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Aesthetic responses of five and six year olds to pictures, objects and dress-up clothes in kindergarten Prescott, Jean Elizabeth 1983-12-31

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AESTHETIC RESPONSES OF FIVE and SIX YEAR OLDS TO PICTURES, OBJECTS AND DRESS-UP CLOTHES IN KINDERGARTEN  by  JEAN ELIZABETH PRESCOTT B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F  THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE D E G R E E OF  MASTER OF  ARTS  in THE FACULTY  OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES  Department of V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n Education F a c u l t y of Education  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  December  1983  © J e a n E l i z a b e t h P r e s c o t t , 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g „this t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s or her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  Columbia  written  ii  ABSTRACT A e s t h e t i c responses by 5 and 6 year olds to pictures, objects, and dress-up  items  research.  were  categorized  Two classes  using  of kindergarten  methods  derived  from  ethnographic  children attending a morning  and  an  afternoon session respectively were interviewed to discover which of a series of items were preferred and which were not preferred. involved  in  community. economic  this  study,  conducted  The  children  in  represented  a a  large range  Thirty-one children were  suburban of  British  cultural,  Columbia  religious,  and  backgrounds. Items used in the study were i n i t i a l l y researcher s e l e c t e d , then used  in a pilot study to determine which items e l i c i t e d strong responses from a small group of kindergarten children situated in a nearby, similar setting.  Twenty-  two pictures, 22 objects and 30 dress-up items made up" the instrument used in the main study. Children's responses and c r i t e r i a for their aesthetic decision making were recorded as field notes, then developed into subcategories within each of the  study's  Statistical  three  main  comparisons  of  categories: the  three  pictures, groupings  objects, of  and  responses,  descriptive data indicated that aesthetic decision making among  dress-ups. along  with  5 year old  children takes account p r i m a r i l y of colour, decoration, design elements, surface and t e x t u r e , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aspects special p r a c t i c a l considerations  and association.  Dress-up items e l i c i t e d  of s i z e , f i t , and condition.  Association  both  with H a l l o w e ' e n and w i t h sex-role stereotyping was evident in a large portion of dress-up  responses.  iii T A B L E OF i ii iii vi vii vii i  CONTENTS  T i t l e Page Authorization Abstract Table of Contents L i s t of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgements  CHAPTER I.  II.  III.  PAGE  I N T R O D U C T I O N TO T H E P R O B L E M  1  Statement of the Problem Research Questions Research Design Population The Setting The Pilot Study Procedures Significance of the Study Limitations Definitions  2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5  REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E  6  A r t Educators and A e s t h e t i c Education The Ethnographic Approach The Process of C u l t u r a l Transmission Assumptions in Summary  7 13 15 18  INITIAL O R G A N I Z A T I O N A N D PILOT STUDY  20  I n i t i a l Organization for the Study Research Methods Chronology of the Project  20 20 21  Pilot Study Purpose Setting Procedures Questioning Pictures Objects Dress-Up Items Analysis of Responses Selection of Items  24 24 24 24 25 26 27 27 34 34  iv IV.  V.  VI.  VII.  MAIN STUDY  35  The Setting Procedures Modifications to the Proposal Questions  35 36 37 37  ANALYSIS AND  I N T E R P R E T A T I O N OF D A T A  40  Responses to Pictures Colour Association S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Beliefs Surface and Texture N a t u r a l forms and events Responses to Objects Colour Decoration Materials Association Responses to D r e s s - U p Colour Association Design Elements Materials S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment of D a t a : P i c t u r e s , Objects and Dress-Ups Comparison of Study Responses  40 40 47 49 50 52 53 53 60 61 63 67 68 75 78 80  D I S C U S S I O N OF F I N D I N G S  98  86 87  Responses in the C o n t e x t of C h i l d Development Answering Style  98 101  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND  107  Summary R e s t a t i n g Assumptions Implications for Further Study Recommendations for P r a c t i c e  IMPLICATIONS  107 110 111 113  V  REFERENCES  116  APPENDICES  119  A.  1.  List of Items in Pilot Study:  Examples  120  2.  List of Items in M a i n Study:  Pictures Objects Dress-Ups  122 125 128  B.  Selected Frequency of S p e c i f i c Items by Sex  131  C.  A e s t h e t i c Preferences of Boys  136  A e s t h e t i c Preferences of G i r l s  146  vi List of Tables PAGE Table I  Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision for Pictures (Preferred)  Making  42  Table  II  Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision for Pictures (Not Preferred)  Making  44  Table  III  Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision for Objects (Preferred)  Making  55  Table  IV  Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision for Objects (Not Preferred)  Making  57  Table V  Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision for Dress-Ups (Preferred)  Making  71  Table  VI  Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision for Dress-Ups (Not Preferred)  Making  73  Table  VII  P i c t u r e s , Objects and Dress-Ups:  Preferred  P i c t u r e s , Objects and Dress-Ups:  Not P r e f e r r e d %  Table V I I I  %  88 90  vii L i s t of Figures  Page Figure 1  List of P i c t u r e s used i n Pilot Study, Grouped by Sub-Category  28  List of Objects used in Pilot Study, Grouped by Sub-Category  30  List of Dress-ups used i n Pilot Study, Grouped by S u b - C a t e g o r y  32  Figure 4  Pictures (as regrouped for M a i n Study)  41  Figure 5  Objects (as regrouped for M a i n Study)  54  Figure 6  Dress-Ups (as regrouped for M a i n Study)  69  Figure 2 Figure 3  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express appreciation to my advisor Dr. R.N. MacGregor for his generous support and encouragement throughout this study.  Thanks are also  extended to Dr. J.U. Gray, Dr. H. Polowy, and Professor P. Gouldstone without whose guidance this project might not have been completed. My appreciation is expressed to "Fairhaven" School Board  and to  those principals and the school co-ordinator who encouraged me to complete an in-classroom study.  Thanks go to Cathy Sutherland and Eva Stewecki, who  were willing to work with my enthusiastic 5 year olds on a daily basis for over a month. My appreciation goes to my husband, Stuart, who not only supported my work, but cheerfully gained new household skills while balancing his own studio and commercial  glass business and also, to my stepson, Jason, who  managed without the many "extras" he enjoys. In conclusion, I thank my parents, who attempted to convince me that striving was important and persistence paramount.  1 CHAPTER  1  I N T R O D U C T I O N TO T H E As seeing  art curriculums are revised in the  the  response.  PROBLEM  development  of  parts  dealing  1980s, increasingly  w i t h aesthetic  we  are  appreciation  and  While junior and senior secondary students have been expected for  some years now,; to develop aesthetic thinking through a series of a c t i v i t i e s supported by strong philosophical underpinnings younger  (Clark & Z i m m e r m a n ,  1981),  children have been generally deemed developmentally too young for  aesthetic thought.  Recent curriculum documents are beginning to promote an  aesthetic consciousness aesthetic responses. the observant  which acknowledges  that young children are capable of  Experience in kindergarten should in any case  convince  teacher that for some young children aesthetic responses are  already developed.  C e r t a i n expressions  employed by these children to classify  a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l items including pictures, objects, and clothing seem to be classifiable as aesthetic. Some uncertain.  On  children what  are  basis  very do  d e f i n i t e about  children  pictures, or in clothing for dress-up? age, sex, or cultural backgound  actually  their  choices;  make  some  distinctions  are  among  A r e their choices indeed aesthetic?  a notable factor at this point in  Is  children's  development? Although some recent research explores this area (Gardner, Winner, &  Kircher,  1975;  Johnson,  1982;  Parsons,  1976), r e f e r r i n g to  children  in  general, further exploration regarding responses from s p e c i f i c age groups seems desirable.  More  i m p o r t a n t , before we begin to design  young children in the aesthetic realm responses at this age.  curriculum  we need to know  to  more about  (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education, 1983, pp. 92-96)  teach their  2 Statement of the Problem We  do not know  enough about  aesthetic  responses  at the early  childhood level, particularly with respect to 5 year olds, an age group that is often exposed to formal education for the first time. study is to determine  how  young children respond  The purpose of this  in ways describable as  aesthetic to a restricted range of pictures, objects and dress-up items.  Research Questions; To  facilitate  data-handling  and  interpretation  of  what  would  otherwise be an unmanageable body of material, the purpose of the study is restated in the form of specific research questions as follows:  What responses  from  5 year old children provide evidence of an  ability to react aesthetically to selected pictures and objects? What data do 5 year old children provide as evidence of an ability to respond aesthetically to selected types of dress-up clothing? What kinds of discriminations do children make between the items they select as more preferred or less preferred? What reasons do children give for distinctions made between items considered visually attractive or unattractive? What  cultural or developmental  cues  can be noted  responses to objects considered more preferred or less preferred?  in children's  3 Research Design The Population A  f i e l d study was undertaken to interview 32 kindergarten children  from 5.5 to 6.5 years.  These 32 children represented two i n t a c t kindergarten  classes which attended the same suburban school at separate t i m e periods.  The  classes were made up of an equal number of boys and girls from a wide variety of c u l t u r a l backgrounds, f a m i l y and economic situations. The Setting This study took place in the l a t e spring of 1983.  A l l interviewing  was conducted in a small room adjacent to the regular classroom kindergarten day.  Six weeks were required for data c o l l e c t i n g .  was given for a l l children to respond  to questions  during the Opportunity  and complete a c t i v i t i e s  associated w i t h the study. The P i l o t Study I  made an i n i t i a l selection of pictures, objects and clothing items  that I thought kindergarten children would find interesting.  Then, a group of  five kindergarten children attending a nearby school was chosen for a pilot study.  These youngsters were asked to respond to the items individually. By choosing their visually most preferred items and least preferred  items I was able to select the pictures, objects, and clothing items for use in the main study.  Items not e l i c i t i n g comments were e l i m i n a t e d .  In t o t a l 22  pictures, 22 objects and 30 dress-up items were selected for the main study. Procedures The testing procedure involved four steps: 1)  P a r e n t a l permission to conduct the study was obtained.  2)  The  children were told what  was  intended in words  they could easily  understand. 3)  In  a  location  especially  arranged  for  this  purpose,  each  child  was  interviewed about preferences regarding a group of 22 pictures, 22 objects, and 30 dress-up i t e m s .  The original plan to interview children in groups of  three was discarded because their keen interest in the items often resulted in individual failure to give others a chance to respond. 4)  Each child was encouraged to discuss the reasons for his or her choice in each category. Observations of selections and discussions including a l l comments and  reasons for choices were recorded in field notes and by tape recorder.  The  tape recorded sessions were at first transcribed into f i e l d notes i m m e d i a t e l y after each day's i n t e r v i e w i n g , but in the case of the later part of the study, several  weeks  completeness  thereafter. and accuracy.  All  field  Some  notes  photographs  were  thoroughly  of the  checked  children were  for  taken  during the study as an additional r e c o r d .  Significance of the Study The significance of this study relates d i r e c t l y to commonly available art  education  curriculums and the new  Department of Education -  B.C.  kindergarten  K i n d e r g a r t e n , 1983).  curriculum  (B.C.  By gaining information on  the aesthetic choices of 5 year olds to pictures, objects, and i t e m s of dress-up, and by observing the children during the interviews regarding their choices and responses, we can add to the knowledge on which c u r r i c u l a are founded.  Since  the new kindergarten curriculum contains a section e n t i t l e d A r t and Aesthetics  this  information  c o l l e c t e d from  should only  be  particularly  32 individuals  of  timely.  5 years  Although  information  was  o l d , the descriptions of the  reactions of these kindergarten children may in f a c t quite closely represent the responses of other children in other provincial classrooms. has been conducted w i t h respect  To date, no study  to the types of items used in this  study.  Evidence obtained from this study that is supportive of aesthetic education and that r e f l e c t s the importance of that education for the young child may  assist  curriculum planners who wish to implement programs on a d i s t r i c t - w i d e basis.  Limitations Since  no attempt was  made  to select the children in the  group  tested, or to match this group w i t h a control group, generalizing beyond the sample must be attempted with caution. A bias on my own part may exist because of my involvement as a teacher with these two classes before data c o l l e c t i n g took place. however,  must  be set  the confidence  that  Against this,  f a m i l i a r i t y produced among  the  children, so that they responded without the shyness that might have greeted a stranger.  Definitions F o r the purpose of this study the term aesthetic is used to pertaining to a sense of the b e a u t i f u l .  mean  A e s t h e t i c response means pertaining t o ,  involved with or concerned with the emotion or sensation gained from viewing beauty.  6 CHAPTER REVIEW OF THE Art  curriculums,  like  those  II  LITERATURE in  other  areas,  currently  reflect  a  widening gap in our thinking about what is appropriate, h e l p f u l , and necessary for children.  In art curriculums for the 1980s, increasingly we are seeing a  strand of thinking to develop aesthetic appreciation designed for young children. Since the time of H a l l (1907), founder of the child study movement, and the subsequent  work of G e s e l l (1946) and Piaget (1926) in the cognitive domain,  studies  art  in  education  with respect  to  young  children  have  reflected a  developmental viewpoint. Studies in art education have expanded our knowledge about cognitive and developmental stages in the child w i t h relation to a r t . Emphasis has been on the c o l l e c t i o n , observation, and description of early s y m b o l - m a k i n g , the emphasis on production.  Lowenfeld (1975) and K e l l o g g  with  (1967) e x e m p l i f y  this approach, viewing the 5 year old as essentially s e l f - c e n t e r e d , p r o d u c t i o n oriented, and so, developmentally unready for the f o r m a l i z i n g necessary  for  aesthetic responding. Pressures  generated  by the quantitative leap in knowledge  for and  about young children have caused educators to r e - e v a l u a t e art curriculums. now  ask:  In  what  understandings? understandings might  seem  might  the  5 year  old manifest  simple  aesthetic  To what extent and in what manner should we teach aesthetic to  to  ways  We  young children?  contribute  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g adults?  to  the  What  kinds  development  of early evaluative of  aesthetically  thinking  thoughtful  7 A r t Educators and A e s t h e t i c Education Some educators, p a r t i c u l a r l y earlier w r i t e r s , do not support for  systematic  Kellogg  aesthetic  development  in  (1970), L a r k - H o r o v i t z , Lewis  young  and Luca  children.  teaching  Brittain  (1979),  (1973), and Lowenfeld  and  B r i t t a i n (1975), whose positions are summarized in Taunton's (1982) review of the l i t e r a t u r e , recommended elementary school.  postponement  of aesthetic education until l a t e  Their w r i t i n g centers on productive behaviours.  Responses  of children toward the arts are not valued in themselves but are seen merely as useful in giving information about productive aspects. not  seen  as  developing  separately  or  parallel to  A e s t h e t i c behaviours are symbol-making.  Kellogg  (1970) discusses the possible danger of young children adopting adult symbols they might judge to be " t r u e a r t " , which may i n t e r f e r e with their own symbol development.  Kellogg  cautions about  the influence of repeated exposure  pictures on walls of the home, church, store or  to  museum.  Lowenfeld and B r i t t a i n (1975) state that children might best about aesthetic matters f o r m a l l y at ages 11 or 12.  think  Harris (1963) recognizes  that children have strong a f f e c t i v e attitudes of l i k i n g and d i s l i k i n g , tending to favour representational a r t . Smith  (1973)  sees  the  He does not classify these as aesthetic in quality.  early  years  as  formative  concepts which w i l l be refined and f o r m a l i z e d l a t e r .  in  cognitive  powers  He views the  and  secondary  grades as being the ideal t i m e for aesthetic education. In  contrast  to B r i t t a i n (1979), Lowenfeld and B r i t t a i n (1975)  p a r t i c u l a r l y K e l l o g g ' s view (1970), M c F e e and Degge (1977) consider to visual a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y two-dimensional adult made cultural  transmission.  They  state  religious festivals are forms of:  that  and  exposure  a r t , as important in  art, theater, ethnic, regional,  and  cultural celebrations when people dress, a c t , and play to celebrate values that may be neglected in their d a y - t o day existence. H i s t o r i c a l roots and c u l t u r a l traditions are made more " r e a l " are taught to c h i l d r e n , and reassert the cultural i d e n t i t y of groups. They provide a sense of belonging by giving people an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e , (p. 293) Taunton  notes  that both B r i t t a i n (1979) and L a r k - H o r o v i t z et a l .  (1973) recognize that young children do engage in what they term a e s t h e t i c like  behaviors.  Their  interest in the surrounding  environment, looking  and  t a l k i n g about a r t , even play with blocks, sand, and water are examples of these aesthetic-like  behaviors  (Taunton,  1982).  The  decision  a e s t h e t i c - l i k e rests on the content of the response.  that  a  response  is  Other authors, such as  Lansing (1976) and Fisher (1978), viewing these same early responses, accept their simple and disorganized nature yet s t i l l conclude they are aesthetic. Taunton (1982) notes a number of art educators who have attended to the a b i l i t i e s of young children to respond aesthetically by recommending forms of training for t h e m .  Both Feldman (1970) and Chapman (1978) see aesthetic  behaviors as goals in themselves, equal in importance to production areas in curriculum. Feldman  (1970) recognizes  the steps in aesthetic decision  taken in spite of their disorganized nature.  making,  He states:  A kindergarten child w i l l perform a l l these operations (the same c r i t i c a l operations performed by professionals description, analysis, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and judgment) spontaneously but in random order. Teaching is largely a job of s y s t e m a t i z i n g his almost irrepressible desire to t a l k about a r t . . . . C r i t i c a l study is the process of introducing order into the child's natural performance as a c r i t i c , (p. 187) In two more recent curriculums the development of aesthetics for young children is recognized and comprehensively outlined for the teacher. Lansing's importance  of  the  A r t , A r t i s t s , and A r t Education aesthetic r e a l m .  He  recommends  (1976) that  discusses teachers  the  solicit  9 verbal reactions to the look of objects and events and o f f e r their own responses i n an i n f o r m a l nondogmatic way.  Through these exchanges children w i l l r e a l i z e  the importance of the aesthetic realm while gaining important a r t i s t i c terms new  to  their  vocabulary.  These  terms  will  form  the  basis  for  later  conversations about art and aesthetic experiences.  Lansing recommends  that  instruction begin when the c h i l d f i r s t enters school.  In seeing that even 5 year  olds can put ideas and emotions into pleasing forms and discuss their feelings about  these, Lansing  is  giving  education for young children.  recognition  to  the  importance of aesthetic  He anticipates none of the negative e f f e c t s that  K e l l o g g (1970) suggests. Another recent book outlining curriculum which gives recognition to art and aesthetics, is Fisher's  A e s t h e t i c Awareness and the C h i l d  (1978) in  which she states: Times are planned in which students react to their own art and that of others. They produce a r t , and evaluate i t . Through these procedures they should become more aesthetically aware. They are asked to think productively, to make value judgments, to express personal opinions, and to record these ideas in personal a r t i s t i c statements. They are also asked to l e a r n about what other artists have made to grapple w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l problems. Through these experiences can be r e a l i z e d the principal goal of the art and aesthetics c u r r i c u l u m : to develop aesthetically aware, perceptive individuals w i t h a r t i s t i c knowledge, e n v i r o n mental s e n s i t i v i t y , human compassion in relation to others, heightened perceptual concepts, and aesthetic judgements. (P. 49-50) Here Fisher gives recognition of the a b i l i t y of the 5 year olds to respond simply to how their own art looks, as  w e l l as  that of peers.  In  expressing opinions and integrating new information the c h i l d is spurred on to re-evaluate his own work.  Here the teacher's influence as questioner, focusing  the attention and the thought of the child is essential. Chapman (1978) t o o , emphasizes the importance of adult influence in the development  of aesthetic responses.  She  sees adults as  being v i t a l  in  directing children's attention to various aspects of art works. the manner in which a young child observes work, and how  She notes that  children feel about  that process, is as important as the responses they give. One  regional art  organization, CEMREL,  and  another  national  organization, the National Art Education Association, have both recognized the importance of aesthetic experiences in curriculum materials for young children. In their  booklet  entitled  Essentials;  The essentials of a quality school art  program (1970), N.A.E.A. identifies the aesthetic area as being vital for young children in accomplishing two goals: "to  make visual judgements suited to his experience and maturity."  "to  understand the nature of art and the creative process."  (p. 4)  In elaborating on these goals this booklet reiterates the need for critical study of art work. Through evaluation and revision of one's own and  the  critical analysis of works of others, depth of understanding  consequent appreciation of art can be achieved.  work and  The booklet goes on to state:  It is not enough to manipulate a few materials into forms of one's own choosing without reference to the solutions of artists of the past and present. The artist must be involved in the study and production of works of art with an attitude of critical awareness. Perhaps the failure of some school art programs in the past has been due to a divergence from this dual nature of the study of art. (pp. 35-36) Likewise, CEMREL, Inc. in the book, Toward an Aesthetic Education states with regard to education in both music and art that Aesthetic education is concerned with helping individuals become responsive to beauty in all its forms. Those associated with the schools are increasingly coming to realize that this is as much a part of their responsibility as is developing vocational skills or promoting good interpersonal relationships, (p. ii) Through an aesthetic focus in the classroom young children initially raise  their  awareness  of  the  aesthetic  qualities  of  their  own  work.  Subsequently, they are ready to look at the work of their classmates. require writings  no  encouragement  on  the  to share  kindergarten  this  an interest in nature. natural  aesthetic  area  In was  Children  the earliest in  evidence.  Froebel (1899) strongly recommended c u l t i v a t i o n of a garden, observation of plants,  pets,  conversation  seasons, about  and  their  changes.  the child's observations  His and  daily  walks  feelings.  One  encouraged of  the  first  educators to recognize the qualitative difference in children's thinking, F r o e b e l was also the first to recognize the need for objects that could be used and handled:  play materials that had visual and t a c t i l e aesthetic qualities.  As  society places increasing demands on the educator to produce a c t i v e , thoughtful choicemakers  and c a r e f u l consumers,  i t seems the natural joy of the young  child in the aesthetic realm may lend i t s e l f readily to this kind of fostering. R e c e n t l y , publication of several studies determining  how  children  respond  has  a e s t h e t i c a l l y at  indicated a focus  different ages.  on  Parsons  (1976; 1978) using a Piagetian exploration method found that children followed cognitive-developmental stages in their responses to paintings.  D ' O n o f r i o and  Nodine (1981) indicated four stages of aesthetic development characterized by a  significant  children  change  respond  experiences. draftsmanship composition.  to  Next, which  in the type of paintings the  worth  itself  is  thinking of  according of  a  judged  to  painting by  use  the respondent.  Initially,  personal  idiosyncracies  and  is  from  like  of  judged colour  and  criteria displays  of  The t h i r d stage's c r i t e r i o n for judgment is an adherence to the  a r t i s t ' s right to express his o r i g i n a l i t y and innovativeness without regard for an external audience.  Due  to the  confusion  seem reluctant to c r i t i c i z e an artwork. this  i m p l i c i t in this c r i t e r i o n children  A e s t h e t i c development, according to  model, culminates w i t h the a b i l i t y to take the a r t i s t ' s viewpoint.  An  attempt to j u s t i f y responses includes comments on composition, quality of l i n e ,  choice of colours, and the relation of a l l these p i c t o r a l devices to subject matter. In D ' O n o f r i o and Nodine's t e r m s , children demonstrate the relevance of their responses to works of art in ways marked by increased subtlety and complexity.  Considerations include how e f f e c t i v e l y the a r t i s t ' s point of view is  expressed through several levels of expression including subject m a t t e r , f o r m , s k i l l , c o l o u r , and emotional Since  Parsons  responses.  (1978), Parsons,  Johnston, and Durham  (1978), and  D'Onofrio and Nodine (1981) have recognized some distinct stages in aesthetic response to paintings we might ask how young children move from the earliest stage to l a t e r stages without the opportunity to respond  to a r t .  