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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Changing conceptions of practice in home economics education Wilson, Susan Worth 1985

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CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PRACTICE IN HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION By SUSAN WORTH WILSON B.H.E., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre f o r the Study o f Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n  We. accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1985 * Susan Worth Wilson, 1985  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Centre  for  the  Study  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall  J  Vancouver, Canada V6T  1Y3  Date  DE-6  (3/81)  J u ]  y  18  >  1 9 8 5  -  of  Curriculum  and  Instruction  il Abstract  This thesis investigates changes i n the underlying pattern o f b e l i e f s and actions central to the development o f home economics education. Examination o f the h i s t o r i c a l context i n which t r a i n i n g i n domestic matters became o f public concern discloses the circumstances  which  fostered the genesis of domestic science, the forerunner o f contemporary home economics i n Canada. Subsequently, analysing the curriculum o f B r i t i s h Columbia schools using the notion o f p r a c t i c e i l l u s t r a t e s the ways i n which programs changed as home economics became accepted as a school subject.  At the end o f the nineteenth century s o c i a l reformers perceived the introduction o f domestic science as a means o f ameliorating many s o c i a l maladies.  Therefore support f o r t r a i n i n g i n domestic matters p r i m a r i l y  arose from organizations l y i n g outside the school system. Though s o c i a l and educational reformers viewed the purposes o f domestic science d i f f e r e n t l y , together they were successful i n promoting domestic science as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p u b l i c schools.  Four interpretations o f p r a c t i c e i d e n t i f i e d as customary, instrumental, i n t e r a c t i v e and r e f l e c t i v e conceptions, help us to understand the documents and reports s i g n i f i c a n t to the growth o f home economics i n  i i i  B r i t i s h Columbia.  These conceptions are rooted  critical  theorists  i n e d u c a t i o n and a r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y  t h e ways  i n w h i c h t h e home e c o n o m i c s p r o g r a m c h a n g e d o v e r  seventy-five  i n the w r i t i n g s to  clarify  a period  f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l s home e c o n o m i c s was  c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h customary p r a c t i c e , which r e i n f o r c e s e x p e r t i s e o f women.  The  s t r o n g framework  of  u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l d i s o r d e r and h e l p e d them t o a d j u s t the e r a . A n a l y s i s  of  t h e c u r r i c u l u m s i n c e 1926  to  social  i n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e i n the  the contemporary understanding  The  W h i l e t h e 1979  course of  studies i s  throughout  f i r m l y entrenched  educators are to contribute  the p r o f e s s i o n ,  strengthening  themselves, in  then there  in  are characterized interactive  to the m i s s i o n  f a m i l i e s by h e l p i n g them t o  i s need f o r a b r o a d e r  the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m .  overall  ways.  the expense o f  reflective practice. If that of  to  t h e e v o l u t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s  t h e b e l i e f s and a c t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g s c h o o l programs customary and i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e r n s a t  of  instrumental  studies area,  rruman e x p e r i e n c e o n l y i n i n s t r u m e n t a l  s t u d y makes c l e a r t h a t  perceived  the changes  curriculum begins family  purpose  r e v e a l s t h a t home  e c o n o m i c s has become i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n conception of p r a c t i c e .  most  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e a r l y programs b o t h i n s u l a t e d f a m i l i e s from  acknowledge  of  years.  A s a new s u b j e c t  traditional  of  interpretation of  by  and of help  practice  iv  Table o f Contents Abstract  i  i  L i s t o f Diagrams  v  Acknowledgements  v i  1  THE STUDY EXPLAINED  1  2 TOUCHING THE LIVES OF WOMEN: THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE 11 3  'IMPROVING THE PRESENT CONDITION': THE GROWTH OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  38  4  AN INTERPRETIVE FRAMEWORK FOR THE EXAMINATION OF PRACTICE  53  5  THE CURRICULUM OF HOME ECONOMICS: A DESCRIPTION OF CHANGE  6  CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PRACTICE IN HOME ECONOMICS  7  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  74 100 I l l 119  APPENDIX A: QUESTIONS USED FOR THE DESCRIPTIVE EXAMINATION OF THE INITIAL SCHOOL OJRRICULUM 128  V  Diagram 1.  A Theoretic Framework f o r the Examination o f Practice  p. 5 9  #  vi  Acknowledgements  This t h e s i s would never have been w r i t t e n without the help o f a number of people, each important i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  Dr. George Tomkins, the l a t e Chairman o f my t h e s i s committee, has been a strong influence throughoutraygraduate program.  An outstanding  scholar and a thorough teacher, George generously shared h i s knowledge and time i n s p i t e oE i l l h e a l t h .  I n i t i a l l y , h i s guidance  encouraged me t o examine the roots o f home economics as a f i e l d o f study. Dr. N e i l Sutherland c o n t i n u a l l y sharpened my t h i n k i n g by asking c h a l l e n g i n g questions throughout the w r i t i n g and f i n a l d e t a i l s o f the t h e s i s . I am now keenly aware o f how much there i s yet t o uncover i n terms o f h i s t o r i c a l research r e l a t e d t o the development o f home economics. Dr. Eleanore Vaines Chamberlain w i l l i n g l y shared her f i n e resources r e l a t e d t o home economics, and has been a great source o f encouragement. I am indebted t o her f o r the many hours o f s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n as the t h e s i s developed. F i n a l l y , I doubt my program would have been completed without the understanding and patience o f my husband, Don. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e E u l f o r h i s strong support during the l a s t few months o f work.  -1-  Chapter One  THE STUDY EXPLAINED.  Introduceion  Two related concerns provided the stimulus for examining the nature of home economics within the context o f schooling. The f i r s t was a personal b e l i e f that home economics as taught i n today's schools has a p o t e n t i a l that i s frequently u n f u l f i l l e d .  Recent p u b l i c debate  regarding what should be taught i n schools has strengthened conviction.  this  The second concern stems from the lack o f research  pertaining to the development o f the f i e l d o f home economics.  Although  there i s extensive documentation o f research related to procedures f o r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n various s p e c i a l t i e s w i t h i n the f i e l d , there i s l i m i t e d discussion o f the reasons underlying the practices advocated by the profession.  Home economics education i n Canada emerged i n response to the changing circumstances  of family l i f e near the end o f the nineteenth and the  beginning of the twentieth centuries.  Investigation o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s t o r i c a l documents and c u r r i c u l a r materials provides insights i n t o b e l i e f s about the r o l e of women i n society, the  -2a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h l e d t o new s e r v i c e s families, public  and t h e ways  interest.  historical schools  In  improving  i n which concern for  developments  reveals  the  the l i v e s  an examination  influences brought  responsibility of  of  E a m i l i e s became a m a t t e r  t h e c a s e o f home e c o n o m i c s ,  t o assume t h e  domestic  for  of  to bear  on  t r a i n i n g y o u n g women i n  affairs.  Home e c o n o m i c s i s o n e o f f o c u s s e d on the  a number o f  improvement  of  fields of  study which have  t h e human c o n d i t i o n .  Collectively  such  f i e l d s a s s o c i a l s e r v i c e , p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d e d u c a t i o n h a v e become as the that  'helping professions'.  the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s  the kinds of Purkey  K i e r e n , V a i n e s and B a d i r share the  services they o f f e r  (1972) s u g g e s t  that,  differ  considerably.  this  study  i s that  the purposes  i n the c u r r i c u l u m r e f l e c t  a c t i o n s w h i c h formed fundamentally purposes  altered  for which i t  Traditionally,  the  foundation  the nature was  explain though  Combs,  Avila  which  for  the of  teaching domestic  as a form o f  and these  frequently  s o c i a l and moral s i g n i f i c a n c e .  c h a n g e d a s home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n e v o l v e d Revisions  known  h i s t o r i c a l l y , the s e r v i c e s provided by  i n v o l v e d w i d e and complex a r e a s o f of  (1984)  i d e a l o f human s e r v i c e ,  p r o f e s s i o n s were concerned w i t h p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s ,  thesis  of  The  science  schooling.  transformation  of beliefs  school programs.  These  and  changes  o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n a n d  the  intended.  t h e most w i d e l y  recognized  avenue  e c o n o m i c s h a s b e e n t h e medium o f e d u c a t i o n .  of  While  i n f l u e n c e o f home initially  education  -3i n domestic a f f a i r s sometimes took place through, the auspices o f various s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t has p r i m a r i l y occurred through the t r a i n i n g o f young women i n the p u b l i c schools. An examination o f subject content and the methods o f teaching used i n classrooms r e v e a l s the way knowledge influenced students and i l l u m i n a t e s the purposes school programs served. E x p l o r i n g the e a r l y school curriculum therefore t e l l s a great deal about the b e l i e f s which stimulated the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f home economics as w e l l as the underlying s t r u c t u r e o f the programs o f f e r e d i n schools today.  Purpose o f the Study.  A b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l examination a t both the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s sets the context from which home economics education  evolved.  While focussing on B r i t i s h Columbia, the study examines the b e l i e f s and ideas which formed the i n i t i a l conception o f p r a c t i c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h home economics education. Subsequently, changes i n the o r i g i n a l conception o f p r a c t i c e are examined through the growth o f home economics education during l a t e r time periods w i t h i n the province.  The study w i l l answer these questions: 1.  From what assumptions d i d the i n i t i a l conception o f p r a c t i c e i n home economics education a r i s e ?  2.  How have the conceptions o f p r a c t i c e been portrayed i n the school curriculum?  3.  I n what ways have the conceptions o f p r a c t i c e changed over time as shown i n the school curriculum?  A framework i l l u s t r a t i n g four conceptions o f p r a c t i c e i s used t o convey the ways i n which home economics programs changed over time. The term 'conception o f p r a c t i c e ' r e f e r s t o such e x p l i c i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a school program as subject matter, l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ,teaching methods and the b e l i e f s which underly a p a r t i c u l a r way o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a curriculum.  Using conceptions o f p r a c t i c e t o p o r t r a y changes i n home economics education i s appropriate f o r three reasons. F i r s t , home economics provides s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y p r i m a r i l y through u s i n g knowledge i n p r a c t i c a l ways.  Second, the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge i s a  dominant theme throughout the e v o l u t i o n o f home economics as a profession.  Therefore, changes i n the way problems are i n t e r p r e t e d and  resolved can be determined  from the examination o f r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s .  -5Finally,  p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the  f i e l d e x p l i c i t l y acknowledge the need  a greater understanding of  the b a s i s on w h i c h the p r o f e s s i o n has  developed  (Quilling,  Brown and P a o l u c c i , 1979;  Method o f  the  1970;  Vincent!,  for  1981).  Study.  1.  A Historical Perspective.  The  importance of  e x p r e s s e d i n 1902  i l l u m i n a t i n g the past by A l i c e Chown,  Economic A s s o c i a t i o n i n K i n g s t o n ,  to e n r i c h the present  Field Secretary of  the  was  Household  Ontario.  T h e r e i s e b b a n d f l o w o f t h e g r e a t t i d e o f human l i f e , a c t i o n and r e a c t i o n t h a t emphasizes f i r s t one phase and a n o t h e r , b u t t h e r e i s u n i t y o f s p i r i t w h i c h b i n d s p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e i n t o o n e . E v e r y c r i s i s i n h i s t o r y h a s come f r o m t h e e f f o r t o f a p e o p l e t o embody some h i g h e r c o n c e p t i o n , e v e r y g r e a t movement o f t h o u g h t l i a s h a d f o r i t s i n i t i a t i v e new r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f humanity. (1902, p. 31)  Chown's  statement  acknowledges the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  foundations  of a f i e l d of  study i n determining i t s  interest  s u c h comments w e r e made b e f o r e d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e h a d b e e n  that  future  the  directions.  It  is  of  i n t r o d u c e d t o most C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s .  However, Chown*s  concern f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s lias  been  n e g l e c t e d by s u c c e e d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s , f o r h i s t o r i c a l work r e l a t e d home e c o n o m i c s i n C a n a d a l i a s b e e n c o n f i n e d t o  the c h r o n o l o g i c a l  to  -6examination instance,  of  events  the growth  i n domestic  s i g n i f i c a n t to of  the development  s c i e n c e has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by Rowles the  (1975) r e l a t e d (1976,  education  1977)  of  to B r i t i s h Columbia,  the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g  This  its  they provide  the background  early school c u r r i c u l a . provide  a context  domestic  science by by  o f home e c o n o m i c s  a u s e f u l account  l i t t l e i n s i g h t as  of  to  growth.  study uses h i s t o r i c a l accounts o f  economics to p r o v i d e  training  and u n p u b l i s h e d papers  While these studies provide  the p r o f e s s i o n ,  For  such as a t h e s i s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development  in Ontario.  the development  provinces,  for  field.  (1956,1964).  introduction of  as a s c h o o l s u b j e c t w i t h i n the v a r i o u s  Campbell  the  i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education  There i s a l s o research r e l a t e d to  Chestnutt  of  for  the development  o f home  the subsequent  examination  of  Thus t h e e x a m i n a t i o n b u i l d s on p r i o r work  to  w i t h i n which the c u r r i c u l u m o f domestic s c i e n c e can be  understood.  2.  The  Selection of Curricular  Curricular materials relevant B r i t i s h Columbia.  to  They represent  Itoajments.  the study  three periods of  g r o w t h o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n  The p e r i o d  f r o m 1900  to  to classrooms throughout  1925  are p r i m a r i l y those  covers the  the province,  the  from  significance to  the  province.  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s from the  first  classes held  in  -7V i c t o r i a u n t i l the p u b l i c a t i o n of System i n 1925. years, The part  but  text, of  initial the  establishment  The  Science  early  recommendations  analysis.  of  School  earliest programs.  i s a l s o i n c l u d e d as Its  a  inclusion  ideas of Adelaide Hoodless  in  the  and h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in  t e a c h e r s o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , some o f whom w e r e  the Putman-Weir  introduction.  Survey changed b o t h  a n d d i r e c t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s . T h u s , f o l l o w i n g 1925  the  the c u r r i c u l u m and  are i n c l u d e d i n the second p e r i o d  A s l i t t l e c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n o c c u r r e d d u r i n g W o r l d War  f i n a l document u s e d i n t h e s t u d y  comprehensive  curriculum for  fashion the o b j e c t i v e s  practice  the  early school  curricular analysis.  i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e end o f  today's  of  Survey of from the  (1898)  of domestic s c i e n c e i n Canada,  r e l a t e d documents  The  the  survive  the nature  i n B r i t i s h Columbia during i t s  organization  1946  phase o f  impact o f  training of  employed  t h a t do s u g g e s t  P u b l i c School Domestic  recognizes  the  Few c u r r i c u l a r d o c u m e n t s  those  the  the Putman-Weir  the  i s t h e 1979  curriculum. in  This  detailed  and a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t  l a s t phase o f  Thus,  II,  phase.  secondary schools o u t l i n e s  home e c o n o m i c s c l a s s r o o m s . forms  the second  of  the nature  of  in  contemporary  the c u r r i c u l a r a n a l y s i s .  -83.  A  Framework o f P r a c t i c e  The  study  Vaines the  employs  portrays  Analysis.  practice interpreted  by Wilson  t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f home e c o n o m i c s .  the conceptions  of practice outlined  Comparing  i n the  particular  work:  interest,  i n terras o f  c u r r i c u l a r documents  from  questions  three  related  assumptions  made a b o u t l e a r n i n g a n d a c t i v i t y ;  curriculum reflects  c u r r i c u l u m from each p e r i o d  the  conceptions  similarities conceptions  terms o f  and d i f f e r e n c e s of  of  between  practice provide  the  aspects of  i n terms of  are  classroom the  i n the  analysed  framework.  i n which  the b a s i s  analysis of  toward p a r t i c u l a r  absolute  i n terms  the  for  the  four  interpretation  of  time.  the c u r r i c u l u m i s reported  conceptions  similarities.  of  The  the c u r r i c u l u m and the  o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n o v e r  descriptive  tendencies  of  i n i t i a l phase  a n d t h e way  i s subsequently  of practice outlined  i n the nature  Comparison  in  t h e o v e r a l l m i s s i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s .  The  than  to  the  the r a t i o n a l e upon w h i c h the c u r r i c u l u m i s b a s e d ;  changes  framework  system.  t h e b e l i e f s w h i c h i n i t i a t e d home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n a r e  examined  and  t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d a s home e c o n o m i c s g a i n e d a p l a c e  the education  As  a framework o f  (1985) t o a n a l y s e  curriculum to  for Curricular  of practice  rather  in  -94. Limitations o f the Study.  The following five factors l i m i t this study:  i.  The materials are examined i n terms o f three time periods  representing s i g n i f i c a n t stages i n the growth o f B r i t i s h Columbia home economics education. The i n i t i a l stage represents the introduction o f domestic science to the school system; the second period r e f l e c t s home economics education as an i n t e g r a l part o f the education system o f the province; and the f i n a l stage exemplifies home economics as i t i s currently taught within the p u b l i c school system.  ii.  E a r l y c u r r i c u l a r documents have not been systematically c o l l e c t e d  as h i s t o r i c a l records.  However, the consistency shown by the documents  located f o r this study suggests that they accurately represent the focus o f the time periods being studied.  i i i . The study assumes a h i s t o r i c a l perspective i n order to provide a context f o r understanding the selected c u r r i c u l a r documents. I t s purpose i s to i l l u s t r a t e that d i f f e r i n g conceptions o f p r a c t i c e have formed a part o f home economics education, and that they r e f l e c t changing b e l i e f s and assumptions.  -10-  iv.  School reports and c u r r i c u l a r materials rather than  classroom  observation form the basis of the analysis of p r a c t i c e . I t i s assumed that the selected documents accurately portray the b e l i e f s and understandings of those involved i n the construction of programs i n home economics education.  v.  H i s t o r i c a l examination suggests that the major thrust of  education i n domestic matters was established i n public schools.  through manual t r a i n i n g programs  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p r a c t i c e i s  therefore confined to this aspect.  I t does not consider the  generation  of t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g or i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g which were r e l a t e d , but were established for d i f f e r e n t educational purposes.  -11-  Chapter Two  TOUCHING THE LIVES OF WOMEN: THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE.  This chapter explores the Canadian h i s t o r i c a l context i n which domestic education f o r women developed.  I n i t i a l l y , the chapter emphasizes  s o c i e t a l changes during the l a t e nineteenth and e a r l y twentieth c e n t u r i e s . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d toward the impact o f such changes on women and f a m i l i e s .  The l a t t e r p a r t o f the chapter compares  two s o c i a l perspectives that promoted the genesis o f domestic science. The f i r s t came from women who v i s u a l i z e d the home both as a p r o t e c t i v e haven to i n s u l a t e f a m i l i e s from unwelcome change, and as a centre o f opportunity from which t h e i r i n f l u e n c e could spread. The second viewpoint was expressed by advocates o f the manual t r a i n i n g movement designed to change the process o f schooling. These reformers saw  new  forms o f education as f i t t i n g school c h i l d r e n t o the new ways o f l i f e .  T r a i n i n g i n domestic a f f a i r s was i n i t i a l l y c a l l e d 'domestic science' a l a b e l which stressed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c i e n t i f i c understanding and domestic matters. As the f i e l d o f study broadened, domestic science became known under a v a r i e t y o f t i t l e s such as 'domestic economy' and 'household economy'which r e f l e c t e d the concerns of i n d u s t r i a l management. E v e n t u a l l y i t was l a b e l l e d as home economics  -12-  though,  even today  label.  The  term  there  i s controversy  'domestic t r a i n i n g '  this  study,  the  relevance of  this  p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e s to the  o f household help i n the performance purposes of  as to the  of  training  domestic chores. For  the  term domestic science r e f e r s to  those  p r o g r a m s w h i c h w e r e o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r C a n a d i a n women; home e c o n o m i c s d e s i g n a t e s l a t e r p r o g r a m s  Although  there  of  an expanded  these represent  families,  1910).  For  t r a i n i n g i n domestic matters  through an i n f o r m a l network  of  f a m i l y s u r v i v a l and c o m f o r t .  comment  life  The  system of  attributed  of Canada's  in large part  of Education  door not only to  that  f o r most p e o p l e . "  f r o m 1846  sons, but  home for  Canadian  c h u r c h and  (1970a. p.  291).  schooling during this period  a u n i v e r s a l system of farmer's  "...home,  century  essential  this period i n  the work o f E g e r t o n R y e r s o n ,  f o r Upper Canada  implementation of  b e l i e f that  to  of mid-19th  shared c r a f t s and s k i l l s  v i l l a g e were the c e n t e r s o f  schools  took place w i t h i n the  The e s s e n c e o f  h i s t o r y i s captured by Stamp's  development  most g i r l s  in  isolated  instances o f p r a c t i c a l education introduced by the J e s u i t o f Home E c o n o m i c s ,  term  nature.  i s r e f e r e n c e t o some f o r m s o f d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g  Canada as e a r l y as the F r e n c h r e g i m e ,  (Journal  the  t o 1876.  Superintendent  Ryerson's  s c h o o l i n g opened t h e  also to  is  schoolroom  'females g e n e r a l l y ' .  the i n c l u s i o n o f p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s enhanced moral  His growth  -13-  as w e l l as m e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e ,  l e d to the expansion o f the curriculum  from one w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l l y emphasized included a g r i c u l t u r e ,  t h e t h r e e R ' s t o one w h i c h  l i n e a r drawing and music. T h i s  c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l i n g and d a i l y l i f e .  foreshadowed Ryerson  a  also  s t r e s s e d a n o n - s e c t a r i a n system o f t r u t h and morals i n an e f f o r t bridge the strong denominational differences communities o f Upper Canada. framework  f o u n d i n many o f t h e  A t t h e same t i m e t h e s t r o n g  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e  l e d t o some c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a f o r m e r l y  policies  d i v e r s e system o f s c h o o l s .  educational p r i n c i p l e s also provided a definite structure  w h i c h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system c o u l d expand and develop  The  moral  t r i e d t o ensure t h a t a l l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were exposed t o t h e  r i g h t kinds o f moral i n f l u e n c e s .  The  to  s m a l l compendium o f i n f o r m a t i o n t i t l e d F i r s t  Agriculture  o f Canadian Farmers  from  (McNeill,  Lessons  1974).  in  and T h e i r F a m i l i e s , w r i t t e n by Ryerson  (1870) i s t h e e a r l i e s t C a n a d i a n r e f e r e n c e t h a t h a s b e e n l o c a t e d f o r this  study.  L e s s o n XXXVTII  wives and d a u g h t e r s , for  i t s enhancement  on Household Economy, w r i t t e n  for  i n d i c a t e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r women w a s o f the q u a l i t y o f family  life.  By f a r t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f h a p p i n e s s i n c i v i l i z e d l i f e i s found i n domestic r e l a t i o n s ; and most o f t h i s d e p e n d s u p o n t h e d o m e s t i c c u l t u r e a n d the h a b i t s o f the w i f e and mother. L e t h e r be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y educated as h i g h l y as p o s s i b l e ; l e t her moral and s o c i a l nature r e c e i v e the h i g h e s t graces o f v i g o r and refinement; b u t along w i t h t h e s e , l e t t h e d o m e s t i c v i r t u e s f i n d ample p l a c e . (Ryerson, 1870, p . 173).  farmers'  important  -14The r e m a i n d e r o f L e s s o n XXXVTII s t r e s s e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o r r e c t l y managing a home; living;  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between good h e a l t h and v i r t u o u s  and the importance o f domestic p i e t y  the f a m i l y ,  not only  i n u p l i f t i n g the s p i r i t of  f o r present circumstances but a l s o to ensure  salvation.  