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Aesthetic responses of five and six year olds to pictures, objects and dress-up clothes in kindergarten Prescott, Jean Elizabeth 1983

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AESTHETIC RESPONSES OF FIVE and SIX YEAR OLDS TO PICTURES, OBJECTS AND DRESS-UP CLOTHES IN KINDERGARTEN by J E A N EL IZABETH PRESCOTT B.Ed., The Univers ity of Br it ish Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULF I LMENT OF THE REQU IREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Art s in Education Facul ty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UN IVERS ITY OF BRITISH COLUMB IA December 1983 © J e a n El izabeth Prescott, 1983 In presenting „this thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i A B S T R A C T Aesthetic responses by 5 and 6 year olds to pictures, objects, and dress-up items were categorized using methods derived from ethnographic research. Two classes of kindergarten children attending a morning and an afternoon session respectively were interviewed to discover which of a series of items were preferred and which were not preferred. Thirty-one children were involved in this study, conducted in a large suburban Brit ish Columbia community. The children represented a range of cu l tura l , religious, and economic backgrounds. Items used in the study were in i t ia l ly researcher selected, then used in a pilot study to determine which items e l ic i ted strong responses from a small group of kindergarten children situated in a nearby, s imilar setting. Twenty-two pictures, 22 objects and 30 dress-up items made up" the instrument used in the main study. Children 's responses and cr i ter ia for their aesthetic decision making were recorded as f ield notes, then developed into subcategories within each of the study's three main categories: pictures, objects, and dress-ups. Stat i st ica l comparisons of the three groupings of responses, along with descriptive data indicated that aesthetic decision making among 5 year old children takes account pr imari ly of colour, decoration, design elements, surface and texture, socio-cultural aspects and association. Dress-up items el ic i ted special pract ica l considerations of s ize, f i t , and condition. Association both with Hal lowe'en and with sex-role stereotyping was evident in a large portion of dress-up responses. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i T i t le Page Authorizat ion i i Abstract i i i Table of Contents v i List of Tables v i i List of Figures v i i i Acknowledgements C H A P T E R P A G E I. INTRODUCT ION TO THE PROBLEM 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Research Questions 2 Research Design 3 Population 3 The Setting 3 The Pilot Study 3 Procedures 3 Significance of the Study 4 Limitations 5 Definitions 5 II. REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E 6 A r t Educators and Aesthet ic Education 7 The Ethnographic Approach 13 The Process of Cultura l Transmission 15 Assumptions in Summary 18 III. IN IT IAL ORGAN IZAT ION A N D PILOT STUDY 20 Init ial Organization for the Study 20 Research Methods 20 Chronology of the Project 21 Pi lot Study 24 Purpose 24 Setting 24 Procedures 24 Questioning 25 Pictures 26 Objects 27 Dress-Up Items 27 Analysis of Responses 34 Selection of Items 34 iv IV. MA IN STUDY 35 The Setting 35 Procedures 36 Modifications to the Proposal 37 Questions 37 V. ANALYS I S A N D INTERPRETAT ION OF D A T A 40 Responses to Pictures 40 Colour 40 Association 47 Soc io-Cultura l Bel iefs 49 Surface and Texture 50 Natural forms and events 52 Responses to Objects 53 Colour 53 Decoration 60 Materials 61 Association 63 Responses to Dress-Up 67 Colour 68 Association 75 Design Elements 78 Materials 80 Stat ist ical Treatment of Data: P ictures, Objects and Dress-Ups 86 Comparison of Study Responses 87 VI. DISCUSSION OF F INDINGS 98 Responses in the Context of Ch i ld Development 98 Answering Style 101 VII. S U M M A R Y , CONCLUS IONS A N D IMPL ICAT IONS 107 Summary 107 Restating Assumptions 110 Implications for Further Study 111 Recommendations for Pract ice 113 V R E F E R E N C E S 116 APPEND ICES 119 A. 1. List of Items in Pi lot Study: Examples 120 2. List of Items in Main Study: Pictures 122 Objects 125 Dress-Ups 128 B. Selected Frequency of Specif ic Items by Sex 131 C. Aesthetic Preferences of Boys 136 Aesthetic Preferences of Gir l s 146 vi List of Tables Table I Table II Table III Table IV Table V Table VI Table VII Table VIII Features Mentioned in Aesthet ic Decision Making for Pictures (Preferred) Features Mentioned in Aesthet ic Decision Making for Pictures (Not Preferred) Features Mentioned in Aesthet ic Decision Making for Objects (Preferred) Features Mentioned in Aesthet ic Decision Making for Objects (Not Preferred) Features Mentioned in Aesthet ic Decision Making for Dress-Ups (Preferred) Features Mentioned in Aesthet ic Decision Making for Dress-Ups (Not Preferred) P ictures, Objects and Dress-Ups: Pictures, Objects and Dress-Ups: Preferred % Not Preferred % P A G E 42 44 55 57 71 73 88 90 v i i L ist of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 List of Pictures used in Pi lot Study, Grouped by Sub-Category List of Objects used in Pi lot Study, Grouped by Sub-Category List of Dress-ups used in Pi lot Study, Grouped by Sub-Category Pictures (as regrouped for Main Study) Objects (as regrouped for Main Study) Dress-Ups (as regrouped for Main Study) Page 28 30 32 41 54 69 viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express appreciation to my advisor Dr. R.N. MacGregor for his generous support and encouragement throughout this study. Thanks are also extended to Dr. J.U. Gray, Dr. H. Polowy, and Professor P. Gouldstone without whose guidance this project might not have been completed. My appreciation is expressed to "Fairhaven" School Board and to those principals and the school co-ordinator who encouraged me to complete an in-classroom study. Thanks go to Cathy Sutherland and Eva Stewecki, who were willing to work with my enthusiastic 5 year olds on a daily basis for over a month. My appreciation goes to my husband, Stuart, who not only supported my work, but cheerfully gained new household skills while balancing his own studio and commercial glass business and also, to my stepson, Jason, who managed without the many "extras" he enjoys. In conclusion, I thank my parents, who attempted to convince me that striving was important and persistence paramount. 1 C H A P T E R 1 I NTRODUCT ION TO THE PROBLEM As art curriculums are revised in the 1980s, increasingly we are seeing the development of parts dealing with aesthetic appreciation and response. While junior and senior secondary students have been expected for some years now,; to develop aesthetic thinking through a series of act iv i t ies supported by strong philosophical underpinnings (Clark & Zimmerman, 1981), younger children have been generally deemed developmentally too young for aesthetic thought. Recent curriculum documents are beginning to promote an aesthetic consciousness which acknowledges that young children are capable of aesthetic responses. Experience in kindergarten should in any case convince the observant teacher that for some young children aesthetic responses are already developed. Certa in expressions employed by these children to classify a variety of material items including pictures, objects, and clothing seem to be classifiable as aesthetic. Some children are very definite about their choices; some are uncertain. On what basis do children actual ly make distinctions among pictures, or in clothing for dress-up? Are their choices indeed aesthetic? Is age, sex, or cultural backgound a notable factor at this point in children's development? Although some recent research explores this area (Gardner, Winner, & K i r che r , 1975; Johnson, 1982; Parsons, 1976), referr ing to children in general, further exploration regarding responses from specif ic age groups seems desirable. More important, before we begin to design curriculum to teach young children in the aesthetic realm we need to know more about their responses at this age. (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1983, pp. 92-96) 2 Statement of the Problem We do not know enough about aesthetic responses at the early childhood level, particularly with respect to 5 year olds, an age group that is often exposed to formal education for the first time. The purpose of this study is to determine how young children respond in ways describable as aesthetic to a restricted range of pictures, objects and dress-up items. Research Questions; To facilitate data-handling and interpretation of what would otherwise be an unmanageable body of material, the purpose of the study is restated in the form of specific research questions as follows: What responses from 5 year old children provide evidence of an ability to react aesthetically to selected pictures and objects? What data do 5 year old children provide as evidence of an ability to respond aesthetically to selected types of dress-up clothing? What kinds of discriminations do children make between the items they select as more preferred or less preferred? What reasons do children give for distinctions made between items considered visually attractive or unattractive? What cultural or developmental cues can be noted in children's responses to objects considered more preferred or less preferred? 3 Research Design The Population A f ie ld study was undertaken to interview 32 kindergarten children from 5.5 to 6.5 years. These 32 children represented two intact kindergarten classes which attended the same suburban school at separate t ime periods. The classes were made up of an equal number of boys and girls from a wide variety of cultural backgrounds, fami ly and economic situations. The Setting This study took place in the late spring of 1983. A l l interviewing was conducted in a small room adjacent to the regular classroom during the kindergarten day. Six weeks were required for data col lect ing. Opportunity was given for a l l children to respond to questions and complete act iv it ies associated with the study. The Pi lot Study I made an in i t ia l selection of pictures, objects and clothing items that I thought kindergarten children would find interesting. Then, a group of f ive kindergarten children attending a nearby school was chosen for a pilot study. These youngsters were asked to respond to the items individually. By choosing their visually most preferred items and least preferred items I was able to select the pictures, objects, and clothing items for use in the main study. Items not e l ic i t ing comments were el iminated. In tota l 22 pictures, 22 objects and 30 dress-up items were selected for the main study. Procedures The testing procedure involved four steps: 1) Parental permission to conduct the study was obtained. 2) The children were told what was intended in words they could easily understand. 3) In a location especially arranged for this purpose, each chi ld was interviewed about preferences regarding a group of 22 pictures, 22 objects, and 30 dress-up items. The original plan to interview children in groups of three was discarded because their keen interest in the items often resulted in individual failure to give others a chance to respond. 4) Each child was encouraged to discuss the reasons for his or her choice in each category. Observations of selections and discussions including a l l comments and reasons for choices were recorded in f ield notes and by tape recorder. The tape recorded sessions were at first transcribed into f ie ld notes immediately after each day's interviewing, but in the case of the later part of the study, several weeks thereafter. A l l f ie ld notes were thoroughly checked for completeness and accuracy. Some photographs of the children were taken during the study as an additional record. Significance of the Study The significance of this study relates d irect ly to commonly available art education curriculums and the new B.C. kindergarten curriculum (B.C. Department of Education - Kindergarten, 1983). By gaining information on the aesthetic choices of 5 year olds to pictures, objects, and items of dress-up, and by observing the children during the interviews regarding their choices and responses, we can add to the knowledge on which curricula are founded. Since the new kindergarten curriculum contains a section entit led A r t and Aesthetics this information should be particularly t imely. Although information was col lected from only 32 individuals of 5 years o ld, the descriptions of the reactions of these kindergarten children may in fact quite closely represent the responses of other children in other provincial classrooms. To date, no study has been conducted with respect to the types of items used in this study. Evidence obtained from this study that is supportive of aesthetic education and that ref lects the importance of that education for the young child may assist curriculum planners who wish to implement programs on a distr ict-wide basis. Limitations Since no attempt was made to select the children in the group tested, or to match this group with a control group, generalizing beyond the sample must be attempted with caution. A bias on my own part may exist because of my involvement as a teacher with these two classes before data col lect ing took place. Against this, however, must be set the confidence that fami l iar i ty produced among the chi ldren, so that they responded without the shyness that might have greeted a stranger. Definit ions For the purpose of this study the term aesthetic is used to mean pertaining to a sense of the beautiful. Aesthetic response means pertaining to,  involved with or concerned with the emotion or sensation gained from viewing  beauty. 6 C H A P T E R II REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E Ar t curriculums, l ike those in other areas, currently ref lect a widening gap in our thinking about what is appropriate, helpful , and necessary for children. In art curriculums for the 1980s, increasingly we are seeing a strand of thinking to develop aesthetic appreciation designed for young children. Since the time of Ha l l (1907), founder of the child study movement, and the subsequent work of Gesel l (1946) and Piaget (1926) in the cognitive domain, studies in art education with respect to young children have ref lected a developmental viewpoint. Studies in art education have expanded our knowledge about cognitive and developmental stages in the child with relation to art. Emphasis has been on the co l lect ion, observation, and description of early symbol-making, with the emphasis on production. Lowenfeld (1975) and Kel logg (1967) exemplify this approach, viewing the 5 year old as essentially se l f -centered, production-oriented, and so, developmentally unready for the formal iz ing necessary for aesthetic responding. Pressures generated by the quantitative leap in knowledge for and about young children have caused educators to re-evaluate art curriculums. We now ask: In what ways might the 5 year old manifest simple aesthetic understandings? To what extent and in what manner should we teach aesthetic understandings to young children? What kinds of early evaluative thinking might seem to contribute to the development of aesthetical ly thoughtful discriminating adults? 7 A r t Educators and Aesthetic Education Some educators, part icularly earlier writers, do not support teaching for systematic aesthetic development in young children. Br i t ta in (1979), Kel logg (1970), Lark -Horov i tz , Lewis and Luca (1973), and Lowenfeld and Br i t ta in (1975), whose positions are summarized in Taunton's (1982) review of the l i terature, recommended postponement of aesthetic education unti l late elementary school. Their writ ing centers on productive behaviours. Responses of children toward the arts are not valued in themselves but are seen merely as useful in giving information about productive aspects. Aesthetic behaviours are not seen as developing separately or paral lel to symbol-making. Kel logg (1970) discusses the possible danger of young children adopting adult symbols they might judge to be " t rue a r t " , which may interfere with their own symbol development. Kel logg cautions about the influence of repeated exposure to pictures on walls of the home, church, store or museum. Lowenfeld and Br i t ta in (1975) state that children might best think about aesthetic matters formally at ages 11 or 12. Harris (1963) recognizes that children have strong af fect ive attitudes of l ik ing and dis l ik ing, tending to favour representational art. He does not classify these as aesthetic in quality. Smith (1973) sees the early years as formative in cognitive powers and concepts which w i l l be refined and formal ized later. He views the secondary grades as being the ideal t ime for aesthetic education. In contrast to Br i t ta in (1979), Lowenfeld and Br i t ta in (1975) and part icular ly Kel logg ' s view (1970), McFee and Degge (1977) consider exposure to visual a r t , part icular ly two-dimensional adult made ar t , as important in cultural transmission. They state that a r t , theater, ethnic, regional, and religious festivals are forms of: cultural celebrations when people dress, ac t , and play to celebrate values that may be neglected in their day - to -day existence. H is tor ica l roots and cultural traditions are made more " r e a l " are taught to chi ldren, and reassert the cultural identity of groups. They provide a sense of belonging by giving people an opportunity to part ic ipate, (p. 293) Taunton notes that both Br i t ta in (1979) and Lark -Horov i tz et a l . (1973) recognize that young children do engage in what they term aesthet ic-l ike behaviors. Their interest in the surrounding environment, looking and talking about ar t , even play with blocks, sand, and water are examples of these aesthet ic- l ike behaviors (Taunton, 1982). The decision that a response is aesthet ic- l ike rests on the content of the response. Other authors, such as Lansing (1976) and Fisher (1978), viewing these same early responses, accept their simple and disorganized nature yet s t i l l conclude they are aesthetic. Taunton (1982) notes a number of art educators who have attended to the abi l it ies of young children to respond aesthetically by recommending forms of training for them. Both Feldman (1970) and Chapman (1978) see aesthetic behaviors as goals in themselves, equal in importance to production areas in curr iculum. Feldman (1970) recognizes the steps in aesthetic decision making, taken in spite of their disorganized nature. He states: A kindergarten child w i l l perform al l these operations (the same c r i t i ca l operations performed by professionals -description, analysis, interpretat ion, and judgment) spontaneously but in random order. Teaching is largely a job of systematizing his almost irrepressible desire to talk about art.. . .Cr it ical study is the process of introducing order into the child 's natural performance as a c r i t i c , (p. 187) In two more recent curriculums the development of aesthetics for young children is recognized and comprehensively outlined for the teacher. Lansing's A r t , Ar t i s t s , and A r t Education (1976) discusses the importance of the aesthetic realm. He recommends that teachers sol icit 9 verbal reactions to the look of objects and events and offer their own responses in an informal nondogmatic way. Through these exchanges children w i l l real ize the importance of the aesthetic realm while gaining important art i st ic terms new to their vocabulary. These terms wi l l form the basis for later conversations about art and aesthetic experiences. Lansing recommends that instruction begin when the chi ld f i rst enters school. In seeing that even 5 year olds can put ideas and emotions into pleasing forms and discuss their feelings about these, Lansing is giving recognition to the importance of aesthetic education for young children. He anticipates none of the negative effects that Kel logg (1970) suggests. Another recent book outl ining curriculum which gives recognition to art and aesthetics, is Fisher 's Aesthetic Awareness and the Chi ld (1978) in which she states: Times are planned in which students react to their own art and that of others. They produce ar t , and evaluate i t . Through these procedures they should become more aesthetical ly aware. They are asked to think productively, to make value judgments, to express personal opinions, and to record these ideas in personal art i st ic statements. They are also asked to learn about what other artists have made to grapple with theoret ical problems. Through these experiences can be real ized the principal goal of the art and aesthetics curr iculum: to develop aesthetically aware, perceptive individuals with art i s t ic knowledge, environ-mental sensit iv ity, human compassion in relation to others, heightened perceptual concepts, and aesthetic judgements. (P. 49-50) Here Fisher gives recognition of the abi l i ty of the 5 year olds to respond simply to how their own art looks, as wel l as that of peers. In expressing opinions and integrating new information the chi ld is spurred on to re-evaluate his own work. Here the teacher 's influence as questioner, focusing the attention and the thought of the child is essential. Chapman (1978) too, emphasizes the importance of adult influence in the development of aesthetic responses. She sees adults as being v i ta l in directing children's attention to various aspects of art works. She notes that the manner in which a young child observes work, and how children feel about that process, is as important as the responses they give. One regional art organization, CEMREL, and another national organization, the National Art Education Association, have both recognized the importance of aesthetic experiences in curriculum materials for young children. In their booklet entitled Essentials; The essentials of a quality school art  program (1970), N.A.E.A. identifies the aesthetic area as being vital for young children in accomplishing two goals: "to make visual judgements suited to his experience and maturity." "to understand the nature of art and the creative process." (p. 4) In elaborating on these goals this booklet reiterates the need for critical study of art work. Through evaluation and revision of one's own work and the critical analysis of works of others, depth of understanding and consequent appreciation of art can be achieved. The booklet goes on to state: It is not enough to manipulate a few materials into forms of one's own choosing without reference to the solutions of artists of the past and present. The artist must be involved in the study and production of works of art with an attitude of critical awareness. Perhaps the failure of some school art programs in the past has been due to a divergence from this dual nature of the study of art. (pp. 35-36) Likewise, CEMREL, Inc. in the book, Toward an Aesthetic Education states with regard to education in both music and art that Aesthetic education is concerned with helping individuals become responsive to beauty in all its forms. Those associated with the schools are increasingly coming to realize that this is as much a part of their responsibility as is developing vocational skills or promoting good interpersonal relationships, (p. ii) Through an aesthetic focus in the classroom young children initially raise their awareness of the aesthetic qualities of their own work. Subsequently, they are ready to look at the work of their classmates. Chi ldren require no encouragement to share an interest in nature. In the earliest writings on the kindergarten this natural aesthetic area was in evidence. Froebel (1899) strongly recommended cult ivation of a garden, observation of plants, pets, seasons, and their changes. His daily walks encouraged conversation about the child 's observations and feelings. One of the first educators to recognize the qualitative difference in children's thinking, Froebel was also the first to recognize the need for objects that could be used and handled: play materials that had visual and tact i le aesthetic qualities. As society places increasing demands on the educator to produce act i ve , thoughtful choicemakers and careful consumers, it seems the natural joy of the young child in the aesthetic realm may lend i tself readily to this kind of fostering. Recent ly, publication of several studies has indicated a focus on determining how children respond aesthetical ly at different ages. Parsons (1976; 1978) using a Piagetian exploration method found that children followed cognitive-developmental stages in their responses to paintings. D 'Onofrio and Nodine (1981) indicated four stages of aesthetic development characterized by a significant change in the type of thinking of the respondent. In i t ia l ly, children respond to paintings according to personal idiosyncracies and experiences. Next, the worth of a painting is judged from cr i ter ia l ike draftsmanship which itself is judged by use of colour and displays of composition. The third stage's cr iter ion for judgment is an adherence to the art ist ' s right to express his or iginal ity and innovativeness without regard for an external audience. Due to the confusion impl ic i t in this cr iter ion children seem reluctant to c r i t i c i ze an artwork. Aesthetic development, according to this model, culminates with the abi l i ty to take the art ist ' s viewpoint. An attempt to just ify responses includes comments on composition, quality of l ine, choice of colours, and the relation of a l l these pictoral devices to subject matter. In D 'Onofrio and Nodine's terms, children demonstrate the relevance of their responses to works of art in ways marked by increased subtlety and complexity. Considerations include how effect ive ly the art ist ' s point of view is expressed through several levels of expression including subject matter , f o rm, s k i l l , colour, and emotional responses. Since Parsons (1978), Parsons, Johnston, and Durham (1978), and D'Onofrio and Nodine (1981) have recognized some distinct stages in aesthetic response to paintings we might ask how young children move from the earliest stage to later stages without the opportunity to respond to art. Aesthet ic thought is just as important for 5 year olds as for 11 or 12 year olds. In considering the developmental stages of young children we must consider how much, how often, and in what way we work to develop art i s t ic responsiveness. Recent l i terature strongly supports