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Understanding images : a study of the use of materials designed to include the teaching of art history… Ailey, Gabriele Elisabeth 1988

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UNDERSTANDING IMAGES: A STUDY OF THE USE OF MATERIALS DESIGNED TO INCLUDE THE TEACHING OF ART HISTORY AND ART CRITICISM TOGETHER WITH RELATED STUDIO EXPLORATION IN B.C. SECONDARY SCHOOLS By GABRIELE ELISABETH AILEY B.F.A. , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS IN EDUCATION. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1988 ®Gabriele E l i s a b e t h Alley, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of visual and Performing Arts in Education The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mal l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date April 2 , 1 9 8 8 ABSTRACT This study examines the use of l o c a l l y relevant c u r r i c u l a r materials Understanding Images: B i l l Reid and Understand ing Images: Gathie Falk by three art teachers. The materials were developed by the researcher and modelled on the concept of discipline-based art education. The major purpose of t h i s investigation was to determine i f relevant i n s t r u c t i o n a l support material which addresses the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l domains together with studio production were developed and made available would v i s u a l art teachers be i n c l i n e d to o f f e r a more balanced program and one which p a r a l l e l s the prescribed curriculum for junior and secondary art education in B r i t i s h Columbia. Secondary interests of t h i s investigation were to determine i f an understanding of the integration of the h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and production domains was r e f l e c t e d in 1) the quality of dialogue between the teacher and the student, 2) the qu a l i t y of t a l k among students and 3) the student art work. The descriptive, q u a l i t a t i v e study followed the i n -class a c t i v i t i e s of three art teachers in three junior secondary schools. The major instrument was the researcher who, in the role of non-participant observer, collected f i e l d notes. Further data were collected by questionnaires, sample interviews, random conversation with students, samples of student art work and photographs of classroom a c t i v i t y . The framework for the study was based on Eisner's (1979) model of educational c r i t i c i s m in which he i d e n t i f i e d three major aspects: the descriptive, the interpretive, and the evaluative aspect. (p. 211) As a r e s u l t of the findings, strengths and limit a t i o n s of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials were i d e n t i f i e d and implications for development and implementation of si m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials for v i s u a l art education were made. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: THE STUDY Introduction 1 Research Question 2 Subsidiary Questions 2 Assumptions 3 Design of the Study 3 Instruments 4 Format of the Study 5 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Evolution of Discipline-based Art Education .7 Discipline-based Curriculum Projects 21 Summary 36 CHAPTER THREE: SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: THE MILIEU FOR THE CONDUCT OF THE STUDY Setting 37 Framework 38 Focus , 40 Instruments 41 Selection of Participants 43 The Classroom Situations 44 Situation # 1 44 Situation # 2 49 Situation # 3 53 Summary 56 CHAPTER FOUR: A RECREATION OF THE THREE SITUATIONS Text 1 57 Introduction to Instructional Materials 57 Use of Instructional Materials 60 Student Responses 67 Text 2 70 Introduction to Instructional Materials 70 Use of Instructional Materials 72 Student Responses 82 Text 3 86 Introduction to Instructional Materials 86 Use of Instructional Materials 87 Student Responses 97 CHAPTER FIVE: AN INTERPRETIVE ACCOUNT OF THE THREE TEXTS Teacher Response 103 Introduction 103 Implementation of Instructional Materials 104 Student Response 112 V Quality of Dialogue 112 Quality of Student Art Work 116 The Art Program 119 Summary 126 CHAPTER SIX: DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS Introduction 128 The Instructional Materials 128 Factors Which Influenced Teacher Use of Materials 132 Reflections on the Success of the Study 138 Implications for Development of Curriculum Materials ..141 Summary 143 REFERENCES 146 APPENDICES A Understanding Images: B i l l Reid 150 B Teacher Questionnaire 193 C Teacher Pre-Instructional Interview '. . 195 D Teacher Post-Instructional Interview 197 E Teacher Log 199 F Student Questionnaire 201 G Student Interview Questions 203 H Student Art Work 205 CHAPTER 1 The Study I n t r o d u c t i o n A new v i s u a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y and s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia i n 1983. New t h e o r i e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h o f t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s p l a y e d a major r o l e i n t h e development o f t h i s document. The p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i o based program was r e p l a c e d by a more b a l a n c e d c u r r i c u l u m which i n c l u d e d s t u d y i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l domains. The c o n c e r n i s t h a t t h e new c u r r i c u l u m may n o t be w i d e l y implemented. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e (Chapman 1978, 1980, 1982; E i s n e r , 1972, 1979, 1982; G e t t y C e n t e r , 1985) t e a c h e r s o f v i s u a l a r t , d e s p i t e c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s and c u r r i c u l a , s t i l l t e n d t o f o c u s on s t u d i o p r o d u c t i o n and spend l i t t l e t i m e on t h e s t u d y o f a r t h i s t o r y and a r t c r i t i c i s m . Some f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n c i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n a r e l a c k o f money f o r s u f f i c i e n t i n s e r v i c e , l a c k o f s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l s , i n a d e q u a t e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f a r t e d u c a t i o n and l a c k o f , u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o make use o f t e s t i n g measures i n t h e s c h o o l s ( E i s n e r , 1982). Furthermore, most t e a c h e r s o f 2 v i s u a l art in secondary school are free to set t h e i r own program of study and have l i t t l e or no obligation to follow the prescribed curriculum. It i s posited, that i f relevant i n s t r u c t i o n a l support material which addresses the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l domains together with studio production were developed and made available then the v i s u a l a r t teacher would be inc l i n e d to o f f e r a more balanced program and one which p a r a l l e l s the prescribed curriculum. Moreover, to capture the interest of the learner, to expand awareness of the environment, and to increase appreciation of the a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l heritage, Canadian content with a focus on l o c a l art and a r t i s t s should be an integral part of the in s t r u c t i o n a l materials. (Emerson i n MacGregor, 1984) Research Question Given l o c a l l y relevant i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials which focus on h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects and relate these to studio production, w i l l three teachers of v i s u a l art at the secondary l e v e l , whose programs have been production oriented, develop and o f f e r a unit that provides a balance between art history, art c r i t i c i s m and art studio? Subsidiary questions. 1. W i l l the qua l i t y of dialogue between the teacher and student r e f l e c t understanding of the new material? 2. W i l l the qua l i t y of student t a l k r e f l e c t perceived 3 integrations of the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l material? 3. W i l l student art work r e f l e c t an understanding of the perceived integration of the h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and production domains? Assumptions A large number of v i s u a l art programs in secondary schools tend to focus on studio production because: 1. The teacher i s r e l a t i v e l y free to set the course goals and choose the course content (Barkan, 1966; Chapman, 1970; Eisner, 1982) 2. There are few i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials available which p a r a l l e l the current curriculum 3. The b e l i e f exists that art taught from an i n t e l l e c t u a l basis might r e s u l t in loss of enrollment and ultimately loss of v i s u a l art program and the teacher's job 4. Teacher education in art offers a variety of studio experiences but few in depth courses in art hi s t o r y and art c r i t i c i s m or courses in which the three domains are integrated (Eisner, 1982; Getty Center, 1985) Design of the Study Population, sample and setting. This i s a descriptive, q u a l i t a t i v e study which follows the in-class a c t i v i t i e s of three teachers who are currently teaching v i s u a l art in junior secondary schools. The teachers are given Understanding Images, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials 4 developed by the researcher, to implement in t h e i r classrooms. The estimated required time to implement the unit i s ten hours. After an i n i t i a l meeting with each teacher to introduce the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material the teachers w i l l complete a short questionnaire and pa r t i c i p a t e in a b r i e f interview. These data w i l l e stablish educational background, teaching experience and provide information for a teacher p r o f i l e . Teachers w i l l again be interviewed at the close of the unit. During the implementation of the unit, a f t e r each session i s taught, the teachers w i l l be requested to make regular entries into a Log Book. Instruments The major instrument i s the observer and the recording of f i e l d notes. (Eisner 1979) F i e l d notes made during t h i s time are referred to f o r l a t e r analysis and interpretation. R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of observation are improved by frequency of observation and by having the same observer. (Eisner, 1979) Furthermore data gathering by observation and simultaneous recording minimizes errors that r e s u l t from f a u l t y or se l e c t i v e memory. But the observer and recorder may be intru s i v e and i n h i b i t the normal classroom a c t i v i t y . Both the interviewer and respondents are sources of bias. The interviewer may be biased through the questions 5 which are asked as well as in s e l e c t i v e observation. The respondents may be biased in t h e i r motivation in taking part in the study and in t h e i r a b i l i t y to answer the questions. Additional data w i l l be co l l e c t e d by: sample interviews, random conversation with students, samples of student work and photographs of classroom a c t i v i t y . (Eisner, 1979; Borg & Ga l l , 1983) The student interviews w i l l be recorded on audio tape to allow an accurate record of the interview as well as allow the researcher to use d i r e c t quotations. (Borg & G a l l , 1983) The teacher log w i l l provide a record of the amount of material covered in each class and w i l l also provide immediate feedback such as student reaction and suggestions for revisions by the teacher. Format of Study Chapter one has introduced the study. Chapter two w i l l review the l i t e r a t u r e with p a r t i c u l a r attention to the evolution of discipline-based art education. Chapter three w i l l outline the setting and framework of the study, focus of the investigation, the instruments used in data c o l l e c t i o n , the selection of participants, and w i l l p r o f i l e the three situations. Chapter four w i l l recreate, in depth, the three situations and chapter f i v e w i l l provide an interpretive account and subsequent evaluation. 6 The f i n a l chapter w i l l r e f l e c t upon the success of the study and i d e n t i f y implications for the development of c u r r i c u l a r materials for art education as a r e s u l t of t h i s study. 7 CHAPTER 2 Review of the Literature The Evolution of Discipline-based Art Education Many scholars, researchers, and educators in the f i e l d of art education have influenced t h i s study, but of pa r t i c u l a r interest are two events which have profoundly affected theory and research in art education in the past 18 years. Both events have, to a great extent, influenced curriculum development and, to some extent, the actual teaching of art at the classroom l e v e l . The two events, The Seminar in Art Education f o r Research and Curriculum Development (1965) and the Getty Inst i t u t e for Educators on the Visual Arts (1983), though separated by 18 years are c l o s e l y connected. The Penn State Seminar considered the nature of art and art education whereas the Getty Institute focus i s on implementation of discipline-based curriculum in v i s u a l arts. Discipline-based a r t education embraces the philosophy that art inst r u c t i o n includes four concepts; aesthetic, c r i t i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and productive. Both conferences were attended by many of the same key people. After the Penn State Seminar they continued to write and debate the issues of d i s c i p l i n e centered v i s u a l a r t program in the schools. (Barkan, 1966, 1970; Chapman, 1978, 1982; Ecker, 1966, 1973; Eisner, 1969, 1979; 8 Feldman, 1967, 1970; Smith, 1968) Major curriculum projects such as the Stanford-Kettering art curriculum and Kettering Boxes, CEMREL Aesthetic Education Curriculum Program, SWRL Elementary Art Program, and Discipline-Based Art Education were a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the debates and issues raised at the Penn State Seminar. The 1965 Seminar in Art Education for Research and Curriculum Development was held on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pennsylvania. Nationally recognized scholars from a l l areas of the arts and humanities were invited to present papers. The 38 invited participants addressed and discussed varied concerns such as: implications of philosophic inquiry in art education, led by Ecker and Villemain, aspects of art h i s t o r y led by Taylor; art c r i t i c i s m , led by Rosenberg; perspectives in art education, led by Hausman; socio-psychological foundations of art education, led by McFee and Tumin; and Eisner and Barkan addressed curriculum development. The focus of the seminar was on the nature of art and the participants agreed that art education derives i t s language, concepts and processes from the f i e l d s of art history, art c r i t i c i s m , and studio practice. These areas provide the primary source of the content of art education . . . there are many useful ideas in the f i e l d of curriculum generally - concepts of continuity, sequence, integration - that could be useful i n developing the art curriculum. (Mattil, 1966, pp 1-2) The goals of the seminar as stated by the committee responsible for planning the conference together with the United States O f f i c e of Education were: 1. to pursue q u a l i t y research in art education 2. to examine the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y nature of a l l education - in art these areas were to include philosophy, history, c r i t i c i s m , production, and s o c i a l context of art and design 3. to define the f i e l d more c l e a r l y and i d e n t i f y academic and professional areas 4. to share ideas among people of d i f f e r e n t positions and d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s 5. to share ideas within the f i e l d Three years before the Penn State Seminar, Barkan (1962) had addressed the issue of lack of qu a l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n in the v i s u a l arts in secondary schools. He l i s t e d a number of obstacles which needed to be overcome to improve the v i s u a l art programs. A quarter of a century l a t e r one can s t i l l recognize the obstacles and the continuing struggle to solve s i m i l a r problems. For example, Barkan noted that guidance in programming studies for students tended to discourage, often exclude, enrollment in the v i s u a l arts; art courses were often used as dumping grounds for problem students; the ar b i t r a r y length of the standard period was unsuited to instr u c t i o n in v i s u a l arts; teaching assignments were often u n r e a l i s t i c ; space and equipment for inst r u c t i o n in the v i s u a l arts were often inadequate; and resource materials were non-existent or scarce. i Despite these obstacles Barkan sought a way i n which he could j u s t i f y the inclusion of v i s u a l arts in the basic education program in secondary schools. He examined the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c q u a l i t i e s and structure of the f i e l d and addressed the following questions; "How are problems in t h i s f i e l d formulated? What i s the mode of attack in quest of a solution? What i s the body of knowledge in the f i e l d ? . . . " (p.47) From these questions evolved the concept of c r i t i c a l analysis which would encourage the learner to examine works of art in r e l a t i o n to the c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l context and focus on philosophical issues i n t r i n s i c to the meaning and intent of the work. Barkan suggested that the t r a d i t i o n a l studio based v i s u a l art program should include study in the previously neglected areas of art hist o r y and art c r i t i c i s m . He believed that once students engaged in study of these d i s c i p l i n e s which had a long t r a d i t i o n , contained accumulated a r t i s t i c heritage of c i v i l i z e d man, and offered methods of inquiry, they would f i n d t h e i r own studio exploration enhanced. Thus, in 1965, Barkan attended the Penn State Seminar and proposed that the v i s u a l art program in secondary schools include the study of art h i s t o r y and art c r i t i c i s m together with studio production. The t r i p a r t i t e model was expanded to include aesthetics and became one of the stated goals for the seminar. The goals were accepted and s i g n a l l e d the beginnings of change in the f i e l d of art education which had been, since World War 2, f i r m l y grounded in theories of; creative self-expression, the n a t u r a l l y endowed a r t i s t , the essence of art education as the making of art, and the notion that the creativeness developed i n the art room could somehow transfer to any and a l l other areas of learning and l i f e . (Chapman, 1978, 1980). Barkan's theories influenced his students and s t a f f members, notably Chapman, Kern, Wilson, Efland, Eisner, Ecker, and Hausman, a l l of whom subsequently developed, tested, and analyzed aspects of discipline-centered curriculum. Together with new ideas the post Penn State era benefitted from an infusion of federal funds. The new directions in the l i t e r a t u r e focused on the model of the a r t i s t together with the art c r i t i c and the art h i s t o r i a n (Barkan, 1966, 1970). The new term "aesthetic education" and the new aim -to develop perceptual s k i l l s and aesthetic c r i t e r i a , sparked much debate at conferences, seminars and in the l i t e r a t u r e . One immediate evidence of intere s t in aesthetic education occurred in 1970 when Barkan together with his students, Laura Chapman, and Kern published Guidelines for Aesthetic Education and thereby established the groundwork for a basic model for discipline-centered curriculum. But in order for the program to succeed a broad base of support had to be established and individuals in the arts, in education, and in the federal government needed to recognize the importance of aesthetic education. The lack of prestige and support for the v i s u a l arts previously i d e n t i f i e d by Barkan (1962) remained a major stumbling block in the implementation of the Aesthetic Education curriculum. Therefore programs such as CEMREL (Madeja, 1977) which developed a curriculum for aesthetic education with a goal to improve the qual i t y of art education were not e n t i r e l y successful. However, in the l i t e r a t u r e , the debate continued and the role of the art c r i t i c , in the model for aesthetic education, began to gain importance (Ecker, 1966, 1973, 1982; Feldman, 1971; Smith, 1968). Feldman (1967, 1970) regarded the behavior of the art c r i t i c as a systematic process which he divided into four d i s t i n c t stages: Description, Formal Analysis, Interpretation, and Evaluation or Judgment. The sequence was to follow from the simple to the complex, from the s p e c i f i c to the general in order that meaningful conclusions be reached. Feldman also i d e n t i f i e d a s o c i a l motive; he recognized that everyone, whether an experienced c r i t i c or not, enjoys t a l k i n g about art and sharing aesthetic experiences. But the main goal of art c r i t i c i s m was to remain "understanding . . . to f i n d a way of looking at art objects which w i l l y i e l d the maximum of knowledge about t h e i r meanings and merit." (Feldman, 1967 p.451) S i m i l a r l y Smith (1968) addresses the notion of aesthetic c r i t i c i s m as a method which could be used in aesthetic education. He places emphasis on teaching learners how to decide what i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y relevant, valuable, and unique. Emphasis i s further placed on the content or subject matter of formal instruction rather than on such aspects of schooling as the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d . (p. 404) More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Smith describes his model of aesthetic c r i t i c i s m or c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y "in terms of overlapping phases which contain statements ranging from the cogniti v e l y certain to the cognit i v e l y less certain, beginning with description and phasing into analysis, interpretation, and evaluation." (p.413) According to the l i t e r a t u r e many scholars, educators and researchers in art education in the mid '60s and '70s agreed that aesthetic c r i t i c i s m i n the v i s u a l arts could become an e f f e c t i v e teaching and learning instrument, but before that could happen they recognized the need for implementation of research, development of appropriate curriculum design, and e f f e c t i v e teacher preparation. Ecker (1966, 1973) was concerned that aesthetic education, although extensively debated in current l i t e r a t u r e , was neglected in the schools. In 1982 he addressed the Art 8-12 Summer Curriculum Implementation Institute at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia in Vancouver. In his address he focused on the need to develop the potential of the students to respond c r i t i c a l l y to v i s u a l and aesthetic phenomena. Furthermore he outlined his conception of aesthetic inquiry and how i t could be implemented and used as a to o l in aesthetic education. His discussion centered on developing the potential for "reasoned c r i t i c i s m " one of the four areas addressed by the B r i t i s h Columbian v i s u a l art curriculum (the others being imagery, elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design, and h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary developments). In his taxonomy, Ecker i d e n t i f i e s f i v e levels of aesthetic inquiry: object, event, and process on the f i r s t l e v e l ; aesthetic judgments, c r i t i c i s m , or any analysis or interpretation of an object or event or process at the second l e v e l ; meta-criticism on the t h i r d l e v e l ; theorizing about art and art c r i t i c i s m on the fourth l e v e l ; and analysis of theory or meta-theory on the f i f t h l e v e l . He refers to these f i v e levels as the "structure of knowledge" and believes they hold implications for both instruction and curriculum development in the arts at a l l levels. Ecker elaborates by stating that aesthetic education i s the r e s u l t of f r e e l y directed inquiry into problems of a r t i s t i c creation, c r i t i c i s m , and explanation, through arts genuinely in response to deeply-felt or perceived problems at a l l f i v e levels of aesthetic inquiry. Inquiry may thus be i n i t i a t e d by anyone at any age and under almost any conditions where appropriate to the educational context... (pp 10,11) Laura Chapman (1978), though influenced by Barkan and Feldman, advocates a more h o l i s t i c art program. She noted a s h i f t in the h i s t o r y of art education in theory and practice in public schools and i d e n t i f i e d three primary concerns: developing the well rounded c h i l d through art, promoting art as a subject which includes a body of knowledge as well as appreciation, and fostering an a b i l i t y to relate art to d a i l y l i v i n g , (p. 18) Because art educators have shown a greater interest in the c h i l d as an a r t i s t as opposed to the c h i l d as appreciator of v i s u a l forms in the environment Chapman argues that the time has come to amalgamate a l l these concerns: "...personal f u l f i l l m e n t through art; appreciation of the a r t i s t i c heritage; awareness of the role of art in society." (p.18) McFee (1977) and Chalmers (1974, 1978) hold a s i m i l a r view but both, in contrast to Smith, look to the s o c i o l o g i s t and the anthropologist for contributions to better understand an a r t i f a c t or art object. Consistent with t h i s view i s a curriculum which w i l l include the study of popular, f o l k and environmental arts of other cultures. This would presumably meet the goals stated by Chapman, but Chalmers (1978) argues that " . . . i n addition to broadening our conception of "what" art i s , we must broaden our conception of "why" art i s an important part of c u l t u r a l l i f e and analyse i t s e f f e c t on everyday a c t i v i t i e s as well as i t s cumulative e f f e c t on human a f f e c t i v e and a t t i t u d i n a l orientations and behaviours." (p.20) To begin to f i n d the answer to the question why art must be recognized as a c u l t u r a l phenomenon as well as an a r t i f a c t , consideration should be given to information such as "...the psychological, cognitive, and methodological, as well as those concerned with the c r e a t i v i t y of the a r t i s t and the t o t a l process of art in a given culture." (Chalmers, 1978, p. 24) Therefore, according to Chalmers, one must include other areas of study such as sociology and c u l t u r a l anthropology in the study of art. McFee (1977) expresses a s i m i l a r point of view in Art culture and environment: A ca t a l y s t for teaching, a text designed to help v i s u a l art teachers in preparation for teaching. She presents the learner with functions of art made operational through sequential levels of inquiry and a c t i v i t y . McFee recognizes art as an integral part of people's l i v e s and the ways in which i t enhances and influences human- experience. Feldman (1970) in his text Becoming human through art  aesthetic experiences in the school seems to concur with t h i s theory in that he considers the components of art to consist of creative and psychological as well as s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l dimensions. Issues l i k e these grew out of debates conducted at the Penn State Seminar. Although the nature of art was central to the seminar discussions " ...the nature of art as a content area was not focused into a s p e c i f i c discipline-based subject, but was being explored in i t s many s o c i a l and educational aspects." (McFee, 1984 p.277) At the 1983 Getty Institute discipline-based art education was defined and debated and preparations were made to implement the program into the public schools. The Getty Institute(1983). The J. Paul Getty Trust i s a private operating foundation which i s dedicated to improving the qual i t y and status of arts and art education in the United States of America. The t r u s t established The Getty Center for Education in the Arts in 1982. The center has undertaken a number of research and development projects including The Getty Institute for Education in the Visual Arts. This conference was held 18 years aft e r Penn State, and addressed the notion of art education as a d i s c i p l i n e . The Institute provides the opportunity to experiment with ways of developing discipline-based art education programs to selected school boards in the United States. The programs are developed on the premise that art education must become a more meaningful part of general education and the contents must be broadened to include i n s t r u c t i o n in the four d i s c i p l i n e s ; art production, art history, art c r i t i c i s m , and aesthetics. This approach, known as discipline-based art education i s central to the development of the Center's projects. The projects, under the d i r e c t i o n of W. Dwaine Greer, together with i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y recognized scholars and educators Harry Broudy, Laura Chapman, Michael Day, E l l i o t Eisner, and Edmund Feldman continue to be developed, applied and evaluated. With the exceptions of Greer and Day, most of the scholars were connected, in some way, with the Penn State Seminar in 1965. The Getty Ins t i t u t e set out to meet a number of goals. In addition to the primary goal of teaching art as a d i s c i p l i n e the i n s t i t u t e formulated further goals which included: art as a c u l t u r a l necessity in American society which required development of cert a i n s k i l l s to understand; the d i s c i p l i n e of art education which included, art history, art c r i t i c i s m , studio production, and aesthetic perception; and development of a sequential art curriculum for elementary school. McFee (1984) noted that implied by these goals are two assumptions. The f i r s t ; one needs the s k i l l s of c r i t i c i s m , history, and production to understand art: the second; art w i l l be accepted and