Parvin  (1965)  i n d i c a t e s t h a t R y e r s o n ' s book was a n a u t h o r i z e d  O n t a r i o from 1870-1877. available, girls is out  text  for  I n c l a s s e s where a f e m a l e t e a c h e r was  i t was recommended t h a t  i t be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r E u c l i d ,  i n the f i f t h and s i x t h c l a s s e s  t h e s u g g e s t i o n made t h a t  (Campbell,  1977).  However,  for nowhere  the p r a c t i c a l exercises should be c a r r i e d  i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Though R y e r s o n ' s  e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s may h a v e  prepared the ground f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f domestic s c i e n c e a s a s c h o o l subject,  i t took t h e circumstances o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l age t o b r i n g such  ideas t o f r u i t i o n .  An E r a o f  Change  By t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s p r o f o u n d e c o n o m i c , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and demographic were o c c u r r i n g i n Canadian l i f e .  These  C a n a d i a n women j u s t a s s u r e l y a s t h e y landscape. While the events in  this study,  changes  touched and shaped t h e l i v e s  transformed  the Canadian  and c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e examined i n i s o l a t i o n  i t s h o u l d b e remembered t h a t  i n r e a l i t y the resulting  p r e s s u r e s were o v e r l a p p i n g - each compounding o r c o u n t e r a c t i n g t h e influence o f the other.  of  -15-  'High B u i l t Factories  The  latter part  of  and T i t a n i c  the 19th  Mills'.  c e n t u r y was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p e r i o d  s t r o n g i n d u s t r i a l growth and economic p r o s p e r i t y . r e s o u r c e base expanded  and d a i r y i n g .  fruit  of  goods manufactured  for  and abundant  raising  forest  assets.  the r a i l w a y gave Western s e t t l e r s a c c e s s  i n Eastern markets.  The  influx of  to  immigrants  Canada f o s t e r e d economic g r o w t h by s u p p l y i n g cheap  labour  farms and f a c t o r i e s . R e c i p r o c a l l y , a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e d  t h e economy t o p r o d u c e more g o o d s , component o f C a n a d i a n  and m a n u f a c t u r i n g surged as a  families  i t brought  about  increased prosperity  w i t h i n the rather  'world of work'  family unit.  than producers.  many  late  become s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e  work  that  Families of  unit  the  P a i d w o r k meant It  for  some c h a n g e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y  w h i c h c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n among women. c e n t u r y saw t h e  strong  life.  E v e n t h o u g h i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h meant  19th  to  t h e W e s t i n c r e a s e d t h e demand f o r g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s ,  w h i l e the extension of  throughout  and v e g e t a b l e s ,  I n a d d i t i o n , roineral and  r e s o u r c e s became r e c o g n i z e d a s i m p o r t a n t Settlement  Canada's a g r i c u l t u r a l  from f u r t r a d i n g and the growing o f g r a i n ,  one w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f s t o c k and f e e d ,  of  f a m i l i e s became consumers  a l s o m e a n t t h a t home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e  i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s u m e d b y women.  However,  tasks r e l a t e d to the  d i d not have c a s h v a l u e and t h e r e f o r e were  frequently  family  considered to  be  -16-  a l e s s e r form of transformation at  Vincent!  (1983) s u g g e s t s  that  the  i n r o l e b o t h i d e a l i z e d and d e n i g r a t e d women's w o r k ,  t h e same t i m e t h a t  worthy p u r s u i t , of  labor.  t h e d o m e s t i c i d e a l was b e i n g p o r t r a y e d  as  for  a  w o r k w i t h i n t h e home was c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a l e s s e r  form  labor.  Bunkle  (1974) i n d i c a t e s t h a t  as separate e n t i t i e s , assumed b y  the  a s t h e home a n d w o r k p l a c e b e c a m e  the pattern of preparation  f a m i l y was a l t e r e d .  Therefore,  defined  for adulthood  formerly  t h e f a m i l y c o u l d no  longer f u n c t i o n as the s o l e agent o f e d u c a t i o n .  Many e d u c a t o r s ,  them R i c h a r d H a r c o u r t ,  the Province  Ontario,  M i n i s t e r of Education  expressed dismay a t  for  the separation brought  about  among  of  by  industrialism. I n many homes t h e f a m i l i a r c h o r e s o f a f o r m e r generation are not to be found. C i t y homes a r e n o l o n g e r a b l e t o f u r n i s h the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r manual t r a i n i n g , and t h e r e f o r e i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e country boy has advantages not possessed by the c i t y y o u t h . (Harcourt, 1904, p. xxx).  The  s c h o o l was c l e a r l y t o a s s u m e some o f a s p e c t s o f  formerly  The  occurred i n the  lack of  opportunity  the r i s i n g standard of  schooling which  family.  f o r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g a t home, l i v i n g meant  that  coupled  with  more f a m i l i e s c o u l d a f f o r d  to  -17maintain their children i n schools for  longer periods. Educators  p r e s s u r e d t o p r o v i d e a b r o a d e r c u r r i c u l u m t o s u i t t h e needs o f greater variety of partly  c h i l d r e n . S c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t s s w e l l e d , no  i n response to  education but legislated.  also,  the i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l  for  1923.  W h i l e t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f it  also indicated that  By the end o f  the 19th  century  the standards  teachers, the process of  schooling  students.  i n t h e h o m e . Among p o o r e r  urban  women a n d c h i l d r e n w e r e o f t e n p r e s s e d i n t o t h e p a i d  f o r c e to secure funds  t o purchase needed goods.  p r o p o r t i o n o f women s t i l l from the  t h e consumer o f  r e m a i n e d a t home.  For  labor  To be s u r e , a these wives and  larger mothers  f a m i l y as the c e n t r e o f p r o d u c t i o n t o the f a m i l y  factory-made  as  i t e m s u n d e r s c o r e d t h e n e e d f o r a more  s t r u c t u r e d approach to household d u t i e s .  While this transformation  f a m i l y f u n c t i o n r e l i e v e d women o f many h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s , f u n c t i o n became o f  of  f a c t o r i e s a s s u m e d many m a n u f a c t u r i n g  functions p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d out  managerial  larger  longer periods.  as those w i t h i n the system worked t o upgrade  i t s e l f b e c a m e more a t t r a c t i v e t o  and  s c h o o l students r e f l e c t e d an  students were s t a y i n g i n s c h o o l f o r  e d u c a t i o n and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f  the s h i f t  importance accorded  f r o m 9 4 2 , 0 0 0 t o 1 , 9 3 9 , 7 0 0 b e t w e e n 1891  increase i n the o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n ,  families,  doubt  The numbers i n e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a c r o s s  'more t h a n d o u b l e d '  Moreover,  a  some f a m i l i e s , s i m p l y b e c a u s e a t t e n d a n c e w a s  Canada  numbers o f  were  i n c r e a s i n g importance as  their  marketing,  in  -18-  budgeting,  e f f i c i e n c y and f o r  t h e more a f f l u e n t ,  h o u s e h o l d h e l p a s s u m e d more o f  The p r o c e s s o f  their  the d i r e c t i o n  of  time.  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was d e p e n d e n t  u p o n w o r k e r s who  were  "as s k i l l e d  i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c a l l i n g s a s t h o s e w i t h whom t h e y  to compete"  (Royal  Canada,  Report.  Commission on the R e l a t i o n s  1889,  1,  pp.  119).  Tradesmen,  o f C a p i t a l and L a b o r a s w e l l a s women i n  labor market,  were c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p r a c t i c a l needs o f  Consequently,  many a r g u e d  literacy,  a l s o o n e w h i c h was r e l e v a n t  but  concept of  a  debated at  wisdom o f  to  education,  'mental d i s c i p l i n e '  s e v e r a l l e v e l s . The  incorporating  controversy forms,  fostering  'practical'  surrounding the  in  the  society.  system of education which s t r e s s e d b a s i c  'practically useful'  d i r e c t e d toward hotly  for  have  the everyday i n contrast  world. to  The  one  b e c a m e a n i s s u e w h i c h was  fundamental  question regarding  e l e m e n t s c a u s e d much o f  the  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f manual t r a i n i n g i n a l l  its  i n t o the system of p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g .  'Home L i f e  i s the Heart o f  Industrialization number  of  potent  influence.  profusion  m i l l i o n people  Nation'  had a s t r o n g impact on C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s , b u t  immigrants  that  the  attracted  t o a new a n d g r o w i n g c o u n t r y was a l s o  S u c c e e d i n g waves o f  i n the  immigrants a r r i v e d  twenty years p r i o r  t o W o r l d War I ,  from C o n t i n e n t a l Europe chose t o s e t t l e  While the b u i l d i n g b l o c k s of  the  in  such  over in  a  one  Canada.  the n a t i o n were b e l i e v e d t o be i t s  people,  s t r o n g o p i n i o n s were e x p r e s s e d by that  it  -19those a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n  s h o u l d be the r i g h t k i n d o f p e o p l e .  'alien cultures'  coupled with a f a l l i n g b i r t h r a t e  B r i t i s h descent contributed r a c e might  S u s p i c i o n and  to  d i m i n i s h . Concern  f u e l l e d enthusiasm for  among t h o s e  the dominance o f  f o r c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l  social  fear  the Canadian e d u c a t i o n system espoused a s i n g l e c u l t u r a l  die  'immigrant  p r o b l e m ' was p r o v i d e d b y  flavored with B r i t i s h sentiments) established by Egerton Ryerson.  t h e c u l t u r a l m o s a i c was n o t  many C a n a d i a n s .  British  reform.  for  that  of  degeneration  s o l u t i o n to  behavior  of  the  One  (strongly  the  fears that  Canada  a part  schools, identity  and s t a n d a r d s o f  Sutherland of  the  the  future  moral  (1976)  indicates  visualized  From the p e r s p e c t i v e o f E n g l i s h Canadians  by  s c h o o l was  i d e a l v e h i c l e through which d i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d ,  minority  groups were expected  majority  (Tomkins,  children,  1977).  t o behave a c c o r d i n g t o t h e norms o f  Thus, while schooling introduced  and i n d i r e c t l y t h e i r  communities,  were r e l u c t a n t controversy  families,  into  t h e ways o f  i t was a l s o a means o f r e m a k i n g f o r e i g n e r s  acceptable Canadian image.  The  t o abandon t h e i r  over  as  fact  immigrant their  to  suit  t h a t sometimes immigrant  t r a d i t i o n a l ways,  the s c h o o l ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s  the  new an  families  caused considerable  i n f o r g i n g a new  Canadian  identity.  The p r e s e n c e o f  l a r g e numbers  a number o f w a y s .  of  immigrant  families affected  According to Lady Aberdeen,  president of  society the  in  -20-  Nattonal  C o u n c i l o f Women,  together1 Women's the  so as t o mold t h e d e s t i n y o f  contributions  a l s o b e y o n d t h e home g a t e .  'binding  strangers  (NCWC, 1 8 9 4 , l a y not Smaller  p.12).  only  within  families,  freedom from domestic t a s k s and i n c r e a s e d a f f l u e n c e c r e a t e d  opportunity home.  the n a t i o n  to nation b u i l d i n g therefore  family c i r c l e but  greater  women h a d a n i n f l u e n c e i n  For  f o r u p p e r c l a s s women t o c u l t i v a t e t h o s e who w e r e m o t i v a t e d ,  interests outside  the  reform a r i s i n g from worthy  c o n v i c t i o n s was a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e means o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  the  public  the  sphere.  centre of  Such work emphasized  strength  for  the n a t i o n .  the i d e a l o f  1979,  The  believed that  s o c i a l and economic e v i l s w o u l d d i s a p p e a r "  family as  " w h e n homes  (cited in  were  Roberts,  p.22.).  i n f l u x of  labour.  immigrants a l s o provided a ready supply of  F o r women o f  the middle and upper  class,  freedom from d o m e s t i c c h o r e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y , s o c i a l causes. Yet, myriad of  argument  life  the time t o  f o r needy  for  such as  the apparent  families.  pursue  immigrants as w e l l as  Among t h e s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d w e r e h o u s e h o l d  conducted  meant  domestic help highlighted both  the  the  that  s o c i a l j u s t i c e r a i s e d , p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s became  supported by o r g a n i z a t i o n s  Institute,  domestic  household help  among C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s . K e a l e y p o i n t s o u t  for  (1979, p . 2 ) . classes,  the presence o f  s o c i a l problems c o n f r o n t i n g  disparities  of  the  M a n y women s u c h a s L i l l i a n M a s s e y ,  a staunch advocate of domestic reform, ideal,  the  "Once  the  reformers"  training  t h e YWCA a n d t h e  Women's  purpose o f upgrading the  quality  -21Rowles  t e l l s us  opportunity  that  to "work  C a n a d i a n way o f  life"  the daughters o f for Canadian (1956, p.  immigrant  1911  188).  Her  contention that  3,154  support.  a r u r a l Ontario demonstration-lecture course i n  Subjects,  financed by  women  Education,  (Royal 1913,  the  f a m i l i e s i n order to l e a r n about  c l a s s e s w e r e w e l l - r e c e i v e d h a s some h i s t o r i c a l in  f a m i l i e s welcomed  t h e Women's I n s t i t u t e ,  the  homeraaking  For  example,  Household  had a t o t a l attendance  of  Commission o f I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l  s e s s i o n a l paper 191d,  p.368).  The a t t e n d a n c e  figure  was a c h i e v e d i n s p i t e o f b a d r o a d s a n d b a d w e a t h e r d u r i n g t h e  winter  months.  There i s however, Support that  for  some o f  a s e c o n d s i d e t o t h e i s s u e o f homeraaking  classes.  the idea of household t r a i n i n g from t h i s viewpoint  shows  i t s advocates were motivated by s e l f - i n t e r e s t r a t h e r  social reform.  C l e a r l y the  than  t e a c h i n g o f homemaking s k i l l s was a l s o  a  means o f e n s u r i n g a t r a i n e d b o d y o f d o m e s t i c h e l p f o r e s t a b l i s h e d households.  S u c h women w a n t e d a s s i s t a n c e w i t h c l e a n i n g , c o o k i n g ,  c h i l d c a r e - r e l i a b l e domestic s e r v a n t s were h a r d t o t r a i n i n g i n h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s meant could c a r r y out  that  t h e i r tasks properly.  find.  those involved i n domestic  the promotion o f  t r a i n i n g d i d not have a l t r u i s t i c motives on the p a r t o f reformers  (NCWC 1 8 9 4 ,  pp.  152-172;  Explicit  A r e v e a l i n g debate on "  P r o b l e m o f D o m e s t i c S e r v i c e " shows t h a t  and  see a l s o ,  Barber,  work  The  domestic some C a n a d i a n  1980).  -22The  I n f l u e n c e o f Crowded  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f  Cities.  l a r g e numbers o f  movement o f C a n a d i a n s  immigrants and the  from r u r a l areas to urban c e n t e r s caused a  dramatic increase i n the s i z e of Canadian c i t i e s . p o p u l a t i o n r o s e from 1.1 Though important  for  internal  million  Thus,  Canada's  urban  t o 4 . 3 m i l l i o n between 1880 and  the c o u n t r y ' s  economic growth,  crowded  1920.  cities  compounded s o c i a l p r o b l e m s a n d i n a d e q u a t e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of  G i v e n an environment unrecognized,  the urban  poor.  i n which the importance o f  w h e r e t h e s p r e a d o f d i s e a s e was i n a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d ,  and one i n w h i c h f a c i l i t i e s  such as i n d o o r p l u m b i n g ,  covered w e l l s were g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n s were social order.  s a n i t a t i o n was  it  i s not  ice-boxes  surprising that  formed t o meet t h e c h a l l e n g e s w h i c h  I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s women's  developed during the l a t e 19th  century,  threatened  reform groups which  M o r r i s o n (1976) p o i n t s o u t  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s  lay predominantly  of  t h e Women's  causes they emphasized.  For  example,  and  i n the k i n d s  Christian  Temperance U n i o n v i e w e d t h e consumption o f a l c o h o l as t h e  most  d i s t r e s s f u l o f s o c i a l m a l a d i e s ; c i t y h e a l t h were concerned w i t h p o o r h e a l t h o f c h i l d r e n , and s o c i a l w o r k e r s /  instability.  The  s o l u t i o n s advocated  that  f o c u s s e d upon  the  family  3  for  the various perceptions o f  w e r e a s v a r i e d a s t h e c a u s e s . Some r e m e d i e s i n v o l v e d  social  direct  disorder  -23intervention, the  such as the campaign  temperance workers  h e a l t h ranged  (Sheehan,  for  Prohibition zealously  1980).  from d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e f o r  Relief Agencies,  Solutions  related to children's  ' r e a l l y needy'  (Morrison,  1976).  i n sanitary hygiene,  another  The  From t h i s v i e w p o i n t ,  agent  s c h o o l i n g was p e r c e i v e d as y e t  on the grounds  o f c h i l d r e n , b u t through them,  their  idea that  that  upgraded  strongly  i t not only  improved  the standard o f  f a m i l i e s . Crusaders such as Adelaide Hoodless,  (Stamp,  teaching of domestic a f f a i r s  1977;  forged  1974:  important  groups.  Howes,  1967).  l i n k s between  of i t s promoters,  s p i t e o f the  the  strong  i t i s not at a l l c e r t a i n that  u n d e r l y i n g problems c o u l d be s o l v e d by the programs b e i n g  to  Thus,  t h e home a n d t h e s c h o o l a s i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n a d d r e s s e d t h e  p e r c e i v e d need t o a s s i s t f a m i l i e s . H o w e v e r , i n convictions  the  e x p l i c i t t r a i n i n g i n f a m i l y m a t t e r s was t h e a n s w e r  the problems o f urban s o c i e t y  reformers,  the  living  promoted  d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e u n i t e d t h e c o n c e r n s o f many r e f o r m  She b e l i e v e d t h a t  the  means o f a l l e v i a t i n g p r e s s i n g , s o c i a l  o f remedies and r e f o r m s .  defended by i t s advocates  for  Therefore,  t e a c h i n g o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s was  lives  the  s c i e n t i f i c temperance and h o u s e h o l d  cookery were v i s u a l i z e d as a n o t h e r problems.  in  family  Some r e f o r m e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t  i g n o r a n c e o f s o c i e t y c o u l d be overcome b y e d u c a t i o n . lessons  f a m i l i e s by  to the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the S i c k C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l  T o r o n t o w h e r e c h i l d r e n c o u l d b e t r e a t e d away f r o m t h e environment  pursued by  the  advocated.  -24-  One  o£ the r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f  urbanization, living.  was a movement  T h i s was m o t i v a t e d  number o f  the p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l d i s o r d e r a t t r i b u t e d to  regenerate  the importance of  i n p a r t by p o l i t i c a l  i n r e a c t i o n to  the " . . . c r o w d e d ,  cities...breathing (Harcourt,  1903,  repository of  Rural  independent  To p r o v i d e  Agricultural  I n s t r u c t i o n A c t was l e g i s l a t e d i n 1 9 1 3 .  life  of  the country,  Training  all  (1978)  the r u r a l a r e a s .  f a m i l i e s from the  land.  for  James R o b e r t s o n ,  i n the  interests  appointed Commissioner  the Dominion o f Canada i n 1890,  forms o f manual t r a i n i n g .  the  O t h e r forms o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g were  i n c l u c a t e the r i g h t k i n d s o f knowledge  rural regeneration.  that  productive  i n a g r i c u l t u r e was s u b s e q u e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d t o b o l s t e r  a l s o deemed t o  Dairying  families  t h e p r e m i s e u n d e r l y i n g t h e p a s s a g e o f t h i s A c t was  and would d i m i n i s h t h e exodus o f  economy o f  of  true  the  Jones  t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e w o u l d h e l p t h e f a r m e r make a m o r e living,  in  incentives for  the h e a l t h y ,  that  also arose  l i v i n g was b e l i e v e d t o b e t h e  the best moral v a l u e s .  the  c l o s e rooms and f a c t o r i e s "  to return to  explains  It  n a r r o w unwholesome q u a r t e r s  the s t i f l e d a i r of  xxxv).  rural  concern r e l a t e d to  f a m i l i e s d e s e r t i n g Canada's a g r i c u l t u r a l base.  to  of  was a s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r  In an address g i v e n March 4 ,  Robertson declared: N a t u r e Study s h o u l d be c e n t r a l , w i t h Manual T r a i n i n g and D o m e s t i c Economy on e i t h e r s i d e o f i t . . . . These a r e not fads i n any s e n s e . They a r e fundmental t o the m a i n t a i n e n c e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and the upward p r o g r e s s o f the i n d i v i d u a l and t h e r a c e . (J.W. R o b e r t s o n , 1903)  1903  of  -25As Robertson would  believed  c r e a t e a demand  regeneration  of  subjects often  Robertson's formation  of  (White,  the  for  similar classes  the c o u n t r y s i d e started  through education  i n urban centers  t h e M a c d o n a l d Movement f o r (Robertson,  1907).  ( Stamp,  the  i n manual  1951). While,  contribute  This  the advancement powerful  f o r boys at  was c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t other meaningful  for  ultimately  the p u b l i c school l e v e l ,  (Stamp,  the development  1982).  of  to p o r t r a y  Each included classes  forms  However,  there in  Macdonald  O n t a r i o and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d .  the b e n e f i t s  of p r a c t i c a l training for  i n c o o k i n g and s e w i n g .  1976). Model schools encouraged  manual  did  domestic  of domestic science  t h e new  teachers  to  t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r own s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s .  Their  students.  These demonstrated  c h i l d r e n c o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n a s p e c t s o f  of  it  ways.  i n N o v a S c o t i a , New B r u n s w i c k ,  (Sutherland,  province  establishment  Four o b j e c t - l e s s o n c o n s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d by  rural  the  agriculture  Canadian  the  the establishment  i n any p u b l i c s c h o o l s  of  alliance  t h e M a c d o n a l d movement f u n d e d  a n y d i r e c t money f o r  science centers  p u r p o s e was  training  1982).  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f manual t r a i n i n g i n e v e r y  o f manual t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s not  in rural areas,  schools  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald r e s u l t e d i n  and e d u c a t i o n affected  that s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c a l work i n c i t y  that  education  establish  -26-  Macdonald a l s o financed the establishment t r a i n i n g of domestic  science teachers:  i n 1904;  and Macdonald C o l l e g e ,  to o f f e r  this  form o f  from England o r helped j u s t i f y specifically  for  two i n s t i t u t i o n s  Quebec i n 1906.  States.  the p u b l i c the girls.  The  Appropriate  some p a r e n t s .  presence of  women i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t  Indisputably,  upgrading  t r a i n i n g of  undertaken.  Yet,  opportunities  a new s u b j e c t  area  in  school  domestic science i n of  training  facilities,  the  the c o n d i t i o n s of  their  the  frequently  f o r women.  the v i c t i m s . needy  reform a l s o brought  Fields  such as n u r s i n g ,  problems  A s a means  families  c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l s was one  idea of  social  alternative  with i t  many  s o c i a l work  and  influence  of  brought  the b e n e f i t  to both  about  the  by s o c i a l  society.  The  r e f o r m movement was  s o c i a l d i s t r e s s a n d t o new f o r m s o f change.  of  through  t h e means b y w h i c h women c o u l d e x t e n d  a response  young  nation.  domestic science provided for  the  i n f l u e n c e the education of  i n d u s t r i a l era created a diversity of  i n w h i c h women a n d c h i l d r e n w e r e  explicit  facilities  Domesticity'  the  s o c i a l reform,  wanting  teachers  s p e c i a l i s t teachers  With the establishment  d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e was i n a p o s i t i o n t o  ' E d g i n g Beyond  training  the  Ontario  Public schools  introduction of  classrooms a l s o increased the c r e d i b i l i t y o f minds o f  for  The M a c d o n a l d I n s t i t u t e ,  e d u c a t i o n no l o n g e r h a d t o depend o n  the United to  oE  their therefore  womanhood  Industrialization  held a place  burgeoning world of work. was  the c r e a t i o n o f  against  The  the upper  professional  the c o n v e n t i o n s  occupations  At  of  albeit  end o f  in  even though  struggled these  p a r t i c u l a r concern to  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l women i n f i e l d s s u c h a s n u r s i n g ,  h e a l t h and l a w h e l p e d promote  the need f o r  reform i n areas  t h e n e e d s o f women a n d c h i l d r e n b o t h a t home a n d a t  However,  at  the  l o w e r end o f  employed  i n many j o b s  the employment  i n which the  the  spectrum  f i e l d s which  a c c e p t a b l e womanhood, of  restricted,  employment  female m a j o r i t y  d e a l t w i t h s o c i a l problems  arguments  with  f o r women,  of  public  concerned  work.  spectrum g i r l s  female v i r t u e s  women.  were  patience,  o b e d i e n c e and p h y s i c a l g r a c e were c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l , s u c h as clerks, Parr,  o f f i c e workers  1983).  laborers reports  In addition,  i n the  'needle  that by the  one-third  of  and employees  many women f o u n d j o b s a s p o o r l y  trades'  l a t e 19th  the l a b o r  in service industries  force  or i n domestic s e r v i c e .  regarding  i n urban centers  exploitation  the consequences o f  i n t e r p l a y between  'duty'  and  tension continually evident  Morrison social  theorizes  and  paid  Kealey  (1979)  c e n t u r y women a n d c h i l d r e n c o m p r i s e d  P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d protection against  (Light  and a t  of  their  fears The  forms a s t r o n g u n d e r c u r r e n t  t h a t when women l e f t the  fuelled  family duties.  a s women e d g e d b e y o n d  reform "they d i d so w i t h  Toronto.  fostered concern for  t h e same t i m e  their neglect 'rights'  such as  the  family  of  circle.  t h e home t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d  i n t e n t i o n o f making i t  a better  in and  -28-  more s e c u r e p l a c e t o r e t u r n t o . " ( 1 9 7 6 , 'Woman's Movement'  symbolized a dual  p . 47)  focus.  