thought is just as important for 5 year olds as for 11 or  Aesthetic  12 year olds.  considering the developmental stages of young children we must consider  In how  much, how o f t e n , and in what way we work to develop a r t i s t i c responsiveness. Recent l i t e r a t u r e strongly supports the development of an aesthetic strand in the education of young children.  If we heed the concept that Jerome Bruner  (1965) put f o r w a r d , then we must attempt to learn about the young child w i t h regard to aesthetic understandings.  He s t a t e d :  " A n y idea or problem or body  of knowledge can be presented in a form simple enough so that any particular learner can understand i t in a recognizable f o r m . " (p. 7) This  study  began  with  the  assumptions  that  not  only  can  young  children be taught to respond a e s t h e t i c a l l y to phenomena, but that aesthetic preferences and their discussion are i m p o r t a n t , and that they are compatible w i t h the development of the 5 year o l d . Aesthetic ethnographic  responses  approach  to a  group of  in a f i e l d setting.  items  were  Preferences  decision making were the prime focus of data c o l l e c t i n g .  and  studied  using  an  the reasons for  C o l o u r , association,  design  elements, surface  and t e x t u r e , m a t e r i a l of  cultural beliefs emerged as the strongest objects.  construction  and  socio-  reasons for preferring pictures and  For dress-up items a l l c r i t e r i a mentioned in the other groups were  important  factors  along  with  sex-role  identification  and  practical  considerations.  The Ethnographic  Approach  Techniques drawn from the field of anthropology were used in this study.  Q u a l i t a t i v e research methods in anthropology, including ethnographic  techniques and p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n , allow a closer, more insightful stance than is possible w i t h quantitative methods.  In recent years, anthropological  methods have been shown to be e f f e c t i v e in looking at classrooms, schools, and roles taken by students and teachers (Hawke, 1979; Janesick, 1982). Some of the techniques used by educational anthropologists appropriate for this study. to  categorize  in  terms  seemed  A e s t h e t i c responses are often elusive, and d i f f i c u l t of  distinctions among preferences.  preferences,  reflections  on  preferences,  and  C a t e g o r i z i n g aesthetic responses of very young  children, which are often of a sensitive and highly personal nature,  demands  c a r e f u l , thorough, empathetic and up-close recording by the researcher. Spradley observation  and  methods  conduct of this study.  as  McCurdy's described by  (1972)  techniques,  Bogdan and Taylor  and  participant-  (1975) guided  the  They allowed for considering the classroom as a culture  in m i c r o c o s m , its nature r e f l e c t e d in the responses of its members, a setting where the teacher was also the researcher and therefore already accepted as one who might be expected to ask many  questions.  A kindergarten classroom is generally divided into small work areas or centers at which c h i l d r e n , for part of their day, choose to work w i t h a  variety of  play materials.  during the  choice  period.  Children To  normally  interest  move  from  center  to  center  children in a variety of objects for  discussion, i t became a f a i r l y simple matter of setting up a special center for this purpose.  The r e s e a r c h e r - t e a c h e r , adopting the role of the p a r t i c i p a n t -  observer, would present m a t e r i a l , record key answers, and tape responses for later transcription to f u l l f i e l d notes. A t a l a t e r t i m e , using items of c l o t h i n g , children could be about their responses to dress-up choices.  asked  No great change in the structure of  the classroom or the pattern of the children's day was required. The  role  of  becomes paramount  the  researcher  in  any  qualitative  to the success of the completed study.  research  method  As P e l t o (1970)  states: compared w i t h many other sciences, methods of observation in anthropological work generally require very l i t t l e in the way of specialized measuring and observing devices. The anthropologist himself is the main instrument of observation, (p. 140) M y own interest and background in anthropology, my passage through successive and vastly varied l i f e settings or c u l t u r a l scenes and my training as a kindergarten t e a c h e r , helped to qualify me for the role of researcher in this study.  Participant-observer aptly describes the kindergarten teacher trained in  anecdotal recording for use in noting development, gradual or sudden change i n the child's behavior, and as a tool for c a r e f u l , accurate reporting to parents. Keen  observation  while teaching, throughout  the period when  children are  confronted w i t h making choices and during group a c t i v i t i e s , becomes an ongoing part of the daily routine. In anticipated.  the  use  of  ethnographic  methods  several  problems  must  be  Since I was already a part of the classroom setting gaining access  for i n t e r v i e w i n g informants was greatly s i m p l i f i e d .  I was known and trusted.  Although this provides ease of access there are also disadvantages. F a m i l i a r i t y can dull acute awareness  in the senses of the researcher  thereby  reducing  a c c u r a c y in observation. Wolcott  (1975, p.  115)  shares suggestions on how  awareness by, for example, making the f a m i l i a r strange. set the stage for a change in a number of ways.  to regain  that  The researcher might  For example, in this study by  preparing a visually separate area of the classroom for display of objects, with a  small  area  for  children  to  respond  to  items  and  be  tape  recorded.  Employment of a classroom helper might allow the researcher to direct more absolute  concentration on  classroom  the respondents.  A  setting was provided by beginning  break  in the routine of  the  the study several days a f t e r a  natural break in the school calendar; r e - e n t r y into any setting is l i k e l y to produce a fresh perspective from a l l participants. P r a c t i c e in using observational skills and a thorough f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the materials to be used for questioning helps to sharpen awareness and r e c a l l before the study.  The Spindlers used mini-studies for graduate students  lacked c r o s s - c u l t u r a l experience similar from  circumstances a  "thorough  (1982, p. 495).  completed  reading  ethnographic  about  one  or  two  Wolcott's  studies  successfully  societies  vicariously, the reading could provide a comparative Wolcott  also  writing  in  stresses the  final  the importance analysis.  In  of this  students  so  basis"  c a r e f u l field notes study  being  that  who  who  in  benefited at  least  (1975, p.  116).  and  thoughtful  reported,  immediate  transcription of notes a f t e r the children had gone for the day before discussion w i t h colleagues made for a fresh, more complete r e c a l l of observed details.  The Process of C u l t u r a l The  third assumption  fundamental  Transmission to  this  study  is that  although  aesthetic responses are strongly i n d i v i d u a l , i t is possible to uncover  preferences  and reasons for distinctions in the aesthetic realm,, among 5 year olds to a group of items by i n t e r v i e w i n g , recording and observing. assumption  is  that  when  preferences  and  distinctions  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and patterning of these w i l l become  A  are  f u r t h e r , related uncovered  some  possible.  Further to this assumption, i f 5 year olds are i n f i n i t e l y v a r i a b l e , then when interviewing and subsequent examination of the f i e l d notes is undertaken, i t w i l l be evident that there are no fundamental descriptions, observations, and parallels in the responses that can be made.  To state that children of any age  are i n f i n i t e l y v a r i a b l e , we would have to believe that the cultural influence of those in the nurturing role has no e f f e c t on the growth of the child. It is known that even before b i r t h a baby receives l i g h t , movement, and sound s t i m u l i through r e c e i v i n g messages.  the uterine w a l l .  Even before  birth the child is  By 5, children have already learned a f a m i l y ' s  language,  experienced the foods common to the culture and the a r e a , shared experiences, celebrations,  toys,  and  a  multitude  of  other  c u l t u r a l l y linked  including the art in the home, the church and the homes they visit.  information By 5 most  children have played c o - o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h others, they have been admonished for errors, encouraged  in strengths,  and  celebrated in accomplishments.  Every  waking moment children receive information about their c u l t u r e , the values and expectations of their parents and f a m i l y . As  the  child  is  receiving  information  individuals enculturation is taking place.  and  responses  from  these  It has been often stated that children  learn more in the first two years of l i f e than at any other t i m e .  Certainly,  these influences are powerful molders of the c h i l d , influencing how the child develops.  E a r l y study of the child by educators associated with the child study movement not only provided much information about the patterns and parallels of children at s p e c i f i c age levels but also yielded a stance through study of the c h i l d . child  and  growth  were  about  learning  In doing so, some mistaken conceptions about the corrected.  Weber  (1969)  says,  with  regard  to  intelligence: So long as i t was assumed that intelligence was genetically f i x e d , the i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f e r i o r i t y of children who tested below normal was generally a c c e p t e d . There is sufficient evidence to prove now that economic and c u l t u r a l differences do a f f e c t i n t e l l e c t u a l growth and put l i m i t s upon p o t e n t i a l . The new transactional v i e w , which suggests that the encounters the c h i l d has with his environment are significant in the building of p o t e n t i a l , highlights the importance of the child's early experiences. The inference of development as modifiable holds great promise—a promise especially meaningful for c e r t a i n segments of our population. The r e a l i z a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l power seems to demand more adequate growth producing stimulation in the early y e a r s — e v e n before kindergarten, (p. 227) A r t educators also have responded to the changing view of child's growth.  Studies of the symbolic images that children make were undertaken by  K e l l o g g (1969) while Lowenfeld's view (1957) o f the child developing through art a c t i v i t i e s , produces these tenets: Lowenfeld has been considered by many to be the father of art education in the U n i t e d States. His pioneering work in the creative and mental growth of the child greatly advanced knowledge in the discipline. Lowenfeld believed that teachers should develop the latent potential inherent in each child. The teacher's role was to nurture the young c h i l d through the development stages of g r o w t h , at the same t i m e being c a r e f u l not to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the child's personal self-expression. Lowenfeld made a distinction between art and art education, s t a t i n g that in art education the main concern is with process, how a child works, while art is more concerned w i t h product, what is made. H e also deplored "our one-sided education w i t h our emphasis upon knowledge" because he felt it had neglected "those attributed of growth which are responsible for the development of the individual's sensibilities, for his  18 spiritual l i f e , as w e l l as his a b i l i t y to live cooperatively in a society." (Fisher, 1978, p. 23) (Lowenfeld, p. 143) Lowenfeld's Eisner.  (Fisher,  view  contrasts  somewhat  with the recent  thoughts  of  1978)  Eisner sees a r a d i c a l l y different view of child development and art education emerging in recent years. Eisner summarized this trend as follows: The environment is most important in determining a r t i s t i c aptitudes in both production and appreciation. Therefore the teacher and the curriculum are important in " a f f e c t i n g a r t i s t i c learning." Concept rather than media is the orientation of this view. Media is a vehicle for the development of perceptual or productive skills and also the m a t e r i a l from which something can be made. More importance is placed upon the product because this product is the primary source from which inferences can be made concerning what the child has learned. Teach children ways to view and understand art as w e l l as producing their own a r t . A r t education is a f i e l d that has a special contribution that only it can make to the growth of children. But art education also shares common goals w i t h other disciplines. H o w e v e r , these are less important than what it can give that is unique. Thus Eisner's view sees child development primarily from the outside i n , instead of the inside out. Environment is emphasized over heredity, concepts are more important than m e d i a , and h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l areas, as w e l l as production are stressed. What the product looks like as w e l l as the process involved in making it are important, (p. 23) Enculturation takes place throughout a l i f e t i m e , and is already very evident in the five year old child.  Assumptions  in Summary  In undertaking this study certain assumptions were made. grounded in the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed in this chapter.  These are  The assumption  that aesthetic preferences, discussion of them, and their  development are important  for 5 year olds.  It is presumed that art  curriculum containing an aesthetic strand is important for the growth of young children. The assumption that ethnographic methods are an appropriate and effective means  for the researcher to look  at aesthetic  responses  and their  influencing factors. The assumption that behavior in 5 year olds is not infinitely variable and that insightful description of their observable patterns of behavior can be made.  20 CHAPTER  III  INITIAL ORGANIZATION AND  PILOT STUDY  To undertake this study i t was necessary to select materials for the kindergarten children to comment upon.  To involve 5 year olds in the selection  process, an i n i t i a l group of items was researcher s e l e c t e d , then screened by a group of five kindergarten youngsters, none of whom was involved in the f i n a l study.  A description of procedures used for the pilot study and those adopted  for data c o l l e c t i n g i n the main study w i l l be presented in this chapter.  I n i t i a l Organization for the Study Research  Methods Qualitative  participant  research  observation  and  methods  were  structured  and  used  in  this study,  unstructured  including  interviewing,  to  produce descriptive data recording both conversations and exact responses to researcher-posed questions and observed behavior, both spontaneous e l i c i t e d through feedback techniques (Bogdan & T a y l o r , 1975).  and those  Ethnographic  techniques involving entering the f i e l d , c o l l e c t i n g , a n a l y z i n g , and w r i t i n g up data were adopted using methods developed by Spradley and M c C u r d y  (1972)  and Wolcott (1975). S t a t i s t i c a l techniques were also employed to quantify the d a t a , and to act as a complement to the descriptive m a t e r i a l obtained through interview techniques.  I n i t i a l l y , tables were prepared indicating the c r i t e r i a found for  each group of items and the frequency with which these occurred interviewing.  through  Examples of children's statements classified in each section were  given (Tables I - V I ) .  Subsequently, these c r i t e r i o n frequency tables were the  basis for preparation of Table V I I - T a b l e I X , which compare the frequency of  comments for pictures, objects and dress-ups in percentages and provide a t o t a l and a mean for each feature mentioned.  Chronology of the P r o j e c t  From classroom  September  1982  to  within which the research  April was  1983  I  was  conducted.  This  a  teacher provided  in  the  valuable  information about the children as individuals and the program to which they had previously been exposed.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n in the classroom helped to give me the  e m i c point of view necessary for a close description of the kindergarten child's sense of values p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h respect to aesthetic preferences. In the e m i c point of view the researcher is immersed in the c u l t u r a l scene to be studied and from this standpoint describes what can be observed. the  classroom  group  I  was  able to observe  By being a part of  interests, attitudes and  group  responses to art a c t i v i t i e s , p i c t u r e s , and a wide variety of m a t e r i a l objects, clothing for daily wear and dress-up.  The research i t s e l f covered a six-week  period from A p r i l 25, 1983 to June 3,  1983.  On entering the f i e l d the researcher must heighten her sensitivity to the research setting and to the participants in order to provide a broad base for data  collecting.  otherwise  It  was  essential  that information  be s e l e c t i v e l y excluded through  recorded in f u l l f i e l d note f o r m .  be included that  customary  proximity.  Data  might were  A tape recorder was used as a back up and  for the subsequent r e c a l l of data not recorded in note form at interview t i m e . Although questioning began along almost i d e n t i c a l lines for each individual and although the object groupings were the same in every case, children responded in a wide v a r i e t y of ways. were  formulated  to  F r o m their i n i t i a l responses subsequent  create  open-ended  interviews.  I  began  questions with  preconceived ideas of the t y p e , length or structure that the response  few might  take other than that I wished to e l i c i t as much information as possible.  That  information was assembled in categories a f t e r data collection was completed. Upon receiving permission to conduct a study within the  classroom  from the school board, the p r i n c i p a l , the parents, and the U n i v e r s i t y  Ethics  C o m m i t t e e , considerable t i m e was spent l o c a t i n g two classroom aides.  I was  fortunate in r e c r u i t i n g two capable and enthusiastic university students with three years of experience in working w i t h children.  each  Each volunteered to  supervise normal class a c t i v i t i e s for the 2.5 hour period, while I co-ordinated and planned the program  outside c l a s s t i m e , and spent  my days interviewing  children. Training the aides to follow the planned a c t i v i t i e s incorporated in the kindergarten day's pattern took place before the pilot study was begun. allowed me to give a l l attention to data c o l l e c t i n g procedures.  This  Although the  children were slightly conscious of the tape recorder at the outset, they were so accustomed  to seeing an adult w r i t e down what they stated through  the  kindergarten day, as a promotion of early language development, that several children  asked  for  their  printed  comments  back  when  interviews  were  completed. About interviews. developing  half  the tapes  were  transcribed i m m e d i a t e l y following the  Because of the time-consuming nature of this task, I found myself extensive  f i e l d notes  on l o c a t i o n and l e a v i n g the tape  transcription until a l l the data were c o l l e c t e d .  recorded  A l l tapes were reviewed and a l l  f i e l d notes were checked for a c c u r a c y several weeks a f t e r data c o l l e c t i n g was completed.  A l l my own comments were recorded into the field notes, either  at the t i m e of i n t e r v i e w , or i m m e d i a t e l y subsequent to i t . movements, questions  f a c i a l expressions,  Observations of eye  s i t t i n g stances, and general reactions to the  posed were also c a r e f u l l y transcribed from tape recordings to f i e l d  notes subsequent study  alone  to the data c o l l e c t i n g period.  represented  over  100  hours  Taped responses in the main  total,  since  interview  time  for  individual children represented a minimum of 40 minutes for each of the three sections of the study. Of course, children who were p a r t i c u l a r l y thorough in their answers took more t i m e .  Every encouragement was given for each child to answer as  f u l l y as possible. In several ways I tried to separate my former role as teacher from my  subsequent  role  as  researcher.  following a school break. teachers  and  directed  by  redirected.  within a these  research  was  begun  immediately  C h i l d r e n were introduced to their new substitute  three-day  aides.  The  Questions  period asked  were of  following opening me  as  exercises  teacher were  quickly  The four day absence to conduct the pilot study and my return to  the main questioning area helped children to i d e n t i f y more completely w i t h the aide while seeing me in a new role.  A more f o r m a l mode of dress on my part  helped to distinguish my role as researcher from my former role as teacher.  The P i l o t Study Purpose To reduce the possibility of bias involved in adult selected m a t e r i a l s , a pilot study was undertaken.  This allowed i n i t i a l selection of a group of items  for each category, one capable of revision as a result of interaction w i t h a s m a l l group  of  kindergarten youngsters  similar to the study  group.  Items  r e c e i v i n g either strong positive or negative aesthetic preference by the pilot group became the m a t e r i a l used in the main study.  Setting The School.  pilot study  was  conducted in a two-room  Redmont  Redmont is a short distance away from the main school, Rutledge,  and draws upon a school population similar to the l a t t e r . five  annex of  large  classrooms,  two  of  which  are  used  kindergarten, grade one, and a grade t w o - t h r e e .  for  Redmont  primary  comprises  children -  a  The third classroom houses a  district English as a Second Language class, comprised of adults, and the fourth is a l i b r a r y .  The remaining classroom is used for afternoon reading instruction  for first graders.  This classroom  provided an ideal l o c a t i o n to conduct  the  pilot study. The children attending Redmont come from a wide variety of ethnic and economic backgrounds.  The three boys and two girls who participated in  the pilot study were representative of this diversity.  Procedures A broad range of items was assembled in advance of the pilot study. These  consisted  of  pictures  from  collections  of  calendars  and  from  the  extensive school l i b r a r y , including colour and black and white scenes as w e l l as action  and  seventeen  technical countries  materials.  pictures. of  the  Objects  world  included  and  more  items  than  10  from  as  many  as  different  kinds  of  Dress-ups included items i d e n t i f i e d by several other  teachers as popular in their own dress-up centers.  kindergarten  Rutledge kindergarten items  could not be included since the children had already had experience w i t h these, though  not in a research setting.  Items were arranged  within each of three main categories:  into  sub-categories  pictures, objects, and dress-ups, and  were numbered to f a c i l i t a t e ease of recording during the interview period. A t R e d m o n t , the f i v e participants joined the researcher i n the large reading instruction room.  The children were given a brief account of what was  being sought in the study, together with the assurance ideas about the pictures, objects and dress-up  that a l l thoughts  and  items would be helpful.  An  explanation of how and when the a c t u a l grouped items would be viewed was given in enough detail to spark interest in active p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Subsequently, each child was interviewed separately on the m a t e r i a l appearing within each main category. all  five students.  Four mornings  Items sub-categorized  m a t e r i a l of construction were arranged  were used to interview  according to s i m i l a r i t y of  use  on a table and an adjacent  or  bench.  Those items not under discussion were covered w i t h paper to reduce confusion and possible d i s t r a c t i o n .  Questioning Children were asked  about  aesthetic preferences  in general, then  told: Look at the pictures c a r e f u l l y .  T e l l me, is there one picture you  would pick to  bedroom  put up  on  your  wall  because  it is  very  beautiful and you would l i k e to look at i t for a long time? Is there one picture you would not like to have on your bedroom w a l l because i t is not beautiful or pretty? Which picture would you not like to put on your bedroom w a l l to look at because i t is not pretty? The questioning was aimed at producing a selection of items that evoked strong aesthetic responses; items infrequently mentioned were discarded. A  g r i d , designed to include categories and i t e m descriptions, was  developed to f a c i l i t a t e the easy recording of preferences, by using a simple check system. Redmont  youngsters were also asked i f they could t e l l what i t was  that made an i t e m s p e c i a l .  This allowed the researcher the opportunity to  practise questioning skills while providing some insight into the kinds of reasons 5 year olds might volunteer as grounds for aesthetic choice.  Pictures Forty-four  photographs  were assembled  file and the Rutledge School L i b r a r y picture f i l e .  from the researcher's A  own  wide variety of s t y l e s ,  compositions, and contrasts in l o c a t i o n and t i m e of day was sought to provide ample diversity upon which the children might comment. A l l photographs were s i m i l a r in s i z e , approximately 22 cm by 30 c m , each mounted on black c a r d . picture  or  Colour  and  matt black  other and  than  No printing or l e t t e r i n g was visible either on the  small  white examples  sticker indicating the  call  were  formed  included.  These  categories that included P e o p l e , N a t u r a l Objects, Country Scenes,  number. sub-  Buildings,  World Scenes, Sports, Seascapes, Landscapes, H i s t o r i c and A r t Examples.  Each  category contained between four and seven photographs, as detailed in Figure 1.  Objects  Objects  were  assembled  from  cupboards, and an 11 year old's room.  my  own  household,  other  teachers'  Items generally were more decorative  than f u n c t i o n a l , and were representative of a wide cultural v a r i e t y .  Objects  were grouped into sub-categories based on m a t e r i a l of construction as follows (see  Figure 2  for  detailed description  of  items):  Stones & other, G l a s s , M e t a l , Organic M a t e r i a l .  C e r a m i c , Wood,  Each sub-category  Fiber,  contained  between four and eight i t e m s .  D r e s s - U p Items  Fifty-one  dress-up  clothing  Fairhaven kindergarten dress-up  items  centers.  were  assembled  from  Some were reported as  selected by children i n these other kindergarten settings.  several  frequently  None had previously  been used at Rutledge. An consciously  effort  to  acquire  clothing  which  undertaken, as the researcher's  would  observations  appeal  to  indicated items  girls seemed to be more prevalent i n kindergarten dress-up centers. were somewhat more prevalent than clothing i t e m s . following sub-categories H a t s , Wigs, Vests Bags, Long Robes.  boys  was for  Boys' hats  Items were grouped in the  (see Figure 3 for detailed description of each i t e m ) :  and Capes,  Dresses, D e c o r a t i v e  objects  (e.g. b r a c e l e t s ) ,  Each sub-category contained between four and ten i t e m s .  