the development of an aesthetic strand in the education of young chi ldren. If we heed the concept that Jerome Bruner (1965) put forward, then we must attempt to learn about the young child with regard to aesthetic understandings. He stated: " Any idea or problem or body of knowledge can be presented in a form simple enough so that any particular learner can understand i t in a recognizable form." (p. 7) This study began with the assumptions that not only can young children be taught to respond aesthetical ly to phenomena, but that aesthetic preferences and their discussion are important, and that they are compatible with the development of the 5 year old. Aesthet ic responses to a group of items were studied using an ethnographic approach in a f ie ld setting. Preferences and the reasons for decision making were the prime focus of data col lect ing. Colour, association, design elements, surface and texture, mater ia l of construction and soc io -cultural beliefs emerged as the strongest reasons for preferring pictures and objects. For dress-up items a l l c r i ter ia mentioned in the other groups were important factors along with sex-role identif ication and pract ica l considerations. The Ethnographic Approach Techniques drawn from the f ield of anthropology were used in this study. Qual itat ive research methods in anthropology, including ethnographic techniques and part ic ipant-observation, allow a closer, more insightful stance than is possible with quantitative methods. In recent years, anthropological methods have been shown to be ef fect ive in looking at classrooms, schools, and roles taken by students and teachers (Hawke, 1979; Janesick, 1982). Some of the techniques used by educational anthropologists seemed appropriate for this study. Aesthet ic responses are often elusive, and d i f f i cu l t to categorize in terms of preferences, reflections on preferences, and distinctions among preferences. Categor iz ing aesthetic responses of very young chi ldren, which are often of a sensitive and highly personal nature, demands carefu l , thorough, empathetic and up-close recording by the researcher. Spradley and McCurdy ' s (1972) techniques, and part ic ipant-observation methods as described by Bogdan and Taylor (1975) guided the conduct of this study. They allowed for considering the classroom as a culture in microcosm, its nature ref lected in the responses of its members, a setting where the teacher was also the researcher and therefore already accepted as one who might be expected to ask many questions. A kindergarten classroom is generally divided into small work areas or centers at which chi ldren, for part of their day, choose to work with a variety of play materials. Chi ldren normally move from center to center during the choice period. To interest children in a variety of objects for discussion, i t became a fa i r ly simple matter of setting up a special center for this purpose. The researcher-teacher, adopting the role of the part ic ipant-observer, would present mater ia l , record key answers, and tape responses for later transcription to fu l l f ie ld notes. A t a later t ime , using items of clothing, children could be asked about their responses to dress-up choices. No great change in the structure of the classroom or the pattern of the children's day was required. The role of the researcher in any qualitative research method becomes paramount to the success of the completed study. As Pelto (1970) states: compared with many other sciences, methods of observation in anthropological work generally require very l i t t l e in the way of special ized measuring and observing devices. The anthropologist himself is the main instrument of observation, (p. 140) My own interest and background in anthropology, my passage through successive and vastly varied l i fe settings or cultural scenes and my training as a kindergarten teacher, helped to qualify me for the role of researcher in this study. Participant-observer aptly describes the kindergarten teacher trained in anecdotal recording for use in noting development, gradual or sudden change in the child 's behavior, and as a tool for carefu l , accurate reporting to parents. Keen observation while teaching, throughout the period when children are confronted with making choices and during group act iv i t ies , becomes an ongoing part of the daily routine. In the use of ethnographic methods several problems must be anticipated. Since I was already a part of the classroom setting gaining access for interviewing informants was greatly s impl i f ied. I was known and trusted. Although this provides ease of access there are also disadvantages. Fami l ia r i ty can dull acute awareness in the senses of the researcher thereby reducing accuracy in observation. Wolcott (1975, p. 115) shares suggestions on how to regain that awareness by, for example, making the fami l iar strange. The researcher might set the stage for a change in a number of ways. For example, in this study by preparing a visually separate area of the classroom for display of objects, with a small area for children to respond to items and be tape recorded. Employment of a classroom helper might allow the researcher to direct more absolute concentration on the respondents. A break in the routine of the classroom setting was provided by beginning the study several days after a natural break in the school calendar; re-entry into any setting is l i ke ly to produce a fresh perspective from a l l participants. Pract ice in using observational skills and a thorough fami l ia r i ty with the materials to be used for questioning helps to sharpen awareness and recal l before the study. The Spindlers used mini-studies for graduate students who lacked cross-cultural experience (1982, p. 495). Wolcott 's students who in s imilar circumstances completed ethnographic studies successfully benefited from a "thorough reading about one or two societies so that at least vicariously, the reading could provide a comparative basis" (1975, p. 116). Wolcott also stresses the importance of careful f ield notes and thoughtful wr it ing in the f inal analysis. In this study being reported, immediate transcription of notes after the children had gone for the day before discussion with colleagues made for a fresh, more complete reca l l of observed details. The Process of Cu l tura l Transmission The third assumption fundamental to this study is that although aesthetic responses are strongly individual, i t is possible to uncover preferences and reasons for distinctions in the aesthetic realm,, among 5 year olds to a group of items by interviewing, recording and observing. A further, related assumption is that when preferences and distinctions are uncovered some classif ication and patterning of these w i l l become possible. Further to this assumption, i f 5 year olds are inf in ite ly variable, then when interviewing and subsequent examination of the f ie ld notes is undertaken, i t w i l l be evident that there are no fundamental descriptions, observations, and parallels in the responses that can be made. To state that children of any age are inf in ite ly variable, we would have to believe that the cultural influence of those in the nurturing role has no effect on the growth of the chi ld. It is known that even before birth a baby receives l ight, movement, and sound st imuli through the uterine wa l l . Even before birth the child is receiving messages. By 5, children have already learned a fami ly ' s language, experienced the foods common to the culture and the area, shared experiences, celebrations, toys, and a multitude of other cultural ly l inked information including the art in the home, the church and the homes they vis it. By 5 most children have played co-operatively with others, they have been admonished for errors, encouraged in strengths, and celebrated in accomplishments. Every waking moment children receive information about their culture, the values and expectations of their parents and fami ly . As the child is receiving information and responses from these individuals enculturation is taking place. It has been often stated that children learn more in the f irst two years of l i f e than at any other t ime. Certa in ly , these influences are powerful molders of the ch i ld, influencing how the child develops. Early study of the child by educators associated with the child study movement not only provided much information about the patterns and parallels of children at specif ic age levels but also yielded a stance about learning through study of the chi ld. In doing so, some mistaken conceptions about the child and growth were corrected. Weber (1969) says, with regard to intel l igence: So long as it was assumed that intelligence was genetical ly f i xed, the inte l lectual infer ior i ty of children who tested below normal was generally accepted. There is suff icient evidence to prove now that economic and cultural differences do af fect intel lectual growth and put l imits upon potential. The new transactional v iew, which suggests that the encounters the chi ld has with his environment are significant in the building of potential, highlights the importance of the child 's early experiences. The inference of development as modifiable holds great p romise—a promise especially meaningful for certain segments of our population. The real izat ion of intel lectual power seems to demand more adequate growth producing stimulation in the early years—even before kindergarten, (p. 227) A r t educators also have responded to the changing view of child 's growth. Studies of the symbolic images that children make were undertaken by Kel logg (1969) while Lowenfeld 's view (1957) of the child developing through art act iv i t ies , produces these tenets: Lowenfeld has been considered by many to be the father of art education in the United States. His pioneering work in the creative and mental growth of the child greatly advanced knowledge in the discipline. Lowenfeld believed that teachers should develop the latent potential inherent in each chi ld. The teacher's role was to nurture the young chi ld through the development stages of growth, at the same time being careful not to interfere with the child 's personal self-expression. Lowenfeld made a distinction between art and art education, stating that in art education the main concern is with process, how a child works, while art is more concerned with product, what is made. He also deplored "our one-sided education with our emphasis upon knowledge" because he felt it had neglected "those attr ibuted of growth which are responsible for the development of the individual 's sensibil it ies, for his 18 spir itual l i f e , as wel l as his abi l i ty to l ive cooperatively in a society." (Fisher, 1978, p. 23) (Lowenfeld, p. 143) Lowenfeld's view contrasts somewhat with the recent thoughts of Eisner. (Fisher, 1978) Eisner sees a radical ly different view of child development and art education emerging in recent years. Eisner summarized this trend as follows: The environment is most important in determining art i st ic aptitudes in both production and appreciation. Therefore the teacher and the curriculum are important in " a f fec t ing art i s t ic learning." Concept rather than media is the orientation of this view. Media is a vehicle for the development of perceptual or productive skills and also the material from which something can be made. More importance is placed upon the product because this product is the primary source from which inferences can be made concerning what the child has learned. Teach children ways to view and understand art as wel l as producing their own art. Ar t education is a f ie ld that has a special contribution that only it can make to the growth of children. But art education also shares common goals with other disciplines. However, these are less important than what it can give that is unique. Thus Eisner 's view sees child development primari ly from the outside i n , instead of the inside out. Environment is emphasized over heredity, concepts are more important than media, and histor ical and c r i t i ca l areas, as wel l as production are stressed. What the product looks l ike as wel l as the process involved in making it are important, (p. 23) Enculturation takes place throughout a l i f e t ime , and is already very evident in the five year old chi ld. Assumptions in Summary In undertaking this study certain assumptions were made. These are grounded in the l i terature reviewed in this chapter. The assumption that aesthetic preferences, discussion of them, and their development are important for 5 year olds. It is presumed that art curriculum containing an aesthetic strand is important for the growth of young children. The assumption that ethnographic methods are an appropriate and effective means for the researcher to look at aesthetic responses and their influencing factors. The assumption that behavior in 5 year olds is not infinitely variable and that insightful description of their observable patterns of behavior can be made. 20 C H A P T E R III IN IT IAL O R G A N I Z A T I O N AND PILOT STUDY To undertake this study it was necessary to select materials for the kindergarten children to comment upon. To involve 5 year olds in the selection process, an in i t ia l group of items was researcher selected, then screened by a group of f ive kindergarten youngsters, none of whom was involved in the f inal study. A description of procedures used for the pilot study and those adopted for data col lect ing in the main study w i l l be presented in this chapter. In it ia l Organization for the Study Research Methods Qualitative research methods were used in this study, including participant observation and structured and unstructured interviewing, to produce descriptive data recording both conversations and exact responses to researcher-posed questions and observed behavior, both spontaneous and those el ic i ted through feedback techniques (Bogdan & Taylor, 1975). Ethnographic techniques involving entering the f i e l d , co l lect ing, analyzing, and writ ing up data were adopted using methods developed by Spradley and McCurdy (1972) and Wolcott (1975). Stat i st ica l techniques were also employed to quantify the data, and to act as a complement to the descriptive mater ia l obtained through interview techniques. In i t ia l ly, tables were prepared indicating the cr i ter ia found for each group of items and the frequency with which these occurred through interviewing. Examples of children's statements classified in each section were given (Tables I-VI). Subsequently, these cr i ter ion frequency tables were the basis for preparation of Table VI I -Table IX , which compare the frequency of comments for pictures, objects and dress-ups in percentages and provide a tota l and a mean for each feature mentioned. Chronology of the Project From September 1982 to Ap r i l 1983 I was a teacher in the classroom within which the research was conducted. This provided valuable information about the children as individuals and the program to which they had previously been exposed. Part ic ipat ion in the classroom helped to give me the emic point of view necessary for a close description of the kindergarten child 's sense of values part icularly with respect to aesthetic preferences. In the emic point of view the researcher is immersed in the cultural scene to be studied and from this standpoint describes what can be observed. By being a part of the classroom group I was able to observe interests, attitudes and group responses to art act iv i t ies , pictures, and a wide variety of mater ia l objects, clothing for daily wear and dress-up. The research i tself covered a six-week period from Apr i l 25, 1983 to June 3, 1983. On entering the f ie ld the researcher must heighten her sensitivity to the research setting and to the participants in order to provide a broad base for data col lect ing. It was essential that information be included that might otherwise be select ively excluded through customary proximity. Data were recorded in fu l l f ie ld note fo rm. A tape recorder was used as a back up and for the subsequent reca l l of data not recorded in note form at interview t ime. Although questioning began along almost identical lines for each individual and although the object groupings were the same in every case, children responded in a wide variety of ways. From their in i t ia l responses subsequent questions were formulated to create open-ended interviews. I began with few preconceived ideas of the type, length or structure that the response might take other than that I wished to el ic i t as much information as possible. That information was assembled in categories after data collection was completed. Upon receiving permission to conduct a study within the classroom from the school board, the pr inc ipal , the parents, and the Univers ity Ethics Commit tee , considerable t ime was spent locat ing two classroom aides. I was fortunate in recruit ing two capable and enthusiastic university students each with three years of experience in working with children. Each volunteered to supervise normal class act iv i t ies for the 2.5 hour period, while I co-ordinated and planned the program outside classt ime, and spent my days interviewing children. Training the aides to follow the planned act iv i t ies incorporated in the kindergarten day's pattern took place before the pilot study was begun. This allowed me to give a l l attention to data col lect ing procedures. Although the children were slightly conscious of the tape recorder at the outset, they were so accustomed to seeing an adult write down what they stated through the kindergarten day, as a promotion of early language development, that several children asked for their printed comments back when interviews were completed. About half the tapes were transcribed immediately fol lowing the interviews. Because of the time-consuming nature of this task, I found myself developing extensive f ie ld notes on location and leaving the tape recorded transcription unti l a l l the data were col lected. A l l tapes were reviewed and a l l f ie ld notes were checked for accuracy several weeks after data col lect ing was completed. A l l my own comments were recorded into the f ield notes, either at the t ime of interview, or immediately subsequent to i t . Observations of eye movements, fac ia l expressions, s i tt ing stances, and general reactions to the questions posed were also careful ly transcribed from tape recordings to f ie ld notes subsequent to the data col lect ing period. Taped responses in the main study alone represented over 100 hours to ta l , since interview t ime for individual children represented a minimum of 40 minutes for each of the three sections of the study. Of course, children who were particularly thorough in their answers took more t ime. Every encouragement was given for each child to answer as fu l ly as possible. In several ways I tr ied to separate my former role as teacher from my subsequent role as researcher. The research was begun immediately fol lowing a school break. Children were introduced to their new substitute teachers and within a three-day period were following opening exercises directed by these aides. Questions asked of me as teacher were quickly redirected. The four day absence to conduct the pilot study and my return to the main questioning area helped children to identify more completely with the aide while seeing me in a new role. A more formal mode of dress on my part helped to distinguish my role as researcher from my former role as teacher. The Pi lot Study Purpose To reduce the possibility of bias involved in adult selected materials, a pilot study was undertaken. This allowed in i t ia l selection of a group of items for each category, one capable of revision as a result of interaction with a small group of kindergarten youngsters s imilar to the study group. Items receiving either strong positive or negative aesthetic preference by the pilot group became the mater ia l used in the main study. Setting The pilot study was conducted in a two-room annex of Redmont School. Redmont is a short distance away from the main school, Rutledge, and draws upon a school population similar to the la t ter . Redmont comprises f ive large classrooms, two of which are used for primary children - a kindergarten, grade one, and a grade two-three. The third classroom houses a distr ict English as a Second Language class, comprised of adults, and the fourth is a l ibrary. The remaining classroom is used for afternoon reading instruction for first graders. This classroom provided an ideal location to conduct the pilot study. The children attending Redmont come from a wide variety of ethnic and economic backgrounds. The three boys and two girls who participated in the pilot study were representative of this diversity. Procedures A broad range of items was assembled in advance of the pilot study. These consisted of pictures from collections of calendars and from the extensive school l ibrary, including colour and black and white scenes as wel l as action and technical pictures. Objects included items from as many as seventeen countries of the world and more than 10 different kinds of materials. Dress-ups included items identif ied by several other kindergarten teachers as popular in their own dress-up centers. Rutledge kindergarten items could not be included since the children had already had experience with these, though not in a research setting. Items were arranged into sub-categories within each of three main categories: pictures, objects, and dress-ups, and were numbered to fac i l i ta te ease of recording during the interview period. A t Redmont, the f ive participants joined the researcher in the large reading instruction room. The children were given a brief account of what was being sought in the study, together with the assurance that a l l thoughts and ideas about the pictures, objects and dress-up items would be helpful. An explanation of how and when the actual grouped items would be viewed was given in enough detai l to spark interest in active part ic ipation. Subsequently, each child was interviewed separately on the mater ia l appearing within each main category. Four mornings were used to interview a l l f ive students. Items sub-categorized according to s imi lar i ty of use or mater ia l of construction were arranged on a table and an adjacent bench. Those items not under discussion were covered with paper to reduce confusion and possible distraction. Questioning Children were asked about aesthetic preferences in general, then told: Look at the pictures careful ly. Te l l me, is there one picture you would pick to put up on your bedroom wal l because it is very beautiful and you would l ike to look at it for a long time? Is there one picture you would not l ike to have on your bedroom wal l because it is not beautiful or pretty? Which picture would you not l ike to put on your bedroom wal l to look at because it is not pretty? The questioning was aimed at producing a selection of items that evoked strong aesthetic responses; items infrequently mentioned were discarded. A gr id, designed to include categories and item descriptions, was developed to fac i l i ta te the easy recording of preferences, by using a simple check system. Redmont youngsters were also asked i f they could te l l what i t was that made an item special. This allowed the researcher the opportunity to practise questioning ski l ls while providing some insight into the kinds of reasons 5 year olds might volunteer as grounds for aesthetic choice. Pictures Forty- four photographs were assembled from the researcher's own f i le and the Rutledge School Library picture f i l e . A wide variety of styles, compositions, and contrasts in location and t ime of day was sought to provide ample diversity upon which the children might comment. A l l photographs were s imilar in s ize, approximately 22 cm by 30 c m , each mounted on black card. No printing or letter ing was visible either on picture or matt other than the small sticker indicating the ca l l number. Colour and black and white examples were included. These formed sub-categories that included People, Natural Objects, Country Scenes, Buildings, World Scenes, Sports, Seascapes, Landscapes, Histor ic and A r t Examples. Each category contained between four and seven photographs, as detailed in Figure 1. Objects Objects were assembled from my own household, other teachers ' cupboards, and an 11 year old's room. Items generally were more decorative than funct ional, and were representative of a wide cultural variety. Objects were grouped into sub-categories based on mater ia l of construction as follows (see Figure 2 for detailed description of items): Ceramic , Wood, F iber , Stones & other, Glass, Meta l , Organic Mater ia l . Each sub-category contained between four and eight items. Dress-Up Items F i f ty -one dress-up clothing items were assembled from several Fairhaven kindergarten dress-up centers. Some were reported as frequently selected by children in these other kindergarten settings. None had previously been used at Rutledge. An effort to acquire clothing which would appeal to boys was consciously undertaken, as the researcher's observations indicated items for girls seemed to be more prevalent in kindergarten dress-up centers. Boys' hats were somewhat more prevalent than clothing items. Items were grouped in the fol lowing sub-categories (see Figure 3 for detailed description of each i tem): Hats, Wigs, Vests and Capes, Dresses, Decorative objects (e.g. bracelets), Bags, Long Robes. Each sub-category contained between four and ten items. 