Growth o f the  On t h e one h a n d ,  p u r p o s e was t o a c c o r d women a n d c h i l d r e n w i t h a v a r i e t y rights,  w h i l e on t h e o t h e r ,  of  its  social  i t f o c u s s e d o n t h e s p e c i a l t a l e n t s o f women  to reform s o c i e t y i n conformity w i t h the moral values e s s e n t i a l t o family  life.  Some women c a l l e d  f o r " T h e r i g h t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g more a b o u t  a n d how we b e s t may d o i t " - a s t a t e m e n t d u a l i t y o f women's  which s u c c i n c t l y expresses the  s i t u a t i o n ( N . C . W . C . , 1894, p.  home was b o t h a ' b l e s s i n g ' a n d a  'trap'.  our duty  Thus,  177).  Control of the  w h i l e changes o f t h e  i n d u s t r i a l e r a e n c o u r a g e d some women o f t h e u p p e r a n d m i d d l e c l a s s e s move b e y o n d t h e d e p e n d e n t  existence of the V i c t o r i a n stereotype,  to  the  q u e s t i o n "How c a n a woman t e a c h w h a t s h e d o e s n o t k n o w h e r s e l f ? " w a s a reminder that life,  For  even t h e a s p e c t s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e home.  affluent  their  many women w e r e i l l - p r e p a r e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e new w a y s  women,  (Hoodless,  changing times provided opportunities  'mothering r o l e ' beyond  the family sphere. This  c o n c e r n became known a s s o c i a l o r m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m . d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e 'Woman's R i g h t s Movement1  1894,  to  of  p.116).  extend  form o f p u b l i c It  can be  as maternal  feminists  p l a c e d s o c i a l r e f o r m ahead o f the achievment o f e q u a l r i g h t s  f o r women.  Roberts  autonomy  c a s t s t h e i r a c t i o n s a s a " m u t e d way o f e n h a n c i n g t h e  o f women"  (1979,  work maternal  p.  18).  Through  the worthiness of t h e i r  benevolent  f e m i n i s t s hoped they would be accorded the p r i v i l e g e  of  -29voting.  Moreover,  the  i s s u e o f women's  d i s c u s s e d i n the c o n t e x t  of  the  r i g h t s was  family  from the maternal  G i v e n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h the need f o r matters  developed,  it  Movement s u p p o r t e d  Training  i s not  surprising that  training in  perspective. domestic  this strand of  the  for  Woman's  the growth of domestic s c i e n c e .  i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m a t e r n a l  philosophy  feminist  i t h e l d t h e p r o m i s e o f new t o o l s w h i c h some women  b e l i e v e d could transform the conditions of hygiene,  predominantly  cookery,  society.  Introducing  and c o n t r o l o f d i s e a s e as h o u s e h o l d t o p i c s  concerned  w i t h s c i e n c e , imbued t h e r e l a t e d t a s k s w i t h added c r e d i b i l i t y . that  the c r i t e r i a of  e f f i c i e n c y a n d economy a l s o h a d  Learning  household  a p p l i c a t i o n s u g g e s t e d homes a n d b u s i n e s s e s c o u l d b e c a r r i e d o u t o n similar basis.  A g r e a t e r understanding o f domestic d u t i e s upgraded  s t a n d a r d s o f c h i l d c a r e and f a m i l y a f f a i r s . be  'better'  also to  mothers  and w i v e s .  It  meant  Gaining control of  f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d one s p h e r e o f  the  t h a t women c o u l d  family  conditions  s o c i e t y as r i g h t f u l l y  belonging  women.  Adelaide Hoodless,  from O n t a r i o ,  the acknowledged  i n i t i a t o r of  domestic  s c i e n c e i n C a n a d i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s , c h a l l e n g e d women t o p e r f e c t own s p h e r e o f the  a  responsbility before  larger realm of  diligently  society  (N.C.W.C.  t o e s t a b l i s h t h e Women's  and she p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e  spreading t h e i r wings to 1898).  Institute  founding of  To for  encompass  t h i s end she the wives  the N a t i o n a l  their  of  worked farmers,  C o u n c i l o f Women  -30-  of Canada, an umbrella organization designed to be the national voice for a number o£ a f f i l i a t e d women's groups. The campaign to institute the teaching of domestic matters in the public schools frequently occurred because of pressure applied by women's organizations.  The importance of domestic science for Hoodless, rested on two assumptions. F i r s t , that the traditional instincts and haphazard knowledge, formerly the basis of running the home, were no longer sufficient in the complexities of the industrial age (Dominion Educational Association, 1908). Second, that training in domestic affairs was a means of maintaining the ethical and moral standards necessary for family stability (Stamp, 1977).  In advancing these  premises as the platform of domestic training there was no  suggestion  that transforming women's conditions in the home was essentially a means of 'adapting' to the new ways of l i f e .  The distinction between  adapting to new conditions, and changing the conditions themselves does not seem to have concerned Hoodless or many of her followers.  While Hoodless was a compelling crusader for the preservation of the domestic ideal, there were also others in Canada who should be acknowledged for their thoughtful and reflective advocacy of domestic science.  Among these were Alice Chown, f i e l d secretary for the  Canadian Household Economics Association of Kingston, Ontario; Mary Urie Watson, principal of the Home Economics Department at Macdonald Institute; and Annie Laird, principal of the Faculty of Household  -31-  Science a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto.  Chown i n p a r t i c u l a r , v i s u a l i z e d  a broad and comprehensive perspective o f home economics that incorporated the i d e a l s o f an education f o r ' l i f e ' r a t h e r than a program d i r e c t e d only toward homeraaking (Vaines, 1984).  Watson  contributed considerable leadership i n the establishment o f home economics programs f o r teacher education, w h i l e L a i r d ' s i n f l u e n c e s e t the d i r e c t i o n o f Canadian educational p o l i c y i n home economcs a t the l e v e l o f higher education.  Each o f the foregoing women was a p a r t i c i p a n t a t the Lake P l a c i d Conferences h e l d from 1899-1908 i n New York S t a t e .  These meetings  coordinated the diverse e f f o r t s o f many home economics advocates across North America i n the establishment o f home economics as a f i e l d o f study. The Proceedings  i n d i c a t e that the m a j o r i t y o f delegates were  a f f i l i a t e d w i t h education i n some way, and therefore b e l i e v e d that schooling was a means o f implementing home economics i d e a l s (Vaines, 1981,  1984).  The perspectives o f Canadian p a r t i c i p a n t s provided a  thought provoking b a s i s f o r many o f the d i s c u s s i o n s . U l t i m a t e l y , the sharing o f diverse ideas l e d t o the c r e a t i o n o f the American Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n , a venture l a r g e r i n concept than tliat envisioned by any s i n g l e view. However, Budewig (1957) suggests the educational dimension was considered so important that the conceptual ideas o f the f i e l d were ignored i n order to mold domestic science t o f i t the framework o f manual t r a i n i n g .  -32-  'Bodies Being Exercised; Minds at: Work; and Souls S a t i s f i e d '  While women defended  the development o f domestic science i n terms o f  women's duties to both t h e i r families and society, other aspects o f this new branch o f i n s t r u c t i o n were stressed by those concerned with i t s worth as a form o f education. As the inadequacies o f the conventional education system were h i g h l i g h t e d by the changing  times,  new forms o f schooling, more humane and more relevant, were c a l l e d f o r . The introduction o f domestic science from this perspective, rested on i t s merits as a form o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , and therefore a part o f the manual t r a i n i n g movement. The r a t i o n a l e advanced i n support o f the manual t r a i n i n g movement had to be both powerful and convincing f o r some members o f the p u b l i c , and many educators were s c e p t i c a l o f the proclaimed b e n e f i t s .  Manual t r a i n i n g was defended p r i m a r i l y i n moral terms, which j u s t i f i e d i t s p r a c t i c a l nature as a means o f b u i l d i n g character.  Phrased simply,  t h i s argument rested on the maxim that "Habits o f r i g h t working lead to habits of r i g h t thinking" (Harcourt, 1903, p. l v i i ) . Manual t r a i n i n g i n i t i a t e d students into some o f the b a s i c processes involved i n the o r i g i n a t i o n , maintainence and advancement o f mankind. c u l t i v a t e d the q u a l i t y o f 'true human sympathy be the e t h i c a l foundation o f l i f e .  1  I t , therefore,  which was considered to  -33AccordLng  to  the  report  of  and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n development  of  the R o y a l Commission on I n d u s t r i a l  t h e c h i e f a i m o £ manual t r a i n i n g was  the powers o f  ( S e s s i o n a l Paper  191d,  the p u p i l for  1913,  ethical considerations of  p.  139).  Training "the  c u l t u r a l purposes"  Hoodless  also declared that  domestic s c i e n c e f a r outweighed  the  its practical  component. C h a r a c t e r i s formed i n t h e home, and l a r g e l y u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m o t h e r , a n d u n l e s s women a r e educated so as t o r e a l i z e and f a i t h f u l l y p e r f o r m t h e d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f h o m e r a a k e r s , we cannot expect a h i g h type of c i t i z e n . . . . There i s no b r a n c h o f e d u c a t i o n s o c o n d u s i v e t o e t h i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n as t h a t o f Domestic S c i e n c e , d e a l i n g as i t d o e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e home a n d t h e o p e r a t i o n s c a r r i e d on t h e r e . (Hoodless, 1905, p. 3 8 . ) A counterpart 'will  1  to  t h e b u i l d i n g o f c h a r a c t e r was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  or the refinement  movement.  The r o o t s  movement.  Development  from the proper training offered  of  of  exercising of  were  thought  provided  These  faculty  was t h o u g h t  'muscles of  Accordingly,  Conversely,  to be s i g n s o f  The h a b i t s o f  the  i n the  psychology result Manual  incorporated  i t would c o n t r i b u t e  'flabby  m u s c l e s ' and a  i n s u f f i c i e n t motor a c t i v i t y o f  to develop  a h i g h type  of  the  of  the will  brain. work  character  j u s t i f i c a t i o n s represent an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t the development  to  'weak  i n d u s t r y and e f f i c i e n c y developed t h r o u g h manual  the opportunity  claims that  to  the m i n d 1 .  needed e x e r c i s e because i t  b o t h knowledge and a c t i v i t y . formation of character.  rest  cognitive skills  a means o f  the  thoughts which c o n t r o l l e d conscious  t h i s argument of  of  to  the  earlier  c h a r a c t e r i n c h i l d r e n was a c c o m p l i s h e d  1  -34-  through submission to the demands of the Church and the family.  The  new philosophy suggests that the child's participation i n the learning process through hard work and painstaking accomplishment, developed the characteristics deemed necessary for adulthood.  I t also reflects the  movement of society from one which stressed religious obedience to one which reflected a gospel of social reform.  The worthwhile relationship between 'knowing' and 'doing' was also advanced in defence of manual training. to lead to accurate mental images.  Accurate handwork was believed  Intelligence developed through the  sequential interaction of knowledge and i t s application.  These  arguments emphasized the intellectual component of practical work. The value of the practical lay in i t s contribution to the intellectual and ethical growth of the child, rather than i n the enjoyment of accomplishing the work i t s e l f .  Manual training was also promoted as a means of stimulating both student interest and progress. Its advocates maintained that the new and meaningful methods would attract students to the school.  As minds  were stimulated and perceptive faculties awakened through manual training, students would be able to perform at higher levels in the traditional subjects.  From this point of view the benefits of  practical training were thought to permeate a l l aspects of the school system.  -35Robertsoa,  as Commissioner o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,  emphasized  the d i s t i n c t i o n s  between manual t r a i n i n g and t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n a s p e e c h t o Dominion E d u c a t i o n a l  the  Association.  Manual T r a i n i n g i s t h a t p a r t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n which seeks i t s r e s u l t i n the boy h i m s e l f o r the g i r l h e r s e l f , . . . without regard to the p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n to be f o l l o w e d a f t e r w a r d s . The t h i n g s made b y t h e c h i l d i n M a n u a l T r a i n i n g may a s w e l l g o i n t o the stove o r i n t o the waste-paper b a s k e t ; but t h e t h i n g s made b y a b o y i n a n i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l , u n d e r a s y s t e m o f I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , a r e made f o r t h e s a k e o f t h i n g s , a n d made f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e a b i l i t y t o make t h e same o f s i m i l a r t h i n g s t h a t will sell. I do n o t s a y t h a t i s a p o o r p a r t o r a n unnecessary p a r t of e d u c a t i o n , but i t i s not Manual T r a i n i n g . . . . T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n h a s some m a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n i t , b u t t h e manual t r a i n i n g i n t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n has a p r i c e i n i t and on i t f o r the worth o f i t s p r o d u c t s . I t i s l o o k i n g to the e f f e c t o f the t r a i n i n g on the c r a f t and on t h e p r o d u c t , and not o n l y p e r s o n . (Robertson, 1901, . pp. 85-86). Manual t r a i n i n g i n s c h o o l and t r a d e s goals.  Consequently,  t r a i n i n g programs  t r a i n i n g c l e a r l y had  vocational opportunities  a c c r u i n g from  i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s were downplayed.  perspective d e f l e c t e d o p p o s i t i o n r a i s e d by  different manual  Such a  the Trades Unions  i n Toronto  r e g a r d i n g the p r o v i s i o n s o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g a t p u b l i c expense their  concern that  students  trained i n trades at  the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p systems of had to agree waste,  that  the  the u n i o n s .  fostering of  ' r e f i n i n g good judgement'  traits  school would  Moreover, such as  even the  undercut critics  'doing things  and d e v e l o p i n g the  'powers o f  and  without close  -36-  observacion  1  instruction.  provided a strong foundation for l a t e r t e c h n i c a l Therefore, manual t r a i n i n g i n schools was o f b e n e f i t to  a l l students pursuing a v a r i e t y o f occupations l a t e r i n l i f e .  F i n a l l y , manual t r a i n i n g allowed c h i l d r e n to grasp an i d e a or image through a c t i v i t y and experience rather than v i c a r i o u s l y through book learning.  The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f 'handwork' w i t h 'brainwork' appealed to  the needs and i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d . of schooling.  I t added zest to the process  I n p r a c t i c a l terms, i t a l s o helped to h o l d youngsters i n  school, i s o l a t e d from the unhealthy and immoral influences i n the f a c t o r i e s and on the s t r e e t s .  Manual t r a i n i n g i n a l l i t s forms, t r i e d to s h i f t the focus o f the classroom from that o f the subject to that o f the c h i l d . I t s b e n e f i t s enriched the mind, the body and the s p i r i t .  The appropriateness o f  manual t r a i n i n g to the a m e l i o r a t i o n o f a d i v e r s i t y o f concerns slowly generated a broad and supportive audience.  I t s focus was compatible  w i t h the i n t e r e s t s o f those concerned w i t h the needs o f the c h i l d ; i t garnered support from those who sought a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p between classroom experience and d a i l y l i f e ; i t appeared to provide s o l u t i o n s to some o f the problems a r i s i n g from the tedious process o f conventional schooling; and i t s content was o f i n t e r e s t to the greater range o f students e n r o l l e d i n schools. Thus, from the perspective of those seeking educational reform manual t r a i n i n g was a worthy endeavour f o r a l l c h i l d r e n .  -37Overall, part  of  the changes w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n Canadian l i f e the 19th  daughters,  century  latter  f o s t e r e d the growth o f domestic s c i e n c e .  w i v e s and mothers a c r o s s Canada i t s  schools served a v a r i e t y  d u r i n g the  of purposes.  First,  introduction to it  represented  For  public  the  d o m e s t i c i d e a l a s a n e m i n e n t l y s u i t a b l e v o c a t i o n f o r women a n d o n e worthy of vigourous  pursuit.  Second, exposure to  s k i l l s was l i n k e d t o i m p r o v e m e n t families.  Third,  it  i n the q u a l i t y of  new k n o w l e d g e life  for  many  embodied a l l t h e v i r t u e s b e l i e v e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h manual t r a i n i n g i n terras o f p r a c t i c a l l e a r n i n g as w e l l as building.  Finally,  t r a i n i n g i n d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s was a  a c c e p t a b l e means o f e x t e n d i n g w o m e n ' s president of Montreal, It  influence.  t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women,  As Lady  Aberdeen,  explained during a v i s i t  women's work " . . . b e s t b e g i n s a t home,  science,  that  never e n d . "  helped a variety  (1893).  but need not  end  a c c e p t t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a new a g e .  i n c l u d i n g the reformers  to  there.  widening  In essence the i n i t i a t i o n of  o f women,  character  socially  i s l i k e a s t o n e c a s t i n t o a pond whose r i p p l e s go i n e v e r  circles  and  domestic  themselves,  -38ChapCer Three  'IMPROVING THE PRESENT CONDITION 1  THE GROWTH OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f educational innovations i s an evolutionary process that frequently a r i s e s from the e f f o r t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and organizations both i n s i d e and outside the education system.  I n the case o f domestic science i n B r i t i s h Columbia the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f school programs p r i m a r i l y r e s u l t e d from pressures exerted outside the education system as various community organizations c a j o l e d , provoked and persuaded i n f l u e n t i a l school o f f i c i a l s t o i n s t i t u t e the d e s i r e d programs. While community input stimulated the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the subject, i t a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the way domestic science was taught i n schools.  Chapter three sets the stage f o r the  examination o f the curriculum by b r i e f l y o u t l i n i n g i n f l u e n t i a l events and i n d i v i d u a l s which shaped domestic science i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n the province.  B r i t i s h Columbians took a long time t o e s t a b l i s h domestic science as as i n t e g r a l part o f t h e i r school system.  A mix o f r e l i g i o u s and other  forms o f fee-paying schools provided a wide range o f educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n both the colony o f Vancouver I s l a n d and that o f  -3.9B r i t i s h Colijmbia. joined  I t was n o t , h o w e v e r ,  t h e new C o n f e d e r a t i o n  system o f education. first  until  o f Canada t h a t  t h e two u n i t e d a n d  the province established a  After j o i n i n g Confederation  i n 1871,  one o f t h e  t r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e was  t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t (1872) w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d t h e basic this  structure of provincial education. l e g i s l a t i o n - supposedly  the non-separate  An Idea Takes  Needlework  part  (Chestnutt,  the f i r s t 1975).  taught  In Craigflower  at Yale  a s e w i n g c l a s s was h e l d f o r g i r l s  province  sewing by the w i f e o f the schoolmaster, and during the winter  of Schools appointed  months  the f i r s t  Inspector  i n 1887,  supported  the teaching o f needlework as v a l u a b l e  and the ' f i n g e r s ' ,  i n i n the  However,  i n h i s yearly  r e p o r t s W i l s o n made r e p e a t e d p l e a s f o r n e e d f o r i m p r o v e m e n t teaching of a l l p r a c t i c a l subjects  generally  i n the  (see P u b l i c School Annual  Reports,  B y 1891 n e e d l e w o r k was o n e o f t h e r e g u l a r o p t i o n s  course of study,  b u t i t s i n c l u s i o n does not i m p l y t h a t  (Department o f E d u c a t i o n ,  1914).  of  the c u l t i v a t i o n o f t a s t e and  and t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f good h a b i t s .  1889-1896).  in  School on Vancouver  Wilson,  t r a i n i n g f o r the 'mind' judgment  1971).  f o r m o f home e c o n o m i c s t a u g h t  g i r l s were  D.  from  Hold  Island,  1870.  evolved  f r e e and n o n - s e c t a r i a n - was m o d e l l e d o n  o f the Ontario system (Johnson,  was a p p a r e n t l y  the province  The system t h a t  White  i t was  i n the taught  (1951) e x p l a i n s  that  -40-  o f t e n p r a c t i c a l subjects were not w e l l received due t o the l a c k o f s u i t a b l e teachers r a t h e r than i n s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t on the part o f the students. I n an i n i t i a l e f f o r t t o improve the teaching o f handwork, the V i c t o r i a school board appointed a Miss Bourman, ( a l s o s p e l l e d Boorman) i n 1896 t o provide a 'sound and thorough' t r a i n i n g t o elementary g i r l s , as w e l l as i n t e r e s t e d teachers.  The f i r s t center f o r the teaching o f cooking was opened i n 1903 i n V i c t o r i a . I t was organized by the L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women, and financed by the L o c a l Council as w e l l as the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union and small personal donations.  Plans f o r a center, designed t o  accommodate twenty students, were obtained from the East. Miss W i n i f r e d McKeand, an experienced appointed  domestic science teacher from Nova S c o t i a , was  i n s t r u c t o r . Ten c l a s s e s , each w i t h twenty g i r l s , were chosen  from the senior elementary grades and from the h i g h school. Once a week each c l a s s received a lesson i n cookery. The report o f F.H. Eaton, Superintendent o f C i t y Schools f o r V i c t o r i a , shows that w i t h i n a one-year period four domestic science centers were opened on Vancouver I s l a n d . Eaton suggests that the subject was popular w i t h both the parents and the p u p i l s (1904).  In 1905, the L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women i n Vancouver was i n f l u e n t i a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a domestic science center a t C e n t r a l School i n Vancouver. T h e i r e f f o r t s were supported by Mr. W.P. Argue, Superintendent o f  -41Vancouver  Schools  Elizabeth  Berry,  (Public School Annual Report, a graduate  of  the  first  teacher  d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a t The M a c d o n a l d I n s t i t u t e , Sewing, under  at  f i r s t b y h a n d , was t a u g h t b y  the s u p e r v i s i o n o f B e r r y .  f o r grade e i g h t g i r l s , Students, street  drawn  car.  because of Thus, of  of  restricted  schools, travelled to  classes  secured the necessary funds  form o f  schooling.  opened  quarter  r e l a t e d to  the  and V i c t o r i a s c h o o l s .  Science  to the  efforts  political  the value of domestic s c i e n c e ,  to ensure i t s  In B r i t i s h Columbia,  by  i n the l a s t  They p r o v i d e d b o t h the  machinery to convince the p u b l i c o f  Institute  the center  travel.  the growth o f domestic s c i e n c e can be a t t r i b u t e d  Women's  enrollment.  had to  t r a i n i n g i n matters  i n both Vancouver  organizations.  in  teacher.  four domestic s c i e n c e centers had been  and Growth o f Domestic  l o c a l women's  schools.  was h i r e d a s  though l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s  the n i n e t e e n t h century a broader  The A d v o c a c y  57).  training class  c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s t a n c e some g i r l s  home g a i n e d a f o o t h o l d  A  regular classroom teachers  from the s m a l l nucleus o f needlework  Much o f  p.  Two-hour foods c l a s s e s were a l s o h e l d  from ten elementary  By 1909,  1905,  implementation  i n selected  t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l s o f Women,  were p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e  and  i n promoting  and  the  this  new  -42-  As  discussed i n chapter  formed i n 1893,  two,  t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of: Women o f  pursued b o t h n a t i o n a l i s t and  f e m i n i s t g o a l s . By  t h e NCWC r e p r e s e n t e d s e v e n n a t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d twenty-one  local  councils (Strong-Boag,  s u p p o r t was g i v e n t o t h e e f f o r t s  1975).  to  1900  s o c i e t i e s and Enthusiastic  national  of p r o v i n c i a l organizations.  address of Mrs. A r c h i b a l d of H a l i f a x ,  the T h i r d Annual  C o u n c i l o f Women's M e e t i n g i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o o p e r a t i v e undertaken at  Canada  The  National  action  the n a t i o n a l l e v e l on b e h a l f o f a f f i l i a t e d groups  regarding domestic  science:  We d o n o t w a n t t o b e p r o v i n c i a l i n t h i s N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f o u r s , a n d w h e n we f i n d a w a n t i n O n t a r i o which w i l l apply to B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h equal f o r c e , o r t o New B r u n s w i c k , we w i l l c a r r y i t home and d i n i t i n t o t h e e a r s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n i s t s u n t i l they w i l l be g l a d to grant our r e q u e s t s . (1896, p. 391). T h e Women's I n s t i t u t e  of B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o endorsed the e f f o r t s  t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l s o f Women t o e s t a b l i s h d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . o r g a n i z a t i o n was f o u n d e d b y H o o d l e s s , Institutes  i n 1897.  This Women's  i n B r i t i s h Columbia expanded q u i c k l y under t h e g u i d a n c e  L a u r a Rose o r i g i n a l l y from O n t a r i o , c h a p t e r s were  The motto  i n Ontario  "For  t h e Women's  s o t h a t b y 1909  of  of  fifteen provincial  organized.  Home a n d C o u n t r y "  Institute.  Its  symbolized  the r u r a l focus inherent  members w e r e h o m e m a k e r s who b e l i e v e d  t h e home a n d f a m i l y d e s e r v e d t h e same k i n d o f  study,  that  c a r e and s e r v i c e  in  -43-  as  the Farmer's  farms  (Scott,  Institute  1925).  household problems, mothering.  d i r e c t e d to the s t o c k and c r o p s o f  Domestic  s c i e n c e was s e e n a s a way o f  t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f o n e member t h e  d i s c u s s e d moved f r o m t o p i c s s u c h a s  h o m e s " women m u s t e x t e n d  organizations  'making b e t t e r b u t t e r '  to the r e c o g n i t i o n that  Women's I n s t i t u t e s ,  solving  and r a i s i n g the s t a n d a r d s o f h o u s e h o l d c a r e and  According to  carpet sweepers'  their  p.  15).  