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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Changing conceptions of practice in home economics education Wilson, Susan Worth 1985

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CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PRACTICE IN HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION By SUSAN WORTH WILSON B.H.E., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction We. accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1985 * Susan Worth Wilson, 1985 J In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date J u ] y 1 8> 1 9 8 5 -DE-6 (3/81) i l Abstract This thesis investigates changes in the underlying pattern of beliefs and actions central to the development of home economics education. Examination of the hi s t o r i c a l context in which training in domestic matters became of public concern discloses the circumstances which fostered the genesis of domestic science, the forerunner of contemporary home economics in Canada. Subsequently, analysing the curriculum of B r i t i s h Columbia schools using the notion of practice illustrates the ways in which programs changed as home economics became accepted as a school subject. At the end of the nineteenth century social reformers perceived the introduction of domestic science as a means of ameliorating many social maladies. Therefore support for training in domestic matters primarily arose from organizations lying outside the school system. Though social and educational reformers viewed the purposes of domestic science differently, together they were successful i n promoting domestic science as a responsibility of public schools. Four interpretations of practice identified as customary, instrumental, interactive and reflective conceptions, help us to understand the documents and reports significant to the growth of home economics in i i i B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e s e c o n c e p t i o n s a r e r o o t e d i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f c r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s i n e d u c a t i o n a n d a r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o c l a r i f y t h e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e home e c o n o m i c s p r o g r a m c h a n g e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . A s a new s u b j e c t f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l s home e c o n o m i c s w a s m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c u s t o m a r y p r a c t i c e , w h i c h r e i n f o r c e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e x p e r t i s e o f women. T h e s t r o n g f r a m e w o r k o f s o c i a l p u r p o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e a r l y p r o g r a m s b o t h i n s u l a t e d f a m i l i e s f r o m p e r c e i v e d u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l d i s o r d e r a n d h e l p e d t h e m t o a d j u s t t o t h e c h a n g e s o f t h e e r a . A n a l y s i s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m s i n c e 1 9 2 6 r e v e a l s t h a t home e c o n o m i c s h a s b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e . W h i l e t h e 1 9 7 9 c u r r i c u l u m b e g i n s t o a c k n o w l e d g e i n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e i n t h e f a m i l y s t u d i e s a r e a , o v e r a l l t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s i s f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g rruman e x p e r i e n c e o n l y i n i n s t r u m e n t a l w a y s . T h e s t u d y makes c l e a r t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s t h e b e l i e f s a n d a c t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g s c h o o l p r o g r a m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c u s t o m a r y a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e r n s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f i n t e r a c t i v e a n d r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e . I f e d u c a t o r s a r e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e m i s s i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n , t h a t o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g f a m i l i e s b y h e l p i n g t h e m t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s , t h e n t h e r e i s n e e d f o r a b r o a d e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . i v Table of Contents Abstract i i L i s t of Diagrams v Acknowledgements v i 1 THE STUDY EXPLAINED 1 2 TOUCHING THE LIVES OF WOMEN: THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE 11 3 'IMPROVING THE PRESENT CONDITION': THE GROWTH OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 38 4 AN INTERPRETIVE FRAMEWORK FOR THE EXAMINATION OF PRACTICE 53 5 THE CURRICULUM OF HOME ECONOMICS: A DESCRIPTION OF CHANGE 74 6 CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PRACTICE IN HOME ECONOMICS 100 7 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS I l l BIBLIOGRAPHY 119 APPENDIX A: QUESTIONS USED FOR THE DESCRIPTIVE EXAMINATION OF THE INITIAL SCHOOL OJRRICULUM 128 V Diagram 1. A Theoretic Framework for the Examination of Practice p. 59 # v i Acknowledgements This thesis would never have been written without the help of a number of people, each important i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Dr. George Tomkins, the l a t e Chairman of my thesis committee, has been a strong influence throughout ray graduate program. An outstanding scholar and a thorough teacher, George generously shared h i s knowledge and time i n spite oE i l l health. I n i t i a l l y , h i s guidance encouraged me to examine the roots of home economics as a f i e l d of study. Dr. N e i l Sutherland continually sharpened my thinking by asking challenging questions throughout the w r i t i n g and f i n a l d e t a i l s of the thesis. I am now keenly aware of how much there i s yet to uncover i n terms of h i s t o r i c a l research related to the development of home economics. Dr. Eleanore Vaines Chamberlain w i l l i n g l y shared her fine resources related to home economics, and has been a great source of encouragement. I am indebted to her for the many hours of stimulating discussion as the thesis developed. F i n a l l y , I doubt my program would have been completed without the understanding and patience of my husband, Don. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y grateEul for his strong support during the l a s t few months of work. -1-Chapter One THE STUDY EXPLAINED. Introduceion Two related concerns provided the stimulus for examining the nature of home economics within the context of schooling. The f i r s t was a personal belief that home economics as taught in today's schools has a potential that is frequently u n f u l f i l l e d . Recent public debate regarding what should be taught in schools has strengthened this conviction. The second concern stems from the lack of research pertaining to the development of the f i e l d of home economics. Although there i s extensive documentation of research related to procedures for practical training i n various specialties within the f i e l d , there i s limited discussion of the reasons underlying the practices advocated by the profession. Home economics education i n Canada emerged in response to the changing circumstances of family l i f e near the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. Investigation of the relationship between h i s t o r i c a l documents and curricular materials provides insights into beliefs about the role of women in society, the - 2 -a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h l e d t o new s e r v i c e s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e l i v e s o f f a m i l i e s , a n d t h e w a y s i n w h i c h c o n c e r n f o r E a m i l i e s b e c a m e a m a t t e r o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . I n t h e c a s e o f home e c o n o m i c s , a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s r e v e a l s t h e i n f l u e n c e s b r o u g h t t o b e a r o n s c h o o l s t o a s s u m e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g y o u n g women i n d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s . Home e c o n o m i c s i s o n e o f a n u m b e r o f f i e l d s o f s t u d y w h i c h h a v e f o c u s s e d o n t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n . C o l l e c t i v e l y s u c h f i e l d s a s s o c i a l s e r v i c e , p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d e d u c a t i o n h a v e b e c o m e k n o w n a s t h e ' h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s ' . K i e r e n , V a i n e s a n d B a d i r ( 1 9 8 4 ) e x p l a i n t h a t t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s s h a r e t h e i d e a l o f human s e r v i c e , t h o u g h t h e k i n d s o f s e r v i c e s t h e y o f f e r d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y . C o m b s , A v i l a a n d P u r k e y ( 1 9 7 2 ) s u g g e s t t h a t , h i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d b y t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n s w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s , w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d w i d e a n d c o m p l e x a r e a s o f s o c i a l a n d m o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e p u r p o s e s f o r t e a c h i n g d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c h a n g e d a s home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n e v o l v e d a s a f o r m o f s c h o o l i n g . R e v i s i o n s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m r e f l e c t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f b e l i e f s a n d a c t i o n s w h i c h f o r m e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . T h e s e c h a n g e s f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d t h e n a t u r e o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h i t was i n t e n d e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e m o s t w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d a v e n u e o f i n f l u e n c e o f home e c o n o m i c s h a s b e e n t h e m e d i u m o f e d u c a t i o n . W h i l e i n i t i a l l y e d u c a t i o n -3-i n domestic a f f a i r s sometimes took place through, the auspices of various service organizations, i t has primarily occurred through the tra i n i n g of young women i n the public schools. An examination of subject content and the methods of teaching used i n classrooms reveals the way knowledge influenced students and illuminates the purposes school programs served. Exploring the early school curriculum therefore t e l l s a great deal about the b e l i e f s which stimulated the introduction of home economics as wel l as the underlying structure of the programs offered i n schools today. Purpose of the Study. A b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l examination at both the national and p r o v i n c i a l levels sets the context from which home economics education evolved. While focussing on B r i t i s h Columbia, the study examines the b e l i e f s and ideas which formed the i n i t i a l conception of practice associated with home economics education. Subsequently, changes i n the o r i g i n a l conception of practice are examined through the growth of home economics education during l a t e r time periods within the province. The study w i l l answer these questions: 1. From what assumptions did the i n i t i a l conception of practice i n home economics education arise? 2. How have the conceptions of practice been portrayed i n the school curriculum? 3. In what ways have the conceptions of practice changed over time as shown i n the school curriculum? A framework i l l u s t r a t i n g four conceptions of practice i s used to convey the ways i n which home economics programs changed over time. The term 'conception of practice' refers to such e x p l i c i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a school program as subject matter, learning a c t i v i t i e s ,teaching methods and the b e l i e f s which underly a p a r t i c u l a r way of constructing a curriculum. Using conceptions of practice to portray changes i n home economics education i s appropriate for three reasons. F i r s t , home economics provides service to society primarily through using knowledge i n p r a c t i c a l ways. Second, the p r a c t i c a l application of knowledge i s a dominant theme throughout the evolution of home economics as a profession. Therefore, changes i n the way problems are interpreted and resolved can be determined from the examination of relevant materials. -5-F i n a l l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e f i e l d e x p l i c i t l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h e n e e d f o r a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b a s i s o n w h i c h t h e p r o f e s s i o n h a s d e v e l o p e d ( Q u i l l i n g , 1 9 7 0 ; B r o w n a n d P a o l u c c i , 1 9 7 9 ; V i n c e n t ! , 1 9 8 1 ) . M e t h o d o f t h e S t u d y . 1 . A H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e p a s t t o e n r i c h t h e p r e s e n t w a s e x p r e s s e d i n 1 9 0 2 b y A l i c e C h o w n , F i e l d S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H o u s e h o l d E c o n o m i c A s s o c i a t i o n i n K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o . T h e r e i s e b b a n d f l o w o f t h e g r e a t t i d e o f human l i f e , a c t i o n a n d r e a c t i o n t h a t e m p h a s i z e s f i r s t o n e p h a s e a n d a n o t h e r , b u t t h e r e i s u n i t y o f s p i r i t w h i c h b i n d s p a s t , p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e i n t o o n e . E v e r y c r i s i s i n h i s t o r y h a s come f r o m t h e e f f o r t o f a p e o p l e t o embody some h i g h e r c o n c e p t i o n , e v e r y g r e a t movement o f t h o u g h t l i a s h a d f o r i t s i n i t i a t i v e new r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f h u m a n i t y . ( 1 9 0 2 , p . 3 1 ) C h o w n ' s s t a t e m e n t a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f a f i e l d o f s t u d y i n d e t e r m i n i n g i t s f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s . I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t h a t s u c h comments w e r e made b e f o r e d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e h a d b e e n i n t r o d u c e d t o m o s t C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s . H o w e v e r , C h o w n * s c o n c e r n f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s l i a s b e e n n e g l e c t e d b y s u c c e e d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s , f o r h i s t o r i c a l w o r k r e l a t e d t o home e c o n o m i c s i n C a n a d a l i a s b e e n c o n f i n e d t o t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l - 6 -e x a m i n a t i o n o f e v e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f i e l d . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e g r o w t h o f i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e h a s b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d b y R o w l e s ( 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 6 4 ) . T h e r e i s a l s o r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a s a s c h o o l s u b j e c t w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s , s u c h a s a t h e s i s b y C h e s t n u t t ( 1 9 7 5 ) r e l a t e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r s b y C a m p b e l l ( 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 7 ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o . W h i l e t h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l a c c o u n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n , t h e y p r o v i d e l i t t l e i n s i g h t a s t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g i t s g r o w t h . T h i s s t u d y u s e s h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f home e c o n o m i c s t o p r o v i d e t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t e x a m i n a t i o n o f e a r l y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . T h u s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n b u i l d s o n p r i o r w o r k t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d . 2 . T h e S e l e c t i o n o f C u r r i c u l a r I t o a j m e n t s . C u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y a r e p r i m a r i l y t h o s e f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e y r e p r e s e n t t h r e e p e r i o d s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e g r o w t h o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 0 0 t o 1 9 2 5 c o v e r s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s t o c l a s s r o o m s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , f r o m t h e f i r s t c l a s s e s h e l d i n - 7 -V i c t o r i a u n t i l t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e P u t m a n - W e i r S u r v e y o f t h e S c h o o l  S y s t e m i n 1 9 2 5 . Few c u r r i c u l a r d o c u m e n t s s u r v i v e f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t y e a r s , b u t t h o s e t h a t d o s u g g e s t t h e n a t u r e o f e a r l y s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . T h e t e x t , P u b l i c S c h o o l D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e ( 1 8 9 8 ) i s a l s o i n c l u d e d a s a p a r t o f t h e i n i t i a l p h a s e o f c u r r i c u l a r a n a l y s i s . I t s i n c l u s i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e i d e a s o f A d e l a i d e H o o d l e s s i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e i n C a n a d a , a n d h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f e a r l y t e a c h e r s o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , some o f whom w e r e e m p l o y e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n . T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e P u t m a n - W e i r S u r v e y c h a n g e d b o t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d d i r e c t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s . T h u s , t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d r e l a t e d d o c u m e n t s f o l l o w i n g 1 9 2 5 a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e c o n d p e r i o d o f a n a l y s i s . A s l i t t l e c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n o c c u r r e d d u r i n g W o r l d W a r I I , 1 9 4 6 i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e e n d o f t h e s e c o n d p h a s e . T h e f i n a l d o c u m e n t u s e d i n t h e s t u d y i s t h e 1 9 7 9 c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e c u r r i c u l u m f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o u t l i n e s i n d e t a i l e d f a s h i o n t h e o b j e c t i v e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e i m p o r t a n t i n t o d a y ' s home e c o n o m i c s c l a s s r o o m s . T h u s , t h e n a t u r e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p r a c t i c e f o r m s t h e l a s t p h a s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l a r a n a l y s i s . - 8 -3 . A F r a m e w o r k o f P r a c t i c e f o r C u r r i c u l a r A n a l y s i s . T h e s t u d y e m p l o y s a f r a m e w o r k o f p r a c t i c e i n t e r p r e t e d b y W i l s o n a n d V a i n e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) t o a n a l y s e t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f home e c o n o m i c s . C o m p a r i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e o u t l i n e d i n t h e f r a m e w o r k p o r t r a y s t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d a s home e c o n o m i c s g a i n e d a p l a c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . A s t h e b e l i e f s w h i c h i n i t i a t e d home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , c u r r i c u l a r d o c u m e n t s f r o m t h e i n i t i a l p h a s e a r e e x a m i n e d i n t e r r a s o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h r e e a s p e c t s o f c l a s s r o o m w o r k : t h e r a t i o n a l e u p o n w h i c h t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s b a s e d ; t h e a s s u m p t i o n s made a b o u t l e a r n i n g a n d a c t i v i t y ; a n d t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e c u r r i c u l u m r e f l e c t s t h e o v e r a l l m i s s i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s . T h e c u r r i c u l u m f r o m e a c h p e r i o d i s s u b s e q u e n t l y a n a l y s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e o u t l i n e d i n t h e f r a m e w o r k . T h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e f o u r c o n c e p t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c h a n g e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n o v e r t i m e . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s r e p o r t e d i n t e r m s o f t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r m s o f a b s o l u t e s i m i l a r i t i e s . - 9 -4. Limitations of the Study. The following five factors limit this study: i . The materials are examined in terms of three time periods representing significant stages in the growth of B r i t i s h Columbia home economics education. The i n i t i a l stage represents the introduction of domestic science to the school system; the second period reflects home economics education as an integral part of the education system of the province; and the f i n a l stage exemplifies home economics as i t i s currently taught within the public school system. i i . Early curricular documents have not been systematically collected as h i s t o r i c a l records. However, the consistency shown by the documents located for this study suggests that they accurately represent the focus of the time periods being studied. i i i . The study assumes a hi s t o r i c a l perspective i n order to provide a context for understanding the selected curricular documents. Its purpose i s to il l u s t r a t e that differing conceptions of practice have formed a part of home economics education, and that they reflect changing beliefs and assumptions. - 1 0 -iv. School reports and curricular materials rather than classroom observation form the basis of the analysis of practice. It i s assumed that the selected documents accurately portray the beliefs and understandings of those involved in the construction of programs in home economics education. v. Historical examination suggests that the major thrust of education in domestic matters was through manual training programs established in public schools. The investigation of practice is therefore confined to this aspect. It does not consider the generation of technical training or industrial training which were related, but were established for different educational purposes. - 1 1 -Chapter Two TOUCHING THE LIVES OF WOMEN: THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE. This chapter explores the Canadian h i s t o r i c a l context i n which domestic education for women developed. I n i t i a l l y , the chapter emphasizes s o c i e t a l changes during the l a t e nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. P a r t i c u l a r attention i s directed toward the impact of such changes on women and families. The l a t t e r part of the chapter compares two s o c i a l perspectives that promoted the genesis of domestic science. The f i r s t came from women who v i s u a l i z e d the home both as a protective haven to insulate families from unwelcome change, and as a centre of opportunity from which t h e i r influence could spread. The second viewpoint was expressed by advocates of the manual t r a i n i n g movement designed to change the process of schooling. These reformers saw new forms of education as f i t t i n g school children to the new ways of l i f e . Training i n domestic a f f a i r s was i n i t i a l l y c a l l e d 'domestic science' -a l a b e l which stressed the relationship between s c i e n t i f i c understanding and domestic matters. As the f i e l d of study broadened, domestic science became known under a v a r i e t y of t i t l e s such as 'domestic economy' and 'household economy'which re f l e c t e d the concerns of i n d u s t r i a l management. Eventually i t was l a b e l l e d as home economics - 1 2 -t h o u g h , e v e n t o d a y t h e r e i s c o n t r o v e r s y a s t o t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s l a b e l . T h e t e r m ' d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g ' p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e s t o t h e t r a i n i n g o f h o u s e h o l d h e l p i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f d o m e s t i c c h o r e s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e r m d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e r e f e r s t o t h o s e p r o g r a m s w h i c h w e r e o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r C a n a d i a n women; t h e t e r m home e c o n o m i c s d e s i g n a t e s l a t e r p r o g r a m s o f a n e x p a n d e d n a t u r e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s r e f e r e n c e t o some f o r m s o f d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g i n C a n a d a a s e a r l y a s t h e F r e n c h r e g i m e , t h e s e r e p r e s e n t i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s o f p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d b y t h e J e s u i t s c h o o l s ( J o u r n a l o f Home E c o n o m i c s , 1 9 1 0 ) . F o r m o s t g i r l s o f m i d - 1 9 t h c e n t u r y f a m i l i e s , t r a i n i n g i n d o m e s t i c m a t t e r s t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n t h e home t h r o u g h a n i n f o r m a l n e t w o r k o f s h a r e d c r a f t s a n d s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l f o r f a m i l y s u r v i v a l a n d c o m f o r t . T h e e s s e n c e o f t h i s p e r i o d i n C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y i s c a p t u r e d b y S t a m p ' s comment t h a t " . . . h o m e , c h u r c h a n d v i l l a g e w e r e t h e c e n t e r s o f l i f e f o r m o s t p e o p l e . " ( 1 9 7 0 a . p . 2 9 1 ) . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s s y s t e m o f s c h o o l i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i s a t t r i b u t e d i n l a r g e p a r t t o t h e w o r k o f E g e r t o n R y e r s o n , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n f o r U p p e r C a n a d a f r o m 1 8 4 6 t o 1 8 7 6 . R y e r s o n ' s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a u n i v e r s a l s y s t e m o f s c h o o l i n g o p e n e d t h e s c h o o l r o o m d o o r n o t o n l y t o f a r m e r ' s s o n s , b u t a l s o t o ' f e m a l e s g e n e r a l l y ' . H i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s e n h a n c e d m o r a l g r o w t h - 1 3 -a s w e l l a s m e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e , l e d t o t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f r o m o n e w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l l y e m p h a s i z e d t h e t h r e e R ' s t o o n e w h i c h i n c l u d e d a g r i c u l t u r e , l i n e a r d r a w i n g a n d m u s i c . T h i s f o r e s h a d o w e d a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c h o o l i n g a n d d a i l y l i f e . R y e r s o n a l s o s t r e s s e d a n o n - s e c t a r i a n s y s t e m o f t r u t h a n d m o r a l s i n a n e f f o r t t o b r i d g e t h e s t r o n g d e n o m i n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d i n many o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s o f U p p e r C a n a d a . A t t h e same t i m e t h e s t r o n g m o r a l f r a m e w o r k t r i e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e e x p o s e d t o t h e r i g h t k i n d s o f m o r a l i n f l u e n c e s . T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s l e d t o some c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a f o r m e r l y d i v e r s e s y s t e m o f s c h o o l s . T h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s a l s o p r o v i d e d a d e f i n i t e s t r u c t u r e f r o m w h i c h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m c o u l d e x p a n d a n d d e v e l o p ( M c N e i l l , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e s m a l l c o m p e n d i u m o f i n f o r m a t i o n t i t l e d F i r s t L e s s o n s i n A g r i c u l t u r e o f C a n a d i a n F a r m e r s a n d T h e i r F a m i l i e s , w r i t t e n b y R y e r s o n ( 1 8 7 0 ) i s t h e e a r l i e s t C a n a d i a n r e f e r e n c e t h a t h a s b e e n l o c a t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . L e s s o n X X X V T I I o n H o u s e h o l d E c o n o m y , w r i t t e n f o r f a r m e r s ' w i v e s a n d d a u g h t e r s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r women w a s i m p o r t a n t f o r i t s e n h a n c e m e n t o f t h e q u a l i t y o f f a m i l y l i f e . B y f a r t h e g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f h a p p i n e s s i n c i v i l i z e d l i f e i s f o u n d i n d o m e s t i c r e l a t i o n s ; a n d m o s t o f t h i s d e p e n d s u p o n t h e d o m e s t i c c u l t u r e a n d t h e h a b i t s o f t h e w i f e a n d m o t h e r . L e t h e r b e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y e d u c a t e d a s h i g h l y a s p o s s i b l e ; l e t h e r m o r a l a n d s o c i a l n a t u r e r e c e i v e t h e h i g h e s t g r a c e s o f v i g o r a n d r e f i n e m e n t ; b u t a l o n g w i t h t h e s e , l e t t h e d o m e s t i c v i r t u e s f i n d a m p l e p l a c e . ( R y e r s o n , 1 8 7 0 , p . 