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A history of aesthetic education in the visual arts from 1872 to 1945 in British Columbia 1987

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A HISTORY OF AESTHETIC EDUCATION IN THE VISUAL ARTS FROM 1872 TO 1945 IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By MICHAEL DOUGLAS MILLER B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of the V i s u a l and Performing A r t s in Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1987 © M i c h a e l Douglas M i l l e r In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department EJ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada DE-6(3/81) i i S u p e r v i s o r : Dr. F . Graeme C h a l m e r s ABSTRACT The s e a r c h f o r t h e , p r e s e n c e o f a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s a n d i t s c o n n e c t i o n t o h i s t o r y i n t h e f o r m a t i v e p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , up t o 1 9 4 5 , was t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y . I p r o p o s e t h a t a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n p r e s e n t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h m o s t o f t h e t i m e s p a n o f t h i s s t u d y . The t i m e s p a n 1872 t o 1945 was c h o s e n a s a l o g i c a l t i m e f r ame f o r t h e s t u d y ; t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m t o i t s t o t a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , b o t h p h y s i c a l l y a n d f i n a n c i a l l y , f o l l o w i n g t h e C a m e r o n r e p o r t ( 1 9 4 5 ) . A t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f t h e d o c u m e n t s w r i t t e n b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n ; A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , C u r r i c u l a f o r P u b l i c S c h o o l s , Programmes o f S t u d i e s , a n d s u r v e y s w e r e a l l r e a d f o r t r a c e s , s n i p p e t s , i n u e n d o s , a n d a l l u s i o n s t o , t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y . L o r a l a n d g e n e r a l h i s t o r i e s a s w e l l a s h i s t o r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n w e r e r e a d i n s e a r c h o f c o n n e c t i n g webs o f c o m m o n a l i t y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r c o n t i n e n t a l i i i "movements" in the v i sua l arts were examined to see any connection with the development of aesthet ic education in the v i sua l arts in B r i t i s h Columbia. The unstable economy of B r i t i s h Columbia, based as i t is on primary resource extract ion and in ternat iona l markets, has had Its e f fec t on the development of B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s publ ic schools. Being a geographical ly convoluted region with i so lated pockets of populat ion, ease of t ransportat ion between points in B r i t i s h Columbia has a lso shown i t s inf luence on the educational system. The Department of Education was aware of in ternat iona l movements in aesthet ic education in the v i sua l a r t s , but the finances of the Individual 649 act ive school d i s t r i c t s varied from a few wealthy c i t y d i s t r i c t s to hundreds of Impoverished ru ra l d i s t r i c t s . The type of teacher t ra in ing also played a major part in the growth of aesthet ic education. On paper then i t seemed as though the pupi ls of B r i t i s h Columbia's Publ ic Schools were rece iv ing a contemporary aesthet ic education, but in fact th i s idea was only a dream in many areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of F i g u r e s and Maps v i i Acknowledgement v i i i Chapter One - Understanding the Problem 1 Chapter Two - From The Government Documents 1872 To 1900 10 Chapter Three - From The Government Documents 1901 To 1925 27 Chapter Four - From The Government Documents 1926 To 1945 60 Chapter F i v e - A Look At Some Of The Textbooks And Reference Books Recommended By The Department of Education Throughout The Study P e r i o d . . . . 96 Chapter Six - Tying The C u r r i c u l u m And A e s t h e t i c Education To B r i t i s h Columbia's H i s t o r y 127 B i b l i o g r a p h y 154 Appendix A - Teacher's Examination 1898: Drawing 164 A p p e n d i x B - T e a c h e r ' s E x a m i n a t i o n 1 8 9 2 : D r a w i n g 166 A p p e n d i x C - A v e r a g e D a i l y A t t e n d a n c e 1 8 7 2 To 1946 168 A p p e n d i x D - I n s p e c t o r D . W i l s o n ' s Comments On C o m m e r c i a l l y A v a i l a b l e P i c t u r e S e t s 170 A p p e n d i x E - I n s p e c t o r S . B . N e t h e r b y ' s Comments On C o l o u r s F o r C l a s s r o o m s 1 7 1 a A p p e n d i x F - O u t l i n e Of A r t C o u r s e s , Summer S c h o o l 1915 172 A p p e n d i x G - A L i s t Of The Team Members Who W o r k e d On The S u r v e y Of The S c h o o l S y s t e m W i t h D r s . P u t m a n A n d W e i r 17 6 A p p e n d i x H - S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s A n d J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1926 To 1 9 4 5 178 A p p e n d i x I - B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n 184 A p p e n d i x J - S u g g e s t e d L i s t o f P i c t u r e s a n d P r i n t s 1 8 6 a A p p e n d i x K - B i b l i o g r a p h y Of A r t B o o k s L i s t e d F o r J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s 1 9 3 2 . . . . 190 v i Appendix L - Tables of Contents and P i c t u r e L i s t s from The Art L i t e r a t u r e Readers 193 Appendix M - P i c t u r e s used i n Hov to Enioy P i c t u r e s 200 Appendix N - Survey Of The High School Teacher's P l a c e s Of Graduation 203 v i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S AND MAPS F i g u r e One - Work Done B y T e a c h e r s D u r i n g The Summer S c h o o l S e s s i o n 1 9 1 8 . . 6 F i g u r e Two - The F i r s t P u b l i c S c h o o l I n H a z e l t o n a b o u t 1900 42 F i g u r e T h r e e - The S a v o n a R o a d S c h o o l A t C h e r r y C r e e k I n 1918 43 F i g u r e F o u r - G i s c o m e P u b l i c S c h o o l I n The F o r t G e o r g e E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t 1917 44 F i g u r e F i v e - The New A l b e r n i S c h o o l a b o u t 1 9 1 5 45 F i g u r e S i x - P a g e F r o m B l a i r ' s D r a w i n g B o o k S h o w i n g How To D r a w O n i o n s 104 Map One - S h o w i n g The C a r i b o o R o a d A n d O t h e r R o u t e s To The G o l d f i e l d s 129 Map Two - S h o w i n g P a d d l e w h e e l B o a t R o u t e s . . . . 141 F i g u r e S e v e n - P i c t u r e s S h o w i n g The O l d A n d New T y p e s Of P e a c e R i v e r S c h o o l s 1 9 3 5 149 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A l a r g e undertaking such as a Master's T h e s i s i s r a r e l y accomplished alone. There are always i n d i v i d u a l s and groups of s u p p o r t i v e people who have helped each s c h o l a r a r r i v e at h i s or her d e s t i n a t i o n , a s a t i s f a c t o r y s y n t h e s i s of a c q u i r e d knowledge. My committee, headed by Dr. Graeme Chalmers, has been very s u p p o r t i v e throughout t h i s two year undertaking. Researching and w r i t i n g a t h e s i s , while not l i v i n g near a u n i v e r s i t y campus, makes the job of r e s e a r c h i n g , a n a l y s i n g , and f i n a l l y s y n t h e s i z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n an i s o l a t e d one. Communication by l e t t e r or phone i s not l i k e dropping In on your committee, when you have a problem or an i d e a . A l l three of my committee members have responded q u i c k l y and p o i n t e d l y to my needs and I thank them f o r t h i s . The most s u p p o r t i v e group who have kept me on t r a c k f o r the l a s t two years are my wife, S t e l l a , and my two sons, N i c h o l a s and S t u a r t . The encouragement from t h i s team r e a l l y made the f r u i t i o n of t h i s study p o s s i b l e . I w i l l now be r e j o i n i n g the f a m i l y as a f u l l - t i m e member. The E x t e n s i o n L i b r a r y ' s , Dial-a-Book s e r v i c e was a great help d u r i n g the two years of t h i s study, boxes and packages of books c r o s s i n g the S t r a i t s of Georgia c o n t i n u o u s l y . I would l i k e to thank them f o r t h e i r prompt and d i l i g e n t work on my b e h a l f . F r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s too numerous to l i s t here have encouraged me to keep going on t h i s study and I thank them a l l f o r t h e i r support. 1 Chapter One Understanding the Problem A h i s t o r i c a l study of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, I was o f t e n t o l d by s k e p t i c a l t e a c h i n g c o l l e a g u e s , would lead to a s h o r t paragraph at best or a t most to a study of i t s absence. The c h a l l e n g e taken up, I have searched B r i t i s h Columbia's ge n e r a l and l o c a l h i s t o r i e s , textbooks, and documents from the Department and then M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Very l i t t l e on t h i s t o p i c has been w r i t t e n and no t h e s i s presented and t h e r e f o r e t r a c e s , s n i p p e t s , inuendos, and a l l u s i o n s t o , the s u b j e c t of t h i s study have had to be uncovered, evaluated and a l i g n e d i n t o a c o n t e x t u a l chronology that presents a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t - o f - v i e w about the development of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia's v i s u a l a r t s c u r r i c u l u m . I propose t h a t a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s has been present i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia through most of the time span of t h i s study. T h i s a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n was tempered by economics, the composition of the p o p u l a t i o n , the ease or d i f f i c u l t y of t r a v e l l i n g around the p r o v i n c e , and a l s o 2 by i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r c o n t i n e n t a l popular movements i n the f i n e a r t s . A e s t h e t i c education has been viewed as the te a c h i n g of a s o c i e t y ' s v i s i o n as to what should be most a p p r e c i a t e d and held high f o r i t s v a l u e , worth, and i n t r i n s i c beauty (Broudy, 1977, p.636; Dewey, 1934, p.308-309; Johansen, 1979, p.4). Separating a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s from the amorphous web of general e d u c a t i o n i s a d e l i c a t e o p e r a t i o n . Through time even the meaning of many of the terms used has a l t e r e d . " A e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n " i s too broad a term i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h i s t h e s i s , i n t h a t , the study through and of a e s t h e t i c s can be undertaken w i t h i n any s u b j e c t area i n our B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l a and a l s o o u t s i d e t h e i r scope (Smith, 1968). A r t ed u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been p r i m a r i l y concerned with t e a c h i n g s k i l l s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of a r t (Department of Education, Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools, 1909, p.A47-A58, Courses of S t u d i e s . 1923, p.24-26, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.148-151). A r t a p p r e c i a t i o n was o f f e r e d i n the Programme of Studie s as a course s e v e r a l times through t h i s study's time 3 span, mostly i n the High Schools, but a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n courses at t h i s l e v e l do not n e c e s s a r i l y equate with a g e n e r a l a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s ; p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l i e r p e r i o d covered by t h i s study, when onl y a s m a l l percentage of B r i t i s h Columbia's student p o p u l a t i o n went on to High School. To compound t h i s o n l y a very small percentage of the High School p o p u l a t i o n took any a r t i n these years so o n l y a very s m a l l segment of B r i t i s h Columbia students would have had exposure to the a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n courses. The study of exemplars of v i s u a l a r t from a r t h i s t o r y (Smith, 1968) r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one aspect of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n . A second broader aspect i s the r e l a t i n g to a e s t h e t i c education through the student's own work as w e l l as other handiwork, c r a f t s , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and environmental a r t which must a l s o be i n v o l v e d i n a study of the v i s u a l a r t s (Gotschalk, 1968; V i l l e m a i n , 1966). Through t h i s study I w i l l be l o o k i n g f o r evidence of t h i s more comprehensive idea of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s . A e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s can be as obvious as an "Art A p p r e c i a t i o n Course", or as s u b t l e as the chosen a r c h i t e c t u r e of the s c h o o l . Any o v e r t 4 e f f o r t to make the surroundings of the p u p i l s more a t t r a c t i v e and p h y s i c a l l y more en j o y a b l e , d e a l s with the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of the space. These improvements can be viewed as f a l l i n g w i t h i n the t o p i c of t h i s study and are t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d . A e s t h e t i c education i s not measured by how many " A r t " p e r i o d s are worked i n t o a t i m e t a b l e each week, but more on the q u a l i t y of what i s being attempted and the worth that i s a t t r i b u t e d to the process, product and environment. Most s o c i e t i e s or c u l t u r e s have b u i l t t h e i r a e s t h e t i c values and t r a d i t i o n s over g e n e r a t i o n s . These tend t o become s e l f promoting and help make each c u l t u r a l u n i t d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from w i t h i n and without. As s o c i e t i e s and c u l t u r e s grow and evolve s l i g h t changes appear i n t h a t which i s held i n t h i s high regard. For i n s t a n c e we see a connec t i o n when we read Webster's New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y (1913) r e f e r e n c e s to Greek and Roman conceptions of beauty ( H a r r i s , 1913, p.199), and then see t h a t p e r i o d ' s c u r r i c u l u m with i t s emphasis on Greek and L a t i n s t u d i e s . T h i s was the emphasis i n the L i n e a r Drawing course of the same p e r i o d (Department of Education (DE), Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools (ARPS), 5 1918) as can be seen In the p i c t u r e s of teachers* work accomplished In summer sch o o l (See F i g u r e 1 ) . Education has been d e f i n e d as "the process of imparting or a c q u i r i n g general knowledge and of d e v e l o p i n g the powers of reasoning and judgment" (Urdang & F l e x n e r , 1968, p.420). T h i s combines what i s being e x p l i c i t l y taught with the morals and i m p l i c i t nuances and values of the s o c i e t y , both v o i c e d and subconscious. I t must be understood and kept i n mind t h a t what i s being taught, and what the c u r r i c u l u m says i s being taught, are o f t e n not the same. This i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s study which has had to r e l y p r i m a r i l y on p r i n t e d mater i a l s . The time frame f o r t h i s study c o i n c i d e s with B r i t i s h Columbia's j o i n i n g i n t o c o n f e d e r a t i o n with Canada and the beginning of B r i t i s h Columbia's p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l system i n 1872, u n t i l 1945 and Maxwell Cameron's r e p o r t of The Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o E d u c a t i o n a l Finance (1945). T h i s was a p e r i o d of r a p i d growth i n B r i t i s h Columbia and each community with i t s own mix of n a t i o n a l i t i e s and l e v e l s of F i g u r e 1. Work done by t e a c h e r s d u r i n g the Summer Scho o l s e s s i o n 1918, showing p r o j e c t s t o be done i n the d e s i g n c o u r s e i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s (Department of E d u c a t i o n , Annual Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1918). 7 wealth, entered i n t o d e v e l o p i n g i t s e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . The P r o v i n c i a l Government and the Department of Education seemed to be extremely busy t r y i n g to keep up with s e r v i c e s to i t s burgeoning p o p u l a t i o n and d i d not seem to have any o v e r a l l p r o v i n c i a l development p l a n f o r education portrayed i n the Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools. Each community t h a t could gather ten of more p u p i l s together founded a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , u s u a l l y with j u s t one s m a l l s c h o o l . T h i s became i n c r e a s i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t to f i n a n c e and a d m i n i s t e r , u n t i l by 1944 there were 649 o p e r a t i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia with o n l y 1005 schools and about 120,000 students e n r o l l e d (Cameron, 1945, p.83, 101-108). The t h r u s t of the Cameron Report was to d i v i d e B r i t i s h Columbia i n t o f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e p a r c e l s with o n l y a f r a c t i o n of the e l e c t e d t r u s t e e s needed by the o l d system. As by t h i s time 204 r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s or 38.9% of the r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , were run by a t r u s t e e appointed by V i c t o r i a , as no one c o u l d be found to run i n s c h o o l board e l e c t i o n s (Cameron, 1945, p.84). With the 8 P r o v i n c i a l Government's quick adoption and implementation of t h i s r e p o r t , p u b l i c education underwent a massive r e s t r u c t u r i n g . The h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia through the time span of t h i s study, showed a c o n t i n u i n g d r i v e i n t o new t e r r i t o r y to e x p l o i t each area's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . P o p u l a t i o n growth was dramatic everywhere, but the c i t y of Vancouver's r o c k e t i n g growth absorbed the major p o r t i o n of t h i s i n c r e a s e (Ward, R.H.J. McDonald, 1981, p.378). The government had to attempt s e r v i c i n g a d i s p e r s e d p o p u l a t i o n concerned with the b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s of w r e s t l i n g a l i v e l i h o o d or bare e x i s t e n c e , from the f r a c t u r e d and impeding geography of B r i t i s h Columbia. The c i t i e s and towns through most of t h i s p e r i o d were growing at a s t a g g e r i n g r a t e , which made p l a n n i n g extremely d i f f i c u l t and u n c e r t a i n (Dempsey, 1984). In the e a r l i e r years many mining towns grew up over n i g h t only to be abandoned a few years l a t e r with e x p e c t a t i o n s squashed. The sch o o l system was t r y i n g more to keep up with p o p u l a t i o n growth and b a s i c education than with p r e s e n t i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n of what B r i t i s h Columbia's governing 9 p o p u l a t i o n might hold i n esteem. The governing body borrowed h e a v i l y from the United Kingdom, E a s t e r n Canada, and the United States i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r c u r r i c u l a and i n h i r i n g the teachers to do the i n s t r u c t i o n (Jessop, 1876, p.5, 1877, p.6). In the f o l l o w i n g chapters I w i l l t r y to answer the q u e s t i o n as to j u s t what a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s was a v a i l a b l e to the students i n B r i t i s h Columbia's P u b l i c School System, d u r i n g the time span of the study. Although there was no c u r r i c u l u m t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y o u t l i n e d t h i s t o p i c there i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been woven i n t o a c o n t e x t u a l chronology. 10 Chapter Two From The Government Documents 1872 to 1900 U n t i l the school year 1874-75, there was no mention or any suggestion in the Department of Education's Annual Reports of the P u b l i c S c h o o l , that drawing or the idea of a e s t h e t i c education were p a r t of the B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c School System. Drawing soon formed the base of A r t Education as a s u b j e c t area and had i t s i n i t i a l , formal e n t r y into B r i t i s h Columbia's school c u r r i c u l a in John Jessop's r e p o r t of 1875 (Jessop, 1875, p.15-16). The main purpose f o r Drawing In the P u b l i c School System was to c r e a t e workmen who c o u l d read working drawings and c l a r i f y a work r e l a t e d problem with a quick, freehand drawing. In Jessop's r e p o r t the only s e c t i o n that e n t e r s the a e s t h e t i c s i d e of a r t comes out of a q u o t a t i o n from the Hon. Henry Barnard, who s a i d , I n s t r u c t i o n in elements of a r t c o r r e c t s the t a s t e and g i v e s the hand s k i l l ; i t g i v e s the t r a i n e d a r t i s t i c eye which d e t e c t s the incongruous, the u n g r a c e f u l , and the i l l - p r o p o r t i o n e d , and which, 11 on the other hand, the g r a c e f u l , harmonious and symmetrical never escape. (Barnard, 1875, p.15) In a page and a h a l f of argument f o r i n c l u s i o n of Drawing as a s u b j e c t in P u b l i c Schools t h i s i s the only h i n t of some s e n s i t i v i t y to anything beyond the f a c t o r y work p l a c e . I f any a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n was e v i d e n t in t h i s e r a , i t was probably g i v e n by the i n d i v i d u a l teacher. Teachers tended to be from middle and upper income f a m i l i e s , who c o u l d a f f o r d to l e t t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t e n d High School. These d i r e c t i v e s c o u l d take the form of simple suggestions as to l i n e q u a l i t y and c o l o u r d e n s i t y or r e l a t i o n s h i p s , any of which would r e l a t e to the e x p e r i e n c e s , personal t a s t e and up b r i n g i n g of the t eacher. An extremely small percentage of people who entered the P u b l i c School System of B r i t i s h Columbia before 1900, stayed on to attend and complete High School. By the 1893-94 r e p o r t , when the number of B r i t i s h Columbia High Schools had grown to f o u r , only 5.4% of the school p o p u l a t i o n was a t t e n d i n g High S c h o o l . Of these only 26% were r e c e i v i n g L i n e a r Drawing (Pope, 1894, Table B, p . x v i - x x i x ) . These 12 students had to pass e x t e n s i v e entrance exams and a l s o tended to be from f a m i l i e s who c o u l d continue to f i n a n c i a l l y support t h e i r c h i l d r e n . These f a m i l i e s , u s u a l l y from the c i t y , d i d not need t h e i r c h i l d r e n as another p a i r of l a b o u r i n g hands to support the f a m i l y (Pope, 1892, p.lxxx, DE, ARPS, 1872-99). People from t h i s l e v e l of s o c i e t y would have been exposed to some of the advantages of money and c u l t u r e . I t can be presumed that exposure to v i s u a l a r t , d e c o r a t i o n and a r c h i t e c t u r e would have been a v a i l a b l e even i f not a g g r e s s i v e l y promoted. There i s scant i n f o r m a t i o n as to what happened i n Art Education i n the 1870's. From the t a b l e s in the back of the annual r e p o r t s on the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , we know which schools o f f e r e d L i n e a r Drawing and on the t h i n n e s t presumption may have been exposing p u p i l s to at l e a s t s u b l i m i n a l a e s t h e t i c education in t h i s f i e l d . I t i s r e l e v a n t to c o n s i d e r the teacher's own a r t educat i o n background. In a few of the r e p o r t s of the 1870's the n a t i o n a l i t i e s of teachers were l i s t e d . For example in 1875; 33 teachers were Canadian, 18 were E n g l i s h , 6 were S c o t t i s h , and 2 were I r i s h (Jessop, 1876, p.4). By f u r t h e r examining the t a b l e s i t turns 13 out that of the 43 schools o p e r a t i n g in the province seven were o f f e r i n g L i n e a r Drawing, seven of the teachers i n these s c h o o l s were Canadian and two were E n g l i s h . Two schools o f f e r i n g Drawing were New Westminster and Burrard I n l e t , where each school had two t e a c h e r s , i t happened that both were Canadian. New Westminster, whose e a r l y p o p u l a t i o n came mainly from what i s now Ont a r i o (Hendrickson, 1981, p.263), c o n s t a n t l y o f f e r e d L i n e a r Drawing in i t s s c h o o l s . As h i s t o r y tends to be more l i k e a piece of c h a i n mail than a simple l i n e a r set of l i n k s , so here s e v e r a l connections become important to B r i t i s h Columbia's a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s . A f t e r the middle of the nin e t e e n t h century both B r i t a i n and the United S t a t e s had become aware of the improved a r t education f o r the a r t i s a n or a r t workman in Europe, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of r e a d i n g about and v i s i t i n g the great e x h i b i t i o n s and e x p o s i t i o n s in London and P a r i s . (Macdonald, 1970, p.254) This had f a r r e a c h i n g consequences f o r Art Education. 14 The E n g l i s h , a p p l y i n g the t e a c h i n g of a r t to i n d u s t r y , completely r e o r g a n i z e d t h e i r s c h ools of design and the Americans, in 1870 began p a s s i n g laws making the teaching of drawing In the p u b l i c s c hools compulsory. The f o c a l t r a i n i n g school f o r a r t teachers was that which evolved at South Kensington in England. This school had a major i n f l u e n c e on our system, in some instances c o n t i n u i n g even today. Although t h i s school may seem remote to us here, B r i t i s h Columbia imported the teachings and d o c t r i n e of t h i s i n s t i t u t e in the form of four prominent educators; Walter Smith, W i l l i a m Burns, John K y l e , and David B l a i r . In the South Kensington System, a r t was bound to r i g i d l y f o l l o w e d r u l e s . Students were taught to work " i n the t r a d i t i o n of the c r a f t s m a n - c o p i e r r a t h e r than the c r e a t i v e a r t i s t " (Morgan, 1971, p.65). Walter Smith, a product of the South Kensington School was imported into the E a s t e r n United S t a t e s at Boston, to b r i n g t h e i r school system into l i n e f o r p r o d u c t i o n of craftsmen. Smith was a b i t of a r e b e l and when he set up h i s programme in Boston i t "was f a r more ambitious and r a p i d than the Elementary Drawing course in B r i t a i n ; i t was a l s o based more upon 15 r e a l i t i e s and was l e s s a b s t r a c t " (Macdonald, 1970, p.257). In h i s 1883 Freehand Drawing, which was on the 1892 a u t h o r i z e d t e x t book l i s t , he says " i f i t helps i n d u s t r y , i n c r e a s e s the value of goods produced, e l e v a t e s the t a s t e of the community and promotes the i n t e r e s t of i n d i v i d u a l s , then i t i s p r a c t i c a l and i n d u s t r i a l " (Smith, 1883,p.8). This man g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the E a s t e r n United S t a t e s and E a s t e r n Canadian school systems. P o s s i b l y even some teachers who would l a t e r move to B r i t i s h Columbia, attended h i s summer c l a s s e s in the United S t a t e s and many schools and school d i s t r i c t s in Canada followed h i s teachings as l a i d out in h i s books. The teaching p o p u l a t i o n of Quebec, O n t a r i o , and the Maritimes in p a r t i c u l a r were i n f l u e n c e d by Smith and h i s l e c t u r e s . He wrote freehand drawing quides and copybooks, which were in common use up to World War I (Saunders, 1976, p.5). Some of h i s books were p u b l i s h e d by the Prang P u b l i s h i n g Company, which came more into prominence in Canada a f t e r 1900. For the f i r s t time in 1889 there was a drawing s e c t i o n to the B r i t i s h Columbia teachers exam, but i t was mostly concerned with geometry and i n c l u d e d some 16 copying (Pope, 1889, p . x c v i i ) . As 1900 approached geometry s t i l l was important, but copying and d r a f t i n g were a l s o b u i l t into these exams. Any a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n except f o r a t t e n t i o n given to geometric shapes was t o t a l l y l a c k i n g (See Appendix A). David Wilson in h i s maiden Inspector's r e p o r t of the 1887-88 school year, concluded with the f o l l o w i n g comment on the a e s t h e t i c space of the s c h o o l . "The e f f o r t to b e a u t i f y the school-room and grounds w i l l add i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t to the r o u t i n e of d a i l y work, make the school more a t t r a c t i v e , and a i d in c u l t i v a t i n g t a s t e and refinement" (Wilson, 1888, p. 178). The f o l l o w i n g year he was able "to r e p o r t that the number of teachers who take an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t in b e a u t i f y i n g the school-room and grounds i s on the i n c r e a s e " (Wilson, 1889, p.206). Here then the d i r e c t i v e s and suggestions of an Inspector of Schools seems to have made some change in the a e s t h e t i c atmosphere of the l e a r n i n g and teaching space. The message must have been d e l i v e r e d , at l e a s t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , to some of the p u p i l s in the school-room, that beauty i s worthwhile even i f i t may never be f o r m a l l y d i s c u s s e d as p a r t of the Programme 17 of S t u d i e s . In the f i r s t twenty-eight years of the school system's e x i s t e n c e , the student p o p u l a t i o n rose from 575 to 13,438 in the Average Actual D a i l y Attendance f i g u r e s (DE, ARPS, 1872-1900). A c t i v e b u i l d i n g programs were a n e c e s s i t y f o r t h i s expanding p o p u l a t i o n , a p o p u l a t i o n that was to increase d r a m a t i c a l l y s h o r t l y a f t e r 1900. The a e s t h e t i c s of a r c h i t e c t u r e seems to have been important in school c o n s t r u c t i o n and some p r i d e was taken in the design of these s t r u c t u r e s . Alexander Robinson, in h i s r e p o r t as p r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver High School s t a t e d with some exuberance that "our Board of T r u s t e e s , however, with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c energy are e r e c t i n g a b u i l d i n g which, f o r beauty of d e s i g n , h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i n g arrangements, and i n t e r i o r f i n i s h , w i l l be unequalled in the P r o v i n c e " (Robinson, 1892 p.168). R. S p a r l i n g in h i s account f o r the Graded Schools of Vancouver, r e p o r t e d that "three very handsome and commodious a d d i t i o n a l b r i c k school b u i l d i n g s are now n e a r i n g completion in the c i t y " ( S p a r l i n g , 1892, p.187). These two p o s i t i v e comments on the p h y s i c a l looks of school s t r u c t u r e s are the f i r s t such, mentioned in the 18 Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools. Some of these s t r u c t u r e s mentioned are s t i l l s t a n ding and f u n c t i o n i n g in the Vancouver area. The c i t y s c h o o l s of t h i s e r a tended to be simple, symmetrical s t r u c t u r e s with c l e a n , elegant l i n e s and l i t t l e i f any d e c o r a t i o n e x t e r n a l l y except through the use of b r i c k p a t t e r n s . S.B. Netherby, the p r i n c i p a l of the V i c t o r i a Graded Schools commented on the increased a t t e n t i o n to Drawing as a s u b j e c t in the schools in 1891-92, and continued with the f o l l o w i n g a e s t h e t i c education statement. Experience has taught me that there must be a t r a i n i n g to d i s c o v e r n a t u r a l as well