and  " i n order to protect  t h e i r i n f l u e n c e beyond  1960,  issues  the  'new their  family c i r c l e  S u c h comment s u g g e s t s t h a t  (B.C.  women's  a l s o served as c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g endeavours  for  some  members.  A l i c e R a v e n h i l l , who a r r i v e d i n C a n a d a f r o m E n g l a n d i n f l u e n t i a l member o f b o t h t h e W o m e n ' s  Institute  Women. H e r b a c k g r o u n d a s a l e c t u r e r o n h y g i e n e ,  i n 1910,  was  an  and The C o u n c i l  of  public health  h o u s e h o l d s c i e n c e a t K i n g ' s C o l l e g e f o r Women, U n i v e r s i t y  of  a n d h e r e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g h e a l t h i n t h e r u r a l homes o f made h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n o u t l y i n g communities related  to  Institute  (Ravenhill,1951).  the hygiene o f  and London,  England  t o C a n a d i a n women  living  Many o f h e r i d e a s o n t o p i c s  the f a m i l y were conveyed through the  Women's  Quarterly.  Ravenhill believed strongly  i n t h e power o f  t h e home.  Her  scientific  p e r s p e c t i v e emphasized c o n t r o l l i n g the c o n d i t i o n s o f  t h e home s o  t h e y w o u l d become s u b s e r v i e n t t o human n e e d s .  household  Thus,  that  tasks  -44-  s u c h as c o o k i n g , application of  cleaning,  t h e d u t i e s o f women i n u p h o l d i n g  human l i f e i n t h e h o m e " Ravenhill  d i d not  (cited  i n Rowles,  reputation  1956,  p.  -  two programs  centers c a l l e d attention  generous  i n Vancouver,  oE  Though domestic her  domestic  support  of  from the f o r boys  and two i n V i c t o r i a .  to the l a c k of  a n d no d o u b t f u e l l e d t h e e f f o r t s  conduct  science  groups.  Movement e s t a b l i s h e d f o u r m a n u a l t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s Columbia  68).  increased the c r e d i b i l i t y o f  the 1900-1901 s c h o o l y e a r ,  limited  the " r i g h t  h e r presence i n B r i t i s h Columbia and  programs b e i n g promoted b y women's  During  a  participate d i r e c t l y i n public school  science programs, international  s e w i n g and w a s h i n g were b u t  Macdonald in  British  These  similar f a c i l i t i e s for  t h e women's  organizations  girls, on  behalf  o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . I n many c a s e s t h e o p e n i n g o f d o m e s t i c  science  centers  training  programs  followed  shortly after  for boys.  the establishment  o f manual  However, L i g h t f o o t and Maynard  (1941)  indicate  i n some s m a l l t o w n s  a m a n u a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m was i n p l a c e f o r u p  twenty years before  the introduction of  domestic science.  suggests  still  c o n s i d e r e d to be the duty o f  an o r g a n i z e r i t was a l w a y s not  that  or  i n r u r a l communities  the  the mother.  inspector s p e c i f i c a l l y for  p u b l i c i z e d under  skills  merits.  the  were  lack  domestic science implies  the auspices of  r e c e i v e r e c o g n i t i o n o n i t s own  and  o f homemaking  Moreover,  to  The  d i s c r e p a n c y i n p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to boys girls  that  manual t r a i n i n g ,  and  of that did  -45-  While outside  i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s  the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s  to  exerted strong pressure  i n s t i t u t e programs  those i n s i d e the education system a l s o worked subject area i n various ways. the p u b l i c to v i s i t  Berry  i n domestic  to p u b l i c i z e the  time.  S h e commented  the v i s i t o r s d u r i n g i t s f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n were Dr. Robinson,  Superintendent  School Board,  Inspectors  a s w e l l a s many o t h e r s  of Education  for  o f S c h o o l s , members o f  4 0 0 o u t s i d e v i s i t o r s came d u r i n g 1 9 0 5 - 6 , 1941,  The a i m o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , i n the a r t  of  that Berry's  the p r o v i n c e ,  interested i n education.  ( L i g h t f o o t and Maynard,  p.  the  (1906, p.  members o f  the C o u n c i l of  22).  were a p a r t  of  annual  b y 1910  Thomas  visitors  interest  (1984)  twenty  explains  system,  Vancouver  years.  'class  teas'  for  displays of domestic science projects  l o c a l e x h i b i t i o n s h e l d i n Vancouver,  surrounding communities.  that  operation.  of Domestic Science i n  s c i e n c e was a l s o p u b l i c i z e d b y h o l d i n g In addition,  Women,  Berry estimated  f i r s t year of  the  t h e s u b j e c t a n d h e r c o r a n i t m e n t load  and remained i n the s c h o o l system f o r  mothers.  among  5.)  she l a t e r became S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  Domestic  to  Alexander  c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on i t s e x p a n s i o n w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n for  new  that  B e r r y c l a i m e d , was " a r o u s i n g a n  true homemaking..." perceptions of  science,  i s s u e d an open i n v i t a t i o n  the c l a s s e s a t any  on  and l a t e r  These a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s  for  t o v i e w p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n p r o g r e s s and t o examine  the  in  -46-  work o f the s t u d e n t s . students  emphasized  The l a t e r  initiation of  'home p r o j e c t s '  for  a n i n c r e a s e d home a n d s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The p r o v i n c i a l government  offered  f i n a n c i a l assistance f o r the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f manual t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s d u r i n g t h e 1910-1911 s c h o o l year.  The government  b a s i c equipment  cost,  trained teachers  years  1951).  Superintendent  If  the cost of  salary o f the teacher i n  o f I n d u s t r i a l and T e c h n i c a l Education,  f r o m s i x t o t h i r t e e n b e t w e e n 1911  McNaughton previous  expanded  received the highest vote ever  v i s i t e d various  to the  Sponsored by the L o c a l C o u n c i l o f  e l e c t i o n (NCWC R e p o r t ,  grew  o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e may a l s o  t o t h e e l e c t i o n o f M r s . P e t e r McNaughton  S c h o o l Board i n 1912.  both  and 1912.  increase i n the popularity  be a t t r i b u t e d  to  Assistant  I n t h e c a s e o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , t h e number o f c e n t e r s  Some o f t h e  of  the  Under t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f George Dean,  and D i r e c t o r  the  subsequent  manual t r a i n i n g f o r boys and d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e f o r g i r l s rapidly.  of  School Boards decided  t h e y were asked t o repay h a l f  and f u r n i s h the f u l l  (White,  than three-quarters  and cover the s a l a r y and t r a v e l l i n g expenses  f o r a p e r i o d o f one y e a r .  continue the work, equipment  agreed t o pay not l e s s  1912,  p.  Vancouver  Women,  cast for a candidate i n a xviii).  Mrs.  domestic science centers throughout  McNaughton  both the  United  i States to  and Canada,  further  interest  and throughout i n the  h e r term o f o f f i c e worked  subject.  diligently  -47-  A r e s o l u t i o n made b y d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h Teachers'  Institute  'Home E c o n o m i c s ' phases o f labels. for  i n 1911,  c h a n g e d t h e name o f  a s i t was f e l t  the s u b j e c t .  the P r o v i n c e r e f e r s prefer  to  83).  use o f  the  Thus,  domestic s c i e n c e to  t o more a d e q u a t e l y  cover the  various  From t h i s date d i s c u s s i o n appears under  E v e n i n 1920 J o h n K y l e ,  instructors  the  then Organizer  of Technical  to domestic science " . . . o r  term i t ,  both  Education  a s most o f  the  home e c o n o m i c s " ( A n n u a l R e p o r t ,  p.  C  t e r m home e c o n o m i c s g r e w s l o w l y among t h o s e  in  the school system.  On V a n c o u v e r  I s l a n d , Annie Juniper,  "capable Englishwoman",  whom R o w l e s 1  a graduate of  the N o r f o l k  H o u s e h o l d S c i e n c e , was a p p o i n t e d s u p e r v i s o r o f Victoria  i n 1911.  Prior  to her appointment,  Snell,  1963).  Canada.  Juniper wrote  (1913).  member o f  J u n i p e r was D e a n o f  province. but  in after  efficient  the  (1911) and a l s o t h e  first  Wales  (J.F. and  in Victoria,  textbook  Girls'  The m a n u a l was d e d i c a t e d t o M r s . M a r g a r e t J e n k i n s , and a S c h o o l Board o f f i c i a l ,  i n f u r t h e r i n g t h e home e c o n o m i c s movement w i t h i n It  the  and t h e n Dean o f  the f i r s t c u r r i c u l u m f o r g i r l s  was p r e p a r e d i n " t h e h o p e t h a t life  also,  girls,  not  o f homeraaking"  (Juniper,  1913,  Home a for  the  only at  school,  may f i n d i t h e l p f u l i n m a k i n g t h e m m o r e  i n the noble a r t  of  in  the Manitoba A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e  t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women,  her efforts  and N o r w i c h S c h o o l  She a l s o h a d t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n E n g l a n d ,  Domestic S c i e n c e , C o u r s e 1 Manual  of  a  domestic t r a i n i n g  School o f Household S c i e n c e , Macdonald C o l l e g e , Household S c i e n c e Department  d e s c r i b e s as  preface).  -48-  D u x i n g W o r l d War I  the  number o f d o m e s t i c  science centers  only  its  i m a g e was e n h a n c e d  through  slightly,  but  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the war classes  made c l o t h e s ,  fund-raising projects School Board R e p o r t ,  time e f f o r t .  Girls  prepared bandages, to support 1915,  p.  The  active  i n domestic  science  gave d i n n e r s and  the work o f  73.)  increased  initiated  the Red Cross  (Vancouver  r e l a t i o n s h i p between d a i l y  a n d p r a c t i c a l l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l s b e c a m e more s h a r p l y  focussed  the war  economy and  time p e r i o d w i t h an emphasis on c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  preservation  "Not  of  at F i r s t  Berry  during the  food.  All Plain Sailing"  ( L i g h t f o o t and Maynard,  strongly  life  objected  to having  1941)  i n d i c a t e s t h a t some  t h e i r daughters  "waste  parents  time" i n school  over  something they were supposed to be l e a r n i n g from t h e i r mothers.  Also,  some r a t e - p a y e r s ,  to  teaching of  "frill"  the minds o f cheapest  of  t o k e e p down l o c a l  taxes were opposed  the  subjects which r a i s e d the costs of education.  such objectors  In  t h e b e s t e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , was s i m p l y  the  one.  Some c r i t i c s anxious  anxious  to  were s i m p l y a g a i n s t  see the  trying anything  school system preserve  Others  i t s academic f o c u s .  t h e s e o b j e c t o r s was A g n e s D e a n s C a m e r o n ,  School i n V i c t o r i a -  new.  p r i n c i p a l of  were Typical  South  a n e d u c a t o r who r e s i s t e d t h e c h a n g e s b e i n g  Park sought.  -49-  L a s t y e a r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u n c i l o f Women was a l l agog f o r domestic s c i e n c e . When I , o p e n i n g my e a s t e r n w i n d o w s w h i c h l o o k t o w a r d t h e s u n , saw t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f c o o k i n g s t o v e s and stew p a n s , c a r p e n t e r s ' benches and j a c k p l a n e s h e a d i n g f o r the s c h o o l room d o o r , I l i f t e d up a f e e b l e w a i l f o r mercy. I n t h i s w h o l e C o u n c i l o f Women I f o u n d n o friend. I was a n a t h e m a a n d u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e . I was u n p r o g r e s s i v e a n d l a z y . D i d I n o t know t h a t c o o k i n g was a g o o d t h i n g , a m o s t n e c e s s a r y t h i n g ? And s h o u l d n ' t t h e s c h o o l c o u r s e b e e n r i c h e d ? (Agnes Deans C a m e r o n , 1 9 0 4 , p . 241)  Objections  toward manual t r a i n i n g were not  Columbia, however.  confined s o l e l y to  Stamp (1982) d i s c u s s e s t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f  t r a d e unions on the grounds  that  British Ontario  manual t r a i n i n g i n s c h o o l s would  interfere with t h e i r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p system,  t a k e w o r k away  competant  tradesmen,  and produce i n a d e q u a t e l y  addition,  i t was f e l t b y l a b o r s p o k e s m e n t h a t  from  q u a l i f i e d workers. manual t r a i n i n g  would  trap working-class children into s t r i c t l y physical occupations, t h e r e f o r e would deny Yet,  apparently  apparently  them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  some members o f  looked favorably  the p u b l i c perception of Maynard, taught Thus,  at  1941).  programs  the B r i t i s h Columbia Labour  and  mobility. Unions  a t domestic s c i e n c e as such t r a i n i n g r a i s e d  t h e s t a t u s o f manual s k i l l s  Other opponents  felt  tliat that  s c h o o l had no p r a c t i c a l v a l u e  the controversy  o f upward s o c i a l  In  covered a wide area of  manual s u b j e c t s  (Putman,  which accompanied the criticisms.  (Lightfoot  Weir,  1925,  introduction of  and as  p.96). manual  -50-  However, Kyle suggested that the ' i n t e r f e r e n c e s ' experienced by manual t r a i n i n g during i t formative years may have i n d i r e c t l y promoted i t s cause. I n h i s 1920 report t o the Department o f Education he found i t " g r a t i f y i n g to know that the r e s u l t o f having the l i m e l i g h t thus thrown d i r e c t l y on the subjects has been t o e s t a b l i s h them more securely than ever i n the school system." (1920, p. A83)  'A R i g h t f u l Place i n a N a t i o n a l and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Scheme o f Education'  The f i n d i n g s o f the the 1924 Survey o f the School System, conducted by Dr. J.H. Putman, Senior Inspector o f Schools, Ottawa and Dr. G.M. Weir, Professor o f Education a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, secured a sound f o o t i n g f o r the continued presence o f t r a i n i n g i n home economics i n the province. B r i e f s on b e h a l f o f domestic science were presented by the Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation, and the C o u n c i l o f Women.  Putman and Weir suggested that "Much c r i t i c i s m has come from those who got none o f t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n and very l i t t l e from those who r e c e i v e d it."(1925, p. 96). However, they were c r i t i c a l o f those advocates, who considered proving the worth o f these subject areas t h e i r " s p e c i a l m i s s i o n " f o r i n s p i t e o f t h e i r good i n t e n t i o n s they had "made some sad blunders" which had t r i g g e r e d much o f the c r i t i c i s m from which these subjects had s u f f e r e d . Consequently, s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c recommendations  -51-  w e r e made r e g a r d i n g n o t importance of  only  classroom o r g a n i z a t i o n but  teacher t r a i n i n g ,  projects  'real things'  T h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s recommended subject throughout  money,  and the  rather  than  Finally,  o f a d i r e c t o r "who w i l l  339).  J u s t as the pronouncements  helped to j u s t i f y  compulsory  Putman and W e i r  of  suggested  time or m a t e r i a l ,  a the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l the  of  of  and  school a c t i v i t i e s  the p u p i l s on the o t h e r "  on  (1925,  the R o y a l Commission on p u b l i s h e d i n 1919,  t h e p r e s e n c e o f new f o r m s o f e d u c a t i o n a t a  the recommendations  the  i n s i s t on a w i s e e x p e n d i t u r e  I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n  level,  models.  l e s s o n s i n home e c o n o m i c s w i t h o t h e r  t h e o n e h a n d a n d w i t h t h e home l i f e o f p.  having  was a l s o t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a s e c o n d  a l l o w no w a s t e o f e i t h e r p u p i l s '  co-ordinate  manual  importance of  t h a t home e c o n o m i c s b e a  for matriculation credit.  the appointment  in  m i d d l e s c h o o l and an o p t i o n a l c o u r s e t h r o u g h  three years of h i g h school. It science  the  the need t o w e l d c l a s s e s  s u b j e c t s w i t h the s c h o o l as a whole; student  also  t h e Putman and W e i r s u r v e y  had national  legitimized  at  i d e a s b e i n g promoted by s u b j e c t s s u c h as  domestic science.  B y 1927  fifty-seven  Armstrong,  centers tliroughout  C h i l l i w a c k , Courtenay,  Westminster,  t h e p r o v i n c e i n towns  Cumberland,  Kelowna,  P o r t Moody and V e r n o n o f f e r e d p r o g r a m s  such as  Nanaimo,  New  i n home e c o n o m i c s .  There were 9,298 p u b l i c s c h o o l p u p i l s t a k i n g c o u r s e s , and  fifty-nine  -52t e a c h e r s employed  Overall,  (McLenaghan,  the development  of  p e r c e i v e d by  i t s advocates  standards of  the home,  d e s t r o y i n g myths household, o f women.  1927,  p.  M.  63).  domestic science w i t h i n the province as upgrading  the moral f a b r i c and p h y s i c a l  a p p l y i n g i n d u s t r i a l advances  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  to domestic work,  'degrading labor1  of  and s e e m i n g l y p r o m o t i n g b o t h t h e dependence and Whatever motive  the independence  s p u r r e d i n d i v i d u a l s u p p o r t e r s was subsumed  the united b e l i e f  t h a t e x p l i c i t t r a i n i n g i n d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s was  benefit  However,  t o women.  to determine  if  the kinds of  t h e p r a c t i c e o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e must b e e x a m i n e d t h r o u g h c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s and  documents.  by  of  purposes  v i s u a l i z e d by reformers were those a c t u a l l y s e r v e d by s c h o o l  investigation of  was  the  programs,  -53Chapter Four  AN IJNTERPRETIVT£ FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSING PRACTICE  The school curriculum is a f r u i t f u l medium for tracing the process of change because exposure to planned learning experiences acquaints young people with new knowledge and changing beliefs. Each curriculum revision within a subject area therefore reflects not only changes in knowledge within a field of study but also, changes in the ordering of ideals about 'what should be taught'and the ways i n which i t should be learned by pupils. The idea of teaching about the family in a school context was new, and so was the idea of offering practical experience. Thus, beliefs about the home and family, and how these were transformed into s k i l l s and techniques appropriate for a new sort of society reveals much about domestic science education as a form of educational change. In the case of home economics old ideas balanced new needs, the vested interests of various organizations demanded recognition, and "... of course, you always have the conservative pedantry of the schoolmaster opposed to the raw haste of the social reformer." (Lang, 1905,  p.50)  -54An Explanation of Practice.  The framework used to examine the development of domestic science at the public school level, employs the concept of 'practice' as a means of revealing changes in the curriculum of home economics. The concept of practice reflects both the belief structure and the practical nature of home economics as a subject of study.  An understanding of the term  'practice' comes from the work of Diorio (1982) who explains that although the term i s used frequently at an informal level, insufficient thought is given to i t s relationship to both knowledge and activity when practice is discussed within professional fields.  Diorio defines practice used by professions as being "the more or less continuous involvement in certain publicly identifiable ranges of activities" (1982, p.258). For example, one can practice medicine, plumbing, or Judaism, not i n the sense of learning how to do anything or of improving one's performance, but rather of being habitually engaged i n doing those things and/or expressing those outlooks readily associated with medicine, plumbing or the Jewish faith. When a person has been labelled as a practitioner in this second sense of one of these things, he normally i s said to "be" a doctor, plumber, or Jew, indicating the his engagement i n the particular form of practice is regular enough to constitute part of his everyday identity as a person. (Diorio, 1982, p.258.) Thus, Diorio's explanation provides insights into the way particular kinds of activities are used by society to distinguish one professional  -55-  field  from a n o t h e r .  regularly content,  i n a core of  associated with  Diorio's  from,  for  instance,  also  of  chose to  century  d i s o r d e r as " . . . s a n i t a r i a n s s o c i a l workers  pointed  the d i v o r c e  the  to  suggestion  family  s c h o o l from s o c i e t y "  causes of  living  (1976, p.  conception  organizations  55).  i s unique,  social  conditions;  instability;...educators  notions  related  to the p e r s i s t e n t  assistance i n separating professions, t h e way  i n w h i c h knowledge  p r o f e s s i o n becomes  transformed  historical  examination  a l s o speak  for  the  shows  emphasized  Though  they share  into  such as domestic  patterns  traditionally  the similar  action  that persistent of  patterns  of  of  of  s c i e n c e , p u b l i c h e a l t h and s o c i a l  each  action.  action  each p r o f e s s i o n .  the generation  are  not  associated with  particular patterns  discussion of  of  h i s d e f i n i t i o n does  intellectual traditions  i l l u s t r a t e d by M o r r i s o n ' s study  that reform  stressed insanitary  activities  roots.  While Diorio's  clarify  ideas  Thus, h i s  focus upon d i f f e r i n g  k i n d s of p r a c t i c e which each has evolved  of  subject  These c a n be  those a c t i v i t i e s and  each p r o f e s s i o n .  to Morrison's  historical  regarding  i m p l i e s that over time p e r s i s t i n g  the c e n t r a l concerns o f  of  engage  nursing.  definition  19th  one must  to b e i n g an e d u c a t o r .  of practice applies the  'teacher'  a c t i v i t i e s and knowledge  and pedagogy r e l a t e d  differentiated  reflect  To be c o n s i d e r e d a  must This  fields work.  For  of  is  -56-  Practice,  therefore,  reflects  w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e ,  the accumulated philosophy  i t represents  ideas associated with p a r t i c u l a r  The  of a  t h e common c o r e o f a c t i v i t y  within others.  i s purveyed  requires an understanding  to others,  t h e ways  o f t h e ways  made a v a i l a b l e  transformed  the knowledge  to  learning experiences  (1982, p.257)  it  i s a l s o important  for students.  to recognize  f i e l d may a l s o v a r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y .  understand  more a b o u t  While Diorio  a l s o add i n s i g h t  their  t h a t a l l forms  as a c u l t u r a l system t h a t modes o f k n o w i n g . greatly  Consequently,  t o seek  i n t o an understanding  from i t .  o f p r a c t i c e stem from " . . .  i s the point  Yet,  context  to  knowledge  of practice i n  of departure  t h e c u l t u r a l s y s t e m o f common that patterns  common  sense  for a l l specialized  T h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d modes o f k n o w i n g m a y ,  remains an embedding (1979, p . 259)  t h a t p r a c t i c e w i t h i n any  embodies.  H o l z n e r and Marx contention  argues  terms'  home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s some  the forms o f p r a c t i c e i t  to  o f homemaking a n d f a m i l i e s  t h a t " a l l p r a c t i c a l f i e l d s cannot be spoken o f i n i d e n t i c a l  depart  those  F o r i n s t a n c e i n home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n t h i s means s e e k i n g  into appropriate  of  i n which  i n which i t i s used by  the p r o f e s s i o n and the k i n d s o f knowledge  l e a r n how t e a c h e r s  given  knowledge  To c l a r i f y what t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and  a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge knowledge  and  professions.  term p r a c t i c e a l s o i m p l i e s i n t e r a c t i o n between p o s s e s s i n g  and u s i n g i t .  field,  however, sense  s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge u s e . "  -57-  W h i l e p r a c t i c e may b e a n a l y z e d characteristics First,  as s e p a r a t e  remain inherent  features  d a i l y r e a l i t y of can not  one's  Thus,  o£ a l l forms  Meaningful  in  codes o f b e h a v i o u r ,  in  such as  and s o c i a l v a l u e s  people  language  a n d norms  the r e a l i t y o f  the  for  daily  these life  for  individual.  Second,  common s e n s e s t r u c t u r e s  knowledge, realities  form a p a r t  o f even  specialized  so t h a t a l l s c h o l a r l y communities a r e grounded that  specialist  l i e beneath even h i g h l y  terminology.  as a f o u n d a t i o n  Thus,  common s e n s e s t r u c t u r e s  for understanding  common s e n s e s t r u c t u r e s  the complexities of  a r e sometimes  which students Vallance,  the  t o s c h o o l i n g and the  are unwittingly 1973/74)  exposed,  (see,  for  and  significant  practice.  involved,  the a c t i o n s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  investigated with reference  are  they  Consequently,  those  c i r c u m s t a n c e w h i c h has l e d t o concern r e g a r d i n g dimensions of  cultural  s o embedded t h a t  for granted by p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i t h i n a f i e l d .  'hidden'  in  s o p h i s t i c a t e d methodology,  a s p e c t s o f p r a c t i c e may n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d b y  1980:  practice.  i n t e r a c t i o n between  the c u l t u r a l symbols  are the c u l t u r a l r e c i p e s which determine  taken  of  a l l forms o£ p r a c t i c e a r e grounded  culture.  take place without  structure,  Third,  three  a l l concepts of p r a c t i c e a r i s e from the c u l t u r a l context  which they are d e r i v e d .  each  concepts,  some  a  impact of This  are  has  the been  'hidden curriculum' instance,  Wilson,  to  -58The interpretive framework, page 59, by Wilson and Vaines (1985) portrays four d i f f e r e n t dimensions o f p r a c t i c e .  These are i d e n t i f i e d  as customary, instrumental, i n t e r a c t i v e , and r e f l e c t i v e conceptions o f p r a c t i c e . A b r i e f explanation of each o f the conceptions o f practice w i l l c l a r i f y their inherent differences.  While on one hand, t h e i r  portrayal as separate e n t i t i e s tends to obscure the complexity o f p r a c t i c e , on the other i t does d i s t i n g u i s h between the kinds of knowledge bases which underlie p a r t i c u l a r patterns o f action, and the way these are used i n the conduct of l i f e . Each conception of p r a c t i c e relates to the formulated questions which guide the examination o f practice inherent i n selected c u r r i c u l a .  Customary Practice  The conception o f p r a c t i c e termed  'Customary" h i g h l i g h t s the patterns o f  a c t i v i t i e s which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e to the conduct o f the everyday world. The work of the anthropologist Bourdieu (1977) supports the contentions of  customary practice through suggesting that the precepts of culture  allow s o c i a l groups to generate a multitude o f practices which can be endlessly adapted to d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , yet those involved do not have e x p l i c i t knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying t h e i r actions. Customary practice therefore, encompasses much of the ' c u l t u r a l baggage' that each i n d i v i d u a l c a r r i e s throughout l i f e .  