1 7 3 ) . - 1 4 -T h e r e m a i n d e r o f L e s s o n X X X V T I I s t r e s s e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o r r e c t l y m a n a g i n g a h o m e ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n g o o d h e a l t h a n d v i r t u o u s l i v i n g ; a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d o m e s t i c p i e t y i n u p l i f t i n g t h e s p i r i t o f t h e f a m i l y , n o t o n l y f o r p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s b u t a l s o t o e n s u r e s a l v a t i o n . P a r v i n ( 1 9 6 5 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t R y e r s o n ' s b o o k w a s a n a u t h o r i z e d t e x t f o r O n t a r i o f r o m 1 8 7 0 - 1 8 7 7 . I n c l a s s e s w h e r e a f e m a l e t e a c h e r w a s a v a i l a b l e , i t w a s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t i t b e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r E u c l i d , f o r g i r l s i n t h e f i f t h a n d s i x t h c l a s s e s ( C a m p b e l l , 1 9 7 7 ) . H o w e v e r , n o w h e r e i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n made t h a t t h e p r a c t i c a l e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d b e c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h o u g h R y e r s o n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s may h a v e p r e p a r e d t h e g r o u n d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a s a s c h o o l s u b j e c t , i t t o o k t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a g e t o b r i n g s u c h i d e a s t o f r u i t i o n . A n E r a o f C h a n g e B y t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s p r o f o u n d e c o n o m i c , t e c h n o l o g i c a l a n d d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s w e r e o c c u r r i n g i n C a n a d i a n l i f e . T h e s e t o u c h e d a n d s h a p e d t h e l i v e s o f C a n a d i a n women j u s t a s s u r e l y a s t h e y t r a n s f o r m e d t h e C a n a d i a n l a n d s c a p e . W h i l e t h e e v e n t s a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e e x a m i n e d i n i s o l a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y , i t s h o u l d b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t i n r e a l i t y t h e r e s u l t i n g p r e s s u r e s w e r e o v e r l a p p i n g - e a c h c o m p o u n d i n g o r c o u n t e r a c t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e o t h e r . - 1 5 -' H i g h B u i l t F a c t o r i e s a n d T i t a n i c M i l l s ' . T h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y w a s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p e r i o d o f s t r o n g i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h a n d e c o n o m i c p r o s p e r i t y . C a n a d a ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e b a s e e x p a n d e d f r o m f u r t r a d i n g a n d t h e g r o w i n g o f g r a i n , t o o n e w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f f r u i t a n d v e g e t a b l e s , r a i s i n g s t o c k a n d f e e d , a n d d a i r y i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , r o i n e r a l a n d f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s b e c a m e r e c o g n i z e d a s i m p o r t a n t a n d a b u n d a n t a s s e t s . S e t t l e m e n t o f t h e W e s t i n c r e a s e d t h e demand f o r g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s , w h i l e t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y g a v e W e s t e r n s e t t l e r s a c c e s s t o g o o d s m a n u f a c t u r e d i n E a s t e r n m a r k e t s . T h e i n f l u x o f i m m i g r a n t s t h r o u g h o u t C a n a d a f o s t e r e d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h b y s u p p l y i n g c h e a p l a b o u r f o r f a r m s a n d f a c t o r i e s . R e c i p r o c a l l y , a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e d t h e e c o n o m y t o p r o d u c e m o r e g o o d s , a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g s u r g e d a s a s t r o n g c o m p o n e n t o f C a n a d i a n l i f e . E v e n t h o u g h i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h m e a n t i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e r i t y f o r many f a m i l i e s i t b r o u g h t a b o u t some c h a n g e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y u n i t w h i c h c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n among w o m e n . F a m i l i e s o f t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y s a w t h e ' w o r l d o f w o r k ' b e c o m e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e w o r k w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y u n i t . P a i d w o r k m e a n t t h a t f a m i l i e s b e c a m e c o n s u m e r s r a t h e r t h a n p r o d u c e r s . I t a l s o m e a n t t h a t home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s u m e d b y women. H o w e v e r , t a s k s r e l a t e d t o t h e f a m i l y d i d n o t h a v e c a s h v a l u e a n d t h e r e f o r e w e r e f r e q u e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t o b e - 1 6 -a l e s s e r f o r m o f l a b o r . V i n c e n t ! ( 1 9 8 3 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n r o l e b o t h i d e a l i z e d a n d d e n i g r a t e d w o m e n ' s w o r k , f o r a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e d o m e s t i c i d e a l w a s b e i n g p o r t r a y e d a s a w o r t h y p u r s u i t , w o r k w i t h i n t h e home w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a l e s s e r f o r m o f l a b o r . B u n k l e ( 1 9 7 4 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s t h e home a n d w o r k p l a c e b e c a m e d e f i n e d a s s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s , t h e p a t t e r n o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a d u l t h o o d f o r m e r l y a s s u m e d b y t h e f a m i l y w a s a l t e r e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e f a m i l y c o u l d n o l o n g e r f u n c t i o n a s t h e s o l e a g e n t o f e d u c a t i o n . M a n y e d u c a t o r s , among t h e m R i c h a r d H a r c o u r t , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , e x p r e s s e d d i s m a y a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t b y i n d u s t r i a l i s m . I n many homes t h e f a m i l i a r c h o r e s o f a f o r m e r g e n e r a t i o n a r e n o t t o b e f o u n d . C i t y homes a r e n o l o n g e r a b l e t o f u r n i s h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r m a n u a l t r a i n i n g , a n d t h e r e f o r e i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e c o u n t r y b o y h a s a d v a n t a g e s n o t p o s s e s s e d b y t h e c i t y y o u t h . ( H a r c o u r t , 1 9 0 4 , p . x x x ) . T h e s c h o o l w a s c l e a r l y t o a s s u m e some o f a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l i n g w h i c h f o r m e r l y o c c u r r e d i n t h e f a m i l y . T h e l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g a t h o m e , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e r i s i n g s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g m e a n t t h a t m o r e f a m i l i e s c o u l d a f f o r d t o -17-m a i n t a i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l s f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s . E d u c a t o r s w e r e p r e s s u r e d t o p r o v i d e a b r o a d e r c u r r i c u l u m t o s u i t t h e n e e d s o f a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f c h i l d r e n . S c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t s s w e l l e d , n o d o u b t p a r t l y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e a c c o r d e d e d u c a t i o n b u t a l s o , f o r some f a m i l i e s , s i m p l y b e c a u s e a t t e n d a n c e w a s l e g i s l a t e d . T h e n u m b e r s i n e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a c r o s s C a n a d a ' m o r e t h a n d o u b l e d ' f r o m 9 4 2 , 0 0 0 t o 1 , 9 3 9 , 7 0 0 b e t w e e n 1891 a n d 1 9 2 3 . W h i l e t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r o f s c h o o l s t u d e n t s r e f l e c t e d a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n , i t a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t l a r g e r n u m b e r s o f s t u d e n t s w e r e s t a y i n g i n s c h o o l f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s . M o r e o v e r , a s t h o s e w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m w o r k e d t o u p g r a d e t h e s t a n d a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s , t h e p r o c e s s o f s c h o o l i n g i t s e l f b e c a m e m o r e a t t r a c t i v e t o s t u d e n t s . B y t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y f a c t o r i e s a s s u m e d many m a n u f a c t u r i n g f u n c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e h o m e . Among p o o r e r u r b a n f a m i l i e s , women a n d c h i l d r e n w e r e o f t e n p r e s s e d i n t o t h e p a i d l a b o r f o r c e t o s e c u r e f u n d s t o p u r c h a s e n e e d e d g o o d s . T o b e s u r e , a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f women s t i l l r e m a i n e d a t h o m e . F o r t h e s e w i v e s a n d m o t h e r s t h e s h i f t f r o m t h e f a m i l y a s t h e c e n t r e o f p r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f a m i l y a s t h e c o n s u m e r o f f a c t o r y - m a d e i t e m s u n d e r s c o r e d t h e n e e d f o r a m o r e s t r u c t u r e d a p p r o a c h t o h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s . W h i l e t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n r e l i e v e d women o f many h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s , t h e i r m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n b e c a m e o f i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e a s m a r k e t i n g , - 1 8 -b u d g e t i n g , e f f i c i e n c y a n d f o r t h e more a f f l u e n t , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h o u s e h o l d h e l p a s s u m e d more o f t h e i r t i m e . T h e p r o c e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was d e p e n d e n t u p o n w o r k e r s who w e r e " a s s k i l l e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c a l l i n g s a s t h o s e w i t h whom t h e y h a v e t o c o m p e t e " ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e R e l a t i o n s o f C a p i t a l a n d L a b o r i n C a n a d a , R e p o r t . 1 8 8 9 , 1 , p p . 1 1 9 ) . T r a d e s m e n , a s w e l l a s women i n t h e l a b o r m a r k e t , w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l n e e d s o f s o c i e t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many a r g u e d f o r s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h s t r e s s e d b a s i c l i t e r a c y , b u t a l s o o n e w h i c h was r e l e v a n t t o t h e e v e r y d a y w o r l d . T h e c o n c e p t o f a ' p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l ' e d u c a t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t t o o n e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d f o s t e r i n g ' m e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e ' b e c a m e a n i s s u e w h i c h w a s h o t l y d e b a t e d a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s . T h e f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e w i s d o m o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g ' p r a c t i c a l ' e l e m e n t s c a u s e d m u c h o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n a l l i t s f o r m s , i n t o t h e s y s t e m o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . 'Home L i f e i s t h e H e a r t o f t h e N a t i o n ' I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n h a d a s t r o n g i m p a c t o n C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s , b u t t h e number o f i m m i g r a n t s a t t r a c t e d t o a new a n d g r o w i n g c o u n t r y w a s a l s o a p o t e n t i n f l u e n c e . S u c c e e d i n g w a v e s o f i m m i g r a n t s a r r i v e d i n s u c h p r o f u s i o n t h a t i n t h e t w e n t y y e a r s p r i o r t o W o r l d W a r I , o v e r o n e m i l l i o n p e o p l e f r o m C o n t i n e n t a l E u r o p e c h o s e t o s e t t l e i n C a n a d a . W h i l e t h e b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o f t h e n a t i o n w e r e b e l i e v e d t o b e i t s p e o p l e , - 1 9 -s t r o n g o p i n i o n s w e r e e x p r e s s e d b y t h o s e a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n C a n a d a t h a t i t s h o u l d b e t h e r i g h t k i n d o f p e o p l e . S u s p i c i o n a n d f e a r o f ' a l i e n c u l t u r e s ' c o u p l e d w i t h a f a l l i n g b i r t h r a t e among t h o s e o f B r i t i s h d e s c e n t c o n t r i b u t e d t o f e a r s t h a t t h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e B r i t i s h r a c e m i g h t d i m i n i s h . C o n c e r n f o r c u l t u r a l a n d s o c i a l d e g e n e r a t i o n f u e l l e d e n t h u s i a s m f o r s o c i a l r e f o r m . One s o l u t i o n t o t h e ' i m m i g r a n t p r o b l e m ' w a s p r o v i d e d b y t h e s c h o o l s , f o r t h e C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m e s p o u s e d a s i n g l e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y ( s t r o n g l y f l a v o r e d w i t h B r i t i s h s e n t i m e n t s ) a n d s t a n d a r d s o f m o r a l b e h a v i o r e s t a b l i s h e d b y E g e r t o n R y e r s o n . S u t h e r l a n d ( 1 9 7 6 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l m o s a i c w a s n o t a p a r t o f t h e f u t u r e v i s u a l i z e d b y many C a n a d i a n s . F r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s s c h o o l w a s d i e i d e a l v e h i c l e t h r o u g h w h i c h d i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d b e e l i m i n a t e d , a s m i n o r i t y g r o u p s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o b e h a v e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n o r m s o f t h e m a j o r i t y ( T o m k i n s , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h u s , w h i l e s c h o o l i n g i n t r o d u c e d i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n , a n d i n d i r e c t l y t h e i r f a m i l i e s , i n t o t h e w a y s o f t h e i r new c o m m u n i t i e s , i t was a l s o a means o f r e m a k i n g f o r e i g n e r s t o s u i t a n a c c e p t a b l e C a n a d i a n i m a g e . T h e f a c t t h a t s o m e t i m e s i m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s w e r e r e l u c t a n t t o a b a n d o n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l w a y s , c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e s c h o o l ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n f o r g i n g a new C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y . T h e p r e s e n c e o f l a r g e n u m b e r s o f i m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s a f f e c t e d s o c i e t y i n a n u m b e r o f w a y s . A c c o r d i n g t o L a d y A b e r d e e n , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e - 2 0 -N a t t o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women, women h a d a n i n f l u e n c e i n ' b i n d i n g s t r a n g e r s t o g e t h e r 1 s o a s t o m o l d t h e d e s t i n y o f t h e n a t i o n (NCWC, 1 8 9 4 , p . 1 2 ) . W o m e n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o n a t i o n b u i l d i n g t h e r e f o r e l a y n o t o n l y w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y c i r c l e b u t a l s o b e y o n d t h e home g a t e . S m a l l e r f a m i l i e s , g r e a t e r f r e e d o m f r o m d o m e s t i c t a s k s a n d i n c r e a s e d a f f l u e n c e c r e a t e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r u p p e r c l a s s women t o c u l t i v a t e i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e t h e h o m e . F o r t h o s e who w e r e m o t i v a t e d , r e f o r m a r i s i n g f r o m w o r t h y c o n v i c t i o n s was a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e means o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . S u c h w o r k e m p h a s i z e d t h e i d e a l o f t h e f a m i l y a s t h e c e n t r e o f s t r e n g t h f o r t h e n a t i o n . M a n y women s u c h a s L i l l i a n M a s s e y , a s t a u n c h a d v o c a t e o f d o m e s t i c r e f o r m , b e l i e v e d t h a t " w h e n h o m e s w e r e i d e a l , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c e v i l s w o u l d d i s a p p e a r " ( c i t e d i n R o b e r t s , 1 9 7 9 , p . 2 2 . ) . T h e i n f l u x o f i m m i g r a n t s a l s o p r o v i d e d a r e a d y s u p p l y o f d o m e s t i c l a b o u r . F o r women o f t h e m i d d l e a n d u p p e r c l a s s , h o u s e h o l d h e l p m e a n t f r e e d o m f r o m d o m e s t i c c h o r e s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e t i m e t o p u r s u e s o c i a l c a u s e s . Y e t , t h e p r e s e n c e o f d o m e s t i c h e l p h i g h l i g h t e d b o t h t h e m y r i a d o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s c o n f r o n t i n g i m m i g r a n t s a s w e l l a s t h e d i s p a r i t i e s among C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s . K e a l e y p o i n t s o u t t h a t " O n c e t h e a r g u m e n t f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e r a i s e d , p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s b e c a m e r e f o r m e r s " ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 2 ) . Among t h e s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d w e r e h o u s e h o l d t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s , s u p p o r t e d b y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e YWCA a n d t h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e , c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e a p p a r e n t p u r p o s e o f u p g r a d i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e f o r n e e d y f a m i l i e s . - 2 1 -R o w l e s t e l l s u s t h a t t h e d a u g h t e r s o f i m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s w e l c o m e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o " w o r k f o r C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s i n o r d e r t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e C a n a d i a n w a y o f l i f e " ( 1 9 5 6 , p . 1 8 8 ) . H e r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t h o m e r a a k i n g c l a s s e s w e r e w e l l - r e c e i v e d h a s some h i s t o r i c a l s u p p o r t . F o r e x a m p l e , i n 1911 a r u r a l O n t a r i o d e m o n s t r a t i o n - l e c t u r e c o u r s e i n H o u s e h o l d S u b j e c t s , f i n a n c e d b y t h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e , h a d a t o t a l a t t e n d a n c e o f 3 , 1 5 4 women ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g a n d T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 1 3 , s e s s i o n a l p a p e r 1 9 1 d , p . 3 6 8 ) . T h e a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e w a s a c h i e v e d i n s p i t e o f b a d r o a d s a n d b a d w e a t h e r d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s . T h e r e i s h o w e v e r , a s e c o n d s i d e t o t h e i s s u e o f h o m e r a a k i n g c l a s s e s . S u p p o r t f o r t h e i d e a o f h o u s e h o l d t r a i n i n g f r o m t h i s v i e w p o i n t s h o w s t h a t some o f i t s a d v o c a t e s w e r e m o t i v a t e d b y s e l f - i n t e r e s t r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l r e f o r m . C l e a r l y t h e t e a c h i n g o f h o m e m a k i n g s k i l l s w a s a l s o a means o f e n s u r i n g a t r a i n e d b o d y o f d o m e s t i c h e l p f o r e s t a b l i s h e d h o u s e h o l d s . S u c h women w a n t e d a s s i s t a n c e w i t h c l e a n i n g , c o o k i n g , a n d c h i l d c a r e - r e l i a b l e d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s w e r e h a r d t o f i n d . E x p l i c i t t r a i n i n g i n h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s m e a n t t h a t t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n d o m e s t i c w o r k c o u l d c a r r y o u t t h e i r t a s k s p r o p e r l y . A r e v e a l i n g d e b a t e o n " T h e P r o b l e m o f D o m e s t i c S e r v i c e " s h o w s t h a t t h e p r o m o t i o n o f d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g d i d n o t h a v e a l t r u i s t i c m o t i v e s o n t h e p a r t o f some C a n a d i a n r e f o r m e r s (NCWC 1 8 9 4 , p p . 1 5 2 - 1 7 2 ; s e e a l s o , B a r b e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . - 2 2 -T h e I n f l u e n c e o f C r o w d e d C i t i e s . T h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f l a r g e n u m b e r s o f i m m i g r a n t s a n d t h e i n t e r n a l movement o f C a n a d i a n s f r o m r u r a l a r e a s t o u r b a n c e n t e r s c a u s e d a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n t h e s i z e o f C a n a d i a n c i t i e s . T h u s , C a n a d a ' s u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n r o s e f r o m 1 . 1 m i l l i o n t o 4 . 3 m i l l i o n b e t w e e n 1 8 8 0 a n d 1 9 2 0 . T h o u g h i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e c o u n t r y ' s e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , c r o w d e d c i t i e s c o m p o u n d e d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s a n d i n a d e q u a t e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f t h e u r b a n p o o r . G i v e n a n e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s a n i t a t i o n w a s u n r e c o g n i z e d , w h e r e t h e s p r e a d o f d i s e a s e w a s i n a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d , a n d o n e i n w h i c h f a c i l i t i e s s u c h a s i n d o o r p l u m b i n g , i c e - b o x e s a n d c o v e r e d w e l l s w e r e g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e f o r m e d t o m e e t t h e c h a l l e n g e s w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d s o c i a l o r d e r . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s w o m e n ' s r e f o r m g r o u p s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , M o r r i s o n ( 1 9 7 6 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s l a y p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n t h e k i n d s o f c a u s e s t h e y e m p h a s i z e d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e W o m e n ' s C h r i s t i a n T e m p e r a n c e U n i o n v i e w e d t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f a l c o h o l a s t h e m o s t d i s t r e s s f u l o f s o c i a l m a l a d i e s ; c i t y h e a l t h w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o o r h e a l t h o f c h i l d r e n , a n d s o c i a l w o r k e r s f o c u s s e d u p o n f a m i l y / i n s t a b i l i t y . 3 T h e s o l u t i o n s a d v o c a t e d f o r t h e v a r i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l d i s o r d e r w e r e a s v a r i e d a s t h e c a u s e s . Some r e m e d i e s i n v o l v e d d i r e c t -23-i n t e r v e n t i o n , s u c h a s t h e c a m p a i g n for P r o h i b i t i o n z e a l o u s l y p u r s u e d b y t h e t e m p e r a n c e w o r k e r s ( S h e e h a n , 1 9 8 0 ) . S o l u t i o n s r e l a t e d t o c h i l d r e n ' s h e a l t h r a n g e d f r o m d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e f o r ' r e a l l y n e e d y ' f a m i l i e s b y R e l i e f A g e n c i e s , t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S i c k C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l i n T o r o n t o w h e r e c h i l d r e n c o u l d b e t r e a t e d a w a y f r o m t h e f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t ( M o r r i s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . Some r e f o r m e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i g n o r a n c e o f s o c i e t y c o u l d b e o v e r c o m e b y e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , l e s s o n s i n s a n i t a r y h y g i e n e , s c i e n t i f i c t e m p e r a n c e a n d h o u s e h o l d c o o k e r y w e r e v i s u a l i z e d a s a n o t h e r means o f a l l e v i a t i n g p r e s s i n g , s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . F r o m t h i s v i e w p o i n t , s c h o o l i n g w a s p e r c e i v e d a s y e t a n o t h e r a g e n t o f r e m e d i e s a n d r e f o r m s . T h e t e a c h i n g o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s w a s s t r o n g l y d e f e n d e d b y i t s a d v o c a t e s o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t n o t o n l y i m p r o v e d t h e l i v e s o f c h i l d r e n , b u t t h r o u g h t h e m , u p g r a d e d t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . C r u s a d e r s s u c h a s A d e l a i d e H o o d l e s s , p r o m o t e d t h e i d e a t h a t d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e u n i t e d t h e c o n c e r n s o f many r e f o r m g r o u p s . S h e b e l i e v e d t h a t e x p l i c i t t r a i n i n g i n f a m i l y m a t t e r s w a s t h e a n s w e r t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f u r b a n s o c i e t y ( S t a m p , 1 9 7 7 ; 1 9 7 4 : H o w e s , 1 9 6 7 ) . T h u s , t h e t e a c h i n g o f d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s f o r g e d i m p o r t a n t l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e r e f o r m e r s , t h e home a n d t h e s c h o o l a s i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n a d d r e s s e d t h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d t o a s s i s t f a m i l i e s . H o w e v e r , i n s p i t e o f t h e s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s o f i t s p r o m o t e r s , i t i s n o t a t a l l c e r t a i n t h a t t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s c o u l d b e s o l v e d b y t h e p r o g r a m s b e i n g a d v o c a t e d . - 2 4 -One o £ t h e r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f t h e p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l d i s o r d e r a t t r i b u t e d t o u r b a n i z a t i o n , w a s a movement t o r e g e n e r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r u r a l l i v i n g . T h i s w a s m o t i v a t e d i n p a r t b y p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n r e l a t e d t o t h e n u m b e r o f f a m i l i e s d e s e r t i n g C a n a d a ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l b a s e . I t a l s o a r o s e i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e " . . . c r o w d e d , n a r r o w u n w h o l e s o m e q u a r t e r s i n c i t i e s . . . b r e a t h i n g t h e s t i f l e d a i r o f c l o s e r o o m s a n d f a c t o r i e s " ( H a r c o u r t , 1 9 0 3 , x x x v ) . R u r a l l i v i n g w a s b e l i e v e d t o b e t h e t r u e r e p o s i t o r y o f t h e b e s t m o r a l v a l u e s . T o p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s f o r f a m i l i e s t o r e t u r n t o t h e h e a l t h y , i n d e p e n d e n t l i f e o f t h e c o u n t r y , t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t was l e g i s l a t e d i n 1 9 1 3 . J o n e s ( 1 9 7 8 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e p r e m i s e u n d e r l y i n g t h e p a s s a g e o f t h i s A c t w a s t h a t t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e w o u l d h e l p t h e f a r m e r make a m o r e p r o d u c t i v e l i v i n g , a n d w o u l d d i m i n i s h t h e e x o d u s o f f a m i l i e s f r o m t h e l a n d . T r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e was s u b s e q u e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d t o b o l s t e r t h e e c o n o m y o f t h e r u r a l a r e a s . O t h e r f o r m s o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g w e r e a l s o deemed t o i n c l u c a t e t h e r i g h t k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f r u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n . J a m e s R o b e r t s o n , a p p o i n t e d C o m m i s s i o n e r o f D a i r y i n g f o r t h e D o m i n i o n o f C a n a d a i n 1 8 9 0 , w a s a s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r o f a l l f o r m s o f m a n u a l t r a i n i n g . I n a n a d d r e s s g i v e n M a r c h 4 , 1 9 0 3 R o b e r t s o n d e c l a r e d : N a t u r e S t u d y s h o u l d b e c e n t r a l , w i t h M a n u a l T r a i n i n g a n d D o m e s t i c E c o n o m y o n e i t h e r s i d e o f i t . . . . T h e s e a r e n o t f a d s i n a n y s e n s e . T h e y a r e f u n d m e n t a l t o t h e m a i n t a i n e n c e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n a n d t h e u p w a r d p r o g r e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d t h e r a c e . ( J . W . R o b e r t s o n , 1 9 0 3 ) - 2 5 -A s R o b e r t s o n b e l i e v e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c a l w o r k i n c i t y s c h o o l s w o u l d c r e a t e a demand f o r s i m i l a r c l a s s e s i n r u r a l a r e a s , t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n i n m a n u a l t r a i n i n g s u b j e c t s o f t e n s t a r t e d i n u r b a n c e n t e r s ( S t a m p , 1 9 8 2 ) . R o b e r t s o n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h S i r W i l l i a m M a c d o n a l d r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e M a c d o n a l d M o v e m e n t f o r t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e a n d e d u c a t i o n ( R o b e r t s o n , 1 9 0 7 ) . T h i s p o w e r f u l a l l i a n c e u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n e v e r y C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e ( W h i t e , 1 9 5 1 ) . W h i l e , t h e M a c d o n a l d movement f u n d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m a n u a l t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s f o r b o y s a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l l e v e l , i t d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e a n y d i r e c t money f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c e n t e r s i n a n y p u b l i c s c h o o l s ( S t a m p , 1 9 8 2 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e i n o t h e r m e a n i n g f u l w a y s . F o u r o b j e c t - l e s s o n c o n s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d b y M a c d o n a l d i n N o v a S c o t i a , New B r u n s w i c k , O n t a r i o a n d P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d . T h e i r p u r p o s e w a s t o p o r t r a y t h e b e n e f i t s o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r s t u d e n t s . E a c h i n c l u d e d c l a s s e s i n c o o k i n g a n d s e w i n g . T h e s e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t r u r a l c h i l d r e n c o u l d a l s o b e i n c l u d e d i n a s p e c t s o f t h e new e d u c a t i o n ( S u t h e r l a n d , 1 9 7 6 ) . M o d e l s c h o o l s e n c o u r a g e d t e a c h e r s t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m s o f m a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r own s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . -26-M a c d o n a l d a l s o f i n a n c e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o E t w o i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s : T h e M a c d o n a l d I n s t i t u t e , O n t a r i o i n 1 9 0 4 ; a n d M a c d o n a l d C o l l e g e , Q u e b e c i n 1 9 0 6 . P u b l i c s c h o o l s w a n t i n g t o o f f e r t h i s f o r m o f e d u c a t i o n n o l o n g e r h a d t o d e p e n d o n t e a c h e r s f r o m E n g l a n d o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s h e l p e d j u s t i f y t o t h e p u b l i c t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new s u b j e c t a r e a s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r g i r l s . T h e p r e s e n c e o f s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s a l s o i n c r e a s e d t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e i n t h e m i n d s o f some p a r e n t s . W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e w a s i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e t h e e d u c a t i o n o f y o u n g women i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n . ' E d g i n g B e y o n d D o m e s t i c i t y ' I n d i s p u t a b l y , t h e i n d u s t r i a l e r a c r e a t e d a d i v e r s i t y o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s i n w h i c h women a n d c h i l d r e n w e r e f r e q u e n t l y t h e v i c t i m s . A s a means o f s o c i a l r e f o r m , u p g r a d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f n e e d y f a m i l i e s t h r o u g h e x p l i c i t t r a i n i n g o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l s w a s o n e a l t e r n a t i v e u n d e r t a k e n . Y e t , t h e i d e a o f r e f o r m a l s o b r o u g h t w i t h i t many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women. F i e l d s s u c h a s n u r s i n g , s o c i a l w o r k a n d d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e p r o v i d e d t h e means b y w h i c h women c o u l d e x t e n d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r m movement w a s t h e r e f o r e a r e s p o n s e t o b o t h t h e s o c i a l d i s t r e s s a n d t o new f o r m s o f womanhood b r o u g h t a b o u t b y s o c i a l c h a n g e . I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n h e l d a p l a c e f o r w o m e n , a l b e i t r e s t r i c t e d , i n t h e b u r g e o n i n g w o r l d o f w o r k . A t t h e u p p e r e n d o f e m p l o y m e n t s p e c t r u m w a s t h e c r e a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l f e m a l e m a j o r i t y f i e l d s w h i c h s t r u g g l e d a g a i n s t t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f a c c e p t a b l e w o m a n h o o d , e v e n t h o u g h t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s d e a l t w i t h s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o women. T h e a r g u m e n t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l women i n f i e l d s s u c h a s n u r s i n g , p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d l a w h e l p e d p r o m o t e t h e n e e d f o r r e f o r m i n a r e a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e n e e d s o f women a n d c h i l d r e n b o t h a t home a n d a t w o r k . H o w e v e r , a t t h e l o w e r e n d o f t h e e m p l o y m e n t s p e c t r u m g i r l s w e r e e m p l o y e d i n many j o b s i n w h i c h t h e f e m a l e v i r t u e s o f p a t i e n c e , o b e d i e n c e a n d p h y s i c a l g r a c e w e r e c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l , s u c h a s c l e r k s , o f f i c e w o r k e r s a n d e m p l o y e e s i n s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s ( L i g h t a n d P a r r , 1 9 8 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , many women f o u n d j o b s a s p o o r l y p a i d l a b o r e r s i n t h e ' n e e d l e t r a d e s ' o r i n d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e . K e a l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) r e p o r t s t h a t b y t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y women a n d c h i l d r e n c o m p r i s e d o n e - t h i r d o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e i n u r b a n c e n t e r s s u c h a s T o r o n t o . P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d f o s t e r e d c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d a t t h e same t i m e f u e l l e d f e a r s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r n e g l e c t o f f a m i l y d u t i e s . T h e i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n ' d u t y ' a n d ' r i g h t s ' f o r m s a s t r o n g u n d e r c u r r e n t o f t e n s i o n c o n t i n u a l l y e v i d e n t a s women e d g e d b e y o n d t h e f a m i l y c i r c l e . M o r r i s o n t h e o r i z e s t h a t when women l e f t t h e home t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l r e f o r m " t h e y d i d s o w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f m a k i n g i t a b e t t e r a n d - 2 8 -more s e c u r e p l a c e t o r e t u r n t o . " ( 1 9 7 6 , p . 4 7 ) G r o w t h o f t h e ' W o m a n ' s M o v e m e n t ' s y m b o l i z e d a d u a l f o c u s . O n t h e o n e h a n d , i t s p u r p o s e was t o a c c o r d women a n d c h i l d r e n w i t h a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l r i g h t s , w h i l e o n t h e o t h e r , i t f o c u s s e d o n t h e s p e c i a l t a l e n t s o f women t o r e f o r m s o c i e t y i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e m o r a l v a l u e s e s s e n t i a l t o f a m i l y l i f e . Some women c a l l e d f o r " T h e r i g h t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g m o r e a b o u t o u r d u t y a n d how we b e s t may d o i t " - a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h s u c c i n c t l y e x p r e s s e s t h e d u a l i t y o f w o m e n ' s s i t u a t i o n ( N . C . W . C . , 1 8 9 4 , p . 