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Basic concepts for art curricula development in neo-calvinistic education Dykstra, Gerry 1982

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BASIC CONCEPTS FOR ART CURRICULA DEVELOPMENT IN NEO-CALVINISTIC EDUCATION by GERRY DYKSTRA B.A., C a l v i n C o l l e g e , M i c h i g a n , 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n Education.. F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1982 Cc^Gerry D y k s t r a , 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department otU/U/AL AWZ> ?&£M/A/& A/Z7~$ /AS The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e - S ^ . E-6 f3/81^ ABSTRACT I n t h i s s t u d y a c o m p a r a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f s e v e r a l v i e w s on a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s o c i a l c o n cerns i s p r e s e n t e d . These a r e e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e r n f o r the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e contemporary man-made environment, t h e a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e o f t h e n a t i o n , t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f e t h n i c and s o c i a l groups and t h e m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y . Views of f o u r N o r t h American a r t e d u c a t o r s a r e examined i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r c o n c e p t s o f s o c i e t y , e d u c a t i o n and a r t . I n t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n emphasis i s g i v e n t o the i d e n -t i f i c a t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e such as t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t , t h e l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t , t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t , the a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t and t h e m o r a l a s p e c t . Because a l l t h e s e a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t e t o t h e o b j e c t s of the man-made environment, t h e a u t h o r p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f human e x p e r i e n c e from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i -l o s o p h y . Some fundamental c o n c e p t s , b a s i c t o t h i s p h i l o s o p h y , a r e conveyed i n a h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y t h a t i n c l u d e s t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f N e o - C a l v i n i s m i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s and N o r t h A m e r i c a . The a n a l y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s i s p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f Dooyeweerd's t h e o r y o f modal s t r u c t u r e . T h i s t h e o r y i s p a r t o f t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Id e a , which was de v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h i r t i e s and formed a major r o l e i n t h e development o f a N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l movement. I n t h i s t h e o r y i t i s argued t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t f u n c t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o a l l t h i n g s , but t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not t h e same i n e v e r y c a s e . The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f each i n d i v i -d u a l t h i n g d e t e r m i n e s whether t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t has a s u b o r d i n a t e o r l e a d i n g r o l e i n t h e o b j e c t . P r o c e e d i n g from t h i s t h e o r y i t i s p o s i t e d t h a t a r t e d u c a t i o n i n N e o - C a l v i n i s -t i c s c h o o l s i n c o r p o r a t e two d i f f e r e n t a r t c u r r i c u l a ; a " f r e e -a r t " c u r r i c u l u m t h a t f o c u s e s on t h o s e o b j e c t s i n which t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t has the l e a d i n g f u n c t i o n , and a n o t h e r c u r -r i c u l u m , c a l l e d a "bound-art" c u r r i c u l u m , t h a t s t r e s s e s t h e s t u d y of t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s o f o b j e c t s . The t h e o r y o f modal s t r u c t u r e a l s o a p p l i e s t o the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups of s o c i e t y . Each group has i t s own p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n . T h i s f u n c t i o n g i v e s d i r e c t i o n t o t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t of t h e i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e group. The s o c i a l concerns i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e r e f o r e a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n c o n t e x t o f the l e a d i n g f u n c t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t groups i n s o c i e t y . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e modal s t r u c t u r e and t h e v i e w s of t h e a r t e d u c a t o r s convened i n t h i s s t u d y , a r e mentioned t h r o u g h o u t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . i v T a b l e of C o n t e n t s Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i INTRODUCTION 1 S o c i a l Concerns i n A r t E d u c a t i o n 1 E d u c a t i o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 6 Opening P r o c e s s 9 Design o f t h e Study 9 HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS 11 Owattona P r o j e c t 11 The Bauhaus Idea 16 CONCEPTS OF SOCIETY FOR ART EDUCATION . 21 I n t h e W r i t i n g s o f L a u r a Chapman 2 2 I n t h e W r i t i n g s o f Edmund B. Feldman 25 I n t h e W r i t i n g s o f V i n c e n t L a n i e r . 31 In the W r i t i n g s o f June McFee 35 CONCEPTS OF ART EDUCATION 38 In t h e W r i t i n g s o f L a u r a Chapman 38 In t h e W r i t i n g s o f Edmund B. Feldman 42 I n the W r i t i n g s o f V i n c e n t L a n i e r 4 8 I n t h e W r i t i n g s o f June McFee 53 CONCEPTS OF ART 59 I n t h e W r i t i n g s o f L a u r a Chapman 6 0 In t h e W r i t i n g s of Edmund B. Feldman £64 I n t h e W r i t i n g s o f V i n c e n t L a n i e r 71 V I n t h e W r i t i n g s o f June McFee 77 ART EDUCATION IN RELATION TO DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF HUMAN EXPERIENCE. 83 A r t and the S o c i a l A s p e c t . 84 A r t and t h e L i n g u i s t i c A s p e c t • • • • 86 A r t and t h e C o g n i t i v e A s p e c t .' 87 A r t and the C u l t u r a l - H i s t o r i c a l A s p e c t 89 A r t and t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t 90' A r t and the E t h i c a l A s p e c t : ,.. 92 A r t and the S p a t i a l A s p e c t . . 93 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ART EDUCATION AND GENERAL EDUCATION . . 93 NEO-CALVINISTIC THEORY OF MODAL ASPECTS AS A STARTING POINT FOR ART CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 98 H i s t o r i c a l Background 98 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A r t C u r r i c u l u m Development .. 104 The P h i l o s o p h y o f the Cosmonomic Idea 108 Ground M o t i v e s o f Western Thought ^.10 THEORY OF MODAL ASPECTS 1 1 6 M u t u a l I r r e d u c i b i l i t y of A s p e c t s . 1 1 6 Order o f Modal A s p e c t s ^17 S u b j e c t and O b j e c t S i d e o f I n d i v i d u a l T h i n g s ........ 3^ 20 The I n t e r n a l M o d a l i t y S t r u c t u r e o f a Thing 121 A r t and i t s Q u a l i f y i n g F u n c t i o n H 2 4 The Meaning K e r n e l o f t h e A e s t h e t i c A s p e c t -^27 A COMPARISON OF CONCEPTS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ART CURRICULUM IN v i NEO-CALVINISTIC EDUCATION 129 Common Concerns .. 129 P o i n t s o f R e f e r e n c e 134 THE THEORY OF MODAL ASPECTS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ART CURRICULA .. 135 The F r e e - a r t C u r r i c u l u m 135 The Bound-art C u r r i c u l u m 137 v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s Page F i g u r e 1. Diagram o f the M o d a l i t y S t r u c t u r e and t h e S u b j e c t F u n c t i o n s o f Man, A n i m a l , P l a n t and P h y s i c a l T hings 140 2. Diagram o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n a l and Q u a l i f y i n g F u n c t i o n o f a P i e c e o f F u r n i t u r e 141 3. Diagram o f the F o u n d a t i o n a l and Q u a l i f y i n g F u n c t i o n o f a Work of A r t 142 v i i i Acknowledgments Having come t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a r t e d u c a t i o n M a s t e r s program, I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o a l l who have g u i d e d me a l o n g t h e way. I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. Graeme Chalmers who i n t r o d u c e d me t o the s o c i a l c o n c e r n s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n and p r o v i d e d t h e encouragement and h e l p t o complete t h i s s t u d y . I want t o thank Dr. James Gray f o r h i s p a t i e n c e w i t h me d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e s o f t h e t h e s i s and h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . Dr. W a l t e r Werner I w i s h t o thank f o r h i s c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n s t h a t made me s t r i v e f o r c l a r i t y o f meaning. F o r the b a s i c p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h i s s t u d y I am p r i m a r i l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. Evan Runner o f C a l v i n C o l l e g e , who i n t r o d u c e d me t o the P h i l o s o p h y o f the Cosmonomic Id e a . My f r i e n d s I acknowledge f o r t h e i r encouragement, i n t e r -e s t and c o n c e r n f o r t h i s p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , I want t o e x p r e s s my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my w i f e , L a i n i e , who always managed t o f i n d t i me t o do the t y p i n g f o r t h i s p r o j e c t and never f a i l e d i n g i v i n g her s u p p o r t and encouragement t o b r i n g t h i s t h e s i s t o c o m p l e t i o n . To my sons D a v i d , M i c h a e l and Raymond, who o f t e n wondered i f the n i g h t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s work would ever end, I d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f my c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r a e s t h e t i c development. G.D. 1 INTRODUCTION \ S o c i a l ConeeEnS'in A r t E d u c a t i o n The concern f o r the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of our home and community environment has been p a r t of a r t programs s i n c e the beginning of the century. F i r s t these concerns found e x p r e s s i o n i n programs t h a t s t r e s s e d p r i m a r i l y p r a c t i c a l ends such as the development of c r a f t s k i l l s which c o u l d be used i n home making. L a t e r the scope of the. programs was extended to i n c l u d e community needs and a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n to the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of parks, s t r e e t - f u r n i t u r e , b u l l e t i n b o a r d s , b u i l d i n g s and walkways. An example of t h i s l a t t e r o r i e n t a t i o n i s the Owattona P r o j e c t . M e l v i n Haggerty (1938), d i r e c t o r of the p r o j e c t , advocated the study of the elements of a r t , such as c o l o r , shape, t e x t u r e and s i z e , i n r e l a t i o n t o the d e s i g n of windows, c h a i r s , room-size rugs, l a n d s c a p i n g and other elements of the man-built environment. In c o n t r a s t to the b e l i e f t h a t a r t education meant the study of p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e Haggerty was convinced t h a t : these simple and seemingly remote a c t i v i t i e s to the work of the p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t i s the r e a l i t y upon which we must b u i l d an understanding of any a r t t h a t i s to be v i t a l i n education or t h a t i s to have any e x t e n s i v e s o c i a l v alue (p. 15). T h i s environmental concern of the ' t h i r t i e s gained new t h r u s t i n t h e 1 ' s i x t i e s when education was confronted w i t h the r e s u l t s of e c o l o g i c a l mismanagement and c h a l l e n g e d to j o i n the f i g h t a g a i n s t p o l l u t i o n . To f o s t e r v i s u a l and 2 environmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the schools would have to develop a r t programs t h a t showed "concern f o r the a e s t h e t i c dimension, so t h a t we might have un t a r n i s h e d landscapes and a t t r a c t i v e c i t y scapes" (Dobbs, 1974, p. 172). A c c o r d i n g to L a n i e r (1976) these programs were u s e f u l . He b e l i e v e s however, t h a t "most of these programs - i f they can be judged by sampling - seem to r e s t r i c t any examination of p o l l u t i o n to the n e c e s s a r i l y s u p e r f i c i a l review of symptoms" (p. 22). L a n i e r wants to go beyond the symptoms or " r e s u l t s " and i n v o l v e the a r t program wi t h the moral i s s u e s t h a t are a t the r o o t of the problems. In a d d i t i o n to concern about the environment a r t edu-c a t i o n became i n v o l v e d w i t h the a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y of North America. Both Chapman (1978) and•McFee (1977) devote c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to these two matters. C u l t u r a l awareness, t h a t i s the understanding of the students' own background, i s f o r McFee "the most c r i t i -c a l p o i n t i n e d u c a t i o n i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s " (p. 10). Another view which r e c e i v e s i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n i s art' as a v i s u a l language. T h i s i d e a appears to be accepted by most a r t educators who s t r e s s s o c i a l concerns, f o r example, L a n i e r , Chapman and McFee. Feldman (1976) summarizes the need f o r t h i s approach when he s t a t e s : Today w r i t t e n language s t e a d i l y recedes; the r a t i o of p r i n t e d words to p r i n t e d images grows s m a l l e r . My c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t everyone must l e a r n to read images because our c u l t u r e i s i n c r e a s i n g l y r e p r e s e n t -3 ed and p e r c e i v e d i n v i s u a l terms (p. 2 00). What becomes e v i d e n t when we view the h i s t o r y of our f i e l d i s t h a t a r t education, w i t h emphasis on s o c i a l concerns, becomes more d i v e r s i f i e d . The e a r l i e r concerns f o r the im-provement of the v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s of home and community are now extended to the a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e , c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , moral judgment, and v i s u a l l i t e r a c y . The d i v e r s i t y of views presented by authors such as McFee, Feldman, Chapman and L a n i e r g i v e r i s e to s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s about these views: q u e s t i o n s about j u s t i f i c a t i o n , p l a c e and r e l a t i o n s h i p i n education, and concerns about a d d i t i o n a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . To g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o these problems I w i l l d e l i n e a t e the c a t e g o r i e s of domains of human experience s t r e s s e d by the authors. The i n t e n t i o n w i l l be to e s t a b l i s h what these domains and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i n comparison w i t h d i f f e r e n t s e t s of c a t e g o r i e s used i n other views on education. The Spectrum of Human Experience Short h i s t o r i c a l surveys of a r t e d u c a t i o n by E i s n e r (1972) and Chapman (1978) show t h a t a r t i n our schools has p r i m a r i l y been used f o r purposes such as moral education, s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t , v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , p a t r i o t i s m , and not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r any i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . E i s n e r comments about t h i s l a c k of concern f o r a r t per se: S u r p r i s i n g l y t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n to a r t education i n the U.S. has been emphasized the l e a s t d u r i n g the course of i t s h i s t o r y as a g e n e r a l and p e r v a s i v e 4 theme i n the f i e l d , ... the subject-centered orien-tation has been the weakest (p. 59). The i n t r i n s i c value of art may not be denied by the authors discussed i n t h i s study. However, the i r program materials give evidence of somewhat limited concern. Chapman (1978) i n her suggested art a c t i v i t i e s concentrates primarily on three aspects; personal expression, the ar-t i s t i c heritage and art i n society. McFee (1977) focuses on the development of design and drawing i n art. However, she chooses drawing a c t i v i t i e s not as an end i n themselves but as a means to increase perception and general knowledge. .What has been true for the art programs i n general has also been true for programs i n Neo-Calvinistic schools. Art education served s o c i a l studies, the language arts, r e l i g i o u s studies, celebrations, etc. even.though the basic philosophy of these schools supports the idea that each domain of human experience has i t s own mode of operation and projects a unique dimension of r e a l i t y . This contrast i n emphasis between society and subject-centered educational programs i s also expressed by Eisner (1972) i n terms of contrasting contextualist and e s s e n t i a l i s t approaches to curriculum development i n art education. The former " u t i l i z e s the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the students or the society", the l a t t e r "emphasizes the kinds of contributions to human experience and understanding that only art can pro-vide" (Eisner, 1972, p. 2). The question i s ; to what extent i s i t possible to be one or the other? When Lanier (1976) 5 approaches t h e problem he i s q u i c k t o m i n i m i z e " p u r e l y " a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e and f e e l s i t s h o u l d be "compared t o e a t i n g packaged cupcakes, w h i c h p r o v i d e no a p p r e c i a b l e n u t r i e n t s and do l i t t l e t o s a t i s f y hunger, but a r e consumed s o l e l y f o r the "pure" p l e a s u r e o f t h e i r f l a v o r " (p. 1 9 ) . Y e t , r a t h e r s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s s t a t e m e n t he w r i t e s ; "Even i f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e s us t o i s o l a t e i t s " p u r e l y " a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t i s s t i l l q u i t e p r o p e r t o a s s e r t t h a t we ought o r ought a l s o a t t e n d t o o t h e r c o n c e r n s o r elements i n v o l v e d i n an a e s t h e t i c t r a n s -a c t i o n " (p. 20) . . My i n t e n t i o n i s n o t t o defend e i t h e r t h e c o n t e x t u a l i s t o r e s s e n t i a l i s t p o s i t i o n , but t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the a e s t h e t i c domain and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a b a s i s f o r a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n N e o - C a l v i n -i s t i c s c h o o l s . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e s c h o o l s has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e b e l i e f t h a t e d u c a t i o n must d e v e l o p t h e s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n a l l a s p e c t s o f r e a l i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e a e s t h e t i c domain, s i n c e each a s p e c t i s a c r e a t e d d i m e n s i o n o f the t o t a l spectrum o f human e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s has meant t h a t u s u a l l y some form o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c e l e m e n t a r y and h i g h s c h o o l s . P r e s e n t l y , f u r t h e r developments i n t h e N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y make i t p o s s i b l e t o t a k e a n o t h e r l o o k a t a r t e d u c a t i o n . Of p a r t i c -u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s s t u d y i s t h e con c e p t t h a t each domain o f e x p e r i e n c e has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and sphere o f 6 o p e r a t i o n , y e t a t the same time i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e o t h e r domains and can dye, as i t were, a l l o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s i n shades o f t h e same c o l o r . A t y p i c a l example o f t h i s i s the r a t h e r common phenomenon o f r e d u c i n g e v e r y l i f e e x p e r i e n c e t o an economic s i t u a t i o n . T h i s form o f measuring e v e r y t h i n g by one s t a n d a r d becomes e v i d e n t when a p a r t i c u l a r domain i s a c c e p t e d as a b s o l u t e and o t h e r s a r e n o t . On t h e o t h e r hand each domain i s a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e new i n s i g h t s about o t h e r domains/ w h i c h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y means t h a t a r t e d u c a t i o n does have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n s o c i e t y t o make i t s u n i q u e c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n s o c i a l as w e l l as i n o t h e r a r e a s o f human e x p e r i e n c e . From a N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p o s i t i o n i t makes sense t o e x p l o r e the n a t u r e o f the a e s t h e t i c domain i n , t h e c o n t e x t o f i t s many f u n c t i o n s i n l i f e , j u s t as i t makes sense t o s t u d y t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f water i n s c i e n c e c l a s s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h i t s use as a means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , i r r i g a t i o n , d r i n k i n g , washing e t c . However, the a r t programs i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n have n o t k e p t pace w i t h the developments o f N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y . A b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e i s needed t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e con-c e p t s o f N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o a r t e d u c a t i o n . Such a p e r s p e c t i v e now appears f e a s i b l e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d b o t h i n the l i t e r -a t u r e on a r t e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l and i n the framework o f N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s A renewed i n t e r e s t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n c e r n s 7 came about during the ' s i x t i e s when educators were con-fronted with the needs of the minority groups, the p o l l u t i o n of t h i s environment and deterioration of the qua l i t y of l i f e . This concern for society i n education i s not new. Educators l i k e Broudy (1961) wrote some twenty years ago that one of the important tasks of the school i s exactly that, namely, to "be the c r i t i c of society and a l l i t s i n s t i -tutions because i t stands for the good l i f e i n general rather than for a l o c a l version of i t " (p. 95). Today authors l i k e Eisner and Lanier claim similar r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for the 'school. In the early 'seventies Eisner (1972) wrote, "schools ought to try to improve society and not just prepare people to f i t i n society as i t i s " (p. 280); and Lanier (1976) comments, "the central issue of education - i n what-ever f i e l d or on whatever l e v e l i t can be confronted - i s to c l a r i f y the ways i n which the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and eco-nomic world works and how i t can be improved" (p. 24). Even though d i f f e r e n t educators agree that the school has a respon-s i b i l i t y towards society, several questions are i n need of answers. Questions about the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of these pro-grams, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l concerns, and t h e i r underlying concepts of society and art, need to be considered. Aesthetic Education and Visual Literacy One view of art education that makes i t possible to come to grips with some of the problems i s the concept of aesthetic education. Aesthetic education has been described in d i f f e r e n t ways; yet one of i t s common features seems to 8 be t h a t the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e can not be i d e n t i f i e d o n l y w i t h a r t o b j e c t s . The recommendations o f the NAEA Commission on A r t E d u c a t i o n (1977) s t a t e t h a t " the s e a r c h f o r a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h a c u l t i v a t e d form o f p e r -c e p t i o n i s n o t l i m i t e d t o works o f a r t . The forms o f n a t u r e as w e l l as the forms o f c u l t u r e a r e p r o p e r c a n d i d a t e s f o r a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e " (p. 3 7 ) . S i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s a r e made by Broudy (1974) who d i v i d e s t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n t o two a s p e c t s , one o f w h i c h i s r e l a t e d t o the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f "e m b e l l i s h m e n t o f a u t o m o b i l e s , f u r n i t u r e and c l o t h i n g " , t h e o t h e r t o t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n "of s e r i o u s a r t " (p. 1 6 ) . F u r t h e r , A r n s t i n e (1966) comments as f o l l o w s , " A e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i g n o r e d works of a r t would thus l o s e a v a l u a b l e r e -so u r c e . But a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i g n o r e d e xamining t h e r e s t o f the w o r l d i n i t s a r t i s t i c d i m e n s i o n c o u l d o n l y r e s u l t i n a sharp d i s t o r t i o n o f b o t h a r t and the w o r l d " (p. 7 3 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o the broadened v i e w o f a e s t h e t i c ex-p e r i e n c e , w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e t o go beyond t h e a r t o b j e c t i n t o the environment, came t h e awareness t h a t i n communi-c a t i o n v e r b a l forms were becoming more and more r e p l a c e d by v i s u a l images. I n a r a t h e r s t r i k i n g manner t h e NAEA Commission (1977) e x p l a i n s t h e need f o r v i s u a l images as f o l l o w s : To know about s i m p l i c i t y , t e n d e r n e s s , speed, the tempo o f c i t y l i f e , t h e magic o f f a n t a s y i n d i s -c u r s i v e t h e o r e t i c a l terms i s t o know a s l e n d e r s l i c e o f t h e i r r e a l i t y . I t i s t o l o o k a t t h e w o r l d 9 t h r o u g h a l i m i t e d l e n s . A r t p r o v i d e s the s t r u c -t u r e s t h a t open new p e r s p e c t i v e s (p. 38). Both., t h e v i e w s o f a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n and t h e i n c r e a s e d emphasis on v i s u a l forms i n communication g i v e b a s i c s u p p o r t t o a r t programs wh i c h s t r e s s s o c i a l c o n c e r n s . Opening P r o c e s s I n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c v i e w s on e d u c a t i o n the r e s p o n s i b i l i -t y o f t h e s c h o o l i n s o c i e t y i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h c a r e f o r f e l l o w man and t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h he l i v e s . U i t h i n t h i s con-c e p t i s an element t h a t emphasizes t h e need t o d e v e l o p o r open up new d i m e n s i o n s o f r e a l i t y . T h i s opening up p r o c e s s i s w i t n e s s e d i n e v e r y a s p e c t o f human e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h i t s h i s t o r y . R e f e r e n c e t o t h i s p r o c e s s i s u s u a l l y g i v e n i n terms l i k e ; from s i m p l e t o complex, from u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t o d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d , o r from e a r l i e r t o l a t e r . The n a t u r e o f t h i s p r o -c e s s i s seen i n two ways. I t r e l a t e s t o t h e development o f each i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t o f human e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as t o t h e development o f a c e r t a i n domain by t h e unique c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a n o t h e r . I t . i s t h i s l a t t e r c o n c e p t t h a t s u p p o r t s t h e i n -volvement o f a r t e d u c a t i o n w i t h the v a r i o u s elements i n s o c i e t y . S o c i a l c o n c e r n s a r e t h e r e f o r e n ot o u t s i d e the scope o f t h e N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c s c h o o l s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e s e con-c e r n s have always found s u p p o r t i n i t s p h i l o s o p h y . But. what t h i s means f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n has not been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and i n t h i s s t u d y I i n t e n d t o work towards t h a t end. Design o f t h e Study In o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a b a s i s f o r a r t c u r r i c u l a i n Neo-10 C a l v i n i s t i c s c h ools I w i l l f i r s t d e l i n e a t e some of the h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary views on s o c i a l concerns i n a r t educa t i o n . T h i s survey w i l l i n c l u d e Haggarty's c o n t r i b u -t i o n s to the Owattona A r t Educat i o n P r o j e c t , Gropius' i d e a s about the Bauhaus, and the w r i t i n g s of Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee with emphasis on t h e i r concepts of s o c i e t y , a r t and educ a t i o n . Secondly, I w i l l i d e n t i f y those aspects of human ex-p e r i e n c e t h a t are most prominent i n the a r t c u r r i c u l a pro-p o s a l s . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be gi v e n to what authors such as Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee s t r e s s as the primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i f f e r e n t a spects t h a t they i n c l u d e i n a r t education. F i n a l l y , I w i l l i n t r o d u c e , i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the views of Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee, c e r t a i n concepts of the N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y t h a t focus on the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between a r t and the other aspects of human experience and determine what i m p l i c a t i o n s these concepts have f o r the development of a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n . The N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c view on s o c i a l concerns i n a r t educa t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n the context of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and the other aspects of human experience. 