valued as an academic subject i f taught i n t h i s way. The contribution of the Getty Institute to the f i e l d 20 of art education i s considerable, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the areas of teacher education and implementation of the discipline-based curriculum. In the past four years the i n s t i t u t e has generated research, l i t e r a t u r e , and l i v e l y debate at conferences and seminars in discipline-based art education. Where the Penn State Seminar i n i t i a t e d interest in art as a d i s c i p l i n e containing aspects of art history, art c r i t i c i s m and studio production, the Getty Ins t i t u t e developed the curriculum, established a limited number of teacher education programs and implemented the curriculum at selected schools. In 1964 Barkan f i r s t spoke of the need to "synthesize the knowledge in art of the a r t i s t , and the knowledges about art of the aesthetician, the c r i t i c , and the h i s t o r i a n . " (1966, p. 243) He was one of the few Penn State participants who made s p e c i f i c suggestions for art education c u r r i c u l a by r e f e r r i n g to Bruner's s c i e n t i f i c and humanistic inquiry - inquiry which i s d i s c i p l i n e based. Barkan suggested that " inquiry into art education can be both structured and d i s c i p l i n e d , and so can the curriculum i t s e l f " (p.244) Years later, Greer (1984), the d i r e c t o r of the Getty Institute for Educators on the Visual Arts, coined the term discipline-based art education (DBAE) which today i s 21 understood to include sequential curriculum integrating aesthetics, studio art, art history, and art c r i t i c i s m . Systematic in s t r u c t i o n grounded i n the four areas of the vi s u a l arts contains a body of knowledge to be taught and "An important aspect of the discipline-based view of art education i s that i t should be an integral part of the general education." (Greer, 1984, p. 216) Many of these ideas were born at the Penn State Seminar, evolved into classroom based projects such as Stanford-Kettering Project, CEMREL Aesthetic Education Curriculum Program, and SWRL Elementary Art Program. They have resurfaced under the guidance of The Center f o r Education in the Arts, an arm of the J. Paul Getty Foundation. Discipline-based Curriculum Projects In the process of developing the in s t r u c t i o n a l material Understanding Images the researcher reviewed numerous classroom tested projects which implemented the concept of discipline-centered and discipline-based art education. Four projects were of p a r t i c u l a r interest: The Stanford-Kettering Project (1969), CEMREL Aesthetic Education Curriculum Program (1977), SWRL Elementary Art Program (1982) and Discipline-based Art Education: Center for Education in the Arts, the Getty Center. The four projects together with associated l i t e r a t u r e influenced the development of a model for Understanding Images. Besides an inte r e s t in the s i t u a t i o n of art education in general and how i t was perceived by the public and the experts in the f i e l d at the time the projects were conceived, three s p e c i f i c areas were of p a r t i c u l a r interest. The f i r s t area of interest was the goals or stated assumptions set by the committees designated to develop each curriculum; the second, the support material used to augment the curriculum; t h i r d , the methods employed in implementation and evaluation and subsequent analysis by the committee and by scholars in the f i e l d of art education. Although the curriculum projects grew out of the issues debated at the Penn State Seminar they were also a r e s u l t of the dismal status of the v i s u a l arts in the public schools in America. Art education in Canada faced s i m i l a r problems. MacGregor (1984) stated, "Many of the issues f a m i l i a r to American art educators - how to teach art history, how best to relate a rt to other subject areas, how to deal with aesthetic education, how to accommodate multiculturism - are Canadian issues too. (p.4) Art was considered expendable both by the public and by the professionals in the f i e l d of art education. (Eisner, i969) The art programs in the schools were based on the view that the c h i l d , in respect to art, was an unfolding a r t i s t , who, i f given a large variety of materials and a p o s i t i v e atmosphere would f l o u r i s h and the hidden a r t i s t i c talents would emerge (Eisner, 1969; Chapman, 1978, 1980). It did not matter what the c h i l d produced, everything was considered p o s i t i v e and good since the products were considered symptomatic of a stage of deve1opment. The teacher's role was to f a c i l i t a t e , not to i n s t r u c t or i n t e r f e r e in any way. Viktor Lowenfeld and Herbert Read, two i n f l u e n t i a l scholars in the f i e l d of art education were in part responsible for t h i s attitude. For example, Lowenfeld (1952) stated: If children developed without any interference from the outside world, no special stimulation for t h e i r creative work would be necessary. Every c h i l d would use t h i s deeply rooted creative impulse without i n h i b i t i o n , confident in his own kind of expression... (p.l) Read (1956) expressed a s i m i l a r view in t h i s statement; Generally speaking, the a c t i v i t y of self-expression cannot be taught. Any application of an external standard, whether of technique or form, immediately induces i n h i b i t i o n s and frustrates the whole aim. The role of the teacher i s that of attendant, guide, inspirer, psychic midwife. (p.209) These theories were widely accepted not only in America and Canada but in England and many other countries as well. In Read's case they originated in England. Lowenfeld's text Creative and mental growth was revised numerous times and published in seven languages. This text was designed as a resource for art educators. Therefore, the teachers trained according to t h i s curriculum, were trained in the art of encouraging the student, and ensuring that a wide v a r i e t y of materials were available for experimentation. The consequences were that elementary children who were enrolled in art classes were exposed to a wide var i e t y of media but were seldom able to explore any one in depth; the making of art became the dominant a c t i v i t y ; and art was not viewed as a subject in which one learned but an a c t i v i t y in which one engaged. (Barkan, 1966) This then was the state in which Eisner (1969) found art education. Because Eisner recognized that art education was inadequate, the role of the teacher was not extensive enough and the scope of art in the curriculum was too narrow, he i n i t i a t e d the Stanford-Kettering Project. The researcher recognizes that, in some areas of the country, s i m i l a r conditions ex i s t today and believes that the Stanford-Kettering art curriculum project, which was designed to address these issues, r e f l e c t s a contemporary understanding of art education by scholars i n the f i e l d , art educators (post secondary level) and some art teachers. The project aspired to teach art as a body of knowledge to ultimately produce educated adults who are knowledgeable about art and art production and who can respond to the aesthetic aspects of works of art and a r t i f a c t s . The Stanford-Kettering art curriculum and Kettering  Boxes (1969). Eisner's response to the s i t u a t i o n in art education was to i n i t i a t e , on September 1, 1967, a curriculum development project in art education at Stanford University. The Charles F. Kettering Foundation funded the project for a period of two years. One major goal was to develop "an art curriculum that could be used to e f f e c t i v e l y teach s i g n i f i c a n t content to young children by elementary school teachers." (p. i ) The project proposed to address the current concepts, aims and methods which existed in art education. Six assumptions were delineated: 1. The most important contribution by v i s u a l arts to e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t which i s p a r t i c u l a r t o a r t 2. A r t i s t i c l e a r n i n g i s a v e r y complex form o f l e a r n i n g and n o t an a u t o m a t i c consequence o f m a t u r a t i o n 3. The c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r e d i n a r t i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s s h o u l d e x t e n d beyond t h e making o f a r t forms t o i n c l u d e t h e c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l domains 4 . To t e a c h a r t w e l l r e q u i r e s n o t o n l y a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s w e l l t h o u g h t out w i t h r e s p e c t t o aims, o b j e c t i v e s and c o n t e n t but one which a l s o s u p p l i e s i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p o r t media 5. Some a s p e c t s o f a r t i s t i c l e a r n i n g can be e v a l u a t e d b o t h f o r m a l l y and i n f o r m a l l y e n a b l i n g t h e t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o g r e s s made 6. E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , u n t r a i n e d i n a r t , c o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as t e a c h e r s o f a r t i f t h e y c o u l d implement a s e q u e n t i a l l y o r d e r e d c u r r i c u l u m complete w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p o r t media. ( E i s n e r , 1969) These assumptions were t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e d by a group o f e d u c a t o r s and g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . The p r o j e c t t h e n proceeded i n two phases. The f i r s t phase i n c l u d e d t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n and p i l o t t e s t i n g i n a s m a l l number o f c l a s s r o o m s , and t h e n subsequent r e v i s i o n s were made. The second phase i n c l u d e d t e s t i n g c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n a l a r g e r number o f s c h o o l s and c l a s s r o o m s and d e v e l o p i n g e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r 27 the program. The curriculum consisted of lessons which included art production, art c r i t i c i s m and art history. These were structured into developmental sequences which consisted of two volumes of art curriculum s y l l a b i and over 1500 pieces of i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials coded to augment the lessons. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials consisted of small art reproductions, acetate overlays, envelopes, s l i d e s , transparencies for overhead projectors, and s p e c i f i c a l l y developed images. The materials were stored in Kettering Boxes which were moved from one classroom to another. Eisner (1969) reported on the shortcomings and advantages of the project. In the f i n a l analysis the curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials in the Kettering Boxes were considered too d i f f i c u l t and awkward to e a s i l y implement in the classroom and were therefore not used on a large scale. Clark (1984) perceived the major value of the project as "a curriculum development t r a i n i n g ground and as a discipline-based curriculum model that exemplified many recommendations made at the Penn State Seminar" (p. 228). Another project which responded to the goals set at the Penn State Conference was the Aesthetic Education Curriculum Program developed by CEMREL. CEMREL Aesthetic Education Curriculum Program. Madeoa (1977) defined aesthetic education as an area of study that includes the f u l l range of aesthetic phenomena, encompassing a l l the arts yet di f f e r e n t from any of them taken either separately or in combination. Aesthetic education takes in the aesthetic experience i t s e l f (the joy we experience l i s t e n i n g to a fa v o r i t e piece of music), the process by which an aesthetic product i s produced... the object or event... and the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n within which i t i s produced... As an area of study aesthetic education deals with broader concepts and topics (p. 5) CEMREL, which developed a curriculum for aesthetic education, was established in 1965 with a goal to improve the q u a l i t y of education. Two years l a t e r the Board of Directors undertook the challenge to develop a curriculum for aesthetic education. Following a conference held by CEMREL, directed by Barkan and assisted by Chapman, an outline of research in curriculum design and development for art education was delineated. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l model was consistent with many of the goals developed at the Penn State Conference and the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s for an aesthetic education curriculum were i d e n t i f i e d as follows: 1. The curriculum intends to complement rather than replace current instructions in the arts 2. The curriculum w i l l juxtapose several arts in units of i n s t r u c t i o n to demonstrate that a l l the arts are potential sources of aesthetics experience 3. A range of art forms, styles, and periods of a r t i s t i c development w i l l be represented in units of in s t r u c t i o n 4. A range of approaches to study for aesthetic education w i l l be presented in the units of i n s t r u c t i o n 5. Units of in s t r u c t i o n w i l l represent a range of points of view about aesthetic q u a l i t i e s in objects and events the creative process and aesthetic response (Barkan et a l , 1970, pp. l-2> Following the research in the f i r s t phase,,the second phase included defining the content, developing strategies and materials, t e s t i n g and revising, and evaluation. A unique aspect of the curriculum development was the inclusion of performing and producing a r t i s t s working together with scholars, students and teachers in planning the sequenced units. The design of the units i n the curriculum allowed for f l e x i b i l i t y so that the teacher could meet s i t u a t i o n a l goals, community goals and individual teacher values. Thus the content selected and implementation would vary according to a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . However the optimal plan for the CEMREL Aesthetic Education Program was that i t be taught as an area of study and that instruction was to be on a d a i l y basis at each grade l e v e l . The goals of aesthetic education curriculum (as developed by CEMREL)are: to demonstrate to students that a l l phenomena in our environment have aesthetic q u a l i t i e s and to heighten t h e i r capacity for recognizing, analyzing, and experiencing these q u a l i t i e s ; to demonstrate to students how the arts contribute to the aesthetic conditions of our environment; to a s s i s t students in discovering s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences among the arts and, by these means, to enhance t h e i r responses to aesthetic q u a l i t i e s in each of the arts and demonstrate that a l l the arts are potential sources of aesthetic experience; to involve students in experiences that are aesthetic in nature, such as the creative or c r i t i c a l processes; to introduce students to a wide range of views about aesthetic q u a l i t i e s so that they develop t h e i r own c r i t e r i a and a b i l i t y for making aesthetic judgments; to demonstrate the importance and relevance of aesthetic values to the individual and society. (Madeja, 1977, p. 12) Evaluation of the curriculum was conducted in three stages: the preliminary classroom t r i a l s , hot house t r i a l s , and p i l o t tests. In the classroom t r i a l s the developer rather than the teacher directed the class and revisions were made before the hot house t r i a l s . The hot house t r i a l s involved the classroom teacher and t h i s was the f i r s t time that the revised materials were taught in a classroom si t u a t i o n . Every session was observed by a s t a f f member, data were collected, and recommendations were made and implemented. In the p i l o t t r i a l s , the f i n a l stage of evaluation, measurable differences in student outcomes were examined and units were assessed as to whether they could stand alone in a classroom s i t u a t i o n . (Madeja, 1977, p.129) To ensure successful implementation of the Aesthetic Education Curriculum, Aesthetic Education Learning Centers were established to provide comprehensive teacher t r a i n i n g in aesthetic education. SWRL Elementary Art Program. The Southwest Regional Laboratory For Educational Research and Development (SWRL) also committed i t s e l f to an art education project in the elementary school but unlike the Aesthetic Education Curriculum which included a l l art forms, SWRL focused on the development of a vi s u a l art education curriculum. The planning committee headed by Greer determined that the vis u a l art education curriculum, as with other projects 32 developed by SWRL, "would be content-based, systematic, and incremental, a r t i c u l a t e d across the elementary grades, and would u t i l i z e behavorial objectives and systematic evaluation" (Clark, 1984, p. 229). The basic assumptions followed as a guide in the development of the curriculum were: (a) a l l students can create art i n classrooms; (b) art students should study work of adult role models of a r t i s t s , art c r i t i c s , and art historians; (c) a l l generalist classroom teachers can teach art; (d) a l l art work can be evaluated; (e) art i n s t r u c t i o n needs vi s u a l art reference materials; (f) art i n s t r u c t i o n should be systematic and sequential; and (g) teachers teaching art should demonstrate s k i l l s and techniques and d i r e c t learning a c t i v i t i e s of students. (Clark, 1984, p. 229) The curriculum consists of i n s t r u c t i o n a l blocks, units of instruction, and a series of i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Visual analysis (teaches students to perceive physical and expressive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) , production, (provides a sequence in how students projects should evolve) and image analysis (helps students describe, interpret, and evaluate art works) are the three components of i n s t r u c t i o n a l resources for each a c t i v i t y . According to Clark (1984) the program, though 33 d i s c i p l i n e based, i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l i s t i c and r e p e t i t i v e and has been c r i t i c i z e d by some art teachers as being too d i r e c t i v e in i t s learning a c t i v i t i e s . Shortly af t e r the SWRL Elementary Art Program the Getty Foundation (1985) sponsored a report Beyond creating: The place for art in american schools. This publication gave the f i e l d of art education a p o s i t i v e l i f t i n that i t confirms that a rigorous approach to the teaching of art was indeed being implemented in at least seven schools and some measure of success was apparent. It outlined the new curriculum being developed, described programs for teacher preparation and reported on the implementation of discipline-based art education programs in selected schools. Discipline-based Art Education: The Getty Foundation. The interpretation or understanding of art education as a d i s c i p l i n e i s defined by Greer (1984) The focus of discipline-based art inst r u c t i o n i s on art within general education and within the context of aesthetic education. Four parent d i s c i p l i n e s -aesthetics, studio art, art history, and art c r i t i c i s m - are taught by means of formal, continuous, sequential, written curriculum across grade levels in the same way as other academic subjects. A c t i v i t i e s and s k i l l s presented in sequence produce an evolution from a naive (untutored) to sophisticated (knowledgeable) understanding of art, taking into account children's l e v e l of maturation and tasks ordered from simple to complex. When art i s taught with t h i s kind of structure, i t answers c r i t i c s who maintain that art education has l i t t l e to do with art. The art works of children become examples of concepts learned, in addition to being expressive. (1984, p. 212) The Getty Center for Education in the arts was established in 1982 after a year long examination, i n i t i a t e d by the J. Paul Getty Trust, of substance and qua l i t y of arts education programs in the v i s u a l arts in the United States. The research revealed that s i m i l a r problems to those a r t i c u l a t e d by Barkan (1966) were s t i l l in existence. The status of art education was at such a low l e v e l because the emphasis in v i s u a l arts education (is) on fostering creative expression and developing a r t i s t i c s k i l l s , such as drawing, painting and sculpting. This approach i s evidenced in programs that stress hands -on production a c t i v i t i e s to the v i r t u a l exclusion of teaching children about c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l contributions of art or how to value, analyze, and interpret works of art. (Getty Center, 1985, p.iv) The Getty Center maintained that for art education to become more meaningful i t must broaden i t s content and esta b l i s h rigorous requirements. Therefore four d i s c i p l i n e s that contribute to the understanding of art: art production, art history, art c r i t i c i s m , and aesthetics must be included in the curriculum. Schools which taught an art program s i m i l a r to DBAE were i d e n t i f i e d and they revealed that indeed there were some school d i s t r i c t s that considered art to be a v i t a l part of general education. They developed t h e i r own curriculum to include areas of study in art rather than o f f e r i n g only art production. An ongoing observation and study of these schools resulted in a report which was published in 1985 by the Getty Center for Education in the Arts. This report i d e n t i f i e s c r i t i c a l factors in changing art education: (1) a change in perspective which would include a s h i f t in perspective about the value of art education by i n f l u e n t i a l educational policymakers, d i s t r i c t administrators, p r i n c i p a l s , art s p e c i a l i s t s , teachers, and parents; (2) advocacy and support needing to be gained at the community l e v e l and including f i n a n c i a l backing as well as involvement of teachers and p r i n c i p a l s in the process of planning; and (3) academic ri g o r which w i l l require that art programs be conceived, developed and maintained just as other academic subjects are. (pp. 6,7) Many scholars have debated and written on the th e o r e t i c a l aspects of DBAE programs but to date (summer 1987) there are no descriptions of the p r a c t i c a l applications of DBAE program in the classroom, nor are there reports of achievements in which DBAE and non-DBAE students are compared. Summary This chapter has reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e with p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t in the evolution of d i s c i p l i n e based art education. Two major events, The Penn State Seminar and The Getty Institute for Educators on the Visual Arts together with the re s u l t i n g l i t e r a t u r e and c u r r i c u l a development projects were discussed. Chapter 3 w i l l outline the setting and framework of the study and focus on the investigation, the instruments used in data c o l l e c t i o n , the selection of participants, and a p r o f i l e of the three situations. CHAPTER 3 Set t ing and P a r t i c i p a n t s : the m i l i e u for the Conduct of the Study Set t ing The study took place in "Cedarvale" school d i s t r i c t located i n a suburb of a west coast c i t y . Three ar t teachers from three junior secondary schools of approximately equal socio-economic l e v e l and population s i z e took part i n the study. The researcher was contacted by a spokesperson f o r the secondary ar t teachers of Cedarvale. The art teachers had decided to begin implementation of the secondary ar t curriculum and had heard that I was developing i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials which p a r a l l e l e d the curriculum guide. Throughout the duration of the study the researcher acted as inves t iga tor , c o l l e c t i n g information i n a number of ways which included observation, questionnaires , interviews and photographs as well as log books kept by teachers. The study proceeded i n two parts , the f i r s t an in t roduct ion of the new mater ia l , the second adaptation and use of the new material i n a classroom s e t t i n g c o n t r o l l e d by the teacher. In the r o l e of non-par t i c ipant observer the inves t iga tor recorded the events as they unfolded i n each of the three classrooms. Student response to the new i n s t r u c t i o n a l material, student dialogue with the teacher, student conversations and student art work were of p a r t i c u l a r interest. The teacher's use of the material was also noted. Observation continued on a regular basis in each classroom u n t i l implementation of the unit Understanding Images (see Appendix A) was completed. The investigator as observer modeled her behavior on those of educational connoisseur and educational c r i t i c as i d e n t i f i e d by Eisner (1979). Eisner defines connoisseurship as the art of appreciation and describes i t as "a private act; i t consists of recognizing and appreciating the q u a l i t i e s of a p a r t i c u l a r . . . (p. 193) which "provides the fundamental core of r e a l i z a t i o n that gives c r i t i c i s m i t s material." (p. 194). He defines c r i t i c i s m as "the illumination of something's q u a l i t i e s so that an appraisal of i t s value can be made." (p. 191). C r i t i c i s m i s the art of disclosure. Framework The framework for the study i s based on the above model of educational c r i t i c i s m i n which Eisner i d e n t i f i e s three major aspects: the descriptive aspect, the inter p r e t i v e aspect, and the evaluative aspect, (p.211) The descriptive aspect. This aspect e s s e n t i a l l y J portrays or i d e n t i f i e s an educational situation. In t h i s study the investigator describes the events, considers the teacher's choice and use of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material, considers the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the class and considers the i n i t i a l general response to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials by the teacher and the students. The interpretive aspect. According to Eisner the interp r e t i v e aspect i s concerned with questions such as: What does the s i t u a t i o n mean to those involved? How does a classroom function? What ideas, concepts or theories can be applied to explain the situations? (p. 207) This study attempts to interpret each of the three situations and provide understanding by addressing questions such as: How and why were changes made by each teacher in implementation of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials? To what extent did the qual i t y of dialogue r e f l e c t an understanding of the material studied? In which ways did the student art work r e f l e c t an understanding of the material studied? The evaluative aspect. Eisner considers evaluation v i t a l and states that one must "appraise the value of a set of circumstances i f only because, in the process of description, s e l e c t i v e perception has already been at work." (p. 209) In t h i s study the investigator attempts to determine and assess i f , as a r e s u l t of the implementation of the u n i t Understanding Images the p r e v i o u s l y s tudio based ar t program changed. Data were c o l l e c t e d under these three aspects i n preparation f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . The c r i t i c a l analysis which deals with these three categories i n the three classroom s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be referred to as Text 1, Text 2L. and Text 3. Focus The focus of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to determine i f three teachers of v i s u a l ar t at the secondary l e v e l who had taught a mostly s tudio based ar t program would, when given l o c a l l y relevant i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials designed to include art h i s t o r y and art c r i t i c i s m , would adapt t h e i r program and integrate these aspects. Some of the concerns were: The students^, response to the implementation of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials 1. Was the i n c l u s i o n of the study of art h i s t o r y and ar t c r i t i c i s m r e f l e c t e d i n the q u a l i t y of the student-teacher dialogue? 2. Was the i n c l u s i o n of ar t h i s t o r y and ar t c r i t i c i s m r e f l e c t e d in student conversation? 3. Did the s tudent 's art work r e f l e c t an understanding of the h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and productive domains? Understanding i s defined as s i m i l a r or d e r i v a t i v e use of image making s t ra tegies , design elements and materials as those of the a r t i s t s or cul ture studied in the information stages of the u n i t . Although, at the outset of the study, how each teacher chose to implement Understanding Images was not a primary focus i t required considerat ion because each teacher d i d choose to a l t e r the suggested implementation s t r a t e g i e s . Concerns which evolved as a r e s u l t of v a r i a t i o n s i n implementation s t ra tegies were: how and why was the implementation strategy chosen? How d i d teacher planning, classroom organizat ion, and roles of the teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p a f f e c t the implementation? How d i d teacher p r a c t i c a l knowledge a f f e c t the implementation? To what extent d i d s i t u a t i o n a l fac tors inf luence implementation? Instruments The three classroom s i t u a t i o n s were treated as unique s i t u a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n to d i r e c t observation, data c o l l e c t i o n included the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Teacher Questionnaire (see Appendix B). This instrument was designed to obtain information about the teacher 's educational background and teaching experience i n the v i s u a l ar ts . 