as moral beauty, and man's advancement in moral i n t e l l i g e n c e depends much on the education of that l a t e n t power which w i l l keep him ever awake to what i s b e a u t i f u l in the world around him, and w i l l make him s t o u t l y zealous to show that grander beauty of moral sentiment and a c t i o n . (Netherby, 1892, p.188) 19 D. Wilson equated a good a e s t h e t i c environment with good e d u c a t i o n in h i s comments under School-room and Grounds. Recounting that a good teacher w i l l make the school-room a p l e a s a n t and a t t r a c t i v e place f o r the p u p i l s , through the use of potted p l a n t s , f l o w e r s , and w a l l s decorated with " t a s t y p i c t u r e s " . "The appearance of the school grounds and premises i s , g e n e r a l l y speaking, but a r e f l e x of that which i s to be found in the school-room" (Wilson, 1892, p.252). I t was thus up to the teacher to maintain and keep up b u i l d i n g s and grounds or arrange f o r p u p i l s or parents to do the work. The two Art books on the A u t h o r i s e d B o o k l i s t in 1892 were Walter Smith's Freehand Drawing and the Canadian S e r i e s of Drawing Books. Both e x h i b i t e d s t r o n g South Kensington i n f l u e n c e s , Walter Smith in h i s Teacher's Manual f o r Freehand Drawing i n Primary Schoo1s (1883), s t r o n g l y a d v i s e s a g a i n s t the use of a e s t h e t i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r t before ten years of age, but promoted the a p p r e c i a t i o n of geometric forms before age ten. The freehand lessons i n the program were e n t i r e l y based on geometry and progressed from p o i n t s and l i n e s to i n t r i c a t e and q u i t e b e a u t i f u l 20 compound curves. In the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the book the lessons took geometry into forms found in nature. He suggests that i t i s only a f t e r the age of ten that c h i l d r e n can a p p r e c i a t e a b s t r a c t t r u t h s and are able to express these ideas concerning a r t . The Prang's New Graded Course in Drawing f o r Canadian Schools (1901) p u b l i s h e d by W.J. Gage & Company, was a workbook with many examples and ideas f o r s u b j e c t s to be drawn by the p u p i l s . The drawings i l l u s t r a t e d in the book were not meant to be c o p i e d , but were suggestions of the type of drawing that was expected. The w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l at the f r o n t and the back of the e x e r c i s e book was concerned mainly with d e t a i l s about working drawings, which craftsmen use to b u i l d o b j e c t s . A e s t h e t i c s are suggested by the q u a l i t y of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , but the ideas of a p p r e c i a t i o n of a r t or beauty are not d i s c u s s e d . Thus the p r a c t i c a l s i d e of a r t again e n t e r s from the South Kensington School of thought. Although there i s a d i r e c t i v e i n the f r o n t of the e x e r c i s e book that examples are not to be c o p i e d , i t i s obvious by the r e p e t i t i v e comments by I n s p e c t o r s , through the years these kinds of books were in use, that copying was the 21 main use of these books (Wilson, 1897, p.109). In 1892 the t e a c h e r s ' examination in Drawing was b a s i c a l l y i n v o l v e d with methodology and geometry. The freehand s e c t i o n s are very s i m i l a r to the e x e r c i s e s found in the copybooks a u t h o r i s e d f o r the s c h o o l s . The only a e s t h e t i c touch might r e l a t e to the two q u e s t i o n s on Moorish design, but these were a l s o r e f e r r e d to in the d e c o r a t i v e broader design s e c t i o n of the a u t h o r i s e d t e x t s (See Appendix B). On the o c c a s i o n of Queen V i c t o r i a ' s Diamond J u b i l e e , a d i r e c t i v e as to e x a c t l y what should be hung on the w a l l s of the classroom, was entered i n t o the P u b l i c Schools Reports. This Department (Education) presented to the Trustees of each Rural D i s t r i c t an e x c e l l e n t l i t h o g r a p h p o r t r a i t of Her Majesty, accompanied with the request that i t be framed and hung behind the teacher's desk, so that being in f u l l view of the p u p i l s i t would tend to impress upon t h e i r minds the memory of the most revered s o v e r e i g n of any age or c l i m e . (Wilson, 1897, p.299) 22 Also to commemorate the o c c a s i o n "W.H. Hayward, Esq. of Metchosin, presented an e x c e l l e n t o i l p a i n t i n g of Her Majesty to be competed f o r a n n u a l l y by a l l the schools of Esquimalt E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t " (Wilson, 1897, p.299). The p o r t r a i t "was p a i n t e d by Rowland H a r r i s who c o p i e d i t .from a p r i n t i n the London I l l u s t r a t e d News. Competitors f o r the p o r t r a i t were r e q u i r e d to write an essay" ( P e t h i c k , 1980, p.141-2) on a set t o p i c . The p o r t r a i t i s p r e s e n t l y hung in the Metchosin School Museum. The year 1892 was a l s o important in that W i l l i a m Burns, the second South Kensington System advocate, j o i n e d Inspector Wilson and became an Inspector of Schools in B r i t i s h Columbia. Mr. Burns made the f o l l o w i n g comment on the a e s t h e t i c s of the class-rooms in B r i t i s h Columbia, in h i s 1892-93 r e p o r t . "The appearance of the school-room should a l s o occupy more a t t e n t i o n than i s sometimes given to i t . In a few cases the d e c o r a t i o n s of h o l i d a y times are l e f t to fade and to f a l l g r a d u a l l y , u n t i l r e p l a c e d by those of the next h a l f - y e a r " (Burns, 1893, p.523). He then went on to e x a l t the use of broom and scrub brush as he 23 found many of the r u r a l school-rooms l e s s than c l e a n and t i d y . Whatever Inspector Wilson had succeeded with in h i s b e a u t i f i c a t i o n of the schools and grounds d i r e c t i v e , seems to have been e i t h e r t r a n s i t o r y or s t i l l in the embryo stage of implimentation. Inspector Wilson in h i s 1895-96 r e p o r t s t r e s s e d Drawing as a s u b j e c t f o r boys, because Drawing l e a d i n g to a proper t r a i n i n g of eye and hand, must always be the g r e a t e s t use to boys l i k e l y to r e q u i r e any t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g in a f t e r years, and indeed must form the foundation of a l l true t e c h n i c a l t e a c h i n g . (Wilson, 1896, p.210) This c l e a r l y echoes the South Kensington d o c t r i n e and reduces the v i s u a l a r t s program to p r e p a r i n g p u p i l s to be good craftsmem. In the 1898-99 r e p o r t by Inspector Wilson, he a l l u d e s to p o s s i b l e a e s t h e t i c eduation in the v i s u a l a r t s , while d i s c u s s i n g the b e t t e r t e a c h i n g of H i s t o r y . To b r i n g out the r e a l i t y of a p e r i o d in h i s t o r y , many f a c t s of s o c i a l l i f e must be taught - about 24 dr e s s , food, arms, amusements, e t c . To make i t r e a l much may be done by the use of p i c t u r e s , of which every teacher should have a c o l l e c t i o n at hand f o r the purpose of i l l u s t r a t i n g any l e s s o n that can be so t r e a t e d . I l l u s t r a t i o n s ... lend to a t o p i c new l a s t i n g impressions, and are thus great a i d s to memory. (Wilson, 1899, p.248) Now i f some of these i l l u s t r a t i o n s were r e p r o d u c t i o n s of p a i n t i n g s and other works of a r t , then those p u p i l s through t h e i r l e s s o n s and d i s c u s s i o n s would be exposed to some a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n in the v i s u a l a r t s . It would be unwise to b e l i e v e that upon r e c e i p t of t h i s s u ggestion a l l of the teachers of H i s t o r y in B r i t i s h Columbia would purchase i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r l e s s o n s . Most of the teachers in r u r a l s c h ools only stayed a year or two, a c c o r d i n g to the r e p o r t s from about 1885 to 1920, and then they moved on to h o p e f u l l y a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r with b e t t e r working c o n d i t i o n s and s a l a r i e s . Most teachers were not h i g h l y p a i d so i n v e s t i n g money in ex t e n s i v e i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s was probably not t h e i r h i ghest p r i o r i t y . I f t h i s s uggestion was pi c k e d up at a l l i t 25 was probably in the more s e t t l e d teacher p o p u l a t i o n s of the towns and c i t i e s . No f u r t h e r mention i s made of t h i s idea in subsequent r e p o r t s so i t can probably be assumed that i t was not adopted by t e a c h e r s . The Vancouver Board of School Trustees h i r e d t h e i r f i r s t Drawing S p e c i a l i s t in 1899-1900, in the person of Miss. Burnett, from Regina. She was to work with both the teachers through workshops and c o u r s e s , as well as d i r e c t l y with the students. "A most s a t i s f a c t o r y beginning i n drawing has thus been made" (Wilson, 1900, p.208). W i l l i a m Burns in h i s next to l a s t I n s p e c t o r ' s r e p o r t lamented that Drawing had degenerated into mere copying i n many of the s c h o o l s . There i s a l s o an a e s t h e t i c side to s c h o o l - l i f e which t r u s t e e s might w e l l c o n s i d e r . Many of our rooms are bare and u n i n v i t i n g , suggestive only of the 'workshop'. This should be remedied, and the rooms so b r i g h t e n e d that they may form to the c h i l d r e n an i d e a l of c h e e r f u l , p l e a s a n t n e s s . (Burns, 1900, p.212) 26 Thus ends the 19th Century with a p o p u l a t i o n on the upswing and the P u b l i c School System advocating an i n t e r e s t in Drawing as a base to T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n . Environmental a e s t h e t i c s was an i s s u e , but i t s progress was s t i l l in i t s inf a n c y . C h a p t e r T h r e e Frnrn t h e G o v e r n m e n t D o c u m e n t s 1 9 0 1 t o 1 9 2 5 The new d e c a d e b u r s t u p o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h a f l o o d t i d e o f i m m i g r a n t s . W h e r e a s f r o m 1890 t o 1 9 0 0 , t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n had g r o w n b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1000 s t u d e n t s a y e a r , a g r o w t h r a t e w h i c h was s t e a d y u n t i l 1 9 0 6 , we t h e n n o t e a n a c c e l e r a t i o n up t o 9 , 0 0 0 new s t u d e n t s i n 1 9 2 0 - 2 1 , e n d i n g 1 9 2 5 w i t h 8 2 , 7 2 1 s t u d e n t s on t h e A v e r a g e A c t u a l D a i l y A t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s (See A p p e n d i x C ) . T h i s p h e n o m e n a l g r o w t h r a t e was a p r o b l e m i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , b u t t h e c i t i e s mus t h a v e f e l t a c o m p o u n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , a s many o f t h e new i m m i g r a n t s s t o p p e d i n t h e c i t i e s f o r o n l y a w h i l e a n d many o t h e r s s t a y e d t o s e t t l e . The s h e e r demand f o r c l a s s r o o m s p a c e m u s t h a v e k e p t many S c h o o l B o a r d s i n t h e p r o v i n c e on a n i n t e n s i v e b u i l d i n g p r o g r a m . I n s p e c t o r W i l s o n c o n t i n u e d t o be d i s t r e s s e d a t t h e l a c k o f s c h o o l d e c o r a t i o n a n d p r o m o t e d t h e c o n c e p t r e p e a t e d l y . I n h i s 1 9 0 1 r e p o r t he made t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t . 28 In our own Pr o v i n c e , the increased a r c h i t e c t u r a l beauty and improved i n t e r i o r arrangement of the school-houses r e c e n t l y e r e c t e d , has been q u i t e n o t i c e a b l e . I t i s then at l e a s t f r e e l y admitted that a sc h o o l should be outwardly a c c e p t a b l e to the eye. I t i s a l s o now admitted t h a t i t should whenever p o s s i b l e , be inwardly adorned with r e - p r o d u c t i o n s — c a s t s , engravings, f i n e photographs -- of b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s : the masterpieces of a r c h i t e c t u r e , p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of a l l t h i s l i e s i n the r e c o g n i t i o n i t i m p l i e s of the f a c t t h a t the sense of the b e a u t i f u l cannot be a c q u i r e d by merely t a k i n g an i n d u s t r i o u s i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t . Reading, study and o b s e r v a t i o n may deepen such love and p e r c e p t i o n of beauty, but the a p p r o p r i a t e means of c u l t i v a t i o n must be brought to bear upon the c h i l d before there i s any conscious e x e r c i s e of the w i l l with regard to them. (Wilson, 1901, p.261) Inspector Wilson went on to mention that many teachers were now d e c o r a t i n g the classrooms with whatever they 29 could l a y t h e i r hands on, such as flowers i n pots, the p u p i l s ' work, photographs and p i c t u r e s from newspapers. He intimated that although t h i s was a l l very w e l l that there were s e v e r a l s e r i e s of study p i c t u r e s a v a i l a b l e at very low c o s t , which would be much s u p e r i o r (See Appendix D). The most important s i n g l e event of 1900-01 was the beginning of the f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l Normal School i n Vancouver, with W i l l i a m Burns as i t s a c t i n g p r i n c i p a l , David B l a i r as Drawing i n s t r u c t o r , and J.D. Buchanan as the Methods teacher. The South Kensington System had come i n s t r e n g t h to the f l e d g l i n g s c h o o l with the presence of the f i r s t two men (Cowperthwaite, 1901, p.273). Two other new e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were mentioned i n the r e p o r t , the S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald Manual T r a i n i n g School, i n V i c t o r i a , of which the p r i n c i p a l of V i c t o r i a High School s a i d , "Every boy i n the High School has a v a i l e d h i m s e l f of the p r i v i l e g e of a t t e n d i n g " (Paul, 1901, p.239), and a second Manual T r a i n i n g School i n Vancouver. In the 1901-02 school year the r e p o r t s were devoid of any mention of classroom d e c o r a t i o n or other t o p i c s r e l a t e d to a e s t h e t i c s i n the v i s u a l a r t s . 30 W i l l i a m Burns, however, as p r i n c i p a l of the Normal School i n h i s r e p o r t entered the f o l l o w i n g statement. Drawing i n s e v e r a l branches p a r t i c u l a r l y black-board drawing, has been c a r e f u l l y taken up, and the improvements i n t h i s work i s s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e . The students have f u r t h e r attended a s h o r t course a t the Manual T r a i n i n g School, to o b t a i n an idea of t h i s new branch of e d u c a t i o n a l work. (Burns, 1901, p.277) With the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the t e a c h i n g ranks of the f i r s t graduates of the Normal School, Inspector Stewart had to e x c l a i m about a dramatic r i s e i n the standards of e d u c a t i o n . "In no department of the s c h o o l work i s t h i s e x c e l l e n c e more evident than i n the drawing and manual work i n g e r e r a l " (Stewart, 1901, p.A39). He remarked a l s o t h a t the grounds had been made more a t t r a c t i v e i n a number of r u r a l s c h o o l s , by p l a n t i n g shade t r e e s and a l s o gave a s e t of recommendations as to what c o l o u r s are most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the w a l l s and c e i l i n g s of a classroom (See Append i x E ) . 31 One of Inspector Wilson's stronger statements i n t h i s year's r e p o r t touched on a e s t h e t i c e ducation. "The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y with which the sc h o o l system i s now contending i s the lack of t r a i n i n g and c u l t u r e i n the rank and f i l e of the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n " (Wilson, 1901, p.A47). With the i n c l u s i o n of the term c u l t u r e he i m p l i e s a lack of enlightenment towards aspects of our c i v i l i z a t i o n showing refinement i n t a s t e and manners as w e l l as a lack of mental and moral t r a i n i n g ( H a r r i s , 1913, P.547). The d i s c u s s i o n of 'School-room D e c o r a t i o n " i n a paper read by Miss. M.C. Macfarlane, of Vancouver, at the l a s t meeting of the P r o v i n c i a l Teacher's I n s t i t u t e , c a l l s f o r b r i e f comment. Th i s was the f i r s t o c c a s i o n , to my knowledge, upon which the s u b j e c t was ever i n c l u d e d i n the programme of a Teacher's I n s t i t u t e h e l d i n t h i s P r o v i n c e . Miss. Macfarlane's paper was good i n every p a r t i c u l a r , and t i m e l y as w e l l , but i t appears to me that the I n s t i t u t e should not have allowed the o c c a s i o n to pass without t a k i n g some a c t i o n with a view to continue the work of 32 educating teachers i n school-room d e c o r a t i o n . (Wilson, 1901, p.A49) This Teacher's I n s t i t u t e took place on A p r i l , 1, 1902, and besides Miss. Macfarlane's paper on School-room Decoration, there were two other a r t r e l a t e d s e s s i o n s : both were presented by David B l a i r , one on Geometrical Drawing and the other on Freehand Drawing. At t h i s time there was no Drawing being taught i n the High Schools, although a l l of the Graded Schools and a l l but 10 of the 265 Common Schools had Drawing as a s u b j e c t being taught (DE, ARPS, 1902, Table B). Over the 1902-04 p e r i o d , there were s e v e r a l more mentions by the Inspectors concerning d e c o r a t i o n of classrooms and grounds. Inspector Netherby gave a lengthy r e p o r t on the grounds development of some s c h o o l s . While many of the yards c o n t a i n ornamental and other shade t r e e s ; i n others flowers are c u l t i v a t e d . Some of the teachers have d i v i d e d a part of the yard i n t o p l o t s and have given one to each of the l a r g e r p u p i l s , who has a u t h o r i t y to 33 engage help, and i s held r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n of flowers i n h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l o t . The teacher and p u p i l s of another s c h o o l have p l a n t e d , a l t e r n a t e l y , shade and f r u i t t r e e s a c r o s s the two s i d e s of the yard a d j o i n i n g the p u b l i c road; while the school-house i s surrounded by rose t r e e s and a p l e a s i n g v a r i e t y of f l o w e r s . I mention these matters of the d e c o r a t i o n of school-houses and premises to show t h a t the a e s t h e t i c a l s i d e of education i s r e c e i v i n g a t t e n t i o n by our teachers and p u p i I s . . . . T h i s i s as i t should be, because d i r e c t c u l t u r e i s provided by b e a u t i f y i n g the school-rooms and surroundings, as w e l l as i n drawing, s i n g i n g , poetry and o b j e c t l e s s o n s ; each having as i n f l u e n c e on the happiness of the c h i l d , and i n d i r e c t l y on i t s moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n d i t i o n . (Netherby, 1903, p.C24) The classrooms were decorated with a wide range of m a t e r i a l s such as p l a n t s , f l a g s , crayon drawings by the s t u d e n t s , c o l o u r e d blackboard drawings, and commercially produced study s e t s of p i c t u r e s (See 34 Appendix D), as w e l l as " s u i t a b l e and p r o p e r l y s e l e c t e d p i c t u r e s " (Netherby, 1903, p.C24). In re f e r e n c e to both brush-drawing and clay-modeling, F.H. Eaton, the Superintendent of V i c t o r i a C i t y Schools s a i d "The value of t h i s work i n the a e s t h e t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g of the p u p i l s In not l i k e l y to be overestimated" (Eaton, 1904, p.A54). Eaton's statements i n d i c a t e t h a t much more than L i n e a r Drawing was going on i n the V i c t o r i a C i t y s c h o o l s and with h i s r e f e r e n c e to a e s t h e t i c t r a i n i n g , i t can be presumed that V i c t o r i a had some i n t e r e s t In a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s . The year 1905 saw the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Drawing i n t o the High Schools as a s u b j e c t . J.C. Shaw, as p r i n c i p a l of Vancouver High School, commended t h i s i n c l u s i o n and then went on to say the f o l l o w i n g . The o r d i n a r y student, who i s seeking o n l y a general education, w i l l f i n d the s u b j e c t u s e f u l : and to the p r o s p e c t i v e teacher and the student of Ap p l i e d Science i t i s w e l l - n i g h i n d i s p e n s a b l e ; but an e x c e p t i o n i s perhaps a d v i s a b l e i n the case of the student whom i s p r e p a r i n g f o r a p u r e l y 35 s c h o l a s t i c career or f o r the 'learned p r o f e s s i o n s ' , where the aim should r a t h e r be high e x c e l l e n c e i n a comp a r a t i v e l y l i m i t e d number of s u b j e c t s . I t would seem, f u r t h e r t h a t , i n the i n t e r e s t s of c o n t i n u i t y of t e a c h i n g , t h i s s u b j e c t should, a f t e r the present year, be r e l e g a t e d to the f i r s t year of the High School course, and should be ' w r i t t e n o f f ' a t the end of t h a t year. (Shaw, 1905, p.A9) His recommendation was acted on i n the f o l l o w i n g year and Drawing was then o n l y a v a i l a b l e i n the f i r s t year of High School (DE, ARPS, 1907, p.A49). From 1905 to 1909 there were s e v e r a l remarks i n the r e p o r t s concerning classroom d e c o r a t i o n and grounds improvements, but such d e c o r a t i o n and improvements d i d not become u n i v e r s a l throughout the p r o v i n c e . Many rooms e s p e c i a l l y i n the more r u r a l s c h o o l s seemed to be i n the worst s t a t e . As Inspector J.S. Gordon wrote i n 1909 r e g a r d i n g r u r a l s c h o o l s . "We f i n d many of these d i s t r i c t s with minimum s a l a r i e s , the poorest of t e a c h e r s , and school b u i l d i n g s i n poor r e p a i r , p o o r l y equipped, d i r t y , 36 c h e e r l e s s and unhomelike -- very u n d e s i r a b l e surroundings i n which to t r a i n the f u t u r e home-builders and home-keepers of a country" (Gordon, 1909, p.A24). In 1907 the term " A r t " entered the r e p o r t s i n c l u d e d i n W.P. Argue's r e p o r t as Superintendent of Vancouver Schools. He s t a t e s t h a t " c o l o u r work was introduced i n a l l grades with s a t i s f a c t i o n . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n to freehand drawing from o b j e c t s or groups of o b j e c t s " (Argue, 1907, p.A36). With a seemingly c r e a t i v e a r t program, i n s t e a d of mere copying, some a e s t h e t i c awareness, even as simple as to what c o l o u r s look best, must have occ u r r e d . The 1909 Course of Study f o r Graded and Common Schools as w e l l as. High Schools (DE, ARPS, 1909, p.A47-58), f i t the e n t i r e Drawing course to David B l a i r ' s Canadian Drawing S e r i e s , 2nd Ed., books one through f i v e . Prang's Elementary Manual f o r Teachers was a l s o l i s t e d f o r the j u n i o r grades. The South Kensington System was very much s t i l l advanced by B l a i r . A s t r o n g advocate f o r the South Kensington System though, was John K y l e . Thi s man came to B r i t i s h 37 Columbia i n 1906 as the Supervisor of Drawing f o r Vancouver C i t y and l a t e r became the Normal School A r t Master. He served i n t h i s r o l e from 1910 u n t i l 1914 (Hodder, 1984, p . l ) . Kyle's p h i l o s o p h y was t h a t drawing was a v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l as can be seen i n h i s f o l l o w i n g words. My aim i n the young c l a s s e s i s to t r a i n s i g h t and d e x t e r i t y of the hand, by drawing mostly from r e a l o b j e c t s , to t r a i n and develop the innate d e s i r e f o r c o l o r , and f o s t e r a love f o r the b e a u t i f u l . . . . T h i s w i l l be c a r r i e d on through the advanced c l a s s e s , with the a d d i t i o n of Geometry, Scale Drawing, and the making of working drawings so that when a boy or g i r l leaves s c h o o l and goes to work they w i l l have a s o l i d foundation upon which to b u i l d a trade or p r o f e s s i o n . (Kyle, 1907, p.25) Kyle seems concerned about a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s , but r e p e a t e d l y f i r s t presented the hand-eye c o - o r d i n a t i o n and d e x t e r i t y aspect of h i s a r t program. In both h i s 1910 and 1912 r e p o r t s to the 38 Board of School Trustees i n Vancouver, he presents the p r a c t i c a l and commercial s i d e of h i s program and then promotes the idea of the c u l t i v a t i o n of "good t a s t e and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the b e a u t i f u l " (Kyle, 1912). While working i n these two p o s i t i o n he must have i n f l u e n c e d a tremendous number of people, through the young beginning teachers going out i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia t a k i n g h i s teachings with them, and through hi s d i r e c t c o n t a c t with teachers and p u p i l s i n the l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n center i n the p r o v i n c e . Anyone coming up through e i t h e r avenue would be exposed at l e n g t h to h i s ideas and methods. These ideas and methods i f not p r e v i o u l y the norm, could i n time become the norm f o r the p r o v i n c e , by shear exposure and r e p e t i t i o n . The 1914 c u r r i c u l a of P u b l i c s c h o o l s f o r g e n e r a l Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia was a major Deparment of Education statement. T h i s monograph was a departure from past c u r r i c u l a statements. Here the Department o u t l i n e d the h i s t o r y of P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and then, i n great d e t a i l , o u t l i n e d the courses of the c u r r i c u l a year by year with d i s c u s s i o n s of t e x t s and suggested methods of t e a c h i n g . The 1913 39 a u t h o r i z e d text-book l i s t g i v e s B l a i r ' s s e r i e s of drawing books f o r students, but i n the e x t e n s i v e "Appendix I I . - P r e s c r i b e d Course of Study" recommends; Kidner's E d u c a t i o n a l Handworks (1910), S e e g m i l l a r ' s Primary Work (pre 1914), F r o e h l i c h , & Snow's Text-Books of A r t Education (Prang), Books I - VII (1905), Prang's A Course i n Water Colours f o r the F i r s t E i g h t Years or School (1900), plu s some sm a l l e r books and a r t magazines are a l l suggested f o r teacher use only. With t h i s kind of p r e s e n t a t i o n and the "New E d u c a t i o n " i n n o v a t i o n s working on s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , "long e s t a b l i s h e d but p e r i p h e r a l s u b j e c t s such as a r t and music achieved new s t a t u s or assumed new forms" (Tomkins, 1986, p.115). The l e s s o n ideas and methods suggested presented c r e a t i v e a r t over geometric and t e c h n i c a l drawing, but the High School Entrance Exams of the next few years e x h i b i t e d an i n v e r s e focus by the examiners. From 1910 to 1916 a trend i n the comments of the I n s p e c t o r s s t a r t e d to show how the c i t y and r u r a l s c h o ols were d i f f e r i n g . I f o n l y the r e p o r t s w r i t t e n on the Vancouver area urban s c h o o l s were read, the impression would c e r t a i n l y be that B r i t i s h Columbia's 40 schools had w e l l decorated classrooms and a t t r a c t i v e grounds, with modern b u i l d i n g s . The c o n t r a s t can be found i n Inspector A.R. Lord's comment "that i n many cases the school-house c o n s i s t s of four l o g w a l l s and a r o o f , p o o r l y l i g h t e d , p o o r l y v e n t i l a t e d , and almost u n i n h a b i t a b l e i n winter, with equipment reduced to the bare s t minimum" (Lord, 1916, p.A41). But then, the teacher seems always to be expected to be able to make the p r o v e r b i a l s i l k purse out of a sow's ear. One should hold i n mind Inspector Lord's comments while r e a d i n g Inspector Martin's comments bare, dingy w a l l s are very o f t e n the r e s u l t of lack of i n t e r e s t on the pa r t of the teac h e r . . . . The sc h o o l very o f t e n r e f l e c t s the a t t i t u d e of the teacher towards the school-work. A p o o r l y l i g h t e d , unpainted, bare, dusty school-room u s u a l l y houses a c a r e l e s s , i n d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r . (Martin, 1916, p.A35) A v i s i o n of some f i r s t year teacher i n the sc h o o l Mr. Lord d e s c r i b e s t r y i n g to make i t home-like and comfortable with l i t t l e money or m a t e r i a l s , does not 41 bode w e l l f o r success i n Mr. Martin's eyes (See F i g u r e s 2, 3, 4, 5). The V i c t o r i a P r o v i n c i a l Normal School opened i t s doors on January 4, 1915. The Summer School f o r teachers was h e l d at V i c t o r i a i n 1915 at the new Normal School f a c i l i t i e s . There was s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n A r t courses by teachers working w i t h i n the s c h o o l system. In 1915, 133 teachers took P r e l i m i n a r y Art and 33 took Advanced A r t . T h i s was approximately 40% of the teachers t a k i n g Summer School that year. The o u t l i n e s f o r these courses were q u i t e broad and i n c l u d e d development of a p p r e c i a t i o n and t a s t e (See Appendix F ) . Mr. Harry Dunnell was the Drawing Master and T e c h n i c a l I n s t r u c t o r , under which headings he taught drawing, a r t , and manual t r a i n i n g , i n c l u d i n g p a p e r - f o l d i n g m o d e l l i n g and woodwork. W.P. Weston r e p l a c e d John Kyle as the Drawing Supervisor f o r Vancouver Schools from 1911 to 1914, then he moved to A r t Master of the Vancouver P r o v i c i a l Normal School, where he stayed from 1915 to 1946. In 1917 W.P.Weston j o i n e d the Summer School s t a f f and taught the P r e l i m i n a r y A r t Course. John 1 Kyle taught the Advanced A r t Course t h a t summer (DE, ARPS, 1921, Figure 2. The f i r s t p u b l i c school i n Hazelton B r i t i s h Columbia, about 1900, a s m a l l l o g b u i l d i n g with l i t t l e i f any yard (Cochrane, 1981, p.21) . 43 Fi g u r e 3. The Savona Road School a t Cherry Creek south-west of Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1918, unpainted and with a bare undeveloped yard (Cochrane, 1981, p.60). 44 F i g u r e 4. Giscome P u b l i c School i n the F o r t George E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t 1917, must have been almost u n i n h a b i t a b l e i n winter with u n i n s u l a t e d clapboard w a l l s (Cochrane, 1981, p.28-29). 45 F i g u r e 5. The New A l b e r n i S c h o o l , about 1915, a c o m f o r t a b l e frame b u i l d i n g (Cochrane, 1981, p.104-105). 