28 Figure 1 List of Pictures Used in Pi lot Study, Grouped by Sub-Category Pictures People A l G i r l with Bubble A2 Indian Lady A3 G i r l with flowers A4 Lady with ve i l : mysterious eyes Natural Objects B l Pumpkins B2 Apple and Book B3 Fa l l leaves B4 Butterf ly B5 G r i z z l y Bear Country Scenes C I Country houses, mountains C2 Horses and dust C3 Saskatchewan f i e ld , farm implement C4 Red broken wheel C5 Horse drawing firewood Buildings D I Swiss house D2 Windmill D3 Holland Danes (b/w) D4 O i l refineries (b/w) D5 Edmonton at night World Scenes E l Cast le E2 Radio telescope (b/w) E3 Turkish mosque E4 Hong Kong junks E5 Venice waterway E6 Seagulls and lighthouse E7 Berl in Wall (b/w) Sports F l Woman waterskiing F2 Motorcycle rider F3 Skier (snow) 29 Seascapes G l NWT: midnight sun G2 Float plane on water G3 Grey and red boats with fog: P.E.I. G4 Rainbow and waterfa l l Landscapes H I Pueblos: New Mexico H2 Sunset: Grand Canyon H3 Peace River H4 Winter: Rogers' Pass H5 Fa l l : Rocks Histor ic and A r t Examples 11 Dragon: Chinese 12 V ictor ia ' s bedroom 13 Madonna and Ch i ld in Gold 14 Egyptian Figure in Gold 15 Scarab pin 30 Figure 2 List of Objects Used in P i lot Study, Grouped by Sub-Category Objects Ceramics J l French painted candy dish, gold, turquoise J2 Tan and green Japanese teacup J3 Small Mexican cup J4 Chinese white and blue r ice bowl J5 Antique perfume necklace J6 Raku stone pot with holes J7 Raku frame mirror J8 Deep blue pottery wine flask Wood K l Handmade wooden plane K 2 Salish letter opener K 3 Salish carving K 4 Salish man's face K 5 A f r i can printing block Fiber L I Mexican rope horse L2 Skin drum L3 Red basket with l i d L4 Cedar root basket (large) L5 Cedar root basket (round) L6 Fan L7 Chinese basket Stones and Other M l Peacock feather M2 Stones (various) M3 Indian grinding stone, Mexico M4 Rai lroad spike Glass N l Turquoise insulator N2 Red-orange cube N3 Yel low cube N4 Peach-tan melted cube N5 Glass ball f loat 31 Meta l 0 1 Tea caddie, black 0 2 Tea caddie, pattern a l l over 0 3 Gear, black 04 Mi r ror , silver 0 5 Brass bear 0 6 Leg hold trap 0 7 Brass incense holder Organic Mater ia l P I Red flower P2 Peach flower P3 Plumaria flower 32 Figure 3 List of Dress-ups Used in P i lot Study, Grouped by Sub-Category Dress-Ups Hats Q l Cool ie hat Q2 Brim on coolie hat Q3 Men's homburg hat Q4 Hat over top Q5 Fur hat Q6 White and black Q7 Fireman's hat Q8 Orange construction worker 's hat Q9 Fireman's hat Wigs R l Long blond wig R2 Cur ly blond wig R3 Long brown wig R4 Cur ly brown wig Vests and Capes 51 Red vest 52 White satin blouse 53 Blue jeans (narrow waist) 54 Vest, black (Dracula) 55 Cape with red l in ing Dresses T I Purple dress with satin tr im T2 Flower pr int, white pleated bodice (panel) T3 Green and black skater 's dress T4 Smocked yellow/green dress, spaghetti straps T5 Rust and black peasant dress T6 Pink beaded opera dress T7 Yel low sheer night gown T8 Black satin T9 Blue sat in, spaghetti straps T10 Blue and white check Decorative Objects U l Chinese brown scarf with fringe U2 Striped cravat purple/blue U3 Necklace shiny pearl (white/pink/blue) U4 Orange necklace U5 Red necklace U6 Pink, purple plastic l e i U7 Pink, yellow plastic l e i U8 Yel low and white plastic l e i U9 Wrist bangles 33 V I C lo th striped bag, pink/yellow/black V2 Patent leather with silver closure V3 Red patent leather with silver closure V4 Black patent vinyl shiny, coin style handle V5 Wallet (Chinese pattern, cream) V6 Plain black bag (leather) Drapery Cloths W l White lace W2 Yel low chiffon W3 Brown-beige lace W4 White ghost costume Long Robes X I Br idal X2 Red long X 3 Pink coat X 4 Pink robe Analysis of Responses Using a grid developed for assessment of aesthetic preferences, analysis of the col lected data was relat ively straightforward. During questioning, preferences were indicated by check marks. Da i ly the grid data were checked against transcriptions and the taped interviews. Since each sub-category was made up of a different number of i tems, in those sub-categories with the largest numbers children gave two preferred and two not preferred items. This provided a more equal possibility for any individual item to be selected for the main study. C r i t e r i a for selection by these five pilot study participants were noted throughout. The children seemed to have no d i f f i cu l ty making choices. Their opinions were clear ly stated, once reassured that the kind of information being given was very helpful and that no assessment of them individually was being undertaken. One child answered with only two responses to the dress-up sect ion, stating he did not l ike any items. His responses were noted, but not recorded on the gr id, since they did not represent specif ic reactions to particular items. Selection of Items The bulk of items brought forth both positive and negative responses. Items e l ic i t ing no response, or one or two responses only, were eliminated leaving only those items which contained three, four, f i ve , or six responses in either category. No distinction was made between boys' and gir ls ' responses. Using this method, sections produced the fol lowing number of items: 22 items for pictures, 22 items for objects, and 30 items for dress-ups. 35 C H A P T E R IV M A I N STUDY The main study was conducted at Rutledge, mother school to Redmont. It housed 14 classrooms, a large l ibrary- learning assistance room and fu l l size gymnasium. Rutledge, with extra classroom space, also housed the distr ict social-adjustment center in an adjacent wing of the school. As a 30 year old school, Rutledge had gone through some changes in school population and growth rate. A t the t ime of the study, the school had achieved more s tab i l i ty , thanks to a principal and teaching staff who handled wel l the diverse student population of 300 students from kindergarten to seventh grade. The Setting Of the 32 members of two intact kindergarten groups, attending either in morning or afternoon, 31 received parental permission to participate in this study. The groups represented a broad mixture of socio-economic and cutural groups. Houses in the area range from $200,000 designer homes to apartment housing subsidized for low income famil ies. Some children had l ived part - t ime in Canada and par t - t ime in either Europe or the South Pac i f i c . Other children spent week days with one parent and weekends with the other. Many children shared a home with one sibling and two natural parents while several children l ived with one parent and a step-parent. The children's ethnic backgrounds were a mixture of east and west: Chinese from Hong Kong, Chinese from Ko rea , Chinese from Canada, Japanese born in both Japan and Canada, East Indian from Kenya and Canada, Canadian Scott ish, Br i t i sh , and Irish. One child was Canadian-Japanese born in Canada; another was Japanese-Chinese, also Canadian born. One child was Iranian but Swiss born. In this group Cathol ics , Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Buddhists, Moslems and Sikhs were represented. Of the 31 chi ldren, 17 were boys, 14 g ir l s , ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 6 years and 4 months at data col lect ing t ime. Procedures The pilot study had shown that items needed to be presented in sub-categories for the children to handle the volume of items selected. The el imination of items not interesting to the pilot group created large gaps in the original sub-categories, making i t necessary to rearrange and consolidate some items for ease of handling. Since the objective was to uncover preferences and reasons for aesthetic preferences, as much as to discover the preferences themselves, the sub-categories themselves had no paramount significance other than providing the means to organize items. Children had the opportunity to select and respond to any number of the items. Dai ly four or f ive children were selected for interview. Individually, one selected child and I would depart from the kindergarten classroom to a small cupboard down the hall where the items were housed. Beginning promptly with questions about the objects arranged on the tables, the interview followed a consistent order and format of questioning. On completion of the interv iew, the child and I would return to the classroom and I would request the next participant. Questioning took a l l of the 2.5 hour kindergarten day. The second location was suggested by the principal. The lower hall science cupboard presented a quiet covered space only a short walk from the classroom, where interruptions would be minimized. The major drawbacks were that the room was warm in late May and that it provided many interesting distractions in the form of science equipment. The first was overcome by leaving the door ajar and the second by a thorough cleaning out. A brief explanation to the children regarding the unusual atmosphere they were entering helped reassure them and reduce distraction. Altogether, the science cupboard provided a better interview locat ion. A l l subsequent interview data were col lected there. Modif ications to the Proposal In it ia l ly it was planned to question children in groups of three at the center just outside the classroom door. The f irst group of three boys was presented with the pictures, and just as the place was inadequate, so the grouping of children proved to be. Instead of influencing one another, which was my major concern, they were so anxious to discuss their responses that they repeatedly interrupted one another, wanting to give their own ideas and opinions. In spite of the fact that several groups of items el ic i ted very diverse responses and comments, the children seemed uninfluenced by these differences. However, the competit ive atmosphere was signif icantly disturbing to cause me to look for a space where questioning could be carried out on an individual basis. Questions Each interview began s imi lar ly , but subsequent questions depended on those immediately preceding. A f te r the children entered the interview area and were settled they were asked, Do you l ike to look at pretty pictures? (or objects?) Do you l ike dress-up clothes? A short discussion of the child 's known preferences was undertaken at this t ime. These questions provided valuable information, as well as a focus for the upcoming interview. Each group of items was presented individually. A l l other sub-categories were out of sight to avoid distraction. As the first group was presented I would say: "There are f ive pictures in this group; can you count them?" By counting, children focused on a l l the items presented before making a selection. A f te r selection was made (which was generally done quite quickly), the children were encouraged to name the picture or i t em. In this way the child 's own words and perceptions could be recorded without adult influence. Even when asked questions, no suggestions or assistance at naming was given; the question was asked, simply: "We l l , what do you think i t is? " While most children discussed a most preferred and least preferred i t em, some found nothing pleasing or nothing displeasing in a single category. A l l responses were encouraged and recorded as they occurred. No attempt was made to force an unintended choice. For some youngsters, giving the reasons for a specif ic selection was more d i f f icu l t than making the se lect ion, so various techniques were used to obtain reasons for the response. Questions which helped the chi ld make a comparison with a less preferred item were particularly helpful. A t times feedback of their in i t ia l comments on an item was helpful in cal l ing forth additional remarks simply by saying, "Is there anything else you wish to say about this? " Gradual ly, as each child became more relaxed with the interview's rhythm and the type of questions asked, each became increasingly open about thoughts and feelings. General ly, children had more to say about objects and dress-ups for this reason. Curios ity by children about responses given by their peers was a surprise element. The subject of inquiry had either been interviewed just before, or was the child 's best fr iend in class. 40 C H A P T E R V ANALYS I S A N D INTERPRETAT ION OF D A T A In this chapter the responses given by the 5 and 6 year olds to indicate varying degrees of aesthetic preference w i l l be examined. Within each of the three main categories, Pictures, Objects, and Dress-ups, cr i ter ia most frequently mentioned are presented f i r s t , followed by incidentally mentioned items. Verbal responses are analysed and summarized, and stat i s t ica l data are presented to establish frequency of responses and consistency of responses across categories. The emerging cr i ter ia are examined in detail using examples of children's responses to individual items. Subsequently, a comparison of responses across the three main categories is made to highlight s imilar it ies and differences between cr i ter ia for preference emerging from Pictures, Objects and Dress-up items. Responses to Pictures In response to the opening questions, a l l children stated they l iked pictures to look at in their rooms, especially pretty pictures. Not only did the children feel positive about pictures, but the detai l of each picture provided much material for discussion, which made picture analysis a natural starting point. Colour The most frequently mentioned aspect seen as aesthetical ly pleasing by children was colour. Though a favourite single colour might be mentioned, one colour was not as important as groups of wel l - l i ked colours for each individual. Recording indicated a preference for red, yel low, orange, pink and Figure 4 P ICTURES (as regrouped for Main Study People A l G i r l with bubble A4 Lady with vei l F2 Motorcycle rider (male) F l Waterskier (female) Buildings H I Pueblos: New Mexico E7 Berl in Wall (black and white) E3 Turkish Mosque D5 Edmonton at night D I Swiss House Coastal Scenes C4 Red broken wagon wheel H5 F a l l : Lake scene with mountain H4 Winter: Rogers ' Pass H2 Sunset: Grand Canyon G4 Rainbow and waterfa l l World Scenes G3 Grey and red boats: P.E.I. G2 Float plane on water at sunrise E4 Chinese junks: Hong Kong C5 Quebec: horses drawing firewood B5 G r i z z l y Bear Other B l Jack-O-Lanterns in the dark 13 Madonna and Ch i ld I I Chinese Dragon 42 Table I Features Mentioned in Aesthetic Decision Making for Pictures (Preferred) Categories Feature Example Colour f=46 1* favoured colour . . . " the snow is white it looks pretty. f= l M pink . . . "she's got pink on her cheeks. . . " f=15 F . . . "I l ike red , here." f -16 red . . . "I l ike yel low, here." f=10 gold . . . "I l ike the gold parts, here. . . " f=38 lots of colour . . . " they have lots of different colours on" f=2 mixed colours . . . " the colours are a l l mixed up . . . pretty. " f = l l g ir l ' s colour . . . " i t ' s pretty because i t ' s a g i r l wearing a dress." f=7 boy's colour . . . " i t ' s a man riding. . . 2. Design Elements shapes & designs f=3 f=l f=12 f=l f=6 f=22 f=34 lines & patterns decoration: flowery decoration: parts 3. Surface and Texture f=25 shiny surface f=7 soft , furry surface f=40 sparkly, re f lect ive surface Mater ia l of Construction f=30 scenery: clouds, moon stars f=45 scenery: mountains, lakes, waves f=12 sunny f=4 scenery: general red here. . . he's tough." "these triangles are nice. . . " "I l ike this square, here. . . " " the c i rc le part in the middle is nice. . . " th i s long rectangle is good to look at. . " there ' s some nice patterns on there." " i t ' s nice flowers. . . they look at. " " I t ' s this ta l l tower, here that 's pretty." " the moon is shining." "I l ike the furry on his nose." "and there's light everywhere in the buildings. . . sparkley." . . . " i t s material and fo i l stars. . . pret ty " . . . " the water and the mountains is pretty " . . . " i n the buildings . . . i t ' s a l l sunny out." . . . " i t has beautiful scenery." 8. Soc io-Cultura l Beliefs f=14 reference to family f=13 reference to culture 9. Association f=54 previous experience f=7 reminds child of school f=29 reminds chi ld of character . "my grandma likes this . . . I ' l l take it to her." . " i t looks l ike Hallowe'en to me." . "I l ike splashing in puddles." . " i t looks l ike someone is playing out." . "our baby is so beautiful and t iny." 1. f = frequency 44 Table II Features Mentioned in Aesthetic Decision Making for Pictures (Not Preferred) Categories 1. Colour f=47 f=4 f=4 M f=2 f=20 f=2 F Feature not favoured colours black, grey, black & white gold pink too. . . colourful too l i t t l e colour colour doesn't suit sex 2. Design Elements f=3 not preferred shapes and designs f=l lines and patterns n/p f=4 decoration n/p f=14 additional parts n/p 3. Surface and Texture f=3 f=3 f=l not shiny enough too bumpy too sparkly, ref lect ive Example " i t ' s red. . . I don't l ike red on the edges. . . " . . . " there ' s not much colour only black and white." " there ' s gold. . . I don't l ike that colour." " w e l l , i t because I don't l ike pink." " i t ' s got lots of colours, too much colours." " i t ' s got hardly any colours." " i t ' s not a colour for girls." . . . " that there is dots a l l around i t . . . ugh." . . . " i t ' s got a c i rc le and a l ine . . . I don't l i ke . " . . . " th i s funny shape here . . . i t ' s not pretty." . . . "these things here aren't pretty." . . . " i t ' s not very shiny." . . . "I don't l ike bumpy logs." . . . " i t ' s real shiny . . . I don't l ike that." 4. Mater ia l of Construction f=6 scenery unappealing f=9 too many bricks f=15 wood . . . " the lake here isn 't real ly pretty." . . . "these too many bricks are ugly." . . . "I don't l ike old cracked wood." 5. Condit ion of Item f=30 cracked, broken, wrecked, scratched f=17 holes, patches, pieces missing f=5 too long, unneat, (dirty) f=2 rusty metal . . . " i t ' s a l l scratched and the paint's a l l off i t . " . . . " i t looks l ike she never did her hair, i t ' s messy." . . . " the grass, the people never cut i t . " . . . "I don't l ike old rusty things." 45 8. Soc io-Cultura l Bel iefs f=9 reference to religion . . . " i t ' s the ghost from Hallowe'en we don't believe i n . " Association 7^24 f=19 f=6 f=15 previous experience reminds child of character has no people looks dangerous 11. P rac t i ca l Considerations f=2 represents sk i l l too d i f f i cu l t f=10 don't know what it is . . "she looks l ike she is almost getting mad . . . " . . " i t ' s a monster a big monster . . . its mouth's open." • • • • • • • • • " there ' s no people." " i t would be easy to cut yourself." " i t would look terr ible to look down on the road." "I wonder what it i s ? " 1. f = frequency gold. Pink, although favoured in some situations by both boys and gir ls, was strongly preferred by a large number of gir ls. Several boys noted pink on a child 's cheeks or as the colour of flowers as very pretty. Evidently, context is inf luential in colour choice. Red was highly preferred on almost any kind of i tem: flowers, boats, buildings, roofs, decorative additions (as on a dragon). Orange and yellow were preferred in many locat ions, and especially on leaves, yet both were mentioned less frequently than red. Go ld , too, was a favoured colour in the pictures presented, especially in one of the Madonna and Ch i l d , which many children identif ied as pretty because of the colour. Another colour strongly favoured by both sexes was blue. Although mentioned less often than the warm colours, few children stated that they did not l ike i t . Chi ldren who did not respond positively to items did so on the basis of colour, also. Two chi ldren, identify ing gold as s i lver, and another as grey, disliked the overal l ef fect of the colour. There was a variety of not favoured colours but for many, the not favoured colour overwhelmingly was black, which for the children included black, dark grey, light grey, and black and white as seen in photographs. Only one picture in the study produced a negative aesthetic response from every child — the Berl in Wall photographed in black and white. Of the other colours not favoured, brown, dark green, gold and pink were mentioned several t imes. Pink was mentioned as not preferred only by boys. Overal l colour effect is indeed a powerful aesthetic factor for 5 year olds. A f t e r favoured colour, generally colourfulness was expressed as a reason for select ion, while its lack was a reason for picture reject ion. Bright colours, lots of colours, colours that go well together, a l l were pinpointed by children of both sexes as important reasons for selection. Conversely, not enough colours, dull colours, and too few colours, were frequently mentioned as reasons for a negative response, as shown in Tables I and II. Association Although colour is a powerful influence on the aesthetic preferences of 5 year olds, it does not override every other cr i ter ion for select ion. Personal association emerges as just as powerful a reason for aesthetic response. Personal association includes positive previous experience, family or cultural experience, memories of fun, adventure, pleasant characters, or thoughts. Personal association in a negative way means association with a negative experience, negative cultural or religious connotations, negative thoughts, memories, or the presence of danger. Chi ldren 's positive associations with fun and adventure, including positive previous experiences, seems to be a a function of gender, just as is the case with certain colours. G i r l s , almost exclusively, selected pictures of girls and women and did not prefer pictures of boys and men. Boys selected pictures of boys and men rather than pictures with girls; both preferred pictures with action rather than without. In several pictures of scenery children expressed a qualified positive response, stating the picture would be much prettier with people. On the negative side many children stated that their reason for rejecting a picture was due to the absence of people. Most frequently in the remarks of children the memory of a previous experience was given as the reason a child selected a picture and found it aesthetically pleasing. For example, "I l ike splashing in puddles . . . and there are lots of puddles here . . . yes, i t would be very fun." Association was often a factor of memory as was fantasy: for example: "The snow is white . . . i t ' s pretty . . . the trees are pretty . . . my dad says we can go skiing soon . . . I haven't gone yet, but I know I ' l l l ike i t . " Many girls responded positively to a picture of a l i t t l e g i r l blowing bubbles while several l iked a waterskier, also. Boys responded most frequently to a picture of motorcycle racing. People and places that famil ies often visit were generally positively regarded: Dad's boat, parks, picnic areas, fami ly tr ips, Disneyland, and Grandma's house were repeatedly mentioned. Adventures around the home were often the subject of positive association. " I t reminds me of one t ime I found a f rog . . . " A l l children seem to love snow, its colour and associations with snowmen, angels, winter sports, fami ly outings. Even children who stated they did not l ike white in black and white pictures, selected pictures of snow as aesthetically pleasing. Certa in ly , the visual effects were important, but association was dominant. Just as previous experience could be positive, i t could also be negative. Children commented often on a picture's association with unhappy, unpleasant, lonely, and part icular ly scary events which immediately made it "not pretty to look at. " A picture of a veiled lady drew many negative comments including: "she looks scary, spooky, she looks l ike she is almost getting mad . . . " Children frequently disliked a photograph of boats in fog because there "were no people there" and even if they had been there " . . . i t ' s too sad . . . they couldn't see very we l l . " Scary experiences were highlighted by one boy who associated with a motorcycle as follows: "He ' s doing a pop-a-wheelie . . . but he has a flat t ire . . . I don't l ike it because it would look terr ible to look down on the road." Scary paralleled the concept of dangerous which many children commented on with respect to sharp, pointed objects or blades, or anything which was related to k i l l ing. Another dangerous relationship sprang from deep, cave- l ike openings or explosions, associated with volcanoes. It seems the many warnings to be careful have a powerful message. Interestingly, despite pretty colours, a picture which has some negative association with memory or fantasy could not be pretty. Many 5 year olds expressed positive responses to one or a combination of colours but stated that despite those the picture couldn't be pretty because it was " too awful . . . too scary to look at. " Soc io-Cultura l Bel iefs For many children fami ly and cultural beliefs produced a strong response to certain pictures. The dragon el ic i ted very strong response from many chi ldren, but the reasons were quite different. While some children enjoyed the association of seeing a dragon in a parade, but responded casually, others l i t up and became very excited when viewing that picture. Several expressed surprise at my having the picture and wanted to keep i t . One boy stated, "That ' s a Chinese dragon . . . i t ' s not real . . . a man is under that thing to be his legs . . . he is just l ike my dad . . . I l ike this Chinese dragon . . . i t ' s very pretty." Fami ly experience with cultural tradition seemed to have a powerful effect on children's associations. For others the Madonna and Ch i ld had cultural-rel igious overtones. They identif ied the characters as members of the Holy Fami ly and stated that they belonged in a church. The images reminded them of Sunday, or of visit ing Grandma where they watch "Jesus on T.V." Cultural-rel ig ious concepts also had a negative connotation for some children. Celebrations of Hallowe'en and images of the Holy Fami ly are not condoned by Jehovah's Witnesses. A number of children referred to this but each handled the confl ict d i f ferent ly. While several children said they couldn't l ike a Jack -0 -Lantern picture because "we don't believe in that , " one selected the Jack -0 -Lante rn picture stating they "were pumpkins, neat, sparkly at night and they look l ike faces . . . Wel l , how do they get a l ight bulb in there? " The fascination of the visual ef fect apparently was stronger than the cultural-rel igious association. Negative cultural-rel igious association was not restr icted to one religious group. One youngster's response to the Madonna and Chi ld photo was: "I don't l ike the cross and I don't l ike the statue of the person . . . It makes me think of God . . . I don't l ike thinking of God . . . I l ike to think of my brother and I l ike thinking about toys. That 's a l l . " Surface and Texture In spite of the two-dimensional nature of pictures children s t i l l mentioned the aspect of " so f t , cuddly, and nice to hug" as an aesthetic visual quality. L i t t l e distinction between seeing, remembering, and real ly feel ing — or between feel ing, sensing, and seeing and finding pretty seems to be made. Many children responded postively to a bear because it looked l i ke it was sleeping and harmless, and it looked soft and furry. It would be fun to hug, they said. For some the association with teddy bears was strong, and