2. Teacher P r e - I n s t r u c t i o n a l Interview (see Appendix C) . Pre- interviews were based on a sequence of questions designed to provide further information f o r a teacher p r o f i l e . These interviews were conducted at the time that the teacher was introduced to the in s t r u c t i o n a l materials Understanding Images (see Appendix A) and were recorded as written notes. 3. Post-Instructional Interview (see Appendix D). Post-instructional interview questions were designed to allow the teacher to respond to the weaknesses and strengths of the unit and to record t h e i r perception of student response to the inclusion of art hist o r y and art c r i t i c i s m into a studio based program. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. 4. Teacher Logs (see Appendix E). After each session in the classroom the teachers were asked to make an entry into a log book which was provided. These entries were to r e f l e c t the teacher's response to the session and t h e i r perception of the student's response. Changes made by the teacher to the implementation strategies and changes they might be incl i n e d to make in the future were also to be recorded. 5. Student Questionnaire (see Appendix F). The students were asked to complete the questionnaire before introduction to the in s t r u c t i o n a l materials. The questionnaire was designed to determine: i f the student had previous knowledge of the a r t i s t or the art which was 43 to be taught; previous experience in the v i s u a l arts; why the student had enrolled in art. Data col l e c t e d were reasons used to establish the class p r o f i l e . 6. Student Interviews (see Appendix G). A t o t a l of 53 sample student interviews were conducted in the three classes. The interview was semi-structured and the interviewer established rapport by ta l k i n g with the students about t h e i r images as they worked on the studio assignment. The questions which followed t h i s b r i e f introductory discussion were designed to: e l i c i t student response to the inclusion of art history and c r i t i c i s m into the studio program; establish i f the qual i t y of student dialogue r e f l e c t e d integrations of hist o r y and c r i t i c i s m ; establish i f the student art work r e f l e c t e d an understanding of the material studied; and esta b l i s h i f the student would choose to continue studying art i n t h i s manner i f given the opportunity. The interviews were transcribed thus allowing d i r e c t quotations to be used. 7. Student Art Work (see Appendix HV. Samples of the student art work from each class were coll e c t e d and photographed. In some cases, where appropriate the work was also photocopied. This record allowed for s p e c i f i c reference to be made in the process of description, interpretation and evaluation. Selection of Participants (Teachers and Students) The p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers who volunteered to use the ins t r u c t i o n a l materials offered a mostly studio based program and were w i l l i n g to include art hist o r y and art c r i t i c i s m in t h e i r v i s u a l art program. The teachers were given a choice of i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials, two teachers chose to implement Understanding Images: B i l l Reid and one teacher chose to implement Understanding Images: Gathie Falk. Students graduating from the three junior secondary schools normally continue t h e i r education at the same area High School. The p a r t i c i p a t i n g students were for the most part from the same or si m i l a r elementary feeder schools. The classroom situations A b r i e f introduction to the three situations including a teacher p r o f i l e , a description of the setting, a class p r o f i l e and an impression of the existing art program follows. Situation #1 Teacher p r o f i l e . "Sandra" completed teacher t r a i n i n g in the Faculty of Education at a large u n i v e r s i t y on the west coast. The major area of study was vi s u a l art. The course of study included twice as many studio courses as art h i s t o r y courses. She rec a l l e d the time as an art education student and the fact that she p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed the studio courses. She said the other courses were not enjoyable but "needed to be done." Her teaching experience includes three years as a generalist teacher in elementary school and seven years as an art teacher in junior and senior secondary schools. Sandra's teaching assignment, for the duration of t h i s study, was half-time and consisted of four one hour blocks of grade eight art and one one hour block of grade nine and ten art. She elected to teach part-time i n order to pursue her inte r e s t in drawing and painting. She has painted for the past f i f t e e n years and on occasion exhibited her work in l o c a l group exhibitions. The subject of her work focuses on r e a l i s t i c depictions of the b u i l t environment and harbour scenes of the town in which she l i v e s . School environment. The junior secondary school operates on a semester system, therefore the art program for the students in t h i s study began in February and ended in June. Sandra said that she has not always received support from the administration. She had encountered d i f f i c u l t y in receiving approval f o r improvements to her classroom and for funds to purchase major items which she said she needed. For example she had planned to teach silkscreen printmaking for the past year but because, despite repeated e f f o r t s , an exhaust fan had not been i n s t a l l e d she was unable to safe l y teach t h i s process. Furthermore, she had found i t f r u s t r a t i n g that she was not given permission to take her art classes outdoors for a sketching session. The administration's reason was that class time would be wasted i f the students were allowed outdoors. The art classroom consists of two adjoining rooms with the common wall removed. One long wall has a row of narrow horizontal windows which are approximately eight feet above f l o o r l e v e l . These windows did not provide enough natural l i g h t to work by nor did they have blinds to allow for viewing of s l i d e s or films. One hal f of the large room i s used for a drawing area and the desks were grouped in fours with each student assigned to a desk. The other room included three long work tables, a large shelf arrangement for storage and a k i l n . Because the artroom did not have a drying rack the teacher had i n s t a l l e d a c l o t h e s l i n e on which prints were hung to dry. This clothes l i n e acted as a d i v i d e r between the two rooms. Class p r o f i l e . The class in t h i s study consisted of 21 grade eight students who had elected to e n r o l l in the art class. The students' previous school experience in the v i s u a l arts was limited to the in s t r u c t i o n offered at the elementary l e v e l . According to the students interviewed, most enjoyed drawing i n art class better than painting, printmaking or three dimensional work. Because the teacher had not d i s t r i b u t e d the questionnaire to the class previous to the introduction of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials no further pre-implementation data were collected. Art program. Sandra did not have a pre-established plan for her art program but rather suited projects according to materials available. The art program was studio based and she said she t r i e s to "... do new things every year as well as those she knows w i l l turn out well." For example she recently had purchased a large number of sale priced o i l pastels and as a r e s u l t she planned a project based on t h i s medium. She explained that the students were given p l a s t i c and f a b r i c flowers to draw from and were then instructed to color the drawings with o i l pastels. She had instructed students to pay p a r t i c u l a r attention to the background and to make i t very dark by adding more pressure. The c o l o r f u l drawings were displayed on one wall in the drawing room area. The teacher drew my attention to them and said that the students had "fun doing them". Sandra said she does include some art history in the art program by t a l k i n g to the students about art and a r t i s t s while they are working on t h e i r projects. She said "I suppose I do a l i t t l e h i s t o r y . . . I always bring 48 in photographs and . . at the beginning of the year we had a Van Gogh and then I had a Magritte. I suppose i f I asked them i f they lik e d Magritte they would say 'yes, he's the one who did the potato and carrot' and . . I bring a l o t of books to school that I have at home . . . when we are doing something and a (student) i s doing something that reminds me of something I have in the drawer . . I ' l l (take i t out) and pretty soon the whole class i s looking at i t and that's how they get into a l o t of d i f f e r e n t a r t . " In reference to reasoned c r i t i c i s m she said she does not include t h i s for several reasons: she feels i t i s unnecessary because "they (the students) a l l run around and t a l k about t h e i r work..."; she believes that "they l i k e to do and not t a l k about a r t . . . " ; and she does not evaluate c r i t i c i s m because "I just mark them on the fin i s h e d product and so I don't want to spend time doing something l i k e that (art c r i t i c i s m ) ..." Another reason that Sandra chose not to spend time on art h i s t o r y and art c r i t i c i s m was, she explained, her concern that enrollment in art classes would decrease. She said the students "enjoy to come in and work . . a c t u a l l y doing things and not thinking and not writing." For t h i s study Sandra chose to implement Understanding Images: B i l l Reid. Situation # 2 Teacher p r o f i l e . "Annie" attended the same univ e r s i t y that Sandra had attended. She too enrolled in art education and earned a Bachelor of Education degree which enabled her to teach elementary school. After s i x years of teaching in an elementary school she returned to univ e r s i t y during summer sessions and evening classes to qu a l i f y as art teacher at the junior and secondary high school l e v e l . Her program of studies included f i v e sixths studio and one si x t h art h i s t o r i c a l courses. Annie continued to e n r o l l in studio art classes, attend seminars, and workshops, and recently she participated in a painting and s a i l i n g expedition in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Annie's teaching experience consists of s i x years at elementary school (half time art s p e c i a l i s t for grades four to seven and half time as a generalist elementary teacher) and f i f t e e n years as an art teacher in junior and senior secondary schools. Her assignment for t h i s study consisted of s i x one hour blocks of grade eight, nine and ten art and one, one hour block of English for grade nine. Because general enrollment of her school has s t e a d i l y dropped the number of art classes had also decreased. In Out of School Programs Annie has taught a rt courses designed for adults and children as well as a beginners course in ceramics at night school. School environment. The junior secondary school in which Annie taught operates on a yearly system therefore the art classes begin in September and end in June. She was the only art teacher at the school and said that she often feels alone because her colleagues do not appear to understand the art program or seem to value the study of art the way she does. The art room in which Annie teaches was a single room with no windows. One wall had a long counter with two large sinks; the opposite wall had some large storage space and a small f i v e by eight foot wall for displays. A k i l n stood at the back of the room and a storage cupboard along the front of the room held many resource books. These books, the teacher said, are primarily from her personal c o l l e c t i o n and are always available for classroom use. The desks were grouped together in fours to increase the work space and each student was assigned to a desk. Because the room was designed for classes of twenty students or less Annie said that for many of the art projects i t was too crowded. She also would have l i k e d more wall space f o r the display of student art work. Class p r o f i l e . The class of 25 students was mostly a grade nine class with two students in grade 10. The students had elected to e n r o l l in t h i s class and t h e i r formal in-school art education ranged from studies of art i n elementary school only, to studies in art in grade eight only, to studies of v i s u a l art in grade eight and nine and to those who have a combination of the above. Most students, when asked what they liked best about studying art, indicated drawing. Painting was the next most frequent choice. The reasons students enrolled in art varied: four said i t was an "easy c r e d i t and fun"; other students said "to become an a r t i s t " ; "better my s k i l l s " ; "to get a better understanding of techniques used in art"; and "to further the borders of my a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s " . Ten out of nineteen students indicated that they planned a career which related to art and most of these also planned to e n r o l l in future art classes. Of the twenty students who r e p l i e d to the question whether they.had studied Northwest Coast Indian Art before, the r e p l i e s were: seventeen said "no"; three said "yes". When asked i f they had a f a v o r i t e native a r t i s t not one student i d e n t i f i e d a native a r t i s t . In reply to the question on whether they would l i k e to learn more about the a r t i s t s who l i v e and work in B r i t i s h Columbia eleven answered "no" and nine answered "yes". Art program- Annie plans the course of study for each year and includes some art h i s t o r y and art c r i t i c i s m in a mainly studio based art program. She said she would 52 be i n c l i n e d to focus more on the informational aspect i f she had i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials such as s l i d e s and films r e a d i l y available. A previous unit which she taught in her art class focused on painting and required that the student paint a painting of t h e i r choice. In t h i s way Annie could determine the s k i l l and interests of each student. This assignment was followed by a study of a s t i l l l i f e on which colored l i g h t s were projected so that the students would be less concerned with realism and be more incl i n e d to paint f r e e l y and use colors unrelated to subject matter. Annie introduced art c r i t i c i s m by engaging students in discussions of t h e i r mounted and displayed work. She said "they weren't brand new at putting up t h e i r work and sharing i t - that's something I do encourage a l l the time..." She explained that she includes mounting and display of the student's art work in the evaluation because, she said, t h i s allows those students who may have had d i f f i c u l t y i n mastering a s k i l l or developing an image an opportunity to excel in mounting and displaying the art work. Annie also stressed that mounting and displaying are important because they encourage the student to value the work. Annie chose to implement Understanding Images: B i l l Re id. S i t u a t i o n # 3 Teacher p r o f i l e . " E l i s e " obtained a Bachelor of Education Degree at the same u n i v e r s i t y that Sandra and Annie had attended. She too enrol led in art education and her program consisted of approximately nine tenth studio courses and one tenth ar t h i s t o r i c a l courses. She sa id the program allowed her to develop as an a r t i s t but d i d not prepare her to teach ar t . The teaching, she s a i d , was learned on her own through t r i a l and error and now, a f t e r ten years, she sa id she f i n a l l y f e e l s as though she i s successful as an ar t teacher. E l i s e continues to attend ar t conferences and workshops whenever p o s s i b l e . Her teaching experience included ten years i n a junior secondary school and teaching young c h i l d r e n at an ar t center for four months p r i o r to being hi red by the school d i s t r i c t i n which she i s now working. Her teaching assignment during the study consisted of s i x one hour blocks of art for grades eight , nine and ten and one one hour block of L i f e S k i l l s f o r grade eight . E l i s e continues to pursue her own i n t e r e s t in ar t outside of the school by designing and c r a f t i n g wooden costume jewelery. She also paints and draws when time permits. School environment. The junior secondary school in which E l i s e taught art during t h i s study was, she s a i d , not very supportive of the art program. She said that i t was d i f f i c u l t to keep enrollment up in art classes because other subject areas were compulsory and these then would draw potential art students. She was the only art teacher on s t a f f and said she often f e l t alone in t r y i n g to establish the importance of art education. The art classroom i n which E l i s e taught a l l her art courses, was the si z e of two average class rooms. The two areas were divided by a large waist high cupboard which included four large, deep sinks. Storage space on two walls provided ample room for large scale work as well as three dimensional work such as ceramics. E l i s e used the k i l n in the back of the room exclusively for bisque f i r i n g because, she explained, the exhaust fan was not adequate and the k i l n needed to be enclosed for safety reasons. Desks were grouped in fours or sixes on both sides of the d i v i d i n g cupboard sink area and students were assigned to a s p e c i f i c desk. Two walls were covered in f a b r i c to allow for display of student art work. One wall had two large windows from which one could look out onto a street. Class p r o f i l e . The class of 21 students was composed of grade nine and ten students. The students had elected to e n r o l l in the art class. Their experience in v i s u a l art ranged from exposure to art in elementary school only to studies of art i n grade eight to studies of art in both grade eight and grade nine. In the questionnaire most students indicated they li k e d to draw better than anything else in art class. The reasons given for e n r o l l i n g in art varied. Of the f i f t e e n students asked the r e p l i e s were as follows; f i v e answered "because I l i k e i t " , three said "because I had nothing else to take", and other r e p l i e s included, "a f r i e n d asked me to", "I was interested in experiencing d i f f e r e n t art s k i l l s " , "because I am good with my hands", "so I could draw Jimi Hendrix pictures" and one young man said "to get experience for architecture". Of the f i f t e e n students asked, f i v e students planned an art related career and of these f i v e , a l l planned to continue e n r o l l i n g in art classes in the future. When asked i f they had studied Canadian art or a r t i s t s , t h i rteen answered "no" and two answered "yes". The two who had answered yes named Robert Bateman as t h e i r f a v o r i t e Canadian a r t i s t . To the question which asked i f they would l i k e to learn more about a r t i s t s who l i v e and work in B r i t i s h Columbia, thirteen students answered "no" and two students answered "yes". Art program. E l i s e planned her art program in advance for the year. She included some art h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m in a mostly studio based program. For example, she said that when they have a painting unit "I normally l i k e to choose a p a r t i c u l a r painting s t y l e and I sometimes w i l l get the (students) to go to the l i b r a r y and we w i l l research... whether i t i s Fauvism or whatever and they w i l l do a l i t t l e write up on i t and become f a m i l i a r with i t from the pictures... we have a l o t of art l i b r a r y books...I would bring in s l i d e materials or whatever support materials I've got." In addition, E l i s e plans an annual school t r i p to the c i t y art g a l l e r i e s . In preparation for t h i s outing the students are shown a two hour video on a l o c a l a r t i s t whose work they w i l l view in the gallery. E l i s e also includes some art c r i t i c i s m in her program of studies. She said she focuses on the student art work and explained "once the student gives a c r i t i q u e (of t h e i r work) the other (students) ask questions or I w i l l ask questions..." For t h i s study, E l i s e chose to implement Understanding Images: Gathie Falk. Summary This chapter has outlined the setting and framework of the study, the focus of the investigation, the instruments used in data c o l l e c t i o n , the s e l e c t i o n of participants, and a p r o f i l e of the three situations. Chapter four w i l l recreate, in depth, the three situations which w i l l be referred to as Text 1, Text 2, and Text 3. CHAPTER 4 A Recreation of the Three Situations Text 1 Introduction to Instructional Materials The f i r s t meeting with Sandra to introduce her to the ins t r u c t i o n a l materials Understanding Images and ask her to s e l e c t the unit she f e l t most appropriate f o r her situation, was at her i n v i t a t i o n in her home. Sandra asked to preview Understanding Images: B i l l Reid because she thought t h i s would be suitable for a grade nine class which consisted of predominantly boys. She also planned to use parts of i t in two grade eight classes. She did point out that she might not be able to show the video tape on B i l l Reid, which was included i n the the in s t r u c t i o n a l materials, because her classroom i s separate from the main school building and there are no ramps to allow easy access of the video equipment. The school did have a room for viewing video tapes but, according to Sandra, too much time i s wasted moving the class from one room to another and she said that one must book f a r in advance to secure i t . Sandra requested that she be able to keep the unit for some time before classroom use so that she could photocopy the material. She feared that i f the students handled the o r i g i n a l s they might be damaged. I assured her that the materials were designed for classroom use and should they require replacement I could e a s i l y do that. But she in s i s t e d that she photocopy everything for use in her classroom. She did not have time to look at Understanding Images: Gathie Falk. Four weeks afte r our i n i t i a l meeting Sandra telephoned and invited me to meet the grade eight class, which I would be observing. She had changed her decision to implement the in s t r u c t i o n a l materials in a grade nine class and now planned to use them in two grade eight classes, one of which I was invited to observe. Her plan changed because, she explained, she had just purchased a supply of water soluble inks and was anxious to t r y them in a printmaking project with the grade nine class. When I arrived to meet the grade eight students they were a c t i v e l y involved in l i f t p r i n t i n g . Most were drawing from the p l a s t i c and f a b r i c flowers, which they had used in the pastel pictures in the preceding project, and were then tr a c i n g the drawing onto an inked plate. Some students were choosing to draw and l i f t p r i n t images such as "Bat Man" and other fantasy creatures. The wet prints were then pinned to the "clothes l i n e " to ^dry. The walls in the art room were f i l l e d with work in various media from a l l the classes. The predominating images imitated those from the world of rock music and videos. After the students l e f t Sandra explained that she would probably not follow the suggested implementation strategies (see Appendix A) exactly as outlined. I assured her that the unit was designed to be f l e x i b l e and allow for individual teaching s t y l e so that the suggestions for implementation need not be followed exactly as suggested. I encouraged her to display the photographs and other v i s u a l materials i n the unit so that the students would have some sense of the power and var i e t y of the images and media used by the North West Coast Indian a r t i s t s but she again expressed concern that they might be damaged in her class. She t o l d me that for a related studio project she planned to introduce the students to clay and make a ceramic t r i v e t as a Mother's Day g i f t . Because there might not be enough time to complete the project for Mother's Day she said they could save time by using shoe p o l i s h to f i n i s h the t r i v e t instead of glazing a f t e r the f i r s t f i r i n g . The implementation of the unit was to begin d i r e c t l y a f t e r Easter holidays. Sandra retained Understanding Images: B i l l Reid over the Easter holiday period and, as previously planned, began implementation immediately thereafter. Use of Instructional Materials Session 1. I arrived early. The teacher was not yet in the room. I glanced around the room and noticed that art work from previous classes hung everywhere which gave the room a bright, c o l o r f u l , industrious fe e l i n g . One area was set aside to display s i x photocopies of North West Coast Indian designs. None of the v i s u a l material from Understand ing Images was displayed. When the teacher arrived she said that she had photocopied the whole unit and mounted the v i s u a l material on construction paper for classroom use. She explained that she was not able to follow the unit implementation as suggested because she could not bring the video recorder into her classroom, nor could she e a s i l y show the s l i d e s . However she did arrange to have the s l i d e s shown in a neighbouring room but because i t was a wood working room I was warned that i t would be noisy and impossible to engage in discussion. Since she had introduced the unit in the previous block of grade eight art she explained that she decided to add a v i s i t to the l i b r a r y d i r e c t l y a f t e r the s l i d e s were shown. The purpose of the l i b r a r y v i s i t was to f i n d and sign out books on animals from which the student could draw. As the students began to f i l e into the classroom I quietly sat at the back of the room. I had met the class two weeks e a r l i e r and was given no more than a curious glance and then f o r the most part ignored. The students sat in groups of four or f i v e and the usual barrage of questions to the teacher "What are we going to do today?" ensued. Once s e t t l e d the teacher announced that today they would begin a new project which would allow them to work with clay and make a t r i v e t as a g i f t for Mother's Day. The room buzzed with questions "What i s a t r i v e t ? " The teacher explained about t r i v e t s and said that t h i s t r i v e t w i l l have a "special design based on North West Coast Indian Art". She said that most students had probably studied or heard about Indians in elementary school. Again a buzz of questions f i l l e d the room "but what are we going to do?". The teacher explained that they would qu i e t l y go across the h a l l into the woodworking room where they would look at s l i d e s which would show them "designs made by Indian a r t i s t s " and following that they would go to the l i b r a r y and "find a picture of an animal, a bird, or a f i s h " from which they ' would then draw. The class moved across the h a l l and then the teacher showed the twenty s l i d e s in ten minutes. She chose not to refer to the s l i d e key provided (see Appendix A) and did not give a t i t l e , name of the a r t i s t , or an explanation of the a r t i f a c t except for the f i r s t s l i d e - a s i l k screened p r i n t by B i l l Reid - at which time she noted that the colors used were red, black and white and that these colors were often used by the North West Coast Indian a r t i s t s . The students, while viewing the sl i d e s , made quiet comments to t h e i r neighbours and the question I heard repeated most frequently was, "but what are we going to do?" When the image of a Haida button blanket was shown the teacher mentioned that at Expo, in the F o l k l i f e exhibit, some of the students may have seen how the blankets were made. A few students re p l i e d "Oh I remember!" No further discussion of t h i s point occurred. After the sl i d e s were shown the students were instructed to go to the l i b r a r y and sign out a book, then return to the art room and draw the chosen animal and in the next session the students would "make t h i s animal into a Northwest Coast Indian design". Enroute to the l i b r a r y I b r i e f l y talked to the teacher. She expressed disappointment in the s l i d e presentation and remarked that the sli d e s were a "flop" because the students were not interested. Furthermore she suggested I delete one s l i d e which she f e l t was inappropriate for t h i s age le v e l - the s l i d e was a s t y l i z e d contemporary interpretation of a female image with a smaller human figure inside the body area. The image was designed by Haida Indian a r t i s t Robert Davidson as a b i r t h announcement to celebrate the a r r i v a l of his f i r s t c h i l d . In the l i b r a r y the students e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y began looking f o r books from which they could copy an animal drawing. The teacher would not allow them to look at any books which referred to designs of North West Coast Indian because they might then copy d i r e c t l y rather than make t h e i r own. One half hour l a t e r the students returned to the art room and began drawing. Some, s t i l l undecided, leafed through t h e i r books. As I walked about the room I noted the large assortment of animals chosen by the students, gold f i s h , penguins, dolphins, sharks, eagles, and one student was tracing from a photograph of a rhinoceros. Another student was drawing a hammerhead shark and I asked him why he made that choice. He repl i e d "because I l i k e the shape of i t " . The majority were working hard and tr y i n g to make a "good drawing". When the class ended most students r e l u c t a n t l y put t h e i r work away. Session 2. I