UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Practical reasoning and teacher education La Bar, Caroline Mary 1985

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PRACTICAL REASONING AND TEACHER EDUCATION by CAROLINE MARY LA BAR B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of Education, C u r r i c u l u m And I n s t r u c t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1985 © C a r o l i n e Mary La Bar, 1985 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of cCw j \ . C U . V U . V Y V ^ \ t \ c ^ V J U A V O W The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t I n t h i s t h e s i s i t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r g o o d t e a c h i n g ; a s s u c h , t h e s t u d y o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g w o u l d b e a v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n t o t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . P r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i s b a s i c a l l y r e a s o n i n g a b o u t w h a t s h o u l d b e d o n e . I n C h a p t e r I I a c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g d e v e l o p e d b y J e r r o l d C o o m b s i s o u t l i n e d . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y o f a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s a n d s e n s i t i v i t i e s , a s w e l l a s k n o w l e d g e a b o u t a n u m b e r o f c o n c e p t s a n d d i s t i n c t i o n s , i s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t c h a p t e r s I I I a n d I V t o i l l u s t r a t e i t s v a l u e i n t y p i c a l t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h e s e t y p i c a l t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o c a t e g o r i e s , u s i n g a d i s t i n c t i o n c o n c e i v e d b y T h o m a s G r e e n . G r e e n h a s d e s c r i b e d t e a c h i n g a s a " p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y " w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f p e r h a p s h u n d r e d s o f s i n g l e d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i e s . H e d i v i d e s t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 1 ) l o g i c a l . a c t s ( f o r e x a m p l e , e x p l a i n i n g , c o n c l u d i n g , i n f e r r i n g , g i v i n g r e a s o n s ) ; 2 ) s t r a t e g i c a c t s ( m o t i v a t i n g , p l a n n i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , d i s c i p l i n i n g ) ; a n d 3 ) i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t s ( t a k i n g a t t e n d a n c e , k e e p i n g r e p o r t s , c o n s u l t i n g p a r e n t s ) . I n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t s , h e s a y s , a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y t o t h e a c t i v i t y o f t e a c h i n g . H o w e v e r , b o t h l o g i c a l a n d s t r a t e g i c a c t s a r e " . . . i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e c o n d u c t o f t e a c h i n g wherever and whenever i t i s found (Green, 1975, p. 5) . Furthermore, he argues that "Teaching can be improved by improving e i t h e r k i n d of a c t i v i t y , but i t cannot be e x c e l l e n t without a t t e n t i o n to both ( i b i d . , p. 8 ) . " In Chapter I I I , I have i l l u s t r a t e d how p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g would improve the l o g i c a l a c t s of t e a c h i n g and i n Chapter IV I have argued that p r a c t i c a l r easoning would improve the s t r a t e g i c a c t s . Chapter V i n c l u d e s a summary of the major argument and concludes with some sug g e s t i o n s about how to dev e l o p t e a c h e r s p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t i e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s . i v Acknowledgements S i n c e r e thanks are due to my a d v i s o r , Dr. Le Roi B. D a n i e l s f o r h i s guidance and encouragement d u r i n g the course of w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s and to Dr. Margaret Arcus and Dr. George ~Tomk~ins f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l comments. Thanks are a l s o -extended t o S e l i n a Chew for t y p i n g the f i n a l d r a f t of the t h e s i s . T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t i v C h a p t e r I 1 C h a p t e r I I . 7 C r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e m i n o r p r e m i s e 9 C r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s e n t t h e m a j o r p r e m i s e 1 0 S u m m a r y 2 0 C h a p t e r I I I 2 1 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 11 2 1 C o n s u m e r E d u c a t i o n 9 / 1 0 4 0 E n g l i s h 1 0 5 4 S u m m a r y 6 3 C h a p t e r I V 6 6 S t r a t e g i c A c t s a n d P r a c t i c a l R e a s o n i n g : R e s p e c t f o r P e r s o n s a n d C l a s s r o o m R u l e s 6 6 R e s p e c t f o r P e r s o n s a n d t h e C r i t i c a l S p i r i t 6 9 M a k i n g C l a s s r o o m R u l e s 7 6 S u m m a r y 8 9 C h a p t e r V 9 0 S u m m a r y o f t h e A r g u m e n t 9 0 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r C h a n g e i n T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n 91 B i b l i o g r a p h y 9 8 1 CHAPTER I As a s o c i e t y , we p l a c e a very h i g h value on e d u c a t i o n . Indeed, i t seems t h a t we demand i n c r e a s i n g l y more from our e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . D e s p i t e p e r i o d i c a t t a c k s on a l l l e v e l s of our e d u c a t i o n a l system, one of which i s c u r r e n t l y underway, i t seems that almost no one s e r i o u s l y suggests that e d u c a t i o n i s s u p e r f l u o u s or unworthy of a t t e n t i o n . I n s t e a d , most of the c r i t i c i s m takes the form of recommendations f o r a v a r i e t y of 'reforms.* Our commitment to e d u c a t i o n and the i n s t i t u t i o n s which advance i t remains i n t a c t . 4 While the popular p e r c e p t i o n appears to equate s c h o o l i n g with e d u c a t i o n , the d i s t i n c t i o n must not be b l u r r e d by those who are concerned with f u r t h e r i n g e d u c a t i o n . The 'reforms' i n s c h o o l i n g suggested by the l a y p e r s o n may w e l l be a n t i t h e t i c a l to g e n u i n e l y e d u c a t i o n a l aims. P r o p o s a l s that s c h o o l s s h o u l d p l a c e more emphasis on g i v i n g s t u d e n t s job s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , f o r example, may, i f implemented, s e r i o u s l y t r u n c a t e the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . The time a l l o c a t e d to j o b . s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i s l i k e l y to be time taken from study of those s u b j e c t s meant to i n c r e a s e knowledge, understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s , i d e a s , p r i n c i p l e s , and c u l t u r a l achievements. Though the aims of e d u c a t i o n are not the s u b j e c t of t h i s paper, i t i s at l e a s t r e a s o n a b l e to assume that there i s r e l a t i v e l y widespread consensus t h a t e d u c a t i o n should 2 prepare s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the democratic s o c i e t y i n which we l i v e . Such a p p r e c i a t i o n i n c l u d e s , I assume, the above knowledge, understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n . I f u r t h e r assume, then, that there i s g e n e r a l agreement among p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s , and at l e a s t some l a y p e r s o n s , that our s o c i e t y i s committed both to e d u c a t i o n and to a democratic form of government. Given t h i s commitment, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to deny the importance of t e a c h e r s to the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e . A l s o , because s o c i e t y demands a g r e a t d e a l from s c h o o l s and, thus, of c o u r s e , from t e a c h e r s , i t seems obvious that the e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s i s of utmost concern to a l l r e f l e c t i v e c i t i z e n s . Recommendations to 'reform' e d u c a t i o n are l i k e l y to be l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e without a d d r e s s i n g the i s s u e of teacher e d u c a t i o n . T h i s paper i s an attempt to examine some fundamental a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g which are p r e s e n t l y i n a d e q u a t e l y d e a l t with, i f at a l l , i n teacher e d u c a t i o n programs, w i t h the aim of s u g g e s t i n g some changes i n those programs. The changes to e x i s t i n g t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs which w i l l be recommended i n c h a p t e r f i v e are grounded i n a c o n c e p t i o n of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g developed by J e r r o l d Coombs. P r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g , as he uses the term, i s r e a s o n i n g about what to do. Coombs acknowledges t h a t there are p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s p u t e s about the p r e c i s e nature of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g but argues t h a t the i s s u e ". .. . should 3 b e d e c i d e d b y d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i s m o s t f r u i t f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n d i m p r o v i n g p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g , g i v e n w h a t w e k n o w a b o u t h o w p e o p l e a c t u a l l y d o r e a s o n a b o u t w h a t t o d o (1982, p. 117)." H i s c o n c e p t i o n , w h i c h i s e l a b o r a t e d i n s o m e d e t a i l i n c h a p t e r t w o , i n c l u d e s a n u m b e r o f a t t a i n m e n t s - a b i l i t i e s , s e n s i t i v i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s a n d k n o w l e d g e - w h i c h h e b e l i e v e s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l j u d g m e n t . . I n c h a p t e r s t h r e e a n d f o u r , a n u m b e r o f t h e s e a t t a i n m e n t s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o . s o m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h e s e c h a p t e r s b a s i c a l l y c o m p r i s e a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f r u i t f u l n e s s o f C o o m b s ' c o n c e p t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r a c t i c a l c l a s s r o o m c o n c e r n s . I u s e T h o m a s G r e e n ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t e a c h i n g f r o m h i s b o o k , T h e A c t i v i t i e s o f T e a c h i n g , a s a w a y t o s t r u c t u r e t h e d i s c u s s i o n . G r e e n d e s c r i b e s t e a c h i n g a s a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f p e r h a p s h u n d r e d s o f i n s t a n c e s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s . H e d i v i d e s t h e s e i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . T h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y , t h e l o g i c a l a c t s , i n c l u d e s t h o s e r e l a t i n g p r i m a r i l y t o t h e e l e m e n t o f r e a s o n i n g o r t h i n k i n g i n t e a c h i n g . E x a m p l e s o f s u c h a c t s i n c l u d e e x p l a i n i n g , c o n c l u d i n g , g i v i n g r e a s o n s , a m a s s i n g e v i d e n c e , a n d d e f i n i n g . T h e s e c o n d c a t e g o r y , t h e s t r a t e g i c a c t s , i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ' s p l a n o r s t r a t e g y i n t e a c h i n g , t h e w a y m a t e r i a l i s o r g a n i z e d a n d s t u d e n t s a r e 4 d i r e c t e d . These a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e m o t i v a t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , encouraging, d i s c i p l i n i n g , and q u e s t i o n i n g . The t h i r d c a t egory, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t s , c o n s i s t s of those a s p e c t s of the t e a c h e r ' s work which a r i s e p r i m a r i l y because the s c h o o l i s an i n s t i t u t i o n . In t h i s c a t e g o r y f a l l such a c t i v i t i e s as t a k i n g attendance, a t t e n d i n g meetings, keeping r e p o r t s , and so on. Green r i g h t l y p o i n t s out t h a t the c a t e g o r i e s , although not very p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d , are n o n e t h e l e s s u s e f u l i n g e t t i n g c l e a r e r about the a c t i v i t y of t e a c h i n g . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t s , l o g i c a l l y speaking, are unnecessary to the a c t i v i t y of t e a c h i n g . Teaching can be c a r r i e d out i n other than i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . The l o g i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a c t s , on the other hand, are i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r any a c t i o n or a c t i v i t y to count as t e a c h i n g . While the l o g i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a c t s d i f f e r from each other i n important r e s p e c t s , both are c r u c i a l to t e a c h i n g and, i n f a c t , u s u a l l y take p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I t i s important to m a i n t a i n the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two, however, f o r the purpose of advancing d i s c u s s i o n on improving p e d a g o g i c a l p r a c t i c e . In Green's words, "Teaching can be improved by improving e i t h e r k i n d of a c t i v i t y , but i t cannot be e x c e l l e n t without a t t e n t i o n tp both (1971, p. 8 ) . " How then are the l o g i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a c t s to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d ? The answer, a c c o r d i n g to Green, i s p r i m a r i l y by the way the two are e v a l u a t e d . The l o g i c a l a c t s are 5 a p p r a i s e d on p u r e l y l o g i c a l grounds. . whether an e x p l a n a t i o n i s good or adequate can be deci d e d without c o n s i d e r i n g whether anyone l e a r n s from i t . In other words, i t can be as s e s s e d independently of i t s consequences f o r l e a r n i n g . An e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l be a good one i f i t accounts f o r what i s to be e x p l a i n e d . I f i t i s w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d and without l o g i c a l f a u l t , then i t i s a good e x p l a n a t i o n even when i t i s not understood by anyone except i t s a u t h o r . . . ( i b i d . , p. 7 ) . While the l o g i c a l a c t s of t e a c h i n g can be w e l l done even i f no one l e a r n s , t h i s i s not the case with r e s p e c t to the s t r a t e g i c a c t s . The s t r a t e g i c a c t s are e v a l u a t e d c h i e f l y by t h e i r consequences f o r l e a r n i n g . As t e a c h i n g t y p i c a l l y i s concerned with g e t t i n g someone to l e a r n something, i t cannot be ranked h i g h l y u n l e s s l e a r n i n g o c c u r s . Whereas the l o g i c a l a c t s r e q u i r e a knowledge of the "laws of thought" the s t r a t e g i c a c t s r e q u i r e a knowledge of "the laws of l e a r n i n g and human growth." There are some s i t u a t i o n s which r e q u i r e a g r e a t e r emphasis on l o g i c than s t r a t e g y , while t h e r e are o t h e r s which r e q u i r e the r e v e r s e . The d i s t i n c t i o n between the l o g i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a c t s i s summarized, then, by how they are e v a l u a t e d - the s t r a t e g i c a c t s by t h e i r consequences f o r l e a r n i n g , the l o g i c a l a c t s independently of t h e i r consequences. In p r a c t i c e , of cou r s e , both k i n d s of a c t s occur t o g e t h e r . Green s t a t e s T h i s important d i f f e r e n c e between the l o g i c of t e a c h i n g and the s t r a t e g y of t e a c h i n g i s u s u a l l y obscured because, i n p r a c t i c e , the l o g i c a l a c t s of t e a c h i n g never occur, or at l e a s t they seldom occur, except i n the c o n t e x t of some t e a c h i n g 6 s t r a t e g y . Consequently, we almost never e v a l u a t e these d i f f e r e n t kinds of a c t s independently of one another ( i b i d . , p. 7 ) . With r e s p e c t to the d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s i n chapters three and four of t h i s paper, the p o i n t about obscuraton of the d i s t i n c t i o n i s of note. While chapter t h r e e addresses the l o g i c a l a c t s , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to c o m p l e t e l y a v o i d r e f e r e n c e to the s t r a t e g i c a c t s . S i m i l a r i l y , while chapter four i s concerned with the s t r a t e g i c a c t s , o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e to the l o g i c a l a c t s i s r e q u i r e d . The argument f o r the va l u e of p r a c t i c a l r easoning i n improving p e d a g o g i c a l p r a c t i c e i s repeated i n summary form i n c h a p t e r f i v e . F o l l o w i n g t h i s summary, an attempt i s made to set out some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i n c l u d i n g i n teacher e d u c a t i o n programs s t u d i e s which w i l l d e v e l o p persons' p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . 7 CHAPTER II The account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g employed in t h i s paper was c o n c e i v e d by J e r r o l d Coombs. 1 Comprehensive and coherent e d u c a t i o n a l programs to teach a n y t h i n g must be based on a sound c o n c e p t i o n of what i s to be taught and d e f e n s i b l e reasons f o r t e a c h i n g i t . Coombs' account p r o v i d e s both of the above. T h i s work i s e l a b o r a t e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to make c l e a r the c o n s t i t u e n t a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s and knowledge r e q u i r e d f o r r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g as w e l l as the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c o n s t i t u e n t s . As such, i t p r o v i d e s a f o u n d a t i o n f o r d e v e l o p i n g m a t e r i a l s and s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g purposes. P r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i s concerned with making d e c i s i o n s about what to do. Such rea s o n i n g occurs both at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , i n which one makes a judgment about what one p e r s o n a l l y should do, and at the s o c i a l l e v e l , i n which one makes a judgment about what one's s o c i e t y or s o c i a l groups should do. At both l e v e l s , however, the r e a s o n i n g f o l l o w s the same b a s i c form - the judgment or c o n c l u s i o n 1 T h i s work i s p a r t of a r e p o r t submitted by J . Coombs, C. La Bar and I. Wright to the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e of Canada. The c o n c e p t i o n of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g was, however, developed s o l e l y by Coombs and w i l l be c i t e d as Coombs (1982) throughout t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s chapter i s based e n t i r e l y on the c o n c e p t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the r e p o r t . ( 8 about what should be done i s reached u s i n g two d i s t i n c t types of reasons: 1) m o t i v a t i n g reasons, which take the form of v a l u e standards which the reasoner a c c e p t s , and 2) b e l i e f s about what a c t i o n s w i l l f u l f i l l the value s t a n d a r d s . Consider the f o l l o w i n g simple example. John, a mathematics teacher, must decide whether to spend h i s Tuesday evenings t a k i n g a French c o o k i n g c o u r s e , something he has long wished to do, or t a k i n g a computer course, something which he b e l i e v e s would h e l p him meet h i s o b l i g a t i o n to h e l p u n d e r - a c h i e v i n g students i n problem s o l v i n g . John b e l i e v e s t h a t he w i l l enjoy the cooking course immensely. He a l s o b e l i e v e s that he w i l l be b e t t e r prepared to h e l p h i s s t u d e n t s i f he takes the computer c o u r s e . A c c e p t i n g the value s t a n d a r d that t e a c h e r s are o b l i g a t e d to f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l student l e a r n i n g when p o s s i b l e , even at the expense of denying h i m s e l f something long wished f o r , John d e c i d e s that he s h o u l d e n r o l i n the computer c o u r s e . H i s b e l i e f s about the consequences of a c t i n g on each of the a l t e r n a t i v e s , combined wi t h the value s t a n d a r d he a c c e p t s , p r o v i d e the two kinds of reasons from which h i s judgment or c o n c l u s i o n can be d e d u c t i v e l y i n f e r r e d . W r i t t e n f o r m a l l y , John's argument reads: Major premise: I ought to do t h a t which w i l l h e l p (Value standard) my students l e a r n r a t h e r than that which w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to my p e r s o n a l enjoyment. Minor premise: Taking a computer course w i l l h e l p ( B e l i e f ) my students l e a r n . 9 C o n c l u s i o n : I ought to take a computer course ( P r a c t i c a l r a t h e r than c o n t r i b u t e to my p e r s o n a l judgment) enjoyment. Both premises, the value standard which he a c c e p t s , and h i s b e l i e f about the consequences of the proposed course of a c t i o n must be defended i f h i s judgment i s to be sound. In a d d i t i o n , of course, the argument must be d e d u c t i v e l y v a l i d , t h a t i s , the premises must l o g i c a l l y l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n . John's dilemma i s r a t h e r l e s s c o m p l i c a t e d than many cases r e q u i r i n g p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Often more than two a l t e r n a t i v e s present themselves, much more i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to d e s c r i b i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , and a number of v a l u e standards are i n v o l v e d and may c o n f l i c t . N onetheless, the b a s i c form of the r e a s o n i n g remains the same. The judgment about what ought to be done i s based on a value s t a n d a r d a c c e p t e d by the reasoner and b e l i e f s about what a c t i o n s w i l l f u l f i l l the v a l u e s t a n d a r d . C r i t e r i a f o r A s s e s s i n g the Minor Premise If p r a c t i c a l judgments are to be c o n s i d e r e d r a t i o n a l , c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a must be s a t i s f i e d ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , assuming t h a t the d e d u c t i o n i s v a l i d , both premises must be d e f e n s i b l e . Coombs has i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e c r i t e r i a by which to a s s e s s the minor premise, which i s always an e m p i r i c a l or d e f i n i t i o n a l c l a i m . The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n of r a t i o n a l i t y he terms " f a c t u a l a c c uracy"; c l e a r l y , r e a s o n i n g based on f a l s e 10 empir ica l claims cannot be sound. In the example c i t e d e a r l i e r , John's judgment that he ought to take the computer course would not be considered sound i f i t was found that his taking the course would not help h i s students l e a r n . The second c r i t e r i o n is "ev ident ia l comprehensiveness" which requires the reasoner to take into account a l l the information relevant to assessing the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the a l t e r n a t i v e s . Using John's case again, i f he d id not a scer ta in whether the computer course used hardware a v a i l a b l e at h i s school , h i s reasoning would not be sound. The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n is termed "reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e inc lus iveness"; i t charges the reasoner with cons ider ing a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e courses of ac t ion which might reasonably be taken in a p a r t i c u l a r circumstance. Once more, John might be chided for not cons ider ing , perhaps, a t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e , one that might be even more h e l p f u l for h i s students -o f f er ing s p e c i a l t u t o r i a l s on Tuesday evenings, for instance. C r i t e r i a for Assessing the Major Premise The c r i t e r i a for assess ing the major premise, a value standard or p r i n c i p l e , are , in Coombs' words, "more complex and more c o n t r o v e r s i a l . " In general , two standards are used to carry out such assessments; both must be used together for an assessment to be r a t i o n a l l y de fens ib le . The two, the standard of greatest benefit and the standard of m o r a l i t y , 11 operate somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y i n i n d i v i d u a l judgments than they do i n s o c i a l judgments. In the former, the standard of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t i s s a t i s f i e d i f the reasoner concludes that the course of a c t i o n chosen i s the a l t e r n a t i v e that would c o n t r i b u t e most to the r e a l i z a t i o n of the whole complex of v a l u e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s r a t i o n a l l y p r e f e r r e d way of l i f e . The r a t i o n a l l y p r e f e r r e d way of l i f e i s an i d e a l , "never f u l l y a t t a i n a b l e . " Although d i f f e r e n t persons have d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s of the good l i f e , t h e r e are c e r t a i n b a s i c v a l u e s which are necessary to anyone's c o n c e p t i o n because they are i n h e r e n t l y d e s i r a b l e . A c c o r d i n g to Coombs . . . the s o r t s of t h i n g s g e n e