46 p.F30). Charles S c o t t the Vancouver S u p e r v i s o r of Art r e p l a c e d John Kyle t e a c h i n g the Advanced Art Course in 1922 and thus put together the team that along with S.P. Judge, would write the P r o v i n c i a l Manual of Drawing and Design f o r Elementary and High Schools, which was to r e p l a c e B l a i r ' s Canadian Drawing S e r i e s f o r the f i r s t time in 1924. Although the P u b l i c Schools Reports stopped p r i n t i n g the names of the t e x t s issued in 1936, t h i s book was in use in t h i s f i r s t and W.P. Weston's second e d i t i o n s u n t i l a f t e r the time span of t h i s study. This book has very few d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to the a e s t h e t i c s of a r t and i s p r i m a r i l y a design course with an emphasis on geometry and commercial a r t concepts. Superintendent W.P. Argue, of the Vancouver C i t y Schools, r e p o r t e d a School Board purchase of p i c t u r e s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to schools in 1910. Mr. K y l e , while v i s i t i n g schools in the United S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n , purchased f o r the Board a l a r g e number of very f i n e p i c t u r e s . These p i c t u r e s w i l l be s u i t a b l y framed and p l a c e d on e x h i b i t i o n , and afterwards d i s t r i b u t e d among the 47 s c h o o l s . (Argue , 1910, p .A35) A l s o the Oak Bay School T r u s t e e s in 1911, g r a n t e d "money towards a d o r n i n g the w a l l s wi th p i c t u r e s " (Deane, 1911, p . A 2 9 ) . These are the on ly Schoo l T r u s t e e s u p p l i e d works to hang on the w a l l s mentioned in the r e p o r t s to d a t e . In c o n t r a s t to urban s c h o o l s I n s p e c t o r Thomas L e i t h remarked " in r u r a l s c h o o l s the p u p i l s are p r o g r e s s i n g very s l o w l y in the s u b j e c t of d r a w i n g . T h i s is p a r t l y due to the f a i l u r e of the t r u s t e e s to p r o v i d e the neces sary apparatus f o r t each ing" ( L e i t h , 1911, p . A 3 3 ) . T h i s shows c l e a r l y the d i v e r s i t y of s tandards between the c i t y s c h o o l s and the r u r a l s c h o o l s . In the year 1918, I n s p e c t o r A r t h u r A n s t e y , n o t i n g the use of p i c t u r e s and p r i n t s in s c h o o l s put forward the idea tha t " i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n the issue by the Department of a s u i t a b l e s e l e c t i o n of p r i n t s and p i c t u r e s of e d u c a t i o n a l va lue might sometimes induce t r u s t e e s to purchase a supp ly f o r t h e i r s choo l s" ( A n s t e y , 1918, p . D 3 6 ) . S u i t a b l e tha t i s to moral l e s s o n s and the development of what was c o n s i d e r e d q u i e t good t a s t e . The p r o p o s a l was not mentioned 48 again and the a u t h o r i s e d t e x t s l i s t d i d not in future l i s t c o l l e c t i o n s of p r i n t s so the idea although one with merit, seems to have d i e d at i n c e p t i o n . By 1924 the f e d e r a l subsidy f o r the School Gardening Program was withdrawn and t h e r e f o r e fewer schools made the e f f o r t to continue the program (DE, ARPS, 1926, p.10). The School Gardening Program had been brought i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m about the beginning of World War One, to introduce c i t y p u p i l s to the s k i l l s of growing food and d e c o r a t i v e p l a n t s . A bonus of t h i s program was that i t s u p p l i e d money f o r the course that c o u l d be used to cr e a t e flower beds and fo r purchase of ornamental t r e e s and shrubs, which were used to decorate the school grounds around the p r o v i n c e . The trend away from School Gardening s t a r t e d a few years e a r l i e r and consequently some school grounds were not kept as a t t r a c t i v e as they had been. There tended to be fewer comments on classroom d e c o r a t i o n from 1916 to 1925, but Inspector W.H.M. May remarked on an improvement i n Courtenay and adjacent d i s t r i c t s in 1921 (May, 1921, p.F20). Inspector J.T. P o l l o c k , of Vancouver commented on p a r e n t - t e a c h e r 49 groups who r a i s e d "funds to purchase the copy or provide frames f o r many of the good p i c t u r e s that now adorn the walls of n e a r l y a l l our s c h o o l s " ( P o l l o c k , 1921, p.F24). These p i c t u r e s were u s u a l l y chosen to support or i l l u s t r a t e a moral that was c o n s i d e r e d worthy in a C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y . A l s o Inspector Anstey promoted the value of " r e c r e a t i v e , a r t i s t i c , and musical p u r s u i t s ( i n d e v e l o p i n g in c h i l d r e n t h e i r ) emotional and a e s t h e t i c " aspects (Anstey, 1922, p.C32), in the New Westminster - C h i l l i w a c k areas. T h i s was in response to a viewed shortcoming of these p a r t i c u a l r s t u d i e s i n those ge o g r a p h i c a l areas. Under the umbrella of Manual A r t s , a e s t h e t i c e ducation was not ignored. L i s t e d i n the Summer Courses of I n s t r u c t i o n f o r 1915, under Manual A r t s , we f i n d the t o p i c s " D i s c u s s i o n of good t a s t e and form" (DE, ARPS, 1915 p.A60) and under Household Economics, Advanced Course, comes both "Art in i t s r e l a t i o n to dress as to form and c o l o u r , (and) H i s t o r y of d r e s s " (ME, PSR, 1915, p.A62). These courses seemed to t r y to have the p u p i l s look at t h e i r p r o j e c t s through what co u l d be c a l l e d an a e s t h e t i c approach. The ideas presented in regards to d r e s s , A r t , and H i s t o r y , would 50 need r e p r o d u c t i o n s from h i s t o r y upon which to base the s t u d i e s . In the 1919 Course of S t u d i e s f o r P u b l i c . High, and Normal Sch o o l s . the t o p i c of a e s t h e t i c s again i s seen under the Course of Study and Regu l a t i o n s f o r Manual T r a i n i n g Schools, with such comments as "the craftsman must be t r a i n e d to see beauty in l i n e , form, and c o l o u r " (DE, Course of Study, 1919, p.37). The s t r a i g h t forward "Lessons in a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n " (DE, Course of Study, 1919, p.43) may be c o n s i d e r e d a e s t h e t i c e ducation in the v i s u a l a r t s . Under Household A r t s was the comment " C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the economic value of beauty. Formation of good t a s t e and a p p r e c i a t i o n of c o l o u r and beauty of form and arrangement" (DE, Course of Study, 1919 p.48). These comments were meant more to make the students s u c c e s s f u l , more competitive craftsmen and the g i r l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , more d i s c e r n i n g consumers, but they s t i l l were a form of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s . As most, i f not a l l p u p i l s who went on to High School took Manual T r a i n i n g , then t h i s a e s t h e t i c e ducation in the v i s u a l a r t s was r e c e i v e d by a lar g e number of students. In the 1923 Course of Study f o r Elementary. High. 51 T e c h n i c a l , and Normal Schools, the High School drawing was l i s t e d i n three p a r t s : Nature Drawing, Geometry Drawing, and Art A p p r e c i a t i o n . For the f i r s t time a major s e c t i o n was Art A p p r e c i a t i o n . I t s course d e s c r i p t i o n was simply " t a l k s on v a r i e d s u b j e c t s : Art in the house; a r t in the s t r e e t ; a r t in the workshop and f a c t o r y ; p i c t u r e study" (DE, Course of Study, 1923, p.26). The year 1925 saw the p u b l i s h i n g of the Putman Weir Report, more c o r r e c t l y e n t i t l e d the Survey of the School System. This was a monumental and thorough survey of every aspect of the P u b l i c School System in B r i t i s h Columbia. P a r t i a l l y o r i g i n a t i n g as a B r i t i s h Columbia Teacher's F e d e r a t i o n r e s o l u t i o n at the E a s t e r convention 1922, the commission began i t s work in the f a l l of 1924. A c a r e f u l r e a d i n g of the Survey i n d i c a t e s that i t is a melange of many of the c u r r e n t l y h e l d e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s of the time which f e l l under the r u b r i c of p r o g r e s s i v e education, and d e s p t i e i t s wholesale condemnation of t r a d i t i o n a l concepts and p r a c t i c e s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a 52 0 c o n s e r v a t i v e document. (Mann, 1980, p.93) This r e p o r t was researched and w r i t t e n by a formidable team of experts headed by Dr. J . Harold Putman, s e n i o r i n s p e c t o r of schools i n Ottawa, and Dr. George M. Weir, head of the new Department of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (See Appendix G). The commission t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y and looked at a l l types of P u b l i c Schools throughout the p r o v i n c e . The c o n t r a s t between urban and r u r a l s c h ools was s t i l l very p r e v a l e n t as can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g comment. The 86,000 elementary school p u p i l s are housed and taught in b u i l d i n g s and environments of great v a r i e t y and marked c o n t r a s t . Some are in modern c i t y b u i l d i n g s as complete as are to be found on the American Continent. Others are modest but comfortable frame b u i l d i n g s in small towns or amid i d e a l r u r a l surroundings.... Some have i d e a l surroundings, but the school b u i l d i n g s themselves are p r i m i t i v e and very s m a l l . Many are b u i l t of l o g s . Some are not l a r g e r than 15 by 18 fee t 53 with c e i l i n g s j u s t above your head. Some have a t t r a c t i v e grounds, some have bare and u n a t t r a c t i v e yards, and some are b u i l t on r o c k s . . . . Some of these b u i l d i n g s are t i d y and c l e a n i n s i d e and some sa d l y in need of p a i n t , whitewash, and soap. (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.20) One of the major recommendations that would p o s s i b l y help a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n in the v i s u a l a r t s was the replacement of the present e i g h t year elementary school and three year high school system. The new model would be comprised of a s i x year elementary s c h o o l , a new l e v e l of three years c a l l e d the middle s c h o o l , l a t e r to be c a l l e d j u n i o r high s c h o o l , and a three year high s c h o o l . The argument given f o r the c r e a t i o n of the new l e v e l was that at the age twelve to f i f t e e n p e r i o d , the adol e s c e n t needs a school which aims not at making a l l a l i k e , but 'to develop each in accord with h i s n a t u r a l t a l e n t . ' I t must, t h e r e f o r e , o f f e r in a d d i t i o n to core compulsory s u b j e c t s , a wide range of o p t i o n a l c o u r s e s . I t c o u l d then serve as an 54 e x p l o r a t o r y or experimental school wherein the student might d i s c o v e r h i s a p t i t u d e s before committing h i m s e l f upon a course of study in high s c h o o l . (Johnson, 1964, p.106) T h i s lengthening of the school years by an e x t r a year was i n o r d e r to l e t the i n t e g r a t i o n of l e s s academic s u b j e c t s not d i l u t e the standards of edu c a t i o n , but enhance i t . Another recommendation was that Manual T r a i n i n g be taught from grade one and Home Economics f o r g i r l s , be taught from grade f i v e . The c u r r i c u l u m of these s u b j e c t s as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r included some a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n in the v i s u a l a r t s . In the r e p o r t , under the t i t l e " T e c h n i c a l And Vo c a t i o n a l Education, I. I t s Aims and Purpose," was s t a t e d that " n e i t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e nor c u l t u r e can be separated from h a n d i c r a f t s " (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.337). I t i s what you do and the q u a l i t y of the products of your hands that measure your l e v e l of inherent i n t e l l i g e n c e and your a s s i m i l a t i o n of your c u l t u r e . They went on to defend Manual T r a i n i n g and Home Economics not as the t r a i n i n g of c a r p e n t e r s , housemaids, e t c . , but to give young people the 55 a t t i t u d e and reasoning to "solve l i f e problems and (to) deal with r e a l p r o j e c t s " (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.337) and t h e i r r e l a t e d problems. "The Value of Music and A rt as School S t u d i e s " presents an i n t e r e s t i n g commentary on these s u b j e c t s . Every human being has some a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y . Even where t h i s a b i l i t y i s so l i m i t e d as to make t r a i n i n g i n e x p r e s s i o n of do u b t f u l value, there i s always the need f o r t r a i n i n g in a p p r e c i a t i o n . One of the main purposes of any school -- and t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true of an adolescent school -- i s to develop a t t i t u d e s and a p p r e c i a t i o n s . (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.92) They went on to decry the undeveloped s t a t e of a r t i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n in Canada as a whole, and included one r a t h e r amusing and o b v i o u s l y b i a s e d musical r e f e r e n c e , as to how some "good and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Canadians as members of Rotary and Kiwanis Culbs not only t o l e r a t e but d e l i g h t in l i s t e n i n g to j a z z " (Putman & Weir, 1925, p,.93). The Group of Seven in e a s t e r n Canada and Emily Carr in 56 B r i t i s h Columbia were q u i e t l y e x p l o r i n g a new Canadian e x p r e s s i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s at t h i s time. Although l i t t l e p u b l i c n o t i c e had been given to e i t h e r the Group of Seven or Emily Carr at t h i s time, there was none-the-less an embryo of Canadian e x p r e s s i o n in e x i s t e n c e . The commissioners e i t h e r were unaware of these happenings in Canada, or p o s s i b l y , they r e c o g n i z e d there was a beginning to a Canadian e x p r e s s i o n , but not to i t s a p p r e c i a t i o n , as might be a s c e r t a i n e d from the f o l l o w i n g statement. "We Canadians have been so busy p i o n e e r i n g and developing our m a t e r i a l resources that we have had scant time f o r developing an a p p r e c i a t i o n of a r t and music" (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.93). They went on to mention t h a t as an a s p i r i n g i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n we are "merely copying the designs o f . . . o l d e r and more a r t i s t i c c o u n t r i e s " (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.93). They went on f u r t h e r to s t a t e t h at the l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s of the world...are spending immense sums on a r t schools and a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the secondary s c h o o l s . I t seems reasonable then that the middle schools of B r i t i s h 57 Columbia should teach a r t f o r economic reasons as well as to develop an a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n . (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.93) T h e i r b e l i e f was that "the young of each g e n e r a t i o n can a p p r e c i a t e the h i g h e s t that c i v i l i z a t i o n has developed only through t r a i n i n g and through being c o n s t a n t l y surrounded by an atmosphere that e l e v a t e s " (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.93). This b a s i c a l l y i s an echo of the past i n s p e c t o r s ' comments on the a e s t h e t i c s of the classroom going back to before the t u r n of the century. In the propsed c u r r i c u l u m f o r elementary schools they s t a t e that f o r A r t , "Drawing and c o l o u r work, as o u t l i n e d i n (the) present manual, i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , but more a t t e n t i o n might be given to d e f i n i t e study in a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n " (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.531). For the high school c u r r i c u l u m they put f o r t h two options one would see Art end a f t e r grade ten and the other would see the one year Art course taken in one of grades 10, 11 or 12 as the students chose (Putman & Weir, 1925, p.113-114). Another recommendation d i d away with the High 58 School Entrance Exams, on which too much emphasis was pla c e d and which c r e a t e d a larg e drop-out r a t e at the end of the e i g h t h year. By t a k i n g t h i s "teaching to the t e s t " problem out of the upper elementary years the door was open f o r a more p r o g r e s s i v e and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d type of t e a c h i n g in the elementary s c h o o l s . The elementary teacher, t h e r e f o r e , was given leeway to teach more c r e a t i v e a r t than geometric a r t and a l s o to p o s s i b l y i n t e g r a t e a r t into other s u b j e c t s of the c u r r i c u l u m . The f i r s t t wenty-five years of the century ended with the p u b l i s h i n g of t h i s Survey of the School System. T h e i r r e p o r t was seen as a means of s t o c k t a k i n g (a business concept) and of e s t a b l i s h i n g the s u p e r i o r i t y of i t s a u t hors' viewpoint in the l i g h t of t h e i r own r e c o g n i t i o n that e d u c a t i o n was not yet an exact s c i e n c e . . . . This updated v e r s i o n of the R y e r s o n i a n , t r a d i t i o n r e j e c t e d mental d i s c i p l i n e t h e o r i e s that had long been d i s c r e d i t e d and sought to u n i f y or c o r r e l a t e the o l d formal s u b j e c t s by means of the p r o j e c t method, s o c i a l s t u d i e s and core c u r r i c u l a . (Tomkins, 1986, p.193) This s e c t i o n of the study c l o s e s with the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a r e p o r t f i l l e d with promise f o r a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n in the v i s u a l a r t s . 60 Chapter Four From The Government Documents 1926 to 1945 With the r e l e a s e of Putnam and Weir's Survey of the School System, (1925) the province seemed prepared for change. The Survey gave d i r e c t i o n and a l e v e l of a u t h o r i z e d acceptance t o e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s which had been nurtured i n Europe and e a s t e r n North America. One of the p h y s i c a l changes t h a t began i n 1926 was the d e s i g n a t i o n of some schools as J u n i o r High Schools, as had been done i n some p a r t s of the United S t a t e s , with grades seven, e i g h t , and nine. In 1922 Vancouver (had) e s t a b l i s h e d a (unique) j u n i o r high school f o r non-academic students unable to a d j u s t to r e g u l a r s c h o o l s . . . . i t o f f e r e d "methodical" manual t r a i n i n g and quidance f o r over - aged p u p i l s who had not reached or passed i n t o high s c h o o l and s u c c e s s f u l l y remained there f o r a year. (Dunn, 1970, p.45-46) Superior Schools a l s o appeared i n the r e p o r t s , these schools extended the t r a d i t i o n a l Elementary School to 61 i n c l u d e grades nine and ten. The J u n i o r High Schools were g e n e r a l l y i n the l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s , whereas the Superior Schools tended to be i n more r u r a l areas with lower student p o p u l a t i o n s (See Appendix H). Another outcome of the acceptance of change occurred when the Vancouver School Board i n 1925, responding to pressure p r i m a r i l y from the B r i t i s h Columbia Art League, s t a r t e d the School of Decorative and A p p l i e d A r t s , l a t e r to be renamed the Vancouver School of A r t . Not a l l the recommendations of the r e p o r t were implemented as q u i c k l y and of course some recommendations were never implemented. The adoption of the concept of J u n i o r High Schools was p r e d i c a t e d on the acceptance of the three year High School. The proposed p l a n f o r a middle s c h o o l c o v e r i n g the work up to the end of grade nine, i s r e a l l y adding a f u l l year to the present high s c h o o l course. I t seems to us t h a t t h i s change i s i m p e r a t i v e . Everywhere throughout the Province we are t o l d t h a t the present high s c h o o l course 62 i s too heavy; that the work i s not thoroughly done; t h a t the burden of home-work upon the student i s oppressive and that the young people are e n t e r i n g the normal schools and the U n i v e r s i t y immature and i l l - p r e p a r e d . The e x t r a high school year should meet a l l these o b j e c t i o n s and more than compensate f o r any a d d i t i o n a l expense. (Putman, Weir, 1925, p.115) Another development to occur a f t e r the Survey's acceptance was the p r i n t i n g of separate Programmes of Studies f o r the d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the grades one to twelve spectrum. The o l d programmes had been designed f o r the o l d three elementary and three secondary c u r r i c u l a r s e c t i o n s and had to be r e a l i g n e d to the e i g h t elementary grades, three j u n i o r high s c h o o l grades, and the three high s c h o o l grades. The Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools a l t e r e d i n t h a t i t tended o n l y to p r i n t d e v i a t i o n s from the Programme of S t u d i e s , suggestions f o r improvements made by the I n s p e c t o r s , or p e r t i n e n t new i n f o r m a t i o n . I t was the change i n the c u r r i c u l a f o r a l l of the three s c h o o l l e v e l s t h a t was a major focus over the 63 f i r s t years of t h i s s e c t i o n of the study. I w i l l be commenting i n t h i s area mainly on the Programmes of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, p u b l i s h e d i n 1924-25, 1926-27, and 1936; the Programmes of Studies f o r the J u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, p u b l i s h e d i n 1927-28, 1932, and 1939; and the Programmes of Studies f o r the High Schools and T e c h n i c a l Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, p u b l i s h e d i n 1928-29, 1930, 1937, and 1941. In a d d i t i o n there was a Programme of St u d i e s f o r Home Economics f o r the J u n i o r and Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, p u b l i s h e d i n 1937. There i s p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n concerning a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s i n a l l of these p u b l i c a t i o n s . Beginning with the elementary s c h o o l we see t h a t the 1924-25 and the 1926-27 v e r s i o n s of the Programme of S t u d i e s , d e a l i n g with A r t , b a s i c a l l y stayed the same. Grade one's course i s presented under Manual A r t s and i n a comment under the t o p i c Nature Study i t i s mentioned t h a t Nature Study should be c o r r e l a t e d with Drawing. Grade two again had Art enclosed with Manual A r t s , but with a sub-heading of Drawing and a l s o the c o r r e l a t i o n with Nature Study. Again there 64 was no a e s t h e t i c education suggested. Grade three through e i g h t had Drawing as a s u b j e c t , but again no mention or any s u g g e s t i o n of anything that c o u l d be considered a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s can be found, with p o s s i b l y one s m a l l e x c e p t i o n . In the grade seven course, there i s a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t there should be a "study of a few simple examples of h i s t o r i c ornament" (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1925, p.68, 1927, p.74). Whether these s t u d i e s were d i s c u s s e d f o r t h e i r a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s or simply given as something e l s e to copy can not be a s c e r t a i n e d , but at l e a s t the p o s s i b l i l i t y was t h e r e . Compared to these f i r s t two documents the 1936 Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Colurnbibia was a c e l e b r a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s . A c c o r d i n g to A. W. Rogers " i n the long run (the new programme) d i d not o f f e r (any) more than d i d Weston's o l d e r v e r s i o n " (Rogers, 1987, p.279). And f u r t h e r t h a t : When graduates of the Normal School began t e a c h i n g , what they taught as a r t education i n t h e i r classrooms o f t e n bore l i t t l e resemblance 65 e i t h e r to the o f f i c i a l Programme of Studie s or to t h e i r t r a i n i n g at Normal School. Weston's students d i d , however, take with them a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e to a r t education and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the importance of the s u b j e c t . (Rogers, 1987, p.278) Th i s document however, remained b a s i c a l l y unchanged through s e v e r a l p r i n t i n g s u n t i l a f t e r 1945 and both e x t e n s i v e l y and f o r m a l l y o u t l i n e d the programme. The heading, "Graphic A r t s : A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n " , i n t r o d u c e s the programme f o r grades one through s i x , which extended over f i f t e e n pages. From the i n t r o d u c t i o n comes the p h i l o s o p h y that "Art i n s t r u c t i o n broadens the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the works of nature and the c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s of man. I t c o n t r i b u t e s to r a i s i n g the standards of home and c i v i c l i f e and to the noble enjoyment of l e i s u r e " (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.148). The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s s e c t i o n were: 1. To develop h a b i t s of o b s e r v a t i o n of form, c o l o u r , and arrangement. 2. To t r a i n the memory of form and c o l o u r . 66 3. To encourage c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , g r a p h i c or p l a s t i c , w i t h i n the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s and exper i e n c e s . 4. To develop some t e c h n i c a l s k i l l and p r o f i c i e n c y i n the use of a r t m a t e r i a l s . 5. To e s t a b l i s h b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of s e l e c t i o n and arrangement of c o l o u r , for-fn, and d e c o r a t i o n . 6. To develop good t a s t e and judgement i n form, c o l o u r , and arrangement. The a c t i v i t i e s to accomplish these aims w i l l be d i r e c t e d through three main channels, namely:- 1. A p p l i c a t i o n ( A e s t h e t i c s ) . 2. A p p l i e d A r t ( C o n s t r u c t i o n and D e c o r a t i o n ) . 3. I n t e g r a t i o n with other s u b j e c t s . (DE, Programmes of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.148) The a p p r e c i a t i o n of A r t i n the elementary schools was l a i d out by grade. In a c o v e r i n g statement the emphasis f o r younger and o l d e r p u p i l s i s q u i t e e x p l i c i t . A p p r e c i a t i o n i m p l i e s enjoyment of the b e a u t i f u l 67 and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i t s contemplation. F e e l i n g s of p l e a s u r e and admiration are aroused, and l a t e r , as understanding i n c r e a s e s , ;the s u b j e c t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s compared with accepted standards of beauty i n de s i g n , form, and c o l o u r . As the s u b j e c t approaches or f a l l s s h o r t of those standards, so the pleasure and s a t i s f a c t i o n i s incr e a s e d or d i m i n i s h e d . The h a b i t u a l preference of t h a t which i s b e a u t i f u l and s u i t a b l e to the oc c a s i o n , the environment, or the prupose i s g e n e r a l l y known as 'good t a s t e ' . P i c t o r i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n - to which most courses i n A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n are c o n f i n e d - demands knowledge of the standards of beauty, and of the p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n , c o l o u r , and t o n a l v a l u e s . Hence, i n a c u r r i c u l u m f o r Elementary Schools (Primary Grades) i t should not be in c l u d e d ; i t must come i n l a t e r years when consciousness and reasoning have been more developed. However, p u p i l s i n the Elementary Schools should be brought i n t o c o n t a c t with the f i n e s t r e p r o d u c t i o n s of some of the world's best 68 p i c t u r e s , f o r i t i s agreed t h a t good t a s t e i s developed more by contagion than by i n s t r u c t i o n . These p i c t u r e s should be placed i n every school....No formal lessons i n p i c t o r i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n should be attempted, but co n v e r s a t i o n s about a the d i s p l a y should take place i n the Language Lessons. (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s . 1936, p.148-149) For grades four through s i x the p u p i l s are then encouraged to help decorate the classroom and use t h e i r own works as m a t e r i a l f o r formal lessons i n a p p r e c i a t i o n , based on " i n t e l l i g e n t use of space, c o l o u r , and tone" (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.149). In the classrooms of a l l the elementary s c h o o l grades: examples of p u p i l s ' work, and i l l u s t r a t i o n s used f o r s o c i a l study l e s s o n s , should be placed on the b u l l e t i n - b o a r d s with c o n s i d e r a b l e c a r e . P o t - p l a n t s , cut fl o w e r s , or a r t i f i c i a l d e c o r a t i o n s should ornament the window ledges. E v e r y t h i n g used i n the room should have i t s 69 p l a c e . A 'Corner for B e a u t i f u l Things' should be c r e a t e d . . . . Growing up i n such as atmosphere w i l l arouse response i n each c h i l d , and the foundations of good t a s t e w i l l be l a i d . . . . I t would be w e l l to remember the Art A p p r e c i a t i o n i s interwoven with the whole l i f e of the c h i l d , and teachers must grasp o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c u l t i v a t e the f e e l i n g f o r order and beauty i n the c r e a t i o n s of Nature and Man. (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.149-150) An e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y of books on A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n and H i s t o r y , Drawing and Design, Magazines, and Pamphlets, P r i n t s , and Catalogues was a l s o i n c l u d e d to help the teachers and/or s c h o o l s have an adaquate source of teacher i n f o r m a t i o n and classroom a i d e s (See Appendix I ) . Th i s was followed by a grade by grade l i s t of suggested p i c t u r e s and p r i n t s and t h e i r sources (See Appendix J ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t there i s only one Canadian a r t i s t i n t h i s l i s t , H o r a t i o Walker. The chosen p a i n t i n g s l i s t e d were mostly cre a t e d by the acknowledged masters of Western c u l t u r e . The p a i n t i n g s were chosen because they each 70 contained a t o p i c and/or moral l e s s o n considered c o r r e c t f o r the age of the c h i l d . What followed t h i s s e c t i o n was a two page spread f o r each of the s i x grades, which v e r y c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d the o b j e c t i v e s f o r the year under the headings; S p e c i f i c Aims or O b j e c t i v e s : Subject-matter, A c t i v i t i e s , or P r o j e c t s : M a t e r i a l s : Methods: D e s i r a b l e Attainments. The course f o r each year was not l a i d out as a s e t of p r o j e c t s , but as a s e t of s k i l l s to be l e a r n e d . I f a l l teachers at these l e v e l s taught the f u l l c u r r i c u l u m then the elementary p u p i l s of B r i t i s h Columbia had exposure to s u b s t a n t i a l A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n s c h o o l i n g . However, t h i s would be the i d e a l and was unobtainable because of f i n a n c e s and s t a f f i n g . I t i s enough to know what should be taught was very comprehensive even i f the l i k e l i h o o d of i t s implementation was low. The Vancouver c i t y s c h o o l s were more s u c c e s s f u l with these courses because of t h e i r broader f i n a n c i a l base and t h e i r past s t r e n g t h i n Drawing and Room De c o r a t i o n . The second s e c t i o n of the 1936 Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study i s " P r a c t i c a l A r t s . Grades I to V I I , " which i s spread over t h i r t y - n i n e pages of the 71 document. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n i t s t a t e s t h a t : The aim of hand-work i n the s c h o o l s i s to enlarge the scope of those experiences by p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the c r e a t i v e • i n s t i n c t s ' i n the making of t h i n g s and a p p r a i s i n g t h e i r v a l u e s , and to develop true a p p r e c i a t i o n by t r i a l and e r r o r , o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e f l e c t i o n s , s e a r c h i n g s , success, and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of worthy accomplishments. (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.164) The f o u r t h "General O b j e c t i v e " , "To c u l t i v a t e standards of t a s t e which w i l l i n s p i r e r e s p e c t f o r t h i n g s w e l l done" (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.164), i s d i r e c t e d at a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s . Each grade i s then d e a l t with i n d e t a i l g i v i n g example u n i t s and a c t i v i t i e s . Many suggestions f o r i n t e g r a t i o n with Art and S o c i a l Studies are mentioned as w e l l as s k i l l s and techniques needed f o r each grade. A e s t h e t i c education i s couched i n terms of " a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the b e a u t i f u l - i n c l u d i n g an a d m i r a t i o n of p e r f e c t i o n i n workmanship and f i n i s h " 72 (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.170). The philosophy, t h a t by t r y i n g to c r e a t e l i k e a c r a f t s p e r s o n , the p u p i l s a p p r e c i a t e the products of the labours of others i s c e n t r a l to the course o u t l i n e . In the f o u r t h , f i f t h , and s i x t h grades the a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the development i n the use of some m a t e r i a l s from p r i m i t i v e man to present manufacturing, leans towards A r t H i s t o r y . Media used i n the upper three grades were: P l a s t i c or C l a y M o d e l l i n g , Paper and Cardboard M o d e l l i n g and Bookbinding, N e e d l e c r a f t , and i n grade s i x f o r boys only, L i g h t Woodwork. In the Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia: Rural School B u l l e t i n of 1939, the opening comments s t a t e d the r e a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of the 1936 r e v i s e d Programme of S t u d i e s : The Programme of Studies f o r Elementary Schools, 1936, was planned i n accordance with the best present-day e d u c a t i o n a l thought I t was not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the Programme would be c a r r i e d out with equal e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n a l l schools i n the P r o v i n c e . Such f a c t o r s as the s i z e of the sc h o o l s t a f f , the experience, t r a i n i n g , and 73 p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge of t e a c h e r s , the s u i t a b i l i t y of s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , the s i z e and q u a l i t y of the school l i b r a r y , the adequacy of s u p p l i e s and equipment, are a l l v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g the way i n which the Programme might be a d m i n i s t e r e d . Though a high standard of teacher performance was e n v i s i o n e d , the response of teachers to the demands made upon then has been remarkable. (DE, Programme of Stu d i e s f o r the Elementary Schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Rural Schools B u l l e t i n , 1939, p.3) One of the major p e r c e i v e d misconceptions of the 1936 document was t h a t there should be a preoccupation with subject-matter and t e s t i n g , " r a t h e r than with the development of understanding, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and a p p r e c i a t i o n " (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia: Rural Schools B u l l e t i n , 1939, p.3) of what i s l e a r n e d . T h i s r e l a t e s to the p h i l o s o p h i e s of education c u r r e n t at the time, which w i l l be d e a l t with l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. In the f i r s t c u r r i c u l u m f o r the J u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, w r i t t e n f o r the s c h o o l 74 year 1927-28, a e s t h e t i c e ducation i n the v i s u a l a r t s was i n evidence. A r t as a s u b j e c t was compulsory i n grade seven and was an e l e c t e d s u b j e c t i n both grades e i g h t and n i n e . Under the heading "General Aims", the f i r s t two of four l i s t e d are p e r i n e n t : "1. The c u l t i v a t i o n of an a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n of form, space r e l a t i o n s , and c o l o u r as found i n the environment. 2. Improvement i n t a s t e and general c u l t u r e through an acquaintance with the great a r t products of the world." (DE, Programme of Studies f o r the J r . High Schools of B i t i s h Columbia, 1928, p.77). P u p i l s of grades seven and e i g h t i n "Elements of Design.- (were) To develop a p p r e c i a t i o n of beauty i n l i n e , form, and c o l o u r , and to a p p l y these elements to designs f o r the workshop so t h a t the forms s h a l l be a p p r o p r i a t e to the m a t e r i a l s " (DE, Programme of Studies f o r the J r . High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1928, p.77), whereas the grade nines had a separate heading "Lessons i n Art A p p r e c i a t i o n " . Although t h i s l e f t much open to the teacher as to how t h i s a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n was to be undertaken, a note at the bottom of the s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d e t a i l e d course would be drawn up i n the Summer School of 1929 and d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l J r . 75 High Schools. The Programme of Studies f o r J r . High Schools 1932 had a more d e t a i l e d a r t programme. The f i r s t two o b j e c t i v e s , which d e a l with a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n , are i d e n t i c a l i n wording to the 1927-28 "General Aims". The "Mechanical Drawing" s e c t i o n was removed to I n d u s t r i a l Education and Home Economics and the "Applied Design and A r t C r a f t s " and "Elements of Design" s e c t i o n s were reorked e x t e n s i v e l y under "Design" and "Applied Design". Most of the previous q u o t a t i o n from "Elements of Design" concerning a p p r e c i a t i o n of beauty stayed i n t a c t and nothing new d e a l i n g with a e s t h e t i c education was added. The "Art A p p r e c i a t i o n " s e c t i o n of both grades e i g h t and nine was extended to read: "Study of c o l l e c t e d specimens with a view to f i n d i n g the a r t p r i n c i p l e s contained t h e r e i n " (DE, Programme of Studies f o r J r . High Schools, 1932, p.138). There was a l s o a twenty-six item b i b l i o g r a p h y appended to the e n t i r e s e c t i o n , the l a s t seven e n t r i e s have to do with A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n . (See Appendix K) The Home Economic s e c t i o n of the Programme of Studies c o n t a i n s a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " A pplied A r t " and 76 shows concern f o r educating g i r l s "to develop i n the mind... a e s t h e t i c standards by which to evaluate a l l works of a r t r e l a t i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l , the home, and the community" (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s f o r J r . High Schools., 1932, p.101). The r e s t of the s e c t i o n d e a l s with i n t e r i o r d e s i g n , costume d e s i g n , and c r a f t s f o r the home. There are as w e l l s e v e r a l mentions of the c r e a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and c r e a t i n g o b j e c t s of beauty as w e l l as development of good t a s t e , a p p r e c i a t i o n , and the power of a r t i s t i c e s p r e s s i o n . The g i r l s then seemed to be r e c e i v i n g a more comprehensive a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s . The boys were having the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the design of an o b j e c t , and the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of m a t e r i a l s to the f u n c t i o n of the o b j e c t taught to them, but there was not the extent of a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s i n t h e i r course o u t l i n e as with the g i r l s . Although the o b j e c t i v e s stayed the same i n the 19 39 Programme of Stu d i e s f o r the J u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia,, v e r y l i t t l e e l s e was c a r r i e d over from the 1932 document i n i t s o r i g i n a l form. I t was planned as a continuum to the 1936 Elementary 77 Programme of Studies so that s k i l l s c o uld be b u i l t on and ideas strengthened. The course i s presented as "a f i e l d of s e l e c t i o n s r a t h e r than a p r e s c r i p t i o n of content to be learned or of t h i n g s to be done" (DE, Programme of Studies f o r the J r . High Schools, 1939, p.449). The course i s d i v i d e d i n t o ten segments to be a l l o t t e d time throughout the year. Some would be more time demanding than o t h e r s , they a r e , i n the order presented i n the document: Repr e s e n t a t i v e Drawing, Memory and Imaginative Drawing, Composition, Colour, Design, s t r u c t u r a l and d e c o r a t i v e , C r a f t s , a p p l y i n g design p r i n c i p l e s , L e t t e r i n g , A p p r e c i a t i o n , Vocabulary of a r t terms, and New s k i l l s and techniques. There i s a s t a t e d b e l i e f i n the opening comments, t h a t o n l y through c o n s t r u c t i v e , c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s about t o p i c s and works of a r t , where the p u p i l has the freedom to express h i s or her pre f e r e n c e s and the reasons f o r t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s , i s true a p p r e c i a t i o n secured. The content f o r the A p p r e c i a t i o n segment of the course i s : A p p r e c i a t i o n : Emotional and I n t e l e c t u a l . Awakening of c r i t i c a l mindedness through judgement and comparison of c o l o u r , composition, and s t r u c t u r e i n works of a r t " (DE, Programme of Studi e s 78 f o r the J r . High Schools, 1939, p.450). A p p r e c i a t i o n then became a s o l i d b u i l d i n g block i n the o f f i c i a l A r t c u r r i c u l u m f o r the J u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. The formal course o u t l i n e f o r each grade i s ex t e n s i v e and comprehensive i n d e s i g n . The grade seven course c o n t a i n s three main themes: The Home, The L i v i n g Room, and Design i n P r i n t i n g and A d v e r t i s i n g . Each of these was followed by a l i s t of suggested t o p i c s with a c t i v i t i e s suggested f o r each t o p i c and a l s o s e l e c t e d r e f e r e n c e s . The m a j o r i t y of students at the end of Grade V I I I . d i s c o n t i n u e the study of A r t . T h i s (grade e i g h t ) o u t l i n e has been planned to provide the minimum e s s e n t i a l s t h a t w i l l form the foundation of good t a s t e - e n r i c h i n g the f u t u r e l i v e s of the students by e s t a b l i s h i n g confidence i n t h e i r own judgment. (DE, Programme of Studies J r . High School, 1939, p.455) With t h i s idea i n mind the course o u t l i n e , e n t i t l e d "Design i n A r t and Industry" i s broken down i n t o : 79 Design i n Commercial A r t , H i s t o r i c Sources of Design i n Industry, Design i n P a i n t i n g , and Design i n Modern Industry. Again a l a r g e s e l e c t i o n of suggested t o p i c s , a c t i v i t i e s , and r e l e v a n t r e f e r e n c e s are i n c l u d e d under each area. Although the M i n i s t r y ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n i s t h a t of a s e l e c t i o n of areas to choose from, there i s a recommendation that as many as p o s s i b l e be undertaken depending on the a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s of the p u p i l s . I f these d e s i g n areas were d e a l t with through the a c t i v i t i e s g i v e n , using the r e f e r e n c e s s u p p l i e d , then the a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s was e x t e n s i v e at t h i s time i n h i s t o r y . The grade nine year had two courses o u t l i n e d . One was a "General Course" f o r p u p i l s i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and the other was "Art A p p r e c i a t i o n " . T h i s second course was r e q u i r e d by a l l p u p i l s t a k i n g the "General Course", but was a l s o a v a i l a b l e to those p u p i l s " i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t knowledge but p o s s e s s i n g l i t t l e a b i l i t y i n draughtsmanship or c r a f t t echniques" (DE, Programme of St u d i e s f o r the J r . High Schools, 1939, p.459). The "General Course" was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o : Composition, Drawing, Colour, Design and C r a f t s , and L e t t e r i n g and A d v e r t i s i n g A r t . 80 Each area was again s u p p l i e d with suggested t o p i c s , a c t i v i t i e s , and s e l e c t e d r e f e r e n c e s . There was v i r t u a l l y no s p e c i f i c a e s t h e t i c education i n t h i s course, i t was p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s k i l l s and techniques, but teachers may have used a e s t h e t i c education d i s c u s s i o n s to promote progress i n a c t i v i t i e s . The "Art A p p r e c i a t i o n " course was designed f o r the purpose of " e n a b l i n g a student to enjoy the contemplation of f i n e work as w e l l as to understand i t . Enjoyment should come f i r s t " (DE, Programme of Studies f o r the J r . High Schools, 1939, p.463). With t h a t concept i n mind then the o u t l i n e was given as: Design, A r c h i t e c t u r e , S c u l p t u r e , P i c t o r i a l A r t , and A r t i n Industry. P a r t 1. I n d u s t r i a l A r t ; P a r t 2. A d v e r t i s i n g A r t . A very complete and d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e i s l a i d out so t h a t s e l e c t i o n from i t can be taken through which the teacher can lead the p u p i l s i n t o a g e n e r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n of a l l a r t work. Th i s may sound l i k e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of p u p i l s were r e c e i v i n g "Art A p p r e c i a t i o n " i n the J u n i o r High Schools, but by the s c h o o l year 1938-39, there were s t i l l o n l y t h i r t y - f o u r J u n i o r High Schools i n the p r o v i n c e . 81 As the m a j o r i t y of p u p i l s d i c o n t i n u e d the study of A r t a f t e r grade e i g h t , the p o p u l a t i o n l i k e l y to be r e c e i v i n g t h i s comprehensive s e r i e s of courses was v e r y s m a l l . The Superior Schools were d i r e c t e d to adapt the program to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , which most l i k e l y came down to a reasonably l i m i t e d o f f e r i n g i n A r t i n grades seven through ten. The High School Programme of St u d i e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia was slower to change i n the e a r l i e r p o r t i o n of t h i s time segment of the study. In the 1928 document there was no s u g g e s t i o n of a e s t h e t i c education i n the grade nine A r t Course. The " T e c h n i c a l Courses" f o r boys and g i r l s , however, contained s e c t i o n s on Drawing and Design, which promoted the idea of a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s . The boys were supposed to be taught the p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n and i n the t h i r d year were to r e c e i v e "Lessons i n a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n " , although d e t a i l s as to what these lessons might be were not s u p p l i e d . The g i r l s ' courses were l a i d out with an i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g r e l i a b l e t a s t e and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of c o l o u r , form, and arrangement. Most of t h i s work was connected with the c l o t h i n g c l a s s e s 82 a n d b y s e c o n d y e a r a s t u d y o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e s o f d r e s s was a d d e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n . A s m o s t s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d i n t h e s e c o u r s e s u n t i l t h e e n d o f g r a d e e l e v e n , many w e r e e x p o s e d t o a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s i n t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f i d e a s t o p r o j e c t s . The New P r o g r a m m e o f S t u d i e s f o r t h e H i g h a n d T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1 9 3 0 . The A r t C o u r s e f o r m e r l y o f g r a d e n i n e was g r e a t l y e x p a n d e d a n d i t s m a i n s t r e s s seems t o e n c o m p a s s a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n . "The a w a k e n i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t t o w h a t i s g o o d i n f o r m , c o l o u r , a n d d e s i g n c a n come o n l y t h r o u g h a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i c s a s i n l i t e r a t u r e a n d m u s i c " ( D E , P r o g r a m m e o f S t u d i e s f o r H i g h a n d T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 0 , p . 1 6 2 ) , m a r r i e s a e s t h e t i c e d u a c t i o n i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s t o t h e e n t i r e a r t c o u r s e . A p p r e c i a t i o n a n d A r t H i s t o r y a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t f o u r s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o u r s e : D r a w i n g , D e s i g n , L e t t e r i n g , a n d C o l o u r S t u d y . The l a s t s e c t i o n " A p p r e c i a t i o n " , i s e x p l a i n e d a t l e n g t h w i t h i t s p r i m e e m p h a s i s b e i n g t h a t e v e r y p u p i l m u s t be a l l o w e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s f r e e l y r e g a r d i n g w o r k s o f a r t . The p u p i l s 83 s h o u l d a l s o be e n c o u r a g e d t o s e a r c h f o r w o r k s o f man a n d n a t u r e t h a t e x e m p l i f y t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f a r t , f o r c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n . T h e s e k i n d s o f i d e a s c e r t a i n l y e n l a r g e t h e a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n c o m p o n e n t o f t h e c o u r s e . O r i g i n a l l y t h e A r t n i n e c o u r s e c o u l d h a v e b e e n t a k e n i n g r a d e s n i n e t h r o u g h t w e l v e , t i m e - t a b l i n g a l l o w i n g , b u t w i t h t h i s P r o g r a m m e o f S t u d i e s t h e f i n a l t h r e e y e a r s o f H i g h S c h o o l a r e g i v e n t h e i r own A r t C o u r s e s t o a d d t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p u p i l s . The g r a d e n i n e c o u r s e i s d e s i g n a t e d " A r t I " a n d e a c h o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e A r t C o u r s e s d e s c r i b e d became n u m b e r e d I I , I I I , I V f o r g r a d e s t e n , e l e v e n , a n d t w e l v e . The f i r s t o f t h e s e c o u r s e s i s " C o m m e r c i a l A r t " , t h e G e n e r a l A i m o f w h i c h s t a r t s w i t h " t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f wha t i s g o o d i n a l l f o r m s o f g r a p h i c c o m m e r c i a l a r t " ( D E , P r o g r a m m e o f S t u d i e s f o r H i g h a n d T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 0 , p . 1 6 5 ) . E a c h o f t h e f i r s t t w o y e a r s o f t h i s c o u r s e h a d t h e p u p i l s c o l l e c t i n g e x a m p l e s o f C o m m e r c i a l A r t f o r c r i t i c i s m a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n . The s e c o n d s e t o f c o u r s e s was i n " I n t e r i o r D e c o r a t i o n " , w h e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n was a b a s i c c o m p o n e n t . L o o k i n g a t h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r i o r s , f u r n i t u r e , m a t e r i a l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n i n t e r i o r s 84 of s t r u c t u r e s was i n t e g r a l to the course i n each of the three y e a r s . The t h i r d stream was "Costume Design". A p p r e c i a t i o n was a b a s i c u n i t i n the f i r s t two years with a study of h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e s added i n the t h i r d year. I t would seem a d i f f i c u l t task to study costume without r e f e r i n g to i l l u s t r a t i n o n s of costumes of h i s t o r i c dress as examples of h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l s and a c c e s s o r i e s . So although h i s t o r i c dress i s mentioned on l y i n the t h i r d year, there was a s t r o n g l i k e l i h o o d of some h i s t o r i c a p p r e c i a t i o n i n the courses of the f i r s t two years as w e l l . The three branches of A r t E x p r e s s i o n (Commercial A r t , I n t e r i o r Decoration, and Costume Design) have been chosen as the o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s because in c o n j u n c t i o n with the b a s i c s u b j e c t s they o f f e r e d most p r a c t i c e i n t h i n k i n g , judging and d e c i d i n g along such a e s t h e t i c l i n e s as w i l l be most commonly met w i t h i n the every-day environment of the p u p i l . (DE, Programme os Studies f o r High and T e c h n i c a l Schools, 19 30, p.170) 85 Although these new courses sound very e x c i t i n g and i t seemed as though a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s had r e c e i v e d a major promotion i n B r i t i s h Columbia's High Schools, i t i s a r e a l i t y t h a t o n l y the l a r g e s t few of B r i t i s h Columbia's more that e i g h t y High Schools would o f f e r a l l of these A r t Programmes. Many of the High Schools of t h i s time had l e s s than ten teachers so a l l of the s p e c i a l t y and/or e l e c t i v e courses i n the Programme of Studi e s c o u l d not be o f f e r e d throughout the p r o v i n c e . The "Applied A r t s " s e c t i o n i n t h i s Programme of Studies was not a l t e r e d very much from the 1928 document. There was s t i l l a s t r o n g a e s t h e t i c education emphasis f o r the g i r l s through t h e i r Home Ecomomics c l o t h i n g course. The boys continued to have l e s s suggestions of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r I n d u s t r i a l A r t s courses. Through the eyes of the Programme of S t u d i e s , the 1930's got o f f to a great s t a r t f o r a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s i n the High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. The next Programme of Studies f o r High Schools i s s u e d to the sc h o o l s was i n 1937. The A r t s e c t i o n i n t h i s Programme of Studies was expanded from a nine 86 page spread i n 1930 to f o r t y pages. The format i s very s i m i l a r to the 1936 Programme of St u d i e s f o r the Elementary Schools, but the columns are headed "To p i c s , A c t i v i t i e s , and References" i n s t e a d of " M a t e r i a l s , Methods and D e s i r a b l e Attainments". Grade nine A r t , A r t I I I , has two o u t l i n e s "General A r t " and "Art A p p r e c i a l t i o n " , which have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n the J u n i o r High School s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. A r t IV, V, VI f o r grades ten to twelve, were a l l devided i n t o two courses "General A r t " and A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n " . There i s no longer the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t a l l p u p i l s t a k i n g "General A r t " must a l s o take "Art A p p r e c i a t i o n " . The "General A r t " s e c t i o n c o u l d now be taken through four d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n s t e a d of t h r e e : Costume Design, I n t e r i o r D e c o r a t i o n , Commercial A r t , and Design and C r a f t . In each of the three years of a l l four of these courses " A p p r e c i a t i o n " was a component of the o u t l i n e . The "Art A p p r e c i a t i o n " course was broken down i n t o comonents: Design, A r c h i t e c t u r e , S c u l p t u r e , P i c t o r i a l A r t , and Art i n Industry. P a r t 1. I n d u s t r i a l Design; P a r t 2. A d v e r t i s i n g A r t , a l l of which c o u l d be worked i n t o each years o f f e r i n g s . The o u t l i n e f o r each year 87 i s a s u g g e s t i o n of what should be covered at each grade l e v e l , but i t was not expected that a l l the m a t e r i a l should or could be covered i n the year's program. " H i s t o r i c a l O u t l i n e s " f o r r e f e r e n c e were s u p p l i e d f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e , S c u l p t u r e , and P i c t o r i a l A r t , as w e l l as a three page b i b l i o g r a p h y f o r r e f e r e n c e i n the s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s . To have A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n move from a s i n g l e year's course to t h i s present o f f e r i n g i n the 1937 Programme of Stu d i e s was a major advanceement f o r a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s . However, i t s t i l l must be held i n mind t h a t o n l y the l a r g e s t of the approximately one hundred ten High Schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia would be o f f e r i n g the f u l l Programme of Studies to t h e i r p u p i l s . Many of the s m a l l e r High Schools would have to s i m p l i f y t h e i r o f f e r i n g s or not o f f e r these e l e c t i v e s at a l l because of lack of s t a f f . The 1941 Programme of Stu d i e s f o r High Schools had no r e a l changes i n the A r t Programme, except that the b i b l i o g r a p h y was omitted. The Programme of S t u d i e s , Home Economics f o r the J u n i o r and Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, of 1937 has a r e l a t i v e l y s u b s t a n t i a l amount of a e s t h e t i c 88 education i n the v i s u a l a r t s as a component of i t s courses. The grade seven course was o u t l i n e d i n three s e c t i o n s : A r t S t r u c t u r e , Craft-Work, and Dress A p p r e c i a t i o n . In each s e c t i o n development of pers o n a l t a s t e and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the b e a u t i f u l were emphasised. Grades e i g h t through twelve had the course d i v i d e d i n t o four s e c t i o n s : A r t S t r u c t u r e , Craft-Work, Dress A p p r e c i a t i o n , and I n t e r i o r D e c o r a t i o n . Within the "Aims" of each of these s e c t i o n s are the comments: "development of Taste and Technique...appreciation of f i n e c r a f t - w o r k . . . l e a d the student to the a p p r e c i a t i o n of s u i t a b l e c l o t h i n g . . . to c r e a t e a f i n e atmosphere i n the home" (DE, Programme of S t u d i e s , Home Economics, 1937, p.241-2). These types of comments were found throughout the e n t i r e s e r i e s of courses from grade seven to twelve, with an attempt at refinement of t a s t e and a p p r e c i a t i o n as the p u p i l progressed. For the tea c h e r , Summer School course o u t l i n e s from 1925 to 1930 can be read i n the Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools of those years and each has an A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n component. They were u s u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d with s l i d e s and r e p r o d u c t i o n s of works of d i f f e r e n t 89 s c h o o l s of a r t : "The F l o r e n t i n e School of p a i n t i n g and a r t c r a f t s m a n s h i p ; the Venetian School; the a r t i s t s of F l a n d e r s , Holland, France, B r i t a i n , America, and Canada" (DE, ARPS, 1925, p.M69). Within the other course o u t l i n e s were comments on a p p r e c i a t i o n and development of t a s t e , but the o u t l i n e s are very b r i e f and l a c k i n g i n d e t a i l or s u g g e s t i o n of how these concepts were d e a l t with i n the s e s s i o n s . High School Entrance Exams i n Drawing from 1925 t o 1930 p r i n t e d i n the Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools have a b s o l u t e l y no a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s i n them. The only judgment on work i s that of the p u p i l s who must s e l e c t examples of c e r t a i n techniques from t h e i r p o r t f o l i o s p r i o r to commencing the t e s t proper. The t e s t s of two or three p a r t s have a copying e x e r c i s e , a l e t t e r i n g e x e r c i s e , and i n one case a drawing from memory. A f t e r 1930 these exams were d i s c o n t i n u e d i n the Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools, but f o r these f i v e years i t i s e v i d e n t that a grasp of a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s was of no i n t e r e s t to the examiners. The expanded scope of a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s i n the 1930's d i d not j u s t happen i n 90 B r i t i s h Columbia. These changes were the r e s u l t o£ movements and p h i l o s o p h i e s growing and spreading throughout much of North America and Europe. S e v e r a l of these "Movements" o r i g i n a t e d many years e a r l i e r , and although they may have been known of by the educators and M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , they were not f o r m a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m of B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l t h i s time. Seeing the p u p i l as an i n d i v i d u a l with needs and q u a l i t i e s p e c u l i a r to h i s or her own s e l f , s l o w l y developed through s e v e r a l of these "Movements" that were growing around the Western World and i n f u s i n g i n t o the s c h o o l systems. F r i e d r i c h F r o e b e l ' s teachings i n the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d area, based on the ideas of Rousseau and P e s t a l o z z i , were in s t r u m e n t a l i n these changes. He b e l i e v e d there was innate c r e a t i v i t y w i t h i n each c h i l d which had to be f o s t e r e d and nurtured r a t h e r than having concepts inposed upon the c h i l d by the school system. T h i s idea was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the e v o l u t i o n from the hand-eye c o o r d i n a t i o n emphasis to the search f o r the c r e a t i o n of beauty emphasis i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . Growing through the e a r l y C h i l d A r t Movement of Europe, i n the l a t e 91 1800's, and c o n t i n u i n g through the P i c t u r e Study Movement that began i n the e a r l y 1900's, we come to the C r e a t i v i t y Movement i n the 1930's and 1940's. The changes i n c u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h Columbia through these time p e r i o d s i n c l u d e d some of the elemental ideas proposed by these movements. John Dewey was one of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s w i t h i n the c h i l d c e ntered, C r e a t i v i t y Movement, who b e l i e v e d experience and experimentation on the c h i l d ' s p a r t as being the key to the r e a l i z a t i o n of the c r e a t i b v e powers w i t h i n each c h i l d . Marion Richardson of England, was toured a c r o s s Canada by the Carnegie T r u s t , i n 1934 l e c t u r i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y Summer Schools, promoting the development of the imagination through a r t . Accor d i n g to Miss Richardson, the p u p i l ' s n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t s not the formal s y l l a b u s should be the b a s i s of the A r t Program. Arthur Lismer, one of the Group of Seven, founded the C h i l d A r t Movement i n Canada and was very a c t i v e In E a s t e r n Canada promoting the ideas of the movement. He organized a huge t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n of Cizek's 92 c h i l d r e n ' s drawings from Europe i n 1927 and i n 1937 helped the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y arrange a t o u r i n g e x h i b i t of Canadian c h i l d a r t . Arthur Lismer b e l i e v e d that " a r t i s not a s u b j e c t nor a p r o f e s s i o n but a way of l i f e , a r e l e a s e f o r s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s which are s t r o n g i n c h i l d r e n and as e s s e n t i a l to growth as b o d y - b u i l d i n g e x e r c i s e s and mental s t i m u l a n t s " (McLeish, 1955, p.127). Charles Dudley G a i t s k e l l , a product of the B r i t i s h Columbia system, returned to i t as a teacher i n 1934 i n the Peace River E d u c a t i o n a l Area. Backed by c u r r e n t Art Education ideas, he deplored the s t a t e of A r t Education i n the r u r a l s c h o o l s . He s e t to work d e s i g n i n g and w r i t i n g a s e r i e s of s i x t e e n new a r t l e s s o n s . These were t e s t e d through the s c h o o l s of the Peace R i v e r E d u c a t i o n a l Area and were e f f e c t i v e enough t h a t both the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , d i s p l a y e d the p u p i l s ' works. In 1936 he was appointed as a t r a v e l l i n g A r t S p e c i a l i s t , with c o n t r o l over the a r t supply budget f o r the area. He valued the developmental growth of the c h i l d r a t h e r than the p h y s i c a l a r t product as 93 b e i n g t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o u t c o m e s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s . He s t a y e d i n t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l 1938 when he p r o m o t e d t h e i d e a o f a p r o v i n c i a l t r a v e l l i n g A r t S p e c i a l i s t , w h i c h was n o t a d o p t e d b y t h e M i n i s t r y a n d t h e n he moved t o t h e P o w e l l R i v e r E d u c a t i o n a l A r e a , w h e r e he s t a y e d u n t i l 1 9 4 4 . A l t h o u g h he l e f t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r O n t a r i o a t t h a t t i m e h i s w r i t i n g c o n t i n u e d h i s i n f l u e n c e i n t h e A r t E d u c a t i o n f i e l d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The l a s t p e r s o n w i t h i n t h i s t i m e p e r i o d who h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t on A r t E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was W . P . W e s t o n , a t e a c h e r a n d a r t i s t . W . P . W e s t o n e n t e r e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e d u c a t i o n a l s c e n e i n 1 9 0 7 , t h e n i n 1 9 1 0 , he was a p p o i n t e d D r a w i n g S u p e r v i s o r f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . He s t a y e d i n t h i s p l a c e m e n t u n t i l 1914 when he moved t o t h e V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c i a l N o r m a l S c h o o l t o become t h e A r t M a s t e r , w h e r e he s t a y e d u n t i l 1 9 4 6 . T h i s g a v e h i m one o f t h e l o n g e s t a n d h i g h e s t p r o f i l e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r t E d u c a t i o n c a r e e r s i n o u r h i s t o r y . M a n y t h o u s a n d s o f y o u n g t e a c h e r s p a s s e d t h r o u g h h i s c l a s s e s i n t h e s e y e a r s , w e r e t a u g h t b y h i m a n d d i s p e r s e d h i s t e a c h i n g s o v e r more t h a n a t h i r t y y e a r c o n t i n u u m . He p u b l i s h e d 94 two Drawing Manuals, the f i r s t with S c o t t and Judge, the second on h i s own, both of which were adopted f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia schools from 1924 u n t i l a f t e r 1945. These had very l i t t l e a e s t h e t i c education i n them, they were b a s i c a l l y a manual of s k i l l s . The Normal School course, taught by W.P. Weston, contained a s e c t i o n or A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n and H i s t o r y , as w e l l as how to choose and use p i c t u r e s f o r the classroom. The Regulat i o n s and Courses of Study f o r P r o v i n c i a l Normal Schools f o r 1928-29, 1934, and 1939 a l l l i s t these a e s t h e t i c education s e c t i o n s . The importance of c a r e f u l l y i m p l a n t i n g i n a l l p u p i l s as a e s t h e t i c sense i s argued f o r as few w i l l a t t a i n a high degree of s k i l l as craftsmen. As a member of the Canadian Group of P a i n t e r s , W.P. Weston himself was a re s p e c t e d a r t i s t . T h i s s e c t i o n of the study has shown g r e a t e r M i n i s t e r i a l i n t e r e s t i n a e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s , which i s a s e n s i t i v e r e a c t i o n to the e d u c a t i o a l trends and "movements" c u r r e n t i n the Western World at t h a t time. The momentum of i n t e r e s t 95 r i s e s through the 1920's and seems to reach i t s peak by the l a t e 1930's, although i t continues at t h i s high i n t e r e s t l e v e l through to 1945, the f i n a l year covered by t h i s study. 