28  Figure 1 List of P i c t u r e s Used in P i l o t Study, Grouped by Sub-Category  Pictures  Al A2 A3 A4  People G i r l w i t h Bubble Indian Lady G i r l w i t h flowers Lady w i t h v e i l : mysterious eyes  Bl B2 B3 B4 B5  Pumpkins Apple and Book F a l l leaves Butterfly G r i z z l y Bear  CI C2 C3 C4 C5  C o u n t r y Scenes C o u n t r y houses, mountains Horses and dust Saskatchewan f i e l d , farm implement R e d broken wheel Horse drawing firewood  DI D2 D3 D4 D5  Swiss house Windmill Holland Danes (b/w) O i l refineries (b/w) Edmonton at night  El E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7  World Scenes Castle Radio telescope (b/w) Turkish mosque Hong K o n g junks Venice waterway Seagulls and lighthouse B e r l i n Wall (b/w)  Fl F2 F3  Woman waterskiing M o t o r c y c l e rider Skier (snow)  N a t u r a l Objects  Buildings  Sports  29  Gl G2 G3 G4  Seascapes NWT: midnight sun F l o a t plane on water G r e y and red boats w i t h f o g : P.E.I. Rainbow and w a t e r f a l l Landscapes  HI H2 H3 H4 H5  Pueblos: New M e x i c o Sunset: Grand Canyon Peace R i v e r Winter: Rogers' Pass Fall: Rocks  11 12 13 14 15  H i s t o r i c and A r t Examples Dragon: Chinese V i c t o r i a ' s bedroom Madonna and C h i l d in G o l d Egyptian Figure in G o l d Scarab pin  30 Figure 2 List of Objects Used in P i l o t Study, Grouped by  Objects  Jl J2 J3 J4 J5 J6 J7 J8  Ceramics French painted candy dish, g o l d , turquoise Tan and green Japanese teacup Small Mexican cup Chinese white and blue rice bowl Antique perfume necklace Raku stone pot with holes Raku f r a m e mirror Deep blue pottery wine flask  Kl K2 K3 K4 K5  Handmade wooden plane Salish l e t t e r opener Salish carving Salish man's face A f r i c a n printing block  LI L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7  Fiber Mexican rope horse Skin drum Red basket w i t h l i d Cedar root basket (large) Cedar root basket (round) Fan Chinese basket  Ml M2 M3 M4  Stones and Other Peacock feather Stones (various) Indian grinding stone, M e x i c o R a i l r o a d spike  Nl N2 N3 N4 N5  Turquoise insulator Red-orange cube Y e l l o w cube P e a c h - t a n melted cube Glass ball float  Wood  Glass  Sub-Category  31  01 02 03 04 05 06 07  Metal Tea caddie, black Tea caddie, pattern a l l over G e a r , black M i r r o r , silver Brass bear L e g hold trap Brass incense holder  PI P2 P3  R e d flower Peach flower Plumaria flower  Organic M a t e r i a l  32  Figure 3 List of Dress-ups Used in P i l o t Study, Grouped by  Dress-Ups  Ql Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9  Hats C o o l i e hat Brim on coolie hat Men's homburg hat Hat over top Fur hat White and black F i r e m a n ' s hat Orange construction worker's hat F i r e m a n ' s hat  Rl R2 R3 R4  Long blond w i g C u r l y blond wig Long brown wig C u r l y brown wig  51 52 53 54 55  Vests and Capes Red vest White satin blouse Blue jeans (narrow waist) V e s t , black (Dracula) Cape w i t h red l i n i n g  TI T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10  Dresses Purple dress w i t h satin t r i m Flower p r i n t , white pleated bodice (panel) Green and black skater's dress Smocked yellow/green dress, spaghetti straps Rust and black peasant dress Pink beaded opera dress Y e l l o w sheer night gown Black satin Blue s a t i n , spaghetti straps Blue and white check  Ul U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9  D e c o r a t i v e Objects Chinese brown scarf w i t h fringe Striped cravat purple/blue N e c k l a c e shiny pearl (white/pink/blue) Orange necklace R e d necklace P i n k , purple plastic l e i P i n k , yellow plastic l e i Y e l l o w and white plastic l e i Wrist bangles  Wigs  Sub-Category  33  VI V2 V3 V4 V5 V6  C l o t h striped bag, pink/yellow/black Patent leather w i t h silver closure Red patent leather w i t h silver closure Black patent vinyl shiny, coin style handle Wallet (Chinese p a t t e r n , cream) Plain black bag (leather)  Wl W2 W3 W4  White l a c e Yellow chiffon Brown-beige l a c e White ghost costume  XI X2 X3 X4  Bridal Red long Pink coat Pink robe  Drapery  Cloths  Long Robes  Analysis of Responses Using analysis  of  a  grid  the  developed  collected  for  data  assessment  was  of  relatively  aesthetic  straightforward.  questioning, preferences were indicated by check marks.  Since each sub-  category was made up of a different number of i t e m s , in those  items.  During  D a i l y the grid data  were checked against transcriptions and the taped interviews.  with the largest numbers  preferences,  sub-categories  children gave two preferred and two not preferred  This provided a more equal possibility for any individual item to be  selected for the main study.  C r i t e r i a for selection by these five pilot study  participants were noted throughout. The  children seemed  to have  no d i f f i c u l t y making choices.  Their  opinions were c l e a r l y s t a t e d , once reassured that the kind of information being given was very helpful and that no assessment of them individually was being undertaken.  One  child answered  w i t h only  s e c t i o n , s t a t i n g he did not l i k e any i t e m s . recorded  on  the  g r i d , since  they  did  not  two  responses  to  the  dress-up  His responses were noted, but not represent  specific  reactions  to  particular items.  Selection of Items The bulk of items brought f o r t h both positive and negative  responses.  Items e l i c i t i n g no response, or one or two responses only, were eliminated leaving only those items which contained t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , or six responses in either category.  No distinction was made between boys' and g i r l s '  responses.  Using this method, sections produced the f o l l o w i n g number of i t e m s :  22 items  for pictures, 22 items for objects, and 30 items for dress-ups.  35  CHAPTER  IV  MAIN STUDY The Redmont.  main  It housed  study  was  conducted  at  Rutledge,  mother  school  14 classrooms, a large l i b r a r y - l e a r n i n g assistance  and f u l l size gymnasium.  R u t l e d g e , with e x t r a classroom space, also  to  room housed  the d i s t r i c t social-adjustment center in an adjacent wing of the school. As a 30 year old school, Rutledge had gone through some changes in school population and growth r a t e .  A t the t i m e of the study, the school had  achieved more s t a b i l i t y , thanks to a principal and teaching s t a f f who handled well  the  diverse  student  population of  300  students  from  kindergarten  to  seventh grade.  The Setting O f the 32 members  of  two i n t a c t kindergarten groups,  attending  either in morning or afternoon, 31 received parental permission to participate in this study. cutural groups.  The groups represented a broad mixture of socio-economic and Houses in the area range from $200,000 designer homes  apartment housing subsidized for low income f a m i l i e s . part-time  in Canada  and p a r t - t i m e i n either Europe  to  Some children had l i v e d or the South P a c i f i c .  Other children spent week days with one parent and weekends with the other. Many children shared a home w i t h one sibling and two natural parents while several children l i v e d with one parent and a step-parent. The children's ethnic backgrounds were a mixture of east and west: Chinese f r o m Hong K o n g , Chinese from K o r e a , Chinese from C a n a d a , Japanese born in both Japan and C a n a d a , East Indian from Kenya and C a n a d a , Canadian S c o t t i s h , B r i t i s h , and Irish.  One child was Canadian-Japanese born in Canada;  another was Japanese-Chinese, also Canadian born. Swiss  born.  In  this  group  Catholics,  One child was Iranian but  Protestants,  Jehovah's  Witnesses,  Buddhists, Moslems and Sikhs were represented. O f the 31 c h i l d r e n , 17 were boys, 14 g i r l s , ranging i n age from 5 years and 5 months to 6 years and 4 months at data c o l l e c t i n g t i m e .  Procedures The pilot study had shown that items needed to be presented in subcategories  for  the  children to  handle  the volume of items s e l e c t e d .  The  elimination of items not interesting to the pilot group c r e a t e d large gaps in the original sub-categories, making i t necessary to rearrange and consolidate some items for ease of handling. reasons  Since the objective was to uncover preferences and  for aesthetic preferences, as  much  as  to discover the preferences  themselves, the sub-categories themselves had no paramount significance other than providing the means to organize i t e m s .  C h i l d r e n had the opportunity to  select and respond to any number of the i t e m s . D a i l y four or five children were selected for interview.  Individually,  one selected child and I would depart from the kindergarten classroom small  cupboard  down  the  hall  where  the  items  were  housed.  to a  Beginning  promptly with questions about the objects arranged on the tables, the interview followed a consistent order and format of questioning.  On completion of the  i n t e r v i e w , the child and I would return to the classroom and I would request the next p a r t i c i p a n t .  Questioning took a l l of the 2.5 hour kindergarten day.  The second l o c a t i o n was suggested by the principal.  The lower hall  science cupboard presented a quiet covered space only a short walk from the classroom, where were  that  the  interruptions  room  was  would  warm  be  in l a t e  minimized. May  and  The that  major it  drawbacks  provided  many  interesting  distractions in the  form  of  science  equipment.  The  first  was  overcome by l e a v i n g the door ajar and the second by a thorough cleaning out. A brief explanation to the children regarding the unusual atmosphere they were entering helped reassure them and reduce d i s t r a c t i o n . Altogether, location.  the  science  cupboard  provided  a  better  interview  A l l subsequent interview data were c o l l e c t e d there.  M o d i f i c a t i o n s to the Proposal I n i t i a l l y it was planned to question children in groups of three at the center just outside the classroom  door.  The first group of three boys was  presented w i t h the pictures, and just as the place was inadequate, so grouping of children proved to be.  the  Instead of influencing one another, which  was my major c o n c e r n , they were so anxious to discuss their responses that they repeatedly interrupted one another, wanting to give their own ideas and opinions.  In spite of the fact that several groups of items e l i c i t e d very diverse  responses  and  differences.  comments,  the  children  seemed  uninfluenced  by  these  H o w e v e r , the c o m p e t i t i v e atmosphere was significantly disturbing  to cause me to look for a space where questioning could be carried out on an individual basis.  Questions E a c h interview began s i m i l a r l y , but subsequent questions depended on those i m m e d i a t e l y preceding.  A f t e r the children entered the interview area  and were settled they were asked, Do you l i k e to look at p r e t t y pictures? (or objects?) Do you like dress-up  clothes?  A short discussion of the child's known preferences was undertaken at this t i m e .  These questions provided valuable i n f o r m a t i o n , as well as a focus  for the upcoming i n t e r v i e w . Each  group  of  items  categories were out of sight  was  presented  individually.  to avoid d i s t r a c t i o n .  As  A l l other  sub-  the first group  was  presented I would say: " T h e r e are five pictures in this group; can you count By  counting, children focused  making a s e l e c t i o n .  on  a l l the  items  them?"  presented  before  A f t e r selection was made (which was generally done quite  q u i c k l y ) , the children were encouraged to name the picture or i t e m .  In this  way the child's own words and perceptions could be recorded without adult influence.  Even when asked questions, no suggestions or assistance at naming  was given; the question was asked, simply:  " W e l l , what do you think i t i s ? "  While most children discussed a most preferred and least preferred i t e m , some found nothing pleasing or nothing displeasing in a single category. A l l responses were encouraged and recorded as they o c c u r r e d .  No attempt was  made to force an unintended choice. For some youngsters, giving the reasons for a s p e c i f i c selection was more d i f f i c u l t than making the s e l e c t i o n , so various techniques were used to obtain reasons comparison  for the response.  with a less  Questions  preferred item were  feedback of their i n i t i a l comments  p a r t i c u l a r l y helpful.  At  a  times  on an i t e m was helpful in c a l l i n g f o r t h  additional remarks simply by saying, "Is about  which helped the c h i l d make  there anything else you wish to say  this?" G r a d u a l l y , as each child became more relaxed w i t h the i n t e r v i e w ' s  rhythm and the type of questions asked, each became increasingly open about thoughts and feelings.  G e n e r a l l y , children had more to say about objects and  dress-ups for this reason. Curiosity surprise  element.  by The  children about subject  responses given  of inquiry  by their peers  had either been  before, or was the child's best friend i n class.  was  a  interviewed just  40  CHAPTER ANALYSIS AND  V  I N T E R P R E T A T I O N OF  In this chapter the responses  given  DATA  by the 5 and 6 year olds  indicate varying degrees of aesthetic preference w i l l be examined.  to  Within each  of the three main categories, P i c t u r e s , O b j e c t s , and Dress-ups, c r i t e r i a most frequently mentioned are presented f i r s t , followed by incidentally mentioned items.  V e r b a l responses are analysed and s u m m a r i z e d , and s t a t i s t i c a l data are  presented to establish frequency of responses across categories. of  children's  and consistency  of  responses  The emerging c r i t e r i a are examined in detail using examples  responses  to individual items.  Subsequently,  a  comparison  of  responses across the three main categories is made to highlight s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between c r i t e r i a for preference emerging from P i c t u r e s , Objects and Dress-up i t e m s .  Responses to P i c t u r e s In response to the opening questions, a l l children stated they l i k e d pictures to look at in their rooms, especially pretty pictures.  Not only did the  children f e e l positive about pictures, but the detail of each picture provided much m a t e r i a l for discussion, which made picture analysis a natural starting point.  Colour The most frequently mentioned aspect seen as aesthetically pleasing by children was colour.  Though a favourite single colour might be mentioned,  one  important as groups of w e l l - l i k e d colours for  colour  individual.  was  not  as  each  Recording indicated a preference for r e d , y e l l o w , orange, pink and  Figure 4 P I C T U R E S (as regrouped for Main Study People Al A4 F2 Fl  G i r l with bubble Lady w i t h veil M o t o r c y c l e rider (male) Waterskier (female) Buildings  HI E7 E3 D5 DI  Pueblos: New M e x i c o B e r l i n Wall (black and white) Turkish Mosque Edmonton at night Swiss House C o a s t a l Scenes  C4 H5 H4 H2 G4  R e d broken wagon wheel F a l l : Lake scene w i t h mountain Winter: Rogers' Pass Sunset: Grand Canyon Rainbow and w a t e r f a l l World Scenes  G3 G2 E4 C5 B5  G r e y and red boats: P.E.I. F l o a t plane on water at sunrise Chinese junks: Hong K o n g Quebec: horses drawing firewood G r i z z l y Bear Other  Bl 13 II  J a c k - O - L a n t e r n s in the dark Madonna and C h i l d Chinese Dragon  42 Table I Features Mentioned i n A e s t h e t i c Decision Making for P i c t u r e s (Preferred) Categories  Example  Feature  Colour  red gold lots of colour  f=2  mixed colours  f=ll  g i r l ' s colour  f=7  boy's colour  1  2.  . . . . . .  . . . . .. . . .. . .  " t h e snow is white i t looks p r e t t y . "she's got pink on her cheeks. . . " "I like r e d , here." "I like y e l l o w , here." "I l i k e the gold parts, here. . . " " t h e y have lots of different colours o n " . . . " t h e colours are a l l mixed up . . . pretty." . . . " i t ' s p r e t t y because i t ' s a g i r l wearing a dress." . . . " i t ' s a man riding. . . red here. . . he's tough."  Design Elements f=3 f=l f=12 f=l f=6 f=22 f=34  3.  favoured colour pink  f=46 * f=l M f=15 F f-16 f=10 f=38  shapes & designs  lines & patterns decoration: flowery decoration: parts  "these triangles are nice. . . " "I l i k e this square, here. . . " " t h e c i r c l e part in the middle is nice. . . " t h i s long rectangle is good to look a t . . " t h e r e ' s some nice patterns on there." " i t ' s nice flowers. . . they look a t . " " I t ' s this t a l l tower, here that's p r e t t y . "  Surface and Texture f=25 f=7 f=40  shiny surface s o f t , f u r r y surface sparkly, r e f l e c t i v e surface  " t h e moon is shining." "I l i k e the furry on his nose." "and there's light everywhere in the buildings. . . sparkley."  M a t e r i a l o f Construction f=30 f=45 f=12 f=4  scenery: clouds, moon stars scenery: mountains, l a k e s , waves sunny scenery: general  . . . " i t s m a t e r i a l and f o i l stars. . . p r e t t y " . . . " t h e water and the mountains is p r e t t y " . . . " i n the buildings . . . i t ' s a l l sunny out." . . . " i t has beautiful scenery."  8.  9.  S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Beliefs f=14  reference to f a m i l y  f=13  reference to culture  Association f=54 f=7 f=29  1.  . " m y grandma likes this . . . I ' l l take i t to her." . " i t looks l i k e Hallowe'en to me."  previous experience reminds child of school reminds c h i l d of character  f = frequency  . "I like splashing i n puddles." . " i t looks l i k e someone is playing o u t . " . " o u r baby is so beautiful and t i n y . "  44 Table  II  Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision Making for Pictures (Not Preferred) Categories 1.  Co l o u r f=47 f=4 f=4 M f=2 f=20 f=2 F  2.  3.  4.  5.  Feature not favoured colours b l a c k , grey, black & white gold pink too. . . c o l o u r f u l too l i t t l e colour colour doesn't suit sex  Design Elements f=3 not preferred shapes and designs f=l lines and patterns n/p f=4  decoration n/p  f=14  additional parts n/p  Surface and Texture not shiny enough f=3 too bumpy f=3 too sparkly, f=l reflective M a t e r i a l of C o n s t r u c t i o n f=6 scenery unappealing f=9 too many bricks f=15 wood C o n d i t i o n of Item f=30 c r a c k e d , broken, w r e c k e d , scratched f=17 holes, patches, pieces missing f=5 f=2  too l o n g , unneat, (dirty) rusty m e t a l  Example " i t ' s red. . . I don't l i k e red on the edges. . . " . . . " t h e r e ' s not much colour and w h i t e . " " t h e r e ' s gold. . . I don't l i k e " w e l l , i t because I don't l i k e " i t ' s got lots of colours, too " i t ' s got hardly any colours."  only black that colour." pink." much colours."  " i t ' s not a colour for girls."  . . . " t h a t there is dots a l l around i t . . . ugh." . . . " i t ' s got a c i r c l e and a line . . . I don't l i k e . " . . . " t h i s funny shape here . . . i t ' s not p r e t t y . " . . . "these things here aren't p r e t t y . " . . . " i t ' s not very shiny." . . . "I don't l i k e bumpy logs." . . . " i t ' s real shiny . . .  I don't like t h a t . "  . . . " t h e lake here isn't r e a l l y p r e t t y . " . . . " t h e s e too many bricks are ugly." . . . "I don't l i k e old cracked wood."  . . . " i t ' s a l l scratched and the paint's a l l o f f i t . " . . . " i t looks l i k e she never did her hair, i t ' s messy." . . . " t h e grass, the people never cut i t . " . . . "I don't like old rusty things."  45  8.  Socio-Cultural Beliefs f=9 reference to religion  . . . " i t ' s the ghost from H a l l o w e ' e n we don't believe i n . "  Association  11.  7^24  previous experience  f=19  reminds child of character  f=6 f=15  has no people looks dangerous  P r a c t i c a l Considerations f=2 represents s k i l l too d i f f i c u l t f=10  1.  don't know what it is  f = frequency  . . "she looks l i k e she is almost getting mad . . . "  • •  . . " i t ' s a monster a big monster . . . its mouth's open." " t h e r e ' s no people." • • " i t would be easy to cut yourself." • •  • • •  " i t would look t e r r i b l e to look down on the road." "I  wonder what i t i s ? "  gold.  P i n k , although favoured in some situations by both boys and g i r l s , was  strongly preferred by a large number of g i r l s .  Several boys noted pink on a  child's cheeks or as the colour of flowers as very pretty.  E v i d e n t l y , context is  i n f l u e n t i a l in colour choice. Red  was  highly  preferred on almost  boats, buildings, roofs, decorative additions  any  kind of  item:  (as on a dragon).  flowers,  Orange  and  yellow were preferred i n many l o c a t i o n s , and especially on leaves, yet both were mentioned less frequently than r e d .  G o l d , t o o , was a favoured colour in  the pictures presented, especially i n one of the Madonna and C h i l d , which many children i d e n t i f i e d as pretty because of the colour. favoured  by  both sexes was blue.  Although  Another colour strongly  mentioned less often than the  warm colours, few children stated that they did not l i k e i t . C h i l d r e n who did not respond positively to items did so on the basis of colour, also.  Two c h i l d r e n , i d e n t i f y i n g gold as s i l v e r , and another as grey,  disliked the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the colour. There was a variety of not favoured colours but for many, the not favoured  colour overwhelmingly  was  b l a c k , which for the children included  black, dark grey, light grey, and black and white as seen in photographs. Only one picture in the study produced a negative aesthetic response from every child —  the B e r l i n Wall photographed in black and white.  Of the  other colours not favoured, brown, dark green, gold and pink were mentioned several times.  Pink was mentioned as not preferred only by boys.  O v e r a l l colour e f f e c t is indeed a powerful aesthetic f a c t o r for 5 year olds.  A f t e r favoured colour, generally colourfulness was expressed as a reason  for s e l e c t i o n , while its l a c k was a reason for picture r e j e c t i o n .  Bright colours,  lots of colours, colours that go well together, a l l were pinpointed by children of  both sexes as important reasons for s e l e c t i o n .  Conversely,  not  enough  colours, dull colours, and  too  few  colours,  were  frequently mentioned  reasons for a negative response, as shown i n Tables I and  as  II.  Association Although colour is a powerful influence on the aesthetic preferences of  5 year  Personal response. cultural thoughts. negative  olds, i t  does  association  not  override  emerges  as  just  every as  other  c r i t e r i o n for s e l e c t i o n .  powerful a  reason  for  aesthetic  Personal association includes positive previous experience, f a m i l y or experience, memories  of  f u n , adventure,  pleasant  characters,  or  Personal association in a negative way means association with a experience, negative  c u l t u r a l or  religious  connotations,  negative  thoughts, memories, or the presence of danger. Children's  positive  associations  w i t h fun and adventure, including  positive previous experiences, seems to be a a function of gender, just as is the case w i t h c e r t a i n colours.  G i r l s , almost e x c l u s i v e l y , selected pictures of girls  and women  and did not  pictures  of  boys  pictures  w i t h action rather  and  prefer  men  pictures of  rather than  than  boys  pictures  without.  In  and  men.  Boys selected  with girls; both preferred  several  pictures  of  scenery  children expressed a qualified positive response, stating the picture would be much p r e t t i e r with people.  On the negative side many children stated that  their reason for r e j e c t i n g a picture was due to the absence of people. Most frequently in the remarks of children the memory of a previous experience was given as the reason a child selected a picture and found i t aesthetically pleasing.  For example, "I l i k e splashing in puddles . . . and there  are lots of puddles here . . . yes, i t would be very f u n . " Association example:  was  often a  f a c t o r of  memory  as  was  fantasy:  for  "The snow is white . . . i t ' s p r e t t y . . . the trees are p r e t t y . . . my  dad says we can go skiing soon . . . I haven't gone y e t , but I know I'll like i t . " Many girls responded positively to a picture of a l i t t l e g i r l blowing bubbles while several l i k e d a waterskier, also.  Boys responded most frequently  to a picture of motorcycle r a c i n g . People and places that families often visit were generally positively regarded:  Dad's  boat,  Grandma's  house were  parks,  picnic  areas,  repeatedly mentioned.  were o f t e n the subject of positive association. found a f r o g All  family  trips,  Adventures  Disneyland, around  the  and home  " I t reminds me of one t i m e I  . . . " children seem  to love  snow, its colour and associations  snowmen, angels, winter sports, f a m i l y outings.  with  Even children who stated they  did not l i k e white in black and white pictures, selected pictures of snow as aesthetically  pleasing.  association was Just negative.  Certainly,  the  visual  effects  were  important,  but  dominant. as  previous  experience  could  be  positive, i t  could also  Children commented o f t e n on a picture's association with  be  unhappy,  unpleasant, l o n e l y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y scary events which i m m e d i a t e l y made i t "not  p r e t t y to look  comments  at."  including:  getting mad  A  picture of a  veiled lady  drew  many  "she looks scary, spooky, she looks like she is  negative almost  . . . "  Children  frequently disliked a photograph  of boats  in fog  because  there " w e r e no people t h e r e " and even i f they had been there " . . . i t ' s too sad . . . they couldn't see very w e l l . " Scary experiences were highlighted by one boy who associated w i t h a m o t o r c y c l e as follows:  " H e ' s doing a pop-a-wheelie . . . but he has a flat tire  . . . I don't like i t because it would look t e r r i b l e to look down on the road."  Scary  paralleled the  concept  of  dangerous  which  many  children  commented on w i t h respect to sharp, pointed objects or blades, or anything which was related to k i l l i n g . cave-like  openings  or  Another dangerous relationship sprang from deep,  explosions,  associated  w i t h volcanoes.  many warnings to be c a r e f u l have a powerful message.  It  seems  the  Interestingly, despite  pretty colours, a picture which has some negative association w i t h memory or fantasy could not be p r e t t y . one or  Many 5 year olds expressed positive responses to  a combination of colours but stated that despite those the picture  couldn't be pretty because i t was " t o o a w f u l . . . too scary to look a t . "  S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Beliefs For  many  children f a m i l y and  response to certain pictures. many  The dragon  c h i l d r e n , but the reasons  c u l t u r a l beliefs produced a  strong  e l i c i t e d very strong response  were quite d i f f e r e n t . While some  from  children  enjoyed the association of seeing a dragon in a parade, but responded casually, others l i t up and became very e x c i t e d when viewing that picture. expressed surprise at my having the picture and wanted to keep i t .  Several One  boy  s t a t e d , " T h a t ' s a Chinese dragon . . . i t ' s not r e a l . . . a man is under that thing to be his legs . . . he is just l i k e my dad . . . I l i k e this Chinese dragon . . . i t ' s very p r e t t y . "  F a m i l y experience w i t h c u l t u r a l tradition seemed to have  a powerful e f f e c t on children's associations. For others the Madonna  and C h i l d had cultural-religious overtones.  They i d e n t i f i e d the characters as members of the H o l y F a m i l y and stated that they  belonged  in a  church.  The  images  reminded them  of Sunday, or  of  visiting Grandma where they watch "Jesus on T.V." C u l t u r a l - r e l i g i o u s concepts also had a negative connotation for some children.  Celebrations of H a l l o w e ' e n and images of the H o l y F a m i l y are not  condoned by Jehovah's Witnesses.  A number of children referred to this but  each handled the c o n f l i c t d i f f e r e n t l y . like  a  Jack-0-Lantern  picture  While several children said they couldn't  because  "we  don't  believe  in  that,"  one  selected the J a c k - 0 - L a n t e r n picture s t a t i n g they " w e r e pumpkins, neat, sparkly at night and they look l i k e faces . . . W e l l , how do they get a light bulb in there?"  