11 H i s t o r i c a l Foundations The Owattona P r o j e c t A r t i n those times was s t i l l wrapped up i n l i f e . I t s f u n c t i o n was to f i l l w i th beauty the forms assumed by l i f e .... A l l the works and a l l the joys of l i f e , whether dependent on r e l i g i o n , c h i v a l r y , t r a d e or l o v e , had t h e i r marked form. The task of a r t was to adorn a l l these concepts w i t h charm and c o l o r ; i t i s not d e s i r e d f o r i t s own sake, but to decorate l i f e w i t h the splendor which i t co u l d bestow (Huizenga, 1954, p. 244). With these words Huizenga (1954) r e f l e c t s on the r o l e of a r t i n s o c i e t y d u r i n g the f i f t e e n t h century i n Europe. T h i s was a s o c i e t y t h a t made no d i s t i n c t i o n between f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t , nor knew the d i f f e r e n c e between an a r t i s t and a craftsman, a s o c i e t y t h a t had not y e t t a s t e d the lo v e of a r t f o r i t s own sake. When d u r i n g the ' t h i r t i e s M e l v i n Haggerty s e t out to convert America to a c c e p t i n g " a r t as a way of l i f e " , he went back to the Middle Ages f o r i n s p i r a t i o n . The c i t y of F l o r e n c e became h i s model. T h i s c i t y had been b u i l t upon v i s i o n s t h a t Haggerty (1938) wanted to i n s t i l i n a l l members of l o c a l communities, students and a d u l t s a l i k e . His was a v i s i o n which aimed to prepare people who would "do a l l work, however humble, e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l " (p. 26). As i n the days of F l o r e n c e there was to be no d i s t i n c t i o n made between a r t i s t and craftsman. N e i t h e r was a r t allowed to withdraw 12 b e h i n d t h e d o o r s o f l o c a l musea, f o r Haggerty b e l i e v e d t h a t , " v i s u a l a r t i s a common human need, grown out o f t h e u n i v e r s a l urge t o a c h i e v e a more g r a c i o u s and more s a t i s -f y i n g l i f e , t h a t a r t i s n o t something a p a r t from l i f e , but i n t e g r a l w i t h a l l i t s a c t i v i t i e s " (p. 2 7 ) . The Owattona A r t E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t was s t a r t e d i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f Owattona, M i n n e s o t a , i n September, 1933. A c c o r d i n g t o E i s n e r i t "was born d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n and, i n p a r t , sought t o p r o v i d e a t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t would s e c u r e i t a g a i n s t the v i c i s s i t u d e s o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s " ( E i s n e r , 1972, p. 54). A t t h a t time Haggerty was Dean o f t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a . As d i r e c t o r o f t h e p r o j e c t Haggerty emphasized t h e need t o make a r t e d u c a t i o n " r e l e v a n t t o the t y p e o f d e c i s i o n s t h a t t h e average c i t i z e n might be c a l l e d upon t o make d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f h i s l i f e " (p. 54). F o r t h i s r e a s o n the p r o j e c t f o c u s e d on " d i s c u s s i o n s about d r a p e r i e s , room l a y o u t , l a n d s c a p i n g , f u r n i t u r e , d r e s s , a u t o -m o b i l e s and so f o r t h " . These d e c i s i o n s " i n p a r t r e q u i r e d a e s t h e t i c judgement ... t h a t t h e s c h o o l c o u l d h e l p p e o p l e make more e f f e c t i v e l y " (p. 54). The program was d i v i d e d i n t o two major d i v i s i o n s . One d i v i s i o n d e a l t w i t h e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s , a n o t h e r w i t h a d u l t s i n t h e community. Each grade, from e l e m e n t a r y t h r o u g h h i g h s c h o o l , was p r o v i d e d w i t h some i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r t . P r i m e r s were w r i t t e n f o r t h e s t u d y o f c l o t h i n g , f u r n i -t u r e , house d e s i g n , and community p l a n n i n g . Summer c l a s s e s 13 were o f f e r e d f o r b o t h c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r s . I n t h e communi-t y p u b l i c s e r v i c e s were p r o v i d e d t o promote a r t e d u c a t i o n on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s . L o c a l i n t e r e s t i n the P r o j e c t "brought i n v i t a t i o n s t o d i s c u s s i t b e f o r e c l u b s f o r men and f o r women, bo t h o f wh i c h a r e numerous i n Owattona" (p. 28). Through t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s t h e P r o j e c t - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n hoped t o s t i m u -l a t e c o n c e r n f o r t h e v i s u a l environment and t o o b t a i n r e -q u e s t s f o r t h e i r a r t i n s t r u c t o r s t o v i s i t homes where aes-t h e t i c a d v i c e was d e s i r e d . The p u b l i c s e r v i c e s were s u c c e s s -f u l and "many homes were v i s i t e d i n t h i s manner, and the problems t h e y p r e s e n t e d have been c a r e f u l l y a n a l y s e d and s t u d i e d f o r the s u g g e s t i o n s t h e y might a f f o r d t o t h e i n s t r u c -t i o n a l program i n the s c h o o l s " (p. 28). I n e v e r y r e s p e c t t h e P r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d t o r e a c h young and o l d . That which m o t i v a t e d Haggerty t o i n c l u d e a l l members o f the community might be t r a c e d t o s e v e r a l c o n c e r n s . A c c o r d i n g t o E i s n e r (1974) one r e a s o n was the need f o r p u b l i c s u p p o r t a t the time o f t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n when a r t budgets were s e v e r e l y c u t . I n Haggerty's w r i t i n g s we f i n d a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e r n ; a c o n c e r n f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e . I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Enrichment o f the Common L i f e (1938) he p o r t r a y s man's e x i s t a n c e as r a t h e r d u l l , and monotonous w i t h l i t t l e d i v e r -s i t y and e x c i t e m e n t . "For most o f u s", he w r i t e s , "the e x p e r i e n c e s o f l i f e a r e so c u t t o a s i n g l e p a t t e r n t h a t the common l i f e has come t o be thought o f as h a v i n g l i t t l e m e r i t " (p. 9 ) . The cause o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y 14 the machine and i t s e f f e c t on the work pro c e s s . For t h i s reason Haggerty advocates t h a t a l l students r e c e i v e a r t education to prepare them " a g a i n s t the day of t h r e a t e n i n g boredom, d e p l e t i n g p l a y a c t i v i t i e s , the monotony of a machine-made day" (p. 23), and enable them to make t h e i r homes and community a more enjoyable p l a c e i n which to l i v e . The means to the enrichment of l i f e through a r t con-s i s t e d of a p p l y i n g the elements of a r t , l i k e c o l o r , compo-s i t i o n , shape* e t c . i n a p p r o p r i a t e ways, and the use of the n a t u r a l world as a guide. The n a t u r a l world f o r Haggerty i s the c r a d l e of a l l c i v i l i z a t i o n s . Here are the r o o t s of humanity. Out of t h i s world man made a new environment, a manufactured world of things-; t h i n g s made wit h the r e s o u r -ces of the n a t u r a l world. These r e s o u r c e s Haggerty (1938) wants to ex p l o r e f o r t h e i r a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s and use them f o r the development of the man-made environment. A c l e a r example of h i s views are found i n the f o l l o w i n g statement: the n a t u r a l world i s woven through with c o l o r and rhythm, w i t h balance and harmony, with forms and spaces, w i t h l i g h t s and shadows t h a t c o n s t i t u t e a gr e a t r e s e r v o i r from which man may draw f o r e n r i c h -ment of the a r t i f i c i a l l i f e t h a t develops about him i s the cause of h i s e f f o r t to l i v e a f u l l y rounded and e f f i c i e n t e x i s t a n c e . They are a storehouse from which he may draw to ensure and to i n c r e a s e the durabl e s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f l i f e (p. 12). The r e s u l t s of t h i s approach may be d i f f i c u l t to t r a c e . 15 However, one t h i n g becomes obvious: i n a community, t h a t shares the views of Haggerty, and where a man may p l a n t a v i n e "to thread i t s way over the rough cor n e r s of h i s garage" (p. 1 4 ) , the b o x - l i k e s t r u c t u r e s of Mies van der Rohe would have a hard time to e x i s t . In c o n c l u s i o n i t may be s t a t e d t h a t Haggerty's p r o p o s a l s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n omit the study of p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . In t h a t sense he i s more r e s t r i c t i v e than Chapman, Feldman, and McFee. F u r t h e r , he c e n t e r s the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a r t education around human needs f o r the enrichment of l i f e . Needs f e l t not o n l y by those who are a r t i s t i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d but by everyone. In c o n t r a s t to t h i s , Chapman, Feldman, and McFee appear to j u s t i f y a r t education more on the b a s i s of the f u n c t i o n of a r t i n s o c i e t y . The r a t h e r dim view of the machine h e l d by Haggerty i s not shared by the other authors. Instead, they seem to accept the machine as p a r t of l i f e and i n c l u d e product or i n d u s t r i a l d e sign as an element i n t h e i r programs. Chapman (1978), f o r instance, advocates t h a t the g o a l s of a r t education should i n c l u d e the developement of " s e n s i t i v i t y to s k i l l e d a r t i s a n s h i p and e x p r e s s i v e form i n both hand-made and i n d u s t r i a l products" (p. 318). One aspect which r e a l l y stands out i n the Owattona P r o j e c t i s i t s a c t i v e s o c i a l involvement. In none of the contemporary programs i s s t r e s s p l a c e d on the need f o r the a r t i n s t r u c t o r to be d i r e c t -l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the community o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . Yet. f o r Haggerty t h i s involvement was b a s i c to the whole P r o j e c t . In s e t t i n g the g o a l s f o r the school programs Haggerty (1938) 16 states: We declined to answer these questions from books or by invoking theories. We t r i e d to be r e a l i s t i c , to get acquainted with the people, to study t h e i r ways of l i v i n g , to understand t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s of industry, of commerce, of education, or r e l i g i o n , t h e i r agencies of general culture (p. 28). For the development of art programs t h i s approach would seem to have certa i n merits i f one was to attempt to be respon-sive to community needs. In the f i r s t place, a community survey would provide information that could be used as con-crete material for the writing of units. Secondly, the school could build rapport with the home, the factory, the church, the o f f i c e , etc. Thirdly, the actual a r t work done i n the classroom can take on a greater sense of relevance for the students. However, for a school to emptoy s t a f f to survey the a r t i s t i c needs i n the community at large appears some-what outside i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . The Bauhaus Idea Haggerty's ideas i n the ' t h i r t i e s r e f l e c t some of the struggles that took place during the nineteenth century i n England and Germany. During the e a r l i e r part of the Indus-t r i a l Revolution a reaction developed against the elimination of the craftsman's work and the poor qu a l i t y of machine pro-ducts. In some way a "back to the guilds" movement had taken root to defend the craftsmen and t h e i r trades. Most adamant for t h i s cause i n England was Morris, who, according to Naylor 17 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , " l o a t h e d t h e v a l u e s o f t h e steam age", and " r e j e c t e d t h e machine on s o c i a l as w e l l as a e s t h e t i c grounds" (p. 1 3 ) . A d d i t i o n a l t h r u s t t o the cause o f the c r a f t s m a n was g i v e n by M o r r i s 1 c l a i m t h a t " a r t and b eauty need n o t be c o n f i n e d t o p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e ; a l l men s h o u l d be a b l e t o f u r n i s h t h e i r homes w i t h p r o d u c t s c r e a t e d by a d e c o r a t i v e , n o b l e , p o p u l a r a r t " (p. 12). S i m i l a r v o i c e s were r a i s e d i n Germany u n t i l t h e l a t e ' t w e n t i e s , when G r o p i u s , as d i r e c t o r o f t h e German Bauhaus S c h o o l o f D e s i g n , s t a r t e d t o d e v e l o p ways t h a t i n t e g r a t e d t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e a r t i s t and c r a f t s m a n w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n methods o f t h e f a c t o r i e s . The Bauhaus, meaning " c o n s t r u c t i o n -house," was a s p e c i a l s c h o o l o f d e s i g n f o r t a l e n t e d a r t i s t s and c r a f t s m e n . I t s b a s i c s were o f such a n a t u r e t h a t t h e y had ,. f a r - r e a c h i n g consequences f o r t h e development o f t h e man-made environment as w e l l as f o r e d u c a t i o n a l programs t h r o u g h o u t Europe and A m e r i c a : C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d r i g h t from th e s t a r t t o t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f t h e i r environment, t o the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l laws t h a t govern th e v i s u a l w o r l d , and t o the supreme enjoyment t h a t comes -from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s of g i v i n g form t o one's l i v i n g space. Such e x p e r i e n c e , i f c o n t i n u e d i n d e p t h t h r o u g h o u t th e whole o f the e d u c a t i o n a l c y c l e , w i l l never be f o r g o t t e n and w i l l p r e p a r e the a d u l t t o c o n t i n u e t a k i n g an i n f o r m e d i n t e r e s t i n what happens around him ( G r o p i u s , 1968, 18 p. 5 0). These words w r i t t e n by G r o p i u s i n 1968, when he l i v e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , echo a statement made e a r l i e r i n h i s B l u e p r i n t o f an A r c h i t e c t ' s E d u c a t i o n . I n the " B l u e p r i n t " he had a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f t o the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f c h i l d -r e n i n s i m i l a r terms: Throughout t h e whole d u r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l , manual s k i l l and form p e r c e p t i o n a r e t o be t r a i n e d s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y by b u i l d i n g , ( w i t h a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s ) a s s e m b l i n g , m o d e l i n g , p a i n t i n g , f r e e - h a n d and g e o m e t r i c a l d r a w i n g . But t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t , no c o p y i n g , no e l i m i n a t i o n o f the urge t o p l a y ( G r o p i u s , 1966, p. 4 8 ) . Other i d e a s w h i c h G r o p i u s e x p r e s s e d i n h i s g o a l s f o r the Bauhaus i n c l u d e many elements r e l e v a n t t o a r t e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . F o r i n s t a n c e , he, l i k e Haggerty, f e l t t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t was not t o be l i m i t e d t o p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e , but s h o u l d r e l a t e t o e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e man-made environment. I n c o n t r a s t w i t h Haggerty, however, he b e l i e v e d t h a t p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e had t h e i r r i g h t f u l p l a c e and f u n c t i o n i n t h e o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o t a l e nvironment. To g i v e new meaning t o t h e a r t i s t ' s f u n c t i o n i n an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y G r o p i u s d i d not advocate g o i n g back t o the g u i l d system, even though he i n c o r p o r a t e d some forms o f t h e g u i l d o r g a n i z a t i o n . R a t h e r , he p l a c e d b e f o r e a r t i s t s t h e c h a l l a n g e t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i r a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s w i t h the 19 b e n e f i t s o f the machine and the new t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s meant t h a t the a r t i s t was t o r e s e a r c h the p r o p e r t i e s o f m a t e r i a l s i n r e l a t i o n t o the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s as w e l l as the forms t h i s p r o c e s s would a l l o w . The workshops, t h e r e f o r e , were a c c o r d i n g t o G r o p i u s (1966): e s s e n t i a l l a b o r a t o r i e s i n which the models f o r such p r o d u c t s were c a r e f u l l y e v o l v e d and c o n s t a n t l y improved. Evenyfchough t h e s e models were made by hand, the model d e s i g n e r s had t o be f u l l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the methods o f p r o d u c t i o n on an i n d u s t r i a l s c a l e (p. 1 5 ) . T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t ' s work w i t h t h e mass produc-t i o n p r o c e s s was a f i r s t s t e p i n d e a l i n g w i t h the machine as a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n s o c i e t y . G r o p i u s never d e n i e d t h e r e a l advantages o f t h e machine; r a t h e r he was concerned w i t h t h e poor q u a l i t y o f the goods produced. H i s aim, t h r o u g h t h e work a t the Bauhaus, was t o improve t h e s e q u a l i t i e s . A n other v i e w which has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r t programs t h a t s t r e s s e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s i s G r o p i u s ' i d e a t h a t t h e g r e a t d i v e r s i t y i n the v i s u a l environment s h o u l d n e v e r t h e -l e s s e x p r e s s c l e a r l y some u n i f y i n g element, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i t s c u l t u r e . To a c h i e v e t h i s he promoted th e need f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n between a r t i s t s and c r a f t s m e n . I n h i s famous m a n i f e s t o he w r o t e : The complete b u i l d i n g i s t h e f i n a l aim o f the v i s u a l a r t s . T h e i r n o b l e s t f u n c t i o n was once the d e c o r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s . Today t h e y e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n , from w h i c h t h e y can be r e s c u e d o n l y t h r o u g h the c o n s c i o u s 20 c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t o f a l l c r a f t s m e n . A r c h i t e c t s , p a i n t e r s and s c u l p t o r s must r e c o g n i s e anew the composite c h a r a c t e r o f a b u i l d i n g as an e n t i t y ( N a y l o r , 1968, p. 50). Y e t , t h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n i s not t o be l i m i t e d t o a r t i s t s b ut must a l s o i n c l u d e the businessman o r whoever th e c l i e n t may be, so t h a t the whole p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e f l e c t s t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . I n G r o p i u s ' l a t e r comments on e d u c a t i o n he remarks: I f we had p r e s s e d l o n g ago f o r a more p r o f o u n d v i s u a l t r a i n i n g o f t h e average s c h o o l c h i l d , who though b o r n w i t h the a b i l i t y t o see, must be t r a i n e d t o d e v e l o p h i s a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e ; we might be n e a r e r t o m e e t i n g o f t h e minds when we have t o map o u t g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y f o r t h e appearance o f our common h a b i t a t nowadays ( G r o p i u s , 1968, p. 7 4 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b s e r v e t h a t G r o p i u s e x p r e s s e d v a r i o u s c o n c e p t s shared by contemporary w r i t e r s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . B a s i c t o h i s g o a l s a r e c o n c e r n s f o r the m a i n t e -nance of a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . T h i s becomes apparent i n two ways: t h r o u g h h i s use o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s i n d e c i s i o n making among a r t i s t s , c r a f t s m e n and c l i e n t s , and t h r o u g h t h e r e c u r r i n g theme o f u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y . I n edu-c a t i o n he emphasizes t h e need f o r s t u d e n t s t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h m a t e r i a l s i n a p l a y - l i k e f a s h i o n , and warns a g a i n s t ; t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a d u l t s t a n d a r d s on t h e s t u d e n t ' s e x p l o r a t i o n s . The scope o f t h e a r t program i s t o i r d u d e d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , 21 c o n s t r u c t i o n and model making. As we see from the above quote (Gropius, 1968), st r o n g emphasis was p l a c e d on the development of p e r c e p t i o n . The d i r e c t i o n p r o v i d e d by Haggerty and Gropius are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t a r t education does not need to be l i m i t e d to the study of the " f i n e " a r t s . Nor does i t have to be concerned o n l y w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs. A r t education can be a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n the development of the man-made environment through the n u r t u r e of a e s t h e t i c awareness and c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . Concepts of S o c i e t y f o r A r t Education During the n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s d i s t r e s s i n g s o c i a l c o n d i -t i o n s s t i r r e d Haggerty to c h a l l e n g e the communities to r a i s e the q u a l i t y of l i f e through a r t education. Even .'though the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s have changed, the c h a l l e n g e remains. Today, the w r i t i n g s of Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee g i v e evidence t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g the complexity of contemporary s o c i e t y a response to t h i s c h a l l e n g e can now take s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s . No longer do p o l i t i c a l boundaries separate homogeneous groups of people. Many n a t i o n s are composed of people w i t h d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l backgrounds, c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s . To determine t h e r e f o r e what the r o l e of a r t education i n such a s o c i e t y ought to be can o n l y be e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of concepts t h a t express t h i s complexity. Words l i k e " s o c i e t y " o f t e n appear vague and ambiguous i n meaning. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n to ask t h e r e f o r e i s : What meaning do the v a r i o u s authors i n 22 t h i s s u r v e y a s c r i b e t o the term " s o c i e t y " ? Chapman's Concepts o f S o c i e t y Chapman (1978) s t a t e s "the r o l e o f a r t i n a s o c i e t y o r c u l t u r e cannot be reduced t o p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " (p. 115). Or, a g a i n u s i n g t h e terms " s o c i e t y " and " c u l t u r e " s i d e by s i d e , w r i t e s "as we have seen, a s o c i e t y o r c u l t u r e i s i d e n t i f i e d i n p a r t by t h e v i s u a l forms i t c r e a t e s " (p. 120). S i n c e Chapman s e l e c t e d " D e v e l o p i n g an Awareness o f A r t i n S o c i e t y " as one o f her major components f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n , i t m ight be e x p e c t e d t h a t her c o n c e p t o f s o c i e t y w i l l become c l e a r t h r o u g h t h e m a t e r i a l s used i n t h i s compo-nent. I n her i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks she urges t h a t c h i l d r e n ought t o be aware o f v i s u a l forms " i n our s o c i e t y and i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s as w e l l " (p. 120). I n her s u g g e s t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s she i n c l u d e s t h e st u d y o f a r t works around the g l o b e i n c l u d i n g " p r i n t m a k e r s i n Western c u l t u r e II i l i k e Durer, Rembrandt, Daumier, Goya and B l a k e , as w e l l as t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Japanese p r i n t m a k e r s " (p. 258). F o r th e s t u d y o f s c u l p t u r e she s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i l d r e n be i n t r o -duced t o work c r e a t e d by " c u l t u r a l groups t h a t they l e a r n about i n h i s t o r y and s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g forms from non-Western and f o l k c u l t u r e s " (p. 3 03). From t h e p r e c e d -i n g i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t Chapman does n o t equate " s o c i e t y " w i t h " n a t i o n " , evenr.though she a d d r e s s e s h e r s e l f t o t h e a r t e d u c a t o r s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and s t r e s s e s the development o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s awareness o f a r t i n h i s s o c i e t y . Y e t , t h i s would n o t be c o r r e c t s i n c e she a l s o uses t h e term " s o c i e t y " 23 i n r e f e r e n c e t o A m e r i c a . F o r example i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -ment the words "American", " s o c i e t y " , and "democracy" a l l seem t o be used i n t h i s sense. "Goals f o r American e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h a t we l i v e i n a democracy. Whatever d e f i c i e n -c i e s we might see i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f our s o c i e t y , few o f us would q u a r r e l w i t h the human v a l u e s a democracy i s i n t e n d e d t o muster" (p. 117). F u r t h e r , t h e numerous examples o f "our s o c i e t y " i n Approaches t o A r t i n E d u c a t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t Chapman uses t h i s term \ i n a r e s t r i c t i v e s e n s e . The term " c u l t u r e " Chapman a l s o uses i n two ways; i n a b r o a d sense i t a p p l i e s t o A m e r i c a as a n a t i o n , and i n a narrow-e r sense i t denotes p a r t o f i t . A c c o r d i n g t o Chapman d i s t i n c t v i s u a l forms e s t a b l i s h t h e i d e n t i t y o f c u l t u r a l groups l i k e "the M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n , A p p a l a c h i a n s , American I n d i a n s , and t h e A f r o - A m e r i c a n s " (p. 1 0 ) . These groups a r e d i s t i n c t b u t a l s o s h a re t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e American c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l . A c u l t u r e w h i c h i s o f t e n " s a i d t o p l a c e l i t t l e v a l u e on a r t " (p. 137). Where " c h i l d r e n need t o become acquanted w i t h v a l u e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e o f hedonism and m a t e r i a l i s m " (p. 153). And where p e o p l e have a tendency t o combine elements o f d i f f e r -e n t p r o t o t y p e s i n t o one s i n g l e form. "Where e l s e b u t i n America c o u l d we f i n d g a s o l i n e s t a t i o n s t h a t l o o k l i k e E n g l i s h c o t t a g e s , C h i n e s e temples o r S p a n i s h h a c i e n d a s ? " (p. 100). Chapman s t a t e s t h a t f o r her t h i s form o f e c l e c t i c i s m i s one o f t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f American c u l t u r e . The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s e c l e c t i c i s m u n d o u b t e d l y can not be 24 d e n i e d . To c l a i m i t t y p i c a l o f the American c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l may be d i f f i c u l t t o defend i n t i m e s when t h i r d - w o r l d f a r m e r s use American t r a c t o r t i r e s f o r t h e i r o x - c a r t s . A fundamental r e q u i r e m e n t f o r any c u l t u r a l group i s a g e n e r a l u n i t y o f t h e p e o p l e s 1 . v a l u e s and b e l i e f s . When changes t a k e p l a c e i n e i t h e r v a l u e s o r b e l i e f s " t h e r e a r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n t h e v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e forms t h i s c u l t u r e p r o d u c e s " (p. 96). A l t h o u g h Chapman i n c l u d e s many r e f e r e n c e s i n her a r t program t o " c u l t u r e " and " c u l t u r a l groups", she does not r e s t r i c t t h e meaning o f s o c i e t y t o t h e s e c o n c e p t s . Some o f her m a t e r i a l r e l a t e s t o the development o f an awareness o f a r t i n s o c i e t y i n r e l a t i o n t o " n a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l groups" (p. 94). C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e groups i s t h e i r a p p a r e n t s i n g l e f u n c t i o n i n s o c i e t y and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i n c l u d e members w i t h v a r i o u s " c u l t u r a l " backgrounds. The purpose o f s t u d y i n g t h e s e groups i s t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e i r a r t forms, l i k e b u i l d i n g s , f l a g s , emblems e t c . , i n o r d e r t o make them aware t h a t t h e i r " s e l f - i m a g e i s shaped, i n p a r t , by i t s v i s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s e l v e s o f o t h e r s " (p. 9 4 ) . I n c o n c l u s i o n , " s o c i e t y " , f o r Chapman, has t h e f o l l o w i n g meanings: i t u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o t h e American way o f l i f e when e x p r e s s e d as "our s o c i e t y " ; ' I t r e a c h e s beyond n a t i o n a l boun-d a r i e s when non-American a r t becomes st u d y m a t e r i a l f o r " a r t i n s o c i e t y " . I t i s o f t e n used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h " c u l t u r e " . The s t u d y o f " c u l t u r e " r e f e r s t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f " p a r t i c u l a r 25 t h i n g s i n terms o f f u n c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s ; t h a t i s , how a r t i -f a c t s , e v e n t s , and b e h a v i o r s s e r v e b a s i c human needs" ; (p. 219). " C u l t u r e " e i t h e r r e l a t e s t o America as a whole or t o i t s p a r t s composed o f M e x i c a n s , A f r i c a n s , I r i s h and o t h e r groups. Another element i n " s o c i e t y " i s the s o c i a l group w h i c h i n c l u d e s tradesmen, m a n u f a c t u r e r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s , m i n i s t e r s , t o name a few. None o f t h e " c u l t u r a l " o r " s o c i a l " groups i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l b o u n d a r i e s , nor do th e y i n d i v i d u a l l y i n c l u d e the t o t a l i t y o f l i f e . Together t h e y form a p a t t e r n o f c r o s s -r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x p r e s s g r e a t d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n some common bonds. Chapman's own words seem t o summarize the c o m p l e x i t y of " s o c i e t y " w e l l i n " a l l o f us a r e , i n some r e s p e c t s , l i k e e v e r y o t h e r p e r s o n , l i k e some o t h e r p e r s o n , and l i k e no o t h e r p e r s o n " (p. 9 2 ) . Feldmari^s^Concepts o f S o c i e t y The h i s t o r i c a l development o f man's forms o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o f importance f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f F e l d -man ' s (1970) co n c e p t o f s o c i e t y . Through t h e c e n t u r i e s t h e s e forms have changed from t r i b a l and nomadic p a t t e r n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t o h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d c i v i l i z a t i o n s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f change from one p a t t e r n t o an o t h e r does n ot r e -l a t e t o the q u a l i t y o f group l i f e but, a c c o r d i n g t o Feldman, i s more l i k e t he d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l who p a s s -es from c h i l d h o o d i n t o a d o l e s c e n c e . " F l o u r i s h i n g ages o f c i v i l i z a t i o n a r e preceded by p a t i e n t ages o f c u l t u r a l i n c u -b a t i o n " (Feldman, 1970, p. 134). C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the 26 e a r l i e r s t a g e s i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t h e group, w i t h " f r e e and open s h a r i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e s and pos-s e s s i o n s " (p. 134). I n c o n t r a s t t o modern c i v i l i z a t i o n s t h e t r i b a l and nomadic s t a g e s d i d n o t have advanced d i v i s i -ons o f l a b o r and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s . Nor d i d the e a r l i e r s t a g e s p l a c e emphasis on p e r s o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l needs. A c c o r d i n g t o Feldman, "of t h e twenty o r t h i r t y t h o u -sand y e a r s t h a t man has been what he i s , o n l y t h e l a s t t h r e e thousand y e a r s have seen him emerge from the group d i s t i n c -t i v e l y as a p e r s o n " (p. 1 ) . Feldman s u p p o r t s the i d e a t h a t t h e g o a l o f s o c i e t y i s t o d e v e l o p autonomous i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s g o a l must be seen as a f u t u r e - d e v e l o p m e n t not as a p r e s e n t r e a l i t y , even though: There a r e s t r i k i n g and i n s p i r i n g examples i n contem-p o r a r y c u l t u r e o f p e r s o n s whose l i v e s r e p r e s e n t t r i -umphs o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m . However, a whole s o c i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s , a s o c i e t y o f p e r s o n s , t h a t i s who a r e f r e e i n the e m o t i o n a l and c r e a t i v e a r e a s o f t h e i r l i v e s does not e x i s t (p. 2 ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e terms " c u l t u r e " and " s o c i e t y " i s not always c l e a r i n Feldman's w r i t i n g s . The term " s o c i e t y " i s brought somewhat i n t o f o c u s i n h i s r e f e r -ences t o the " s o c i e t i e s o f f i f t h - c e n t u r y Greece and " f i f t h -t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I t a l y " (p. 2 ) . I t s meaning i s here used i n t h e c o n t e x t o f n a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l i d e a s . Another i n -s t a n c e where Feldman i d e n t i f i e s " s o c i e t y " w i t h " n a t i o n " i s i n h i s statement about t h e s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s w h i c h f o s t e r 27 p e r s o n a l freedom. He w r i t e s : One o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i s t h a t c i v i l i z a t i o n has had c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s o c i e t i e s w h i c h managed t o endure and m a i n t a i n o r d e r w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g t h e i r c i t i z e n s a wide range o f p e r s o n a l freedom !