96 Chapter F i v e A Look at Some of the Textbooks and Reference Books Recommended by the Department of Education throughout the Study p e r i o d Through the course of t h i s study c e r t a i n t e x t s , e x e r c i s e books and r e f e r e n c e books have been recommended or a u t h o r i z e d f o r use in the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. A u t h o r i z e d p u p i l t e x t s f o r A r t were f i r s t l i s t e d in the 1891-92 P u b l i c Schools Report and continued through to 1925. Reference books are recommended throughout the span of t h i s study and some of them are suggested o f t e n enough that, they most c e r t a i n l y were important in the development of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n in the v i s u a l a r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Only two teacher's r e f e r e n c e books were mentioned before 1900: Teacher's Text Book, by the Reverend Dr. F o r r e s t e r , in the 1879-80 P u b l i c Schools Report, and Common Schools Education. by James C u r r i e , in the 1883-84 P u b l i c Schools Report. There was no r e f e r e n c e in the P u b l i c Schools Report to e i t h e r of these books c o n t a i n i n g s e c t i o n s on a r t or a e s t h e t i c i n s t r u c t i o n . 97 F o r r e s t e r ' s work c o n t a i n s e i g h t pages d e a l i n g with A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n . Although couched in the language of a r e l i g i o u s teacher h i s idea of a e s t h e t i c education can be concluded to mean, "the c u l t i v a t i o n of the sense of the b e a u t i f u l , - that sense on which the whole of the f i n e a r t s depends" ( F o r r e s t e r , 1867, p. 167). The search f o r and study of beauty i s s t a t e d as being the e q u i v a l e n t to l o o k i n g f o r the s p i r i t of the "Great C r e a t o r " and the r e v e l l i n g in the magnificance of His c r e a t i o n s . How t h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d and rendered into the p u b l i c schools system i s d i f f i c u l t to comprehend, but at l e a s t t h i s recommended r e f e r e n c e s t r o n g l y promoted a e s t h e t i c education i n the f i n e a r t s . In the years u n t i l 1900, the only textbooks mentioned were Freehand Drawing, by Walter Smith, and The Canadian S e r i e s of Drawing Books, from the Canada P u b l i s h i n g Company, both of which were mentioned in the 1891-92 P u b l i c Schools Report. Smith's book was w r i t t e n to accompany a set of Drawing-Cards. The f i r s t set of 42 cards deal with geometric terms, shapes and symmetry. The second set of 42 cards i s n e a r l y a l l based on p l a n t forms and the use of 98 symmetry. In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n he s t a t e s that as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s course of drawing, both in i t s primary and advanced grades, that the p i c t u r e - element, as such, i s almost e n t i r e l y excluded....the author d e s i r e s , f i r s t of a l l , to make them aquainted with the b e a u t i e s of pure form and with the p r i n c i p l e s of good des i g n . (Smith, 1883, p.5-6) The Canadian S e r i e s of Drawing Books was unobtainable by the w r i t e r , but Prang's New Graded Course in Drawing f o r Canadian Schools, p u b l i s h e d in Toronto by Gage and Company in 1901 c o n t r a d i c t e d Smith's ideas. Where Smith d i d not b e l i e v e p i c t u r e making should be undertaken by c h i l d r e n , whereas the Prang e x e r c i s e books proposed s t i l l l i f e , posing of student models, and landscapes. The Prang Co. book a l s o i n c l u d e d drawing geometric shapes and t e c h n i c a l drawing by year t h r e e . By l o o k i n g at the teacher exams and the High School entrance exams of 1892 to 1898, some idea of the implementation of the content of these t e x t s can be d e r i v e d . There i s a s t r o n g geometric element to 99 these exams with more than h a l f of the questions r e l a t i n g to t h i s t o p i c . The freehand drawing tends to be memory work with symmetry and geometry i n v o l v e d , although on some exams drawing from a model i s i n c l u d e d . In a Teacher's Manual f o r Prang's S h o r t e r Course in Form Study and Drawing, p u b l i s h e d in 1888, there i s a thorough o u t l i n e of what was in t h e i r Drawing Books and how they c o u l d be best used. As the Prang books came in to general use s h o r t l y afterwards in B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s l i k e l y tha ;t some of the vague statements on a e s t h e t i c education presented t h e r e i n were a l s o common to the Canadian Drawing S e r i e s . F i t n e s s to its,purpose i s the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e , - the very corner stone of a l l good ornament. From t h i s p r i n c i p l e of f i t n e s s f o r i t s purpose there a r i s e s the fundamental law of ornamentation, - S u b o r d i n a t i o n . T h i s law r e q u i r e s , THAT ALL ORNAMENT SHALL BE MODEST AND MODERATE. Strong c o n t r a s t s and s t r i k i n g e f f e c t s v i o l a t e i t . I l l u s t r a t i o n s of t h i s requirement in 100 matters of good t a s t e in general are f a m i l i a r to a l l . ( C l a r k , Hicks, & Perry, 1888, p.76) H i s t o r i c ornament i s introduced in Book III of Prangs's f i v e book s e r i e s , not to teach s t y l e of ornament, but to merely give examples of s t y l e used in the past. Moorish ornament i s f i r s t presented because of i t s geometric q u a l i t e s to be used as models by the p u p i l s i n the making of A r a b i c borders in the Drawing Book. Egyptian Wave S c r o l l borders, G o t h i c ivy leaves in borders as well as F l e u r - d e - l i s and L i l a c leaves as used in the h i s t o r i c ornament included in t h i s s e r i e s of books. Most of these d e c o r a t i v e ideas are a l s o r e f l e c t e d in the B r i t i s h Columbia High School entrance exams and the teacher exams of that p e r i o d p u b l i s h e d in the P u b l i c Schools Report. T h i s r e f l e c t i o n would a l s o i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r i t y between the content of the two s e r i e s of Drawing Books. There was a l s o an emphasis on the modifying of e x i s t i n g designs to show improvement and v a r i e t y . The term "Arrangement", which i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r e d to in t h i s e a r l y time p e r i o d of t h i s study, i s q u i t e f u l l y e x p l a i n e d as: 101 Study by P u p i l s of the Arrangement of a G r o u p . - In s t u d y i n g the arrangement of a group, c o n s i d e r - 1. The p l ace of the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t . 2. The p l ace of the secondary o b j e c t . 3. The f i g u r e made by the group on the t a b l e . 4. UNITY of the group - d i s t a n c e between obj e c t s . 5. REPOSE of the o b j e c t . 6. VARIETY in the p o s i t i o n s of the axes and in the f aces v i s i b l e . 7. P a r t i a l view of some of the o b j e c t s . 8. Upper l i n e of the group. The teacher w i l l r e c a l l these t o p i c s to the p u p i l s by a r r a n g i n g a group where a l l can see , and c a l l i n g not on ly f o r op in i on s as to the arrangement whether i t i s p l e a s i n g or no t , but a l s o f o r changes that shou ld be made and the reasons f o r them. . . .The teacher can a l s o vary t h i s e x e r c i s e to advantage by a sk i n g p u p i l s to b r i n g in p i c t u r e s of groups of o b j e c t s , of an ima l s , or of p e o p l e . ( C l a r k , H i c k s , & P e r r y , 1888, p.84) 102 The law of ornamentation and the fundamentals of arrangement of a group, tended to dominate the a e s t h e t i c education of t h i s p e r i o d . On the back cover of the Teacher's Manual f o r Prang's Shorter Course in Form Study and Drawing, i s an advertisement f o r Prang's Normal Drawing C l a s s e s f o r teachers in p u b l i c s c h o o l s . These were home study, correspondence lessons o f f e r e d on three l e v e l s : Primary School t e a c h e r s , Grammar School t e a c h e r s , and f o r s p e c i a l teachers of Drawing. C o n s i d e r i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n s h o r t l y a f t e r of some Prang m a t e r i a l s into B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s , some of the teachers in B r i t i s h Columbia, may have undertaken these courses. The Drawing Books used through t h i s t h i r t y - t w o year span changed only once. The Canadian S e r i e s of Drawing Books was used u n t i l B l a i r ' s Canadian Drawing S e r i e s ' , f i r s t e d i t i o n , superseded i t in the years a f t e r 1902. David B l a i r ' s Drawing Books were r e v i s e d in 1907, in A p r i l 1913 and again l a t e r in 1918. The Free Textbook Branch of the M i n i s t r y of Education, s t a r t e d in J u l y 1, 1908, r e p o r t e d on the numbers of Drawing Books gi v e n out to p u p i l s a n n u a l l y in the 103 P u b l i c Schools Reports. between 1911 and 1916 and simply l i s t e d t i t l e s s u p p l i e d onward u n t i l 1924. In these years between 43,000 and 57,000 Drawing Books were s u p p l i e d to the p u p i l s of the province a n n u a l l y . When r e l a t i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to the lamentations of the In s p e c t o r s of Schools in the P u b l i c Schools Reports. i t becomes q u i t e c l e a r that these e x e r c i s e books were used as copybooks f o r Drawing and were the b a s i s of the Art Program o f f e r e d in many B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s . These books were very s t r u c t u r e d and allowed no f l e x i b i l i t y to accommodate i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s ' r a t e s of growth. They c o n t a i n however, f i n e p e n c i l drawings and ton a l brush drawings as examples of what should be done by the p u p i l , and almost every example has a note saying that i t i s not to be copied (See F i g u r e 6). The books are very c l e a r l y w r i t t e n and o f f e r some l e t t e r i n g and t e c h n i c a l drawing as w e l l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y they made a very convenient excuse f o r a Drawing course, which s u p e r f i c i a l l y seemed to be f u l f i l l i n g the needs of the Course of Stud i e s . The Prang Text Books of Art Educa t i o n . were introduced to Canadian school systems in 1904 and by 104 Figure 6. EXAMPLE 5.- ONIONS.- Do no copy these drawings but work from specimens. Shade the onions in c o l o u r not p e n c i l ( B l a i r , 1907 ). 105 1911 were a l r e a d y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r s e o f S t u d i e s . F o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r P r a n g p r o d u c e d t h e i r E l e m e n t a r y Manual f o r T e a c h e r s and f o r t h e s e n i o r g r a d e t e a c h e r s D r a w i n g f o r H i g h S c h o o l and A C o u r s e i n W a t e r C o l o u r s f o r t h e f i r s t E i g h t Y e a r s o f S c h o o l . The l a s t l i s t i n g o f t h e s e b o o k s was i n t h e 1919 C o u r s e o f S t u d i e s . The T e a c h e r ' s M a n u a l f o r t h e P r a n g C o u r s e I n D r a w i n g F o r G r a d e d S c h o o l s was p u b l i s h e d i n 1897 and a u t h o r e d by C l a r k , H i c k s and P e r r y a s was t h e l a t e r T e x t B o o k s o f A r t E d u c a t i o n . These a u t h o r s s t a t e d t h a t " i t i s a d i s t i n c t a i m i n t h i s C o u r s e t o l e a d p u p i l s t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n and l o v e o f t h e b e a u t i f u l a s f o u n d i n N a t u r e and a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e hand-work o f man. What man ha s d o n e , what he h a s c r e a t e d , i s A r t " ( C l a r k , H i c k s , & P e r r y , 1897, A u t h o r ' s P r e f a c e ) . F o r e a c h e x e r c i s e t h e p u p i l s a r e q u i d e d t h r o u g h e x t e n s i v e e x e r c i s e s i n o b s e r v a t i o n b e f o r e b e i n g a s k e d t o draw what t h e y s e e . A c e r t a i n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t w o u l d t h u s be a c c r u e d b e f o r e p h y s i c a l l y w o r k i n g w i t h t h e o b j e c t . P u p i l s were a s k e d t o j u d g e any work on t h e b a s i s o f Symmetry, P r o p o r t i o n , B r e a d t h , S t a b i l i t y , a n d Repose and were r e m i n d e d t h a t " f o r h o w e v e r 106 b e a u t i f u l a form may be in i t s e l f , i t ceases to be b e a u t i f u l i f not adapted to i t s purpose" ( C l a r k , Hicks, & Perry, 1897, p.67). A Supplemental Reading Text s u p p l i e d from 1913 to 1928, e n t i t l e d The A r t S t o r i e s Readers, c o n s i s t i n g of a Primer, a F i r s t Book, and a Second Book, were almost e n t i r e l y concerned with a e s t h e t i c e ducation in the v i s u a l a r t s . The s t o r y and a c t i v i t y t i t i e s and l i s t s of p i c t u r e s in Books One and Two (See Appendix L) help to i l l u s t r a t e the extent to which these t e x t s deal with the v i s u a l a r t s . The Preface of the two books make the f o l l o w i n g statement: ART STORIES, BOOK ONE prov i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to awaken in the c h i l d an a p p r e c i a t i o n of beauty. In language s u i t e d to the f i r s t grade some of the sim p l e r a r t concepts are presented. Through p i c t u r e s and s t o r y m a t e r i a l the c h i l d i s made concsious of beauty of c o l o r , form, and l i n e as seen in nature, in p i c t u r e s , design, s c u l p t u r e , a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n , and costume are thus introduced in a s e t t i n g of n a t u r a l c h i l d i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s . . ..The i l l u s t r a t i o n s 107 are a s p e c i a l feature of t h i s book. They range from simple l i n e drawings to f u l l - c o l o r r e p r o d u c t i o n s of famous p a i n t i n g s and form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l . They f u r n i s h c a r e f u l l y o rganized and graded examples of v i s u a l m a t e r i a l f o r the teaching of a r t . (Whitford, L i e k , & Gray, 1934, p.3) A s i m i l a r statement in Book Two d i f f e r s only in the number and in the use of "to develop" i n stead of "to awaken", e l l u d i n g to the continuum of the process. The s e r i e s was s t i l l being used in schools in the 1930s, but they were no longer s u p p l i e d through the M i n i s t r y of Education's Free Textbook Branch. When lo o k i n g at the s t a t i s t i c s of how many of these books were used in the years they were a v a i l a b l e , i t becomes obvious that these books reached a very small audience. For instance in 1917, the year when the most c o p i e s were sent out from the M i n i s t r y , 55,820 Regular Primers and Readers were s u p p l i e d to the schools of the p r o v i n c e , whereas 651 Art S t o r i e s Readers were s u p p l i e d , a r a t i o of 86 to 1. These were probably used only i n the l a r g e r c i t y school 108 d i s t r i c t s , where a l i t t l e money c o u l d be used f o r these a l t e r n a t e t e x t s . Reference books in Art were f i r s t recommended f o r teachers in the P u b l i c Schools Report of 1901, when Inspector David Wilson, a f t e r recommending three d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e s e r i e s f o r classroom d e c o r a t i o n , l i s t e d How to Eniov P i c t u r e s , by Mabel Emery and How to Judge a P i c t u r e , by John Van Dyke. Both of these books were a s s o c i a t e d with the P i c t u r e Study Movement of the time, and both c o u l d have obvious input to a e s t h e t i c education in the v i s u a l a r t s . Emery's book humbly introduces i t s e l f t h i s l i t t l e book has a d i s t i n c t l y l i m i t e d purpose. I t s aim i s to help those who now f i n d p l easure i n st u d y i n g p i c t u r e s to f i n d s t i l l more p l e a s u r e ; to help those who care but l i t t l e f o r p i c t u r e s to see how much d e l i g h t and i n s p i r a t i o n may be t h e i r s f o r the t a k i n g ; to suggest ways of s t u d y i n g photographs and other inexpensive p r i n t s . . . . Through s t u d y i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n s of a r t i s t s ' p a i n t i n g s , we come into touch not simply with the r e f l e c t e d images of r e a l t h i n g s such as 109 we see in the world about us, but with the thoughts and f e e l i n g s , the j o y s , hopes, and a s p i r a t i o n s , of some of the great men who have looked at the world and l i v e d in i t . I f we can g r a d u a l l y l e a r n to look with t h e i r c l e a r e r eyes and to see the beauty which d e l i g h t e d t h e i r more a p p r e c i a t i v e s o u l s , our own world becomes l a r g e r and l o v e l i e r through that experience. (Emery, 1898, p.1-2) Chapters 2-10 explore d i f f e r e n t types of p a i n t i n g s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s which are d e a l t with through p e r c e i v e d f e e l i n g s expressed and through l i n e , mass, and c o l o u r . Each p a i n t i n g (See Appendix M) i s t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y and the reader i s l e d p a t i e n t l y to a deeper i n s i g h t of what is in each p r i n t and the background of each o r i g i n a l p a i n t i n g . Chapter 11 i s an e x p l a n a t i o n in simple terms of the d i f f e r e n t methods of making p r i n t s of the p i c t u r e s through engraving e t c . The f i n a l c hapter, " P i c t u r e s in the School-Room", notes the growing trend of p l a c i n g a r t examples in p u b l i c s c h o o l s . She recommends one p i c t u r e be chosen f o r a classroom f o r the year, but that more should be hung 1 10 in the hallways. S e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e the choice of p i c t u r e s f o r the school-room. F i r s t and foremost i s t h a t of a r t c u l t u r e ; i n choosing p i c t u r e s we must think of t h e i r enduring, a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s . Only the best should be given a l a s t i n g p l a c e on the w a l l s . These are t h i n g s to l i v e with and to c a r r y permanently in heart and mind. (Emery, 1898, p.260) The a r t r e p r o d u c t i o n s should be used as an a i d to e x p r e s s i v e w r i t i n g , nature study, l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r y , and geography to deepen a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the p r i n t s . "Very few of the p u b l i c school c h i l d r e n of to-day may prove to be themselves a r t i s t s , but almost every c h i l d can g r a d u a l l y l e a r n to a p p r e c i a t e and enjoy what i s best in the works of the great masters" (Emery, 1898, p.279). John Van Dyke's book d e a l s with the p r i n c i p l e s of design and t h e i r success or f a i l u r e in works of a r t . I t makes a good companion book f o r Emery's, which does not dwell on the p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . Van Dyke's 111 statement that "studying the canvas - not one, but thousands of them - can alone give p r a c t i c a l knowledge, accurate judgement, and good t a s t e " Van Dyke, 1909, p.5), r e s t a t e s the idea that good t a s t e cannot be ingested in one l e s s o n , but must accrue over time. The need to r a i s e the general standards of t a s t e i s r e f l e c t e d in the f o l l o w i n g statement. "The E n g l i s h and American people in p a r t i c u l a r , f a v o r the ' t e l 1 - a - s t o r y ' a r t , and a sentimental Sunday-school t a l e i n p a i n t i s the n o t i o n of a p i c t u r e e n t e r t a i n e d by a large m a j o r i t y of them" (Van Dyke, 1909, p.123). The a p p r e c i a t i o n of works of a r t must be tempered with reason, the p a i n t i n g on the canvas i s not always a masterpiece in every r e s p e c t . "We must admire genius f o r what i t succeeds in doing, and not f o r what i t f a i l s to do; and a p a i n t e r who does but one t h i n g well i s n e v e r t h e l e s s e n t i t l e d to c o n s i d e r a t i o n " (Van Dyke, 1909, p.38). His d e f i n i t i o n as to the o b j e c t of a l l e x p r e s s i v e a r t i s very s u c c i n c t , i t i s "to convey by a symbolic language to people's minds through t h e i r eyes con c e p t i o n s , impressions, ideas, or emotions of p i c t o r i a l beauty" (Van Dyke, 1909, p.137-138). Van Dyke concludes by s t a t i n g " i t w i l l take years before 112 you come t o a f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a r t , b u t when a t l a s t you have i t you w i l l be p o s s e s s e d o f one o f t h e p u r e s t , l o f t i e s t , a n d most e n n o b l i n g p l e a s u r e s t h a t t h e c i v i l i z e d w o r l d c a n o f f e r y o u " ( V a n Dyke, 1909, p.159) . T.B. K i d n e r ' s book E d u c a t i o n a l Handwork ( 1 9 1 0 ) , was f i r s t recommended i n 1914 and was l a s t m e n t i o n e d i n M i n i s t e r i a l d o c u m e n t s i n 1927, a l t h o u g h i t may w e l l have b e e n i n use b e f o r e a nd a f t e r t h e s e d a t e s . Manual T r a i n i n g , a l s o known a s A p p l i e d A r t s , I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , and Home E c o n o m i c s , became more common a r o u n d 1927 w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s and a much e x p a n d e d c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s book was c o m p i l e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a demand f o r some f o r m o f M a n u a l T r a i n i n g w h i c h c o u l d be a d o p e d by t e a c h e r s i n s m a l l s c h o o l s who were u n a b l e , f r o m v a r i o u s c a u s e s , t o u n d e r t a k e any o f t h e more e l a b o r a t e f o r m s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l e q u i p m e n t i n t h e s c h o o l and p r o l o n g e d t r a i n i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r . . . . Work has b e e n d e v i s e d c o m p r i s i n g : P a p e r - f o l d i n g ; P a p e r - c u t t i n g a nd M o u n t i n g ; P a t t e r n - w o r k a nd D e s i g n i n g w i t h c o l o u r p a p e r s , 113 embracing a simple i n t r o d u c t i o n to the study of c o l o u r ; C o n s t r u c t i v e work in paper; Cardboard - c u t t i n g and M o d e l l i n g ; the l a t t e r i n c l u d i n g chapters on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a set of type forms of geometrical s o l i d s and on the a p p l i c a t i o n of cardboard modelling to the study of D e s c r i p t i v e Geometry; and a chapter on R a f f i a work. (Kidner, 1910, p.v) The a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s Canadian book i s l i m i t e d to r e f e r e n c e s to good t a s t e , which a c c o r d i n g to the author seems to go a g a i n s t the nature of most young c h i l d r e n . " C h i l d r e n l i k e savages, are a t t r a c t e d by b r i g h t c o l o u r s , and c a r e f u l guidance i s needed in the e a r l y stages of t h i s work i f a proper t a s t e i s to be c u l t i v a t e d " (Kidner, 1910, p.58). The r e f e r e n c e l i s t of 1914 f o r elementary school teachers, saw another Manual A r t s book added that was s t i l l l i s t e d i n 1927, Primary Work. by Wilhelmina S e e g m i l l a r . The author, as d i r e c t o r of a r t in the P u b l i c Schools of I n d i a n a p o l i s , was a member of the team that helped c r e a t e the Prang Text Books of Art Educat i on and a c c o r d i n g to the 1914 C u r r i c u l a of 1 14 P u b l i c S c h o o l s f o r G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h e r l i t t l e book was p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n t e a c h i n g mat w e a v i n g t o y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n . The l i s t o f 1919 u s h e r e d i n a few b o o k s t o be u s e d i n i t i a l l y a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , b u t w h i c h w o u l d move t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l l i s t i n 1928: D e c o r a t i v e G e o m e t r y ( 1 9 1 5 ) , by H.F. A r m s t r o n g ; L e s s o n s i n D e c o r a t i v e D e s i g n ( 1 8 9 7 ) , by F.G. J a c k s o n ; S t u d i e s i n L i n e and Mass, by E.A. B r a n c h ; and P r a c t i c a l G e o m e t r y f o r A r t S t u d e n t s ( 1 9 1 3 ) , by J o h n C a r r o l l . T h i s l a t t e r book was one o f f o u r g e o m e t r y o r i e n t e d t i t l e s i n t r o d u c e d i n 1919 w r i t t e n by C a r r o l l . A r m s t r o n g ' s book was w r i t t e n f o r f i r s t y e a r c o l l e g e « and d e a l s c l e a r l y w i t h v a r y i n g a s p e c t s o f p e r s p e c t i v e . J a c k s o n ' s book r e l a t e s a l l good d e s i g n b a c k t o t h e s t u d y o f n a t u r e , p r i m a r i l y p l a n t s , and a r e v i e w o f h i s t o r i c use o f t h e s e d e s i g n s . He b e l i e v e d t h a t as c i v i l i z a t i o n s p r o g r e s s e d p l a n t f o r m s were c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d . Mere i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e i s a d o r n m e n t , w h e r e a s , i t i s t h e a d a p t i o n o f n a t u r e ' s d e s i g n s t o t h e p u r p o s e a t hand w h i c h i s d e c o r a t i o n . Ornament may, i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , be d e f i n e d a s 1 15 t h a t w h i c h i s a d d e d t o o b j e c t s o f u t i l i t y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f r e n d e r i n g them a g r e e a b l e t o t h e e y e . I t i s o f no a c t u a l use f r o m a u t i l i t a r i a n p o i n t o f v i e w , t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l a s s u p p l y i n g a u n i v e r s a l w ant. ( J a c k s o n , 1897, p.6) i The w r i t e r was u n a b l e t o o b t a i n B r a n c h ' s book. C a r r o l l ' s book i s s t r i c t l y a g e o m e t r y t e x t o f s t a i g h t a n d c u r v e d l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . The b o o k s by J a c k s o n , B r a n c h , a nd C a r r o l l were a l l p r i n t e d i n E n g l a n d , A r m s t r o n g ' s book was p u b l i s h e d i n New Y o r k . From t h e 1919 l i s t one m i g h t i n f e r t h a t g e o m e t r y was now more i m p o r t a n t t h a n f r e e h a n d d r a w i n g a nd t h e r e f o r e t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t c o n s t r u c t e d f o r m s had become more d o m i n a n t . T h i s v i e w i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e h i g h s c h o o l exams, w h i c h t e n d e d t o become more and more c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e o m e t r y u n t i l i n 1922 t h e e n t i r e e n t r a n c e exam, e v e n t h e " F r e e h a n d D r a w i n g ' s e c t i o n , i n v o l v e d w o r k i n g w i t h g e o m e t r y . Two d e s i g n b o o k s by E r n e s t A. B a t c h e l d e r , P r i n c i p l e s o f D e s i g n ( 1 9 1 0 ) a nd D e s i g n i n T h e o r y a nd P r a c t i c e ( 1 9 0 4 ) , a r e f i r s t l i s t e d i n t h e 1924 Draw i n g 116 and Design: A Teacher's Manual, and are found in the Programmes of St u d i e s of 1928 and 1930, being l a s t mentioned in W.P. Weston's b i b l i o g r a p h y in 1936. Batc h e l d e r b e l i e v e d that "pure design i s the composition of tones, measures, and shapes, f o r the sake of rhythm, balance, harmony, the p r i n c i p l e of order and beauty" B a t c h e l d e r , 1904, p.6). Nature i s the source, but we must use 'human in v e n t i o n and imagination' to adapt the designs of nature to our needs. We take the p r i n c i p l e s of nature and apply the p r i n c i p l e s of design to r e f i n e and improve our ideas. (Bachelder, 1904, p.160) "The s e r i o u s student of design d i s c o v e r s sooner or l a t e r that h i s e x p r e s s i o n of an idea must conform to the requirements of mathematics and geometry" ( B a t c h e l d e r , 1904, p.43). With t h i s long exposure an a p p r e c i a b l e impact must have been made by the ideas in these American books. F.G. Jackson's book Lessons in Decorat i v e Design. p u b l i s h e d in England, was f i r s t l i s t e d in the Programme of St u d i e s 1919, and was in 1 17 both S c o t t ' s and Weston's b i b l i o g r a p h i e s of 1924 and 1936. Together these three design books formed the mainstay of a p p r e c i a t i o n of design f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's elementary schools f o r c l o s e to t h i r t y years. A f t e r 1927 with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the M i n i s t r y ' s Drawing and Design: A Teacher's Manual (1924), w r i t t e n by S c o t t , Weston, and Judge, and followed by Weston's Teacher's Manual of Drawing (1936), the l i s t of r e f e r e n c e books tended not to c a r r y over t i t l e s from p r i n t i n g to p r i n t i n g , but gave a very broad set of t i t l e s r anging from design to the various c r a f t s . T h i s r e f l e c t s a broadening of the concept of what Art should be in the schools and again t h i s can be witnessed by l o o k i n g at the high school entrance exams in the P u b l i c Schools Reports. A e s t h e t i c Education was never mentioned as such in the Drawing exams p r i n t e d in the P u b l i c Schools Reports, but in 1923 the word "Design" s t a r t e d appearing in the High School Entrance and F i n a l Exams. O r i g i n a l design based on an i l l u s t r a t i o n or idea s u p p l i e d to the student, became a s m a l l , but i n t e g r a l p a r t of the exam s t a r t i n g in 1923. Household Science introduced the 118 same t y p e o f d e s i g n q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o e m b r o i d e r e d b o a r d e r s i n 1920. The 1928 exam had v i r t u a l l y no g e o m e t r i c a l c o n t e n t and was more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o d r a w , do l e t t e r i n g , and t h e use o f d e s i g n . The m a n u a l s w r i t t e n by S c o t t and W eston were p r i m a r i l y c o m p i l e d a s methods b o o k s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l a r t w o r k s . The a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t o r a p p r e c i a t i o n a s p e c t o f t h e A r t P r o g r a m was s u p p o s e d t o come f r o m t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l t r a i n i n g o f t h e t e a c h e r and t h e recommended t e a c h e r r e f e r e n c e b o o k s i n t h e Programme o f S t u d i e s . However, i n t h e s e c t i o n d e v o t e d t o t h e d e s i g n a s p e c t s o f A r t , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e c o u r s e " s h o u l d a i d i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e c r e a t i v e i n s t i n c t o f t h e p u p i l , a n d , l a s t b u t n o t l e a s t , i t s h o u l d s t i m u l a t e a s e n s e o f t h e b e a u t i f u l i n f o r m and c o l o u r " ( W e s t o n , 1936, p . 