was frequently mentioned in conjunction with the bear picture. Surface quality was def initely a strong factor in selection. Chi ldren preferred surfaces that were shiny, sparkly, or re f lect ive. Night pictures of Jack-O-Lanterns and the Edmonton skyline were noted for this quality. For example: "Buildings . . . I see a moon in i t . It 's dark . . . I l ike dark because i t ' s bright and then there's l ights. I l ike this one because it looks l ike a cross. There's something down there. It looks l ike a horse because i t has teeth. " Some children noted not l ik ing pictures because they were too bumpy or not shiny. This did not happen often. General ly, surface qualities were positively regarded and were a frequent focus of comments. A strong area for negative response centers around mater ia l . Although few children talked about the mater ia l of construction in a positive way with reference to pictures, many mentioned problems with materials and condition. Old or cracked wood, torn, broken, or patched fabr ic , items with breaks, scratches, holes or pieces missing, rusty meta l , messy or dirty items and long grass were a l l c ited as major reasons for the rejection of a picture. The message is c learly that new, neat, clean and wel l -cut are visually aesthetically pleasing to 5 year olds. A picture of a broken wagon wheel ran a close second to the Berl in Wall photograph as least l i ked. The chipped paint, cracked fence, broken parts, and rusty metal were a l l mentioned. Although one gir l l iked the center shape (a c i rc le) and one l iked the wheel because it reminded her of Grandma's Saltspring Island retreat, most children expressed dislikes similar to these boys' comments. Everything is breaking up . . . and I hate i t when i t ' s a l l yucky . . . A wheel is broken in that picture . . . and I hate it when the wood is a l l broken and the parts of the wheel are missing. There nothing on i t , only a l l this long grass stuff. It 's not a bit pretty because there's a fence . . . i t has a hole, a scrape and rust on i t . A picture of the Chinese junks was mentioned — several children saw rusty parts on the boat hulls and one child did not l ike the patched sails especially on the sai l where the patches didn't match. Children disliked the face and boots of the motorcycle driver because they were too dirty. Only one boy d i f fered, saying that although he didn't l ike the d i r t , he l iked having baths when he was dirty best of a l l , so the picture was pretty \ Natural Forms and Events For children of both sexes scenery was we l l - l i ked. This included lake scenes, waterfa l l s , trees, f lowers, sun, moon, stars, clouds and rainbows. A few children mentioned not l ik ing clouds because "then it is going to ra in " but largely they were preferred, especially when coloured in sunsets. Children of both sexes repeatedly mentioned l ik ing f lowers, and the colour seemed unimportant. Fascination with rainbows seems universal among 5 year olds. Their shape, colour, unusualness and legendary features combine to make them special. One boy tr ied to explain what it was about rainbows he l i ked. Hey, a rainbow! A prism is a triangle and if there's light going through it comes out a rainbow because i t ' s a prism. I l ike the bend and a l l the colours of the rainbow. Raindrops do that, too. They are sort of triangles, too. It seems the science of the rainbow was for that child as fascinating as the visual e f fect . Shapes, patterns, and decorations were another item preferred by children. Shapes that were geometr ic, patterns that repeated a design and decorations, part icular ly f lowers, were noted. Jewelery was mentioned by both sexes, although more often by girls. Numbers, letters and flags were popular with children of either sex. Although some picture items were selected more frequently by children of one sex than another, generally the pictures el ic i ted nearly the same number of positive and negative responses from both groups. Overa l l , more positive responses were expressed than negative, which may indicate that the selected items contained sl ightly more positive aesthetic cues than negative ones. Responses to Objects Opening questions produced a completely positive response to the idea of viewing beautiful objects. Chi ldren furnished throughout a large number of responses to the object section of the study. They l iked the idea of putting pretty items somewhere in their room to look a t , and entered the question period enthusiastically. Colour Reasons for aesthetic responses were divided into several categories. The most predominant was colour. Combinations of favoured colours were mentioned most often, with a single favourite colour being occasionally mentioned. Favoured colours included red, orange, yel low, gold, pale blue, navy blue and white. For a few children brown was a favoured colour; for some, green, but for most these were disliked on objects. One Japanese cup was beige with white speckled over-glaze and deep green letter ing. This strong green was overwhelmingly disliked even by children who preferred the item for other reasons. FIGURE 5 OBJECTS (as regrouped for Main Study) Ceramic J2 Tan and green Japanese tea cup J4 White and blue rice bowl (Chinese) J3 Tiny mexican cup J6 Raku stone pot with holes Wood K2 Letter opener carved (Salish) K l Old wooden plane (handmade) L I Rope horse (Mexican) L2 Drum, skin covered (Afr ican) L3 Red basket with l i d (Afr ican) Var iety M l Peacock feather P2 Silk flower (peach) P I Silk flower (red) M4 Rai lroad spike M2 Stones Glass N2 Glass cube (red-orange) N3 Glass cube (yellow) N5 Glass bal l (Japanese fishnet f loat) N4 Glass cubes melted (peach-tan) Meta l 0 6 Leg hold traps 0 5 Brass beak sculpture 04 Antique silver mirror 0 2 Tea caddie (all over pattern) 55 Table III Features Mentioned in Aesthetic Decision Making for Objects (Preferred) Categories Feature 1. Colour f=65 1* favoured colours f=3 black f=28 colourful f=8 colours go together f=3 F colour doesn't suit sex 2. Design Elements f=21 shapes and designs f=23 lines and patterns f=14 decoration f=31 flowery f=7 leaves f=10 let ters , numbers f=28 additional parts 3. Surface and Texture f=10 shiny surface f=6 bumpy surface f=33 sparkly or ref lect ive f=7 soft and furry 4. Mater ia l of Construction f=7 straw Example "I l ike the red colour better." " w e l l , I do l ike the black." " there are a l l different colours . . . together . . . " "blue and white look good together." " i t ' s pink and pale orange for gir ls. This is for girls." "I l ike i t because it has holes in i t . " "these designs going around make the bowl pretty." " there ' s pretty decorations." " p re t ty flowers at the back, beautiful. " " the leaves are real ly n ice, growing too." " there ' s l i t t l e H's here its pretty." "these nails are pretty." "shiny is nice on this part." " i t ' s kind of bumpy, I l ike i t . " " the l ight comes out of the mirror." "I l ike smooth stuffy, you don't get slivers." " i t ' s straw in pretty colours . . . i t ' s pretty." 8. Soc io-Cultura l Bel iefs f=6 reference to fami ly "my Grandma has these, for r ice they are." f=2 reference to culture " I 'm Japanese and this looks l ike Japanese or Chinese." 9. Association f=20 previous experience " th is looks more l ike strawberry je l lo . " f=4 reminder of school "we have one l ike this at Wendy House." f=2 looks funny " I t ' s pretty, i t looks funny." 11. P rac t i ca l Considerations f=32 is useful " I ' d use this for a fan . . . i t looks l ike a t a i l . " f=8 is heavy " i t ' s heavy . . . I l ike i t . " f=5 right size " i t ' s just the right s ize." f=5 is small " the size is real ly n ice, just l i t t l e . " 1. f = frequency 57 Table IV Features Mentioned in Aesthetic Decision Making for Objects (Not Preferred) Categories 1. Colour Feature f = 5 l l - not favoured colour f=16 f=17 f=5 f=4 F f= l M black too l i t t l e colour colours too mixed up colour doesn't suit sex colour doesn't suit sex 2. Design Elements f=6 shapes and designs f=10 lines and patterns f=5 no decoration f=19 additional parts f=8 doesn't belong 3. Surface and Texture f=2 f=10 not shiny bumpy 4. Mater ia l of Construction f=16 rusty 5. Condit ion of Item f=5 f = l l f=6 f=8 messy, holes, patches, pieces missing too long, not cut, d i r ty old wood, mater ia l twisted Example " i t ' s because the colours make it so . . . yucky." " i t ' s black and brown, ugh." " there ' s not much colours on i t . " " i t ' s because the colours are a l l mixed up." " i t ' s got grey and brown with colours that are not for girls." " th is pink is a gir l ' s colour." " there ' s holes inside not pretty ones." " the green lines look messy . . . I don't l ike them." " i f i t had decorations . . . i t would be pretty." " there ' s spooky buffalo ears on the edge." " there ' s some seaweed stuck on i t . " " i t ' s a not shiny jewelry. " " i t doesn't fee l nice . . . i t ' s bumpy and chipping." " i t doesn't look nice i t ' s rusty." " i t has holes and messy stuff here." "the rope is a knot . . . i t ' s a l l broken." "the legs are a l l twisted." 9. Association f=20 previous experience f=22 looks dangerous f= l looks too funny 11. P rac t i ca l Considerations f=17 represents sk i l l too d i f f icu l t f=12 too heavy f= l too big f= l too small " i t makes me think of scary things in the dark." " the sharp part is not pretty because I might get hurt." " i t ' s funny . . . I don't l ike it . . . " "I don't know what i t ' s fo r , I don't l ike i t . " "ooh . . . i t ' s heavy . . . real ly heavy." " i t ' s a fat bott le. " " i t ' s too small for anything." 1. f = frequency Black was strongly viewed as "ug ly " by children of both sexes. In a variety of items containing other colours, exclusively or incidental ly, black was prominent as aesthetical ly displeasing. Colourfulness was noted as aesthetical ly pleasing. The number, brightness and combination of colours were noted frequently on items. Comments indicated that colourfulness was an important aspect of aesthetic decision making. Addit ional ly, a few made careful ly thought-out remarks that indicated an observance of how two or more colours looked together. Children seemed to l ike colours together but not " a l l mixed up." On a Raku pot, where the glazes had blended, colours were frequently noted as not pretty. However, on a Chinese r ice bowl (white and blue), where mid-blue was applied over white china ground in neat defined designs, children overwhelmingly l iked the colour combination. General ly, bright sunny colours in combination were preferred. On several items which were strongly disliked by chi ldren, the question of how to improve these was put forward. Painting them red, gold, orange or many pretty colours, especially rainbow colours a l l over, was frequently the response. One boy, disl iking a railroad spike stated: . . .[I don't l ike i t ] 'cause i t doesn't look very nice because of the colours . . . black and brown . . . i t ' s a l l different colours mixed up . . . I don't l ike that. [You could make it prettier] by putting red and orange in stripes unti l you're done. The question of colour being suitable to the sex of the chi ld did emerge but only with a selected few items. Certa in children of both sexes consistently felt that certain colours were "g i r l s ' colours." In every case their concept was that pink was for girls. One g i r l rejected many items on the basis that i t was not pink, and from a selection of pebbles, she picked out only the pink ones to l i ke . Interestingly, for other individuals of either sex colours did not have such exclusive meaning. Boys fe l t pleased to select the "p re t ty pink stones" and girls to select other items with or without that colour. The elimination by the pilot group of several items which were predominantly blue, l imi ted opportunity to gather information on children's 6 responses to different values of blue. General ly children stated they l iked the colour alone, or in combination with white on the items presented. Just as colourfulness was a strong prerequisite for selection of an i t e m , so the corollaries of not enough colours, colours not bright enough and colours too mixed up came up on the negative side. Monotone or dual toned items were overwhelmingly rejected for their lack of colour. Decoration Second in frequency of notation with respect to objects were decorative additions. F lowers, identif iable shapes, leaves, buttons, nails and letter configurations brought forth numerous comments. For both boys and girls flowers were strongly preferred on a variety of items — on the bottom of the r ice bowl (applied design), as silk f lowers, and on the back of the silver mirror (molded design). C i r c l e s , squares, triangles and polygons were mentioned as parts of or as the basic shapes of some objects. Patterns of dots, holes, repeated stripes were often given as reasons for selecting an i t e m , but some children were equally ready to reject an item because the designs or patterns were not to their l i k ing. Often this appeared in combination with other qualities as exemplif ied here: " the green lines look messy, I don't l ike these . . . " ; "Wel l . . . there are empty holes inside, not pretty ones." However, in spite of disl iking some designs overwhelmingly most children felt as this child did: " I f i t had decorations . . . then it would be pretty. " Some chi ldren, not recognizing what an artist might classify as an abstract pattern or design, found these distasteful. In the chi ldren 's eyes, they became horns, claws or teeth. One boy saw the blue designs in the r ice bowl as mean birds so he disliked these, whereas another boy saw them as l i t t l e H's and noted how pretty they were. Materials Materials for construction as translated through surface qualities were the next major focus of aesthetic comments on the objects presented. L ight, translucent, and ref lect ive qualities were greeted enthusiastically. The discovery that the r ice bowl was translucent produced this animated response: "And the holes, oh yeah . . . they glow . . . [holding i t up] . . . use it at nightt ime, put a light under i t , here, then light comes ou t ! " Meta l and mirror surfaces were considered interesting not only for looking at oneself, but because they were excellent for "bouncing light around." Addit ional ly, the shiny clear surface glaze on the Chinese rice bowl, with translucent r ice pattern, the shine on a peacock's feather 's eye, and the polished surface on a brass bear were a l l considered highly appealing. Items were noted for their surface and transparent qualities. Orange-red and yellow slab glass cubes were selected by a number of children; their s ize, shape and c lar i ty combining to make the item appealing. Youngsters were frequently fascinated by these and wanted to use them later. One g i r l noted: these look l ike gold . . . gold again, right? You can see through and this hand is yellow and this hand is red and it looks l ike Je l l o , too. [I l ike these] 'cause I l ike the taste of the favours . . . [ these] are just glass. Soft and furry qualities were identif ied on a variety of objects as being desirable. For a few children the glass cubes were called " s o f t " , which seemed to indicate smooth. Several items of fabric and feather were described in this way. Children also identif ied items as not appealing that were not smooth or shiny. Bumpy was mentioned as both appealing and unappealing, almost depending on what the chi ld had previously decided about the object. Cer ta in ly , it was incidental to other aspects. Mater ia l of construction was careful ly assessed for quality. O ld , broken, wrecked, torn, pierced, twisted, rusty, and dirty conditions were seen as highly unappealing. Even pattern, colour, or shape which might otherwise be seen as appealing did not have a powerful enough influence to overcome these effects. Children disliked the twisted rope on both a Mexican horse and a glass ba l l . Twisted rope on both these items was considered scratchy. A wood plane was described as "bumpy and chipping" by several children. A bumpy slab glass was "wrecked and a l i t t l e bit broken" to one boy. A Mexican cup was disliked because it was old and had been " scr ibb led" on. Two items were pinpointed as exemplifying this group — the rai lroad spike and the leg hold traps. Of the spike one chi ld stated, " U m . . . i t ' s used for taking off tires . . . and chipping stuff . . . i t doesn't look very nice . . . i t ' s rusty." Of the leg hold traps very l i t t l e positive was stated. One g i r l thought they 'd be handy for "playing cops and robbers," but her opinion was the exception; generally, reaction went "these look l ike hand cuffs . . . [I don't l ike them ] 'cause they are old and they have scr i tches" or "these are bear traps . . . I wouldn't l ike to get caught in one . . . because they are dangerous. The rust makes them not pretty. It doesn't feel nice to touch . . . they are bumpy . . . this stuff . . . rust looks . . . ugh " Another respondent said: "you take a careful look and, by the way, what are these? I don't know what they are. I would throw them in the garbage Yeah, one thing they 're for describing the letter " b " . What are these things in the middle? I ' l l t e l l you what to use them for, i f someone stole something, the police could use them for hand cuffs. The part I don't l ike is this rust . . . this rusty brown colour a l l over. Some children viewed rust as the state where the paint has worn off; others, dis l iking the colour brown, focused on the colour itself. The suggestion of a good coat of paint followed in some cases. Stripes, blue and red and rainbow colour were suggested to improve the leg hold traps. Holes which were part of a pattern were generally viewed posit ively, but in the accidental form of rips were not. For a few children holes in the Raku pot were mysterious, unexplainable and disliked; other children spent t ime trying to figure out why they were there. Association This searching for an explanation leads to the next area of aesthetic decision making, that of association. Viewed in a positive l ight, objects e l icted memories which quite often had cultural overtones of the same or s imilar items from home. Reminders of fun and adventure, times shared and interesting foods were powerful association factors. Several children talked about the r ice bowl, which they l iked because i t was used as best china at home or at Grandma's. They thought of it in terms of r ice or soup. The Japanese tea cup was selected by several children because they thought it looked Chinese or Japanese. One boy stated he could read me what it said. Another child selected a Salish Indian letter opener because i t reminded him of a real Japanese knife that the fami ly uncased and viewed at Grandma's house. Knives had both positive and negative connotations. Children who watched a parent use one for fishing or kitchen preparation referred positively to the parent and object. Of the Japanese tea cup one boy stated: "I l ike this . . . I'm Japanese and K a i l is Chinese . . . I'm the good guys . . . I l ike this because I'm Japanese and this looks l ike Japanese or Chinese . . . [I l ike] the Japanese writ ing . . . and I l ike this down here"' (pointing to Japanese characters). The t iny Mexican cup reminded several girls of their own tea sets and hours engaged in delighted play. One g i r l stated: " I t ' s a China cup . . . i t ' s l i t t l e for tea . . . dolly tea . . . I have a China tea set at home and I'm very careful with i t ! " Food associations were powerful to children. R i ce , soup, cerea l , Chinese food, and tea were mentioned. The glass cubes made many children think of Je l l o , while the closed tea caddie brought wonder at delights held within. Cookies, candy, fortune cookies to eat, tea and rose petals to smell were suggested as possible contents. Struggling to get it open, several were pleased or disappointed to smell tea bags inside. In their opinion, cookies would certainly have been better. Association with the classroom prompted one boy to say he l iked flowers because I did. On insisting that I wanted him to pick what he l i ked , he announced: " f lowers are pretty because you l ike them . . . because I know people give you flowers. You l ike the flowers because you say, 'thank you, honey bun' — w e l l , my mom says that, t oo " . It was evident here how strongly association and influence make their mark on children. Negative experiences acted, too, as a deterrent to aesthetic preferences. Items which carried fearfu l connotations were often completely rejected by children as displeasing: thoughts of spooky, dark, scary, or lonely times; dangerous qualities including sharpness, pointedness, a k i l l ing or trapping aspect. Many of the children expressed this as a personal fear, but even those that envisioned the fantasy occurring to something else — often animals — found this quality distasteful. The following exemplif ied how many of these youngsters carried out their decision making. The associative strength of one item seems to overrule another in sequence: " A h . . . i t ' s just nice . . . I l ike flowers . . . i t ' s red . . . I l i ke it better than orange . . . that 's prettier than the stone because the stone could break the flower and make i t die. Oh . . . the feather is prettier because it has an eye on i t . I want to keep i t . " Strength of association is one of the essential keys to aesthetic selection among 5 year olds. The association of peacock feathers with frequent sights of strutting male peacocks showing a l l their "eyes " was mentioned by one boy. The notion of " a l l eyes" was evidently more powerful than the other choices he had made. Many children had negative associations with the letter opener since they saw it as a weapon, something used to k i l l people, something used by nasty characters. Many expressed their fear of strangers during this discussion. It 's a knife . . . we l l , I don't l ike it because i t ' s a l l brown and blackish. Urn, I don't l ike knives and I don't l ike them a l l blackish and brownish. When Indians had them they ki l led animals for their dinner and breakfast and lunch and I don't l ike k i l l ing animals, because I l i ke animals . . . they are nice and they don't harm you. I don't l ike the blackish-brownish. If i t were a rainbow it would be prett ier. Children disliked items they perceived as dangerous. They frequently disliked the angular blade on the plane, which they thought might cut them; the point on the letter opener; and the slab glass since they might either cut themselves or drop the glass and get " i n trouble." Loneliness was mentioned in conjunction with one item — the Mexican rope horse. "I don't think he is pretty 'cause he has no ribbon on his back and no man . . . he has no playmates." Cultural-rel ig ious imagery had a strong influence on this same boy, who stated of the leg hold traps: "They did this to Jesus one time . . . they hanged him up . . . f i rst they put his hands in here . . . then they attached a hook and then he died . . . i t ' s not pretty . . . i t ' s a l l rusty and that 's a l l . " Scary and spooky were not so often associated with whole items as with parts of them. The decoration on the rim of the blue and white rice bowl brought several comments about spooky horns, scary claws and mean birds. A l so, the carved letter opener was described as scary. Bears were scary generally because they had claws, teeth, or a scary mouth and a back hump. The brass bear in this section of the study lacked the redeeming quality of furriness that the photograph had. The glass bal l became scary when i t made one g i r l think of witches. Several incidental c r i te r ia emerged which deserve comment. Many children mentioned the weight of specif ic items — the spike, bear, slab glass and mirror. For most children this carried a negative connotation — some noted their dislike then added with surprise as they picked an item up . . . "and i t ' s real ly heavy." When asked i f this made the item pretty most children sa id, " N o " except for two or three boys who said " Y e s " in a way that indicated they were saying . . . " i t ' s heavy, but not for me." Strength has already been noted as an important connotative element in positive preferences. Cer ta in ly , both small and large were considered pleasing in different circumstances. The glass ba l l , though not heavy, was fat to one g i r l who thereby insisted it was not pretty. The Mexican cup was " c u t e " and small to some, but too small to others while some children l iked the mirror flowers because they were big. Several children l iked the roses, because they smelled so great (despite several attempts I could smel l nothing !). One boy loved them because they were " r e a l " ; another because they were " rea l l y growing." One perceptive child stated the straw basket was beautiful because "whoever made it was real ly good at i t . " Not one other child made any direct reference to craftsmanship as a visual aesthetic quality. Chi ldren tended to dislike items they did not know a use for. Since by now i t was clear to them that I would not help by giving them clues, they had become fa i r ly adept at coming up with various real and extraordinary ideas for the use of items in the study. One boy thought the glass bal l would be better i f he and I were inside looking out. As a whole, boys made about 20 more responses than girls. Both groups gave more positive than negative comments and preferred more items than they disl iked. Again, I f ee l , the items for this section of the study may have represented more pleasing than displeasing items. Responses to Dress-Ups Although enthusiasm had been high, and children had come to understand the rhythm that questioning might take, conditions for completing section three, that of dress-ups, were more d i f f icu l t in several ways. Late May days were creating a warm atmosphere in the unventilated science cupboard, and keenness was waning sl ightly. Combined with my own sense of lack ing contact with the children because of involvement in on-going classroom act iv i t ies , this made completion of the section more d i f f i cu l t . Aware of these d i f f i cu l t ies , I showed more commitment than usual. With completion of data col lect ing within sight, I took to greeting a l l the children outside over my lunch hour, holding hands while I walked each chi ld back through the corr idor, and giving extra hugs to many as they entered the study room. Children wore shorts to al lay the effects of dressing-up in my "hot spot". Reaction from the children when questioned about their interest in dress-up items was largely positive; however, a few children were notably less keen about answering questions regarding dress-ups. A few wondered how long it would take, and several stated they didn't l ike to dress up or never went to Wendy House in the classroom (Wendy House is the term originally used for Br it i sh infant schools for a dress-up center). The children who expressed a dislike for dressing up were exclusively boys. They a l l looked at the dress-up i tems, but after a few items had been discussed, several of the boys dismissed the remainder without making a selection. Recording of these overal l responses was noted, but does not appear in the analysis of individual responses since no specif ic comments were made, (see Appendix C for individual responses.) Colour Colour of item was by far the strongest factor in children's stated reasons for what they had selected. Favoured colors predominated; for most children there was a group of colors preferred, and a few they disl iked. For gir ls, pink clothing was highly favoured. Red, gold, blue, orange, mid-yel low and purple were very strongly l iked by the majority of the group. A few l iked brown, a few disliked purple, light yellow and dark green. For boys, red, blue, gold, orange, yel low, and purple were favoured colors. Some boys l iked brown, also; some disliked purple. No boy made a dist inction about the tone of yellow preferred. Colour preferences were often stated with eloquence. One boy sa id, "I love this pinkish-purplish with Figure 6 DRESS-UPS (as regrouped for Main Study) Hats Q l Chinese coolie hat Q4 Black 50's style hat (over top only) Q5 Brown and black fur hat Q7 Navy f i re chief ' s hat Q8 Orange construction worker 's hat Q9 Red f ireman's hat Wigs and Jewelry R l Long blonde wig R3 Long brown wig U3 Shiny pearl necklace (white/pink/blue) U6 Plast ic l e i (pink and purple) U7 Plast ic l e i (pink and yellow) U8 Plast ic l e i (yellow and white) U9 Bracelets (blue, si lver and brown) Vests and Capes SI Vest (red suede) 53 Blue jeans (small s ize, cut off ) 54 Black vest (front only) 55 Black cape with red l in ing 56 Cowboy jacket Dresses T l Purple dress with satin t r im T6 Pink beaded opera dress T7 Yel low sheer nightgown T10 Blue and white check 70 Purses V3 Red pattent leather with silver closure V4 Black pattent leather with coin handle V5 Wallet, Japanese pattern on cream ground Long W l Long white lace W3 Brown-beige Lace W4 Ghost wrap X I Long pale over gown X4 Long pink coat 71 Table V Features Mentioned in Aesthetic Decision Making for Dress-Ups (Preferred) Categories Feature Example 1. Colour f=47 1 ' favoured . . . " i t ' s brown I l ike that." f=45 bright colour . . " i t ' s got lots of bright colour." f=28 red . . " w e l l i t ' s red inside and I l ike red." f=20 black . . "I l ike the black, its pretty." f=16 pink . . " w e l l , pink . . . i t ' s my favourite colour." f=15 gold . . "gold is very pretty." f=25 colourful . . " i t ' s got a lot of pretty colours on i t . " f=6 colours go together . . " i t looks pretty beside each other." 