(p. 4) . The word " c u l t u r e " however, i s a l s o used t o d e s c r i b e n a t i o n s o r s t a t e s . F o r i n s t a n c e Feldman d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h r e e d i f f e r e n t " c u l t u r e s " t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s . These c u l t u r e s i n c l u d e t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c , t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n and t h e d e m o c r a t i c . From h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s i t becomes c l e a r t h a t each o f t h e s e terms, l i k e a t o t a l i t a r i a n c u l t u r e o r a d e m o c r a t i c c u l t u r e , may be a p p l i e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e o r n a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s a d e m o c r a t i c c u l t u r e i d e n t i f i e d by i t s " r e c o r d o f 175 y e a r s , more o r l e s s , s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n , i t s a b i l i t y t o welcome "persons from many l a n d s " , and i t s con-c e r n t o p r o v i d e ways f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o r e a c h "the h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y " j(p. 5) . A nother meaning element o f c u l t u r e i s used by Feldman when he r e f e r s t o the " c u l t u r a l p e r s o n " . C u l t u r e i n t h i s c o n t e x t does not i d e n t i f y w i t h p o l i t i c a l i d e a s b u t w i t h a r t . I t s meaning r e f l e c t s something o f H aggerty's i d e a t h a t a r t e n r i c h e s •thenicomfhori l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The c u l t u r e d p e r s o n f o r Feldman (1970) i s : Someone whose thought and d i s c o u r s e have been l i f t e d by a r t o u t o f t h e p r o s e o f t h e workaday w o r l d and 28 i n t o the p o e t r y o f h e i g h t e n e d thought and f e e l i n g . F o r such a p e r s o n , a r t i s an i n s t r u m e n t f o r l e a d i n g a r i c h e r s p i r i t u a l e x i s t e n c e t h a n would o t h e r w i s e be p o s s i b l e (p. 7 7 ) . A d i f f e r e n c e between Haggerty's and Feldman's concept o f t h e c u l t u r a l p e r s o n i s t h a t t h e development o f such a p e r s o n depends f o r Feldman (n.d.) on i t s e x i s t e n c e i n a p o l i t i c a l democracy o r a f r e e s o c i e t y . A f r e e s o c i e t y makes i t p o s s i -b l e t o e x e r c i s e " c r e a t i v i t y t o r e a l i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l " (p. 2 ) . Haggerty does not make such p r e r e q u i s i t e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Feldman's (1970) c u l t u r a l p e r s o n i s " h i s a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e t h e wholeness o f l i f e i n p a r t i c u l a r f r a g -ments such as a r t p r o v i d e s " (p. 78X . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f p e r c e i v i n g t h e macrocosm i n the microcosm. The i d e a o f t h e "macrocosm i n the microcosm" can be r e c o g n i z e d i n s e v e r a l o f Feldman's c o n c e p t s about s o c i e t a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and human d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h i s c o n c e p t becomes e v i d e n t i n h i s comparison between p r i m -i t i v e s o c i e t y and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o f the c h i l d as w e l l as i n the s i m i l a r i t i e s n o t e d between a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y and a c u l t u r e d p e r s o n . I n d e s c r i b i n g a c h i l d ' s con-c e p t o f space Feldman (1970) s t a t e s : "The young c h i l d , o f c o u r s e , does not p o s s e s s t h e s e n s o r y a c u i t y o f a Stone Age h u n t e r , b u t he does share t h e same i d e a - o r l a c k o f an i d e a - o f space" (p. 110). Other s t a t e m e n t s o f comparison between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s development and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 29 e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n a r e noted i n : The t r i b a l e x p e r i e n c e o f man has absorbed by f a r the g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f h i s time on e a r t h . And the e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n c o r r e s p o n d s i n many ways to man's p r e h i s t o r i c and t r i b a l e x p e r i e n c e up t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e N e o l i t h i c R e v o l u t i o n (p. 133). Fo r t h i s r e a s o n Feldman b e l i e v e s t h a t "we s h o u l d n o t s t a r t the e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n by t r a i n i n g them t o behave l i k e f u l l - b l o w n p r o d u c t s o f h i g h c i v i l i z a t i o n " (p. 134). F u r t h e r , w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e l e m e n t a r y and secondary e d u c a t i o n he w r i t e s ; "The d i s t i n c t i o n between e l e m e n t a r y and secondary e d u c a t i o n i s i n many ways t h e d i s -t i n c t i o n between p r i m i t i v e and c i v i l i z e d l i f e " (p. 134). The term " s o c i e t y " r e l a t e s f o r Feldman n ot o n l y t o a p r o c e s s o f h i s t o r i c a l development, o r forms o f n a t i o n a l po-l i t i c a l systems, but i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s a s t r u c t u r e o f numerous groups. I n h i s p u b l i c a t i o n Becoming Human Through  A r t (1970) he f o c u s e s h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h e s e groups and be-l i e v e s t h a t " i n o r d e r t o 'get a l o n g ' i n our l a r g e and complex s o c i e t y , you have t o l e a r n what the main groups a r e , what h o l d s them t o g e t h e r , and how th e y work" (p. 2 28). Some of the groups he mentions i n c l u d e c h u r c h groups, economic groups, g e o g r a p h i c groups, p o l i t i c a l groups, n a t i o n a l groups, f a m i l y groups and o c c u p a t i o n a l groups. What c o n c e r n s Feldman i s t he i n d i v i d u a l ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e groups, i n p a r t i c u l a r t h o s e t h a t c o n t r o l t h e mass media. The b e h a v i o r a l norms f o r t h e s e groups do n o t appear t o be 30 g e n e r a t e d so much from w i t h i n but a r e d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h i n -f l u e n c e s from o u t s i d e : Where do our c i t i z e n s g e t t h e i r g u i d i n g i d e a s about i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , about how t o use l e i s u r e , about what i s w o r t h owning, about manhood and womanhood, about what the good l i f e f e e l s and l o o k s l i k e ? C l e a r l y from a d v e r t i s i n g (p. 57). Throughout Feldman's s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a r t a c t i v i t i e s i t be-comes e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s t u d y o f i n f o r m a t i o n and communications a r t i s e s s e n t i a l s i n c e t h i s t y p e o f a r t has a " c o m p e l l i n g power" f o r t h e "modern t r i b e s m a n " (p. 60). When Feldman i n 198 0 i n t r o d u c e d th e need f o r an a n t h r o -p o l o g i c a l c u r r i c u l u m t h a t would " l i b e r a t e s t u d e n t s from a v a r i e t y o f r e s t r a i n t s o r c o n f i n e m e n t s " (p. 7 ) , he r e c o g n i z e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f r a c i a l and e t h n i c groups t h a t t o g e t h e r , w i t h the s o c i a l groups mentioned above, make up t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c e r t a i n s o c i e t i e s . T h i s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c u r r i c u l u m has p a r t i -c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a r t t e a c h e r s i n a " m u l t i - r a c i a l , m u l t i -e t h n i c s o c i e t y such as o u r s " (p. 7 ) . I n summary, Feldman's c o n c e p t s about s o c i e t y may be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s . S o c i e t i e s go t h r o u g h s t a g e s o f development from p r i m i t i v e t o c i v i l i z e d . A p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y i s not i n -f e r i o r b u t d i f f e r e n t , as a c h i l d i s d i f f e r e n t from an a d u l t . P o l i t i c a l systems exercise s o c i e t a l f o r m i n g powers w h i c h e i t h e r n o u r i s h o r h i n d e r th e development o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o t e n -t i a l s . Democracy, and n o t t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m o r a r i s t o c r a c y , p r o v i d e s the e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n t o 31 emerge. C u l t u r e i s a con c e p t t h a t e x p r e s s e s p o l i t i c a l s t r u c -t u r e s and a l s o r e l a t e s t o man's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e a l i t y . I n case o f the l a t t e r i t c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f the macrocosm i n t h e microcosm t h r o u g h t h e w o r l d o f a r t . S o c i e t y i s made up o f d i f f e r e n t groups. One c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s the s o c i a l groups l i k e f a m i l y , c h u r c h and b u s i n e s s , t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r y , t h e r a c i a l and e t h n i c groups. L a n i e r ' s Concepts o f S o c i e t y Amongst t h e v a r i o u s c o n c e p t s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t s t r e s s s o c i a l c o n c e r n s , v e r y few aim a t t h e improvement o f t h e q u a l i -t i e s o f l i f e as d i r e c t l y as do thos e o f L a n i e r (1970). S i n c e t h e l a t e ' s i x t i e s he has c h a l l e n g e d t h e s c h o o l s t o g e t r i d o f a r t programs t h a t p r o v i d e " l i t t l e more than baggage o f s u c c e s s -f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a b u s i n e s s o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y " (p. 7 3 ) r and t o make t h e i r programs r e l e v a n t t o the s t u d e n t s who must cope w i t h t h e s t r a i n s o f l i v i n g i n a complex s o c i e t y . F o r t h a t r e a s o n L a n i e r urges the development o f new a r t c u r r i c u l a w h i c h must g i v e "the a r t c l a s s a sh a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f ex-p l o r i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and d e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t i v e models o f human b e h a v i o r i n a q u i c k l y c h a n g i n g and a t t h i s t i m e , q u i c k l y w o r s e n i n g s o c i a l environment" (p. 73). The key t o t h e s e new c u r r i c u l a must n o t be t h e development o f g r e a t e r c r e a t i v i t y , o r t h e s t u d y o f a r t i s t i c s k i l l s f o r l e i s u r e t i m e , b u t t h e s t r u g g l e s o f humanity w i t h war, sex, r a c e , d r u g s , and p o v e r t y . To deal.: w i t h t h e s e i s s u e s L a n i e r f o c u s e s ; h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h e s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l domains o f l i f e . I f a r t programs can a s s i s t i n c l a r i f y i n g t he ways t h e s e 32 domains f u n c t i o n , L a n i e r b e l i e v e s the student w i l l be a b l e to work towards change. Sin c e these domains are p a r t of l i f e i n g e n e r a l they dor.not p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r concept of s o c i e t y . Throughout L a n i e r ' s w r i t i n g s however, s e v e r a l statements are made which i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n elements of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . For i n -stance i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n about a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n and response, L a n i e r (1970) makes r e f e r e n c e to the i n f l u e n c e of " c u l t u r a l and s u b - c u l t u r a l " (p. 45) groups. T h i s i n f l u e n c e i s absorbed by an i n d i v i d u a l "from the many s o c i a l m i l i e u s i n which he matures. For example i n e a r l i e r years young people of:_Italian-American a n c e s t r y would o f t e n r e v e a l an a p p r e c i a t i o n of I t a l i a n opera" (p. 68). F u r t h e r L a n i e r s t a t e s t h a t each of us i s " c o n d i t i o n e d to look a t the v i s u a l a r t s a c c o r d i n g to the a t t i t u d e towards the a r t s of the n a t i o n a l , socia-economic and e t h n i c groups i n which we mature" (p. 4 5). One of the socio-economic groups t h a t L a n i e r i s con-cerned about i n p a r t i c u l a r , , i s the poor. In h i s a r t i c l e A r t  and the disadvantaged (1970) he opposes the g e n e r a l idea t h a t the poor, because of t h e i r economic c o n d i t i o n are c u l t u r a l l y disadvantaged. He argues t h a t poverty, even though i t has n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s , does not e l i m i n a t e c u l t u r a l involvement. The poor produce t h e i r own c u l t u r e , a. c u l t u r e which "while i t may be simple and u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d , f r e q u e n t l y embodies the same power and r i c h n e s s of image or phrase as middle-c l a s s a r t " (p. I l l ) . What L a n i e r argues i s a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e towards c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n . ' He p r e f e r s to d i f f e r e n -33 t i a t e t h e s o c i a l groups by l i f e - s t y l e and n o t by t h e i r s t a t i o n i n a h i e r a r c h y o f economic l e v e l s . S i n c e t h e poor a r e not c u l t u r a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d L a n i e r does not see t h e need t o change th e s l u m - d w e l l e r ' s c u l t u r e t o t h a t o f a m i d d l e - c l a s s c i t i z e n ' s . He s u p p o r t s t h i s i d e a by a s k i n g : Why i s i t e s s e n t i a l as a c r i t e r i o n o f growth i n a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f Shakespeare's p o e t r y and dramaturgy, o r c l a s s i c a l m u s ic, r o m a n t i c p o e t r y o r R e n a i s s a n c e o r hard-edge p a i n t i n g ? A r e t h e r e no a r t s i n w h i c h t h e poor and t h e i r c h i l d r e n now p a r t i c i p a t e and towards w h i c h they m a n i f e s t c r i t i c a l and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e s p o n s e s ? (p. 117). The d i v i s i o n o f s o c i e t y i n t o e t h n i c and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups i s r e c o g n i z e d by L a n i e r , y e t f o r the development o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e not o f prime i m p o r t a n c e . What i s important, however, i s t h a t t h e s c h o o l t a k e s i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o b r i n g about change. I n h i s a d v i c e t o use t h e f i l m media as an i n s t r u m e n t t o communicate about s o c i a l i s s u e s , L a n i e r (1970) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o n c e r n w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s i s not a phenomenon o f t h e p r e s e n t time o n l y but t h a t i t i s s u p p o r t e d by a t r a d i t i o n r o o t e d i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n . He s t a t e s t h a t : E v o c a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e a t r e have been d i r e c t e d towards c u r r e n t s o c i a l problems i n a l m o s t e v e r y e r a from A r i s t o p h a n e s t o the m o r a l i t y p l a y s o f m e d i e v a l t i m e s , and from M o l i e r e , Goethe and Chekhov t o G.B. 34 Shaw, O ' N e i l , Odets, A r t h u r M i l l e r and John Osborne. T h e a t r e has o c c a s i o n a l l y even p a r t i c i p a t e d d i r e c t l y i n p a r t i s a n s o c i a l a c t i o n , as i n the case o f the propaganda p l a y s performed by Red Army s o l d i e r s d u r i n g the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n and by members o f t h e Chinese E i g h t h Route Army d u r i n g t h e i r l o n g march (p. 77). The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t the term " s o c i e t y " does..not n e c e s s a r i l y denote a p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n but may r e f e r t o a p e r i o d o f time i n h i s t o r y when d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n s may share common problems. I t f u r t h e r emphasizes t h e c o n t i n u o u s need f o r s o c i a l change. T h i s c o n c e p t L a n i e r (1970) r e -e n f o r c e s w i t h h i s r e f e r e n c e t o Dewey. "One r o l e o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n " , he w r i t e s , " i s t o t a k e p a r t i n r e f o r m i n g s o c i e t y " . T h i s i s n o t a new i d e a but i s " i n i t i a l l y i n the w r i t i n g s o f John Dewey_ and l a t e r w i t h Theodore Brameld, ... c l e a r l y and u n i q u i v o c a l l y e x p l a i n e d " (p. 75). I n summary, L a n i e r ' s c o n c e p t o f s o c i e t y may be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f s o c i e t y i n c l u d e s group, d i v i s i o n s w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by economic w e l l -b e i n g o r t h e l a c k o f i t . C u l t u r a l development does n ot depend on economics. Low income groups have t h e i r own c u l -t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n s . Other group d i v i s i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l background. These groups i n c l u d e t h o s e w i t h d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n s o f r a c e and n a t i o n a l i t y . S o c i e t y , t h r o u g h o u t t h e ages, i s i n f l u e n c e d by f o r c e s w h i c h te n d t o o p p r e s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l . These f o r c e s a r e p r e s e n t l y concen-t r a t e d i n t h e economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l elements o f 35 l i f e . McFee's Concepts o f S o c i e t y McFee (1974) p r e s e n t s a c o n c e p t o f s o c i e t y w h i c h i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n a l l i t s meaning elements. She makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h r e e a s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g ; s o c i e t y , c u l t u r e and s o c i a l c l a s s . The term " s o c i e t y " may be used i n two ways. I t r e f e r s t o groups o f p e o p l e who l i v e w i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d b o u n d a r i e s and a r e o r g a n i z e d t h r o u g h a system o f government. S e c o n d l y , i t i n c l u d e s a l l groups t h a t a r e r e c o g n i z e d by "a p a t t e r n o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among i t s members" (p.. 31) . F o r example, Canada i s a s o c i e t y which i n -c l u d e s many s m a l l e r s u b - s o c i e t i e s l i k e s c h o o l s , c l u b s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The key element i n t h i s term appears t o be t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h s e p a r a t e s one s o c i e t y from a n o t h e r . Members of l a r g e o r s u b - s o c i e t i e s may be drawn from d i f f e r e n t " c u l t u r e s " . The d i s t i n c t i o n between " s o c i e t y " and " c u l t u r e " i s c l a r i f i e d by McFee (1970) as f o l l o w s : A s o c i e t y can be made up o f one c u l t u r e o r many, w i t h each s u b - c u l t u r e d e v e l o p i n g a r t forms t h a t a r e some-what d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s . Some s o c i e t i e s have a c o r e c u l t u r e t h a t i s shared-, i n p a r t by t h e sub-c u l t u r e s o f the s o c i e t y (p. 50). The c o n c e p t "culture'.' and i t s meaning f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e s a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n i n McFee 1s w r i t i n g s . Her c o n c e r n f o r the development o f an awareness o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s appears as a major g o a l i n her a r t program s u g g e s t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o McFee t h e s e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n the a r t forms, t h e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r and the p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s shared by t h e group. I n P r e p a r a - t i o n f o r A r t (1970) she e x p l a i n s t h e con c e p t o f c u l t u r e as f o l l o w s : C u l t u r e c o n s i s t s o f t h e l e a r n e d , shared and s o c i a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d forms o f a d o p t i o n o f human b e i n g s t o the environment, which i n c l u d e s t h e h a b i t a t , o t h e r p e o p l e and t h e i r c r e a t i o n s . The c u l t u r e i n p a r t d i r e c t s how c h i l d r e n a r e t r a i n e d and how b e l i e f s and v a l u e s a r e m a i n t a i n e d from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . C u l t u r e i n c l u d e s e d u c a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , s c i e n c e , a r t , f o l k l o r e and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (p. 26). T h i s d e f i n i t i o n was reduced c o n s i d e r a b l y i n her l a t e r w r i t i n g F o r i n s t a n c e i n A r t , C u l t u r e and En v i r o n m e n t : A C a t a l y s t f o r Te a c h i n g (1977) she s t a t e s t h a t " c u l t u r e i s a p a t t e r n o f be-h a v i o r s , i d e a s and v a l u e s shared by a group" (p. 272). A s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n i s found i n her a r t i c l e C u l t u r a l I n f l u - ences on A e s t h e t i c E x p e r i e n c e (McFee, 1980). The l a t t e r i n c l u d e s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f human p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r i n i d e a s and v a l u e s as th e y a r e e x p r e s s e d i n "the d e s i g n o f t h e i r a r t works and i n the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r b u i l t e nvironment" (p. 4 6 ) . The term " c u l t u r e " , l i k e " s o c i e t y " , may i n d i c a t e a l a r g e group o r a s m a l l e r sub-group. W i t h i n a c l a s s r o o m , f o r i n s t a n c e , c h i l d r e n may r e p r e s e n t v a r i e d sub-c u l t u r e s , y e t a t t h e same time share p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r , i d e a s and v a l u e s o f a l a r g e c u l t u r e . These s u b - c u l t u r e s a r e 37 a c c o r d i n g t o McFee (197 0) not n e c e s s a r i l y t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h groups who l i v e i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n and have d e v e l o p e d a c e r t a i n l i f e s t y l e , l i k e f o r example the Eskimos but can a l s o be r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c o r r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s . I n s u b - c u l t u r e s t h e "people share th e c o r e c u l t u r e i n p a r t but a l s o have a n u c l e u s o f v a l u e s and b e l i e f s and ways o f b e h a v i n g t h a t s e t s them a p a r t (p. 28). What seems t o be a key t o the c o n c e p t o f c u l t u r e i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r e and d e s i g n . The d e s i g n a c t i v i -t i e s o f McFee's (1977) a r t program s t r e s s t h e s t u d y of " order and v a r i e t y , s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s " (p. 126). T h i s i d e a c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e d o r d e r o f s o c i e t y and the v a r i a t i o n s o f c u l t u r e w i t h i n i t . E v i d e n c e of t h i s com-p a r i s o n i s found i n her s t atement t h a t " c u l t u r e i s a l s o d e s i g n . Each i n d i v i d u a l i s exposed t o c u l t u r a l elements" (p. 281). The "elements o f c u l t u r e , b e l i e f systems, v a l u e s , r o l e s o f p e o p l e , language, and a r t a r e l i k e form, l i n e , c o l o r , and t e x t u r e i n v i s u a l d e s i g n " (p. 281). I n a n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e same comparison she w r i t e s : "The s e a r c h f o r o r d e r and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n c u l t u r e goes on much as our need f o r o r d e r i n our v i s u a l environment" (p. 281). B e s i d e s t h e c u l t u r a l groups, McFee r e c o g n i z e s th e im-p o r t a n c e o f s o c i a l groups w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r i m a r i l y t h e i r economic s t a n d i n g . I n her d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e groups i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l l i f e s t y l e o f i t s members i s made sub-o r d i n a t e t o a l i f e s t y l e based on economic and o c c u p a t i o n a l 38 s u c c e s s . F o r i n s t a n c e members o f d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups share now a wide v a r i e t y o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The s t e r e o -t y p e Mexican-American no l o n g e r e x i s t s . A c c o r d i n g t o McFee (1977) "more Mexican-American f a m i l i e s a r e now p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , m i d d l e c l a s s Americans i n t h e i r v a l u e s and l i f e s t y l e s , have more e d u c a t i o n , and many a r e l e s s t i e d t o f a m i l y and l o c a t i o n " (p. 316). Concepts o f A r t E d u c a t i o n  Concepts o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e W r i t i n g s o f Chapman Chapman's g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n i s based on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n as a member o f a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . In her sta t e m e n t o f purpose f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n she w r i t e s : In a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , the power t o de t e r m i n e t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i s shared by a l l t h e p e o p l e , n ot j u s t one p e r s o n o r a s e l f - a p p o i n t e d few. The need f o r e n l i g h t e n e d c i t i z e n s l e a d s t o t h r e e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i -l i t i e s o f g e n e r a l p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . G e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , n u r t u r e s s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and t r a n s m i t s the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e t o each generation.. (Chapman, 1978, p. 1 9 ) . She summarizes t h i s p l a n i n p r a c t i c a l terms by s t a t i n g t h a t : " s c h o o l programs s h o u l d be p l a n n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c h i l d , t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t c o m p r i s e t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , and s o c i e t y " (p. 1 9 ) . These t h r e e elements a r e f o r Chapman b a s i c t o b o t h g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and a r t e d u c a t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s t r i a n g u l a r p l a n two o f t h e t h r e e elements a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o the o t h e r . 39 T h i s becomes e v i d e n t i n t h e diagrams t h a t Chapman proposes f o r the p l a n n i n g o f y e a r l y programs as w e l l as i n her con c e r n t o p r o v i d e a b a l a n c e d approach t h a t n e v e r t h e l e s s must g i v e g r e a t e r emphasis t o t h e development o f the s t u d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . "Goals f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t i n a r t s h o u l d be t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f the a r t program i n a l l g r a d e s " (. 369), she w r i t e s : However, s t u d i e s o f t h e a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e and a r t i n s o c i e t y s h o u l d be g i v e n p r o p o r t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n by p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l development so the y a r e l i n k e d w i t h the a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e o r w i t h t h e r o l e o f a r t i n s o c i e t y (p. 369). The b a s i c m a t e r i a l s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n a r e t o be s e l e c t e d from the n a t u r a l and man-made environment. Chapman i s i n p a r t i c u l a r concerned about c e r t a i n p r a c t i s e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t approach t h e v i s u a l w o r l d as i s o l a t e d phenomena. I n c o n t r a s t she s t r e s s e s the need f o r a c o n t e x t u a l approach. T h i s approach s t r i v e s t o produce and." s t u d y a r t o b j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o s i m i l a r o b j e c t s i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s . I t f u r t h e r emphasizes t h e e x t e n s i o n o f meaning t h e s e o b j e c t s might have i n o t h e r a r e a s o f l i f e . Chapman wants t o go beyond t h e ex-p l o r a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s and t h e st u d y o f v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s . I n e x p l o r i n g t h e c i t y , f o r i n s t a n c e , she s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e st u d y o f p o e t r y , s t o r i e s and songs be i n c l u d e d . T h i s con-c e r n f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f a r t w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s stems from a b a s i c c o n c e p t t h a t t h e g o a l s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n a r e n o t a t t a i n e d by the development o f a p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s o n l y . 