The fascination of the visual e f f e c t apparently was stronger than the  cultural-religious association. Negative religious group. "I  cultural-religious  association  was  not  r e s t r i c t e d to  one  One youngster's response to the Madonna and C h i l d photo was:  don't l i k e the cross and I don't like the statue of the person . . . It makes  me think of God . . .  I don't like thinking of God . . .  brother and I like thinking about toys.  I l i k e to think of my  That's a l l . "  Surface and Texture In  spite  of  the  two-dimensional  nature  of pictures  children  still  mentioned the aspect of " s o f t , cuddly, and nice to hug" as an aesthetic visual quality.  L i t t l e distinction between seeing, remembering, and r e a l l y feeling —  or between f e e l i n g , sensing, and seeing and finding p r e t t y seems to be made. Many children responded postively to a bear because i t looked l i k e i t was sleeping and harmless, and it looked soft and furry. hug, they said.  For some the association w i t h teddy bears was strong, and was  frequently mentioned in conjunction with the bear picture. d e f i n i t e l y a strong f a c t o r in s e l e c t i o n . shiny,  sparkly,  or  reflective.  Night  Surface quality was  C h i l d r e n preferred surfaces that were pictures  Edmonton skyline were noted for this quality. see a moon i n i t .  It would be fun to  of  Jack-O-Lanterns  For example:  and  the  "Buildings . . . I  It's dark . . . I l i k e dark because i t ' s bright and then there's  lights.  I l i k e this one because i t looks like a cross.  there.  It looks l i k e a horse because i t has t e e t h . "  There's something down  Some children noted not l i k i n g pictures because they were too bumpy or not shiny.  This did not happen o f t e n .  G e n e r a l l y , surface qualities were  positively regarded and were a frequent focus of comments. A  strong  area  for  negative  response  centers  around  material.  Although few children talked about the m a t e r i a l of construction in a positive way with reference to pictures, many mentioned problems with materials and condition.  O l d or cracked wood, t o r n , broken, or patched f a b r i c , items with  breaks, scratches, holes or pieces missing, rusty m e t a l , messy or dirty items and long grass were a l l c i t e d as major reasons for the rejection of a p i c t u r e . The  message  is  c l e a r l y that  new,  neat,  clean  and  w e l l - c u t are  visually  aesthetically pleasing to 5 year olds. A picture of a broken wagon wheel ran a close second to the B e r l i n Wall photograph  as least l i k e d .  The  chipped paint, cracked f e n c e ,  parts, and rusty m e t a l were a l l mentioned.  broken  Although one g i r l l i k e d the center  shape (a c i r c l e ) and one l i k e d the wheel because i t reminded her of Grandma's Saltspring Island r e t r e a t , most children expressed dislikes similar to these boys' comments. Everything is breaking up . . . and I hate i t when i t ' s a l l yucky . . .  A  wheel is broken in that picture . . . and I hate it when the wood is a l l broken and the parts of the wheel are missing. There nothing on i t , only a l l this long grass s t u f f .  It's  not a bit  p r e t t y because there's a fence . . . i t has a hole, a scrape and rust on i t .  A picture of the Chinese junks was mentioned — several children saw rusty  parts on the boat hulls and one  child did not like the patched sails  especially on the s a i l where the patches didn't m a t c h .  Children disliked the  face and boots of the m o t o r c y c l e driver because they were too d i r t y .  Only one  boy d i f f e r e d , saying that although he didn't l i k e the d i r t , he l i k e d having baths when he was d i r t y best of a l l , so the picture was p r e t t y \  N a t u r a l Forms and Events  For children of both sexes scenery was w e l l - l i k e d .  This included lake  scenes, w a t e r f a l l s , t r e e s , flowers, sun, moon, stars, clouds and rainbows.  A  few children mentioned not l i k i n g clouds because " t h e n i t is going to r a i n " but l a r g e l y they were p r e f e r r e d , especially when coloured in sunsets. Children of both sexes repeatedly mentioned l i k i n g f l o w e r s , and the colour seemed unimportant. 5 year olds.  Fascination w i t h rainbows seems universal among  Their shape, c o l o u r , unusualness and legendary features combine  to make them s p e c i a l .  One boy t r i e d to explain what it was about rainbows he  liked. H e y , a rainbow!  A  prism  is a triangle and i f there's light  through it comes out a rainbow because i t ' s a prism. and a l l the colours of the rainbow.  Raindrops  going  I like the bend  do t h a t , too.  They  are sort of triangles, too. It seems the science of the rainbow was for that child as fascinating as the visual e f f e c t . Shapes, patterns, and decorations children.  were another  item preferred by  Shapes that were g e o m e t r i c , patterns that repeated a design  decorations, p a r t i c u l a r l y f l o w e r s , were noted. sexes, although more often by girls. w i t h children of either sex.  and  Jewelery was mentioned by both  Numbers, letters and flags were popular  Although  some  picture  items  were  selected more  frequently  by  children of one sex than another, generally the pictures e l i c i t e d nearly the same number of positive and negative responses from both groups.  Overall,  more positive responses were expressed than negative, which may indicate that the selected items contained slightly more positive aesthetic cues than negative ones.  Responses to Objects Opening questions produced a completely positive response to the idea of viewing beautiful objects.  C h i l d r e n furnished throughout a large number of  responses to the object section of the study. pretty i t e m s somewhere  They l i k e d the idea of putting  in their room to look a t , and entered the question  period enthusiastically.  Colour Reasons for aesthetic responses were divided into several categories. The most  predominant  mentioned  most  was  colour.  often, with  a  Combinations  single  favourite  of favoured colour  being  colours  were  occasionally  mentioned. Favoured colours included r e d , orange, y e l l o w , g o l d , pale blue, navy blue and w h i t e .  For a few children brown was a favoured colour; for some,  green, but for most these were disliked on objects.  One Japanese cup was  beige with white speckled o v e r - g l a z e and deep green l e t t e r i n g .  This  strong  green was overwhelmingly disliked even by children who preferred the item for other reasons.  FIGURE 5 OBJECTS (as regrouped f o r M a i n  Study)  Ceramic J2 J4 J3 J6  Tan and green Japanese tea cup White and blue rice bowl (Chinese) Tiny mexican cup Raku stone pot w i t h holes Wood  K2 Kl LI L2 L3  L e t t e r opener carved (Salish) O l d wooden plane (handmade) Rope horse (Mexican) D r u m , skin covered ( A f r i c a n ) Red basket w i t h l i d ( A f r i c a n ) Variety  Ml P2 PI M4 M2  Peacock feather Silk flower (peach) Silk flower (red) R a i l r o a d spike Stones Glass  N2 N3 N5 N4  Glass Glass Glass Glass  cube (red-orange) cube (yellow) ball (Japanese fishnet float) cubes melted (peach-tan) Metal  06 05 04 02  Leg hold traps Brass beak sculpture Antique silver mirror Tea caddie (all over pattern)  55 Table  III  Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision Making for Objects (Preferred) Categories 1.  Feature  Colour f=65 * f=3 f=28  favoured colours black colourful  f=8 f=3 F  colours go together colour doesn't suit sex  1  2.  3.  f=21 f=23  shapes and designs lines and patterns  f=14 f=31 f=7 f=10 f=28  decoration flowery leaves l e t t e r s , numbers additional parts  " i t ' s pink and pale orange for girls. This is for girls."  "I l i k e i t because i t has holes in i t . " "these designs going around make the bowl p r e t t y . " " t h e r e ' s pretty decorations." " p r e t t y flowers at the back, b e a u t i f u l . " " t h e leaves are r e a l l y n i c e , growing t o o . " " t h e r e ' s l i t t l e H's here its p r e t t y . " "these nails are p r e t t y . "  Surface and Texture  f=7  shiny surface bumpy surface sparkly or reflective soft and furry  "shiny is nice on this part." " i t ' s kind of bumpy, I l i k e i t . " " t h e light comes out of the m i r r o r . " "I l i k e smooth s t u f f y , you don't get slivers."  M a t e r i a l of C o n s t r u c t i o n f=7  8.  "I l i k e the red colour b e t t e r . " " w e l l , I do l i k e the black." " t h e r e are a l l different colours . . . together . . . " "blue and white look good together."  Design Elements  f=10 f=6 f=33  4.  Example  straw  " i t ' s straw in pretty colours . . . i t ' s p r e t t y . "  S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Beliefs f=6 f=2  reference to f a m i l y reference to culture  " m y Grandma has these, for r i c e they a r e . " " I ' m Japanese and this looks l i k e Japanese or Chinese."  9.  Association f=20 f=4 f=2  11.  1.  previous experience reminder of school looks funny  " t h i s looks more like strawberry j e l l o . " " w e have one l i k e this at Wendy House." " I t ' s p r e t t y , i t looks funny."  P r a c t i c a l Considerations f=32  is useful  f=8 f=5 f=5  is heavy right size is s m a l l  f = frequency  " I ' d use this for a fan . . . i t looks like a t a i l . " " i t ' s heavy . . . I l i k e i t . " " i t ' s just the right s i z e . " " t h e size is r e a l l y n i c e , just l i t t l e . "  57 Table IV Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision Making for Objects (Not Preferred) Categories 1.  3.  f=5ll-  not favoured colour  f=16 f=17 f=5 f=4 F  black too l i t t l e colour colours too mixed up colour doesn't suit sex  f=6 f=10  shapes and designs lines and patterns  f=5 f=19 f=8  no decoration additional parts doesn't belong  " i t ' s got grey and brown w i t h colours that are not for girls." " t h i s pink is a g i r l ' s colour." " t h e r e ' s holes inside not pretty ones." " t h e green lines look messy . . . I don't like them." " i f i t had decorations . . . i t would be p r e t t y . " " t h e r e ' s spooky buffalo ears on the edge." " t h e r e ' s some seaweed stuck on i t . "  Surface and Texture not shiny bumpy  " i t ' s a not shiny j e w e l r y . " " i t doesn't f e e l nice . . . i t ' s bumpy and chipping."  M a t e r i a l of C o n s t r u c t i o n f=16  5.  " i t ' s because the colours make i t so . . . yucky." " i t ' s black and brown, ugh." " t h e r e ' s not much colours on i t . " " i t ' s because the colours are a l l mixed up."  M  colour doesn't suit sex Design Elements  f=2 f=10 4.  Example  Colour  f=l  2.  Feature  rusty  " i t doesn't look nice i t ' s rusty."  C o n d i t i o n of Item f=5 f=ll f=6 f=8  messy, holes, patches, pieces missing too l o n g , not c u t , dirty old wood, m a t e r i a l twisted  " i t has holes and messy s t u f f here." " t h e rope is a knot . . . i t ' s a l l broken." " t h e legs are a l l t w i s t e d . "  9.  11.  Association f=20  previous experience  f=22  looks dangerous  f=l  looks too funny  P r a c t i c a l Considerations f=17  f=12 f=l f=l  1.  " i t makes me think of scary things i n the dark." " t h e sharp part is not p r e t t y because I might get hurt." " i t ' s funny . . . I don't l i k e i t . . . "  represents s k i l l too d i f f i c u l t too heavy too big too s m a l l  f = frequency  "I don't know what i t ' s f o r , I don't like i t . " " o o h . . . i t ' s heavy . . . r e a l l y heavy." " i t ' s a fat bottle." " i t ' s too s m a l l for anything."  Black was strongly viewed as " u g l y " by children of both sexes.  In a  v a r i e t y of items containing other colours, exclusively or i n c i d e n t a l l y , black was prominent  as  aesthetically  displeasing.  Colourfulness  was  noted  as  aesthetically pleasing. The  number,  brightness  and  combination  of  colours  were  noted  frequently on i t e m s .  Comments indicated that colourfulness was an important  aspect  decision  of  aesthetic  making.  Additionally, a  few  made  carefully  thought-out remarks that indicated an observance of how two or more colours looked together. up."  C h i l d r e n seemed to like colours together but not " a l l mixed  On a R a k u pot, where the glazes had blended, colours were frequently  noted as not p r e t t y .  However, on a Chinese r i c e bowl (white and blue), where  mid-blue was applied over white china ground in neat defined designs, children overwhelmingly l i k e d the colour combination. G e n e r a l l y , bright sunny colours in combination were preferred.  On  several items which were strongly disliked by c h i l d r e n , the question of how to improve these was  put forward.  Painting them r e d , gold, orange or  many  pretty colours, especially rainbow colours a l l over, was frequently the response. One boy, disliking a railroad spike s t a t e d : . . .[I don't like i t ] 'cause i t doesn't look very nice because of the colours . . . black and brown . . . i t ' s a l l different colours mixed up . . . I don't l i k e t h a t . [ Y o u could make it prettier] by putting red and orange in stripes until you're done. The  question of colour being suitable to the sex of the c h i l d did  emerge but only with a selected few i t e m s .  C e r t a i n children of both sexes  consistently felt that c e r t a i n colours were " g i r l s ' colours." concept was that pink was for girls.  In every case their  One g i r l r e j e c t e d many items on the basis  that i t was not pink, and from a selection of pebbles, she picked out only the  pink ones to l i k e .  Interestingly, for other individuals of either sex colours did  not have such exclusive meaning.  Boys f e l t pleased to select the " p r e t t y pink  stones" and girls to select other items w i t h or without that colour. The predominantly  elimination by  the  pilot group of several  blue, l i m i t e d opportunity  to gather  items  which  information on  were  children's  6  responses to different values of blue.  G e n e r a l l y children stated they l i k e d the  colour alone, or in combination with white on the items presented. Just as  colourfulness  was a strong prerequisite for selection of an  i t e m , so the corollaries of not enough colours, colours not bright enough and colours too mixed up came up on the negative side.  Monotone or dual toned  items were overwhelmingly rejected for their l a c k of colour.  Decoration Second  in  decorative additions. letter  configurations  frequency  of  notation  with  respect  to  objects  F l o w e r s , identifiable shapes, leaves, buttons, nails brought  f o r t h numerous  comments.  For  girls flowers were strongly preferred on a variety of items —  both boys  were and and  on the bottom of  the r i c e bowl (applied design), as silk f l o w e r s , and on the back of the silver mirror (molded  design).  C i r c l e s , squares, triangles and polygons were mentioned as parts of or as the basic shapes of some objects.  Patterns of dots, holes, repeated  stripes were often given as reasons for s e l e c t i n g an i t e m , but some children were equally ready to reject an item because the designs or patterns were not to their l i k i n g . e x e m p l i f i e d here:  O f t e n this appeared in combination w i t h other qualities as " t h e green lines look messy, I don't l i k e these . . . " ; " W e l l  . . . there are empty holes inside, not pretty ones."  However, in spite of  disliking some designs overwhelmingly most children felt as this child did:  "If  it had decorations . . . then it would be p r e t t y . " Some c h i l d r e n , not recognizing what an artist might classify as an abstract pattern or design, found these distasteful. they became horns, claws or t e e t h .  In the c h i l d r e n ' s eyes,  One boy saw the blue designs in the r i c e  bowl as mean birds so he disliked these, whereas another boy saw them as l i t t l e H's and noted how pretty they were.  Materials  Materials  for  construction  as  translated through  were the next major focus of aesthetic comments  surface  qualities  on the objects presented.  L i g h t , translucent, and r e f l e c t i v e qualities were greeted enthusiastically.  The  discovery that the r i c e bowl was translucent produced this animated response: " A n d the holes, oh yeah . . . they glow . . . [holding i t u p ] . . . use i t at n i g h t t i m e , put a light under i t , here, then light comes o u t ! " M e t a l and mirror surfaces were considered interesting not only for looking at oneself, but because they were excellent for "bouncing light around." A d d i t i o n a l l y , the shiny clear surface glaze on the Chinese rice bowl, w i t h translucent r i c e p a t t e r n , the shine  on a  peacock's  feather's e y e , and  the  polished surface on a brass bear were a l l considered highly appealing. Items  were  noted  for  their  surface  and  transparent  qualities.  Orange-red and yellow slab glass cubes were selected by a number of children; their  size,  Youngsters  shape  and  clarity  combining  to  make  the  item  appealing.  were frequently fascinated by these and wanted to use them l a t e r .  One g i r l noted: these look l i k e gold . . . gold again, right? Y o u can see through and this hand is yellow and this hand is red and i t looks l i k e J e l l o , t o o . [I l i k e these] 'cause I like the taste of the favours . . . [ t h e s e ] are just glass.  Soft and furry qualities were i d e n t i f i e d on a variety of objects as being desirable.  For a few children the glass cubes were called " s o f t " , which  seemed to indicate smooth. in this way.  Several items of f a b r i c and feather were described  C h i l d r e n also i d e n t i f i e d items as not appealing that were not  smooth or shiny.  Bumpy was mentioned as both appealing and  unappealing,  almost depending on what the c h i l d had previously decided about the object. C e r t a i n l y , it was i n c i d e n t a l to other aspects. M a t e r i a l of construction was  c a r e f u l l y assessed for quality.  Old,  broken, w r e c k e d , t o r n , p i e r c e d , t w i s t e d , r u s t y , and dirty conditions were seen as highly unappealing.  Even p a t t e r n , c o l o u r , or shape which might otherwise  be seen as appealing did not have a powerful enough influence to overcome these e f f e c t s . Children disliked the twisted rope on both a M e x i c a n horse and a glass b a l l .  Twisted rope on both these items was considered scratchy.  plane was described as "bumpy  and chipping" by several children.  slab glass was " w r e c k e d and a l i t t l e bit broken" to one boy.  A wood A  bumpy  A Mexican cup  was disliked because i t was old and had been " s c r i b b l e d " on. Two items were pinpointed as e x e m p l i f y i n g this group — the railroad spike and the l e g hold traps.  O f the spike one c h i l d s t a t e d , " U m . . . i t ' s used  for taking o f f tires . . . and chipping s t u f f . . . i t doesn't look very nice . . . i t ' s rusty."  Of the l e g hold traps very l i t t l e positive was s t a t e d .  One g i r l  thought they'd be handy for " p l a y i n g cops and robbers," but her opinion was the exception; generally, r e a c t i o n went " t h e s e look l i k e hand cuffs . . .  [I don't  l i k e them ] 'cause they are old and they have s c r i t c h e s " or "these are bear traps . . . I wouldn't l i k e to get caught in one . . . because they are dangerous. The rust makes them not p r e t t y .  It doesn't f e e l nice to touch . . . they are  bumpy . . . this stuff . . . rust looks . . . ugh "  Another respondent said: " y o u take a c a r e f u l look and, by the way, what are these? I don't know what they are. I would throw them in the garbage Y e a h , one thing t h e y ' r e for describing the l e t t e r " b " . What are these things in the middle? I'll t e l l you what to use them f o r , i f someone stole something, the police could use them for hand cuffs. The part I don't l i k e is this rust . . . this rusty brown colour a l l over. Some children viewed rust as the state where the paint has worn off; others, d i s l i k i n g the colour brown, focused on the colour i t s e l f . of a good coat of paint followed in some cases.  The suggestion  Stripes, blue and red and  rainbow colour were suggested to improve the l e g hold traps. Holes which were part of a pattern were generally viewed positively, but in the a c c i d e n t a l form of rips were not.  For a few children holes in the  R a k u pot were mysterious, unexplainable and disliked; other children spent t i m e t r y i n g to figure out why they were there.  Association This searching for an explanation leads to the next area of aesthetic decision elicted  making, memories  that  of  association.  V i e w e d in a  positive l i g h t , objects  which quite often had cultural overtones  similar items from home.  of the same or  Reminders of fun and adventure, times shared and  i n t e r e s t i n g foods were powerful association f a c t o r s . Several children t a l k e d about the rice b o w l , which they l i k e d because i t was used as best china at home or at Grandma's. terms of r i c e or soup.  The Japanese tea cup was selected by several children  because they thought it looked Chinese or Japanese. read me what i t said.  They thought of i t in  Another  One boy stated he could  child selected a Salish Indian l e t t e r  opener  because i t reminded him of a r e a l Japanese knife that the f a m i l y uncased and viewed  at  Grandma's  house.  Knives  had  both  positive  and  negative  connotations.  Children who watched a parent use one for fishing or kitchen  preparation r e f e r r e d positively to the parent and object. cup one boy stated:  O f the Japanese tea  "I l i k e this . . . I'm Japanese and K a i l is Chinese . . . I'm  the good guys . . . I l i k e this because I'm Japanese and this looks l i k e Japanese or Chinese . . .  [I l i k e ] the Japanese w r i t i n g . . . and I l i k e this down here"'  (pointing to Japanese  characters).  The t i n y Mexican cup reminded several girls of their own tea sets and hours engaged in delighted play.  One g i r l stated:  "It's  a China cup . . . i t ' s  l i t t l e for tea . . . dolly tea . . . I have a China tea set at home and I'm  very  careful w i t h i t ! " Food  associations  were  powerful to children.  Chinese f o o d , and tea were mentioned.  The glass cubes made many  think of J e l l o , while the closed tea caddie brought within.  R i c e , soup, c e r e a l , children  wonder at delights held  C o o k i e s , candy, fortune cookies to e a t , tea and rose petals to smell  were suggested as possible contents.  Struggling to get i t open, several were  pleased or disappointed to smell tea bags inside.  In their opinion,  cookies  would c e r t a i n l y have been better. Association  w i t h the classroom  flowers because I d i d . he announced:  prompted one boy to say he l i k e d  On insisting that I wanted him to pick what he l i k e d ,  " f l o w e r s are p r e t t y because you l i k e them . . . because I know  people give you flowers.  Y o u l i k e the flowers because you say, 'thank  honey bun' — w e l l , my mom says t h a t , t o o " .  you,  It was evident here how strongly  association and influence make their mark on children. Negative preferences.  experiences  acted,  too,  as  a  deterrent  to  aesthetic  Items which carried f e a r f u l connotations were often completely  rejected by children as displeasing:  thoughts of spooky, dark, s c a r y , or lonely  times; dangerous qualities including sharpness, pointedness, a k i l l i n g or trapping  aspect.  Many of the children expressed this as a personal f e a r , but even those  that envisioned the fantasy o c c u r r i n g to something else —  often animals  —  found this quality d i s t a s t e f u l . The following e x e m p l i f i e d how many of these youngsters c a r r i e d out their decision making.  The associative strength of one i t e m seems to overrule  another in sequence:  " A h . . . i t ' s just nice . . . I like flowers . . . i t ' s red . .  . I l i k e i t better than orange . . . that's prettier than the stone because the stone could break the flower and make i t die. because it has an eye on i t .  I want to keep i t . "  Strength of association is one of selection  among  frequent  sights  5 of  year  olds.  The  s t r u t t i n g male  mentioned by one boy.  Oh . . . the feather is prettier  the essential keys to aesthetic  association peacocks  of  showing  peacock  feathers  with  a l l their " e y e s "  was  The notion of " a l l eyes" was evidently more powerful  than the other choices he had made. Many children had negative associations with the l e t t e r opener since they saw it as a weapon, something used to k i l l people, something used by nasty c h a r a c t e r s .  Many expressed their fear of strangers during this discussion.  It's a knife . . . w e l l , I don't l i k e i t because i t ' s a l l brown and blackish. U r n , I don't l i k e knives and I don't l i k e them a l l blackish and brownish. When Indians had them they killed animals for their dinner and breakfast and lunch and I don't like k i l l i n g animals, because I l i k e animals . . . they are nice and they don't harm you. I don't like the blackish-brownish. If i t were a rainbow i t would be prettier. Children disliked items they perceived as dangerous.  They frequently  disliked the angular blade on the plane, which they thought might cut them; the point on the l e t t e r opener; and the slab glass since they might  either cut  themselves or drop the glass and get " i n trouble." Loneliness M e x i c a n rope horse.  was "I  mentioned  in  conjunction with one  item  —  the  don't think he is p r e t t y 'cause he has no ribbon on his  back and no man . . .  he has no playmates."  C u l t u r a l - r e l i g i o u s imagery had a strong influence on this same boy, who stated of the l e g hold traps:  " T h e y did this to Jesus one time . . . they  hanged him up . . . first they put his hands in here . . . then they attached a hook and then he died . . . i t ' s not pretty . . . i t ' s a l l rusty and that's a l l . " Scary and spooky were not so often associated w i t h whole items as with parts of t h e m . brought Also,  The decoration on the rim of the blue and white rice bowl  several comments  the  carved l e t t e r  about opener  spooky horns, scary claws and mean was  described as scary.  Bears  birds.  were  scary  generally because they had claws, t e e t h , or a scary mouth and a back hump. The brass bear in this section of the study l a c k e d the redeeming quality of furriness that the photograph had.  The glass ball became scary when i t made  one g i r l think of witches. Several incidental c r i t e r i a emerged which deserve children mentioned the weight of s p e c i f i c items — and m i r r o r .  For  most  comment.  Many  the spike, bear, slab glass  children this carried a negative connotation —  some  noted their dislike then added w i t h surprise as they picked an item up . . . " a n d i t ' s r e a l l y heavy."  When asked i f this made the item p r e t t y most children s a i d ,  " N o " except for two or three boys who said " Y e s " in a way that indicated they were saying . . . " i t ' s heavy, but not for me."  Strength has already been noted  as an important connotative element in positive preferences. C e r t a i n l y , both s m a l l and large were considered pleasing in different circumstances.  The glass b a l l , though  thereby insisted i t was not p r e t t y .  not heavy, was  fat to one g i r l  The M e x i c a n cup was " c u t e " and s m a l l to  some, but too small to others while some children l i k e d the mirror because they were big.  who  flowers  Several  children l i k e d the roses,  because  they  smelled so  great  (despite several attempts I could s m e l l nothing !). One boy loved them because they were " r e a l " ; another because they were " r e a l l y growing." One perceptive child stated the straw basket was beautiful because "whoever made it was r e a l l y good at i t . "  Not one other child made any direct  reference to craftsmanship as a visual aesthetic quality. C h i l d r e n tended to dislike items they did not know a use f o r .  Since  by now i t was clear to them that I would not help by giving them clues, they had become f a i r l y adept at coming up with various real and extraordinary ideas for the use of items in the study.  One boy thought the glass ball would be  better i f he and I were inside looking out. A s a whole, boys made about 20 more responses than girls.  Both  groups gave more positive than negative comments and preferred more items than they disliked.  