1 7 7 ) . C o n t r o l o f t h e home was b o t h a ' b l e s s i n g ' a n d a ' t r a p ' . T h u s , w h i l e c h a n g e s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l e r a e n c o u r a g e d some women o f t h e u p p e r a n d m i d d l e c l a s s e s t o move b e y o n d t h e d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e o f t h e V i c t o r i a n s t e r e o t y p e , t h e q u e s t i o n "How c a n a woman t e a c h w h a t s h e d o e s n o t k n o w h e r s e l f ? " w a s a r e m i n d e r t h a t many women w e r e i l l - p r e p a r e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e new w a y s o f l i f e , e v e n t h e a s p e c t s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e h o m e . ( H o o d l e s s , 1 8 9 4 , p . 1 1 6 ) . F o r a f f l u e n t w o m e n , c h a n g i n g t i m e s p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x t e n d t h e i r ' m o t h e r i n g r o l e ' b e y o n d t h e f a m i l y s p h e r e . T h i s f o r m o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n b e c a m e k n o w n a s s o c i a l o r m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m . I t c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e ' W o m a n ' s R i g h t s M o v e m e n t 1 a s m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t s p l a c e d s o c i a l r e f o r m a h e a d o f t h e a c h i e v m e n t o f e q u a l r i g h t s f o r women. R o b e r t s c a s t s t h e i r a c t i o n s a s a " m u t e d w a y o f e n h a n c i n g t h e a u t o n o m y o f women" ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 8 ) . T h r o u g h t h e w o r t h i n e s s o f t h e i r b e n e v o l e n t w o r k m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t s h o p e d t h e y w o u l d b e a c c o r d e d t h e p r i v i l e g e o f - 2 9 -v o t i n g . M o r e o v e r , t h e i s s u e o f w o m e n ' s r i g h t s w a s p r e d o m i n a n t l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f a m i l y f r o m t h e m a t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . G i v e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g i n d o m e s t i c m a t t e r s d e v e l o p e d , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s s t r a n d o f t h e W o m a n ' s M o v e m e n t s u p p o r t e d t h e g r o w t h o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . T r a i n i n g i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e w a s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t p h i l o s o p h y f o r i t h e l d t h e p r o m i s e o f new t o o l s w h i c h some women b e l i e v e d c o u l d t r a n s f o r m t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i e t y . I n t r o d u c i n g h y g i e n e , c o o k e r y , a n d c o n t r o l o f d i s e a s e a s h o u s e h o l d t o p i c s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s c i e n c e , i m b u e d t h e r e l a t e d t a s k s w i t h a d d e d c r e d i b i l i t y . L e a r n i n g t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a o f e f f i c i e n c y a n d e c o n o m y a l s o h a d h o u s e h o l d a p p l i c a t i o n s u g g e s t e d homes a n d b u s i n e s s e s c o u l d b e c a r r i e d o u t o n a s i m i l a r b a s i s . A g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d o m e s t i c d u t i e s u p g r a d e d t h e s t a n d a r d s o f c h i l d c a r e a n d f a m i l y a f f a i r s . I t m e a n t t h a t women c o u l d b e ' b e t t e r ' m o t h e r s a n d w i v e s . G a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f f a m i l y c o n d i t i o n s a l s o f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d o n e s p h e r e o f s o c i e t y a s r i g h t f u l l y b e l o n g i n g t o w o m e n . A d e l a i d e H o o d l e s s , f r o m O n t a r i o , t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d i n i t i a t o r o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e i n C a n a d i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s , c h a l l e n g e d women t o p e r f e c t t h e i r own s p h e r e o f r e s p o n s b i l i t y b e f o r e s p r e a d i n g t h e i r w i n g s t o e n c o m p a s s t h e l a r g e r r e a l m o f s o c i e t y ( N . C . W . C . 1 8 9 8 ) . T o t h i s e n d s h e w o r k e d d i l i g e n t l y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e w i v e s o f f a r m e r s , a n d s h e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women -30-of Canada, an umbrella organization designed to be the national voice for a number o£ affiliated women's groups. The campaign to institute the teaching of domestic matters in the public schools frequently occurred because of pressure applied by women's organizations. The importance of domestic science for Hoodless, rested on two assumptions. First, that the traditional instincts and haphazard knowledge, formerly the basis of running the home, were no longer sufficient in the complexities of the industrial age (Dominion Educational Association, 1908). Second, that training in domestic affairs was a means of maintaining the ethical and moral standards necessary for family stability (Stamp, 1977). In advancing these premises as the platform of domestic training there was no suggestion that transforming women's conditions in the home was essentially a means of 'adapting' to the new ways of l i f e . The distinction between adapting to new conditions, and changing the conditions themselves does not seem to have concerned Hoodless or many of her followers. While Hoodless was a compelling crusader for the preservation of the domestic ideal, there were also others in Canada who should be acknowledged for their thoughtful and reflective advocacy of domestic science. Among these were Alice Chown, field secretary for the Canadian Household Economics Association of Kingston, Ontario; Mary Urie Watson, principal of the Home Economics Department at Macdonald Institute; and Annie Laird, principal of the Faculty of Household -31-Science at the University of Toronto. Chown i n p a r t i c u l a r , v i s u a l i z e d a broad and comprehensive perspective of home economics that incorporated the ideals of an education for ' l i f e ' rather than a program directed only toward homeraaking (Vaines, 1984). Watson contributed considerable leadership i n the establishment of home economics programs for teacher education, while Laird's influence set the d i r e c t i o n of Canadian educational p o l i c y i n home economcs at the l e v e l of higher education. Each of the foregoing women was a participant at the Lake P l a c i d Conferences held from 1899-1908 i n New York State. These meetings coordinated the diverse e f f o r t s of many home economics advocates across North America i n the establishment of home economics as a f i e l d of study. The Proceedings indicate that the majority of delegates were a f f i l i a t e d with education i n some way, and therefore believed that schooling was a means of implementing home economics ideals (Vaines, 1981, 1984). The perspectives of Canadian participants provided a thought provoking basis for many of the discussions. Ultimately, the sharing of diverse ideas led to the creation of the American Home Economics Association, a venture larger i n concept than tliat envisioned by any single view. However, Budewig (1957) suggests the educational dimension was considered so important that the conceptual ideas of the f i e l d were ignored i n order to mold domestic science to f i t the framework of manual t r a i n i n g . -32-'Bodies Being Exercised; Minds at: Work; and Souls Satisfied' While women defended the development of domestic science in terms of women's duties to both their families and society, other aspects of this new branch of instruction were stressed by those concerned with i t s worth as a form of education. As the inadequacies of the conventional education system were highlighted by the changing times, new forms of schooling, more humane and more relevant, were called for. The introduction of domestic science from this perspective, rested on it s merits as a form of practical training, and therefore a part of the manual training movement. The rationale advanced i n support of the manual training movement had to be both powerful and convincing for some members of the public, and many educators were sceptical of the proclaimed benefits. Manual training was defended primarily i n moral terms, which j u s t i f i e d i t s practical nature as a means of building character. Phrased simply, this argument rested on the maxim that "Habits of right working lead to habits of right thinking" (Harcourt, 1903, p. l v i i ) . Manual training initiated students into some of the basic processes involved i n the origination, maintainence and advancement of mankind. I t , therefore, cultivated the quality of 'true human sympathy1 which was considered to be the ethical foundation of l i f e . - 3 3 -A c c o r d L n g t o t h e r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g a n d T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n t h e c h i e f a i m o £ m a n u a l t r a i n i n g w a s " t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p o w e r s o f t h e p u p i l f o r c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s " ( S e s s i o n a l P a p e r 1 9 1 d , 1 9 1 3 , p . 1 3 9 ) . H o o d l e s s a l s o d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e f a r o u t w e i g h e d i t s p r a c t i c a l c o m p o n e n t . C h a r a c t e r i s f o r m e d i n t h e h o m e , a n d l a r g e l y u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m o t h e r , a n d u n l e s s women a r e e d u c a t e d s o a s t o r e a l i z e a n d f a i t h f u l l y p e r f o r m t h e d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f h o m e r a a k e r s , we c a n n o t e x p e c t a h i g h t y p e o f c i t i z e n . . . . T h e r e i s no b r a n c h o f e d u c a t i o n s o c o n d u s i v e t o e t h i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n a s t h a t o f D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e , d e a l i n g a s i t d o e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e home a n d t h e o p e r a t i o n s c a r r i e d o n t h e r e . ( H o o d l e s s , 1 9 0 5 , p . 3 8 . ) A c o u n t e r p a r t t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f c h a r a c t e r w a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ' w i l l 1 o r t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f t h o u g h t s w h i c h c o n t r o l l e d c o n s c i o u s m o v e m e n t . T h e r o o t s o f t h i s a r g u m e n t r e s t i n t h e f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y m o v e m e n t . D e v e l o p m e n t o f c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s w a s t h o u g h t t o r e s u l t f r o m t h e p r o p e r e x e r c i s i n g o f t h e ' m u s c l e s o f t h e m i n d 1 . M a n u a l t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d a means o f n e e d e d e x e r c i s e b e c a u s e i t i n c o r p o r a t e d b o t h k n o w l e d g e a n d a c t i v i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r . C o n v e r s e l y , ' f l a b b y m u s c l e s ' a n d a ' w e a k w i l l 1 w e r e t h o u g h t t o b e s i g n s o f i n s u f f i c i e n t m o t o r a c t i v i t y o f t h e b r a i n . T h e h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y a n d e f f i c i e n c y d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h m a n u a l w o r k p r o v i d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p a h i g h t y p e o f c h a r a c t e r T h e s e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a n i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e e a r l i e r c l a i m s t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h a r a c t e r i n c h i l d r e n w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d - 3 4 -through submission to the demands of the Church and the family. The new philosophy suggests that the child's participation in the learning process through hard work and painstaking accomplishment, developed the characteristics deemed necessary for adulthood. It also reflects the movement of society from one which stressed religious obedience to one which reflected a gospel of social reform. The worthwhile relationship between 'knowing' and 'doing' was also advanced in defence of manual training. Accurate handwork was believed to lead to accurate mental images. Intelligence developed through the sequential interaction of knowledge and its application. These arguments emphasized the intellectual component of practical work. The value of the practical lay in its contribution to the intellectual and ethical growth of the child, rather than in the enjoyment of accomplishing the work itself. Manual training was also promoted as a means of stimulating both student interest and progress. Its advocates maintained that the new and meaningful methods would attract students to the school. As minds were stimulated and perceptive faculties awakened through manual training, students would be able to perform at higher levels in the traditional subjects. From this point of view the benefits of practical training were thought to permeate a l l aspects of the school system. - 3 5 -R o b e r t s o a , a s C o m m i s s i o n e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n m a n u a l t r a i n i n g a n d t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n a s p e e c h t o t h e D o m i n i o n E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n . M a n u a l T r a i n i n g i s t h a t p a r t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w h i c h s e e k s i t s r e s u l t i n t h e b o y h i m s e l f o r t h e g i r l h e r s e l f , . . . w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n t o b e f o l l o w e d a f t e r w a r d s . T h e t h i n g s made b y t h e c h i l d i n M a n u a l T r a i n i n g may a s w e l l g o i n t o t h e s t o v e o r i n t o t h e w a s t e - p a p e r b a s k e t ; b u t t h e t h i n g s made b y a b o y i n a n i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l , u n d e r a s y s t e m o f I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , a r e made f o r t h e s a k e o f t h i n g s , a n d made f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e a b i l i t y t o make t h e same o f s i m i l a r t h i n g s t h a t w i l l s e l l . I d o n o t s a y t h a t i s a p o o r p a r t o r a n u n n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n , b u t i t i s n o t M a n u a l T r a i n i n g . . . . T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n h a s some m a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n i t , b u t t h e m a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n h a s a p r i c e i n i t a n d o n i t f o r t h e w o r t h o f i t s p r o d u c t s . I t i s l o o k i n g t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t r a i n i n g o n t h e c r a f t a n d o n t h e p r o d u c t , a n d n o t o n l y p e r s o n . ( R o b e r t s o n , 1 9 0 1 , . p p . 8 5 - 8 6 ) . M a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n s c h o o l a n d t r a d e s t r a i n i n g c l e a r l y h a d d i f f e r e n t g o a l s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a c c r u i n g f r o m m a n u a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s w e r e d o w n p l a y e d . S u c h a p e r s p e c t i v e d e f l e c t e d o p p o s i t i o n r a i s e d b y t h e T r a d e s U n i o n s i n T o r o n t o r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g a t p u b l i c e x p e n s e a n d t h e i r c o n c e r n t h a t s t u d e n t s t r a i n e d i n t r a d e s a t s c h o o l w o u l d u n d e r c u t t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s y s t e m s o f t h e u n i o n s . M o r e o v e r , e v e n t h e c r i t i c s h a d t o a g r e e t h a t t h e f o s t e r i n g o f t r a i t s s u c h a s ' d o i n g t h i n g s w i t h o u t w a s t e , ' r e f i n i n g g o o d j u d g e m e n t ' a n d d e v e l o p i n g t h e ' p o w e r s o f c l o s e -36-observacion 1 provided a strong foundation for l a t e r technical in s t r u c t i o n . Therefore, manual t r a i n i n g i n schools was of benefit to a l l students pursuing a variety of occupations l a t e r i n l i f e . F i n a l l y , manual t r a i n i n g allowed children to grasp an idea or image through a c t i v i t y and experience rather than v i c a r i o u s l y through book learning. The incorporation of 'handwork' with 'brainwork' appealed to the needs and interests of the c h i l d . I t added zest to the process of schooling. In p r a c t i c a l terms, i t also helped to hold youngsters i n school, isolated from the unhealthy and immoral influences i n the factories and on the streets. Manual t r a i n i n g i n a l l i t s forms, t r i e d to s h i f t the focus of the classroom from that of the subject to that of the c h i l d . I t s benefits enriched the mind, the body and the s p i r i t . The appropriateness of manual t r a i n i n g to the amelioration of a d i v e r s i t y of concerns slowly generated a broad and supportive audience. I t s focus was compatible with the interests of those concerned with the needs of the c h i l d ; i t garnered support from those who sought a meaningful relationship between classroom experience and d a i l y l i f e ; i t appeared to provide solutions to some of the problems a r i s i n g from the tedious process of conventional schooling; and i t s content was of interest to the greater range of students enrolled i n schools. Thus, from the perspective of those seeking educational reform manual t r a i n i n g was a worthy endeavour for a l l children. -37-O v e r a l l , t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n C a n a d i a n l i f e d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y f o s t e r e d t h e g r o w t h o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . F o r d a u g h t e r s , w i v e s a n d m o t h e r s a c r o s s C a n a d a i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p u b l i c s c h o o l s s e r v e d a v a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s . F i r s t , i t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d o m e s t i c i d e a l a s a n e m i n e n t l y s u i t a b l e v o c a t i o n f o r women a n d o n e w o r t h y o f v i g o u r o u s p u r s u i t . S e c o n d , e x p o s u r e t o new k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s w a s l i n k e d t o i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e f o r many f a m i l i e s . T h i r d , i t e m b o d i e d a l l t h e v i r t u e s b e l i e v e d t o b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n t e r r a s o f p r a c t i c a l l e a r n i n g a s w e l l a s c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g . F i n a l l y , t r a i n i n g i n d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s w a s a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e means o f e x t e n d i n g w o m e n ' s i n f l u e n c e . A s L a d y A b e r d e e n , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women, e x p l a i n e d d u r i n g a v i s i t t o M o n t r e a l , w o m e n ' s w o r k " . . . b e s t b e g i n s a t h o m e , b u t n e e d n o t e n d t h e r e . I t i s l i k e a s t o n e c a s t i n t o a p o n d w h o s e r i p p l e s g o i n e v e r w i d e n i n g c i r c l e s t h a t n e v e r e n d . " ( 1 8 9 3 ) . I n e s s e n c e t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , h e l p e d a v a r i e t y o f w o m e n , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e f o r m e r s t h e m s e l v e s , a c c e p t t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a new a g e . -38-ChapCer Three 'IMPROVING THE PRESENT CONDITION1 -THE GROWTH OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of educational innovations i s an evolutionary process that frequently arises from the e f f o r t s of individuals and organizations both inside and outside the education system. In the case of domestic science i n B r i t i s h Columbia the introduction of school programs primarily resulted from pressures exerted outside the education system as various community organizations cajoled, provoked and persuaded i n f l u e n t i a l school o f f i c i a l s to i n s t i t u t e the desired programs. While community input stimulated the introduction of the subject, i t also influenced the way domestic science was taught i n schools. Chapter three sets the stage for the examination of the curriculum by b r i e f l y o u t l i n i n g i n f l u e n t i a l events and individuals which shaped domestic science i n s t r u c t i o n within the province. B r i t i s h Columbians took a long time to e s t a b l i s h domestic science as as int e g r a l part of t h e i r school system. A mix of r e l i g i o u s and other forms of fee-paying schools provided a wide range of educational opportunities i n both the colony of Vancouver Island and that of -3.9-B r i t i s h C o l i j m b i a . I t w a s n o t , h o w e v e r , u n t i l t h e t w o u n i t e d a n d j o i n e d t h e new C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f C a n a d a t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e e s t a b l i s h e d a s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n . A f t e r j o i n i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1 8 7 1 , o n e o f t h e f i r s t t r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e w a s t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t ( 1 8 7 2 ) w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e s y s t e m t h a t e v o l v e d f r o m t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n - s u p p o s e d l y f r e e a n d n o n - s e c t a r i a n - w a s m o d e l l e d o n t h e n o n - s e p a r a t e p a r t o f t h e O n t a r i o s y s t e m ( J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . A n I d e a T a k e s H o l d N e e d l e w o r k was a p p a r e n t l y t h e f i r s t f o r m o f home e c o n o m i c s t a u g h t i n t h e p r o v i n c e ( C h e s t n u t t , 1 9 7 5 ) . I n C r a i g f l o w e r S c h o o l o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , g i r l s w e r e t a u g h t s e w i n g b y t h e w i f e o f t h e s c h o o l m a s t e r , a n d a t Y a l e a s e w i n g c l a s s w a s h e l d f o r g i r l s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s o f 1 8 7 0 . D . W i l s o n , t h e f i r s t I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s a p p o i n t e d i n i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1 8 8 7 , s u p p o r t e d t h e t e a c h i n g o f n e e d l e w o r k a s v a l u a b l e t r a i n i n g f o r t h e ' m i n d ' a n d t h e ' f i n g e r s ' , t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f t a s t e a n d j u d g m e n t a n d t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f g o o d h a b i t s . H o w e v e r , i n h i s y e a r l y r e p o r t s W i l s o n made r e p e a t e d p l e a s f o r n e e d f o r i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f a l l p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s ( s e e P u b l i c S c h o o l A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1 8 8 9 - 1 8 9 6 ) . B y 1891 n e e d l e w o r k was o n e o f t h e r e g u l a r o p t i o n s i n t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y , b u t i t s i n c l u s i o n d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t i t w a s t a u g h t g e n e r a l l y ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 1 4 ) . W h i t e ( 1 9 5 1 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t -40-often p r a c t i c a l subjects were not wel l received due to the lack of suitable teachers rather than i n s u f f i c i e n t interest on the part of the students. In an i n i t i a l e f f o r t to improve the teaching of handwork, the V i c t o r i a school board appointed a Miss Bourman, (also spelled Boorman) i n 1896 to provide a 'sound and thorough' t r a i n i n g to elementary g i r l s , as well as interested teachers. The f i r s t center for the teaching of cooking was opened i n 1903 i n V i c t o r i a . I t was organized by the Local Council of Women, and financed by the Local Council as w e l l as the Women's Chr i s t i a n Temperance Union and small personal donations. Plans f o r a center, designed to accommodate twenty students, were obtained from the East. Miss Winifred McKeand, an experienced domestic science teacher from Nova Scotia, was appointed instructor. Ten classes, each with twenty g i r l s , were chosen from the senior elementary grades and from the high school. Once a week each class received a lesson i n cookery. The report of F.H. Eaton, Superintendent of C i t y Schools for V i c t o r i a , shows that within a one-year period four domestic science centers were opened on Vancouver Island. Eaton suggests that the subject was popular with both the parents and the pupils (1904). In 1905, the Local Council of Women i n Vancouver was i n f l u e n t i a l i n establishing a domestic science center at Central School i n Vancouver. Their e f f o r t s were supported by Mr. W.P. Argue, Superintendent of -41-V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l s ( P u b l i c S c h o o l A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 0 5 , p . A 5 7 ) . E l i z a b e t h B e r r y , a g r a d u a t e o f t h e f i r s t t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g c l a s s i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a t T h e M a c d o n a l d I n s t i t u t e , w a s h i r e d a s t e a c h e r . S e w i n g , a t f i r s t b y h a n d , w a s t a u g h t b y r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f B e r r y . T w o - h o u r f o o d s c l a s s e s w e r e a l s o h e l d f o r g r a d e e i g h t g i r l s , t h o u g h l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s r e s t r i c t e d e n r o l l m e n t . S t u d e n t s , d r a w n f r o m t e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , t r a v e l l e d t o t h e c e n t e r b y s t r e e t c a r . B y 1 9 0 9 , f o u r d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c e n t e r s h a d b e e n o p e n e d b e c a u s e o f c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s t a n c e some g i r l s h a d t o t r a v e l . T h u s , f r o m t h e s m a l l n u c l e u s o f n e e d l e w o r k c l a s s e s i n t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a b r o a d e r t r a i n i n g i n m a t t e r s r e l a t e d t o t h e home g a i n e d a f o o t h o l d i n b o t h V a n c o u v e r a n d V i c t o r i a s c h o o l s . T h e A d v o c a c y a n d G r o w t h o f D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e M u c h o f t h e g r o w t h o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e f f o r t s o f l o c a l w o m e n ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e y p r o v i d e d b o t h t h e p o l i t i c a l m a c h i n e r y t o c o n v i n c e t h e p u b l i c o f t h e v a l u e o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , a n d s e c u r e d t h e n e c e s s a r y f u n d s t o e n s u r e i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l s o f Women, a n d t h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g t h i s new f o r m o f s c h o o l i n g . - 4 2 -A s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r t w o , t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of: Women o f C a n a d a f o r m e d i n 1 8 9 3 , p u r s u e d b o t h n a t i o n a l i s t a n d f e m i n i s t g o a l s . B y 1 9 0 0 t h e NCWC r e p r e s e n t e d s e v e n n a t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t i e s a n d t w e n t y - o n e l o c a l c o u n c i l s ( S t r o n g - B o a g , 1 9 7 5 ) . E n t h u s i a s t i c n a t i o n a l s u p p o r t was g i v e n t o t h e e f f o r t s o f p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e a d d r e s s o f M r s . A r c h i b a l d o f H a l i f a x , t o t h e T h i r d A n n u a l N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W o m e n ' s M e e t i n g i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l o n b e h a l f o f a f f i l i a t e d g r o u p s r e g a r d i n g d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e : We d o n o t w a n t t o b e p r o v i n c i a l i n t h i s N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f o u r s , a n d w h e n we f i n d a w a n t i n O n t a r i o w h i c h w i l l a p p l y t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h e q u a l f o r c e , o r t o New B r u n s w i c k , we w i l l c a r r y i t home a n d d i n i t i n t o t h e e a r s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n i s t s u n t i l t h e y w i l l b e g l a d t o g r a n t o u r r e q u e s t s . ( 1 8 9 6 , p . 3 9 1 ) . T h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l s o e n d o r s e d t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l s o f Women t o e s t a b l i s h d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was f o u n d e d b y H o o d l e s s , i n O n t a r i o i n 1 8 9 7 . W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p a n d e d q u i c k l y u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f L a u r a R o s e o r i g i n a l l y f r o m O n t a r i o , s o t h a t b y 1 9 0 9 f i f t e e n p r o v i n c i a l c h a p t e r s w e r e o r g a n i z e d . T h e m o t t o " F o r Home a n d C o u n t r y " s y m b o l i z e d t h e r u r a l f o c u s i n h e r e n t i n t h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e . I t s members w e r e h o m e m a k e r s who b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e home a n d f a m i l y d e s e r v e d t h e same k i n d o f s t u d y , c a r e a n d s e r v i c e - 4 3 -a s t h e F a r m e r ' s I n s t i t u t e d i r e c t e d t o t h e s t o c k a n d c r o p s o f t h e i r f a r m s ( S c o t t , 1 9 2 5 ) . D o m e s t i c s c i e n c e was s e e n a s a way o f s o l v i n g h o u s e h o l d p r o b l e m s , a n d r a i s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s o f h o u s e h o l d c a r e a n d m o t h e r i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f o n e member t h e i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d moved f r o m t o p i c s s u c h a s ' m a k i n g b e t t e r b u t t e r ' a n d ' n e w c a r p e t s w e e p e r s ' t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t " i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i r h o m e s " women m u s t e x t e n d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e b e y o n d t h e f a m i l y c i r c l e ( B . C . W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e s , 1 9 6 0 , p . 1 5 ) . S u c h comment s u g g e s t s t h a t w o m e n ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o s e r v e d a s c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g e n d e a v o u r s f o r some m e m b e r s . A l i c e R a v e n h i l l , who a r r i v e d i n C a n a d a f r o m E n g l a n d i n 1 9 1 0 , w a s a n i n f l u e n t i a l member o f b o t h t h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e a n d T h e C o u n c i l o f Women. H e r b a c k g r o u n d a s a l e c t u r e r o n h y g i e n e , p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d h o u s e h o l d s c i e n c e a t K i n g ' s C o l l e g e f o r Women, U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n , a n d h e r e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g h e a l t h i n t h e r u r a l homes o f E n g l a n d made h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o C a n a d i a n women l i v i n g i n o u t l y i n g c o m m u n i t i e s ( R a v e n h i l l , 1 9 5 1 ) . M a n y o f h e r i d e a s o n t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e h y g i e n e o f t h e f a m i l y w e r e c o n v e y e d t h r o u g h t h e W o m e n ' s  I n s t i t u t e Q u a r t e r l y . R a v e n h i l l b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y i n t h e p o w e r o f t h e h o m e . H e r s c i e n t i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e e m p h a s i z e d c o n t r o l l i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e home s o t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e c o m e s u b s e r v i e n t t o human n e e d s . T h u s , h o u s e h o l d t a s k s - 4 4 -s u c h a s c o o k i n g , c l e a n i n g , s e w i n g a n d w a s h i n g w e r e b u t a l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d u t i e s o f women i n u p h o l d i n g t h e " r i g h t c o n d u c t o E human l i f e i n t h e h o m e " ( c i t e d i n R o w l e s , 1 9 5 6 , p . 6 8 ) . T h o u g h R a v e n h i l l d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n p u b l i c s c h o o l d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s , h e r p r e s e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n i n c r e a s e d t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s b e i n g p r o m o t e d b y w o m e n ' s g r o u p s . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 0 1 s c h o o l y e a r , g e n e r o u s s u p p o r t f r o m t h e M a c d o n a l d M o v e m e n t e s t a b l i s h e d f o u r m a n u a l t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s f o r b o y s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - t w o p r o g r a m s i n V a n c o u v e r , a n d t w o i n V i c t o r i a . T h e s e c e n t e r s c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l a c k o f s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s f o r g i r l s , a n d n o d o u b t f u e l l e d t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e w o m e n ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s o n b e h a l f o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . I n many c a s e s t h e o p e n i n g o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c e n t e r s f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m a n u a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r b o y s . H o w e v e r , L i g h t f o o t a n d M a y n a r d ( 1 9 4 1 ) i n d i c a t e t h a t i n some s m a l l t o w n s a m a n u a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m w a s i n p l a c e f o r u p t o t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . T h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o b o y s a n d g i r l s s u g g e s t s t h a t i n r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s t h e s k i l l s o f h o m e m a k i n g w e r e s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e d u t y o f t h e m o t h e r . M o r e o v e r , t h e l a c k o f a n o r g a n i z e r o r i n s p e c t o r s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e i m p l i e s t h a t i t w a s a l w a y s p u b l i c i z e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f m a n u a l t r a i n i n g , a n d d i d n o t r e c e i v e r e c o g n i t i o n o n i t s own m e r i t s . - 4 5 -W h i l e o u t s i d e i n d i v i d u a l s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x e r t e d s t r o n g p r e s s u r e o n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o i n s t i t u t e p r o g r a m s i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , t h o s e i n s i d e t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m a l s o w o r k e d t o p u b l i c i z e t h e new s u b j e c t a r e a i n v a r i o u s w a y s . B e r r y i s s u e d a n o p e n i n v i t a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c t o v i s i t t h e c l a s s e s a t a n y t i m e . S h e c o m m e n t e d t h a t among t h e v i s i t o r s d u r i n g i t s f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n w e r e D r . A l e x a n d e r R o b i n s o n , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e p r o v i n c e , members o f t h e S c h o o l B o a r d , I n s p e c t o r s o f S c h o o l s , members o f t h e C o u n c i l o f Women, a s w e l l a s many o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a t i o n . B e r r y e s t i m a t e d t h a t 4 0 0 o u t s i d e v i s i t o r s came d u r i n g 1 9 0 5 - 6 , t h e f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n . ( L i g h t f o o t a n d M a y n a r d , 1 9 4 1 , p . 5 . ) T h e a i m o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , B e r r y c l a i m e d , w a s " a r o u s i n g a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r t o f t r u e h o m e m a k i n g . . . " ( 1 9 0 6 , p . 2 2 ) . Thomas ( 1 9 8 4 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t B e r r y ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t a n d h e r c o r a n i t m e n t load c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e o n i t s e x p a n s i o n w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , f o r s h e l a t e r b e c a m e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r a n d r e m a i n e d i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m f o r t w e n t y y e a r s . D o m e s t i c s c i e n c e was a l s o p u b l i c i z e d b y h o l d i n g ' c l a s s t e a s ' f o r m o t h e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , b y 1 9 1 0 d i s p l a y s o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s w e r e a p a r t o f a n n u a l l o c a l e x h i b i t i o n s h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r , a n d l a t e r i n s u r r o u n d i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e s e a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r v i s i t o r s t o v i e w p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n p r o g r e s s a n d t o e x a m i n e t h e - 4 6 -w o r k o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e l a t e r i n i t i a t i o n o f 'home p r o j e c t s ' f o r s t u d e n t s e m p h a s i z e d a n i n c r e a s e d home a n d s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t o f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m a n u a l t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 1 1 s c h o o l y e a r . T h e g o v e r n m e n t a g r e e d t o p a y n o t l e s s t h a n t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e b a s i c e q u i p m e n t c o s t , a n d c o v e r t h e s a l a r y a n d t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s o f t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s f o r a p e r i o d o f o n e y e a r . I f S c h o o l B o a r d s d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e w o r k , t h e y w e r e a s k e d t o r e p a y h a l f t h e c o s t o f t h e e q u i p m e n t a n d f u r n i s h t h e f u l l s a l a r y o f t h e t e a c h e r i n s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s ( W h i t e , 1 9 5 1 ) . U n d e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f G e o r g e D e a n , A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a n d D i r e c t o r o f I n d u s t r i a l a n d T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n , b o t h m a n u a l t r a i n i n g f o r b o y s a n d d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e f o r g i r l s e x p a n d e d r a p i d l y . I n t h e c a s e o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , t h e n u m b e r o f c e n t e r s g r e w f r o m s i x t o t h i r t e e n b e t w e e n 1911 a n d 1 9 1 2 . Some o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e may a l s o b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e l e c t i o n o f M r s . P e t e r M c N a u g h t o n t o t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d i n 1 9 1 2 . S p o n s o r e d b y t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women, M c N a u g h t o n r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t v o t e e v e r c a s t f o r a c a n d i d a t e i n a p r e v i o u s e l e c t i o n (NCWC R e p o r t , 1 9 1 2 , p . x v i i i ) . M r s . M c N a u g h t o n v i s i t e d v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c e n t e r s t h r o u g h o u t b o t h t h e U n i t e d i S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a , a n d t h r o u g h o u t h e r t e r m o f o f f i c e w o r k e d d i l i g e n t l y t o f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t . - 4 7 -A r e s o l u t i o n made b y d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h t h e T e a c h e r s ' I n s t i t u t e i n 1 9 1 1 , c h a n g e d t h e name o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e t o 'Home E c o n o m i c s ' a s i t was f e l t t o more a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t . F r o m t h i s d a t e d i s c u s s i o n a p p e a r s u n d e r b o t h l a b e l s . E v e n i n 1 9 2 0 J o h n K y l e , t h e n O r g a n i z e r o f T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e P r o v i n c e r e f e r s t o d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e " . . . o r a s m o s t o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s p r e f e r t o t e r m i t , home e c o n o m i c s " ( A n n u a l R e p o r t , p . C 8 3 ) . T h u s , u s e o f t h e t e r m home e c o n o m i c s g r e w s l o w l y among t h o s e i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . On V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , A n n i e J u n i p e r , whom R o w l e s 1 d e s c r i b e s a s a " c a p a b l e E n g l i s h w o m a n " , a g r a d u a t e o f t h e N o r f o l k a n d N o r w i c h S c h o o l o f H o u s e h o l d S c i e n c e , was a p p o i n t e d s u p e r v i s o r o f d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g i n V i c t o r i a i n 1 9 1 1 . P r i o r t o h e r a p p o i n t m e n t , J u n i p e r w a s D e a n o f t h e S c h o o l o f H o u s e h o l d S c i e n c e , M a c d o n a l d C o l l e g e , a n d t h e n D e a n o f t h e H o u s e h o l d S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e M a n i t o b a A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e ( J . F . S n e l l , 1 9 6 3 ) . S h e a l s o h a d t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n E n g l a n d , W a l e s a n d C a n a d a . J u n i p e r w r o t e t h e f i r s t c u r r i c u l u m f o r g i r l s i n V i c t o r i a , D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e , C o u r s e 1 ( 1 9 1 1 ) a n d a l s o t h e f i r s t t e x t b o o k G i r l s ' Home  M a n u a l ( 1 9 1 3 ) . T h e m a n u a l w a s d e d i c a t e d t o M r s . M a r g a r e t J e n k i n s , a member o f t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women, a n d a S c h o o l B o a r d o f f i c i a l , f o r h e r e f f o r t s i n f u r t h e r i n g t h e home e c o n o m i c s movement w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I t w a s p r e p a r e d i n " t h e h o p e t h a t g i r l s , n o t o n l y a t s c h o o l , b u t i n a f t e r l i f e a l s o , may f i n d i t h e l p f u l i n m a k i n g t h e m m o r e e f f i c i e n t i n t h e n o b l e a r t o f h o m e r a a k i n g " ( J u n i p e r , 1 9 1 3 , p r e f a c e ) . - 4 8 -D u x i n g W o r l d War I t h e n u m b e r o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c e n t e r s i n c r e a s e d o n l y s l i g h t l y , b u t i t s i m a g e w a s e n h a n c e d t h r o u g h a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e w a r t i m e e f f o r t . G i r l s i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c l a s s e s made c l o t h e s , p r e p a r e d b a n d a g e s , g a v e d i n n e r s a n d i n i t i a t e d f u n d - r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s t o s u p p o r t t h e w o r k o f t h e R e d C r o s s ( V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d R e p o r t , 1 9 1 5 , p . 7 3 . ) T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d a i l y l i f e a n d p r a c t i c a l l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l s b e c a m e m o r e s h a r p l y f o c u s s e d d u r i n g t h e w a r t i m e p e r i o d w i t h a n e m p h a s i s o n c o n s e r v a t i o n , e c o n o m y a n d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f f o o d . " N o t a t F i r s t A l l P l a i n S a i l i n g " B e r r y ( L i g h t f o o t a n d M a y n a r d , 1 9 4 1 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t some p a r e n t s s t r o n g l y o b j e c t e d t o h a v i n g t h e i r d a u g h t e r s " w a s t e t i m e " i n s c h o o l o v e r s o m e t h i n g t h e y w e r e s u p p o s e d t o b e l e a r n i n g f r o m t h e i r m o t h e r s . A l s o , some r a t e - p a y e r s , a n x i o u s t o k e e p down l o c a l t a x e s w e r e o p p o s e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f " f r i l l " s u b j e c t s w h i c h r a i s e d t h e c o s t s o f e d u c a t i o n . I n t h e m i n d s o f s u c h o b j e c t o r s t h e b e s t e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , w a s s i m p l y t h e c h e a p e s t o n e . Some c r i t i c s w e r e s i m p l y a g a i n s t t r y i n g a n y t h i n g n e w . O t h e r s w e r e a n x i o u s t o s e e t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m p r e s e r v e i t s a c a d e m i c f o c u s . T y p i c a l o f t h e s e o b j e c t o r s w a s A g n e s D e a n s C a m e r o n , p r i n c i p a l o f S o u t h P a r k S c h o o l i n V i c t o r i a - a n e d u c a t o r who r e s i s t e d t h e c h a n g e s b e i n g s o u g h t . - 4 9 -L a s t y e a r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u n c i l o f Women w a s a l l a g o g f o r d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . When I , o p e n i n g my e a s t e r n w i n d o w s w h i c h l o o k t o w a r d t h e s u n , s a w t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f c o o k i n g s t o v e s a n d s t e w p a n s , c a r p e n t e r s ' b e n c h e s a n d j a c k p l a n e s h e a d i n g f o r t h e s c h o o l r o o m d o o r , I l i f t e d u p a f e e b l e w a i l f o r m e r c y . I n t h i s w h o l e C o u n c i l o f Women I f o u n d n o f r i e n d . I w a s a n a t h e m a a n d u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e . I was u n p r o g r e s s i v e a n d l a z y . D i d I n o t k n o w t h a t c o o k i n g was a g o o d t h i n g , a m o s t n e c e s s a r y t h i n g ? A n d s h o u l d n ' t t h e s c h o o l c o u r s e b e e n r i c h e d ? ( A g n e s D e a n s C a m e r o n , 1 9 0 4 , p . 2 4 1 ) O b j e c t i o n s t o w a r d m a n u a l t r a i n i n g w e r e n o t c o n f i n e d s o l e l y t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , h o w e v e r . S t a m p ( 1 9 8 2 ) d i s c u s s e s t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f O n t a r i o t r a d e u n i o n s o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t m a n u a l t r a i n i n g i n s c h o o l s w o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s y s t e m , t a k e w o r k a w a y f r o m c o m p e t a n t t r a d e s m e n , a n d p r o d u c e i n a d e q u a t e l y q u a l i f i e d w o r k e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t w a s f e l t b y l a b o r s p o k e s m e n t h a t m a n u a l t r a i n i n g w o u l d t r a p w o r k i n g - c l a s s c h i l d r e n i n t o s t r i c t l y p h y s i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d t h e r e f o r e w o u l d d e n y t h e m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f u p w a r d s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . Y e t , a p p a r e n t l y some members o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L a b o u r U n i o n s a p p a r e n t l y l o o k e d f a v o r a b l y a t d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a s s u c h t r a i n i n g r a i s e d t h e p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s t a t u s o f m a n u a l s k i l l s ( L i g h t f o o t a n d M a y n a r d , 1 9 4 1 ) . O t h e r o p p o n e n t s f e l t t l i a t t h a t m a n u a l s u b j e c t s a s t a u g h t a t s c h o o l h a d n o p r a c t i c a l v a l u e ( P u t m a n , W e i r , 1 9 2 5 , p . 9 6 ) . T h u s , t h e c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m a n u a l p r o g r a m s c o v e r e d a w i d e a r e a o f c r i t i c i s m s . -50-However, Kyle suggested that the 'interferences' experienced by manual traini n g during i t formative years may have i n d i r e c t l y promoted i t s cause. In his 1920 report to the Department of Education he found i t " g r a t i f y i n g to know that the r e s u l t of having the limel i g h t thus thrown d i r e c t l y on the subjects has been to e s t a b l i s h them more securely than ever i n the school system." (1920, p. A83) 'A Ri g h t f u l Place i n a National and International Scheme of Education' The findings of the the 1924 Survey of the School System, conducted by Dr. J.H. Putman, Senior Inspector of Schools, Ottawa and Dr. G.M. Weir, Professor of Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, secured a sound footing for the continued presence of t r a i n i n g i n home economics i n the province. B r i e f s on behalf of domestic science were presented by the Parent-Teacher Association, the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation, and the Council of Women. Putman and Weir suggested that "Much c r i t i c i s m has come from those who got none of th i s i n s t r u c t i o n and very l i t t l e from those who received it."(1925, p. 96). However, they were c r i t i c a l of those advocates, who considered proving the worth of these subject areas t h e i r "special mission" for i n spite of t h e i r good intentions they had "made some sad blunders" which had triggered much of the c r i t i c i s m from which these subjects had suffered. Consequently, several s p e c i f i c recommendations - 5 1 -w e r e made r e g a r d i n g n o t o n l y c l a s s r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t a l s o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , t h e n e e d t o w e l d c l a s s e s i n m a n u a l s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e s c h o o l a s a w h o l e ; a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g s t u d e n t p r o j e c t s ' r e a l t h i n g s ' r a t h e r t h a n m o d e l s . T h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t home e c o n o m i c s b e a c o m p u l s o r y s u b j e c t t h r o u g h o u t m i d d l e s c h o o l a n d a n o p t i o n a l c o u r s e t h r o u g h t h e t h r e e y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l . I t w a s a l s o t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a s e c o n d s c i e n c e f o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n c r e d i t . F i n a l l y , P u t m a n a n d W e i r s u g g e s t e d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a d i r e c t o r "who w i l l i n s i s t o n a w i s e e x p e n d i t u r e o f m o n e y , a l l o w n o w a s t e o f e i t h e r p u p i l s ' t i m e o r m a t e r i a l , a n d c o - o r d i n a t e l e s s o n s i n home e c o n o m i c s w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d w i t h t h e home l i f e o f t h e p u p i l s o n t h e o t h e r " ( 1 9 2 5 , p . 3 3 9 ) . J u s t a s t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g a n d T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 1 9 , h a d h e l p e d t o j u s t i f y t h e p r e s e n c e o f new f o r m s o f e d u c a t i o n a t a n a t i o n a l l e v e l , t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e P u t m a n a n d W e i r s u r v e y l e g i t i m i z e d a t a t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l t h e i d e a s b e i n g p r o m o t e d b y s u b j e c t s s u c h a s d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . B y 1927 f i f t y - s e v e n c e n t e r s t l i r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e i n t o w n s s u c h a s A r m s t r o n g , C h i l l i w a c k , C o u r t e n a y , C u m b e r l a n d , K e l o w n a , N a n a i m o , New W e s t m i n s t e r , P o r t M o o d y a n d V e r n o n o f f e r e d p r o g r a m s i n home e c o n o m i c s . T h e r e w e r e 9 , 2 9 8 p u b l i c s c h o o l p u p i l s t a k i n g c o u r s e s , a n d f i f t y - n i n e -52-t e a c h e r s e m p l o y e d ( M c L e n a g h a n , 1 9 2 7 , p . M . 6 3 ) . O v e r a l l , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e w a s p e r c e i v e d b y i t s a d v o c a t e s a s u p g r a d i n g t h e m o r a l f a b r i c a n d p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s o f t h e h o m e , a p p l y i n g i n d u s t r i a l a d v a n c e s t o d o m e s t i c w o r k , d e s t r o y i n g m y t h s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e ' d e g r a d i n g l a b o r 1 o f t h e h o u s e h o l d , a n d s e e m i n g l y p r o m o t i n g b o t h t h e d e p e n d e n c e a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e o f women. W h a t e v e r m o t i v e s p u r r e d i n d i v i d u a l s u p p o r t e r s w a s s u b s u m e d b y t h e u n i t e d b e l i e f t h a t e x p l i c i t t r a i n i n g i n d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s w a s o f b e n e f i t t o w o m e n . H o w e v e r , t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e k i n d s o f p u r p o s e s v i s u a l i z e d b y r e f o r m e r s w e r e t h o s e a c t u a l l y s e r v e d b y s c h o o l p r o g r a m s , t h e p r a c t i c e o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e m u s t b e e x a m i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s a n d d o c u m e n t s . -53-Chapter Four AN IJNTERPRETIVT£ FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSING PRACTICE The school curriculum is a fruitful medium for tracing the process of change because exposure to planned learning experiences acquaints young people with new knowledge and changing beliefs. Each curriculum revision within a subject area therefore reflects not only changes in knowledge within a field of study but also, changes in the ordering of ideals about 'what should be taught'and the ways in which i t should be learned by pupils. The idea of teaching about the family in a school context was new, and so was the idea of offering practical experience. Thus, beliefs about the home and family, and how these were transformed into skills and techniques appropriate for a new sort of society reveals much about domestic science education as a form of educational change. In the case of home economics old ideas balanced new needs, the vested interests of various organizations demanded recognition, and "... of course, you always have the conservative pedantry of the schoolmaster opposed to the raw haste of the social reformer." (Lang, 1905, p.50) -54-An Explanation of Practice. The framework used to examine the development of domestic science at the public school level, employs the concept of 'practice' as a means of revealing changes in the curriculum of home economics. The concept of practice reflects both the belief structure and the practical nature of home economics as a subject of study. An understanding of the term 'practice' comes from the work of Diorio (1982) who explains that although the term is used frequently at an informal level, insufficient thought is given to its relationship to both knowledge and activity when practice is discussed within professional fields. Diorio defines practice used by professions as being "the more or less continuous involvement in certain publicly identifiable ranges of activities" (1982, p.258). For example, one can practice medicine, plumbing, or Judaism, not in the sense of learning how to do anything or of improving one's performance, but rather of being habitually engaged in doing those things and/or expressing those outlooks readily associated with medicine, plumbing or the Jewish faith. When a person has been labelled as a practitioner in this second sense of one of these things, he normally is said to "be" a doctor, plumber, or Jew, indicating the his engagement in the particular form of practice is regular enough to constitute part of his everyday identity as a person. (Diorio, 1982, p.258.) Thus, Diorio's explanation provides insights into the way particular kinds of activities are used by society to distinguish one professional - 5 5 -f i e l d f r o m a n o t h e r . T o b e c o n s i d e r e d a ' t e a c h e r ' o n e m u s t e n g a g e r e g u l a r l y i n a c o r e o f a c t i v i t i e s a n d k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g s u b j e c t c o n t e n t , a n d p e d a g o g y r e l a t e d t o b e i n g a n e d u c a t o r . T h e s e c a n b e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s a n d i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n u r s i n g . D i o r i o ' s d e f i n i t i o n a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t o v e r t i m e p e r s i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n s o f e a c h p r o f e s s i o n . T h u s , h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e a p p l i e s t o M o r r i s o n ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t r e f o r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y c h o s e t o f o c u s u p o n d i f f e r i n g c a u s e s o f s o c i a l d i s o r d e r a s " . . . s a n i t a r i a n s s t r e s s e d i n s a n i t a r y l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; s o c i a l w o r k e r s p o i n t e d t o f a m i l y i n s t a b i l i t y ; . . . e d u c a t o r s e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i v o r c e o f t h e s c h o o l f r o m s o c i e t y " ( 1 9 7 6 , p . 5 5 ) . T h o u g h t h e k i n d s o f p r a c t i c e w h i c h e a c h h a s e v o l v e d i s u n i q u e , t h e y s h a r e s i m i l a r h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s . W h i l e D i o r i o ' s n o t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n a r e o f a s s i s t a n c e i n s e p a r a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n s , h i s d e f i n i t i o n d o e s n o t c l a r i f y t h e w a y i n w h i c h k n o w l e d g e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h p r o f e s s i o n b e c o m e s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n . F o r h i s t o r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s h o w s t h a t p e r s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n m u s t a l s o s p e a k f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s o f e a c h p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d b y M o r r i s o n ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f f i e l d s o f s t u d y s u c h a s d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d s o c i a l w o r k . - 5 6 -P r a c t i c e , t h e r e f o r e , r e f l e c t s t h e a c c u m u l a t e d p h i l o s o p h y o f a f i e l d , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e , i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e common c o r e o f a c t i v i t y a n d i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n s . T h e t e r m p r a c t i c e a l s o i m p l i e s i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p o s s e s s i n g k n o w l e d g e a n d u s i n g i t . T o c l a r i f y w h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e r e q u i r e s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w a y s i n w h i c h k n o w l e d g e i s p u r v e y e d t o o t h e r s , t h e w a y s i n w h i c h i t i s u s e d b y t h o s e w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a n d t h e k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e made a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e i n home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n t h i s means s e e k i n g t o l e a r n how t e a c h e r s t r a n s f o r m e d t h e k n o w l e d g e o f h o m e m a k i n g a n d f a m i l i e s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r s t u d e n t s . W h i l e D i o r i o a r g u e s t h a t " a l l p r a c t i c a l f i e l d s c a n n o t b e s p o k e n o f i n i d e n t i c a l t e r m s ' ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 2 5 7 ) i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t p r a c t i c e w i t h i n a n y g i v e n f i e l d may a l s o v a r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t o s e e k t o u n d e r s t a n d m o r e a b o u t home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f o r m s o f p r a c t i c e i t e m b o d i e s . H o l z n e r a n d M a r x a l s o a d d i n s i g h t i n t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r a c t i c e i n t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a l l f o r m s o f p r a c t i c e s t e m f r o m " . . . common s e n s e a s a c u l t u r a l s y s t e m t h a t i s t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r a l l s p e c i a l i z e d modes o f k n o w i n g . T h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d modes o f k n o w i n g m a y , h o w e v e r , d e p a r t g r e a t l y f r o m i t . Y e t , t h e c u l t u r a l s y s t e m o f common s e n s e r e m a i n s a n e m b e d d i n g c o n t e x t t h a t p a t t e r n s s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e u s e . " ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 2 5 9 ) - 5 7 -W h i l e p r a c t i c e may b e a n a l y z e d a s s e p a r a t e c o n c e p t s , t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e m a i n i n h e r e n t features o £ a l l f o r m s o f p r a c t i c e . F i r s t , a l l c o n c e p t s o f p r a c t i c e a r i s e f r o m t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y a r e d e r i v e d . T h u s , a l l f o r m s o £ p r a c t i c e a r e g r o u n d e d i n t h e d a i l y r e a l i t y o f o n e ' s c u l t u r e . M e a n i n g f u l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p e o p l e c a n n o t t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t t h e c u l t u r a l s y m b o l s s u c h a s l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e , c o d e s o f b e h a v i o u r , a n d s o c i a l v a l u e s a n d n o r m s f o r t h e s e a r e t h e c u l t u r a l r e c i p e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e r e a l i t y o f d a i l y l i f e f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . S e c o n d , common s e n s e s t r u c t u r e s f o r m a p a r t o f e v e n s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e , s o t h a t a l l s c h o l a r l y c o m m u n i t i e s a r e g r o u n d e d i n c u l t u r a l r e a l i t i e s t h a t l i e b e n e a t h e v e n h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d m e t h o d o l o g y , a n d s p e c i a l i s t t e r m i n o l o g y . T h u s , common s e n s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a s a f o u n d a t i o n f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f p r a c t i c e . T h i r d , common s e n s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e s o m e t i m e s s o e m b e d d e d t h a t t h e y a r e t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d b y p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i t h i n a f i e l d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , some a s p e c t s o f p r a c t i c e may n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d b y t h o s e i n v o l v e d , a c i r c u m s t a n c e w h i c h h a s l e d t o c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p a c t o f t h e ' h i d d e n ' d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e a c t i o n s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i s h a s b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s c h o o l i n g a n d t h e ' h i d d e n c u r r i c u l u m ' t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e u n w i t t i n g l y e x p o s e d , ( s e e , f o r i n s t a n c e , W i l s o n , 1 9 8 0 : V a l l a n c e , 1 9 7 3 / 7 4 ) -58-The interpretive framework, page 59, by Wilson and Vaines (1985) portrays four different dimensions of practice. These are identified as customary, instrumental, interactive, and reflective conceptions of practice. A brief explanation of each of the conceptions of practice w i l l c l a r i f y their inherent differences. While on one hand, their portrayal as separate entities tends to obscure the complexity of practice, on the other i t does distinguish between the kinds of knowledge bases which underlie particular patterns of action, and the way these are used in the conduct of l i f e . Each conception of practice relates to the formulated questions which guide the examination of practice inherent in selected curricula. Customary Practice The conception of practice termed 'Customary" highlights the patterns of acti v i t i e s which directly relate to the conduct of the everyday world. The work of the anthropologist Bourdieu (1977) supports the contentions of customary practice through suggesting that the precepts of culture allow social groups to generate a multitude of practices which can be endlessly adapted to different situations, yet those involved do not have explicit knowledge of the principles underlying their actions. Customary practice therefore, encompasses much of the 'cultural baggage' that each individual carries throughout l i f e . Its patterns of action are embodied in the cultural routines, and common sense DIAGRAM l i A THEORETIC PRAHEVORX TOR THE EXAMINATION OF PRACTICE Consideration* of P r a c t i c e Supporting Hoda of Purposa of Patterns of Inducement R e l a t i o n s h i p between Str u c t u r e s of Inquiry P r a c t i c e a c t i o n t o a c t i o n Knowledge £ A c t i o n Knowledge Customary P r a c t i c e B a s i c a l l y A t h e o r e t i c a l H i s t o r i c a l precedent) Personal experience) conventional wisdom To solve p a r t i c u l a r and immediate problems. To become aware of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s Commonplace s o l u t i o n s t o p r a c t i c a l prob-lems) p r o f e s s i o n a l r o u t i n e s and s o c i a l conduct P r e s e r v i n g t r a d -i t i o n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l f o l k l o r e , and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e A c t i o n i s guided by p e r s o n a l e x p e r t i s e based on h i s t o r i c a l c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n Instrumental P r a c t i c e E a p i r i c a l t h e o r i e s of c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n E m p i r i c a l examination o f predefined problems To c o n t r o l the s o c i a l and n a t u r a l environment i n predefined ways. To produce t e c h n i -c a l l y u s e f u l knowledge Predetermined systems of ac t i o n ) Techniques d i r e c t -ed toward i n t e r -v e n t i o n / p r e v e n t i o n Applying the laws and methods of s c i e n c e . P r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l of r e s u l t s A c t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by e m p i r i c a l / a n a l y -t i c a l data. Know-ledge and a c t i o n are viewed s e p a r a t e l y I n t e r a c t i v e P r a c t i c e I n t e r p r e t i v e theory H i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s A n a l y s i s of experience; p r a c t i c a l d e l i b e r -a t i o n ) Discourse and d i a l e c t i c To b u i l d a consen-sus of understand-i n g d i r e c t e d toward the enhancement of human l i f e N e g o t i a t i o n w i t h ' o t h e r s o f acceptable s o l u t i o n s t o given problems) o r i e n t i n g a c t i o n i n d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n Understanding 'what l a ' ) Acknowledging other p e r s p e c t i v e s , sharing networks of meaning Knowledge i s t i e d to a c t i o n through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n R e f l e c t i v e P r a c t i c e C r i t i c a l and normative theory D i a l e c t i c ) C r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n ) R e f l e x i v e examination i To change the i n d i v i d u a l o r s o c i a l order. To b u i l d a j u s t s o c i e t y f o r a l l S o c i a l a c t i o n d i r e c t e d toward long term change D i s c l o s i n g c o n s t r a i n t s which i n h i b i t change) P e r c e i v i n g what 'ought to be'. Constant i n t e r p l a y between p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and the way i t i s t r a n s l a t e d t o a c t i o n From: Sue W i l s o n and E l e a n o r e V a i n e s . (1965) A t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e in home e c o n o m i c s . Home E c o n o m i c s  R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l . 