r a l l y taken to be b a s i c goods i n c l u d e s u r v i v a l , s e c u r i t y , h e a l t h , p l e a s u r e and j u s t treatment (Green, 1978). Rawls (1971) would add to t h i s l i s t r i g h t s , l i b e r t y , o p p o r t u n i t i e s , power, wealth and a sense of one's own worth. These he regards as primary goods because they i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of success i n c a r r y i n g out one's i n t e n t i o n s and advancing one's ends whatever these ends might be ( i b i d . , p. 8 ) . The s t a n d a r d of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t , then, i s made c o n c r e t e by these b a s i c goods. D i f f e r e n t persons' c o n c e p t i o n s of the good l i f e vary because they weigh the importance of these goods d i f f e r e n t l y . In making an i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c a l judgment, the reasoner must determine which a l t e r n a t i v e course of a c t i o n r e a l i z e s the g r e a t e s t amount of b a s i c goods, a c c o r d i n g to her c o n c e p t i o n of the good l i f e . As sketched above, the standard of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t i s s e l f - r e f e r r i n g , whereas the standard of m o r a l i t y i s o t h e r -r e f e r r i n g , s e t t i n g l i m i t s on the way one can t r e a t other 1 2 persons. B a s i c a l l y i t r e q u i r e s the reasoner to t r e a t persons a c c o r d i n g to r u l e s which she would be w i l l i n g to have anyone adopt as a guide to the treatment of o t h e r s . Two p r i n c i p l e s make up t h i s s t andard: 1 ) I t cannot be r i g h t f o r me to take a given a c t i o n u n l e s s i t i s r i g h t f o r any person i n the same s o r t of c i r c u m s t a n c e s to perform that a c t i o n ; 2) I f the consequences of everyone's doing a c t i o n x i n a given c i r c u m s t a n c e would be unacceptable, then i t i s not r i g h t f o r anyone to do x in that c i r c u m s t a n c e . The s t a n d a r d of m o r a l i t y i s made c o n c r e t e by b a s i c moral r u l e s such as don't k i l l , don't cause p a i n , don't d i s a b l e , don't d e p r i v e of p l e a s u r e , don't d e p r i v e of freedom, don't break promises, don't cheat, don't d e c e i v e , don't break the law. A l l r a t i o n a l persons, whatever t h e i r p r e f e r r e d way of l i f e , w i l l want to a v o i d , other t h i n g s being e q u a l , being k i l l e d , d i s a b l e d or cheated by the a c t i o n s of o t h e r s . Reasoners should use the b a s i c moral r u l e s , not as a b s o l u t e guides to a c t i o n , but as i n d i c a t o r s to s i g n i f y t h a t proposed a c t i o n s r e q u i r e assessment from the moral p o i n t of view. Circumstances may demand t h a t one break a moral r u l e i n order to a v o i d b r e a k i n g another. C o n f l i c t among the b a s i c r u l e s must be r e s o l v e d by a p p l y i n g the two p r i n c i p l e s which form the standard of m o r a l i t y . The standards of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t and m o r a l i t y a r e , of 1 3 c o u r s e , a p p l i e d more i n t e r a c t i v e l y i n s o c i a l p r a c t i c a l judgments than they are i n i n d i v i d u a l judgments. Because the standard of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t must be a p p l i e d to a number of persons, not j u s t an i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t and apply. Coombs s t a t e s that I d e a l l y i t would be f u l f i l l e d to the h i g h e s t degree by th a t program of a c t i o n which most n e a r l y r e a l i z e s the r a t i o n a l l y chosen way of l i f e of every person i n the s o c i e t y . But programs of a c t i o n which r e a l i z e b a s i c goods f o r some may be d e s t r u c t i v e of b a s i c goods f o r o t h e r s because programs of a c t i o n have d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s and because the b a s i c goods, while common to a l l r a t i o n a l people are . . . a s s i g n e d d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s of importance by d i f f e r e n t persons. In making a s o c i a l judgment we must dec i d e whose goods are to be r e a l i z e d to what degree. ( i b i d . , p. 10). The d e c i s i o n about whose goods are to be r e a l i z e d to what degree i s r e s o l v e d not by a p p l y i n g the standard of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t , but by a p p e a l i n g to the standard of m o r a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y "as i t i s embodied i n the p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e or j u s t d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h i s p r i n c i p l e s t a t e s t h a t , other t h i n g s being e q u a l , b e n e f i t s must be d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y ( i b i d . , p. 10)." Coombs argues t h a t the p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y must be given c o n d i t i o n a l p r i o r i t y over the standard of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t . T h i s can only be a p p l i e d by de t e r m i n i n g who i s to b e n e f i t , a q u e s t i o n to be s e t t l e d by the standard of m o r a l i t y . The a p p l i c a t i o n of the standards of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t and m o r a l i t y i n s o c i a l judgments, he con c l u d e s , . . . d i r e c t us to choose t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e which r e a l i z e s the grea t e s t , common b e n e f i t s f o r persons. An a l t e r n a t i v e which p r o v i d e s g r e a t e r t o t a l b e n e f i t s but d i s t r i b u t e s them unequ a l l y may be chosen only i f the judger c o u l d s i n c e r e l y advocate 1 4 that a l t e r n a t i v e even i f he were i n the p o s i t i o n of the person l e a s t advantaged by i t s I being chosen. When a p o l i c y or p r a c t i c e r e s u l t i n g i n an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods i s j u s t i f i e d , the s t a n d a r d of m o r a l i t y r e q u i r e s t h a t , i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , each person has an equal o p p o r t u n i t y to secure the higher rewards ( i b i d . , p. 12). Coombs has a n a l y z e d the above c o n c e p t i o n of r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l r easoning i n t o a comprehensive l i s t of a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s persons need to a c q u i r e i f they are to become p r o f i c i e n t at p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t p r e s e n t s the competencies. 1. S e n s i t i v i t y to s i t u a t i o n s i n which p r a c t i c a l r easoning i s r e q u i r e d . B a s i c a l l y t h i s i s a s e n s i t i v i t y to d e c i s i o n s or a c t i o n s which are l i k e l y to have consequences of such s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r o n e s e l f or o t h e r s as to warrant s e r i o u s r e f l e c t i o n b e f o r e a c t i n g . T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y has two a s p e c t s : 1.1 S e n s i t i v i t y to a c t i o n s or d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g one's long term best i n t e r e s t s . T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y i s dependent upon s e v e r a l kinds of knowledge or awareness i n c l u d i n g : 1.1.1 Knowledge of what s o r t s of t h i n g s are b a s i c v a l u e s f o r human beings i n g e n e r a l . 1.1.2 Knowledge of what s o r t s of a c t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d dangerous, rash or imprudent. 1.1.3 Awareness of the nature of one's own long 1 5 term i n t e r e s t s . 1.2 S e n s i t i v i t y to m o r a l l y hazardous a c t i o n s , that i s , a c t i o n s which r e q u i r e assessment from the moral p o i n t of view. T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y a l e r t s persons to (1) a c t i o n s t h a t may have consequences f o r o t h e r s which the a c t o r c o u l d not accept i f they were to b e f a l l him and (2) a c t i o n s which may have unacceptable consequences were everyone to engage in them. Such s e n s i t i v i t y i s composed of a v a r i e t y of more s p e c i f i c attainments i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g : 1.2.1 Knowledge of b a s i c moral r u l e s such as: Don't k i l l . Don't d e p r i v e of p l e a s u r e . Don't cheat. Don't cause p a i n . Don't d e p r i v e of freedom. Don't d e c e i v e . Don't d i s a b l e . Don't break p r o m i s e s . 2 1.2.2 Knowledge of what g e n e r a l l y harms human beings e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or e m o t i o n a l l y . 1.2.3 P o s s e s s i o n of a wide range of moral concepts such as d e c e i v i n g , demeaning, i n d o c t r i n a t i n g , b e l i t t l i n g , e t c . 2. D i s p o s i t i o n to undertake p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g when such i s r e q u i r e d . T h i s d i s p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s at l e a s t the 2 T h i s statement of moral r u l e s i s adapted from t h a t found i n Bernard G e r t , The Moral R u l e s , (New York: Harper & Row, 1966). 1 6 f o l l o w i n g p r e r e q u i s i t e a b i l i t i e s and knowledge: 2.1 A b i l i t y to de l a y immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n favour of s e c u r i n g one's long term i n t e r e s t s . 2.2 A b i l i t y to suspend judgment u n t i l r e f l e c t i o n has taken p l a c e . 2.3 Knowledge of the val u e of engaging i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to i d e n t i f y or c o n c e i v e of reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e s to the proposed course of a c t i o n . T h i s a b i l i t y l i k e l y depends i n p a r t on hav i n g : 3.1 Knowledge of v a r i o u s means f o r r e a l i z i n g c e r t a i n v a l u e s . 3.2 Knowledge of the importance of c o n s i d e r i n g reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e s . A b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n to assemble, i n s o f a r as p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to determ i n i n g the r e l a t i v e worth of each course of a c t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Some of the c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h i s attainment i n c l u d e : 4.1 The d i s p o s i t i o n t o determine the consequences of the a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s f o r r e a l i z i n g each of the b a s i c human concerns, i . e . , economic, h e a l t h , s a f e t y , r e c r e a t i o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral concerns. 4.2 The a b i l i t y to f i n d sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n l i b r a r i e s , government agencies and the l i k e . A b i l i t y t o a s s e s s the accuracy of the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r ses of a c t i o n . Most of the s k i l l s a s s o c i a t e d with c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g are c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h i s a t t a i n m e n t . These i n c l u d e : 5.1 A b i l i t y to c l a r i f y the meaning of statements. 5.2 A b i l i t y to d e t e c t and a v o i d ambiguity i n a l i n e of r e a s o n i n g . 5.3 A b i l i t y to a s s e s s the v a l i d i t y of d e d u c t i v e arguments. 5.4 A b i l i t y to frame one's f i n d i n g s i n language that i s c l e a r and p r e c i s e . 5.5 A b i l i t y to a s s e s s the r e l i a b i l i t y of o b s e r v a t i o n statements. 5.6 A b i l i t y to judge whether an i n d u c t i v e c o n c l u s i o n i s warranted. T h i s i n c l u d e s the a b i l i t y to d e t e c t i n f o r m a l f a l l a c i e s i n the r e a s o n i n g of o t h e r s and a v o i d them i n one's own r e a s o n i n g . 5.7 A b i l i t y to d e t e c t hidden assumptions u n d e r l y i n g an argument. 5.8 A b i l i t y to d e t e c t and a v o i d inadequate d e f i n i t i o n s . 5.9 A b i l i t y to a s s e s s the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a statement by an a l l e g e d a u t h o r i t y . 6. D i s p o s i t i o n to determine the accuracy of i n f o r m a t i o n about the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r ses of a c t i o n . Subcomponents of t h i s d i s p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e : 6.1 D i s p o s i t i o n to e x e r c i s e the a b i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n (5) above. 18 6.2 D i s p o s i t i o n to be open-minded and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y honest, a c c e p t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s based on adequate reasons or evidence and w i t h h o l d i n g judgment when the evidence i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to warrant the c o n c l u s i o n . 6.3 D i s p o s i t i o n to demand as much p r e c i s i o n as the s u b j e c t matter p e r m i t s . 6.4 D i s p o s i t i o n to d e a l with the p a r t s of a complex s i t u a t i o n i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n . 7. A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to as s e s s the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . C o n s t i t u e n t s of t h i s attainment i n c l u d e : 7.1 Knowing that moral assessment i s guided by two p r i n c i p l e s : (a) I t cannot be r i g h t f o r me to do X u n l e s s i t i s r i g h t f o r any person i n the same s o r t of cir c u m s t a n c e s to do X. (b) I f the consequences of everyone's doing X i n a gi v e n c i r c u m s t a n c e would be unacceptable, then i t i s not r i g h t f o r anyone to do X i n that c i r c u m s t a n c e . 7.2 A b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n to imagine f o r each a l t e r n a t i v e the consequences that would ensue i f everyone i n your c i r c u m s t a n c e were to engage i n the a c t i o n , and to r e j e c t the a c t i o n as wrong i f the imagined consequences are una c c e p t a b l e . 7.3 A b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n to put o n e s e l f 1 9 i m a g i n a t i v e l y i n t o the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of another person to a p p r e c i a t e the consequences each a l t e r n a t i v e course of a c t i o n has f o r that person, and to r e j e c t the a c t i o n as wrong i f the imagined consequences are u n a c c e p t a b l e . 7.4 A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to c o n s i d e r the views of o t h e r s c o n c e r n i n g the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r ses of a c t i o n . 7.5 Knowledge of how, i f at a l l , one d i f f e r s from people i n g e n e r a l with r e s p e c t to the t h i n g s that he or she regards as h a r m f u l . 8. A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to o r g a n i z e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r ses of a c t i o n i n such a way as to be a b l e to rank them with regard to the degree to which they r e a l i z e one's r a t i o n a l l y p r e f e r r e d p a t t e r n of v a l u e s . 9. Knowledge of the importance of c o n d u c t i n g p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i n accordance with the standards of m o r a l i t y and the standard of g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t . T h i s i n c l u d e s : 9.1 Understanding why a system of p u b l i c m o r a l i t y i s necessary i f we are to have the s o r t of s o c i a l o rder i n which one can l e a d a f u l f i l l i n g l i f e . 9.2 Understanding the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a s s e s s i n g one's a c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to one's t o t a l p a t t e r n of v a l u e s r a t h e r than merely i n terms of one's immediate or s h o r t term d e s i r e s . 10. D i s p o s i t i o n t o a c t on the c o n c l u s i o n s reached as the 20 r e s u l t of r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l reasoning r a t h e r than on one's immediate d e s i r e s . Summary J e r r o l d Coombs' c o n c e p t i o n of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g , which w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o throughout t h i s paper, has been summarized i n t h i s c h a p t e r . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n has been e x p l i c a t e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to provide a framework f o r d e v e l o p i n g m a t e r i a l s and s t r a t e g i e s to teach the a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s and knowledge r e q u i s i t e f o r r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . In the f o l l o w i n g two c h a p t e r s , I w i l l argue that the c o n s t i t u e n t s of p r a c t i c a l r easoning i d e n t i f i e d by Coombs are r e q u i r e d f o r both l o g i c a l and s t r a t e g i c t e a c h i n g a c t s . 21 CHAPTER III i The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to p r o v i d e ' support f o r the c l a i m that the l o g i c a l a c t s of t e a c h i n g would be improved i f t e a c h e r s were to develop the a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . To t h i s end, s p e c i f i c examples w i l l be chosen from three B r i t i s h Columbia secondary c u r r i c u l u m guides and examined to show how p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g would f a c i l i t a t e f u l f i l l m e n t of these o b j e c t i v e s . The examples used are taken from S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Consumer E d u c a t i o n , and E n g l i s h . Although B.C. c u r r i c u l u m guides have been used, each example has been chosen to r e f l e c t f a i r l y g e n e r a l concerns and thus would be l i k e l y to be found i n c u r r i c u l u m guides used i n other Canadian j u r i s d i c t i o n s . S o c i a l S t u d i e s 11 The example from the S o c i a l S t u d i e s chosen f o r d i s c u s s i o n here i s taken from the d r a f t S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m (May 20, 1982). As; i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t hat t h i s c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be implemented i n the near f u t u r e , i t seems most s e n s i b l e to use i t r a t h e r than the 1968 Guide c u r r e n t l y being used by t e a c h e r s . Before l a u n c h i n g i n t o an examination of a s p e c i f i c example, i t i s necessary to o u t l i n e the g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m . There are four o v e r a l l g o a l s which s t a t e ' 22 i n g e n e r a l terms what students should know and understand on completion of the b a s i c program. These four g o a l s are meant to guide the s e l e c t i o n of each grade's g o a l s , which are sub-d i v i d e d i n t o c o n t e n t , understandings, s k i l l s and i n q u i r i e s . I t i s s t a t e d that content, understandings, s k i l l s and i n q u i r i e s are ". . . to be taught as p a r t of a p r o c e s s . Every e f f o r t should be made to i n t e g r a t e these f a c t o r s and not teach them i n i s o l a t i o n ( D r a f t S.S. C u r r i c u l u m , 1982, p. 7) . " There a re two s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s , with r e s p e c t to pr e s e n t purposes, to be made about the i n t r o d u c t o r y g e n e r a l remarks made i n the C u r r i c u l u m Guide. F i r s t , each of the four o v e r a l l g o als s t a t e s that student knowledge and understanding should be developed ". . . through the e x e r c i s e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " - A ' S k i l l s ' Appendix at the back of the guide breaks down problem s o l v i n g i n t o i t s component p a r t s . Although t h e r e i s no s e c t i o n t i t l e d ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , ' t h e r e are s e c t i o n s on ' d e c i s i o n making' and ' e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . ' A l l t h r e e of these s e c t i o n s o v e r l a p s u b s t a n t i a l l y with the account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g presented i n Chapter I I . The second notable p o i n t to be made i s t h a t the expected l e a r n i n g outcomes, i n terms of knowledge, understandings and s k i l l s , are a l l meant to be a p p l i e d to a v a r i e t y of " s i g n i f i c a n t i n q u i r i e s . " Presumably, then, the i n q u i r i e s s e c t i o n i s seen to be of some importance, a f o c a l 23 p o i n t to which l e a r n i n g i s to be d i r e c t e d . The Guide s t a t e s : The i n q u i r i e s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s sample q u e s t i o n s . These q u e s t i o n s w i l l r e q u i r e students to a p p l y and extend t h e i r knowledge, s k i l l s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . The q u e s t i o n s range from those which have a s o l u t i o n based on the a v a i l a b l e evidence t o those which are i s s u e s . An i s s u e may be d e f i n e d as a matter of i n t e r e s t about which t h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t disagreement. The disagreement can i n v o l v e matters of f a c t , matters of meaning or matters of value ( i b i d . , p. 5). In a d d i t i o n to the f a c t t h a t l e a r n i n g c o n t e n t , s k i l l s and understandings i s to be d i r e c t e d towards i n v e s t i g a t i o n of i n q u i r i e s , the f i n a l statement i n the above q u o t a t i o n i s of some import i n t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s p r e c i s e l y "matters of f a c t , matters of meaning or matters of v a l u e " with which p r a c t i c a l r easoning i s concerned. The example chosen f o r examination i s taken from the i n q u i r i e s column of Grade X I . 3 The focus of Grade XI S o c i a l S t u d i e s i s e n t i t l e d 3 The example was chosen a r b i t r a r i l y . There are many other ' i n q u i r i e s ' which c o u l d have been used f o r d i s c u s s i o n , even at the elementary l e v e l . The f o l l o w i n g ' i n q u i r i e s ' would have s e r v e d e q u a l l y w e l l . - Should a community be changed to p r o v i d e new systems? (Grade I I ) Should good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d be used f o r purposes other than food p r o d u c t i o n ? (Grade I I I ) - To what extent d i d n a t i v e people make wise use of t h e i r environment? (Grade IV) - Should immigrants to Canada be a s s i m i l a t e d ? (Grade V) How should people manage the use of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? (Grade VII) - Of what v a l u e i s b i l i n g u i s m and b i c u l t u r a l i s m t o Canada? (Grade V I I I ) - Is a l l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h b e n e f i c i a l ? (Grade IX) Was the use of f o r c e a g a i n s t the Metis i n 1885 j u s t i f i e d ? (Grade X) 24 "People and World I s s u e s . " The C u r r i c u l u m Guide s t a t e s that "Students are expected to touch upon s i g n i f i c a n t developments to i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d and to t r a c e t h e i r consequences now and in the f u t u r e . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g should be given prominence i n these a c t i v i t i e s . " The s p e c i f i c i n q u i r y to be d i s c u s s e d i s "Can or should governments p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change?" Content r e l a t e d to t h i s i n q u i r y i s "the impact of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change and the expansion of knowledge on i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t i e s . " R e l a t e d understandings to be f o s t e r e d a r e : T e c h n o l o g i c a l change can a f f e c t a n a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y to compete i n world markets. T e c h n o l o g i c a l change can make t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s and products o b s o l e t e with s e r i o u s consequences f o r i n d i v i d u a l workers and i n d u s t r i e s who f a i l or are unable to a d j u s t . T e c h n o l o g i c a l change and i n c r e a s e d knowledge may markedly i n f l u e n c e a n a t i o n ' s p h y s i c a l environment, c u l t u r e , economy and government. The concept of the r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the s t a t e and the c i t i z e n s change over time and with c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A l a r g e number of s k i l l s , i n c l u d i n g p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , l o c a t i n g , a c q u i r i n g and. e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n are to be developed. To t e a c h the o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d above r e q u i r e s that t e a c h e r s make d e c i s i o n s with r e s p e c t to m a t e r i a l s and methods. Although these types of d e c i s i o n s f i t , s t r i c t l y 2 5 speaking, i n Green's category of ' s t r a t e g i c a c t s ' " and thus are not d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to t a l k i n any meaningful f a s h i o n about t e a c h i n g without at l e a s t b r i e f mention of them. I t i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t students c o u l d come to know the content and 'understandings' l i s t e d above by s e v e r a l means which would not i n v o l v e any r e a s o n i n g on t h e i r p a r t whatsoever. However, i n q u i r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the C u r r i c u l u m Guide, r e q u i r e that a t t e n t i o n be p a i d to many of the components of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . For example, students c o u l d come to r e a l i z e the impact of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change on i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t i e s i n v a r i o u s ways. Teachers c o u l d d e l i v e r l e c t u r e s on the t o p i c , have students copy out notes and memorize the c o n t e n t , have students read v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s or show f i l m s . But i f students are to engage in an ' i n q u i r y , ' none of the above w i l l s u f f i c e . In any case, the C u r r i c u l u m Guide seems to be c l e a r t h a t students are to do more than r e c a l l s p e c i f i c f a c t s about a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s . I f t e a c h e r s are to have students ; undertake the ' i n q u i r y ' chosen f o r d i s c u s s i o n here (and many ot h e r s i n the G u i d e ) , then they must r e a l i z e that d e c i s i o n s about 4 S t r a t e g i c a c t s of t e a c h i n g w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r depth i n Chapter IV. 26 m a t e r i a l s and methods are to be made in the l i g h t of that o b j e c t i v e . I t i s l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r stu d e n t s to a r r i v e  at an answer to the q u e s t i o n s u t i l i z i n g o n l y a l e c t u r e method. I n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to the i n q u i r y can be p r o v i d e d by l e c t u r e but, because t h i s i n q u i r y i s an " i s s u e " -a c c o r d i n g to the Guide, a matter about which t h e r e i s " s i g n i f i c a n t disagreement" - stu d e n t s must know how to e v a l u a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t students c o u l d answer the q u e s t i o n s i f they have access to on l y one v i e w p o i n t . The nature of the i n q u i r y p r e c l u d e s e x c l u s i v e use of e x p o s i t o r y methods of t e a c h i n g and r e l i a n c e on a s i n g l e textbook. Although somewhat dated by now, the c o n c l u s i o n s reached by the N a t i o n a l H i s t o r y P r o j e c t i n 1968 are pro b a b l y s t i l l p e r t i n e n t . D e s p i t e a l l evidence to the c o n t r a r y , the gre a t m a j o r i t y of the Canadian s t u d i e s l e s s o n s we observed were trapped w i t h i n the pages of a s i n g l e textbook. S e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of the c l a s s e s i n our Survey were s t r u g g l i n g with one or other of the two most u n i v e r s a l l y condemned t e a c h i n g methods. In some cases, the students were "bench-bound l i s t e n e r s , " l i n e d up i n rows, s i t t i n g p a s s i v e l y , w h i l e a " t a l k i n g textbook" rhymed o f f m a t e r i a l t h a t they c o u l d have read and d i g e s t e d f o r themselves. More f r e q u e n t l y , they were going through the mechanical, question-answer r o u t i n e based on the d i s c r e t e , f a c t u a l r e c a l l of a few a s s i g n e d pages i n the textbook. Even i f the d e f i c i e n c i e s -in s u b j e c t matter were c o r r e c t e d through the development of new programs, very l i t t l e would be accomplished u n l e s s we a l s o o v e rhauled the t e a c h i n g methods now being used i n most of the Canadian s t u d i e s classrooms (Hodgetts, 1968, p. 116). 27 The nature of the i n q u i r y type of q u e s t i o n , then, suggests t h a t d e c i s i o n s with r e s p e c t to m a t e r i a l s and methods must be congruent with i n q u i r y methods, where t h i s phrase i s used to d e s c r i b e at l e a s t the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : f e e l i n g of p e r p l e x i t y , c o n f u s i o n or doubt; i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g the d i f f i c u l t y or p e r p l e x i t y i n t o a problem to be s o l v e d ; using h y p o t h e s i s ( e s ) to i n i t i a t e and guide o b s e r v a t i o n and other o p e r a t i o n s i n c o l l e c t i n g f a c t s ; s t a t i n g a reasoned h y p o t h e s i s ; t e s t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s 5 (Dewey, 1933, p. 107). In the same v e i n , m a t e r i a l s must be chosen to r e f l e c t a v a r i e t y of v i e w p o i n t s on a given i s s u e . The t r a d i t i o n a l textbook, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , does not p r o v i d e the type of i n f o r m a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s or u n d e r t a k i n g i n q u i r i e s . David P r a t t (1975) i s most i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d . In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The S o c i a l Role of School Textbooks i n Canada" he argues t h a t the textbook can be a powerful i n f l u e n c e i n shaping s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards s o c i a l i s s u e s . In r e v i e w i n g s e v e r a l s t u d i e s of textbooks, he notes that t h e r e i s 5 Dewey's account of r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g has been used here because much of the e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e on i n q u i r y and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g has used i t as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . Although t h i s l i t e r a t u r e o f t e n p r o v i d e s more e l a b o r a t e accounts, Dewey's i n c l u d e s the major l o g i c a l components of i n q u i r y . 28 . . c l e a r evidence of the tendency of textbooks to ignore important a s p e c t s of the h i s t o r y of non-white r a c i a l groups as w e l l as t h e i r contemporary s i t u a t i o n , and to minimize i n t e r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t except where the non-white race c o u l d be u n e q u i v o c a l l y c a s t i n the . r o l e of aggressor ( i b i d . , p. 105). With r e s p e c t to r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s , a C h r i s t i a n viewpoint i s normally adopted; to c l a s s , a middle c l a s s s t e r e o t y p e i s predominant. In g e n e r a l , s c h o o l textbooks " . . . support a consensus, n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l , c o n v e n t i o n a l view of s o c i e t y ( i b i d . , p. 120)." Although there has been some change in recent years i n that c o l l e c t i o n s of readings f o r high s c h o o l students have appeared, P r a t t concludes that In the long run, these changes may have l i t t l e e f f e c t on students' a t t i t u d e s , p a r t l y because i t i s e a s i e r to change t e x t s and programmes than to change t e a c h e r s , and p a r t l y because students' s o c i a l b e l i e f s are l a r g e l y determined i n the elementary s c h o o l , where l i t t l e change i n textbooks and programmes i s e v i d e n t ( i b i d . , p. 122) . If P r a t t ' s and Hodgetts' c o n c l u s i o n s are c o r r e c t , then t e a c h e r s attempting to develop i n students the necessary a b i l i t i e s f o r u n d e r t a k i n g i n q u i r i e s about s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l i s s u e s w i l l need edu c a t i o n of a d i f f e r e n t s o r t than they are p r e s e n t l y r e c e i v i n g . T h i s b r i e f d i g r e s s i o n i n t o the s t r a t e g i c a c t s of t e a c h i n g must be terminated i n order to r e t u r n to the main t o p i c of t h i s chapter - the l o g i c a l a c t s . The q u e s t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n here i s "Can or should governments p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change?" Teachers, i n order to h e l p students answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , 29 must f i r s t of a l l r e c o g n i z e that i t c o n s i s t s of two separate q u e s t i o n s - 'can governments p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers' i s an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n , whereas ' should governments p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers' i s a normative q u e s t i o n . The answers to each w i l l r e q u i r e use of d i f f e r e n t types of j u s t i f i c a t o r y reasons. Let us d e a l f i r s t with the e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . A s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n 'can governments p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change' e n t a i l s the a b i l i t i e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g (attainments 5 and 6 of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , number 4.2 - the a b i l i t y to f i n d sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n l i b r a r i e s , government a g e n c i e s , and the l i k e , i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y . I t i s once the i n f o r m a t i o n i s found that one must apply c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , take, f o r example, attainment 5.1 - the a b i l i t y to c l a r i f y the meaning of statements. I t would seem, on the s u r f a c e , t h a t our q u e s t i o n i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d one. However, i f one looks at the word ' p r o t e c t ' one sees that i t can mean more than one t h i n g . Webster's New C o l l e g i a t e  D i e t i o n a r y (1975) g i v e s t h r e e separate meanings: 1) to cover or s h i e l d from i n j u r y or d e s t r u c t i o n ; 2) to save from c o n t i n g e n t f i n a n c i a l l o s s ; and 3) to s h i e l d or f o s t e r by a p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f . Any of these three meanings makes sense i n the c o n t e x t of our q u e s t i o n . But i t i s n ecessary, f o r 3 0 c l a r i t y ' s sake, to s p e c i f y which meaning i s being used. Depending on the time a v a i l a b l e , one c o u l d s p e c i f y a l l t h r e e , two or j u s t one. The important p o i n t i s that d i f f e r e n t reasons w i l l be needed f o r each i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In the example here, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a d i c t i o n a r y w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t to c l a r i f y the meaning of the statement. In other s i t u a t i o n s , though, a more comprehensive a n a l y s i s of concepts w i l l be needed. P a r t i c u l a r l y with v a l u e - l a d e n terms - such as democracy, communism or freedom, a l l f r e q u e n t l y used in the S o c i a l S t u d i e s - i t i s of s u b s t a n t i a l importance to be c l e a r about meanings. I t i s of l i t t l e p e d a g o g i c a l value to h o l d a d i s c u s s i o n on the m e r i t s and demerits of communism i f i t i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r to a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s what i s meant by the term. In a d d i t i o n , being c l e a r about meanings h e l p s a v o i d the use of some i n f o r m a l f a l l a c i e s i n one's own r e a s o n i n g and to d e t e c t them in the r e a s o n i n g of o t h e r s (attainment 5.6). To f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the importance of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n answering our q u e s t i o n , l e t us examine one other c o n s t i t u e n t a b i l i t y of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g - 5.9, the a b i l i t y to a s s e s s the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a statement by an a l l e g e d a u t h o r i t y . Most of the evidence s t u d e n t s can c o l l e c t to support or r e f u t e any c l a i m about whether or not governments can p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change w i l l be from sources such as textbooks, magazines, newspapers, books, government r e p o r t s , and so on. To 3 1 e v a l u a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n these sources, students must be a b l e to d e c i d e to what extent these a u t h o r i t a t i v e sources are r e l i a b l e . Ennis (1969, p. 393) suggests the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r a r e l i a b l e a u t h o r i t y : 1) he has a good r e p u t a t i o n 2) the statement i s i n h i s f i e l d 3) he was d i s i n t e r e s t e d - t h a t i s , he d i d not knowingly stand to p r o f i t by the r e s u l t s of h i s statements (except that he may have stood to have h i s r e p u t a t i o n a f f e c t e d ) 4 ) h i s r e p u t a t i o n c o u l d be a f f e c t e d by h i s statement and he was aware of t h i s f a c t when he - made h i s statement 5) he s t u d i e d the matter 6) he f o l l o w e d the accep t e d procedures i n coming to h i s c o n c l u s i o n (although t h e r e are l e g i t i m a t e e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s requirement) 7) he was i n f u l l p o s s e s s i o n of h i s f a c u l t i e s . These c r i t e r i a are meant to be j o i n t l y a p p l i e d i n order to ass e s s the r e l i a b i l i t y of an a l l e g e d a u t h o r i t y . To compare c o n f l i c t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s n e c e s s i t a t e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l the c r i t e r i a combined with c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t under c o n c e r n . There i s not, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , a simple, mechanical procedure to apply; r a t h e r , good judgment must be e x e r c i s e d . Lack of time and e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e s both t e a c h e r s and students to r e l y on a u t h o r i t i e s f o r a l l s o r t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . And to a s s e s s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i t seems apparent t h a t knowledge of the c r i t e r i a f o r a r e l i a b l e a u t h o r i t y i s e s s e n t i a l . 32 The d i s c u s s i o n of two c o n s t i t u e n t s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g - the a b i l i t y to c l a r i f y the meaning of statements and the a b i l i t y to assess the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a statement by an a l l e g e d a u t h o r i t y - i s meant to i l l u s t r a t e the complexity of e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . In examining only these two, however, the i n t e n t has not been to convey the impression that these two c o n s t i t u e n t s are the most c r u c i a l c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s nor that they would s u f f i c e i n e v a l u a t i n g any communication f o r a c c u r a c y . J u s t as there are standards f o r a s s e s s i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a statement made by an a l l e g e d a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e are a l s o standards by which to a s s e s s the other c o n s t i t u e n t s . To judge whether an i n d u c t i v e c o n c l u s i o n i s warranted (attainment 5.6) r e q u i r e s knowledge of, i n p a r t , the c r i t e r i a f o r making a c c e p t a b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . To a s s e s s the r e l i a b i l i t y of an o b s e r v a t i o n statement (5.5) r e q u i r e s knowledge of the c r i t e r i a by which to e v a l u a t e the o b s e r v e r , the o b s e r v a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , and the o b s e r v a t i o n statement i t s e l f ( N o r r i s , 1979). N e i t h e r students nor t e a c h e r s are l i k e l y to become aware of these standards u n l e s s they are e x p l i c i t l y taught. The d i s p o s i t i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n t s of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g w i l l r e q u i r e much more time to develop than the a b i l i t i e s . A teacher may be able to teach s t u d e n t s the c r i t e r i a by which to e v a l u a t e statements made by a u t h o r i t i e s i n a s i n g l e l e s s o n . However, to develop i n students the d i s p o s i t i o n to e x e r c i s e t h i s a b i l i t y i s a much more c o m p l i c a t e d t a s k . 33 D i s p o s i t i o n s of the s o r t o u t l i n e d by Coombs i n c l u d e c e r t a i n t e n d e n c i e s , as w e l l as knowledge and a b i l i t i e s . G i l b e r t Ryle (1949) d e s c r i b e s d i s p o s i t i o n s as the words commonly used to d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n human behaviour. D i s p o s i t i o n a l concepts i n c l u d e both a b i l i t i e s and i n c l i n a t i o n s . However, to possess e i t h e r an a b i l i t y or an i n c l i n a t i o n does not imply that we a c t u a l l y e i t h e r use the a b i l i t y or a c t as we are i n c l i n e d to a c t . To say of someone that she i s a s k i l l f u l snooker p l a y e r i s t o a t t r i b u t e to her the a b i l i t y to p l a y snooker, but i t does not imply that she i s now p l a y i n g snooker. S i m i l a r l y , to say of someone that she i s l a z y i s to a t t r i b u t e to her the i n c l i n a t i o n to a v o i d work, but i t does not imply t h a t she i s now a v o i d i n g work. Thus, Ryle d i s t i n g u i s h e s between e p i s o d i c c o n c e p t s , which r e f e r to t h i n g s now happening, and d i s p o s i t i o n a l concepts, which p o i n t out a b i l i t i e s or i n c l i n a t i o n s , but which do not r e f e r to p a r t i c u l a r e p i s o d e s . P l a y i n g snooker and a v o i d i n g doing one's work are e p i s o d e s ; being a s k i l l f u l p l a y e r or be ing l a z y are d i s p o s i t i o n s . To a n alyze any d i s p o s i t i o n a l concept r e q u i r e s the use of h y p o t h e t i c a l statements - statements of the form ' i f x, then y.' To say that someone i s l a z y i s to say, roughly, ' i f she i s presented with the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e f f o r t , then she a v o i d s t h a t e f f o r t . ' In R y l e ' s words: To possess a d i s p o s i t i o n a l p r o p e r t y i s not to be i n a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e , or to undergo a p a r t i c u l a r change; i t i s to be bound or l i a b l e t o be i n a 34 p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e , or to undergo a p a r t i c u l a r change, when a p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t o n i s r e a l i z e d ( i b i d . , 1949, p. 43). D i s p o s i t i o n s , then, are enduring c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s . To d e v e l o p enduring t r a i t s i n people we must do much more than p r e s e n t them with i n f o r m a t i o n . We f a c e , at the very l e a s t , the need to s h i f t the p a t t e r n of t h e i r h a b i t s t r u c t u r e s and must, i f nothing e l s e , i n v o l v e them i n repeated e x e r c i s e s of the a b i l i t i e s or repeated c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n which to s u b s t a n t i a t e the i n c l i n a t i o n s we b e l i e v e they should have. Some d i s p o s i t i o n s , such as being a s k i l l f u l snooker p l a y e r , are f a i r l y s p e c i f i c . The a b i l i t i e s and t e n d e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n being a snooker p l a y e r are q u i t e determinate compared to the d i s p o s i t i o n s i n Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Look, f o r example, at attainment 6. D i s p o s i t i o n to determine the accuracy of i n f o r m a t i o n about the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r ses of a c t i o n . Subcomponents of t h i s d i s p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e : 6.1 D i s p o s i t i o n to e x e r c i s e the a b i l i t i e s l i s t e d i n (5) above. (the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s ) 6.2 D i s p o s i t i o n to be open-minded and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y honest, a c c e p t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s based on adequate reasons or evidence and w i t h h o l d i n g judgment when the evidence i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to warrant the c o n c l u s i o n . 6.3 D i s p o s i t i o n to demand as much p r e c i s i o n as the s u b j e c t matter p e r m i t s . 6.4 D i s p o s i t i o n to d e a l with the p a r t s of a complex s i t u a t i o n i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n . But subsumed under these d i s p o s i t i o n s t h e r e i s probably a v a r i e t y of other s o r t s of a b i l i t i e s and knowledge r e q u i r e d . 35 D i s p o s i t i o n s such as these a r e , a c c o r d i n g to Ryle, not determinate , but "determinable d i s p o s i t i o n a l words" which " s i g n i f y a b i l i t i e s , t e n d encies or pronenesses to do, not t h i n g s of one unique kind, but t h i n g s of l o t s of d i f f e r e n t kinds ( i b i d . , p. 118)." I t would seem that to develop the d i s p o s i t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t s of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g would mean m a i n t a i n i n g a c l a s s r o o m atmosphere which was at a l l times conducive to what Harvey S i e g e l c a l l s the " c r i t i c a l s p i r i t . " S i e g e l d e s c r i b e s the c r i t i c a l s p i r i t as f o l l o w s : One who possesses the c r i t i c a l s p i r i t has a c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r as w e l l as c r i t i c a l s k i l l s ; a c h a r a c t e r which i s i n c l i n e d to seek reasons; which r e j e c t s p a r t i a l i t y and a r b i t r a r i n e s s ; and which i s committed to the o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of r e l e v a n t e v i d e n c e . A c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e demands not simply an a b i l i t y to seek reasons, but a commitment to seek reasons; not simply an a b i l i t y to judge i m p a r t i a l l y , but a w i l l i n g n e s s to so judge, even when i m p a r t i a l judgment i s not i n one's s e l f -i n t e r e s t ( S i e g e l , 1980, pp. 5-6). There are numerous i m p l i c a t i o n s with r e s p e c t to t e a c h i n g methodology i n a classroom where the " c r i t i c a . l s p i r i t " p r e v a i l s . But i t i s o n l y by means of a c o n c e r t e d , and p r o b a b l y long-term e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t can one expect that students w i l l be d i s p o s e d to e x e r c i s e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s , t o be open-minded and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y honest. The normative q u e s t i o n , 'should governments p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change?', i s much more complex than i t s e m p i r i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t . In 36 a d d i t i o n to the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s , most of the other attainments i n Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l reasoning p l a y a p a r t i n answering t h i s q u e s t i o n . However, to examine each of the ten attainments with r e s p e c t to our q u e s t i o n would r e q u i r e more space than i s a v a i l a b l e here. Instead, t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l with a s e l e c t e d sample to i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t . C o n s i d e r , fo r example, attainment 1: S e n s i t i v i t y to s i t u a t i o n s i n which p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i s r e q u i r e d . B a s i c a l l y t h i s i s a s e n s i t i v i t y to d e c i s i o n s or a c t i o n s which are l i k e l y to have consequences of such s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r o n e s e l f or o t h e r s as to warrant s e r i o u s r e f l e c t i o n b e f o r e a c t i n g . T h i s attainment has two a s p e c t s - the s e l f - r e g a r d i n g and the o t h e r - r e g a r d i n g . I t i s the l a t t e r which i s most r e l e v a n t here. I t reads: S e n s i t i v i t y to m o r a l l y hazardous a c t i o n s , that i s , a c t i o n s which r e q u i r e assessment from the moral p o i n t of view. T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y a l e r t s persons to (1) a c t i o n s t h a t may have consequences f o r o t h e r s which the a c t o r c o u l d not accept i f they were to b e f a l l him and (2) a c t i o n s which may. have unacceptable consequences were everyone to engage i n them. Subsumed under t h i s attainment a r e : Knowledge of b a s i c moral r u l e s such a s : Don't k i l l . Don't d e p r i v e of p l e a s u r e . Don't cheat. Don't cause p a i n . Don't d e p r i v e of freedom. Don't d i s a b l e . Don't break promises. Knowledge of what g e n e r a l l y harms human beings e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or e m o t i o n a l l y . The q u e s t i o n 'should governments p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change' i s unarguably one that r e q u i r e s p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Indeed, i t would seem 37 t h a t i t has been posed because, to answer i t , one must take i n t o account the consequences that would b e f a l l e i t h e r the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n as ta x p a y e r s , i f the q u e s t i o n i s answered a f f i r m a t i v e l y , or the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n as workers, i f the q u e s t i o n i s answered i n the n e g a t i v e . Note t h a t the q u e s t i o n would have to be broken down i n t o at l e a s t two p a r t s . In many i n s t a n c e s , the i n t e r e s t s of workers and those of i n d u s t r i e s w i l l l i k e l y be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . L o o k ing at the attainment r e q u i r i n g knowledge of b a s i c moral r u l e s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t s e r i o u s r e f l e c t i o n on the normative q u e s t i o n might i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s e v e r a l moral r u l e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , "don't d e p r i v e of p l e a s u r e , " "don't cause p a i n , " and "don't d i s a b l e . " Of these any sane government must be c o g n i z a n t i n making a d e c i s i o n to a c t , where the d e c i s i o n has p o t e n t i a l s e r i o u s impact on i t s c i t i z e n s . S i m i l a r l y , knowledge of what g e n e r a l l y harms human beings e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or e m o t i o n a l l y i s of g r e a t importance i n attempting to answer the q u e s t i o n . P r o t e c t i n g workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change may i n v o l v e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f , f o r example, s a f e t y equipment to prevent p h y s i c a l harm; p r o t e c t i n g i n d u s t r i e s a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change may mean p r o v i d i n g o u t r i g h t g r a n t s or tax i n c e n t i v e s to prevent the emotional (not to mention economic) harm caused by, f o r i n s t a n c e , being f o r c e d to go out of b u s i n e s s . Having touched on l y the s u r f a c e of t h i s complex 38 q u e s t i o n , i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e at t h i s p o i n t to mention attainment 2, the d i s p o s i t i o n to undertake p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g when such i s r e q u i r e d . Two c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h i s attainment are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t here: the a b i l i t y to suspend judgment u n t i l r e f l e c t i o n has taken p l a c e and knowledge of the value of engaging i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . If t e a c h e r s are concerned with d e v e l o p i n g i n s t u d e n t s the a b i l i t y to d e a l with the c o m p l e x i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the i n q u i r y q u e s t i o n s l i s t e d i n the C u r r i c u l u m Guide, they must attempt to h e l p students a c q u i r e both of these. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the q u e s t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v e s a l a r g e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s i n t h i s r e g a r d that t e a c h e r s have a wide range of methods a v a i l a b l e to h e l p s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e or l o c a t e the necessary f a c t s . (Here a g a i n , the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s mentioned e a r l i e r come i n t o p l a y ) . But our q u e s t i o n w i l l not l i k e l y have a simple 'yes' or 'no' answer. Much of the i n f o r m a t i o n brought to bear on the q u e s t i o n w i l l be d e c i s i v e i n f o r m u l a t i n g a course of a c t i o n v i s a v i s governments' p a r t i n p r o t e c t i n g i n d u s t r i e s and workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. For example, students may d e c i d e that governments should p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s and workers and from t h i s , an obvious q u e s t i o n emerges - how? In answering t h i s q u e s t i o n , students w i l l need attainment 3, the a b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to i d e n t i f y or c o n c e i v e of reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e s to the proposed course of a c t i o n . Subcomponents 39 i n c l u d e : knowledge of v a r i o u s means f o r r e a l i z i n g c e r t a i n v a l u e s ; and knowledge of the importance of c o n s i d e r i n g reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e s . Suppose that students d e c i d e that governments should p r o t e c t , i n the sense of 'saving from c o n t i n g e n t f i n a n c i a l l o s s , ' workers a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. T h i s judgment i s made from the po i n t of view of economic, and probably moral, v a l u e s . Perhaps other human concerns should a l s o be taken i n t o account ( h e a l t h and s a f e t y , f o r i n s t a n c e ) . Furthermore, suppose that students suggest t h a t t h i s should be done by governments g i v i n g workers some f i n a n c i a l compensation when they l o s e jobs because t h e i r s k i l l s a re o b s o l e t e . Upon f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n (or guidance by. t e a c h e r s ) , s t u d e n t s may d i s c o v e r t h a t t h i s proposed s o l u t i o n i s unworkable f o r any number of reasons. Or they may r e a l i z e t h at f i n a n c i a l compensation would be best viewed as a s s i s t a n c e i n r e t r a i n i n g workers f o r other employment. As was the case i n d i s c u s s i o n of the e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n , i t i s not intended t h a t the above remarks suggest that those a t t a i n m e n t s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d are the onl y ones or the most s a l i e n t f o r the purpose of answering the q u e s t i o n . I n s t e a d , they are meant to exe m p l i f y the p o i n t that the t e a c h i n g of c e r t a i n types of- o b j e c t i v e s would be improved i f t e a c h e r s were to ga i n some e x p e r t i s e i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . I f students are meant to d e a l with i n q u i r i e s such as the one examined here, then they must come to l e a r n c e r t a i n 4 0 t h i n g s . As i t i s expected that teachers w i l l h e l p them to l e a r n c e r t a i n f a c t s , as w e l l as d e c i s i o n making and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s , then t e a c h e r s need to know these f a c t s and s k i l l s f i r s t . In a d d i t i o n , t e a c h e r s must know the importance of r e a s o n i n g i n r e l a t i o n to the g e n e r a l g o a l s of e d u c a t i o n i n our s o c i e t y . Without such knowledge, t e a c h e r s are u n l i k e l y to be a b l e to f u l f i l l c u r r i c u l a r aims. Consumer E d u c a t i o n 9/10 Consumer Education 9/10 (1982) i s a p r e s c r i b e d course f o r a l l secondary s c h o o l students i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The C u r r i c u l u m Guide i s o r g a n i z e d very d i f f e r e n t l y from the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n that f o l l o w s here w i l l r e f l e c t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . The Guide begins with a statement of the 'Philosophy' of Consumer E d u c a t i o n : Consumer ed u c a t i o n i s a l i f e long p r o c e s s , a p r o c e s s which develops the s k i l l s of c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n t i n q u i r y and e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g so t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n to become informed, competent and engaged members of the community they l i v e i n . Such i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be a b l e to develop p e r s o n a l g o a l s with a sense of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , a d j u s t to meet changing c o n d i t i o n s , and accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s , t h e i r community and i t s environment. Consumer e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , o f f e r s s t u d e n t s a framework f o r making sound, reasoned d e c i s i o n s and p r o v i d e s them with a r i c h and f u l l u n d e rstanding of the world i n which they l i v e , study and work. Consumer Educat i o n i s more than a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; i t i s a l s o l e a r n i n g to use a problem-41 s o l v i n g process that i n v o l v e s a n a l y z i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g and e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n order to make sound d e c i s i o n s . As s t u d e n t s go through the course c o n t e n t , they should be taught to r e c o g n i z e problems, to s o l v e these problems by s t a t i n g them c l e a r l y and simply, to i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , to gather i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to the problems and to i n t e r p r e t the i n f o r m a t i o n with regard to a l t e r n a t i v e s and s o l u t i o n s (p.7). The 'Philosophy' of Consumer E d u c a t i o n 9/10 has been quoted at l e n g t h because i t appears to r e f l e c t g e n e r a l aims very s i m i l a r to some of those i n Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . But, i f one examines the g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes of the c u r r i c u l u m , i t i s r e a d i l y apparent t h a t the emphasis i s on g a i n i n g knowledge about such t h i n g s as consumer l e g i s l a t i o n , p e r s o n a l r e c o r d keeping, banking, c r e d i t , c o n t r a c t s and debt management. Although such i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n making wise consumer d e c i s i o n s , the emphasis on l e a r n i n g consumer ' f a c t s ' i s incongruent with the s t a t e d p h i l o s o p h y . However important t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y , though, i t i s not a p p o s i t e here to d i s c u s s i t i n d e t a i l . Rather, the focus w i l l be on another s i g n i f i c a n t problem with Consumer E d u c a t i o n 9/10, one t h a t i s more r e l e v a n t to the major argument of t h i s t h e s i s . In some r e s p e c t s , t h i s problem i s s i m i l a r to that posed i n the preceding, d i s c u s s i o n on t e a c h i n g the B.C. S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m - that i s , the c u r r i c u l u m guide r e q u i r e s t e a c h e r s to teach f o r a v a r i e t y of outcomes f o r which they are p r o v i d e d l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s case t e a c h e r s are a d v i s e d throughout to have 4 2 s t u d e n t s use a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g model which i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d e s c r i b e d and only s i m p l i s t i c a l l y e x a m p l i f i e d . Although i t i s r e c o g n i z e d that one must take i n t o account the c a p a c i t i e s of s t u d e n t s i n c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n , and these c a p a c i t i e s may d i f f e r from one l o c a l e to another, t h i s does not appear to be the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the apparent d e f i c i e n c i e s of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m . N e i t h e r the c u r r i c u l u m guide nor the bulky accompanying resource manual o f f e r more than rudimentary guidance to t e a c h e r s on how to teach students what i s i n v o l v e d i n each s t e p of the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . The f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g consumer d e c i s i o n s , o u t l i n e d in schematic form i n the guide, are g i v e n e q u a l l y s h o r t s h r i f t i n the r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . The c u r s o r y treatment given these important fundamentals s e r i o u s l y weakens the e n t i r e f a b r i c of the c u r r i c u l u m . The d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s of Consumer Education 9/10 i n v o l v e s the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : i d e n t i f y a reason f o r a d e c i s i o n ; r e c o g n i z e the p e r s o n a l v a l u e s that may a f f e c t a d e c i s i o n ; gather i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s c o v e r the c h o i c e s / a l t e r n a t i v e s ; l i s t a l t e r n a t i v e s ; set c r i t e r i a to e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s and the consequences of the a l t e r n a t i v e s ; s e l e c t one a l t e r n a t i v e ; determine the best procedure to implement the d e c i s i o n ; implement the d e c i s i o n ; r e - e v a l u a t e the d e c i s i o n , the procedure and the r e s u l t (Consumer Ed u c a t i o n 9/10 T e a c h e r Resource Manual, V o l . 1, 1982, p. 8 ) . 4 3 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note t h a t none of the above steps i s d e s c r i b e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to enable t e a c h e r s to h e l p students l e a r n to come to g r i p s with the c o m p l e x i t y of making s e r i o u s d e c i s i o n s . At the l e v e l of making d e c i s i o n s about which orange j u i c e to buy (an example from the c u r r i c u l u m ) , the s u p e r f i c i a l p r o c e s s may be adequate to make a c h o i c e . But, i f Consumer Ed u c a t i o n 9/10 i s to h e l p students " . . . become w e l l - i n f o r m e d consumers who can make wise and s a t i s f y i n g d e c i s i o n s about the management of p e r s o n a l and community r e s o u r c e s " and come to terms ". . . with l a r g e r i s s u e s such as economic d i s p a r i t y and environmental p r o t e c t i o n from a n a t i o n a l and g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e " ( i b i d . , p. 6), then much more i s r e q u i r e d . I t may be u s e f u l at t h i s p o i n t to examine one of the steps i n the decision-making p r o c e s s i n order to i l l u s t r a t e some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that might be encountered i n u s i n g t h i s - o v e r s i m p l i f i e d approach. Step f i v e of the d e c i s i o n -making process above s t a t e s " s e t c r i t e r i a to e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s and the consequences of the a l t e r n a t i v e s . " In the orange j u i c e example mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s s t e p i s probably q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . Students l i k e l y w i l l be a b l e to q u i c k l y set f o r t h the c r i t e r i a by which to compare Brand X with Brand Y, and even Brand Z. As f o r e v a l u a t i n g the consequences of buying Brand X over Brand Y or Z, i t seems reasonable to assume t h a t most students w i l l be a b l e to handle t h i s task with equal p r o f i c i e n c y . Other s i m i l a r 44 suggested d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n the c u r r i c u l u m a r e : "you have j u s t won $500 i n a c o n t e s t . You must d e c i d e what you are going to do. with the money" ( i b i d . , p. 21); "Have students use the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s to d e c i d e whether to purchase an item with cash or c r e d i t which they or t h e i r f a m i l i e s are c o n s i d e r i n g buying ( i b i d . , p. 97)." The above-mentioned a c t i v i t i e s are s i m i l a r to the orange j u i c e example to the. extent that they p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s with p r a c t i c e i n a p p l y i n g the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s to s i t u a t i o n s which are r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from the c o m p l e x i t i e s inherent i n many circ u m s t a n c e s where a c h o i c e has to be made. These s i t u a t i o n s d i f f e r from the orange j u i c e example o n l y i n that they r e q u i r e s l i g h t l y more r e f l e c t i o n and a l i t t l e more i n f o r m a t i o n . The consequences of making a d e c i s i o n to purchase w i t h c r e d i t r a t h e r than cash, f o r example, may be more s e r i o u s than those of p u r c h a s i n g the 'wrong' brand of orange j u i c e . Thus the model appears to s u f f i c e f o r d e c i s i o n s of t h i s magnitude and n a t u r e , as long as r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o l l e c t e d and a s s e s s e d . But the model i s a l s o i n t e n d e d to s u f f i c e f o r d e c i s i o n s of g r e a t e r magnitude and of a very d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . Consider, f o r i n s t a n c e , the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t y i n T o p i c 7: The P r i c e System and A d d i t i o n a l E x t e r n a l Costs of P r o d u c t s . "Use the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s to s o l v e the problem posed in q u e s t i o n 19 on page 34 of the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t ( i b i d . , p. 130)." Question 19 reads: "You a r e shopping i n a l o c a l s t o r e 4 5 with two f r i e n d s . You see one of them s t u f f a T - s h i r t i n s i d e h i s j a c k e t and leave the s t o r e . What should you do? Why? (Wood, 1982). Again, as with the example from the S o c i a l S t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i t would seem that the q u e s t i o n p r e s e n t s us with a paradigm case r e q u i r i n g p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . But does the c u r r i c u l u m guide or the teacher r e s o u r c e manual or the textbook p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s or students with the necessary and a p p r o p r i a t e knowledge and a b i l i t i e s to make a r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n ? I t would seem not. F i r s t , the q u e s t i o n posed f o r students i s c l e a r l y a moral one. But what s o r t of guidance does the c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r to enable t e a c h e r s to h e l p students l e a r n to d e a l with such thorny problems as whether l o y a l t y to f r i e n d s o v e r r i d e s a l l o w i n g someone to get away with s t e a l i n g ? 6 Step f i v e , " s e t c r i t e r i a to e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s and the consequences of the a l t e r n a t i v e s " takes on a d i f f e r e n t complexion i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s i t u a t i o n . How are these c r i t e r i a t o be set by students or how are t e a c h e r s to h e l p s t u d e n t s i n s e t t i n g these c r i t e r i a ? At t h i s p o i n t i t i s necessary to look back at s t e p two 6 Perhaps the f a c t t h a t the q u e s t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n a s e c t i o n t i t l e d "The P r i c e System and A d d i t i o n a l E x t e r n a l Costs of Products" h e l p s to e x p l a i n the d i f f i c u l t y ; that i s , the p o i n t of view i s economic whereas the q u e s t i o n i s c l e a r l y moral. 46 of the model. I t s t a t e s t h a t , a f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g a reason f o r a d e c i s i o n , one must " r e c o g n i z e the pe r s o n a l v a l u e s that may a f f e c t a d e c i s i o n . " T h i s s t e p , although t r i v i a l i n the orange j u i c e s i t u a t i o n , i s of s u b s t a n t i a l import i n the c u r r e n t example. How, then, does the c u r r i c u l u m d e a l with the s u b j e c t of val u e s ? The c u r r i c u l u m guide c o n t a i n s no d i s c u s s i o n of v a l u e s ; i t merely acknowledges, i n schematic form, t h a t v a l u e s and go a l s are among the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g consumer d e c i s i o n s . The Teacher Resource Manual, Volume 1, goes s l i g h t l y f u r t h e r i n that i t d e f i n e s v a l u e s i n a note a t the bottom of a student a c t i v i t y page. I t says "Your v a l u e s are b e l i e f s t h a t you think are important to you. Your v a l u e s w i l l h e l p you determine your g o a l s ( i b i d . , p. 21)." The student textbook, Looking at the Consumer, p r o v i d e s the lon g e s t d i s c u s s i o n of v a l u e s . I t d e f i n e s v a l u e s as "the b e l i e f s and ideas one has (p. 8 ) . " I t goes on to s t a t e t h a t v a l u e s are l e a r n e d by watching and i m i t a t i n g those people with whom one i n t e r a c t s . The author, John Wood, c o n t i n u e s : As you mature, you w i l l compare, judge, s e l e c t , and r e j e c t the v a l u e s of those with whom you come i n t o c o n t a c t , and you w i l l begin to form your own v a l u e s . At every stage you w i l l be t r y i n g out what you t h i n k i s the a c c e p t a b l e value to y o u r s e l f and s o c i e t y . In time you w i l l f i n d t h a t c e r t a i n a c t i o n s are t r e a t e d as r i g h t and d e s i r a b l e by s o c i e t y as a whole. These a c t i o n s w i l l tend to become the b a s i s of your v a l u e system . (1982, p. 9). Value c o n f l i c t i s viewed as a p e r s o n a l problem which ". . may be due to a c o n f l i c t between your f a m i l y ' s c u l t u r e , i t s 4 7 e t h n i c background, and i t s p o s i t i o n on the economic ladde r and what you p e r c e i v e as a p r e f e r r e d way of l i v i n g ( i b i d . , -p. 9 ) . " L a t e r i n the t e x t , the d i s c u s s i o n of c o n f l i c t c o n t i n u e s as Wood examines s e t t i n g g o a l s , which he says "are based on the va l u e s you t h i n k are important." An inner c o n f l i c t may develop i f "the go a l s of your peer group . . c o n f l i c t w i t h your p e r s o n a l g o a l s . " The ad v i c e given to those with such a c o n f l i c t i s "You must make your own d e c i s i o n s and l i v e with the consequences ( i b i d . , p. 90)." Wood's account of va l u e s and va l u e c o n f l i c t i n the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t f o r Consumer Ed u c a t i o n i s so naive as to be v i r t u a l l y u s e l e s s f o r h e l p i n g students make d e c i s i o n s . He a p p a r e n t l y i s not c o g n i z a n t of any p h i l o s o p h i c a l or e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s i n g t h i s complex s u b j e c t . Yet i t i s l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to teach d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , or to make d e c i s i o n s , without s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n to v a l u e s . How are tea c h e r s t o h e l p students to "compare, judge, s e l e c t and r e j e c t " v a l u e s without knowledge of what d i f f e r e n t kinds of va l u e s t h e r e are or without knowledge of what kinds of standards one might use to r e j e c t some and keep o t h e r s ? How are t e a c h e r s to h e l p students to " s e t c r i t e r i a to e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s and the consequences of the a l t e r n a t i v e s " without r e c o u r s e to some r a t i o n a l examination of v a l u e s ? I f te a c h e r s and students are not aware t h a t v a l u e c l a i m s a re made from v a r i o u s p o i n t s of view ( p r u d e n t i a l , moral, economic, a e s t h e t i c , and so on), how are they to know what 48 kinds of reasons can be employed i n j u s t i f y i n g them? Co n s i d e r , b r i e f l y , Paul T a y l o r ' s important account of v a l u e s . He argues that the word 'values' r e f e r s to three s o r t s of t h i n g s : The v a l u e judgments and p r e s c r i p t i o n s a c c e p t e d by the person as being j u s t i f i e d (whether or not he has ever i n f a c t t r i e d to j u s t i f y them); the standards and r u l e s which the person would appeal to i_f he were asked to j u s t i f y h i s v a l u e judgments and p r e s c r i p t i o n s ; and a l l other standards and r u l e s which c o n s t i t u t e the value systems the person has adopted, c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y ( T a y l o r , 1969, p. 297). He c o n t i n u e s : Thus a person's v a l u e s i n c l u d e a l l the standards - and r u l e s which to g e t h e r make up h i s way of l i f e . They d e f i n e h i s i d e a l s and l i f e g o a l s (to f u l f i l l the standards; to f o l l o w the r u l e s ) . They are the standards and r u l e s a c c o r d i n g to which he e v a l u a t e s t h i n g s and p r e s c r i b e s a c t s , as w e l l as the standards and r u l e s he t r i e s to l i v e by, whether or not he i s aware of them (pp. 297-298). T a y l o r c l a s s i f i e s v a l u e s i n t o e i g h t b a s i c p o i n t s of view, c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the major s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s ; they are b a s i c i n the sense t h a t they are p r e s e n t i n a l l c i v i l i z e d c u l t u r e s to c a r r y on i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n . They are the moral, the a e s t h e t i c , the i n t e l l e c t u a l , the r e l i g i o u s , the economic, the p o l i t i c a l , the l e g a l , and the p o i n t of view of custom or e t i q u e t t e . To j u s t i f y a value judgment from any p o i n t of view i s to o f f e r reasons i n support of the judgment; and, of c o u r s e , the reasons must be good reasons. T a y l o r d i s t i n g u i s h e s the two kinds of r u l e s which together comprise the canons of r e a s o n i n g f o r the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of v a l u e judgments. He 4 9 s t a t e s , Rules of r e l e v a n c e p r o v i d e the c r i t e r i a by which we determine whether a reason o f f e r e d by someone i s j u s t i f y i n g a given v a l u e judgement i s r e l e v a n t . Rules of v a l i d i n f e r e n c e p r o v i d e the c r i t e r i a which determine whether a reason we have a l r e a d y found to be r e l e v a n t i s good (warranted, l e g i t i m a t e , v a l i d , l o g i c a l l y sound, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ) , ( i b i d . , p. 109)." To take a c e r t a i n p o i n t of view, then, i s to adopt c e r t a i n canons of reasoning - r u l e s of r e l e v a n c e and r u l e s of v a l i d i n f e r e n c e - to j u s t i f y our v a l u e judgments. I t i s t h i s s o r t of u n d e r s t a n d i n g about v a l u e s which st u d e n t s , and thus t e a c h e r s , need i n order to set c r i t e r i a to e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s . If s t u d e n t s d e c i d e d t h a t i t i s r i g h t to say n o t h i n g when they see a f r i e n d s t e a l i n g from a s t o r e because 'the s t o r e owner can p r o b a b l y a f f o r d i t ' they should be made aware that they are o f f e r i n g an economic reason f o r a moral judgment. Such a reason may be r e l e v a