I t s patterns o f  action are embodied i n the c u l t u r a l routines, and common sense  DIAGRAM l i  A THEORETIC PRAHEVORX TOR THE EXAMINATION OF PRACTICE Consideration*  Customary Practice  of Practice  Supporting Structures o f Knowledge  Hoda o f Inquiry  Purposa o f Practice  Patterns action  Basically Atheoretical  Historical precedent) Personal experience) conventional  To s o l v e p a r t i c u l a r and immediate problems. To become aware o f professional social traditions  wisdom  of  Inducement t o action  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Knowledge £ A c t i o n  Commonplace solutions to p r a c t i c a l problems) p r o f e s s i o n a l r o u t i n e s and s o c i a l conduct  Preserving traditions. Professional f o l k l o r e , and c u l t u r a l heritage  A c t i o n i s guided by personal expertise b a s e d on h i s t o r i c a l cultural tradition  Instrumental Practice  Eapirical theories of causal explanation  Empirical examination o f predefined problems  To c o n t r o l the s o c i a l and n a t u r a l environment i n p r e d e f i n e d ways. To produce t e c h n i cally useful knowledge  Predetermined systems o f a c t i o n ) Techniques d i r e c t ed t o w a r d i n t e r vention/prevention  A p p l y i n g t h e laws and methods o f s c i e n c e . P r e d i c t i o n and control of results  Action i s controlled by e m p i r i c a l / a n a l y t i c a l d a t a . Knowl e d g e and a c t i o n a r e viewed separately  Interactive Practice  Interpretive theory Historical analysis  Analysis of experience; practical deliberation) Discourse and d i a l e c t i c  To b u i l d a consensus o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i r e c t e d toward the enhancement o f human l i f e  Negotiation with'others o f acceptable solutions to g i v e n problems) orienting action in desired direction  U n d e r s t a n d i n g 'what l a ' ) Acknowledging other perspectives, s h a r i n g networks o f meaning  Knowledge i s t i e d to a c t i o n through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and orientation  Reflective Practice  C r i t i c a l and normative theory  To change the individual or s o c i a l o r d e r . To build a just society for a l l  Social action d i r e c t e d toward l o n g term change  Disclosing constraints w h i c h i n h i b i t change) P e r c e i v i n g what 'ought t o b e ' .  Constant i n t e r p l a y between p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and t h e way i t i s translated to action  Dialectic) Critical reflection) Reflexive examination i  From:  Sue W i l s o n and the e x a m i n a t i o n  Eleanore Vaines. of  Research J o u r n a l .  practice 13 ( 4 )  (in  in  (1965)  A theoretical  home e c o n o m i c s . process).  Home  framework Economics  for  -60behaviours that make up the s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s and h a b i t s which form a part o f both the informal and formal conduct o f d a i l y l i v i n g .  Customary p r a c t i c e adds r i c h n e s s , depth and s t a b i l i t y t o p r o f e s s i o n a l as w e l l as everyday concerns. For instance, customary p r a c t i c e may incorporate ceremonies, and symbolic routines which imbue group members w i t h status o r accord recognized both w i t h i n the group i t s e l f , as w e l l as by o u t s i d e r s . Members may be loathe t o d i s c a r d such t r a d i t i o n s even though they might be outmoded i n contemporary s o c i e t y , f o r these embody the h e r i t a g e and meaning inherent i n the group i d e a l s . A t the same time, customary p r a c t i c e represents routines that are a part o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f .  A c t i o n associated w i t h p r a c t i s e o f a customary form i s most frequently an immediate response t o a s p e c i f i c circumstance.  Stress i s placed  upon the conventional wisdom and personal e x p e r t i s e that has become e s t a b l i s h e d as being c u l t u r a l l y acceptable, and that may have been learned from p r i o r generations. For example, h a b i t and custom have e s t a b l i s h e d many f o l k medicines t o be s u c c e s s f u l remedies f o r some diseases and other forms o f p h y s c i a l d i s t r e s s , though a s c i e n t i f i c basis f o r age-old wisdom may not have j u s t i f i e d t h e i r use u n t i l many years l a t e r . I n customary p r a c t i c e i t i s what 'works' that counts, as determined by the accumulated wisdom o f those more experienced.  -61-  I n terras o f d a i l y l i f e , actions o f a customary form are r e a d i l y associated w i t h routines and ideas regarding the conduct o f the home. Thus, the b e l i e f s o f grandmothers, mothers, and other meaningful persons o f t e n play a large part i n household p r a c t i c e r e l a t e d t o c h i l d - r e a r i n g , parenting, and family coinmunication. Sometimes s c i e n t i f i c evidence supports customary p r a c t i c e , such as the studies which suggest that breast-feeding provides b e n e f i t s t o the new-born that cannot be r e p l i c a t e d by b o t t l e - f e e d i n g . I n t h i s instance, a young mother can f e e l i n c r e a s i n g l y comfortable knowing her d e c i s i o n t o breast-feed her baby has s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y .  Y e t , sometimes customary p r a c t i c e . i s a t odds w i t h the p r a c t i c e s advocated by science. F o r example, e f f i c i e n c y studies may suggest that having a household garden i s not g e n e r a l l y an economical way t o o b t a i n f r u i t and vegetables. Shopping a t a supermarket may save both money and energy but ignores the pleasures o f gardening which a r e not accountable i n s c i e n t i f i c terms. I n the case o f the gardener t h i s i s a simple problem i n v o l v i n g determining which aspect o f o b t a i n i n g f r u i t and vegetables i s most important. I n the case o f the young mother, a d e c i s i o n t o b o t t l e - f e e d , as advocated by many mothers i n the previous generation, may r e s u l t i n a more complicated s i t u a t i o n i n which the customary b e l i e f s o f her p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y are a t odds w i t h the p r a c t i c e s suggested by science. Thus, the d e l i n e a t i o n o f customary p r a c t i c e from other conceptions o f p r a c t i c e , provides a means o f understanding the c o n f l i c t which sometimes occurs when p r a c t i c e s o f one  -62-  forra become juxtaposed science i t provides  on another. When used i n examining domestic  i n s i g h t i n t o the development and overlap o f  patterns o f a c t i o n associated w i t h the home.  In the p r o f e s s i o n a l sphere, the customary dimension supplies 'blueprints' f o r appropriate a c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . I m p l i c i t forms o f customary p r a c t i c e determine p r o f e s s i o n a l conduct, such as the language used by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n communicating w i t h c l i e n t s , wearing accepted symbols o f s t a t u s , e.g. c l i n i c a l uniforms versus s t r e e t c l o t h e s , or using p r o f e s s i o n a l t i t l e s .  These can i n f l u e n c e the nature  o f p r a c t i c e , whether o r not they are a r t i c u l a t e d . I t i s only r e c e n t l y that the e f f e c t o f these p a r t i c u l a r symbols and routines has been c a l l e d i n t o question, i . e . some customary p r a c t i s e s have become the subject o f e x p l i c i t s c r u t i n y .  Thus, some p r o f e s s i o n a l s are now  questioning aspects o f the s e r v i c e s they perform. Given names are now more frequently used; uniforms have become l e s s common; and p r o f e s s i o n a l jargon which confuses c l i e n t s i s the subject o f discussion.  These changes i l l u s t r a t e that customary p r a c t i c e need not  be s t a t i c , once the dimension i s recognized by those involved.  Wilson's (1981) d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f teachers i n d i c a t e s that the 'apprenticeship method' may be one o f the means by which customary p r a c t i c e i s taught.  Under the guidance o f q u a l i f i e d  experts, prospective teachers undergo a lengthy apprenticeship i n t h e i r  -63-  student-teaching piractica. Medical students, d i e t i t i a n s , and nurses a l l have periods o f rigorous p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g as a part o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l development- I n a s i m i l a r way, students i n p u b l i c schools are 'apprentices' as they become acquainted w i t h concepts o f acceptable ' p r a c t i c e ' associated w i t h schooling.  Knowledge i n these instances i s  not negotiated, but i s i m p l i c i t l y accepted by the u n i n i t i a t e d , and i t s mastery frequently rewarded by i n s t r u c t o r s . Customary p r a c t i c e can t h e r e f o r e , exert i t s i n f l u e n c e not only on the patterns o f a c t i o n o f each i n d i v i d u a l , but a l s o consciously o r not, on the process o f formal t r a i n i n g to which members are exposed.  Instrumental P r a c t i c e  A second dimension o f p r a c t i c e portrayed i n the i n t e r p r e t i v e framework i s instrumental p r a c t i c e , rooted i n both the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l sciences. The s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s provide knowledge that enables people t o c o n t r o l t h e i r surroundings.  Research t r a d i t i o n s a r e grounded  i n the e m p i r i c a l mode o f i n q u i r y , and the p r i n c i p l e s and laws e s t a b l i s h e d by the s c i e n t i f i c framework o f t h i n k i n g . Consequently, the methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n employed i n instrumental p r a c t i c e and the knowledge i t produces a r e considerably d i f f e r e n t from those o f customary p r a c t i c e . Because the instrumental conception o f p r a c t i c e i s based on the s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e which claims t o be value f r e e , i t can only l e g i t i m a t e l y concern i t s e l f w i t h those aspects o f knowledge which  -64-  can be e m p i r i c a l l y measured and s u b j e c t e d t o s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s . Scientific  investigation requires  p r e c i s e and measureable Therefore,  t h a t p r o b l e m s must b e p r e d e f i n e d ,  terms s u i t a b l e t o e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s .  p r o c e d u r e s must b e c o n d u c t e d w i t h o u t  the d i s t o r t i o n  of  d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h c a n n o t b e c o n t r o l l e d a n d t h e r e s u l t s must b e v i a b l e scientific  t e r m s . V a n Manen  (1977) e x p l a i n s t h a t  it  colors  t h e means b y w h i c h t h e a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , a n d t h e e n d s t o w h i c h  i s directed.  W i t h i n c o n t e m p o r a r y home e c o n o m i c s , r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e management design,  instrumental practice i s  of applied techniques i n experimental  systems a n a l y s i s and behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n ,  as w e l l as the  t e c h n o l o g y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n and consumption o f consumer Apple  (1975) d e c l a r e s t h a t  accepted that  are measureable,  perspective of the 20th  success i s determined only  so that r e s u l t s which can be proven  t e r m s a r e more a c c o u n t a b l e a n d t h e r e f o r e , calls  for  goods.  t h e s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e h a s become s o  i t i s the predominate  With i n c r e a s i n g frequency  Yet,  in  the c r i t e r i a of  e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y used i n e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n both  in  century.  i n dimensions which in scientific  more w o r t h w h i l e .  Apple  (1975)  t h i s a form o f s c i e n t i s m , o r the worship o f t e c h n i c a l a c t i o n .  t h e v a l u e o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c framework through  must n o t b e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d ,  the dimension of instrumental p r a c t i c e the horizons  knowledge have been expanded  of  t o a l e v e l n o t even imagined b y p r i o r  -65generations. While the s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e i s a powerful phenomenon i n the c o n t r o l and production o f t e c h n i c a l knowledge, some aspects o f l i f e are not encompassed by i t s parameters.  Many o f the things which make,  us 'human' cannot be n e a t l y packaged and measured.  Thus, f i e l d s o f  study d e a l i n g w i t h the needs and values o f people must be aware o f the boundaries imposed by the s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e .  For instance, Reid (1979) suggests that frequently i n professions concerned w i t h people, p r a c t i c a l problems become reduced t o procedural ones i n order t o f i t the imagery o f engineering and design fostered by science. The t r a n s l a t i o n o f s o c i a l issues i n t o t e c h n i c a l forms leads t o the manipulation o f s i t u a t i o n s which may d i s t o r t both the root o f the problem, and e f f e c t the d i s m i s s a l o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s because they cannot be q u a n t i f i e d . Thus, instrumental p r a c t i c e , powerful though i t may be, i s not a s u i t a b l e means f o r s o l v i n g a l l problems, and despite i t s dominance, cannot accommodate many o f the dimensions o f human behaviour important i n d a i l y l i f e .  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the i n c l u s i o n o f the name 'science' i n t o the o r i g i n a l t i t l e o f the program i n domestic t r a i n i n g i n p u b l i c schools, underscores the b e l i e f that knowledge o f f e r e d by the s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e was necessary f o r the improvement o f family conditions a t the turn o f the century. S c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s indeed b e n e f i t t e d the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f f a m i l i e s i n terms o f h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s , c l e a n l i n e s s , and d i e t .  Moreover, i n i t s s t r u g g l e f o r acceptance i n the  -66educational setting, scientific  p l a c i n g the needs o f  basis portrayed  t h e home a n d f a m i l y o n  domestic s c i e n c e as a f i e l d o f  serious  and thereby helped l e g i t i m i z e  i t s i n c l u s i o n i n s c h o o l s . Not  s c i e n c e p r o v i d e new t o o l s  solving problems,  for  o f m a k i n g t h e home b o t h more e f f e c t i v e  and  but  only  i t h e l d the  Practice  Interactive  p r a c t i c e can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from b o t h customary  In  forms b y i t s c o n c e r n f o r  the  interpretation of  t h i s dimension the observer seeks an understanding o f  u n d e r l y i n g p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f a c t i o n s . Knowledge  it  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r i o r s i t u a t i o n s o f  includes a h i s t o r i c a l perspective.  the e x p l i c i t e f f o r t inherent  i n patterns  of  the observer  of a c t i o n ,  promise  and  meanings  appropriate  to  a similar nature,  Practice of  this  form  to recognize p a r t i c u l a r  the  and i.e.  requires meanings  f o r even though the a c t i o n s i n v o l v e d  t w o s i t u a t i o n s may a p p e a r s i m i l a r , t h e m e a n i n g s a n d i n t e n t i o n s b e h i n d t h e m may r e s u l t  did  knowledge.  the  i n t e r a c t i v e domain i n c o r p o r a t e s a s p e c t s o f v a l u e and q u a l i t y involves  study  efficient.  Interactive  instrumental  a  i n very different  explanations.  Thus, for example, saying 'I do' i n f r o n t of a p r i e s t a n d o n e s f i a n c e ' , may b e a n a c t o f m a r r i a g e a n d i t may n o t , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s may b e p r e t e n d i n g o r a c t i n g i n a movie o r r e h e a r s i n g the ceremony, and so o n . What s p e c i f i c a c t i o n i s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n d e p e n d s u p o n t h e m e a n i n g s t h a t t h e b o d i l y movement b e i n g performed have. (Fay, 1975, p . 73)  lying  in  -67-  D e s c r i p C i o n s and r e d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y t n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e of particular patterns common n e t w o r k s patterns social  of  o f meaning r a t h e r  such reinterpretations  situation,  by  to  o r by r e l i v i n g an e v e n t ,  light.  o f f e r e d by  Fay  and the  of  interpretive  i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h other persons involved  authentically understood,  seek  than measured o b s e r v a t i o n s  of a c t i o n . According to explanations  science,  brought  actions for  sense  in  a  the a c t i o n s observed can be  'sense'  (1975) p o i n t s out  of p a r t i c u l a r  that attempting  more  situations to  understand  or e x p l a i n p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s i s accomplished by s e t t i n g the a c t a larger context actions  than that  therefore,  involved  simply observed.  The meaning g i v e n  i n c l u d e s the aims and c o g n i t i o n s o f  i n the s i t u a t i o n ,  the  within  to  person  and the c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g  the  action.  In other words, is For  gathered  the p u b l i c evidence to support p a r t i c u l a r  f r o m more t h a n t h e o b s e r v e d a c t i o n s o f  instance,  i n the debates  related to  documented by t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f Canada  (referred  to  i n chapter  the  two)  the event  'domestic  the N a t i o n a l  Yet,  evidence -  C o u n c i l o f Women  can be i n t e r p r e t e d at a  improving the s k i l l s  of  of  surface  household  a more c a r e f u l r e a d i n g - a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  shows t h a t c o n c e r n f o r  itself.  problem'  l e v e l a s t h e d e s i r e t o h e l p i m m i g r a n t women i n p e r f o r m i n g chores.  explanations  the immigrant  women a l s o a r o s e b e c a u s e t h e y p r o v i d e d a r e s e r v o i r o f h o u s e h o l d  help  for Canadians.  impart  Furthermore,  classes  i n domestic t r a i n i n g could  -68-  the 'Canadian way'  to women o f foreign backgrounds. Thus, evidence and  reason suggest that there was more to the domestic problem than was f i r s t apparent, and that the search f o r a deeper explanation o f the actions involved reveal a much more complex s i t u a t i o n .  In i n t e r a c t i v e practice a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n characterizes the trailsfer of knowledge from the one who holds the knowledge to the 'seekers' o f the knowledge.  Two r e l a t i o n s h i p s become evident, each unique from the  other dimensions o f p r a c t i c e - the f i r s t between the professional and the knowledge inherent i n h i s f i e l d o f study; the second between the professional and those with whom the knowledge i s shared.  I f these  relationships are construed i n terras o f education, i t i s evident that each teacher must interpret the knowledge o f t h e i r subject f i e l d s not only i n terras o f prescribed courses o f study, but also i n terms o f t h e i r own experiences as a person, and the p r i o r i t i e s each places on the presentation o f c e r t a i n kinds o f knowledge f o r p a r t i c u l a r classrooms. For example we are t o l d repeatedly how the death o f Adelaide Hoodless's son by drinking contaminated milk, stimulated her crusade f o r i n t e l l i g e n t t r a i n i n g f o r women i n household matters. While t h i s i s a dramatic example o f the biography o f the 'holder o f knowledge' a f f e c t i n g i t s s e l e c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s i m i l a r situations occur constantly i n the way knowledge i s transformed to t o s u i t p a r t i c u l a r audiences. The following explanation o f a mathematics lesson i n a 1907 classroom c l e a r l y shows how knowledge was selected and  -69oriented  for  p a r t i c u l a r purposes,  s c h o o l and l i f e  r e a l to  the  i n t h i s c a s e , so as to  'make  the  teacher  to  child'.  M i s s Snow g a v e a m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how m a t h e m a t i c s may b e t a u g h t i n a c o o k i n g c l a s s . I n a c l a s s w i t h s i x y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n , we b e g a n w i t h f r a c t i o n s , u s i n g the measuring cup. We w e r e m a k i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e m t o k n o w how many h a l v e s t h e r e a r e i n a w h o l e , how many f o u r t h s i n a w h o l e , how many f o u r t h s i n a h a l f . They learned quickly. I n making f i g sandwiches the r e c i p e c a l l e d for o n e - h a l f a s much s u g a r a s f i g s a n d t w i c e a s much w a t e r . Each c h i l d measured the f i g s a f t e r c u t t i n g them i n s m a l l p i e c e s , t h e n h a d t o f i n d o u t how much s u g a r a n d w a t e r t o u s e . The amount o f f i g s v a r i e d s o t h a t some o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d were o n e - h a l f o f o n e - q u a r t e r , o n e - h a l f o f two, o n e - h a l f of o n e - h a l f , o n e - h a l f of o n e - t h i r d , o n e - t h i r d o f two. They s o l v e d them q u i c k l y . Why? B e c a u s e e a c h o n e w a n t e d t o make h i s s a n d w i c h . (Hoodless, 1908, p. 194). I n t h e above example t h e c o n t o u r i n g o f knowledge by the fit  a p a r t i c u l a r group  of  students,  i s an example o f  between t h e p o s s e s s i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f  The  second r e l a t i o n s h i p unique to  professional knowledge  ( i n t h i s c a s e , the  i s being transferred  p a r t i c i p a n t s work together Working together viewed  to  u n d e r s t a n d i n g emerge.  In  interaction  knowledge.  i n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e i s between  teacher) (the  forge  a n d t h o s e t o whom  students).  In  the persons  if  of  practice  meaning.  the s i t u a t i o n  involved,  the  the  interactive  a common n e t w o r k  r e s t s on the assumption t h a t ,  from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f  the  is  e n r i c h e d forms  i n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e the r o l e of  the  of  'expert'  -70-  or 'holder of knowledge' i s not f i x e d , because o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h others i n reaching a consensus of understanding.  Thus, defense lawyers  present the p o s i t i o n of the accused, o r counsellors seek to understand the actions of c l i e n t s i n d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s . I n each case, the c l i e n t , student, or involved 'other' becomes an a c t i v e member o f the team where d e s c r i p t i o n s , meanings and understandings p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n are determined.  r e l a t e d to a  Once a s a t i s f a c t o r y  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s reached, a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s can be presented,  and  t h e i r merits discussed. Schwab r e f e r s to t h i s form o f d e c i s i o n making as choosing "not the r i g h t a l t e r n a t i v e , f o r there i s no such t h i n g , but the best one".  (1969, p.36). This does not preclude that the most  appropriate s o l u t i o n may indeed l i e i n the dimension of instrumental practice.  However, i n contrast to instrumentalism, i n t e r a c t i v e  p r a c t i c e views the methods o f science as one o f the a l t e r n a t i v e s , rather than the only way of reaching a s o l u t i o n .  I n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e i n education i s associated w i t h knowledge that i s not imposed, but r a t h e r that which i s a r b i t r a t e d . I t provides the opportunity to see through the surface o f everyday l i f e , and reveals the commonality of meaning i n experience r a t h e r than the q u a n i t i f i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A curriculum which includes knowledge which can be negotiated  stimulates d i s c u s s i o n , d e l i b e r a t i o n and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n  o f a l t e r n a t i v e viewpoints.  I n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e therefore encourages  students to become engaged w i t h the knowledge i t s e l f and to i n t e r a c t w i t h others who h o l d an a l t e r n a t i v e viewpoint.  -71-  Reflectlve  Practice  Reflective  p r a c t i c e addresses  political  influences  w i t h the process of  the h i s t o r i c a l ,  i n contemporary critical  society.  It  social  and  i s closely associated  r e f l e c t i o n , based on an i n t e r e s t  emancipation developed by Habermas,(1974). d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r  Practice of  dimensions by process o f  reveals  the c o n s t r a i n i n g f o r c e s ,  beliefs  of  situations  moral,  vested  this  form  critique  i n t e r e s t s and f a l s e  t h a t may n o t b e a p p a r e n t  in  to those  is  which  social  closely  involved.  By c r e a t i n g an awareness knowledge,  the  factors  a n d human p e r s p e c t i v e s  be t r a n s f o r m e d , change,  of  not  only  differently.  i n the  i n d i v i d u a l , but  Hultgren  speaks o f  i n which these  c h a n g e become a p p a r e n t .  r e f l e c t i n g upon j u x t a p o s e d patterns  of  of might  long-term  a l s o i n the s o c i a l order.  they begin to see  As  (1983,  avenues  Through,  the  themselves  t h i s as " b r i n g i n g out  the outer w o r l d "  Once s u c h i n f l u e n c e s a r e e x p o s e d ,  potential  frameworks  t h e m e c h a n i s m s t h a t c o n t r o l human l i v e s , a n d  such domination,  that stands behind  about  - and t h e ways  r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e aims t o b r i n g about  p e o p l e become a w a r e o f consequences o f  t h a t shape t h e  the  inner  world  p.21).  of action that w i l l  questioning,  or contradictory  bring  debating,  perspectives of  and knowledge,  a c t i o n c a n be weighed and r e c o n c i l e d f o r  the  good  -72of  all.  Action,  i n r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e implies a w i l l i n g n e s s to  the consequences o f change i t s e l f  therefore  c o n c e i v e d as p a r t rather  of  becomes  a wider  inherently  context  a turning point which fosters  Concern few o f  changing that which i s repressive.  for the  the  i s not  The p r o c e s s for  of  action  -  an end u n t o i t s e l f ,  c o n t i n u e d r e f l e c t i o n and  but  growth.  r e f l e c t i v e d i m e n s i o n o f p r a c t i c e was v i s u a l i z e d b y  initial  advocates  C a r o l i n e Hunt v o i c e d h e r conception of  -  meaningful,  bear  of domestic  traiing.  For  ideas regarding the notion of  a  instance, 'freedom'  in  her  t h e s c o p e o f home e c o n o m i c s .  T h e f i n a l t e s t o f t e a c h i n g home e c o n o m i c s i s freedom. I f we h a v e u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e d a single l i f e by perpetuating useless conventions or b y c a r r y i n g t h e v a l u e s o f one age o v e r i n t o t h e n e x t , j u s t s o f a r h a v e we f a i l e d . I f we h a v e s i m p l i f i e d one l i f e and r e l e a s e d i n i t e n e r g y f o r i t s own e x p r e s s i o n , j u s t s o f a r h a v e we s u c c e e d e d , ( c i t e d i n Francine H u l t g r e n , 1983, p.22)  T h u s , H u n t c r i t i c i z e s s o c i e t a l norms examination inhibits  the  of  their worth.  