7 3 ) . W i t h t h i s one t e x t a s t h e b a s i s o f t h e A r t P r o g r a m f o r t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s , a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s was r e l e g a t e d t o o n l y a few l i n e s i n t h e t e x t and c o u l d be e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d by t h e r e a d e r a s b e i n g o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e . The J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l r e f e r e n c e l i s t s f o r G r a p h i c A r t s b e g a n i n t h e 1927-28 Programme o f S t u d i e s and w i t h i n t h e s e l i s t s were s e v e n r e c u r r i n g 119 authors. One of the longest used works was Compos i t i on ( 1899), by Arthur Wesley Dow, an American, f i r s t l i s t e d in 1928 and c o n t i n u i n g through to the 1939 l i s t . He s t r e s s e d both the p r a c t i c e and a p p r e c i a t i o n of a r t , thus becoming important to a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n . "In f a c t , the main idea i n the system i s help the p u p i l at the very outset to o r i g i n a t e a b e a u t i f u l a r r a n g e m e n t a n d then proceed onward step by step to g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n and f u l l e r power of e x p r e s s i o n " (Dow, 1899, p.6). C y r i l Pearce's Compos i t i on ( 1927), p u b l i s h e d in England, was on the l i s t s of 1930 and 1939. I t was mainly a t e c h n i c a l book of how to use and a p p r e c i a t e aspects of design, there was no d i r e c t i o n on how to a p p r e c i a t e a work of a r t . It would have been a very u s e f u l book in teaching d e s i g n . Pedro J . deLemos, an American, wrote A p p l i e d Art (1920), which was on the J u n i o r and S e n i o r High School l i s t s from 1927 to 1939. T h i s book was used p r i m a r i l y to show how design has been used in f u r n i t u r e and other u t i l i t a r i a n o b j e c t s "and to a p p r e c i a t e whatever i s e s p e c i a l l y well designed in form and c o l o r " (deLemos, 1920, p.381). Walter Sargent's book, The Enjoyment and Use of Colour 120 (1932), an American p u b l i c a t i o n , was l i s t e d from 1928 to 1939. This work was r e f e r e d to f o r a n a l y s i s of masterpieces through c o l o u r and f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of c o l o u r when d e s i g n i n g a p r o j e c t . He s t a t e s that " a p p r e c i a t i o n comes with the acquaintance with the ordered r e l a t i o n s of hues, the q u a l i t i e s of c o l o r t e x t u r e s , and the harmonies of balanced tones" (Sargent, 1932, p . l ) . I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Design (1916), an American book by W.H. Varnum, was l i s t e d from 1927 to 1941. The only d i r e c t use of t h i s book mentioned in the l i t e r a t u r e was in the t h i r d year High School I n t e r i o r D e c o r a t i o n Course. This course e n t a i l e d d e s i g n i n g f u r n i t u r e and room f i x t u r e s and Varnum's book was i d e a l f o r f u r n i t u r e design, with r u l e s f o r s u b o r d i n a t i o n of i t s p a r t s and embe1ishment. Six of the seemingly most important books r e l a t e d to A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n , which were l i s t e d over a long p e r i o d were p u b l i s h e d in the United S t a t e s . Art in Everyday L i f e (1925), by H a r r i e t and V e l t a G o l d s t e i n , was l i s t e d from 1928 to 1939. I t i s a well i l l u s t r a t e d book with many examples of both good and poor use of the p r i n c i p l e s of design and d e c o r a t i o n i n costume de s i g n , i n t e r i o r d e s i g n . This book was used 121 c o n t i n u o u s l y in Home Economics through to the 1960s at l e a s t . Ralph M. Pearson's book How to See Modern P i c t u r e s ( 1925), was l i s t e d from 1930 to 1937 and r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to a e s t h e t i c education in the v i s u a l a r t s . Pearson broadened the range of the a e s t h e t i c experience to include such t h i n g s as ' the r i g h t arrangement of a dinner t a b l e , or the r e a l i z a t i o n of the r i g h t design of a motor c a r , e t c . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s the separate compartment view of a e s t h e t i c experience and i s a much more hopeful c o n c e p t i o n f o r the average observer, f o r i t at once b r i n g s the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e a l i z i n g t h i s experience w i t h i n h i s immediate range. (Pearson, 1925, p . v - v i ) Pearson a p p r e c i a t e d Arthur Dow's new ideas about Composition and Design, but b e l i e v e s that to a p p r e c i a t e a r t you must understand design and a n a l y s i s of the p a r t s of the p i c t u r e f i r s t . In a d d i t i o n , however, he b e l i e v e s you must a l s o see or f e e l the essence of what i s i n the p i c t u r e . Three a r t 122 appreciation, t i t l e s that were l i s t e d in j u s t the 1930 and 1932 l i s t s a re: Art & C o u n t e r f e i t (1925), by Margaret H. B u l l e y , T o l s t o y ' s What i s Art (1924), t r a n s l a t e d by Aylmer Maude, and Art (1913), by C l i v e B e l l . Margaret B u l l e y ' s book i s r a t h e r c o n f u s i n g and although well i l l u s t r a t e d the t e x t does not d i s c u s s the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . The reader is supposed to use h i s "inner sense of view a g i f t of v a r y i n g amounts given to a l l " ( B u l l e y , 1925, p.58) to judge what i s good in a r t . T o l s t o y in h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l book, saw the f i n e a r t s as the s h a r i n g of experiences and f e e l i n g s through the medium of the a r t s . A l l human l i f e i s f i l l e d with works of a r t of every k i n d - from c r a d l e - s o n g s , j e s t , mimicry, the ornamentation of houses, d r e s s , and u t e n s i l s , to church s e r v i c e s , b u i l d i n g s , monuments, and triumphal p r o c e s s i o n s . It is a l l a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y . (Maude, 1924, p.174) C l i v e B e l l ' s book a l s o a p h i l o s o p h i c a l work, i s q u i t e e t h e r e a l and would not have been that u s e f u l to a busy educator. As no new l i s t was p r i n t e d u n t i l 1937, 123 these books were in r e a l i t y l i s t e d u n t i l 1937. A l l three of these books were l i s t e d f o r the General Art course in the High School, which had an Art A p p r e c i a t i o n s e c t i o n . The l i s t of 1937 introduced four t i t l e s by three authors: Art f o r Amateur and Student (1926), by George J . Cox, Have You Good Taste (1933), by Margaret H. B u l l e y , P i c t u r e Making by C h i l d r e n (1934) and C r a f t f o r C h i l d r e n (1935), both by Reginald R. Tomlinson. Tomlinson's f i r s t book was p u b l i s h e d in England whereas h i s second a year l a t e r was p u b l i s h e d in the United S t a t e s . B u l l e y ' s and Cox's books were l i s t e d in the A rt A p p r e c i a t i o n s e c t i o n . Cox supports the p r i n c i p l e s formulated by Dow, as can be a s c e r t a i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g statement. A l l that i s claimed f o r a r t s t r u c t u r e i s that i t provides an a e s t h e t i c t o n i c to t i d e one over the p e r i o d of growing pains in the study of a r t . I t p u r i f i e s the t a s t e , strengthens the understanding, and e n r i c h e s l i f e i t s e l f . That i s a l l i t can do; and i t i s enough. (Cox, 1926, p.5) 124 B u l l e y ' s book l o o k s a t " t h e l e s s e r a r t s , t h e o r d i n a r y o b j e c t s o f h o u s e h o l d u s e , ( w h i c h ) s h a r e t h e same n a t u r e a s t h e g r e a t a r t s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e " ( B u l l e y , 1933, p . 4 ) . T o m l i n s o n ' s b o o k s were l i s t e d i n t h e A r t E d u c a t i o n s e c t i o n . He b e l i e v e d c h i l d r e n ' s a r t was i m p o r t a n t and t h a t e a c h c o u n t r y s h o u l d c r e a t e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r i e s t o house them. T o m l i n s o n a l s o s t r o n g l y p r o p o s e d t h e i d e a t h a t t h e c l a s s r o o m s o f young p e o p l e s h o u l d be i m p r o v e d w i t h c i r c u l a t i n g p i c t u r e s f r o m a c e n t r a l c o l l e c t i o n . I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C r a f t s f o r C h i l d r e n he s t a t e s : I n e d u c a t i o n , no l e s s t h a n i n i n d u s t r y , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f g ood t a s t e and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f f i t n e s s f o r p u r p o s e c a n no l o n g e r be i g n o r e d . T h e r e i s no b e t t e r method o f d e v e l o p i n g t h a t a p p r e c i a t i o n and o f i m p r e s s i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s upon t h e m i nds o f young and o l d t h a n by a s o u n d t r a i n i n g i n , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , g o o d c r a f t s m a n s h i p . ( T o m l i n s o n , 1935, p.9) 125 He a l s o s t a t e s , "I am s t r o n g l y in favour of an a e s t h e t i c r a t h e r than a t e c h n i c a l b i a s being g i v e n to the c r a f t work of c h i l d r e n . Such a t r a i n i n g w i l l f i t them to become not only more contented c i t i z e n s but f e r t i l e c r e a t o r s and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g purchasers" (Tomlinson, 1935, p.110). The r e f e r e n c e l i s t s are s u b s t a n t i a l f o r the years 1930 u n t i l 1937, but most of the e n t r i e s except those p r e v i o u s l y noted are only l i s t e d once. As can be seen by the t i t l e s which r e c u r r e d most o f t e n , the ideas which were presented to the teachers and p u p i l s of B r i t i s h Columbia most o f t e n , o r i g i n a t e d in the United S t a t e s and to a large degree came from New York p u b l i s h i n g houses. The r e s t of the books on the l i s t s presented very few Canadian books and approximately twenty percent E n g l i s h books. It is i n t e r e s t i n g that the basal a r t methods book f o r the province from 1924 u n t i l a f t e r 1945 was w r i t t e n in B r i t i s h Columbia, but that the great m a j o r i t y of books d e a l i n g with a e s t h e t i c education in the v i s u a l a r t s came from the e a s t e r n United S t a t e s . Arthur Wesley Dow has a paramount p o s i t i o n in the changes that occured in the concepts and v i s u a l i z a t i o n of what 126 design and a p p r e c i a t i o n was in the decades of t h i s study. With h i s r e t u r n to p i c t u r e making f o r young c h i l d r e n with design i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e d , i n s t e a d of pure design education f o l l o w e d by p i c t u r e making in higher grades, he i n i t i a t e d a q u i e t r e v o l u t i o n in A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s . America was the o r i g i n of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , but England and Canada both adopted these changes. With the changing and new authors and t i t l e s appearing in the B r i t i s h Columbia Courses of S t u d i e s . i t i s evident that the B r i t i s h Columbia Depatment and l a t e r M i n i s t r y of Education was aware of changes in the A e s t h e t i c Education f i e l d and was t r y i n g to keep the teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r e n t . C h a p t e r S i x T y i n g t h e C u r r i c u l u m and A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s H i s t o r y E c o n o m i c s , i m m i g r a t i o n , and t h e o p e n i n g a r t e r i e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e t h e main i n f l u e n c e s t h a t have s h a p e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p r o v i n c i a l a n d r e g i o n a l g r o w t h . The a b u n d a n t r e s o u r c e s and c h a l l e n g i n g t o p o g r a p h y a l t e r n a t e l y e n t i c e d and c o n f r o n t e d a d v e n t u r o u s p e o p l e f r o m t h e t i m e o f t h e f u r b r i g a d e s t o t h e p r e s e n t . Money i n a b u n d a n c e and i n s c a r c i t y h a s b e e n i m p o r t a n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A s e r i e s o f r e c e s s i o n s a l t e r n a t e d w i t h p e r i o d s o f g r o w t h have c o l o u r e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y up t o t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War and t h e end o f t h i s s t u d y . B e f o r e 1872 and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l S y s t e m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e a r e a known now as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a had b e e n two c o l o n i e s . The Hudson's Bay Company had h e l d sway o v e r t h e a r e a and had n o t e n c o u r a g e d s e t t l e m e n t . I n 1858 t h e g o l d r u s h drew an army o f g o l d c r a z e d p r o s p e c t o r s f r o m a r o u n d t h e w o r l d i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r o f what i s now B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e v i o u s t o t h e g o l d rush there were only three towns or c i t i e s of any s i z e , i n the p r o v i n c e ; V i c t o r i a , New Westminster, and Nanaimo. V i c t o r i a had i t s r o o t s in the Hudson's Bay Company, with i t s E n g l i s h and S c o t t i s h workmen. New Westminster began as a settlement of Englishmen and E a s t e r n Canadians from Upper Canada. Nanaimo had begun as a c o a l mining c e n t e r with miners imported from England and S c o t l a n d . With the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d the f u r trade as a b a s i s of income f o r B r i t i s h Columbia s t a r t e d to lose ground to mining, both g o l d and l a t e r c o a l . The governing p a r t i e s of the c o l o n i e s t r i e d to c o n t r o l and s e r v i c e the crowds of p r o s p e c t o r s e n t e r i n g the c o l o n i e s . They had the B r i t i s h Royal Navy in Esquimalt to help keep c o n t r o l and by 1862 the Royal Engineers were s t a t i o n e d in the mainland colony. The g o l d rush spread up the F r a s e r R i v e r to the B a r k e r v i l l e area and with the heavy t r a f f i c of people, goods, and s u p p l i e s , the Royal Engineers set about b u i l d i n g 600 miles of a l l weather road, the Caribou Road, connecting the l a s t r i v e r port of Yale to the B a r k e r v i l l e g o l d f i e l d s (See Map 1). By 1866 "the high c o s t of c l e a r i n g townsites and b u i l d i n g a great 129 Map One. (Downs, 1960, p . l ) . highway had l e f t B r i t i s h Columbia d e b t - r i d d e n " (Ormsby, 1968, p.109). "Both c o l o n i e s were v i r t u a l l y b a n k r u p t . To c o n s o l i d a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e n s e s t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t s t e e r e d them i n t o u n i o n " (Downs, 1971, p . 3 1 ) . The f o u n d i n g o f a new s o c i e t y i n t h e a r e a now known as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a n d o c c u p a t i o n , r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n and s p a t i a l f u n c t i o n s o f h i n t e r l a n d a n d m e t r o p o l i s ; b u t t h e B r i t i s h r o l e i n t h e e x t e n s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a nd s o v e r e i g n t y , a r o l e u n d e r t a k e n t o c o u n t e r A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e s , a l s o s h a p e d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y e m e r g i n g i n t h i s most d i s t a n t w e s t . (Ormsby, 1958, p.107) The S a l m o n C a n n i n g I n d u s t r y moved i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1864 w i t h men and i d e a s f r o m S c o t l a n d and New B r u n s w i c k . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t w e n t y y e a r s t h e i n d u s t r y u n d e r w e n t "a f r e n z y o f d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h e S a c r a m e n t o t o t h e C o l u m b i a , f r o m t h e F r a s e r t o t h e S k e e n a , and f i n a l l y i n t o t h e r i c h s a l m o n s t r e a m s o f B r i s t o l B a y , A l a s k a " ( R a l s t o n , 1981, p . 2 9 9 ) . By 1881, t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e c a n n i n g i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e United S t a t e s and more United S t a t e s c a p i t a l flowed into the i n d u s t r y l a t e r to r a i s e t h i s percentage. This s u b s t a n t i a l American i n f l u e n c e continued u n t i l 1891, when buy outs and amalgamations, using B r i t i s h and Canadian c a p i t a l put the Canadian and American c a n n e r i e s i n c o m p e t i t i o n with each other. 1864 was a l s o the year Robert Dunsmuir found and s t a r t e d to develop the c o a l d e p o s i t s around Nanaimo. He expanded in 1888 to the Comox area making himsel f a very wealthy and i n f l u e n t i a l man. Although he went on to b u i l d C r a i g d a r r o c h C a s t l e by 1908, an a r c h i t e c t u r a l jewel i n V i c t o r i a , he p u b l i c l y s t a t e d "that he knew nothing of a r t , or of other t o p i c s in which many people d i s p l a y e d great i n t e r e s t " (Norcross, 1969, p. 30) . The e a r l y mining s o c i e t y b u i l t in quick and e r r a t i c growth p u l s e s , l o s t i t s s t r e n g t h and f a l t e r e d by 1870 and was e v e n t u a l l y supplanted i n p a r t by farming and lumbering. These secondary i n d u s t r i e s r e q u i r e d a s m a l l e r labour f o r c e and l e s s p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l s t r u c t u r e s . " E v e n t u a l l y the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the area were s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e to promote new economic a c t i v i t i e s and the e r e c t i o n of a s o c i e t y upon a more secure b a s i s " ( C l a r k , 1981, p.225). One o f t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g e v e n t s o f t h e 1880's i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e CPR T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l l i n e t o P o r t Moody i n 1885 and i t s e x t e n s i o n t o V a n c o u v e r i n 1886. T h i s s i n g l e e v e n t h a s t e n e d many c h a n g e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t . I n 1884 t h e r e were o n l y 900 r e s i d e n t s i n B u r r a r d I n l e t 300 o f whom l i v e d i n G r a n v i l l e , w h i c h was t o become V a n c o u v e r . By c o n t r a s t New W e s t m i n s t e r had 3,000 r e s i d e n t s and V i c t o r i a 8,000. S m a l l e r towns o f 250 t o 300 r e s i d e n t s were l o c a t e d i n what i s now D e l t a , R i c h m o n d , S u r r e y , and L a n g l e y , a l l f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t i e s , and M o o d y v i l l e , l a t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , w h i c h was a l u m b e r t o w n . B e f o r e 1885 t h e e x i s t e n t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were c l u s t e r e d a r o u n d t h e s o u t h e a s t s i d e o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a , and up t h e F r a s e r and Okanagan v a l l e y s t o B a r k e r v i l l e , w i t h one o r two f a r t h e r n o r t h i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r s y s t e m . The 1890's w i t n e s s e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f o r m i n g t h r o u g h t h e K o o t e n a y s i n t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n m o u n t a i n s y s t e m s , f o l l o w i n g t h e r a i l l i n e s t o N e l s o n i n 1887 and t o S l o c a n L a k e i n 1899, t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y b r o u g h t work and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a new a r e a i n two booms. The K o o t e n a y s were s e t t l e d p r i m a r i l y by a m i x t u r e o f i m m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and t h e United S t a t e s , but there were a l s o s e t t l e r s from Europe; The E & N R a i l r o a d was completed on Vancouver I s l a n d by Robert Dunsmuir and h i s C a l i f o r n i a backers in 1886, making c o a l d e l i v e r y and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in general up and down the i s l a n d e a s i e r . Thus the l e s s e r populated areas of Vancouver I s l a n d were opened up to more se t t l e m e n t . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n between towns was u s u a l l y by water, but some t r a i l - l i k e roads were developing between a few of the towns. A d a i l y stage r a t t l e d i t s way between New Westminster and G r a n v i l l e . It was not u n t i l 1890 that there was a d a i l y f e r r y between V i c t o r i a and New Westminster. A f t e r the CPR T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l l i n k was completed a s t a g g e r i n g flow of immigrants a r r i v e d u n t i l by the 1891 census, 13,709 people were l i v i n g in Vancouver. About h a l f of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n had been born in Canada and a q u a r t e r had been born in the United Kingdom. F i n a n c i a l problems i n i t i a t e d in the 1870s with the slumping mining i n d u s t r y d i d not s t a r t to disappear u n t i l around 1895 and then only very s l o w l y . "North America was s t i l l in the g r i p s of a trade d e p r e s s i o n , and the new ( V i c t o r i a ) C i t y C ouncil began r u t h l e s s l y c u t t i n g s a l a r i e s " ( P e t h i c k , 1980, p.135). The t r u s t e e s of the school boards l i k e w i s e cut teacher s a l a r i e s and o p e r a t i n g expenses, l e a v i n g school d i s t r i c t s with r a p i d l y r i s i n g p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n s and with l e s s o p e r a t i n g money. The g l o b a l economic d e p r e s s i o n began to ease in the l a t e 1890s. "By 1896, B r i t i s h and American c a p i t a l was pouring into s i l v e i — o r e and g o l d and copper-ore mines, and the c i t i e s of Nelson and Rossland were s p r i n g i n g to l i f e . The Klondike gold rush two years l a t e r i n t e n s i f i e d i n t e r e s t in the west c o a s t ' s r e s o u r c e s " (Ormsby, 1968, p.109). An economic boom that would l a s t a h a l f - d o z e n years got underway s h o r t l y a f t e r the turn of the century, but l e d to B r i t i s h Columbia "overexpanding into i s o l a t e d , h a r d - t o - s e r v i c e mountain v a l l e y s " (Dempsey, 1984, p.107). I t was d u r i n g t h i s boom p e r i o d that a new High School was designed and b u i l t in V i c t o r i a . During the busy s p e l l s of expansion in r a i l w a y s , " e x t r a workers swarmed into the c o a l towns overcrowding schools and housing f a c i l i t i e s " (Dempsy, 1984, p.203). In the twenty years from 1891 to 1911 the work for c e in B r i t i s h Columbia grew from 47,000 to 206,000. Between 1901 and 1911 the p o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d increased by 30,000, whereas the lower m a i n l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by more than 120,000. Most of t h i s new populace s e t t l e d in Vancouver , which had become B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s l a r g e s t c i t y by 1901 and Canada's f o u r t h l a r g e s t c i t y by 1911. B r i t a i n s u p p l i e d the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of these immigrants , 85 ,000 , whi le Canadians born in o ther p r o v i n c e s added 69,700 people to B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p o p u l a t i o n . When you observe the enormous p o p u l a t i o n expans ion of these decades wi th the g e n e r a l r e c e s s i o n of the l a t e 1800's and the s h o r t boom in the f i r s t decade of the 1900's some q u e s t i o n s appear r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n . Teachers were f a c i n g a c o n s t a n t s h i f t i n g in the p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n s as we l l as overcrowded c la s srooms and an extreme v a r i a t i o n in p u p i l ' s e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds . Some p u p i l s from the U n i t e d Kingdom and p a r t s of e a s t e r n Canada would have begun t h e i r s c h o o l i n g be fore a r r i v i n g in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , whereas o t h e r s would not speak E n g l i s h as t h e i r n a t i v e language . P r e p a r i n g any form of v a l i d e d u c a t i o n a l continuum f o r t h i s s h i f t i n g d i v e r s e p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n must have been ex tremely c h a l l e n g i n g . It was d u r i n g t h i s t u r b u l e n t expans ive p e r i o d of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s h i s t o r y tha t the A r t Program as such in the s c h o o l s was c r e a t e d mainly in a n e f f o r t t o p r e p a r i n g t h e y o u n g s t u d e n t s t o be b e t t e r c r a f t s m e n . B y b e i n g a b l e t o c r e a t e a n d w o r k w i t h t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g s i t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e w o u l d h a v e a b e t t e r e q u i p p e d l a b o u r i n g f o r c e f o r i t s e x p a n d i n g e c o n o m y . A e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n was o n l y a c o n c e r n i n t h a t t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e s e workmen s h o u l d be t a s t e f u l a n d more i m p o r t a n t l y c o m m e r c i a l l y v i a b l e . W i t h t h e p r o v i n c e s t r u g g l i n g t o k e e p p a c e w i t h a r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n t h e f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s was n o t s e e n g e n e r a l l y a s a p r i m a r y n e e d . The i n s p e c t o r s ' l a m e n t s a b o u t u n d e c o r a t e d a n d i l l - k e p t s c h o o l r o o m s a n d g r o u n d s , w o u l d h a r d l y h a v e seemed s i g n i f i c a n t t o a r aw new c o m m u n i t y t r y i n g t o h o u s e a n d e s t a b l i s h i t s f a m i l i e s a s w e l l a s t o c r e a t e a n e n t e r p r i s e s u c h a s f a r m i n g , m i n i n g , f o r e s t r y , o r f i s h i n g . The e a r l y i n s p e c t o r s were s p e a k i n g more i d e a l l y t h a n p r a c t i c a l l y i n t h e i r r e p o r t s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s were d e a l t two f a t a l b l o w s i n t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f t h e c e n t u r y . V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t o o k t h e b r u n t o f t h e s e c o l l a p s e s , b u t t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o v i n c e f e l t t h e b l o w . V i c t o r i a t o o k t h e f i r s t b l o w w i t h t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e S e a l i n g Convention Treaty by the United S t a t e s , Great B r i t a i n , Canada, Ru s s i a and Japan. Thus ended the p e l a g i c s e a l i n g i n d u s t r y which "at i t s height employed 1400 whites and 1700 Indians in 122 schooners. F i f t e e n thousand people depended on the i n d u s t r y , which earned one-and-a-half m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a year f o r V i c t o r i a and e s t a b l i s h e d i t as the major port of i t s time" Lane, 1976, p.196). "Hundreds of men i n V i c t o r i a l o s t t h e i r means of l i v e l i h o o d , and f o r those who were boat- owners there was the added blow of f i n d i n g t h e i r schooners s a l e a b l e at only a f r a c t i o n of t h e i r former value, i f indeed a buyer c o u l d be found at a l l " (Jupp, 1967, p.90). This blow was both sudden and f i n a l , the waterfront in V i c t o r i a was never as busy with commerce aga i n . Nanaimo took the brunt of the second blow, but s e v e r a l other s m a l l e r towns on the east side of Vancouver I s l a n d were a l s o deeply shaken f i n a n c i a l l y . Technology was the r e a l v i l l a i n which brought about the c o l l a p s e of the c o a l mining i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. O i l burning engines were r e p l a c i n g c o a l burning engines world-wide. The T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l and other l i n e s running to San F r a n s i s c o were a major consumer of Vancouver I s l a n d c o a l . A l l s h i p p i n g that entered B r i t i s h Columbia waters a l s o consumed vast q u a n t i t i e s of Vancouver I s l a n d c o a l . Some 80% of s h i p s burned c o a l in 1910 whereas 80% of s h i p s burned o i l i n 1924. The C a l i f o r n i a based r a i l r o a d s a l l converted to burning o i l at t h i s time as w e l l , thus l e a v i n g the c o a l mining c e n t e r s on Vancouver I s l a n d without markets. "In 1923 there were 3400 miners in Nanaimo alone" (Norcross, 1969, p.19). Regardless of these two major r e c e s s i o n a r y steps the economy of B r i t i s h Columbia in general was f a i r l y prosperous u n t i l about 1914, then a "general f i n a n c i a l d e p r e s s i o n , when retrenchment was the watchword of every c o r p r a t e body" (MacKenzie, 1914, p.A34) p r e v a i l e d in B r i t i s h Columbia. Many people were fo r c e d to leave c i t i e s , because of the general f i n a n c i a l d e p r e s s i o n and make t h e i r way in the country. T h i s would have put a r e a l s t r a i n on r u r a l s c h o o l s . The F e d e r a l Govenment sponsored an a g r i c u l t u r e in the schools program which t r i e d to be h e l p f u l at t h i s time, by a i d i n g these new farmers. However, the a g r i c u l t u r e course tended to be very bookish and not r e a l l y a source of the p r a c t i c a l knowledge needed by the p u p i l s . The Federal Government t r i e d to help ease the r e s e t t l e m e n t by making sure that a g r i c u l t u r e courses were a v a i l a b l e . T h i s was a l s o p a r t of the "Progressive or New Education" philosophy which was making inroads in Europe and a c r o s s North America. During the 1920-21 school year many of the money Bylaws f o r school c o n s t r u c t i o n were defeated, but in 1921-22, 50% of the c o n s t r u c t i o n money Bylaws passed. The c o n d i t i o n s seemed to ease, but only s l i g h t l y through the 1920s. Some of the l a r g e s t immigration schemes ever in Canadian h i s t o r y were a p p l i e d in the f i r s t q u a r t e r of t h i s century, with most new Canadians o r i g i n a t i n g in the United Kingdom. This helped the enrolment in B r i t i s h Columbia quadruple in t h i s p e r i o d . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems in the province changed d r a m a t i c a l l y in t h i s p e r i o d as w e l l . The Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway, the second Canadian T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l l i n k was completed in 1914. T h i s opened the c e n t e r of B r i t i s h Columbia to the world changing a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n to the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia set i n 1858. " C o n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t e d on a new r a i l w a y , the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n , to l i n k P r ince George and Vancouver. By October, 1914 n e a r l y 5,000 men were working on the right-of-way" (Downs, 1971, p.57). With the s t a r t of World War One work on the P a c i f i c G reat E a s t e r n h a l t e d and 450,000 Canadian men went o f f t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f i g h t i n g . P a d d l e w h e e l e r s were a major system of f r e i g h t and passenger movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s s h a l l o w d r a f t f l e e t p e n e t r a t e d deep i n t o the h i n t e r l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o l l o w i n g the g r e a t r i v e r s d r a i n i n g out i n t o the P a c i f i c Ocean. Some of these g r a c e f u l s h i p s were assembled on the upper r e a c h e s of the F r a s e r R i v e r and on the s o u t h e a s t e r n l a k e systems. "Although the b l u f f - b o w e d v e s s e l s are p o p u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r , they were used more e x t e n s i v e l y i n B.C. than i n any o t h e r a r e a of N o r t h America" (Downs, 1971, p . 7 ) . Over 300 paddlewheel b o a t s saw s e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia waters (See Map 2 ) . The l a s t s t e r n w h e e l e r to opperate on the F r a s e r R i v e r was the Skeena, which stopped r u n n i n g i n 1925. The paddlewheel e r a began i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n March 1836 when the Hudson's Bay Company's Beaver a r r i v e d on the P a c i f i c Coast a t V i c t o r i a and c l o s e d i n A p r i l 1957 when the v e n e r a b l e Moie_ was r e t i r e d from s e r v i c e on Kootenay Lake. The s t a g e c o a c h e s and f r e i g h t wagons r a n on the C a r i b o o Road u n t i l 1915 when the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n Map Two. (Downs, 1970, p.11) and improvements i n motor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n proved too great a c o m p e t i t i o n . With the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network of B r i t i s h Columbia improving people and products c o u l d move around the province more q u i c k l y and cheaply. I t was at t h i s time that geometry became paramount in the Drawing and Art Courses and Exams in the B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s . On the otherhand, i t was a l s o the era of the Prang Text Books f o r Art Educat i on, David B l a i r ' s Copybooks and other a u t h o r i s e d or recommended books that were not j u s t g e o m e t r i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . As a p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n from the o l d e r memorising of f a c t s e d u c a t i o n , to the newer " p r o g r e s s i v e " mental development theory of educa t i o n , t h i s mixture of.books in not s u r p r i s i n g . On one side of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n are the Canadian and B r i t i s h teachers who were t r a i n e d in geometric, t e c h n i c a l , and copying forms of drawing. On the other side of the' t r a n s i t i o n were men l i k e Arthur Wesley Dow, who widely promoted the c r e a t i v e and a e s t h e t i c aspects of American c h i l d a r t . Also "a pa s s i o n f o r drawing from r e a l o b j e c t s , r a t h e r than copying e x e r c i s e s , arose owing to the i n f l u e n c e of Froebel and the o b j e c t i v e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s at the Oswego Normal School, New York" (Macdonald, 1970, p.260). This t r a n s i t i o n was apparent in B l a i r ' s drawing books with i t s formal, f l a t borders echoing the o l d t h e o r i e s of the South Kensington System, c o n t r a s t e d with the d e l i c a t e , shaded drawings to be attempted from r e a l models. According to the constant complaining of the i n s p e c t o r s throughout t h i s p e r i o d , i t would seem that B l a i r ' s drawing books misused as copybooks formed the r e a l base of the a r t program in the Elementary Schools at l e a s t . With the e a s i e r movement around B r i t i s h Columbia s t a r t i n g in the e a r l y 1920s changes in the school system were needed and by the 1922 Teacher's Conference of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teacher's F e d e r a t i o n , the teachers in the province c a l l e d f o r a complete review of the system adding t h e i r support to a growing general concern. The Putman - Weir commission r e p o r t presented three years l a t e r was the P r o v i n c i a l Government's response to t h i s c a l l , i t found a great deal in need of changing. A e s t h e t i c education i n the v i s u a l a r t s advanced a f t e r t h i s r e p o r t s acceptance. The s t r e s s to prepare p u p i l s f o r High School Entrance Exams was taken out of the upper Elementary School years in l a r g e r s c h o o l s . However, p u p i l s from s m a l l e r r u r a l s c h ools were s t i l l s u b j e c t e d to the entrance exams. The l a s t High School Entrance Exams in B r i t i s h Columbia were set in 1938. The c r e a t i o n of J u n i o r High Schools was recommended and adopted and a three year High School came in to b e i n g . Along with these changes i t was recommended tha t the e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d by these p u p i l s be made more comprehens ive. With t h i s broadening of the s tudent s e x p e r i e n c e , Ar t A p p r e c i a t i o n became one of the i n t e g r a l b l o ck s in t h i s broadened exper ience program. The Department of E d u c a t i o n sponsored the Manual of Drawing and Design f o r E lementary and High Schoo l s (1924), the techn iques of drawing and de s i gn were c l e a r l y and adequate ly l a i d down f o r the t eacher in t h i s manual. Recommended and a u t h o r i z e d r e f e r e n c e works s t a r t e d to dea l w i th the a e s t h e t i c essence and the use of des i gn p r i n c i p l e s to a i d in a p p r e c i a t i o n of a work of a r t . The idea that not a l l works appeal and are a p p r e c i a t e d by a l l o b s e r v e r s , even though they are worthwhi le a r t , appeared about t h i s time a l l o w i n g f o r development of i n d i v i d u a l t a s t e in a r t . From t h i s p o i n t to the end of the s tudy "A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n " was based on the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of des i gn tempered with i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s . A survey was taken in 1925 conce rn ing where a l l of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s 180 High School Teachers had r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g . It found that 86% of the teacher s were Canadian graduates and 36% were from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Only 2 of the 180 High School Teachers were American graduates, and 22 were from the United Kingdom (See Appendix N). This r e f l e c t s the immigration from E a s t e r n Canada and the U n i t i e d Kingdom as well as the growth of our own u n i v e r s i t y . But more importantly from the view p o i n t of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s , i s that a large m a j o r i t y of these teachers, a l l but 1%, were t r a i n e d in the B r i t i s h education a r t system or i t s r e v i s i o n s . With only two teachers not being t r a i n e d w i t h i n the B r i t i s h sphere of i n f l u e n c e s the v e s t i g e s of a r t educ a t i o n in B r i t a i n over the past 25 years or more were apparent in B r i t i s h Columbia. the school remained the l a s t b a s t i o n of V i c t o r i a n c u l t u r a l moral ism and d i s c i p l i n e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n t e l l e c t u a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y and morally n e a r l y a l l Canadian policy-makers before 1945 were V i c t o r i a n in outlook, the t y p i c a l p r o cucts of a V i c t o r i a n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . (Tomkins, 1986, p.258) Hand-eye c o o r d i n a t i o n as a Drawing in the c u r r i c u l u m evolved and e v e n t u a l l y to I n d u s t r i a l A r t s reason f o r i n c l u d i n g into Manual T r a i n i n g and Home Economics. A p p r e c i a t i o n of design in the workplace and a p p r e c i a t i o n i n c l o t h i n g d e sign and i n t e r i o r design became the focus f o r te a c h i n g " a p p r e c i a t i o n " in B r i t i s h Columbia High Schools. Art was not complusory a f t e r grade 8, but Manual T r a i n i n g continued u n t i l grade 10. The 1920s passed with the l a s t years f i l l e d with the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the schools and r e w r i t i n g of c u r r i c u l a c o n t i n u i n g at a r a p i d pace. The school year 1927-28, 14 years a f t e r so many men went o f f to World War One, had a student p o p u l a t i o n drop in the High Schools, the f i r s t and only d e c l i n e in the student p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the time p e r i o d of t h i s study. The c o l l a p s e of the economy f o l l o w i n g the 1929 stockmarket c r a s h , had a major e f f e c t on the school system of B r i t i s h Columbia. There was a d r a s t i c r i s e in the Secondary School p o p u l a t i o n as the c h i l d labour laws were r i g o r o u s l y e n f o r c e d . "For the f i r s t time the high school t r u l y became the secondary school f o r a l l the people i n s t e a d of f o r those few who were p r e p a r i n g f o r c o l l e g e " ( E l f o r d , 1983, p.38). Teacher s a l a r i e s were reduced s e v e r a l times between 1931 and 1934, t o t a l l i n g on aveage 16% to 20%. B u i l d i n g s and grounds were allowed to become run down as there was no money f o r up keep in some d i s t r i c t s , some d i s t r i c t personnel were sent back into classrooms and a t t r i t i o n was used to reduce the running expenses of the d i s t r i c t s . Many Rural School d i s t r i c t s were o p e r a t i n g with s u p p l i e s and m a t e r i a l s at a bare minimum e x i s t e n c e . Some parents c o u l d not a f f o r d to buy the non free books and s u p p l i e s needed to maintain t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n c l a s s . A g r i c u l t u r e r e t u r n e d to the schools and was included under T e c h n i c a l Education. This was to help teach f a m i l i e s how to grow some of t h e i r own food in t h e i r yards, to help them eat b e t t e r in the eco n o m i c a l l y depressed times. During the 1930s the labour force thrown out of work in the 1920s in the c o a l towns, s h i f t e d to another primary i n d u s t r y . F o r e s t r y with the development of sawmills and pulp and paper o p e r a t i o n s rescued the economies of many of the former c o a l towns. In the school year 1935-36 a dramatic experiment in the Peace R i v e r was i n i t i a t e d to t r y to help the economically d e s t i t u t e r u r a l school d i s t r i c t s . S i x t y - f i v e separate school d i s t r i c t s banded together i n the Peace R i v e r Experimental Unit and acted as one school d i s t r i c t . They c e n t r a l i z e d and m o b i l i z e d m a t e r i a l s and s t a f f and r e a l i z e d a great f i n a n c i a l success. Many of the o l d school b u i l d i n g s were r e p l a c e d with modern b u i l d i n g s (See Figure 7), a statement by the t r u s t e e s about the importance of environmental a e s t h e t i c s , which would have made the teaching of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n more r e l e v a n t . Charles Dudley G a i t s k e l l taught in the Peace R i v e r area and became a t r a v e l l i n g A r t S p e c i a l i s t f o r the e n t i r e Experimental U n i t . By developing a s e q u e n t i a l l e s s o n s t r u c t u r e and by purchasing the e n t i r e U n i t ' s a r t s u p p l i e s in bulk, he was able to e f f e c t i v e l y make A rt pa r t of every c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n . His experiment was very s u c c e s s f u l . This experiment i n amalgamation was the forerunner of what was to happen a l l over B r i t i s h Columbia f o l l o w i n g the Cameron Report of 1945. Arthur Dow's new ideas were implanted i n t o the B r i t i s h Columbia school system by 1928 and the recommended r e f e r e n c e and a u t h o r i s e d t e x t s promoted the dual idea of the c r e a t i o n of a r t and of the p r i n c i p l e s of de s i g n . In some books the p r i n c i p l e s were presented before the c r e a t i v e work and in others the c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y was used to lead the p u p i l s into the p r i n c i p l e s of de s i g n . T h i s made the p e r i o d a 149 Figure 7. Top p i c t u r e shows o l d type of Peace River School - K e l l y Lake School. Lower p i c t u r e shows the new type of Peace River School - North Dawson Creek School (Department of Education, ARPS, 1935-36, p.H66). l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n l e s s a s b o t h s i d e s o f t h e a r g u m e n t were w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d . A r e v i e w o f t h e M i n i s t e r i a l comments, c u r r i c u l a , a u t h o r i s e d t e x t s , a nd recommended r e f e r e n c e w o r k s b e t w e e n 1872 and 1945 c r e a t e s a c o m p o s i t e m i r r o r o f t h e t r e n d s and a d v a n c e m e n t s N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y has f o s t e r e d . The g e o m e t r i c b a s e d A r t P r o g r a m s i n t h e b e g i n i n g were a c o p y o f what was h a p p e n i n g i n t h e U n i t i e d K i n g d o m and U n i t e d S t a t e s . When t h e s e two i n d u s t r i a l g i a n t s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e backwoods o f c o m m e r c i a l d e s i g n i n t h e mid 1 8 0 0 s , t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o e n l a r g e and i m p r o v e t h e i r p o o l o f t a l e n t e d p e o p l e w i t h a good d e s i g n e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e had b e e n no d e v e l o p m e n t a t a l l o f a d i s t i n c t l y C a n a d i a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , o r o f any s e n s e o f a u n i q u e i d e n t i t y a nd d e s t i n y . R a t h e r t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y i n t h e p o l i t i c a l f i e l d t o c o n s i d e r t h e e n t i r e B r i t i s h E m p i r e a s a s i n g l e c o u n t r y w i t h L o n d o n a s i t s c a p i t a l , a nd i n t h e c u l t u r a l a r e a t o l o o k a l m o s t a n y w h e r e f o r g u i d a n c e and a u t h o r i t y p r o v i d e d i t was a b r o a d . ( P e t h i c k , 1980, p .186) These programs tended to have geometry as a b a s i s , a prominent fe a t u r e of f u r n i t u r e and i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n of that p e r i o d . The Department of Education then introduced in a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n with the ' P i c t u r e Study Movement', into the 20th century, with a philosophy which t r i e d to marry design p e r c e i v e d necessary f o r i n d u s t r i a l growth with the e v o l v i n g p i c t u r e study movement. The attempt was not s u c c e s s f u l a l l of the time and g e o m e t r i c a l l y based T e c h n i c a l Education content was s t r e s s e d u n t i l the l a t e 1920s. The next movement was again of two somewhat opposing p h i l o s o p h i e s . On one side was the group that i n s i s t e d that you c o u l d not t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e a r t without f i r s t having a s o l i d grounding in the p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . On the other side were people who i n s i s t e d that i t was the essence w i t h i n the work that communicated d i r e c t l y with the observer, and that t h i s c r e a t e d the a e s t h e t i c experience and was the only true a p p r e c i a t i o n of a r t . These were major movements on a c o n t i n e n t a l and i n t e r c o n t i n e n t a l s c a l e , which were well represented in the M i n i s t e r i a l Course of S t u d i e s , a u t h o r i z e d t e x t s , and recommended r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l . The Department and M i n i s t r y of Education in B r i t i s h Columbia was aware o f t h e v a r i o u s movements i n t h e A r t f i e l d t h r o u g h t h e t i m e s p a n o f t h i s s t u d y and t r i e d t o b r i n g t h e t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l S y s t e m t o a w o r k i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e a c h o f t h e s e movements. However, t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o vernment was n o t a s p o w e r f u l i n i t s a b i l i t y t o mandate e x p e n s e s on s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a s i t i s a t p r e s e n t . The P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t b e f o r e 1945 p a i d o n l y "31.6% o f t h e t o t a l s c h o o l c o s t s , u n d e r t h e Cameron p l a n i t s s h a r e w o u l d a l w a y s be w e l l o v e r h a l f " ( J o h n s o n , 1964, p . 1 3 1 ) . W i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t ' s o r i g i n a l l ow l e v e l o f f u n d i n g t h e y c o u l d n o t demand a l l s c h o o l s t o c o m p l y 100% w i t h a l l t h e s u g g e s t e d c u r r i c u l u m i d e a s o r i n s p e c t o r ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e s i m p l e f a c t t h a t many o f t h e 649 d i s t r i c t s d i d n o t have t h e f i n a n c i n g t o i m p l e m e n t t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s i d e a s . T h e r e f o r e a l t h o u g h t h e P r o v i n c i a l G overnment and t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n c o n t i n u o u s l y t r i e d t o i m p l e m e n t c o n t e m p o r a r y a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s f r o m 1872 u n t i l 1945, t h e y were n o t a l w a y s s u c c e s s f u l . They r e s p o n d e d t o t h e c h a n g i n g i d e a s and movements o f a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n , b u t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e i r e f f o r t s h ad t o d e p e n d on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t s t o pay f o r t h e manpower and m a t e r i a l s that were necessary f o r the implementation and the type of a r t t r a i n i n g that teachers r e c e i v e d . Large reasonably wealthy c i t y d i s t r i c t s were much more able to o f f e r the f u l l recommended programs than were the impoverished s i n g l e school r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . On paper then i t seemed as though the p u p i l s of B r i t i s h Columbia's P u b l i c Schools were r e c e i v i n g a contemporary a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n , but in f a c t t h i s i d e a l represented only a dream in many areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. 154 B i b l i o g r a p h y Anstey, A. (1918, 1922). Annual r e p o r t s of the P u b l i c Schools. 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A r t and c o u n t e r f e i t . London, England: Methuen & Co. B u l l e y , M.H. (1927). A simple guide to p i c t u r e s and p a i n t i n g s . London, England: Chatto & Windus. B u l l e y , M.H. (1933). Have you good t a s t e ? . London, England: Methuen & Co. Burns, W. (1901). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's Pr i n t e r s . 155 Cameron, M.A. (1945). Report of the Commission on I n q u i r y In to E d u c a t i o n a l Finance. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Canada P u b l i s h i n g Co. (pre 1891). The Canadian s e r i e s of drawing books. (No other i n f o r m a t i o n found, p o s s i b l y an e d i t i o n of Prang's Drawing Course f o r Canadian s c h o o l s ) . C a r r o l l , J . (1913). P r a c t i c a l geometry f o r a r t stu d e n t s . London, England: Burns Oates & Washbourne . C l a r k , J.S., Hicks, M.D., & Perry, W.S. (1888). Teacher's manual f o r Prang's s h o r t e r course i n form study and drawing. Boston: The Prang E d u c a t i o n a l Co. C l a r k , J.S., Hicks, M.D., & Pe r r y , W.S. (1897). Teacher's manual f o r the Prang course i n drawing f o r graded s c h o o l s . Boston: The Prang E d u c a t i o n a l Co. C l a r k , J.S., Hicks, M.D., & Pe r r y , W.S. (1898). Prang's elementary manual f o r t e a c h e r s . Boston: The Prang E d u c a t i o n a l Company. C l a r k , S.D. (1981). Mining s o c i e t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon. In W.P. Ward, & R.A.J. McDonald (Eds.). B r i t i s h Columbia: H i s t o r i c a l readings (pp. 215-231). Vancouver, B.C.: Douglas & Mcl n t y r e . Cochrane, J . (1981). The one-room s c h o o l i n Canada. Toronto, O n t a r i o : F i t z h e n r y & Whiteside. Cowperhwaite, F.M. (1901). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r s . Cox, G.J. (1926). A r t , f o r amateurs and s t u d e n t s . New York: Doubleday, Doran and Co. Deane, G.H. (1911). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . 156 de Lemos, P. (1920). A p p l i e d a r t . Mountain View, C a l i f o r n i a : P a c i f i c Press P u b l i s h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n . Dempsey, H.A. (1984). The CPR West: The i r o n road and the making of a n a t i o n , Vancouver, B.C.: Douglas & M c l n t y r e . Department of Education f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (1872-1900, 1901, 1902, 1907, 1909, 1911, 1914, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1920-30 1935-36). Annual r e p o r t of the P u b l i c Schools. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's and King's P r i n t e r s . Department of Education f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (1914). Imperial Education Conference, e d u c a t i o n a l monograph. No. 1: c u r r i c u l a of P u b l i c Schools f o r gene r a l education In B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Department of Educa t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (1919, 1923). Course of s t u d i e s f o r P u b l i c . 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V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . 157 Department of Education f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (1936). Programme of s t u d i e s f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n I I I . V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Department of Education f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (1937, 1941). Programme of s t u d i e s f o r Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Department of Education f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (1937). Home Economics f o r the J u n i o r and Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Dewey, J . (1934). A r t as e x p e r i e n c e . New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Dow, A.W. (1899). Composition. New York: The Baker and T a y l o r Co. Downs, A. (1960) Wagon road n o r t h : The s t o r y of the Cariboo Gold Rush In h i s t o r i c a l photos. Quesnel, B.C.: Northwest D i g e s t L t d . Downs, A. (1971). 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Vancouver, B.C.: Vancouver School Board. Lane, P. (1976). The gr e a t P a c i f i c s e a l hunt. In H. White (Ed.), Raincoast c h r o n i c l e s f i r s t f i v e (pp. 196-199). Madeira Park, B.C.: Harbour P u b l i s h i n g . L e i t h , T. (1911). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Lord, A.R. (1916). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Macdonald, S. (1970). The h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y of a r t e d u c a t i o n . London, England: London U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . MacKenzle, H.H. (1914-15). ABES.. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Mann, J . (1980). G.M. Weir and H.B. King: P r o g r e s s i v e edu c a t i o n or educ a t i o n f o r the progressove s t a t e ? . In J.D. Wilson, & D.C. Jones (Eds.), S c h o o l i n g and s o c i e t y i n 20th c e n t u r y B r i t i s h Columbia (pp.91-118). Calgary, A l b e r t a : D e t s e l i g Enterpr i s e s . M a r t i n , J . (1916). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . May, W.H.M. (1921). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . 160 McDonald, R.H.J. (1981). V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, and the economic development of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1886-1914. In P. Ward, & R.H.J. McDonald (Eds.), B r i t i s h Columbia: H i s t o r i c a l readings (pp. 369-395). Vancouver, B.C.: Douglas & M c l n t y r e . M c l e i s h , J.A.B. (1955). September g a l e . Toronto: J.M. Dent & Sons L t d . Morgan, H.C. (1971). The c u r r i c u l u m of t r a i n i n g i n the f i n e a r t s i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, the changing c u r r i c u l u m . London, England: Methuen. Netherby, S.B. (1892, 1903). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's and King's P r i n t e r s . Norcross, E.B., & Tonkin, D.F. (1969). F r o n t i e r days of Vancouver I s l a n d . Courtenay, B.C.: I s l a n d Books. Ormsby, M.A. (1958). B r i t i s h Columbia: A h i s t o r y . Toronto, Ont.: Macmillan of Canada. Ormsby, M. A. (1968). Pioneers beyond the Rockies. In J.M.S. C a r e l e s s (Ed.). The p i o n e e r s : The p i c t u r e s t o r y of Canadian settlement (pp. 108-125). Toronto, Ont.: Macmillan of Canada. P a u l , E.B. (1901). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r s . Pearce, C. (1927). Composition: An a n a l y s i s of the p r i n c i p l e s of p i c t o r i a l d e s i g n , f o r the use of s t u d e n t s , a r t s c h o o l s , e t c . . London, England: B.T. B a t s f o r d . Pearson, R.M. (1925). How to see modern p i c t u r e s . New York: The D i a l P r e s s . P e t h i c k , D. (1980). Summer of promise: V i c t o r i a 1864- 1914. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Macmillan of Canada. P o l l o c k , J . T. (1912). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . 161 Pope, S.D. (1889, 1892, 1894) ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r s . Prang E d u c a t i o n a l Co. (1900). A course i n water c o l o r . Boston: The Prang E d u c a t i o n a l Co. Prang E d u c a t i o n a l Co. (1901). Prang's new graded course i n drawing f o r Canadian s c h o o l s . Toronto: W.J. Gage & Co. Putman, J.H., & Weir, G.M. (1925). Survey of the s c h o o l system. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . R a l s t o n , K. (1981). P a t t e r n s of trade and investment on the P a c i f i c c o a s t , 1867-1892: The case of the B r i t i s h Columbia salmon canning i n d u s t r y . In P. Ward, & R.A.J. McDonald (Eds.), B r i t i s h Columbia: H i s t o r i c a l readings (pp. 296-368). Vancouver, B.C.: Douglas & M c l n t y r e . Robinson, A. (1892). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's Pr i n t e r s . Sargent, W. (1932). the enjoyment and use of c o l o r . New York: Charles S c r i b n e r ' s Sons. Saunders, R.J. (1976). A r t , i n d u s t r i a l a r t , and the 200 year war. A r t E d u c a t i o n r 29_(1), 5-7. S c o t t , C.H., Weston, W.P., & Judge, S.P. (1924). Manual of drawing and d e s i g n f o r elementary and high s c h o o l s . Toronto, O n t a r i o : Thomas Nelson & Sons. S e e g m i l l e r , W. (pre 1914). Primary work, (no other i n f o r m a t i o n found). Shaw, J.C. (1905). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r s . Smith, R.A. (1968). A e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m : the method of a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n . A r t Education, 23.(6), 12-15. 162 Smith, W. (1883). Teacher's manual f o r freehand drawing i n primary s c h o o l s . Toronto, O n t a r i o : W.J. Gage & Co. Smith, W. (1883). T e c h n i c a l education and i n d u s t r i a l drawing i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Montreal, Quebec: Gazette. S p a r l i n g , R. (1892). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r s . Stewart, A.C. (1901). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's Pr i n t e r s . T o l s t o y , L. (1924). What i s a r t (A. Maude, T r a n s . ) . London, England: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . ( O r i g i n a l work p u b l i s h e d i n 1898) Tomkins, G.S. (1986). A common countenance: S t a b i l i t y and change i n the Canadian c u r r i c u l u m . Scarborough, O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Canada. Tomlinson, R.R. (1934). P i c t u r e making by c h i l d r e n . London, England: The Studio L t d . Tomlinson, R.R. (1935). C r a f t s f o r c h i l d r e n . London, England: The Studio L t d . Urdong, L., & F l e x n e r , S.B. (Eds.). (1968). The Random House d i c t i o n a r y of the E n g l i s h language: C o l l e g e e d i t i o n . New York: Random House. Van Dyke, J.C. (1909). How to ludge of a p i c t u r e . New York: Abingdon P r e s s . Varnum, W.H. (1916). I n d u s t r i a l a r t s d e s i g n . P e o r i a , I l l i n o i s : Manual A r t s P r e s s . V i l l e m a i n , F., & Champlin, N. (1959). F r o n t i e r s f o r and e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n . A n t i o c h Review. XIX, 345-359. Ward, P., & McDonald, R.A.J. (Eds.). (1981). B r i t i s h Columbia: H i s t o r i c a l Readings. Vancouver, B.C.: Douglas & M c l n t y r e . 163 Weston, W.P. (1933). A teacher's manual of drawing f o r elementary and high s c h o o l s . Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons. Whltford, W.G., L i e k , E.B., & Gray, W.S. (1933). A r t s t o r i e s book one and two. Chicago: S c o t t , Foresman & Co. Wilson, D. (1888, 1889, 1892, 1896, 1897, 1899, 1900, 1901). ARPS. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r s . 164 Appendix A Teacher's Examination, 1898 Drawing. (For Second C l a s s . Grade B.) Thursday, July 7th:, 3:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. Total marks, 200. 