2. Design Elements f=27 shapes and designs . . "I l ike the shape of that." f=27 lines and patterns . . "I l ike the pattern of nice holes." f=24 flowery . . " the flowers in the lace I l i ke . " f=2 letters and numbers . . "these letters on the edge." f=5 animal designs . . " the birds a l l over going North. " f=38 additional parts . . " the leather edge makes it pretty." 3. Surface and Texture f=19 shiny surface . . " i t ' s smooth shiny stuff, here." f=7 sparkly or ref lect ive . . "I l ike the l i t t l e mirrors." f=29 soft and furry . . " the furry parts are pretty." 7. Other senses f=3 noisy . . . "you can jingle them." f=2 smells good -; . . . " i t smells l ike l ipst ick. " 8. Soc io-Cultura l f=15 reference to fami ly , . . "and i t ' s Chinese and my Dad was born in Chinatown." f=8 reference to culture . . . "I was one on Hallowe'en before." 9. Association f=35 previous experience f=5 reminder of school f=50 reminder of character f=7 looks funny "we have one l ike this at home." "we have one of these in our classroom." " i t ' s an Indian jacket. " "I l ike being funny." 10. Sex Role f=8 f=4 for boys for girls . "me and my Dad l ike vests." . "these are for girls from Hawai i . " 11. P rac t i ca l Considerations f=13 f its well f=18 has useful parts "I l ike this . . . i f i t f i t s . " " i t ' s got nice big pockets." 1. f = frequency 73 Table VI Features Mentioned in Aesthetic Decision Making for Dress-Ups (Not Preferred) Categories Feature Example Colour 2. 3. f=77 favoured f=32 black f=13 pink f=4 gold f=5 silver f=21 too l i t t l e colour f=3 too much colour Design Elements f=10 shapes and designs f=14 lines and patterns f=20 decoration Surface and Texture f=4 not soft or furry f=3 too shiny f=4 too sparkly, ref lect ive f=2 not shiny enough 4. Mater ia l of Construction f = l l sheer 5. Condition of Item f=20 too long, not cut, d i r ty f=9 holes, patches, pieces missing, messy, scratched f=20 cracked, broken, wrecked 7. Other Senses 7=2 noisy f=l smells unpleasant f=8 too prickley 8. Soc io-Cultura l Bel iefs W . " i t ' s brown . . . I don't l ike that." . "I hate the black . . . " . "I don't l ike how the pink colour is." . "I don't l ike this beigy gold." . "I don't l ike this s i lvery colour." . " i t ' s not very colourful real ly. " . "I don't l ike pretty colours too much." . " i t has a triangle point at the top." . " the blue and white checks are ugly." . "I hate the design on this one." . " a l l of them aren't furry." . "I don't l ike this shiny stuff ..feels yucky." . " too sparkly, too slippery." . " i t ' s not very shiny." . " too sheer . . . seeing through i t . " ' i t ' s too big, long ugh." f=5 reference to fami ly reference to culture . . " the hair is a l l scribbled." " i t ' s old ripped, right here." " i t makes a lot of noise." " i t smells yucky." " th i s le i is too pr ick ly, I'm taking i t off." " a Japanese hat." " i t ' s not to wear i t ' s for a table." 74 9. Association 7=19 pTevious experience f=20 reminds chi ld of character f=3 looks too funny 10. Sex Roles f=39 M not for boys/ for girls f=5 F not for girls/ for boys 11. P rac t i ca l Considerations f=6 don't know how to wear it f=15 too long f=10 too smal l • • • "makes me think of a vampire." " they are a stranger's pants . . . I'm scared of them." " i t ' s not for boys, i t ' s for girls." "I don't want to put i t on because I am a g i r l . " "I don't know how to wear i t . " " i t ' s too long for me." " i t doesn't f i t . . . i t ' s too smal l . " 1. f = frequency yellowish-beigish parts." As this remark i l lustrates, at least some boys l iked pink. Items such as a flower l e i , which for some boys carried no reference to gender, were indicated as very pretty on the basis of color. In contrast to those several boys who l iked pink, the majority of boys disliked it and dismissed articles with " i t ' s pink — pink is for girls; I hate i t — ugh, ugh!" Many children of both sexes disliked brown, some disliked red and many disliked black. Surprisingly, many more children expressed a preference for black on a variety of dress-up clothes than they had for that colour either in pictures or objects. Hats, bags, capes, and vests were selected for their colour in a large number of cases. Silver and grey were l iked and disliked equally on clothing i tems, specif ic colour preference being very individual. Colourfulness, brightness of colour and arrangement of colour were indicated as important; pale tones were less preferred than strong tones and very bright items were repeatedly selected on the basis of colour intensity. Some children stated they l iked mixtures and combinations of colour and many said that black was preferred "w i t h other colours." Reasons for item rejection with respect to colour were both "not much colour" in the case of the brown jacket and the brown and black fur hat or " too much colour" on the red bag or the black and red cape. Chi ldren by now were suff ic ient ly comfortable to suggest various improvements to every item as indicated here: "I don't l ike i t , because I l ike the soft . . . I l ike the brown fur, but I don't l ike the colour . . . the brown and black . . . I'd l ike it red and purple !" Association Associat ion, as a cr iter ion for select ion, was mentioned very frequently but only about half as frequently as either favoured colour or colour brightness. Associat ion, here, includes thoughts or memories of positive experiences, adventures, happy times or creating thoughts of good characters either real or imaginary. Associat ion, in this instance, also contains the paral lel category of cultural-rel igious experience. In selecting and discussing items both boys and girls had positive memories of dressing for Hal lowe 'en. They l iked being funny, scary, powerful, and girls l iked being beautiful, also. Children recal led outfits they had worn, or that classmates, siblings, parents and teachers had worn. Many commented, by looking at hats, flower le i s , long capes and jackets, on the different things they might wear next year. For one g i r l , new to Canada, the previous Hallowe'en had been her f irst celebrat ion, so she made an animated response to silver and blue bangles and a lace shawl, being reminded of the "gypsy" items in which she fe l t so at t ract ive. The sight of Dracula 's black and red l ined cape brought for one respondent instant recol lect ion of me dressed as a witch for the school Hallowe'en party: "I l ike dressing for Hallowe'en . . . not before, but here in Canada . . . I saw funny l i t t l e clowns . . . I was a gypsy . . . [I l i ke ] to be pretty . . . i t was fun. You were a witch . . . (huge smile) i t was funny but not too scary for m e ! " Universal ly, this concept of scary was noted by youngsters. A l l children wanted to be scary especially for brothers and sisters, but none wanted to be scared. When the association for a chi ld became too scary, the item took on a negative character. The vest, Dracula 's cape, the brown wig were rejected by some children because they were for vampires, Dracu la, "The Count" (a character in the TV program Sesame Street) , or witches. Eugh . . . a vampire suit . . . my uncle A lex . . . has one of these and one time he scared us with my Mom's pig mask. He even has vampire teeth. He l ives with us. You can f ly with i t . I l ike the lot of red and black, but not this suit . . . i t ' s too scary. Association with imaginary or real characters not related to Hallowe'en also had a negative connotation for children. One g i r l viewing blue jeans cut off to f i t 5 year olds said: "Ugh . . . Incredible Hulk pants." Another child caught in much fami ly conf l ict said they looked just l ike her father 's pants and they had "taken him away forever." For some chi ldren, Hallowe'en did not have pleasant or happy associations, because they did not celebrate i t . Several said it was " too scary" but others simply had no related associations. One g i r l stated she l iked to dress up at school and in her bedroom and "be scary for my friends." Fascination with outer space, power, and superstars brought animated comments from children of both sexes. Boys identif ied Superman and Spiderman and gir ls, Superman and Wonder Woman as characters they associated with clothing. Despite classroom popularity, neither Darth Vader nor Hans Solo (characters from a well-known movie) were mentioned. One may suppose that specif ic dress items create reca l l for specif ic characters. The cape with red l in ing was seen as perfect for Superman by both boys and girls who quickly turned i t inside out. One boy stated: I would l i ke the cape (delighted smile) . . . Superman has a red one outside . . . i t ' s a l l together . . . looks so long, you would need to snip i t . You could dress up in Hallowe'en in this. It 's black and red . . . I could make a cape l ike this out of paper and cut i t . . . Superman, Batman, Robin, no, his is yellow . . . It 's Superman ! Cu l tura l associations made up a small section of the association c r i te r i a . Chi ldren largely recognized items from other cultures and identif ied these in the i tem's description. As a reason for aesthetic preference i t was noted by only a few youngsters in comments l i ke: This is a hat from Japan . . . (big smi le, wearing hat) . . . there's a design on the outside and a point at the top . . . and there's a c i rc le around the . . . here (pointing to r im) . . . I l ike the shape in the hat. It looks l ike a triangle shape. I l ike this Japanese hat . . . we are going to Japan soon, too. or: It 's too big. I can 't see . . . I l ike the shape and i t ' s a Chinese and my Dad was born in Chinatown. He's Japanese. Yeah , i t ' s my favourite. Cu l tura l association was at times evidenced in images or memories of positive cultural experience such as this statement made by a non-Hawaiian chi ld: " I t ' s something that you wear when you come at Hawai i , because I went there a long t ime ago. They are flowers. I l ike i t because the colour . . . urn . . . is so nice and that a l l of the colours aren't mixed up. Hawaii is real ly n ice, t he re ! " Associations for gir ls, dist inct from the influence of Hal lowe 'en, seemed to center around beauty. Responses to long flowing dresses, gowns and nighties built images of bridal receptions, dances and parties. Those who selected from among several wigs invariably chose the blond one. Few children l iked the brown or black wigs, even though their own hair might be dark. Another popular cr iter ion for selection was dress-up items which bespeak the role of mother. Cooking aprons, perfume, handbags (with money) and heeled shoes for shopping had strong appeal. For boys, f ireman's hats, construction hats and policeman's hats were strongly preferred. Some selected blue jeans to look l ike workmen or l ike dad "on Saturdays". Vests were selected for "wear ing to work" or because "my dad and I have always wanted one l ike this." One boy stated "I don't l ike to dress up to be anybody, just myself." For many 5 year olds ident i f icat ion with a role seems to be wel l established. Design Elements Shape and design as a cr iter ion for aesthetic choicemaking coupled with decorative quality emerged with equal frequency throughout children's comments. The Chinese hat and bangles were repeatedly selected as having an appealing shape. The pointed dome-l ike shape which was reminiscent of a triangle and the circular arm bangles were we l l - l i ked. The twisting shape of the fur pieces and pearl beads and the various shapes of hats such as the f i reman 's , construction worker's and policeman's were mentioned. Shapes that children could readily ident i fy were most often noted in comments. As negative aspects, a few children disliked the pointed Chinese hat while others disl iked the shape of the bow on the '50s black hat or the purple dress. Decoration is defined as applied or surface decoration or pattern. Lines and patterns which repeated were as popular as f lowery designs as a basis for aesthetic decision making. These dominated remarks made with respect to dresses, long gowns and clothes. Fringes on the cowboy jacket , which were variously named as feathers and rainspouts were an equally popular i tem. Pompoms on the fur hat were selected as beautiful "bear ' s ears" and " fu r r y bumps." Decorative additions including beading, sequins, brass buttons, and satin tr im were noticed and appreciated by children of both sexes. Letters, numbers, stars, and bird patterns were referred to positively. Very few remarks indicated negative response to decoration on clothing. One g i r l wearing the Japanese wallet stated: " I t ' s a purse . . . this purse has smiles here . . . the smiles have no eyes, no nothing . . . just the mouth . . . no people might buy it . . . " What this g i r l explained as smiles was unpleasant to her in its incompleteness. A l l other children perceived these as "birds f lying south" and l iked the pattern. One particular pattern was repeatedly selected as most disliked in the dress group by both boys and girls — a turquoise and white check dress with pleats and large white bands at the bottom. Several children indicated it looked too much l ike a cook's apron and they didn't l ike to cook or want to look l ike one, but it was the pattern itself in conjunction with a " too light blue" that seemed to feature in most remarks. One boy stated of dresses: "The only one I would l ike to put on would be the blue one . . . I won't make a mess i f I'm cooking. I can make a sandwich by myself " Surface texture brought out many comments, with soft furry items conspicuous as most pleasing. Since children's selections were made before touching occurred, the thought of furry was enough to el ic it the choice. Smooth and shiny surfaces were strongly preferred together with a very few remarks in favour of sparkly and ref lect ive areas. Yet a silver latch on the shiny red bag was repeatedly isolated as unattract ive, — and not furry, not very shiny and in the case of the silver l a t ch , too sparkly were pinpointed negatively in some cases. Materials Mater ia l of construction was rarely mentioned as a positive reason for aesthetic selection; however, as a negative factor responses were equal with those given for association. C loth ing was variously identif ied as r ipped, torn, broken, spotted, scruffy and d i r ty. Items that had previously been cut off had "bad edges" and several children discovered a dress with a "no good" broken zipper. The bow slipped off one dress, so was commented on by one respondent as "no fun, not too neat . . . l i ke for wearing i t would real ly bug you." Even small marks bothered the chi ldren, it seemed, because most items were washed before the study. Two long lace cloths, intended for shawls or capes had ripped edges which were repeatedly noted by the children. One* boy summed up the problem: "No , I hate a l l of them . . . and this one is no good for a cape . . . it has a hole in it . . . i t ' s for a t ab l e ! " Children preferred items which they perceived as f i t t ing w e l l , since many made their comments without actual ly try ing clothes on. Many negative comments centered around " too big" or " too sma l l " . Clothing that was d i f f i cu l t to understand how to wear was immediately rejected, but only one item mystif ied a l l of them — a black vest (since the back was missing and consisted only of tape strings). Children have a pract ica l side too, at this age; they l ike big pockets, lots of pockets and good places to hide things. These pract ica l considerations came out expl ic i t ly in comments about hat brims — "great to keep the rain and water o f f " and see-through dresses, of which one g i r l said: "I don't real ly l ike i t . It 's too sheer. I'd get cold wearing this " Another boy saw the cowboy jacket ' s fringe as " a good place (for) the rain to go down and keep it off you ! " Pockets to hide treasures were indicated as helpful, even in purses least preferred for other reasons. Treasures, for both sexes, included money, but for girls i t also meant l ipst ick, mirrors, and "things that make you smell good." Boys did not indicate what other treasures might consist of. Smells, or the conception of them, seem to influence some visual aesthetic decision making among 5 year olds. To several children the buckskin jacket was "we i rd smel l ing, " and therefore not preferred. The most str iking difference between boys and girls was the relative interest and enthusiasm girls showed in entering and part ic ipating in this section of the study. Only a few girls stated that they wouldn't l ike to try on items because they were for boys, whereas even to begin with some boys were hesitating about dress-ups by expressing dislike or disinterest in the area. Boys expressed over 40 responses indicating that items were not for boys, were only for g ir ls, or were only a gir l ' s colour. These respondents did not include the five boys who simply refused to make any selections from entire groups and so provided no detailed comments for examination. Though the remaining 12 boys stated that they would not l ike to try on an item because it would not suit their sex, they easily made selections of what they preferred to look at on others. For these boys, somehow the question of who would wear the item was not so cruc ia l ; the selection was theirs, but the item did not have to be. One boy calmly selected a purple dress saying, "I l ike this bright purple and smooth stuff, here (satin bow)." Another boy calmly repl ied, when asked i f he would l ike to put on a dress, "No . . . i t has holes in i t , l i t t l e holes . . . It doesn't feel nice i f you rub i t . . . If i t doesn't feel nice I wouldn't l ike to wear this . . . because kids would laugh. Wel l , I'm not used to wearing one so it takes a long t ime to get used to i t . " Of those boys that gave detailed responses negative responses exceeded positive comments only by f i ve . Five additional boys, of course, were not ful ly represented because of the short length of their comments. G i r l s were sl ightly positive, perhaps because the items selected were oriented more toward girls than boys. To check this proposition I had two men look at and respond to the dress-up items separately, focusing on the breakdown of boys' and gir ls ' i tems. They were asked to look at the items as they had been grouped for the study, and to assess the items overal l . Subsequently, they were asked to look at each group individually, assessing the balance of male and female items. Both men stated that overal l there were more items for girls. They saw the sub-category hats as having more items for boys than for g ir ls, these being associated with occupations, and they saw the group of vests and capes as being equally divided. A l l other sub-categories including decorative i tems, bags, dresses, and long items (shawls and robes) were interpreted as being pr imar i ly, i f not exclusively, for girls. One man stated that dressing up was pr imari ly for g ir ls, while the other said it was great for either sex but that I needed more items for boys. Their comments paralleled very accurately the kinds of comments received from boys involved in the study. Although some viewed dress-up primari ly as a gir l ' s ac t i v i t y , except for special occasions l ike Hal lowe 'en, most simply fe l t that more boys' items were needed. It was perhaps no surprise then, that boys questioned after the interview sessions developed many more suggestions for additions to the items in the dress-up section than girls. Suggestions included a clown out f i t , a scientist ' s lab coat, magician clothes, a skeleton out f i t , vampire teeth with a face to accompany this, clothes for the Lone Ranger and a policeman's suit. G.I. Joe's clothes and helmet were also suggested. Gir l s made a few suggestions including a better long wedding dress and big hats with flowers. Several girls stated that the cape could have been better had i t looked exact ly l ike that of Wonder Woman. Evidently at 5, children have a strong sense of sexual ident i ty, and although there is some f lex ib i l i ty for some children in what kinds of outf its they w i l l t ry on, many are very set about what is appropriate for their sex. Dress-ups presented some special considerations for children. Clothing has some unique intrinsic qualities; i t is worn, not simply viewed, so takes on a more personal aspect than even the most prized objects. Dress-ups ref lect a temporary adoption of another's ro le , character or identity. For 5 year olds these were strongly l inked to sexual roles, as tradit ionally stereotyped. Dressing up was also strongly associated with the celebration of Hal lowe 'en. Children 's c r i te r ia for aesthetic decision making became less clear in face of strongly expressed choices made as a ref lect ion of this celebration. Pract i ca l concerns became an added aspect to dress-up clothing choice. Pockets, storage spots for treasures, comfort , s i ze, f i t , and protection were a l l c r i ter ia for se lect ion, distinct from both objects and pictures. Ro le, image, and association with peers and adults of s imilar sex were more evident with dress-up items than either pictures or objects. Since clothes are an avenue for adult personal expression, the dist inction for children between being Superman and dressing l ike him seemed almost non-existent. When children dressed up they seemed transformed into another world. Their thought a mixture of imagination and rea l i ty , 5 year olds showed a gradually increased awareness of the l ine between one world and another that seemed to be ref lected in an increase in age. Dress-ups seemed to help some children cross this l ine, while others were already sure they did not wish to cross i t . For boys, dressing up seems somewhat less enjoyed than for g i r l s , and was more appealing for specif ic celebrations, part icularly Hal lowe 'en. Boys found this occasion very exc i t ing, and spent much time during the interview discussing ideas for future or from past celebrations. Clowns, space characters, and super heroes were as popular as tradit ional Hal lowe'en images. Dracu la , vampires, monsters, and ghosts remained strong favourites. Concepts of power and the th r i l l of creating fear in others were highly esteemed. Pink was for girls. Long gowns, dresses, and handbags were not esteemed. For dress-ups not associated with Hal lowe 'en, f i ref ighters, pol icemen, construction workers, dads, magicians, clowns, scientists, and cowboys were key roles. For gir ls, dressing up was highly regarded. Whether to do with specif ic celebrations or at any t ime , a l l girls stated that they l iked to dress up. Although many stated that they did not dress up " too much at home" a l l explained that they went to Wendy House quite often. Associations with Hallowe'en were strong in this group, also. For this occasion, witches, ghosts, gypsies, clowns, ballerinas, cheerleaders, and Wonder Woman were popular. A t Wendy House, moms, chi ldren, brides, ladies, nurses, and pets were popular. Gir l s predominantly wanted to be beautiful. Beautiful meant long gowns, shawls, dresses, big hats, high shoes and bags. G i r l s ' ident i f icat ion with space heroes was much less evident throughout interviews. Power roles were equally