She i m p l i e s t h a t t h e  Hunt's  comments  suggest  that  examination  expectations  the p o t e n t i a l  c a n o n l y b e f u l f i l l e d when t h e y u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e y  b e e n ' what they  ' a r e now'  The p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d  and what t h e y have t h e p o t e n t i a l  is that of  r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e . The  H u n t ' s e a r l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l s formed a p a r t Conferences,  without  lack of  f r e e d o m d e s i r e d b y women b e c a u s e s o c i e t a l  have been r e p r e s s i v e . individuals  tliat are perpetuated  begs  the q u e s t i o n as to whether  of  'to  fact  of 'have  become'. that  the Lake P l a c i d  such i d e a l s were  expressed  -73i n the curriculum off domestic science, and whether they form a part o f the contemporary program.  The dimension o f r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e holds expanded horizons o f meaning and new d i r e c t i o n s f o r actions which promote s o c i a l change r a t h e r than s o c i a l adaptation.  As the i d e a l o f s e r v i c e d i r e c t e d toward the  strengthening o f the home and family i s the proclaimed goal o f home economics, and as education has h i s t o r i c a l l y been a major means o f promoting i t s i d e a l s , the i n c l u s i o n o f r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e i n the i n t e r p r e t i v e framework i s a means o f determining whether students a r e being provided w i t h the necessary t o o l s t o b r i n g about the changes condusive t o the improvement o f human welfare.  I n s h o r t , do home  economics programs promote frameworks o f t h i n k i n g congruent w i t h the i d e a l s they uphold ?  -74-  Chapter  Five  THE CURRICULUM OF DOMESTIC S C I E N C E : A D E S C R I P T I O N OF CHANGE.  The  c u r r i c u l u m i s examined w i t h r e f e r e n c e  corresponding  to stages  school subject. programs  domestic s c i e n c e promoted  examined  the introductory During  its  of domesticity  phase  The e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms  of  subject matter  considered important,  the  a c t i v i t i e s , and the  and l e a r n i n g .  d e t a i l as i t has provided  The i n i t i a l the foundation  program for  revisions.  1946 t h e c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s structure.  based on the e x p e r t i s e  of  introduction, of  curricular  and i t s b e l i e f  periods  a s a means  i n greater  F r o m 1926 u n t i l  commitment  the virtues  i s a p p l i e d i n terms o f student  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  subsequent  the province.  r e l a t i n g t o t h e k i n d s o f knowledge  way k n o w l e d g e  is  1905 t o 1925 c o v e r  t o schools throughout  questions  time  i n the growth o f the domestic s c i e n c e as a  The y e a r s  assisting families.  to three  i n both  its  organization  T e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g move a w a y f r o m  o f teachers and i n s t e a d r e f l e c t e d a  to the assumptions  o f s c i e n c e . The l a s t phase  examination,  t h e 1979 c u r r i c u l u m , o u t l i n e s  contemporary  school  program.  the nature  lessons  stronger  of  of the  -75The  First  Phase  - InuitIve Ideas,  Strengthened  by the World o f Science.  Few r e c o r d s s u r v i v e  f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t e r a o f home e c o n o m i c s  Columbia.  those  However,  aarriculum'. programs  I n most  appears  t h a t do s u g g e s t  there  never was a n ' o r i g i n a l  cases the c u r r i c u l u m o f e a r l y domestic  t o have been dependent  upon t h e t r a i n i n g ,  and r e s o u r c e s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . considerable uniformity  Y e t , examination  Science Manual  t o s c h o o l programs  (1898), Domestic (1913),  Courses  interests  reveals  a  Science Course I  (1923) a l l o u t l i n e  curricular  such as P u b l i c School  and the B r i t i s h Columbia,  o f Study  science  i n the k i n d s o f teaching and l e a r n i n g which  took place i n e a r l y domestic science classrooms. Thus, material related  in British  (1911),  Domestic  the G i r l s '  Department o f  similar kinds of  Home  Education,  learning  activities.  An e a r l y attempt i n c r e a t i n g c u r r i c u l a r u n i f o r m i t y the p u b l i c a t i o n o f food p r e p a r a t i o n domestic s c i e n c e programs  teachers  to offer  Island  (Juniper,  1911).  issued a regulation requiring  o n l y one c o u r s e o f work i n any one c i t y .  t h e r e was no o f f i c i a l e f f o r t within  and housekeeping manuals f o r  on Vancouver  the Department o f E d u c a t i o n  is illustrated in  the province u n t i l  to coordinate  t h e appointment  programs  By 1923  urban However,  i n domestic  o f McLenaghan  i n 1926.  science  -76Act L v i t i e s :  1. What kinds o f a c t i v i t i e s are emphasized i n the curriculum?  The a c t i v i t i e s o f e a r l y programs i n domestic t r a i n i n g focus on the duties of women i n caring f o r the family and the household.  Activities  are distinguished by two major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i r s t , they emphasize the home as a production center. Therefore, lessons consist o f step-by-step procedures f o r making things, ranging from food products, to laundry starch, to laying a f i r e .  Secondly, the a c t i v i t i e s  emphasize the refinement o f s k i l l s and techniques through p r a c t i c e , and by modelling the actions o f the teacher.  The importance o f doing domestic duties w e l l i s evident i n both the number o f a c t i v i t i e s which are s p e c i f i e d , and the d e t a i l with which they are outlined. For example, i n the Home Management section o f Domestic Science, Course I comprehensive and separate i n s t r u c t i o n s are given f o r the cleaning o f the following items: the kitchen sink, the sink trap, the kitchen range, mopping, dusting and sweeping (using a dustcap and gloves) window cleaning, painted and varnished wood, s i l v e r , knives, s t e e l forks, pastry boards, white wooden u t e n s i l s , kitchen t i n and enamel ware, brushes, f u r n i t u r e , and copper and brass.  -77-  2.  How d o c l a s s  members p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t i e s ?  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t  of  the domestic s c i e n c e program.  H o w e v e r , w h i l e t h e p r a c t i c a l component  of  innovation,  t h e way i n w h i c h  there are indications that  p a r t i c i p a t e d was r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d .  The  s c h o o l i n g was i t s e l f  an  students  following description of  an  e a r l y d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m i n V a n c o u v e r shows t h e e x a c t i n g  detail  by w h i c h a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d o u t ,  the  importance of  t e c h n i q u e and c o r r e c t  and the emphasis p l a c e d on  habits.  A t h o r o u g h l y competent s u p e r v i s o r i s i n charge o f the c o o k i n g k i t c h e n s and w h i l e she i n s t r u c t s h e r g i r l s i n the rudiments of breadmaking, the proper methods o f c o o k i n g meats and v e g e t a b l e s , a n d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f d a i n t y and a p p e t i z i n g s i d e d i s h e s , b e s i d e s g i v i n g them a n i d e a o f t h e f o o d v a l u e s o f d i f f e r e n t a r t i c l e s o f d i e t and the u n d e r l y i n g reasons for combining d i f f e r e n t ingredients to produce a w e l l - b a l a n c e d b i l l o f f a r e , she a l s o g i v e s them a t h o r o u g h t r a i n i n g i n s y s t e m a t i c methods, the work o f h e r c l a s s e s b e i n g performed w i t h almost m i l i t a r y promptness and p r e c i s i o n , each d i s h i n each g i r l ' s cupboard b e i n g i n i t s exact p l a c e , and even t h e k n i v e s , f o r k s and spoons b e i n g ranged l i k e a row o f l i t t l e s o l d i e r s . The r e s u l t s achieved by these l i t t l e housekeepers are e x c e l l e n t . (Ross, c i t e d i n S a n d i s o n , 1971, p.19). The r e g i m e n t a t i o n  of  a c t i v i t i e s s u g g e s t s a n i n t e r e s t i n g gap  the p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a l s w h i c h promoted and the k i n d s o f classroom. teacher,  between  the cause of domestic s c i e n c e ,  l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h were implemented w i t h i n  C l e a r l y student  l e a r n i n g experiences were determined by  not b y the needs o r wishes o f  the students.  Moreover,  the the  little  -78latitude was allowed for initiative on the part of students in carrying out domestic duties.  3 . Do classroom activities highlight a particular focus upon the family? Classroom programs are  addressed to g i r l s with respect to their future  roles as wives and mothers. School programs from this era suggest that producing goods and the proper performance of household chores were the avenues through which women's influence could be f e l t . 'Upgrading' the home is interpreted as improving the physical qualities of family l i f e , such as keeping the house cleaner, preparing meals, and sewing clothes.  Interestingly, the 'family' i s seldom mentioned in the early curriculum. However, sections on invalid cooking and children's diets imply that these were duties to be carried out by women when required. As no reference is made to family relationships or family activities, the home seems to have been conceived as a place for the performance of tasks.  Much of the concern for improving family l i f e relates to the promotion of sanitary habits.  Hoodless' comments illustrate the way in which  this was enforced during classroom activities. Personal cleanliness must be insisted upon. Special attention should be given to the hands and nails. The hair should be carefully pinned back or  -79-  c o n f i n e d Ln some w a y , l a r g e c l e a n apron and at work. Never a l l o w handkerchief or t h e i r (Hoodless, 1898, p.ix  However,  domestic  s c i e n c e was n o t  good h e a l t h h a b i t s . variety  alone  and women's  health care within  W h i l e home v i s i t s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , to persuade system, The  mothers  i n i t s concern for  Throughout the e a r l y p a r t  of h e a l t h workers  for preventative  and c o v e r e d by a c a p . A h o l d e r s h o u l d be worn w h i l e the p u p i l s to use a aprons i n p l a c e o f a h o l d e r . .)  to adopt  concern for  the h e a l t h o f  the 20th century  organizations  the province  p u b l i c i z e d the  (Sutherland,  new h e a l t h i d e a s , w i t h i n t h e  1911  were  instituted  from Vancouver  c h i l d r e n was  a need  1980).  and e d u c a t i o n a l b u l l e t i n s were  m e d i c a l and d e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n s  Public School Report of  of  establishing  used  school  for  children.  s c h o o l s shows t h a t  the  justified.  1,053 cases of p e d i c u l o s i s (vermin) 6,057 cases o f bad t e e t h 56 c a s e s o f r i n g worm 43 c a s e s o f 'itch' 138 c h i l d r e n c l a s s e d a s s i m p l y ' u n c l e a n ' I n a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g communicable d i s e a s e s were found: d i p t h e r i a , m e a s l e s , whooping cough, chicken pox, s c a r l e t fever, sore throat, enlarged t o n s i l s and a d e n o i d s . (Public School Annual Report,  1911.  p.  A50)  T h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h movement h a d a n i n f l u e n c e o n t h e s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m i s suggested by same y e a r w h i c h m e n t i o n s in  'hygenic  4.  What r a t i o n a l e  t h e home e c o n o m i c s r e p o r t  even i n sewing,  clothing'.(Public  i s advanced  domestic  the  School Report,  to j u s t i f y  need t o 1911,  p.  from  instruct  the  children  A47-A51.)  classroom a c t i v i t i e s ?  Underlying the emphasis on household duties was a b e l i e f that the  -80properly cared for home was a manifestation of virtuous living and spiritual well-being. For example, Hoodless declares chat the purpose of domestic training is to "direct the intellectual faculties toward the idealization of the home" (1903, p.162.). The preface of her textbook, states i t s aim as being "...to assist the pupil i n acquiring a knowledge of the fundamental principles of correct l i v i n g " (Hoodless, 1898, p.v.).  The social purpose of classroom activities i s echoed by Berry, who refers to training and instruction in the 'art of true homemaking' as the function of domestic science (1906, pp.22-23). Even as late as 1921 Berry speaks of the "...the aim of home economics i s not simply to teach sewing and cooking alone but to teach 'right l i v i n g ' " (1921, p. 72). Ravenhill too, i n an address given to the Vancouver Council of Women refers to the importance of teaching 'moral hygiene' as well as 'physical hygiene' (1911).  The relationship between the proper performance of duties under sanitary conditions and the importance of right living arises from the belief that a healthy environment, i n which responsibilities were carried out well, was condusive to both spiritual and intellectual growth.  As the moral dimension of the home was fundamental to the  philosophy of the domestic science pioneers, many of the exacting details regarding domestic duties can be interpreted within this framework of social purpose.  -81-  B.  1.  Knowledge.  What k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e a r e p e r c e i v e d a s h a v i n g  The h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h i t was j u s t i f i e d , concept of usefulness r u n a home w e l l members,  of  Hoodless  the mind o f knowledge  2.  the  importance of  food,  i n the  a former keystone In  fact,  science i n upgrading  "To  e n t e r more f u l l y i n t o  school g i r l ,  states  be used t o c o - o r d i n a t e o t h e r arithmetic,  the  is  not  that  the  would tend to cause confusion and p o s s i b l y c r e a t e a d i s t a s t e  c o n t a i n i n g s o much a b s t r a c t m a t t e r "  (1898, p . x )  family  home.  i n the educational system,  bacteriology e t c . ,  the average  to care for  to  even i n the advocacy o f s c i e n c e ,  What a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t k n o w l e d g e  Hoodless  of  i t s p r a c t i c a l chores,  cautions educators that  chemistry of  The  i s conceived i n the a a r r i c u l u m as the a b i l i t y  to c a r r y out  e x p l i c i t concern.  upon  importance of u s e f u l knowledge.  s a n i t a t i o n and h y g i e n e  Mental d i s c i p l i n e ,  worth?  o f domestic s c i e n c e , and the grounds  s t r e s s the  and to r e c o g n i z e  standards of  t h e most  (1898,  and l e a r n i n g a r e  for  p.vi).  advanced?  i n s t r u c t i o n i n domestic science could  s c h o o l s t u d i e s such as h i s t o r y ,  p h y s i o l o g y and temperance.  r e l a t i n g education to everyday  in  life,  geography,  A s d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e was a means Hoodless  envisioned  a  -82r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s t o r y and geography and the study o f d i e t and customs, and the teaching o f a r i t h m e t i c through arranging weights and measures, and the purchase o f food.  E x e r c i s i n g the mind w i t h u s e f u l  l<nowledge improved several dimensions o f human growth and provided the b a s i s f o r some o f the arguments advanced by educational reformers t o support forms o f manual t r a i n i n g .  P r a c t i c a l work and r e p e t i t i o n are the focus o f student l e a r n i n g experiences.  However, p e r f e c t i n g home-related s k i l l s assumes the  existence o f a standard f o r judging the adequacy o f student performance.  The only c r i t e r i a then a v a i l a b l e was c u l t u r a l l y  determined - s u b j e c t i v e , based on d a i l y l i f e , and one which grew out o f the e x p e r t i s e o f women who learned through experience the most s u c c e s s f u l ways o f managing a household. The m i r r o r i n g o f t r a d i t i o n a l e x p e r t i s e i s therefore a feature o f the e a r l y curriculum.  3.  Who c o n t r o l s the way knowledge i s used i n the  curriculum?  Evidence suggests that access t o appropriate knowledge was c o n t r o l l e d by each classroom teacher.  C e r t a i n l y i n the e a r l y curriculum,  only  knowledge r e l a t e d t o the home i s made a v a i l a b l e t o students. Access t o knowledge seems t o have been f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by classroom methods o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , the l a c k o f c u r r i c u l a r resources, and the c o n v i c t i o n that  -83-  household duties were bound by a rigid social framework.  Knowledge is also controlled by referring to students only in terms of their preparation for adulthood.  Though there is some reference to  present circumstances, i t is only in the role of a 'mother's helper'such as a waitress at the dinner table. The students themselves, and their concern for 'being' rather than 'becoming', does not form a part of the curricular content in the i n i t i a l phase of domestic science.  C.  Relationships and Patterns.  1. Do classroom activities reflect curricular purposes?  Concern for developing good habits runs throughout the curriculum, and is illustrated in the relationship portrayed between carrying out tasks in specified ways and 'right living'. The comment, "It i s an accomplishment to be a good waitress, as i t requires special refinement and deftness, which are scarcely compatible with an untidy nature" exemplifies the way in which practical duties were imbued with moral purpose (Hoodless, 1898, p. 172). Such admonishments are indicative of the constant undercurrent of secular moralism which runs throughout the early program.  -84-  The c r e d i b i l i t y of science i s o f t e n used to r e i n f o r c e s u b j e c t i v e knowledge. For instance, the importance of accurate measuring i s stressed i n foods c l a s s e s . Yet_recipes c a l l e d f o r " b u t t e r the s i z e o f an egg", a "kitchen tablespoon" as a measuring u t e n s i l , and  baking  products " u n t i l done" (Dept. o f Education, Recipes f o r Home Economics Classes, 1927). Even though Rowles (1956) c r e d i t s the work o f Miss Given from 1903  to 1909  at the Hamilton Normal School w i t h the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the concept o f b a s i c recipes f o r standard products, i n s t r u c t i o n s used i n schools show that c u l t u r a l l y derived  the  experience  impinged f o r a considerable p e r i o d on the world of science.  2. Do the c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s emphasize leadership f o r the f u t u r e , adaptation to the present, or p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the past?  On the surface, the e a r l y curriculum appears t o be d i r e c t e d t o the future as i t focuses on preparing the g i r l s to be b e t t e r wives and mothers. Moreover, the r h e t o r i c o f s o c i a l reformers pointed to the importance of domestic science i n t r a i n i n g f u t u r e c i t i z e n s , and  the  influence o f good homes i n the b u i l d i n g o f a n a t i o n . However, a cursory examination i s d e c e i v i n g , f o r most of the a c t i v i t i e s involved i n e a r l y programs r e l a t e to understanding past e x p e r t i s e and experience  so that  families could more adequately cope w i t h the changing circumstances o f the i n d u s t r i a l  age.  -85-  For  example,  deals with  i n Domestic Science Course I ,  the c l e a n i n g and c a r e o f  a portion of  the k i t c h e n  the  instruction  range.  C l i n k e r s may b e r e m o v e d b y p u t t i n g o n a b e d o f h o t coals a layer of clam or oyster s h e l l s or q u i c k l i m e . The h e a t c o n v e r t s s h e l l s i n t o q u i c k l i m e , which loosens c l i n k e r s . Repeat treatment if n e c e s s a r y . (Domestic S c i e n c e , Course I , 1911, Card 2.) The k n o w l e d g e a p p l i e d i n t h i s l e s s o n i s d e r i v e d f r o m p a s t c u l t u r a l experience.  In this  i n s t a n c e s u c h e x p e r t i s e was u n i q u e l y  with coastal l i v i n g patterns. the past being supported by  The  lesson i l l u s t r a t e s i n t u i t i v e  the r e l e v a n t  suggests that adapting to the present, the  typical curricular focus.  3.  What k i n d s o f  teacher/student  associated  p r i n c i p l e s of  ideas  s c i e n c e and  and concern w i t h the p a s t  r e l a t i o n s h i p s does the  was  curriculum  foster? The  role of  the classroom teacher i s not  the performance dimensions of  of household duties but  the s u b j e c t .  For  only to teach the minutia a l s o to convey the  example,  domestic science are e x p l i c i t l y cautioned  moral  teachers of early classes that,  U n t i d y h a b i t s must n o t b e a l l o w e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Set an example o f p e r f e c t o r d e r and n e a t n e s s , and i n s i s t upon p u p i l s f o l l o w i n g t h a t e x a m p l e . . . . E v e r y t h i n g must be l e f t i n p e r f e c t o r d e r a t t h e close of each l e s s o n . P u b l i c School Domestic S c i e n c e , 1898, p. ix).  of  in  of  -86Students are expected to model the v i r t u e s o f t h e i r domestic science i n s t r u c t o r , and i n s t r u c t o r s are expected to p e r s o n i f y the fundamentals o f correct l i v i n g . E a r l y lessons suggest that the moral f a c u l t i e s are exercised through the process o f h a b i t formation, j u s t as the i n t e l l e c t u a l powers are developed through the subject matter.  4.  I n what ways i s a home/school r e l a t i o n s h i p supported by the  learning a c t i v i t i e s ? A l l forms o f manual t r a i n i n g fostered a r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and d a i l y l i f e . School reports suggest that once a domestic science program was i n i t i a t e d w i t h i n a school the linkage was encouraged by arranging occasions where the p u b l i c could see what was being done i n classrooms.  By having students p r a c t i c e tasks c a r r i e d out i n the home,  h a b i t s and information learned a t school were expected t o i n f l u e n c e mothers, thus upgrading the standard o f l i v i n g i n the home.  I t i s o f i n t e r e s t that foods classrooms resembled l a b o r a t o r i e s , though they were c a l l e d domestic science 'centers'. G i r l s prepared only i n d i v i d u a l portions o f food r a t h e r than f a m i l y - s i z e d amounts. Frequently t h i s necessitated using small equipment and a s i n g l e gas burner.  Thus, the classroom s i t u a t i o n seems t o have been one i n which  the content o f the lessons echoed the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s o f the home y e t , the way i n which tasks were c a r r i e d out copied some o f the aspects o f science.  -875.  Is  there an apparent  J u n i p e r ' s w o r k does not is  a r e c i t a t i o n of  s e q u e n c i n g o f knowledge and a c t i v i t i e s ?  r e f l e c t a sequencing of knowledge.  t a s k s w h i c h must b e d o n e .  Rather,  H o o d l e s s makes some  it brief  r e f e r e n c e t o s i m p l e t a s k s b e i n g done b e f o r e more c o m p l i c a t e d o n e s , implies  t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h a s t r o n g e r home t r a i n i n g may b e  accomplished i n classroom a c t i v i t i e s . ( 1 9 2 3 ) makes s p e c i f i c  Overall,  d i f f e r m a r k e d l y f r o m some o f  conventional values. daily duties well.  the Course o f subject  topics are f i t t e d  role portrayed  into  matter, particular  domestic  i n f l u e n c e . Though conducted  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s suggest a r e i n f o r c i n g Domestic  A good housekeeper s y m b o l i z e s t h e v i r t u e s o f a  a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l forms o f  c u r r i c u l u m a c t s as an i n s u l a t o r from change,  Yet,  the  early  a n d when c h a n g e seemed  a s a means o f a d a p t i n g t o new c o n d i t i o n s .  do good  an  s c h o o l i n g a n d p r o v i d e d a means  more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t i n g s c h o o l i n g a n d d a i l y l i f e .  in  of  i d e a l s are emphasized by l e a r n i n g t o  p e r s o n . As a form o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e o f f e r e d  inevitable,  Study  i n the curriculum  the r h e t o r i c w h i c h promoted  s c i e n c e a s a means o f e x t e n d i n g w o m e n ' s science,  more  clarified.  k e y i d e a s r e l a t e d t o women's  t h e name o f  contrast  reference to a sequencing of  though the b a s i s upon w h i c h s p e c i f i c grade l e v e l s i s never  In  and  of  -88The  S c i e n t i f i c Method  Following  i n an Expanded C u r r i c u l u m :  the Putman-Weir  o f Home E c o n o m i c s , allegiance  the c u r r i c u l u m changes  1927  report  to  1946.  appointment  of a  in its organization,  t o s c i e n c e , and i t s p e r c e p t i o n s  to McLenaghan's course to  S u r v e y a n d t h e 1926  1926  of  the student.  Director its  According  t h e p r o g r a m was a l t e r e d t o " b r o a d e n o u t  the  i n c l u d e m o r e t h a n mere t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s e s " , a r e c i p e b o o k  was p u b l i s h e d t o a v o i d w a s t e o f expanded,  and g r e a t e r  work b e i n g o f f e r e d  effort  classroom time,  was made t o  throughout  l i b r a r y resources  were  i n c r e a s e the " . . . u n i f o r m i t y  the P r o v i n c e . . . "  (McLenaghan,  1927,  of  pp.  M63-65).  The  c u r r i c u l u m throughout  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  t h i s p e r i o d shows i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n f o r  coverage  of  material.  The  t r a d i t i o n a l areas  c o o k i n g a n d s e w i n g i n c l u d e new t o p i c s a n d t r e a t For  example,  i n 1927  machine i n grade VT, order to  McLenaghan  s h o u l d accompany  (p.  introduced B y 1941  M63).  In addition to sewing,  in Junior  i n c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s Their  studies  of  color,  that use of  the  the course,  detail.  sewing  as w e l l as  the study  of  durability,  textiles  cost,  High School have the o p t i o n o f  and  on making a wool  the c l o t h i n g budget,  textiles  in  "the each is texture.  specializing  a s a p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h o f home e c o n o m i c s .  include specific units  remodelling a garment,  them i n g r e a t e r  s i t u a t i o n s " w h i c h c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n  from the s t a n d p o i n t  students  of  the mastery o f hand s t i t c h i n g  increase the p r a c t i c a l value o f  number o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g program  maintains  a  dress, study,  pattern  -89alterations, and applied art (Home Economics for Junior and Senior High Schools, 1941).  In foods courses, the publication and use of a recipe book facilitates preparation and encourages efficiency. S k i l l s are considered important in die preparation of basic categories of foods such as, cakes, meats, and vegetables. However, accurate measurement i s also more heavily emphasized in order to produce standard products using recognized methods . Stress is placed on food products and their relationship to definite meals rather than manipulation i n terms of cookery methods. Thus, the Grade VTI course in 1927 employs recipes as components of lunches and light suppers.  