1. (a.) Name and d e f i n e the d i f f e r e n t kinds of curves, angles, and right-angled f i g u r e s , (b.) Sketch examples of each. 2. (a.) Define e l l i p s e , parabola, hyperbola. (b.) Show by diagrams how they are d e s c r i b e d . 3. Construct an octagon, g i v i n g a l l the steps in the pro c e s s . 4. (a.) Within a c i r c l e of 4 inch diameter i n s c r i b e three equal c i r c l e s , touching each other and the l a r g e r c i r c l e , (b.) Within each of the s m a l l e r c i r c l e s i n s c r i b e a quatrefoi1. 5. Make any ornamental arrangement your t a s t e may suggest, basing i t on geometrical forms. 6. Describe the l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of any one of the f o l l o w i n g s t y l e s of d e c o r a t i o n : - Greek, Roman, Venetian, Moorish, G o t h i c . 7. Draw a 5-inch square a pyramid touching a cube, both s t a n d i n g on a plane s u r f a c e . 8. Make an o u t l i n e drawing of a b i c y c l e , f i l l i n g a half-page of f o o l s c a p . (Department of Education, Annual r e p o r t of the P u b l i c Schools Report, 1898, p . c i x - c x ) A p p e n d i x B T e a c h e r ' s E x a m i n a t i o n . 1892 D r a w i n g . ( F o r S e c o n d C l a s s . G r a d e B.) Monday, July l l t h i 3:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. Total marks 200. ( a . ) What methods w o u l d you a d o p t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f taste i n y o u r p u p i l s ? ( b . ) G i v e t h e two p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i o n s t h a t have b e e n u r g e d a g a i n s t c a r e f u l l y t e a c h i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l t e r m s o f d r a w i n g , ( c . ) Show how you w o u l d combat s u c h o b j e c t i o n s , ( a . ) S t a t e when a n d how far t h e b l a c k b o a r d may be a d v a n t a g e o u s l y u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r , ( b . ) How w o u l d you e n d e a v o u r t o s e c u r e delicacy o f touch on t h e p a r t o f y o u r p u p i l s ? ( a . ) Of t h e d i f f e r e n t g e o m e t r i c a l f i g u r e s w h i c h i s t h e s t r o n g e s t ? G i v e r e a s o n s , ( b . ) D e f i n e a hexagon, and show how t o draw t h e f i g u r e . E x p l a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s , i l l u s t r a t i n g e a c h by an e x a m p l e : - ( a . ) E l l i p s e , ( b . ) Ogee, ( c . ) S p i r a l . 3. ( a . ) Show c l e a r l y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n mathematical and unmathematical c u r v e s , m e n t i o n i n g two e x a m p l e s o f e a c h k i n d , ( b . ) What c u r v e i s t h e l e a s t a r t i s t i c ? S t a t e y o u r r e a s o n s . 5. Name t h e c h i e f p o i n t s t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n m a k i n g d e s i g n s f o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s . 7. Draw either o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : - ( a . ) An i v y - l e a f m o u l d i n g . ( b . ) A m a p l e - l e a f r o s e t t e i n s c r i b e d i n a t r i a n g l e . 3. ( a . ) Name two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M o o r i s h o r n a m e n t , ( b . ) S k e t c h a s i m p l e M o o r i s h d e s i g n . 9. ( a . ) S t a t e t h e two p a r t s i n t o w h i c h M odel and O b j e c t D r a w i n g may be d i v i d e d , ( b . ) How w o u l d you e x p l a i n t h e t e r m perspective t o y o u r p u p i l s ? 10. Draw, i n s i m p l e o u t l i n e , a w a t e r - j u g on a s q u a r e b l o c k . ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1892, p . c x x i x - c x x x ) A p p e n d i x C A v e r a g e A c t u a l D a i l y A t t e n d a n c e F i g u r e s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1872 t o 1946 f o r the s c h o o l y e a r s e n d i n g 1871 1881 1 , 3 6 6 . 8 6 1 8 9 1 5 , 1 3 4 . 9 1 1901 1 5 , 0 9 8 . 2 8 187 2 - 1882 1 , 3 5 8 . 6 8 1892 6 / 2 2 7 . 1 0 1902 1 5 , 5 6 4 . 2 5 1873 57 5 . 0 0 188 3 1 , 3 8 3 . 0 0 1 8:9 3 7 , 1 1 1 . 4 0 1903 1 6 , 3 5 7 . 4 3 187 4 7 6 7 . 0 0 1884 1 , 8 0 8 . 6 0 189 4 7 , 7 8 5 . 5 0 1904 1 7 , 0 6 0 . 9 3 1875 8 6 3 . 0 0 1 8 8 5 2 , 089 .74 1895 8 , 6 1 0 . 3 1 19 0 5 1 8 , 859 . 4 1 1876 9 8 4 . 0 0 1886 2 , 4 8 1 . 4 8 . 189 6 9 , 254 . 25 1906 1 9 , 5 0 6 . 2 3 1877 1 2 6 0 . 0 0 18 8 7 2 , 8 7 3 . 3 8 1897 9 , 9 9 9 . 6 1 1907 2 0 , 0 1 7 . 0 2 1878 1 3 9 5 . 5 0 1888 3 , 0 9 3 . 4 6 189 8 1 1 , 0 5 5 . 6 5 1908 2 3 , 1 9 5 . 2 7 1879 1 3 1 5 . 9 0 1889 3 , 6 8 1 . 1 4 . 1899 1 2 , 3 0 4 . 3 2 19 09 2 5 , 3 5 0 . 6 3 1880 1 2 9 3 . 9 3 1890 4 , 3 3 3 . 9 0 1900 1 3 , 4 3 8 . 4 1 1910 2 8 , 0 9 4 . 1 6 1911 .32,161.74 1921 68,597 1931 99,375 19 41 103;192 1912 37,567.88 1922 7 5,52 8. .1932 103,510 1942 102,085 1913 4.3, 2 7.4 .12 1923 77,752 ' 19 3 3 •10 4,9 78 19 4 3 9 3,473 1914 49, 377. 70 1924 79,262 •; 19 3 4 10 3/3 89 19 4 4 102,999 1915 .52, 821. 72 1925 82,721 19 3 5 101,89 3 19 4 5 10 7,59 9 1916 50, 870,. 25 . 1926 85,293 19 3 6 101,87 3 " 19 4 6 114,59 0 1917 52,577.12 1927 88,306 1937 104.04 4 1918 54, 747. 00 1928 91,760 19 3 8 106,515 1919 56,692.38 1929 94,410 1939 107,6 60 19 20 59,791.39 1930 96,196 1940 10 8,826 (Department 1872 - of E d u c a t i o n , 1946 ) Annual Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l A p p e n d i x D I n s p e c t o r D a v i d W i l s o n ' s comments on c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e P i c t u r e S e t s , 1901 " I n t h e few a t t e m p t s a t d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l s v i s i t e d l a s t y e a r , t h e t e a c h e r s had u s e d c h i e f l y any b e a u t i f y i n g m a t e r i a l e a s i l y w i t h i n r e a c h , s u c h a s f l o w e r s i n p o t s , s p e c i m e n s o f p u p i l ' s work, p h o t o g r a p h s , p i c t u r e s f r o m i l l u s t r a t e d p a p e r , &c. And I have no d o u b t t h a t more w o u l d have b e e n done i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n h ad t h e y known t h a t c o p i e s o f g r e a t p i c t u r e s may i n t h e s e d a y s be p r o c u r e d a t a v e r y c h e a p r a t e . The P e r r y p i c t u r e s ( s m a l l s i z e ) c o s t one c e n t e a c h , t h e l a r g e r o nes a r e s o l d a t f i v e c e n t s e a c h . The P r a n g s e r i e s , a nd t h e W i t t e r s e r i e s ( p h o t o g r a p h s o f g r e a t p a i n t i n g s ) c a n a l s o be o b t a i n e d a t a m o d e r a t e p r i c e . S u c h p i c t u r e s s e r v e n o t o n l y f o r d e c o r a t i o n b u t f o r s t u d y . B o o k s s u c h a s Emery's 'How t o e n j o y P i c t u r e s , ' and Van D y k e ' s 'How t o j u d g e a P i c t u r e , ' o u g h t t o be i n e v e r y t e a c h e r ' s l i b r a r y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f w o r k s o f a r t o f r e a l m e r i t w i l l s o o n e r o r l a t e r b a n i s h f r o m home and s c h o o l p i c t u r e s w h i c h c o n t a i n no r e a l v a l u e , and w h i c h n e i t h e r p l e a s e t h e 171 eye n o r e l e v a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r " . ( W i l s o n , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1901, p. 261-162) Appendix E Inspector S.B. Netherbv's comments on wall and c e i l i n g c o l o u r s f o r classrooms "Both f o r d u r a b i l i t y and appearance, w a l l s should be t i n t e d green, drab or yellow, and c e i l i n g s drab, blue or t e r r a c o t t a . " (Netherby, Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools, 1902, p.A32) If taken as implied t h i s would make a great many classrooms very much b r i g h t e r and more p l e a s a n t . At t h i s time most classrooms were e i t h e r unpainted or whitewashed. Appendix F Ou t l i n e of Art Courses, Summer School 1915 (2.) A r t Course. ( S t a f f of I n s t r u c t o r s : John Kyle, A.R.C.A., Art Master; Charles H. S c o t t , Dip.G.S.A., Art Master; James G. S i n c l a i r , Art Master; Spencer P. Judge, Art Master; James S. McMillan, A r t Master; George Breadner, Manual A r t s I n s t r u c t o r . ) P r e l i m i n a r y Course. Object Drawing: With p e n c i l , c h a r c o a l , pen, brush. P r i n c i p l e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n . R e l a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n to memory drawing. Methods of te a c h i n g ; t e s t s . L i g h t and shade; tone s t u d i e s . Blackboard drawing. Nature Drawing: With p e n c i l , pen brush. C o n s t r u c t i o n of p l a n t forms, leaves, flowers, and n a t u r a l - h i s t o r y s p e c i m e n s . B l a c k b o a r d d r a w i n g . Des i g n : G e o m e t r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n p a t t e r n s . D e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s ; p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n . N a t u r a l i s t i c a nd c o n v e n t i o n a l s t y l e s . C o l o u r ; c o l o u r h a r m o n i e s . The a p p r e c i a t i o n o f g ood f o r m . D e v e l o p m e n t o f t a s t e . B l a c k b o a r d d r a w i n g . A p p l i e d Des i g n : S t e n c i l l i n g , e m b r o i d e r y and a p p l i q u e , G e s s o - w o r k . L e t t e r i n g ; h i s t o r i c s t y l e s o f o r n a m e n t . A d v a n c e d C o u r s e T h i s c o u r s e was open t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s who o b t a i n e d a f i r s t - c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e i n t h e P r e l i m i n a r y C o u r s e o f 1914, o r who s a t i s f i e d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s e d t h e n e c e s s a r y a b i l i t y t o p r o f i t by t h e i n s t r u c t i o n . The c o p p e r and b r a s s r e p o u s s e - w o r k a s o u t l i n e d b e l o w , t o g e t h e r w i t h a c o u r s e i n d e s i g n a d a p t e d t o m a n u a l - t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s , was open t o M a n u a l T r a i n i n g I n s t r u c t o r s , and was a t t e n d e d by e l e v e n . D r a w i n g and P a i n t i n g f r o m O b j e c t s : F l o w e r i n g p l a n t s ; n a t u r a l - h i s t o r y s p e c i m e n s . S t u d y o f l i g h t a nd s h a d e , t o n e , c o l o u r , and compos i t i on. B l a c k b o a r d d r a w i n g . Des i g n : D e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s ; p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n ; n a t u r a l i s t i c a nd c o n v e n t i o n a l s t y l e s ; s u i t a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n t o p u r p o s e ; c o l o u r h a r m o n i e s f r o m n a t u r e ; h i s t o r i c s t y l e s . t A p p l i e d D e s i g n : C o p p e r and B r a s s R e p o u s s e : Processes.- B e n d i n g , f i l i n g > s a w i n g , r i v e t i n g , p l a n i s h i n g , p o l i s h i n g , r a i s i n g , r e p o u s s e , e t c . Projects.- P a p e r - k n i f e , b l o t t e r c o r n e r s , h a t - p i n , w a t c h - f o b , t r a y , b o o k - e n d s , n a p k i n - r i n g s , f r a m e , b o x , h i n g e s , l a m p - s h a d e . i D e s i g n i n g o f o b j e c t s t o be made i n wood and m e t a l . S t a i n e d - w o o d work; G e s s o - w o r k ; l e a t h e r - w o r k ; e m b r o i d e r y , s h o w i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f d e s i g n t o p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s . ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1915, p.A57-A58) Appendix G A L i s t of the Team Members Who Worked on the Survey of the School System with Drs. Putman & Weir Both men (Dr. Putman and Dr. Weir) were p r o f e s s i o n a l educators, both had experience in t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g , both had earned d o c t o r a l degrees (D.Paed.)in education in Ontario and both were d e f i n i t e l y l i b e r a l or p r o g r e s s i v e in t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l thought. I f anything, Dr. Putman, the Ont a r i a n , was the more c o n s e r v a t i v e of the p a i r and Dr. Weir, the westerner, the more r a d i c a l . They were a s s i s t e d in t h e i r survey by an impressive team of e x p e r t s : Mr. J.L. Paton, former headmaster of the Manchester Grammar School; P r o f e s s o r H.F. Angus of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; P r o f e s s o r S.E. Beckett of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, who provided a r e p o r t on e d u c a t i o n a l f i n a n c e , and P r o f e s s o r Peter S t a n d i f o r d of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d leader in e d u c a t i o n a l psychology, who conducted the t e s t i n g programme in the s c h o o l s . P r o f e s s o r F.C. Ayer of the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington was c o n s u l t e d on ques t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Mr. A.W. Cocks on s t a t i s t i c s . It was a commission of experts in edu c a t i o n . I f any c r i t i c i s m c o u l d be made of the s e l e c t i o n i t might be that laymen were omitted. (Johnson, A H i s t o r y of P u b l i c Education in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964, p.102) Appendix H Superior Schools and J u n i o r High Schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1926 to 1945 Comparative Numbers of Superior and J u n i o r High Schools Year Superior J r . High Year Superior J r . High 1926 25 3 1936 43 14 1927 31 5 1937 47 26 1928 32 10 1938 46 34 1929 29 9 1939 48 35 1930 37 13 1940 44 43 1931 39 13 1941 44 45 1932 37 12 1942 38 45 1933 40 11 1943 41 45 1934 40 10 1944 32 46 1935 44 10 1945 29 48 Note:- There was a s p e c i a l s c h o o l r e f e r e d to as a J u n i o r High School i n Vancouver s e t up i n 1922, which we would r e f e r to now as an a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l f o r non academic s t u d e n t s . 179 L o c a t i o n of the J u n i o r High Schools by Year 1926- P e n t i c t o n , P o i n t Grey, Vancouver. 1927- P e n t i c t o n , P o i n t Grey, (3) Vancouver. 1928- P e n t i c t o n , (4) Vancouver, Nelson, (4) New Westminster. 1929- P e n t i c t o n , (4) Vancouver, Nelson, (3) New Westminster. 1930- P e n t i c t o n , (4) Vancouver, Nelson, (3) New Westminster, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s . 1931- (no change from 1930). 1932- P e n t i c t o n , (4) Vancouver, Nelson, (4) New Westminster, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s . 1933- P e n t i c t o n , (4) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver 1934- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver. 1935- (no change from 1934). 1936- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , Kaslo, (3) New Westminster, P o r t Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North c o n s o l i d a t e d . 180 1937- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , Kaslo, (3) New Westminster, P o r t Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North C o n s o l i d a t e d , (2) North Vancouver, Vernon, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Kimberley. 1938- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , Kaslo, (3) New Westminster, Port Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North C o n s o l i d a t e d , (2) North Vancouver, Vernon, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Kimberley, P r i n c e Rupert, Rossland, T r a i l - T a d a n a c , Coquitlam, D e l t a , M i s s i o n , Creston V a l l e y United, P r i n c e t o n . 1939- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , K a s l o , (3) New Westminster, Port Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North C o n s o l i d a t e d , (2) North Vancouver, Vernon, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Kimberly, P r i n c e Rupert, Rossland, T r a i l - T a d a n a c , Coquitlam, D e l t a , M i s s i o n , Creston V a l l e y U n i t e d , P r i n c e t o n , C h i l i w a c k . 181 1940- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , Kaslo, (3) New Westminster, Port Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North C o n s o l i d a t e d , (3) North Vancouver, Vernon, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Kimberly, P r i n c e Rupert, Rossland, T r a l l - T a d a n a c , Coquitlam, D e l t a , M i s s i o n , Creston V a l l e y United, P r i n c e t o n , C h i l l w a c k , (3) Burnaby, (3) Surrey, O l i v e r - T e s t a l i n d a - O s o y o o s High School Area. 1941- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , K a s l o , (3) New Westminster, Port Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North C o n s o l i d a t e d , (3) North Vancouver, Vernon, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Kimberly, P r i n c e Rupert, Rossland, T r a i l - T a d a n a c , Coquitlam, D e l t a , M i s s i o n , Creston V a l l e y U n i t e d , P r i n c e t o n , C h i l i w a c k , (3) Burnaby, (3) Surrey, O l l v e r - T e s t a l l n d a - O s o y o o s High School Area, Maple Ridge, W e l l s - B a r k e r v i l l e U n i t e d . 182 1942- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , Kaslo, (3) New Westminster, P o r t Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North C o n s o l i d a t e d , (3) North Vancouver, Vernon, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Kimberly, P r i n c e Rupert, Rossland, T r a i l - T a d a n a c , Coquitlam, D e l t a , M i s s i o n , Creston V a l l e y United, P r i n c e t o n , C h i l i w a c k , (3) Burnaby, (3) Surrey, Maple Ridge, W e l l s - B a r k e r v i l l e United, South Okanagan United. 1943- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , K a s l o , (3) New Westminster, Port Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North C o n s o l i d a t e d , (3) North Vancouver, Vernon, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Kimberly United, P r i n c e Rupert, Rossland, T r a i l - T a d a n a c , Coquitlam, D e l t a , M i s s i o n , Creston V a l l e y U n i t e d , P r i n c e t o n , C h i l i w a c k , (3) Burnaby, (3) Surrey, Maple Ridge, South Okanagan United, Ladysmith. 1944- P e n t i c t o n , (3) Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Ocean F a l l s , West Vancouver, Duncan, F e r n i e , Kaslo, (3) New Westminster, Port Moody, Dawson Creek, Powell R i v e r , Saanich North C o n s o l i d a t e d , (3) North Vancouver, Vernon, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Kimberly U n i t e d , P r i n c e Rupert, Rossland, T r a i l - T a d a n a c , Coquitlam, D e l t a , M i s s i o n , C r e s t o n V a l l e y United, P r i n c e t o n , C h i l i w a c k , (3) Burnaby, (3) Surrey, Maple Ridge, South Okanagan Uni t e d , Ladysmith, P r i n c e George. (Department of Education, Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools, 1926-45) Appendix I B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n A p p r e c i a t i o n and History. An Approach to A r t - Mary Mullen. C r e a t i v e Youth - Mearns. The Lesson i n A p p r e c i a t i o n - F.H. Hayward (Macmillan & Co.). Advancing i n P i c t u r e Study - Hammell (Gage & Co.). A p p r e c i a t i o n of P i c t u r e s - K l a r and D i l l a w a y (Brown, Robertson Co.) Drawing and Design Teachers' Manual of Drawing - Weston (Nelson). A p p l i e d A r t - P. Lemos ( P a c i f i c P r e s s ) . Drawing from Memory - C a t t e r s o n Smith. P r a c t i c e and Science of Drawing (Advanced) - Harold Speed (Seely S e r v i c e Co.). Blackboard Drawing - A.W. Seaby (Nelson). How C h i l d r e n Learn to Draw - Sargent (Ginn & Co.). P a s t e l Work f o r the Standards; 3 v o l . - A.G. Tompkins (Pitman). Colour, Theory and P r a c t i c e - A. MacMorland (Reeves & Sons). I n t r o d u c t i o n to A r t Education - W.G. Whitford (D. Appleton Co.). W r i t i n g & I l l u m i n a t i n g & L e t t e r i n g - E. Johnston (Pitman). Magazines. (Suggested f o r the teacher's p l e a s u r e and i n f o r m a t i o n . ) Studio - London, England. Design - Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , Columbia, Ohio. School A r t s Magazine - P a c i f i c P r e s s . P i c t o r i a l E ducation ( f o r i l l u s t r a t e d Primary Grades Supplement). Pamphlets, P r i n t s , Catalogues. (1.) F i e l d Museum, Chicago. (2.) Artex P r i n t s - A r t E x t e n t i o n S o c i e t y , New York. (3.) M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, New York. (4 . ) Chicago A r t Museum - Po s t - c a r d s , b u l l e t i n s . (5.) Boston Museum - Sheets of P i c t u r e s i l l u s t r a t i n g p r i m i t i v e c r a f t s . (6.) Medici P r i n t s - Medici Co., Boston. (7.) Seeman P r i n t s - Rudolp Lesch, New York. P r i c e , 2 5 c , 3 5 c , (5" by 7" and 7" by 10".) (8.) Museum P r i n t s - B r i t i s h Empire A r t Co., Vancouver. (Department of Education, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.150). Appendix J Suggested L i s t of P i c t u r e s and P r i n t s Grade C h i l d r e n of Charles I . - Van Dyck. Age of Innocence- Reynolds . Mother and C h i l d - Le Brun. Madonna of the C h a i r - Raphael . Grad Blue Boy- Gainsborough. Boy with r a b b i t - Raeburn. Gleaners- M i l l e t . B l i n d Man's B u f f - Goya . I Feeding her b i r d s - M i l l e t . P i l g r i m s going to Church- Boughton. L i t t l e s t r e e t i n D e l f t - Vermeer. Feast of St. N i c h o l a s - Jan Steen. II Can't you t a l k - Holmes. Horse F a i r - Bonheur. Oxen at W e l l - H o r a t i o Walker (Canada). 187 Grade I I I Inf a n t Samuel- Reynolds Gypsies. Derby Week- A.J. Munnings. The Torn Hat- S u l l y . P r i n c e C h arles and Dog- Van Dyke. Canal a t Zan Daam- Monet. Young g i r l p e e l i n g apples- Maes . Shoeing the bay mare- Landseer. L i t t l e Rose- W h i s t l e r . B a t t l e Scene- U c c e l l o . Grade IV C h i l d Handel- Marg. Dicksee. "The Helping Hand" (Seascape)- Renouf. B a t t l e of T r a f a l g a r - De Martino. Return of the F l o c k - Mauve . Joan of Arc- B a s t i e n Le Page. S i r Galahad- Watts . The M i l l - Ruysdael. 188 Grade The T a i l o r - Moroni . Boy angel with l u t e - C a r p a c c i o . C a r n a t i o n , L i l y , Rose- Sargent . The P e a r l Necklace- Vermeer. Grade Man i n Gold Helmet- Rembrandt . The Merchant G i s z e - H o l b e i n . Arabs on the March- Schreyer. Off V a l p a r a l s o - Somerscales. F i g h t i n g Temeraire- Turner. Boy with a Sword- Manet . Oxen going to work- Troyon. Music Lesson- Terboch. Derby Day- F r i t h . Knight of the Holy G r a i l - Waugh. Laughing C a v a l i e r - Hals. Boyhood of S i r W. R a l e i g h - M i l l a i s . Harp of the Winds- Homer M a r t i n . "North-Easter 1 1- Winslow Homer. Any of the p r i n t s above can be obtained from the f o l l o w i n g p u b l i s h e r s and agents:- P r i n t s p u b l i s h e d by:- B u r l i n g t o n P r i n t s - London, Eng. Medici P r i n t s - London, Eng. Brown, Robertson - New York, U.S.A. S t e h l i P r i n t s - Z u r i c h , S w i t z e r l a n d . Eyre, Spottiswode, A l i n a r i P r i n t s - London, Eng. Nelson's Canadian H i s t o r y Reproduction (C.W. J e f f r e s y and H. Sandham). N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y Canada Reproductions - Dent Co., Canada. Canadian A r t i s t s - Seeman P r i n t s Co. - L e i p z i g , Germany. P e r r y P i c t u r e s Co., - Maiden, Mass., U.S.A. Raphael Tuck Co. - London, England. (Department of Education, Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p.151). Appendix K B i b l i o g r a p h y of A r t Books L i s t e d i n the Programme of Studies f o r J u n i o r High Schools 1932 Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design (Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a ) . K y l e : Design f o r I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , Book I., Woodwork (Nelson & Sons, T o r o n t o ) . K y l e : Design f o r I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , Book I I . , Metalwork (Nelson & Sons, T o r o n t o ) . K y l e : Design f o r I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , Book I I I . , L e t t e r i n g (Nelson & Sons, T o r o n t o ) . E.G. F o s t e r : Embroidery & Design (Pitman, Toronto). Anne Knox Ar t h u r : An Embroidery Book (A. & C. Black, L t d . , London). E t h e l Traphagen: Costume Design. Grace W. M e l v i n : B a s i c L e t t e r i n g (Longmans, Green). Walter L. P h i l l i p s : The Technique of the Colour Woodcut (Brown, Robertson Co.). F r e d . J . G l a s s : S t e n c i l C r a f t (The U n i v e r s i t y of London P r e s s ) . S u t h e r l a n d : S t e n c i l l i n g f o r Craftsmen (The D e c o r a t i v e A r t J o u r n a l Co., Manchester, England). 191 Fred. J . G l a s s : The I n d u s t r i a l A r t s (The U n i v e r s i t y of London P r e s s ) . N.A. Poole: Simple C r a f t s f o r G i r l s (The U n i v e r s i t y of London P r e s s ) . E n s i n g e r : A r t i s t i c Woodturnlng (Bruce P u b l i s h i n g Co.). Hooper & S h i r l e y : Handcraft i n Wood & Metal ( B a t s f o r d ) . Carpenter: Suggestions f o r the Study of Colour ( B a t s f o r d ) . Snow & F r o e h l i c h : Theory and P r a c t i c e of Colour (Prang Co.) . Pedro J . Lemos: P o r t f o l i o Commercial A r t (School A r t s Magazine, Worcester, Mass.). The School A r t s Magazine (Worcester, Mass.). E.V.K. Grayson: P i c t u r e A p p r e c i a t i o n f o r Elementary Schools (J.M. Dent & Sons). Pearson: How to see Modern P i c t u r e s (The D i a l Press, New York). Robert H e n r i : The A r t S p i r i t ( L i p p i n c o t t ) . Margaret H. B u l l e y : A r t and C o u n t e r f e i t (Methuen & Co.) . Roger F r y : V i s i o n and Design (Chatto & Windus). T o l s t o y : What i s Art? 192 C l i v e B e l l : A r t (Stokes, Fourth Avenue, New York). (Department of E d u c a t i o n , Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the J u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1932, p.138-139). 193 Appendix L Tables of Contents and P i c t u r e l i s t s from Book One and Two of the A r t - L i t e r a t u r e Readers BOOK ONE STORIES THE RAINBOW COLORS The S u r p r i s e 7 The Rainbow P a r t y 12 P i c t u r e Gardens 16 F i n d i n g Rainbow C o l o r s 22 B i r d s of Rainbow C o l o r s 24 OUTDOOR PICTURES A Book of Autumn C o l o r s 29 Autumn P i c t u r e s 34 A P i c t u r e from the South 40 Two L i t t l e A r t i s t s 42 A Black and White P i c t u r e 45 Winter C o l o r s 48 194 ANIMALS IN ART Drawing Animals 55 An Animal P i c t u r e 59 Modeling Animals 62 The Toy Farm 6 4 HOUSES AND TOWNS A House o£ Blocks 69 Toy Town 72 A P i c t u r e of an Old Town 76 Jim's B i r d House 78 ART AT CHRISTMAS TIME Helping Santa Claus 83 A V i s i t to the Toy Store 88 The Christmas Tree 92 The Christmas P i c t u r e 97 The Snowman 101 BEAUTIFUL ROOMS The New Playroom 105 P i c t u r e s f o r the Playroom 109 Baby Jane and the D o l l House 115 195 Grandmother's S t o r y 120 COLOR IN CLOTHES The D o l l Show 129 Dressing Paper D o l l s 134 Baby S t u a r t 136 PICTURE LIST C a r n a t i o n , L i l y , L i l y , Rose...John S. Sargent 20 Among the Flowers A l i c e Beard 23 The P a r r o t Stark Davis 27 The M i l l Pond George Inness 39 Through the Palms Emma G i l c h r i s t 41 In the Garden .....Mary Anderson 46 Ice Bound W.L. M e t c a l f 50 Shoeing the Bay Mare Edwin Landseer 61 Red Roofs F r i t z Thaulow 77 The B i r d House L.V. C a r r o l l 81 The Toy Shop Window Norman Rockwell 91 The Holy Night Antonio da Correggio . . 99 Mary and Her L i t t l e Lamb A l b e r t Hencke 110 Racing Tea C l i p p e r s , 1854 C R . P a t t e r s o n 112 Baby S t u a r t Anthony Van Dyck 138 Ambition . J e s s i e W i l l c o x Smith.141 196 BOOK TWO STORIES COLORS Color S e c r e t s 9 A P i c t u r e of Z i n n i a s 14 Mixing C o l o r s 16 Can You Fi n d C o l o r s That Match? 17 A Color Game 18 Ann and the Pink Flowers 19 Ann's Gray K i t t e n 23 L i g h t and Dark C o l o r s 24 A Sp r i n g Dance 26 Co l o r s C h r i s t i n a R o s s e t t l 28 Skip p i n g the Rope 29 A B e a u t i f u l P i c t u r e 33 ANIMALS IN ART A Zoo P i c n i c 35 An Animal Scrapbook 42 Big Black Bear John Martin 46 197 A P i c t u r e of Two S q u i r r e l s 47 A V i s i t to the A r t G a l l e r y 51 The L i t t l e A r t i s t s 57 P i c t u r e s and Statues 61 HOUSES AND YARDS A House f o r Paddy 63 The Playhouse 71 Company 76 Making a House Look Be t t e r 77 A Park i n the C i t y 78 A C i t y Far Away 80 Three A r c h i t e c t s 82 A r c h i t e c t s and T h e i r Work 85 PICTURES OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH Outdoor P i c t u r e s 87 Blue Johnny 95 Beauty Out of Doors 101 BEAUTIFUL ROOMS Playrooms 103 S u r p r i s e Packages 111 What A l i c e Found Out 118 198 D i f f e r e n t Kinds of Designs 122 A P i c t u r e of a Room 126 B e a u t i f u l Rooms at Home 129 ART IN CLOTHING P r i n c e C a r l o s and His Pony 131 Bonnie's P a r t y 134 A Boy of Long Ago 138 Nancy's D o l l 140 The M i r r o r 146 The P i c t u r e i n Your M i r r o r 147 ENJOYING BEAUTY IN ALL THINGS An Art E x h i b i t 149 Happy Days 156 A Statue f o r a Park 160 PICTURE LIST Z i n n i a s S p r i n g Dance The Skippers Madonna of the Grand Duke E l i z a b e t h L. Hammell..l5 Franz von Stuck 26 Vernon Thomas 31 Raphael 32 199 Peanuts Charles E. H e l l 40 Malay T i g e r , " P r i n c e t o n " (Colored photograph)..43 Bear Cubs Charles L. B u l l 45 S q u i r r e l s A l b r e c h t Durer 48 P o l a r Bears Richard F r i e s e 53 Walking T i g e r Antoine L o u i s Barye...56 Madison Square Paul Cornoyer 78 View of Ghent A l b e r t Baertsoen 80 Winter Sports M o l l y Luce 89 S u n l i g h t and Shadow Edward W. Redf i e l d . . . . 91 E a r l y Morning, Tarpon Spr ings .George Inness 93 Golden Fog, Tampa Bay Marie A. H u l l 99 Geese and Hollyhocks J e s s i e Arms B o t k e . . . . l l 2 Sunflowers Vincent van Gogh 115 The Storage Room P i e t e r de Hooch 127 P r i n c e B a l t h a z a r C a r l o s Velasquez 132 P o r t r a i t of Bonnie A l i c e S c h i l l e 137 V i s c o u n t A l t h o r p S i r Joshua Reynolds.. 139 The H o l i d a y Edward H. P o t t h a s t . . . 152 On the Terrace Auguste Renoir 154 Happy Days Eugene Iverd 159 F i g u r e f o r C h i l d r e n ' s Park.... S y l v i a Shaw Judson...l61 (Whitford, L i e k , & Gray, 1934, p.2-7) Appendix M P i c t u r e s used i n How to En-loy P i c t u r e s Chapter 2 - Landscapes Riverbank with w i n d m i l l Ruysdael Morning: Dance of Nymphs Corot The F i g h t i n g Temeraire Turner Chapter 3 - B u i l d i n g s and S t r e e t Scenes Glimpse a t Karnak Warren Madison Square Hussam Old S t r e e t i n Gray P e n n e l l S t r e e t i n Siena Woolbury Chapter 4 - P i c t u r e s that t e l l a S t o r y C u r i o s i t y P a s i n i The Alarm D e t a i l l e O t h e l l o Becker Domestic I n t e r i o r P l e t s c h Chapter 5 - Animals Return to the Farm Troyon Study of Cats Lambert 201 Ploughing i n the N i v e r n a i s Bonheur The Hare and the T o r t o i s e Church Chapter 6 - P o r t r a i t s Mona L i s a Da V i n c i P o r t r a i t T i t i a n Wife and C h i l d r e n Rubens Young Man, Musing Rembrant Chapter 7 - Studies of L i f e and Characters Salome Regnault Punch and Judy at the Convent Blaas The Spinner Maas Joan of Arc Bastien-Lepage Aesop Velasquez The F i r s t Step M i l l e t Chapter 8 - I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Legend and Fancy C i r c e Bur ne-Jones Midas and h i s Daughter Gibson Death's Door Blake E l e c t r i c i t y Puvis de Chavannes T h e t i s and the Nereids Flaxman Chapter 9 - P i c t u r e s With Religeous Themes Madonna of the Louvre B o t t i c e l l i Holy Family M u r i l l o Madonna of the Burgomaster Holbein Madonna of the Donors Van Dyck S i s t i n e Madonna Raphael St. Anthony of Padua M u r i l l o The P i l g r i m s at Emmaus Rembrandt Jeremiah Michelangelo Moses, E l i j a h , and Joshua Sargent (Emery, 1898) 203 Appendix N Survey of High School Teacher's Place of Graduation P l a c e of Graduation Number and Percentage U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 65 36% Onta r i o 43 24% Nova S c o t i a 12 7% Quebec 10 5% Manitoba 9 5% New Brunswick 7 4% Saskatchewan 4 2% A l b e r t a . . 4 2% Scot l a n d 9 5% I r e l a n d 8 4% England . 5 3% A u s t r a l i a 1 0.5% New Zealnd 1 0.5% United S t a t e s 2 1% (Department of Education, Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools, 1924-25, p.10).

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