emulated in the form of Wonder Woman and mother roles. For children with backgrounds in which Hal lowe'en was not recognized, some disliked a l l associations with witches, vampires and ghosts. Others expressed enjoyment of "being scary" for siblings and peers. Several boys in this group stated they disliked dressing up. The loading of dress-ups, more than any other area, toward girls ' preferences must be noted. Boys in this study might have had an overal l more positive response if they had not perceived more items were for girls at the outset. Concern that they might be asked to try on items which they did not prefer might have created an immediate reaction of this section of the study. From birth children are moving away from the egocentricity of babyhood. A t 5, they s t i l l demonstrate this centering to some extent in their view of art objects. Self-association has s t i l l the most single powerful effect upon aesthetic decision making. Associat ion, soc io-cultura l aspects and sex-role aspects a l l emanated from personal influences. Only one child mentioned the sk i l l of the craftsman as an important reason for her aesthetic choice. She was able to look at a basket f i r s t , then note personal influences and uses: "We l l , you can't get me to hate any of these, because there's pink and green and wheat colour and i t ' s real ly nice. There's a l l a lot of designs on i t . It 's nice because whoever made i t , they are very good at it . . . i f you took the top off you could use i t for a hat." Other sensory qualities have incidental influence. Smel l , touch and sound qualities were mentioned along with pract ical considerations with respect to clothing. Comments about the condition of items were dominant as a cr i ter ion for not preferred items in a l l three sections of the study. Broken wheels, the patches on the Chinese junk's s a i l , rust on the leg hold traps and soiled spots on dresses a l l e l ic i ted responses with respect to poor condition. This demand for neatness and cleanness is at odds with Parsons' report of children's (1977) demand for rea l i ty . Children were uncomfortable with an indication of old age or poverty. This was indicated by their responses to the wheel picture 's long grass which they wished cut, and the boathouse in the foggy P.E.I, bay which they saw as " a house where poor people l i ved " since it lacked bottom boards. Stat i s t ica l Treatment of Data: P ictures, Objects, and Dress-ups The bulk of discussion of the findings of this study is derived from f ie ld notes, part icular ly from the responses of the 31 children who were questioned on their preferences among pictures, objects, and dress-up items. Some stat i s t ica l comparisons were also attempted in order to show which items el ic i ted the greatest number of preferences, or were noted as least preferred. Tables I through VI present features mentioned as grounds for aesthetic decision making, together with the frequency of occasions on which each was mentioned and a quotation exemplifying the manner in which each feature was described. Tables I, II, and III present preferred features for pictures, objects, and dress-ups, while Tables IV, V , and VI present not-preferred features in a similar sequence. Tables VII and VIII compare responses to pictures, objects, and dress-ups as percentages. The three categories cannot otherwise be properly compared, for although the number of respondents remained the same, the number of items to which they responded varied: 22 pictures, 22 objects, and 30 dress-ups. The fol lowing formula was employed for each feature in turn: tota l number of times mentioned x 100 = % response number of items x number of children The Mean column in Tables VI I and VIII permits comparisons between any one of the three categories and the mean of a l l three categories for each feature mentioned as preferred or not preferred. These tables also show at a glance those features which may have been mentioned within one category but not in another. Features mentioned in Tables VII and VIII are not mutually exclusive. For example, the i tem favoured colours may ref lect a response by an individual that is also recorded as a specif ic colour, such as pink. Not a l l colours were sub-categorized by sex;only those colours which appeared to e l ic i t responses dominated by one sex or the other were so designated. F ina l ly , since cr i ter ia for aesthetic decision-making were the study's focus, fine distinctions among colour preferences were not recorded. Frequency of selection of specif ic items by sex, for pictures, objects, and dress-ups is summarized in Appendix B. Appendix C details for each respondent those items within each of the three main categories which were preferred and not preferred. For each category, preferences by boys are detai led, followed by preferences by girls. Comparison of Study Responses Aesthet ic choices amongst the group of 5 year old participants in this study were often s imilar across the three main categories: pictures, objects, and dress-ups. Although the emphasis sh i f ted, similar c r i ter ia were isolated in 88 P ICTURES , OBJECTS & DRESS UPS; P R E F E R R E D % F E A T U R E S EXPRESSED AS P E R C E N T A G E S 1 P ICTURES OBJECTS DRESS UPS T O T A L 2 M E A N % (1) COLOUR Favoured 6.45 12.17 5.56 24 8.06 Black 0.00 0.44 2.22 3 0.89 Pink 2.24 0.00 1.78 • 4 1.34 Red 4.21 1.76 3.11 9 3.03 Gold 1.40 0.00 1.67 3 1.02 Colourfu l 5.33 4.11 2.78 12 4.07 Colours go together 0.28 1.17 0.67 2 0.71 Suit sex 11.64 7.33 0.00 19 6.32 Do not suit sex 0.42 2.93 0.33 4 1.23 Bright 0.00 2.35 5.12 7 2.49 (2) DES IGN ELEMENTS Shapes & designs 0.00 3.08 3.00 6 2.03 Triangle 0.42 0.00 0.00 0 0.14 Square 6.45 0.00 0.00 6 2.15 C i r c l e 1.68 0.00 0.00 2 0.56 Octagon 0.14 0.00 0.00 0 0.05 Lines and patterns 0.84 3.37 3.00 7 2.40 Decoration 0.00 2.05 0.00 2 0.68 Flowery 3.09 4.55 2.67 10 3.44 Leafy 0.00 1.03 0.00 1 0.34 Letters and numbers 0.00 1.47 0.22 2 0.56 Addit ional parts 4.77 4.11 4.23 13 4.37 An imal design 0.00 0.00 0.56 1 0.19 (3) S U R F A C E A N D T E X T U R E Shiny 3.51 1.47 2.11 7 2.36 Soft and furry 0J98 1.03 3.23 5 1.75 Sparkly &/or ref lect ive 5^61 4.84 0.78 11 3.74 Bumpy 0.00 0.88 0.00 1 0.29 (4) M A T E R I A L OF CONSTRUCT ION Scenery appealing 0.56 0.00 0.78 1 0.45 Sunny 1.68 0.00 0.00 2 0.56 Sheer 0.00 0.00 0.33 0 0.11 Mountains, water & waves 4.21 0.00 0.00 4 1.40 Straw 6.31 0.00 0.00 6 2.10 (7) S O C I O - C U L T U R A L BELIEFS Reference to fami ly 1.96 0.88 1.67 5 1.50 Reference to culture 1.82 0.29 0.89 3 1.00 (8) ASSOC IAT ION Previous experience 7.57 2.93 3.89 14 4.80 Reminds child of school 0.98 0.59 0.56 2 0.71 Reminds child of character 4.07 0.00 5.56 10 3.21 Looks funny 0.00 0.29 0.78 1 0.36 89 P ICTURES , OBJECTS & DRESS UPS: P R E F E R R E D % F E A T U R E S EXPRESSED AS P E R C E N T A G E S 1 P ICTURES OBJECTS DRESS UPS T O T A L 2 M E A N % (9) SEX ROLE For boys 0.00 0.00 0.89 1 0.30 Not for boys/for girls 0.00 0.00 0.44 0 0.15 (10) P R A C T I C A L CONS IDERAT IONS Has useful parts 0.00 0.00 2.00 2 0.67 F its wel l 0.00 0.00 1.45 1 0.48 Right size 0.00 0.73 0.00 1 0.24 Small 0.00 0.73 0.00 1 0.24 Heavy 0.00 1.17 0.00 1 0.39 Not useful 0.00 4.69 0.00 5 1.56 Note 1: Columns show average number of times (expressed as a percentage) on which features in each category were designated as preferred. Note 2: Sum of percentages across three categories, rounded up to the next whole number. 90 P ICTURES , OBJECTS & DRESS UPS; NOT P R E F E R R E D % F E A T U R E S EXPRESSED AS P E R C E N T A G E S 1 P ICTURES OBJECTS DRESS UPS T O T A L 2 M E A N % (1) COLOUR Not favoured 3.65 7.77 8.57 20 6.66 Black 6.59 2.35 4.12 13 4.35 Pink 0.56 0.00 1.45 2 0.67 Gold 0.56 0.00 0.44 1 0.33 Silver 0.00 0.00 0.56 1 0.19 Too much colour 0.28 0.00 0.33 1 0.20 Too l i t t l e colour 2.81 2.49 2.34 8 2.55 Colours mixed up 0.00 0.73 0.00 1 0.24 Suit sex 7.43 11.29 0.33 19 6.35 Do not suit sex 2.24 5.43 0.00 8 2.56 Bright 0.00 1.91 0.00 2 0.64 (2) DES IGN ELEMENTS Shapes & designs 0.42 0.88 1.11 2 0.80 Lines and patterns 0.14 1.47 1.56 3 1.06 Decoration 0.56 0.00 2.22 3 0.93 No decoration 0.00 0.73 0.00 1 0.24 Addit ional parts 1.96 2.79 0.00 5 1.58 Do not belong 0.00 1.17 0.00 1 0.39 (3) S U R F A C E A N D T E X T U R E Too sh iny 0.00 0.00 0.33 0 0.11 Not shiny enough 0.42 0.29 0.22 1 0.31 Not soft and furry 0.00 0.00 0.44 0 0.15 Too sparkly &/or ref lect ive 0.14 0.00 0.44 1 0.19 Bumpy 0.00 1.47 0.00 1 0.49 Too bumpy 0.42 0.00 0.00 0 0.14 (4) M A T E R I A L OF CONSTRUCT ION Scenery unappealing 0.84 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 Too many bricks 1.26 0.00 0.00 1 0.42 Wood 2.10 0.00 0.00 2 0.70 Rusty 0.00 2.35 0.00 2 0.78 Sheer 0.00 0.00 1.22 1 0.41 (5) COND IT ION OF ITEM Crack , broke, wreck, scratch 4.21 0.00 2.22 6 2.14 Holes, patch, missing pieces 2.38 0.73 1.00 4 1.37 Too long, d irty 0.70 1.61 2.22 5 1.51 Old wood/material 0.00 0.88 0.00 1 0.29 Rusty metal 0.28 0.00 0.00 0 0.09 Twisted 0.00 1.17 0.00 1 0.39 (6) OTHER SENSES Noisy 0.00 0.00 0.22 0 0.07 Smells unpleasant 0.00 0.00 0.11 0 0.04 Too prickly 0.00 0.00 0.89 1 0.30 91 P ICTURES , OBJECTS & DRESS UPS; P R E F E R R E D % F E A T U R E S EXPRESSED AS P E R C E N T A G E S 1 P ICTURES OBJECTS DRESS UPS T O T A L * M E A N % (7) S O C I O - C U L T U R A L BELIEFS Reference to culture 0.00 0.00 0.56 1 0.19 Reference to religion 1.26 0.00 0.00 1 0.42 Reference to family 0.00 0.00 0.11 0 0.04 (8) ASSOC IAT ION Previous experience 3.37 2.93 2.11 8 2.80 Reminds chi ld of character 2.66 0.00 2.22 5 1.63 Has no people 0.84 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 Looks dangerous 2.10 3.23 0.00 5 1.78 Looks too funny 0.00 0.15 0.33 0 0.16 (9) SEX ROLE For boys 0.00 0.00 4.34 4 1.45 Not for Girls/for boys 0.00 0.00 0.56 1 0.19 (10) P R A C T I C A L CONS IDERAT IONS Don't know how to wear i t 0.00 0.00 0.67 1 0.22 Sk i l l too d i f f i cu l t 0.28 2.49 0.00 3 0.92 Too long 0.00 0.00 1.67 2 0.56 Right size 1.40 0.00 0.00 1 0.47 Too big 0.00 0.15 0.00 0 0.05 Too small 0.00 0.15 1.11 1 0.42 Useful 0.00 1.76 0.00 2 0.59 Note 1; Columns show average number of times (expressed as a percentage) on which features in each category were designated as not preferred. Note 2: Sum of percentages across three categories, rounded up to the next whole number. each category. Exceptions included pract ica l aspects, the appeal to other senses, and the sex-role identif icat ion which was evident in the dress-up section of the study. Variations in concentration of responses within some sections were notable: material of construction was not noted as a preferred cr iter ion in the case of objects, only as not preferred, and socio-cultural beliefs were noted most strongly as a preferred cr i ter ion. Parallels between choices by individual children on different i tems, and different children on the same items, suggest that common cr i ter ia for aesthetic decision making exist among 5 year olds. As an aesthetic cr i ter ion, colour dominated a l l three categories. Statements on colour preference formed a pool of favoured colours, though one colour might be preferred by an individual chi ld. Individual favourite colour seemed to remain consistent across categories for a given chi ld, but varied between individuals. Colours appeared to be sex l inked. Pink is predominantly viewed as a g ir ls ' colour by both sexes, especially in the context of dress-up items. For some children, pink is identif ied as for girls in any context. Colours which were mentioned frequently as either favourite or favoured were red, gold, yel low, orange, blue and purple. Pink was first choice of many girls. Most children l iked white. Brown and black were indicated as not preferred colours by both sexes with black least preferred. Even children with black hair indicated a dislike for black. Some stated their own hair was an exception, but the majority of dark haired students disliked their hair and wished for blond or red hair. A few children expressed a preference for ' black. Some selected black alone, but most preferred i t in combination with other colours, part icular ly red. Black was much more preferred on dress-up items than in the other two areas. The overwhelming influence of Hallowe'en and its associations with black-cloaked characters would certainly explain this in part. As the dress-up items were discussed las t , a general modification of original positions may have taken place in the course of the study. It is significant certa in ly, that the only i tem which was universally disliked was the black and white photograph of the Berl in Wall. Seemingly, the combination of blacks and greys, plus the f lat repetit ive overal l brick pattern with broken parts was universally unappealing to kindergarten children. This is part icular ly interesting since, not knowing the significance of its photographic content, children could not make the associations with war, death, and politics that it might have for an adult. Association with incidents in the child 's past experience showed up as another area of strong parallels between a l l three groups. Although it was mentioned less often by individual children than colour preferences were, association was important enough in children's choice making, to influence aesthetic decision making. Association as a part of the detailed comments made by the children was more notable in pictures and dress-ups than in the object section. In the object section decorative aspects were most frequently mentioned, along with design and construction. Associations with positive or negative experiences were evident in comments about pictures. However, in dress-ups, reminders of Hallowe'en so engulfed the responses that this area actual ly overshadowed a l l others. Negative, including scary or fearful associations quickly produced rejection of an i tem. No matter how able the chi ld was to recognize appealing aspects associations ruled out their further consideration. These negative associations were centered around two basic concepts: fear related to the unknown, and danger, which was seen as sharpness, deepness, explosiveness, or confinement. Positive associations were exclusively centered around memories of fun, play, happiness, and images of power. Fami ly , siblings, classroom and friends, were mentioned in this context, with grandparents taking the pedestal for adulation. Recollections of picnics, the cabin, riding with a f r iend, or special outfits at Grandma's were often mentioned as a reason for selection of an i tem; choices that children imagined a parent, brother, or friend might l ike were strongly favoured. Cu l tura l and religious associations were conspicuous in individual responses in a l l three categories. Mention of both cultural and religious identity was again strongest in responses to pictures and dress-ups, whereas strong associations with food were made through an object 's association with various ethnic dishes. Dress-ups, with their connections with Hal lowe 'en, were certainly a cause for comment and concern to children whose religious background led them to disapprove of the celebration. Surface decoration, mentioned in a l l categories, was part icularly noted on objects. Children preferred flowers to almost any design, with geometr ic, letter and number shapes also specif ied as strongly preferred. C i r c le s , which seem common as a design element, were popular on items which e l ic i ted even ambivalent responses. Decorative aspects figured least in pictures. In pictures, however, scenery e l ic i ted a wide range of comments. Scenery did not occur in either of the other two areas, but its importance in pictures essentially replaced decorative qualities. Surface texture, as an aspect of material of construction, emerged as an important focus in a l l categories. Even in pictures, where reproduction renders objects two-dimensional, comments indicated an awareness of surface texture. In objects and dress-ups surface texture and mater ia l of construction also evoked strong response. Although in the case of isolated i tems, some children noted surfaces as too shiny, too furry, or too bumpy, generally indications were that textured items and shiny items were highly preferred. Children consistently reached out to touch objects even in a two-dimensional rendering, then laughing, would state that i f i t were " r e a l " it would be soft and furry. Translucent, re f lec t i ve , and transparent items were highly preferred on objects and dress-ups. Lights in Jack -0 -Lanterns , the sparkling, iridescent night skyline of Edmonton, and ref lect ive seed beads on evening dresses, were a focus of comments within these categories. Although surface elements are responsible for these effects these examples have been grouped with construction materials, since it is largely glass which exhibits these specialized qualities. (See Tables III and IV) Good condition of the item was essential to positive aesthetic appreciation. Broken, torn, r ipped, d i r ty , scratched and rusty items were identif ied repeatedly as unappealing. Items with pieces missing were also noticed. Rusty items were sometimes rejected on the basis of colour, but most often o ld , rusty items were considered unappealing just for the rust i tsel f . In photographs and on objects, stained, unmatching or patched fabric was identif ied as unattractive. The strength and frequency of associative and socio-cultural beliefs which were highlighted by Rutledge children were in part a ref lect ion of the study's i tems, yet despite the focus on these two c r i te r i a , children did act as art c r i t i c s , mentioning several cr i ter ia that an art c r i t i c would use to examine an artwork. In Becoming Human Through A r t (Feldman, 1970), Feldman notes the tendency of young children to employ a l l the aspects of the adult c r i t i c without systematic adult organization: A kindergarten child w i l l perform a l l these operations (the same cr i t i ca l operations performed by professionals -description, analysis, interpretat ion, and judgement) spontaneously but in random order. Teaching is largely a job of systematizing his almost irrepressible desire to talk about art . . . C r i t i c a l study is the process of introducing order into the child 's natural performance as a c r i t i c , (p. 187) Responses to questions in this study paralleled Feldman's summary. Children could often give information about their reasons for choosing an i t em, but not describe the i t em, or could select and describe an item without however being able to give reasons for their selection. A l l aspects of aesthetic c r i t i ca l judgement were covered in the course of interviews with the chi ldren, however, each child did not cover a l l aspects in every comment on individual i tems. As researcher, i t was important that I use the child 's words in the formulation of questions so as not to lead the child by volunteering my own definitions and wording of what was being viewed. Ethnography concentrates on e l ic i t ing language which itself is a part of the category system people use (Levi-Strauss, 1966). To accomplish this, the first question after a selection was made became a request for a description: " T e l l me what this is." A l l subsequent statements and questions used the child 's own words, definitions and descriptions. As a result, description was given first as a response to questioning style; however, analysis, reasons for aesthetic preference, judgement and interpretation fol lowed in a mixture of orders. Just as the components of visual aesthetic reasoning were jumbled together, so too were other c r i te r i a . The findings of this study f i t wel l with what we know about the development of young children's thinking in terms of Piaget 's various steps of operation and memory. (Piaget, 1926, p. 249). Throughout the three sections of the study children tended to comment on what was there rather than what was missing. For example, in pictures and dress-ups they tended to focus attention on aspects which were before them in a thematic sense, rather than on design elements. In contrast, in the objects section specif ic design elements were more commonly the focus since these were present. The need to explore items by touching throughout discussion was evident. Even pictures e l ic i t ing comments about distinct surfaces caused children to reach out and touch. Children 's need to explore physically concrete materials has long been recognized by early childhood educators. (Froebel, 1899; Piaget, 1926) Froebel 's early learning materials had strong visual and tact i le aesthetic qualities that make them just as appealing today as they were when introduced at the turn of the century. C H A P T E R VI DISCUSSION OF F INDINGS Responses in the Context of Chi ld Development The 31 youngsters interviewed in this f ie ld study provided a wide var iety of personal c r i ter ia for aesthetic decisions. Pooling of these cr i ter ia gives an overal l view of the possible reasons which a 5 or 6 year old might use to select or reject an item aesthetical ly. Though children tended to use different reasons for making aesthetic decisions, an individual 's c r i ter ia invariably could be accommodated within a common grouping of major c r i ter ia (see Tables VII and VII I). Visual c r i ter ia do not appear to be separated from other types of cr i ter ia in young children's aesthetic decision making. Gradually, within the group in this study a transition in reasoning may have been taking place. As the study progressed, children showed increasing interest in the items before them. Frequency of inquiries about the responses of others were noted. Answering style varied amongst the group, seemingly ref lect ing many personal qualities including the confidence of the individual. As children relaxed, their ab i l i ty to concentrate, consider and explore a wider variety of cr i ter ia for decision making seemed to emerge. A t the same t ime, differences in the types of items included in the three sections of the study made any transition d i f f icu l t to observe with accuracy. P ictures, objects and dress-ups seemed to require different cr i ter ia for decision making from any given individual. In their 1981 a r t i c l e , "Ch i ldren ' s Responses to Paint ings" , D 'Onofrio and Nodine developed twelve aesthetic c r i ter ia used by children ranging in age from 4 1/2 to 15 years as they viewed four paintings. These included: 99 1. Personal associations 2. Attent ion to subject matter 3. Attent ion to colour 4. Demand for realism 5. Egocentric perspective 6. Attent ion to design 7. Attent ion to emotional content 8. Respect for art i st ic intentions 9. Respect for subjectivity 10. Reluctance to c r i t i c i ze painting 11. Respect for original ity 12. Attent ion to art i s t ic decisions These writers, in conjunction with Parsons (1977), underscore the contribution of cognitive development to children's developing abi l it ies to make distinctions between personal preferences and c r i t i ca l evaluations. Parsons describes the evolution of aesthetic responses as follows: in i t ia l ly children respond to paintings according to personal idiosyncracies and experiences. Next , they judge the value of a painting by cr i ter ia l ike draftsmanship, which is related to opt ical ly received information and conventional displays of composition and use of colour. C r i t e r i a for judgement within the third stage are marked by adherence to the art ist ' s right to express his originality and innovativeness without references to an external audience's demands. Aesthetic development culminates with the abi l i ty to take the artist ' s viewpoint, as in their fourth stage, where children try to substantiate their responses by considering features such as composition, quality of l i ne , colour choice, and the relation of a l l these aspects to subject matter. 