Moreover, recipes are written in  family-size portions, in contrast to the individual portions prepared in earlier programs. The growing concern for the use of standard recipes, accurate measurement, and efficient working conditions shows a new thrust in the foods courses, one which moves away from the expertise of the instructor and toward the control of cooking procedures by the knowledge of principles and rules.  New topics are also introduced which reflect women's changing role i n the family. The 1927 program goes beyond housekeeping chores, cooking and sewing, as i t incorporates at the Grade VTI level a unit designed to teach the value of money. The course outline refers to 'methods of  -90obtaining money and 'saving and spending wisely' when discussing a 1  g i r l ' s allowance.  Not only does this acknowledge the role of women as  managers and consumers, but i t approaches the topic from the viewpoint of the student, a significant departure from teaching g i r l s only i n terms of their future roles. A subsequent section on Home Problems refers to marketing as one of the household duties in which g i r l s can take part.  The revised Grade VTI program in 1928.further expands  the topic to include a section on 'personal accounts', dealing with the amount of money a family spends on raising children and the means of reducing this expense.  By 1933 'Home Management' becomes more prominently featured as a part of the Grade IX course.  In contrast to the earlier connotation of the  term, 'house management' which implied only the carrying out of domestic chores, 'home management' includes shopping ethics (how to treat salespeople), comparative shopping and reducing costs by buying well and using wisely.  The introduction of home projects encourages  students to practice management s k i l l s within their own family situation. I t i s likely that home projects also advanced the home-school relationship, and acquainted some mothers with management skills.  In addition to reorganization of the content i n foods and clothing courses, and the greater concern for management and applied art, a separate elective termed 'home relations' i s offered by 1941 i n the  -91-  senior grades. nutrition,  Topics  d e a l i n g w i t h the  f a m i l y such as h e a l t h  c h i l d c a r e and development,  home n u r s i n g , a n d  s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s gradually gain importance The  subject area,  covered by  much b r o a d e r r a n g e o f  A second f e a t u r e 1946  of  the l a b e l  t o p i c s i n the second phase o f  objectives are stated taught  rather  its  i n terms o f  f r o m 1926  to the e a r l i e r  the purposes  than the subject matter  to be c o v e r e d .  a s one o f  its objectives,  preparation of  "To  t h e 1927  teach the proper  program, courses  Objectives teaching,  curriculum  lists  s e l e c t i o n and  foods e s s e n t i a l t o good h e a l t h c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n  the preparation of b r e a k f a s t s , teas"  Thus,  (Department o f E d u c a t i o n ,  luncheons, 1927,  o r suppers and  p.52).  to  of  for which the  a l s o change w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d from t h o s e d i r e c t e d toward t o t h o s e w h i c h focus on l e a r n i n g .  a  development.  to s p e c i f y the k i n d s  In contrast  and  encompasses  c u r r i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h changes  learnings which are prescribed.  were  family  in curricular revisions.  'home e c o n o m i e s ' ,  i s the i n c r e a s e d use o f o b j e c t i v e s  and  B y 1941  afternoon  this  as:  ( a . ) The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t and p r e p a r e an a d e q u a t e f a m i l y d i e t w i t h due r e g a r d to:( 1 . ) N u t r i t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e members o f t h e family. ( 2 . ) C o m p a r a t i v e v a l u e o f f o o d s t o meet t h e s e requirements. ( 3 . ) Comparative c o s t o f foods i n terms o f t i m e , money, and e n e r g y .  to  is  expressed  -92-  ( 4 . ) The p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e d i e t i n a f o r m t h a t i s a t t r a c t i v e , p a l a t a b l e , and d i g e s t i b l e . ( b . ) The d e v e l o p m e n t oE good f o o d h a b i t s a n d good g e n e r a l h e a l t h h a b i t s . (Dept. o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 4 1 , p . 87) Objectives  are also stated  understandings,  rather  i n terms o f a b i l i t i e s ,  than only s k i l l s ,  T h e more c a r e f u l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f objectives of  suggests a s h i f t  Greater  i n family  organization  concern for  the  of examination  of  and b e h a v i o u r  t o m a s t e r i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g the  the c u r r i c u l u m i s accompanied by  Report,  1926,  teachers  for  pp.  78,  80).  'new t y p e '  multiple choice tests given i n both  splendidly with  120).  f o r Vancouver  i n 1927,  The  typing of  tabulating of  and  School  'failing'  results"  a  questions  for  the  from  co-operated  the preparation o f  (Vancouver  and  Board,  standard tests  Bureau o f Measurements  these t e s t s ,  for  foods and c l o t h i n g  were s e l e c t e d l a r g e l y from v a r i o u s  approved u n i v e r s i t i e s .  and the  concept  learned.  A c c o r d i n g t o M i l d r e d Cunningham,  o f Home E c o n o m i c s  "...  and  'passing',  of p a r t i c u l a r standards.(Vancouver  Supervisor  classes,  the  r e f e r e n c e t o a home e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e  shows t h e c o n c e r n o f  the achievement  events  increased  l e a r n i n g w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n c l a s s r o o m s . As  school year  that  living.  i n home e c o n o m i c s i s i n t r o d u c e d , b o t h s t u d e n t s  t h e 1926  'repeaters'  of  through m o d e l l i n g and  t e a c h e r s b e c o m e more a c c o u n t a b l e f o r w h a t i s t a u g h t During  technique.  i n t h e e m p h a s i s o f home e c o n o m i c s f r o m  p r a c t i c e of household s k i l l s , involved  and  formation and  l e a r n i n g through the use  cultivating desirable attitudes  and t a s k s  habit  attitudes,  score  School Board, Report,  sheets p.  -93One  of  t h e most  n o t i c e a b l e changes i n the c u r r i c u l u m i s  introduction of experimental  t h e s c i e n t i f i c method  method  the challenge of inefficiency.  f i r s t mentioned  i n 1927  resulting in a saving of  classroom noise.(Vancouver  1928,  1928,  p.  105).  elementary  students  on the growth o f r a t s  apparently  strongly  (Vancouver School B o a r d ,  and  Report,  a  1926,  nutritious proved  Report,  of  twenty signs  pp.56,  105).  and student  science i s juxtaposed  on t r a d i t i o n a l  Generally,  teachers  learning activities  sometimes  the world  ideas i n a c u r i o u s way,  and Charm'  diet.  included i n the  curriculum, Reference  there  to science i s i n c r e a s i n g l y evident i s a l s o a change  i s frequently  i n the a t t i t u d e  made t o s t u d e n t ' s  in  such as 1937  the  toward  p a r t i c i p a t i o n as  are  of  curriculum.  While the a f f i n i t y  of  m e a l p r e p a r e d b y home e c o n o m i c s  the value of a well-balanced  1944,  to use experiments,  'Kitchen Efficiency  involving  to  Report,  study because they e x h i b i t e d  t o be s o l v e d . However,  on  Aberdeen  (Vancouver School B o a r d ,  c o n c e i v e d as problems  the u n i t  in  t o show t h e e f f e c t s  By 1 9 4 3 - 4 4 a n u t r i t i o n p r o j e c t  and f e d w e e k l y  are encouraged  and  Mabel A l l e n o f K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l i s r e p o r t e d  children, selected for  poor h e a l t h ,  meeting  time and energy  School Board,  have conducted an animal feeding experiment deficient diet  The  a s a means o f  A new way o f d o i n g d i s h e s was d e v e l o p e d  reduction of In  t o home e c o n o m i c s .  t h e Putman W e i r S u r v e y t o r e d u c e w a s t e  School i n Vancouver  p.77)  is  the  students. mother's  -94-  helpers  i n t h e home,  younger  siblings.  doing household chores, marketing,  and c a r i n g f o r  The p r e s e n t needs o f s t u d e n t s a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d ,  as i l l u s t r a t e d b y s e c t i o n s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e a l i n g w i t h s e r v i n g t e a to p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s  (1927),  t h e c a r e a n d f u r n i s h i n g o f a g i r l ' s own  room (1927) and making a s i l k p a r t y s t u d y i n g home e c o n o m i c s , w r i t t e n expresses for  the fact  the future,  dress  (1941). A j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r  from a s t u d e n t v i e w p o i n t  cloyingly  t h a t home e c o n o m i c s w a s n o t o n l y e d u c a t i n g  students  but also f o r present circumstances.  We a r e t r y i n g t o b e m o t h e r ' s h e l p e r s , n o w . Most m o t h e r s h a v e p r e t t y much t o d o , a n d g i r l s w h o t a k e Home E c o n o m i c s a r e a b l e t o h e l p o u t a n d l i g h t e n t h e load. R u n n i n g a home i s n ' t s o v e r y e a s y , a n d when y o u s t u d y how i t i s d o n e , y o u b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t y o u n e e d t r a i n i n g b e s i d e s common s e n s e t o make t h i n g s go s m o o t h l y . Our t e a c h e r t o l d u s t h a t a good h o u s e k e e p e r i s a l i t t l e b i t o f e v e r y t h i n g . . . a n d s h e s a i d , t o o , t h a t t h e k i n d s o f homes a n d home l i f e t h a t we b u i l d u p h a s s o m e t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e k i n d o f n a t i o n we h a v e , s o we o u g h t t o k n o w how t o make a g o o d j o b o f i t . ( M c L e n a g h a n , n . d . , p . 3 )  P a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e i s made b y M c L e n a g h a n  (n.d.,  p . 3 ) t h a t home e c o n o m i c s  t r a i n i n g c o u l d b e u s e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s a n d p r o f e s s i o n s o u t s i d e t h e home, though there  is little  mention w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l program  itself  s u g g e s t i n g t h e a home e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e m i g h t h a v e a p p l i c a b i l i t y elsewhere.  -95-  The  c u r r i c u l u m i n the p e r i o d  f r o m 1926  more c o m p l e x u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f v i s u a l i z e d as a f i e l d o f Specific that  concern for  t o 1946  t h e home a n d f a m i l y .  study rather  the student,  greater  depth appears  economics. However,  to  Home e c o n o m i c s  and o t h e r  f a m i l y members  On t h e s u r f a c e ,  with  skills.  s t u d y i n g more t o p i c s  interpreted  for  control of  c u r r i c u l a r purposes  l e a r n i n g was b e c o m i n g m o r e  The  Contemporary  The  r e v i s i o n c o m p l e t e d i n 1979  the  province.  the goals of The  food,  the program,  clothing,  sciences,  and  i n terms or by  suggests that  of  mastering coupled  the  important.  C u r r i c u l u m o f Home E c o n o m i c s .  i s currently used i n schools  T h e Home E c o n o m i c s  rationale of  in  home  A more o b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o s u b j e c t c o n t e n t  increasingly organized  desire  study.  suggests  indicate a broader perspective of  f a m i l y l i v i n g was o n l y  is  i n which i n d i v i d u a l  g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s and r u l e s r e l a t e d to s u b j e c t m a t t e r , practical  a much  than simply a subject of  t h e home was p e r c e i v e d a s a n e n v i r o n m e n t  members c o u l d b e n u r t u r e d .  portrays  Curriculum Guide,  l e a r n i n g outcomes,  the c u r r i c u l u m s t a t e s  that  (8-12)  and suggested the  four major  s h e l t e r a n d human r e l a t i o n s d r a w f r o m t h e  humanities.  throughout sets  forth  resources. topic arts,  areas:  -96experience and knowledge so that a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s and techniques can be developed which enable i n d i v i d u a l s t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y by themselves, and w i t h i n f a m i l i e s .  Meeting the v a r i e d needs, i n t e r e s t s  and a b i l i t i e s o f students i s a major concern o f the program, and therefore a v o c a t i o n a l dimension i s included f o r i n t e r e s t e d students. In acknowledging the changing needs o f s o c i e t y , increased emphasis i s given to f a m i l y , n u t r i t i o n , conservation, consumer s k i l l s and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . Co-education has been a proclaimed p a r t o f the contemporary curriculum f o r a number o f years, r e c o g n i z i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l family members i n domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  I n a d d i t i o n , the family  conceived as a 'conserver' r e f l e c t s s o c i e t a l concern f o r d i m i n i s h i n g resources, and holds d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r school programs than the f a m i l y portrayed as the 'producer' o r 'consumer' o f goods.  The program i s d i r e c t e d toward enabling students t o accomplish o v e r a l l goals.  eight  Some o f these r e l a t e t o the a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge,  s k i l l s and p r i n c i p l e s associated w i t h food, c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r . Understanding human n u t r i t i o n i s a l s o considered important.  Efficient  management and consumer s k i l l s are r e l a t e d t o a l l aspects o f home economics. Recognizing the needs and customs o f various ages, l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e s i s a s t a t e d goal i n terms o f achieving effective relationships.  A c q u i r i n g a b i l i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s f o r d e a l i n g  w i t h change i s a l s o a program aim.  S k i l l and i n t e r e s t i n l e i s u r e  a c t i v i t y , and the a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r beauty i n the environment are a l s o  -97listed.  F i n a l l y a broad base o f knowledge as background f o r f u r t h e r  education i s considered o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Each o f the o v e r a l l goals i s achieved through accomplishing the l e a r n i n g outcomes which are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o f i v e t o p i c areas: foods and n u t r i t i o n , c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s , family s t u d i e s , t e x t i l e s a r t s and c r a f t s , and housing and i n t e r i o r design.  I n each o f the t o p i c areas,  suggestions f o r future occupations are included. These range from those which r e q u i r e l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g t o those which i n v o l v e p r o f e s s i o n a l preparation.  The ordering o f content and suggestions f o r covering subject matter are termed the 'scope and sequence' o f the courses.  These are s p e c i f i c a l l y  o u t l i n e d f o r each o f t h f i v e ' l e v e l s ' o f secondary s c h o o l , from grades eight to twelve. C l e a r l y , t h i s curriculum r e f l e c t s a strong h i e r a r c h y o f l e a r n i n g . Knowledge i s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d i n terms o f making t h i n g s , w i t h suggestions o f f e r e d as t o the products which should be prepared a t each l e v e l .  I t i s recommended that teachers demonstrate the  preparation and s e r v i c e o f food products to a l l lower l e v e l students, and a l l new techniques to students a t higher l e v e l s .  Using a t e c h n i c a l format, l e a r n i n g outcomes t o be achieved w i t h i n each t o p i c are shown i n the form o f simple graphs. Bars are used t o designate the grade l e v e l a t which p a r t i c u l a r outcomes are t o be  -98-  i n t r o d u c e d and c o m p l e t e d . t o p l a n and c a r r y o u t  twelve),  example,  the  l e a r n i n g outcome  while  runs  from l e v e l three  to l e v e l f i v e  l e a r n i n g outcomes d e a l i n g w i t h  and p e r s o n a l t i m e r u n t h r o u g h a l l f i v e  levels,  student  of  "will  continue  the development  (i.e.  food  t h e outcome a t 1979,  able  projects, grade  preparation  indicating that  levels with increasing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n " ( Guide, are expected  " t o be  a time and work s c h e d u l e " f o r c l o t h i n g  v a c a t i o n s and h o b b i e s , ten to  For  the  subsequent  p.3)  Teachers  to d e c i p h e r these i n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to  their  own  classes.  A resource section provides topic areas.  recommended used,  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  an o u t l i n e  groups,  c l a s s i f y i n g foods  activity.  the  the u n i t  lesson.  Thus,  i n foods  the year.  Learning  experiences  efficiently.  and  most  knowing  Housekeeping  duties  food and are  Housekeeping  jobs according the  therefore,  be  and l i s t i n g c a r e  'Suggested Guide f o r  can,  the  time  A j o b r o t a t i o n b y number  Tasks  of  the teaching procedure to  foods being s t u d i e d .  lab table.  the  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  according to nutrients,  as i n d i c a t e d by the  e a c h month o f  executed  to  l e s s o n planning s p e c i f i e s the  which suggests r o t a t i n g student  p o s i t i o n at for  the  lessons i n each of  suggested are making l a b p l a n s , p r e p a r i n g f o o d ,  important  Duties'  of  f o r each l e a r n i n g outcome,  storage procedures of still  for  and the r e l a t e d s t u d e n t  frequently  for  These g e n e r a l l y r e l a t e e i t h e r  classroom or to nutrition,  suggestions  seating is  given  be a s s i g n e d and  -99An e x p l i c i t departure  from the predominantly p r a c t i c a l emphasis o f the  program i s seen i n the family studies courses taught during grades eleven and twelve.  Family studies provides information rooted i n both  the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l sciences, such as the l e v e l s o f p h y s i c a l development, l i f e c y c l e stages, knowledge r e l a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a home, and parenting s k i l l s .  Students examine t h e i r personal  development, the f a m i l y as a u n i t i n s o c i e t y , and forms o f communication.  I n essence the human elements inherent i n home  economics have been presented as a s p e c i a l i z e d course.  The number o f s p e c i a l i z e d courses o f f e r e d exemplifies the strong fragmentation o f knowledge which forms a p a r t o f the contemporary curriculum.  The l e a r n i n g outcomes determine what happens i n the  classroom and how the content i s t o be approached. The o r d e r i n g o f knowledge, s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f time, planning r e l a t e d t o making products, o r g a n i z a t i o n o f classroom d u t i e s , and the strong part played by e v a l u a t i o n and assessment portray current programs as o b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f human experience r e l a t e d t o the f a m i l y .  -100Chapter S i x  CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PRACTICE IN HOME ECONOMICS  Examining what was taught i n schools reveals that the curriculum d i d change i n s i g n i f i c a n t ways throughout the f i r s t two time periods studied.  Once accepted as a school subject, home economics r e i n f o r c e d  i t s ideas and b e l i e f s by t r e a t i n g them more comprehensively, but d i d not examine human experience i n new ways.  This chapter i n t e r p r e t s the  c u r r i c u l a r changes i n l i g h t o f the four conceptions o f p r a c t i c e o u t l i n e d i n chapter four.  The E a r l y Curriculum: A Customary Framework o f P r a c t i c e .  The e a r l y home economics curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia shows a strong a f f i n i t y t o customary p r a c t i c e i n four s i g n i f i c a n t ways. F i r s t , the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between d a i l y l i f e and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s runs throughout a l l domestic science lessons.  C l e a r l y , the conduct o f  everyday l i f e i s the c u r r i c u l a r focus. The c a r e f u l s p e c i f i c a t i o n of household chores i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r perceived importance i n f a m i l y l i f e and implies that women who perform t h e i r duties w e l l be more adequate wives and mothers.  will  Strong emphasis on the p r a c t i c a l  dimension through the m i r r o r i n g o f d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t e s i s a fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f customary p r a c t i c e .  -101-  Second, the close l i a s o n between customary p r a c t i c e and the e a r l y programs i s i n d i c a t e d by the dependence o f classroom work on the e x p e r t i s e o f each teacher.  Due to the l a c k o f q u a l i f i e d teachers, many  classrooms were supervised by women whose s k i l l s arose from t h e i r own personal experience.  Even q u a l i f i e d domestic science teachers learned  through demonstration and r e p e t i t i o n i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g programs. Subsequently  the teaching s t r a t e g i e s throughout the c u r r i c u l u m embody a  pedagogy which stresses modelling and p r a c t i c e . The r e l i a n c e on personal e x p e r t i s e i s evident i n the curriculum through the importance a t t r i b u t e d t o household r o u t i n e s , and the a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o the i n c u l c a t i o n o f good h a b i t s . The e a r l y program suggests that judgements regarding the degree o f s k i l l acquired by students depended upon s u b j e c t i v e assessments by the teacher. I n a d d i t i o n , the r o l e played by teachers i n the classroom r e i t e r a t e s the t r a d i t i o n a l values associated w i t h women i n the home.  Thus, the concept o f apprenticeship i s h i g h l y  v i s i b l e , and i s used not only t o convey necessary knowledge and t o ensure that i t was a p p l i e d i n appropriate ways, but a l s o t o f a c i l i t a t e the a c q u i s i t i o n o f e x p l i c i t as w e l l as i m p l i c i t h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s .  T h i r d , the curriculum emphasizes the importance o f b u i l d i n g acceptable behavior p a t t e r n s , and f u l f i l l i n g s o c i e t a l expectations.  This echoes  the customary conception o f p r a c t i c e as s t r e s s i s placed on maintaining the status quo through conforming t o e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l conventions. The e a r l y program supports the b e l i e f that ' r i g h t t h i n k i n g leads t o 1  -1021  r i g h t l i v i n g ' . The curriculum casts 'improvement' as upgrading  the  q u a l i t y o f family care, and knowing one's place i n the scheme of things. Issues of the times do not form a part of classroom work unless accompanied by strong moral overtones, as i n the reference to temperance.  Emphasizing r o u t i n e can t h e r e f o r e , be i n t e r p r e t e d as a  powerful t o o l f o r imposing the comfort o f order and ceremony upon the perceived c o n f l i c t o f the era.  The way that problems are cast f o r students provides the f i n a l element of a f f i n i t y between p r a c t i c e portrayed i n the e a r l y curriculum and the customary dimension.  Problems demand immediate answers, a c t i o n  involves the appropriate a p p l i c a t i o n of s k i l l s and knowledge given p a r t i c u l a r circumstances, and s o l u t i o n s l i e only i n conventional pathways. 'How  I n other words, questions such as 'How  to set up a s i c k room?' or 'How  t o make a p i e ? ' ,  t o i r o n l a c e ? ' can only be  answered by r e l y i n g on knowledge which has already been determined.  In  such instances the a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge has very d i f f e r e n t purposes than knowledge used to generate new s o l u t i o n s f o r given circumstances. In the e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m r e s t r i c t i o n s placed upon access t o knowledge and i t s subsequent a p p l i c a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d the ways i n which problems r e l a t e d to everyday l i v i n g could be approached.  E a r l y programs i n domestic science emphasize family s t a b i l i t y during a period o f r a p i d change i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Student a c t i v i t i e s  only  -103-  involve s k i l l s which have a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o producing goods f o r the home. Yet, home production i s stressed during a period i n Canadian h i s t o r y , when many o f the t r a d i t i o n a l functions o f the household were being assumed by manufacturing concerns.  The focus upon 'making' and  'doing' i s consistent w i t h the arguments put forward by reformers who v i s u a l i z e d manual t r a i n i n g as a means o f reemphasizing the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l values. G i r l s were taught to sew and cook i n order t o make goods as they 'should be made' and thereby r e i n f o r c e the v i r t u e s that accompanied working i n d u s t r i o u s l y .  There i s a noticeable gap between the r h e t o r i c o f the maternal feminists and the i d e a l s r e l a t e d t o the r o l e o f women as portrayed i n the curriculum.  The c u r r i c u l a r documents make no suggestion whatever  that women might extend t h e i r r o l e beyond the family c i r c l e .  Obvious  neglect o f t h i s t h r u s t o f the women's movement implies that what was taught i n schools was d i r e c t e d toward maintaining the past and adapting to the present.  I n i t s d e s i r e t o r e s t o r e the t r a d i t i o n a l focus t o  f a m i l y l i f e the i n t i t i a l domestic science programs i n schools appear t o have encouraged g i r l s to r e f i n e t h e i r s k i l l s only w i t h i n t h e i r immediate family.  S c i e n t i f i c information i s used i n the e a r l y curriculum t o support i n t u i t i v e claims, j u s t i f y the need t o c a r r y out a c t i v i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r ways, and cloak domestic duties w i t h a mantle o f importance. Undoubtedly, the d i s c o v e r i e s o f science made many c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o  -104-  aspects of  family  l i f e i n the  There i s a d i f f e r e n c e ,  however,  i n n u t r i t i o n and h e a l t h ) domestic t r a i n i n g ,  f i r s t part  science,  The  t o u n d e r g i r d much o f  does n o t  1946:  C u r r i c u l a r documents w i t h i n t h i s i n the powers o f  purpose,  inquiry  relate strongly  to  science.  for  its  gradually,  steadily,  but  b e t w e e n 1926  The  and  to  the  frequent  An Instrumental  portrayal  reference  Framework.  As t h e e x p l i c i t framework  of  social  diminishes, allegiance Thus,  to  the  instrumental practice occurs  throughout  the various  curricular revisions  1946.  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n home and  instrumental conception of p r a c t i c e .  these i s  i n the source o f  s c i e n c e replaces the  throughout  to  framework.  e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n a s a more e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s u b j e c t ,  to  of  time p e r i o d i l l u s t r a t e an i n c r e a s i n g  f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s suggest  shift  (as  investigation.  an i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e i n c r e a s e s . from customary  for  to a s c i e n t i f i c  the hallmark of e a r l i e r programs,  transformation  century.  the s u b j e c t i v e nature  a l t h o u g h t h e e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m shows it  twentieth  and u s i n g s c i e n c e as a framework  C u r r i c u l u m f r o m 1926  belief  the  between u s i n g s c i e n t i f i c knowledge  o f a s u b j e c t a r e a a n d a mode o f Therefore,  of  The most o b v i o u s  of  c u r r i c u l a r e x p e r t i s e as the v a l i d i t y t r a d i t i o n a l expertise of  t h i s period i n c r e a s i n g l y advocate  the  teacher.  