arrived before the students and waited for them to fin d t h e i r work and begin drawing. The teacher gave me three photocopies of drawings completed in the grade eight class d i r e c t l y preceding the one I was observing. She commented on the previous class and noted that i t went "okay" but that the s l i d e s were "a waste of time" and she would d e f i n i t e l y not show them again. I s e t t l e d into my corner of the room and prepared to observe, take notes and record the session as i t unfolded. Sandra began the lesson by explaining that the students were f i r s t to complete t h e i r " r e a l i s t i c drawings" and then "put in as many d e t a i l s as you can" by r e f e r r i n g to the photocopied designs which she had placed in the center table of each group. To demonstrate the teacher used the chalk board and drew an outline of a goat. She explained to the class that she had experimented e a r l i e r in the day and found that the easiest way to begin the design was with the eye and then continue to " f i l l in with shapes". Throughout the ten minute demonstration the students listened intently. Then they continued with t h e i r drawings. Some students began to f i l l in, with shapes, the body of the r e a l i s t i c animal they had drawn. I talked to individual students about t h e i r images and requested permission to photograph t h e i r work in progress. In s t a r t i n g a conversation I often asked, "what stage are you now working at?" A student re p l i e d : "I'm adding more s t u f f and d e t a i l to make i t look more l i k e Indian design"; another student said "I'm t r y i n g to f i n d the design for the eye". Session As soon as the students came into the room they col l e c t e d t h e i r p o r t f o l i o s and sat down to draw. The teacher announced that they would f i n i s h t h e i r drawings today and those who were already fi n i s h e d would begin to work with clay. She then asked a l l the students to move into the area where the long tables were cleared and ready to use for the claywork. Sandra began the demonstration by showing how to wedge the clay, how to r o l l i t out and how they could transfer t h e i r drawing onto the clay slab by tracing from a photocopy of t h e i r o r i g i n a l drawing. She explained that the pressure from the pencil leaves enough indentation so that the students can then continue working with the design in clay or leave i t at that stage and allow i t to dry. The majority were working on the Northwest Coast Indian design and as I walked about the room I noted that most conversations were not art related except for the questions which were repeated by several students "I don't know what else to put in here" and "Is t h i s enough or should I add more s t u f f ? " The students regularly shuffled through the stack of photocopied designs at t h e i r table, selected one and continued with t h e i r drawing. A few students referred to the photocopied designs on the wall. In a quiet moment the teacher came over to me and said she had just thought of a "good idea" for the drawings which the students had completed and explained that she would make an additional photocopy of each drawing and then have the students co lor the photocopy and glue i t on folded manila tag. This would be a Mother's Day card to go with the t r i v e t . During t h i s session a few students f i n i s h e d t h e i r drawings and proceeded to work with c lay . I continued to photograph the completed drawings (see Appendix H) and interview students. Session 4. Some students were s t i l l drawing but most were working on the c lay t r i v e t . The teacher had made three photocopies of each drawing; one f o r the students to use i n t r a c i n g t h e i r designs onto the c lay s lab , one f o r the students to co lor and glue onto construct ion paper to make the Mother's Day card and one f o r me to use i n t h i s study. I interviewed students while they worked on t h e i r drawings or traced t h e i r designs onto a c lay s lab . By the end of the c lass most students had completed t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e i r drawing onto the c lay , some had, a f t e r t r a c i n g from the photocopy, deepened the impression somewhat and chose to leave i t at that stage to dry. A few students used a v a r i e t y of t o o l s to widen the traced l i n e s and one or two students embellished t h e i r work by adding b i t s of c l a y to the s lab . Because most students d i d not have previous experience with c lay they asked many questions and required i n d i v i d u a l a t tent ion . Sandra was very supportive and commented, "that's good", "that's nice" and "here l e t me show you how to t i d y up the edges on t h i s " as she helped as many students as time allowed. Towards the end of the class time Sandra said because "most of them finished in an hour... there may be enough time to dry and f i n i s h the t r i v e t i n time for Mother's Day." Students who had finished working on the clay t r i v e t placed them on a shelf to dry, returned to t h e i r desks and began coloring the photocopy for the Mother's Day card. In t a l k i n g to students working at t h e i r desks I asked how they had decided which colors to choose and one student replied, " d u l l colors, most statues l i k e that have d u l l colors" and another said "I seen (sic) these colors on some pictures." Most students said they would choose the colors they liked. Some students quickly f i n i s h e d the coloring and were then instructed to design a family crest - an assignment which had been given e a r l i e r in the month. Sandra said she would alloca t e one more hour to allow time to complete the Mother's Day card. The next project with t h i s class, she explained, would have to be a quiet one, one in which the students would s i t at t h e i r desks. Because t h i s unit had included so much a c t i v i t y and t a l k i n g she thought maybe a lesson on perspective or drawing a record cover would be a good choice. Student Responses The student interviews (see Appendix G) included fourteen students from a class of 2 1 ; a l l interviews were transcribed. In reply to the f i r s t question in which the students were asked which part of the unit they most enjoyed, of the fourteen interviewed, ten students p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d "changing the r e a l i s t i c drawing into an Indian design". Each student explained t h i s in a d i f f e r e n t manner, for example: "turning i t into the Indian thing"; "the insides of i t " ; "putting those other things in...putting a l l the Indian things i n " and "putting the Indian drawings on the pictures" The reasons given for t h i s preference included: "because I'm not good at drawing r e a l i s t i c birds"; " i t s easier for me to draw the interpretation"; and "I can put things in here." The remaining four students i d e n t i f i e d other aspects as most inter e s t i n g or enjoyable. One student preferred "drawing .. just drawing that f i s h .. not t h i s fancy s t u f f in i t just draw the f i s h . . . " Another student enjoyed "the fact that we are going back to old Indian s t u f f " and another l i k e d the s l i d e s better than anything else and one student p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d working with clay. In reply to the second question wherein I attempted to establish i f they had learned something new about Northwest Coast Indian art that they did not know previous to t h i s unit, ten students re p l i e d "yes", but when asked to i d e n t i f y what i t was they learned the re p l i e s were less d e f i n i t e . Some examples were: "That most Indians used animals... and eyes" "I didn't know they used these kind of shapes" "I never knew they carved. I thought a l l they did was paintings" "I learned a b i t that Indian work i s d i f f e r e n t from other kind of work." "most of the drawings... have to have f a c e s . . . a l l the d i f f e r e n t designs" "I figured they did mostly everything but I learned that they did mostly animals and things l i k e that." Four students said they did not learn anything new i n t h i s unit that they did not already know because they had studied Indians in elementary school. In reply to the question in which I attempted to establish i f there was a transfer of learning and i f the student expected to be able to recognize an art object made by a Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t i f confronted by one in a public place, the r e p l i e s were: s i x students answered "yes they would"; seven students answered "probably" or "maybe" and one thought that he "might" recognize "some art" of the Northwest Coast Indians. The follow up question asked how they would recognize the art of the Northwest Coast Indians. Replies included: "so many shapes and just by the colors...red and black and the designs and the animals. They make them so unique. The eyes and the b i g shapes"; "those l i t t l e t h i n g i e s ( s ic ) they got on the l i t t l e faces and s t u f f " ; "they always have faces" ; "the designs i n s i d e the t h i n g " ; "the d i f f e r e n t things ins ide them"; "by the extra fancy s t u f f they put into i t " ; "mostly that they are animals and s t u f f and the way they do t h e i r drawings in the wood and e v e r y t h i n g . " Because the teacher f e l t that the s l i d e s were not wel l received by the students I decided to determine i f indeed the students responded as she presumed. Of the fourteen students asked the question whether they l i k e d looking at the s l i d e s and whether they were u s e f u l f o r the s tudio assignment, the fo l lowing responses were g iven : twelve answered "yes" ; one answered "no"; and one student was absent the day the s l i d e s were shown. Most students who enjoyed seeing the s l i d e s noted that the s l i d e s helped them think of ideas f o r t h e i r designs and some said they would f i n d i t u s e f u l to see them once again. Text 2 Introduction to I n s t r u c t i o n a l Mater ia ls At the f i r s t meeting with Annie, i n her art room, I introduced her to the c u r r i c u l a r materials Understanding Images (see Appendix A) . She asked to see the u n i t which focused on B i l l Reid because, she explained, she has always had an inte r e s t in Northwest Coast Indian art and culture and said she had, in her personal c o l l e c t i o n , works of art by Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t s . After an hour of discussing the c u r r i c u l a r materials she expressed interest in the model upon which the unit i s based and said she would l i k e to use i t in the future to introduce the students to other art and a r t i s t s . She requested more time to study the materials and c o l l e c t additional resource material before she could make a d e f i n i t e decision about the class with which she would implement the materials. She did not have time to look at Understanding Images: Gathie Falk. Three weeks later, when I contacted Annie, she confirmed that she would implement the unit in a grade nine/ten art class because they were 'hard workers' and she f e l t they would respond p o s i t i v e l y to Understanding Images: B i l l Reid. She explained that she would follow the suggested implementation (see Appendix A) and for a related studio project she planned to have the students develop a design inspired by the t r a d i t i o n s of the Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t s . The designs, completed in graphite or pen and ink, were to be followed by a second s i m p l i f i e d version which would be transferred to a linoleum block and printed. Due to a misunderstanding Annie did not contact me before she introduced the unit but she did record, i n the teacher's log book, the sequence and content of each session. Use of the Instructional Materials In the f i r s t session Annie introduced the unit, not with Northwest Coast Indian art as suggested, but in a broader context of native art in Canada. The Canadian overview included a look at Inuit art, East Woodlands art, Plains art, and then art of the North West Coast. She talked about and showed them art work by Inuit a r t i s t Kenojuak, Woodlands a r t i s t s Morriseau and Odoig and Plains a r t i s t , a r chitect Cardinal. She talked about the re b i r t h of the North West Coast Indian art and showed examples which i l l u s t r a t e d how contemporary a r t i s t s translate the t r a d i t i o n a l forms into modern images. In addition to vi s u a l material included in Understanding Images the teacher also made available to the students a number of books and prin t s from her personal c o l l e c t i o n and other resource materials from l i b r a r i e s . A l l resources were in the classroom throughout the unit and the students were encouraged to spend time looking at images and reading about the art and a r t i s t s . In the second session the f i r s t s l i d e from the in s t r u c t i o n a l materials was shown and the students were asked to write a c r i t i q u e as suggested in the teacher implementation strategies (see Appendix A). The remaining s l i d e s were shown and discussed with a focus on the work of B i l l Reid. Towards the end of the class the students were given time to think about and sketch ideas for possible designs. In the t h i r d session the teacher focused on the design elements t r a d i t i o n a l l y used by Indian a r t i s t s . The students were introduced to vocabulary such as form l i n e , ovoid, s p l i t u and u shape. The teacher drew the elements on an overhead projector and explained what each one represented and how they were used by the a r t i s t s . Reproductions were used to i l l u s t r a t e and i n i t i a t e discussion about the use of s t y l i z a t i o n , symmetry, s p l i t images, and the meaning of the animals and s p i r i t s which appear repeatedly i n d i f f e r e n t forms in the art of Northwest Coast Indians. The l a s t twenty minutes of the class were a l l o t t e d for additional individual research, and thinking about and beginning to develop designs. The students were given the choice of using t r a d i t i o n a l design units, using t h e i r own design techniques or using a combination of t r a d i t i o n a l and personal design elements to develop an image. In session four the teacher reviewed the t r a d i t i o n a l design units and introduced the students to t r a d i t i o n a l use of colors and materials found in the art of the Northwest Coast Indians. She encouraged further i n d i v i d u a l research as the students continued to develop t h e i r designs. In the f i f t h session the video f i l m was shown. Due to a shortage of video machines, the teacher said, the video films had to be viewed in one session and the students became re s t l e s s towards the end of the hour. She noted that the students p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed the f i l m of B i l l Reid carving the totem pole and she said that she would have followed t h i s with a discussion but because of the circumstances was unable to do that. In the sixth session, a f t e r a short review of the material covered thus far, the students worked on t h e i r designs. In the seventh session the teacher discussed the silkscreen p r i n t reproductions Raven and K i l l e r Whale by B i l l Reid. She also talked about his l i f e and work and noted that the students had remembered a great deal from the f i l m and were eager to p a r t i c i p a t e in the discussion. The remainder of the hour was set aside for the students to continue developing t h e i r designs. The eighth session began with a written review which the teacher had designed, she said, to establish how much knowledge students had retained and what areas needed to be reviewed. Samples o f q u e s t i o n s asked were: Can you name s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Westcoast N a t i v e a r t ? Can you name t h e d e s i g n d e v i c e s t h e y use i n c r e a t i n g t h e i r a r t ? What main c o l o r s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y used? What a r e t h e main s u b j e c t s o f Westcoast N a t i v e a r t ? T h i s r e v i e w s h e e t was marked and d i s c u s s e d i n c l a s s . The s t u d e n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o Annie, showed " r e a s o n a b l y good r e t e n t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n " . Because I was unaware t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g Images: B i l l R e i d had commenced I d i d not obs e r v e u n t i l t h e n i n t h s e s s i o n . When I c o n t a c t e d A n n i e she o u t l i n e d t h e m a t e r i a l t h e y had s t u d i e d and e x p l a i n e d h e r p l a n f o r subsequent s e s s i o n s . S e s s i o n 9. When I met Ann i e i n t h e h a l l she s a i d t h a t t h i s s e s s i o n would be a work p e r i o d . The assignment was t o f i n i s h t h e d e s i g n e i t h e r as a t o n a l drawing, o r i n pen and i n k . Once t h e drawing was complete t h e s t u d e n t s were t o t r a n s l a t e t h a t drawing i n t o a d e s i g n s u i t a b l e f o r a l i n o l e u m p r i n t . As I e n t e r e d t h e c l a s s r o o m I i m m e d i a t e l y n o t i c e d a d i s p l a y a r e a which had been p r e p a r e d f o r t h e u n i t . I t i n c l u d e d v i s u a l m a t e r i a l from U n d e r s t a n d i n g Images: B i l l R e i d as w e l l as m a t e r i a l s from t h e t e a c h e r ' s c o l l e c t i o n and c u r r e n t newspaper a r t i c l e s r e g a r d i n g n a t i v e i s s u e s t o which, t h e t e a c h e r s a i d , t h e s t u d e n t s were v o l u n t a r i l y a d d i n g t o each s e s s i o n . In addition to v i s u a l materials completed designs i n the Northwest Coast idiom, developed by students were included in the display area. Immediately after the students had s e t t l e d into t h e i r desks Annie introduced me as the person who had designed t h i s unit and suddenly there was loud applause! Later she t o l d me that I should be honored by such a response because i t was i n i t i a t e d by a student who, u n t i l now, had not been a l l that interested in art and because she f e l t that a l l the students enjoyed the unit and t h i s was indeed a genuine response. The students q u i e t l y went to work and while they worked I began the student interviews (see Appendix G) and photographed t h e i r images, (see Appendix H) Session 10. This session was a studio session; some students were prepared to transfer t h e i r designs onto a linoleum block but most students were completing t h e i r drawings or were working on s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l drawing to make i t suitable for the p r i n t medium. I interviewed students and i n i t i a t e d conversations by discussing with them t h e i r images and how they had developed the design. The students in t h i s class were proud of t h e i r work and talked f r e e l y about t h e i r thoughts and ideas. For example I asked one student permission to photograph his drawing and he refused because he had not been able to f i n d a suitable red color to complete his design and had to use a pink red instead. By the next session he had completed i t to his s a t i s f a c t i o n and then was happy to have me photograph the finished drawing. In addition to the pride the students displayed for t h e i r own work they also showed respect and interest for the work of t h e i r fellow students. They sat in small groups and discussed t h e i r designs and often complimented one another on the art work. Several times i t was suggested to me, by a student, that I look at, and photograph, a fellow student's work because " i t ' s so good" or " i t ' s awesome". Session 11. In t h i s session most students were tra n s f e r r i n g t h e i r s i m p l i f i e d designs onto linoleum; some were beginning to carve the linoleum block. The teacher reminded the students to complete the drawings and to put them on the display board so that a group discussion can proceed in the next sess ion. Throughout the session she helped and encouraged individual students. I photographed drawings (see Appendix H) and interviewed students. Session 12. The teacher had set up an overhead projector with the message that a l l the drawings be displayed and that students be prepared to discuss them. When the students came into the classroom they read the message, located t h e i r drawings, and displayed them on the board. Annie asked that they gather around the display and began the c r i t i q u e by commenting on the "exceptional work" which had been done in t h i s class. She requested that the students, in making comments about the work of t h e i r classmates, assume that each person had done t h e i r best. Every student was asked to choose three or four designs which would be discussed and be prepared to t e l l the class why they had made t h e i r choice. The teacher reminded them to consider the composition, the use of tone, colors, design units, and o v e r a l l workmanship. They were encouraged to think about the o v e r a l l ideas captured by the a r t i s t and were then given a few moments to consider t h e i r choices. On the overhead projector on a side wall the teacher had l i s t e d points to consider in the process of c r i t i c i s m . These were referred to by some students. Reasoned c r i t i c i s m proceeded with the teacher asking a question, the student replying, and the teacher responding again and taking the opportunity to review the ideas and concepts learned. After every student had an opportunity to discuss a design of t h e i r choice the teacher asked them to consider t h e i r own work and be prepared to b r i e f l y t a l k about i t . She reminded them to consider "a p a r t i c u l a r creature, a s p i r i t , an attitude you t r i e d to express..." and what features were emphasized, what was most successful and was there anything the student was not e n t i r e l y happy with that they might change i f they were to redo i t . The teacher attempted to begin the discussion but the students hesitated to t a l k about t h e i r own work so she suggested that they could write t h e i r c r i t i q u e s to lessen the anxiety. But when given that option they chose to discuss t h e i r images in class. For many students t h i s was a d i f f i c u l t task, for example one student, whose design focused on a f i s h , explained "I was down in China town and went to a g a l l e r y there and that's where I got my ideas.." Another student, whose design depicted a b i r d - l i k e figure holding a round shape, talked f r e e l y about her image and that she remembered her father reading a story about Indians to her when she was a small c h i l d . The story was about a raven and how i t captured the sun. She could not remember the story exactly but had chosen t h i s legend and developed a design by using the t r a d i t i o n a l design units of a b i r d holding a sun in i t s beak. When students were not w i l l i n g to t a l k about t h e i r work, Annie, by s k i l l f u l questioning, did manage to e l i c i t some information. Following the discussion Annie asked that I show sl i d e s which I had taken of the students' work during the past sessions. I commented on the students art work and t o l d them that I f e l t t h e i r work r e f l e c t e d an understanding of the art and culture of the Northwest Coast Indians. Moreover a sense of pride was evident in the thoughtful development of the designs and careful attention to d e t a i l at every stage. The class responded with applause and hooting and then q u i e t l y went back to t h e i r printmaking. The teacher demonstrated the process of inking and pr i n t i n g to a small group of students who were ready to proceed. The f i r s t p r i n t pulled e l i c i t e d a c o l l e c t i v e 'oh-h-h' from the group. It also demonstrated that a detailed and complicated design could be s i m p l i f i e d and successfully translated into a linoleum p r i n t . Sessions 13,14 and 15. The students worked at d i f f e r e n t stages of printmaking and often shared t h e i r experiences with t h e i r fellow students. Some were engrossed with mixing colors and choosing a suitable colored paper to p r i n t on. Several times I noted that a student was excited about a color which he or she had mixed or the way in which a p r i n t turned out and c a l l e d others over to admire the accomplishment. Others were at times frustrated when the p r i n t did not turn out as they had expected due to improper inking techniques and inexperience but they persisted and by the end of the session every student had at least one or two excellent p r i n t s to choose from for the display. The teacher encouraged and helped students throughout the session. She reminded the class that the next session would be set aside for each student to select and mount t h e i r best pri n t . The print, together with the mounted drawing, would be displayed in the classroom. Session 16. Annie began t h i s session with a discussion on what constitutes a good print. She used the chalk board and asked the students to i d e n t i f y technical aspects of a good print. She wrote the check l i s t on the board as the students volunteered answers. The l i s t included; even inking, no finger pri n t s , and that the image be centered on the paper. The same procedure was followed in i d e n t i f y i n g aspects of an unacceptable pr i n t . The students volunteered the information and were then instructed to select t h e i r best p r i n t by r e f e r r i n g to the l i s t e d c r i t e r i a . Once the p r i n t was selected they were asked to mount or mat the p r i n t f o r display. The classroom was a beehive of a c t i v i t y , some students were s t i l l t r y i n g very hard to p u l l the perfect p r i n t or mix the perfect color for t h e i r image, others were asking the teacher or fellow students for t h e i r opinion on a choice of color to use in mounting. Most students selected t r a d i t i o n a l colors such as black, red and white. By the end of the session a number of students had completed mounting the drawing and corresponding p r i n t and displayed them on the board. Session 17. The teacher explained that she had planned the f i n a l c r i t i q u e of s l i d e number one and a general summary of the unit for t h i s session. She began the lesson by asking the students a question and then writing the response on the overhead projector. For example, questions asked; "what was the unit about?", "what were some of the techniques used by the Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t s ? " , and "whose art have we focused on?". A b r i e f discussion followed each question and then the s l i d e of B i l l Reid's k i l l e r whale (see Appendix A) was shown for the second time in t h i s unit. The students were asked to write a c r i t i c i s m of the work and were reminded that t h i s c r i t i q u e would be marked. The l a s t twenty minutes of the session were allocated for studio work. Most students were mounting or matting t h e i r p r i n t s and drawings, some were s t i l l p r i n t i n g and those who were finis h e d could ele c t to complete an assignment of t h e i r choice for bonus points. The teacher explained the bonus assignment to those students who had completed the drawing and p r i n t and then continued to help and consult with individual students. Student Responses I interviewed seventeen students (see Appendix G) from the class of 21 and a l l interviews were transcribed. In reply to the f i r s t question in which the students were asked which segment of the unit they most enjoyed, of the seventeen interviewed; three enjoyed drawing the design best, four answered the video, three answered the video and s l i d e s , three l i k e d learning about the elements used in the design, two like d learning about the art of the Northwest Coast Indian, and one like d the s l i d e s better than the other aspects. One student was absent for the sessions in which the s l i d e s and the video were shown. They were then asked why they made the choice they had. Reasons given for t h e i r choices varied; one student, who p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed the video, explained "I li k e d the way B i l l Reid described the way he was carving when he was carving the totem pole." Another student l i k e d the video because, she said, "I . . l i k e the people more than the art .. just the type of people how they came up with t h e i r art, t h e i r r i t u a l s and a l l that kind of s t u f f to do with a r t . " A student who like d learning about the art explained "learning about t h e i r a r t - not necessarily the art but how they did i t and how they came to do i t " and another student enjoyed "learning about d i f f e r e n t areas and learning about a l l the d i f f e r e n t shapes l i k e the ovoid shape and pointed shapes and certain areas on the picture ... and ... learning more about the art. " In reply to the question which attempted to esta b l i s h i f the students had learned something new that they did not know previous to t h i s unit, responses were; th i r t e e n students said they learned something new and then explained as follows: "I learned about the shape and how they used - i t was kind of surprising - . . when I look back at a l l the totem poles a l l these f i v e simple l i t t l e things that they used and i t a l l makes the whole thing."; "I didn't know at a l l that they only had certain amount of forms l i k e u shape and s p l i t u shape and that's a l l they had you know and they did a whole bunch of art oust on those few symbols."; "I didn't know that they had to do s p e c i f i c techniques l i k e these were ... when you look at things... they a l l looked the same because they had si m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but I never thought about what those actual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were. So I found out exactly that i t was a u shape, a s p l i t u shape and an ovoid and st u f f . " ; "I had oust seen i t (Northwest Coast Indian art) and thought well that's neat but I hadn't known how they did i t or what shapes they use." and