13 ( 4 ) (in p r o c e s s ) . -60-behaviours that make up the s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s and habits which form a part of both the informal and formal conduct of d a i l y l i v i n g . Customary practice adds richness, depth and s t a b i l i t y to professional as w e l l as everyday concerns. For instance, customary practice may incorporate ceremonies, and symbolic routines which imbue group members with status or accord recognized both within the group i t s e l f , as w e l l as by outsiders. Members may be loathe to discard such t r a d i t i o n s even though they might be outmoded i n contemporary society, for these embody the heritage and meaning inherent i n the group ideal s . At the same time, customary practice represents routines that are a part of the structure of the profession i t s e l f . Action associated with practise of a customary form i s most frequently an immediate response to a s p e c i f i c circumstance. Stress i s placed upon the conventional wisdom and personal expertise that has become established as being c u l t u r a l l y acceptable, and that may have been learned from p r i o r generations. For example, habit and custom have established many f o l k medicines to be successful remedies for some diseases and other forms of physcial d i s t r e s s , though a s c i e n t i f i c basis for age-old wisdom may not have j u s t i f i e d t h e i r use u n t i l many years l a t e r . In customary practice i t i s what 'works' that counts, as determined by the accumulated wisdom of those more experienced. -61-In terras of d a i l y l i f e , actions of a customary form are readily associated with routines and ideas regarding the conduct of the home. Thus, the b e l i e f s of grandmothers, mothers, and other meaningful persons often play a large part i n household practice related to child- r e a r i n g , parenting, and family coinmunication. Sometimes s c i e n t i f i c evidence supports customary practice, such as the studies which suggest that breast-feeding provides benefits to the new-born that cannot be replicated by bottle-feeding. In t h i s instance, a young mother can f e e l increasingly comfortable knowing her decision to breast-feed her baby has s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y . Yet, sometimes customary p r a c t i c e . i s at odds with the practices advocated by science. For example, e f f i c i e n c y studies may suggest that having a household garden i s not generally an economical way to obtain f r u i t and vegetables. Shopping at a supermarket may save both money and energy but ignores the pleasures of gardening which are not accountable i n s c i e n t i f i c terms. In the case of the gardener t h i s i s a simple problem involving determining which aspect of obtaining f r u i t and vegetables i s most important. In the case of the young mother, a decision to bottle-feed, as advocated by many mothers i n the previous generation, may r e s u l t i n a more complicated s i t u a t i o n i n which the customary b e l i e f s of her p a r t i c u l a r family are at odds with the practices suggested by science. Thus, the delineation of customary practice from other conceptions of practice, provides a means of understanding the c o n f l i c t which sometimes occurs when practices of one -62-forra become juxtaposed on another. When used i n examining domestic science i t provides insight into the development and overlap of patterns of action associated with the home. In the professional sphere, the customary dimension supplies 'blueprints' for appropriate action i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . I m p l i c i t forms of customary practice determine professional conduct, such as the language used by professionals i n communicating with c l i e n t s , wearing accepted symbols of status, e.g. c l i n i c a l uniforms versus street clothes, or using professional t i t l e s . These can influence the nature of practice, whether or not they are a r t i c u l a t e d . I t i s only recently that the effect of these p a r t i c u l a r symbols and routines has been called into question, i . e . some customary practises have become the subject of e x p l i c i t scrutiny. Thus, some professionals are now questioning aspects of the services they perform. Given names are now more frequently used; uniforms have become less common; and professional jargon which confuses c l i e n t s i s the subject of discussion. These changes i l l u s t r a t e that customary practice need not be s t a t i c , once the dimension i s recognized by those involved. Wilson's (1981) discussion of the professional t r a i n i n g of teachers indicates that the 'apprenticeship method' may be one of the means by which customary practice i s taught. Under the guidance of q u a l i f i e d experts, prospective teachers undergo a lengthy apprenticeship i n t h e i r -63-student-teaching piractica. Medical students, d i e t i t i a n s , and nurses a l l have periods of rigorous p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g as a part of t h e i r professional development- In a s i m i l a r way, students i n public schools are 'apprentices' as they become acquainted with concepts of acceptable 'practice' associated with schooling. Knowledge i n these instances i s not negotiated, but i s i m p l i c i t l y accepted by the u n i n i t i a t e d , and i t s mastery frequently rewarded by instructors. Customary practice can therefore, exert i t s influence not only on the patterns of action of each i n d i v i d u a l , but also consciously or not, on the process of formal t r a i n i n g to which members are exposed. Instrumental Practice A second dimension of practice portrayed i n the int e r p r e t i v e framework i s instrumental practice, rooted i n both the natural and s o c i a l sciences. The s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s provide knowledge that enables people to control t h e i r surroundings. Research t r a d i t i o n s are grounded i n the empirical mode of inquiry, and the p r i n c i p l e s and laws established by the s c i e n t i f i c framework of thinking. Consequently, the methods of investigation employed i n instrumental practice and the knowledge i t produces are considerably d i f f e r e n t from those of customary practice. Because the instrumental conception of practice i s based on the s c i e n t i f i c rationale which claims to be value free, i t can only legitimately concern i t s e l f with those aspects of knowledge which - 6 4 -c a n b e e m p i r i c a l l y m e a s u r e d a n d s u b j e c t e d t o s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s . S c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t p r o b l e m s m u s t b e p r e d e f i n e d , i n p r e c i s e a n d m e a s u r e a b l e t e r m s s u i t a b l e t o e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s . T h e r e f o r e , p r o c e d u r e s m u s t b e c o n d u c t e d w i t h o u t t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h c a n n o t b e c o n t r o l l e d a n d t h e r e s u l t s m u s t b e v i a b l e i n s c i e n t i f i c t e r m s . V a n M a n e n ( 1 9 7 7 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d e f f i c i e n c y u s e d i n e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o l o r s b o t h t h e means b y w h i c h t h e a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , a n d t h e e n d s t o w h i c h i t i s d i r e c t e d . W i t h i n c o n t e m p o r a r y home e c o n o m i c s , i n s t r u m e n t a l p r a c t i c e i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e management o f a p p l i e d t e c h n i q u e s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n , s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s a n d b e h a v i o u r m o d i f i c a t i o n , a s w e l l a s t h e t e c h n o l o g y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d c o n s u m p t i o n o f c o n s u m e r g o o d s . A p p l e ( 1 9 7 5 ) d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e h a s b e c o m e s o a c c e p t e d t h a t i t i s t h e p r e d o m i n a t e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . W i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y s u c c e s s i s d e t e r m i n e d o n l y i n d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h a r e m e a s u r e a b l e , s o t h a t r e s u l t s w h i c h c a n b e p r o v e n i n s c i e n t i f i c t e r m s a r e m o r e a c c o u n t a b l e a n d t h e r e f o r e , m o r e w o r t h w h i l e . A p p l e ( 1 9 7 5 ) c a l l s t h i s a f o r m o f s c i e n t i s m , o r t h e w o r s h i p o f t e c h n i c a l a c t i o n . Y e t , t h e v a l u e o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c f r a m e w o r k m u s t n o t b e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , f o r t h r o u g h t h e d i m e n s i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t a l p r a c t i c e t h e h o r i z o n s o f k n o w l e d g e h a v e b e e n e x p a n d e d t o a l e v e l n o t e v e n i m a g i n e d b y p r i o r -65-generations. While the s c i e n t i f i c rationale i s a powerful phenomenon i n the control and production of technical knowledge, some aspects of l i f e are not encompassed by i t s parameters. Many of the things which make, us 'human' cannot be neatly packaged and measured. Thus, f i e l d s of study dealing with the needs and values of people must be aware of the boundaries imposed by the s c i e n t i f i c rationale. For instance, Reid (1979) suggests that frequently i n professions concerned with people, p r a c t i c a l problems become reduced to procedural ones i n order to f i t the imagery of engineering and design fostered by science. The t r a n s l a t i o n of s o c i a l issues into technical forms leads to the manipulation of situations which may d i s t o r t both the root of the problem, and eff e c t the dismissal of alt e r n a t i v e solutions because they cannot be quantified. Thus, instrumental practice, powerful though i t may be, i s not a suitable means for solving a l l problems, and despite i t s dominance, cannot accommodate many of the dimensions of human behaviour important i n d a i l y l i f e . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the in c l u s i o n of the name 'science' into the o r i g i n a l t i t l e of the program i n domestic t r a i n i n g i n public schools, underscores the b e l i e f that knowledge offered by the s c i e n t i f i c rationale was necessary for the improvement of family conditions at the turn of the century. S c i e n t i f i c discoveries indeed benefitted the physical condition of families i n terms of health practices, cleanliness, and d i e t . Moreover, i n i t s struggle for acceptance i n the -66-e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , p l a c i n g t h e n e e d s o f t h e home a n d f a m i l y o n a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s p o r t r a y e d d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a s a f i e l d o f s e r i o u s s t u d y a n d t h e r e b y h e l p e d l e g i t i m i z e i t s i n c l u s i o n i n s c h o o l s . N o t o n l y d i d s c i e n c e p r o v i d e new t o o l s f o r s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s , b u t i t h e l d t h e p r o m i s e o f m a k i n g t h e home b o t h m o r e e f f e c t i v e a n d e f f i c i e n t . I n t e r a c t i v e P r a c t i c e I n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m b o t h c u s t o m a r y a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r m s b y i t s c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e . I n t h i s d i m e n s i o n t h e o b s e r v e r s e e k s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m e a n i n g s u n d e r l y i n g p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f a c t i o n s . K n o w l e d g e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i n t e r a c t i v e d o m a i n i n c o r p o r a t e s a s p e c t s o f v a l u e a n d q u a l i t y a n d i n v o l v e s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r i o r s i t u a t i o n s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e , i . e . i t i n c l u d e s a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . P r a c t i c e o f t h i s f o r m r e q u i r e s t h e e x p l i c i t e f f o r t o f t h e o b s e r v e r t o r e c o g n i z e p a r t i c u l a r m e a n i n g s i n h e r e n t i n p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n , f o r e v e n t h o u g h t h e a c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t w o s i t u a t i o n s may a p p e a r s i m i l a r , t h e m e a n i n g s a n d i n t e n t i o n s l y i n g b e h i n d t h e m may r e s u l t i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n s . T h u s , f o r e x a m p l e , s a y i n g ' I d o ' i n f r o n t o f a p r i e s t a n d o n e s f i a n c e ' , may b e a n a c t o f m a r r i a g e a n d i t may n o t , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s may b e p r e t e n d i n g o r a c t i n g i n a m o v i e o r r e h e a r s i n g t h e c e r e m o n y , a n d s o o n . What s p e c i f i c a c t i o n i s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n d e p e n d s u p o n t h e m e a n i n g s t h a t t h e b o d i l y movement b e i n g p e r f o r m e d h a v e . ( F a y , 1 9 7 5 , p . 7 3 ) - 6 7 -D e s c r i p C i o n s a n d r e d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y t n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s e n s e o f p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n s f o r s u c h r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s e e k common n e t w o r k s o f m e a n i n g r a t h e r t h a n m e a s u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o e x p l a n a t i o n s o f f e r e d b y i n t e r p r e t i v e s o c i a l s c i e n c e , b y i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n a s i t u a t i o n , o r b y r e l i v i n g a n e v e n t , t h e a c t i o n s o b s e r v e d c a n b e m o r e a u t h e n t i c a l l y u n d e r s t o o d , a n d t h e ' s e n s e ' o f p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s b r o u g h t t o l i g h t . F a y ( 1 9 7 5 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d o r e x p l a i n p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y s e t t i n g t h e a c t w i t h i n a l a r g e r c o n t e x t t h a n t h a t s i m p l y o b s e r v e d . T h e m e a n i n g g i v e n t o a c t i o n s t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e s t h e a i m s a n d c o g n i t i o n s o f t h e p e r s o n i n v o l v e d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n , a n d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a c t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e p u b l i c e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t p a r t i c u l a r e x p l a n a t i o n s i s g a t h e r e d f r o m m o r e t h a n t h e o b s e r v e d a c t i o n s o f t h e e v e n t i t s e l f . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e d e b a t e s r e l a t e d t o t h e ' d o m e s t i c p r o b l e m ' d o c u m e n t e d b y t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women o f C a n a d a ( r e f e r r e d t o i n c h a p t e r t w o ) c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d a t a s u r f a c e l e v e l a s t h e d e s i r e t o h e l p i m m i g r a n t women i n p e r f o r m i n g h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s . Y e t , a m o r e c a r e f u l r e a d i n g - a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e v i d e n c e - s h o w s t h a t c o n c e r n f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e s k i l l s o f i m m i g r a n t women a l s o a r o s e b e c a u s e t h e y p r o v i d e d a r e s e r v o i r o f h o u s e h o l d h e l p f o r C a n a d i a n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , c l a s s e s i n d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g c o u l d i m p a r t -68-the 'Canadian way' to women of foreign backgrounds. Thus, evidence and reason suggest that there was more to the domestic problem than was f i r s t apparent, and that the search for a deeper explanation of the actions involved reveal a much more complex situation. In interactive practice active participation characterizes the trailsfer of knowledge from the one who holds the knowledge to the 'seekers' of the knowledge. Two relationships become evident, each unique from the other dimensions of practice - the f i r s t between the professional and the knowledge inherent in his f i e l d of study; the second between the professional and those with whom the knowledge is shared. I f these relationships are construed in terras of education, i t i s evident that each teacher must interpret the knowledge of their subject fields not only in terras of prescribed courses of study, but also i n terms of their own experiences as a person, and the p r i o r i t i e s each places on the presentation of certain kinds of knowledge for particular classrooms. For example we are told repeatedly how the death of Adelaide Hoodless's son by drinking contaminated milk, stimulated her crusade for intelligent training for women in household matters. While this is a dramatic example of the biography of the 'holder of knowledge' affecting i t s selection and interpretation, similar situations occur constantly in the way knowledge is transformed to to suit particular audiences. The following explanation of a mathematics lesson in a 1907 classroom clearly shows how knowledge was selected and -69-o r i e n t e d for p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e s , i n t h i s c a s e , s o a s t o ' m a k e t h e s c h o o l a n d l i f e r e a l t o t h e c h i l d ' . M i s s Snow g a v e a m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how m a t h e m a t i c s may b e t a u g h t i n a c o o k i n g c l a s s . I n a c l a s s w i t h s i x y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n , we b e g a n w i t h f r a c t i o n s , u s i n g t h e m e a s u r i n g c u p . We w e r e m a k i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e m t o k n o w how many h a l v e s t h e r e a r e i n a w h o l e , how many f o u r t h s i n a w h o l e , h o w many f o u r t h s i n a h a l f . T h e y l e a r n e d q u i c k l y . I n m a k i n g f i g s a n d w i c h e s t h e r e c i p e c a l l e d for o n e - h a l f a s much s u g a r a s f i g s a n d t w i c e a s much w a t e r . E a c h c h i l d m e a s u r e d t h e f i g s a f t e r c u t t i n g t h e m i n s m a l l p i e c e s , t h e n h a d t o f i n d o u t how m u c h s u g a r a n d w a t e r t o u s e . T h e a m o u n t o f f i g s v a r i e d s o t h a t some o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d w e r e o n e - h a l f o f o n e - q u a r t e r , o n e - h a l f o f t w o , o n e - h a l f o f o n e - h a l f , o n e - h a l f o f o n e - t h i r d , o n e - t h i r d o f t w o . T h e y s o l v e d t h e m q u i c k l y . Why? B e c a u s e e a c h o n e w a n t e d t o make h i s s a n d w i c h . ( H o o d l e s s , 1 9 0 8 , p . 1 9 4 ) . I n t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e t h e c o n t o u r i n g o f k n o w l e d g e b y t h e t e a c h e r t o f i t a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s , i s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o s s e s s i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e . T h e s e c o n d r e l a t i o n s h i p u n i q u e t o i n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e i s b e t w e e n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ( i n t h i s c a s e , t h e t e a c h e r ) a n d t h o s e t o whom t h e k n o w l e d g e i s b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d ( t h e s t u d e n t s ) . I n i n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e p a r t i c i p a n t s w o r k t o g e t h e r t o f o r g e a common n e t w o r k o f m e a n i n g . W o r k i n g t o g e t h e r r e s t s o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t , i f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s v i e w e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d , e n r i c h e d f o r m s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g e m e r g e . I n i n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e t h e r o l e o f t h e ' e x p e r t ' - 7 0 -or 'holder of knowledge' i s not f i x e d , because of p a r t i c i p a t i o n with others i n reaching a consensus of understanding. Thus, defense lawyers present the p o s i t i o n of the accused, or counsellors seek to understand the actions of c l i e n t s i n d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s . In each case, the c l i e n t , student, or involved 'other' becomes an active member of the team where descriptions, meanings and understandings related to a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n are determined. Once a sa t i s f a c t o r y interpretation i s reached, alte r n a t i v e solutions can be presented, and t h e i r merits discussed. Schwab refers to t h i s form of decision making as choosing "not the ri g h t a l t e r n a t i v e , for there i s no such thing, but the best one". (1969, p.36). This does not preclude that the most appropriate solution may indeed l i e i n the dimension of instrumental practice. However, i n contrast to instrumentalism, i n t e r a c t i v e practice views the methods of science as one of the a l t e r n a t i v e s , rather than the only way of reaching a solution. Interactive practice i n education i s associated with knowledge that i s not imposed, but rather that which i s arbitrated. I t provides the opportunity to see through the surface of everyday l i f e , and reveals the commonality of meaning i n experience rather than the q u a n i t i f i a b l e relationships. A curriculum which includes knowledge which can be negotiated stimulates discussion, d e l i b e r a t i o n and the consideration of alternative viewpoints. Interactive practice therefore encourages students to become engaged with the knowledge i t s e l f and to interact with others who hold an a l t e r n a t i v e viewpoint. - 7 1 -R e f l e c t l v e P r a c t i c e R e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e a d d r e s s e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l , m o r a l , s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y . I t i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n , b a s e d o n a n i n t e r e s t i n e m a n c i p a t i o n d e v e l o p e d b y H a b e r m a s , ( 1 9 7 4 ) . P r a c t i c e o f t h i s f o r m i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s b y p r o c e s s o f c r i t i q u e w h i c h r e v e a l s t h e c o n s t r a i n i n g f o r c e s , v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s a n d f a l s e s o c i a l b e l i e f s o f s i t u a t i o n s t h a t may n o t b e a p p a r e n t t o t h o s e c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d . B y c r e a t i n g a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t s h a p e t h e f r a m e w o r k s o f k n o w l e d g e , a n d human p e r s p e c t i v e s - a n d t h e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e s e m i g h t b e t r a n s f o r m e d , r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e a i m s t o b r i n g a b o u t l o n g - t e r m c h a n g e , n o t o n l y i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , b u t a l s o i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . A s p e o p l e b e c o m e a w a r e o f t h e m e c h a n i s m s t h a t c o n t r o l human l i v e s , a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u c h d o m i n a t i o n , t h e y b e g i n t o s e e t h e m s e l v e s d i f f e r e n t l y . H u l t g r e n s p e a k s o f t h i s a s " b r i n g i n g o u t t h e i n n e r w o r l d t h a t s t a n d s b e h i n d t h e o u t e r w o r l d " ( 1 9 8 3 , p . 2 1 ) . O n c e s u c h i n f l u e n c e s a r e e x p o s e d , a v e n u e s o f a c t i o n t h a t w i l l b r i n g a b o u t c h a n g e b e c o m e a p p a r e n t . T h r o u g h , q u e s t i o n i n g , d e b a t i n g , a n d r e f l e c t i n g u p o n j u x t a p o s e d o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y p e r s p e c t i v e s o f k n o w l e d g e , p o t e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n c a n b e w e i g h e d a n d r e c o n c i l e d f o r t h e g o o d -72-o f a l l . A c t i o n , i n r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e i m p l i e s a w i l l i n g n e s s t o b e a r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f c h a n g i n g t h a t w h i c h i s r e p r e s s i v e . T h e p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e i t s e l f t h e r e f o r e b e c o m e s i n h e r e n t l y m e a n i n g f u l , f o r a c t i o n -c o n c e i v e d a s p a r t o f a w i d e r c o n t e x t - i s n o t a n e n d u n t o i t s e l f , b u t r a t h e r a t u r n i n g p o i n t w h i c h f o s t e r s c o n t i n u e d r e f l e c t i o n a n d g r o w t h . C o n c e r n f o r t h e r e f l e c t i v e d i m e n s i o n o f p r a c t i c e w a s v i s u a l i z e d b y a f e w o f t h e i n i t i a l a d v o c a t e s o f d o m e s t i c t r a i i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , C a r o l i n e H u n t v o i c e d h e r i d e a s r e g a r d i n g t h e n o t i o n o f ' f r e e d o m ' i n h e r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s c o p e o f home e c o n o m i c s . T h e f i n a l t e s t o f t e a c h i n g home e c o n o m i c s i s f r e e d o m . I f we h a v e u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e d a s i n g l e l i f e b y p e r p e t u a t i n g u s e l e s s c o n v e n t i o n s o r b y c a r r y i n g t h e v a l u e s o f o n e a g e o v e r i n t o t h e n e x t , j u s t s o f a r h a v e we f a i l e d . I f we h a v e s i m p l i f i e d o n e l i f e a n d r e l e a s e d i n i t e n e r g y f o r i t s own e x p r e s s i o n , j u s t s o f a r h a v e we s u c c e e d e d , ( c i t e d i n F r a n c i n e H u l t g r e n , 1 9 8 3 , p . 2 2 ) T h u s , H u n t c r i t i c i z e s s o c i e t a l n o r m s t l i a t a r e p e r p e t u a t e d w i t h o u t e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r w o r t h . S h e i m p l i e s t h a t t h e l a c k o f e x a m i n a t i o n i n h i b i t s t h e f r e e d o m d e s i r e d b y women b e c a u s e s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r e p r e s s i v e . H u n t ' s comments s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l o f i n d i v i d u a l s c a n o n l y b e f u l f i l l e d w h e n t h e y u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e y ' h a v e b e e n ' w h a t t h e y ' a r e n o w ' a n d w h a t t h e y h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l ' t o b e c o m e ' . T h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i s t h a t o f r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e . T h e f a c t t h a t H u n t ' s e a r l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l s f o r m e d a p a r t o f t h e L a k e P l a c i d C o n f e r e n c e s , b e g s t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r s u c h i d e a l s w e r e e x p r e s s e d -73-i n the curriculum off domestic science, and whether they form a part of the contemporary program. The dimension of r e f l e c t i v e practice holds expanded horizons of meaning and new directions for actions which promote s o c i a l change rather than s o c i a l adaptation. As the idea l of service directed toward the strengthening of the home and family i s the proclaimed goal of home economics, and as education has h i s t o r i c a l l y been a major means of promoting i t s i d e a l s , the inclus i o n of r e f l e c t i v e practice i n the interpretive framework i s a means of determining whether students are being provided with the necessary tools to bring about the changes condusive to the improvement of human welfare. In short, do home economics programs promote frameworks of thinking congruent with the ideals they uphold ? - 7 4 -C h a p t e r F i v e THE CURRICULUM OF DOMESTIC S C I E N C E : A D E S C R I P T I O N OF CHANGE. T h e c u r r i c u l u m i s e x a m i n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o s t a g e s i n t h e g r o w t h o f t h e d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a s a s c h o o l s u b j e c t . T h e y e a r s 1 9 0 5 t o 1 9 2 5 c o v e r t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y p h a s e o f p r o g r a m s t o s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . D u r i n g i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e p r o m o t e d t h e v i r t u e s o f d o m e s t i c i t y a s a means o f a s s i s t i n g f a m i l i e s . T h e e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m i s d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t , t h e w a y k n o w l e d g e i s a p p l i e d i n t e r m s o f s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u b j e c t m a t t e r a n d l e a r n i n g . T h e i n i t i a l p r o g r a m i s e x a m i n e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l a s i t h a s p r o v i d e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r s u b s e q u e n t c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n s . F r o m 1 9 2 6 u n t i l 1 9 4 6 t h e c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s i n b o t h i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i t s b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e . T e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g move a w a y f r o m l e s s o n s b a s e d o n t h e e x p e r t i s e o f t e a c h e r s a n d i n s t e a d r e f l e c t e d a s t r o n g e r c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f s c i e n c e . T h e l a s t p h a s e o f e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e 1 9 7 9 c u r r i c u l u m , o u t l i n e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s c h o o l p r o g r a m . -75-T h e F i r s t P h a s e - I n u i t I v e I d e a s , S t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e W o r l d o f S c i e n c e . Few r e c o r d s s u r v i v e f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t e r a o f home e c o n o m i c s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H o w e v e r , t h o s e t h a t d o s u g g e s t t h e r e n e v e r w a s a n ' o r i g i n a l a a r r i c u l u m ' . I n m o s t c a s e s t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f e a r l y d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e t r a i n i n g , i n t e r e s t s a n d r e s o u r c e s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . Y e t , e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s a c o n s i d e r a b l e u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e k i n d s o f t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n e a r l y d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m s . T h u s , c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l p r o g r a m s s u c h a s P u b l i c S c h o o l D o m e s t i c  S c i e n c e ( 1 8 9 8 ) , D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e C o u r s e I ( 1 9 1 1 ) , t h e G i r l s ' Home  M a n u a l ( 1 9 1 3 ) , a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , C o u r s e s o f S t u d y ( 1 9 2 3 ) a l l o u t l i n e s i m i l a r k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A n e a r l y a t t e m p t i n c r e a t i n g c u r r i c u l a r u n i f o r m i t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n a n d h o u s e k e e p i n g m a n u a l s f o r d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ( J u n i p e r , 1 9 1 1 ) . B y 1 9 2 3 t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e d a r e g u l a t i o n r e q u i r i n g u r b a n t e a c h e r s t o o f f e r o n l y o n e c o u r s e o f w o r k i n a n y o n e c i t y . H o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s n o o f f i c i a l e f f o r t t o c o o r d i n a t e p r o g r a m s i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e u n t i l t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f M c L e n a g h a n i n 1 9 2 6 . -76-Act Lvities: 1. What kinds of acti v i t i e s are emphasized in the curriculum? The a c t i v i t i e s of early programs i n domestic training focus on the duties of women in caring for the family and the household. Activities are distinguished by two major characteristics. F i r s t , they emphasize the home as a production center. Therefore, lessons consist of step-by-step procedures for making things, ranging from food products, to laundry starch, to laying a f i r e . Secondly, the a c t i v i t i e s emphasize the refinement of s k i l l s and techniques through practice, and by modelling the actions of the teacher. The importance of doing domestic duties well i s evident i n both the number of acti v i t i e s which are specified, and the detail with which they are outlined. For example, i n the Home Management section of Domestic Science, Course I comprehensive and separate instructions are given for the cleaning of the following items: the kitchen sink, the sink trap, the kitchen range, mopping, dusting and sweeping (using a dustcap and gloves) window cleaning, painted and varnished wood, si l v e r , knives, steel forks, pastry boards, white wooden utensils, kitchen t i n and enamel ware, brushes, furniture, and copper and brass. - 7 7 -2 . How d o c l a s s members p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t i e s ? P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e p r o g r a m . H o w e v e r , w h i l e t h e p r a c t i c a l c o m p o n e n t o f s c h o o l i n g w a s i t s e l f a n i n n o v a t i o n , t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e w a y i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d was r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f a n e a r l y d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m i n V a n c o u v e r s h o w s t h e e x a c t i n g d e t a i l b y w h i c h a c t i v i t i e s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t , a n d t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e c h n i q u e a n d c o r r e c t h a b i t s . A t h o r o u g h l y c o m p e t e n t s u p e r v i s o r i s i n c h a r g e o f t h e c o o k i n g k i t c h e n s a n d w h i l e s h e i n s t r u c t s h e r g i r l s i n t h e r u d i m e n t s o f b r e a d m a k i n g , t h e p r o p e r m e t h o d s o f c o o k i n g m e a t s a n d v e g e t a b l e s , a n d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f d a i n t y a n d a p p e t i z i n g s i d e d i s h e s , b e s i d e s g i v i n g t h e m a n i d e a o f t h e f o o d v a l u e s o f d i f f e r e n t a r t i c l e s o f d i e t a n d t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n s f o r c o m b i n i n g d i f f e r e n t i n g r e d i e n t s t o p r o d u c e a w e l l - b a l a n c e d b i l l o f f a r e , s h e a l s o g i v e s t h e m a t h o r o u g h t r a i n i n g i n s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s , t h e w o r k o f h e r c l a s s e s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d w i t h a l m o s t m i l i t a r y p r o m p t n e s s a n d p r e c i s i o n , e a c h d i s h i n e a c h g i r l ' s c u p b o a r d b e i n g i n i t s e x a c t p l a c e , a n d e v e n t h e k n i v e s , f o r k s a n d s p o o n s b e i n g r a n g e d l i k e a r o w o f l i t t l e s o l d i e r s . T h e r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d b y t h e s e l i t t l e h o u s e k e e p e r s a r e e x c e l l e n t . ( R o s s , c i t e d i n S a n d i s o n , 1 9 7 1 , p . 