n t , but i t i s not the most important f e a t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n . Without some understanding of how one goes about j u s t i f y i n g a v a l u e judgment, the incoherence of such an argument w i l l p robably pass u n n o t i c e d . Wood assumes t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s v a l u e system w i l l come to be based on a c t i o n s which . s o c i e t y t r e a t s as " r i g h t and d e s i r a b l e . " How t h i s comes about i s u n c l e a r . A f u r t h e r problem with t h i s o v e r s i m p l i f i e d account i s that, i t cannot h e l p t e a c h e r s or students examine the immoral a c t i o n s of t h e i r own s o c i e t y . Even i f an a c t i o n or p o l i c y i s t r e a t e d as r i g h t and d e s i r a b l e , can i t be shown to be so by any 5 0 r a t i o n a l means? Wood's concern with the i n f o r m a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of consumer e d u c a t i o n has b l i n d e d him to the s a l i e n t r o l e of v a l u e s i n consumer decis i o n - m a k i n g , l e a v i n g the emphasis on consumer f a c t s . His t e x t r e f l e c t s the same d i s c r e p a n c y between o v e r a l l p h i l o s o p h y and s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s as does the c u r r i c u l u m of Consumer 9/10. Having s t r a y e d from our example at some l e n g t h , we w i l l r e t u r n to i t to see how Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g would serve b e t t e r as a model f o r t e a c h i n g decision-making than the r a t h e r p r i m i t i v e account advocated by the C u r r i c u l u m guide, the Teacher Resource Book and the student textbook. As i n the p r e v i o u s secton on the S o c i a l S t u d i e s , we w i l l examine only a few of the attainments of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i n order to i l l u s t r a t e i t s e f f i c a c y . Consider again the p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d student q u e s t i o n : "You are shopping i n a l o c a l s t o r e with two f r i e n d s . You see one of them s t u f f a T - s h i r t i n s i d e h i s j a c k e t and leave the s t o r e . What should you, do? Why?" Suppose students have i d e n t i f i e d the a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n and are now faced with s e t t i n g c r i t e r i a to e v a l u a t e them and the consequences of them ( s t e p f i v e ) . Teachers w i l l l i k e l y have d i f f i c u l t y here as the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t , the resource book and the C u r r i c u l u m Guide o f f e r no guidance. Attainment 4 of Coombs' account p r o v i d e s at l e a s t the b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a by which to e v a l u a t e the consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t reads: 51 A b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n to assemble, i n s o f a r as p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i v e worth of each course of a c t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s attainment i n c l u d e s : the d i s p o s i t i o n to determine the consequences of the a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s f o r r e a l i z i n g each of the b a s i c human concerns, i . e . , economic, h e a l t h , s a f e t y , r e c r e a t i o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral concerns. T h i s attainment s u p p l i e s both t e a c h e r s and students with a framework f o r c o m p i l i n g standards by which to judge what should be done. In the example here t h e r e are p r o b a b l y o n l y two b a s i c human concerns, the economic and the moral, which are of r e l e v a n c e and the moral c l e a r l y o v e r r i d e s the economic. Attainment 7 i s even more p e r t i n e n t i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s to make a d e c i s i o n i n t h i s case. A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to assess the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . C o n s t i t u e n t s of t h i s attainment i n c l u d e : 7.1 Knowing that moral assessment i s guided by two p r i n c i p l e s : a) i t cannot be r i g h t f o r me to do x u n l e s s i t i s r i g h t f o r any person i n the same s o r t of circumstances to do x. b) i f the consequences of everyone's doing x i n a given circumstance would be unacceptable, then i t i s not r i g h t f o r anyone to do x i n t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e . 7.2 A b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n t o imagine f o r each a l t e r n a t i v e the consequences that would ensue i f everyone i n your circumstance were to engage i n the a c t i o n , and to r e j e c t the a c t i o n as wrong i f the imagined consequences are unacceptable. 7.3 A b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n t o put o n e s e l f i m a g i n a t i v e l y i n t o the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of 52 another person to a p p r e c i a t e the consequences each a l t e r n a t i v e course of a c t i o n has f o r t h a t person, and to r e j e c t the a c t i o n as wrong i f the imagined consequences are u n a c c e p t a b l e . 7.4 A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to c o n s i d e r the views of o t h e r s c o n c e r n i n g the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r ses of a c t i o n . Attainment 7 e x p l i c i t y s e t s out the r u l e s by which t o a s s e s s the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n . Suppose t h a t students b e l i e v e that one a l t e r n a t i v e i s to t a l k to the s h o p l i f t e r and c o n v ince her/him t h a t s t e a l i n g the T - s h i r t was wrong. Undoubtedly the s h o p l i f t e r was aware of t h i s when she/he s t o l e the T - s h i r t . Now s t u d e n t s are f a ced with the task of a t t empting to give reasons to the s h o p l i f t e r to convince her/him t h a t , i f the a c t was wrong, then i t should not have been done. An appeal to the s h o p l i f t e r ' s s e l f - i n t e r e s t (he might be caught and punished) i s l o g i c a l l y i r r e l e v a n t i n d i s c u s s i n g the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a g i v e n a c t i o n . The two p r i n c i p l e s i n attainment 7.1, on the other hand, are r e l e v a n t . These two p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e from a c o n c e p t i o n of m o r a l i t y which h o l d s t h a t a moral p r i n c i p l e i s a c c e p t a b l e i f , and o n l y i f , a l l the judgments which l o g i c a l l y d e r i v e from i t are a l s o a c c e p t a b l e ( S i n g e r , 1963). They encompass the p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e , i m p a r t i a l i t y and e q u a l i t y and thus r u l e out f a v o u r i t i s m f o r any i n d i v i d u a l . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case, one can use the r o l e exchange t e s t (attainment 7.3) to see i f the s h o p l i f t e r would f i n d h i s / h e r a c t i o n r i g h t i f he/she was i n the p o s i t i o n of the s t o r e 5 3 owner. If the s h o p l i f t e r , by p u t t i n g h i m / h e r s e l f i n t o the ci r c u m s t a n c e s of the s t o r e owner, came to a p p r e c i a t e the consequences of the t h e f t f o r the s t o r e owner, he/she might come to view s h o p l i f t i n g as m o r a l l y unacceptable, and r e f r a i n from doing i t i n f u t u r e . In judging s h o p l i f t i n g as unacceptable i n t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e , one must, to be c o n s i s t e n t , a l s o judge s h o p l i f t i n g as unacceptable i n a l l s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Attainment 7.2, which i n v o l v e s a p p l y i n g the u n i v e r s a l consequences t e s t , c o u l d a l s o be u s e f u l i n i n f l u e n c i n g the s h o p l i f t e r to c o n s i d e r the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of h i s / h e r a c t i o n . Here one imagines what consequences c o u l d ensue i f everyone i n a p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e engaged i n a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n . I f the imagined consequences are unacceptable, then the a c t i o n must be judged u n a c c e p t a b l e . The above d i s c u s s i o n i s not meant to imply t h a t a s i n g l e o c c u r r e n c e of a p p e a l i n g to the above-mentioned p r i n c i p l e s w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t to educate a person to have the a b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to as s e s s the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g i t . But e d u c a t i n g a person i n whatever f i e l d , s c i e n t i f i c , mathematical or moral, r a r e l y happens o v e r n i g h t . The s h o p l i f t i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e x e r c i s e i s not t y p i c a l of the a c t i v i t i e s suggested i n Consumer Ed u c a t i o n 9/10, alt h o u g h t h e r e are o t h e r s which r e q u i r e s i m i l a r 54 competencies. I t was chosen f o r examination here because i t i s the type of q u e s t i o n which, u n l i k e many o t h e r s , i s c o n s i s t e n t with the ph i l o s o p h y of the c u r r i c u l u m . As such, t e a c h e r s would not l i k e l y be ab l e to h e l p students r e s o l v e i t (and, as s t a t e d in the 'Philosophy,' "accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s " ) without d e v e l o p i n g at l e a s t some of the attainments of r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . E n g l i s h 10 The g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes i n the secondary E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m are the same f o r grades e i g h t through twelve. Degree of emphasis and expected l e v e l s of achievement d i f f e r e n t i a t e one grade from another. The grade ten course w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The E n g l i s h 10 resource book f o r t e a c h e r s (1978) d i v i d e s the c u r r i c u l u m i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s : l i s t e n i n g and speaking, language, r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , communications media, and l i t e r a t u r e . Each s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s o b j e c t i v e s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , knowledge and s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s . Many of the o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d under knowledge and s k i l l s and l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n s e v e r a l of the s i x s e c t i o n s are encompassed, i n g e n e r a l terms, i n attainment f i v e ( c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s ) of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r easoning. D i s c u s s i o n here w i l l focus on one such o b j e c t i v e . L i k e the p r e v i o u s two s e c t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r , 55 the concern i s with demonstrating t h a t , i f students are to a c q u i r e c e r t a i n knowledge, a b i l i t i e s or s k i l l s , then t e a c h e r s must have the knowledge, a b i l i t i e s or s k i l l s f i r s t . The o b j e c t i v e t o be analyzed i s subsumed under Goal four - "develop i n s t u d e n t s a range of r e a d i n g and study s k i l l s . " I t reads "the students should understand what the w r i t e r may have i m p l i e d (at the i n f e r e n t i a l l e v e l of comprehension)( E n g l i s h 10; A Resource Book f o r Teachers, 1978, p. 69)." The t e a c h e r ' s resource book i n c l u d e s two suggested a c t i v i t i e s under t h i s o b j e c t i v e . One i s a s h o r t re a d i n g from one p r e s c r i b e d textbook which d e a l s with the d i f f e r e n c e between the d e n o t a t i v e and the c o n n o t a t i v e use of words; i n f e r e n c e s are not mentioned at a l l . The second i s Read and d i s c u s s Chapter 1 " C r i t e r i a f o r C r i t i c s " i n order to show the importance of examining the c o m m u n i c a t i o n - s i t u a t i o n and making d i s t i n c t i o n s between r e p o r t s , i n f e r e n c e s , and judgments. "The Way i t Seems" (pp. 11-12) d e a l s with the making of i n f e r e n c e s . The " A p p l i c a t i o n s " (pp. 14, 16-17) g i v e p r a c t i c e i n making i n f e r e n c e s , ( i b i d . , p. 69) . " C r i t e r i a , f o r C r i t i c s " i s meant to g i v e students the standards by which they can l e a r n "to d i s c r i m i n a t e f a c t from o p i n i o n and t r u t h from f i c t i o n i n a l l messages" ( G l a t t h o r n , et a l . , 1971, p. 1) which they r e c e i v e . An a b b r e v i a t e d account of how one e v a l u a t e s the speaker ( i s he q u a l i f i e d i n the f i e l d ? has he a r e l i a b l e past record? does he have any s t r o n g b i a s e s t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e h i s o p i n i o n s or 56 s t a t e m e n t s ? ) 7 i s p r o v i d e d . The next step, we are t o l d , i s to determine the speaker's purpose i n sending a p a r t i c u l a r message - to inform, persuade, amuse, i n c i t e to a c t i o n , and so on - ( G l a t t h o r n , et a l . , p. 3). The above two s t e p s , combined with a s s e s s i n g the o c c a s i o n and the medium of communication ( t e l e v i s i o n , newspapers) together make up the "communication s i t u a t i o n . " The "communication form" i s then d i s c u s s e d . The book c l a s s i f i e s communications i n t o t hree kinds of statements: r e p o r t s , i n f e r e n c e s and judgments. We are warned, however, that the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i s not p e r f e c t . F i r s t , i t i s not complete; many statements w i l l not f i t e x a c t l y i n t o any of these three c a t e g o r i e s . Second, t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s not a i r t i g h t ; many statements can be p l a c e d i n two or t h r e e of the c a t e g o r i e s at the same time. F i n a l l y , i t i s a r b i t r a r y ; i t i s simply one way of c l a s s i f y i n g t h i n g s ( i b i d . , p. 17). The paragraph then c o n c l u d e s : D e s p i t e these l i m i t a t i o n s , however, the r e c o g n i t i o n of r e p o r t , i n f e r e n c e and judgment i s u s e f u l t o us i n becoming b e t t e r r e c e i v e r s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to understand why the authors of t h i s textbook would advocate use of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system with the above r e c o g n i z e d l i m i t a t i o n s . I f t h e i r system i s o n l y one way, we might wonder why they d i d not choose a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system w i t h fewer problems. T h e i r purpose, 7 Compare these standards e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . with those of E n n i s , o u t l i n e d 57 a f t e r a l l , i s to p r o v i d e students with a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system which would f a c i l i t a t e the search f o r ' t r u t h . ' To t h i s end, they have attempted to supply standards to assess r e p o r t s , i n f e r e n c e s and judgments. As the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i s inadequate and the standards p r o v i d e d incomplete, the use of t h i s c h apter to teach students to reco g n i z e i n f e r e n c e s i s p e d a g o g i c a l l y i n d e f e n s i b l e . Furthermore, the authors' account of r e p o r t s , i n f e r e n c e s and judgments i s a l s o open to c r i t i c i s m . G l a t t h o r n , et a l . . (1971) d e f i n e an i n f e r e n c e as an "informed guess," a " t e n t a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n , " and "a c o n c l u s i o n made about the unknown on the b a s i s of the known ( i b i d . , pp. 12-14)." These d e f i n i t i o n s may s u f f i c e i n many ci r c u m s t a n c e s . In order to t e s t i n f e r e n c e s , the authors suggest t h a t we r e c o g n i z e t h e i r t e n t a t i v e nature by using q u a l i f y i n g terms such as 'probably', 'maybe,' or 'perhaps.' Again, i n many ci r c u m s t a n c e s , t h i s may be good a d v i c e . In the case of ded u c t i v e i n f e r e n c e s , however, we are assured that our i n f e r e n c e i s c o r r e c t i f the premises a re t r u e and the argument v a l i d . As t h e r e are no examples of d e d u c t i v e i n f e r e n c e s i n the textbook, perhaps one can s p e c u l a t e that the a u t h o r s are unaware that such i n f e r e n c e s e x i s t . A f u r t h e r problem with t h i s account of i n f e r e n c e s i s that i t does not acknowledge t h a t i n f e r e n c e s are o f t e n judgments. Most l i k e l y , t h i s problem a r i s e s because the au t h o r s ' n o t i o n of 'judgment' i s both c i r c u m s c r i b e d and confused. 58 A judgment, a c c o r d i n g to G l a t t h o r n , et a l . , i s "an e x p r e s s i o n of an o p i n i o n ; a l a b e l p l a c e d upon a person or t h i n g t h a t r e v e a l s our f e e l i n g s of l i k i n g and d i s l i k i n g . " Because they are " i n d i v i d u a l and s u b j e c t i v e " they are dangerous i f accepted as r e p o r t e d , i f they become " s e l f -f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s " and because they "have a tendency to become f i n a l ( i b i d . , p. 15)." A judgment should not be responded to as a r e p o r t by t r y i n g to . . . v e r i f y i t s c o n t e n t s . And i n i t i a l l y you don't debate i t as some arguable i s s u e . I n s t e a d you begin by simply a c c e p t i n g i t as an e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g . . . Once you have accepted the f e e l i n g , you can then ask y o u r s e l f whether the judgment i s d e f e n s i b l e ( i b i d . , p. 16). G l a t t h o r n , e_t a l . have confounded f e e l i n g s , o p i n i o n s and emotive language with judgments. Only the l a s t phrase of the above quote i n d i c a t e s that they are aware t h a t judgments are s u b j e c t to assessment. They suggest three q u e s t i o n s which can be used to a s s e s s judgments: "Is i t supported by s o l i d f a c t s ? How knowledgeable i s the person making the judgment? Is he i m p a r t i a l , with nothing p e r s o n a l to gain from the judgment?" Only the f i r s t of these q u e s t i o n s i s unarguably always a p p r o p r i a t e i n a s s e s s i n g judgments. Because G l a t t h o r n , et a l . have only i n c l u d e d judgments of p e r s o n a l t a s t e s i n t h e i r textbook, the l a t t e r two, f o c u s s i n g on a p p e a l s to a u t h o r i t i e s , are seen as s u i t a b l e . T h e i r examples are a l l of two s o r t s : those t h a t s t a t e t h i n g s l i k e " a l l rock music i s t e r r i b l e " and "Scrape i s the best blade on the market;" or d e s c r i p t i v e statements l i k e "she s n a r l e d back at 59 him" and "the l o v e l y o l d lady s m i l e d s w e e t l y . . . " Presumably they are unaware that t h e r e are c r i t e r i a , other than r e l i a n c e on a u t h o r i t i e s , by which one can judge whether or not rock music i s t e r r i b l e or razor blades are good. Furthermore, the c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g these two judgments are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . What i s perhaps most p r o b l e m a t i c with t h i s account of judgment and the accompanying i l l u s t r a t i v e examples i s the f a c t t h at i t t r i v i a l i z e s the whole e n t e r p r i s e of making judgments. A p p a r e n t l y , G l a t t h o r n , et_ a l . are not c o g n i z a n t of any other sense of judgment than the one they d e s c r i b e i n t h e i r textbook. But, by f o c u s s i n g on l a r g e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t t y p e s of judgments such as those above, they have d i s t o r t e d by omission a more important sense of judgment. Moral judgments about what a c t i o n s are r i g h t or wrong or what sh o u l d be done in a p a r t i c u l a r c i r c umstance are based on more than " f e e l i n g s of l i k i n g and d i s l i k i n g . " Although i t i s q u i t e reasonable f o r someone to ' f e e l ' t h a t a c e r t a i n a c t i o n i s wrong, t h i s i s l i k e l y because the person has, i n f a c t , reasons f o r t h i n k i n g the a c t i o n wrong. Perhaps she cannot immediately g i v e the reasons, but, upon r e f l e c t i o n , she w i l l l i k e l y be a b l e to do so. Past e x p e r i e n c e and past r e a s o n i n g about a c t i o n s of the kind i n q u e s t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y s u r f a c e d u r i n g the course of r e f l e c t i o n . A s s e s s i n g r e l i a b i l i t y of a u t h o r i t i e s may p l a y a p a r t i n a r r i v i n g a t a judgment but s t u d e n t s should be:aware t h a t r e l i a n c e on the views of 60 o t h e r s , even a u t h o r i t i e s i n a f i e l d , i s o f t e n more s u i t a b l e for a s s e s s i n g e m p i r i c a l c l a i m s and not moral judgments. Paul T a y l o r s u c c i n c t l y makes t h i s p o i n t . He s t a t e s : To c a l l an a s s e r t i o n a judgment i s . . . to i n d i c a t e that i t i s made as a r e s u l t of a pro c e s s of weighing the reasons f o r and a g a i n s t whatever i t i s that i s being a s s e r t e d . . . When we begin such a process, we en t e r upon a course of rea s o n i n g f o r the purpose of coming t o a d e c i s i o n about the value of something. We do t h i s when there has been some doubt i n our own mind or some d i s p u t e with o t h e r s about the matter. The pro c e s s of e v a l u a t i o n i s thus aimed a t d e c i d i n g an i s s u e , s e t t l i n g a q u e s t i o n , or r e s o l v i n g a doubt ( l o c . c i t . , pp. 49-50) To make and assess judgments i s to do more than simply to have a f e e l i n g of l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g . Although i t i s l e g i t i m a t e to teach s t u d e n t s to r e c o g n i z e e v a l u a t i v e language when they see or hear i t , i t i s e d u c a t i o n a l l y at l e a s t q u e s t i o n a b l e to te a c h s t u d e n t s t h a t judgments are onl y f e e l i n g s and that they can be defended by a p p e a l i n g to a u t h o r i t i e s . Thomas Green suggests a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s mistaken n o t i o n of judgment. Because judgments are made i n the absence of complete knowledge, we can never be c e r t a i n t h a t they are c o r r e c t . He s t a t e s : the grounds of judgment are never c o n c l u s i v e , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t men to g i v e d i f f e r e n t judgments on the same matter and even i n r e l a t i o n to the same grounds; and i t may a l s o be the. case t h a t such d i f f e r e n t judgments are e q u a l l y r e a s o n a b l e . T h i s p o i n t i s immensely important i n e d u c a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t reasonable men may d i f f e r i n matters of judgment i s c e r t a i n o f t e n c o n s t r u e d by t e a c h e r s as evidence that kinds of judgments are s u b j e c t i v e or t h a t , as opposed t o judgments of f a c t , they are 61 merely e x p r e s s i o n s of o p i n i o n ( i b i d . , p. 178) Apparently t h i s view i s h e l d by the authors of the textbook d i s c u s s e d above. The G l a t t h o r n , et a l . textbook has been d i s c u s s e d at l e n g t h i n order to demonstrate t h a t t e a c h e r s who must r e l y on such a source f o r i n f o r m a t i o n to teach students how to i d e n t i f y and assess i n f e r e n c e s i s to m i s l e a d both t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . If t e a c h e r s were somewhat p r o f i c i e n t at the kinds of a b i l i t i e s o u t l i n e d i n Coombs' account of. c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g (attainment f i v e ) they would r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s textbook was completely u n s u i t a b l e f o r t e a c h i n g the o b j e c t i v e d i s c u s s e d above. T h i s same chapter i s recommended as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a n a l y z i n g b i a s i n newspaper r e p o r t i n g . The t e a c h e r s ' resource book a d v i s e s Note p a r t i c u l a r l y the s e l e c t i o n of d e t a i l s , the use of loaded language, and the i n t r u s i o n of value judgments (1978, p. 100). Again v a l u e judgments are confused with o p i n i o n s or a s s e r t i o n s of f e e l i n g s t h a t are not s u b j e c t to adequate j u s t i f i c a t i o n . T h i s approach may be adequate f o r t e a c h i n g students to be c a u t i o u s i n a c c e p t i n g a d v e r t i s i n g c l a i m s but i t i s d e f i c i e n t f o r t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s to a n a l y z e b i a s i n newspaper r e p o r t i n g . Yet the i n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m appears to be that students l e a r n to analyze s o c i a l i s s u e s s e r i o u s l y . The t e a c h e r s ' r e s o u r c e book i n c l u d e s many sug g e s t i o n s f o r students to g i v e speeches, debate, argue and 62 w r i t e p o s i t i o n papers on such c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s as v i o l e n c e i n s p o r t s , environmental i s s u e s , as w e l l as on democracy, war and so on. In e f f e c t , many of t h e s e suggested a c t i v i t i e s are paradigm cases r e q u i r i n g p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . To debate t o p i c s such as " s c i e n t i s t s must be a l l o w e d to experiment on humans" ( i b i d . , p. 46) or "the h u n t i n g or p o l a r bears should be banned" ( i b i d . , p. 47) r e q u i r e s many of the attainments o u t l i n e d i n Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . M i n i m a l l y , debates such as these would demand the f o l l o w i n g : 1. S e n s i t i v i t y to s i t u a t i o n s i n which p r a c t i c a l r easoning i s r e q u i r e d . B a s i c a l l y t h i s i s a s e n s i t i v i t y to d e c i s i o n s or a c t i o n s which are l i k e l y to have consequences of such s i g n i f i c a n c e to o n e s e l f or others as to warrant s e r i o u s r e f l e c t i o n b e f o r e a c t i n g . 