one student was impressed by "how much time and e f f o r t i t takes (to carve a totem pole) - I was shocked to see people r e a l l y do that." Four students said that they had not r e a l l y learned anything new because they had studied Indians i n elementary school and remembered everything. In reply to the question which attempted to establish i f there was a transfer of learning and i f indeed the student expected to recognize an art object made by a Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t i f confronted by one in a public place, of sixteen students asked the results were: thirteen students answered "yes" (with confidence), one answered "probably", another "I think so" and one said "no" she would not be able to recognize the art work as Northwest Coast Indian art. I asked those students who thought they would recognize the art what would help them i d e n t i f y Northwest Coast Indian art and the r e p l i e s included: "the s t y l i z e d designs - the use of u shapes, s p l i t u shapes and ovoids and things l i k e that"; "they do more animal themes and they don't r e a l l y do so much of the human body...they si m p l i f y and then s t a r t designing i t " ; "by the whales, the k i l l e r whales and the totem poles and s t u f f " ; "the color and the f a c t that they used animals - water and land animals." and one student, i d e n t i f i e d by the teacher as a slow learner who was enrolled in a special learning program, explained to me how he would recognize the art, "the designs - you got the shape of whatever i t i s and then you have a l l the shapes in the middle u n t i l i t ' s Indian art - the1, way they put the designs in. " In answer to the question on whether they enjoyed the s l i d e s and found them useful, of the sixteen asked; fourteen r e p l i e d "yes", one sa id "not r e a l l y " and one s a i d "no". Some reasons given for enjoying the s l i d e s were: "seeing the design of the raven and the s h e l l -l i k e when he was discover ing mankind"; "seeing a l l . . . t h e d i f f e r e n t carvings and jewelry and s t u f f " . One student who said he d i d not l i k e the s l i d e s , sa id he would rather see the r e a l art work because he explained, " I ' d rather see that . . p a r t with B i l l Reid with the th ing you u s u a l l y see at the Museum of Anthropology with the clam I ' d rather see i t - well I ' d seen ( s i c ) i t . . . I don ' t know i t ' s l i k e forging something (the s l i d e ) . " Text 3 Introduction to I n s t r u c t i o n a l Mater ia ls The f i r s t meeting with E l i s e , to introduce her to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials , was at my home. She asked to see Understanding Images: Gathie Falk because, she s a i d , she has always l i k e d the Impressionist p a i n t e r s ' s t y l e , t h e i r use of co lor and t h e i r choice of subject matter. A f t e r an hour of. d i s c u s s i o n she e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y expressed her approval of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials and remarked that she p a r t i c u l a r l y concurred with the focus on a l o c a l contemporary a r t i s t followed by research of art and a r t i s t s i n h i s t o r y which may have influenced the contemporary a r t i s t . She recognized the p o t e n t i a l of the model upon which the c u r r i c u l a r materials were based and expressed interest in employing i t in future classes to introduce her students to other l o c a l contemporary a r t i s t s . E l i s e commented on the professional presentation of the materials and suggested that they be reproduced and made available to school d i s t r i c t s , because, she said, there i s an obvious need for good i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials in art education for Junior and Secondary Schools. E l i s e did not have time to look at Understanding Images: B i l l Reid. Use of Instructional Materials E l i s e was not certain in which grades she would implement Understanding Images: Gathie Falk and she requested that she receive the materials three weeks before implementation so that she could become f a m i l i a r with the content. Two months afte r our i n i t i a l meeting E l i s e contacted me and coll e c t e d the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. At that meeting she explained that she had decided to implement the unit in two grade nine/ten classes and that one was d e f i n i t e l y a better class and i t was her suggestion that I observe the better one. Two weeks l a t e r E l i s e telephoned and requested a meeting to c l a r i f y a few questions which she had regarding the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. At t h i s meeting she said she had explained to her class that I was a graduate student and had developed the unit which they would be studying. They were also t o l d that I would come into the classroom and observe and interview them. E l i s e had requested that the students design a cover for a booklet in which they would record t h e i r wri t ten c r i t i c i s m s and at our meeting she proudly showed me three completed samples. Because she t o l d the students that these books were to become property of the u n i v e r s i t y at which I was a student, E l i s e sa id that the students made a s p e c i a l e f f o r t to produce an a t t r a c t i v e cover. Questions regarding the sequence of the implementation, presentation of the s l i d e s and video, and a question regarding the s tudio assignment were discussed. In reference to the s tudio assignment we discussed numerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s and she decided on an assignment that would give the students a number of v a r i a t i o n s to choose from. The c lass I was i n v i t e d to observe d i r e c t l y followed the grade n i n e / t e n c lass in which the teacher also taught the same u n i t . E l i s e sa id she was looking forward to teaching the u n i t to both classes and was eager to see the students ' reac t ion . Session 1. I a r r i v e d just as the students from the previous c lass were leaving. As I looked around the large, b r i g h t room I noticed the student ar t work, mounted and displayed on every a v a i l a b l e w a l l . The ar t work displayed was from grades eight to ten and included contour l i n e drawings from a student model, silkscreen p r i n t s on paper and on t - s h i r t s and d e l i c a t e watercolor paintings of flowers and grasses completed in the previous unit by the class I was to observe. The students f i l t e r e d into the room and once they were se t t l e d i n t h e i r desks E l i s e introduced me as the graduate student who had designed the unit they were about to begin. She d i s t r i b u t e d the student questionnaire (see Appendix F) and explained each question before the students began completing them. I sat at one side of the room and prepared to take notes as the class unfolded. E l i s e began the session by explaining to the class, that they would be looking at a s l i d e which they would write about and evaluate i n t h e i r booklets. On the chalk board was an outline of the process of Reasoned C r i t i c i s m and a l i s t of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design to which the students could refer. Before the f i r s t s l i d e was shown E l i s e reviewed the process of Reasoned C r i t i c i s m and in addition to the outline on the board she gave each student a sheet with the same information. This was to be f i l e d in t h e i r booklet for future reference. In the p r a c t i c a l application of the approach to Reasoned C r i t i c i s m the teacher not only referred to the stages written on the chalk board but also involved the students by asking questions. For example, the f i r s t s l i d e of a painted q u i l t by Gathie Falk was shown and E l i s e asked questions such as; "What do you see?"; "What colors do you see?"; "Is the canvas textured or f l a t ? " The students responded e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . The teacher then asked questions such as; "What i s the meaning?" and "Why did she choose the q u i l t ? " In the evaluation stage, the students were asked i f the painting was successful and i f so why and t h e i r responses triggered a discussion. For example a student re p l i e d i t was successful "because i t got into an art g a l l e r y " and t h i s comment i n i t i a t e d a discussion which centered on how art gets into a g a l l e r y and i f success i s measured in d o l l a r s . Another discussion began when a student re p l i e d that i t i s not successful but " i t i s boring because there i s no action and because there are a bunch of pictures and i t i s for the older generation because we are not interested in flowers and table setting and s t u f f l i k e that. When the second s l i d e , also from the painted q u i l t series, was shown the students were more enthusiastic and w i l l i n g to give t h e i r opinions. Students v o l u n t a r i l y compared the second image to the f i r s t , f o r instance one student said "this one i s better than the one before but the middle and the corner ones (patches) have too much white in them." The t h i r d s l i d e of another painted q u i l t was shown and the students were asked to write a c r i t i c i s m i n the booklet by fo l lowing the same process they had just appl ied to the previous images. The teacher stressed that i there was no r i g h t or wrong answer and that each student was to give t h e i r own opinion and not be influenced by t h e i r neighbour. The students worked q u i e t l y some b r i e f l y discussed a point with t h e i r neighbour. A f t e r the students completed the wri t ten c r i t i c i s m s the remaining s l i d e s were shown. The;teacher continued to ask questions and the students r e p l i e d eagerly; "I l i k e that one", "I I l i k e the c o l o r s " and "there i s l o t s of r e p e t i t i o n " . A f i n a l c r i t i c i s m was wri t ten in the booklets . The image c r i t i c i z e d was from a ser ies of paint ings by Gathie Fa lk which focused on chai rs , and t h i s p a i n t i n g depicted an ordinary wooden ki tchen type chai r with a red and black checkered jacket draped 1 over i t s back. The checkerboard pattern was repeated i n the f l o o r i n black and white. The students were ins t ruc ted to fol low the same procedure of Reasoned C r i t i c i s m as before. The b e l l rang while most students were s t i l l w r i t i n g and the teacher promised to a l l o t a d d i t i o n a l time, in the next session, to complete the c r i t i c i s m . Session 2. The teacher began the session by reminding the students of the t r i p planned to a school of ar t and design and the " P a c i f i c " A r t G a l l e r y . She asked how many students in the class had previously v i s i t e d the P a c i f i c Art Gallery and a l l but three indicated they had. For t h i s session E l i s e had c a r e f u l l y arranged v i s u a l materials from Understanding Images: Gathie Falk on a large display board situated beside a table on which pictures, books and calendars from her own c o l l e c t i o n were displayed. After a review of Reasoned C r i t i c i s m the teacher talked about the a r t i s t Gathie Falk. She traced the a r t i s t ' s development and discussed Falk's inte r e s t in everyday objects. For reference she referred to the monograph in Understanding Images: Gathie Falk (see appendix Al) which was on the display board. The video on Gathie Falk, a f i l m which features the a r t i s t in her home informally t a l k i n g about her art work, her interests and demonstrating her painting technique, was then shown. A segment about two contemporary Canadian a r t i s t s who, l i k e Gathie Falk, were also interested in the everyday object, was on the same video tape and also shown. A discussion followed and then the students were asked to gather around the display area where E l i s e referred to the v i s u a l materials on display and compared and contrasted the art of Falk and the Impressionist painters. Subject matter and formal concerns were discussed with a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on painting technique. The students participated by asking questions and commenting on points of interest. The following session, the teacher explained, would include a look at s l i d e s of paintings by the Impressionists and sl i d e s of Gathie Falk's work. Then a f i n a l c r i t i q u e would be written. Session 3. When I arrived s l i d e #16, a painting of a chair and jacket, was on the screen and the students were writing in t h e i r booklets. They were completing the c r i t i c i s m they had not finished in session one. After the written assignment Impressionism was reviewed by r e f e r r i n g to the major concerns of t h i s a r t i s t i c movement which the teacher had l i s t e d on the board. E l i s e continued to use the question technique to i n i t i a t e a discussion. For example she asked questions such as "What were the Impressionists concerned with?" and "How did they apply the paint?" The students eagerly replied. Following the review of Impressionism, E l i s e returned to the s l i d e s and art work by Gathie Falk. She handed each student a photocopy of the key (see Appendix A l ) . This was the f i r s t time that the students were given the t i t l e and other related information about the art work on the s l i d e s . Some students responded with interest; others were not certain why they should see the s l i d e s f or a second time. For example one young man read aloud, from the key, the dimensions of the blanket which they had discussed e a r l i e r and commented, "Six by eight feet that's humungo!" Other students who were not interested in seeing the s l i d e s for a second time questioned the purpose, "Why re-evaluate? You l i k e i t or you don't l i k e i t . " another commented "This i s dumb!". Despite objections the teacher showed s l i d e # 3 again and somewhat modified the assignment by stating that they need only interpret and evaluate. The students recorded t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s in the booklet and the s l i d e presentation continued. Discussions often began with a question asked by a student, for example a student asked, "Why does she always paint cabbages?" to which the teacher r e p l i e d "Maybe she wanted us to ask that question." another student commented, "But cabbages are not beaut i f u l " . After the s l i d e presentation and discussion the students were asked to write a f i n a l c r i t i c i s m of s l i d e # 16. Then s i x s l i d e s of Impressionists' work were shown and s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences were reviewed. In the l a s t remaining few minutes E l i s e introduced the studio assignment and handed each student an outline of the choices available. The project was a painting, to be painted with a c r y l i c s on canvas board and the subject was to r e l a t e to the material studied which would focus on everyday a c t i v i t i e s or everyday objects. The teacher reminded the students that they only had eight class hours remaining in the school year so i t was essen t i a l that they decide on t h e i r subject matter by next session. Because a weekend f e l l between t h i s and the next session the teacher asked that students bring to class a fa v o r i t e everyday object and be prepared to begin t h e i r working drawing at that time. Session The session began with an explanation of the f i e l d t r i p to the g a l l e r y and art school and a reminder that in the g a l l e r y they were going to see one art work by Gathie Falk. E l i s e showed the class a photograph of the chair and f i s h that was on display at the gallery. The students were reminded that they would complete t h e i r l i n e drawings in t h i s session and those who had were s t i l l uncertain about t h e i r subject were encouraged to look at the materials displayed on the board and table. I walked about the room and talked to some students about t h e i r ideas. A few students had a clear idea of what they were going to draw and paint. One had completed a l i n e drawing of a chair and explained that he was planning to draw a series of chairs without a figure s i t t i n g in them but the shadows from each chair would include a shadow of a human form. Another student planned to draw a beach because, she explained, she spends most weekends there and enjoys the peaceful f e e l i n g that the beach gives her. As students continued to work on t h e i r drawings they discussed ideas with t h e i r neighbours; some referred to the v i s u a l materials in the display area for ideas. The teacher sat down with individual students, at t h e i r table, and discussed t h e i r ideas and offered suggestions. After the class was dismissed I b r i e f l y talked to the teacher and she said that because a work stoppage was planned for the next day she would contact me to l e t me know when I could return and observe. A week l a t e r E l i s e telephoned and explained that because of the class t r i p to the g a l l e r y and the walkout by the teachers, the students were fa r behind and she was very concerned that the students did not have enough time to complete the painting. She said she regretted that they were so rushed and f e l t as though she was "ramming the painting down t h e i r throats and they are not working in a relaxed atmosphere..." Due to circumstances I was unable to observe session f i v e and six. According to the entry in the teacher's log and in t a l k i n g to the teacher the students painted throughout these sessions. Session 7 and 8L_ The students painted d i l i g e n t l y because E l i s e warned them that i f they were unable to complete the assignment they would complete i t at home, or in school during the year end examination period. E l i s e moved from student to student helping where required, often working d i r e c t l y on the student's canvas. In most instances she demonstrated the use of t i n t s and shades to create a f e e l i n g of depth and the use of a painting technique s i m i l a r to that of Gathie Falk. Almost a l l the students completed t h e i r paintings in t h i s f i n a l session. I interviewed the students and photographed t h e i r work, (see Appendix G and H) Student Responses I interviewed (see Appendix G) twenty students from the class of twenty two and a l l interviews were transcribed. In reply to the f i r s t question in which the student was asked to i d e n t i f y the aspect most enjoyed in the unit the results were; ten i d e n t i f i e d painting, four drawing, three the sl i d e s , two the video and one enjoyed the drawing and painting. Reasons given for choosing painting as the most enjoyable aspect were: "I'm interested in painting and drawing"; "because you get to do what you want"; and "because with the c r i t i q u e and a l l that I had to think quite a b i t and I don't l i k e to think". The three students who li k e d the s l i d e s best gave these reasons: "I li k e d the q u i l t s and the way she mixed them up"; "we were allowed to c r i t i c i z e them...I l i k e c r i t i c i z i n g " ; and "I l i k e the s l i d e s because you see t h e i r art work but the videos are good too because you can see t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s and everything so i t s more where they go". The two students who enjoyed the videos more than any other aspect of the unit gave these reasons: "because of the l i f e s t o r i e s and how they began and s t u f f l i k e that"; and "the more I thought about i t I usually just color and f i n i s h -right? But now I think of i t - i f I draw something or paint something you put your feelings into that picture and some people can notice that when you draw...I can see that in some of the videos when people put t h e i r feelings into the paintings.". The next question asked i f the student had heard of, or was f a m i l i a r with art work by Gathie Falk before p a r t i c i p a t i n g in Understanding Images: Gathie Falk. Nineteen students had never heard of Falk nor had they seen her art before. .One student said he had heard her name and recognized the art from magazines his mother subscribes to. A subsequent question asked i f the students would now recognise a work by Gathie Falk should they see one in a public place or in a gallery. Of twenty students asked, sixteen thought they could probably recognize a work done by Gathie Falk, two answered "maybe" and one q u a l i f i e d her answer by saying "Maybe i f i t was a q u i l t . " One answered "no" because she explained "I missed those days of s l i d e s and videos" and one answered "I don't know because I haven't r e a l l y seen any a r t i s t s ' work." When asked how they would recognize a work by Gathie Falk the students re p l i e d : "She uses ordinary objects, lots of fishes ( s i c ) , cabbages, f r u i t and things l i k e that"; "the style...the way she puts the paint on"; "because she always has flowers and sections and everything"; "surrealism...like the f i s h t i e d up"; "the pieces of cloth stitched together...she l i k e s to put a l l the s t u f f together, l i k e her friends...she paints about her backyard flowers and s t u f f " ; "because she mostly repeats her work l i k e she shows more flowers"; " i t s textured, she uses a l l the normal everyday things"; and " i t s always kinda boring...its boring everyday s t u f f " . I asked the students i f the material studied in t h i s unit influenced t h e i r work and i f so how. Fift e e n students said they were influenced by the art they saw i n the video and the s l i d e s and explained how t h e i r work was affected: "the chair - i t s . . l i k e the f i s h and chair that Gathie did"; "bright colors cause I probably would have made the background black"; "I learned that (paint application) from Gathie Falk...I used to just go l i k e that but now I go i n a pattern l i k e that (short brush strokes)"; "when I saw her s t u f f . . l i k e when she 100 repeated in her painting...that helped me put t h i s together"; "short brush strokes, and . . teach you how to think out of the ordinary"; and one student said he was influenced "a l o t because I had never studied art l i k e t h i s before" and noted that major influences were "the series work and the sort of surrealism" and that "she always checked ( r e f e r r i n g to Gathie Falk's painting technique as seen in the video)." Of the f i v e students who said they were not influenced by the work seen in t h i s unit one explained that she was not in class for the video and the s l i d e presentation, another student who used the a c r y l i c paint in a d e l i c a t e water color manner replied; "I've always done my water colors l i k e t h i s for two years." Other students, af t e r further questions, did reveal some influence from the art studied. For example one student who depicted d i f f e r e n t viewpoints of her boyfriend playing basketball at f i r s t explained that she was not influenced because "I r e a l l y did not l i k e her (Falk's) work." but when asked i f she always applied paint in a textural manner she agreed that she had been influenced "a b i t and adding a l l these colors even i f they are not the rea l color." Another student whose painting focused on ah everyday object (a teddy bear) had applied paint in a textural manner said he was not influenced but painted in t h i s way because, "Mrs. t o l d me to do i t that way." In the f i n a l question I asked the students i f given the opportunity to study another l o c a l a r t i s t in t h i s manner; looking at s l i d e s , discussing the art, viewing a video about the a r t i s t , and then doing a related project would they want to do that and i f so why? Fourteen students r e p l i e d yes they would l i k e to study another a r t i s t in t h i s manner and s i x said no. The reasons why the students wanted to study another a r t i s t varied, for example: "I l i k e c r i t i c i z i n g and I don't mind doing something that has been done before"; "just to see... t h e i r s t y l e what made them decide what they"; "because I learn more about i t " ; "I l i k e to see how they painted...like Gathie Falk . .. how she paints the coat on the chairs"; "because then you learn how to do more...they l i k e talked about t h e i r childhood"; "I l i k e learning about d i f f e r e n t art."; and one student answered "If they are in our country we ought to know about them and see t h e i r art work and understand about them and then can r e l a t e to them." Some students did not want learn about another a r t i s t in t h i s manner because: "I f i n d i t kinda boring...I l i k e to do my own"; "I'd rather just do s t u f f made up l i k e what I want to do - just think of something" and one student was not interested in continuing with art "I 'm just taking t h i s course . . I'm not t o t a l l y interes ted i n ar t " Chapter four has recreated the three s i t u a t i o n s . Chapter f i v e w i l l r e f l e c t back on these s i t u a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t them by comparing and contrast ing the f o l l o w i n g ; how and why changes were made by each teacher i n the implementation of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l mater ia ls ; the q u a l i t y of the dialogue and why i t d i d or d i d not r e f l e c t an understanding of the m a t e r i a l ; the q u a l i t y of student ar t work and why i t d i d or d i d not r e f l e c t an understanding of the mater ia l . Chapter 5 w i l l conclude with an evaluat ive account of the three s i t u a t i o n s . CHAPTER 5 An Interpretive Account of the Three Texts Teacher Response Introduction Understanding Images (see Appendix A) was designed to meet the goals of the Secondary Art Guide (1983) with a focus on integration of art history, art c r i t i c i s m and studio exploration. The suggested implementation as outlined in the monograph Suggestions for Implementation (see Appendix A,) i s based upon a model which embraces the philosophy of Discipline-Based Art Education and includes f i v e stages; Reasoned C r i t i c i s m (uninformed), Learning More About (acquisition of information - art hist o r y ) , Reasoned C r i t i c i s m (informed), Transfer of Learning (use of information in a related studio exploration) and Reasoned C r i t i c i s m (informed c r i t i c i s m of student a r t work). At the i n i t i a l meeting with each teacher I explained the model and noted that there exists a f l e x i b i l i t y to allow f o r individual teaching s t y l e and class composition. This chapter contains an int e r p r e t i v e account of the three situations described in chapter four, and addresses the following questions; Why did the teachers implement the materials in the way in which they did? What ideas, t h e o r i e s o r c o n c e p t s can be a p p l i e d t o e x p l a i n t h e major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ? How d i d t h e q u a l i t y o f s t u d e n t d i a l o g u e and a r t work r e f l e c t o r n o t r e f l e c t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l ? Imp1ementation o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Changes made by each t e a c h e r t o t h e s u g g e s t e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . A l l t h r e e t e a c h e r s chose t o make changes i n t h e model o u t l i n e d i n Suggested Implementation: Sandra chose t o make major changes whereas A n n i e and E l i s e o n l y s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d t h e format. Changes implemented by Sandra p r i m a r i l y i n c l u d e d d e l e t i o n o f s t a g e s . The f i r s t s t a g e o f Reasoned C r i t i c i s m , t h e t h i r d s t a g e o f i n f o r m e d Reasoned C r i t i c i s m , and t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f Reasoned C r i t i c i s m i n v o l v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s completed a r t work were e l i m i n a t e d i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g Images: B i l l R e i d . In t h e second s t a g e , L e a r n i n g More About, t h e v i d e o f i l m was n o t shown and t h e c l a s s d i d n o t engage i n d i s c u s s i o n o f r e l a t e d c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Sandra e x p l a i n e d why she e l e c t e d t o make t h e s e changes, " I d i d n ' t go t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s s i m p l y because I don't t h i n k t h e grade e i g h t s ... t h e y don't want t o know t h a t much about i t . " A l t h o u g h she d i d show t h e s l i d e s , Sandra s a i d t h a t t h e y were n o t a p p r o p r i a t e and c o n s e q u e n t l y chose n o t t o engage i n d i s c u s s i o n o r r e f e r t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n provided in the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. She explained her reactions to the s l i d e s ; "several of them were too f a r above them. They c e r t a i n l y did not want to read anything. There was one that had something to read ( r e f e r r i n g to the s l i d e of the B i l l Reid poster). They would have enjoyed seeing, I think, about three times as many but just flashing on designs and things l i k e t h a t . ..just d i f f e r e n t ideas." A l l the segments deleted were concerned with aspects of gathering more information about the art and a r t i s t s to be studied and aspects of t a l k i n g about art and c r i t i c a l l y evaluating i t . Therefore, because of these deletions, the unit consisted mainly of studio a c t i v i t y . According to Chapman (1982) a large number of teachers who believe that "making art equals art education" do so because studio a c t i v i t i e s afford the student personal experience and t h i s i s believed to be the best teacher. B e l i e f in t h i s "doctrine of learning by doing (and i t s variants - learning by t r i a l and error, learning by discovery)..." does not acknowledge the importance of learning other aspects of art such as h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m " (p. 59). In contrast to t h i s approach Annie altered the suggested implementation but, instead of deleting stages, added