40 The making o f a r t i s f o r Chapman not s u f f i c i e n t . A nother i l l u s t r a t i o n o f what Chapman c l a s s i f i e s as "an extended e x p e r i e n c e " i s g i v e n i n r e f e r e n c e t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f Halloween masks. Chapman q u e s t i o n s t h e v a l i d i t y o f such an assignment u n l e s s t h e s t u d y o f o t h e r masks, f o r example tho s e on d i s p l a y i n museums, o r o t h e r s used i n f e s t i v a l s , a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d . F u r t h e r , she s u g g e s t s t h e st u d y o f masks as a means o f d i s g u i s e . I n a d d i t i o n a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o a range o f o t h e r " a r t i s t i c t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e used t o c r e a t e an atmosphere o f f e a r and mystery" (Chapman, 1980, p. 7 ) . What Chapman a d v o c a t e s i s a s t u d i o approach where each p r o d u c t i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e stu d y o f a broad spectrum o f r e l a t e d e l ements. B a s i c t o t h e "extended meaning" r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a r t p r o d u c t i o n i s Chapman's aim t o r e c o g n i z e t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . I n her a r t i c l e R e search Means S e a r c h  A g a i n , Chapman (1979) l i s t s s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h she f e e l s have l e d t o t h e g e n e r a l i d e a t h a t a r t i s not an academic s u b j e c t . One f a c t o r has been t h a t a r t i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h f e e l i n g and not w i t h r e a s o n . Another i s t h a t we seem t o v a l u e "knowledge about" a r t l e s s t h a n " d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e i n " (p. 6) a r t . Chapman q u e s t i o n s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e i d e a s and argues t h a t wherever two c o n c e p t s appear t o p o l a r i z e , as i n " o b j e c t i v i t y " and " s u b j e c t i v i t y " ' the o p p o s i t e s c o u l d a l s o be seen as " f u s e d , i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , complementary, o r i n dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m " (p. 6 ) . I n d e s c r i b i n g her own p o s i t i o n about "knowing" and " d o i n g " i n a r t e d u c a t i o n Chapman (1979) 41 s t a t e s t h a t : Although I am p e r s o n a l l y committed to the importance of "making a r t " as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the education of t e a c h e r s and i n the school c u r r i c u l u m , I b e l i e v e t h a t we have so r o m a n t i c i z e d c h i l d h o o d and the r o l e o f the a r t i s t , and so d e - i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d the study of a r t and a r t education, t h a t u n w i t t i n g l y we r e i n f o r c e the popular judgement t h a t a r t and t e a c h i n g a r t i s easy, undemanding, without i n t e l l e c t u a l content (p. 6). To n u r t u r e the c o g n i t i v e element i n a r t education Chapman s t r e s s e s the need f o r h i s t o r i c a l comparison and c r o s s - c u l t u r -a l e v a l u a t i o n of a r t o b j e c t s . T h i s approach of c r o s s - c u l t u r -a l e v a l u a t i o n i n t r o d u c e s students to d i v e r s i t y i n a r t and a t the same time makes them aware of how a s i m i l a r a r t i s t i c problem may be s o l v e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Chapman (1978) pro-videsc-examples of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e v a l u a t i o n s i n the study u n i t s of a r t i n s o c i e t y and the a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e . The key concept i n t h i s approach i s ' " e c l e c t i c i s m " . Chapman makes r e f e r e n c e to the e c l e c t i c approach i n her i n t r o d u c t i o n to Approaches to A r t i n E d u c a t i o n (1978) by s t a t i n g t h a t : " A r t programs should be ? e c l e c t i c ; they should r e f l e c t major t r a d i t i o n s of a r t i s t i c thought and p r a c t i s e i n Western c u l -t u r e s as w e l l as c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t s drawn from anthro-pology" (p. 5) . In summary, Chapman develops her concepts of a r t edu-c a t i o n on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s need to be a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the de t e r m i n a t i o n process f o r the v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s of the man-42 made environment. To e q u i p t h e i n d i v i d u a l f o r t h i s r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y t h e s c h o o l must p r o v i d e a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t f o c u s e s on p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t and t h e development o f an awareness about the a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e and the r o l e o f a r t i n s o c i e t y . The g r e a t d i v e r s i t y i n a r t r e q u i r e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l p r o -grams r e f l e c t t h e major t r a d i t i o n s o f i t s own c u l t u r e , as w e l l as o t h e r s . W i t h i n t h i s ^ e c l e c t i c approach b o t h p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s must be e x p l o r e d . The p r o d u c t i o n of a r t o b j e c t s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e . However, a r t e d u c a t i o n has miss e d i t s purpose i f p r o d u c t i o n i s s e p a r a t e d from the s t u d y o f r e l a t e d meaning elements i n o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s . Concepts o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e W r i t i n g s o f Feldman The main f o c u s o f Feldman's purposes f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t h e development o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g about man. To r e a c h t h i s g o a l a l l l e a r n i n g must be d i r e c t e d t o the stu d y of man's a r t works from t h e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t . Human p o t e n t i a l s and l i m i t a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h t h e s e works a r e to be made p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s l i f e . E d u c a t i o n t h e r e f o r e i s n o t meant t o be p r a c t i c a l i n the sense t h a t i t w i l l p r o v i d e s k i l l s t h a t can be used i n a v o c a t i o n . Nor i s e d u c a t i o n aimed a t t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o f u n c t i o n as r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . R a t h e r , e d u c a t i o n i s a means t o d i s c o v e r who man i s j and a p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e s e l f h o o d o f t h e s t u d e n t emerges. A r t e d u c a t i o n t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e s t h e s k i l l s t o e n a b l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o c r e a t e a r t o b j e c t s w h i c h e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h r e a l i t y . R e a l i t y , a c c o r d i n g t o Feldman, o f t e n c r e a t e s t e n s i o n s and a n x i e t i e s f o r the i n d i v i -43 d u a l . Through t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t o b j e c t s t h e s e t e n s i o n s may be i d e n t i f i e d and d e a l t w i t h . "Doing" i n a r t becomes a coming t o terms w i t h e x i s t e n c e . Feldman (1970) s t a t e s h i s conc e p t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i n terms o f humanism a s : The humanist would cause a r t t o be c r e a t e d i n d i r e c t l y and i n c i d e n t i a l l y , as i t i s p r a c t i s e d i n o r g a n i c c u l -t u r e s o f p r i m i t i v e men, f o r example. And i n such c u l -t u r e s , we a r e fond o f s a y i n g , t h e r e i s no a r t i f i c i a l s e p a r a t i o n between a r t and l i f e . P e o p l e s i m p l y become aware o f p e r s o n a l o r s o c i a l needs t h a t a r t can s a t i s f y (p. 175). The s t r e s s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e n o t on t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f an a r t p r o d u c t b u t on t h e d o i n g , making o r w i t n e s s i n g o f "something i n o r d e r t o come t o terms w i t h e x i s t e n c e " (p. 178). In h i s c o n c e p t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , Feldman (1970) d i s -t i n g u i s h e s between f o u r b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . These c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e the c o g n i t i v e , t h e l i n g u i s t i c , t h e media and t h e c r i t i c a l . Each c a t e g o r y may be s t u d i e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a n o t h e r . The o r d e r o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s has been chosen t o accommodate c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s . I n c l a s s -room language t h e c a t e g o r i e s a r e l i s t e d a s : "Some Things To See, Some Problems, Some P o s s i b i l i t i e s and What You Can Do" (p. 212). The f o c u s o f t h e c o g n i t i v e c a t e g o r y i s the stu d y o f a r t h i s t o r y . T h i s s t u d y i s not t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e a c c u -m u l a t i o n o f f a c t s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . Feldman (1970) 44 d i s p u t e s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f such an approach. What he does a d v o c a t e i n s t e a d , i s t h e " a c q u i r i n g o f f a c t s , i n f o r m a t i o n o r knowledge about man t h r o u g h a r t " (p. 181). He s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r t h i s purpose s t u d y m a t e r i a l s be grouped i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l o r s o c i a l groups. S o c i a l groups i n c l u d e the f a m i l y , t h e peer groups, b u s i n e s s , t h e c h u r c h community and groups o f w o r k e r s . B u i l d i n g s used by t h e d i f f e r e n t groups form a t h i r d element i n t h e scope o f c o g n i t i v e s t u d i e s . Feldman (1970) uses as examples f o r t h e c o g n i t i v e s t u d i e s p r i m a r i l y N o r t h American and European a r t works. I n h i s p r o m o t i o n o f A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l C o n c e p t i o n s o f  A r t C u r r i c u l a (1980), however, t h e r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s a r e expanded t o i n c l u d e "the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f a r t i s t i c o r i g i n s - n o t j u s t d i s c u s s i o n but a l s o t h e p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f a c t u a l a r t i f a c t s , t h e s o - c a l l e d p r i m i t i v e a r t o b j e c t s " (p. 8 ) . A f t e r s t u d e n t s have been i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t a r t forms about i n d i v i d u a l s , s o c i a l groups and the man-made environment, Feldman (1970) i n t r o d u c e s t h e s t u d y o f t h e language o f a r t . T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e s t h e v a r i o u s v i s u a l elements l i k e l i n e , c o l o r , shape, l i g h t and d a r k , u n i t y , b a l a n c e , rhythm, p r o p o r t i o n ; and m a t e r i a l s l i k e wood, s t o n e , b r i c k and c o n c r e t e i n r e l a t i o n t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . I n l a t e r w r i t i n g s Feldman (1976) e x t e n d s t h e l i n g u i s t i c c a t e g o r y t o i n c l u d e t h e s t u d y o f - " h i s t o r y o f a r t , i c o n o l o g y , a r t c r i t i c i s m and a e s t h e t i c s " , w h i c h t o g e t h e r " c o n s t i t u t e w e l l -e s t a b l i s h e d ways o f r e a d i n g v i s u a l language" (p. 199). 45 In the media category the use of m a t e r i a l s f o r two and three dimensional a r t o b j e c t s i s emphasized. T h i s category i n c l u d e s the study of drawing, p a i n t i n g , c o l l a g e , s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e . A d d i t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n i s giv e n to the process of modeling, c a r v i n g and c a s t i n g . The l a s t category of c r i t i c a l study i s d e f i n e d by Feldman (1970) as " t a l k - spoken or w r i t t e n - about a r t " (p. 348). T h i s t a l k i s not a d i s c u s s i o n based on c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s p r o v i d e d by the teacher, but a d e s c r i p t i o n of the work of a r t . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n may not n e c e s s a r i l y be "the exact e q u i v a l e n t o f what you see" (p. 349)j n e v e r t h e l e s s , the student through t h i s d i s c u s s i o n becomes engaged with a system of s i g n s and symbols, t h a t "can extend h i s i n s i g h t s to the business of l i v i n g " (p. 189). The important f a c t o r i s t h e r e -f o r e not the knowledge of c r i t i c a l terms but the r e c o g n i t i o n by the student o f c e r t a i n meaning aspects i n a p a r t i c u l a r work of a r t t h a t can be made p a r t of the student's l i f e . The r o l e of the teacher i n t h i s category i s to be a " m o d e l - c r i t i c " . As such he must guide the d i s c u s s i o n s and c h a l l e n g e the students w i t h c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s about the a r t work. The emphasis must be on "how" to d i s c u s s and d e s c r i b e a work of a r t ; not on "what" i s presented. The process i s of prime importance. Through "demonstrating the c r i t i c a l a c t " (Feldman, 1973, p. 55) the author b e l i e v e s the students ought to become " r e f l e c -t i v e and syste m a t i c about the way they analyze, e x p l a i n and judge man-made phenomenon i n the v i s u a l environment" (p. 55). A key element i n a l l f o u r c a t e g o r i e s i s the author's 46 concept of knowledge. For Feldman knowledge "about" some-t h i n g i s of l i t t l e importance. What i s important i s i f t h a t knowledge can b r i n g about change i n the student's l i f e and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s . Where educa t i o n i s concerned w i t h a c q u i r i n g knowledge as i n p o s s e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , Feldman b e l i e v e s the s c h o o l i s m i s s i n g the g o a l . Most i n f o r m a t i o n " w i l l be shown f a l s e or w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o d i f i e d by the time each student graduates" (Feldman, 1970, p. 85). In c o n t r a s t the author s t r e s s e s "the s t y l e r a t h e r than the content of l e a r n i n g " (p. 85). Ways of l e a r n i n g are to be the concern i n education. One of these ways i s a e s t h e t i c . T h i s mode of l e a r n i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o u r elements i n c l u d i n g : p e r c e i v i n g , doing, knowing and s h a r i n g . No r e a l l e a r n i n g can be expected when one of these elements i s s t r e s s e d without the o t h e r s . In support of t h i s concept Feldman argues as f o l l o w s : We do not always r e a l i z e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of what we do or the a p p l i c a t i o n s of what we know. Education can become the r i t u a l i s t i c r e p e t i t i o n of what we have done or been t o l d without our p o s s e s s i n g knowledge t h a t i s i n any way our own. Consequently i t i s necessary to combine i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t w i t h per-forming e f f o r t i f something worthy of the name l e a r n i n g i s to r e s u l t (p. 88). For a r t e d u c a t i o n t h i s means t h a t the a r t o b j e c t s embody knowledge which the students ought to make p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s . Feldman (1970) e x p l a i n s t h i s t r a n s f e r of knowledge 47 i n a d i s c u s s i o n about a Pharaoh ka f i g u r e . Such a d i s c u s -s i o n w i l l r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about m o r t a l i t y t h a t "are common to the human c o n d i t i o n ; i n one form or another, t h i s know-ledge must be gained by a l l men, no matter when or where they l i v e " (p. 90). Secondly, i t a l s o means t h a t knowledge i s developed through a r t p r o d u c t i o n , a, process marked by decision-making w i t h r e s p e c t t o the use of m a t e r i a l s , c h o i c e of s u b j e c t matter and s e l e c t i o n of s t y l e . For Feldman the a e s t h e t i c mode of l e a r n i n g i s a complex process which does not separate knowing and doing. N e i t h e r must t h i s mode of l e a r n i n g be r e s t r i c t e d to the study of a r t . I t must move beyond a r t to touch the e t h i c a l a spect of the student's l i f e : When we t a l k about a r t w i t h c h i l d r e n , we t a l k about a l t e r n a t i v e s of f e e l i n g and doing: we t a l k about the p o s s i b l e meaning of what they have done and s a i d . That i s how we can e s t a b l i s h a model of e t h i c a l d i s c o u r s e . Without becoming i n v o l v e d i n the f r e q u e n t l y counterpro-d u c t i v e business of a d u l t admonition and m o r a l i z i n g , we can meet c h i l d r e n on t h e i r e t h i c a l grounds, the grounds of t h e i r c r e a t i v e c h o i c e s (p. 101). In summary, Feldman's concept o f ed u c a t i o n i s based on the need to know who man i s . A means to t h i s end i s the study of a r t . T h i s study c o n s i s t s of fo u r b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s which i n c l u d e the c o g n i t i v e , the l i n g u i s t i c , the media, and the c r i t i c a l . A r t educ a t i o n must emphasize the development of a process of l e a r n i n g . T h i s process, c a l l e d the a e s t h e t i c mode of l e a r n i n g , i n t e g r a t e s knowledge and performance. .!-:._; 48 The aim o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e the s t u d e n t s w i t h a means t o change t h e i r l i v e s on a b a s i s o f e t h i c a l d e c i s i o n s d e r i v e d from t h e s t u d y o f a r t o b j e c t s . Concepts o f E d u c a t i o n i n the W r i t i n g s o f L a n i e r A t the c o r e o f L a n i e r ' s c o n c e p t s oh a r t e d u c a t i o n i s h i s c o n c e r n f o r human m o r a l i t y . T h i s a s p e c t o f human ex-p e r i e n c e , w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o L a n i e r (1976) d e a l s w i t h t h e " r e l a t i o n a l p roblem c o n c e r n i n g two o r more p e o p l e " (p. 2 2 ) , p r o v i d e s t h e d i r e c t i o n f o r the development o f a r t programs t h a t r e l a t e t o problems concerned w i t h war, r a c e , p o v e r t y , o p p r e s s i o n , sex and drug s . These problems w h i c h a r e t h e r e s u l t o f improper . p a t t e r n s o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f l i f e , can be changed. They can be changed i f e d u c a t i o n i s a l s o w i l l i n g t o do i t s p a r t i n what L a n i e r (1974) c a l l s "the development o f a c r i t i -c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s " , and an "i n f o r m e d awareness o f t h o s e s o c i a l f o r c e s w h i c h o p p r e s s our l i v e s , c o n f i n e our growth and d e f i l e our;dreams and an a d d i t i o n a l awareness o f what we can do t o combat them" (p. 23). T h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e improvement o f the q u a l i t y o f l i f e t h r o u g h a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by L a n i e r ' s (1972) i d e a t h a t a r t e d u c a t i o n must f o s t e r an " i n -t e n s e and knowledgeable" r e s p o n s e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o "the whole spectrum o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s " (p. 1 9 ) . Such a g o a l cannot be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h l i m i t i n g t h e a r t programs t o s t u d i o p r a c t i s e , but r e q u i r e s t h e br o a d e r approach o f aes-t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n , a,n approach w h i c h the a u t h o r proposes s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s a " s t r o n g c e n t r a l c o n c e p t p r e s e n t l y needed" 49 ( L a n i e r , 1975, p. 28). L a n i e r ;(198 0) does n o t deny t h e need f o r s t u d i o work, b u t s t u d i o work o n l y f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who want t o become a r t i s t s . The making o f a r t c a n n o t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r , " p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g about a r t and a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n a n y t h i n g near an adequate measure" (p. 20). A l s o , v i s u a l images "are n o t o r i o u s l y i n a c c u r a t e c o n v e y o r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s , even o f emotions" ( L a n i e r 1976, p. 27). A e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o t h e s t u d y o f a r t i s t s , a r t h i s t o r y and a r t c r i t i c i s m . F o r L a n i e r (1975),,, however, t h e co n c e p t e x p r e s s e s " t h o u g h t f u l n e s s about t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f one's own a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e s " (p. 33). To a v o i d c o n f u s i o n L a n i e r l a t e r i n h i s a r t i c l e S i x Items on  t h e Agenda f o r t h e l i g h t i e s (198 0) i n t r o d u c e d t h e term a e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y , a term w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n and a t the same time makes r e f e r -ence t o L a n i e r ' s proposed methodology. By d e f i n i t i o n t h e co n c e p t o f a e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y proposes t o : expand t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge o f t h e a v a i l a b l e a e s t h e t i c a l l y e v o c a t i v e o b j e c t s and e v e n t s i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g w o r l d and how they a r e p r o c e s s e d t o . produce e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s v a l u e d i n t r i n s i c a l l y (p. 1 9 ) . When L a n i e r i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t o f a e s t h e t i c l i t e r -acy i t appeared t h a t he had abandoned h i s p l e a f o r the de-j velopment o f a " c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s " about t h e problems o f war, r a c e , p o v e r t y , sex and d r u g s . However, i n h i s l a t e r 50 s t a t e m e n t s about t h e purpose o f a r t e d u c a t i o n (p. 19) he does not e l i m i n a t e t h e need f o r t h i s development but t r e a t s i t as a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t w i l l need f u t u r e a t t e n t i o n and whi c h ought t o be p a r t o f a l l the s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . The means t o d e v e l o p a e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y i s a d i a l o g u e  c u r r i c u l u m . Such a c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r , f o l l o w somewhat t h e approach used i n the t e a c h i n g o f American o r Canadian l i t e r a t u r e : , P u p i l s would e x p e r i e n c e t h e a r t works ( ( d i r e c t l y i f you w i l l ) j u s t as t h e y do i n E n g l i s h c l a s s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h ey would c o n c e n t r a t e on what f u n c t i o n t h e a r t work performed f o r t h e a r t i s t who made i t or f o r t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h i t was made, and what q u a l i t i e s i n our own r e a c t i o n a l b i o g r a p h i e s and i n work i t s e l f cause us t o respond t o i t as we do (p. 2 0 ) . The d i a l o g u e c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r L a n i e r 1 s e a r l i e r p r o p o s a l o f t h e f i l m - a r t s c u r r i c u l u m t h a t was t o f o c u s on t h e improvement o f s o c i e t y t h r o u g h a p o p u l a r media. Because o f the a u t h o r 1 s v i e w s about t h e s u p e r i o r r o l e o f v e r b a l communication and h i s c o n c e r n f o r s o c i a l problems, the f i l m - a r t s approach was s e l e c t e d . When L a n i e r changed, from what E i s n e r (1972) c a l l s a " c o n t e x t u a l i s t p o s i t i o n " t o an " e s s e n t i a l i s t p o s i t i o n " (p. 2 ) , the need f o r a f i l m - a r t s c u r r i c u l u m was n b t l o n g e r r e l e v a n t . L a n i e r (1975) e x p l a i n s h i s change o f d i r e c t i o n as f o l l o w s : F o r some y e a r s now, I have b e l i e v e d and have been p r e a c h i n g much t h e same p o s i t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e worthy 51 g o a l towards w h i c h I have w i s h e d t o d i r e c t our a t t e n t i o n i s a s o c i a l one r a t h e r t h a n an i n d i v i d u a l one. My c a n d i d a t e f o r the d i r e c t i n g i d e a i n a r t e d u c a t i o n p r o -grams has been t o use a r t as a means t o c l a r i f y t h e ways i n which t h e s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l w o r l d works and how i t can be improved. T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , a r t i n the s e r v i c e o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I s t i l l b e l i e v e i n i t and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r e a c h i t , b ut I am c o n v i n c e d such e f f o r t i s f u t i l e .... C o n s e q u e n t l y , I w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e f o r t h e moment on an i n t e r m e d i a t e and e s s e n t i a l i s t s t e p : t h e development o f a s t r o n g c e n t r a l c o n c e p t r e l a t e d t o a r t c o n c e r n s (p. 28). In 198 0 L a n i e r a d v o c a t e s t h e development o f a e s t h e t i c l i t e r -a t u r e as such an " i n t e r m e d i a t e " s t e p when he s t a t e s : " I w i l l be s a t i s f i e d i f we move towards a e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y : t h e l a r g e r i s s u e s o f s o c i a l l i t e r a c y w i l l have t o w a i t f o r the p r e s s u r e o f h i s t o r y " ( L a n i e r , 1980, p. 1 9 ) . Impo r t a n t i n L a n i e r ' s c u r r i c u l u m approach, e i t h e r f o r th e f i l m - a r t s o r t h e d i a l o g u e p r o c e s s , i s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s s t a r t where t h e y a r e a t and a r e not s u b j e c t e d t o a program w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r p e r s o n a l l y t h i n k s e s s e n t i a l . L a n i e r s u p p o r t s t h i s approach on the b a s i s o f the f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s need no i n t r o d u c t i o n t o e i t h e r s o c i a l problems o r a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s s i n c e b o t h a r e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s l i f e b e f o r e f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g . S t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r the d i a l o g u e c u r r i c u l u m -may be found i n t h e n a t u r a l environment o r t h e p o p u l a r a r t s l i k e comic s t r i p s , c l o t h i n g , b i l l b o a r d s , p o s t e r s and t e l e v i s i o n . 52 L a n i e r (1975) s t r e s s e s t h i s p o i n t by s t a t i n g t h a t : We can d e v e l o p c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h a r e c a p a b l e o f moving the p u p i l from a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g a e s t h e t i c i n v o l v e m e n t s w i t h t h e n a t u r a l e nvironment, the f o l k a r t s and t h e p o p u l a r a r t s , t o the f i n e a r t s t h a t s p e c i a l p r o v i n c e o f t h e a r t t e a c h e r (p. 31). Throughout L a n i e r ' s w r i t i n g s t h e emphasis seems t o be t o t m o v e v a r t e d u c a t i o n away from th e t r e n d s o f a r t p r o d u c t i o n and t h e s t u d y o f the "museum-arts". E v i d e n c e t o t h a t e f f e c t i s n o t i c e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e scope o f t h e a r t c u r r i c u l u m and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d y m a t e r i a l s he recommends. N e i t h e r i s f o c u s e d on t h e " f i n e a r t s " . Y e t , L a n i e r does not deny the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e f i n e a r t s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n . What c o n c e r n s him, however, i s t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d not be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h s t u d y m a t e r i a l t h a t i s "highbrow" and a l i e n t o them. On the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t most s t u d e n t s do not become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h Shakespeare, Rembrandt, o r Bach a t home, L a n i e r (1975) s u g g e s t s t h a t a r t e d u c a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h t h e p o p u l a r a r t s and from t h e r e i n c r e a s e s "the scope and q u a l i t y o f v i s u a l ex-p e r i e n c e s " (p. 2 8 ) . To make t h e t r a n s i t i o n from t h e p o p u l a r t o the f i n e a r t s , the a u t h o r uses an example from t h e t e a c h i n g o f music. I n t h e t e a c h i n g o f music: t h e p u p i l c o u l d d e v e l o p an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f Bach, Beethoven and Brahms by u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s i n some m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s t o t h e music o f MacDavies o r B r o w n s v i l l e S t a t i o n (p. 31). 53 In c o n c l u s i o n , L a n i e r ' s c o n c e p t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n has as a main o b j e c t i v e t h e improvement o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n c o n t e x t o f t h e s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n s of.' l i f e . Hence, even a f t e r an " e s s e n t i a l i s t s t e p f o r t h e moment'," he remains a c o n t e x t u a l i s t . A second g o a l i s t h e development o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g about t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f h i s own a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e s . T h i s g o a l i s worked out t h r o u g h t h e means o f a d i a l o g u e c u r r i c -ulum p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the methods used i n t e a c h i n g l i t e r a t u r e . A l l a r t c u r r i c u l a must t a k e t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o i n t s i n the needs and e x p e r i e n c e s o f the s t u d e n t s and aim a t the improve-ment o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r l i f e . Concepts of E d u c a t i o n i n the W r i t i n g s o f McFee McFee*s g o a l s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n i n s c h o o l s may be de-s c r i b e d i n terms o f t h e development o f an awareness about th e f u n c t i o n o f a r t i n s o c i e t y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . T h i s v i e w i s r o o t e d i n t h e c o n c e p t t h a t man i s b a s i c a l l y a s o c i a l b e i n g whose l i f e - s t y l e i s n u r t u r e d by f o r c e s i n the dominant c u l t u r e , o r as p a r t o f a s u b - c u l t u r e o r a m i x t u r e o f b o t h . Human problems en c o u n t e r e d i n t h e s e c u l t u r e s may be changed t h r o u g h a r t . A c c o r d i n g t o H u r w i t z (1977) McFee's g o a l s a r e : The improvement o f human u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A l t h o u g h she does not d e s c r i b e the g o a l o f s o c i e t y as he sees i t , she i s h o p e f u l t h a t problem s o l v i n g l e a r n e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a r t w i l l become c r e a t i v i t y d e d i c a t e d t o the s o l u t i o n o f human problems (p. 82). A r t e d u c a t i o n must t h e r e f o r e d e a l w i t h the s t u d e n t ' s needs 54 w h i c h a r i s e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n s o f human behav i o r : i n s o c i e t y . To i d e n t i f y t h e s e needs the a u t h o r does not b e g i n w i t h common human problems such as war and p o v e r t y , but f o c u s e s on the contemporary problems o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d American s o c i e t y , a s o c i e t y p o p u l a t e d by p e o p l e from many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . McFee r e c o g n i z e s t h a t s e v e r a l needs a r e d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and t h e changes t h a t a r e b roughtabout t h r o u g h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . B o t h elements, c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n , a r e used by t h e a u t h o r as d i r e c t i v e s f o r b u i l d -i n g a r t c u r r i c u l a . I n a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y McFee (1974) b e l i e v e s t h a t a r t e d u c a t i o n "needs t o be d e v e l o p e d a t b o t h t h e d i v e r s e and u n i v e r s a l l e v e l s " (p. 8 5 ) . D i v e r s e i n a sense t h a t i t d e a l s w i t h the c u l t u r a l a r t h e r i t a g e o f the American B l a c k , the N a t i v e American, t h e I t a l i a n , o r the New E ngland w h i t e Anglo-Saxon. The u n i v e r s a l i s used here i n the sense of i t t o u c h i n g on e v e r y a r t form which p l a y s a major r o l e i n s o c i e t y i n c l u d i n g media, a r c h i t e c t u r e , p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e elements o f d i v e r s i t y and u n i v e r s a l i t y McFee proposes t h a t we d e v e l o p a r t programs wh i c h h e l p the s t u d e n t s " t o r e t a i n and r e s p e c t t h e i r own c u l -t u r e a t t h e same time t h a t we g i v e them the c h o i c e o f a c c e p t -i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g a l l t h e v i s u a l a r t s " (p. 85). I n a d d i t i o n t o c u l t u r a l c o n c e r n s , a r t programs s h o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e problems o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , anomie ( i n a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l o r group t o r e l a t e t o t h e norms o f t h e dominant s o c i e t y ) , t h e i n c r e a s e o f l e i s u r e t i m e , the i n f l u e n c e o f mass 55 media and the man-made environment. Of the l a t t e r McFee (1974) s t a t e s : " I f we i g n o r e environmental design i n educa-t i o n , we are p e r p e t u a t i n g anarchy - or easy submission to communality" (p. 1 2 ) . In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the study of the environmental design the author sees a need f o r students t o : r e c o g n i z e the importance of the a e s t h e t i c dimension i n the economic and p o l i t i c a l dimensions of c i v i c a f f a i r s , i n urban and r u r a l renewal, c o n s e r v a t i o n , c i t y p l a n n i n g and neighborhood development (p. 9 5 ) . Besides the study of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i n s o c i e t y , the man-made environment and the f u n c t i o n of economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which p l a y a r o l e i n the development of t h i s environment, McFee (1977) s t r e s s e s the importance of p r o v i d i n g the students w i t h means "to assess t h e i r own v a l u e s , to see whether t h e i r p e r s o n a l s t y l e s and p r e f e r e n c e s are what they most enjoy or j u s t what they are accustomed t o " (p. 9 2 ) . T h i s assessment appears to have two f u n c t i o n s . I t p r o v i d e s the students w i t h al\sense of b e l o n g i n g through p l a c i n g t h e i r v a l u e s i n the context of a c u l t u r a l group. Secondly, i t makes the adoption p o s s i b l e of other v a l u e s i n cases where t h i s i s d e s i r e d . McFee wants to p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y on the one hand by r e l a t i n g v a l u e s through a r t to a c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . On the o t h e r hand she wants to make p r o v i s i o n f o r m o b i l i t y between s o c i a l groupings to accommodate the needs of those who are changing t h e i r l i f e s t y l e due to p r o s p e r i t y or v o c a t i o n . 