A g a i n , I f e e l , the items for this section of the study may  have represented more pleasing than displeasing i t e m s .  Responses to Dress-Ups Although  enthusiasm  had  been  high,  and  children  had  come  to  understand the rhythm that questioning might t a k e , conditions for completing section t h r e e , that of dress-ups, were more d i f f i c u l t in several ways. May  days  were  creating a  warm  atmosphere  cupboard, and keenness was waning slightly.  in  the  Late  unventilated science  Combined with my own sense of  l a c k i n g contact w i t h the children because of involvement i n on-going classroom a c t i v i t i e s , this made completion of the section more d i f f i c u l t . A w a r e of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , I showed more commitment than usual. With completion of data c o l l e c t i n g within sight, I took to greeting a l l the children outside over my lunch hour, holding hands while I walked each c h i l d  back through the c o r r i d o r , and giving extra hugs to many as they entered the study room.  Children wore shorts  to a l l a y the e f f e c t s of dressing-up  in my  "hot s p o t " . R e a c t i o n from the children when questioned about their interest in dress-up items was largely positive; however, a few children were notably less keen about answering questions regarding dress-ups.  A few wondered how long  it would t a k e , and several stated they didn't l i k e to dress up or never went to Wendy House i n the classroom B r i t i s h infant schools  (Wendy House is the t e r m originally used for  for a dress-up  center).  The children who expressed  dislike for dressing up were exclusively boys.  a  They a l l looked at the dress-up  i t e m s , but a f t e r a few items had been discussed, several of the boys dismissed the  remainder  without  making  a  selection.  Recording  of  these  overall  responses was noted, but does not appear in the analysis of individual responses since  no  specific  comments  were  made,  (see  Appendix  C  for  individual  responses.) Colour Colour of item was by far the strongest reasons for what they had s e l e c t e d .  factor in children's stated  Favoured colors predominated; for most  children there was a group of colors p r e f e r r e d , and a few they disliked. For  girls,  pink  clothing  was  highly  favoured.  Red,  gold,  blue,  orange, m i d - y e l l o w and purple were very strongly l i k e d by the majority of the group.  A few l i k e d brown, a few disliked purple, light yellow and dark green. F o r boys, r e d , blue, g o l d , orange, y e l l o w , and purple were favoured  colors.  Some boys l i k e d brown, also; some disliked purple.  distinction about the tone of yellow preferred. stated  with  eloquence.  One  boy  said,  "I  No boy made a  Colour preferences were often  love  this  pinkish-purplish  with  Figure 6 D R E S S - U P S (as regrouped for Main Study) Hats Ql Q4 Q5 Q7 Q8 Q9  Chinese coolie hat Black 50's style hat (over top only) Brown and black fur hat Navy f i r e c h i e f ' s hat Orange construction worker's hat Red fireman's hat Wigs and J e w e l r y  Rl R3 U3 U6 U7 U8 U9  Long blonde w i g Long brown w i g Shiny pearl necklace (white/pink/blue) P l a s t i c l e i (pink and purple) P l a s t i c l e i (pink and yellow) P l a s t i c l e i (yellow and white) Bracelets (blue, silver and brown) Vests and Capes  SI 53 54 55 56  Vest (red suede) Blue jeans (small s i z e , cut o f f ) Black vest (front only) B l a c k cape w i t h red l i n i n g Cowboy jacket Dresses  Tl T6 T7 T10  Purple dress w i t h satin t r i m Pink beaded opera dress Y e l l o w sheer nightgown Blue and white check  70 Purses V3 V4 V5  Red pattent leather w i t h silver closure Black pattent leather with coin handle Wallet, Japanese pattern on cream ground Long  Wl W3 W4 XI X4  Long white lace Brown-beige Lace Ghost wrap Long pale over gown Long pink coat  71 Table V Features Mentioned in A e s t h e t i c Decision Making for Dress-Ups (Preferred) Categories 1.  1  f=29  . . . " i t ' s brown I l i k e t h a t . " . " i t ' s got lots of bright colour." . " w e l l i t ' s red inside and I l i k e r e d . " . "I l i k e the black, its p r e t t y . " . " w e l l , pink . . . i t ' s my favourite colour." . " g o l d is very p r e t t y . " . " i t ' s got a l o t of pretty colours on i t . " . " i t looks pretty beside each other."  shapes and designs lines and patterns flowery letters and numbers animal designs additional parts  . . . . . .  . . . . . .  "I l i k e the shape of that." "I l i k e the pattern of nice holes." " t h e flowers in the l a c e I l i k e . " "these l e t t e r s on the edge." " t h e birds a l l over going N o r t h . " " t h e leather edge makes i t p r e t t y . "  shiny surface sparkly or reflective soft and furry  . . " i t ' s smooth shiny s t u f f , here." . . "I l i k e the l i t t l e mirrors." . . " t h e furry parts are pretty."  Other senses f=3 f=2  8.  . . . . . . .  Surface and Texture f=19 f=7  7.  favoured bright colour red black pink gold colourful colours go together  Design Elements f=27 f=27 f=24 f=2 f=5 f=38  3.  Example  Colour f=47 ' f=45 f=28 f=20 f=16 f=15 f=25 f=6  2.  Feature  noisy smells good  . . . " y o u can jingle t h e m . " - . . . " i t smells l i k e l i p s t i c k . " ;  Socio-Cultural f=15  reference to f a m i l y  f=8  reference to culture  , . . " a n d i t ' s Chinese and my D a d was born in Chinatown." . . . "I was one on Hallowe'en before."  9.  Association f=35 f=5 f=50 f=7  10.  " i t ' s an Indian j a c k e t . " "I like being funny."  for boys for girls  . " m e and my Dad l i k e vests." . "these are for girls from H a w a i i . "  P r a c t i c a l Considerations f=13 f=18  1.  " w e have one l i k e this at home." " w e have one of these in our classroom."  Sex R o l e f=8 f=4  11.  previous experience reminder of school reminder of character looks funny  fits well has useful parts  f = frequency  "I like this . . . i f i t f i t s . " " i t ' s got nice big pockets."  73 Table V I Features Mentioned i n A e s t h e t i c Decision Making for Dress-Ups (Not Preferred) Categories  Example  Feature  Colour  2.  3.  4. 5.  7.  8.  f=77 f=32 f=13 f=4 f=5 f=21 f=3 Design f=10 f=14 f=20 Surface f=4 f=3 f=4  favoured black pink gold silver too l i t t l e colour too much colour Elements shapes and designs lines and patterns decoration and Texture not soft or furry too shiny too sparkly, reflective f=2 not shiny enough M a t e r i a l o f Construction f=ll sheer Condition o f Item f=20 too long, not c u t , dirty f=9 holes, patches, pieces missing, messy, scratched f=20 c r a c k e d , broken, wrecked Other Senses 7=2 noisy f=l smells unpleasant f=8 too prickley  S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Beliefs reference t o f a m i l y W reference t o culture f=5  . . . . . . .  " i t ' s brown . . . I don't l i k e that." "I hate the black . . . " "I don't l i k e how the pink colour is." "I don't l i k e this beigy gold." "I don't like this silvery colour." " i t ' s not very colourful r e a l l y . " "I don't like pretty colours too much."  . " i t has a triangle point at the top." . " t h e blue and white checks are ugly." . "I hate the design on this one." . " a l l o f them aren't furry." . "I don't like this shiny stuff ..feels yucky." . " t o o sparkly, too slippery." . " i t ' s not very shiny." . " t o o sheer . . . seeing through i t . " ' i t ' s too b i g , long  ugh."  . . " t h e hair is a l l scribbled." " i t ' s old ripped, right here." " i t makes a lot o f noise." " i t smells yucky." " t h i s l e i is too p r i c k l y , I'm taking i t off." " a Japanese hat." " i t ' s not to wear i t ' s for a table."  74  9.  Association 7=19 pTevious experience f=20 reminds child of character f=3  10.  11.  1.  "makes me think of a vampire." • • •  " t h e y are a stranger's pants . . . I'm scared of t h e m . "  looks too funny  Sex Roles f=39 M not for for f=5 F not for for  boys/ girls girls/ boys  P r a c t i c a l Considerations f=6 don't know how to wear i t f=15 too long f=10 too s m a l l  f = frequency  " i t ' s not for boys, i t ' s for girls." "I  don't want to put i t on because I am a g i r l . "  "I don't know how to wear i t . " " i t ' s too long for me." " i t doesn't f i t . . . i t ' s too small."  yellowish-beigish parts." pink.  As this remark i l l u s t r a t e s , at least some boys l i k e d  Items such as a flower l e i , which for some boys carried no reference to  gender, were indicated as very pretty on the basis of color.  In contrast  to  those several boys who l i k e d pink, the majority of boys disliked i t and dismissed articles w i t h " i t ' s pink —  pink is for girls; I hate i t —  ugh,  ugh!"  Many children of both sexes disliked brown, some disliked red and many disliked black.  Surprisingly, many more children expressed a preference  for black on a v a r i e t y of dress-up clothes than they had for that colour either in pictures or objects.  H a t s , bags, capes, and vests were selected for their  colour in a large number of cases. Silver  and grey were l i k e d and disliked equally on clothing i t e m s ,  s p e c i f i c colour preference being very individual.  Colourfulness, brightness  of  colour and arrangement of colour were indicated as important; pale tones were less preferred than strong tones and very bright items were repeatedly selected on the basis of colour intensity. combinations  Some children stated they l i k e d mixtures and  of colour and many said that black was preferred " w i t h other  colours." Reasons for item rejection with respect to colour were both "not much colour" in the case of the brown jacket and the brown and black fur hat or " t o o much colour" on the red bag or the black and red cape.  C h i l d r e n by  now were s u f f i c i e n t l y comfortable to suggest various improvements item as indicated here:  to every  "I don't l i k e i t , because I like the soft . . . I like the  brown f u r , but I don't l i k e the colour . . . the brown and black . . . I'd l i k e it red and purple !"  Association Association,  as  a  criterion  for  selection,  was  mentioned  very  frequently but only about half as frequently as either favoured colour or colour brightness.  Association,  here,  includes  thoughts  or  memories  of  positive  experiences, adventures, happy times or creating thoughts of good characters either  r e a l or  imaginary.  A s s o c i a t i o n , in this  instance, also  contains  the  parallel category of cultural-religious experience. In s e l e c t i n g and discussing  i t e m s both boys and girls had positive  memories of dressing for H a l l o w e ' e n .  They l i k e d being funny, scary, p o w e r f u l ,  and girls l i k e d being b e a u t i f u l , also.  C h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d outfits they had w o r n ,  or that classmates, siblings, parents and teachers had worn.  Many commented,  by looking at hats, flower l e i s , long capes and j a c k e t s , on the different things they  might  wear  next  year.  For  one  girl,  new  to C a n a d a ,  the  previous  H a l l o w e ' e n had been her first c e l e b r a t i o n , so she made an animated response to silver and blue bangles and a l a c e shawl, being reminded of the " g y p s y " items in which she f e l t so a t t r a c t i v e . The sight of D r a c u l a ' s  black and red l i n e d  cape brought for one respondent instant r e c o l l e c t i o n of me dressed as a w i t c h for the school H a l l o w e ' e n party:  "I  like dressing for H a l l o w e ' e n . . . not  before, but here in Canada . . . I saw funny l i t t l e clowns . . . I was a gypsy . . . [I l i k e ] to be p r e t t y . . . i t was f u n .  Y o u were a w i t c h . . . (huge smile) i t  was funny but not too scary for m e ! " U n i v e r s a l l y , this  concept  of  scary  was  noted by youngsters.  All  children wanted to be scary especially for brothers and sisters, but none wanted to be scared.  When the association for a c h i l d became too s c a r y , the i t e m  took on a negative character.  The vest, Dracula's cape, the brown wig were  rejected by some children because Count"  they were for vampires, D r a c u l a ,  (a character in the T V program Sesame S t r e e t ) , or witches. Eugh . . . a vampire suit . . . my uncle A l e x . . . has one of these and one time he scared us with my Mom's pig mask. He even has vampire t e e t h . He lives w i t h us. Y o u can f l y w i t h i t . I l i k e the lot of red and black, but not this suit . . . i t ' s too scary.  "The  Association  with  imaginary  or  real  characters  Hallowe'en also had a negative connotation for children. jeans cut off to f i t 5 year olds said:  "Ugh  not  related  to  One g i r l viewing blue  . . . Incredible Hulk  pants."  Another child caught in much f a m i l y c o n f l i c t said they looked just l i k e her father's pants and they had " t a k e n him away forever." For  some  children, Hallowe'en  did not  associations, because they did not celebrate i t . but others simply had no r e l a t e d associations.  have  pleasant  or  happy  Several said it was " t o o s c a r y " One g i r l stated she l i k e d to  dress up at school and in her bedroom and " b e scary for my friends." Fascination w i t h outer space, power, and superstars brought animated comments  from  children  of  both  sexes.  Boys  identified  Superman  and  Spiderman and g i r l s , Superman and Wonder Woman as characters they associated with clothing.  Despite  classroom  popularity, neither Darth  Solo (characters from a w e l l - k n o w n movie) were mentioned.  Vader  nor Hans  One may suppose  that s p e c i f i c dress items create r e c a l l for s p e c i f i c characters.  The cape w i t h  red l i n i n g was seen as perfect for Superman by both boys and girls who quickly turned i t inside out.  One boy s t a t e d :  I would l i k e the cape (delighted smile) . . . Superman has a red one outside . . . i t ' s a l l together . . . looks so long, you would need to snip i t . Y o u could dress up in H a l l o w e ' e n in this. It's black and red . . . I could make a cape l i k e this out of paper and cut i t . . . Superman, B a t m a n , R o b i n , no, his is yellow . . . It's Superman ! Cultural criteria.  associations  made  up a small section of  the  association  C h i l d r e n l a r g e l y recognized items from other cultures and i d e n t i f i e d  these in the i t e m ' s description.  As a reason for aesthetic preference i t was  noted by only a few youngsters in comments l i k e : This is a hat from Japan . . . (big s m i l e , wearing hat) . . . there's a design on the outside and a point at the top . . . and there's a c i r c l e around the . . . here (pointing to r i m ) . . . I l i k e the shape in the hat. It looks like a triangle shape. I l i k e this Japanese hat . . . we are going to Japan soon, too.  or: It's too big. I c a n ' t see . . . I like the shape and i t ' s a Chinese and my Dad was born in Chinatown. He's Japanese. Y e a h , i t ' s my f a v o u r i t e . C u l t u r a l association was at times evidenced in images or memories of positive c u l t u r a l experience such as this statement made by a child:  "It's  non-Hawaiian  something that you wear when you come at H a w a i i , because  went there a long t i m e ago.  They are flowers.  I  I like i t because the colour . .  . urn . . . is so nice and that a l l of the colours aren't mixed up.  H a w a i i is  really nice, there!" Associations  for g i r l s , d i s t i n c t from  seemed to center around beauty. nighties  built images  the influence of  Hallowe'en,  Responses to long flowing dresses, gowns and  of bridal receptions, dances  and parties.  selected from among several wigs invariably chose the blond one. l i k e d the brown or black wigs, even though  Those  who  Few children  their own hair might be dark.  Another popular c r i t e r i o n for selection was dress-up items which bespeak the role of mother.  C o o k i n g aprons, perfume, handbags (with money) and heeled  shoes for shopping had strong appeal. F o r boys, f i r e m a n ' s hats, construction hats and policeman's hats were strongly preferred. "on Saturdays".  Some selected blue jeans to look l i k e workmen or like dad  Vests  were selected for " w e a r i n g to work" or because  dad and I have always wanted one l i k e this." dress up t o be anybody, just myself."  One boy stated "I  "my  don't like to  For many 5 year olds i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h  a role seems to be w e l l established.  Design Elements Shape and design as a c r i t e r i o n for aesthetic choicemaking coupled with decorative quality emerged with equal frequency throughout  children's  comments.  The Chinese hat and bangles were repeatedly selected as having an  appealing shape.  The  pointed d o m e - l i k e shape  which was  triangle and the c i r c u l a r arm bangles were w e l l - l i k e d . the fur pieces and pearl beads  reminiscent  The twisting shape of  and the various shapes of hats such as the  f i r e m a n ' s , construction worker's and policeman's were mentioned. children  could  readily i d e n t i f y  of a  were  most  often  noted  in  Shapes that  comments.  As  negative aspects, a few children disliked the pointed Chinese hat while others disliked the shape of the bow on the '50s black hat or the purple dress. D e c o r a t i o n is defined as applied or surface  decoration or p a t t e r n .  Lines and patterns which repeated were as popular as f l o w e r y designs as a basis for aesthetic decision making.  These dominated remarks made w i t h respect to  dresses, long gowns and clothes. variously  named  as  feathers  Fringes on the cowboy j a c k e t , which were  and rainspouts  were  an  equally  popular  item.  Pompoms on the fur hat were selected as beautiful " b e a r ' s ears" and " f u r r y bumps."  D e c o r a t i v e additions including beading, sequins,  brass buttons,  satin t r i m were noticed and appreciated by children of both sexes.  and  Letters,  numbers, stars, and bird patterns were r e f e r r e d to positively. Very clothing.  few  remarks  indicated negative  response  One g i r l wearing the Japanese wallet stated:  to  decoration  on  " I t ' s a purse . . . this  purse has smiles here . . . the smiles have no eyes, no nothing . . . just the mouth . . .  no people might buy i t . . .  "  was unpleasant to her in its incompleteness.  What this g i r l explained as  smiles  A l l other children perceived these  as "birds flying south" and l i k e d the p a t t e r n . One particular pattern was repeatedly selected as most disliked in the dress group by both boys and girls — pleats  and large  white bands at  a turquoise and white check dress with  the bottom.  Several children indicated it  looked too much like a cook's apron and they didn't like to cook or want to  look l i k e one, but it was the pattern i t s e l f in conjunction with a " t o o light blue" that seemed to feature in most remarks.  One boy stated of  dresses:  "The only one I would l i k e to put on would be the blue one . . . I won't make a mess i f I'm  cooking.  I can make a sandwich by myself "  Surface texture brought out many comments, w i t h soft furry items conspicuous  as most  pleasing.  Since  touching o c c u r r e d , the thought  of  children's selections were made before furry  was  enough to  elicit  the  choice.  Smooth and shiny surfaces were strongly preferred together w i t h a very few remarks in favour of sparkly and r e f l e c t i v e areas.  Y e t a silver l a t c h on the  shiny red bag was repeatedly isolated as u n a t t r a c t i v e , —  and not f u r r y , not  very shiny and in the case of the silver l a t c h , too sparkly were  pinpointed  negatively in some cases. Materials M a t e r i a l of construction was r a r e l y mentioned as a positive reason for aesthetic selection; however, as a negative f a c t o r responses were equal w i t h those given for association.  C l o t h i n g was variously i d e n t i f i e d as ripped,  t o r n , broken, s p o t t e d , s c r u f f y and d i r t y .  Items that had previously been cut  off had " b a d edges" and several children discovered a dress with a "no good" broken zipper.  The bow slipped off one dress, so was commented on by one  respondent as "no f u n , not too neat . . . l i k e for wearing i t would r e a l l y bug you."  Even small marks bothered the c h i l d r e n , it seemed, because most items  were washed before the study.  Two long lace c l o t h s , intended for shawls or  capes had ripped edges which were repeatedly noted by the children. summed up the problem:  One* boy  " N o , I hate a l l of them . . . and this one is no good  for a cape . . . it has a hole in i t . . . i t ' s for a t a b l e ! "  Children preferred items which they perceived as f i t t i n g w e l l , since many made their comments without a c t u a l l y t r y i n g clothes on. comments  centered  around  "too  big"  or  "too  small".  Many negative  Clothing  that  was  d i f f i c u l t to understand how to wear was i m m e d i a t e l y r e j e c t e d , but only one item m y s t i f i e d a l l of them —  a black vest (since the back was missing  and  consisted only of tape strings). Children have a p r a c t i c a l side t o o , at this age; they l i k e big pockets, lots of pockets and good places to hide things.  These p r a c t i c a l considerations  came out e x p l i c i t l y i n comments about hat brims —  "great to keep the r a i n  and water o f f " and see-through dresses, of which one g i r l said: like i t .  It's  too sheer.  I'd  get  cold wearing this "  "I  don't r e a l l y  Another boy saw  the  cowboy j a c k e t ' s fringe as " a good place (for) the rain to go down and keep it off you!" Pockets to hide treasures were indicated as h e l p f u l , even in purses least preferred for other reasons.  Treasures, for both sexes, included money,  but for girls i t also meant l i p s t i c k , m i r r o r s , and "things that make you s m e l l good."  Boys did not indicate what other treasures might consist of. Smells, or the conception of t h e m , seem  aesthetic decision making among 5 year olds.  to influence some visual  To several children the buckskin  jacket was " w e i r d s m e l l i n g , " and therefore not preferred. The most s t r i k i n g difference between boys and girls was the r e l a t i v e interest  and  enthusiasm  section of the study.  girls  showed  in entering and  p a r t i c i p a t i n g in this  Only a few girls stated that they wouldn't l i k e to t r y on  items because they were for boys, whereas even to begin w i t h some boys were hesitating about dress-ups by expressing dislike or disinterest in the area. Boys expressed over 40 responses i n d i c a t i n g that i t e m s were not for boys, were only for g i r l s , or were only a girl's colour.  These respondents did  not include the five boys who simply refused to make  any selections  entire groups and so provided no detailed comments for examination. the remaining  from  Though  12 boys stated that they would not like to try on an i t e m  because i t would not suit their sex, they easily made selections of what they preferred to look at on others.  For these boys, somehow the question of who  would wear the i t e m was not so c r u c i a l ; the selection was t h e i r s , but the i t e m did not have to be.  One boy c a l m l y s e l e c t e d a purple dress saying, "I like this  bright purple and smooth s t u f f , here (satin bow)."  Another boy c a l m l y r e p l i e d ,  when asked i f he would l i k e to put on a dress, " N o . . . i t has holes in i t , l i t t l e holes . . .  It doesn't f e e l nice i f you rub i t . . .  If i t doesn't f e e l nice I  wouldn't l i k e to wear this . . . because kids would laugh.  W e l l , I'm not used to  wearing one so i t takes a long t i m e to get used to i t . " Of  those  boys  that  exceeded positive comments  gave  detailed  only by f i v e .  were not fully represented because  responses  negative  responses  F i v e additional boys, of  of the short length of their  course,  comments.  G i r l s were slightly positive, perhaps because the items selected were oriented more toward girls than boys.  To check this proposition I had two men look at  and respond to the dress-up i t e m s separately, focusing on the breakdown of boys' and g i r l s ' i t e m s . grouped  They were asked to look at the items as they had been  for the study, and to assess the i t e m s o v e r a l l .  Subsequently,  they  were asked to look at each group i n d i v i d u a l l y , assessing the balance of male and f e m a l e i t e m s . Both men stated that o v e r a l l there were more i t e m s for girls.  They  saw the sub-category hats as having more items for boys than for g i r l s , these being associated w i t h occupations, and they saw the group of vests and capes as being equally divided.  A l l other sub-categories including decorative i t e m s ,  bags, dresses, and long i t e m s (shawls  and robes) were interpreted as being  p r i m a r i l y , i f not e x c l u s i v e l y , for girls.  One man stated that dressing up was  p r i m a r i l y for g i r l s , while the other said i t was great for either sex but that I needed more items for boys.  Their comments paralleled very accurately the  kinds of comments received from boys involved in the study.  Although some  viewed dress-up p r i m a r i l y as a g i r l ' s a c t i v i t y , except for special occasions l i k e H a l l o w e ' e n , most simply f e l t that more boys' items were needed. It  was  perhaps  no surprise  t h e n , that  boys questioned  a f t e r the  interview sessions developed many more suggestions for additions to the items in the dress-up  section than girls.  Suggestions included a  clown o u t f i t , a  scientist's l a b c o a t , magician clothes, a skeleton o u t f i t , vampire t e e t h w i t h a f a c e to accompany t h i s , clothes for the Lone Ranger G.I.  Joe's  clothes  and  helmet  were  also  and a policeman's suit.  suggested.  Girls  made  a  few  suggestions including a better long wedding dress and big hats w i t h flowers. Several girls stated that the cape could have been better had i t looked e x a c t l y l i k e that of Wonder Woman.  Evidently at 5, children have a strong sense of  sexual i d e n t i t y , and although there is some f l e x i b i l i t y for some children in what kinds of o u t f i t s they w i l l t r y o n , many are very set about what is appropriate for their sex. Dress-ups  presented  some  special  considerations  for  children.  C l o t h i n g has some unique intrinsic qualities; i t is worn, not simply v i e w e d , so takes on a more personal aspect than even the most prized objects.  Dress-ups  r e f l e c t a temporary adoption of another's r o l e , character or i d e n t i t y . year  olds  these  were  strongly  linked  to  sexual  roles,  as  For 5  traditionally  stereotyped.  Dressing up was also strongly associated with the celebration of  Hallowe'en.  C h i l d r e n ' s c r i t e r i a for aesthetic decision making became less clear  in face of strongly expressed choices made as a r e f l e c t i o n of this celebration.  Practical choice.  Pockets,  protection  were  concerns  became  storage  spots  all criteria  for  an  for  added  aspect  treasures,  to  dress-up  comfort,  s e l e c t i o n , distinct  from  size, both  clothing fit,  and  objects  and  pictures. R o l e , image, and association  w i t h peers and adults of similar sex  were more evident with dress-up items than either pictures or objects.  Since  clothes are an avenue for adult personal expression, the distinction for children between being Superman  and dressing like  him seemed almost  non-existent.  When children dressed up they seemed transformed into another world. Their thought a mixture of imagination and r e a l i t y , 5 year olds showed a gradually increased awareness of the line between one world and another that seemed to be r e f l e c t e d in an increase in age.  Dress-ups seemed to help some children  cross this l i n e , while others were already sure they did not wish to cross i t . For boys, dressing up seems somewhat less enjoyed than for g i r l s , and was  more appealing for s p e c i f i c celebrations, p a r t i c u l a r l y H a l l o w e ' e n .  Boys  found this occasion very e x c i t i n g , and spent much time during the interview discussing  ideas  for  future  or  from  past  celebrations.  Clowns,  characters, and super heroes were as popular as t r a d i t i o n a l H a l l o w e ' e n D r a c u l a , vampires, monsters, and ghosts remained strong favourites.  