informational sessions and periodic oral and written reviews. For example in introducing the unit of study she considered contemporary native art across Canada and then focused on the art of the Northwest Coast Indians. She explained why she chose to make that change; "As an introduction I took perhaps a broader scope ... I chose to put i t into the context of a Canadian overview including a b r i e f example of Inuit work, East Woodlands work, s l i g h t l y touching on Plains, and then focusing on P a c i f i c Northwest because that's where we are .... so I actually added one lesson simply because I wanted to put i t into an o v e r a l l contemporary Canadian context." Adding more information to the unit of study so that the students might benefit from an ov e r a l l context of native art i n Canada, demonstrates the teacher's b e l i e f that art education consists of more than studio exploration. Annie also chose to change the sequence of the stages and engaged the students in a f i n a l c r i t i c i s m of the f i r s t s l i d e a f t e r they had developed t h e i r designs rather than before as suggested (see Appendix A) because, she said, the information the students had learned "had time to i n t e r n a l i z e . . . " The students had looked at the images, engaged in numerous discussions and reviews and "they've looked at each others work so i t ' s become internalized and, they've used i t ( i n the development of the design) and i t ' s become r e a l to them." This change in sequence serves as an example of how p r a c t i c a l knowledge of the teacher reveals an insight into the nature of learning, an essential q u a l i t y i d e n t i f i e d by Eisner (1987). He stated that "a c u r r i c u l a r task which a learner engages in must have i n t r i n s i c meaning i f what they learn i s to become int e r n a l i z e d ... And a c t i v i t i e s which the students engage in must y i e l d benefits which transcend the l i m i t s of the classroom by being applicable to l i f e outside the classroom" (p.15). To achieve t h i s goal the teacher must teach for transfer and in t h i s s i t u a t i o n Annie did. Consequently, the students were able to apply the knowledge acquired and relate t h i s to t h e i r own art work as well as recognize related issues in the world outside the classroom. The students co l l e c t e d newspaper a r t i c l e s which discussed issues such as native rights to certain areas of land on the north west coast. This resulted numerous discussions among the students. Similarly, E l i s e made some changes in the suggested implementation and, l i k e Annie, she c a r e f u l l y planned and prepared for each session incorporating regular review sessions into the program. The concern for preparation both in v i s u a l presentation and in f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with the subject matter indicates that E l i s e , l i k e Annie, holds the b e l i e f that art education should contain h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and c r i t i c a l aspects together with studio exploration. A change in the suggested implementation made by E l i s e was in showing the s l i d e s . She chose to present a l l the s l i d e s i n the f i r s t stage and assigned two written c r i t i q u e s . Then, afte r the video was shown, a l l the s l i d e s were shown again, with information, and two further written c r i t i c i s m s were assigned. Consequently, several students became re s t l e s s ; E l i s e recognized t h i s and noted how she would avoid t h i s in future, "I think you have to have more hands-on things happening in the beginning because they get too bored just talking, s i t t i n g and watching s l i d e s and talkin g . They want to do something..." The reaction of the students to the information sessions may be due to the fac t that the students hold the view that art education consists exclusively of studio a c t i v i t y and not learning about art. Eisner (1987) c i t e s two reasons for an emphasis on studio a c t i v i t y in the v i s u a l arts and both may apply in t h i s situation. One i s that art should be used mainly to develop creative a b i l i t i e s . The second reason given was that "for many, art was not something one learned to see, to do, or understand, but something that unlocked the chil d ' s creative p o t e n t i a l " (p.11). Art programs of t h i s nature often have l i t t l e structure or content and students who have experienced art programs of t h i s kind, where l i t t l e other than media manipulation i s learned, w i l l therefore reject looking at or t a l k i n g about art. An understanding and p r a c t i c a l application of the process of reasoned c r i t i c i s m i s essential to e f f e c t i v e use of Understanding Images. Eisner (1987) believes Engaging in art c r i t i c i s m i s s i g n i f i c a n t in discipline-based art education because i t provides children with the opportunity to learn to see and describe the v i s u a l world (and) develops both the attitudes and the s k i l l s required to experience, analyze, interpret, and describe the expressive q u a l i t i e s of v i s u a l form...not only in works of art, but also forms we encounter in the environment at large. (p. 17) Instruction of reasoned c r i t i c i s m includes providing students with tools such as related vocabulary, knowledge of art processes, h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l information in addition to p r a c t i c a l application of reasoned c r i t i c i s m and valuing works of art. Annie and E l i s e recognized the importance of t h i s task and, during the course of study, they taught and reviewed related vocabulary and concepts, discussed related c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l aspects and encouraged each student to engage in the process of reasoned c r i t i c i s m u n t i l most students were comfortable and f a m i l i a r with the process. Then the students were asked to apply t h i s knowledge and, in writing, c r i t i c a l l y respond to an image. Similarly, E l i s e , who also taught reasoned c r i t i c i s m in a deliberate manner, was p o s i t i v e about the results because, she said, in comparing her usual lesson format to t h i s unit I think there was a l o t more comparison done - t h i s was much better because I was taking Impressionism and comparing i t to Gathie's work. So you had a comparison between a l o c a l a r t i s t with a painting era from long ago. And seeing how they overlap and that, I think, was good instead of just studying the p a r t i c u l a r painting era because you are now comparing i t to somebody who has used i t . They have been influenced by that p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e of painting and have brought i t into t h e i r work so I f e l t the students got more from i t - even I got more from i t . E l i s e recognized that teaching h i s t o r i c a l aspects, and strategies for c r i t i c a l analysis resulted in a worthwhile learning experience for the students. In contrast to the two previous situations, Sandra's approach to teaching reasoned c r i t i c i s m was that she needn't teach i t in a formal manner because, as she explained, the students had already discussed t h e i r work "they a l l run around and t a l k about t h e i r work...I f i n d you r e a l l y never have to discuss i t as soon as somebody i s doing something r e a l l y good (they say) "I've got to see what so and so i s doing and then immediately they a l l have to see." Sandra did not teach related vocabulary, concepts, h i s t o r i c a l , and c r i t i c a l aspects as both Annie and E l i s e had done. As a r e s u l t the program of studies consisted almost exclusively of studio exploration. According to Eisner (1987) in discipline-based art education we do not wait for children to learn simply by providing art materials they can manipulate, but ... we provide supportive and encouraging in s t r u c t i o n that guides learning. It means taking seri o u s l y the idea there i s much of value in the v i s u a l arts -learning to see, to understand, to judge, and to create, (p. 15) Although Sandra did provide an opportunity to look at art by showing the s l i d e s , a l l other v i s u a l material from Understanding Images: B i l l Reid used in the class was photocopied. Sandra's goal for the unit was to complete a ceramic t r i v e t for Mother's Day. She explained that she does not teach c r i t i c i s m in a formal manner because "I don't mark them on that. I just mark them on the finished product." 112 Student Response Quality of Dialogue Did the qual i t y of dialogue r e f l e c t an understanding of the material studied? The qu a l i t y of dialogue varied in the three classrooms. Both Annie and E l i s e d e l i b e r a t e l y taught related art concepts and vocabulary and encouraged students to use the correct terminology in discussing works of art and evaluating art. Moreover, most students in Annie's class, a f t e r learning about the art and culture of the Northwest Coast Indians, expressed a sense of awe and wonderment. For example one student said "I didn't know at a l l that they only had certain amount of forms l i k e u shape and s p l i t u shape and that's a l l they had . . they did a whole bunch of art just on those few symbols". Another student said that she had seen Northwest Coast Indian art before studying t h i s unit but "they a l l looked the same because they had si m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . I never thought about what those actual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were." Then, afte r t h i s opportunity to learn about the art and culture she said "I found out exactly that i t (the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) was a u shape, a s p l i t u shape and an ovoid..." Responses such as these indicate that students had learned to look at the art, had thought about the art, and were able to t a l k about i t . Annie was impressed with t h e i r l e v e l of understanding and t h e i r a b i l i t y to t a l k about the art work, "their vocabulary r e a l l y (emphasized) expanded ... they showed remarkable knowledge and showed good vocabulary and for the discussions were able to verbalize a l l the things that they saw." Eisner (1987) recognized that c u r r i c u l a r materials alone do not insure that a s i g n i f i c a n t learning experience w i l l result. He stated, "A curriculum, no matter how well designed, cannot make i t s optimal contributions without se n s i t i v e and i n t e l l i g e n t teachers" (p. 26). In t h i s s i t u a t i o n Annie prepared each session c a r e f u l l y , presented information and engaged the students in related studio experiences. Subsequently the dialogue between the students and between students and teacher r e f l e c t e d an understanding of the material studied. The dialogue in E l i s e ' s class also indicated an understanding of the subject matter studied. The students recognized that mundane, everyday objects and events interested Falk and became a source of i n s p i r a t i o n throughout her development as an a r t i s t . They were cognizant of the influence that the Impressionist painters had on her s t y l e of painting and most students were aware of the a r t i s t ' s use of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design together with an odd juxta-position of ordinary objects. This understanding was revealed in t h e i r response when asked how they would recognize a work of art made by Gathie Falk. One student replied, "she uses ordinary objects - lots of fishes ( s i c ) , cabbages, f r u i t s , and things l i k e that... (and) i t ' s very textural . . and c o l o r f u l . " He also explained that his painting of a series of chairs was influenced by the art that he studied during Understanding Images: Gathie Falk. "the chair -i t ' s . . l i k e the f i s h and chair that Gathie did" Furthermore, t h i s student, l i k e others in his class, understood that a r t i s t s can be influenced by other a r t i s t s ' work and that influence and copying are not the same thing. He said, "I l i k e c r i t i c i z i n g and I don't mind doing something that has been done before." Because E l i s e , l i k e Annie, taught the students a r t i s t i c concepts,, h i s t o r i c a l influences and related vocabulary, the students were able to c r i t i c a l l y evaluate images and art work. Their dialogue with the teacher and in class discussions re f l e c t e d an understanding of the material studied. Whereas the dialogue in Annie and E l i s e ' s class r e f l e c t e d an understanding of the art studied, the dialogue in Sandra's class r e f l e c t e d less understanding of the art of the northwest coast Indians. In t a l k i n g about the designs which the students had developed they referred to the design elements of the Northwest Coast Indians as "shapes", "those l i t t l e thingies", "the pies", and "this extra fancy s t u f f " . They had not learned to use the s p e c i f i c terms and vocabulary and were therefore unable to discuss t h e i r work e f f e c t i v e l y . Relevant a r t i s t i c concepts were not understood because, with the exception of the s l i d e session, no information was made available about the art and culture of the Northwest Coast Indians. Formal discussions of the art of the Northwest Coast Indians did not take place. Consequently, the students were unable to use the t r a d i t i o n a l design elements with understanding and found i t d i f f i c u l t to v i s u a l l y and verbally express t h e i r ideas. Since the teacher neither formally taught related information, nor engaged the students in c r i t i c i s m in a formal manner i t may be inferred that the teacher assumed that the students would learn to look at, evaluate and understand the art by making a related a rt object. According to Chapman (1982) many teachers assume that making art enhances perceptual s k i l l s and appreciation of art, but, what they do not recognize i s that t h i s w i l l not happen unless the teacher " e x p l i c i t l y demonstrates the connections between making art, perceiving art, and appreciating i t " (p. 35). In t h i s s i t u a t i o n the teacher did not emphasize h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and c r i t i c a l aspects, therefore the dialogue in the classroom r e f l e c t e d less understanding than in the two previously discussed situations. Quality of Student Art Work Did the student art work r e f l e c t an understanding of  the material studied? The studio assignments in the three situations were related to the a r t i s t s and art studied but each assignment focused on d i f f e r e n t concepts and media. The r e s u l t i n g art objects r e f l e c t e d varying degrees of understanding of the art studied. The student art work in Annie's class r e f l e c t e d understanding through application of knowledge acquired during the implementation of Understanding Images (see Appendix H). The assignment which Annie gave her class consisted of two segments. The f i r s t segment challenged the students to apply t h e i r knowledge and develop a design inspired by the art of the Northwest Coast; the second segment required that the students simplify that design, transfer i t onto a linoleum block, carve the design, and p u l l a number of pri n t s . This assignment gave the students an opportunity to apply what they had learned to t h e i r own art making. She challenged them beyond the f i r s t l e v e l , in which they developed a design, to solve further, more complex a r t i s t i c problems in a l t e r i n g that design to s u i t the linoleum p r i n t medium and at the same time maintain the essence of the o r i g i n a l design. In Annie's classroom most students indicated that they enjoyed the "Learning More About" stage (of seventeen interviewed, fourteen i d e n t i f i e d t h i s as most enjoyable) and recognized that insights into art and culture together with an understanding of the concepts helped them in solving a r t i s t i c problems during the development of t h e i r designs. "Usually the more knowledge students have about art and art history, the more advanced w i l l be t h e i r aesthetic achievement in studio work, because such knowledge provides students with a philosophic base from which to reach out in t h e i r own work" (Michael, 1983, p. 37). In addition to successfully applying the knowledge to t h e i r art work, the students were proud of t h e i r work, t r i e d to achieve the highest l e v e l possible, and respected the work of t h e i r classmates. Annie encouraged and recognized t h i s attitude and included mounting and display of the work in the f i n a l evaluation. Similarly, E l i s e d e l i b e r a t e l y taught relevant art concepts, reasoned c r i t i c i s m and related vocabulary and then challenged the students to use the knowledge in a related studio assignment. The assignment in t h i s s i t u a t i o n was to paint, with a c r y l i c paints on a canvas board, a painting which r e f l e c t e d some influence and understanding of Gathie Falk's art. At the same time they were asked to focus on a personal object or a c t i v i t y . The completed paintings r e f l e c t e d an understanding of the material studied; some in the choice of subject, others in the choice of color and in paint application. A l l paintings expressed a personal interpretation, none was a d i r e c t copy of Falk's work. E l i s e recognized, as Annie had previously, that because the students applied what they have learned to t h e i r own work they were inspired and challenged to make a personal statement which r e f l e c t e d an understanding of the material studied. Although the art work in Sandra's class did not r e f l e c t the same le v e l of understanding that was evident in the two previous situations, Sandra's class was composed of grade eight students while the other two were grade nine and ten. Moreover Sandra's school operated on a semester system. The students did not have the same depth of experience to draw on. Sandra developed the studio assignment as the course of study proceeded. I n i t i a l l y the project was to make a ceramic t r i v e t with a Northwest Coast Indian design and af t e r a few sessions Sandra added the photocopied working drawing which was to be colored and glued onto manila tag and serve as a card for Mother's Day. At the end of the unit Sandra said she was not s a t i s f i e d with the choice of the assignment or with the way in which the students finished t h e i r art work. She 119 explained, "I had them do these t r i v e t s .. I thought that's something they can make t h a t ' l l turn out but afterwards I was thinking i t would be fun to make a serving dish or something out of clay... l i k e the Indians made t h e i r wooden ones". She commented on the h a s t i l y f i n i s h e d t r i v e t s , "I don't think any one . . i n t h i s class put much e f f o r t into i t . " She q u a l i f i e d that statement and named two students whose work was passable and then explained further, "It was oust the f i n i s h i n g that was the difference. I think most of them - t h e i r designs were oust r e a l l y , r e a l l y nice - they didn't have any trouble doing designs at a l l . But the f i n i s h i n g touches - i t makes the difference to t i d y i t up." The uneven results may be attributed to the f a c t that t h i s group of students was less experienced than the students in the other two situations, or i t may be in part due to the limited amount of exposure to related h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l aspects. Because the students had not gained insight into the art in question and did not have the knowledge to apply to related studio assignments a s u p e r f i c i a l understanding was r e f l e c t e d in the students' art work. The Art Program Did the studio based program change? In both Annie's and E l i s e ' s situations the previously studio-based program changed as a r e s u l t of implementation of Understanding Images whereas Sandra's studio based program changed only s l i g h t l y . Eisner (1987) recognized the need for resources to bring about change in classroom practice and notes that written curriculum should whenever possible be accompanied by i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials such as videos and s l i d e s (p. 28). However, research shows, and Eisner supports t h i s view, that curriculum i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials cannot be e f f e c t i v e without supportive and encouraging i n s t r u c t i o n by sen s i t i v e and i n t e l l i g e n t teachers (p. 26). Annie, in accordance with her o r i g i n a l intentions, introduced more art his t o r y and c r i t i c i s m to her program. Because she had a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t in the subject of Northwest Coast Indian art and believed that her students would enjoy and benefit from a unit of study in t h i s area she taught the unit with enthusiasm. She also believed that the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials were well suited for the general course of study which she had planned for the year and she recognized that having the materials r e a d i l y available was an asset because, "this (the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials) d e f i n i t e l y gave me more material to work with and therefore I focused on i t more thoroughly than I would have." Because the s l i d e s and video f i l m were accessible i t was easy to incorporate them into the program of study. Moreover, a l l the students were a c t i v e l y engaged during the implementation of the unit because, she said, "there was a good deal of factual content and v i s u a l design elements and . . . some of my- non-producers found that while they could not generate an idea they could play with these ideas or design elements and everyone of them produced -even my almost non-producers..." Throughout the unit Annie combined p r a c t i c a l knowledge with t h e o r e t i c a l and was successful in i n s p i r i n g and involving a l l the students and interesting them in the study of native art. Consequently the students transferred t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s to related areas outside the classroom. This became apparent when the students discussed current p o l i t i c a l issues which related to the Northwest Coast Indians and brought to class newspaper a r t i c l e s which focused on these issues. Annie commented on the students' enthusiastic response, "I was r e a l l y impressed with the o v e r a l l awareness." In addition to an interest in and knowledge about the subject matter, the teacher's attitude toward the teaching of art h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m may a f f e c t the implementation of c u r r i c u l a r materials such as Understanding Images. Annie believed that the inclusion of art his t o r y and c r i t i c i s m resulted in a more meaningful studio experience. Furthermore, she disagreed with the notion that by 122 introducing art hi s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m the enrollment in art classes w i l l decrease. She said that by implementing Understanding images she found that a l l her students were involved in most of the stages, not just those who had a tal e n t in studio-related a c t i v i t i e s . Because Annie believes that art hist o r y and c r i t i c i s m enhance the studio experience, and the inclusion of these aspects in a studio based program w i l l not a f f e c t student enrollment, i t i s probable that she w i l l continue to o f f e r a program that contains art history, art c r i t i c i s m and studio exploration. E l i s e also s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed the studio based program during the implementation of Understanding Images; Gathie Falk. Because of her intere s t and knowledge about the Impressionist era she chose the unit which centered on that subject. She noted that introducing aspects of art history through a contemporary, l o c a l a r t i s t involved the students to a greater extent. She said, "What I thought was r e a l l y good was that t h i s was a B.C. a r t i s t . The students seemed to be that much more interested because of that. They could r e l a t e to where she liv e d . She i s l i v i n g now, she didn't l i v e 300 years ago." Moreover, E l i s e noted that the c u r r i c u l a r materials encouraged her to compare and contrast, "This was much better because I was taking Impressionism and comparing i t 123 to Gathie's work. So you had a comparison between a l o c a l a r t i s t with a painting era from a long time ago." E l i s e , l i k e Annie, recognized the p o s i t i v e effects of learning about art and a r t i s t s and applying that information to a related studio exploration. She said, t h i s i s good because you are making them apply what they have learned to t h e i r own work and I think they f i n d that quite e x c i t i n g . . . i t i s also challenging and they also are learning about the s t y l e that was used ... you have opened up doors for them... E l i s e found, as did Annie, that a l l the students were a c t i v e l y engaged at various stages throughout the unit of study. She said she was surprised at the interest shown by her students and noted one example of a "boy that normally produces a C work got an A on his painting ... He was so proud of himself and took his painting home every night to work on i t . " She c i t e d another example of a student who had shown l i t t l e i nterest in the art program u n t i l t h i s unit and suddenly "worked r e a l l y hard on that painting ... she was so excited that she took another canvas that her mom had in the closet and painted over the top of the painting." E l i s e also demonstrated an a b i l i t y to combine p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and created an exciting learning environment for the students. She believed, as did Annie, that inclusion of art his t o r y and c r i t i c i s m through the use of a model such as the one presented in Understanding images enhances the studio experience and agreed that i t would not reduce the number of students ele c t i n g to study art. She explained, No, I don't think i t w i l l hamper enrollment .... I think they would actually gain quite a b i t from i t and I think they would quite enjoy i t because they did enjoy i t . They a l l learned quite a b i t and they were a l l excited that they know t h i s a r t i s t and can use her name ... I think i t i s a r e a l l y p o s i t i v e thing and i t s a more interesting way to bring art histo r y into the classroom. Because E l i s e recognized that art history and c r i t i c i s m contributed to the students' understanding of works of art, to the student involvement in a l l aspects during the study of art, and contributed to the process of a r t i s t i c problem solving in a related studio exploration, i t i s probable that she w i l l 'continue to include art his t o r y and c r i t i c i s m in future a r t programs. Whereas both Annie and E l i s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed t h e i r previously studio based program, Sandra's program changed very l i t t l e . Although Sandra intended to include art h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m in her studio based program she recognized that she did not make major changes as a resu l t of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. She did not include art history because she said, "They (the students) enjoy to come in and work . . actually doing things and not thinking and not writing... they think about t h e i r designs ... but they don't r e a l l y want to have any history." She did not include the video because she said, "there must be films at the NFB (National Film Board) that have r e a l l y interesting Indian designs ... D e f i n i t e l y not a video because kids don't get excited seeing a video." Furthermore she did not teach related vocabulary, or the process of reasoned c r i t i c i s m in a formal manner. The emphasis in her program of studies remained on the making of art. Sandra maintained that the most worthwhile aspect of Understanding Images: B i l l Reid was, "Using the photocopies and drawing up the designs. I think that was the best learning part." Moreover Sandra explained that she focused on the studio assignment because "I just mark them on the finished product." The predominance of studio a c t i v i t y may, in part be due to the fact that Sandra, unlike Annie and E l i s e , but l i k e many other art teachers, holds the view that i f art hi s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m are introduced into a studio based program enrollment w i l l decrease, and i f more than half the time was to be allocated for h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects, she said, "You wouldn't have any students. Sandra sa id that she bel ieves students e n r o l l e d in an ar t course at the junior high school l e v e l do not enjoy learning about ar t and cul ture and do not l i k e to p a r t i c i p a t e in art c r i t i c i s m in a formal sense. It i s u n l i k e l y that a teacher who holds t h i s view w i l l include the study of art h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m in a s tudio based program despite the a v a i l a b i l i t y of appropriate curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials . Summary Annie and E l i s e , through implementation of Understanding Images, were able to s i g n i f i c a n t l y increase aspects of art h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m i n t h e i r ar t program. An understanding and appreciat ion of the ar t s tudied was r e f l e c t e d in student-teacher dialogue and in the student ar t work. However, implementation of Understanding Images i n Sandra's c lass d i d not r e s u l t i n major changes i n a mostly s tudio based program, nor d i d the student dialogue and art work r e f l e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of understanding of the art work s tudied. Chapter 5 has provided an i n t e r p r e t i v e account and evaluat ion of the three s i t u a t i o n s . The f i n a l chapter, Chapter 6, w i l l discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials and fac tors which influenced teacher use of the mater ia ls . The chapter w i l l conclude 127 by r e f l e c t i n g upon the success of Understanding Images and implications for development of si m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials for art education as a r e s u l t of t h i s study. CHAPTER 6 Discussion of the Findings Introduction. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials Understanding Images were implemented by three art teachers in three junior high schools and t h e i r responses together with responses of the students were collected. The three situations were described, interpreted and evaluated and suggestions that might be considered in the development of art curriculum material were made on the basis of these. This chapter r e f l e c t s upon the strengths and limitations of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. Factors which influenced how each teacher used the materials are also discussed. Reflections on the success of the study and subsequent implications for development of in s t r u c t i o n a l materials conclude the chapter. The Instructional Materials Strengths of the Materials. Because each teacher was given a choice in selecting the i n s t r u c t i o n a l unit which best suited t h e i r situation, i t was concluded that the material held some relevance and meaning for the teacher and the students. Annie and E l i s e chose curriculum materials which were related to areas of t h e i r i n t e r e s t and expertise. Sandra chose the curriculum materials which she believed would be most suitable for the class in which she planned to introduce them. Annie and E l i s e agreed that the model upon which Understanding Images was developed was f l e x i b l e enough to allow for individual teaching s t y l e and class makeup. They concurred with the concept of i n i t i a l c r i t i c i s m of an image followed by additional information through the use of v i s u a l and verbal materials and culminating i n a transfer of knowledge through related studio experience. Furthermore, both Annie and E l i s e said they planned to u t i l i z e t h i s model in future unit plans and thereby introduce t h e i r students to other l o c a l , contemporary a r t i s t s and art work. Annie and E l i s e both said they found the materials relevant and meaningful for the students because h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l aspects were introduced through the study of a l o c a l p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t . As an example both teachers noted that some of the v i s u a l images viewed in the classroom through s l i d e s or video could be encountered in l o c a l g a l l e r i e s , public buildings or community parks. Because enough students did encounter the art they studied, and shared t h e i r experience with the class, both Annie and E l s i e said t h i s resulted in a high l e v e l of interest in the classroom. Annie noted that a l l her students were involved during the implementation and she was p a r t i c u l a r l y impressed with the l e v e l of knowledge demonstrated by the students in the f i n a l written c r i t i c i s m . E l i s e c i t e d two examples of students who, u n t i l t h i s unit, had shown l i t t l e motivation or interest in the study of art but as a r e s u l t of t h i s unit of study they participated in discussions and produced paintings which r e f l e c t e d an understanding of the concepts learned. Another strength i d e n t i f i e d by a l l three teachers was that the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials included s u f f i c i e n t information and v i s u a l material to teach the unit of study. Annie said the resource material accompanying Understand ing Images allowed her to focus more on informational and h i s t o r i c a l aspects than she would normally have. Although both Annie and E l i s e said that Understand ing Images did not require additional resource material they did choose to add appropriate material from t h e i r personal c o l l e c t i o n to enhance the displays which they had mounted in t h e i r classroom throughout the unit of study. Both Annie and E l i s e noted that the suggested related studio assignments were f l e x i b l e enough to s u i t most situations. Annie said she referred to the suggested assignments and subsequently sequenced two related studio explorations to reinforce the information learned and simultaneously introduced students to pen and ink drawing 131 and a p r i n t making process. A f i n a l strength of the curriculum materials, i d e n t i f i e d by a l l three teachers, was the professional presentation and qu a l i t y of the v i s u a l materials in Understand ing Images. A l l three teachers suggested that Understanding Images be commercially reproduced and made available to art teachers in the province. Concerns for the Materials. As a re s u l t of implementation of Understanding Images some concerns were expressed by the three teachers. A concern expressed by Sandra, was that the s l i d e s and video were inappropriate for grade eight l e v e l . She suggested the s l i d e s exclusively contain native designs and no other information so that one need only "flash on the d i f f e r e n t designs". She also suggested that the video be replaced by a f i l m which focuses on designs and not other c u l t u r a l or h i s t o r i c a l aspects which she said, would not hold the interest of t h i s age group. A second concern, expressed by E l i s e , was that in stages one and two, no time was set aside for studio related a c t i v i t y . Since most students are accustomed to making art and not learning about art she f e l t that one should incorporate some preliminary studio art a c t i v i t i e s i n these two stages. Annie i n s t i n c t i v e l y did include some studio a c t i v i t y , often only ten minutes, in the f i r s t few 132 informational sessions, and therefore her students did not f i n d the informational sessions tedious. A t h i r d concern i d e n t i f i e d by Annie was the sequence of implementation. She chose to incorporate the f i n a l c r i t i q u e , a written one, af t e r the students had completed t h e i r f i r s t studio assignment instead of before the students began the related studio work. This not only gave the students a break from informational sessions but also allowed time for the information to become internalized and be applied in a p r a c t i c a l manner. As a r e s u l t t h e i r f i n a l written c r i t i c a l response to the s l i d e s r e f l e c t e d an appreciation and a good understanding of the concepts presented. A f i n a l concern expressed by both Annie and E l i s e was that there were no actual a r t i f a c t s included in the curriculum materials, but they re a l i z e d that t h i s would be almost impossible to incorporate. Both solved that problem. E l i s e organized a t r i p with her art classes to the Cit y Gallery and viewed art by l o c a l a r t i s t s which included artwork by the a r t i s t studied. Annie brought a number of Northwest Coast Indian art works from her own c o l l e c t i o n into the classroom so that the students would have the experience of seeing and t a l k i n g about the art other than in reproduced form. Factors which Influenced Teacher Use of Materials 133 Factors which influenced the way in which each teacher implemented Understanding Images can be grouped into three areas: Teacher factors, student factors, and circumstantial factors. Teacher factors. The f i r s t factor to be considered was a desire by the teacher to a l t e r a mostly studio program. The teachers in t h i s study participated because Sandra contacted the researcher and explained that art teachers in her d i s t r i c t had decided to make an e f f o r t to include aspects of art hist o r y and c r i t i c i s m i n a studio based program. According to Sandra they did not know where to begin or how to best proceed. Sandra had heard that I was developing materials which were based on the current curriculum and therefore asked that I meet with the art teachers. As a result, before the teachers were selected for t h i s study, each teacher indicated a desire to expand a mostly studio program to include h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects as suggested in the Art Curriculum Guide. The three p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers were given a choice of the two units: Understand ing Images: B i l l Reid or Understanding Images: Gathie Falk. A second factor i d e n t i f i e d was the educational background of the teacher. Educational background of art teachers may vary from mostly studio based courses to a mixture of studio and history based courses. In t h i s 134 study, because a l l three teachers had attended the same post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n and at approximately the same time, t h e i r formal education was similar. In implementing a unit of study such as Understand ing Images the teacher must be f a m i l i a r with the subject matter. This requires a good understanding of art hi s t o r y and an awareness of art and a r t i s t s in the community. In t h i s study a l l three teachers said they regularly attended p r o v i n c i a l art conferences which often feature noted Canadian a r t i s t s as guest speakers or presenters. Annie and E l i s e said they also attended l o c a l art exhibitions whenever possible to maintain contact with current and l o c a l art trends. A l l three teachers continued t h e i r work as p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t s . A t h i r d factor i d e n t i f i e d was p r a c t i c a l knowledge of the teacher. P r a c t i c a l knowledge may be defined as a combination of teaching experience together with t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge. In t h i s study e f f e c t i v e implementation of Understand ing Images required thoughtful planning of each session, planning of the the unit as a whole, and a good understanding of class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Both Annie and E l i s e prepared and planned implementation strategies for each session and i d e n t i f i e d outcomes expected f o r the unit of study. During implementation they regularly monitored the students' learning by administering written and oral tests. Sessions were then 135 adjusted according to the needs of the individual class to ensure that outcomes could be met. Student related factors. The age and previous formal in s t r u c t i o n in art education of the students may a f f e c t t h e i r response to Understand ing Images. In t h i s study Sandra's grade eight class had only experienced formal art education at the elementary school l e v e l whereas the other two classes, a grade nine and ten s p l i t class, included many students who had studied art in grade eight or in grade nine or in both grade eight and nine. E l i s e noted that because the school d i s t r i c t did not have a p o l i c y which i n s i s t e d that Art Eight be a prerequisite for Art Nine and Art Nine a prerequisite for Art Ten, teaching art in grade nine and ten was d i f f i c u l t because of students' varying degrees of experience in formal art education. Furthermore she said art courses are not standardized throughout the d i s t r i c t or province so she could not assume that those who had studied art in grade eight or nine and were from other schools were f a m i l i a r with art concepts which she normally teaches. A second factor, an outcome of the f i r s t , was the attitude that students had toward art education in general. Because art education i s generally not recognized as an essential area of study, and because most art teachers o f f e r a studio based program, the students assume that when they e n r o l l in art they w i l l experience a series of explorations with d i f f e r e n t media. Most students do not expect to be required to gain information, t a l k about art, or write tests. Sandra said her class did not want to have to read anything or think; a l l they wanted to do was make something. E l i s e also noticed that her students, a f t e r the second information session, were res t l e s s and asked when they would be able to paint. If, however, the students were accustomed to thinking of art education as including information and t a l k about art as well as studio, then the reaction and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the students might be more enthusiastic. Circumstantial factors. In t h i s study a number of circumstantial factors, which were in some cases unique to t h i s study, may have influenced the implementation of Understanding Images. The system by which a school operates i s i d e n t i f i e d as a circumstantial factor. In Sandra's s i t u a t i o n the school operated on a semester system and as a r e s u l t she f e l t a time pressure. She a l l o t t e d f i v e one hour sessions for implementation of Understanding Images: B i l l Reid. In contrast Annie, who implemented the same unit, required 18 hours and E l i s e , who implemented Understanding Images: Gathie Falk required 12 one hour sessions. Both Annie and E l i s e taught in a non-semestered school and both would have like d two or three more sessions, but because i t was the end of the year t h i s was not possible. Thus another factor, the time of year the study was conducted, also affected implementation. Because the implementation of Understanding Images in both Annie and E l i s e ' s class took place in the l a s t weeks of the school year the teachers were unable to add sessions that were not anticipated in the o r i g i n a l plan. Another time related factor which affected the study and was unique to t h i s s i t u a t i o n was a decision made by the teachers' federation to enforce a work-to-rule campaign and p a r t i c i p a t e in a walk out. The work-to-rule campaign dictated that a l l teachers were to arrive at school no e a r l i e r than one half hour before school started and leave the premises one half hour aft e r school was dismissed. This rule was enforced in both Annie and E l i s e ' s school and they found i t d i f f i c u l t to adequately prepare for the sessions and impossible to provide out-of-class assistance to those students who required i t . Moreover the teacher walkout deleted sessions from the planned course of study. Because implementation in Sandra's class was completed before the walk-out and because Sandra was a half time teacher these factors had l i t t l e a f f e c t on her program. Another factor which influenced implementation of the unit was the support the art teacher received from the school in general, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the administration and the support they received from t h e i r d i s t r i c t . In Sandra's s i t u a t i o n the support and understanding she received, she said, was minimal. She explained that not one of the physical changes to her room which she had requested had been attended to. Permission to take a drawing class outside the classroom was not given because the administration said the students might waste t h e i r time while outside. Annie, who was the only art teacher in her school, had support from the administration, but she f e l t isolated because she said that there was no one on the s t a f f who understood and valued art education as she did. Similarly, E l i s e f e l t isolated in her school and regretted that art education was not given as much support as the sport program received in her school. Annie and E l i s e both said that they seldom had an opportunity to meet with other art teachers of junior and secondary schools in the d i s t r i c t and they did not have an art s p e c i a l i s t to help them when required. They said that lack of d i s t r i c t support together with a lack of current i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials made teaching art according to the curriculum an almost impossible task. Reflections on the success of the study The research question in t h i s study asked: Given l o c a l l y relevant i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials which focus on h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects and relate these to studio production, w i l l three teachers of v i s u a l art at the secondary l e v e l , whose programs have been production oriented, develop and o f f e r a unit that provides a balance between art history, art c r i t i c i s m and art studio? As a re s u l t of t h i s study and according to data co l l e c t e d the three p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers chose to modify the use of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials to s u i t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n. Two teachers, Annie and E l i s e , did o f f e r a unit of study which included h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects and related these to studio production. One par t i c i p a n t offered a unit of study which was primarily studio based. The f i r s t subsidiary question in t h i s study asked: W i l l the qual i t y of dialogue between the teacher and student r e f l e c t understanding of the new material? According to data co l l e c t e d student-teacher dialogue in Annie and E l i s e ' s class did r e f l e c t an understanding of the material studied. Understanding of the material studied became apparent in the comments students made during formal art c r i t i c i s m sessions, the questions students asked and the relevant vocabulary used in teacher-student dialogue. The teacher-student dialogue in Sandra's class r e f l e c t e d l i t t l e understanding of the material. The students were not given an opportunity to 140 discuss t h e i r art work with t h e i r peers and the vocabulary-used when they did ask questions pertaining to t h e i r designs was predominantly non-specific. The second subsidiary question asked: W i l l the quali t y of student t a l k r e f l e c t perceived integrations of the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l material? According to data col l e c t e d through student interviews, the student t a l k in Annie and E l i s e ' s class did r e f l e c t integrations of the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l material studied. For example in Annie's class the students demonstrated integrations of h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l materials during the three c r i t i q u e s in which the students frequently used relevant vocabulary to discuss the a r t i s t s ' use of art concepts and systems of design and related these to t h e i r a r t i s t i c problem solving throughout the studio exploration. The t h i r d subsidiary question in the study asked: W i l l the student art work r e f l e c t an understanding of perceived integration of the h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and production domains? Data col l e c t e d shows that the student art work in Annie and E l i s e ' s classes indicated a high degree of understanding of the perceived integration of the h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and production domains. The students in Sandra's class demonstrated a lesser degree of understanding. The students in Annie's class r e f l e c t e d a high degree 141 of understanding the integration of h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and production domains because most student art work was based on myths or legends which they had read or heard. Furthermore, the design forms and concepts employed by the students in t h e i r art work c l e a r l y showed an understanding of the material studied. The students in t h i s class, also demonstrated an awareness of North West Coast Indian culture and current s o c i a l issues involving native Indians. On t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e they brought to class news items from l o c a l newspapers which focused on native issues. The majority of student art work in E l i s e ' s class r e f l e c t e d understanding of the integration of h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and studio aspects. Most students were aware of the style, the subject matter and Impressionist influences of the a r t i s t studied and r e f l e c t e d t h i s understanding in t h e i r paintings. The student art work in Sandra's class r e f l e c t e d a lesser understanding of the integration of the three domains. The majority of student drawings and clay work did not show an understanding of c u l t u r a l influences or of art forms or art concepts related to the unit. Implications for development of curriculum materials As a r e s u l t of data collected, interpreted and evaluated, insights gained might prove to be useful in the development of curriculum materials for art education at the secondary l e v e l . Three aspects which p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers i d e n t i f i e d as being important were: a v a i l a b i l i t y of appropriate curriculum materials; focus of materials; and f l e x i b i l i t y of material. A v a i l a b i l i t y of curriculum materials. According to the three teachers in t h i s study there exists a need for c u r r i c u l a r materials which p a r a l l e l the current Art Curriculum Guide. This i s evidenced by the fact that the researcher was approached by the v i s u a l art teachers from Cedarvale school d i s t r i c t and asked to a s s i s t by introducing materials, strategies and methods which would enable.the teachers to offer a balanced art program. Furthermore, aft e r implementation of Understanding Images in three classrooms, Annie and E l i s e , two p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers, expressed the need to make available materials such as Understanding Images to a l l v i s u a l art teachers in the province and in p a r t i c u l a r to art teachers in t h e i r d i s t r i c t . Both Annie and E l i s e preferred that i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials be made available in a s i m i l a r format to Understand ing Images. They maintained that materials presented as a complete unit with a l l necessary v i s u a l resources at hand would encourage the teacher to implement a unit of study which included h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects and related these to studio production. 143 Focus of curriculum materials. Both Annie and E l i s e preferred, as a s t a r t i n g point, a focus on indigenous art or a r t i s t s s i m i l a r to the format of Understanding Images. They said students showed a high l e v e l of interest during implementation of the unit of study and both teachers attributed t h i s , in part, to the focus of the unit on the study of contemporary art and a r t i s t s who l i v e and work in neighbouring communities. F l e x i b i l i t y of curriculum materials. Of the three p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers, both Annie and E l i s e noted that they preferred materials such as Understanding Images which did not prescribe a r e c i p e - l i k e text to follow but allowed for individual teaching style, class character, and for varying degrees of student expertise. Annie and E l i s e referred to the usefulness of the f i v e stage model upon which the units Understand ing Images were designed and both teachers said they planned to use the model to design t h e i r own units of study based on contemporary art and l o c a l a r t i s t s . Summary As a r e s u l t of t h i s study i t became apparent that some secondary art teachers recognize that they teach a mostly studio based art program and would l i k e to include h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects as suggested in the current curriculum guide. But when given relevant c u r r i c u l a r materials to introduce a more balanced program, not a l l art teachers w i l l indeed a l t e r the mostly studio based program. Once the intention to change a studio based program has been expressed by the teacher, a v a i l a b i l i t y of relevant i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials w i l l l i k e l y be instrumental in making that change. In t h i s study three art teachers, who had expressed an intention to change t h e i r studio based program, were given the opportunity to i implement the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials Understanding Images. Two of the three teachers did a l t e r t h e i r studio based program and offered a more balanced program of study. Both teachers noted a high l e v e l of student interest and were surprised by the ove r a l l p o s i t i v e reaction of the students to the introduction of c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l aspects. One teacher, however, made few changes and continued to of f e r a mostly studio based program. Therefore i t may be said that i f l o c a l l y relevant materials, which focus on h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects and r e l a t e these to studio production, were made available to secondary art teachers, they might well f i n d t h e i r way into school programs, and achieve a more equitable balance of classroom art a c t i v i t i e s . Furthermore, i f a balanced program were offered, then student-teacher dialogue, student dialogue, and student art work would r e f l e c t understanding of the material studied. It must be emphasized, however, that the role taken by the classroom teacher i s c r i t i c a l in determining whether such programs succeed. In conclusion, as a r e s u l t of t h i s study, i t i s recommended that l o c a l l y relevant curriculum materials such as Understand ing Images be developed and made available to secondary art teachers. To ensure implementation and that a balanced program of art be maintained, teachers require support. Support from l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s to provide in-service teacher tr a i n i n g , from f i n e art s p e c i a l i s t s to provide and coordinate resources, and from p r i n c i p a l s to provide active involvement as well as a commitment to developing and sustaining a balanced art program. Furthermore teachers should be encouraged and given the opportunity to continue post-secondary studies and thereby strengthen theory and practice of art history, art c r i t i c i s m and studio production. REFERENCES Barkan, M. (1955). A foundation for art education. New York: Ronald Press. Barkan, M. (1962). 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Beyond Creating: The place for art in American schools. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust. Greer, W. D. (1984). Discipline-based art education: approaching art as a subject of study. Studies in Art Education. 25(4), 212-218. Greer, W. D. & Rush, J. C. (1985). A grand experiment: the Getty Institutes for Educators on Visual Arts. Art Education. 35(1), 24, 33-35. Lowenfeld, V. (1952). Creative and mental growth, (revised ed.). New York: The Macmillan Co. Lowenfeld, V. (1952). The nature of creative a c t i v i t y . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Madeja, S. (1976). The CEMREL aesthetic education program: A report. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 10(3/4), 209-216. Madeja, S. S., & Onuska, S. (1977). Through the arts to the aesthetic^. The CEMREL aesthetic education curriculum. St. Louis, MO: CEMREL. MacGregor, R. N. (1984). Ah, Canada ( e d i t o r i a l ) . Art education, 36(5), 4. MacGregor, R. N. (1985). An outside view of d i s c i p l i n e -based art education. Studies in Art Education. 26(4), 241-246. Ma t t i l , E. L. (1966). A seminar in art education for research and curriculum development (USOE Cooperative Research Project No. V-002). University Park: The 149 Pennsylvania i a State University. McFee, J. & Degge, R. (1977). Art, culture, and environment: a catalyst for teaching. Belmont C a l i f . : Wadworth. McFee, J. (1984). An analysis of the goal, structure, and s o c i a l context of the 1965 Penn State Seminar and the 1983 Getty Institute for educators on the v i s u a l arts. Studies in Art Education, 25(4), 276-280. Michael, J. A. (1983). Art and adolescence: teaching art at the secondary Level. New York: Teachers College Press. Read, H. (1956). Education through art, ( t h i r d revised edition) New York: Pantheon Books. Secondary Art Guide 8-12. (1983). V i c t o r i a , BC: Ministry of Education Curriculum Branch. Smith, R. A. (1966). Aesthetics and c r i t i c i s m i n art education. Chicago: Rand McNally. Smith, R. A. (1968). Aesthetic c r i t i c i s m : the method of aesthetic education. Studies i n Art Education, 9(3), 12-31. Smith, R. A. (1973). Teaching aesthetic c r i t i c i s m in the schools. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 7(1), 38-49. Southwest Regional Laboratory For Educational Research Elementary Art Program. (1982). Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa. Appendix A APPENDIX A (cont'd.) table of contents OJ Of Oi 01 01 CP a> 0 m m m a a a a a • u: • \ • • LU • • • * • • es • « • u • • t - < • • <r cn • LZ z • iSi • • • • • • r? • • • LU • • z <X • >— • • a' CC • Z • a > Q • _ i 1 U • • <r a. LL > LU h- X a uL _J Z LU cc G a <t LU CD 1— z Z a G :_J z a LU 1— LU c 1 > z <x Z r— — jj W 1. MONOGRAPH: FOR THE TEACHER - SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION « 2. FOLDER: SLIDES NUMBERED 1 TO 20 AND IDENTIFICATION LIST « 3. MONOGRAPH: BILL REID - ABOUT THE ARTIST « 4. MONOGRAPH: ART OF THE NORTHWEST COAST INDIANS: A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND « 5. VIDEO: BILL REID « 6. FOLDER: BLACK AND WHITE 8X10 PHOTOGRAPHS (NUMBERED 1 TO 10 AND IDENTIFIED) TEMPLATES: 10 PAGES tt 7. FOLDER: CRITICAL REVIEWS FROM NEWSPAPERS EXHIBIT ANNOUNCEMENTS POSTCARDS: DEPICTING CANADIAN ARTISTS WITH SIMILAR INTERESTS tt B. TO BE ADDED BY TEACHERS IMPLEMENTING THE' PORTFOLIO: EXAMPLES OF SUGGESTED STUDIO ASSIGNMENTS RATIONALE - WHY? * to provide the student with an understanding of a r t as a c u l t u r a l phenomenon * to provide the student with t o o l s to enable t a l k about a r t with understanding (art c r i t i i c i s m ) * to introduce the student to v a r i o u s media and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d in making art In compiling t h i s material I have chosen to focus on l o c a l contemporary a r t i s t s so that the students may experience the work of these a r t i s t s f i r s t hand. They may encounter the work i n parks or museums or read c r i t i c a l reviews i n the l o c a l paper. Art may come a l i v e and be e x c i t i n g ! The m a t e r i a l s i n t h i s p o r t f o l i o are designed to be implemented i n the classroom i n the f o l l o w i n g sequence: Stage ttl I The Image: show one s l i d e (ttl) t§ have students write a b r i e f S d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a y l s i s g H X > Stage t»2 § Funding: LEARNING MORE ABOUT ^ research of a r t i s t ' s r e l a t e d work and work done by other a r t i s t s which may have had an i n f l u e n c e (s1ides,f11ms,mounted r e p r o d u c t i o n s etc.) reading/studying a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l (prepared monographs, r e l a t e d t e x t s e t c . , c r i t i c a l reviews) »»Tlu 5 may lead to a w r i t t e n assignment. Stage tt3 Reasoned C r i t i c i s m : Show S l i d e tt 1 again and d i s c u s s , t h i s may be w r i t t e n or o r a l may be compared to the f i r s t attempt i n Stage *U **The steps of D e s c r i p t i o n , A n a l y s i s , E v a l u a t i o n may be used as o u t l i n e d i n the B.C. Secondary Art Curriculum Guide Stage Transfer of l e a r n i n g : in t h i s stage the student w i l l apply the tcnowledge acquired in the previous stages and engage in r e l a t e d s t u d i o experience Stage «5 Reasoned C r i t i c i s m : students and teacher t a l k about the students work i n r e l a t i o n to the o b j e c t i v e s of the chosen s t u d i o assignment and apply knowledge gained i n p r e v i o u s stages Once the student has studied the l i f e and work of an a r t i s t the ar t becomes meaningful and understanding i s f u r t h e r extended as the student explores media and processes employed by the a r t i s t . The i n t e n t i s not to copy nor to emphasize the mechanics of the making of a r t but to use the work of the a r t i s t as an i n s p i r a t i o n which can lead to personal imagery and e x p l o r a t i o n s . The format used in compiling the m a t e r i a l s i n t h i s p o r t f o l i o are designed i n such a f a s h i o n that the teacher or student can e a s i l y use i t as a model to design t h e i r own p o r t f o l i o f o c u s s i n g on the a r t i s t of t h e i r choice. One need only to begin with an image and then b u i l d on t h i s as p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d i n Stages 2 to 5 where i n STAGE 2: the Funding or Learning About the r e l a t e d work of the a r t i s t i s explored. STAGE 3: the Reasoned C r i t i c i s m i s repeated with the added knowledge of the f i r s t stage STAGE 4: the t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g i n t h i s stage i s expressed through r e l a t e d s t u d i o e x p l o r a t i o n s STAGE 5: the students t a l k about t h e i r a r t (reasoned c r i t i c i s m ) Futhermore the m a t e r i a l s presented i n t h i s p o r t f o l i o have been designed to f u l f i l l the goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes of the Secondary Art Curriculum Guide (19B3) - but above a l l the i n t e n t i o n was to help the teacher — to i n s p i r e the teacher t o teach with excitement, enthusiasm, and confidence. implementation APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 159 4J -in ui c 01 •P UI oi V. m > OJ L c •P 0 OS L OS 01 cn os a a c 0 L oi 0 r a 2 ai u .c 3 UI a ai U •a i a ai i c Q ±i •U ui 4J cn • I H a a L U ai - <r -u L « CD ui U Q L U 0 UI L U I— C oi r <r ^£ ai T3 cc 1 y- 01 cn w* ai C Oi z r Z 2 2 in a 0 0 ui •o >> L -M (-^  OJ C OJ C a 01 JZ 1- ~ -a 01 z n • L U OJ 3 • L 4J X L C -u 2 OS L U UI OJ . z r _ l * os — - C c a •u 2 CL •a -U +J a < C r QJ UI 01 »*• T3 m as 0 •o 0 X e -tJ 01 >—• 3 a •• oi 3 a: 4J > L U Ul r u UI L ai m a* -M oi cn Q cn 2 3 > L U 01 -w L U L U 0 0 ai a > c CD cn r •« L -C oi ai CD <r cn 4J OJ a -a I > i— ui c 0) * c cn cn * 01 01 cn cn cr. a u. UJ cr cn a cr LU h- LU a a. J Z J<t 3 H Q I U H- u cn i i i <b) ANALYSIS: **Discus6 and have the students w r i t e down the components and r e l a t i onshi ps - THE ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN - SUBJECT MATTER - IMAGERY ^ - THE ARTIST'S CHOICE OF MATERIALS B - THE ARTIST'S TECHNICAL COMPETENCE g - THE PURPOSE OR INTENT OF THE ARTIST AND RELATE THIS TO THE £ TIME, PLACE AND CULTURE > (c) EVALUATION: o s rt CL **ask that students record t h e i r response to the quest i o n - Is t h i s work of art s u c c e s s f u l ? Why? Why not? (—1 O STAGE «2 FUNDING: LEARNING MORE ABOUT In t h i s segment the student w i l l ACQUIRE ipformation about: - the a r t i s t - a d d i t i o n a l a r t works which the a r t i s t made before and s i n c e the f i r s t image d i s c u s s e d i n SLIDE #1 - information about the f a c t o r s which have i n s p i r e d the a r t i s t such as other a r t i s t s working at the same time, a r t from another c u l t u r e , or dreams and personal experiences ** Show the remaining s l i d e s and d i s c u s s (may use the IDENTIFICATION OF SLIDES SHEET FOR REFERENCE or photocopy f o r students to use) ** Encourage students to read and look at the m a t e r i a l s i n the P o r t f o l i o: MONOGRAPH: BILL REID MONOGRAPH: NORTHWEST COAST INDIANS: A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHS TEMPLATES CRITICAL REVIEWS/EXHIBIT ANNOUNCEMENTS POSTCARDS DEPICTING RELATED WORKS OF ART **plus any r e l a t e d t e x t s which the school l i b r a r y or other students may have SUGGESTION: depending on the s i z e of the c l a s s , t e a c h e r may wish to photocopy the: Monographs C r i t i c a l reviews Templates i n t h i s p o r t f o l i o so that the students can e a s i l y access the material **Show the video BILL REID (copy i n c l u d e d i n the p o r t f o l i o ) In t h i s f i l m the a r t i s t B i l l Reid i s at work on a totem p o l e i n the Haida t r a d i t i o n - The f i l m c a p t u r e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a cedar tree trunk i n t o a r i c h l y carved p o l e . The p o l e i s a g i f t to the people of Skidegate i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands. In the end the pole i s r a i s e d . STAGE 4*3 (opt i onal ) REASONED CRITICISM: ** SHOW s l i d e ** 1 again #* have students look at the s l i d e c a r e f u l l y and f o l l o w the same steps as in Stage "1 DESCRIPTION: ANALYSIS EVALUATION ** the students may do t h i s o r a l l y or w r i t t e n and may want to compare t h i s c r i t i c i s m with t h e i r f i r s t attempt STAGE « 4 TRANSFER OF LEARNING *# choose a r e l a t e d s t u d i o assignment: -examples given on pages 11, 12, and 13. **In t h i s segment the students w i l l apply the knowledge a c q u i r e d i n the STEPS ttl,2, and 3 t o a s t u d i o experience. The teacher i s encouraged to be aware of and understand Northwest Coast imagery and the r e l a t e d p r i n c i p l e s of a r t . The students w i l l be encouraged to develop t h e i r own ( r e l a t e d ) imagery i n s p i r e d by Northwest Coast a r t . They may wish to use the templates in the p o r t f o l i o (photo copy) or may wish to design t h e i r own and develop t h e i r own system and p r i n c i p l e s of a r t to use i n the s e l e c t e d assignments. (the teacher may choose to have the students complete a wr i t t e n researched assignment before a r e l a t e d s t u d i o assignment 1s begun) ^ STAGE «5 REASONED CRITICISM: teachers and students respond to the art made by the students H X o o & d siuaio explorations APPENDIX A (cont'd.) RELATED STUDIO EXPERIENCES ASSIGNMENT ONE: WHAT IF??? BILL REID DESIGNED A LICENSE PLATE FOR THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH ^ COLUMBIA $ H X **the student i s asked to imagine how the a r t i s t would approach t h i s task and w i l l draw at l e a s t s i x thumbnail sketches of POSSIBLE s o l u t i o n s _ o I THEN THE STUDENT OR TEACHER WILL CHOOSE ONE OR MORE OF THESE cZ OPTIONS... • CTl OPTION (A) - DRAWING ##choose the image you think i s most s u c c e s s f u l and using your p e n c i l s complete a drawing of the choosen image (no smal l e r than <b" H 1 1") OPTION (B) - PEN AND INK ##choose one image that you think i s most s u c c e s s f u l and complete to requested s i z e i n pen and ink - add c o l o r as per t r a d i t i o n i f d e s i r e d |fcj is OPTION (C) - SILKSCREEN H > #*choose one image that you think w i l l be most s u c c e s s f u l and plan a two or three c o l o r s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t — p r i n t an e d i t i o n of n" 5 or more § OPTION (D) - WOOD OR CLAY #*choose one image and using wood OR c l a y ( l e a t h e r hard stage)and s u i t a b l e t o o l s complete as a shallow r e l i e f c a r v i n g i—1 CTl ASSIGNMENT TWO: CHOOSE A NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN CREATURE AS A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION AND COMPLETE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING OPTION <A) - DRAWING **draw s i x or more thumbnail sketches of your own c r e a t u r e i n s p i r e d by North West Coast Imagery and then choose one to expand i n t o a l a r g e drawing or choose three or more to c r e a t e a s e r i e s (each completed drawing may be a d i f f e r e n t c r e a t u r e or each drawing may depi c t a d i f f e r e n t point of view of the same c r e a t u r e or the s e r i e s may d e p i c t a transformation of one c r e a t u r e i n t o another) OPTION (B) - TEXTILES **draw six or more thumbnail sketches of your own c r e a t u r e and then choose one to t r a n s f e r onto a p i e c e of material and b a t i k (you may decide to c r e a t e a pattern using the same design a number of times, or you may choose to show the c r e a t u r e from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view, or you may decide to allow one c r e a t u r e to f i l l the e n t i r e space) * * c h o Q s e one drawing and using found material design i n t o an applique (you may wish to use buttons i n your design as the Northwest Coast Indians did) OPTION <C) - COLLAGE/MULTI-MED IA **draw s i x or more thumbnail sketches of your own c r e a t u r e and then choose one to c r e a t e a c o l l a g e (use cut-up/out magazine images to enchance symbolic meanings or use t i s s u e paper to cr e a t e a sense of depth by overlapping or begin with a pen and ink rendering and add b i t s of r e l e v a n t found m a t e r i a l s ) OPTION (D) - SILKSCREEN PRINT/LINO PRINT **draw s i x or more thumbnail sketches of your own c r e a t u r e and then choose one to develop i n t o a two or three c o l o r s i l k s c r e e n OR l i n o p r i n t - p r i n t an e d i t i o n of f i v e or more OPTION <E) - CLAY **draw s i x or more thumbnail sketches of the f a c e of your c r e a t u r e and then choose one to develop i n t o a mask - you could use c l a y , cardboard and other m a t e r i a l s glued to i t , or papier mache BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Dawn. (1983). Haida A r t . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia WEDGE Gunther, Erna. (1966). Art i n the L i f e of the Northwest Coast Indians. P o r t l a n d , Oregon: The Portla n d Art Museum. Holm, B i l l . (1985). Northwest Coast Indian Art an A n a l y s i s of Form. Vancouver: Douglas and Mclntyre. The Museum of Anthropology UBC. (1975). Northwest Coast Indian A r t i f a c t s From the H.R. MacMi11 an C o l l e c t i o n s . Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. APPENDIX. A (cont'd.) 171 art of the northwesLmast APPENDIX A (cont'd) 172 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Captain George Dixon, in 1787, was one of the f i r s t white men to contact the Haida in the Queen Charlottes and c o l l e c t a r t i f a c t s from them. This time i s referred to as the 'early contact period'. Whether looking at fourteen foot murals of the Huna or a r i c h l y carved s i l v e r bracelet by Haida a r t i s t Charles Edenshaw one i s aware of the s k i l l of the master craftsman. Among the masterworks of the Indian a r t i s t s from the northern t r i b e s one can f i n d chests and boxes, dishes, r a t t l e s , crest hats, s i l v e r bracelets and totems. PRINCIPAL TRIBES OF TLINGIT HAIDA BELLA COOLA THE NORTHWEST COAST TSIMSHIAM BELLABELLA KWAKIUTL APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 173 PRINCIPAL TRIBES OF THE NORTHWEST COAST TLINGIT TSIMSHIAM HA I DA BELLABELLA BELLA COOLA KWAKIUTL APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 174 SYMBOLS IN NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART Design elements or 'symbols' which occur again and again and which are associated with the NORTHWEST COAST s t y l e are: eyes These are delineated with board black l i n e s and are an i n t r e g r a l part of the highly developed system of a r t p r i n c i p l e s which guided the a r t i s t s . APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 175 Other p r i n c i l p e s which were important to the system were: * s t y l i z i n g (as opposed to r e a l i s t i c representation) ^schematic characterization by accentuating cert a i n features ^ s p l i t t i n g the image *d i s l o c a t i n g s p l i t d e t a i l s Representing one creature by two p r o f i l e s ^symmetry (some exceptions) *reducing * i l l o g i c a l transformation of d e t a i l s into new representations These elements are important and basic to Northwest Coast Indian a rt and are mainly p r i n c i p l e s of representation (not composition, design organization or form). APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 176 TWO DIMENSIONAL ART OF THE NORTHWEST COAST The Northwest Coast Indian a r t u t i l i z e s the native trees which are e a s i l y worked and decorated. Two dimensional decoration on wood i s done in three basic ways: *painting (most common and may have been the e a r l i e s t method) *shallow r e l i e f carving (follows the rules for painted designs) *combination of. the two ( r e l i e f carving which i s t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y painted) Some examples of wooden objects which were decorated with one of the above techniques would include boxes, settees, house fronts, i n t e r i o r p a r t i t i o n s and screens, canoes, dishes, and r a t t l e s . APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 177 Painting was also employed to decorate skins f o r ceremonial garments and f o r basketry. Other hard materials used and decorated by the Northwest Coast Indian were: *metal: (mainly copper and s i l v e r ) *bone: horn antler and ivory *stone: (black s l a t e or carbonaceous shale of the Queen Charlotte Islands) Objects which were made of these materials were decorated with engraving or shallow r e l i e f carving. The rules of design that govern painting on wood were followed. An example would be the r a t t l e s which are sculptural but were commonly decorated with a f l a t design which s k i l l f u l l y related to the globular surface. Typical two dimensional designs are also employed in the decoration of masks and carved poles. APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 178 ELEMENTS OF ART COLOR: The p r i n c i p a l colors used were: black, red , green, blue or green-blue. The pigments were natural u n t i l the trade with Europeans began. Black: derived from l i g n i t e and graphite and charcoal. Red: derived from ochers. Greens and Blue-greens: derived from coppers. The painting was done with brushes made of hair (often porcupine) inserted in a handle of wood and the b r i s t l e s were cut at an angle. The pigments were mixed with a mixture prepared by chewing salmon eggs wrapped in cedar bark. The s i l i v a and egg o i l mixture was trans f e r r r e d into a paint dish by s p i t t i n g . The cedar bark wrapping helped r e t a i n the membranous parts out of the paint i t s e l f . APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 179 HOW COLOR WAS USED The use of color i s prescribed and the placement of the three main colors black, red and blue-green i s as follows: BLACK: was usually considered a color of the f i r s t class and used f o r the main formlines. The formlines defines the design units. If the design i s carved in low r e l i e f the primary formlines are on the plane surface of the carved material. RED: usually considered a color of the second class and used f o r d e t a i l s , and accents. The; secondary designs are often enclosed by primary formlines. Red i s usually the color f o r cheeks and tongues, f o r arms, legs, hands, and feet. Red i s sometimes used as a color of the f i r s t class and then black takes on the secondary formlines. Secondary elements also appear on the plane surface of the r e l i e f carvings. For example, red may be found on the high r e l i e f parts such as the convex surfaces of the tongues or limbs. BLUE-GREEN or BLUE AND GREEN: are colors used f o r elements of the t h i r d class. When blue-green i s not used these elements remain unpainted ( r e s u l t i s negative space). APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 180 FORM A set series of design units were arranged and varied according to the image represented and the space provided. The formline, the ovoid and the U form were among the most important. FORMLINE The formline i s one of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of Northwestcoast art. It i s not considered a l i n e only because the the width varies constantly and t h i s gives the design a c a l l i g r a p h i c character. Bark templates were used to e s t a b l i s h the primary formlines and t h i s often established where the formlines would be. Formlines are c u r v i l i n e a r . 0VOIDS APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 181 The formline ovoid Is used as eyes, j o i n t s , and space f i l l e r s . I t has been described as a rounded rectangle, an angular oval, or a bean-shaped f i g u r e . An ovoid i s always convex on i t s upper side and at i t s ends. If appears concave on the upper side i t i s upside down. Therefore; i f i t represents an eye and the i t appears concave on the upper side the head of that creature of which i t i s a part, can be considered to be upside down. Joi n t s may be shown e i t h e r way depending on the space to be f i l l e d . APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 182 EYELIDS E y e l i d shapes are c l o s e l y associated with the ovoid . The e y e l i d shape i s a l e n t i c u l a r shape rounded i n the center and pointed at the ends. I t encloses a round, or oval spot which suggests an i r i s of an eye.The i r i s ovoid i s almost always black and the e y e l i d l i n e i s generally black too. EYEBROWS Eyebrows occur i n faces which have been s t y l i z e d and where the eye sockets are not defined by ovoid formlines. A t y p i c a l eyebrow i s curved much l i k e the upper side of an ovoid. Sometimes there i s hump on the upper edge. APPENDIX A (cont'd.) , 183 The U form and v a r i a t i o n s of the U form are as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Northwest coast a r t as the ovoid. The U form i s made when the two ends of a formline turn i n the same d i r e c t i o n and each tapers to a. point at t h e i r junction with another formline. The U form may be long, t h i n or wide and s o l i d and enclose l i t t l e or no negative space. APPENDIX A (cont'd.) HANDS, FEET, and CLAWS The j o i n t s of human hands and feet of mammals and birds are depicted by an ovoid joint, symbol. The required number of fingers or claws are attached. Hands are palm forward, with f i n g e r s extended and s l i g h t l y separated. Animal and b i r d f e e t are u s u a l l y depicted with two large claws with, or without a thumblike claw or three claws without the thumb. APPENDIX A (cont'd) 185 NEGATIVE SPACE Negative space i s a r e s u l t of the space formed when two or more p o s i t i v e forms combine to make a design. TEXTURES Hatching and dashing are two texture patterns which occur in the art of the Northwest Coast. HATCHING: i s used i n two ways (1) to indicate ground and t e r t i a r y forms i n unpainted objects such as engraved metal work, slate, carved dishes and s i m i l a r objects. (2) i n painted objects used on secondary or t e r t i a r y forms - always black or red. Hatching affords a r e l i e f from the constantly flowing, curving l i n e s of a design. It i s angular, evenly spaced, and provides a contrast to the f l u i d formlines. The hatched area does assume a form which relates to the o v e r a l l design. DASHING: consists of p a r a l l e l l i n e s . These are often used i n eye sockets. OVERLAPPING overlapping i s used in representational art to create a sense of depth Northwest coast Indian art i s highly formalized and decorative and seldom uses the overlapping device APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 186 SUMMARY The origins of t h i s system of art i s not known, but one does know that i t was passed on by an apprentice system which collapsed. B i l l Reid, a Haida craftsman, thoroughly understands the art because he has reconstructed the rules through careful study and analysis of the old pieces of art. Today there are many young Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t s who are guided by these art p r i n c i p l e s . I i i i m APPEMJIX A« (cont'd.). , . .187 bill reicf: about the artist APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 188 ABOUT BILL REID THE ARTIST *born in V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, January 12, 1920 *his father, William Ronald Reid, was of Scottish and German parentage (died in 1942V *his mother, Sophie Gladstone, was a Haida Indian and spent her early childhood in Skidegate Mission, Queen Charlotte Islands. In her late teens she obtained an elementary school teaching c e r t i f i c a t e * B i l l Reid attended V i c t o r i a High School in V i c t o r i a , B.C. * u n t i l 1941 worked i n a number of Canadian commerical radio stations i n eastern Canada *1948 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation announcer in Toronto *1951 returned to Vancouver as a newscaster and wrote a number of programs which connected with the north west coast native population - f o r example "Totems" was a t e l e v i s i o n f i l m documentary which B i l l wrote and narrated APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 189 * i n early 1940s B i l l began what was to become a l i f e l o n g series of v i s i t s to the Queen Charlottes * B i l l Reid maintained contact with his mother's brothers and s i s t e r s and met his grandfather (Charles Gladstone -1877-1954) fo r the f i r s t time (his grandmother had died before he began his v i s i t s to the native v i l l a g e ) . His grandfather spoke only Haida so communication was d i f f i c u l t but B i l l did learn that he was the l a s t in the d i r e c t l i n e of Haida silversmiths. *his grandfather had learned from the greatest of them a l l his uncle - Charles. Edenshaw (1840-1920) * B i l l , upon his return to Toronto, decided to follow the foot steps of his grandfather and the other Haida s i l v e r and goldsmiths *1948 enrolled in Ryerson I n s t i t u t e of Technology to learn the tradional European jewellery making methods *extended the c l a s s i c northwest coast engraved s i l v e r bracelets to earrings, brooches, rings, decorated boxes and included a three dimensional q u a l i t y the older works lacked APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 190 *1957 in v i t e d by V i c t o r i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum to copy a Haida pole under the d i r e c t i o n of Mungo Martin *1958 i n v i t e d by the Department of Anthropology of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia to carve poles to recreate a section of a Haida v i l l a g e on campus * with help of Kwakiutl a r t i s t Doug Crammer B i l l Reid designed and b u i l t two houses and seven carvings - these now stand on the University grounds by the Museum of Anthropology *1962 started a small jewellery business producing mainly items in gold and s i l v e r i n Haida design *1973 commissioned to carve a massive version of the Raven and Clamshell *1984 commissioned to sculp Haida Whale (cast in bronze) which now stands by the Aquarium i n Stanley Park APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 191 *1986 B i l l Reid: Beyond the E s s e n t i a l Form -an exhibit at the Museum of Anthropology - of 80 objects ranging from contemporary jewellery to massive gold Haida bracelets from t i n y gold pendants edged with abalone to the four-foot bronze casting of the giant k i l l e r whale sculpture * B i l l Reid i s credited with bringing back the c l a s s i c Haida s t y l e to the theatre of l i v i n g arts -to revive the old s t y l e was to ressurrect old images and myths -through the art of B i l l Reid the c l a s s i c art of Edenshaw i s re-envisioned *the most recent work of B i l l Reid, P h y l l i d u l a : The Shape of Frogs to come, (1985) - i s a scuplture of a frog which skips over the 'rules' of Haida art and into a synthesis with European sculpture - t h i s sculpture may indeed herald a new d i r e c t i o n f o r the future art of B i l l Reid APPENDIX A (cont'd.) 192 Understanding Images: Gathie Falk was developed on the same five stage model. Due to space restrictions the monographs are not included in this text. 193 Appendix B Teacher QM99tiQnnft?i,re APPENDIX B 194 TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE: NAME: EDUCATION: NO. OF YEARS: UNIVERSITY? — ( MAJOR:) NO. OF ART COURSES (STUDIO) ART COURSES (HISTORY) ART COURSES (OTHER - AESTHETICS, CRITICISM) NO. OF YEARS: ART SCHOOL? TEACHING EXPERIENCE: NO. OF YEARS: POST SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS: ART IN SENIOR/JUNIOR SECONDARY ELEMENTARY (ART SPECIALIST) ELEMENTARY (GENERALIST INCLUDING ART) OTHER (ART SCHOOLS, ART CENTERS, NIGHT SCHOOL) Appendix C T o c h e r Pre-Instructional. Interview Questions APPENDIX C 196 TEACHER PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVIEW: (OPEN-ENDED) 1. WHAT ART RELATED ACTIVITIES DO YOU DO? DO YOU PAINT? DRAW? PRINTMAKE? HOW OFTEN DO YOU FIND TIME TO DO THESE ACTIVITIES? 2. DO YOU TAKE ART COURSES AT NIGHT OR IN THE SUMMER? IF YES IN WHAT AREA? WHERE AND HOW FREQUENTLY? 3. ARE YOU ACTIVE IN ART RELATED ORGANIZATIONS? IF YES IN WHICH? IN WHAT CAPACITY? HOW MUCH OF YOUR FREE TIME DO YOU SPEND IN THIS AREA? DO YOU: GO TO OR PARTICIPATE IN MANY ART RELATED WORKSHOPS OR CONFERENCES? 4. DO YOU EXHIBIT YOUR WORK? WHERE? HOW FREQUENTLY? 5. DO YOU VISIT LOCAL GALLERIES? HOW OFTEN? WHAT WAS THE MOST RECENT ART EXHIBIT YOU SAW? 6. DO YOU HAVE FAVORITE ARTISTS? ART STYLES? EXPLAIN." 7. DO YOU SHOW YOUR OWN WORK TO YOUR STUDENTS? 8. DO YOU BRING INVITE LOCAL ARTISTS TO YOUR CLASS? 9. DO YOU VISIT GALLERIES WITH THE ART CLASS? IF YES WHICH SHOW DID YOU LAST VISIT? 10. HOW DO YOU INCORPORATE ART HISTORY AND CRITICISM INTO YOUR STUDIO PROGRAM? 11. IN YOUR ART PROGRAMME WHAT PERCENTAGE OF THE TIME WOULD YOU SAY IS SPENT ON STUDIO? 12. ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH THE AMOUNT OF TIME THAT IS SPENT ON ART HISTORY AND CRITICISM ? EXPLAIN. 197 Appendix D Teacher Post-Instructional Interview Questions APPENDIX D 198 TEACHER POST-INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVIEW 1. WAS THE MODEL IN UNDERSTANDING IMAGES EASY TO FOLLOW? 2. WAS THE MODEL TOO PRESCRIBED OR DID IT ALLOW FOR ENOUGH FLEXIBILITY FOR YOUR OWN TEACHING STYLE? 3. DID THE MATERIALS FIT INTO YOUR PLANNED COURSE OF STUDY? EXPLAIN. 4. DO YOU FEEL THAT YOU INTRODUCED MORE ASPECTS OF ART HISTORY AND CRITICISM THROUGH THE USE OF THIS UNIT THAN YOU WOULD OTHERWISE HAVE? 5. WOULD YOU USE THIS UNIT AGAIN IN OTHER ART CLASSES? 6. WOULD YOU USE THIS MODEL TO INTRODUCE STUDENTS TO OTHER ARTISTS? 7. WHAT DO YOU THINK ARE THE STRENGTHS OF THE UNIT UNDERSTANDING IMAGES? 8. WHAT ARE THE WEAK ASPECTS OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND HOW COULD THEY BE IMPROVED? 9. I KNOW THERE IS CONCERN BECAUSE THE ENROLLMENT IN ART IS DECLINING. WOULD THE INTRODUCTION OF ART HISTORY AND CRITICISM THROUGH THIS MODEL AFFECT ENROLLMENT? PLEASE EXPLAIN. Appendix E Teacher Log APPENDIX E 200 TEACHER LOG Date: Stage: Comments: (was t h i s stage successful? are there any changes you would suggest?) Appendix F Student Questionnaire APPENDIX F 202 STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE NAME: _ , MALE FEMALE AGE: GRADE: HOW MANY SEMESTERS HAVE YOU STUDIED ART SINCE COMING TO JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL? 1 2 3 4 5 6 WHAT IS IT THAT YOU MOST ENJOY IN THE ART CLASS? WHY HAVE YOU DECIDED TO TAKE ART? HAVE YOU STUDIED CANADIAN ART? YES NO DO YOU HAVE A FAVORITE CANADIAN ARTIST ? WOULD YOU LIKE TO LEARN MORE ABOUT ARTISTS WHO LIVE AND WORK IN B.C.? YES NO DO YOU PLAN TO CONTINUE TAKING ART COURSES? YES NO DO YOU PLAN A CAREER IN AN ART RELATED FIELD? YES NO IF YES PLEASE EXPLAIN WHAT YOUR FUTURE PLANS ARE. 203 Appendix G Student Interview Questions APPENDIX G 204 STUDENT INTERVIEWS 1. WHAT IN YOUR OPINION WAS THE MOST INTERESTING ASPECT OF THIS UNIT SO FAR? 2. DID YOU LEARN ANYTHING ABOUT NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART THAT YOU DID NOT ALREADY KNOW? EXPLAIN. 3. WOULD YOU RECOGNIZE A NORTHWEST INDIAN ARTIFACT IN A PARK OR MALL IF YOU SAW ONE? WHY OR WHY NOT? HOW WOULD YOU RECOGNIZE IT? 4. DID YOU ENJOY THE SLIDES? WHY/WHY NOT? DID YOU ENJOY THE VIDEO? WHY/WHY NOT? 5. HAVE YOU EVER STUDIED NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART BEFORE THIS UNIT? 6. WHAT DO YOU MOST ENJOY ABOUT THE ART COURSE IN GENERAL? 7. WOULD YOU LIKE TO STUDY ANOTHER ARTIST OR ART IN THIS MANNER - LOOKING AT SLIDES AND CRITICIZING SOME - LOOKING AT VIDEOS AND THEN TAKING PART IN A RELATED STUDIO PROJECT? WHY OR WHY NOT? Appendix H Student Art Work APPENDIX H (cont'd.) 207 STUDENT ART WORK: TEXT 1 APPENDIX H (cont'd.') 208 STUDENT ART WORK: TEXT 1 APPENDIX H (cont'd.) 209 STUDENT ART WORK: TEXT 1 APPENDIX H (cont'd.) 210 STUDENT AET WORK: TEXT 2 APPENDIX H (cont'd.) STUDENT ART WORK: TEXT 2 211 APPENDIX H (cont'd STUDENT ART WORK: TEXT 2 APPENDIX STUDENT ART WORK: TEXT 2 H (cont'd.') 213 APPENDIX H (cont'd.) STUDENT ART WORK: TEXT 3 

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