1 9 ) . T h e r e g i m e n t a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s s u g g e s t s a n i n t e r e s t i n g g a p b e t w e e n t h e p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a l s w h i c h p r o m o t e d t h e c a u s e o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , a n d t h e k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . C l e a r l y s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e t e a c h e r , n o t b y t h e n e e d s o r w i s h e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . M o r e o v e r , l i t t l e -78-latitude was allowed for initiative on the part of students in carrying out domestic duties. 3 . Do classroom activities highlight a particular focus upon the family? Classroom programs are addressed to girls with respect to their future roles as wives and mothers. School programs from this era suggest that producing goods and the proper performance of household chores were the avenues through which women's influence could be felt. 'Upgrading' the home is interpreted as improving the physical qualities of family l i f e , such as keeping the house cleaner, preparing meals, and sewing clothes. Interestingly, the 'family' is seldom mentioned in the early curriculum. However, sections on invalid cooking and children's diets imply that these were duties to be carried out by women when required. As no reference is made to family relationships or family activities, the home seems to have been conceived as a place for the performance of tasks. Much of the concern for improving family l i f e relates to the promotion of sanitary habits. Hoodless' comments illustrate the way in which this was enforced during classroom activities. Personal cleanliness must be insisted upon. Special attention should be given to the hands and nails. The hair should be carefully pinned back or - 7 9 -c o n f i n e d Ln some w a y , a n d c o v e r e d b y a c a p . A l a r g e c l e a n a p r o n a n d h o l d e r s h o u l d b e w o r n w h i l e a t w o r k . N e v e r a l l o w t h e p u p i l s t o u s e a h a n d k e r c h i e f o r t h e i r a p r o n s i n p l a c e o f a h o l d e r . ( H o o d l e s s , 1 8 9 8 , p . i x . ) H o w e v e r , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e w a s n o t a l o n e i n i t s c o n c e r n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g g o o d h e a l t h h a b i t s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y a v a r i e t y o f h e a l t h w o r k e r s a n d w o m e n ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s p u b l i c i z e d t h e n e e d f o r p r e v e n t a t i v e h e a l t h c a r e w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e ( S u t h e r l a n d , 1 9 8 0 ) . W h i l e home v i s i t s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , a n d e d u c a t i o n a l b u l l e t i n s w e r e u s e d t o p e r s u a d e m o t h e r s t o a d o p t new h e a l t h i d e a s , w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m , m e d i c a l a n d d e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n s w e r e i n s t i t u t e d f o r c h i l d r e n . T h e P u b l i c S c h o o l R e p o r t o f 1911 f r o m V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s s h o w s t h a t t h e c o n c e r n f o r t h e h e a l t h o f c h i l d r e n was j u s t i f i e d . 1 , 0 5 3 c a s e s o f p e d i c u l o s i s ( v e r m i n ) 6 , 0 5 7 c a s e s o f b a d t e e t h 56 c a s e s o f r i n g w o r m 4 3 c a s e s o f ' i t c h ' 138 c h i l d r e n c l a s s e d a s s i m p l y ' u n c l e a n ' I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m u n i c a b l e d i s e a s e s w e r e f o u n d : d i p t h e r i a , m e a s l e s , w h o o p i n g c o u g h , c h i c k e n p o x , s c a r l e t f e v e r , s o r e t h r o a t , e n l a r g e d t o n s i l s a n d a d e n o i d s . ( P u b l i c S c h o o l A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 1 1 . p . A 5 0 ) T h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h movement h a d a n i n f l u e n c e o n t h e d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e home e c o n o m i c s r e p o r t f r o m t h e same y e a r w h i c h m e n t i o n s e v e n i n s e w i n g , t h e n e e d t o i n s t r u c t c h i l d r e n i n ' h y g e n i c c l o t h i n g ' . ( P u b l i c S c h o o l R e p o r t , 1 9 1 1 , p . A 4 7 - A 5 1 . ) 4 . What r a t i o n a l e i s a d v a n c e d t o j u s t i f y c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s ? Underlying the emphasis on household duties was a b e l i e f that the -80-properly cared for home was a manifestation of virtuous living and spiritual well-being. For example, Hoodless declares chat the purpose of domestic training is to "direct the intellectual faculties toward the idealization of the home" (1903, p.162.). The preface of her textbook, states its aim as being "...to assist the pupil in acquiring a knowledge of the fundamental principles of correct living" (Hoodless, 1898, p.v.). The social purpose of classroom activities is echoed by Berry, who refers to training and instruction in the 'art of true homemaking' as the function of domestic science (1906, pp.22-23). Even as late as 1921 Berry speaks of the "...the aim of home economics is not simply to teach sewing and cooking alone but to teach 'right living'" (1921, p. 72). Ravenhill too, in an address given to the Vancouver Council of Women refers to the importance of teaching 'moral hygiene' as well as 'physical hygiene' (1911). The relationship between the proper performance of duties under sanitary conditions and the importance of right living arises from the belief that a healthy environment, in which responsibilities were carried out well, was condusive to both spiritual and intellectual growth. As the moral dimension of the home was fundamental to the philosophy of the domestic science pioneers, many of the exacting details regarding domestic duties can be interpreted within this framework of social purpose. - 8 1 -B . K n o w l e d g e . 1 . W h a t k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e a r e p e r c e i v e d a s h a v i n g t h e m o s t w o r t h ? T h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , a n d t h e g r o u n d s u p o n w h i c h i t w a s j u s t i f i e d , s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u s e f u l k n o w l e d g e . T h e c o n c e p t o f u s e f u l n e s s i s c o n c e i v e d i n t h e a a r r i c u l u m a s t h e a b i l i t y t o r u n a home w e l l - t o c a r r y o u t i t s p r a c t i c a l c h o r e s , t o c a r e f o r f a m i l y m e m b e r s , a n d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s c i e n c e i n u p g r a d i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s o f s a n i t a t i o n a n d h y g i e n e i n t h e h o m e . M e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e , a f o r m e r k e y s t o n e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , i s n o t o f e x p l i c i t c o n c e r n . I n f a c t , e v e n i n t h e a d v o c a c y o f s c i e n c e , H o o d l e s s c a u t i o n s e d u c a t o r s t h a t " T o e n t e r m o r e f u l l y i n t o t h e c h e m i s t r y o f f o o d , b a c t e r i o l o g y e t c . , w o u l d t e n d t o c a u s e c o n f u s i o n i n t h e m i n d o f t h e a v e r a g e s c h o o l g i r l , a n d p o s s i b l y c r e a t e a d i s t a s t e f o r k n o w l e d g e c o n t a i n i n g s o m u c h a b s t r a c t m a t t e r " ( 1 8 9 8 , p . v i ) . 2 . W h a t a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t k n o w l e d g e a n d l e a r n i n g a r e a d v a n c e d ? H o o d l e s s ( 1 8 9 8 , p . x ) s t a t e s t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c o u l d b e u s e d t o c o - o r d i n a t e o t h e r s c h o o l s t u d i e s s u c h a s h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , a r i t h m e t i c , p h y s i o l o g y a n d t e m p e r a n c e . A s d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e w a s a means o f r e l a t i n g e d u c a t i o n t o e v e r y d a y l i f e , H o o d l e s s e n v i s i o n e d a -82-relationship between histo r y and geography and the study of diet and customs, and the teaching of arithmetic through arranging weights and measures, and the purchase of food. Exercising the mind with useful l<nowledge improved several dimensions of human growth and provided the basis for some of the arguments advanced by educational reformers to support forms of manual t r a i n i n g . P r a c t i c a l work and r e p e t i t i o n are the focus of student learning experiences. However, perfecting home-related s k i l l s assumes the existence of a standard for judging the adequacy of student performance. The only c r i t e r i a then available was c u l t u r a l l y determined - subjective, based on d a i l y l i f e , and one which grew out of the expertise of women who learned through experience the most successful ways of managing a household. The mirroring of t r a d i t i o n a l expertise i s therefore a feature of the early curriculum. 3. Who controls the way knowledge i s used i n the curriculum? Evidence suggests that access to appropriate knowledge was controlled by each classroom teacher. Certainly i n the early curriculum, only knowledge related to the home i s made available to students. Access to knowledge seems to have been further r e s t r i c t e d by classroom methods of presentation, the lack of c u r r i c u l a r resources, and the conviction that -83-household duties were bound by a rigid social framework. Knowledge is also controlled by referring to students only in terms of their preparation for adulthood. Though there is some reference to present circumstances, i t is only in the role of a 'mother's helper'-such as a waitress at the dinner table. The students themselves, and their concern for 'being' rather than 'becoming', does not form a part of the curricular content in the i n i t i a l phase of domestic science. C. Relationships and Patterns. 1. Do classroom activities reflect curricular purposes? Concern for developing good habits runs throughout the curriculum, and is illustrated in the relationship portrayed between carrying out tasks in specified ways and 'right living'. The comment, "It is an accomplishment to be a good waitress, as i t requires special refinement and deftness, which are scarcely compatible with an untidy nature" exemplifies the way in which practical duties were imbued with moral purpose (Hoodless, 1898, p. 172). Such admonishments are indicative of the constant undercurrent of secular moralism which runs throughout the early program. - 8 4 -The c r e d i b i l i t y of science i s often used to reinforce subjective knowledge. For instance, the importance of accurate measuring i s stressed i n foods classes. Yet_recipes c a l l e d for "butter the s i z e of an egg", a "kitchen tablespoon" as a measuring u t e n s i l , and baking products " u n t i l done" (Dept. of Education, Recipes for Home Economics  Classes, 1927). Even though Rowles (1956) credits the work of Miss Given from 1903 to 1909 at the Hamilton Normal School with the introduction of the concept of basic recipes for standard products, the instructions used i n schools show that c u l t u r a l l y derived experience impinged for a considerable period on the world of science. 2. Do the c u r r i c u l a r materials emphasize leadership for the future, adaptation to the present, or preservation of the past? On the surface, the early curriculum appears to be directed to the future as i t focuses on preparing the g i r l s to be better wives and mothers. Moreover, the rhetoric of s o c i a l reformers pointed to the importance of domestic science i n t r a i n i n g future c i t i z e n s , and the influence of good homes i n the b u i l d i n g of a nation. However, a cursory examination i s deceiving, for most of the a c t i v i t i e s involved i n early programs relate to understanding past expertise and experience so that families could more adequately cope with the changing circumstances of the i n d u s t r i a l age. - 8 5 -F o r e x a m p l e , i n D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e C o u r s e I , a p o r t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e c l e a n i n g a n d c a r e o f t h e k i t c h e n r a n g e . C l i n k e r s may b e r e m o v e d b y p u t t i n g o n a b e d o f h o t c o a l s a l a y e r o f c l a m o r o y s t e r s h e l l s o r q u i c k l i m e . T h e h e a t c o n v e r t s s h e l l s i n t o q u i c k l i m e , w h i c h l o o s e n s c l i n k e r s . R e p e a t t r e a t m e n t i f n e c e s s a r y . ( D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e , C o u r s e I , 1 9 1 1 , C a r d 2 . ) T h e k n o w l e d g e a p p l i e d i n t h i s l e s s o n i s d e r i v e d f r o m p a s t c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e s u c h e x p e r t i s e w a s u n i q u e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o a s t a l l i v i n g p a t t e r n s . T h e l e s s o n i l l u s t r a t e s i n t u i t i v e i d e a s o f t h e p a s t b e i n g s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e l e v a n t p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n c e a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t a d a p t i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t , a n d c o n c e r n w i t h t h e p a s t w a s t h e t y p i c a l c u r r i c u l a r f o c u s . 3 . What k i n d s o f t e a c h e r / s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s d o e s t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o s t e r ? T h e r o l e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s n o t o n l y t o t e a c h t h e m i n u t i a o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s b u t a l s o t o c o n v e y t h e m o r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t . F o r e x a m p l e , t e a c h e r s o f e a r l y c l a s s e s i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a r e e x p l i c i t l y c a u t i o n e d t h a t , U n t i d y h a b i t s m u s t n o t b e a l l o w e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . S e t a n e x a m p l e o f p e r f e c t o r d e r a n d n e a t n e s s , a n d i n s i s t u p o n p u p i l s f o l l o w i n g t h a t e x a m p l e . . . . E v e r y t h i n g m u s t b e l e f t i n p e r f e c t o r d e r a t t h e c l o s e o f e a c h l e s s o n . P u b l i c S c h o o l D o m e s t i c  S c i e n c e , 1 8 9 8 , p . i x ) . -86-Students are expected to model the virtues of t h e i r domestic science instr u c t o r , and instructors are expected to personify the fundamentals of correct l i v i n g . Early lessons suggest that the moral f a c u l t i e s are exercised through the process of habit formation, j u s t as the i n t e l l e c t u a l powers are developed through the subject matter. 4. In what ways i s a home/school relationship supported by the learning a c t i v i t i e s ? A l l forms of manual t r a i n i n g fostered a relationship between education and d a i l y l i f e . School reports suggest that once a domestic science program was i n i t i a t e d within a school the linkage was encouraged by arranging occasions where the public could see what was being done i n classrooms. By having students practice tasks carried out i n the home, habits and information learned at school were expected to influence mothers, thus upgrading the standard of l i v i n g i n the home. I t i s of interest that foods classrooms resembled laboratories, though they were c a l l e d domestic science 'centers'. G i r l s prepared only i n d i v i d u a l portions of food rather than family-sized amounts. Frequently this necessitated using small equipment and a single gas burner. Thus, the classroom s i t u a t i o n seems to have been one i n which the content of the lessons echoed the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of the home yet, the way i n which tasks were carried out copied some of the aspects of science. -87-5 . I s t h e r e a n a p p a r e n t s e q u e n c i n g o f k n o w l e d g e a n d a c t i v i t i e s ? J u n i p e r ' s w o r k d o e s n o t r e f l e c t a s e q u e n c i n g o f k n o w l e d g e . R a t h e r , i t i s a r e c i t a t i o n o f t a s k s w h i c h m u s t b e d o n e . H o o d l e s s m a k e s some b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o s i m p l e t a s k s b e i n g d o n e b e f o r e m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d o n e s , a n d i m p l i e s t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h a s t r o n g e r home t r a i n i n g may b e m o r e a c c o m p l i s h e d i n c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s . I n c o n t r a s t t h e C o u r s e o f S t u d y ( 1 9 2 3 ) makes s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o a s e q u e n c i n g o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h o u g h t h e b a s i s u p o n w h i c h s p e c i f i c t o p i c s a r e f i t t e d i n t o p a r t i c u l a r g r a d e l e v e l s i s n e v e r c l a r i f i e d . O v e r a l l , k e y i d e a s r e l a t e d t o w o m e n ' s r o l e p o r t r a y e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d i f f e r m a r k e d l y f r o m some o f t h e r h e t o r i c w h i c h p r o m o t e d d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a s a means o f e x t e n d i n g w o m e n ' s i n f l u e n c e . T h o u g h c o n d u c t e d i n t h e name o f s c i e n c e , c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s u g g e s t a r e i n f o r c i n g o f c o n v e n t i o n a l v a l u e s . D o m e s t i c i d e a l s a r e e m p h a s i z e d b y l e a r n i n g t o d o d a i l y d u t i e s w e l l . A g o o d h o u s e k e e p e r s y m b o l i z e s t h e v i r t u e s o f a g o o d p e r s o n . A s a f o r m o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e o f f e r e d a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m s o f s c h o o l i n g a n d p r o v i d e d a means o f m o r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t i n g s c h o o l i n g a n d d a i l y l i f e . Y e t , t h e e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m a c t s a s a n i n s u l a t o r f r o m c h a n g e , a n d w h e n c h a n g e s e e m e d i n e v i t a b l e , a s a means o f a d a p t i n g t o new c o n d i t i o n s . -88-T h e S c i e n t i f i c M e t h o d i n a n E x p a n d e d C u r r i c u l u m : 1 9 2 6 t o 1 9 4 6 . F o l l o w i n g t h e P u t m a n - W e i r S u r v e y a n d t h e 1 9 2 6 a p p o i n t m e n t o f a D i r e c t o r o f Home E c o n o m i c s , t h e c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s a l l e g i a n c e t o s c i e n c e , a n d i t s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o M c L e n a g h a n ' s 1927 r e p o r t t h e p r o g r a m was a l t e r e d t o " b r o a d e n o u t t h e c o u r s e t o i n c l u d e m o r e t h a n m e r e t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s e s " , a r e c i p e b o o k was p u b l i s h e d t o a v o i d w a s t e o f c l a s s r o o m t i m e , l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s w e r e e x p a n d e d , a n d g r e a t e r e f f o r t w a s made t o i n c r e a s e t h e " . . . u n i f o r m i t y o f w o r k b e i n g o f f e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e . . . " ( M c L e n a g h a n , 1 9 2 7 , p p . M 6 3 - 6 5 ) . T h e c u r r i c u l u m t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d s h o w s i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n f o r a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o v e r a g e o f m a t e r i a l . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f c o o k i n g a n d s e w i n g i n c l u d e new t o p i c s a n d t r e a t t h e m i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . F o r e x a m p l e , i n 1927 M c L e n a g h a n m a i n t a i n s t h a t u s e o f t h e s e w i n g m a c h i n e i n g r a d e V T , s h o u l d a c c o m p a n y t h e m a s t e r y o f h a n d s t i t c h i n g i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r a c t i c a l v a l u e o f t h e c o u r s e , a s w e l l a s " t h e n u m b e r o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s " w h i c h c o u l d b e i n c l u d e d i n e a c h p r o g r a m ( p . M 6 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o s e w i n g , t h e s t u d y o f t e x t i l e s i s i n t r o d u c e d f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f c o l o r , d u r a b i l i t y , c o s t , a n d t e x t u r e . B y 1941 s t u d e n t s i n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l h a v e t h e o p t i o n o f s p e c i a l i z i n g i n c l o t h i n g a n d t e x t i l e s a s a p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h o f home e c o n o m i c s . T h e i r s t u d i e s i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c u n i t s o n m a k i n g a w o o l d r e s s , r e m o d e l l i n g a g a r m e n t , t h e c l o t h i n g b u d g e t , t e x t i l e s s t u d y , p a t t e r n -89-alterations, and applied art (Home Economics for Junior and Senior High  Schools, 1941). In foods courses, the publication and use of a recipe book facilitates preparation and encourages efficiency. Skills are considered important in die preparation of basic categories of foods such as, cakes, meats, and vegetables. However, accurate measurement is also more heavily emphasized in order to produce standard products using recognized methods . Stress is placed on food products and their relationship to definite meals rather than manipulation in terms of cookery methods. Thus, the Grade VTI course in 1927 employs recipes as components of lunches and light suppers. Moreover, recipes are written in family-size portions, in contrast to the individual portions prepared in earlier programs. The growing concern for the use of standard recipes, accurate measurement, and efficient working conditions shows a new thrust in the foods courses, one which moves away from the expertise of the instructor and toward the control of cooking procedures by the knowledge of principles and rules. New topics are also introduced which reflect women's changing role in the family. The 1927 program goes beyond housekeeping chores, cooking and sewing, as i t incorporates at the Grade VTI level a unit designed to teach the value of money. The course outline refers to 'methods of -90-obtaining money1 and 'saving and spending wisely' when discussing a girl's allowance. Not only does this acknowledge the role of women as managers and consumers, but i t approaches the topic from the viewpoint of the student, a significant departure from teaching girls only in terms of their future roles. A subsequent section on Home Problems refers to marketing as one of the household duties in which girls can take part. The revised Grade VTI program in 1928.further expands the topic to include a section on 'personal accounts', dealing with the amount of money a family spends on raising children and the means of reducing this expense. By 1933 'Home Management' becomes more prominently featured as a part of the Grade IX course. In contrast to the earlier connotation of the term, 'house management' which implied only the carrying out of domestic chores, 'home management' includes shopping ethics (how to treat salespeople), comparative shopping and reducing costs by buying well and using wisely. The introduction of home projects encourages students to practice management skills within their own family situation. It is likely that home projects also advanced the home-school relationship, and acquainted some mothers with management skills. In addition to reorganization of the content in foods and clothing courses, and the greater concern for management and applied art, a separate elective termed 'home relations' is offered by 1941 in the - 9 1 -s e n i o r g r a d e s . T o p i c s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f a m i l y s u c h a s h e a l t h a n d n u t r i t i o n , c h i l d c a r e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , home n u r s i n g , a n d f a m i l y a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s g r a d u a l l y g a i n i m p o r t a n c e i n c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n s . T h e s u b j e c t a r e a , c o v e r e d b y t h e l a b e l 'home e c o n o m i e s ' , e n c o m p a s s e s a m u c h b r o a d e r r a n g e o f t o p i c s i n t h e s e c o n d p h a s e o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . A s e c o n d f e a t u r e o f c u r r i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h c h a n g e s f r o m 1 9 2 6 t o 1 9 4 6 i s t h e i n c r e a s e d u s e o f o b j e c t i v e s t o s p e c i f y t h e k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g s w h i c h a r e p r e s c r i b e d . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e e a r l i e r p r o g r a m , o b j e c t i v e s a r e s t a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e c o u r s e s w e r e t a u g h t r a t h e r t h a n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o b e c o v e r e d . O b j e c t i v e s a l s o c h a n g e w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d f r o m t h o s e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t e a c h i n g , t o t h o s e w h i c h f o c u s o n l e a r n i n g . T h u s , t h e 1 9 2 7 c u r r i c u l u m l i s t s a s o n e o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s , " T o t e a c h t h e p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n a n d p r e p a r a t i o n o f f o o d s e s s e n t i a l t o g o o d h e a l t h c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f b r e a k f a s t s , l u n c h e o n s , o r s u p p e r s a n d a f t e r n o o n t e a s " ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 7 , p . 5 2 ) . B y 1 9 4 1 t h i s i s e x p r e s s e d a s : ( a . ) T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t a n d p r e p a r e a n a d e q u a t e f a m i l y d i e t w i t h d u e r e g a r d t o : -( 1 . ) N u t r i t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e members o f t h e f a m i l y . ( 2 . ) C o m p a r a t i v e v a l u e o f f o o d s t o m e e t t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . ( 3 . ) C o m p a r a t i v e c o s t o f f o o d s i n t e r m s o f t i m e , m o n e y , a n d e n e r g y . - 9 2 -( 4 . ) T h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e d i e t i n a f o r m t h a t i s a t t r a c t i v e , p a l a t a b l e , a n d d i g e s t i b l e . ( b . ) T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o E g o o d f o o d h a b i t s a n d g o o d g e n e r a l h e a l t h h a b i t s . ( D e p t . o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 4 1 , p . 8 7 ) O b j e c t i v e s a r e a l s o s t a t e d i n t e r m s o f a b i l i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s , a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , r a t h e r t h a n o n l y s k i l l s , h a b i t f o r m a t i o n a n d t e c h n i q u e . T h e m o r e c a r e f u l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f o b j e c t i v e s s u g g e s t s a s h i f t i n t h e e m p h a s i s o f home e c o n o m i c s f r o m t h a t o f c u l t i v a t i n g d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h m o d e l l i n g a n d p r a c t i c e o f h o u s e h o l d s k i l l s , t o m a s t e r i n g a n d c o n t r o l l i n g t h e e v e n t s a n d t a s k s i n v o l v e d i n f a m i l y l i v i n g . G r e a t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y i n c r e a s e d c o n c e r n f o r t h e l e a r n i n g w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n c l a s s r o o m s . A s t h e c o n c e p t o f e x a m i n a t i o n i n home e c o n o m i c s i s i n t r o d u c e d , b o t h s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s b e c o m e m o r e a c c o u n t a b l e f o r w h a t i s t a u g h t a n d l e a r n e d . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 6 s c h o o l y e a r r e f e r e n c e t o a home e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e f o r ' r e p e a t e r s ' s h o w s t h e c o n c e r n o f t e a c h e r s f o r ' p a s s i n g ' , ' f a i l i n g ' a n d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f p a r t i c u l a r s t a n d a r d s . ( V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , R e p o r t , 1 9 2 6 , p p . 7 8 , 8 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o M i l d r e d C u n n i n g h a m , a S u p e r v i s o r o f Home E c o n o m i c s f o r V a n c o u v e r i n 1 9 2 7 , q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e ' n e w t y p e ' m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t s g i v e n i n b o t h f o o d s a n d c l o t h i n g c l a s s e s , " . . . w e r e s e l e c t e d l a r g e l y f r o m v a r i o u s s t a n d a r d t e s t s f r o m a p p r o v e d u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h e B u r e a u o f M e a s u r e m e n t s c o - o p e r a t e d s p l e n d i d l y w i t h t y p i n g o f t h e s e t e s t s , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s c o r e s h e e t s a n d t h e t a b u l a t i n g o f r e s u l t s " ( V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , R e p o r t , p . 1 2 0 ) . -93-One o f t h e m o s t n o t i c e a b l e c h a n g e s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d t o home e c o n o m i c s . T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m e t h o d i s f i r s t m e n t i o n e d i n 1927 a s a means o f m e e t i n g t h e c h a l l e n g e o f t h e P u t m a n W e i r S u r v e y t o r e d u c e w a s t e a n d i n e f f i c i e n c y . A new way o f d o i n g d i s h e s w a s d e v e l o p e d i n A b e r d e e n S c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r r e s u l t i n g i n a s a v i n g o f t i m e a n d e n e r g y a n d a r e d u c t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m n o i s e . ( V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , R e p o r t , 1 9 2 6 , p . 7 7 ) I n 1 9 2 8 , M a b e l A l l e n o f K i n g E d w a r d H i g h S c h o o l i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e c o n d u c t e d a n a n i m a l f e e d i n g e x p e r i m e n t t o s h o w t h e e f f e c t s o f d e f i c i e n t d i e t o n t h e g r o w t h o f r a t s ( V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , R e p o r t , 1 9 2 8 , p . 1 0 5 ) . B y 1 9 4 3 - 4 4 a n u t r i t i o n p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g t w e n t y e l e m e n t a r y c h i l d r e n , s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e y e x h i b i t e d s i g n s o f p o o r h e a l t h , a n d f e d w e e k l y n u t r i t i o u s m e a l p r e p a r e d b y home e c o n o m i c s s t u d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y s t r o n g l y p r o v e d t h e v a l u e o f a w e l l - b a l a n c e d d i e t . ( V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , R e p o r t , 1 9 4 4 , p p . 