the use of  the the  attributed Programs  experimental  -105procedures to confirm b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s .  Thus, n u t r i t i o n s t u d i e s  g r a p h i c a l l y portray the importance o f a proper d i e t , time and motion studies on household procedures q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e savings i n time and energy, and s c i e n t i f i c ' t e s t s ' determine the presence o f p a r t i c u l a r components i n food.  Instrumental p r a c t i c e i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n the organized approach t o l e a r n i n g evident i n the curriculum o f t h i s period. l e a r n i n g becomes a c o n t r o l l e d procedure.  I n other words,  Hence, a v a r i e t y o f  mechanisms are introduced t o ensure that students e n r o l l e d i n home economics t h i n k and behave i n p a r t i c u l a r ways. F o r example, the presence o f a p r o v i n c i a l l y prescribed curriculum, the p r o v i s i o n o f a course textbook and the appointment o f a p r o v i n c i a l d i r e c t o r c o l l e c t i v e l y reduce the v a r i a t i o n i n course content among d i f f e r e n t schools throughout the province. The process o f examination and r e g u l a r classroom v i s i t s by the d i r e c t o r each monitor the way classroom teachers implement the curriculum. Standardizing the appearance o f home economics classrooms, p a r t i c u l a r l y foods l a b o r a t o r i e s a l s o c o n t r o l s the v a r i a t i o n among programs.  I m p l i c i t l y , even the use o f l e a r n i n g  o b j e c t i v e s i n the curriculum assumes that human behavior can be c o n t r o l l e d f o r s p e c i f i c purposes.  While these a d d i t i o n s  accompanied  the acceptance o f home economics as a school subject, they a l s o exemplify new forms o f c o n t r o l over the l e a r n i n g process which had been absent i n the e a r l i e r curriculum.  -106-  C o u r s e o u t l i n e s and p u b l i c s c h o o l r e p o r t s activities This  became i n c r e a s i n g l y a l i g n e d w i t h  i s not  only evident  the use of experiments, student problems Recipes method',  show t h a t  activities.  i n the k i n d s of but  Thus,  the  method'  i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n shows  etc.  followed,  By 1941,  the use o f  theories  t h e method  prepared using  'girls',  according to a predetermined  this  o f knowledge  specialization of students  but  rather  begins  to  their  to be l e a r n e d  is  are  speak the  not  'students'.  and t h e i r  c r i t e r i a of  objectivity,  period progresses  fragmentation  and  replicable results.  'standard measurements',  assumes a measure o f  'cake  crafts  Foods classrooms a r e c a l l e d ' l a b o r a t o r i e s ' , t o as  as  and p r i n c i p l e s , and Knowledge  c u r r i c u l u m , as w e l l as s c h o o l r e p o r t s ,  longer referred  As  as i n the  out  involved.  i s s p e c i f i e d , and s p e c i f i c procedures  to b r i n g about  science.  carrying  even d e s i g n ,  predefined,  of  for  such as  planning the a c t i v i t y  to s p e c i f i c problem s i t u a t i o n s .  The  science.  a c t i v i t e s encouraged  application  required  of  learning experiences are conceived  s p e c i f i c steps to be  'muffin  t h e methods  a l s o i n the procedures  to be s o l v e d , w i t h time spent s t r e s s the  classroom  quality.  found  pupils are  Recipes  success i s Thus,  in earlier  language  the  are  judged language  programs.  t h e c u r r i c u l u m shows a n i n c r e a s i n g which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  an i n s t r u m e n t a l  conception of  are a b l e t o pursue a sequence o f  technical  practice.  By  s p e c i a l i z e d courses  no  1941 in  -107-  (A) Foods, N u t r i t i o n and Home Management, o r (B) C l o t h i n g , T e x t i l e s and Applied A r t , o r a general course 'made up o f u n i t s o r parts o f u n i t s ' s e l e c t e d from both (A) o r (B).  While the i n i t i a l program o f domestic science suggests that p r a c t i c i n g home a c t i v i t i e s developed most o f the a b i l i t i e s r e q u i s i t e t o a good w i f e and mother, the l a t e r curriculum emphasizes the need t o have s p e c i f i c knowledge i n more s p e c i a l i z e d areas.  Home economics from 1 9 2 6  to 1946 assumes that the f a m i l y requires more than upgrading the l e v e l o f household s k i l l s associated w i t h the home. Using the o b j e c t i v i t y o f science, the f a m i l y becomes a phenomenon t o be studied, a d i r e c t contrast from e a r l i e r times when f a m i l i e s were understood by others simply by l i v i n g i n a family environment.  By the end o f t h i s p e r i o d ,  as f a m i l i e s themselves become an object o f study, i t i s contended that instrumental p r a c t i c e had replaced the customary conception inherent i n the e a r l i e r curriculum.  The Contemporary Curriculum: R e i n f o r c i n g Instrumental P r a c t i c e .  The contemporary curriculum i s a t e c h n i c a l presentation o f 'ends t o be achieved' through mastery o f p a r t i c u l a r teachniques and s p e c i f i e d knowledge.  The l e a r n i n g outcomes s t a t e d f o r each t o p i c area determine  both the knowledge made a v a i l a b l e and the way i n which i t i s t o be used.  For example, i n t e x t i l e a r t s and c r a f t s , the outcome which  -108-  specifies  "The s t u d e n t  s h o u l d be a b l e t o use a l l equipment  infers  that  a part  of the course content  d i r e c t i o n s on the use o f each p i e c e o f equipment (Guide  ,1979,  p.51).  d i r e c t i o n s and procedures  remains an important  confirmed i n other  a r e a s where  topic  p o r t i o n o f many l e s s o n s .  t h e y do n o t p l a y a p a r t  Learning  concern.  'planning'  must  to  form  follow  This  is  forms an c o n s i d e r a b l e  W i t h i n instrumental p r a c t i c e , as portrayed  home e c o n o m i c s , s t u d e n t s  how i t  correctly"  are the passive r e c i p i e n t s o f knowledge, i n determining e i t h e r the knowledge  by  for  i t s e l f or  i s used.  Generally student Learning  there  is little  room f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n t h e p a r t  o f the  f o r both t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a r e e x p l i c i t l y c o n t r o l l e d . outcomes,  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n and o r d e r i n g o f r o u t i n e s ,  the  h e i r a r c h y o f a c t i v i t i e s , a n d t i m e d e t a i l i n g a l l l i m i t t h e way k n o w l e d g e is  a c q u i r e d and used w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m .  recommended e v a l u a t i o n quantitatively  forms  filled  I n foods c l a s s e s  i n by both student  the  and t e a c h e r ,  measure how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t h a s a c h i e v e d t h e d e s i r e d  objectives.  Some o p p o r t u n i t y the  f o r thought,  family studies program.  contemporary  c u l t u r e s have  debate and c r i t i q u e i s i n c o r p o r a t e d Activities  current  such as examining p a s t and  t h e p o t e n t i a l o f i n c l u d i n g more t h a n  a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and t e c h n i q u e .  into  Thus,  program i s b e g i n n i n g t o acknowledge  there are hints  simply  that  interactive practice,  the even  -109-  t h o v i g h most o f  the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n f a m i l y s t u d i e s  a c q u i s i t i o n of  i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e r e f i n e m e n t  Home e c o n o m i c s s h o w s a n e v e n s t r o n g e r practice Given  than that  explains  that  currrent  of  schools are  frequently  'thats'  and  s c i e n t i f i c thought.  focus i n schools of  consensus theory  of  to  instrumental its  growth.  instrumental p r a c t i c e , the perception  i n the c u r r i c u l u m deserves  t h i n k i n g as a body o f meaning o f  commitment  the  skills.  i l l u s t r a t e d by the e a r l i e r stages o f  i t s reinforcement  s c i e n c e conveyed  of  focus on  Apple  which d i s t o r t s  further  contends  the that  of  true the  the s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e portrays  science that  (1971)  p r e s e n t i n g t h e s c i e n t i f i c mode  "hows'  Apple  some c o m m e n t .  of  a  i s b o t h m i s l e a d i n g and u n r e a l i s t i c .  I n our s c h o o l s , s c i e n t i f i c work i s t a c i t l y always l i n k e d w i t h a c c e p t e d standards o f v a l i d i t y and i s s e e n ( a n d t a u g h t ) was a l w a y s s u b j e c t t o e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n w i t h no o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s , e i t h e r personal or p o l i t i c a l . "Schools of thought' in s c i e n c e do n o t e x i s t , o r , i f t h e y d o , 'objective c r i t e r i a ' a r e u s e d t o p e r s u a d e s c i e n t i s t s t h a t one s i d e i s c o r r e c t and t h e o t h e r wrong. ( A p p l e , 1971, P- 30)  Distortion conflict  of  the s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e ignores the p o s i t i v e use  i n c h a l l e n g i n g t r a d i t i o n a l meaning s t r u c t u e s  s e a r c h f o r new k n o w l e d g e . scientific  ignore the importance of  d i s c i p l i n e emphasizes  a n d a l t e r s t h e mode o f rather  To  i n the  t h a n c r e a t i n g and r e c r e a t i n g .  constant  conflict in  an o r d e r l y and s t a b l e p o i n t  s c i e n t i f i c thought  of  of  a  view,  t o b e l i e v i n g and a c c e p t i n g  By n e g l e c t i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s  of  -110-  'organized scepticism' students are denied the opportunity t o experiment w i t h these concepts i n d i s c o v e r i n g and encountering  their  own e x p e r t i s e .  I n l i g h t o f Apple's comments, i t i s worth noting that the home economics curriculum does not c i t e one instance o f c o n f l i c t throughout the program.  Yet, w i t h i n family s t u d i e s , and foods and n u t r i t i o n some  information could be advanced as t h e o r i e s , couched i n a t e n t a t i v e framework, and open t o future challenge and r e a p p r a i s a l . To present only a consensus model diminishes much o f the i n t e r e s t and v i t a l i t y inherent i n the generation o f new ideas. Furthermore, f o s t e r i n g ' b e l i e v i n g and accepting' a l l information reemphasizes a passive a t t i t u d e t o knowledge, l e a d i n g t o the perpetuation o f the status quo rather than b r i n g i n g about needed change.  This chapter examines the development o f the home economics curriculum i n terms o f the conceptions o f p r a c t i c e . The i n i t i a l c u r r i c u l u m i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the customary conception o f p r a c t i c e a r i s i n g from the perceived need t o improve home c o n d i t i o n s .  Subsequently, home  economics i s a l i g n e d w i t h instrumental p r a c t i c e i n both i t s subject content and the approach t o l e a r n i n g . I n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e appears b r i e f l y i n some parts o f the family studies course.  However, a  r e f l e c t i v e conception o f p r a c t i c e , although espoused by contemporary w r i t e r s i n curriculum and home economics, does not form a p a r t o f the school program.  -Ill-  Chapter Seven  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS.  This study examines the changing conceptions o f p r a c t i c e e x e m p l i f i e d by home economics education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As the development o f domestic science i n Canada begins i n the l a t e nineteenth century, understanding some o f the h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s helps c l a r i f y the conceptions o f p r a c t i c e embodied by the e a r l y curriculum and the subsequent changes i n b e l i e f s and i d e a l s which occurred as home economics became accepted as a school subject.  The idea o f s o c i a l reform features prominently i n the development o f domestic science. Thus, improving family c o n d i t i o n s , p r o v i d i n g new forms o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e , upholding the i d e a l o f v i r t u o u s womanhood, and t r a i n i n g domestic servants were a l l d i f f e r i n g forms o f response t o a changing Canadian scene. As an educational reform, domestic science represents change i n both the subject matter and the process o f schooling f o r the program was perceived by i t s advocates as f o s t e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between schooling and homes, and i n t r o d u c i n g a p r a c t i c a l component t o the school system. Examination o f the curriculum shows that domestic science used the process o f education as a means o f h e l p i n g f a m i l i e s , and women i n p a r t i c u l a r , adapt t o s o c i a l change.  -112Wornen's groups such as the N a t i o n a l Council o f Women, the Women's I n s t i t u t e , and the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union were s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n the generation o f domestic science i d e a l s . Each organization contributed t o the promotion o f the subject area as a means o f r e a l i z i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l platforms f o r the improvement i n the q u a l i t y o f Canadian l i f e . Education became the v e h i c l e by which t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n s could be e f f e c t e d . As the subject area o f domestic science professed t o focus upon the l i v e s o f f a m i l i e s , i t represented  a common ground through which a v a r i e t y o f i d e a l s could be  u n i t e d . Thus, the i n i t i a l conception o f p r a c t i c e i n domestic science r e f l e c t e d the b e l i e f s o f women who b e l i e v e d that change w i t h i n the educational system was a means o f i n f l u e n c i n g s o c i e t y .  Within education, domestic science found i t s support among those who advocated a system o f schooling more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o d a i l y l i f e . Some educators and members o f the p u b l i c considered that a p r a c t i c a l education would b e n e f i t c h i l d r e n i n a multitude o f ways.  Hence,  domestic science was included under the umbrella o f educational innovation that acknowledged the worth o f a l l forms o f manual t r a i n i n g - from k i t c h e n gardens, to woodwork, t o sewing and cooking.  Promotors  c a p i t a l i z e d on the b e l i e f that what was good f o r boys would a l s o be o f b e n e f i t f o r g i r l s . Yet c l e a r l y the i d e a l s sought by educational advocates d i f f e r e d from those pursued by women's organizations.  -113-  Evidence suggests that women who pioneered the cause o f t r a i n i n g i n domestic science saw the subject area as both a s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e i n Canadian s o c i e t y , and as a l e g i t i m a t e means o f extending t h e i r womanly influence beyond the family confines.  I n contrast t o those who  fought f o r equal s o c i e t a l r i g h t s , the maternal f e m i n i s t s assumed a more modest approach t o the achievement o f r i g h t s f o r women. As such they retained t h e i r concern f o r the family and sought t o e s t a b l i s h the home as each woman s realm and the mechanism through which her i n f l u e n c e 1  could best be extended t o other groups i n s o c i e t y . Feminists o f maternal pursuasion b e l i e v e d that by campaigning f o r needed reforms i n f a m i l i e s and homes, s o c i e t y i t s e l f could be u p l i f t e d .  Those who h e l d  such convictions perceived the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f domestic science as a v a l i d means o f promoting t h e i r cause.  This study has employed four conceptions o f p r a c t i c e , termed customary, instrumental, i n t e r a c t i v e and r e f l e c t i v e , t o examine the b e l i e f s and a c t i v i t i e s i n the home economics curriculum.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n shows that  i n i t s eighty-year h i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c schools, home economics education has been associated w i t h two o f the conceptions o f p r a c t i c e suggested by the framework.  Home economics i n i t i a l l y r e f l e c t s a customary form p r a c t i c e as i t conveys a t r a d i t i o n a l notion o f the c r a f t s and s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o the home. Students gain knowledge from the personal e x p e r t i s e o f t h e i r classroom teacher i n preparation f o r t h e i r future r o l e s as wives and  -114-  mothers.  E a r l y home e c o n o m i c s p r o g r a m s  stability  of  the  f o c u s on p r e s e r v i n g  f a m i l y by e q u a t i n g the  refinement  techniques w i t h u p h o l d i n g i t s moral framework. t h e c u r r i c u l u m does not  formalize women.  the  family c i r c l e .  skills  activities The  extended  e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m does  t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f home c a r e a s b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d b y  However,  expansion of  the v i s i o n of reformers  their  i d e a l s i s not  remains simply a v i s i o n ,  encouraged by  the k i n d s of  and a c t i v i t i e s taught i n domestic s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m s .  In  customary conception o f p r a c t i c e , i n s u l a t i o n from change, adjustment  F r o m 1926  and  In B r i t i s h Columbia  i n d i c a t e that student  c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g beyond  of  the  to  it,  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the e a r l y  for  knowledge  terms o f and  the  then  programs.  t o 1946 home e c o n o m i c s i s m o r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the  i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e . The m o r a l d i m e n s i o n s o  strongly  echoed by s o c i a l reformers  diminishes  as problems p e r t a i n i n g to methods o f  e a r l i e r i n the century gradually the  science. Learning  to preparation  for  the  family are interpreted for  future.  h e l p e r s ' i n domestic chores,  the present  Students  shopping,  curriculum following  i s emphasized,  are considered  contrast  Moreover,  and c o n t r o l l e d p r o c e s s .  than s e l f - s a c r i f i c e c h a r a c t e r i z e s  1925.  in  the  'mother's  and m i n d i n g c h i l d r e n .  l e a r n i n g i t s e l f b e c o m e s a more o r g a n i z e d Social efficiency rather  i n l i g h t of  the  -115-  Invescigar.ion of commitment  to  die contemporary  c u r r i c u l u m r e v e a l s an even  instrumental practice. Control  and the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the contemporary  aspects  curriculum.  related  Desire  to  for  of  for  and i n t h e k i n d s o f knowledge  problems.  The  c u r r i c u l a r examination  customary little  to an i n s t r u m e n t a l  form o f  used to  e c o n o m i c s has "become prevailed at  shows t h a t o n c e t h e  Though Brown's there  is little  comments  twentieth  that  i n t e r m s o f home e c o n o m i c s  Throughout  tenure  practice,  transformation  Students  These home  thought and a c t i o n  century" to  expertise  a  advocated.  (1984,  p.  that 51).  the American  scene, has  education.  i n s c h o o l s , p r i m a r i l y as an i n s t r u m e n t a l  their  from  completed  framework.  home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n h a s e n a b l e d s t u d e n t s  school l e v e l to r e f i n e  this  the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  been d i f f e r e n t  its  of  a r e made w i t h r e f e r e n c e  to suggest  the  family  also aligns  the p r o f e s s i o n of  frozen into patterns the  in  of  conceived  interpret  c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e was  recent claim that  the b e g i n n i n g o f  focus  practice.  P r a c t i c e remains p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n an i n s t r u m e n t a l confirm Brown's  the  t h e way a c t i v i t i e s a r e  movement o c c u r r e d i n t h e k i n d s o f p r a c t i c e b e i n g  findings  environment  the f a m i l y are  s t r e s s on e f f i c i e n c y and o b j e c t i v i t y  c u r r i c u l u m w i t h an i n s t r u m e n t a l  Thus,  t h e home  control is highlighted  organization students  the c u r r i c u l u m i t s e l f ,  of  stronger  i n a number o f  at  the  form  of  public  speciality  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n home e c o n o m i c s p r o g r a m s b e c o m e s k i l l e d  areas. in  -116food preparation, sewing and t e x t i l e s , f a m i l y studies and r e l a t e d forms o f career preparation. Thus, home economics education i s commended by some teachers i n f i e l d f o r s u s t a i n i n g i t s e f f o r t s to pursue only what i t knows how to do best. However, when the c u r r i c u l u m of schools i s i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the conceptions o f p r a c t i c e p o s s i b l e w i t h i n home economics, i t can been seen that commitment to a s i n g l e form o f p r a c t i c e can become both a r e s t r i c t i o n and a l i a b i l i t y .  Implications  Four major i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s e from t h i s study, regarding the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e i n school programs and the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s , and the h i s t o r i c a l examination o f women's r o l e i n the development of home economics.  1.  The c u r r i c u l u m of home economics f o r p u b l i c schools i n B r i t i s h  Columbia needs reexamination. I t appears that sometimes there are considerable gaps between the subject content, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and the purposes f o r which i t i s included'. As the t r a d i t i o n a l core o f the home economics c u r r i c u l u m focuses on the f a m i l y , t o i n t e r p r e t f a m i l y l i v i n g only through the instrumentalisra o f science ignores s i g n i f i c a n t dimensions of human experience p o s s i b l e w i t h i n other conceptions o f p r a c t i c e . Moreover, as one o f the conceptions of p r a c t i c e , science i t s e l f , must be a c c u r a t e l y portrayed so that students understand  how  -117-  theories are b u i l t and then c o n t i n u a l l y r e f i n e d through experimentation. Thus i n broadening the forms o f p r a c t i c e used t o i n t e r p r e t human experience c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n must be paid t o the way knowledge i s used i n the c u r r i c u l u m and how i t i s a p p l i e d i n classroom s i t u a t i o n s so that school programs provide a well-rounded understanding o f the family.  2.  Home economics students must be taught t o 'think' as w e l l as t o  'do.' As h i s t o r i c a l examination suggests that the problems o f f a m i l i e s have been o f t r a d i t i o n a l concern to home economics, the c u r r i c u l u m should encourage students t o approach problems through uncovering the d i v e r s i t y o f u n d e r l y i n g reasons which o f t e n c o n t r i b u t e t o a s i t u a t i o n . This means d i s c l o s i n g issues w i t h i n the t o p i c area, w r i t i n g c r i t i c a l reviews, r e f l e c t i n g and debating current issues r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y living.  A c t i v i t i e s t h e r e f o r e become t h o u g h t f u l extensions o f  c u r r i c u l a r t o p i c s r a t h e r than simply s k i l l mastery o f techniques r e l a t e d t o the t o p i c at hand. As home economics i s p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge, i n v o l v i n g students i n community a f f a i r s might be one way o f u s i n g new approaches t o family l i v i n g i n a r e a l i s t i c way.  3.  Home economics educators should d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o the h i s t o r i c a l  development o f t h e i r f i e l d .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between maternal feminism  and the e v o l u t i o n o f home economics has not been c a r e f u l l y examined. F i r s t , the gap between the i d e a l s o f maternal feminists who supported  -118the domestic science cause and the Implementation o f these i d e a l s a t the classroom l e v e l begs i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Second, the roots o f Canadian  home economics have been p r i m a r i l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t o f the work o f advocates such as Adelaide Hoodless, w h i l e others such as A l i c e Chown, who was much more r a d i c a l , have been neglected.  Therefore the  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f other i n d i v i d u a l s t o the development o f home economics needs t o be c l a r i f i e d as t h e i r w r i t i n g implies a broader v i s i o n o f the home and the r o l e o f women.  F i n a l l y , the part played by various  women's organizations i n the development o f home economics suggests that they acted as ' i n t e r e s t groups' whose pressures brought about many b e n e f i t s f o r women and c h i l d r e n , though they were without l e g a l o r p o l i t i c a l power.  The mechanisms which women employed t o pursue t h e i r  s o c i a l goals a l s o needs explanation.  4. Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be d i r e c t e d t o the study o f other h e l p i n g professions and the conceptions o f p r a c t i c e which have accompanied t h e i r e v o l u t i o n as f i e l d s o f study.  Understanding p r a c t i c e  associated w i t h r e l a t e d professions would c o n t r i b u t e t o making 'service' a more meaningful component f o r a l l f i e l d s dedicated toward h e l p i n g others.  -119-  Bibliography  Aberdeen, I . (1894). P r e s i d e n t i a l address. Proceedings o f the F i r s t Annual Meeting and Conference o f the N a t i o n a l Council o f Women o f Canada. Women workers o f Canada (pp. 1 0 - 1 4 ) . Ottawa, Ontario : Thoburn St Co. (1893, December 1 ) . Montreal D a i l y Herald Vancouver Council o f Women Papers, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . Apple, M. (1971) The hidden curriculum and the nature o f c o n f l i c t . Interchange 2_:4, 2 7 - 4 0 . (1975). 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Questions used f o r the d e s c r i p t i v e examination school curriculum.  A.  the  initial  Activities:  1.  What k i n d s o f  2.  How d o c l a s s members  3.  Do c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s h i g h l i g h t family?  4.  What r a t i o n a l e  B.  of  a c t i v i t i e s are emphasized participate  i s advanced  i n the  i n the  curriculum?  suggested  a particular  to j u s t i f y  activities?  focus upon  the  classroom a c t i v i t i e s ?  Knowledge:  1.  What k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e worth?  are p e r c e i v e d as having  2.  What a s s u m p t i o n s  3.  Who c o n t r o l s  C.  Relationships  1.  Do c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t  2.  Do t h e c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s e m p h a s i z e l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h e future, adaptation to the present, or preservation of the  about knowledge  t h e way k n o w l e d g e  and  and l e a r n i n g a r e  i s used i n the  most  advanced?  curriculum?  Patterns: curricular  3 . What k i n d s o f t e a c h e r / s t u d e n t curriculum foster?  relationships  4.  I n what ways i s a h o m e / s c h o o l learning activities?  relationship  5.  Is  there  the  an apparent  purposes?  does  the  supported by  sequencing o f knowledge  past?  the  and a c t i v i t i e s ?  

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