100 D'Onofrio and Nodine indicate that as development of children takes place shifts in aesthetic decision making also take place. Children operating at the f i r s t , idiosyncratic stage may also make some responses at the second stage as they are maturing, and vice versa. Rutledge youngsters indicated by their responses that in Parsons ' terms they were primari ly in the idiosyncratic stage. They demonstrated that by their attention to colour, attention to personal associations, and attention to content. A H Parsons' f irst six c r i ter ia were a part of the Rutledge children's focus except demand for real ism. In the cr i ter ia for decision making evident in the responses of these 31 youngsters egocentric perspectives and design elements are frequently invoked, yet none of the cr i ter ia generally attr ibuted to older youngsters was mentioned. A t one point, during interviewing in the object sect ion, one child alluded to the excellence of craftsmanship of the A f r i can straw basket. This was the only comment of this nature made. In a study focusing on photographs, objects and dress-up items it is not surprising that no demand for realism was made since this quality was already present. The photograph considered most abstract by the researcher, the black and white Berl in Wal l , was the least preferred photograph in the study. Although rejected largely because of lack of colour, its abstraction may have been a factor also, as revealed in comments l i ke : " there ' s too many bricks a l l over . . . a l l flat . . . i t ' s yucky. It looks l ike a slurpie with straws st icking out . . . there is nothing pretty in this picture." A photograph of rowboats in fog in P.E.I, was also frequently selected as not preferred (see Appendix B) because "you can 't see it too we l l . " This need for realism also arose in the object section. Several children commented on the Salish letter opener which was long and f lat with carving covering the handle on one side. The typ ica l thunderbird appears, with its elongated eye. Two other pieces of carving had appeared in the pilot study (see Figure 2). One of these was a fu l l faced statue, the other, a smaller half face carving. During the pilot study several individuals focused on the hal f -faced carving, expressing their fear and disl ike. They felt it was incomplete; several children stated that one eye was missing. D 'Onofrio and Nodine note that a child 's demand for realism is violated by incomplete figures (1981, p. 20). Answering Style Individual children showed distinct differences in answering sty le, both in length of t ime required for responses and the way the questioning would proceed. Three forms which emerged are outlined to allow the reader a better understanding of these distinctions. For just under half the youngsters, questioning went smoothly. A l l of these children were enthusiastic to view items right from the beginning. Answers were given decisively and expl ic i ty. Detai ls were fu l l and varied. Responses from this group were l ike ly to vary from the actual format, as they gave their own opinions. Extra responses, or the selection as pretty of a l l items in a particular group was common. Reject ion of every item also occurred. In the course of the interv iew, they made verbal comparisons between previous selections and the item they were presently discussing. Throughout the study these children seemed confident as individuals. For the next group of chi ldren, comprising about one third of the to ta l , responses were not as easily given. Viewing, select ing, and arr iv ing at a clear decision was fa i r ly straightforward. In f ac t , it was surprising how quickly both these groups made their choices. A few of these children were less enthusiastic about viewing i tems, and this group as a whole, in contrast to the f i r s t , was not as specif ic about reasons for choices. They were less clear about influences, and when questioned further, either repeated their answer or stopped questioning by stating: "That ' s a l l I can say." This group was more l ike ly to follow the format of questions as presented, rather than volunteer varied information, make extra comparisons, or add extra responses. Children in the third and smallest group expressed or demonstrated d i f f i cu l ty in making choices. They seemed very worried about making the wrong choice. Reassurance from the researcher did al lay this fear s l ightly, but not completely. These children's responses also lacked the c lar i ty and detai l exemplif ied in responses by the largest group. Concentrating on giving an answer seemed to become the whole exercise. This group's responses, too, varied l i t t l e from the basic study format. Although choices are a part of the kindergarten day's program, these children tended to l im i t their own choices, and certainly were less confident and less verbal throughout the daily classroom act iv i t ies . In examining these three groups, i t could be seen that children from several cultural backgrounds were represented in each group. The only cultural influence that can be fa i r ly commented upon is that of the classroom i t se l f , which was similar for a l l youngsters. The differences among the three groups therefore may or may not be attr ibutable to cultural factors outside the classroom. Possibly, age of the respondents is a factor in the kind of response given. Children in this study varied in age between 5 years and 5 months and 6 years and 4 months. Cer ta in ly , within that eleven month span significant development takes place in young children. Gesel l notes the difference in the 5 and 6 year old: Needless to say these alterations in the accents of development are not sharply defined. The growth continuum is l ike the chromatic spectrum: each phase, each colour, shades by imperceptible gradations into the next. Yet the seven co lors of the rainbow are distinguishable. In a similar way the maturity traits of the 5-year-old are distinguishable from those of the s i x -year-old. (p. 68) Birthdays for those in the f irst group (ie. the group that made frequent and art iculate responses) fe l l in the f irst six months of the year, so at the time of study most had turned 6, and several were soon to be 6. No November or December birthdays were represented. For the second group (ie. the group that was less specif ic and varied less from the format) birthdays fe l l in the seventh to the twelfth month with an equal number of birthdays distributed throughout those months. No early (January, February, or March) birthdays were represented. Children in the third group, had one birthday in A p r i l , August, September, November, and December respectively. Boys and girls were represented in a l l three groups. Although i t is evident that birthdays range pr imari ly in the early months for the first group and in the later months for the second and third groups, there may be many individual factors which influence children with respect to aesthetic decision making beyond simple maturation. Possibly, recept iv i ty of children to learning related to aesthetic decision making occurs at fa i r ly specif ic places along the developmental path. If practice using materials for math concept development is important for children if they are to understand math concepts, as Piaget (Ripple & Rockcast le, 1964) has so thoroughly demonstrated, then ample opportunity for aesthetic discussion may be important i f children are to make confident, a r t i cu la te , aesthetic choices. Although the kindergarten classroom provides opportunities for children to use art materials, the choice system itself allows many children not to select these materials i f they so choose. Could differences in the confidence of the chi ld, variety of choice and eloquence of reasons for choice be the result of a combination of age and maturity at kindergarten entry? This in conjunction with amount of experience and exposure to art materials, opportunity to observe peers involved in l ike act i v i t ie s , and opportunities to discuss what the child is both in and outside the classroom be some of the factors providing for the development of aesthetic thinking. Does natural interest and orientation not play an important part in aesthetic decision making? Certa in ly , some cultures are much more strongly oriented toward the importance of aesthetic values. This is wel l evidenced by the responses of some of the Japanese and Chinese youngsters to items they considered cultural ly their own. In this study, i t may be that age is one factor influencing f lex ib i l i ty and awareness with respect to reasons for aesthetic choices. The influence of the teacher and of classroom lessons or focus as part of the pattern which produces growth in aesthetics in individuals was obvious throughout data col lect ing. Many themes previously discussed in class were evident in children's comments; not d i rect ly , but as a ref lect ion of the child's focus throughout the interview. For example, more than six weeks had been spent prior to the study on finding and making repeat patterns of colour, l i ne , sound and movement. Beads, blocks, shapes, str ips, c lothing, instruments and their own bodies were used to demonstrate patterns of 2, 3, 4 and 5 repeats. Although some children found this d i f f i cu l t , a l l children eventually demonstrated some level of competence in pattern making. This experience was evident during interviews in the children's quick notation of various patterns on objects and dress-up 105 items. Colours described in specif ic shades or tones by names such as beige, grey, dark brown, deep green, turquoise, a l i t t l e s i lver, or goldish-yellow, were evidences of visual and l inguistic skil ls previously developed. Use of materials was also discussed through shared experiences with cars, pottery and straw items shown to the class. Names for surface textures were discussed incidental ly and associations were drawn out of visual imagining exercises used to improve perception and sensit iv ity. To encourage children to verbalize their perceptions to others in fu l l sentences, discussions involving every child followed these classroom act iv i t ies . One might ask i f a l l the categories might not have been different i f another teacher had taught the group. Might another researcher have brought out different aspects with the same group? Both the focus of the teacher 's program and the view of the researcher have an influence on the results of any study. In other classrooms, other researchers need to study children's responses to visual aesthetics to learn more about this area. In this study responses of children in the pilot group to questions about their reasons for selections of certain items showed the same basic categories and cr i ter ia as Rutledge children indicated in the main study. Another notable area of influence was an increasing awareness and interest in peer responses. A t the beginning of the study, a very few children inquired about what other children had said. For the picture section only one or two comments were made. As the study progressed increasing interest was taken in what other children had answered, or preferred. Children frequently inquired about the previous respondent or about their best fr iend. Peer influence was evident in references to what others would l ike (in the group of items being viewed), what they might say i f questioned or how they might react to an object or item of dress. Dress-ups, part icular ly, e l ic i ted comments l i ke: "I could put this on and go down the hall . . . then maybe I could see what the kids would say." The question arises: Did children become more peer conscious as they part icipated in the study? Did my personal absence from the room create curiosity about what the others were doing with me or did the nature of the items themselves cause the children to wonder more about the responses of their peers? Since that curiosity became more frequently expressed as the study progressed it is my suspicion that an individual 's interaction with the researcher regarding specif ic items stimulated interest in the responses of others whose ideas were already esteemed by that individual. Responding to items seemed to heighten interest in those specif ic items and in discussing preferences in general. C H A P T E R VII S U M M A R Y , CONCLUS IONS A N D IMPL ICATIONS Summary This f ie ld study was devised to use participant-observation techniques to examine the aesthetic responses of 5 and 6 year olds. It was conducted in the late spring of 1983 in two kindergarten classes enrolled in a school in a large suburban community that included children from a wide variety of cu l tura l , religious and economic backgrounds. Of the 31 participants 17 were boys and 14 were girls. Seventy-four items used to e l ic i t aesthetic responses were in i t ia l ly researcher selected as items that would be "strongly preferred" or "not prefer red" . These were further screened by a pilot study group comprised of two girls and three boys who were also kindergarten students attending a nearby annex school. Items were regrouped to provide a manageable number of items for use in subsequent individual interviews with the students involved in the main study. Twenty-two pictures, 22 objects, and 30 items of dress-up were selected in this way. Transcription of f ie ld notes from tape recordings of individual interviews was completed within several weeks of the study's completion. Analysis of interviews produced frequency tables indicating categories used for aesthetic selection and decision making by these children (see Tables I through V I ) . Examples from f ie ld notes are given to demonstrate typ ica l responses to each i t em. Other means were provided to fac i l i tate ease of comparison between individual responses, categories and subcategories constructed from the data. Although each group of items e l ic i ted a varying number of responses, responses remained consistent across categories. Appendix C records each respondent's preferred and not preferred items. Each category (pictures, objects, and dress-ups) is presented separately with respondents grouped according to sex. Appendix B summarizes the frequency, of responses to specif ic items in each category of the study. Again data were separated for boys and girls. Tables VII and VIII compare the cr i ter ia used for aesthetic decision making in each section as preferred or not preferred in percentages. Categories constructed from the children's comments included colour, design elements, surface and texture, mater ia l of construction, condition of i t e m , sensory appeal, soc io-cultural bel iefs, association, sex-ro le, and pract ical considerations. Favoured colour, association and surface and texture were dominant sub-categories for preferred items. Not favoured colour, and condition of item dominated not preferred sub-categories. For both preferred and not preferred items sex-roles were important in relation to colour and in response to items in the dress-up section. Children demonstrated a variety of styles in approaching questions about aesthetics. Three groups emerged. In the f i r s t , comprising about half the group, children were decisive, enthusiastic, detailed in response and f lexible with respect to format. In the second, comprising about one third of the t o ta l , children were decisive, but less enthusiastic and less clear and specif ic about aesthetic reasoning. They varied less from the format of questioning. In the third and smallest group, children had d i f f i cu l ty making choices. Their responses lacked c lar i ty and detai l and they varied l i t t l e from the basic study format. Answering style may be a response to internal confidence and chronological maturity. It may be indicative of other influences including interest in art materials and exposure to them, opportunity to make and discuss aesthetic choices, and cultural orientation to aesthetics. The influence of previous classroom discussion was evident in chidlren's responses throughout questioning. Increased interest in peer responses was demonstrated as the study progressed. Children of 5 and 6 use both visually aesthetic and non-visual c r i te r ia as a basis for aesthetic decision making. Although a transition in aesthetic thinking may be taking place between 5 and 6, contrasts in the character of the items in each section made accurate assessment of a transition d i f f i cu l t . Although aesthetic responses have been studied previously (D 'Onofrio & Nodine, 1981, Gardner, Winner & K i r cher , 1975, Johnson, 1982) and some cr i te r ia developed for a variety of age levels (D 'Onofrio & Nodine, 1982), additional cr i ter ia have emerged from this study of kindergarten children's responsese to objects and dress-ups. The study method and the special nature of the materials selected for study helped to provide more detailed information about a number of sub-categories children refer to in aesthetic decision making. Attent ion to colour as an extension of sex-role identif icat ion is as yet undocumented in aesthetic studies with young children. Sex-role identity with certain items of dress-up for certain chi ldren, the pract ical and personal aspects of dress-up as well as their soc io-cultura l relationships and associations with school, previous experience, and mythical characters are unstudied to date. Children 's abi l i ty to concentrate on making careful visual aesthetic decisions and describe these eloquently has been further documented in this study. The rationale in Chapter I implies that aesthetic responses of kindergarten aged children are already developed. This study demonstrates that for most kindergarten children aesthetic appreciation and response are strongly developed although visual and other cr i ter ia for decision making are as yet mixed. S t r i c t ly visual c r i te r ia become more strongly stated as children are exposed to aesthetic experience. Opportunities to discuss items aesthetically may be a factor in development as wel l as the presence of aesthetics in their cultural background. Restating Assumptions In undertaking this study certain assumptions were made: 1. Aesthetic preferences, their discussion, and their development are important for 5 year olds, and that an art curriculum containing aesthetic strand is important for the growth of young children. The reasonableness of this assumption is confirmed by the results of this study. It is noteworthy that the revised B.C. kindergarten curriculum (1983) now recognizes the area of art and aesthetics for the development of 5 year olds. It states: Aesthet ic development continues throughout the l i f e of an individual, the degree of development varying with the involvement with aesthetic matter. In order that children may become aesthetical ly sensitive and appreciative i t is essential that their involvement with art i s t ic things begin as early as possible and continue throughout their education, (p. 92) 2. Participant-observer research methods are appropriate and effect ive means to look at aesthetic responses and their influencing factors. I found the participant-observer 's methods wel l suited to a f ie ld study in a school s ituation. They were relat ively simple to adopt and apply with young chi ldren. They were e f fec t i ve , largely because of their open ended nature in revealing areas which other methods might not have brought forward. 3. Behavior in 5 year olds is not inf in i te ly variable and that insightful description of their observable patterns of behavior can be made. This assumption is supported by the emergence of c r i ter ia for aesthetic decision-making that are consistent across the main categories of pictures, objects and dress-ups. I l l Stat ist ical analysis of the data has helped to confirm these patterns. Frequencies of p icture, object and dress-up selection documented in Tables VII and VI I I. Frequency of responses in each category defined within the three aspects of the study (pictures, objects and dress-ups) have also been developed, making comparison of these areas easier for the reader. Implications for Further Study Although tradit ionally women have formed the majority of kindergarten teachers, increasingly men are taking interest in the study and teaching of young children. Studies by either a male university based researcher or a male kindergarten teacher regarding aesthetic responses in young chi ldren, part icularly with respect to dress-ups would provide an interesting focus for research. No doubt a male's study would be less loaded towards girls ' dress-up items than this study undoubtedly was. Do girls prefer dress-ups more than boys, or was this particular to my selection of items or to my particular group? What types of clothing might boys prefer? If the suggestions for items given by this group were used as a partial basis for selection some of the slant toward girls ' items might be overcome. A further study aspect for aesthetics and young chi ldren, part icular ly to do with dress-ups, might be a look at Canadian culture with respect to early aesthetic influences upon young children. To what extent do attitudes of home and peers influence children's selections? How much discussion of visual aesthetics takes place in the home and what influence does this have on a 5 year old's development and interest in aesthetics? A study of home, child and school settings might prove revealing. Any study which involves entry into children's home l i f e might be d i f f i cu l t to in i t iate. Children at 5 can hardly act ive ly comment on their fami ly influences outside of this sett ing, since they are not abstract enough in thinking to analyze these influences. The problem of selection emerges. Famil ies do not want to fee l judged, and those who might volunteer to participate would hardly provide a representative sample. An interesting ethnographic study of children's language patterns and how these af fected early reading, t i t led "Questioning at Home and at School: A Comparative Study" was completed by Shirley Heath (1982). This might be helpful in formulating a future study in aesthetic education. Piaget indicates that children's thinking with respect to science and mathematics goes through qualitative changes, frequently before 6 years of age, depending on environmental factors (Piaget, 1926). These changes occur in children studied in very diverse cultural settings. Does aesthetic decis ion-making rest upon culture 's focus on aesthetic phenomena, or with maturation of the ch i ld , exposure to the artist ' s work, or the personal use of materials for art i s t ic expression? Is any of these a prime developer of aesthetic thinking or are they a l l important? To what extent does discussion influence children? Studies done in Japan, Israel, India, Mexico or Russia might provide interesting reflections on other cultures relat ive to Canadian culture. Assembling information on cultures so widely spread would be d i f f i cu l t , however studies conducted within Canada in concentrated ethnic groups such as French Canadian, Chinese Canadian, Japanese Canadian, Ukrainian Canadian and Doukhobor Canadian might prove to be a helpful substitute in viewing cultural influences on children. Children 's rejection of items based on their condition, their concern about cleanliness, neatness and wholeness of items as aesthetic pr ior it ies, raises the question of advertising's influence on aesthetic preferences of young chi ldren. To what extent do the values underlining commercial advertising on television shows for children influence children's values? To what extent to advertisers, children's show developers, and toy manufacturers study children's aesthetic preferences and apply these to their products? Do advertisers do research or use available results from university and other sources? A close look at how media advertising affects preschool children could not be more t imely. Recommendations for Pract ice The overwhelming influence of classroom discussion through themes which develop the language of art for children is evident in this study's findings. Ar t teachers have long recognized the importance of discussion of art materials as part of their exploration. Opportunities to discuss their own work help young children evaluate and restructure their future use of these materials. Less frequently recognized is the need for young children to observe and discuss the work of professional artists as wel l as that of their cultural and historic art heritage. Discussion of thoughts, observations, detai ls, colours and preferences in these areas serves to build interest and confidence in making aesthetic choices. Teachers need to be aware of the kinds of pictures and objects displayed. While items that the adult might consider unappealing could be el iminated, discussion about both positive and negative feelings need to be allowed a place in classroom exchange. The reasons why various children select preferred items could be discussed, also. During the course of this study the concept of a beauty center to encourage aesthetic response was mentioned by a kindergarten teacher who had toured Brit ish infant schools. Like the long rectangular niche for a scrol l and Ikebana display at the entrance to the Japanese home, the beauty center provides a place to view a beautiful arrangement made for its own sake. It provides a place to re lax, and release oneself. Beauty Centers generally comprise a table in several layers draped with a coloured cloth either set with a vase of f lowers, a plant, a display of grains or gourds and corn, a selection of polished instruments or possibly a Bonsai tree. The display is changed weekly and is a part of the focus for classroom discussion during the week. A project l ike this, in i t iated by the teacher, continued by parents and later by the chi ldren, might prove an interesting ongoing focus for aesthetics in the classroom. Teachers would benefit by having a specif ic center around which to focus aesthetic discussion. Att itudes which surround dress-up and Wendy House play need to be explored in greater depth in most classrooms. Kindergarten teachers need to provide clothing for both boys and girls plus items which have l imi ted sex role links (clown, sc ient ist, Superman, nurse-doctor). Carefu l introduction of the dress-up items needs to precede center play to allay many of the negative feelings about dress-up expressed by children already preconditioned about dressing up. Children who do have negative attitudes about dress-up frequently w i l l become si l ly or destructive when given opportunity to use this center. Direct ion is necessary for some children on how to handle these feelings and how to undertake exploration of a variety of characters. As evident in the findings of this study, the cleanliness, neatness, care and f it of dress-up items needs ongoing supervision. Children can help by bringing broken or soiled items to the teacher who might have parent aides wash and repair these. Additions and changes in dress-up themes to ref lect seasons or classroom themes might prove helpful in meeting the needs of children with di f fer ing attitudes about dress-ups. A store, a nursing stat ion, a Hawaiian center are but a few ideas for changes in dress-up display. Aesthetic discussion generally needs greater focus in art curriculum for young children. Although the 5 year olds studied are not making aesthetic decisions s t r ic t ly on the basis of visual c r i t e r i a , increased opportunity to observe and discuss a variety of items and learn the language of art may further them on the path of aesthetic understanding and visual decision making. By coming to terms with images children may come to use images increasingly e f fect ive ly . R E F E R E N C E S Bogdan, R., & Taylor, S. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A  phenomenological approach to the social sciences. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975. Br i t ta in , W.L. 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Chicago: Science Research Associatess, 1972. Taunton, M . Aesthetic responses of young children to the visual arts: A review of the l i terature. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 1982, 16 (3), 93-106. Weber, E. The kindergarten: Its encounter with educational thought in  Amer i ca . New York: Teacher 's College Press, 1969. Wolcott, H. C r i t e r i a for an ethnographic approach to research in schools. Human Organization. 1975, 34 (2), 111-125. 