' s been anyone and I don't t h i n k they r e a l l y knew how i t would work, i t was a shot i n the dark 373 R: Um hmm 191 374 I: I don't know what t h e i r d e c i s i o n i s going to be, i t seems t h a t because of s t a f f i n g c u t s they're going to do away wit h i t : a g a i n , but I don't know, I t h i n k t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y i t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o account f o r a person who doesn't have d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o students and the teachers a s s o c i a t i o n as w e l l p r e s s u r e s , l e t ' s get more of these people back i n t o the classroom r o u t i n e so t h a t would k i n e of be money b a s i c a l l y , what comes 375 R: Um hmm 376 I: there would be more time i f there was more money, there would be more s t a f f i f there was more money 377 R: Um hmm 378 I: t h a t ' s what i t comes down to and of a l l the e d u c a t i o n programmes i n the d i s t r i c t , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i s probably the most expensive because of the s t a f f you need and the s t a f f student r a t i o 379 R: Um hmm 380 I: so I t h i n k i t ' s because of the s t a f f student r a t i o , I suppose the tax payers are are concerned about the the r a t e of i n c r e a s e , n a t u r a l l y 381 R: sure, i t h i t s t h e i r pocket 382 I: Ya 383 R: but, ah by the same token, you know t h e r e ' s a l s o a c r y by the p u b l i c t h a t we get people out of grade twelve who can't read, w e l l i f they can't read they need some s o r t of programme which would a s s i s t them i n being able t o read 384 I: Um hmm 385 R: they may have s p e c i a l r e a d i n g problems, I went through twelve years of s c h o o l of r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l 386 I: Um hmm 387 R: and three y e a r s , two or three years of u n i v e r s i t y b e f o r e I r e a l i z e d or had any um n o t i o n t h a t I was d y s l e c t i c , so I, I transpose numbers I'm not, I don't have a r e a d i n g problem but when I see t h i n g s and w r i t e t h i n g s , there i s q u i r e o f t e n the two t h i n g s a r e n ' t the same and I had no i d e a and I was a Math major f o r my f i r s t two years of u n i v e r s i t y you know, not not r e a l i z i n g t h a t I was s w i t c h i n g numbers a l l the way along, not c o n s i s t e n t l y , but i t d i d happen um you know t h a t s o r t of t h i n g you would t h i n k would be caught when I was s m a l l and taught t o d e a l with i t , I l e a r n e d to 192 387 R: d e a l w i t h i t but I c e r t a i n l y wasn't taught to d e a l w i t h i t 388 I: Um hmm 389 R: so those s o r t s of problems are not um few and f a r . between, t h e r e are a number of k i d s out there w i t h r e a d i n g problems and um the classroom teacher doesn't have the time uh and a l s o doesn't a l o t of times doesn't have the knowledge t h a t a t h a t a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher would have to d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c problems 390 I: Um hmm and as s o c i e t i e s emphasis on e d u c a t i o n decreases which i s seems to be 391 R: Um hmm 392 I: the value of e d u c a t i o n i s no longer what i t was when you and I were going to s c h o o l , there was j u s t a b s o l u t e l y no q u e s t i o n about whether you went and d i d w e l l 393 R: Um hmm 394 I: t h a t t h a t was what we are s t r i v e d f o r 395 R: Um hmm 396 I: the k i d s t h a t c o u l d n ' t make i t l e f t , where as now they're s t a y i n g i n s c h o o l and everybody's s a y i n g w e l l they're coming out of grade twelve unable t o read, w e l l t hey're coming out of grade twelve t h a t ' s c e r t a i n l y something t h a t they d i d n ' t do i n 1950 397 R: Um hmm 398 I: back then, they were, they q u i t when they were t h i r t e e n , so we're keeping them a l o t longer but keeping them i s n ' t r e a l l y the whole answer, i t ' s ' a n expensive b a b y s i t t i n g s e r v i c e , i f t h a t ' s a l l we're doing 399 R: Um hmm 400 I: we're a l s o g e t t i n g some r e a l l y strange k i d s t h a t we d i d n ' t ever get when we s t a r t e d s c h o o l , we a l l had two p a r e n t s , we a l l l i v e d i n our own homes, we a l l had b i g back yards 401 R: Um hmm 402 I: there wasn't the t r a f f i c t o d e a l w i t h on the s t r e e t s , we had..,very n i c e comfortable secure l i v e s b a s i c a l l y i n g e n e r a l when you looked a t the whole p o p u l a t i o n , we're now d e a l i n g w i t h an i n c r e d i b l e amount of k i d s who have gone through a d i v o r c e i n t h e i r f a m i l y 1 9 3 4 0 3 R: . Um hmm 4 0 4 I: had. some some, very d i f f i c u l t emotional t h i n g s t o handle as c h i l d r e n and an i n c r e d i b l e amount of k i d s whose, f o r whom E n g l i s h i s not t h e i r f i r s t language 4 0 5 R: Um hmm 4 0 6 I: they're d e a l i n g with another problem, the s o c i o -economic background of a l o t of our k i d s i s s h i f t i n g as the p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t s 4 0 7 R: Um hmm 4 0 8 I: and people become 4 0 9 R: Um hmm 4 1 0 I: l e s s w e l l o f f , so k i d s are d e a l i n g w i t h a l o t more 4 1 1 R: Um hmm 4 1 2 I : and they're a l o t d i f f e r e n t i n terms of t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of s c h o o l , they have T.V.'s now, so they know a whole l o t of s t u f f and expect t o be e n t e r t a i n e d 4 1 3 R: (Giggle) 4 1 4 I : which puts 4 1 5 R: i s n ' t t h a t the t r u t h 4 1 6 I : puts a complexion on, they expect the teacher t o compete wi t h Sesame S t r e e t , so i f you can't dp your song and dance number 4 1 7 R: What good are you! 4 1 8 I: Ya. 4 1 9 R: I can l e a r n the alphabet s i t t i n g i n f r o n t o f the tube 4 2 0 I : and they p r a c t i s e from a very young age i n c l i c k i n g i t o f f , they I f e e l , I don't know, I don't know whether anyone's ever proven i t but I know as a k i d i f my mother c a l l e d me I heard her, I may not have responded on the f i r s t time but g e n e r a l l y on the second time I d i d because I knew by the t h i r d time I'd be i n t r o u b l e t h a t k i n d of t h i n g 4 2 1 R: the tone of v o i c e 4 2 2 . I: ya 4 2 3 R: wit h the second you can you know : and t h i r d c a l l : how how f a r you can go .but I'm r e a l l y wonder wi t h e s p e c i a l l y with young k i d s now because I'm becoming more and more convinced t h a t they don't here i t because they they are so tuned and so t r a i n e d by T.V. to shut out a l l the extraneous n o i s e s and to focus on one t h i n g but they they do they can l i t e r a l l y l o c k out whatever t h a t teachers s a y i n g or parent : Um hmm : and not even know you're t h e r e : Um hmm : and have to be touched to be brought back i n t o touch w i t h whats happening : Um hmm : t h a t maybe i t was there when we were k i d s and I was a k i d so I d i d n ' t know but i t doesn't seem to be : I can remember h e a r i n g my mother's v o i c e anywhere i n the neighbourhood : Um hmm : Anyway, do you have any other f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s or i s there anything you'd l i k e t o know? : No, I hope I've given you enough i n f o r m a t i o n . : Yes, thanks very much f o r your time. 

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