space images.  Concepts  of power and the t h r i l l of c r e a t i n g fear in others were highly esteemed. was  for girls.  Pink  Long gowns, dresses, and handbags were not esteemed.  For  dress-ups not associated w i t h H a l l o w e ' e n , f i r e f i g h t e r s , p o l i c e m e n , construction workers, dads, magicians, clowns, s c i e n t i s t s , and cowboys were key roles. For  g i r l s , dressing  up  was  highly  regarded.  Whether  to  do  with  s p e c i f i c celebrations or at any t i m e , a l l girls stated that they l i k e d to dress up. Although  many  explained  that  stated that they did not dress up " t o o much at home" they  went  to Wendy House  quite o f t e n .  Associations  all with  H a l l o w e ' e n were strong in this group, also.  For this o c c a s i o n , witches, ghosts,  gypsies, clowns, ballerinas, cheerleaders, and Wonder Woman were popular.  At  Wendy House, moms, c h i l d r e n , brides, l a d i e s , nurses, and pets were popular. Girls  predominantly  wanted  to  be  beautiful.  shawls, dresses, big hats, high shoes and bags.  B e a u t i f u l meant  Power roles were equally  emulated in the form of Wonder Woman and mother roles. in  which  Hallowe'en  was  not  associations with w i t c h e s , vampires and ghosts. "being scary"  for siblings and peers.  gowns,  G i r l s ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with space  heroes was much less evident throughout interviews.  backgrounds  long  recognized,  For children with some  disliked a l l  Others expressed enjoyment of  Several boys in this group stated they  disliked dressing up. The loading of dress-ups, preferences must be noted.  more than any other a r e a , toward girls'  Boys in this study might have had an o v e r a l l more  positive response i f they had not perceived more i t e m s were for girls at the outset.  Concern that they might be asked to t r y on items which they did not  prefer might have created an immediate reaction of this section of the study. From babyhood.  birth children are  moving  away  from  the e g o c e n t r i c i t y of  A t 5, they s t i l l demonstrate this centering to some extent in their  view of art objects.  Self-association has s t i l l the most single powerful e f f e c t  upon aesthetic decision making.  A s s o c i a t i o n , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aspects and s e x -  role aspects a l l emanated from personal influences.  Only one child mentioned  the s k i l l of the craftsman as an important reason for her aesthetic choice. was able to look at a basket f i r s t , then note personal influences and uses: " W e l l , you can't get me to hate any of these, because there's pink and green and wheat colour and i t ' s r e a l l y n i c e . There's a l l a lot of designs on i t . It's nice because whoever made i t , they are very good at i t . . . i f you took the top o f f you could use i t for a hat."  She  Other sensory qualities have incidental influence.  S m e l l , touch and  sound qualities were mentioned along w i t h p r a c t i c a l considerations w i t h respect to  clothing.  Comments  about  the condition of items  were  dominant  c r i t e r i o n for not preferred items in a l l three sections of the study.  as  a  Broken  wheels, the patches on the Chinese junk's s a i l , rust on the l e g hold traps and soiled spots on dresses a l l e l i c i t e d responses This demand for neatness children's (1977) demand  with respect to poor condition.  and cleanness is at odds with Parsons' for r e a l i t y .  report of  C h i l d r e n were uncomfortable w i t h an  indication of old age or poverty. This was indicated by their responses to the wheel picture's long grass which they wished c u t , and the boathouse in the foggy P.E.I, bay which they saw as " a house where poor people l i v e d " since i t l a c k e d bottom boards.  S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment of D a t a : P i c t u r e s , Objects, and Dress-ups The bulk of discussion of the findings of this study is derived f r o m field  notes,  p a r t i c u l a r l y from  the  responses  of  the  31 children who  questioned on their preferences among pictures, o b j e c t s , and dress-up  were items.  Some s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons were also a t t e m p t e d in order to show which i t e m s e l i c i t e d the greatest number of preferences, or were noted as least preferred. Tables  I  through  VI  present  features  mentioned  as  grounds  for  aesthetic decision making, together with the frequency of occasions on which each was mentioned and a quotation e x e m p l i f y i n g the manner i n which each feature was described.  Tables I,  pictures, o b j e c t s , and dress-ups,  II,  and III  present preferred features for  while Tables I V ,  V , and V I  present  not-  preferred features in a similar sequence. Tables dress-ups  VII  and V I I I  as percentages.  compare  responses  to pictures, objects, and  The three categories cannot otherwise be properly  compared, for although the number  of respondents  number o f items t o which they responded varied: 30 dress-ups.  22 pictures, 22 objects, and  The f o l l o w i n g formula was employed for each feature i n t u r n :  t o t a l number o f times mentioned number of items x number of children The  remained the same, the  Mean  column  x  i n Tables  100 VII  =  % response  and V I I I  permits  comparisons  between any one of the three categories and the mean of a l l three categories for each feature mentioned as preferred or not preferred.  These tables also  show at a glance those features which may have been mentioned within one category but not i n another. Features exclusive.  mentioned  i n Tables  VII  and V I I I  are not mutually  F o r example, the i t e m favoured colours m a y r e f l e c t a response by  an individual that is also recorded as a s p e c i f i c colour, such as pink.  Not a l l  colours were sub-categorized by sex;only those colours which appeared to e l i c i t responses dominated by one sex or the other were so designated.  F i n a l l y , since  c r i t e r i a for aesthetic decision-making were the study's focus, fine distinctions among colour preferences were not recorded. Frequency of selection o f s p e c i f i c items by sex, for pictures, objects, and dress-ups is summarized  i n Appendix  B.  Appendix  C details for each  respondent those items within each of the three main categories which were preferred and not preferred. F o r each  category,  preferences  by boys are  d e t a i l e d , followed by preferences by girls.  Comparison o f Study Responses A e s t h e t i c choices amongst the group o f 5 year old participants i n this study were often s i m i l a r across the three main categories: and dress-ups.  pictures, objects,  Although the emphasis s h i f t e d , similar c r i t e r i a were isolated i n  88  P I C T U R E S , OBJECTS & DRESS UPS; F E A T U R E S E X P R E S S E D AS  PREFERRED  PERCENTAGES  %  1  P I C T U R E S O B J E C T S D R E S S UPS T O T A L (1) COLOUR Favoured Black Pink Red Gold Colourful Colours go together Suit sex Do not suit sex Bright  6.45 0.00 2.24 4.21 1.40 5.33 0.28 11.64 0.42 0.00  12.17 0.44 0.00 1.76 0.00 4.11 1.17 7.33 2.93 2.35  5.56 2.22 1.78 3.11 1.67 2.78 0.67 0.00 0.33 5.12  (2) D E S I G N E L E M E N T S Shapes & designs Triangle Square Circle Octagon Lines and patterns Decoration Flowery Leafy Letters and numbers A d d i t i o n a l parts A n i m a l design  0.00 0.42 6.45 1.68 0.14 0.84 0.00 3.09 0.00 0.00 4.77 0.00  3.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.37 2.05 4.55 1.03 1.47 4.11 0.00  (3) S U R F A C E A N D T E X T U R E Shiny Soft and furry Sparkly &/or r e f l e c t i v e Bumpy  3.51 0J98 5^61 0.00  2  MEAN %  24 3 4 9 3 12 2 19 4 7  8.06 0.89 1.34 3.03 1.02 4.07 0.71 6.32 1.23 2.49  3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 0.00 2.67 0.00 0.22 4.23 0.56  6 0 6 2 0 7 2 10 1 2 13 1  2.03 0.14 2.15 0.56 0.05 2.40 0.68 3.44 0.34 0.56 4.37 0.19  1.47 1.03 4.84 0.88  2.11 3.23 0.78 0.00  7 5 11 1  2.36 1.75 3.74 0.29  (4) M A T E R I A L O F C O N S T R U C T I O N Scenery appealing 0.56 Sunny 1.68 Sheer 0.00 Mountains, water & waves 4.21 Straw 6.31  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  0.78 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00  1 2 0 4 6  0.45 0.56 0.11 1.40 2.10  (7) S O C I O - C U L T U R A L B E L I E F S Reference to f a m i l y Reference to culture  1.96 1.82  0.88 0.29  1.67 0.89  5 3  1.50 1.00  (8) ASSOCIATION Previous experience Reminds child of school Reminds child of character Looks funny  7.57 0.98 4.07 0.00  2.93 0.59 0.00 0.29  3.89 0.56 5.56 0.78  14 2 10 1  4.80 0.71 3.21 0.36  •  89  P I C T U R E S , OBJECTS & DRESS UPS: F E A T U R E S E X P R E S S E D AS  PREFERRED  PERCENTAGES  %  1  P I C T U R E S OBJECTS DRESS UPS T O T A L  2  MEAN %  (9) S E X R O L E For boys Not for boys/for girls  0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00  0.89 0.44  1 0  0.30 0.15  (10) P R A C T I C A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S Has useful parts 0.00 Fits well 0.00 Right size 0.00 Small 0.00 0.00 Heavy Not useful 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.73 0.73 1.17 4.69  2.00 1.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  2 1 1 1 1 5  0.67 0.48 0.24 0.24 0.39 1.56  Note 1:  Columns show average number of times (expressed as a percentage) on which features in each category were designated as preferred.  Note 2:  Sum of percentages across three categories, rounded up to the next whole number.  90  P I C T U R E S , OBJECTS & DRESS UPS; F E A T U R E S E X P R E S S E D AS  NOT P R E F E R R E D  PERCENTAGES  %  1  P I C T U R E S O B J E C T S D R E S S UPS T O T A L  2  MEAN  %  (1) COLOUR Not favoured Black Pink Gold Silver Too much colour Too l i t t l e colour Colours mixed up Suit sex Do not suit sex Bright  3.65 6.59 0.56 0.56 0.00 0.28 2.81 0.00 7.43 2.24 0.00  7.77 2.35 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.49 0.73 11.29 5.43 1.91  8.57 4.12 1.45 0.44 0.56 0.33 2.34 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00  20 13 2 1 1 1 8 1 19 8 2  6.66 4.35 0.67 0.33 0.19 0.20 2.55 0.24 6.35 2.56 0.64  (2) D E S I G N E L E M E N T S Shapes & designs Lines and patterns Decoration No decoration A d d i t i o n a l parts Do not belong  0.42 0.14 0.56 0.00 1.96 0.00  0.88 1.47 0.00 0.73 2.79 1.17  1.11 1.56 2.22 0.00 0.00 0.00  2 3 3 1 5 1  0.80 1.06 0.93 0.24 1.58 0.39  (3) S U R F A C E A N D T E X T U R E Too s h i n y Not shiny enough Not soft and furry Too sparkly &/or r e f l e c t i v e Bumpy Too bumpy  0.00 0.42 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.42  0.00 0.29 0.00 0.00 1.47 0.00  0.33 0.22 0.44 0.44 0.00 0.00  0 1 0 1 1 0  0.11 0.31 0.15 0.19 0.49 0.14  CONSTRUCTION 0.84 1.26 2.10 0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00 2.35 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22  1 1 2 2 1  0.28 0.42 0.70 0.78 0.41  (4) M A T E R I A L O F Scenery unappealing Too many bricks Wood Rusty Sheer  (5) C O N D I T I O N O F I T E M C r a c k , broke, w r e c k , s c r a t c h Holes, p a t c h , missing pieces Too long, d i r t y O l d wood/material Rusty m e t a l Twisted  4.21 2.38 0.70 0.00 0.28 0.00  0.00 0.73 1.61 0.88 0.00 1.17  2.22 1.00 2.22 0.00 0.00 0.00  6 4 5 1 0 1  2.14 1.37 1.51 0.29 0.09 0.39  (6) O T H E R SENSES Noisy Smells unpleasant Too p r i c k l y  0.00 0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00  0.22 0.11 0.89  0 0 1  0.07 0.04 0.30  91 P I C T U R E S , OBJECTS & DRESS UPS; F E A T U R E S E X P R E S S E D AS  PREFERRED  PERCENTAGES  %  1  P I C T U R E S O B J E C T S D R E S S UPS T O T A L *  MEAN %  (7) S O C I O - C U L T U R A L B E L I E F S Reference to culture Reference to religion R e f e r e n c e to f a m i l y  0.00 1.26 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00  0.56 0.00 0.11  1 1 0  0.19 0.42 0.04  (8) ASSOCIATION Previous experience Reminds child of character Has no people Looks dangerous Looks too funny  3.37 2.66 0.84 2.10 0.00  2.93 0.00 0.00 3.23 0.15  2.11 2.22 0.00 0.00 0.33  8 5 1 5 0  2.80 1.63 0.28 1.78 0.16  (9) S E X R O L E For boys Not for Girls/for boys  0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00  4.34 0.56  4 1  1.45 0.19  (10) P R A C T I C A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S D o n ' t know how to wear i t 0.00 S k i l l too d i f f i c u l t 0.28 Too long 0.00 Right size 1.40 0.00 Too big Too s m a l l 0.00 Useful 0.00  0.00 2.49 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.15 1.76  0.67 0.00 1.67 0.00 0.00 1.11 0.00  1 3 2 1 0 1 2  0.22 0.92 0.56 0.47 0.05 0.42 0.59  Note 1;  Columns show average number of times (expressed as a percentage) on which features in each category were designated as not preferred.  Note 2:  Sum of percentages across three categories, rounded up to the next whole number.  each  category.  senses, and  Exceptions  the  sex-role  section of the study.  p r a c t i c a l aspects,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n which  Variations  sections were notable: c r i t e r i o n in the case  included  was  the appeal  evident  to  in the  other  dress-up  in concentration of responses within some  m a t e r i a l of construction was not noted as a preferred of objects, only  as  not  p r e f e r r e d , and  beliefs were noted most strongly as a preferred c r i t e r i o n .  socio-cultural  Parallels between  choices by individual children on d i f f e r e n t i t e m s , and different children on the same i t e m s , suggest that common c r i t e r i a for aesthetic decision making exist among 5 year olds. As  an  aesthetic  criterion,  colour  dominated  a l l three  categories.  Statements on colour preference formed a pool of favoured colours, though one colour might seemed  be preferred by an individual c h i l d .  to remain consistent  across categories  Individual favourite colour  for a given  between individuals. Colours appeared to be sex l i n k e d .  child, but  varied  Pink is predominantly  viewed as a g i r l s ' colour by both sexes, especially in the context of dress-up items.  For some children, pink is i d e n t i f i e d as for girls in any context. Colours  favoured choice  were  of  which  were  r e d , gold,  many  girls.  mentioned  frequently  y e l l o w , orange,  Most  blue  as  and  children l i k e d w h i t e .  either  purple. Brown  favourite  Pink was and  black  or first  were  indicated as not preferred colours by both sexes with black least preferred. Even children with black hair indicated a dislike for black.  Some stated their  own hair was an exception, but the majority of dark haired students disliked their hair and wished for blond or red hair. A black  alone,  few but  particularly red. other  two  children expressed most  preferred  a preference it  in  for' black.  combination  with  Some selected other  colours,  Black was much more preferred on dress-up items than in the  areas.  The  overwhelming  influence  of  Hallowe'en  and  its  associations with b l a c k - c l o a k e d characters would certainly explain this in part. As the dress-up i t e m s were discussed l a s t , a general modification of original positions may have taken place in the course of the study.  It is significant  c e r t a i n l y , that the only i t e m which was universally disliked was the black and white photograph of the Berlin Wall.  Seemingly, the combination of blacks  and greys, plus the flat r e p e t i t i v e o v e r a l l brick pattern with broken parts was universally  unappealing  interesting since, not  to  kindergarten  knowing  children.  This  is  particularly  the significance of its photographic  content,  children could not make the associations w i t h war, death, and politics that i t might have for an adult. Association w i t h incidents in the child's past experience showed up as another area of strong parallels between a l l three groups. mentioned  less  association  was  often  by  individual children than  important  enough in  aesthetic decision making.  children's  Association  colour  choice  Although preferences  making,  it  was  were,  to influence  as a part of the detailed  comments  made by the children was more notable in pictures and dress-ups than in the object section.  In the object section decorative aspects were most frequently  mentioned, along with design and construction. Associations  w i t h positive or negative experiences were evident in  comments about pictures. engulfed  the  responses  H o w e v e r , in dress-ups, reminders of H a l l o w e ' e n so that  this  area  actually  overshadowed  all  others.  N e g a t i v e , including scary or f e a r f u l associations quickly produced rejection of an i t e m .  No matter how able the child was to recognize appealing aspects  associations ruled out their further consideration. were centered around two basic concepts:  These negative  associations  fear related to the unknown, and  danger, which was seen as sharpness, deepness, explosiveness, or confinement. Positive associations  were exclusively centered around memories  of  fun, play, happiness,  and images  of power.  F a m i l y , siblings, classroom  and  friends, were mentioned in this c o n t e x t , w i t h grandparents taking the pedestal for adulation.  Recollections of p i c n i c s , the cabin, riding with a f r i e n d , or  special outfits at Grandma's were often mentioned as a reason for selection of an i t e m ; choices that children imagined a parent, brother, or friend might l i k e were strongly favoured. Cultural  and  responses in a l l three  religious  categories.  identity was again strongest strong associations  a  were  Mention  of  conspicuous  both  in individual  c u l t u r a l and  religious  in responses to pictures and dress-ups, whereas  with food were made through an object's association w i t h  various ethnic dishes. certainly  associations  cause  Dress-ups, w i t h their connections with H a l l o w e ' e n , were  for  comment  and  concern  to  children  whose  religious  background l e d them to disapprove of the celebration. Surface noted  on  decoration, mentioned  objects.  geometric, letter  Children and  preferred  number  in  a l l categories,  flowers  shapes  also  to  almost  specified as  was any  particularly design,  strongly  with  preferred.  C i r c l e s , which seem common as a design element, were popular on items which elicited  even  ambivalent  responses.  Decorative  aspects  figured  least  in  pictures. In pictures, however, scenery  e l i c i t e d a wide range of  comments.  Scenery did not occur in either of the other two areas, but its importance in pictures aspect  essentially of  categories.  replaced  m a t e r i a l of Even  in  decorative  qualities.  construction, emerged pictures,  where  as  Surface  t e x t u r e , as  an important  reproduction  renders  focus objects  dimensional, comments indicated an awareness of surface t e x t u r e .  an  in a l l two-  In objects  and dress-ups surface texture and m a t e r i a l of construction also evoked strong response.  Although in the case of isolated i t e m s , some children noted surfaces as too shiny, too f u r r y , or too bumpy, generally indications were that textured items and shiny items were highly preferred.  Children consistently reached out  to touch objects even in a two-dimensional rendering, then laughing,  would  state that i f i t were " r e a l " it would be soft and f u r r y . Translucent, r e f l e c t i v e , and transparent items were highly preferred on objects and dress-ups.  Lights in J a c k - 0 - L a n t e r n s , the sparkling, iridescent  night skyline of Edmonton, and r e f l e c t i v e seed beads on evening dresses, were a focus of comments within these categories. responsible  for  these  effects  these  Although surface elements are  examples  have  been  grouped  with  construction m a t e r i a l s , since i t is largely glass which exhibits these specialized qualities.  (See Tables III Good  appreciation.  condition Broken,  of  IV) the  item  was  essential  to  positive  t o r n , ripped, d i r t y , scratched and rusty  identified repeatedly as noticed.  and  unappealing.  R u s t y items were sometimes  Items  with pieces  missing  aesthetic  items were  were also  rejected on the basis of colour, but  most often o l d , rusty items were considered unappealing just for the rust i t s e l f . In  photographs  and on objects, stained, unmatching  or patched  fabric  was  identified as u n a t t r a c t i v e . The strength and frequency of associative and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l beliefs which were highlighted by Rutledge children were in part a r e f l e c t i o n of the study's i t e m s , yet despite the focus on these two c r i t e r i a , children did act as art c r i t i c s , mentioning several c r i t e r i a that an art c r i t i c would use to examine an artwork.  In Becoming Human Through A r t (Feldman, 1970), Feldman notes  the tendency of young children to employ a l l the aspects of the adult c r i t i c without systematic adult organization:  A kindergarten child w i l l perform a l l these operations (the same c r i t i c a l operations performed by professionals description, analysis, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and judgement) spontaneously but in random order. Teaching is largely a job of systematizing his almost irrepressible desire to talk about art . . . C r i t i c a l study is the process of introducing order into the child's natural performance as a c r i t i c , (p. 187) Responses to questions in this study paralleled Feldman's  summary.  Children could often give information about their reasons for choosing an i t e m , but  not  describe  the  i t e m , or  could select and describe an i t e m  however being able to give reasons for their s e l e c t i o n .  without  A l l aspects of aesthetic  c r i t i c a l judgement were covered in the course of interviews with the c h i l d r e n , however, each child did not cover a l l aspects in every comment on individual items. As researcher, i t was important that I use the child's words in the formulation of questions so as not to lead the child by volunteering my definitions and wording of what was being viewed.  Ethnography  own  concentrates  on e l i c i t i n g language which i t s e l f is a part of the category system people use (Levi-Strauss,  1966).  To accomplish t h i s , the first question after a selection  was made became a request for a description:  " T e l l me what this is."  A l l subsequent statements and questions used the child's own words, definitions and descriptions. response  to  questioning  As  style;  a r e s u l t , description was however,  analysis,  given  reasons  for  first as  a  aesthetic  preference, judgement and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n followed in a mixture of orders.  Just  as the components of visual aesthetic reasoning were jumbled together, so too were other c r i t e r i a . The  findings of this study f i t w e l l with what we know about the  development of young children's thinking in terms of Piaget's various steps of operation and memory.  (Piaget, 1926, p. 249).  Throughout the three sections  of the study children tended to comment on what was there rather than what  was  missing.  For  example, in pictures and dress-ups they tended to  focus  attention on aspects which were before them in a t h e m a t i c sense, rather than on  design  elements.  In  contrast,  in  the  objects  section  specific  elements were more commonly the focus since these were present. to explore items by touching throughout discussion was evident. e l i c i t i n g comments touch.  about distinct surfaces  design  The need  Even pictures  caused children to reach out  and  Children's need to explore physically concrete materials has long been  recognized Froebel's  by  early  childhood  early learning  educators.  materials  had  (Froebel,  strong  visual  1899; and  Piaget,  tactile  1926)  aesthetic  qualities that make them just as appealing today as they were when introduced at the turn of the century.  CHAPTER  VI  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Responses in the C o n t e x t of C h i l d Development The 31 youngsters  interviewed in this f i e l d study provided a wide  v a r i e t y of personal c r i t e r i a for aesthetic decisions.  Pooling of these c r i t e r i a  gives an o v e r a l l view of the possible reasons which a 5 or 6 year old might use to  select  different  or reject an i t e m reasons  for making  aesthetically. aesthetic  Though children tended to use  decisions,  an  individual's  criteria  invariably could be accommodated w i t h i n a common grouping of major c r i t e r i a (see Tables VII and V I I I ) . Visual c r i t e r i a do not appear to be separated from other types of c r i t e r i a in young children's aesthetic decision making.  G r a d u a l l y , within the  group i n this study a transition in reasoning may have been taking place.  As  the study progressed, children showed increasing interest in the items before them.  Frequency  of  inquiries  about  the responses  of others  were  noted.  Answering style varied amongst the group, seemingly r e f l e c t i n g many personal qualities including the confidence of the individual.  A s children r e l a x e d , their  a b i l i t y to c o n c e n t r a t e , consider and explore a wider variety of c r i t e r i a for decision making seemed to emerge.  A t the same  t i m e , differences in the  types of items included in the three sections of the study made any transition d i f f i c u l t to observe w i t h a c c u r a c y . P i c t u r e s , objects and dress-ups  seemed to require different c r i t e r i a  for decision making from any given individual. In their 1981 a r t i c l e , " C h i l d r e n ' s Responses to P a i n t i n g s " ,  D'Onofrio  and Nodine developed twelve aesthetic c r i t e r i a used by children ranging in age from 4 1/2 to 15 years as they viewed four paintings.  These included:  99 1.  Personal  associations  2.  A t t e n t i o n to subject matter  3.  A t t e n t i o n to colour  4.  Demand for realism  5.  Egocentric perspective  6.  A t t e n t i o n to design  7.  A t t e n t i o n to emotional content  8.  Respect for a r t i s t i c intentions  9.  Respect for subjectivity  10.  Reluctance to c r i t i c i z e painting  11.  Respect for originality  12.  A t t e n t i o n to a r t i s t i c decisions  These w r i t e r s , in conjunction w i t h Parsons (1977), underscore  the  contribution of cognitive development to children's developing a b i l i t i e s to make distinctions describes respond  between  personal  preferences  and  critical  evaluations.  the evolution of aesthetic responses as follows: to  paintings  according  to  personal  idiosyncracies  Parsons  i n i t i a l l y children and  experiences.  N e x t , they judge the value of a painting by c r i t e r i a l i k e draftsmanship, which is  r e l a t e d to  o p t i c a l l y received  composition and use of colour.  information  and  conventional  displays  of  C r i t e r i a for judgement within the t h i r d stage  are marked by adherence to the a r t i s t ' s right to express his originality and innovativeness Aesthetic  without  development  references culminates  to with  an the  external ability  audience's to  take  the  demands. artist's  viewpoint, as in their fourth stage, where children t r y to substantiate their responses by considering features such as composition, quality of l i n e , colour c h o i c e , and the relation of a l l these aspects to subject m a t t e r .  100 D'Onofrio and Nodine indicate that as development of children takes place shifts in aesthetic decision making also take place.  Children operating at  the f i r s t , idiosyncratic stage may also make some responses at the second stage as they are maturing, and vice versa. Rutledge  youngsters indicated by  their responses that in  terms they were p r i m a r i l y in the idiosyncratic stage.  Parsons'  They demonstrated that  by their attention to colour, attention to personal associations, and attention to content.  A H Parsons' first six c r i t e r i a were a part of the Rutledge children's  focus except demand for r e a l i s m . in the responses of these  In the c r i t e r i a for decision making evident  31 youngsters egocentric  perspectives  and  design  elements are frequently invoked, yet none of the c r i t e r i a generally a t t r i b u t e d to older youngsters was mentioned. A t one point, during i n t e r v i e w i n g i n the object s e c t i o n , one child alluded to the excellence of craftsmanship of the A f r i c a n straw basket.  