3. A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to i d e n t i f y or c o n c e i v e of reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e s to the proposed course of a c t i o n . 4. A b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n to assemble, i n s o f a r as p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i v e worth of each course of a c t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 5. A b i l i t y to a s s e s s the accuracy of the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . 7. A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n t o assess the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y . of the a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . To h o l d a debate without a t t e n t i o n t o the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of arguments f o r and a g a i n s t the p o s i t i o n i s to reduce i t to the l e v e l of e x p r e s s i o n s of or a s s e r t i o n s about f e e l i n g s . Throughout the teacher r e s o u r c e book t h e r e a r e numerous 63 s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a c t i v i t i e s to teach s k i l l s of c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . None of the language textbooks p r e s c r i b e d , s i n g l y or i n c o n c e r t , nor the two n o n - f i c t i o n books that are meant to be used to teach these s k i l l s p r o v i d e adequate coverage of the standards by which one a s s e s s e s communications. Unless t e a c h e r s are aware of the c o m p l e x i t i e s and c r i t e r i a i n v o l v e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n of arguments, e m p i r i c a l , c o n c e p t u a l or v a l u e , they w i l l be unable to f u l f i l l the o b j e c t i v e s of the E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m . The components of p r a c t i c a l r easoning encompass the necessary c o m p l e x i t y and c r i t e r i a . If t e a c h e r s a c q u i r e d these a t t a i n m e n t s , the t e a c h i n g of E n g l i s h would be s u b s t a n t i a l l y improved. SUMMARY T h i s chapter has examined t h r e e secondary c u r r i c u l u m guides used i n B r i t i s h Columbia - S o c i a l S t u d i e s n , Consumer E d u c a t i o n 9/10 and E n g l i s h 10. D i s c u s s i o n has focussed on some of the components! of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i n order to i l l u s t r a t e i t s v a l u e i n the t e a c h i n g of these three s u b j e c t s . . In f a c t , i t has been claime d t h a t t e a c h e r s who have not l e a r n e d s p e c i f i c components w i l l be unable to teach these c u r r i c u l a with the p r e s c r i b e d r e s o u r c e s . Although these three s u b j e c t s were chosen f o r d i s c u s s i o n , t h i s does not mean t h a t these are the only s c h o o l s u b j e c t s that r e q u i r e p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Rather, the i n t e n t was to use them as examples of how 64 t e a c h i n g c o u l d be improved i f t e a c h e r s were to become p r o f i c i e n t at p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Thus, the c l a i m i s that a l l s u b j e c t s i n s c h o o l would be b e t t e r taught should t e a c h e r s become p r o f i c i e n t at p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Furthermore, t h i s c o n t e n t i o n i s a l s o meant to encompass elementary school t e a c h e r s , even though the focus has been on secondary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . The elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r example, i s s i m i l a r to the secondary i n that i t has as one of i t s g o a l s that students should l e a r n t o d e a l with i s s u e s . An i s s u e i s d e f i n e d "as a matter of i n t e r e s t about which there i s s i g n i f i c a n t disagreement. The disagreement can i n v o l v e matters of f a c t , matters of meaning or matters of value (1983, p. 7 ) . " The ' S k i l l s ' appendix of the c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e s decision-making s k i l l s to be taught, many of which are s i m i l a r to some of the attainments of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . i d e n t i f y problem or i s s u e ; i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s or o b j e c t i v e s ; gather, a n a l y z e and i n t e r p r e t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s ; e v a l u a t e the a l t e r n a t i v e s and e s t a b l i s h which should be accorded h i g h e r p r i o r i t y i n l i g h t of the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered and/or value p r e f e r e n c e s ; t e s t the p r i o r i t i e s and a n a l y z e the consequence of each; plan a course of a c t i o n ; e s t a b l i s h a group d e c i s i o n ; take some a c t i o n on the group's d e c i s i o n ; e v a l u a t e the group's d e c i s i o n ( i b i d . , p. 46). Although the l e v e l s of achievement to be expected from elementary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s are o b v i o u s l y lower than what can be expected from secondary s t u d e n t s , the a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n p r a c t i c a l reasoning are r e q u i r e d f o r f u l f i l l m e n t c u r r i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s at both l e v e l s . 66 CHAPTER IV S t r a t e g i c A c t s and P r a c t i c a l Reasoning: Respect f o r Persons  and Classroom Rules A c c o r d i n g to Green, there i s an i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the idea t h a t t e a c h i n g c o u l d go on without both the s t r a t e g i c and l o g i c a l a c t s . Furthermore, he maintains t h a t t e a c h i n g "cannot be e x c e l l e n t without a t t e n t i o n to both." (Green, 1971, p. 8 ) . " In chapter t h r e e d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s s e d on improving the l o g i c a l a c t s ; i n c h a p t e r four d i s c u s s i o n w i l l c e n t r e on the s t r a t e g i c a c t s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t w i l l be argued t h a t s t r a t e g i c a c t s r e l a t e d to i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the classroom must l o g i c a l l y be improved i f t e a c h e r s were to gain some e x p e r t i s e i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . As p o i n t e d out i n Chapter one, Green b e l i e v e s that the l o g i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a c t s of t e a c h i n g can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d p r i m a r i l y by how they are e v a l u a t e d . The l o g i c a l a c t s , he says, can be a s s e s s e d independently of t h e i r consequences f o r l e a r n i n g . In h i s words: An e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l be a good one i f i t accounts f o r what i s to be e x p l a i n e d . I f i t i s w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d and without l o g i c a l f a u l t , then i t i s a good e x p l a n a t i o n even when i t i s not understood by anyone except i t s author . . . whether reasons are good or adequate to support a c e r t a i n b e l i e f depend upon the l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the r e l a t i o n between the b e l i e f and i t s reasons, and not on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t that someone happens to accept the reasons ( i b i d , p. 7 ) . S t r a t e g i c a c t s , on the other hand, are e v a l u a t e d mainly by t h e i r consequences f o r l e a r n i n g . As t e a c h i n g . i s an 67 i n t e n t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , in which the aim i s to get someone to l e a r n something, then at l e a s t p a r t of ' s u c c e s s f u l ' t e a c h i n g must i n c l u d e whether or not students have l e a r n e d what the teacher aims to te a c h . In attempting to meet the aim, that i s t e a c h i n g someone something, a v a r i e t y of s t r a t e g i c a c t s i s employed. D i f f e r e n t kinds of a b i l i t i e s and knowledge are r e q u i r e d f o r the s t r a t e g i c a c t s than f o r the l o g i c a l a c t s of t e a c h i n g . Green s t a t e s that the former r e q u i r e " c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge of human behavior and m o t i v a t i o n " and "an acqu a i n t a n c e with the laws of l e a r n i n g and human growth" while the l a t t e r r e q u i r e "a knowledge of the laws of thought ( i b i d . , p. 8 ) . " The l o g i c a l a c t s can be d i s p l a y e d i n a r a t h e r s h o r t p e r i o d of time, perhaps a l e s s o n , whereas the s t r a t e g i c a c t s w i l l l i k e l y be demonstrated, and can thus be e v a l u a t e d , o n l y over a longer p e r i o d . B r i e f mention was made i n chapter three of the s t r a t e g i c a c t s of choosing t e a c h i n g methodologies and c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . J u s t as i t was found t h a t i t was im p o s s i b l e to d i s c u s s the l o g i c a l a c t s without some r e f e r e n c e to s t r a t e g i c a c t s , i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e a l s o to d i s c u s s s t r a t e g i c a c t s without o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e to l o g i c a l a c t s . They are l o g i c a l l y i n t e r t w i n e d . One f u r t h e r p o i n t remains to be made with r e s p e c t to the approach taken i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Some of the components 6 8 of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r easoning w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to r e s p e c t f o r persons and classroom r u l e s i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the value of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . The i n t e n t i o n i s to e x p l a i n how r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l r easoning would c o n t r i b u t e to improved p e d a g o g i c a l p r a c t i c e . In e f f e c t , the major concern i s with f a c i l i t a t i o n of student l e a r n i n g i n a m o r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f a s h i o n . Green's account of the requirements f o r improving s t r a t e g i c a c t s i s l i m i t e d to t e a c h e r s a c q u i r i n g knowledge of human behaviour and m o t i v a t i o n as w e l l as acquaintance with "laws of l e a r n i n g and human growth." As these requirements are phrased i n only the most g e n e r a l terminology, t h e r e i s l i t t l e room to advance my c e n t r a l argument. Although s e v e r a l of Coombs' components are l i k e l y encompassed i n Green's requirements, i t w i l l be more p r o d u c t i v e to examine i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the classroom by a d d r e s s i n g f i r s t , the p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons and, second, the making of r u l e s . I t s h ould be p o i n t e d out that Green does not i n c l u d e i n h i s account of s t r a t e g i c a c t s any c a t e g o r y of a c t i v i t i e s c a l l e d ' i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . ' However, i f one examines the l i s t of examples of s t r a t e g i c a c t s he p r o v i d e s , 8 one can 8 Green's l i s t of s t r a t e g i c a c t s i n c l u d e s : m o t i v a t i n g , c o u n s e l l i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , p l a n n i n g , encouraging, d i s c i p l i n i n g and q u e s t i o n i n g 6 9 d i s t i n g u i s h two r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t t y pes. F i r s t , there are those a c t s which are q u i t e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l aims. An example of t h i s type might be the s e l e c t i o n of q u e s t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r student a b i l i t i e s . A second type are those a c t s which are l e s s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s but which have important consequences f o r l e a r n i n g . M o t i v a t i n g and encouraging students are examples of t h i s second type. I t i s t h i s second type of a c t i v i t i e s which I have termed i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Respect f o r Persons and the C r i t i c a l S p i r i t In c h a p t e r t h r e e , b r i e f r e f e r e n c e was made to m a i n t a i n i n g a c l a s s r o o m ' atmosphere which was conducive to d e v e l o p i n g what S i e g e l (1980) d e s c r i b e s as the " c r i t i c a l s p i r i t " i n order that s t u d e n t s would develop the d i s p o s i t i o n to e x e r c i s e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s , to be open-minded and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y honest. S i e g e l i s concerned a l s o with the c r i t i c a l s p i r i t as i t r e l a t e s to e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r i s i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . The manner of t e a c h i n g , the " c r i t i c a l manner," r e i n f o r c e s the c r i t i c a l s p i r i t . A c c o r d i n g to S i e g e l , the c r i t i c a l manner means, f i r s t that the teacher always r e c o g n i z e s the r i g h t of the student to q u e s t i o n and demand reasons; and consequently r e c o g n i z e s an o b l i g a t i o n to p r o v i d e reasons whenever demanded. The c r i t i c a l manner thus demands of a teacher a w i l l i n g n e s s to s u b j e c t a l l b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s to s c r u t i n y , and so to allow students the genuine o p p o r t u n i t y to understand the r o l e reasons p l a y i n 70 j u s t i f y i n g thought and a c t i o n . The c r i t i c a l manner a l s o demands honesty of a t e a c h e r ; reasons p r e s e n t e d by a teacher must be genuine reasons, and a teacher must h o n e s t l y a p p r a i s e the power of those reasons. In a d d i t i o n , the teacher must submit h i s or her reasons to the independent e v a l u a t i o n of the student ( l o c . c i t . , p 11). C l e a r l y , the c r i t i c a l manner as d e s c r i b e d above i s c l o s e l y t i e d to the l o g i c a l a c t s of t e a c h i n g . However, there are s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s t r a t e g i c a c t s . S i e g e l m a i n t a i n s t h a t t e a c h i n g ought to a c c o r d with the c r i t i c a l manner because, in h i s words, ". . . i t would be immoral to teach i n any other way ( i b i d . , p. 13)." He j u s t i f i e s t h i s c l a i m by u s i n g the K a n t i a n n o t i o n of r e s p e c t f o r persons. As t e a c h i n g i n v o l v e s i n t e r a c t i o n between persons, i t must conform to the g e n e r a l requirements b i n d i n g a l l i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . He s t a t e s .. . . w e must, i f we are to conduct our i n t e r p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s m o r a l l y , r e c o g n i z e and r e s p e c t the f a c t t h a t we are d e a l i n g with other persons who as such deserve r e s p e c t - t h a t i s , we must show r e s p e c t f o r persons. T h i s i n c l u d e s the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t other persons are of equal moral worth, which e n t a i l s that we t r e a t other persons i n such a way t h a t t h e i r moral worth i s r e s p e c t e d . T h i s i n turn r e q u i r e s t h a t we r e c o g n i z e other persons' needs, d e s i r e s , and l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s to be as worthy as our own ( i b i d . , pp. 13-14). The above remarks are concerned with the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons. S i e g e l then a p p l i e s t h i s g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e to the t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . What does i t mean f o r a teacher to r e c o g n i z e the equal moral worth of students and to t r e a t s t udents with r e s p e c t ? Among other t h i n g s , i t means r e c o g n i z i n g the student's r i g h t to q u e s t i o n , to c h a l l e n g e , and to demand reasons and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r what i s being taught. The teacher who f a i l s to r e c o g n i z e these r i g h t s of the student f a i l s to t r e a t the student with r e s p e c t , f o r t r e a t i n g the student with r e s p e c t i n v o l v e s r e c o g n i z i n g the student's r i g h t to e x e r c i s e h i s or her independent judgment and powers of e v a l u a t i o n ( i b i d . , p. 14). Before c o n t i n u i n g , i t may be u s e f u l to look at another i n f l u e n t i a l account of personhood, one t h a t , i n essence, agrees with S i e g e l ' s . R i c h a r d P e t e r s ' view i s that persons are " c e n t r e s of v a l u a t i o n , d e c i s i o n , and c h o i c e (1966, p. 211)." I n d i v i d u a l s w i l l l e a r n to t h i n k of themselves as persons only i f they l e a r n to t h i n k of themselves as autonomous beare r s of r i g h t s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s of view. He s a y s : The concept of being a person . . . i s d e r i v a t i v e from the v a l u a t i o n p l a c e d i n a s o c i e t y upon the d e t e r m i n i n g r o l e of i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s of view. I n d i v i d u a l s w i l l only [ s i c ] tend to a s s e r t t h e i r r i g h t s as i n d i v i d u a l s , to take p r i d e i n t h e i r achievements, to d e l i b e r a t e c a r e f u l l y and choose ' f o r themselves' what they ought to do, and to develop t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e of emotional r e a c t i o n - i n other words they w i l l o n l y [ s i c ] tend to m a n i f e s t a l l the v a r i o u s p r o p e r t i e s which we a s s o c i a t e with being 'persons' - i f they are encouraged to do so ( i b i d . , p. 211). To a s c e r t a i n the degree to which t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s are guided by t h i s view of r e s p e c t f o r persons would r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . I t seems rea s o n a b l y l i k e l y , however, t h a t l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r s t u d e n t s as persons, i n the moral sense of the term, does c h a r a c t e r i z e at l e a s t some c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n s . Buxton and P r i c h a r d (1973), i n a study conducted i n the U.S. found t h a t , of the 815 students i n t h e i r sample, ten per cent 72 answered " f r e q u e n t l y " to the q u e s t i o n "Have you ever been degraded or t r e a t e d with d i s r e s p e c t by a t e a c h e r ? " w h i l e another f o r t y - f i v e per cent answered "sometimes." A d d i t i o n a l l y , students p e r c e i v e d that t h e i r most v i o l a t e d r i g h t was teacher r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s . Because the sample was f a i r l y s m a l l , i t would not be a p p r o p r i a t e to g e n e r a l i z e the r e s u l t s found by Buxton and P r i c h a r d . However, i t seems reasonable to assume that the " c r i t i c a l manner" of t e a c h i n g i s not found i n many classrooms. Schools have been f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d i n recent years f o r s t i f l i n g genuine i n q u i r y , f o r t h e i r concern with the one r i g h t answer. John Goodlad's massive study of s c h o o l i n g i s i n d i c a t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d . Summarizing some of h i s f i n d i n g s i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "What Some Schools and Classrooms Teach," Goodlad (1983) s t a t e s t h a t , i n the schools he and h i s c o l l e a g u e s s t u d i e d , independent, t h i n k i n g was not h i g h l y regarded. Students were r e q u i r e d to memorize i n f o r m a t i o n from the textbook or g i v e n to them by the teacher at the expense, of understanding the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . "Seeking ' r i g h t ' answers, conforming and r e p r o d u c i n g the known" are viewed as a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r s . Goodlad a l s o comments that h i s data suggested l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of s t u d e n t s " d e v e l o p i n g p r o d u c t i v e and s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s based on r e s p e c t . . . ( i b i d . , p. 17)." Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t here, though, i s h i s view of what might be a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the nature of today's c l a s s r o o m s . 73 And why should we expect t e a c h e r s to teach otherwise? T h i s i s the way they were taught i n sc h o o l and c o l l e g e ( i b i d . , p. 15). Unless t e a c h e r s were to dev e l o p the a b i l i t i e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r easoning, the s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d by Goodlad and by Buxton and P r i c h a r d c o u l d not be improved. The p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t for persons i n c l u d e s many of the components of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Tob ask the q u e s t i o n 'how should persons be t r e a t e d ? ' i s tantamount to a s k i n g the b a s i c q u e s t i o n of p r a c t i c a l reasoning, 'what should be done?' In a s k i n g the q u e s t i o n s e r i o u s l y , one i s committed t o cho o s i n g the best a l t e r n a t i v e course of a c t i o n open to o n e s e l f , on the b a s i s of good reasons. And, as p o i n t e d out i n chapter t h r e e , the canons of reasoning f o r the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of va l u e judgments are r u l e s of r e l e v a n c e and r u l e s of v a l i d i n f e r e n c e . Rules of v a l i d i n f e r e n c e are cov e r e d by component f i v e of Coombs' account and i n c l u d e those a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o assess the accuracy of i n f o r m a t i o n ( c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s ) . Although assessment of the f a c t s of any p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s c r u c i a l t o r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n ing, i t i s the r u l e s of r e l e v a n c e which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d here. Given t h a t r e s p e c t f o r persons i s a moral p r i n c i p l e , i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e to c o n c e n t r a t e on those components which s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e t o moral r e a s o n i n g . I t i s , i n f a c t , not too much to say t h a t moral reasoning i s e s s e n t i a l l y r e a s o n i n g about how persons are to be t r e a t e d . 7 4 In order to understand and apply the p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons, one would f i r s t need to a c q u i r e s e v e r a l of the components of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Component 1.1.1, knowledge of what s o r t s of t h i n g s are b a s i c v a l u e s f o r human beings in g e n e r a l , i s c l e a r l y r e q u i r e d . Without t h i s knowledge, i t would be i m p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h persons from non-human animals. Component 1.2 i s a l s o c e n t r a l . It r e q u i r e s : S e n s i t i v i t y to m o r a l l y hazardous a c t i o n s , that i s , a c t i o n s which r e q u i r e assessment from the moral p o i n t of view. T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y a l e r t s persons to (1) a c t i o n s that may have consequences f o r o t h e r s which the a c t o r c o u l d not accept i f they were to b e f a l l him and (2) a c t i o n s which may have unacceptable consequences were everyone to engage i n them. Such s e n s i t i v i t y i s composed of a v a r i e t y of more s p e c i f i c a t t a i n m e n t s i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g : 1.2.1 Knowledge of b a s i c moral r u l e s . 1.2.2 Knowledge of what g e n e r a l l y harms human beings e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or emot i o n a l l y . 