56 i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o know how t o c r e a t e a r t f o r themselves and f o r o t h e r s . Through a r t p r o d u c t i o n McFee (1977) b e l i e v e s t h a t s t u d e n t s can g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and i d e a s " i n an u n f a m i l i a r s y m b o l i c way" (p. 165), so t h a t i t has p r i m a r i l y meaning f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Or t h e y w i l l have t o work " u n t i l t h e y can g e t t h e i r message a c r o s s as c l e a r l y and w i t h as much e m o t i o n a l and v i s u a l impact as t h e y want" (Py 169). McFee 1s r a t i o n a l e f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h a means t o e v a l u a t e and u n d e r s t a n d the v a l u e s t h a t g i v e form, t o the l i f e s t y l e s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s . Her c o n c e r n s a r e i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h t h e m i n o r i t y groups l i k e t h e Mexican-Americans, and the e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y d e p r i v e d . Through a r t e d u c a t i o n she hopes " t o e q u i p c h i l d r e n o f v a r i e d c u l t u r a l backgrounds t o cope i n t h e main stream o f t h e s o c i e t y w i t h o u t c a u s i n g them t o d e v a l u a t e t h e i r own c u l t u r a l back-ground" (McFee, 1977, p. 1 0 ) . The r e a s o n why she t h i n k s t h i s i s p o s s i b l e i s because a r t " t r a n s m i t s v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s , and i d e n t i f i e s c u l t u r a l meanings" .(McFee, 1974, p. 95). Another f u n c t i o n t h a t a r t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d f u l f i l l i s the development o f p e r c e p t u a l awareness. McFee (1974) i s k e e n l y aware o f t h e g r e a t emphasis i n e d u c a t i o n on t h e use o f words and t h e development o f c o n c e p t u a l s k i l l s . These s k i l l s she wants t o supplement w i t h s k i l l s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g v i s u a l n o n - v e r b a l images. V i s u a l images f u n c t i o n a t a d i f f e r -e n t l e v e l than words, and i n t h e i r p e c u l i a r way p r o v i d e i n -s i g h t about r e a l i t y . I n s u p p o r t o f her p r o p o s a l the a u t h o r 57 r e f e r s t o c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s t h a t have shown " t h a t c h i l d r e n from Western c i v i l i z a t i o n use c o n c e p t s f a r more than p e r c e p t s " (McFee, 1974, p. 15). The s i x y e a r o l d p r e - s c h o o l y o u n g s t e r i n America and Mexico a r e f i r s t s i m i l a r i n t h e i r use o f p e r -c e p t u a l q u a l i t i e s : As t h e y grow >. o l d e r the M exican c h i l d i n c r e a s e s h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o p e r c e p t u a l s u b t l e t i e s o f c o l o r and forms; t h e American m i d d l e c l a s s urban c h i l d i s be-coming more a b s t r a c t i n h i s t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s (p. 15). To change t h i s s i t u a t i o n McFee i n c l u d e s the development o f p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s i n her a r t program. These s k i l l s a r e be-s i d e t h e i r f u n c t i o n as a means t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a l s o r e c o g -n i z e d as i m p o r t a n t elements i n t h e s t u d y o f the man-made en-v i r o n m e n t . The d i f f e r e n c e between ''concept" and " p e r c e p t " w i l l b e e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f McFee's v i e w s on a r t . The a u t h o r ' s c o n c e r n f o r t h e environment appears t o stem from th e problems caused by t h e p r o c e s s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n . McFee (1974) does n o t agree t h a t a r c h i t e c t s , d e s i g n e r s and e n g i n e e r s s h o u l d be s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e development o f t h e p u b l i c domain. R a t h e r , she argues "that each c i t i z e n ought t o be a b l e t o p r o v i d e i n p u t based on r e s p o n s i b l e a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m . "We cannot a l l o w p e o p l e t o grow up as v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c i l l i t e r a t e s and e x p e c t them t o be aware o f t h e i r a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as c i t i z e n s " (p. 88). The means t h a t McFee has chosen t o a t t a i n t h e g o a l s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e t h e t e a c h i n g o f d r a w i n g , d e s i g n , t h e 58 c r e a t i o n o f a r t , t h e s t u d y o f t h e environment, and t h e f u n c t i o n o f a r t i n c u l t u r e . The f i r s t two elements may be seen as s e l f - e v i d e n t components o f any p r o c e s s t h a t s t r e s s e s p r o -d u c t i o n . Y e t , f o r McFee drawing and d e s i g n a r e i n c l u d e d f o r s p e c i a l r e a s o n s . Drawing i s t h e p r o c e s s t h a t must d e v e l o p t h e s t u d e n t ' s p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s . I t i s abmeans t o g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; a form o f v i s u a l t h i n k i n g . I t opens up an a s p e c t o f r e a l i t y t h a t words cannot d e s c r i b e . McFee (1977) comments t h a t a d e t a i l e d d r awing " i s much c l o s e r t o the r e a l i -t y o f our v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e than even the most d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n " (p. 19). The s t u d y o f d e s i g n i s chosen t o emphasize two f u n c t i o n s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . I t makes s t u d e n t s aware o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o l o r , shape, t e x t u r e and c o m p o s i t i o n ; and shows i n i t s p r o c e s s many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c u l t u r e . The a u t h o r e x p r e s s e s t h i s i d e a as f o l l o w s : The elements o f c u l t u r e , b e l i e f systems, v a l u e s , r o l e s o f p e o p l e , language and a r t a r e l i k e form, l i n e , c o l o r and t e x t u r e i n v i s u a l d e s i g n . You change any one p a r t and t h e system o f r e l a t i o n s h i p among the p a r t s a r e m o d i f i e d . The s e a r c h f o r o r d e r and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n c u l t u r e goes on much as our need f o r o r d e r i n our v i s u a l environment (p. 281). A key phrase i n McFee's d e s i g n a c t i v i t i e s i s o r d e r and v a r i e t y . T h i s concept she a l s o used i n r e f e r e n c e t o c u l t u r e i n s t a t e -ments such as " w h i l e t h e r e i s a d a p t i o n t o c u l t u r e t h e r e i s a l s o s t a b i l i t y and sameness o f c u l t u r e " (p. 288), and " j u s t 59 as we can l e a r n t o see more i n d e s i g n by r e c o g n i z i n g s i m i -l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , so we can b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e dynamics o f a r t and l i f e among, v a r i o u s p e r i o d s and p e o p l e s " (p. 272). What becomes e v i d e n t i n McFee 1s use o f drawing and d e s i g n i s t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f the b u i l t e nvironment and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u l t u r a l development. The t h i r d element o f the c u r r i c u l u m f o c u s e s on t h e s t u d y o f a r t s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o use o f m a t e r i a l s , s e l e c t i o n o f p r o p e r symbols t o e x p r e s s i d e a s , , h a n d l i n g o f t o o l s and e v a l u -a t i o n o f a r t p r o d u c t s . These s k i l l s a r e needed t o " e x p r e s s t h e persons' own f e e l i n g s , i d e a s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , p e r c e p t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s " , and t o "communicate t o o t h e r s , t o s t r e s s i d e a s , t o c l a r i l y i s s u e s , t o i l l u s t r a t e meanings and r e l a t i o n -s h i p s " (McFee, 1977, p. 154). I n c o n t r a s t t o the s t u d y o f d r a w i n g and d e s i g n , t h i s t h i r d element o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o -cuses on t h e s t u d e n t and not on the environment and-:society. I n summary, McFee's con c e p t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n emphasizes the development o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g about th e a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e man-made environment and how t h e s e q u a l i t i e s may be improved. W i t h i n the a r t program a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n t o t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o f the community, and the s t u d y o f d e s i g n . T h i s s t u d y o f d e s i g n i s t o be c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by the c o n c e p t s o f o r d e r and v a r i e t y . The o v e r - a l l aim o f the a r t program i s t o be the development of the s e l f and the w e l l - b e i n g o f o t h e r s . Concepts o f A r t 60 Concepts o f A r t i n the W r i t i n g s o f L a u r a Chapman In Approaches t o a r t i n e d u c a t i o n (1978) Chapman vie w s a r t as b o t h a means t o s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and as t h e communication o f v a l u e s . The c o n j o i n t g o a l s i n t h i s v i e w a r e based on t h e a u t h o r ' s i d e a s t h a t a r t f u n c t i o n s i n two modes o f human e x p e r i e n c e " e x p r e s s i o n and r e s p o n s e " , w h i c h a r e " i n t e r d e p e n d e n t " (p. 118). To t r a n s l a t e what t h i s means f o r e d u c a t i o n Chapman f o c u s e s on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a r t , why i t i s needed, and how i t i s produced and can communicate v a l u e s . As a f i r s t s t e p i n a r t e d u c a t i o n Chapman e x p l o r e s a range o f c o n c e p t s t h a t i d e n t i f y b a s i c f e a t u r e s i n a r t . These c o n c e p t s i n c l u d e a r t t e r m i n o l o g y . They a r e the t o o l s f o r t h e " u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a r t and f o r communicating a r t t o c h i l d r e n " (p. 22). By means o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s d i s c u s s i o n s about p r o -d u c t i o n and re s p o n s e can t a k e p l a c e . I n c l u d e d i n t h e a r t f e a t u r e s a r e c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o form, medium, d e s i g n , sub-j e c t m a t t e r and s t y l e . The p a r t i c u l a r a r t forms s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y a r e d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , p r i n t making and g r a p h i c d e s i g n , photography, f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n , s c u l p t u r e , c r a f t s and p r o d u c t d e s i g n , a r c h i t e c t u r e , c e r e m o n i a l and h o l i d a y a r t s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s i g n . These a r t f e a t u r e s and forms a r e n o t meant t o be a l l i n c l u s i v e , b u t were chosen t o g i v e some 7 d i r e c t i o n f o r the c o n t e n t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . B e s i d e s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a r t f e a t u r e s and a r t forms the a u t h o r s t r e s s e s the need t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e s v a r i o u s s t a g e s , i s 61 t h e same f o r t h e s t u d e n t and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s t a g e s a r e t h e i n c e p t i o n o f an i d e a , t h e e l a b o r a t i o n and r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e i d e a , and t h e e x e c u t i o n i n a medium. These s t a g e s do n o t o c c u r i n a c e r t a i n sequence but f o l l o w t h e o r d e r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l 1 s method o f c r e a t i n g a r t . I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e use o f the a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s Chapman (1978) s t a t e s t h a t : We w i l l re-examine each phase o f t h e a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s t o i l l u s t r a t e how a r t i s t s d i f f e r i n t h e i r s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n l e a d i n g t o the i n c e p t i o n o f an i d e a ; i n t h e i r means o f e l a b o r a t i n g an i d e a and t h e i r way o f u s i n g media. The a n a l y s i s i s o r g a n i z e d t o show t h a t many o f t h e co n c e r n s and methods o f work o f a d u l t a r t i s t s can be used by c h i l d r e n - p r o v i d e d o f c o u r s e t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e s a r e adapted t o the i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t i e s o f c h i l d r e n (p. 4 6 ) . The i d e a s and v a l u e s t h a t the a r t i s t s e x p r e s s i n t h e i r work a r e n o t p e r c e i v e d w i t h o u t g u i d a n c e . Chapman (197 9) does not b e l i e v e t h a t a r t speaks f o r i t s e l f . On t h e con-t r a r y , she s t a t e s t h a t " i f a r t c o u l d f u l l y speak f o r i t s e l f / a r t e d u c a t i o n would be un n e c e s s a r y and r e s e a r c h i n a r t e d u c a t i o n would be p o i n t l e s s " (p. 6 ) . F o r e d u c a t i o n t h i s -means t h a t p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s must be t a u g h t . S k i l l s pecu-l i a r t o p e r c e i v i n g and r e s p o n d i n g t o a r t . S k i l l s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e used i n r e a d i n g and s c i e n c e . Chapman s t r e s s e s t h e p o i n t t h a t e q u a l time s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the development o f p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s and t o t h e c r e a t i n g o f a r t . T h i s i d e a 62 i s r o o t e d i n her b a s i c p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t a r t f u n c t i o n s i n the e x p r e s s i v e and r e s p o n s i v e modes o f human e x p e r i e n c e . Chapman d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h r e e phases i n p e r c e p t i o n : p e r c e i v i n g o b v i o u s and s u b t l e q u a l i t i e s , i n t e r p r e t i n g q u a l i t i e s as s o u r c e s o f f e e l i n g , and j u d g i n g the s i g n i f i -cance o f p e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . These phases a r e each made up o f s e v e r a l elements. What t h e a u t h o r wants t o emphasize i n e d u c a t i o n i s the need f o r the s t u d e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f how t o g e t a t t h e meaning o f a r t , and not the t e a c h e r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n . Chapman (1978) w r i t e s : What we hope t o d e v e l o p i s n e i t h e r a r e t r e a t t o p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e nor a b l i n d a c c e p t a n c e o f p r e -judgements by o t h e r s ; what we hope t o d e v e l o p i s s k i l l i n making c r i t i c a l judgements (p. 89),/ S k i l l s i n ' p e r c e i v i n g t h e v i s u a l e v i d e n c e i n t h e work, i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the p o s s i b l e meaning o f t h e work, and i n j u d g i n g t h e k i n d and degree o f v a l u e the work might h o l d f o r o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r s (p. 90). When Chapman uses t h e term " a r t " she u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o the " f i n e a r t s " as w e l l as t h e v a r i o u s o b j e c t s i n t h e man-made environment. Even though she r e c o g n i z e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between a r t and a r t i f a c t s she does not use t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n as a n e c e s s a r y means f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n her a c t i v i t i e s s uggested f o r t h e development o f p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h a r t she r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y t o the " f i n e a r t s " ; a r t s t h a t a r e found i n museums; the stu d y o f p r i n t s and r e p r o d u c t i o n s and t h e r e a d i n g o f books about a r t i s t s . 63 On the o t h e r hand when she i n t r o d u c e s t h e r o l e o f a r t i n contemporary s o c i e t y , she p r e f e r s t o use t h e word " a r t i f a c t " . F o r Chapman (1978) t h e "term a r t i f a c t r e f e r s t o any o b j e c t t h a t i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y shaped o r s e l e c t e d f o r human purpose" (p. 93). Examples o f t h e s e o b j e c t s i n c l u d e k i t c h e n u t e n s i l s , t o o l s , f l a g s , b u s i n e s s s i g n s , c o n t a i n e r s , b u i l d i n g s and f u r n i t u r e . However,the word " a r t " i s a l s o used t o denote " a r t i f a c t s " . T h i s becomes e v i d e n t i n s t a t e m e n t s l i k e : C o n s i d e r t h e d i f f e r e n t a r t forms t h a t can be used t o e x p r e s s n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y ; f l a g s , o f f i c i a l s e a l s , stamps, c u r r e n c y , c i v i c b u i l d i n g s and irionuments, u n i f o r m s f o r government employees and so on (p. 32). Chapman p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l r e a s o n s why a r t p r o d u c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . These r e a s o n s seem t o f a l l i n two c a t e g o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Chapman (1978) each a r t form o f f e r s a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e x p r e s s i n g an i d e a o r s o l v i n g a problem. Her c o n c e r n f o r t h e s t u d e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d and c r e a t e a r t appears t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e need t o e x p r e s s i d e a s , w h i l e the p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s r e l a t e s t o problem s o l v i n g i n d a i l y l i v i n g . U l t i m a t e l y a l l a r t a r i s e s o u t o f human needs, heeds e x p e r i e n c e d i n "the p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , e d u c a t i o n a l and economic" (p. 32) a s p e c t s o f l i f e . I n s o c i e t y t h e s e needs may be t r a c e d t o the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r " f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r , t h e q u e s t f o r i n d i v i d u a l and group i d e n t i t y and t h e d e s i r e t o c e l e b r a t e i m p o r t a n t l i f e e v e n t s ' (p. 93). F o r the i n d i v i d u a l t hey a r e r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t and communication. The 64 v a r i o u s a r t forms w i l l meet t h e s e needs when th e y " h e l p t o draw p e o p l e t o g e t h e r and t o f o s t e r communication" ( (p. 79) because b a s i c a l l y a l l a r t i s s o c i a l i n f u n c t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , Chapman (1981) a d v o c a t e s t h a t a r t must be t r e a t e d as a " s u b j e c t " . We a r e t o " r e t a i n the i d e a t h a t a r t i s a s u b j e c t r e q u i r i n g s t u d y " (p. 2 4 ) . T h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e s two modes o f e x p e r i e n c e ; p e r c e p t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . E i t h e r mode can be a n a l y s e d and s t a t e d i n terms o f t e a c h -a b l e components. The t a s k o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e t h e s t u d e n t w i t h s k i l l and i n s i g h t about the p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . The a u t h o r f u r t h e r emphasizes t h a t a r t e x p r e s s e s human v a l u e s . These v a l u e s a r e not a l -ways s e l f e v i d e n t but can be se a r c h e d o u t t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s of r e s p o n d i n g . The p r o c e s s o f r e s p o n d i n g i s "an a c t i v e , c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i n i t s own r i g h t " . I t f o c u s e s m a i n l y on d i s c o v e r i n g meanings i n a work o f a r t and may be " c u l t i v a t e d by i n s t r u c t i o n " (p. 64). Concepts o f A r t i n t h e W r i t i n g s o f Edmund Burke Feldman The n a t u r e o f a r t a c c o r d i n g t o Feldman ought t o be de t e r m i n e d i n c o n t e x t o f man's c u l t u r a l developments from p r i m i t i v e t i m e s t h r o u g h t h e p r e s e n t age. Each s t a g e i n t h i s development has i t s unique q u a l i t i e s . P r i m i t i v e s t a g e s a r e not i n f e r i o r b ut d i f f e r e n t j u s t as a c h i l d i s d i f f e r e n t from an a d u l t . P r i m i t i v e a r t l i k e w i s e i s not i n f e r i o r b u t d i f f e r e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o Feldman t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f c h i l d development today r e f l e c t many elements o f p r i m i t i v e l i f e s t y l e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n he s t r e s s e s the 65 need t o i n c l u d e p r i m i t i v e a r t s t u d i e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s a r t i s " t h a t i t i s not c r e a t e d t o be s t o r e d and e x h i b i t e d i n museums", b u t i t i s "made t o be worn, h a n d l e d , waved and c a r r i e d ; i t f u n c t i o n s i n a mixed-media c o n t e x t " (Feldman, 1970, p. 6 ) . A l s o , t r i b e s m e n "make i t and use i t and o f t e n d i s c a r d i t " (p. 7 ) . The c h i l d t o d a y , l i k e t h e " t r i b e s m e n " , "may be f u l f i l l e d s i m p l y by t h e a c t o f making" (p. 7 ) . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t Feldman r e c o g n i z e s as i m p o r t a n t i n the p r i m i t i v e a r t s t y l e a r e t h e spontaneous p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t o b j e c t s t o f i l l a need w h i c h a r i s e s t h r o u g h w o r k i n g o r p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r , and the a b i l i t y t o p a r t w i t h t h e o b j e c t s when no l o n g e r needed. A c c o r d i n g t o Feldman t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between p r i m i t i v e and contempo-r a r y a r t appear t o be p r i m a r i l y a t t i t u d i n a l . Tribesmen a r e not aware o f " c r e a t i n g a r t i n our sense o f the term" (p. 6 ) . They a r e more concerned " w i t h t h e m a g i c a l , c u l t i s h , o r r e l i g i o u s e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f u s e f u l o b j e c t s " (p. 6).and n o t w i t h t h e development o f s t y l e o r p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . On t h e b a s i s o f e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by a r t h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h e o l o g i s t s , Feldman (1970) has e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a f o r a r t s t y l e s . Each s t y l e i s r e c o g n i z e d on a b a s i s o f "common v i s u a l , e x p r e s s i v e , t e c h n i c a l o r t h e m a t i c f e a t u r e s " (p. 2 6 ) . I n a d d i t i o n each s t y l e must be "an example o f a s e t o f a r t i s t i c t r a i t s t h a t seem t o r e c u r t o g e t h e r i n many p a r t s o f the w o r l d a t many t i m e s and t h a t a r e u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e o f c u l t u r e " (p. 2 6 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f p r i m i t i v e a r t , contem-66 p o r ary a r t has become a commodity. During the Middle Ages the a r t i s t was p a i d " f o r h i s work done to o r d er" (p. 17). Today, the a r t i s t s ' work i s measured by " f l u c t u a t i n g v a l u e s " (p. 17). A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of contemporary a r t i s a l s o the continuous search f o r new s t y l e s . Feldman a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to the f a c t o r t h a t a r t i s " u n w i t t i n g l y modeled a f t e r the i d e a of s c i e n c e as a never ending quest f o r new knowledge" (p. 20). He p o i n t s out, however, t h a t new a r t s t y l e s , c o n t r a r y to s c i e n t i f i c developments do "not supplant or make an o l d s t y l e o b s o l e t e " (p. 20). P e c u l i a r to modern a r t i s a l s o a d i v i s i o n between " f i n e a r t s " and the " u s e f u l a r t s " . Feldman r e g r e t s the f a c t t h a t contemporary c u l t u r e i s not " e s p e c i a l l y concerned about the types of v i s u a l a r t t h a t i n f l u e n c e s d a i l y a c t i v i t y " (p. 21). In response to t h i s weakness he recommends t h a t we broaden the students: 1 , con-cept about the scope of a r t and develop t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of form and meaning i n " p i c t u r e s " , as w e l l as, " i n every aspect of p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l l i f e " (p. 22). Present day a r t i s c omplicated and needs to be e x p l a i n e d . For t h i s reason Feldman advocates i n s t r u c t i o n i n v i s u a l l i t e r a c y . V i s u a l communication a c c o r d i n g to the author i s i n s e v e r a l ways l i k e a v e r b a l language. I t can be used w i t h -out the knowledge of grammar or s p e l l i n g and f u n c t i o n s on the b a s i s of i n n a t e knowledge. The " r e a d i n g " of images, l i k e a v e r b a l language however, can a l s o be o rganized i n grammatical terms'.;, Feldman (1976) makes the f o l l o w i n g statement about "reading" words and images: 67 Today, words do not resemble the ideas or o b j e c t s they stand f o r . We read them, f i r s t by recognizihgx them as symbols of r e a l i d e a s or t h i n g s ; second by n o t i n g t h e i r arrangement i n space, t h a t i s , t h e i r s e q u e n t i a l p o s i -t i o n ; and t h i r d by i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the symbolic meanings of the words and t h e i r s e q u e n t i a l or s y n t a c t i c meanings based on t h e i r p o s i -t i o n s i n a word s t r i n g or sentence. Now re a d i n g images e n t a i l fundamentally the same o p e r a t i o n : we have to at t e n d to v i s u a l s i g n s . That i s , i f our eyes are open we are o b l i g e d to n o t i c e l i n e s , shapes, c o l o r s , tex-t u r e s and l i g h t i n t e n s i t i e s . Then we have to r e c o g n i z e these as sign s combined i n t o forms; we n o t i c e how they are arranged i n space. F i n a l l y we read a t o t a l image by examining the r e l a t i o n s between i t s form-symbols and t h e i r s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or comprehension) i(p. 197) . Felman views a r t b a s i c a l l y as a means to an end. " A r t has always had a f u n c t i o n over and above the q u a l i t i e s of p u r e l y v i s u a l appeal" he w r i t e s . I t has "always been a c a t a l y s t . That i s i t has always promoted the i n t e r a c t i o n between people and people or people and t h i n g s " (Feldman, 1978 , p. 6 , 7 ) . For the i n d i v i d u a l t h i s means t h a t a r t can f u n c t i o n as a means to s o l v e problems. Feldman (1970) does not want to make a problem of a r t but b r i n g problems i n t o the open through a r t . For students' a r t "ought to be the e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r problem" (p. 34). Secondly, a r t func-68 t i o n s as a means o f communication f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l , Communication i n the sense t h a t i t i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e l f , an o p e n i n g up o f the s e l f t o o t h e r s , a c o m p l e t i o n c o f the s e l f . A r t f u n c t i o n i n g as "communication" r e q u i r e s a re s p o n s e from o t h e r s . Through t h i s r e s p onse t h e i n d i v i d u a l engages i n a d i a l o g u e . Feldman appears t o i d e n t i f y t h i s form o f communication as a means o f s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n when he s t a t e s : "when you do i n f a c t respond t o my e x p r e s s i o n you e l i m i n a t e a t l e a s t some o f my u n c e r t a i n t y " (p. 31). A t h i r d i n d i v i d u a l need t h a t a r t s a t i s f i e s i s t h e " p e r f e c t i o n i s t i m p u l s e " . T h i s i m p u l s e urges t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o complete a p r o d u c t t o a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y b e f o r e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d as f i n i s h e d . Feldman (1970) seems t o use b o t h t h e need f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and the p e r f e c t i o n i s t i m p u l s e t h r o u g h a r t as a means t o f i n d human f i l f i l l m e n t o r what he c a l l s "complete-nes s " (p. 47) . In s o c i e t y t h e needs f o r a r t e x p r e s s themselves most s t r o n g l y i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and community d e s i g n , t h e communi-c a t i o n o f group norms and t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t o o l s f o r d a i l y l i v i n g . Of t h e s e needs t h e a u t h o r g i v e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o the communication o f group norms. The i n f o r m a t i o n and commu-n i c a t i o n a r t s used t o communicate t h e s e norms, f u n c t i o n as v i s u a l " p e r s u a d e r s " a c c o r d i n g t o Feldman. Whether we e n j o y the a r t s o f v i s u a l communication o r no t , we must concede t h a t t hey a r e e f f e c t i v e . Not o n l y do they i n f l u e n c e our b e h a v i o r i n a thousand ways, but t h e y a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n 69 of our v i s u a l environment (p. 5 7 ) . S i n c e t h e s e a r t forms have the a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e human b e h a v i o r Feldman t h i n k s i t n e c e s s a r y t h a t s t u d e n t s "must l e a r n t o make i n t e l l i g e n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among examples o f communication a r t s , n e i t h e r condemning nor a c c e p t i n g e v e r y -t h i n g , b u t r e c o g n i z e t h e wide range o f q u a l i t y i n h i s type of a r t " (p. 6 