This  was the only comment of this nature made. In a study focusing on photographs, objects and dress-up items i t is not surprising that no demand for realism was made since this quality was already present.  The photograph considered most abstract by the researcher,  the black and white B e r l i n W a l l , was the least preferred photograph in the study. have  Although r e j e c t e d largely because of l a c k of colour, its abstraction may been a f a c t o r also, as revealed in comments l i k e :  bricks a l l over . . . a l l flat . . . i t ' s yucky.  " t h e r e ' s too  many  It looks like a slurpie w i t h straws  s t i c k i n g out . . . there is nothing p r e t t y in this p i c t u r e . " A  photograph  of  rowboats  in  fog  in  P.E.I, was  also  frequently  selected as not preferred (see Appendix B) because " y o u c a n ' t see i t too w e l l . " This  need  for  realism  also  arose  in  the  object  section.  Several  children  commented on the Salish l e t t e r opener which was long and flat with carving  covering the handle on one side.  The t y p i c a l thunderbird appears,  w i t h its  elongated eye.  Two other pieces of carving had appeared in the pilot study  (see Figure 2).  One of these was a f u l l faced statue, the other, a smaller half  face carving.  During the pilot study several individuals focused on the h a l f -  faced c a r v i n g , expressing their fear and dislike.  They felt it was incomplete;  several children stated that one eye was missing.  D ' O n o f r i o and Nodine note  that a child's demand for realism is violated by incomplete figures (1981,  p.  20).  Answering Individual  children showed  Style  distinct differences in answering  style,  both i n length of t i m e required for responses and the way the questioning would proceed.  Three forms which emerged are outlined to allow the reader a better  understanding of these distinctions. For just under half the youngsters,  questioning went smoothly.  of these children were enthusiastic to view items right from the Answers  were given  decisively and e x p l i c i t y .  All  beginning.  D e t a i l s were f u l l and varied.  Responses from this group were l i k e l y to vary from the actual f o r m a t , as they gave their own opinions. items  in a  occurred. between  particular In  the  previous  Throughout  E x t r a responses,  group  course  of  selections  was the and  or the selection as p r e t t y of a l l  common.  Rejection  i n t e r v i e w , they the  item  they  made were  of  every  verbal  item  also  comparisons  presently  discussing.  the study these children seemed confident as individuals.  For the next group of c h i l d r e n , comprising about one third of the t o t a l , responses were not as easily given. clear  decision  was  V i e w i n g , s e l e c t i n g , and a r r i v i n g at a  f a i r l y straightforward.  In  f a c t , it  was  surprising  how  quickly both these groups made their choices.  A few of these children were  less enthusiastic about viewing i t e m s , and this group as a whole, in contrast to the f i r s t , was not as s p e c i f i c about reasons for choices.  They were less clear  about influences, and when questioned f u r t h e r , either repeated their answer or stopped questioning by stating:  " T h a t ' s a l l I can say."  This group was more  l i k e l y to follow the format of questions as presented, rather than volunteer varied i n f o r m a t i o n , make extra comparisons, or add e x t r a responses. Children in the third and smallest group expressed or demonstrated d i f f i c u l t y in making wrong choice. not c o m p l e t e l y .  choices.  They seemed  very  worried about  making  the  Reassurance from the researcher did a l l a y this fear s l i g h t l y , but These children's responses also l a c k e d the c l a r i t y and detail  exemplified in responses  by the largest group.  answer seemed to become the whole exercise. varied l i t t l e from the basic study f o r m a t .  C o n c e n t r a t i n g on giving This group's responses,  an too,  Although choices are a part of the  kindergarten day's program, these children tended to l i m i t their own choices, and c e r t a i n l y were less confident and less verbal throughout the daily classroom activities.  In examining these three groups, i t could be seen that children from several c u l t u r a l backgrounds were represented in each group.  The only c u l t u r a l  influence that can be f a i r l y commented upon is that of the classroom i t s e l f , which was similar for a l l youngsters. therefore  may  or  may  not  The differences among the three groups  be a t t r i b u t a b l e to c u l t u r a l factors outside  the  classroom. Possibly, age of the respondents is a f a c t o r in the kind of response given.  C h i l d r e n in this study varied in age between 5 years and 5 months and  6 years and 4 months.  C e r t a i n l y , w i t h i n that eleven month span significant  development takes place in young children.  G e s e l l notes the difference in the  5 and 6 year o l d : Needless to say these alterations in the accents of development are not sharply defined. The growth continuum is l i k e the chromatic spectrum: each phase, each colour, shades by imperceptible gradations into the next. Y e t the seven c o l o r s of the rainbow are distinguishable. In a similar way the m a t u r i t y traits of the 5-year-old are distinguishable from those of the s i x y e a r - o l d . (p. 68) Birthdays for those in the f i r s t group (ie. the group that made frequent and a r t i c u l a t e responses) f e l l in the first six months of the year, so at the time of study most had turned 6, and several were soon to be 6.  No November or  December birthdays were represented. For the second group (ie. the group that was less s p e c i f i c and varied less from the format) birthdays f e l l in the seventh to the t w e l f t h month with an equal number of birthdays distributed throughout those months. (January, F e b r u a r y , or March)  birthdays were represented.  No early  C h i l d r e n in the  t h i r d group, had one birthday i n A p r i l , August, September, November,  and  December respectively. Boys and girls were represented in a l l three groups.  Although i t is  evident that birthdays range p r i m a r i l y in the early months for the first group and in the l a t e r months for the second and third groups, there may be many individual factors which influence children with respect to aesthetic decision making beyond simple maturation.  Possibly, r e c e p t i v i t y of children to learning  related to aesthetic decision making occurs at f a i r l y s p e c i f i c places along the developmental path.  If p r a c t i c e using materials for math concept development  is important for children i f they are to understand math concepts, as Piaget (Ripple  &  Rockcastle,  1964)  has  so  thoroughly  demonstrated, then  ample  opportunity for aesthetic discussion may be important i f children are to make confident, a r t i c u l a t e , aesthetic choices.  Although the kindergarten classroom  provides  choice  system  i t s e l f allows many children not to select these materials i f they so  choose.  Could  opportunities  differences  in  for children to use art m a t e r i a l s , the  the  confidence  choice  and  eloquence of reasons for choice be the result of a combination of age  and  m a t u r i t y at kindergarten entry? and exposure  of  the  child,  variety  of  This in conjunction with amount of experience  to art m a t e r i a l s , opportunity to observe  peers involved in l i k e  a c t i v i t i e s , and opportunities to discuss what the child is both in and outside the classroom be some of the factors providing for the development of aesthetic thinking.  Does natural interest and orientation not play an important part in  aesthetic decision making?  C e r t a i n l y , some cultures are much more strongly  oriented toward the importance of aesthetic values.  This is w e l l evidenced by  the responses of some of the Japanese and Chinese youngsters to items they considered c u l t u r a l l y their own. In this study, i t may be that age is one factor influencing f l e x i b i l i t y and awareness w i t h respect to reasons for aesthetic choices. the teacher and of classroom produces  growth  collecting.  Many  in  aesthetics  themes  children's comments;  The influence of  lessons or focus as part of the pattern which in  individuals  previously  discussed  was in  obvious class  throughout were  not d i r e c t l y , but as a r e f l e c t i o n of the  data  evident child's  in  focus  throughout the i n t e r v i e w . For example, more than six weeks had been spent prior to the study on finding and making repeat patterns of colour, l i n e , sound and  movement.  Beads, blocks, shapes, strips, c l o t h i n g , instruments and their own bodies were used to demonstrate patterns of 2, 3, 4 and 5 repeats. found  this  difficult,  all  children  competence in pattern making.  eventually  Although some children  demonstrated  some  level  of  This experience was evident during interviews  in the children's quick notation of various patterns on objects and  dress-up  105 items. Colours described in s p e c i f i c shades or tones by names such as beige, grey, dark brown, deep green, turquoise, a l i t t l e s i l v e r , or goldish-yellow, were evidences of visual and linguistic skills previously developed.  Use of materials  was also discussed through shared experiences with cars, pottery and straw items  shown  to  the  class.  Names  for  surface  textures  were  discussed  i n c i d e n t a l l y and associations were drawn out of visual imagining exercises used to improve perception and s e n s i t i v i t y . perceptions  to  others  in  full  To encourage children to verbalize t h e i r  sentences,  discussions  involving  every  child  followed these classroom a c t i v i t i e s . One might ask i f a l l the categories might not have been different i f another teacher had taught the group.  Might another researcher have brought  out different aspects w i t h the same group? Both  the  focus  of  the  teacher's  program  and  researcher have an influence on the results of any study. other researchers  need to study  learn more about this area.  the  view  of  the  In other classrooms,  children's responses  to visual aesthetics to  In this study responses  of children in the pilot  group to questions about their reasons for selections of certain items showed the same basic categories and c r i t e r i a as Rutledge children indicated in the main study. Another notable area of influence was an increasing awareness interest in peer responses.  and  A t the beginning of the study, a very few children  inquired about what other children had said. or two comments were made.  For the picture section only one  As the study progressed increasing interest was  taken in what other children had answered, or preferred.  C h i l d r e n frequently  inquired  best  about  the  previous  respondent  or  about  their  friend.  Peer  influence was evident in references to what others would l i k e (in the group of  items being viewed), what they might say i f questioned or how react  to  an  object  comments l i k e :  "I  or  item  of  dress.  Dress-ups,  they  particularly,  might elicited  could put this on and go down the hall . . . then maybe I  could see what the kids would say." The  question arises:  they p a r t i c i p a t e d in the study?  Did children become more peer conscious  as  D i d my personal absence from the room create  curiosity about what the others were doing w i t h me or did the nature of the items themselves cause the children to wonder more about the responses of their peers?  Since  study progressed researcher  that curiosity became  more frequently expressed as the  i t is my suspicion that an individual's interaction with the  regarding  s p e c i f i c items stimulated interest in the responses  others whose ideas were already esteemed by that individual. i t e m s seemed  Responding  to heighten interest in those s p e c i f i c items and in  preferences in general.  of to  discussing  CHAPTER  VII  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND  IMPLICATIONS  Summary This f i e l d study was devised to use participant-observation techniques to examine the aesthetic responses of 5 and 6 year olds.  It was conducted in  the l a t e spring of 1983 in two kindergarten classes enrolled in a school in a large  suburban  community  that  included children from  c u l t u r a l , religious and economic backgrounds.  a  wide  variety  of  Of the 31 participants 17 were  boys and 14 were girls. Seventy-four researcher  selected as  preferred".  items used to e l i c i t aesthetic responses items  that  would  be  "strongly  were i n i t i a l l y  preferred"  or  "not  These were further screened by a pilot study group comprised of  two girls and three boys who nearby annex school.  were also  kindergarten students  attending a  Items were regrouped to provide a manageable  number  of items for use in subsequent individual interviews with the students involved in the main study.  T w e n t y - t w o pictures, 22 objects, and 30 items of dress-up  were selected in this way. Transcription interviews  was  of  field  notes  from  completed within several  tape  weeks  of  recordings the study's  of  individual completion.  Analysis of interviews produced frequency tables indicating categories used for aesthetic selection and decision making by these children (see Tables I through VI).  Examples from f i e l d notes are given to demonstrate t y p i c a l responses to  each i t e m . Other means were provided to f a c i l i t a t e ease of comparison between individual responses, categories and subcategories  constructed from the data.  Although each group of items e l i c i t e d a varying number of responses, remained consistent across categories.  Appendix C records each  responses  respondent's  preferred and  not  preferred items.  Each  category  (pictures, objects,  and  dress-ups) is presented separately w i t h respondents grouped according to sex. Appendix B summarizes the frequency, of responses to s p e c i f i c items in each category of the study. VII  A g a i n data were separated for boys and girls.  Tables  and V I I I compare the c r i t e r i a used for aesthetic decision making in each  section as preferred or not preferred in percentages. Categories constructed from the children's comments included colour, design elements, surface and t e x t u r e , m a t e r i a l of construction, condition of i t e m , sensory a p p e a l , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s , association, s e x - r o l e , and p r a c t i c a l considerations. dominant  Favoured  colour, association  sub-categories  for  preferred  and surface  items.  Not  and texture were  favoured  condition of item dominated not preferred sub-categories.  colour,  and  For both preferred  and not preferred items sex-roles were important in relation to colour and in response to items in the dress-up s e c t i o n . Children demonstrated a variety of styles in approaching about aesthetics. the  group,  Three groups emerged.  children were  decisive,  flexible w i t h respect to f o r m a t .  In the f i r s t , comprising about half  enthusiastic,  decisive, but less  specific  reasoning.  questioning. choices.  aesthetic  detailed in  response  and  In the second, comprising about one t h i r d of  the t o t a l , children were about  questions  They  enthusiastic and less varied less  from  the  clear format  In the third and smallest group, children had d i f f i c u l t y  and of  making  Their responses l a c k e d c l a r i t y and detail and they varied l i t t l e from  the basic study f o r m a t . Answering chronological  style  maturity.  It  may  be  may  a  response  be i n d i c a t i v e of  to  internal confidence  other  influences  and  including  interest i n art materials and exposure to t h e m , opportunity to make and discuss aesthetic previous  choices, and cultural orientation to aesthetics. classroom  discussion  was  The influence of  evident in chidlren's responses  throughout  questioning. study  Increased  interest in peer responses was  demonstrated  as  the  progressed. Children of 5 and 6 use both visually aesthetic and non-visual c r i t e r i a  as a basis for aesthetic decision making.  Although a transition in aesthetic  thinking may be taking place between 5 and 6, contrasts in the character of the items in each section made accurate assessment of a transition d i f f i c u l t . Although aesthetic responses have been studied previously & Nodine, 1981, Gardner, Winner & K i r c h e r , 1975, Johnson, c r i t e r i a developed for a variety of age levels (D'Onofrio additional c r i t e r i a  have  emerged  from  responsese to objects and dress-ups.  this study  of  (D'Onofrio  1982) and some  & Nodine,  kindergarten  1982),  children's  The study method and the special nature  of the materials selected for study helped to provide more detailed information about  a  making.  number  of  sub-categories  children refer  to  in aesthetic  decision  A t t e n t i o n to colour as an extension of s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n is as yet  undocumented in aesthetic studies w i t h young children. certain items  of  dress-up  for  certain c h i l d r e n , the  Sex-role i d e n t i t y w i t h p r a c t i c a l and  personal  aspects of dress-up as well as their s o c i o - c u l t u r a l relationships and associations with school, previous date.  Children's  experience, and m y t h i c a l characters  are  unstudied  to  a b i l i t y to concentrate on making c a r e f u l visual aesthetic  decisions and describe these eloquently  has been further documented in this  study. The kindergarten  rationale aged  that for most  in  Chapter  children are  kindergarten  I  already  implies  that  developed.  aesthetic This  study  responses  of  demonstrates  children aesthetic appreciation and response  are  strongly developed although visual and other c r i t e r i a for decision making are as yet mixed.  S t r i c t l y visual c r i t e r i a become more strongly stated as children are  exposed to aesthetic experience.  Opportunities to discuss items aesthetically  may be a f a c t o r in development as w e l l as the presence of aesthetics in their cultural background.  Restating  Assumptions  In undertaking this study certain assumptions 1.  Aesthetic  preferences,  their  discussion,  and  were made: their  development  are  important for 5 year olds, and that an art curriculum containing aesthetic strand is important for the growth of young children. The reasonableness of this assumption is confirmed by the results of this study.  It  is noteworthy that the revised B.C.  kindergarten curriculum  (1983) now recognizes the area of art and aesthetics for the development of 5 year olds.  It states: A e s t h e t i c development continues throughout the l i f e of an individual, the degree of development varying with the involvement with aesthetic m a t t e r . In order that children may become aesthetically sensitive and appreciative i t is essential that their involvement with a r t i s t i c things begin as early as possible and continue throughout their education, (p. 92)  2.  Participant-observer  research  methods  are  appropriate  and  effective  means to look at aesthetic responses and their influencing factors. I  found  the participant-observer's  study in a school situation. w i t h young c h i l d r e n .  methods  w e l l suited to a  field  They were r e l a t i v e l y simple to adopt and apply  They were e f f e c t i v e , largely because of their open ended  nature in revealing areas which other methods might not have brought forward. 3.  Behavior  in  5 year  olds is not i n f i n i t e l y variable and that  insightful  description of their observable patterns of behavior can be made. This  assumption  is  supported  by  aesthetic decision-making that are consistent pictures, objects and dress-ups.  the  emergence  across  of  criteria  the main categories  for of  Ill S t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data has helped to confirm these patterns. Frequencies of p i c t u r e , object and dress-up selection documented in Tables and V I I I .  VII  Frequency of responses in each category defined within the three  aspects of the study (pictures, objects and dress-ups) have also been developed, making comparison of these areas easier for the reader.  Implications for Further Study Although  traditionally  women  have  formed  the  majority  of  kindergarten teachers, increasingly men are taking interest in the study and teaching researcher young  of  young  children.  Studies  or a male kindergarten  children, particularly with  interesting focus for research.  by  either  a  male  university  based  teacher regarding aesthetic responses respect  to  dress-ups  would  provide  in an  No doubt a male's study would be less loaded  towards girls' dress-up items than this study undoubtedly was.  Do girls prefer  dress-ups more than boys, or was this particular to my selection of items or to my  particular group?  What  suggestions for items given  types  of  clothing might  by this group  boys  prefer?  If  the  were used as a p a r t i a l basis for  selection some of the slant toward girls' items might be overcome. A further study aspect for aesthetics and young c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y to do w i t h dress-ups, might be a look at Canadian culture with respect to early aesthetic influences upon young children. and  peers  influence  children's  To what extent do attitudes of home  selections?  How  much  discussion  of  visual  aesthetics takes place in the home and what influence does this have on a 5 year old's development and interest in aesthetics? school settings might prove revealing.  A study of home, child and  A n y study which involves difficult  to  initiate.  Children at  entry into children's home l i f e might 5 can  hardly a c t i v e l y comment  be  on their  f a m i l y influences outside of this s e t t i n g , since they are not abstract enough in thinking  to  analyze  Families  do  not  participate  these  want  would  to  hardly  influences.  The  f e e l judged,  and  provide  a  problem those  representative  of  who  selection might  sample.  emerges.  volunteer An  to  interesting  ethnographic study of children's language patterns and how these a f f e c t e d early reading, t i t l e d "Questioning at Home and at School: was completed by Shirley Heath (1982).  A Comparative  Study"  This might be helpful in formulating a  future study in aesthetic education. Piaget indicates that children's thinking w i t h respect to science and mathematics goes through  qualitative changes,  frequently before  age, depending on environmental factors (Piaget, 1926). in children studied in very diverse c u l t u r a l settings.  6 years  of  These changes occur  Does aesthetic d e c i s i o n -  making rest upon culture's focus on aesthetic phenomena, or w i t h maturation of the c h i l d , exposure to the artist's work, or the personal use of materials for a r t i s t i c expression?  Is any of these a prime developer of aesthetic thinking or  are they a l l important?  To what extent does discussion  influence  children?  Studies done in Japan, Israel, India, M e x i c o or Russia might provide interesting reflections  on  other  cultures  relative  to  Canadian  culture.  Assembling  information on cultures so widely spread would be d i f f i c u l t , however  studies  conducted  within  French  Canadian,  Chinese  Canada  in  Canadian,  concentrated Japanese  ethnic  Canadian,  groups  such  Ukrainian  as  Canadian  and  Doukhobor Canadian might prove to be a helpful substitute in viewing cultural influences on children. Children's rejection of items based on their condition, their concern about  cleanliness, neatness  and wholeness  of items as  aesthetic  priorities,  raises the question of advertising's influence on aesthetic preferences of young children.  To what extent do the values underlining c o m m e r c i a l advertising on  television shows for children influence children's values?  To what extent to  advertisers, children's show developers, and toy manufacturers study children's aesthetic preferences and apply these to their products?  Do  advertisers  research or use available results from university and other sources?  do  A close  look at how media advertising a f f e c t s preschool children could not be more timely.  Recommendations for P r a c t i c e The overwhelming influence of classroom which  develop the language  findings.  of  art  for  discussion through  children is  evident  in this  themes study's  A r t teachers have long recognized the importance of discussion  art materials as part of their exploration.  of  Opportunities to discuss their own  work help young children evaluate and restructure their future use of these materials.  Less frequently recognized is the need for young children to observe  and discuss the work of professional artists as w e l l as that of their cultural and historic art heritage.  Discussion of thoughts, observations, d e t a i l s , colours and  preferences in these areas serves to build interest and confidence in  making  aesthetic choices. Teachers displayed.  need to be aware  While items that the adult  e l i m i n a t e d , discussion allowed a  of  the kinds  might  of pictures and objects  consider  about both positive and negative  place in classroom  exchange.  The  unappealing could  be  feelings need to be  reasons why  various  children  select preferred i t e m s could be discussed, also. During the course of this study the concept of a beauty center to encourage aesthetic response was mentioned by a kindergarten teacher who had  toured B r i t i s h infant schools. Ikebana display at  Like the long rectangular niche for a s c r o l l and  the entrance to the Japanese  home, the beauty center  provides a place to view a beautiful arrangement made for its own sake.  It  provides a place to r e l a x , and release oneself. Beauty Centers generally comprise a table in several layers  draped  w i t h a coloured cloth either set w i t h a vase of flowers, a plant, a display of grains Bonsai  or gourds and c o r n , a selection of polished instruments or possibly a tree.  The display is changed weekly and is a part of the focus for  classroom discussion during the week. A project l i k e t h i s , i n i t i a t e d by the t e a c h e r , continued by parents and l a t e r by the c h i l d r e n , might prove an interesting ongoing focus for aesthetics in the  classroom.  Teachers  would benefit by having a s p e c i f i c center  around  which to focus aesthetic discussion. A t t i t u d e s which surround dress-up and Wendy House play need to be explored in greater depth in most classrooms.  Kindergarten teachers need to  provide clothing for both boys and girls plus i t e m s which have l i m i t e d sex role links (clown, s c i e n t i s t , Superman, nurse-doctor). dress-up  C a r e f u l introduction of the  i t e m s needs to precede center play to allay many of the negative  feelings about dressing up.  dress-up  expressed  by  children already  preconditioned  about  C h i l d r e n who do have negative attitudes about dress-up frequently  w i l l become silly or destructive when given opportunity to use this center. D i r e c t i o n is necessary for some children on how to handle these feelings and how to undertake exploration of a variety of characters. As  evident in the findings of this study, the cleanliness, neatness,  care and f i t of dress-up items needs ongoing supervision.  C h i l d r e n can help by  bringing broken or soiled items to the teacher who might have parent aides wash and repair these.  Additions and changes in dress-up themes to r e f l e c t  seasons or classroom  themes  might  prove  helpful in meeting the needs  children w i t h d i f f e r i n g attitudes about dress-ups.  of  A store, a nursing s t a t i o n , a  Hawaiian center are but a few ideas for changes in dress-up display. A e s t h e t i c discussion generally needs greater focus in art curriculum for young children. decisions observe  strictly  Although the 5 year olds studied are not making aesthetic on  and discuss  the  basis  of  visual c r i t e r i a , increased opportunity  a variety of items and learn the language  of art  to may  further them on the path of aesthetic understanding and visual decision making. By coming to terms w i t h images children may come to use images increasingly effectively.  