1.2.3 P o s s e s s i o n of a wide range of moral co n c e p t s . . . To say t h a t using the p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons r e q u i r e s the above s e n s i t i v i t y and knowledge i s almost t a u t o l o g o u s . The t a u t o l o g y i s , however, a r e v e a l i n g one. To d e c i d e , i n the s t r o n g sense, t h a t one ought to t r e a t X i n Y f a s h i o n l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e s j u s t i f i c a t i o n from the moral p o i n t of view. S i m i l a r l y , to j u s t i f y a d e c i s i o n t h a t one ought to t r e a t X in a c e r t a i n way r e q u i r e s component 7. A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to a ssess the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n . C o n s t i t u e n t s of t h i s attainment i n c l u d e : 7.1 Knowing t h a t moral assessment i s guided by 75 two p r i n c i p l e s : (a) I t cannot be r i g h t f o r me to do X u n l e s s i t i s r i g h t f o r any person i n the same s o r t of circumstances to do X. (b) I f the consequences of everyone's doing X i n a given circumstance would be unacceptable, then i t i s not r i g h t f o r anyone to do X i n that c i r c u m s t a n c e . As p o i n t e d out i n chapter t h r e e , the two p r i n c i p l e s of moral assessment in attainment 7.1 d e r i v e from a view of m o r a l i t y which m a i n t a i n s that a moral p r i n c i p l e i s a c c e p t a b l e i f , and only i f , a l l the judgments l o g i c a l l y d e r i v e d from i t are a l s o a c c e p t a b l e ( S i n g e r , 1963). Encompassed i n them are the p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e , i m p a r t i a l i t y and e q u a l i t y , r u l i n g out f a v o u r i t i s m f o r any i n d i v i d u a l . Attainments 7.2 and 7.3 can be used to c h a l l e n g e the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a moral judgment about how o t h e r s are to be t r e a t e d through the u n i v e r s a l consequences t e s t and r o l e exchange t e s t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . These two t e s t s , d e s c r i b e d i n c h apter t h r e e , g i v e c o n c r e t e form to the two p r i n c i p l e s of moral assessment.. A h y p o t h e t i c a l example, though probably not an u n r e a l i s t i c one, may h e l p to i l l u s t r a t e how the above a t t a i n m e n t s would apply i n the classroom. Suppose a teacher was to make a s a r c a s t i c remark i n response to a student's n a i v e , but r a t h e r f o o l i s h , q u e s t i o n . In responding i n such a f a s h i o n , the teacher i s v i o l a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r p ersons. Sarcasm may p r o v i d e amusement f o r the r e s t of the c l a s s , but i s l i k e l y to embarrass the ' o f f e n d i n g ' 76 student, l e a v i n g him with d i m i n i s h e d s e l f - r e s p e c t . T h i s course of a c t i o n cannot be c o n s i d e r e d m o r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . Knowledge of the moral concept of 'demeaning,' (most teach e r s probably know the meaning, but may^be unaware that i t i s a moral c o n c e p t ) , combined with the a b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to assess the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of one's a c t i o n s would be h e l p f u l i n such a s i t u a t i o n . If t e a c h e r s were to become p r o f i c i e n t i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n ing, the above type of a c t i o n , and o t h e r s which v i o l a t e the p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons, would be l e s s l i k e l y to occur, thus f a c i l i t a t i n g student m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . In a d d i t i o n to the moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g i n the " c r i t i c a l manner," f o r t r e a t i n g s tudents qua persons with r e s p e c t , i t i s at l e a s t r easonable to argue that such t e a c h i n g might a i d i n d e v e l o p i n g the student's d i s p o s i t i o n to a c t i n the same way. Here a g a i n , the c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between l o g i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a c t s i s e v i d e n t . Making Classroom Rules I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the classroom are governed, at l e a s t i n p a r t , by teacher-made r u l e s . C e r t a i n minimum c o n d i t i o n s of order must o b t a i n i n order f o r e d u c a t i o n to take p l a c e . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l need f o r r u l e s , however, teac h e r s must a l s o h e l p s t u d e n t s develop an understanding of what r u l e s are and why they are important i n p r o t e c t i n g the r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus 77 the f o r m u l a t i o n of r u l e s to m aintain order i n the classroom, a s t r a t e g i c a c t , has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r student l e a r n i n g about r u l e s . Although many of the r u l e s governing behaviour in school are formulated by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (no running i n the h a l l , f o r example) or by l e g i s l a t o r s (compulsory a t t e n d a n c e ) , the i n d i v i d u a l teacher has a f a i r degree of autonomy with r e s p e c t to what r u l e s s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n h i s or her c l a s s . It would seem, then, t h a t the f o r m u l a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m r u l e s i s an a c t i v i t y r e q u i r i n g p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Teachers have a l t e r n a t i v e ways of answering the q u e s t i o n "what should be done with r e s p e c t to -classroom r u l e s ? " While a l a r g e number of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s c o n c e i v a b l e , only those which serve p a r t i c u l a r purposes and which are j u s t i f i a b l e ought to be chosen. Before d i s c u s s i n g the i s s u e of j u s t i f y i n g r u l e s , however, i t may be u s e f u l to c l a r i f y what s o r t s of r u l e s are of c o n c e r n . Kurt B a i e r has d i s t i n g u i s h e d s i x d i f f e r e n t senses i n which the word ' r u l e ' i s used. The s i x a r e : 1) r e g u l a t i o n s , which are i n f o r c e only a f t e r they have been p r o p e r l y adopted or l a i d down by someone; to be i n f o r c e , r e g u l a t i o n s presuppose the whole s o c i a l apparatus of rule-enforcement, i n c l u d i n g b e i n g supported by some s o r t of s a n c t i o n . 2) customs or mores, which are not l a i d down by any one i n p a r t i c u l a r ; mores vary from group to group, are taught to the young, and r e l y on s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u a n c e . 3) maxims or p r i n c i p l e s , which are adopted by i n d i v i d u a l s to govern p e r s o n a l conduct; they do 78 not depend l o g i c a l l y f o r support upon s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . 4) canons, which are f o r m u l a t i o n s of p r a c t i c a l wisdom; canons p r o v i d e simple v e r b a l a i d s to those t r y i n g to a c q u i r e a s k i l l . 5) r e g u l a r i t i e s or u n i f o r m i t i e s , which merely d e s c r i b e what i s r e g u l a r about something. 6) c o n s t i t u t i v e r u l e s , which c o n s t i t u t e the nature of a c e r t a i n r u l e determined a c t i v i t y ( B a i e r , 1965, pp. 68-71) Acc o r d i n g t o B a i e r , only the f i r s t and second usages, r e g u l a t i o n s and mores, are s o c i a l r u l e s ; t h a t i s , they imply the e x i s t e n c e of s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s i n support of the r u l e s . They d i f f e r , however, i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s : R e g u l a t i o n s come i n t o e x i s t e n c e by being l a i d down, mores simply by coming to be supported; r e g u l a t i o n s change by being d e l i b e r a t e l y a l t e r e d by the person a u t h o r i z e d to do so, mores change when new types of conduct come to be e i t h e r backed or r e j e c t e d ; r e g u l a t i o n s come to an end by being a b o l i s h e d , mores by c e a s i n g to be supported . . while mores are supported by c o m p a r a t i v e l y i n d e t e r m i n a t e and unorganized p r e s s u r e s , those which support r e g u l a t i o n s are h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d and determinate ( i b i d . , p. 72). Only the f i r s t sense of r u l e , the r e g u l a t i o n sense, i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n (what cl a s s r o o m r u l e s should be e s t a b l i s h e d ? ) , a l t h o u g h the other senses are probably a l s o of concern t o t e a c h e r s i n c a r r y i n g out other a c t i v i t i e s . The second and t h i r d senses, mores and m a x i m s / p r i n c i p l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as they p e r t a i n to the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n . Using the f e a t u r e s of r u l e s i d e n t i f i e d by B a i e r , i t 79 seems that t e a c h e r s are a u t h o r i z e d to make and e n f o r c e r u l e s , i n the r e g u l a t i o n sense. The problem i s to decide how to go about j u s t i f y i n g p a r t i c u l a r r u l e s . R.S. P e t e r s ' c l a i m that " E i t h e r they are j u s t i f i a b l e by r e f e r e n c e to fundamental moral p r i n c i p l e s or they are c l e a r l y necessary f o r the p a r t i c u l a r purpose i n hand or to a v o i d the inconvenience with which i n s t i t u t i o n s are beset i f they lack them ( P e t e r s , 1966, p. 273)" p r o v i d e s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . Although P e t e r s has marked o f f three ways to j u s t i f y the e x i s t e n c e of r u l e s , i t would seem that the t h r e e are not e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t . To be j u s t i f i a b l e , r u l e s must f a c i l i t a t e the achievement of p a r t i c u l a r purposes w h i l e , at the same time, a d h e r i n g to fundamental moral p r i n c i p l e s . 9 I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that r u l e s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d which would be o f f e n s i v e on moral grounds. To j u s t i f y r u l e s , then, both c r i t e r i a must be a p p l i e d . Few educators would disagree; that there a r e two primary purposes f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c l a s s r o o m r u l e s . The f i r s t i s to e s t a b l i s h an a p p r o p r i a t e m i l i e u to promote student l e a r n i n g , the second i s to h e l p students develop understanding of 9 P e t e r s ' t h i r d c a t e g o r y , a v o i d i n g i n c o n v e n i e n c e , i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r present purposes. Even the r u l e s e s t a b l i s h e d here, though, should not v i o l a t e fundamental moral p r i n c i p l e s . 8 0 r u l e s , i n order that they come to conduct t h e i r l i v e s i n accordance with s o c i e t a l r u l e s and p e r s o n a l l y h e l d moral p r i n c i p l e s . P r o f i c i e n c y i n p r a c t i c a l r easoning would enhance teacher a b i l i t y to formulate j u s t i f i a b l e r u l e s to serve both purposes. To c r e a t e a classroom m i l i e u conducive to l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e s c h o o s i n g among a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n . V a r i o u s components of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g are needed i n making these c h o i c e s . Component 1, s e n s i t i v i t y to s i t u a t i o n s i n which p r a c t i c a l r easoning i s r e q u i r e d , i s o b v i o u s l y necessary as i s component 2, d i s p o s i t i o n to undertake p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g when such i s r e q u i r e d . ' 0 Although these p o i n t s may seem to be t r i v i a l , they are important enough to bear s t a t i n g . I t i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t some t e a c h e r s may f e e l t h a t the i s s u e of c l a s s r o o m r u l e s i s not worthy of s e r i o u s r e f l e c t i o n . Attainment 3 i s a l s o necessary f o r those attempting to decid e which r u l e s w i l l p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e . I t s t a t e s : A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to i d e n t i f y or con c e i v e of reaso n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s to the proposed course of 1 0 Components 1 and 2 i n c l u d e s e v e r a l sub-components, which are not set out i n f u l l here but which are r e l e v a n t to the d i s c u s s i o n . They have been i n c l u d e d i n t o t o i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . 81 a c t i o n . T h i s a b i l i t y l i k e l y depends i n p a r t on having: '.' 3.1 Knowledge of v a r i o u s means of r e a l i z i n g c e r t a i n v a l u e s . 3.2 Knowledge of the importance of c o n s i d e r i n g reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e s . D e s p i t e the f a c t that knowledge r e l a t e d to v a r i o u s means of o b t a i n i n g a s u i t a b l e l e a r n i n g m i l i e u i s needed here, knowledge which i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e d i n Coombs' account, the above component i s n o n e t h e l e s s of some import in t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . If t e a c h e r s are not d i s p o s e d to look at v a r i o u s means of a c h i e v i n g t h e i r purpose, they are l e s s l i k e l y to e s t a b l i s h e f f e c t i v e and j u s t i f i a b l e r u l e s / r e g u l a t i o n s . To promote student l e a r n i n g may r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t approaches f o r d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , depending on such f a c t o r s as student m a t u r i t y and a b i l i t y , or the g e n e r a l s c h o o l c l i m a t e . One o p t i o n which i s seen as v i a b l e i n a c h i e v i n g an o r d e r l y c l a s s r o o m i s to e s t a b l i s h r u l e s to govern a l l conduct. But i f i t i s t r u e , as Duke argues, t h a t s c h o o l s may i n g e n e r a l have too many r u l e s , then the f o r m u l a t i o n of e x c e s s i v e numbers.of r u l e s may i n f a c t negate the purpose of f a c i l i t a t i n g l e a r n i n g . He c i t e s e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t ing t h a t students r e s e n t the overabundance of s c h o o l r u l e s devoted to c o n t r o l l i n g every aspect of t h e i r b e haviour. They f i n d such a c l i m a t e of c o n t r o l dehumanizing. An o r g a n i z a t i o n where e v e r y t h i n g from chewing gum to going to the bathroom i s s u b j e c t to r e g u l a t i o n h a r d l y seems conducive to the development of r e s p o n s i b l e young people (Duke, 1978, p. 121). o 2 Duke's remarks are important f o r three reasons. F i r s t , i t seems t h a t the f o r m u l a t i o n of a myriad of r u l e s runs counter to the purpose of promoting student l e a r n i n g and may i n s t e a d engender a l i e n a t i o n or resentment. Second, i t seems that many r u l e s may v i o l a t e the fundamental moral p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons. T h i r d , r a t h e r than c o n t r i b u t i n g to student understanding about the aim of r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s , the o p p o s i t e seems l i k e l y t o o c c u r . If t e a c h e r s wish to a c h i e v e t h e i r purposes, they must look beyond the a l t e r n a t i v e of e s t a b l i s h i n g r u l e s to govern a l l a s p e c t s of student behaviour. B r i e f mention of the p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons was made above. Rules, to be j u s t i f i a b l e , must adhere to fundamental p r i n c i p l e s , i n c l u d i n g respect f o r persons, i n a d d i t i o n to a c h i e v i n g t h e i r purpose. Component 7 of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g p r o v i d e s guidance i n t h i s r e g a r d . I t s t a t e s : A b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n to assess the moral a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n . C o n s t i t u e n t s or t h i s attainment i n c l u d e : 7.1 Knowing that moral assessment i s guided by two p r i n c i p l e s : a) I t cannot be r i g h t f o r me to do x u n l e s s i t i s r i g h t f o r any person i n the same s o r t of c i r c u m s t a n c e s to do x. b) I f the consequences of everyone's doing x i n a given circumstance would be unacceptable, then i t i s not r i g h t f o r anyone to do x i n t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e . C o n s t i t u e n t s 7.-2, 7.3 and 7.4 have been s t a t e d b e f o r e and w i l l not be repeated here. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to note that these two p r i n c i p l e s , as p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , encompass the 83 p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e , i m p a r t i a l i t y and e q u a l i t y and are embodied c o n c r e t e l y i n the u n i v e r s a l consequences t e s t and r o l e exchange t e s t (attainments 7.2 and 7.3). Use of these t e s t s would enable teac h e r s to be more c e r t a i n that t h e i r judgments about the f o r m u l a t i o n of s p e c i f i c r u l e s are j u s t i f i a b l e . The r e g u l a t i o n of t o i l e t - g o i n g behaviour in s c h o o l i s probably the most obvious example of r u l e s which t r a n s g r e s s the p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons. Buxton and P r i c h a r d (1973), i n a study c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y , , r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g responses to the q u e s t i o n "Have you been denied the use of the restroom when ne c e s s a r y ? " : " f r e q u e n t l y " - t h i r t y per cent, "sometimes" - f o r t y - e i g h t per c e n t . Although i t i s undoubtedly t r u e that some students ask to go to the washroom i n order to a v o i d c lassroom work, i t would seem that other means of d e a l i n g with such m a l i n g e r e r s c o u l d be found. I t i s demeaning to r e g u l a t e normal b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s in such a f a s h i o n . Students must come to understand the p o i n t of r u l e s i n order to understand the importance of conforming with them. If s p e c i f i c r u l e s are p e r c e i v e d as a r b i t r a r y , s tudents w i l l not l i k e l y l e a r n to r e s p e c t r u l e s , nor to come to see t h a t they are o f t e n based on more g e n e r a l moral p r i n c i p l e s . Students should be aware t h a t some r u l e s are j u s t i f i e d on p u r e l y u t i l i t a r i a n grounds and t h a t i t i s prudent to conform to them (many mores and customs f i t h e r e ) , w h i l e o t h e r s are 8 4 j u s t i f i e d by i n v o k i n g h i g h e r order p r i n c i p l e s and that i t i s immoral not to obey them. Both types of r u l e s can be j u s t i f i e d more r e a d i l y than those which are meant merely to maintain the a u t h o r i t y of the t e a c h er. While i t may be e a s i e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y with younger c h i l d r e n , to encourage simple compliance with the t e a c h e r ' s r u l e s , such methods w i l l not develop student u n d e r s t a n d i n g of and r e s p e c t f o r r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s , a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a d u l t c i t i z e n s h i p i n a l i b e r a l d e mocratic s o c i e t y . Furthermore, r e s p e c t f o r persons r e q u i r e s t h a t students are e n t i t l e d to q u e s t i o n the e x i s t e n c e and purpose of r u l e s , and are e n t i t l e d to genuine answers to these q u e s t i o n s . I f t e a c h e r s were to become p r o f i c i e n t at the a b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n Coombs' c o n c e p t i o n of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o ning, they would see the n e c e s s i t y of and be a b l e to p r o v i d e j u s t i f i a b l e answers to the q u e s t i o n s . The p r e c e d i n g remarks have brought the d i s c u s s i o n to the second major purpose f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c l a s s r o o m r u l e s , the development of student understanding of and r e s p e c t f o r r u l e s . I t i s taken f o r g r a n t e d i n our s o c i e t y t h a t s t u d e n t s , as they mature, w i l l l e a r n t o govern t h e i r conduct i n accordance with r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s . Yet i t i s not apparent that coherent e f f o r t s to d e v e l o p such u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e s p e c t are widespread. Component 9.1 of Coombs' account i s r e l e v a n t here. I t reads: "Understanding why a system of p u b l i c m o r a l i t y i s 85 necessary i f we are to have the s o r t of s o c i a l order i n which one can l e a d a f u l f i l l i n g l i f e . " Although i t would be presumptuous to suggest that the above understanding c o u l d be e a s i l y taught, i t seems c l e a r that i t i s l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r the development of student understanding of and r e s p e c t f o r r u l e s , i n both the r e g u l a t i o n and m a x i m / p r i n c i p l e senses. D e s p i t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e l p i n g students develop t h i s u nderstanding, some b r i e f e x p l i c a t i o n of i t i s r e q u i r e d . Depending on the nature of one's s o c i e t y , a system of p u b l i c m o r a l i t y c o u l d i n c l u d e B a i e r ' s f i r s t t h r e e senses of r u l e s , t h at i s , r e g u l a t i o n s , customs or mores, and maxims or p r i n c i p l e s . In our s o c i e t y , p u b l i c m o r a l i t y encompasses both r e g u l a t i o n s , i n the form of laws, and p r i n c i p l e s . Although i t i s arguable whether or not i t a l s o i n c l u d e s customs, i t i s not necessary to s e t t l e the p o i n t i n t h i s paper. I t i s n e c e s s a r y , however, to c o n s i d e r why students need to understand the importance of a system of p u b l i c m o r a l i t y . B a i e r argues t h a t customs and laws ( r u l e s , i n the r e g u l a t i o n sense) are j u s t i f i e d i n roughly the same way. He s t a t e s that L i v i n g o u t s i d e groups with a common way of l i f e would -be l i v i n g i n i n a s t a t e i n which, as Hobbes cl a i m e d , l i f e i s ' s o l i t a r y , poor, nasty, b r u t i s h and s h o r t , ' i f p o s s i b l e a t a l l . However, to remedy t h i s i t i s not necessary, as Hobbes c l a i m e d , to impose laws on men. Customs are enough to meet the need p o i n t e d out by Hobbes ( l o c . c i t . , p. 78). T h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l need f o r r u l e s , and other s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s 86 and i n s t i t u t i o n s , has been argued f o r f r e q u e n t l y by u t i l i t a r i a n s . A system of r u l e s , i n t h i s view, can be j u s t i f i e d on the grounds that i t e f f e c t i v e l y promotes the best i n t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y . B.J. Diggs summarizes the r u l e u t i l i t a r i a n p o s i t i o n as f o l l o w s : The assumption i s that men have v a r i o u s d e s t i n a t i o n s which they want to reach and the s o c i a l aim i s to p r o v i d e the system of i n s t i t u t i o n s which w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g them al o n g . As men together d e v i s e such p u b l i c instruments as roads and b r i d g e s , which none alone c o u l d c o n s t r u c t , and then r e g u l a t e the use of these instruments f o r the " p u b l i c good," so on t h i s view men together have developed such i n s t i t u t i o n s as " p r o m i s i n g ," "a system of p r o p e r t y , " e t c . These i n s t i t u t i o n s may not have a r i s e n through d e l i b e r a t e d e s i g n , a l t h o u g h (there o f t e n seems to be the assumption t h a t ) i f an i n s t i t u t i o n or p r a c t i c e has a r i s e n , then i t must have been rewarding, and consequently, must have served some purpose. The i n s t r u m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r of these i n s t i t u t i o n s i s evidenced more d i r e c t l y , however, by the f a c t t h a t persons h o l d and d i s p o s e of p r o p e r t y , make promises, and, q u i t e g e n e r a l l y , engage i n the l i f e of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s with g o a l s i n mind (Diggs, 1968, p. 229-230). The weakness i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , Diggs c o n v i n c i n g l y argues, i s t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between a system of r u l e s designed to c o n t r i b u t e to some goal and a system of moral r u l e s has been n e g l e c t e d . Moral r u l e s , he s t a t e s , "thus seem to be c o n c e i v e d as supports f o r and a n c i l l a r y to the p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s which they presuppose ( i b i d . , p. 231)." Persons who c o n c e i v e of moral r u l e s i n t h i s way tend to see them as e x t e r n a l to themselves, o n l y as r e s t r a i n t s on t h e i r behaviour. In e f f e c t , t h i s view promotes a n e g a t i v e m o r a l i t y , d e s c r i b e d by Diggs as a " p o l i c e " view, with moral r u l e s seen o n l y as " p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s . " 87 T h i s u t i l i t a r i a n j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a system of p u b l i c m o r a l i t y i s , i n my view, not the k i n d of understanding demanded by l i f e i n a l i b e r a l democratic s o c i e t y . Diggs suggests that moral r u l e s can be i n t e r n a l i z e d i n a more p o s i t i v e way, one which i s more a k i n to Coombs' r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l reasoner. Diggs d e s c r i b e s h i s c o n c e p t i o n of a moral community i n the f o l l o w i n g way: When the idea of such a community i s a t t a i n e d and made to govern p r a c t i c e . . . then the moral r u l e s "Do not l i e , " "Do not s t e a l , " e t c . , w i l l appear i n a new l i g h t . One who a c t s under such an idea w i l l teach these r u l e s n e i t h e r as p r i m a r i l y n e g a t i v e and r e s t r a i n i n g , nor p r i m a r i l y as supports or p r o t e c t i o n s f o r p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s . For al t h o u g h he may view the r u l e s i n these ways, he w i l l regard them p r i m a r i l y as a f f i r m i n g i n so many d i f f e r e n t ways the fundamental p r i n c i p l e " L i v e under the idea of law." The p r i n c i p l e may be s t a t e d n e g a t i v e l y , i n the form "Do not make an e x c e p t i o n of o n e s e l f , " but h i s primary aim in t e a c h i n g the r u l e s w i l l be to r a i s e one to the c o n c e p t i o n of a moral community. Since such a community p o t e n t i a l l y i n c l u d e s a l l men, p a r t of the c h a l l e n g e may be to f i n d p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which the c o n c e p t i o n may be r e a l i z e d ( i b i d . , p. 236). Moral r u l e s , regarded i n t h i s way, are not i n s t r u m e n t a l l y j u s t i f i e d but r e s t on more fundamental moral p r i n c i p l e s such as r e s p e c t f o r persons and the two g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s in component 7.1 of Coombs' c o n c e p t i o n of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . M i c h a e l S c r i v e n puts the p o i n t another way when he d i s t i n g u i s h e s between a s t r o n g and a weak m o r a l i t y . In h i s words, "Weak m o r a l i t y i n v o l v e s the r e c o g n i t i o n of the r i g h t s of • ot h e r s but no p o s i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r w e l f a r e other than by such r e c o g n i t i o n ; s t r o n g 88 m o r a l i t y i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the i n t e r e s t s of others (1966, p. 232)." H i s view of a moral system r e s t s upon the p r i n c i p l e of equal c o n s i d e r a t i o n , from which a l l other moral p r i n c i p l e s can be developed. For students to come to understand and r e s p e c t r u l e s , they must l e a r n to d i s t i n g u i s h between i n s t r u m e n t a l r u l e s , and moral r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s . I f they are not help e d to l e a r n the p o i n t of r u l e s , i f they are not helped to l e a r n that r u l e s a re not the a r b i t r a r y whims of some a u t h o r i t y , they are u n l i k e l y to l e a r n to do more than f o l l o w r u l e s m e c h a n i c a l l y , or through f e a r of punishment. Simple compliance with r u l e s i s not the d e s i r e d end, but r a t h e r understanding i n enough depth to ensure that one knows which r u l e s to apply i n new c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the reasons t h e r e f o r e . Using B a i e r ' s t e r m i n o l o g y , r u l e s i n the r e g u l a t i o n sense should be formulated so as to f a c i l i t a t e the development of p e r s o n a l l y h e l d m a x i m s / p r i n c i p l e s that are congruent with fundamental moral p r i n c i p l e s such as respe c t f o r persons, j u s t i c e , i m p a r t i a l i t y and e q u a l i t y . R e g u l a t i o n s , too, should adhere to moral p r i n c i p l e s i f they are to serve the two c h i e f purposes of t e a c h e r s . The a b i l i t i e s , knowledge and d i s p o s i t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g are e s s e n t i a l not onl y f o r teacher d e c i s i o n making about r u l e s , but are e s s e n t i a l a l s o f o r d e v e l o p i n g student u n d e r s t a n d i n g about moral r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s and how they operate i n our p r a c t i c a l judgments. 