0 ) . How t h e s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s a r e made depends on t h e t e c h n i q u e o f a r t c r i t i c i s m t h a t i s used, and upon c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and v a l u e s . Feldman (197 0) s u g g e s t s " f o u r s t a g e s o f a r t c r i t i c i s m -d e s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n " (p. 349)• The f i r s t s t a g e c o n c e n t r a t e s on the s t u d e n t s l i s t -i n g what i s seen. The second s t a g e has them d e s c r i b e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s o f shapes, c o l o r , t e x t u r e , space and volume. The t h i r d i n v o l v e s making a summary o f t h e i d e a o r co n c e p t w h i c h the work p r e s e n t s . And the l a s t s t a g e r e q u i r e s s t u d e n t s t o con€ s i d e r a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t was chosen t o p r o v i d e the c r i t e r i a f o r v a l u e judgements. As examples o f t h e f o u r t h s t a g e Feldman mentions t h a t F o r m a l i s m , E x p r e s s i v i s m , and Instrumen-t a l i s m might each g e n e r a t e d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a . By e xamining h i s suggested study m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e development o f v i s u a l l i t e r a c y i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t Feldman r e c o g n i z e s the f o l l o w i n g a r t forms; p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , a r c h i t e c t u r e , f i l m , c r a f t s and communication a r t s . How t h e s e forms a r e produced depends on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge about the v i s u a l elements such as l i n e , c o l o r and shape. S e c o n d l y , i t depends on s k i l l s i n d e s i g n and an awareness o f t h e v a r i o u s 70 a r t s t y l e s . Both knowledge and s k i l l s are mediated by c u l t u -r a l i n f l u e n c e s . The understanding of a r t i s a c c o r d i n g to Feldman f i r s t of a l l r e l a t e d to the use of "common sense" based on the many experiences w i t h v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s s i n c e b i r t h : An o t h e r way to get a t a r t i s : you can study the con-c e p t s , or v i s u a l elements a r t i s t s use; you can study the way a r t i s t s p l a n , or design, t h e i r work; you can study the f a m i l i e s , or s t y l e s of a r t ; and you can study what happens i n the mind d u r i n g the a c t of see-i n g a work of a r t (p. 247). In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h these suggestions Feldman (1970) p r o v i d e s many examples of a r t works produced by w e l l known a r t i s t s (pp.246-298). Among o t h e r s he i n c l u d e s works of Frank L l o y d Wright, Mies Vander Rohe, Le C o r b u s i e r , Paul Klee, Franz Marc, Andrew Wyeth, Rembrandt, Alexander C a l d e r , Bruno L u c h e s s i , M i c h e l a n g e l o , V i c e n t Van Gogh and Jackson P o l l o c k . In c o n c l u s i o n Feldman's concepts of a r t may be summar-i z e d as f o l l o w s . A r t has always been a p a r t of human experience from p r e - h i s t o r i c times on. Throughout h i s t o r y the develop-ment of d i f f e r e n t a r t s t y l e s can be r e c o g n i z e d . Each s t y l e has i t s own unique q u a l i t i e s and p l a c e w i t h i n the developmental process of c u l t u r e s and the l i f e of- the i n d i v i d u a l . A r t i s a means to an end. I t s f u n c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y to communicate id e a s about i n d i v i d u a l and communal needs and to p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n s f o r s h e l t e r and t o o l p r o d u c t i o n . The meanings of a r t can be determined through everyday experiences, as w e l l as 71 t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y o f t h e a r t c p r o c e s s c u s e d by well-known a r t i s t s and t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f a r t c r i t i c i s m . I n a r t educa-t i o n t h e o b j e c t i v e s must i n c l u d e t h e development o f v i s u a l l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d t o a broad scope o f a r t forms from p a i n t i n g t o b u i l d i n g s , from p o s t e r s t o garbage cans. Concepts o f A r t i n the W r i t i n g s o f V i n c e n t L a n i e r . ! I n L a n i e r ' s r e c e n t w r i t i n g s t h e f i n e a r t s o f p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t i n g and p r i n t - m a k i n g appear o f l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . R e f e r e n c e about t h e s e a r t s u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e t h e i r l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n i n s o c i e t y , t h e i r e l i t i s t q u a l i t i e s and t h e i r l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n o u t s i d e g a l l e r i e s and museums I n c o n t r a s t t h e a u t h o r f o c u s e s h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h e p o p u l a r a r t s o f ad-v e r t i s i n g , c l o t h i n g , b u i l d i n g and f i l m p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s p r e -f e r e n c e t o broaden t h e scope o f a r t i s e v i d e n t i n s t a t e m e n t s l i k e ; "the v i s u a l a r t s which among o t h e r s t i m u l i provoke a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , must today i n c l u d e f a r more than g i l t framed o i l o r ped e s t a l j e d marble i n t h e museum" ( L a n i e r , 1975, p. 29) r- and, "we must admit t o the domain o f a r t a spectrum o f o b j e c t s and e v e n t s u n h a l l o w e d by g a l l e r y o r museum s t a t u s " (p. 3 3 ) . I n h i s a r t i c l e , S i x Items on the Agenda f o r t h e  E i g h t i e s (1980) L a n i e r opposes t h e i d e a t h a t o n l y the " f i n e " a r t s d e s e r v e a p l a c e i n e d u c a t i o n . " A l l t h a t the n e g l e c t o r d i s d a i n o f t h e p o p u l a r a r t s a c c o m p l i s h e s " , he w r i t e s , " i s t o c l a i m the p r e f e r e n c e o f our s o c i a l c l a s s and e d u c a t i o n a l background" (p. 1 7 ) . Even though L a n i e r (1975) s t r e s s e s the imp o r t a n c e o f t h e p o p u l a r a r t s he does n ot deny the f u n c t i o n o f t h e f i n e a r t s . The f i n e a r t s compose f o r L a n i e r t h e t h i r d 72 element i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence. I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n s on a e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y t h e a u t h o r r e c o g n i z e s t h r e e s t a g e s o f a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . The n a t u r a l environment w i t h i t s " g i a n t redwood o r b l u e - g r e e n ocean" (p. 30) forms t h e s t a r t -i n g p o i n t o r f i r s t s t a g e . S i n c e t h i s " a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , and v i s u a l a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e as one a s p e c t o f i t , i s a l -r e a d y e n j o y e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e f o r e e n t e r i n g s c h o o l " (p. 2 9 ) , a r t e d u c a t i o n i s n o t an e n t i r e l y new d i m e n s i o n i n the s t u d e n t ' s l i f e and can b u i l d on p r e - s c h o o l a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . The second s t a g e i s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a r a r t s i n home and community, and the t h i r d s t a g e f o c u s e s on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and enjoyment o f the f i n e a r t s . W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s e t h r e e s t a g e s o f a e s t h e t i c ex-p e r i e n c e t h e a u t h o r ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e f i n e a r t s i s n o t a d e n i a l o f t h e i r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y b u t a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t a p r a c t i s e i n a r t e d u c a t i o n w h i c h r e v e r s e s t h e o r d e r o f t h e second and t h i r d s t a g e o r o m i t s t h e second s t a g e a l l t o g e t h e r . i The need f o r a r t p r o d u c t i o n i n s c h o o l L a n i e r (1972) d i s m i s s e s f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t o f a l l he b e l i e v e s t h a t s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s a r e o n l y r e l e v a n t t o thos e s t u d e n t s who a r e i n c l i n e d t o become p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s . S i n c e "the number o f p e o p l e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y as compared t o t h e l a r g e mass o f t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i s so s m a l l as t o make t h i s v a l u e one o f minor i m p o r t a n c e " (p. 1 6 ) . Se c o n d l y , he argues t h a t "making t h i n g s w i t h a r t m a t e r i a l s " i s o f l i t t l e b e n e f i t t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s s i n c e t h i s form o f p r o d u c t i o n "on any l e v e l but t h e most s o p h i s t i c a t e d p l a n e , t e a c h e s us 73 l i t t l e about how t o r e a d an a r t work. A t b e s t i t might t e l l us something about how an a r t i s t c r e a t e s and about t h e m a t e r i a l s a r t i s t s use" ( L a n i e r s , 1980, p. 20). T h i r d l y , L a n i e r (1975) does n ot c o n s i d e r i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i n d i v i -d u a l t o make a r t i n o r d e r t o e n j o y and u n d e r s t a n d i t ; j u s t as one does n ot "have t o p l a y f o o t b a l l " (p. 32) t o a p p r e c i a t e a game. I n s t e a d o f f o c u s i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n i n a r t e d u c a t i o n on p r o d u c t i o n L a n i e r emphasises the need t o d e v e l o p the i n d i v i -d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e a r t . S e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e may be i d e n t i f i e d . The a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s i t as "a mode o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y , as v i s u a l problem s o l v i n g ( L a n i e r , 1972, p. 1 6 ) . He f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t i t i s "the l a r g e r more b a s i c r e sponse o f wh i c h our r e a c t i o n t o t h e f i n e a r t s i s b u t one s p e c i a l i n s t a n t " ( L a n i e r , 1980, p. 17). These s t a t e m e n t s a r e made by t h e a u t h o r i n c o n t e x t o f r e f e r e n c e s t o Dewey's A r t as E x p e r i e n c e . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l a t e s t o the d i f f e r e n c e among the a r t s . L a n i e r (1978) does n o t o n l y make a d i s t i n c t i o n between a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e and o t h e r ex-p e r i e n c e s , he f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e s d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s and the a r t s o f drama, f i l m and dance. The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e v i s u a l a r t s "do not p r o v i d e c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f ele m e n t s , a s s o c i a t i o n , and c o n t e n t . A r t i s l i t e r a l l y " f r o z e n music" i n t h a t the elements p r e s e n t e d t o the p e r c i p i e n t a r e not them s e l v e s s e q u e n t i a l o ver t i m e " (p. 7 5 ) . The e x p e r i e n c e o f a r t i s f u r t h e r dependent on v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n . L a n i e r does n ot s u p p o r t the i d e a t h a t a r t i s 74 an o t h e r language. I t i s never adequate i n meaning by i t -s e l f . L a n i e r (1978) s t a t e s , "the v i s u a l a r t s much more than o t h e r a r t s depend on e n c u l t u r a t i o n , p r e c i s e l y because t h e y do n o t communicate e f f i c i e n t l y " (p. 7 9 ) . I n s u p p o r t o f t h i s v i e w he mentions the f o l l o w i n g : What i s r a t h e r s t a r t l i n g i n t h i s q u e s t i o n o f a r t as communication i s t h a t a l l o f us t e n d t o f o r g e t t o what degree our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e meaning o f a work o f a r t i s d e r i v e d from p r i o r v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n . C a p t i o n s o r t i t l e s , c a t a l o g u e s , d e s c r i p t i o n s , c r i t i c ' s r e v i e w s , a r t h i s t o r y c o u r s e l e c t u r e s o f books - even what p a r e n t s o r f r i e n d s have t o l d us - p r o v i d e t h e d a t a w h i c h we l a t e r assume i s c a r r i e d by t h e image a l o n e . I t would seem t h a t , i n our word o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y , i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o meet a work o f a r t w i t h o u t v e r b a l p r e p a -r a t i o n (p. 7 7 ) . B e s i d e s a c o n c e r n f o r t h e b r o a d e n i n g o f t h e scope o f a r t , the q u a l i t i e s o f a r t r e l a t e d t o p r o d u c t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e , and the l i m i t a t i o n s o f a r t as a means f o r communication, L a n i e r f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on the p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n . The p e r c e p -t i o n o f a work o f a r t i s s p e c i a l , i t i s unique and ought n ot t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p e r c e p t i o n i n g e n e r a l . L a n i e r (1980) s t r e s s e s t h i s p o i n t when he s t a t e s t h a t ; " a e s t h e t i c p e r c e p -t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r a c t s o f p e r c e p t i o n " (p. 1 8 ) . However, t o d e l i n e a t e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e appears r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t s i n c e "human e x p e r i e n c e i s not e x c l u s i v e l y a e s t h e t i c 75 and ... e x t r a - a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e our a e s t h e t i c p e r c e p t i o n s " ( L a n i e r , 1978, p. 7 9 ) . Some i n d i c a t i o n s about the nature of a e s t h e t i c p e r c e p t i o n are d e s c r i b e d by L a n i e r as f o l l o w s : The p e r c i p i e n t apprehends the p a r t i c u l a r c l u s t e r of s t i m u l i , t r a n s a c t i o n a l l y generates r e l e v a n t meanings which appear to be self-consummatory - or a t l e a s t p r i m a r i l y n o n - u t i l i t a f . i o n - and p a r t i a l l y emotive i n nature, and a t the c o n c l u s i o n of the p e r c e p t i o n i s aware of having undergone an experience q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from, and u s u a l l y more i n t e n s e than, o r d i n a r y experiences (p. 72). A p a r t i c u l a r e x t r a - a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t r e c e i v e s a t t e n t i o n i n L a n i e r ' s w r i t i n g s i s the p e r c e p t i o n of elements i n a work of a r t t h a t i n f l u e n c e s human behavior. Even though the author does not perhaps r e c o g n i z e a r t as a means of communication independent of c u l t u r a l p r e c o n d i t i o n i n g , he does agree t h a t a r t i n f l u e n c e s behavior, i n p a r t i c u l a r the popular a r t s of f i l m , t.v. and a d v e r t i s i n g . In a " d i s c u s s i o n about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the f i l m media the author supports h i s views by quoting Panofsky who wrote: Whether we l i k e i t or not, i t i s the movies t h a t mold;-the o p i n i o n , the t a s t e , the language, the d r e s s , the behavior and even the p h y s i c a l appearance of a p u b l i c comprising more than 60 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n of the e a r t h ( L a n i e r , 1970, p. 100). F i v e years l a t e r , s i m i l a r views were expressed i n statements 76 about th e f u n c t i o n o f a r t e d u c a t i o n "as a means t o c l a r i f y t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l w o r l d works.and how i t can be improved" ( L a n i e r , 1975, p. 2 8 ) . T h i s v i e w t h a t a r t can p l a y a r o l e i n the change o f human b e h a v i o r t a k e s a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n however, i n l a t e r w r i t i n g s . I n S i x Items on t h e Agenda f o r the E i g h t i e s , L a n i e r (1980) s t a t e s h i s o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e v i e w t h a t an improved environment, f o r i n s t a n c e , w i l l improve human b e h a v i o r . On the b a s i s o f ex-a m i n i n g h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e he f i n d s t h i s v i e w u n a c c e p t a b l e . The F l o r e n t i n e s amongst " m a g n i f i c e n t a r c h i t e c t u r e and s c u l p t u r e " (p. 18) burned S a v o n a r o l a a t t h e s t a k e . Herman G o e r i n g , "one of t h e most a v i d a r t l o v e r s and a r t c o l l e c t o r s o f our t i m e " (p. 1 8 ) , committed h i s l i f e t o war and d e s t r u c t i o n . F u r t h e r , p r e s e n t day a r t i s t s as a group a r e not " d i s c e r n i b l y more m o r a l i n t h e i r g e n e r a l b e h a v i o r than t h e r e s t o f us" (p. 1 8 ) . The l a t t e r comments seem t o suggest t h a t L a n i e r r e c o g n i z e s t h e i n f l u e n t i a l elements i n t h e p o p u l a r a r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y m o t i o n p i c t u r e s , but n o t i n t h e f i n e a r t s o f p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e . I n c o n c l u s i o n , L a n i e r ' s c o n c e p t s o f ' a r t do not appear t o c e n t e r around t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a r t forms, t h e elements o f d e s i g n , t h e a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s , the needs f o r e x p r e s s i o n and c r i t i c i s m , o r t h e improvement o f t h e man-made environment. H i s f o c u s i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . He i d e n t i f i e s the s t a r t i n g p o i n t s o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e n a t u r a l environment, the p o p u l a r a r t s , and the f i n e a r t s . He f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e s t h e e x t e n t t a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f the e x p e r i e n c e 77 due t o i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s o f t h e work o f a r t . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s e q u a l i t i e s he e x p l o r e s t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n and t h e p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Concepts o f A r t i n t h e W r i t i n g s o f June K. McFee The w o r l d o f a r t i s f o r McFee (1974) n ot something s e p a r a t e from d a i l y human e x p e r i e n c e , n o t something t h a t may be e n j o y e d l i k e a r e f r e s h i n g d r i n k a f t e r work, but r a t h e r "a phenomenon o f human b e h a v i o r t o be found wherever form, l i n e , c o l o r a r e used t o c r e a t e symbols f o r communication and to q u a l i t a t i v e l y change t h e n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e " (p. 80). A r t i s a l l around us. I t cannot be s e p a r a t e d from " o t h e r a s p e c t s o f l i f e ; i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f l i f e " (McFee, 1977, p. 115). As i n d i v i d u a l s we may r e c o g n i z e v a r i o u s a r t forms and have p r e f e r e n c e f o r one form o r a n o t h e r , y e t we seldom r e a l i z e t h a t " a r t f u n c t i o n s i n a l l our l i v e s most o f the t i m e " (p. 6 ) . The scope o f a r t i n c l u d e s c l o t h i n g , household goods, c i t i e s , b u i l d i n g s , t e l e v i s i o n , movies, magazines, books, ad-v e r t i s i n g as w e l l as p a i n t i n g s , s c u l p t u r e s . a n d c e r a m i c s . F o r McFee " a r t " e q u a l s " m a t e r i a l culture'.'" McFee does n ot seem t o make q u a l i t a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s between the f i n e a r t s and t h e p o p u l a r o r commercial a r t s . R a t h e r she i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o -c e s s t h a t r e f l e c t s i m i l a r i t i e s among a r t i s t s , d e s i g n e r s and c r a f t s p e r s o n s . These a c t i v i t i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : A l l a r t i s i n some degree d e s i g n e d o r composed so a l l a r t i s t s a r e i n some degree d e s i g n e r s . A l l d e s i g n e d o b j e c t s communicate v a l u e s and f e e l i n g s , so a l l d e s i g n -78 e r s a r e i n some degree a r t i s t s . C r a f t s - p e r s o n s e x p r e s s v a l u e s and q u a l i t i e s and d e s i g n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r p r o d u c t s , so they a r e b o t h a r t i s t s and d e s i g n e r s (p. 154). McFee thus p o i n t s t o c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a r t , namely t h a t i t communicates v a l u e s and f e e l i n g s ; i s d e s i g n e d o r composed i n a c e r t a i n way, and may be thought o f as " a r t " , " d e s i g n " , o r " c r a f t " . A r t o b j e c t s enhance human e x p e r i e n c e and a r e "a communication system" (McFee, 1977, p. 7 ) . McFee's c o n c e p t o f a r t as a communication system s t r e s s e s a d i f f e r e n c e between v i s u a l language and v e r b a l language i n c o n t r a s t t o w r i t e r s such as Feldman and L a n i e r who seem t o emphasize more th e s i m i l a r i t i e s t han the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two forms o f communication. McFee b e l i e v e s t h a t " t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l key d i f f e r e n c e s between l e a r n i n g t o communicate w i t h language symbols and l e a r n i n g t o communicate w i t h v i s u a l ones" (p. 332). V i s u a l communication depends on t h e i n d i -v i d u a l 1 s a b i l i t y t o make images, symbols o r p e r c e p t s , as w e l l as on the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e images. To d e v e l o p t h e s e s k i l l s McFee s t r e s s e s t h e need f o r d r a w i n g i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . L i n g u i s t i c forms o f communication need d i f f e r -ent, s k i l l s . Instead^, o f images, words convey the meaning. On the b a s i s o f word r e c o g n i t i o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l forms c o n c e p t s and not p e r c e p t s . F o r McFee th e i n d i v i d u a l ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and communication about r e a l i t y t a k e s p l a c e p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t u a l i z i n g and c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g . E d u c a t i o n must s t r e s s b o t h p r o c e s s e s . S i n c e on: 79 One hand p e o p l e l e a r n t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r environment m a i n l y by c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g .... t h e y o p e r a t e by t r a n s -a c t i n g between p o i n t s , t h a t i s , by u s i n g m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s . But t h e y p r o c e s s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h c o n c e p t s . On t h e o t h e r hand, p e o p l e a n a l y z e e x p e r i e n c e by p e r c e p t u a l -i z i n g . - c r e a t i n g m e n t a l v i s u a l images o f what t h e y see (p. 336). As a communication system a r t f u n c t i o n s i n s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . F i r s t o f a l l McFee (1974) v i e w s a r t i n t h i s c o n t e x t as a means t o " m a i n t a i n v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and sense o f r e a l i t y from one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r " . I t f u r t h e r p r o v i d e s " c h a r a c t e r , i d e n t i t y t o groups o f p e o p l e , i n d i v i d u a l s , i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h m u t u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d symbols - t h e s t y l e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e and costume" (p. 81). S e c o n d l y , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p u r s u i t o f a r t f o r a r t ' s sake McFee s t r e s s e s t h e need to use a r t f o r t h e improvement o f the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . I n New D i r e c t i o n s . . i n A r t - E d u c a t i o n (1974), she s t a t e s t h a t : W i t h o u t d e p r e c i a t i n g t h e need f o r a r t as a v e r y p e r s o n a l i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , and i n t r o s p e c t i v e p a r t o f human e x p r e s s i o n , we need t o t u r n t h e c o i n o v e r and a l s o d e v e l o p t h e capa-c i t y t o use a r t as a humanizing f o r c e i n i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e on t h i s e a r t h (p. 1 1 ) . Of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n f o r the a u t h o r i s t h e q u a l i t y o f urban l i f e . McFee n o t i c e s t h r e e problem a r e a s w i t h i n t h e urban s e t t i n g t h a t may b e n e f i t from a r t i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n and m o d i f i -c a t i o n . These problem a r e a s i n c l u d e t h e s c a r c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s , o v e r p o p u l a t i o n and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . W i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l 80 t h r e e a r e a s McFee s t r e s s e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s c h o o l . A r t e d u c a t i o n must d e v e l o p t h e s t u d e n t ' s awareness about t h e d e s i g n e d environment. I t must c o n c e n t r a t e on q u a l i t y improve-ment, r e - u s e o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s , a n d r e s p o n s i b l e use o f space. The a u t h o r ' s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n f o r t h e st u d y o f space i s r e l a t e d t o t h e problems o f o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n and t h e use o f r e s o u r c e s . T h i s s t u d y c o v e r s f o u r a r e a s i n c l u d i n g ; " I - s p a c e , shared spaces, c l u s t e r spaces and t h e network between spaces" (p. 218). The aim o f t h i s t y p e o f st u d y i s t o make t h e i n d i -v i d u a l aware o f how space, " f e e l s , what i t l o o k s l i k e , and how i t i s used" (p. 219). I n a summary statement about en-v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n g e n e r a l McFee remarks: As our environment and r e s o u r c e s d e c r e a s e and our numbers i n c r e a s e , we may n o t be a b l e t o a f f o r d t h e l u x u r y o f e i t h e r i s o l a t i o n o r a b s o r p t i o n i n t o t h e c i t y . We a l l w i l l need t o u n d e r s t a n d our own needs, t h o s e o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , and a l l groups t o make our l i v e s t o g e t h e r w o r k a b l e and y e t p r e s e r v e the amounts o f I-space and shared space needed (p. 270). The l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s s t atement r e l a t e s t o t h e problem o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . McFee p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n urban development t h e i n d i v i d u a l must work t o g e t h e r w i t h many o t h e r s , who, as members o f d i f f e r e n t groups l i k e d e s i g n e r s , town p l a n n e r s , t r a f f i c c o n t r o l e r s , c o n t r a c t o r s and t a x p a y e r s share i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f community p r o j e c t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e a u t h o r i n c l u d e s i n t h e t a s k o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e development o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s c a p a c i t y " t o make a unique environment f o r 81 t h e m s e l v e s t h a t does not d e s t r o y t h e unique environment o f t h e i r n e i g h b o r s " (McFee, 1974, p. 1 1 ) . As a common element which can be a p p l i e d i n t h e use o f a r t f o r t h e improvement of the environment, the communication o f v a l u e s and i d e a s , the e x p r e s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n s , and t h e development o f a c o n s c i o u s n e s s about an i n t e r d e p e n d e n t s o c i e t y , McFee chose the c o n c e p t o f d e s i g n . T h i s c o n c e p t , which she d e s c r i b e s as "the o r d e r o r o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t makes the p a r t s o f something work t o g e t h e r as a whole" (McFee, 1977, p. 89), i s c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by o r d e r and v a r i e t y . Order r e l a t e s t o sameness, v a r i e t y t o d i f f e r e n c e . "Sometimes we want a g r e a t d e a l o f v a r i e t y w i t h j u s t enough o r d e r t o make t h e v a r i e t y show up" McFee s t a t e s . "Other t i m e s we need as much o r d e r as p o s s i b l e t o f i n d our way q u i c k l y and e f f i c i e n t l y " (p. 90). The concept of d e s i g n i s f o r McFee b o t h r e l e v a n t i n a r t p r o d u c t i o n and i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . How a r t i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l depends on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a r e t h e " p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l " r e a d i n e s s o f t h e v i e w e r and t h e " q u a l i t y and n a t u r e o f t h e work and the degree o f c u l t u r a l congruence between the a r t i s t and the v i e w e r " (McFee, 1980, p. 51). McFee i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t some " b a s i c human p r o c e s s e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g " make i t p o s s i b l e t o have c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s . These e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l be l i m i t e d i n scope u n l e s s a r t e d u c a t i o n h e l p s " c h i l d r e n and young p e o p l e l e a r n t o u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a r t " t h r o u g h exposure t o " f a r more, th a n the a r t o b j e c t o r event i t s e l f " (p. 52). 82 In summary McFee i d e n t i f i e s a r t with every o b j e c t i n the man-made environment. The p r o d u c t i o n process of these o b j e c t s i s an i n t e g r a t i o n of v a l u e e x p r e s s i o n s , s t r u c t u r e and d e s i g n . A r t o b j e c t s are produced to f i l l p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l needs. P r e s e n t l y g r e a t e r emphasis ought to be g i v e n to the s o c i a l needs. McFee focuses on three s o c i a l needs t h a t are r e l e v a n t f o r a r t education, namely the problem of u r b a n i z a t i o n , over p o p u l a t i o n and interdependence. These needs are r o o t e d i n concerns about s c a r c i t y of r e s o u r c e s and p r e s e r v a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i t y w i t h i n s o c i a l groups. A r t i s a communication system f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and f o r s o c i e t y . I t i s d i f f e r e n t from language s i n c e i t i s based on images or p e r c e p t s and not on concepts. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o understand these p e r c e p t s depends l a r g e l y on c u l t u r a l back-ground. W i t h i n the preceding concepts of s o c i e t y , education and a r t , s e v e r a l aspects of human experience are i n c l u d e d . For example Feldman makes r e f e r e n c e to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l aspect. McFee shows concern f o r the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l q u a l i t i e s of the a e s t h e t i c experience. Chapman i n t r o d u c e s methods f o r the development of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s , and L a n i e r s t r e s s e s the need to n u r t u r e the l i n g u i s t i c dimension of a r t . The f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l i s a comparative survey of the d i f f e r e n t a spects of human experience t h a t the f o u r authors r e c o g n i z e as elements i n the a e s t h e t i c experience. 