5 6 , 1 0 5 ) . G e n e r a l l y , t e a c h e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o u s e e x p e r i m e n t s , a n d s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n c e i v e d a s p r o b l e m s t o b e s o l v e d . H o w e v e r , s o m e t i m e s t h e w o r l d o f s c i e n c e i s j u x t a p o s e d o n t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s i n a c u r i o u s w a y , s u c h a s t h e u n i t o n ' K i t c h e n E f f i c i e n c y a n d C h a r m ' i n c l u d e d i n t h e 1 9 3 7 c u r r i c u l u m . W h i l e t h e a f f i n i t y t o s c i e n c e i s i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e r e i s a l s o a c h a n g e i n t h e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t u d e n t s . R e f e r e n c e i s f r e q u e n t l y made t o s t u d e n t ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s m o t h e r ' s - 9 4 -h e l p e r s i n t h e h o m e , d o i n g h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s , m a r k e t i n g , a n d c a r i n g f o r y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s . T h e p r e s e n t n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , a s i l l u s t r a t e d b y s e c t i o n s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e a l i n g w i t h s e r v i n g t e a t o p a r e n t s a n d f r i e n d s ( 1 9 2 7 ) , t h e c a r e a n d f u r n i s h i n g o f a g i r l ' s own r o o m ( 1 9 2 7 ) a n d m a k i n g a s i l k p a r t y d r e s s ( 1 9 4 1 ) . A j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s t u d y i n g home e c o n o m i c s , w r i t t e n f r o m a s t u d e n t v i e w p o i n t c l o y i n g l y e x p r e s s e s t h e f a c t t h a t home e c o n o m i c s w a s n o t o n l y e d u c a t i n g s t u d e n t s f o r t h e f u t u r e , b u t a l s o f o r p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . We a r e t r y i n g t o b e m o t h e r ' s h e l p e r s , n o w . M o s t m o t h e r s h a v e p r e t t y m u c h t o d o , a n d g i r l s w h o t a k e Home E c o n o m i c s a r e a b l e t o h e l p o u t a n d l i g h t e n t h e l o a d . R u n n i n g a home i s n ' t s o v e r y e a s y , a n d w h e n y o u s t u d y how i t i s d o n e , y o u b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t y o u n e e d t r a i n i n g b e s i d e s common s e n s e t o make t h i n g s g o s m o o t h l y . O u r t e a c h e r t o l d u s t h a t a g o o d h o u s e k e e p e r i s a l i t t l e b i t o f e v e r y t h i n g . . . a n d s h e s a i d , t o o , t h a t t h e k i n d s o f homes a n d home l i f e t h a t we b u i l d u p h a s s o m e t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e k i n d o f n a t i o n we h a v e , s o we o u g h t t o k n o w how t o make a g o o d j o b o f i t . ( M c L e n a g h a n , n . d . , p . 3 ) P a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e i s made b y M c L e n a g h a n ( n . d . , p . 3 ) t h a t home e c o n o m i c s t r a i n i n g c o u l d b e u s e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s a n d p r o f e s s i o n s o u t s i d e t h e h o m e , t h o u g h t h e r e i s l i t t l e m e n t i o n w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l p r o g r a m i t s e l f s u g g e s t i n g t h e a home e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e m i g h t h a v e a p p l i c a b i l i t y e l s e w h e r e . - 9 5 -T h e c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 2 6 t o 1 9 4 6 p o r t r a y s a m u c h m o r e c o m p l e x u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e home a n d f a m i l y . Home e c o n o m i c s i s v i s u a l i z e d a s a f i e l d o f s t u d y r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y a s u b j e c t o f s t u d y . S p e c i f i c c o n c e r n f o r t h e s t u d e n t , a n d o t h e r f a m i l y members s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e home w a s p e r c e i v e d a s a n e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l members c o u l d b e n u r t u r e d . On t h e s u r f a c e , s t u d y i n g m o r e t o p i c s i n g r e a t e r d e p t h a p p e a r s t o i n d i c a t e a b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f home e c o n o m i c s . H o w e v e r , f a m i l y l i v i n g w a s o n l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e r m s o f g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s a n d r u l e s r e l a t e d t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r , o r b y m a s t e r i n g p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s . A m o r e o b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o s u b j e c t c o n t e n t c o u p l e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y o r g a n i z e d c u r r i c u l a r p u r p o s e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d e s i r e f o r c o n t r o l o f l e a r n i n g w a s b e c o m i n g m o r e i m p o r t a n t . T h e C o n t e m p o r a r y C u r r i c u l u m o f Home E c o n o m i c s . T h e r e v i s i o n c o m p l e t e d i n 1 9 7 9 i s c u r r e n t l y u s e d i n s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e Home E c o n o m i c s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e , ( 8 - 1 2 ) s e t s f o r t h t h e g o a l s o f t h e p r o g r a m , l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s , a n d s u g g e s t e d r e s o u r c e s . T h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m s t a t e s t h a t t h e f o u r m a j o r t o p i c a r e a s : f o o d , c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r a n d human r e l a t i o n s d r a w f r o m t h e a r t s , s c i e n c e s , a n d h u m a n i t i e s . -96-experience and knowledge so that a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s and techniques can be developed which enable individuals to function e f f e c t i v e l y by themselves, and within families. Meeting the varied needs, interests and a b i l i t i e s of students i s a major concern of the program, and therefore a vocational dimension i s included for interested students. In acknowledging the changing needs of society, increased emphasis i s given to family, n u t r i t i o n , conservation, consumer s k i l l s and le i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . Co-education has been a proclaimed part of the contemporary curriculum for a number of years, recognizing the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l family members i n domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I n addition, the family conceived as a 'conserver' r e f l e c t s s o c i e t a l concern for diminishing resources, and holds d i f f e r e n t implications f o r school programs than the family portrayed as the 'producer' or 'consumer' of goods. The program i s directed toward enabling students to accomplish eight o v e r a l l goals. Some of these r e l a t e to the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge, s k i l l s and pr i n c i p l e s associated with food, clothing and shelter. Understanding human n u t r i t i o n i s also considered important. E f f i c i e n t management and consumer s k i l l s are related to a l l aspects of home economics. Recognizing the needs and customs of various ages, le v e l s of society and cultures i s a stated goal i n terms of achieving e f f e c t i v e relationships. Acquiring a b i l i t i e s and attitudes for dealing with change i s also a program aim. S k i l l and interest i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y , and the appreciation for beauty i n the environment are also -97-l i s t e d . F i n a l l y a broad base of knowledge as background for further education i s considered of significance. Each of the o v e r a l l goals i s achieved through accomplishing the learning outcomes which are integrated into f i v e topic areas: foods and n u t r i t i o n , clothing and t e x t i l e s , family studies, t e x t i l e s arts and c r a f t s , and housing and i n t e r i o r design. In each of the topic areas, suggestions for future occupations are included. These range from those which require l i t t l e additional t r a i n i n g to those which involve professional preparation. The ordering of content and suggestions for covering subject matter are termed the 'scope and sequence' of the courses. These are s p e c i f i c a l l y outlined for each of th f i v e 'levels' of secondary school, from grades eight to twelve. C l e a r l y , t h i s curriculum r e f l e c t s a strong hierarchy of learning. Knowledge i s generally applied i n terms of making things, with suggestions offered as to the products which should be prepared at each l e v e l . I t i s recommended that teachers demonstrate the preparation and service of food products to a l l lower l e v e l students, and a l l new techniques to students at higher l e v e l s . Using a technical format, learning outcomes to be achieved within each topic are shown i n the form of simple graphs. Bars are used to designate the grade l e v e l at which p a r t i c u l a r outcomes are to be - 9 8 -i n t r o d u c e d a n d c o m p l e t e d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e " t o b e a b l e t o p l a n a n d c a r r y o u t a t i m e a n d w o r k s c h e d u l e " f o r c l o t h i n g p r o j e c t s , v a c a t i o n s a n d h o b b i e s , r u n s f r o m l e v e l t h r e e t o l e v e l f i v e ( i . e . g r a d e t e n t o t w e l v e ) , w h i l e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s d e a l i n g w i t h f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l t i m e r u n t h r o u g h a l l f i v e l e v e l s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s t u d e n t " w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o u t c o m e a t s u b s e q u e n t l e v e l s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n " ( G u i d e , 1 9 7 9 , p . 3 ) T e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o d e c i p h e r t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r own c l a s s e s . A r e s o u r c e s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r l e s s o n s i n e a c h o f t h e t o p i c a r e a s . T h e s e g e n e r a l l y r e l a t e e i t h e r t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s r o o m o r t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n . T h u s , i n f o o d s a n d n u t r i t i o n , a n o u t l i n e f o r l e s s o n p l a n n i n g s p e c i f i e s t h e t i m e r e c o m m e n d e d f o r e a c h l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e , t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e t o b e u s e d , a n d t h e r e l a t e d s t u d e n t a c t i v i t y . L e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s m o s t f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t e d a r e m a k i n g l a b p l a n s , p r e p a r i n g f o o d , k n o w i n g f o o d g r o u p s , c l a s s i f y i n g f o o d s a c c o r d i n g t o n u t r i e n t s , a n d l i s t i n g c a r e a n d s t o r a g e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e f o o d s b e i n g s t u d i e d . H o u s e k e e p i n g d u t i e s a r e s t i l l i m p o r t a n t a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e ' S u g g e s t e d G u i d e f o r H o u s e k e e p i n g D u t i e s ' w h i c h s u g g e s t s r o t a t i n g s t u d e n t j o b s a c c o r d i n g t h e s e a t i n g p o s i t i o n a t t h e u n i t l a b t a b l e . A j o b r o t a t i o n b y n u m b e r i s g i v e n f o r e a c h m o n t h o f t h e y e a r . T a s k s c a n , t h e r e f o r e , b e a s s i g n e d a n d e x e c u t e d e f f i c i e n t l y . -99-An e x p l i c i t departure from the predominantly p r a c t i c a l emphasis of the program i s seen i n the family studies courses taught during grades eleven and twelve. Family studies provides information rooted i n both the physical and s o c i a l sciences, such as the levels of physical development, l i f e cycle stages, knowledge related to establishing a home, and parenting s k i l l s . Students examine t h e i r personal development, the family as a unit i n society, and forms of communication. In essence the human elements inherent i n home economics have been presented as a specialized course. The number of specialized courses offered exemplifies the strong fragmentation of knowledge which forms a part of the contemporary curriculum. The learning outcomes determine what happens i n the classroom and how the content i s to be approached. The ordering of knowledge, s p e c i f i c a t i o n of time, planning related to making products, organization of classroom duties, and the strong part played by evaluation and assessment portray current programs as objective interpretations of human experience related to the family. -100-Chapter Six CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PRACTICE IN HOME ECONOMICS Examining what was taught i n schools reveals that the curriculum did change i n s i g n i f i c a n t ways throughout the f i r s t two time periods studied. Once accepted as a school subject, home economics reinforced i t s ideas and b e l i e f s by treating them more comprehensively, but did not examine human experience i n new ways. This chapter interprets the cu r r i c u l a r changes i n l i g h t of the four conceptions of practice outlined i n chapter four. The Early Curriculum: A Customary Framework of Practice. The early home economics curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia shows a strong a f f i n i t y to customary practice i n four s i g n i f i c a n t ways. F i r s t , the close association between d a i l y l i f e and learning a c t i v i t i e s runs throughout a l l domestic science lessons. Cle a r l y , the conduct of everyday l i f e i s the c u r r i c u l a r focus. The careful s p e c i f i c a t i o n of household chores i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r perceived importance i n family l i f e and implies that women who perform t h e i r duties w e l l w i l l be more adequate wives and mothers. Strong emphasis on the p r a c t i c a l dimension through the mirroring of d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t e s i s a fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of customary practice. - 1 0 1 -Second, the close liason between customary practice and the early programs i s indicated by the dependence of classroom work on the expertise of each teacher. Due to the lack of q u a l i f i e d teachers, many classrooms were supervised by women whose s k i l l s arose from t h e i r own personal experience. Even q u a l i f i e d domestic science teachers learned through demonstration and re p e t i t i o n i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g programs. Subsequently the teaching strategies throughout the curriculum embody a pedagogy which stresses modelling and practice. The reliance on personal expertise i s evident i n the curriculum through the importance attributed to household routines, and the attention paid to the inculcation of good habits. The early program suggests that judgements regarding the degree of s k i l l acquired by students depended upon subjective assessments by the teacher. In addition, the r o l e played by teachers i n the classroom reiterates the t r a d i t i o n a l values associated with women i n the home. Thus, the concept of apprenticeship i s highly v i s i b l e , and i s used not only to convey necessary knowledge and to ensure that i t was applied i n appropriate ways, but also to f a c i l i t a t e the acq u i s i t i o n of e x p l i c i t as w e l l as i m p l i c i t habits and attitudes. Third, the curriculum emphasizes the importance of bu i l d i n g acceptable behavior patterns, and f u l f i l l i n g s o c i e t a l expectations. This echoes the customary conception of practice as stress i s placed on maintaining the status quo through conforming to established s o c i a l conventions. The early program supports the b e l i e f that 'right thinking 1 leads to -102-1 right l i v i n g ' . The curriculum casts 'improvement' as upgrading the qu a l i t y of family care, and knowing one's place i n the scheme of things. Issues of the times do not form a part of classroom work unless accompanied by strong moral overtones, as i n the reference to temperance. Emphasizing routine can therefore, be interpreted as a powerful t o o l for imposing the comfort of order and ceremony upon the perceived c o n f l i c t of the era. The way that problems are cast for students provides the f i n a l element of a f f i n i t y between practice portrayed i n the early curriculum and the customary dimension. Problems demand immediate answers, action involves the appropriate application of s k i l l s and knowledge given p a r t i c u l a r circumstances, and solutions l i e only i n conventional pathways. In other words, questions such as 'How to make a pie?', 'How to set up a s i c k room?' or 'How to iron lace?' can only be answered by r e l y i n g on knowledge which has already been determined. In such instances the application of knowledge has very d i f f e r e n t purposes than knowledge used to generate new solutions f o r given circumstances. In the early curriculum r e s t r i c t i o n s placed upon access to knowledge and i t s subsequent application e f f e c t i v e l y controlled the ways i n which problems related to everyday l i v i n g could be approached. Early programs i n domestic science emphasize family s t a b i l i t y during a period of rapid change i n Canadian society. Student a c t i v i t i e s only -103-involve s k i l l s which have a direct relationship to producing goods for the home. Yet, home production i s stressed during a period i n Canadian history, when many of the t r a d i t i o n a l functions of the household were being assumed by manufacturing concerns. The focus upon 'making' and 'doing' i s consistent with the arguments put forward by reformers who vi s u a l i z e d manual t r a i n i n g as a means of reemphasizing the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l values. G i r l s were taught to sew and cook i n order to make goods as they 'should be made' and thereby reinforce the virtues that accompanied working industriously. There i s a noticeable gap between the rhe t o r i c of the maternal feminists and the ideals related to the ro l e of women as portrayed i n the curriculum. The c u r r i c u l a r documents make no suggestion whatever that women might extend t h e i r r o l e beyond the family c i r c l e . Obvious neglect of th i s thrust of the women's movement implies that what was taught i n schools was directed toward maintaining the past and adapting to the present. In i t s desire to restore the t r a d i t i o n a l focus to family l i f e the i n t i t i a l domestic science programs i n schools appear to have encouraged g i r l s to refine t h e i r s k i l l s only within t h e i r immediate family. S c i e n t i f i c information i s used i n the early curriculum to support i n t u i t i v e claims, j u s t i f y the need to carry out a c t i v i t i e s i n pa r t i c u l a r ways, and cloak domestic duties with a mantle of importance. Undoubtedly, the discoveries of science made many contributions to - 1 0 4 -a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y l i f e i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . T h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r , b e t w e e n u s i n g s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e ( a s i n n u t r i t i o n a n d h e a l t h ) t o u n d e r g i r d m u c h o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g , a n d u s i n g s c i e n c e a s a f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e p o r t r a y a l o f a s u b j e c t a r e a a n d a mode o f i n q u i r y f o r i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m s h o w s f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e t o s c i e n c e , i t d o e s n o t r e l a t e s t r o n g l y t o a s c i e n t i f i c f r a m e w o r k . T h e C u r r i c u l u m f r o m 1 9 2 6 t o 1 9 4 6 : A n I n s t r u m e n t a l F r a m e w o r k . C u r r i c u l a r d o c u m e n t s w i t h i n t h i s t i m e p e r i o d i l l u s t r a t e a n i n c r e a s i n g b e l i e f i n t h e p o w e r s o f s c i e n c e . A s t h e e x p l i c i t f r a m e w o r k o f s o c i a l p u r p o s e , t h e h a l l m a r k o f e a r l i e r p r o g r a m s , d i m i n i s h e s , a l l e g i a n c e t o a n i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e i n c r e a s e s . T h u s , t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m c u s t o m a r y t o i n s t r u m e n t a l p r a c t i c e o c c u r s g r a d u a l l y , b u t s t e a d i l y , t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n s b e t w e e n 1926 a n d 1 9 4 6 . T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u g g e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n a s a m o r e e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s u b j e c t , a n d t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s o f t h e s e i s t h e s h i f t i n t h e s o u r c e o f c u r r i c u l a r e x p e r t i s e a s t h e v a l i d i t y a t t r i b u t e d t o s c i e n c e r e p l a c e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e x p e r t i s e o f t h e t e a c h e r . P r o g r a m s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d i n c r e a s i n g l y a d v o c a t e t h e u s e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l -105-procedures to confirm basic p r i n c i p l e s . Thus, n u t r i t i o n studies graphically portray the importance of a proper d i e t , time and motion studies on household procedures quantitatively i l l u s t r a t e savings i n time and energy, and s c i e n t i f i c 'tests' determine the presence of pa r t i c u l a r components i n food. Instrumental practice i s also i l l u s t r a t e d i n the organized approach to learning evident i n the curriculum of th i s period. In other words, learning becomes a controlled procedure. Hence, a var i e t y of mechanisms are introduced to ensure that students enrolled i n home economics think and behave i n p a r t i c u l a r ways. For example, the presence of a p r o v i n c i a l l y prescribed curriculum, the provision of a course textbook and the appointment of a p r o v i n c i a l d i r e c t o r c o l l e c t i v e l y reduce the v a r i a t i o n i n course content among di f f e r e n t schools throughout the province. The process of examination and regular classroom v i s i t s by the direc t o r each monitor the way classroom teachers implement the curriculum. Standardizing the appearance of home economics classrooms, p a r t i c u l a r l y foods laboratories also controls the va r i a t i o n among programs. I m p l i c i t l y , even the use of learning objectives i n the curriculum assumes that human behavior can be controlled for s p e c i f i c purposes. While these additions accompanied the acceptance of home economics as a school subject, they also exemplify new forms of control over the learning process which had been absent i n the e a r l i e r curriculum. - 1 0 6 -C o u r s e o u t l i n e s a n d p u b l i c s c h o o l r e p o r t s show t h a t c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y a l i g n e d w i t h t h e m e t h o d s o f s c i e n c e . T h i s i s n o t o n l y e v i d e n t i n t h e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t e s e n c o u r a g e d s u c h a s t h e u s e o f e x p e r i m e n t s , b u t a l s o i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r c a r r y i n g o u t s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s . T h u s , l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s a r e c o n c e i v e d a s p r o b l e m s t o b e s o l v e d , w i t h t i m e s p e n t p l a n n i n g t h e a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d . R e c i p e s s t r e s s t h e s p e c i f i c s t e p s t o b e f o l l o w e d , a s i n t h e ' c a k e m e t h o d ' , t h e ' m u f f i n m e t h o d ' e t c . B y 1 9 4 1 , e v e n d e s i g n , c r a f t s a n d i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n s h o w s t h e u s e o f t h e o r i e s a n d p r i n c i p l e s , a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s . K n o w l e d g e t o b e l e a r n e d i s p r e d e f i n e d , t h e m e t h o d i s s p e c i f i e d , a n d s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g a b o u t r e p l i c a b l e r e s u l t s . T h e c u r r i c u l u m , a s w e l l a s s c h o o l r e p o r t s , b e g i n s t o s p e a k t h e l a n g u a g e o f s c i e n c e . F o o d s c l a s s r o o m s a r e c a l l e d ' l a b o r a t o r i e s ' , p u p i l s a r e n o l o n g e r r e f e r r e d t o a s ' g i r l s ' , b u t r a t h e r ' s t u d e n t s ' . R e c i p e s a r e p r e p a r e d u s i n g ' s t a n d a r d m e a s u r e m e n t s ' , a n d t h e i r s u c c e s s i s j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e d e t e r m i n e d c r i t e r i a o f q u a l i t y . T h u s , t h e l a n g u a g e a s s u m e s a m e a s u r e o f o b j e c t i v i t y , n o t f o u n d i n e a r l i e r p r o g r a m s . A s t h i s p e r i o d p r o g r e s s e s t h e c u r r i c u l u m s h o w s a n i n c r e a s i n g f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e w h i c h i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f a n i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e . B y 1941 s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o p u r s u e a s e q u e n c e o f s p e c i a l i z e d c o u r s e s i n - 1 0 7 -(A) Foods, N u t r i t i o n and Home Management, or (B) Clothing, T e x t i l e s and Applied Art, or a general course 'made up of units or parts of u n i t s ' selected from both (A) or (B). While the i n i t i a l program of domestic science suggests that p r a c t i c i n g home a c t i v i t i e s developed most of the a b i l i t i e s r e quisite to a good wife and mother, the l a t e r curriculum emphasizes the need to have s p e c i f i c knowledge i n more specialized areas. Home economics from 1 9 2 6 to 1946 assumes that the family requires more than upgrading the l e v e l of household s k i l l s associated with the home. Using the o b j e c t i v i t y of science, the family becomes a phenomenon to be studied, a d i r e c t contrast from e a r l i e r times when families were understood by others simply by l i v i n g i n a family environment. By the end of t h i s period, as families themselves become an object of study, i t i s contended that instrumental practice had replaced the customary conception inherent i n the e a r l i e r curriculum. The Contemporary Curriculum: Reinforcing Instrumental Practice. The contemporary curriculum i s a technical presentation of 'ends to be achieved' through mastery of p a r t i c u l a r teachniques and spe c i f i e d knowledge. The learning outcomes stated for each topic area determine both the knowledge made available and the way i n which i t i s to be used. For example, i n t e x t i l e arts and c r a f t s , the outcome which - 1 0 8 -s p e c i f i e s " T h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d b e a b l e t o u s e a l l e q u i p m e n t c o r r e c t l y " i n f e r s t h a t d i r e c t i o n s o n t h e u s e o f e a c h p i e c e o f e q u i p m e n t m u s t f o r m a p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t ( G u i d e , 1 9 7 9 , p . 5 1 ) . L e a r n i n g t o f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s a n d p r o c e d u r e s r e m a i n s a n i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n . T h i s i s c o n f i r m e d i n o t h e r t o p i c a r e a s w h e r e ' p l a n n i n g ' f o r m s a n c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f many l e s s o n s . W i t h i n i n s t r u m e n t a l p r a c t i c e , a s p o r t r a y e d b y home e c o n o m i c s , s t u d e n t s a r e t h e p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t s o f k n o w l e d g e , f o r t h e y do n o t p l a y a p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g e i t h e r t h e k n o w l e d g e i t s e l f o r how i t i s u s e d . G e n e r a l l y t h e r e i s l i t t l e r o o m f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t f o r b o t h t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g a r e e x p l i c i t l y c o n t r o l l e d . L e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s , t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n a n d o r d e r i n g o f r o u t i n e s , t h e h e i r a r c h y o f a c t i v i t i e s , a n d t i m e d e t a i l i n g a l l l i m i t t h e w a y k n o w l e d g e i s a c q u i r e d a n d u s e d w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n f o o d s c l a s s e s t h e r e c o m m e n d e d e v a l u a t i o n f o r m s f i l l e d i n b y b o t h s t u d e n t a n d t e a c h e r , q u a n t i t a t i v e l y m e a s u r e h o w w e l l t h e s t u d e n t h a s a c h i e v e d t h e d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s . Some o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h o u g h t , d e b a t e a n d c r i t i q u e i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f a m i l y s t u d i e s p r o g r a m . A c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s e x a m i n i n g p a s t a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y c u l t u r e s h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f i n c l u d i n g m o r e t h a n s i m p l y a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t e c h n i q u e . T h u s , t h e r e a r e h i n t s t h a t t h e c u r r e n t p r o g r a m i s b e g i n n i n g t o a c k n o w l e d g e i n t e r a c t i v e p r a c t i c e , e v e n - 1 0 9 -t h o v i g h m o s t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n f a m i l y s t u d i e s f o c u s o n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f s k i l l s . Home e c o n o m i c s s h o w s a n e v e n s t r o n g e r c o m m i t m e n t t o i n s t r u m e n t a l p r a c t i c e t h a n t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f i t s g r o w t h . G i v e n i t s r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t a l p r a c t i c e , t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s c i e n c e c o n v e y e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e s e r v e s some c o m m e n t . A p p l e ( 1 9 7 1 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t s c h o o l s a r e f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t i n g t h e s c i e n t i f i c mode o f t h i n k i n g a s a b o d y o f ' t h a t s ' a n d " h o w s ' w h i c h d i s t o r t s t h e t r u e m e a n i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t . A p p l e f u r t h e r c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e c u r r r e n t f o c u s i n s c h o o l s o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e p o r t r a y s a c o n s e n s u s t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e t h a t i s b o t h m i s l e a d i n g a n d u n r e a l i s t i c . I n o u r s c h o o l s , s c i e n t i f i c w o r k i s t a c i t l y a l w a y s l i n k e d w i t h a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d s o f v a l i d i t y a n d i s s e e n ( a n d t a u g h t ) w a s a l w a y s s u b j e c t t o e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n w i t h n o o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s , e i t h e r p e r s o n a l o r p o l i t i c a l . " S c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t ' i n s c i e n c e d o n o t e x i s t , o r , i f t h e y d o , ' o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a ' a r e u s e d t o p e r s u a d e s c i e n t i s t s t h a t o n e s i d e i s c o r r e c t a n d t h e o t h e r w r o n g . ( A p p l e , 1 9 7 1 , P - 3 0 ) D i s t o r t i o n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e i g n o r e s t h e p o s i t i v e u s e o f c o n f l i c t i n c h a l l e n g i n g t r a d i t i o n a l m e a n i n g s t r u c t u e s i n t h e c o n s t a n t s e a r c h f o r new k n o w l e d g e . T o i g n o r e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n f l i c t i n a s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e e m p h a s i z e s a n o r d e r l y a n d s t a b l e p o i n t o f v i e w , a n d a l t e r s t h e mode o f s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t t o b e l i e v i n g a n d a c c e p t i n g r a t h e r t h a n c r e a t i n g a n d r e c r e a t i n g . B y n e g l e c t i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f - 1 1 0 -'organized scepticism' students are denied the opportunity to experiment with these concepts i n discovering and encountering t h e i r own expertise. In l i g h t of Apple's comments, i t i s worth noting that the home economics curriculum does not c i t e one instance of c o n f l i c t throughout the program. Yet, within family studies, and foods and n u t r i t i o n some information could be advanced as theories, couched i n a tentative framework, and open to future challenge and reappraisal. To present only a consensus model diminishes much of the interest and v i t a l i t y inherent i n the generation of new ideas. Furthermore, fostering 'believing and accepting' a l l information reemphasizes a passive attitude to knowledge, leading to the perpetuation of the status quo rather than bringing about needed change. This chapter examines the development of the home economics curriculum i n terms of the conceptions of practice. The i n i t i a l curriculum i s closely related to the customary conception of practice a r i s i n g from the perceived need to improve home conditions. Subsequently, home economics i s aligned with instrumental practice i n both i t s subject content and the approach to learning. Interactive practice appears b r i e f l y i n some parts of the family studies course. However, a r e f l e c t i v e conception of practice, although espoused by contemporary writers i n curriculum and home economics, does not form a part of the school program. - I l l -Chapter Seven CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. This study examines the changing conceptions of practice exemplified by home economics education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As the development of domestic science i n Canada begins i n the l a t e nineteenth century, understanding some of the h i s t o r i c a l influences helps c l a r i f y the conceptions of practice embodied by the early curriculum and the subsequent changes i n b e l i e f s and ideals which occurred as home economics became accepted as a school subject. The idea of s o c i a l reform features prominently i n the development of domestic science. Thus, improving family conditions, providing new forms of public service, upholding the id e a l of virtuous womanhood, and tr a i n i n g domestic servants were a l l d i f f e r i n g forms of response to a changing Canadian scene. As an educational reform, domestic science represents change i n both the subject matter and the process of schooling for the program was perceived by i t s advocates as fostering the relationship between schooling and homes, and introducing a p r a c t i c a l component to the school system. Examination of the curriculum shows that domestic science used the process of education as a means of helping fam i l i e s , and women i n p a r t i c u l a r , adapt to s o c i a l change. -112-Wornen's groups such as the National Council of Women, the Women's In s t i t u t e , and the Women's Ch r i s t i a n Temperance Union were strongly i n f l u e n t i a l i n the generation of domestic science ideals. Each organization contributed to the promotion of the subject area as a means of r e a l i z i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l platforms for the improvement i n the quality of Canadian l i f e . Education became the vehicle by which t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r solutions could be effected. As the subject area of domestic science professed to focus upon the l i v e s of f a m i l i e s , i t represented a common ground through which a va r i e t y of ideals could be united. Thus, the i n i t i a l conception of practice i n domestic science reflected the b e l i e f s of women who believed that change w i t h i n the educational system was a means of influencing society. Within education, domestic science found i t s support among those who advocated a system of schooling more cl o s e l y related to d a i l y l i f e . Some educators and members of the public considered that a p r a c t i c a l education would benefit children i n a multitude of ways. Hence, domestic science was included under the umbrella of educational innovation that acknowledged the worth of a l l forms of manual t r a i n i n g - from kitchen gardens, to woodwork, to sewing and cooking. Promotors ca p i t a l i z e d on the b e l i e f that what was good for boys would also be of benefit for g i r l s . Yet c l e a r l y the ideals sought by educational advocates d i f f e r e d from those pursued by women's organizations. - 1 1 3 -Evidence suggests that women who pioneered the cause of t r a i n i n g i n domestic science saw the subject area as both a s t a b i l i z i n g influence i n Canadian society, and as a legitimate means of extending t h e i r womanly influence beyond the family confines. In contrast to those who fought for equal s o c i e t a l r i g h t s , the maternal feminists assumed a more modest approach to the achievement of rights for women. As such they retained t h e i r concern for the family and sought to e s t a b l i s h the home as each woman1 s realm and the mechanism through which her influence could best be extended to other groups i n society. Feminists of maternal pursuasion believed that by campaigning for needed reforms i n families and homes, society i t s e l f could be u p l i f t e d . Those who held such convictions perceived the introduction of domestic science as a v a l i d means of promoting t h e i r cause. This study has employed four conceptions of practice, termed customary, instrumental, i n t e r a c t i v e and r e f l e c t i v e , to examine the b e l i e f s and a c t i v i t i e s i n the home economics curriculum. Investigation shows that i n i t s eighty-year h i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia public schools, home economics education has been associated with two of the conceptions of practice suggested by the framework. Home economics i n i t i a l l y r e f l e c t s a customary form practice as i t conveys a t r a d i t i o n a l notion of the cra f t s and s k i l l s related to the home. Students gain knowledge from the personal expertise of t h e i r classroom teacher i n preparation for t h e i r future roles as wives and - 1 1 4 -m o t h e r s . E a r l y home e c o n o m i c s p r o g r a m s f o c u s o n p r e s e r v i n g t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y b y e q u a t i n g t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f s k i l l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s w i t h u p h o l d i n g i t s m o r a l f r a m e w o r k . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s e x t e n d e d c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g b e y o n d t h e f a m i l y c i r c l e . T h e e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m d o e s f o r m a l i z e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f home c a r e a s b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d b y women. H o w e v e r , t h e v i s i o n o f r e f o r m e r s r e m a i n s s i m p l y a v i s i o n , f o r e x p a n s i o n o f t h e i r i d e a l s i s n o t e n c o u r a g e d b y t h e k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e a n d a c t i v i t i e s t a u g h t i n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m s . I n t e r m s o f t h e c u s t o m a r y c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e , i n s u l a t i o n f r o m c h a n g e , a n d t h e n a d j u s t m e n t t o i t , a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e a r l y p r o g r a m s . F r o m 1 9 2 6 t o 1 9 4 6 home e c o n o m i c s i s m o r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e . T h e m o r a l d i m e n s i o n s o s t r o n g l y e c h o e d b y s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s e a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t u r y g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h e s a s p r o b l e m s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e f a m i l y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t o f t h e m e t h o d s o f s c i e n c e . L e a r n i n g f o r t h e p r e s e n t i s e m p h a s i z e d , i n c o n t r a s t t o p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e f u t u r e . S t u d e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d ' m o t h e r ' s h e l p e r s ' i n d o m e s t i c c h o r e s , s h o p p i n g , a n d m i n d i n g c h i l d r e n . M o r e o v e r , l e a r n i n g i t s e l f b e c o m e s a m o r e o r g a n i z e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d p r o c e s s . S o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y r a t h e r t h a n s e l f - s a c r i f i c e c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w i n g 1 9 2 5 . - 1 1 5 -I n v e s c i g a r . i o n o f d i e c o n t e m p o r a r y c u r r i c u l u m r e v e a l s a n e v e n s t r o n g e r c o m m i t m e n t t o i n s t r u m e n t a l p r a c t i c e . C o n t r o l o f t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f a s p e c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e f a m i l y a r e t h e f o c u s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c u r r i c u l u m . D e s i r e f o r c o n t r o l i s h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i t s e l f , t h e w a y a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n c e i v e d f o r s t u d e n t s a n d i n t h e k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t f a m i l y p r o b l e m s . T h e s t r e s s o n e f f i c i e n c y a n d o b j e c t i v i t y a l s o a l i g n s t h i s c u r r i c u l u m w i t h a n i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r m o f p r a c t i c e . T h u s , c u r r i c u l a r e x a m i n a t i o n s h o w s t h a t o n c e t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m a c u s t o m a r y t o a n i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e w a s c o m p l e t e d l i t t l e movement o c c u r r e d i n t h e k i n d s o f p r a c t i c e b e i n g a d v o c a t e d . P r a c t i c e r e m a i n s p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n a n i n s t r u m e n t a l f r a m e w o r k . T h e s e f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m B r o w n ' s r e c e n t c l a i m t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s h a s " b e c o m e f r o z e n i n t o p a t t e r n s o f t h o u g h t a n d a c t i o n t h a t p r e v a i l e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y " ( 1 9 8 4 , p . 5 1 ) . T h o u g h B r o w n ' s comments a r e made w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e A m e r i c a n s c e n e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s b e e n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r m s o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t i t s t e n u r e i n s c h o o l s , p r i m a r i l y a s a n i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r m o f p r a c t i c e , home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n h a s e n a b l e d s t u d e n t s a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l l e v e l t o r e f i n e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n a n u m b e r o f s p e c i a l i t y a r e a s . S t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n home e c o n o m i c s p r o g r a m s b e c o m e s k i l l e d i n -116-food preparation, sewing and t e x t i l e s , family studies and related forms of career preparation. Thus, home economics education i s commended by some teachers i n f i e l d for sustaining i t s e f f o r t s to pursue only what i t knows how to do best. However, when the curriculum of schools i s interpreted within the conceptions of practice possible within home economics, i t can been seen that commitment to a single form of practice can become both a r e s t r i c t i o n and a l i a b i l i t y . Implications Four major implications a r i s e from t h i s study, regarding the interpretation of practice i n school programs and the helping professions, and the h i s t o r i c a l examination of women's r o l e i n the development of home economics. 1. The curriculum of home economics for public schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia needs reexamination. I t appears that sometimes there are considerable gaps between the subject content, i t s application and the purposes for which i t i s included'. As the t r a d i t i o n a l core of the home economics curriculum focuses on the family, to interpret family l i v i n g only through the instrumentalisra of science ignores s i g n i f i c a n t dimensions of human experience possible wi t h i n other conceptions of practice. Moreover, as one of the conceptions of practice, science i t s e l f , must be accurately portrayed so that students understand how - 1 1 7 -theories are b u i l t and then continually refined through experimentation. Thus i n broadening the forms of practice used to interpret human experience careful attention must be paid to the way knowledge i s used i n the curriculum and how i t i s applied i n classroom situations so that school programs provide a well-rounded understanding of the family. 2. Home economics students must be taught to 'think' as w e l l as to 'do.' As h i s t o r i c a l examination suggests that the problems of families have been of t r a d i t i o n a l concern to home economics, the curriculum should encourage students to approach problems through uncovering the d i v e r s i t y of underlying reasons which often contribute to a s i t u a t i o n . This means di s c l o s i n g issues within the topic area, w r i t i n g c r i t i c a l reviews, r e f l e c t i n g and debating current issues related to family l i v i n g . A c t i v i t i e s therefore become thoughtful extensions of cu r r i c u l a r topics rather than simply s k i l l mastery of techniques related to the topic at hand. As home economics i s p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with the application of knowledge, involving students i n community a f f a i r s might be one way of using new approaches to family l i v i n g i n a r e a l i s t i c way. 3. Home economics educators should d i r e c t attention to the h i s t o r i c a l development of t h e i r f i e l d . The relationship between maternal feminism and the evolution of home economics has not been c a r e f u l l y examined. F i r s t , the gap between the ideals of maternal feminists who supported -118-the domestic science cause and the Implementation of these ideals at the classroom l e v e l begs investigation. Second, the roots of Canadian home economics have been primarily interpreted i n l i g h t of the work of advocates such as Adelaide Hoodless, while others such as A l i c e Chown, who was much more r a d i c a l , have been neglected. Therefore the contribution of other individuals to the development of home economics needs to be c l a r i f i e d as t h e i r w r i t i n g implies a broader v i s i o n of the home and the role of women. F i n a l l y , the part played by various women's organizations i n the development of home economics suggests that they acted as 'interest groups' whose pressures brought about many benefits for women and children, though they were without l e g a l or p o l i t i c a l power. The mechanisms which women employed to pursue t h e i r s o c i a l goals also needs explanation. 4. Further investigation should be directed to the study of other helping professions and the conceptions of practice which have accompanied t h e i r evolution as f i e l d s of study. Understanding practice associated with related professions would contribute to making 'service' a more meaningful component for a l l f i e l d s dedicated toward helping others. - 1 1 9 -Bibliography Aberdeen, I . (1894). P r e s i d e n t i a l address. Proceedings of the F i r s t Annual Meeting and Conference of the National Council of Women of Canada. Women workers of Canada (pp. 10 -14) . Ottawa, Ontario : Thoburn St Co. 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(1974). Theory and practice. London: Heinemann. Harcourt, R. (1904). Report of the Minister of Education for the  year of 1903 - Part I. (pp. v-lix). Toronto, Ont.: King s Printer. - 1 2 2 -H o l z n e r , B . , & M a r x , J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . K n o w l e d g e a p p l i c a t i o n : T h e k n o w l e d g e s y s t e m i n s o c i e t y . T o r o n t o : A l l y n a n d B a c o n , I n c . H o o d l e s s , A . ( 1 8 9 4 ) . I n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g f o r g i r l s i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s . R e p o r t o f t h e P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women o f C a n a d a . Women w o r k e r s  o f C a n a d a , ( p p . 1 1 4 - 1 2 0 ) . ( 1 8 9 8 ) . P u b l i c s c h o o l d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . T o r o n t o : C o p p - C l a r k L t d . ( 1 8 9 8 ) . T h e l a b o u r q u e s t i o n a n d w o m e n ' s w o r k . Women w o r k e r s o f C a n a d a ( p p . 2 5 7 - 2 5 8 ) . ( 1 9 0 3 ) R e p o r t o f t h e c o m m i t t e e o n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e Women w o r k e r s o f C a n a d a ( p p . 1 6 2 - 1 6 5 ) . ( 1 9 0 5 ) . R e p o r t o f t h e c o m m i t t e e o n d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e a n d m a n u a l t r a i n i n g . Women w o r k e r s o f C a n a d a ( p p . 3 6 - 3 9 ) . ( 1 9 0 8 ) Home e c o n o m i c s . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S i x t h C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n ( p p . 1 9 1 - 1 9 6 ) . T o r o n t o , O n t . : M u r r a y P r i n t i n g C o . L t d . H o w e s , R . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A d e l a i d e H u n t e r H o o d l e s s . I n M . Q . I n n e s ( E d . ) , T h e c l e a r s p i r i t ( p p . 1 0 3 - 1 1 9 ) . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . H u l t g r e n , F . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e p a s t i s p r o l o g u e . J o u r n a l o f Home  E c o n o m i c s , F a l l , 2 1 - 2 3 . J o h n s o n , F . H . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . T h e R y e r s o n i a n i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B . C . S t u d i e s . 1 0 , 2 6 - 3 4 . J o n e s , D . C . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . "We c a n n o t a l l o w i t t o b e r u n b y t h o s e who d o n o t u n d e r s t a n d e d u c a t i o n " - A g r i c u l t u r e s c h o o l i n g i n t h e t w e n t i e s . B . C . S t u d i e s 3 9 , 3 0 - 6 0 . J o u r n a l o f Home E c o n o m i c s . ( 1 9 1 0 ) (No a u t h o r o r t i t l e g i v e n ) a r t i c l e r e f e r s t o t h e o r i g i n o f home e c o n o m i c s . 2, 3 1 . J u n i p e r , A . B . ( 1 9 1 1 ) . D o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , c o u r s e o n e . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B . C . : K i n g s P r i n t e r . ( 1 9 1 3 ) ' . G i r l s ' home m a n u a l . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B . C . : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . K e a l e y , L . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e c l a i m : Women a n d r e f o r m i n  C a n a d a 1 8 8 0 ' s - 1 9 2 0 ' s . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : W o m e n ' s P r e s s . - 1 2 3 -K i e r e n , D . , V a i n e s , E . Sc B a d i r , D. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e home e c o n o m i s t  a s a h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l . W i n n i p e g , M a n . : F r y e . K y l e , J . ( 1 9 1 8 ) M a n u a l t r a i n i n g a n d d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e . A n n u a l  r e p o r t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 1 7 . ( p p . A 8 0 - A 8 2 ) . D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B . C . : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . ( 1 9 2 1 ) A n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 2 0 . ( p p . C 8 3 - C 8 7 ) D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B . C . : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . L a n g , S . E . ( 1 9 0 5 ) . T e n d e n c i e s i n e d u c a t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e  F i f t h C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n E d u c a t i o n a l  A s s o c i a t i o n 1 9 0 4 . ( p p . 4 9 - 6 8 ) . T o r o n t o , O n t . : M u r r a y P r i n t i n g C o m p a n y . L i g h t , B . St P a r r , J . ( E d s . ) . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C a n a d i a n women o n t h e move  1 8 6 7 - 1 9 2 0 . T o r o n t o , O n t . : New H o g t o w n P r e s s a n d O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n . M c C a r t h y , T . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e c r i t i c a l t h e o r y o f J u r g e n H a b e r m a s . C a m b r i d g e : M I T P r e s s . M c L e n a g h e n , J . ( 1 9 2 8 ) . T e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n - home e c o n o m i c s . P u b l i c s c h o o l a n n u a l r e p o r t , 1 9 2 6 - 1 9 2 7 . ( p p . M 6 3 - 6 5 ) . D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B . C . ( n . d . ) Why s t u d y home e c o n o m i c s ? u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t . A v a i l a b l e f r o m P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B . C . M c N e i l l , J . L . ( 1 9 7 4 ) E g e r t o n R y e r s o n f o u n d e r o f C a n a d i a n ( E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g ) E d u c a t i o n . I n R . S . P a t t e r s o n , J . W . C h a l m e r s , Sc J . W . F r i e s e n ( E d s . ) . P r o f i l e s o f C a n a d i a n  e d u c a t o r s . D . C . H e a t h , C a n a d a L t d . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y . ( 1 9 7 9 ) Home  e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e ( 8 - 1 2 ) . V i c t o r i a : C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M o r r i s o n , R . T . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . " T h e i r p r o p e r s p h e r e " f e m i n i s m , t h e f a m i l y , a n d c h i l d - c e n t e r e d s o c i a l r e f o r m i n O n t a r i o , 1 8 7 5 - 1 9 0 0 . O n t a r i o h i s t o r y , 6 8 , 2 , 4 5 - 7 4 . N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women o f C a n a d a . ( 1 8 9 4 ) T h e p r o b l e m o f d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e . Women w o r k e r s o f C a n a d a , ( p p . 1 5 2 - 1 7 2 ) . ( 1 9 1 2 ) R e p o r t o f t h e l o c a l c o u n c i l o f women o f V a n c o u v e r . Women w o r k e r s o f C a n a d a . ( p p . x v i i - x v i i i ) . - 1 2 4 -P a r v i n , V . E . ( 1 9 6 5 ) . A u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t e x t b o o k s f o r t h e s c h o o l s o f  O n t a r i o 1 8 4 6 - 1 9 5 0 . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . P u t m a n , J . H . a n d G . M . W e i r . ( 1 9 2 5 ) . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a :  S u r v e y o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . Q u i l l i n g , J . I . ( 1 9 7 0 ) T h e n a t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y p r o j e c t e d b y t h e  home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a s e v i d e n c e d t h r o u g h  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n Home E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) . A n n A r b o r , M I : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s N o . 7 1 1 1 9 5 0 . R a v e n h i l l , A . ( 1 9 1 1 ) A d d r e s s t o t h e V a n c o u v e r C o u n c i l o f Women. V a n c o u v e r C o u n c i l o f Women P a p e r s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U . B . C . L i b r a r y . ( 1 9 5 1 ) . T h e m e m o i r s o f a n e d u c a t i o n a l p i o n e e r . T o r o n t o : J . M . D e n t a n d S o n s ( C a n a d a ) L i m i t e d . R e i d , W . A . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . P r a c t i c a l r e a s o n a i n g a n d c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y : I n s e a r c h o f a new p a r a d i g m . C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y 9 , 3 , 1 8 7 - 2 0 7 . R e i f f , R . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e c o n t r o l o f k n o w l e d g e : T h e p o w e r o f t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d S c i e n c e 1 0 , 3 , 4 5 1 - 4 6 7 . R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s . ( 1 8 8 9 ) . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e R e l a t i o n s o f C a p i t a l a n d L a b o r i n C a n a d a . I n D . L a w r a n d R . G i d n e y ( E d s . ) . E d u c a t i n g C a n a d i a n s . 1 9 7 3 , ( p p . 1 6 1 - 1 6 2 ) . T o r o n t o : V a n N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d L t d . R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s . ( 1 9 1 3 ) . S e s s i o n a l p a p e r 1 9 1 d . R o y a l  C o m m i s s i o n o n I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g a n d T e c h n i c a l  E d u c a t i o n . O t t a w a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r R o b e r t s , W. ( 1 9 7 9 ) " R o c k i n g t h e c r a d l e f o r t h e w o r l d : T h e new woman a n d m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m , T o r o n t o , 1 8 7 7 - 1 9 1 4 . I n L . K e a l e y ( E d . ) . A n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e c l a i m : Women  a n d r e f o r m i n C a n a d a , 1 8 8 0 ' s - 1 9 2 0 ' s ( p p . 1 5 - 4 6 ) . T o r o n t o : T h e Women s E d u c a t i o n a l P r e s s . R o b e r t s o n , J . W. ( 1 9 0 1 ) . T h e m a n u a l t r a i n i n g m o v e m e n t . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F o u r t h C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n  E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , ( p p . 8 4 - 9 3 ) . O t t a w a : F e d e r a l P r e s s C o m p a n y . ( M a r c h 4 , 1 9 0 3 ) E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e I m p r o v e m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e . A d d r e s s g i v e n i n H a l i f a x , N . S . R o b e r t s o n P a p e r s : S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U . B . C . L i b r a r y . - 1 2 5 -• ( A p r i l 3 , 1 9 0 7 ) . T h e M a c d o n a l d M o v e m e n t f o r R u r a l E d u c a t i o n . A d d r e s s t o t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e o n A g r i c u l t u r e a n d C o l o n i z a t i o n . R o b e r t s o n P a p e r s : S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U . B . C . R o w l e s , E . C . ( 1 9 5 6 ) . A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f some e a r l y C a n a d i a n d e v e l o p m e n t s i n home e c o n o m i c s . " ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . Home e c o n o m i c s i n C a n a d a . T h e e a r l y h i s t o r y o f s i x c o l l e g e p r o g r a m s : P r o l o g u e t o C h a n g e . S a s k a t o o n : S a s k . : U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n B o o k s t o r e . R y e r s o n , E . A . ( 1 8 7 0 ) . F i r s t l e s s o n s i n a g r i c u l t u r e f o r C a n a d i a n  f a r m e r s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T o r o n t o : C o p p , C l a r k & C o . S a n d i s o n , J . M . ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . S c h o o l s o f o l d V a n c o u v e r . O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r , N o . 2 . V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . S c h w a b , J . J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e p r a c t i c a l : A l a n g u a g e f o r c u r r i c u l u m . S c h o o l R e v i e w 7 8 , 1 , 1 - 2 4 . S c o t t , J . W . R . ( 1 9 2 5 ) . T h e s t o r y o f t h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e m o v e m e n t . I d b u r y K i n g h a m , O x o n : T h e V i l l a g e P r e s s . S h e e h a n , N . M . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T e m p e r a n c e , e d u c a t i o n , a n d t h e WCTU i n A l b e r t a . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l T h o u g h t 1 4 , 3 , 1 0 8 - 1 2 0 . S n e l l , J . F . ( 1 9 6 3 ) . M a c d o n a l d C o l l e g e o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y : A  h i s t o r y f r o m 1 9 0 4 - 1 9 5 5 . M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l U n i v . P r e s s . S t a m p , R . M . ( 1 9 7 0 a ) . E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l m i l i e u : T h e E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n s c e n e f r o m t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s t o 1 9 1 4 . I n J . D . W i l s o n , R . M . S t a m p & L . P . A u d e t . ( E d s . ) . C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n : A h i s t o r y , ( p p . 2 9 0 - 3 1 3 ) . S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e H a l l o f C a n a d a . ( 1 9 7 0 b ) . E v o l v i n g p a t t e r n s o f e d u c a t i o n : E n g l i s h - C a n a d a f r o m t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s t o 1 9 1 4 . I n J . D . W i l s o n , R . M . S t a m p 8* L . P . A u d e t . ( E d s . ) . C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n : A h i s t o r y , ( p p . 3 1 4 - 3 4 6 ) . S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e H a l l o f C a n a d a . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . A d e l a i d e H o o d l e s s , c h a m p i o n o f w o m e n ' s r i g h t s . I n R . S . P a t t e r s o n , J . W . C h a l m e r s , & J . W . F r e i s e n ( E d s . ) . P r o f i l e s o f C a n a d i a n e d u c a t o r s , ( p p . 2 1 3 - 2 3 2 ) . D . C . H e a t h C a n a d a L t d . - 1 2 6 -( 1 9 7 7 ) . T e a c h i n g g i r l s t h e i r " G o d - g i v e n p l a c e i n l i f e " . A t l a n t i s 2 , 2 , 1 8 - 3 4 . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e s c h o o l s o E O n t a r i o , 1 8 7 6 - 1 9 7 6 , T h e O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s S e r i e s . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . S t r o n g - B o a g V . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . T h e r o o t s o f m o d e r n C a n a d i a n f e m i n i s m : T h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women, 1 8 9 3 - 1 9 2 9 . C a n a d a I I I , 2 , 2 2 - 3 3 . S u t h e r l a n d , N . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y : F r a m i n g t h e  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c o n s e n s u s . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . S o c i a l p o l i c y , ' d e v i a n t ' c h i l d r e n , a n d t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h a p p a r a t u s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e t w e e n t h e W a r s . T h e J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l T h o u g h t . 1 4 , 2 , 8 0 - 9 1 . T h o m a s , J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e e m e r g e n c e o f d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r  s c h o o l s : 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 2 5 . U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T o m k i n s , G . S . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T r a d i t i o n a n d c h a n g e i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n : H i s t o r i c a l a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y p e r s p e c t i v e s . I n J . D . W i l s o n St H . A . S t e v e n s o n ( E d s . ) . P r e c e p t s , p o l i c y  a n d p r o c e s s : P e r s p e c t i v e s o n c o n t e m p o r a r y C a n a d i a n  e d u c a t i o n ( p p . 1 - 2 0 ) . L o n d o n , O n t . : A l e x a n d e r , B l a k e a n d A s s o c i a t e s . V a i n e s , E . L . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e n L a k e P l a c i d c o n f e r e n c e s o n home e c o n o m i c s . C a n a d i a n Home E c o n o m i c s  J o u r n a l 3 1 , 2 9 - 3 3 , 4 8 . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P a u s e a n d r e f l e c t : C a n a d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e L a k e P l a c i d C o n f e r e n c e s . C a n a d i a n Home E c o n o m i c s  J o u r n a l 3 4 , 3 , 1 3 7 - 1 4 0 , 1 5 5 . V a l l a n c e , E . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . H i d i n g t h e h i d d e n c u r r i c u l u m . C u r r i c u l u m  T h e o r y N e t w o r k 4 ^ 1 , 5 - 2 1 . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . ( 1 9 1 5 ) A n n u a l r e p o r t s o f V a n c o u v e r c i t y s c h o o l s , ( p p . 7 3 ) . V a n c o u v e r : T h e B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s . ^ _ ( 1 9 2 6 ) A n n u a l r e p o r t s o f V a n c o u v e r c i t y s c h o o l s . ( p p . 7 8 , 8 0 ) V a n c o u v e r : T h e B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s . ( 1 9 2 8 ) A n n u a l r e p o r t s o f V a n c o u v e r c i t y s c h o o l s . ( p . 1 0 5 ) V a n c o u v e r : T h e B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s . -127-(1944) Annual reports of Vancouver c i t y schools. (pp. 55-56, 105-109). Vancouver: The Board of School Trustees. Van Manen M. (1977). Linking ways of knowing with ways of being p r a c t i c a l . Curriculum Inquiry 6, 3 , 205-228. V i n c e n t i , V. (1981). A his t o r y of the philosophy of home economics. (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , The Pennsylvania State University) Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, No. 8206520. (1983) Antecedents of reformism. Journal of Home Economics 75, 3, 26-31. White, 0 . E. (1951). The his t o r y of the p r a c t i c a l education courses i n Canadian secondary schools. (Unpublished Master's thesis) M c G i l l University, 1951. Wilson, D. (1898). Twenty-sixth annual report of the public  schools of B r i t i s h Columbia for the years 1896-1397'. V i c t o r i a , Queen s P r i n t e r . Wilson, D.C. (1981). A c r i t i c a l analysis of teacher education from the perspective of curriculum. Canadian Journal  of Education 6, 1, 55-64. Wilson, S. (1980). The hidden dimension of home economics. Unpublished paper. University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Wilson, S., & Vaines, E.L. (1985). A theoretic framework for the examination of practice i n home economics. Home Economics Research Journal 13, 4 . - 1 2 8 -A p p e n d l x A . Q u e s t i o n s u s e d f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . A . A c t i v i t i e s : 1 . W h a t k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s a r e e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m ? 2 . How d o c l a s s members p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t i e s ? 3 . Do c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s h i g h l i g h t a p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s u p o n t h e f a m i l y ? 4 . What r a t i o n a l e i s a d v a n c e d t o j u s t i f y c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s ? B . K n o w l e d g e : 1 . W h a t k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e a r e p e r c e i v e d a s h a v i n g t h e m o s t w o r t h ? 2 . W h a t a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t k n o w l e d g e a n d l e a r n i n g a r e a d v a n c e d ? 3 . Who c o n t r o l s t h e w a y k n o w l e d g e i s u s e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m ? C . R e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d P a t t e r n s : 1 . Do c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t c u r r i c u l a r p u r p o s e s ? 2 . Do t h e c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s e m p h a s i z e l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h e f u t u r e , a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t , o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e p a s t ? 3 . W h a t k i n d s o f t e a c h e r / s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s d o e s t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o s t e r ? 4 . I n w h a t w a y s i s a h o m e / s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s u p p o r t e d b y t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ? 5 . I s t h e r e a n a p p a r e n t s e q u e n c i n g o f k n o w l e d g e a n d a c t i v i t i e s ? 

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