REFERENCES Bogdan, R., & T a y l o r , S. 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Journal of A e s t h e t i c  schooling-Educational H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston,  Spradley, J . , & M c C u r d y , D. The c u l t u r a l experience: Ethnography complex society. Chicago: Science Research Associatess,  in 1972.  Taunton, M . A e s t h e t i c responses of young children to the visual arts: A review of the l i t e r a t u r e . Journal of A e s t h e t i c Education, 1982, 16 (3), 93-106. Weber, E.  The kindergarten: Its encounter with educational thought in A m e r i c a . New Y o r k : Teacher's College Press, 1969.  W o l c o t t , H. C r i t e r i a for an ethnographic approach to research in schools. Human Organization. 1975, 34 (2), 111-125.  119  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A P i l o t Study Examples of Groups:  P i c t u r e s , objects and dress-ups.  a.  Pictures as grouped for pilot study (one group)  b.  Objects as grouped for pilot study (one group)  P i l o t Study Examples of Groups:  c.  P i c t u r e s , objects and dress-ups.  Dress-ups as grouped for pilot study (one group)  2.  Main Study  Pictures as presented to 5 and 6 year olds  a.  People  b.  Buildings  123  2.  M a i n Study Pictures  c.  d.  C o a s t a l Scenes  World Scenes  124  2.  Main Study  125  2.  M a i n Study  Objects  g.  Wood  126  2.  Main Study  j.  Metal  128  2.  M a i n Study Dress-Ups  1.  Wigs and Jewelry  129  2.  M a i n Study Dress-Ups  m.  Vests and Capes  n.  Dresses  130  p.  Long Items  APPENDIX  B  Selection Frequency of S p e c i f i c Items by Sex - Pictures No.  Description  Girls P  People Al A4 F2 Fl  G i r l w i t h bubble Lady w i t h v e i l M o t o r c y c l e rider Waterskier (F)  P  Total NP  P  NP  f=  f=  f=  f=  f=  12 1 0 4  0 6 6 1  4 1 12 2  6 10 2 1  16 2 12 6  6 16 8 2  0 0 4 9 3  1 13 0 1 0  1 0 3 10 4  1 15 1 2 0  1 0 9 19 7  2 28 2 3 0  2  12  1  9  3  21  3 7 1 4  0 2 1 0  2 7 3 9  1 1 4 2  5 14 4 13  1 3 5 2  1  4  0  5  1  9  3 1  0 2  1 2  2 3  4 3  2 5  2 3  0 5  2 3  2 0  4 6  2 5  8 6 11  2 8 3  8 8 12  4 6 5  16 14 23  6 14 8  f=  (M)  Boys NP  Buildings HI E7 E3 D5 DI  Pueblos: New Mexico Berlin w a l l (b&w) Turkish mosque Edmonton at night Swiss house C o a s t a l Scenery  C4 H5 H4 H2 G4  Red broken wagon wheel F a l l : Lake scene w i t h mountains Winter: Rogers' Pass Sunset: Grand Canyon Rainbow and w a t e r f a l l V a r i e t y Scenery  G3 G2 E4 C5 B5  G r e y & red boats: P.E.I. Float plane on water at sunrise Chinese junks: Hong K o n g Quebec: horses drawing firewood G r i z z l y bear Other  Bl 13 11  J a c k - O - L a n t e r n s in the dark Madonna and C h i l d Chinese dragon  22 items 1. N o t e :  P - Preferred  NP -  Not P r e f e r r e d  132  Selection Frequency of S p e c i f i c Items by Sex - Objects  No.  Girls  Description P Ceramic  J2 J4 J3 J6  Tan and green Japanese teacup White and blue R i c e bowl (Chinese) T i n y Mexican cup R a k u stone pot & holes  Boys NP  P  Total NP  P  NP  f=  f=  f=  f=  f=  f=  0  5  2  2  2  7  7 3 4  2 2 4  6 5 7  1 4 6  13 8 11  3 6 10  0  5  6  2  6  7  0 10  4 1  1 5  3 2  1 15  7 3  1  1  4  4  5  5  3  1  2  3  5  4  3 7 6 0 3  4 0 0 8 0  7 3 5 1 3  3 0 0 10 2  10 10 11 1 6  7 0 0 18 2  10 5  0 1  10 5  0 0  20 10  0 1  1  6  4  11  5  17  4  5  2  2  6  7  Wood K2 Kl LI L2 L3  L e t t e r opener carved (Salish) Old wooden plane (handmade) Rope horse (Mexican) D r u m , skin covered (African) Red basket w i t h l i d (African) Variety  Ml P2 PI M4 M2  Peacock feather Silk flower (peach) Silk flower (red) R a i l r o a d spike Stones (stream tumbled) Glass  N2 N3 N5 N4  Glass cube (red-orange) Glass cube (yellow) Glass ball (Japanese fish-net f l o a t ) Glass cubes melted (peach-tan)  133  V3 V4 V5  Wl W3 W4 XI X4  Purses Red patent leather w i t h silver closure Black patent leather w i t h coin handle Wallet cream ground w i t h Japanese pattern Long Items Long white lace Brown-beige lace Ghost wrap Long pale over gown Long pink coat  0  6  2  6  2  12  6  2  3  9  9  11  7  5  6  8  13  13  1 4 1 7 5  1 6 3 1 1  6 2 2 0 1  7 8 5 5 6  7 6 3 7 6  8 14 8 6 7  30 items 1.  Note:  P - Preferred  N P - Not  Preferred  134  Selection Frequency of S p e c i f i c Items by Sex - Dress Ups No.  Ql Q4 Q5 Q7 Q8 Q9  Rl R3 U3 U6 U7 U8 U9  Girls  Description  Hats Chinese coolie hat B l a c k 50s style Brown and black fur N a v y f i r e c h i e f ' s hat Orange construction worker's hat Red fireman's hat Wigs & Jewelry Long blond wig Long brown wig Shiny pearl necklace (w hi t e/ pi nk/blue) Plastic lei (pink/purple) Plastic lei (pink/yellow) Plastic lei (yellow/white) Bangles (silver and blue and brown)  Boys  Total  P  NP  P  NP  P  NP  f= 2 6 2 0  f= 2 3 5 3  f= 2 1 3 2  f= 5 6 3 1  f= 4 7 5 2  f= 7 9 8 4  0 4  0 0  3 7  0 1  3 11  0 1  1 1  0 9  0 0  3 8  1 1  3 17  5  1  3  1  9  2  3  0  4  1  7  1  1  2  2  0  3  2  0  0  1  0  1  0  4  2  5  3  9  5  1  1  5  2  6  3  S4 S5 S6  Vests & Capes Vest (red suede) Blue jeans (small size cut o f f ) Black vest (front only) Black cape & red l i n i n g Cowboy jacket  1 4 8 1  3 5 3 5  1 0 6 4  2 5 3 5  2 4 14 5  5 10 6 10  TI T6 T7 T10  Dresses Purple dress, satin t r i m Pink beaded opera dress Y e l l o w sheer night gown Blue and white check  5 2 4 3  4 0 4 3  4 2 1 3  10 6 9 9  9 4 5 6  14 6 13 12  SI S3  135.  Metal 06 05 04 02  L e g hold traps Brass bear sculpture Antique silver mirror Tea caddie (all over pattern)  0 4 7  8 2 0  2 8 3  11 2 2  2 12 10  19 4 2  3  4  5  1  8  5  22 items 1.  Note:  P - Preferred  NP -  Not P r e f e r r e d  136  APPENDIX  C h i l d P i c t u r e Description No.  Child No.  C  P i c t u r e Description  21 21 21 21  F2 D5 H2 H4  (motorcycle) (Edmonton at night) (Grand Canyon) (Rogers' Pass)  21 21 21 21  Al E7 C4 13  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (Madonna with gold)  22 22 22 22 22  F2 DI H2 C4 B5  (motorcycle) (Swiss house) (Grand Canyon) (wheel) (bear)  22 22 22 22 22  Al E7 H5 G3 13  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Berlin Wall) ( F a l l scene w i t h l a k e ) (P.E.I, boats) (dragon)  31 31 31 31 31  A4 D5 G4 II Bl  (Lady w i t h v e i l ) (Ednonton at n i g h t ) (waterfall) (dragon) (Jack-O-Lanterns)  31 31 31 31  Al E7 C4 G3  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (P.E.I, boats)  30 30 30 30 30 30  F2 D5 G4 E4 II 13  (motorcycle) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) (waterfall) (Chinese j u n k s ) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  30 30 30 30  A4 HI C4 G3  (Lady wi t h v e i 1) ( P u e b l o s : New M e x i c o ) (wheel) (P.E.I, boats)  20 20 20 20  F2 E3 G4 D5  (motorcycle) ( T u r k i s h mosque) (waterfall) (bear)  20 20 20 20 20 20  A4 E7 H2 Bl II 13  (Lady wi t h v e i 1) (Berlin Wall) (Grand Canyon) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  137  6 6 6 6 6 6  F2 DI H4 E4 13 II  (motorcycle) (Swiss house) (Rogers' Pass) (Chinese junks) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h gold)  6 6 6 6.1.  Al E7 H2 D5  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Berlin Wall) (Grand Canyon) (bear)  5 5 5 5 5 5 5  F2 Fl D5 G4 B5 II 13  (motorcycle) (waterskier) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) (water w i t h rainbow) (bear) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  5 5 5 5  A4 E7 C4 G2  (Lady w i t h v e i l ) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (water w i t h p l a n e )  16 16 16 16 16  Al D5 G4 C5 II  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Ednonton at n i g h t ) (water w i t h rainbow) (Quebec w i t h h o r s e s ) (dragon)  16 16 16 16 16  A4 E7 H2 E4 13  (Lady w i t h v e i 1) (Berlin Wall) (Grand Canyon) (Chinese j u n k s ) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  8 8 8 8 8  F2 DI G4 Bl 13  (motorcycle) (Swiss house) (water w i t h rainbow) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  8 8 8 8 8  A4 E7 H2 E4 II  (Lady w i t h v e i 1 ) (Berlin Wall) (Grand Canyon) (Chinese j u n k s ) (dragon)  19 19 19 19 19 19 19  F2 D5 E3 H4 Bl II 13  (motorcycle) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) ( T u r k i s h mosque) (Rogers' Pass) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  19 19 19 19  A4 E7 C4 G3  (Lady w i t h v e i 1) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (P.E.I, boats)  138  18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18  F2 Al D5 E3 H4 G4 Bl 11 13  (motorcycle) ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton at night) (castle) (Rogers' Pass) (water w i t h rainbow) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h gold)  18 18 18 18  Fl E7 C4 C5  (skier) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (Quebec horses)  24 24 24 24 24 24  F2 HI E3 G4 Bl 11  (motorcycle) (Adobe houses) (building) (water w i t h rainbow) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  24 24 24 24 24  Al E7 C4 E4 13  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (Chinese j u n k s ) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  14 14 14 14 14 14 14  Fl E3 H5 H2 G4 G2 11  (water s k i e r ) ( T u r k i s h mosque) ( F a l l l a k e scene) (Grand Canyon) (water and rainbow) (plane) (dragon)  14 14 14 14 14  Al E7 C4 Bl 13  ( F i r l w i t h bubble) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  10 10 10 10 10 10  Al DI H4 B5 11 13  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Swiss l a k e ) (Rogers' Pass) (bear) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  10 10 10 10  A4 E7 C4 G3  (Lady w i t h v e i l ) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (P.E.I, boats)  4 4 4 4 4  F2 D5 G4 Bl 11  (motorcycle) (Edmonton a t n i g h t ) (water w i t h rainbow) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  4 4 4 4  A4 E7 C4 C5  (Lady w i t h v e i l ) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (Quebec h o r s e s )  139  7 7 7 7 7  Al D5 H5 Bl II  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton at night) ( F a l l lake scene) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  7 7 7 7 7  F2 E7 H2 G2 13  (motorcycle) (Berlin Wall) (Grand Canyon) (plane) (Madonna w i t h gold)  1 1 1 1 1  F2 E3 H4 C5 13  (motorcycle) (Turkish mosque) (Rogers' Pass) (Quebec horses) (Madonna w i t h gold)  1 1 1 1 1  A4 E7 G4 Bl II  (Lady w i t h veil) (Berlin Wall) (water and rainbow) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  140  A e s t h e t i c Preferences of Boys - Objects Preferred Child No.  Picture  Description  Not P r e f e r r e d Child No.  Picture  Description  20 20 20 20 20  J3 Kl Ml N3 05  (Mexican cup) (plane) (peacock feather) (yellow cube) (bear)  20 20 20 20 20  J6 M4 N5 02 04  (Raku pot) (spike) (glass ball) (tea caddie) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  31 31 31 31 31  J4 K2 Ml N2 05  (Chinese rice bowl) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (peacock feather) (red cube) (bear)  31 31 31 31  J6 L2 M4 06  (Raku pot) (drum) (spike) (leg hold traps)  22 22 22 22 22 22  J6 L3 Ml N2 N3 02  (Raku pot) (straw bakset) (peacock feather) (red cube) (yellow cube) (tea caddie)  22 22 22 22 22  J3 Kl M2 N5 06  (Mexican cup) (plane) (rocks) (glass f l o a t ) (leg hold traps)  21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21  J2 J3 J6 K2 Ml N5 N4 05  (Japanese cup) (Mexican cup) (Chinese r i c e bowl) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (peacock feather) (glass f l o a t ) (melted cube) (bear)  21 21 21 21  L3 M4 04 06  (basket) (spike) (Antique silver m i r r o r ) (leg hold traps)  18 18 18 18 18 18 18  J4 K2 L3 Ml N4 06  (Chinese r i c e bowl) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (basket) (peacock feather) (orange cube) (leg hold traps) (tea caddie)  18 18  J6 M4  (Raku pot) (spike)  0 2  141  6 6 6 6 6  J3 LI M2 N2 02  (Mexican cup) (Mexican horse) (stones) (orange cube) (tea caddie)  6 6  N5 06  (glass f l o a t ) (leg hold traps)  30 30 30 30 30  J4 K2 PI N5 05  (Chinese r i c e bowl) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (red rose) (glass ball) (bear)  30 30 30 30 30  J3 L2 Ml N4 06  (Mexican cup) (drum) (peacock feather) (melted glass) (leg hold traps)  19 19 19 19 19 19  J3 J6 L2 M2 N5 04  (Mexican cup) (Raku pot) (drum) (stones) (glass ball) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  19 19 19 19  J2 Kl Ml 06  (Mexican cup) (plane) (peacock feather) (leg hold traps)  24 24 24 24 24 24 24  J3 K2 PI N2 N3 02  24 24 24 24  J4 LI M2 N5  (Chinese rice bowl) (Mexican horse) (stones) (glass f l o a t )  05  (Mexican cup) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (red rose) (orange cube) (yellow cube) (tea caddie) (bear)  16 16 16 16 16  J6 LI Ml N2 04  (Raku pot) (Mexican horse) (peacock feather) (red cube) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  16 16 16 16 16  J2 K2 M4 N5 06  (Japanese cup) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (spike) (glass ball) (leg hold traps)  142  1 1 1 1 1  J4 L2 PI N2 04  (Chinese rice bowl) (drum) (red rose) (red cube) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  1 1 1 1  J6 LI Ml N5  (Raku pot) (Mexican horse) (peacock feather) (glass f l o a t )  5 5 5 5 5  J6 L2 M2 N2 05  (Raku pot) (drum) (stones) (red cube) (bear)  5 5 5 5 5  J3 Kl M4 N5 06  (Mexican cup) (plane) (spike) (glass f l o a t ) (leg hold traps)  14 14 14 14  J6 LI P2 N2  (Raku pot) (Mexican horse) (peach rose) (red cube)  14 14 14 14  L2 M4 N5 06  (drum) (spike) (glass f l o a t ) (leg hold traps)  10 10 10 10 10 10  J6 L2 PI P2 N5 05  (Raku pot) (drum) (red rose) (peach rose) (glass ball) (bear)  10 10 10 10 10  J3 K2 M4 N4 06  (Mexican cup) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (spike) (melted glass) (leg hold traps)  4 4 4 4 4  J4 K2 Ml N2 06  (Chinese rice bowl) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (peacock feather) (red cube) (leg hold traps)  4 4 4 4 4  J6 L3 M4 N5 05  (Raku pot) (basket) (spike) (glass f l o a t ) (bear)  7 7 7 7 7  J4 LI PI N3 02  (Chinese rice bowl) (Mexican horse) (red rose) (yellow cube) (tea caddie)  7 7 7 7 7  J6 L2 M4 N5 05  (Raku pot) (drum) (spike) (glass f l o a t ) (bear)  8 8 8 8 8 8  J2 LI M4 N2 N3 05  (Japanese cup) (Mexican horse) (stones) (red cube) (yellow cube) (bear)  8 8  L3 06  (basket) (leg hold traps)  143  A e s t h e t i c Preferences of Boys - Dress-Ups Preferred Child No.  Picture  Not P r e f e r r e d  Description  Child No.  Picture  Description (black fur) (wig) (vest) (blue & white) (red bag)  31 31 31 31 31  Q9 U9 U3 S6 TI  (fireman's hat) (bracelets) (necklace) (cowboy j a c k e t ) (purple dress)  31 31 31 31 31  Q4 Rl S4 T10 V3  22 22 22  Q8 U9 SI  (construction hat) (blue bangle) (vest)  22 22 22 22 22 22  Q4 (black satin) R3 (wig brown) T group V group W group dislikes a l l the rest  21 21  Ql S5  (Chinese (cape)  21 21 21 21 21 21  Q4 (black) Rl (blond wig) S6 (cowboy j a c k e t ) T group V group W group  16 16 16 16 16 16  Q9 U3 SI TI V3 W4  (fireman's hat) (pearl beads) (red vest) (purple dress) (red bag) (white sheet)  16 16 16 16 16 16  Q7 U9 S6 T10 V5 X4  (police hat) (bracelets) (cowboy j a c k e t ) (dress blue & white) (wallet) (pink night gown)  19 19 19 19 19 19  Q9 U6 S3 T7 Y4 X4  (fireman's hat) (pink purple l e i ) (jeans) (yellow dress) (black patent) (long gown)  19 19 19 19 19 19  Ql R3 S6 T10 V5 WI  (Chinese hat) (black wig) (cowboy j a c k e t ) (blue & white dress) (wallet) (white cloth)  Coolie)  144  6 6 6 6 6  Q7 U8 SI V5 WI  (police hat) (lei) (red vest) (wallet) (white l a c e )  6 6 6 6  Q4 (black v e l v e t ) U3 (beads) S5 (cape) T group  5 5 5 5 5 5  Q5 U6 S6 T6 V5 WI  (fur hat) (pink purple l e i ) (cowboy j a c k e t ) (pink dress) (wallet) (lace white)  5 5 5 5 5 5  Ql U9 S4 T7 V4 W3  14 14 14 14 14 14  Q5 U6 SI TI V4 W3  (fur hat) ( l e i , purple pink) (red vest) (purple dress) (black patent bag) (white cloth)  14 14 14 14 14 14  Ql (policeman's hat) R3 (black wig) S4 (black vest) T7 (yellow dress) V group W group  8 8 8  Q7 U6 S5  (police hat) (purple pink l e i ) (cape)  8 8 8 8 8  Ql (Chinese coolie) R3 (dark wig) T group V group V & W group (long)  30 30  Q7 S5  (policeman's hat) (cape)  30 30 30 30 30  Ql (Chinese coolie) R3 (dark wig) S4 (vest black) T group TI (dress purple)  18 18 18 18 18 18  Q9 U9 S5 T10 V4 WI  (fireman's hat) (bangles) (cape) (blue 6c white dress) (black patent) (white cloth)  18 18 18  Q4 (black 50s) Rl (blond wig) S group  (Chinese hat) (bracelets) (vest black) (yellow dress) (black patent purse) (brown l a c e )  145  10 10 10 10 10 10  Q9 U3 S5 T10 V3 WI  (fireman's hat) (necklace) (cape) (blue <5c white dress) (red bag) (white cloth)  10 10 10 10 10 10  Q4 U9 S4 Tl V5 W3  (black 50s) (brown bangles) (black vest) (purple dress) (wallet) (brown cloth)  1 1 1 1 1 1  Q9 U7 S5 T6 V5 X4  (fireman's hat) (pink yellow l e i ) (cape) (pink dress) (wallet) (pink grown)  1 1 1 1 1  Q5 U6 S6 Tl V4  (fur hat) (pink purple l e i ) (jacket) (purple dress) (black bag)  4 4 4 4 4 4  Ql U9 S6 Tl V5 WI  (Chinese coolie) (bangles) (brown j a c k e t ) (purple dress) (wallet) (white cloth)  4 4 4 4 4 4  Q5 R3 SI T7 V4 W3  (fur hat) (brown wig) (red suede) (yellow dress) (black patent) (brown cloth)  7 7 7 7 7 7  Q5 U7 SI T10 V5 W3  (fur hat) (lei pink yellow) (red vest) (blue & white dress) (wallet) (brown l a c e )  7 7 7 7 7 7  Q7 R3 S5 Tl V4 WI  (police hat) (brown wig) (cape) (purple dress) (black patent) (white l a c e )  24 24 24 24  Q4 Q8 U9 SI  (black 50's) (construction hat) (bangle) (vest red)  24 24 24 24 24 24  Q5 (fur hat) R3 (wig brown) S3 (blue jeans) T group V group W group  20 20  Q8 S6  (construction hat) (cowboy j a c k e t )  20 20 20 20 20 20  (Chinese hat) Ql (bangles) & group U9 (black vest) S4 T group V group W group  146  A e s t h e t i c Preferences of G i r l s - Pictures Preferred  Child No.  Picture  Description  Not P r e f e r r e d Child No.  Picture  Description  27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27  Al Fl D5 DI H4 C4 Bl C5 11 13  ( G i r l with bubble) (skier) (Edmonton at night) (Swiss lake) (Rogers' Pass) (wheel) (Jac k- 0 -Lant er ns) (Quebec horses) (dragon) (Maddonna w i t h gold)  27 27 27 27 27  A4 F2 E7 H2 B5  (Lady w i t h veil) (motorcycle) (Berlin Wall) (Grand Canyon) (bear)  23 23 23 23 23  Fl E3 H4 Bl 13  (water s k i e r ) ( T u r k i s h mosque) (Rogers' Pass) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  23 23 23 23 23  A4 E7 C4 B5 11  (Lady w i t h v e i l ) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (bear) (dragon)  28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28  Al Fl DI E3 G4 C4 G3 G2 11 13  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (skier) (Swiss house) ( T u r k i s h mosque) (water and rainbow) (wheel) (P.E.I, boats) (plane) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  28  E7  (Berlin Wall)  26 26 26 26 26  Al D5 G4 Bl 11  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton a t n i g h t ) (water and rainbow) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  26 26 26 26 26  F2 E7 C4 B5 13  (motorcycle) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (bear) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  147  17 17 17 17 17  Fl DI G4 Bl 11  (water skier) (Swiss house) (water and rainbow) (Jac k- 0 -Lant er ns) (dragon)  17 17 17 17 17 17  A4 HI E7 C4 B5 13  (Lady w i t h v e i l ) (Adobe village) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (bear) (Madonna w i t h gold)  12 12 12 12 12  Al E3 H5 G2 13  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) ( T u r k i s h mosque) ( F a l l l a k e scene) (plane) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  12 12 12 12 12 12 12  F2 E7 H2 C4 H4 G3 11  (motorcycle) (Berlin Wall) (Grand Canyon) (wheel) (Rogers' Pass) (P.E.I, boats) (dragon)  32 32 32 32 32 32  Al D5 H5 G4 B5 11  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) ( F a l l l a k e scene) (water and rainbow) (bear) (dragon)  32 32 32 32 32 32  Fl E7 H2 Bl G3 13  (water s k i e r ) (Berlin Wall) (Grand Canyon) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (P.E.I, boats) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  11 11 11 11 11  Al D5 H2 Bl 11  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) (Grand Canyon) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  11 11 11 11 11  F2 E7 C4 G3 13  (motorcycle) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (P.E.I, boats) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  3 3 3 3 3 3 3  Al DI H4 Bl G2 II 13  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) (Rogers' Pass) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (plane) (dragon) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  3 3 3 3  F2 E7 C4 G3  (motorcycle) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (P.E.I, boats)  2 2 2 2 2  Al E3 H4 B5 13  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) ( T u r k i s h mosque) (Rogers' Pass) (bear) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  2 2 2 2 2  A4 D5 C4 Bl II  (Lady w i t h v e i 1) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) (wheel) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  148  25 25 25 25 25 25  Al A4 D5 H4 E4 11  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Lady w i t h veil) (Edmonton at night) (Rogers' Pass) (Chinese junks) (dragon)  25 25 25 25  E7 C4 B5 13  (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (bear) (Madonna w i t h  15 15 15 15 15  Al D5 H5 D5 11  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) ( F a l l l a k e scene) (bear) (dragon)  15 15 15 15 15  F2 E7 C4 E4 13  (motorcycle) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (Chinese j u n k s ) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  13 13 13 13 13 13 13  Al D5 H4 C5 B5 Bl 11  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton at n i g h t ) (Rogers' Pass) (Quebec h o r s e s ) (bear) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  13 13 13 13  A4 E7 C4 13  (Lady w i t h v e i l ) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  9 9 9 9 9  Al D5 H4 Bl II  ( G i r l w i t h bubble) (Edmonton a t n i g h t ) (Rogers' Pass) (Jack-O-Lanterns) (dragon)  9 9 9 9 9  A4 E7 C4 E4 13  (Lady w i t h v e i l ) (Berlin Wall) (wheel) (Chinese j u n k s ) (Madonna w i t h g o l d )  149  A e s t h e t i c Preferences of G i r l s - Objects  Child No.  Picture Description  Child No.  P i c t u r e Description  23 23 23 23 23  J6 13 P2 N2 05  (Raku pot) (basket) (rose) (red cube) (bear)  23 23 23 23 23  J3 LI Ml N4 06  (Mexican cup) (Mexcian horse) (peacock feather) (slab glass) (leg hold traps)  28 28 28 28 28 28  J4 LI M4 N4 05 02  (Chinese rice bowl) (Mexican horse) (stones) (melted slab glass) (bear) (tea caddie)  28  02  (tea caddie)  26 26 26 26 26 26  J4 LI M2 N2 N3 04  (Chinese r i c e bowl) (Mexican horse) (stones) (orange cube) (yellow cube) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  26 26 26 26 26  J6 Kl M4 N5 06  (Raku pot) (plane) (spike) (glass f l o a t ) (leg hold traps)  27 27 27 27 27 27  J3 L2 M2 N2 N3 04  (Mexican cup) (drum) (stones) ( r e d cube) ( y e l l o w cube) (Antique s i l v e r m i r r o r )  27 27 27 27 27  J2 K2 M4 N4 02  (Japanese cup) (indian carving) (spike) (melted s l a b g l a s s ) (tea caddie)  32 32 32 32 32  J6 LI M2 N2 05  (Raku pot) (Mexican horse) (peacock feather) (red cube) (bear)  32 32 32 32 32  J2 L3 M4 N5 06  (Japanese cup) (basket) (spike) (glass ball) (leg hold traps)  v  150  25 25 25 25 25  J6 LI Ml N4 04  (Raku pot) (Mexican horse) (peacock feather) (slab glass) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  25 25 25 25 25  J3 Kl M4 N5 06  (Mexican cup) (plane) (spike) (glass f l o a t ) (leg hold traps)  17 17 17 17 17 17 17  J6 L3 PI P2 N2 N3 04  (Raku pot) (basket) (red rose) (peach rose) (red cube) (yellow cube) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  17 17 17 17 17  J2 L2 M4 N4 05  (Japanese cup) (drum) (spike) (slab glass) (bear)  15 15 15 15 15 15  J4 LI PI / N3 N2 04  (Chinese rice bowl) (Mexican horse) (red rose) (yellow cube) (red cube) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  15 15 15 15 15  J3 K2 Ml N5 02  (Mexican cup) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (peacock feather) (glass ball) (tea caddie)  13 13 13 13 13 13 13  J4 L3 PI P2 N2 N3 02  (Chinese rice bowl) (backet) (red rose) (peach rose) (red cube) (yellow cube) (tea caddie)  13 13 13  J6 N4 06  (Raku pot) (slab glass) (leg hold traps)  9 9 9 9 9  J3 LI Ml N2 04  (Mexican cup) (Mexican horse) (peacock feather) (red cube) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  9 9 9 9 9  J2 Kl M4 N3 06  (Japanese cup) (plane) (spike) (yellow cube) (leg hold traps)  151  12 12 12 12 12 12  J4 LI PI P2 N2 02  (Chinese r i c e bowl) (Mexican horse) (red rose) (peach rose) (red cube) (tea caddie)  12 12 12 12 12  J6 Kl Ml N5 05  (Raku pot) (plane) (peacock feather) (glass f l o a t ) (bear)  2 2 2 2 2 2  J3 LI PI P2 N4 05  (Mexican cup) (Mexican horse) (red rose) (peach rose) (slab glass) (bear)  2 2 2 2 2  J4 K2 Ml N5 06  (Chinese rice bowl) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (peacock feather) (glass f l o a t ) (leg hold traps)  11 11 11 11 11  J4 LI PI N5 04  (Chinese rice bowl) (Mexican horse) (red rose) (glass f l o a t ) (Antique silver m i r r o r )  11 11 11 11 11  J6 K2 M4 N4 02  (Raku pot) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (spike) (slab glass) (tea caddie)  3 3 2 3 3 3  K2 M4 06  (Japanese cup) (Salish l e t t e r opener) (spike) (leg hold traps)  3 J 4 ( C h i n e s e rice bowl) 3 LI (Mexican horse) 3 PI (red rose) 3 P2 (peach rose) 3 N2 (red cube) 3 04 (Antique silver m i r r o r )  152  A e s t h e t i c Preferences of G i r l s - Dress-Ups Preferred Child Picture No.  Description  Not P r e f e r r e d Child No.  Picture  Description  28 28 28 28 28 28 28  Q4 U6 S5 T7 T6 V5 XI  (black 50's) (pink l e i ) (cape) (yellow sheer) (pink dress) (wallet) (long gown)  28 28 28 28  Q5 U9 S5 V3  (fur hat) (bracelets) (jeans) (red bag)  32 32 32 32 32 32  Q9 U3 S6 T10 V4 XI  (fireman's hat) (beads) (cowboy j a c k e t ) (blue & white dress) (black patent) (long green)  32 32 32 32 32 32  Q4 R3 S4 T7 V5 W3  (black 50's) (brown wig) (black vest) (yellow dress) (wallet) (lace brown)  23 23 23 23 23 23  Q9 U6 S4 T10 V5 X4  (fireman's hat) (pink purple l e i ) (black vest) (blue & white dress) (wallet). (pink long)  23 23 23 23 23 23  Q5 R3 S5 TI V4 W3  (fur hat) (brown wig) (cape) (purple) (black patent) (brown lace)  27 27 27 27 27 27  Ql U9 Ss3 T6 V4 XI  (Chinese hat) (bracelets) (blue jeans) (pink dress) (black patent) (long green)  27 27 27 27 27 27  Q7 (police hat) R3 (wig) S group TI (purple dress) V3 (red bag) W3 (brown l a c e )  3 3 3 3 3 3  Q4 U9 S5 TI V5 W3  (black 50's) (bracelet) (cape) (purple) (wallet & group) (brown lace)  3 3 3 3  Q7 R3 S4 T7  (police hat) (brown wig) (best black) (yellow dress)  153  15 15 15 15 15 15 15  Q5 Rl R3 S5 Tl V4 X4  (fur hat) (brown wig) (blond wig) (cape) (purple dress) (black patent) (pink long)  15 15 15 15 15 15 15  Q4 U7 U9 S4 T10 V5 W3  (black 50's) (flower l e i ) (bracelet) (black vest) (blue & white dress) (wallet) (brown l a c e )  13 13 13 13 13 13  Q9 (fireman's hat) U3 (beads) S4 (black vest) T10 (blue & white dress) V4 (black patent) W & V(long group a l l )  13  V5  (wallet)  25 25 25 25 25 25 25  Q4 U9 SI S5 T7 V4 W3  (black 50's) (bracelets) (vest red) (cape) (yellow dress) (black patent) (brown long)  25 25 25 25 25  Ql R3 S6 V5 X10  (Chinese coolie) (brown wig) (jacket) (red bag) (green long)  26 26 26 26 26 26  Q9 U7 S5 T6 V4 XI  (fireman's hat) (pink yellow l e i ) (cape) (pinkedress) (black patent) (green long)  26 26 26 26 26 26  Q4 R3 S6 T10 V5 W3  (black 50's) (brown wig) (jacket) (blue & white dress) (wallet) (brown long)  12 12 12 12 12 12  Q4 U3 S4 Tl V5 XI  (black 50's) (pearls) (black vest) (purple dress) (wallet) (green long)  12 12 12 12 12 12  Q5 R3 S6 T7 V4 X4  (fur hat) (brown wig) (brown j a c k e t ) (yellow dress) (black patent) (pink robe)  17 17 17 17 17 17  Q4 U9 S5 T7 V4 XI  (black 50's) (bracelets) (cape) (yellow dress) (black patent) (green long)  17 17 17 17 17 17  Ql U3 S4 Tl V3 W4  (Chinese coolie) (necklace) (black vest) (purple dress) (red bag) (white long)  154  9 9 9 9 9 9  Q4 U6 S5 T7 V4 W3  (black 50's) (pink purple l e i ) (cape) (yellow dress) (black patent) (brown long)  9 9 9 9 9 9  Q5 R3 S3 Tl V3 W4  (fur hat) (brown wig) (blue jeans) (purple dress) (red bag) (white long)  2 2 2 2 2 2  Q5 U3 S5 Tl V5 X4  (fur hat) (pearls) (cape) (purple dress) (wallet) (pink long)  2 2 2 2 2 2  Q7 R3 S4 T7 V3 W4  (police hat) (brown wig) (black vest) (yellow dress) (red bag) (white long)  Ql U3 S4 Tl V5  (Chinese coolie) (beads) (black vest) (purple dress) (wallet)  Q5 U7 S6 T10 V3  (fur hat) (bracelets) (cowboy j a c k e t ) (blue & white dress) (red bag)  

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