119 APPEND ICES APPENDIX A Pi lot Study Examples of Groups: P ictures, objects and dress-ups. a. Pictures as grouped for pilot study (one group) b. Objects as grouped for pilot study (one group) Pi lot Study Examples of Groups: P ictures, objects and dress-ups. c. Dress-ups as grouped for pilot study (one group) 2. Main Study Pictures as presented to 5 and 6 year olds a. People b. Buildings 123 2. Main Study Pictures c. Coastal Scenes d. World Scenes 124 2. Main Study 125 2. Main Study Objects g. Wood 126 2. Main Study j . Meta l 128 2. Main Study Dress-Ups 1. Wigs and Jewelry 129 2. Main Study Dress-Ups m. Vests and Capes n. Dresses 130 p. Long Items A P P E N D I X B Selection Frequency of Specif ic Items by Sex - Pictures No. Description Gir l s Boys Total P NP P NP P NP People f= f= f= f= f= f= A l G i r l with bubble 12 0 4 6 16 6 A4 Lady with vei l 1 6 1 10 2 16 F2 Motorcycle rider (M) 0 6 12 2 12 8 F l Waterskier (F) 4 1 2 1 6 2 Buildings H I Pueblos: New Mexico 0 1 1 1 1 2 E7 Berl in wal l (b&w) 0 13 0 15 0 28 E3 Turkish mosque 4 0 3 1 9 2 D5 Edmonton at night 9 1 10 2 19 3 D I Swiss house 3 0 4 0 7 0 Coastal Scenery C4 Red broken wagon wheel 2 12 1 9 3 21 H5 F a l l : Lake scene with mountains 3 0 2 1 5 1 H4 Winter: Rogers ' Pass 7 2 7 1 14 3 H2 Sunset: Grand Canyon 1 1 3 4 4 5 G4 Rainbow and waterfa l l 4 0 9 2 13 2 Var iety Scenery G3 Grey & red boats: P.E.I. 1 4 0 5 1 9 G2 Float plane on water at sunrise 3 0 1 2 4 2 E4 Chinese junks: Hong Kong 1 2 2 3 3 5 C5 Quebec: horses drawing firewood 2 0 2 2 4 2 B5 G r i z z l y bear 3 5 3 0 6 5 Other B l Jack-O-Lanterns in the dark 8 2 8 4 16 6 13 Madonna and Ch i ld 6 8 8 6 14 14 11 Chinese dragon 11 3 12 5 23 8 22 items 1. Note: P - Preferred NP - Not Preferred 132 Selection Frequency of Specif ic Items by Sex - Objects No. Description Gi r l s Boys Tota l P NP P NP P NP Ceramic f= f= f= f= f= f= J2 Tan and green Japanese teacup 0 5 2 2 2 7 J4 White and blue R ice bowl (Chinese) 7 2 6 1 13 3 J3 Tiny Mexican cup 3 2 5 4 8 6 J6 Raku stone pot & holes 4 4 7 6 11 10 Wood K2 Letter opener carved (Salish) 0 5 6 2 6 7 K l Old wooden plane (handmade) 0 4 1 3 1 7 L I Rope horse (Mexican) 10 1 5 2 15 3 L2 Drum, skin covered (Afr ican) 1 1 4 4 5 5 L3 Red basket with l i d (Afr ican) 3 1 2 3 5 4 Var iety M l Peacock feather 3 4 7 3 10 7 P2 Silk flower (peach) 7 0 3 0 10 0 P I Silk flower (red) 6 0 5 0 11 0 M4 Rai lroad spike 0 8 1 10 1 18 M2 Stones (stream tumbled) 3 0 3 2 6 2 Glass N2 Glass cube (red-orange) 10 0 10 0 20 0 N3 Glass cube (yellow) 5 1 5 0 10 1 N5 Glass ball (Japanese f ish-net f loat) 1 6 4 11 5 17 N4 Glass cubes melted (peach-tan) 4 5 2 2 6 7 133 Purses V3 Red patent leather with silver closure 0 6 2 6 2 12 V4 Black patent leather with coin handle 6 2 3 9 9 11 V5 Wallet cream ground with Japanese pattern 7 5 6 8 13 13 Long Items W l Long white lace 1 1 6 7 7 8 W3 Brown-beige lace 4 6 2 8 6 14 W4 Ghost wrap 1 3 2 5 3 8 X I Long pale over gown 7 1 0 5 7 6 X4 Long pink coat 5 1 1 6 6 7 30 items 1. Note: P - Preferred NP - Not Preferred 134 Selection Frequency of Specif ic Items by Sex - Dress Ups No. Description Gir l s Boys Total P NP P NP P NP Hats f= f= f= f= f= f= Q l Chinese coolie hat 2 2 2 5 4 7 Q4 Black 50s style 6 3 1 6 7 9 Q5 Brown and black fur 2 5 3 3 5 8 Q7 Navy f i rechief ' s hat 0 3 2 1 2 4 Q8 Orange construction worker 's hat 0 0 3 0 3 0 Q9 Red fireman's hat 4 0 7 1 11 1 Wigs & Jewelry R l Long blond wig 1 0 0 3 1 3 R3 Long brown wig 1 9 0 8 1 17 U3 Shiny pearl necklace (w hi t e/ pi nk/blue) 5 1 3 1 9 2 U6 Plast ic l e i (pink/purple) 3 0 4 1 7 1 U7 Plast ic l e i (pink/yellow) 1 2 2 0 3 2 U8 Plast ic l e i (yellow/white) 0 0 1 0 1 0 U9 Bangles (silver and blue and brown) 4 2 5 3 9 5 Vests & Capes SI Vest (red suede) 1 1 5 2 6 3 S3 Blue jeans (small size cut off ) 1 3 1 2 2 5 S4 Black vest (front only) 4 5 0 5 4 10 S5 Black cape & red l in ing 8 3 6 3 14 6 S6 Cowboy jacket 1 5 4 5 5 10 Dresses T I Purple dress, satin tr im 5 4 4 10 9 14 T6 Pink beaded opera dress 2 0 2 6 4 6 T7 Yel low sheer night gown 4 4 1 9 5 13 T10 Blue and white check 3 3 3 9 6 12 135. Meta l 0 6 Leg hold traps 0 8 2 11 2 19 0 5 Brass bear sculpture 4 2 8 2 12 4 04 Antique silver mirror 7 0 3 2 10 2 02 Tea caddie (all over pattern) 3 4 5 1 8 5 22 items 1. Note: P - Preferred NP - Not Preferred 136 A P P E N D I X C Ch i ld Picture Description Ch i ld Picture Description No. No. 21 F2 (motorcycle) 21 A l (Gi r l with bubble) 21 D5 (Edmonton at night) 21 E7 (Berlin Wall) 21 H2 (Grand Canyon) 21 C4 (wheel) 21 H4 (Rogers' Pass) 21 13 (Madonna with gold) 22 F2 (motorcyc le) 22 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 22 DI (Swiss house) 22 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 22 H2 (Grand Canyon) 22 H5 ( F a l l scene w i t h l ake ) 22 C4 (wheel) 22 G3 (P .E . I , boats) 22 B5 (bear) 22 13 (dragon) 31 A4 (Lady w i t h v e i l ) 31 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 31 D5 (Ednonton at n i gh t ) 31 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 31 G4 ( w a t e r f a l l ) 31 C4 (wheel) 31 II (dragon) 31 G3 (P .E . I , boats) 31 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 30 F2 (motorcyc le) 30 A4 (Lady wi th vei 1) 30 D5 (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 30 HI (Pueblos: New Mexico) 30 G4 ( w a t e r f a l l ) 30 C4 (wheel) 30 E4 (Chinese junks) 30 G3 (P .E . I , boats) 30 I I (dragon) 30 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 20 F2 (motorcyc le) 20 A4 (Lady wi th vei 1) 20 E3 (Turk i sh mosque) 20 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 20 G4 ( w a t e r f a l l ) 20 H2 (Grand Canyon) 20 D5 (bear) 20 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 20 II (dragon) 20 13 (Madonna w i t h gold) 137 6 F2 (motorcycle) 6 A l (Gir l with bubble) 6 D I (Swiss house) 6 E7 (Berlin Wall) 6 H4 (Rogers' Pass) 6 H2 (Grand Canyon) 6 E4 (Chinese junks) 6.1. D5 (bear) 6 13 (dragon) 6 II (Madonna with gold) 5 F2 (motorcyc le) 5 A4 (Lady w i t h v e i l ) 5 F l (wate r sk i e r ) 5 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 5 D5 (Edmonton at n i g h t ) 5 C4 (wheel) 5 G4 (water w i t h rainbow) 5 G2 (water w i t h p lane) 5 B5 (bear) 5 I I (dragon) 5 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 16 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 16 A4 (Lady w i t h ve i 1) 16 D5 (Ednonton at n i gh t ) 16 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 16 G4 (water w i t h rainbow) 16 H2 (Grand Canyon) 16 C5 (Quebec w i t h horses) 16 E4 (Chinese junks) 16 I I (dragon) 16 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 8 F2 (motorcyc le) 8 A4 (Lady w i t h ve i1 ) 8 DI (Swiss house) 8 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 8 G4 (water w i t h rainbow) 8 H2 (Grand Canyon) 8 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 8 E4 (Chinese junks) 8 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 8 I I (dragon) 19 F2 (motorcyc le) 19 A4 (Lady wi th ve i 1) 19 D5 (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 19 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 19 E3 (Turk i sh mosque) 19 C4 (wheel) 19 H4 (Rogers ' Pass) 19 G3 (P .E . I , boats ) 19 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 19 I I (dragon) 19 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 138 18 F2 (motorcycle) 18 F l (skier) 18 A l (G i r l with bubble) 18 E7 (Berlin Wall) 18 D5 (Edmonton at night) 18 C4 (wheel) 18 E3 (castle) 18 C5 (Quebec horses) 18 H4 (Rogers' Pass) 18 G4 (water with rainbow) 18 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 18 11 (dragon) 18 13 (Madonna with gold) 24 F2 (motorcyc le) 24 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 24 HI (Adobe houses) 24 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 24 E3 ( b u i l d i n g ) 24 C4 (wheel) 24 G4 (water w i t h rainbow) 24 E4 (Chinese junks) 24 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 24 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 24 11 (dragon) 14 F l (water s k i e r ) 14 A l ( F i r l w i t h bubble) 14 E3 (Turk i sh mosque) 14 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 14 H5 ( F a l l lake scene) 14 C4 (wheel) 14 H2 (Grand Canyon) 14 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 14 G4 (water and rainbow) 14 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 14 G2 (p lane) 14 11 (dragon) 10 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 10 A4 (Lady w i t h v e i l ) 10 DI (Swiss l ake ) 10 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 10 H4 (Rogers ' Pass) 10 C4 (wheel) 10 B5 (bear) 10 G3 (P .E . I , boats ) 10 11 (dragon) 10 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 4 F2 (motorcyc le) 4 A4 (Lady w i t h v e i l ) 4 D5 (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 4 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 4 G4 (water w i t h rainbow) 4 C4 (wheel) 4 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 4 C5 (Quebec horses) 4 11 (dragon) 7 A l (Gi r l with bubble) 7 D5 (Edmonton at night) 7 H5 (Fal l lake scene) 7 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 7 II (dragon) 139 7 F2 (motorcycle) 7 E7 (Berlin Wall) 7 H2 (Grand Canyon) 7 G2 (plane) 7 13 (Madonna with gold) 1 F2 (motorcycle) 1 A4 (Lady with veil) 1 E3 (Turkish mosque) 1 E7 (Berlin Wall) 1 H4 (Rogers' Pass) 1 G4 (water and rainbow) 1 C5 (Quebec horses) 1 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 1 13 (Madonna with gold) 1 II (dragon) 140 Aesthetic Preferences of Boys - Objects Preferred Not Preferred Ch i ld Picture Description Ch i ld Picture Description No. No. 20 J3 (Mexican cup) 20 J6 (Raku pot) 20 K l (plane) 20 M4 (spike) 20 M l (peacock feather) 20 N5 (glass ball) 20 N3 (yellow cube) 20 02 (tea caddie) 20 05 (bear) 20 04 (Antique silver mirror) 31 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 31 J6 (Raku pot) 31 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 31 L2 (drum) 31 M l (peacock feather) 31 M4 (spike) 31 N2 (red cube) 31 06 (leg hold traps) 31 05 (bear) 22 J6 (Raku pot) 22 J3 (Mexican cup) 22 L3 (straw bakset) 22 K l (plane) 22 M l (peacock feather) 22 M2 (rocks) 22 N2 (red cube) 22 N5 (glass f loat) 22 N3 (yellow cube) 22 06 (leg hold traps) 22 02 (tea caddie) 21 J2 (Japanese cup) 21 L3 (basket) 21 J3 (Mexican cup) 21 M4 (spike) 21 J6 (Chinese r ice bowl) 21 04 (Antique silver mirror) 21 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 21 06 (leg hold traps) 21 M l (peacock feather) 21 N5 (glass f loat) 21 N4 (melted cube) 21 05 (bear) 18 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 18 J6 (Raku pot) 18 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 18 M4 (spike) 18 L3 (basket) 18 M l (peacock feather) 18 N4 (orange cube) 18 06 (leg hold traps) 18 0 2 (tea caddie) 141 6 J3 (Mexican cup) 6 L I (Mexican horse) 6 M2 (stones) 6 N2 (orange cube) 6 02 (tea caddie) 6 N5 (glass f loat) 6 06 (leg hold traps) 30 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 30 J3 (Mexican cup) 30 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 30 L2 (drum) 30 P I (red rose) 30 M l (peacock feather) 30 N5 (glass ball) 30 N4 (melted glass) 30 05 (bear) 30 06 (leg hold traps) 19 J3 (Mexican cup) 19 J2 (Mexican cup) 19 J6 (Raku pot) 19 K l (plane) 19 L2 (drum) 19 M l (peacock feather) 19 M2 (stones) 19 06 (leg hold traps) 19 N5 (glass ball) 19 04 (Antique silver mirror) 24 J3 (Mexican cup) 24 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 24 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 24 L I (Mexican horse) 24 P I (red rose) 24 M2 (stones) 24 N2 (orange cube) 24 N5 (glass f loat) 24 N3 (yellow cube) 24 02 (tea caddie) 24 05 (bear) 16 J6 (Raku pot) 16 J2 (Japanese cup) 16 L I (Mexican horse) 16 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 16 M l (peacock feather) 16 M4 (spike) 16 N2 (red cube) 16 N5 (glass ball) 16 04 (Antique silver mirror) 16 06 (leg hold traps) 142 1 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 1 J6 (Raku pot) 1 L2 (drum) 1 L I (Mexican horse) 1 P I (red rose) 1 M l (peacock feather) 1 N2 (red cube) 1 N5 (glass f loat) 1 04 (Antique silver mirror) 5 J6 (Raku pot) 5 J3 (Mexican cup) 5 L2 (drum) 5 K l (plane) 5 M2 (stones) 5 M4 (spike) 5 N2 (red cube) 5 N5 (glass f loat) 5 05 (bear) 5 06 (leg hold traps) 14 J6 (Raku pot) 14 L I (Mexican horse) 14 P2 (peach rose) 14 N2 (red cube) 14 L2 (drum) 14 M4 (spike) 14 N5 (glass f loat) 14 06 (leg hold traps) 10 J6 (Raku pot) 10 J3 (Mexican cup) 10 L2 (drum) 10 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 10 P I (red rose) 10 M4 (spike) 10 P2 (peach rose) 10 N4 (melted glass) 10 N5 (glass ball) 10 06 (leg hold traps) 10 05 (bear) 4 J4 (Chinese rice bowl) 4 J6 (Raku pot) 4 K 2 (Salish let ter opener) 4 L3 (basket) 4 M l (peacock feather) 4 M4 (spike) 4 N2 (red cube) 4 N5 (glass f loat) 4 0 6 (leg hold traps) 4 05 (bear) 7 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 7 J6 (Raku pot) 7 L I (Mexican horse) 7 L2 (drum) 7 P I (red rose) 7 M4 (spike) 7 N3 (yellow cube) 7 N5 (glass f loat) 7 02 (tea caddie) 7 05 (bear) 8 J2 (Japanese cup) 8 L3 (basket) 8 L I (Mexican horse) 8 06 (leg hold traps) 8 M4 (stones) 8 N2 (red cube) 8 N3 (yellow cube) 8 0 5 (bear) 143 Aesthetic Preferences of Boys - Dress-Ups Preferred Not Preferred Ch i ld Picture Description Ch i ld Picture Description No. No. 31 Q9 (fireman's hat) 31 Q4 (black fur) 31 U9 (bracelets) 31 R l (wig) 31 U3 (necklace) 31 S4 (vest) 31 S6 (cowboy jacket) 31 T10 (blue & white) 31 T I (purple dress) 31 V3 (red bag) 22 Q8 (construction hat) 22 U9 (blue bangle) 22 SI (vest) 22 Q4 (black satin) 22 R3 (wig brown) 22 T group 22 V group 22 W group 22 dislikes a l l the rest 21 Q l (Chinese Cool ie) 21 S5 (cape) 21 21 21 21 21 21 Q4 (black) R l (blond wig) S6 (cowboy jacket) T group V group W group 16 Q9 (fireman's hat) 16 Q7 (police hat) 16 U3 (pearl beads) 16 U9 (bracelets) 16 SI (red vest) 16 S6 (cowboy jacket) 16 T I (purple dress) 16 T10 (dress blue & white) 16 V3 (red bag) 16 V5 (wallet) 16 W4 (white sheet) 16 X4 (pink night gown) 19 Q9 (fireman's hat) 19 Q l (Chinese hat) 19 U6 (pink purple le i ) 19 R3 (black wig) 19 S3 (jeans) 19 S6 (cowboy jacket) 19 T7 (yellow dress) 19 T10 (blue & white dress) 19 Y4 (black patent) 19 V5 (wallet) 19 X4 (long gown) 19 WI (white cloth) 144 6 Q7 (police hat) 6 Q4 (black velvet) 6 U8 (lei) 6 U3 (beads) 6 SI (red vest) 6 S5 (cape) 6 V5 (wallet) 6 T group 6 WI (white lace) 5 Q5 (fur hat) 5 Q l (Chinese hat) 5 U6 (pink purple le i ) 5 U9 (bracelets) 5 S6 (cowboy jacket) 5 S4 (vest black) 5 T6 (pink dress) 5 T7 (yellow dress) 5 V5 (wallet) 5 V4 (black patent purse) 5 WI (lace white) 5 W3 (brown lace) 14 Q5 (fur hat) 14 Q l (policeman's hat) 14 U6 ( le i , purple pink) (red vest) 14 R3 (black wig) 14 SI 14 S4 (black vest) 14 T I (purple dress) 14 T7 (yellow dress) 14 V4 (black patent bag) 14 V group 14 W3 (white cloth) 14 W group 8 Q7 (police hat) 8 Q l (Chinese coolie) 8 U6 (purple pink le i ) 8 R3 (dark wig) 8 S5 (cape) 8 T group 8 V group 8 V & W group (long) 30 Q7 (policeman's hat) 30 Q l (Chinese coolie) 30 S5 (cape) 30 R3 (dark wig) 30 S4 (vest black) 30 T group 30 T I (dress purple) 18 Q9 (fireman's hat) 18 Q4 (black 50s) 18 U9 (bangles) 18 R l (blond wig) 18 S5 (cape) 18 S group 18 T10 (blue 6c white dress) 18 V4 (black patent) 18 WI (white cloth) 145 10 Q9 (fireman's hat) 10 Q4 (black 50s) 10 U3 (necklace) 10 U9 (brown bangles) 10 S5 (cape) 10 S4 (black vest) 10 T10 (blue <5c white dress) 10 T l (purple dress) 10 V3 (red bag) 10 V5 (wallet) 10 WI (white cloth) 10 W3 (brown cloth) 1 Q9 (fireman's hat) 1 U7 (pink yellow le i ) 1 S5 (cape) 1 T6 (pink dress) 1 V5 (wallet) 1 X 4 (pink grown) 1 Q5 (fur hat) 1 U6 (pink purple le i ) 1 S6 (jacket) 1 T l (purple dress) 1 V4 (black bag) 4 Q l (Chinese coolie) 4 Q5 (fur hat) 4 U9 (bangles) 4 R3 (brown wig) 4 S6 (brown jacket) 4 SI (red suede) 4 T l (purple dress) 4 T7 (yellow dress) 4 V5 (wallet) 4 V4 (black patent) 4 WI (white cloth) 4 W3 (brown cloth) 7 Q5 (fur hat) 7 Q7 (police hat) 7 U7 (lei pink yellow) 7 R3 (brown wig) 7 SI (red vest) 7 S5 (cape) 7 T10 (blue & white dress) 7 T l (purple dress) 7 V5 (wallet) 7 V4 (black patent) 7 W3 (brown lace) 7 WI (white lace) 24 Q4 (black 50's) 24 Q8 (construction hat) 24 U9 (bangle) 24 SI (vest red) 24 Q5 (fur hat) 24 R3 (wig brown) 24 S3 (blue jeans) 24 T group 24 V group 24 W group 20 Q8 (construction hat) 20 S6 (cowboy jacket) 20 20 20 20 20 20 Q l U9 S4 T group V group W group (Chinese hat) (bangles) & group (black vest) 146 Aesthetic Preferences of Gir l s - Pictures Preferred Not Preferred Ch i ld Picture Description Chi ld Picture Description No. No. 27 A l (G i r l with bubble) 27 A4 (Lady with veil) 27 F l (skier) 27 F2 (motorcycle) 27 D5 (Edmonton at night) 27 E7 (Berlin Wall) 27 D I (Swiss lake) 27 H2 (Grand Canyon) 27 H4 (Rogers' Pass) 27 B5 (bear) 27 C4 (wheel) 27 B l (Jac k- 0 -Lant er ns) 27 C5 (Quebec horses) 27 11 (dragon) 27 13 (Maddonna with gold) 23 F l (water s k i e r ) 23 A4 (Lady w i t h v e i l ) 23 E3 (Turk i sh mosque) 23 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 23 H4 (Rogers ' Pass) 23 C4 (wheel) 23 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 23 B5 (bear) 23 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 23 11 (dragon) 28 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 28 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 28 F l ( s k i e r ) 28 DI (Swiss house) 28 E3 (Turk i sh mosque) 28 G4 (water and rainbow) 28 C4 (wheel) 28 G3 (P .E . I , boats ) 28 G2 (p lane) 28 11 (dragon) 28 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 26 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 26 F2 (motorcyc le) 26 D5 (Edmonton at n i g h t ) 26 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 26 G4 (water and rainbow) 26 C4 (wheel) 26 B l ( Jack-O-Lanterns ) 26 B5 (bear) 26 11 (dragon) 26 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 147 17 F l (water skier) 17 A4 (Lady with vei l) 17 D I (Swiss house) 17 H I (Adobe village) 17 G4 (water and rainbow) 17 E7 (Berlin Wall) 17 B l (Jac k- 0 -Lant er ns) 17 C4 (wheel) 17 11 (dragon) 17 B5 (bear) 17 13 (Madonna with gold) 12 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 12 F2 (motorcyc le) 12 E3 (Turk i sh mosque) 12 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 12 H5 ( F a l l l ake scene) 12 H2 (Grand Canyon) 12 G2 (p lane) 12 C4 (wheel) 12 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 12 H4 (Rogers ' Pass) 12 G3 (P .E . I , boats ) 12 11 (dragon) 32 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 32 D5 (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 32 H5 ( F a l l l ake scene) 32 G4 (water and rainbow) 32 B5 (bear) 32 11 (dragon) 32 F l (water s k i e r ) 32 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 32 H2 (Grand Canyon) 32 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 32 G3 (P .E . I , boats ) 32 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 11 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 11 F2 (motorcyc le) 11 D5 (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 11 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 11 H2 (Grand Canyon) 11 C4 (wheel) 11 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 11 G3 ( P .E . I , boats ) 11 11 (dragon) 11 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld ) 3 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 3 DI (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 3 H4 (Rogers ' Pass) 3 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 3 G2 (p lane) 3 I I (dragon) 3 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 3 F2 3 E7 3 C4 3 G3 (motorcyc le) ( B e r l i n W a l l ) (wheel) ( P .E . I , boats) 2 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 2 A4 (Lady wi th ve i 1) 2 E3 (Turk i sh mosque) 2 D5 (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 2 H4 (Rogers ' Pass) 2 C4 (wheel) 2 B5 (bear) 2 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 2 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 2 I I (dragon) 148 25 A l (Gir l with bubble) 25 E7 (Berlin Wall) 25 A4 (Lady with veil) 25 C4 (wheel) 25 D5 (Edmonton at night) 25 B5 (bear) 25 H4 (Rogers' Pass) 25 13 (Madonna with 25 E4 (Chinese junks) 25 11 (dragon) 15 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 15 F2 (motorcyc le) 15 D5 (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 15 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 15 H5 ( F a l l l ake scene) 15 C4 (wheel) 15 D5 (bear) 15 E4 (Chinese junks) 15 11 (dragon) 15 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 13 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 13 A4 (Lady w i t h v e i l ) 13 D5 (Edmonton at n i gh t ) 13 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 13 H4 (Rogers ' Pass) 13 C4 (wheel) 13 C5 (Quebec horses) 13 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 13 B5 (bear) 13 B l ( Jack-O-Lanterns ) 13 11 (dragon) 9 A l ( G i r l w i t h bubble) 9 D5 (Edmonton at n i g h t ) 9 H4 (Rogers ' Pass) 9 B l (Jack-O-Lanterns) 9 I I (dragon) 9 A4 (Lady w i t h v e i l ) 9 E7 ( B e r l i n W a l l ) 9 C4 (wheel) 9 E4 (Chinese junks) 9 13 (Madonna w i t h go ld) 149 Aesthetic Preferences of Gir l s - Objects Ch i l d Picture Description Ch i ld Picture Description No. No. 23 J6 (Raku pot) 23 J3 (Mexican cup) 23 13 (basket) 23 L I (Mexcian horse) 23 P2 (rose) 23 M l (peacock feather) 23 N2 (red cube) 23 N4 (slab glass) 23 05 (bear) 23 06 (leg hold traps) 28 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 28 02 (tea caddie) 28 L I (Mexican horse) 28 M4 (stones) 28 N4 (melted slab glass) 28 05 (bear) 28 02 (tea caddie) 26 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 26 J6 (Raku pot) 26 L I (Mexican horse) 26 K l (plane) 26 M2 (stones) 26 M4 (spike) 26 N2 (orange cube) 26 N5 (glass f loat) 26 N3 (yellow cube) 26 06 (leg hold traps) 26 04 (Antique silver mirror) 27 J3 (Mexican cup) 27 J2 (Japanese cup) 27 L2 (drum) 27 K2 ( i nd i an ca r v i ng ) 27 M2 (stones) 27 M4 ( sp i ke ) 27 N2 (red cube) 27 N4 (melted s l a b g l a s s ) 27 N3 ( ye l l ow cube) 27 02 ( tea cadd ie) 27 04 (Antique s i l v e r m i r r o r ) 32 J6 (Raku pot) 32 J2 (Japanese cup) 32 L I (Mexican horse) 32 L3 (basket) 32 M2 (peacock feather) 32 M4 (spike) 32 N2 (red cube) v 32 N5 (glass ball) 32 0 5 (bear) 32 06 (leg hold traps) 150 25 J6 (Raku pot) 25 J3 (Mexican cup) 25 L I (Mexican horse) 25 K l (plane) 25 M l (peacock feather) 25 M4 (spike) 25 N4 (slab glass) 25 N5 (glass f loat) 25 04 (Antique silver mirror) 25 06 (leg hold traps) 17 J6 (Raku pot) 17 J2 (Japanese cup) 17 L3 (basket) 17 L2 (drum) 17 P I (red rose) 17 M4 (spike) 17 P2 (peach rose) 17 N4 (slab glass) 17 N2 (red cube) 17 05 (bear) 17 N3 (yellow cube) 17 04 (Antique silver mirror) 15 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 15 J3 (Mexican cup) 15 L I (Mexican horse) 15 K 2 (Salish let ter opener) 15 P I (red rose) 15 M l (peacock feather) 15 / N3 (yellow cube) 15 N5 (glass ball) 15 N2 (red cube) 15 02 (tea caddie) 15 04 (Antique silver mirror) 13 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 13 L3 (backet) 13 P I (red rose) 13 P2 (peach rose) 13 N2 (red cube) 13 N3 (yellow cube) 13 02 (tea caddie) 13 J6 (Raku pot) 13 N4 (slab glass) 13 06 (leg hold traps) 9 J3 (Mexican cup) 9 L I (Mexican horse) 9 M l (peacock feather) 9 N2 (red cube) 9 04 (Antique si lver mirror) 9 J2 (Japanese cup) 9 K l (plane) 9 M4 (spike) 9 N3 (yellow cube) 9 0 6 (leg hold traps) 151 12 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 12 J6 (Raku pot) 12 L I (Mexican horse) 12 K l (plane) 12 P I (red rose) 12 M l (peacock feather) 12 P2 (peach rose) 12 N5 (glass f loat) 12 N2 (red cube) 12 05 (bear) 12 02 (tea caddie) 2 J3 (Mexican cup) 2 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 2 L I (Mexican horse) 2 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 2 P I (red rose) 2 M l (peacock feather) 2 P2 (peach rose) 2 N5 (glass f loat) 2 N4 (slab glass) 2 06 (leg hold traps) 2 05 (bear) 11 J4 (Chinese r ice bowl) 11 L I (Mexican horse) 11 P I (red rose) 11 N5 (glass f loat) 11 04 (Antique silver mirror) 11 J6 (Raku pot) 11 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 11 M4 (spike) 11 N4 (slab glass) 11 02 (tea caddie) 3 J 4 ( C h i n e s e r ice bowl) 3 3 2 (Japanese cup) 3 L I (Mexican horse) 3 K 2 (Salish letter opener) 3 P I (red rose) 3 M4 (spike) 3 P2 (peach rose) 3 0 6 (leg hold traps) 3 N2 (red cube) 3 0 4 (Antique silver mirror) 152 Aesthetic Preferences of Gir l s - Dress-Ups Preferred Not Preferred Ch i ld Picture Description Ch i ld Picture Description No. No. 28 Q4 (black 50's) 28 Q5 (fur hat) 28 U6 (pink le i ) 28 U9 (bracelets) 28 S5 (cape) 28 S5 (jeans) 28 T7 (yellow sheer) 28 V3 (red bag) 28 T6 (pink dress) 28 V5 (wallet) 28 X I (long gown) 32 Q9 (fireman's hat) 32 Q4 (black 50's) 32 U3 (beads) 32 R3 (brown wig) 32 S6 (cowboy jacket) 32 S4 (black vest) 32 T10 (blue & white dress) 32 T7 (yellow dress) 32 V4 (black patent) 32 V5 (wallet) 32 X I (long green) 32 W3 (lace brown) 23 Q9 (fireman's hat) 23 Q5 (fur hat) 23 U6 (pink purple le i ) 23 R3 (brown wig) 23 S4 (black vest) 23 S5 (cape) 23 T10 (blue & white dress) 23 T I (purple) 23 V5 (wallet). 23 V4 (black patent) 23 X4 (pink long) 23 W3 (brown lace) 27 Q l (Chinese hat) 27 Q7 (police hat) 27 U9 (bracelets) 27 R3 (wig) 27 Ss3 (blue jeans) 27 S group 27 T6 (pink dress) 27 T I (purple dress) 27 V4 (black patent) 27 V3 (red bag) 27 X I (long green) 27 W3 (brown lace) 3 Q4 (black 50's) 3 U9 (bracelet) 3 S5 (cape) 3 T I (purple) 3 V5 (wallet & group) 3 W3 (brown lace) 3 Q7 (police hat) 3 R3 (brown wig) 3 S4 (best black) 3 T7 (yellow dress) 153 15 Q5 (fur hat) 15 Q4 (black 50's) 15 R l (brown wig) 15 U7 (flower le i ) 15 R3 (blond wig) 15 U9 (bracelet) 15 S5 (cape) 15 S4 (black vest) 15 T l (purple dress) 15 T10 (blue & white dress) 15 V4 (black patent) 15 V5 (wallet) 15 X4 (pink long) 15 W3 (brown lace) 13 Q9 (fireman's hat) 13 V5 (wallet) 13 U3 (beads) 13 S4 (black vest) 13 T10 (blue & white dress) 13 V4 (black patent) 13 W & V(long group al l) 25 Q4 (black 50's) 25 Q l (Chinese coolie) 25 U9 (bracelets) 25 R3 (brown wig) 25 SI (vest red) 25 S6 (jacket) 25 S5 (cape) 25 V5 (red bag) 25 T7 (yellow dress) 25 X10 (green long) 25 V4 (black patent) 25 W3 (brown long) 26 Q9 (fireman's hat) 26 Q4 (black 50's) 26 U7 (pink yellow le i ) 26 R3 (brown wig) 26 S5 (cape) 26 S6 (jacket) 26 T6 (pinkedress) 26 T10 (blue & white dress) 26 V4 (black patent) 26 V5 (wallet) 26 X I (green long) 26 W3 (brown long) 12 Q4 (black 50's) 12 U3 (pearls) 12 S4 (black vest) 12 T l (purple dress) 12 V5 (wallet) 12 X I (green long) 12 Q5 (fur hat) 12 R3 (brown wig) 12 S6 (brown jacket) 12 T7 (yellow dress) 12 V4 (black patent) 12 X4 (pink robe) 17 Q4 (black 50's) 17 Q l (Chinese coolie) 17 U9 (bracelets) 17 U3 (necklace) 17 S5 (cape) 17 S4 (black vest) 17 T7 (yellow dress) 17 T l (purple dress) 17 V4 (black patent) 17 V3 (red bag) 17 X I (green long) 17 W4 (white long) 154 9 Q4 (black 50's) 9 Q5 (fur hat) 9 U6 (pink purple le i ) 9 R3 (brown wig) 9 S5 (cape) 9 S3 (blue jeans) 9 T7 (yellow dress) 9 T l (purple dress) 9 V4 (black patent) 9 V3 (red bag) 9 W3 (brown long) 9 W4 (white long) 2 Q5 (fur hat) 2 Q7 (police hat) 2 U3 (pearls) 2 R3 (brown wig) 2 S5 (cape) 2 S4 (black vest) 2 T l (purple dress) 2 T7 (yellow dress) 2 V5 (wallet) 2 V3 (red bag) 2 X4 (pink long) 2 W4 (white long) Q l (Chinese coolie) U3 (beads) S4 (black vest) T l (purple dress) V5 (wallet) Q5 (fur hat) U7 (bracelets) S6 (cowboy jacket) T10 (blue & white dress) V3 (red bag) 


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