89 Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r , some of the components of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g were examined i n r e l a t i o n to Green's category of s t r a t e g i c t e a c h i n g a c t s . I t was argued t h a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the cl a s s r o o m would be improved, and l e a r n i n g f a c i l i t a t e d , i f t e a c h e r s were to become p r o f i c i e n t i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Two a s p e c t s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s were discussed,, the p r i n c i p l e of respe c t f o r persons and the f o r m u l a t i o n of cl a s s r o o m r u l e s , i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the va l u e of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . It was not c l a i m e d that p r o f i c i e n c y i n p r a c t i c a l r e asoning o b v i a t e s the need f o r knowledge about human behaviour and m o t i v a t i o n . Rather the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t r e a t i n g students i n a p a r t i c u l a r way, qua persons, r e s t s on reasoning, the i n v o c a t i o n of moral p r i n c i p l e s , and the purpose of t e a c h i n g . Other r e l a t e d s t r a t e g i c a c t s , such as the enforcement of r u l e s and the choosing of a p p r o p r i a t e s a n c t i o n s f o r r u l e - b r e a k e r s were not d i s c u s s e d , although i t can be argued that s i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would be r e l e v a n t . Whereas the c e n t r a l p o i n t of the cha p t e r was that the s t r a t e g i c a c t s of t e a c h i n g would be improved i f te a c h e r s were to develop t h e i r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g c a p a c i t i e s , i t was maintained that s t u d e n t s must be helped t o develop these c a p a c i t i e s as w e l l . 9 0 CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF THE ARGUMENT T h i s paper has attempted to make a case f o r i n c l u s i o n of the study of p r a c t i c a l reasoning i n teacher e d u c a t i o n programs. J e r r o l d Coombs' .conception of p r a c t i c a l r easoning was d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l i n chapter two i n order to make c l e a r the numerous attainments r e q u i r e d f o r r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l judgment. These a t t a i n m e n t s , which i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y of a b i l i t i e s , s e n s i t i v i t i e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s , are l i s t e d at the end of the chapter and are r e f e r r e d to throughout c h a p t e r s three and f o u r . Chapter three comprised an examination of the f r u i t f u l n e s s of Coombs' c o n c e p t i o n of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g with r e s p e c t to the l o g i c a l a c t s of t e a c h i n g . Using examples from three secondary c u r r i c u l u m guides i n B r i t i s h Columbia -S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Consumer Educat i o n and E n g l i s h - i t was argued t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s f o r student l e a r n i n g which t e a c h e r s are to f u l f i l l l o g i c a l l y cannot be a c h i e v e d without those t e a c h e r s having some competence i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . In Chapter f o u r , the s t r a t e g i c t e a c h i n g a c t s were d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a case was made that i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the cla s s r o o m would be improved and, c o n c o m i t a n t l y , l e a r n i n g 91 f a c i l i t a t e d i f t e a c h e r s were to a c q u i r e the a t t a i n m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d by Coombs. D i s c u s s i o n focussed on two a s p e c t s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the classroom - f i r s t , the fundamental moral p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons and second, at a more co n c r e t e l e v e l , the making of c l a s s r o o m r u l e s . I t was argued t h a t , on both l o g i c a l and moral grounds, t e a c h i n g would be improved i f t e a c h e r s were to g a i n some e x p e r t i s e i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHANGE IN TEACHER EDUCATION If the case made in c h a p t e r s t h r e e and four i s a t a l l c o n v i n c i n g , then i t would appear that teacher e d u c a t i o n programs must be a l t e r e d to i n c l u d e s t u d i e s which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e development of the attainments of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . While the r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l reasoner may w e l l be an i d e a l , the a b i l i t i e s , s e n s i t i v i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s and knowledge i d e n t i f i e d by Coombs are s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c a t e d to serve as a guide to educators i n d e s i g n i n g m a t e r i a l s and s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g persons' p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Which m a t e r i a l s and s t r a t e g i e s w i l l be e f f i c a c i o u s w i l l , of c o u r s e , r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l r e s e a r c h . To await c o n c l u s i v e evidence on which are the best m a t e r i a l s and . s t r a t e g i e s , however, seems unduly c a u t i o u s . We may not yet know the best method to teach r e a d i n g but t h i s does not prevent us from t r y i n g a v a r i e t y of approaches. One f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n remains to be a r t i c u l a t e d . As 92 p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , the r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l reasoner i s an i d e a l , not com p l e t e l y a t t a i n a b l e . To suggest changes i n teacher e d u c a t i o n programs which are so r i g o r o u s as t o be a l s o u n a t t a i n a b l e would run counter to common sense. Hence, the s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w are not so f a r r e a c h i n g or s t r i n g e n t as to be i m p r a c t i c a l . They c o u l d f e a s i b l y be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g teacher e d u c a t i o n programs, assuming t h a t the a p p r o p r i a t e commitment was p r e s e n t . Some a s p e c t s of teacher e d u c a t i o n programs, while important, w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d here. For example, i t i s obvious that s u b j e c t matter competence i s a requirement f o r t e a c h e r s , as i s some exposure to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , which p r o v i d e understanding of the c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i n which s c h o o l s o p e r a t e . As w e l l , the study of psychology, to i n c r e a s e u nderstanding of human development and l e a r n i n g , i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l . These elements of teacher e d u c a t i o n are a l r e a d y a p a r t of most programs and! are not of d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o the present d i s c u s s i o n . C u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n c o u r s e s , a l r e a d y present i n most programs are a l s o needed. In my view, however, these c o u r s e s should have a d i f f e r e n t emphasis. In a d d i t i o n to i n t r o d u c i n g p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s to d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches, m a t e r i a l s and c u r r i c u l u m models, such c o u r s e s should a l s o s t r e s s those n e g l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g which l e a d t o f u l f i l l m e n t of the n o n - f a c t u a l o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m - those o b j e c t i v e s which were d i s c u s s e d as l o g i c a l a c t s i n chapter 93 t h r e e . Although we have p a i d l i p s e r v i c e to d e v e l o p i n g s t u d e n t s ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s , we have not p r o v i d e d t e a c h e r s with the a p p r o p r i a t e p r e p a r a t i o n and resources to do so. C u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n courses should a l s o h e l p p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s to use and adapt e x i s t i n g resources to meet these e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . The type of c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n course sketched above would be meant to change classroom p r a c t i c e to conform with the m a t e r i a l covered i n a compulsory study of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n , and, f o r want of a b e t t e r l a b e l , the value domain. Because these l a b e l s are somewhat ambiguous, a b r i e f account of each i s o f f e r e d which i s intended to c l a r i f y what i s meant i n each case. The demarcation of each a r e a , as d e s c r i b e d below, i s somewhat a r t i f i c i a l as i t i s l i k e l y t h a t some a s p e c t s of each would a r i s e i n a l l three a r e a s . The study of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g should i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and development of those a b i l i t i e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n a t t a i n m e n t s f i v e and s i x of Coombs' account of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . Such m a t e r i a l may be viewed by some as too e s o t e r i c and thus unnecessary or i m p r a c t i c a l . Yet the U.S. C o l l e g e Board, i n a recent document e n t i t l e d Academic P r e p a r a t i o n f o r C o l l e g e : What Students Need to Know  and be Able to Do, has l i s t e d r e a s o n i n g competency as e s s e n t i a l to a l l e f f e c t i v e work i n postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . Many of the r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d by 94 the Board are i n c l u d e d i n Coombs' account. At a more i c o n c r e t e l e v e l , four years ago the massive C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y (nineteen campuses, t h r e e hundred thousand students) i n s t i t u t e d a requirement t h a t a l l students must complete a c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g course f o r g r a d u a t i o n . The even l a r g e r community c o l l e g e system has now e s t a b l i s h e d a s i m i l a r requirement. T h i s requirement, p a r t of C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y C h a n c e l l o r ' s O f f i c e E x e c u t i v e Order 338 d e f i n e s c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as f o l l o w s : I n s t r u c t i o n i n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s to be designed to a c h e i v e [ s i c ] an understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of language to l o g i c , which should l e a d to the a b i l i t y to a n a l y z e , c r i t i c i z e , and advocate i d e a s , to reason i n d u c t i v e l y and d e d u c t i v e l y , and to reach f a c t u a l or judgmental c o n c l u s i o n s based on sound i n f e r e n c e s drawn from unambiguous statements of knowledge or b e l i e f . The minimal competence to be expected at the s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n i n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g should be the a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h f a c t from judgment, b e l i e f from knowledge, and s k i l l s i n elementary i n d u c t i v e and d e d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s , i n c l u d i n g an understanding of the formal and i n f o r m a l f a l l a c i e s of language and thought( CT  News,Sept. 1984, p. 1). Again, t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l o v e r l a p with the a b i l i t i e s o u t l i n e d i n attainment f i v e of Coomb.s' c o n c e p t i o n of p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . While there are undoubtedly problems which must be overcome in implementing a requirement of t h i s s o r t , they are not insurmountable i f s u i t a b l e r e s o l v e i s p r e s e n t . Such courses are being taught i n a v a r i e t y of postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e r e i s now a l a r g e v a r i e t y of r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to teach them. In a d d i t i o n to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , p h i l o s o p h y of 95 e d u c a t i o n should be s t u d i e d . There i s a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s which might c o n c e i v a b l y be covered under t h i s r u b r i c . One common approach, f o r example, i s the survey course i n the h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n a l ideas - the study of the works of the 'great e d u c a t o r s . ' Although such c o u r s e s are c e r t a i n l y of v a l u e , they are u n l i k e l y to develop the attainments which are demanded by the a c t i v i t i e s of t e a c h i n g as d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r s three and f o u r . More e f f e c t i v e , from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , would be a focus on the a n a l y s i s of concepts which are c r u c i a l i n ed u c a t i o n - these might i n c l u d e concepts l i k e e d u c a t i o n , s c h o o l i n g , t e a c h i n g , l e a r n i n g , t r a i n i n g , s o c i a l i z i n g , i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , knowledge, and so on. A v a r i e t y of moral concepts p e r t i n e n t to e d u c a t i o n ( d i s c i p l i n e , punishment, a u t h o r i t y , freedom, autonomy, e q u a l i t y ) are of import too. E d u c a t i o n i s , a f t e r a l l , fundamentally a moral e n t e r p r i s e . As w e l l as c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p i v o t a l concepts and t h e i r p l a c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , p r e - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s must come to understand the d i s t i n c t i o n among c o n c e p t u a l , e m p i r i c a l and normative c l a i m s and q u e s t i o n s and the r o l e of each i n re a s o n i n g about a s p e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . F i n a l l y , i f we wish to develop p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g , we must engage them i n examination of what I termed e a r l i e r the value domain. Because normative q u e s t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n a r i s e c o n t i n u a l l y , we must b r i n g t e a c h e r s t o the understanding t h a t , l i k e e m p i r i c a l 96 q u e s t i o n s , they can be d i s c u s s e d i n a r a t i o n a l manner. R e q u i s i t e to t h i s understanding i s some c o n s i d e r a t i o n of value t h e o r y . Paul T a y l o r ' s book, Normative D i s c o u r s e , would be most s a l i e n t f o r t h i s purpose, i n my view. T a y l o r i s concerned with the l o g i c of e v a l u a t i n g and p r e s c r i b i n g . In o u t l i n i n g h i s concerns i n the p r e f a c e to h i s boo'k, he p r o v i d e s what c o u l d be a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the type of study I b e l i e v e would be needed. T a y l o r says: I am concerned with the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : What i s i t to e v a l u a t e something? What i s i t to p r e s c r i b e an a c t to someone? How can we j u s t i f y our e v a l u a t i o n s and p r e s c r i p t i o n s ? ( l o c . c i t . , p. v i i ) . He o f f e r s an account of what we are doing when we make and j u s t i f y e v a l u a t i o n s and p r e s c r i p t i o n s - e s s e n t i a l l y , the, c o n s t i t u e n t s of normative d i s c o u r s e . In order to understand what i t means to be r a t i o n a l , T a y l o r takes on two t a s k s : f i r s t , the key concepts used i n c a r r y i n g on normative d i s c o u r s e are made c l e a r and, second, the r u l e s of reas o n i n g which govern the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of normative a s s e r t i o n s are made e x p l i c i t . R e f l e c t i o n on T a y l o r ' s v a l u e theory should p r o v i d e p r e - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s with a much needed p e r s p e c t i v e on e d u c a t i o n as a fundamentally moral u n d e r t a k i n g . As such, i t behooves them to grasp the nature of moral judgments and the s t a n d a r d s by which they are j u s t i f i e d . E d u c a t i o n i s beset by normative q u e s t i o n s ; to p r o v i d e answers to such q u e s t i o n s as 'what s h a l l be taught?' 'to whom?' ' i n what manner?' r e q u i r e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c r i t e r i a we use to make and j u s t i f y our p r a c t i c a l judgments. 97 I have not suggested that the study of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n , and the va l u e domain, as sketched above, i s s u f f i c i e n t to develop a l l the a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , s e n s i t i v i t i e s and knowledge of the r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l reasoner. In f a c t , Coombs , i n a recent paper, has argued t h a t , while i t i s p o s s i b l e to teach some of the r e l e v a n t concepts and d i s t i n c t i o n s at l e a s t p a r t l y by d i d a c t i c means, much more i s necessa r y . He says . . i t seems l i k e l y that good judgment i n using these concepts and d i s t i n c t i o n s can be developed o n l y by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n forms of s o c i a l l i v i n g i n which good judgment i s e x e m p l i f i e d and rewarded (1984, p. 19). The task of c r e a t i n g forms of s o c i a l l i v i n g i n which good judgment i s e x e m p l i f i e d and rewarded i s beyond the purview of t eacher e d u c a t i o n programs. The su g g e s t i o n s I have made, then, are seen as the minimum that teacher e d u c a t i o n programs should r e q u i r e of p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . The i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral dimensions of the a c t i v i t i e s of t e a c h i n g demand at l e a s t t h a t . 98 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a i e r , K. The Moral P o i n t of View: A R a t i o n a l B a s i s of  E t h i c s . New York: Random House, 1965. B e l l , J . and Roe, M. A c t i o n E n g l i s h 4. Toronto: Gage E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h i n g , 1973. B l a c k , M. Caveats and C r i t i q u e s : P h i l o s o p h i c a l Essays i n  Language, L o g i c and A r t . I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975. Buxton, T. and P r i c h a r d , K. Student P e r c e p t i o n s of Teacher V i o l a t i o n s of Human R i g h t s . Phi D e l t a Kappan. 1973, 55(1), 66-69. Coombs, J . , LaBar, C , and Wright, I. P r a c t i c a l Reasoning: A  Focus f o r C o r r e c t i o n s E d u c a t i o n . A r e p o r t submitted to C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e of Canada, Educat i o n and T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n . March, 1982. Coombs, J.R. P r a c t i c a l Reasoning and Value A n a l y s i s E d u c a t i o n . Paper pre s e n t e d to J o i n t S e s s i o n of the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r the S o c i a l S t u d i e s and the John Dewey S o c i e t y . Washington, D.C, Nov. 1984. CT News. 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A Conception of R a t i o n a l T h i n k i n g . In J . Coombs (ed.) P h i l o s o p h y of E d u c a t i o n 1979. Proceedings of the 99 T h i r t y - f i f t h Annual Meeting of the Phil o s o p h y of Ed u c a t i o n S o c i e t y . Normal, I l l i n o i s : I l l i n o i s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , P h i l o s o p h y of Education S o c i e t y , 1980, 3-30. G e r t , B. The Moral Rules. New York: Harper and Row, 1966. G l a t t h o r n , A., K r e i d l e r , C. and Heiman, G. The Dynamics of  Language 3. Toronto: D.C. Heath Canada L t d . , 1971. Goodlad, J . What Some Schools and Classrooms Teach. E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 1983 40(7), 10-19. Green, T. The A c t i v i t i e s of Te a c h i n g . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971 . Johnson, R. and B l a i r , J . The Recent Development of Informal L o g i c . In J . B l a i r and R. Johnson (eds.) Informal  L o g i c : The F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium. 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A u t h o r i t y , R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and E d u c a t i o n . 2nd ed. London: A l l e n & Unwin., 1963 P e t e r s , R. Concrete P r i n c i p l e s and the R a t i o n a l P a s s i o n s . In J . G u s t afson, et a l (eds.) Moral E d u c a t i o n : F i v e  L e c t u r e s . Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970, 29-55. P e t e r s , R. E t h i c s and E d u c a t i o n . London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1 972. P r a t t , D. The S o c i a l Role of School Textbooks i n Canada. In E. Zwiek and R. P i k e (eds.) S o c i a l i z a t i o n and Values i n  Canadian S o c i e t y . T o r o n t o : M c L e l l a n d and Stewart, 1975, 100-125. Rawls, J . Two Concepts of Rules. P h i l o s o p h i c a l Review, 1955, 64, 3-32. S c r i v e n , M. Primary P h i l o s o p h y . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966. Shephard, R. and Coman, A. Language L i v e s . Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Nelson,' 1972. S i e g e l , H. C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g as an E d u c a t i o n a l I d e a l . The  E d u c a t i o n a l Forum. 1980, 45(1), 7-23. S i n g e r , M. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n E t h i c s . London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1963. Sugarman, B. The School and Moral Development. London: Croom Helm, 1973. T a y l o r , P. Normative D i s c o u r s e . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1961. The C o l l e g e Board. Academic P r e p a r a t i o n f o r C o l l e g e : What  Students Need to Know and Be Able to Do. New York: The C o l l e g e Board, 1983. Weber, K. Prose of Relevance 1. T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1971. Weber, K. Prose of Relevance 2. Toronto: Methuen, 1971. 

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