83 A r t E d u c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o Other A p e c t s o f  Human E x p e r i e n c e I n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e a u t h o r s a r e concerned w i t h s e v e r a l elements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s o t h e r than t h o s e commonly known as " p u r e l y " a e s t h e t i c i n c h a r a c t e r . F o r i n s t a n c e they a r e a l l concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t e d u c a t i o n and the s t u d e n t ' s s o c i a l e nvironment. These c o n c e r n s , however, a r e b u t some o f s e v e r a l t h a t t h e a u t h o r s emphasize i n t h e i r p r o p o s a l s f o r the development o f a r t programs. The f o l l o w i n g i s a s u r v e y o f the d i f f e r e n t c o n c e r n s e i t h e r s h a red by t h e a u t h o r s o f i n d i -v i d u a l l y s t r e s s e d by a s i n g l e a u t h o r . The need, i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , t o go beyond t h e s t u d y o f t h e e s s e n t i a l elements o f a r t i s x s t r e s s e d by the a u t h o r s i n v a r i o u s ways. McFee (1980) i n her a r t i c l e C u l t u r a l I n f l u e n c e s  on A e s t h e t i c E x p e r i e n c e s t a t e s t h a t : To u n d e r s t a n d a r t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y - t o have an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e beyond r e s p o n d i n g t o the f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s o f d e s i g n (use o f form, l i n e , c o l o r and t e x t u r e ) one needs t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e a r t f i t s w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e systems, how i t e x p r e s s e s s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s as seen by t h o s e p e o p l e t o m a i n t a i n and enhance t h e i r c u l t u r e (p. 4 8 ) . Chapman (1978) a l s o emphasizes t h a t "the r o l e o f a r t i n s o c i e t y c a n n o t be r e d u c e d t o p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " (p. 115). T h i s v i e w i s shared by Feldman (197 8) who b e l i e v e s t h a t 84 " a r t has always had a f u n c t i o n o v e r and above i t s q u a l i t i e s o f p u r e l y v i s u a l a p p e a l " (p. 6 ) . A l s o , L a n i e r (1976), who does not deny t h a t a r t can be e x p e r i e n c e d f o r i t s own sake, s t r e s s e s t h e need t o f o c u s on o t h e r a s p e c t s i n t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . He writes.: Even i f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e s us t o i s o l a t e i t s " p u r e l y " a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t i s s t i l l q u i t e p r o p e r t o a s s e r t t h a t we ought o r ought a l s o a t t e n d t o o t h e r c o n c e r n s o r elements i n v o l v e d i n an a e s t h e t i c t r a n s a c t i o n (p. 20). The " o t h e r c o n c e r n s o r elements i n v o l v e d i n an a e s t h e t i c t r a n s a c t i o n " appear t o r e l a t e t o a t l e a s t seven a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e , namely; the s o c i a l , t h e l i n g u i s t i c , t h e h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , the e t h i c a l , and the s p a t i a l . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e a s p e c t s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y t h e same f o r each a u t h o r . Some a u t h o r s a l s o i d e n t i f y c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s w h i c h o t h e r s r e c o g n i z e as a s e p a r a t e a s p e c t . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s u r v e y i s t o f o c u s on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t each a u t h o r i d e n t i f i e s as elements o f the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s t h a t make up t h e " e x t r a - a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n " . A r t and t h e S o c i a l A s p e c t I n t h i s s u r v e y the s o c i a l a s p e c t w i l l be d e f i n e d i n terms o f t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n c e p t s about the s o c i a l o r d e r o f s o c i e t y . Of t h e f o u r a u t h o r s , L a n i e r (1970) i s t h e l e a s t c oncerned w i t h group o r c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s . H i s co n c e r n s a r e p r i m a r i l y l i m i t e d t o t h e poor and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e . F o r a r t e d u c a t i o n he s t r e s s e s the need t o r e c o g n i z e the 85 unique a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f the poor and s t a t e s t h a t : The c l a s s i c a l s o c i o l o g i c a l i d e a o f upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y toward a f i x e d d e s i r a b l e norm must be r e p l a c e d by a n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l continuum o f l i f e s t y l e s (p. 110). The need f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f s o c i a l group d i s t i n c t i o n s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s t r e s s e d by t h e o t h e r a u t h o r s f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . Feldman (1970) c o n s i d e r s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f group d i s t i n c t i o n s i m p o r t a n t as an a d d i t i o n a l element i n th e development o f s e l f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h a r t . He s t r e s s e s t h e s t u d y o f group a r t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f a m i l y , t h e c h u r c h , the n a t i o n , and groups of "housewives, t e e n a g e r s , a u t o m o b i l e d r i v e r s , o l d e r v o t e r s , u n m a r r i e d women, s p o r t f a n s , p e o p l e w i t h average income ... and so on" (p. 226). Each group, Feldman b e l i e v e s , has c e r t a i n v a l u e s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o c o n s i d e r . "Learn what groups o f p e o p l e a r e l i k e - t h r o u g h l i f e and t h r o u g h a r t , " he w r i t e s , so you may, " d e c i d e whether t o make them your own" (p. 126). Chapman (1978) i d e n t i f i e s s o c i a l groups on the b a s i s o f a r t forms w h i c h " e s t a b l i s h o r m a i n t a i n the i d e n t i t y o f groups" (p. 94). The groups she r e c o g n i z e s i n c l u d e t h o s e r e l a t e d t o t h e n a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l elements o f l i f e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f image i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the a r t forms o f t h e groups; i n c l u d i n g , t o o l s ? , c l o t h i n g , f l a g s , stamps, j e w e l r y o r b u i l d i n g s . I n McFee's (1977) w r i t i n g s s o c i a l groups a r e r e c o g n i z e d p r i m a r i l y on b a s i s o f t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c ( 86 s t a n d i n g . She s t a t e s t h a t , "economic and o c c u p a t i o n a l s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e combined w i t h t h e degree o f r a c i a l and s e x u a l a c c e p t a n c e i n t o upper o c c u p a t i o n s s e t s p e o p l e i n t o s o c i a l g roups" (p. 312). The key c o n c e p t i o n i n t h e s e group v a r i a t i o n s i s n o t r e l i g i o u s , n a t i o n a l o r r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , but d i f f e r -ences i n l i f e s t y l e . Some p a r t i c u l a r groups i d e n t i f i e d by th e a u t h o r a r e , the urban w o r k i n g - c l a s s , t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s , t h e u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s and t h e u p p e r - c l a s s (p. 317). In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e s o c i a l groups show t h r o u g h t h e i r a r t forms v a r i a t i o n s o f " v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s " (McFee, 1977, p. 312) t h a t t h e a u t h o r s r e c o g n i z e as v a l u a b l e f o r t h e s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i e t y and development o f s e l f - i d e n t i t y . A r t and t h e L i n g u i s t i c A s p e c t The a u t h o r s a r e concerned w i t h two elements i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t o f a r t . Chapman and McFee f o c u s on t h e communicative element o f t h e a r t o b j e c t , and Feldman andi' L a n i e r s t r e s s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f a r t i s t i c images. Chapman (1978) r e l a t e s the communicative element t o t h e e n t i r e man-made environment. F o r her t h i s environment i s "not m e r e l y a p h y s i c a l e n t i t y b u t a system o f communication" (p. 115). Fo r example, she s t a t e s t h a t " h i g h f e n c e s , w i r e g a t e s and s i l v e r s t r i p s on windows a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f our need t o f e e l s a f e " (p. 9 9). McFee (1977) s t r e s s e s a s i m i l a r i d e a when she i n d i -c a t e s t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e , c i t i e s , c o l o r , m a t e r i a l s , s t r e e t s , p a r k s and open spaces a l l " c a r r y t h e message o f p e o p l e ' s v a l u e s and i d e a s " as w e l l as "communicate t h e i r f u n c t i o n " (p. 1 0 ) . 87 Feldman, i n c o n t r a s t t o Chapman and McFee, i s more concerned w i t h how t h e i n d i v i d u a l f e a d s t h e images; w h i c h assumes t h a t t h e environment p r e s e n t s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t needs t o be r e a d . He s t r e s s e s t h e i d e a t h a t a r t e d u c a t o r s t a k e on a " r o l e v i s -a - v i s man-made images t h a t i s analogous t o t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r o f r e a d i n g and l i t e r a t u r e " (Feldman, 1976, p. 144). The a u t h o r bases h i s co n c e r n s on the need o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o d e a l w i t h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e media, i m p r e s s a r i o s , the p r o d u c e r s o f f i l m s , r e c o r d s , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , books, magazines, b u i l d i n g s a n d t o o l s . L a n i e r (1980) who makes development o f a e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y t h e main f o c u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , d i f f e r s i n h i s approach from Feldman i n t h a t he emphasizes t h e under-s t a n d i n g o f "how we respond t o works o f a r t o r o t h e r a e s t h e t i c e v o c a t i v e s t i m u l i " (p. 20). H i s c o n c e r n i s n o t so much de-velopment o f " r e a d i n g s k i l l s " b u t t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f the sub-j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e t o v i s u a l images. I n c o n c l u s i o n , Feldman and L a n i e r b o t h r e c o g n i z e s i m i l a -r i t i e s between t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s o f w r i t t e n language and v i s u a l images. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s McFee makes a d e f i n i t e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two modes o f communication. She i d e n t i f i e s 1 , t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a d i n g w r i t t e n language w i t h con-c e p t u a l i z i n g , - and t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a d i n g v i s u a l images w i t h p e r c e p t u a l i z i h g c The l a t t e r i s o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e than the former. A r t and t h e C o g n i t i v e A s p e c t When L a n i e r (1980) i n t r o d u c e d h i s co n c e r n s about aes-h" t h e t i c l i t e r a c y h i s aim was t o "ensure t h a t they (the.: 88 students) can negotiate any v i s u a l stimulus from a tree to a chair to "Guernica" with some poten t i a l a f f e c t i o n and at least adequate knowledge" (p. 21). The form of knowledge was not i d e n t i f i e d i n that p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c l e . However, i n Means and Meaning (1970) he presents a model for "Decoding Factors i n Individual Art Experience" (p. 45). In t h i s model he stresses "knowledge about" the v i s u a l image. Included i n th i s concept are three elements; personality data, physio-l o g i c a l data and s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l data. Feldman (1970), l i k e Lanier, i s also concerned with "knowledge about" a r t but does not want to separate possession of information from performance. The key concept i n Feldman's view on knowledge i s that possession of information i s of l i t t l e use unless t h i s information becomes action. For t h i s reason he recog-nizes art education as the unique "mode of learning that naturally and organically unites knowing and doing" (p. 99). Chapman's (1978) views of knowledge are related to "know -how" and the process of analysis. In the f i r s t case she develops her ideas i n r e l a t i o n to the a r t i s t i c process and distinguishes three d i f f e r e n t phases including, the incep-ti o n of an idea, elaboration and refinement, and execution i n a medium (p. 61). In the l a t t e r case, which stresses the development of " s k i l l s i n perceiving, interpreting and c r i t i c i s i n g a r t " (p. 90), she distinguishes four approaches; the inductive, the deductive, the empathic and the i n t e r -active. McFee's (1977). concept of knowledge makes a d i s t i n c -t i o n between knowledge based on written or spoken forms of 89 communication, and knowledge o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h v i s u a l images. The l a t t e r i s unique i n i t s own way and i d e n t i f i e d as p e r -c e p t i o n . I n her model on p a t t e r n s o f c o g n i t i o n McFee r e l a t e s t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t u a l i z i n g t o c o n c e p t u a l i z a i n g and views them as two d i f f e r e n t modes o f knowledge. The p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n i s d e l i n e a t e d by t h e a u t h o r i n a n o t h e r model whi c h can be used i n e i t h e r t h e s t u d y o r making o f a r t , (p. 325). I n c o n c l u s i o n the emphasis o f - t h e a u t h o r s appears t o be on t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n , t h e knowing - about a r t , and the know - how o f a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n . A r t and t h e C u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l A s p e c t Concerns f o r t h e c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t o f the a r t s f i n d s g r e a t e s t r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f Chapman, Feldman and McFee. L a n i e r (198 0) r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r the s t u d e n t s t o "know about a l l v i s u a l a r t s o f p a s t and p r e s e n t and o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s and our own" (p. 1 9 ) , but does not make i t one o f h i s main c o n c e r n s . Chapman (1978) on t h e o t h e r hand, makes t h e s t u d y o f a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e one o f her t h r e e p r i o r i t i e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . The emphasis i n t h i s s t u d y i s on the e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e museum a r t s . The a u t h o r i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t u d e n t s ought t o be g i v e n "as many o p p o r t u n i t i e s as p o s s i b l e t o see works o f a r t , t o v i s i t museums, and g a l l e r i e s , and t o meet l o c a l a r t i s t s , c r a f t s w o r k e r s , d e s i g n e r s and a r c h i t e c t s " (p. 154). A s i m i l a r c o n c e r n i s e x p r e s s e d by Feldman. However, he i n c l u d e s a l s o t h e st u d y o f t h e a r t i s -t i c e x p r e s s i o n s o f p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s . I n t h e s e p r i m i t i v e 90 forms he r e c o g n i z e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e a l s o n o t i c e d i n t h e a r t p r o d u c t i o n o f y o u n g s t e r s . F o r Feldman the d e v e l o p -mental, s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d e n t a r e a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l developments from p r i m i t i v e t i m e s t o the p r e s e n t age. Feldman (1980) f u r t h e r emphasizes the need f o r s t u d e n t s , who l i v e i n a s o c i e t y o f p e o p l e from many p a r t s o f the w o r l d , t o be conr f r o n t e d w i t h " a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s as a means o f s t u d y i n g p e o p l e s , s o c i e t i e s and c u l t u r e s " (p. 7). McFee, who a l s o makes the s t u d y o f a r t i n r e l a t i o n t o c u l t u r e one o f her p r i -o r i t i e s , does not appear t o s t r e s s the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the h i s t o r i c a l background as much as Feldman. Her f o c u s i s upon the p r e s e n t d i v e r s i t y o f e t h n i c , r a c i a l and s o c i a l groups i n s o c i e t y . F o r McFee (1977) "each i n d i v i d u a l i s a c u l t u r e c a r r i e r " (p. 280), and as such t h i s i n d i v i d u a l r e p r e s e n t s a c e r t a i n s o c i a l group. The aim o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t o make s t u d e n t s aware o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the c u l t u r a l groups t h a t a r e p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s , and f u r t h e r i n t r o d u c e them t o d i f f e r -e n t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s t h a t might be adopted s i n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r , " b e i n g c u l t u r e bound i s not n e c e s s a r i l y r i g h t and good" (p. 294). What becomes e v i d e n t i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f Chapman, Feldman and McFee i s t h a t s t u d e n t s must be aware o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s . F u r t h e r , the i n d i v i d u a l must be p r o v i d e d w i t h c u l t u r a l o p t i o n s w h i c h w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e i f so d e s i r e d . A r t and the P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t The a u t h o r s s t r e s s s e v e r a l elements o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l 91 a s p e c t i n r e l a t i o n t o a r t e d u c a t i o n . Chapman (1978) f o r i n -s t a n c e uses a r t a c t i v i t i e s based on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o f t h e c h i l d . These s t a g e s i n c l u d e the p r e - s c h o o l , early-e l e m e n t a r y , p r e a d o l e s c e n t and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e s e a r t a c t i v i t i e s a l s o i n c l u d e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r m o t i v a t i o n . F o r example t h e a u t h o r s t a t e s t h a t , " b e g i n n i n g i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , a d d i t i o n a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r p r i n t making s h o u l d be based on o b s e r v a t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n , p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g and t h e d e s i r e t o communicate t o o t h e r s " (p. 2 53). I n a d d i t i o n Chapman i n c l u d e s i n t h e s o u r c e s f o r a r t p r o d u c t i o n t h e use o f " f a n t a s y , i m a g i n a t i o n and t h e i n n e r l i f e o f f e e l i n g " (p. 4 9 ) . McFee (1977) d e v e l o p e d her s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f drawing and a r t f o r o n e s e l f , on a b a s i s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h t h a t f o c u s e d on how t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e v i s u a l environment. She s t a t e s t h a t ; " f o r t h i s book we f o c u s on the f i n d i n g s o f some o f th o s e p s y c h o l o g i s t s who d e a l w i t h how p e o p l e l e a r n from t h e i r environment as i t r e l a t e s t o a r t " (p. 323). Her a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h e r e f o r e riot p r e s e n t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d e n t i n a c h r o n o l o -g i c a l c o n t e x t but w i t h a c o n c e r n f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f d e t a i l s , f o l l o w e d by t h e stu d y o f space and p e r s p e c t i v e and from t h e r e on t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f emotions. Feldman (1970) i d e n t i f i e s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t w i t h t h e i n d i v i -d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f a problem. He s t a t e s t h a t " d i s t u r b a n c e , doubt, d i s e q u i l i b r i u m o r c o n f l i c t w i t h i n ... l e a d s t o t h e awareness o f a problem" (p. 32). Out o f t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e 92 t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s n eed a r i s e s t o p r o d u c e a r t . F o r Feldman, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r o o t o f a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n i s l o c a t e d i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . L a n i e r (1975) makes few r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t . I n c o n -j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s c o n c e p t s a b o u t t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e he d i s c u s s e s t h e " s t i m u l i " (p. 29) t h a t g i v e r i s e t o t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , s t i m u l i w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e p o p u l a r a r t s and t h e f i n e a r t s . I n summary, t h e a u t h o r s r e c o g n i z e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s s o u r c e f o r a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e e l e m e n t o f t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . A r t and t h e E t h i c a l A s p e c t R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and e t h i c s a r e f o u n d m a i n l y i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f F e l d m a n and L a n i e r . F e l dman (1970) b e l i e v e s t h a t t h r o u g h a r t , e i t h e r i n d i s c u s s i o n o r p r o d u c t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s r e v e a l t h e i r m o r a l c h o i c e s . He s t a t e s t h a t "we c a n o b s e r v e t h e e t h i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c b e h a v i o r . T h a t i s t h e i r a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n and t h e i r a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n r e v e a l e m e r g i n g c o n c e p t s o f what seems t o them good" (p. 101). The a u t h o r e m p h a s i z e s t h e need i n a r t e d u c a t i o n t o p r e s e n t t h e a d o l e s c e n t w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine a l t e r n a t e l i f e s t y l e s " (p. 1 2 6 ) , i n o r d e r t o make e t h i c a l c h o i c e s t h a t a r e a c c e p t a b l e t o s o c i e t y . L a n i e r (1976) c h a l l e n g e s a r t e d u c a t o r s t o " t r a n s c e n d , p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c con-c c e r n s and move i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c r i t i c a l m o r a l commitment"• 93 (p. 1 9 ) . T h i s commitment' must g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o works of a r t t h a t " d e a l w i t h those fundamental economic,, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l f o r c e s whose o p p r e s s i v e impact on our l i v e s has become i n c r e a s i n g l y o v e r t " (p. 22). The t h r u s t o f L a n i e r ' s c o n c e r n s a r e t h e r e f o r e n o t toward the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m o r a l o p t i o n s , but toward the exposure o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s . A r t and the S p a t i a l A s p e c t I n her c o n c e r n f o r the s t u d y o f the m a n - b u i l t environment McFee (1977) p r o v i d e s the most e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e use of space. She i d e n t i f i e s f o u r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s f o r s t u d y t h a t i n c l u d e " I - s p a c e s , shared s p a c e s , c l u s t e r spaces and networks between spaces" (p. 218). The f o c u s i n t h e s e s t u d i e s i s on the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s t h a t o p e r a t e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e a s o f space. McFee b e l i e v e s t h a t "we l e a r n our h a b i t s f o r u s i n g space from our s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , much as we l e a r n a language from p e o p l e w i t h whom we grow up" (p. 346). A r t E d u c a t i o n and i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o D i f f e r e n t A s p e c t s  of Human E x p e r i e n c e i n G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n The p r e c e e d i n g s u r v e y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a u t h o r s i n t h i s s t u d y e x t e n d t h e framework o f a r t e d u c a t i o n w e l l beyond s t u d i o p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s b r o a d e r framework has i n t r o d u c e d q u e s t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t e d u c a t i o n and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f some vie w s h e l d by e d u c a t o r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n h i s a r t i c l e The a r t s i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n Foshay (1974) t r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and 94 g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on the b a s i s o f a method wh i c h was deve l o p e d f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e . He s u g g e s t s t h e use o f Broudy's f o r m u l a t i o n o f the a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e w h i c h i n c l u d e s f o u r a s p e c t s : t h e " f o r m a l , t e c h n i c a l , sensuous and e x p r e s s i v e " (p. 25) as a means t o i n v e s t i g a t e "what i s o r d i n a r i l y t h o u g h t o f as academic s u b j e c t m a t t e r " (p. 2 9 ) . What Foshay proposes here i s n o t t h e study-~of a r t s u p p o r t e d by i n f o r m a t i o n from other..'subjects, b u t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f an a e s t h e t i c method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o the s t u d y o f t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n t h e g e n e r a l s c h o o l program. The Report on t h e NAEA Commission (1977) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f the use o f " a e s t h e t i c c o n t e n t w i t h i n n o n - a r t s d i s c i p l i n e s such as mathematics, s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s and language a r t s " (p. 56). T h i s c o n t e n t must be o f a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y . F o r example i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s i t i s p o s s i b l e " t o make t h e s t u d e n t a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s t o f t h e a e s t h e t i c c o n d i t i o n s o f our environment," o r t o make t h e i n d i v i d u a l "knowledgeable about t h e s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a r t s i n a v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s " (p. 56). The main c o n c e r n i n t h i s approach i s t o make t h e v i s u a l a r t s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s . The c o n t e n t o f t h e a r t program does n ot change i n t h i s case e x c e p t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r u n i t s may be p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g s o c i a l o r language c l a s s e s . F o r Chapman (197 8) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f common pur p o s e s . She r e c o g -95 nazes t h r e e major purposes w h i c h g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o e v e r y sub-j e c t i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d i n g a r t . These purposes a r e based on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the s c h o o l t o p r o v i d e " p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , n u r t u r e s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t r a n s m i t t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e t o each g e n e r a t i o n " (p. 1 9 ) . F o r a r t e d u c a t i o n t h i s means t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s must be en-couraged t o a t t a i n " p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h a r t e x p e r i e n c e " , be n u r t u r e d i n "an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e " and d e v e l o p "an awareness of the r o l e o f a r t i n s o c i e t y " (p. 19) < , A nother approach i s p r o v i d e d by McFee (1980) i n her a r t i c l e C u l t u r a l I n f l u e n c e s on A e s t h e t i c E x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s a r t i c l e the a u t h o r i s concerned w i t h " c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a e s t h e -t i c s " (p. 45) and i n t r o d u c e s s e v e r a l w r i t e r s who have d e v e l o p e d models w h i c h show what f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e a r t . F o r i n s t a n c e , Jones' model which i n c l u d e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and the m o r a l , r e l i g i o u s , economic and p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s , c l a i m s t h a t "a comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e would i n c l u d e an awareness o f the e f f e c t s o f a l l t h e s e i n -f l u e n c e s " (p. 5 1 ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t knowledge o f o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s i s r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r s t a n d a r t . F u r t h e r , McFee a l s o makes r e f e r e n c e t o the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n q u i r i e s o f Rader and J e s s u p (1976) who r e c o g n i z e the a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t as one o f s e v e r a l modes o f human b e h a v i o r i n c l u d i n g the b i o l o g i c a l , t h e r e l i g i o u s , t h e m o r a l , t h e c o g n i t i v e , the economic and p o l i t i c a l . The a u t h o r s compare t h e s e modes o f human b e h a v i o r t o : s t r a n d s w h i c h r e g u l a r l y appear i n a c t u a l l i f e , though 96 i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s , i n a s i n g l e c o m p osit t e x t u r e . A l l t y p e s o f b e h a v i o r a r e found t o g e t h e r i n human l i v i n g . We s e p a r a t e them o n l y t o r e c o g n i z e more c l e a r l y and t o emphasize more s t r o n g l y t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s and i n t e r -dependence (Rader and J e s s u p , 1976, p. 177). The i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s i s e x p r e s s e d by the a u t h o r s under headings such as "The Relevance o f Economic V a l u e s t o A r t " and "How A r t Ser v e s Economic I n t e r e s t s " (p.p. 296-302). I t i s f u r t h e r e x p r e s s e d i n "The A r t i s t s as H i s t o -r i a n " and The H i s t o r i a n as A r t i s t " (pvp. 23-247). What con-c e r n s Rader and J e s s u p p r i m a r i l y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s i s the need t o m a i n t a i n a sense o f b a l a n c e and wholeness. "An i n d i v i d u a l whose l i f e seems e x c l u s i v e l y o r d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y a b s orbed i n one i n t e r e s t , " t hey w r i t e , "we r e g a r d him as abnormal" (p. 177). In summary t h e c o n c e p t s about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t e d u c a t i o n and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d here a r e but a few. However, t h e y i d e n t i f y s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . F i r s t o f a l l the meaning and f u n c t i o n o f n o n - a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s may be i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f a e s t h e t i c a n a l y s i s (Foshay). S e c o n d l y , a r t programs may be d e v e l o p e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e same purposes as t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n the g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l u m (Chapman). F u r t h e r , n o n - a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s such as t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l appear t o c o n t a i n a e s t h e t i c elements which can be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a r t c u r r i c u l u m o r p r e s e n t e d as s e p a r a t e u n i t s w i t h i n t h e program o f t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s (NEAE). F i n a l l y , s i n c e t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t i s i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and 97 i n t e r r e l a t e s w i t h o t h e r a s p e c t s , a r t programs may be de v e l o p e d on a baas o f m u t u a l i t y o r r e c i p r o c i t y w i t h the o t h e r a s p e c t s . I n t h i s c a s e t h e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s p r o v i d e i n s i g h t about a r t ; and a r t c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o t h e r subjects., (Rader and J e s s u p ) . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e l a s t c oncept t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r -v a t i o n can be made about t h e f o u r a u t h o r s i n t h i s s t u d y . A r t e d u c a t i o n seems t o be used more o f t e n t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r a s p e c t s than i s the o p p o s i t e c a s e . Chapman, Feldman and McFee a l l use a r t t o i d e n t i f y s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . L a n i e r a l s o uses a r t t o de v e l o p s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h i s emphasis on t h e a n a l y s i s o f a r t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about o t h e r a s p e c t s i s c o n t r a s t e d by two i n s t a n c e s t h a t i n d i c a t e t h e use o f o t h e r a s p e c t s f o r the b e n e f i t o f a r t . One i n s t a n c e i s p r e s e n t e d by L a n i e r i n h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e use o f a t e a c h i n g method t h a t i s used i n the t e a c h i n g o f l i t e r a t u r e , t h e o t h e r i s McFee's use o f c u l -t u r a l f a c t o r s i n t h e stu d y o f space. The f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l , r i s a f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e . The i n t e n t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e a c o n c e p t u a l model f o r a r t edu-c a t i o n t h a t can be used i n t h e s t u d y o f a e s t h e t i c p e r c e p t i o n and a r t p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s model w i l l be d e v e l o p e d on t h e b a s i s o f a N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c framework w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s a br o a d scope o f o t h e r a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e t h a t r e l a t e t o a r t ; as w e l l as t h e r e c i p r o c i t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . 98 N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c Theory o f Modal A s p e c t s  as a S t a r t i n g P o i n t f o r A r t C u r r i c u l u m V a r i o u s c o n c e p t s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n e x p r e s s e d by Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee, and c e r t a i n elements i n Neo-C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y a r e marked by common c o n c e r n s . F i r s t o f a l l the f o u r a r t e d u c a t o r s and t h e N e o - C a l v i n i s t p h i l -o s ophers s h a r e the i d e a t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e i s not l i m i t e d t o " f i n e " a r t s . S e c o n d l y , i n each case a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o the b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f a r t such as l i n e , shape, c o l o r , s t y l e , medium o r d e s i g n w i t h o u t s t r e s s i n g t h e need t o make the s t u d y o f t h e s e elements t h e s i n g l e aim i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . T h i r d l y , t h e y a l l i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . These common conc e r n s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i c a l i n meaning f o r each a u t h o r , y e t th e y do p r o v i d e c e r t a i n s t a r t i n g p o i n t s t h a t can be used f o r the development o f a r t c u r r i c u l a . The f o l l o w i n g i n c l u d e s a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f background m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d t o c o n c e p t s o f N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y used i n t h i s s t u d y . S e c o n d l y , t h e N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c t h e o r y o f modal a s p e c t s i s d i s c u s s e d and p r e s e n t e d as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a r t c u r r i c u l a development. The modal a s p e c t s r e f e r t o modes o f b e i n g . That i s th e y r e f e r t o how c o n c r e t e t h i n g s , e v e n t s , a c t i o n s p r o c e s s e s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d . Modal a s p e c t s b e l o n g t o t h i n g s , t h e y a r e not the t h i n g t h e m s e l v e s . T h i r d l y , a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s t h e o r y f o r a r t c u r r i c u l a i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l Background 99 The P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m a t i o n d i d not me r e l y seek t o c l e a n s e t h e c h u r c h and d e l i v e r i t from d o c t r i n a l e r r o r s , but i t a l s o sought t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e whole o f l i f e ( V a n T i l , 1959, p. 1 9 ) . These words r e f l e c t the broad i n t e r e s t s t h a t c h a r a c -t e r i z e t h e v / r i t i n g s o f John C a l v i n . C a l v i n (1509-1564) was a Reformer who not o n l y made c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e o l o g y , b u t a l s o t o v a r i o u s o t h e r r e a l m s o f s o c i e t y such as p o l i t i c s and e d u c a t i o n . M c N e i l l ( 1 9 6 6 ) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n about C a l v i n ' s h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e s t a t e s t h a t : A l l modern Western h i s t o r y would have been unrecog-n i z a b l y d i f f e r e n t w i t h o u t t h e p e r p e t u a l p l a y o f C a l v i n ' s i n f l u e n c e . H i s t e a c h i n g s a f f e c t e d i n ways s t i l l n o t f u l l y c l e a r the p o l i t i c a l and economic development of the West (p. 234). M c N e i l l f u r t h e r s t a t e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o C a l v i n ' s c o n c e r n about t h e a r t s , " i n n o t h i n g , perhaps, has C a l v i n been more m i s j u d g e d than i n t h e v i e w t h a t he l a c k e d any a e s t h e t i c sense" (p. 231). S i n c e C a l v i n ' s t i m e h i s i n f l u e n c e has been r e c o g n i z e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o u n t r i e s such as S w i t z e r l a n d , F r a n c e , Germany, t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , S c o t l a n d , E n g l a n d , I r e l a n d and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . F o r t h i s s t u d y the p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i s t h e development o f C a l v i n ' s i d e a s i n the N e t h e r l a n d s and i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . One-of t h e major proponents o f C a l v i n ' s i d e a s i n the N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y 100 was Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920). Kuyper, who was t r a i n e d i n t h e o l o g y , became i n v o l v e d w i t h p o l i t i c s t h r o u g h t h e e d i t o r -s h i p o f a d a i l y paper, w h i c h was t h e o f f i c i a l o rgan o f a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . L a t e r Kuyper became t h e l e a d e r of' t h i s p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , was e l e c t e d a member o f t h e Dutch p a r l i a m e n t and s e r v e d h i s c o u n t r y as prime m i n i s t e r from 1901 t i l l 1905. I n 1898 he was c o n f e r r e d t o D o c t o r a t e o f Laws d u r i n g h i s v i s i t t o P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , where under a u s p i c e s o f the L.P. Stone Foundation, he d e l i v e r e d s i x l e c t u r e s on C a l v i n i s m . These l e c t u r e s , a l s o known as "Stone L e c t u r e s " , p r o v i d e key elements i n the development o f a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t C a l v i n ' s c o n c e r n s f o r b i b l i c a l d i r e c t i v e s r e l a t e d t o l i f e . c The f i r s t c o n c e p t t h a t Kuyper (1953) s t r e s s e s i n t h e Stone L e c t u r e s i s t h a t C a l v i n i s m i s a l i f e - s y s t e m , an a l l -embracing l i f e - s y s t e m w h i c h " i s n o t t o be i n v e n t e d nor f o r -m u l a t e d by o u r s e l v e s , but i s t o be t a k e n and a p p l i e d as i t p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n h i s t o r y " (p. 1 2 ) . Kuyper i s q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s l i f e - s y s t e m i s not t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o an " e x c l u s i v e l y e c c l e s i a s t i c and t h e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r " (p. 23) b u t i t must be based on a three-way r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n c l u d i n g man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God, t o h i s f e l l o w man and t o the w o r l d . The f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p between God and man i s based on b i b l i c a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h i n t u r n g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s f e l l o w man and t o t h e w o r l d . Kuyper s t a t e s " t h a t i t i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f our r e l a t i o n t o God w h i c h dominates e v e r y g e n e r a l l i f e - s y s t e m " 101 (p. 2 4 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and feilowman i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e b e l i e f t h a t "we s t a n d as e q u a l s b e f o r e God and c o n s e q u e n t l y e q u a l as man t o man" (p. 27). The t h i r d r e l a t i o n s h i p f o c u s e s on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s " a t t i t u d e towards the w o r l d " (p. 2 8 ) . F o r Kuyper t h i s a t t i t u d e i s e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f " s e r v i n g God i n the w o r l d i n e v e r y p o s i t i o n i n l i f e " . T h i s s e r v i c e i s not t o be r e n d e r e d under the dominion o f t h e c h u r c h but t h r o u g h t h e r e c o g -n i t i o n " t h a t the l i f e o f t h e w o r l d i s t o be honored i n i t s independence, and t h a t we must, i n e v e r y domain, d i s -c o v e r t h e t r e a s u r e s and d e v e l o p t h e p o t e n c i e s h i d d e n by God i n n a t u r e and i n human l i f e " (p. 31). A second c o n c e p t w h i c h Kuyper s t r e s s e s i s sphere  s o v e r e i g n t y . T h i s c o n c e p t f o c u s e s on t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f each a s p e c t o f human experience.. Kuyper w r i t e s f o r example t h a t , " r e l i g i o n and a r t have each a l i f e - s p h e r e o f t h e i r own; t h e s e may a t f i r s t be s c a r c e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from each o t h e r and t h e r e f o r e c l o s e l y i n t e r t w i n e d , b u t , w i t h a r i c h e r development, t h e s e two spheres n e c e s s a r i l y s e p a r a t e " (p. 148). Kuyper b e l i e v e s t h a t the v a r i o u s domains o f l i f e each have a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n . These f u n c t i o n s a r e not always e v i d e n t , but appear i n time t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r a l development. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e h i s t o r y o f Western a r t seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t what i s p r e s e n t l y known as museum-art " d i d n ot g e t f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d as a c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t w i t h i t s own s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r ... u n t i l t h e 102 v a r i o u s European 1 ' a r t pour 1 ' a r t movements i n the l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p reached, p r a c t i s e d and d r a m a t i z e d i t " ( S e e r v e l d , 1980, p. 113). B e f o r e t h a t t i me the a r t s were p r i m a r i l y used f o r the purposes of the c h u r c h , the s t a t e , o r the g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f the a r t i s t o c r a t s . Kuyper argues t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f a r t cannot be i d e n t i f i e d as l o n g as i t s e r v e s th e purpose of t h e s t a t e o r t h e c h u r c h . He s t a t e s t h a t i n the p a s t the sphere o f a r t "was e n g r a f t e d i n a dependent sense upon the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l t r e e " (p. 162). But, hec.continues, " a r t l i k e s c i e n c e cannot a f f o r d t o t a r r y a t her o r i g i n , b u t must ever d e v e l o p h e r s e l f more r i c h l y a t the same time p u r g i n g h e r s e l f o f whatever had been f a l s e l y i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h t h e e a r l i e r p l a n t " (p. 163). I n comparison w i t h former days Kuyper i n d i c a t e s t h a t today " a r t r e v e a l s o r d i n a n c e s o f c r e a t i o n w h i c h n e i t h e r s c i e n c e , nor p o l i t i c s , nor r e l i g i o u s l i f e , n or even r e v e l a t i o n can b r i n g t o l i g h t " (p. 163). Sphere s o v e r e i g n t y a l s o a p p l i e s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . Each s o c i a l group such as t h e government, the c h u r c h , o r t h e f a m i l y has a c c o r d i n g t o Kuyper a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f t h e t a s k o f each group. Through the p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r a l development s o c i a l groups d i f f e r e n t i a t e and t a s k s a r e d i v i d e d . F o r example, i n t r i b a l c u l t u r e s t h e t a s k s o f s e v e r a l groups were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n one p e r s o n . The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e head o f s t a t e , the supreme judge, the p r i e s t and t h e b u s i n e s s manager may a l l be c o n c e n t r a t e d 103 i n t h e t r i b a l c h i e f . I n contemporary s o c i e t y each o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s o r s o c i a l groups. Kuyper's c o n c e p t o f sphere s o v e r e i g n t y and the s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y might somewhat be compared w i t h the s t r u c t u r e o f an eco-system. I n an eco-system the l a n d , the c l i m a t e , t h e p l a n t s and t h e a n i m a l s a l l have t h e i r n i c h e o r s u i t a b l e p o s i t i o n . I n a s i m i l a r way Kuyper b e l i e v e s each s o c i a l group has i t s p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . The g e n e r a l c o n c e p t o f sphere s o v e r e i g n t y p r e s e n t e d by Kuyper was l a t e r adopted f o r f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n by the P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Idea. Kuyper's i d e n t i f i c -a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t spheres had l e f t many q u e s t i o n s . Not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d were the p a r t i c u l a r t a s k s o r f u n c t i o n s o f t he s c i e n c e s , r e l i g i o n and a r t . N e i t h e r was t h e v r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups d e l i n e a t e d beyond t h o s e o f t h e c h u r c h , t h e s t a t e , t h e f a m i l y , and t h e s c h o o l . I n re s p o n s e t o t h e s e problems t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Idea p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y and t h e p r i m a r y t a s k s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups. I n a d d i t i o n t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmondunic Idea p r e s e n t s a t h e o r y o f modal a s p e c t s w h i c h f o c u s e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man, the n a t u r a l environment, the man-made environment, and s o c i e t y . I n t h i s s t u d y the concept of sphere s o v e r e i g n t y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n c o n t e x t o f the t h e o r y o f m o d a l i t i e s t o d e l i n e a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e and a r t . 104 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A r t C u r r i c u l a Development The Stone L e c t u r e s (Kuyper, 1953) i n c l u d e , b e s i d e s t h e l e c t u r e on C a l v i n i s m as a l i f e - s y s t e m , f o u r o t h e r l e c t u r e s about r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s , s c i e n c e and a r t . I n t h e l e c t u r e on a r t , Kuyper s t a t e s h i s views about a r t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the t h r e e p a r t s o f the C a l v i n i s t i c l i f e -system as f o l l o w s . F i r s t o f a l l Kuyper r e c o g n i z e s " a r t as one o f t h e r i c h e s t g i f t s o f God t o mankind" '(p. 143) . A g i f t t h a t i s "no f r i n g e t h a t i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e garment and no amusement t h a t i s added t o l i f e but a most s e r i o u s power i n our p r e s e n t e x i s t e n c e " (p. 151). A r t i s p a r t o f t h e life->system. F u r t h e r , Kuyper f o c u s e s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p betv/een a r t and o t h e r s u b j e c t s by s t r e s s i n g t h a t a r t be used, b u t n o t abused. Kuyper was concerned about a b a l a n c e d approach f o r t h e development o f the s c i e n c e s and a r t . "Encroachment on t h e domain o f o t h e r s i s always unlawful," he s t a t e s . "Our human l i f e w i l l o n l y then a t t a i n i t s n o b l e r harmony when a l l i t s f u n c t i o n s c o o p e r a t e i n j u s t p r o p o r t i o n t o our g e n e r a l development" (p. 152). W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f a r t i n c o n t e x t o f the C a l v i n i s t i c c o n c e p t o f c r e a t i o n , Kuyper s t r e s s e s t h a t a r t must remind "us i n i t s p r o d u c t i o n o f the b e a u t i f u l t h a t was l o s t and o f a n t i c i -p a t i n g i t s p e r f e c t coming l u s t e r " (p. 155). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and f e l l o w man i n t h e C a l v i n i s t i c l i f e - s y s t e m has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n , from th e p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t i t emphasizes the e q u a l i t y o f man. T h i s c o n c e p t o f e q u a l i t y has i n f l u e n c e d t h e demo-105 c r a t i z a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t spheres o f l i f e , i n c l u d i n g the enjoyment and p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t . Kuyper s t a t e s , " a r t i s t i c r e f i n e m e n t t h u s f a r r e s t r i c t e d t o a few f a v o r e d c i r c l e s now tends t o g a i n ground among br o a d e r m i d d l e c l a s s e s " . T h i s i n c r e a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h the a r t s i s r e c o g n i z e d by Kuyper "as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f an a c c o m p l i s h e d c i v i l i z a t i o n " (p. 142). Kuyper welcomes the development o f a r t e d u c a t i o n even though he i s w e l l aware t h a t f o r many i n d i v i d u a l s p a i n t i n g w i l l be " l i t t l e more than d a u b i n g " . Y e t , he b e l i e v e s t h a t "the e x u b e r ant f e e l i n g o f h a v i n g a share i n t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f a r t i s so overwhelming, t h a t t h e s c o r n of t h e a r t i s t i s p r e f e r r e d t o t h e abandonment of a r t - t r a i n i n g e d u c a t i o n " (p. 142). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and n a t u r e shows two elements t h a t have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n . F i r s t o f a l l t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d w h i c h "once was b e a u t i f u l b u t by the c u r s e has become undone" (p. 155), i s not t o be the example f o r a r t i s t i c i m i t a t i o n . Kuyper approaches the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and n a t u r e much as a s c i e n t i s t who s t r i v e s t o change c e r t a i n n a t u r a l phenomenon f o r the improvement of l i f e . The n a t u r a l w o r l d i s t o be the s t a r t -i n g p o i n t f o r a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n and not a model f o r i m i t a t i o n . However, the a u t h o r a l s o s t a t e s t h a t \ . " a r t w h i c h does not watch the forms o f n a t u r e , nor l i s t e n s t o i t s sounds, but a r b i t r a r i l y l i k e s t o hover over i t , d e t e r i o r a t e s i n t o a w i l d p l a y o f f a n t a s y " (p. 154). The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s c oncept c o u l d mean t h a t a N e o - C a l v i n -106 i s t i c a r t s t y l e s t r e s s e s n e i t h e r " r e a l i s m " nor " n o n - f i g u r a -t i v e " a r t . Out o f t h i s f i r s t c o n c e p t w h i c h makes the n a t u r a l domain something o t h e r than t h e a e s t h e t i c domain f o l l o w s a second c o n c e p t , a c o n c e p t t h a t s t r e s s e s t h e need t o d i s -t i n g u i s h between the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f n a t u r e and t h o s e o f a work o f a r t . T h i s means t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a f o r a r t e v a l u a t i o n must be r o o t e d i n t h e a e s t h e t i c domain and not i n t h e r e a l i t y o f n a t u r a l phenomena. K u y p e r 1 s co n c e p t o f sphere s o v e r e i g n t y has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as a r t e d u c a t i o n . Sphere s o v e r e i g n t y s t r e s s e s t h e need t o r e c o g n i z e t h e p a r t i c u l a r t a s k o f each s o c i a l group i n c l u d i n g t h e s c h o o l . The s c h o o l o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l community i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Kuyper, th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p a r e n t s and n o t o f t h e c h u r c h o r t h e s t a t e . Kuyper argues t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n b e l o n g t o t h e p a r e n t s , who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r u p b r i n g i n g . The s c h o o l i n a sense i s t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e home. The t a s k o f t h e s c h o o l i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s t o n u r t u r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f l i f e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c o n c e p t u a l framework t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e b a s i c b e l i e f s o f t h e p a r e n t s . These b e l i e f s a r e t o be e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f a l i f e - s y s t e m , t h a t i n c l u d e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between God, man and t h e w o r l d . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s t a t e , the c h u r c h , o r the b u s i n e s s community i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Kuyper, of a l i m i t e d n a t u r e . These s o c i a l groups as such 107 a r e n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l community s i n c e t h e y have t h e i r own t a s k and p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . T h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l community i s t o remain s u b o r d i n a t e i n c h a r a c t e r t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f the s c h o o l as such. A r t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f sphere s o v e r e i g n t y , has i t s own p o s i t i o n i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l program. I t s t a s k a c c o r d i n g t o Kuyper i s n o t t o t e a c h t h e o l o g y o r m o r a l i t y . Kuyper argues t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w by s t a t i n g t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g t h a t has been c r e a t e d was, i n i t s c r e a t i o n , f u r n i s h e d by God w i t h an unchangeable law o f i t s e x i s t e n c e " (p. 53). Y e t , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r spheres on a r t cannot be d e n i e d s i n c e no development t a k e s p l a c e i n i s o l a t i o n , and, as s t a t e d by Rader and J e s s u p (1976) "the a e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t when l e s s p u r e " , w i l l t a k e " o n e c c o l o r a t i o n from o t h e r i n t e r -e s t s " (p. 190). However, what Kuyper wants t o change i s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d on a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n due t o r e q u i r e m e n t s o f u t i l i t a r i a n ends. Kuyper wants t o f r e e a r t from the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c h u r c h , the s t a t e o r b u s i n e s s community i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f u n c t i o n . I n p r a c t i c a l terms i t appears t h a t Kuyper a d v o c a t e s an a r t -f o r - a r t - s a k e program i n e d u c a t i o n . However, t h e a n a l y s i s o f a r t i n the P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Idea (Dooyeweerd, 1957, V o l . 3, pp. 109-142) p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . I n summary K u y p e r 1 s c o n c e p t o f sphere s o v e r e i g n t y p o i n t s t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r t a s k and f u n c t i o n o f e v e r y domain i n l i f e . Each s o c i a l group has i t s own sphere of r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y i n s o c i e t y . The t a s k o f t h e s e groups as w e l l as 108 the p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t , were not formu-l a t e d by Kuyper " i n t o a t h e o r y o f u n i v e r s a l scope" (Kalsbeek, 1975, p. 94). The development of such a t h e o r y became p a r t o f t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Idea. The remainder o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l by way o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y f o c u s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and t h e o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s . The P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Idea Kuyper, who d e v e l o p e d h i s w o r l d v i e w based on John C a l v i n ' s w r i t i n g s , d i d not p r e s e n t t h e fundamental p r i n c i -p l e s o f t h i s v i e w " i n t o a c o h e r e n t , s y s t e m a t i c C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y t h a t c o u l d s e r v e as the t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r a C h r i s t i a n s c h o l a r l y e n t e r p r i s e i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and t h e l i t e r a r y d i s c i p l i n e s " ( K a l s b e e k , 1975, p. 1 8 ) . T h i s t a s k was u n d e r t a k e n by Herman Dooyeweerd a decade a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f Kuyper, and e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f the P h i l o s o p h y o f the Cosmonomic Id e a , o r t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Law-Idea. In 1926, Dooyeweerd was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e .. law f a c u l t y o f t h e F r e e U n i v e r s i t y a t Amsterdam, a p o s i t i o n he h e l d t i l l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1965. I n 1958 h i s o u t s t a n d -i n g work was p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h under th e t i t l e A New  C r i t i q u e o f T h e o r e t i c a l Thought. Because, o f t h i s voluminous work Dooyeweerd i s r e c o g n i z e d as "the most o u t s t a n d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e N e o - C a l v i n i s t c s c h o o l o f p h i l o s o p h y " ( K a l s b e e k , 1975, p. 22). The N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c s c h o o l o f p h i l o s o p h y r e c e i v e d i t s s t a r t i n the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C a l v i n i s t i c P h i l o s o p h y . T h i s 109 a s s o c i a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1935. Dooyeweerd was the e d i t o r o f i t s academic j o u r n a l , P h i l o s o p h i a Reformato. The purpose o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n was t o encourage r e s e a r c h i n the v a r i o u s s c i e n c e s on t h e b a s i s o f a g e n e r a l framework p r e s e n t e d i n t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Id e a . Dooyeweerd s t a t e d i n 1935: I am s t r o n g l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t f o r the f r u i t f u l w o r k i n g o u t o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y , i n a g e n u i n e l y s c i e n t i f i c manner, t h e r e i s needed a s t a f f o f f e l l o w - l a b o u r e r s who would be i n a p o s i t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o t h i n k t h r o u g h i t s :basic i d e a s i n t h e s p e c i a l s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s ( K a l s b e e k , 1975, p. 27). I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s c h a l l e n g e some o f the e a r l i e r c o n t r i -b u t i o n s i n c l u d e d works i n t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y and m e d i e v a l s t u d i e s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l e t h i c s , h i s t o r y o f a r t , l e g a l t h e o r y , n e o c a p i t a l i s t economic t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , h i s t o r i c i s m and r e l a t i v i s m i n modern t h o u g h t , phenomenology, and f o u n d a t i o n s o f p h y s i c s (p. 2 7 ) . The s u p p o r t e r s o f the a s s o c i a t i o n a r e not a l l o f t h e same mind and c r i t i c i s m o f the p h i l o s o p h y does n ot appear t o be l a c k i n g . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s a r e q u e s t i o n s about Dooyeweerd 1s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Greek thou g h t , h i s a n a l y s i s o f Thomas A q u i n a s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y as c r e a t i o n , a n d h i s use o f u n b i b l i c a l m o t i f s i n the o n t o l o g y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Idea has r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the w o r l d . I n F r a n c e the F r e n c h Reformed S o c i e t y , t h r o u g h i t s q u a r t e r l y La Revue Reformee, "has made c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o 110 the s pread o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i n t h e F r e n c h s p e a k i n g w o r l d " (p. 2 8 ) . Some o f t h e b e s t c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s o f Dooyeweerd have come from South A f r i c a . I n N o r t h America r e s e a r c h i n c o n t e x t o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y i s promoted t h r o u g h C a l v i n C o l l e g e and the I n s t i t u t e f o r C h r i s t i a n S t u d i e s i n Tor o n t o . I n t h i s s t u d y Dooyeweerd's a n a l y s i s o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f a r t i n r e -l a t i o n t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be p r e s e n t e d as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e development o f a r t c u r r i c u l a i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n . Ground M o t i v e s o f Western Thought The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f one o r two i s o l a t e d elements o f a comprehensive t h e o r e t i c a l framework always w a r r a n t s c a u t i o n , s i n c e the meaning o f t h e p a r t s i s always dependent on t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e whole. To keep i n p e r s p e c t i v e the elements of Dooyeweerd's p h i l o s o p h y t h a t a r e used i n t h i s s t u d y , c e r t a i n fundamental m o t i v a t i o n s o r d r i v i n g f o r c e s , which the a u t h o r r e c o g n i z e s as i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e development o f thought p a t t e r n s i n the Western W o r l d , need t o be i d e n t i f i e d . Dooyeweerd (1957) b e l i e v e s t h a t c e r t a i n ground m o t i v e s " g i v e c o n t e n t t o t h e c e n t r a l main s p r i n g o f t h e e n t i r e a t t i t u d e o f l i f e and thought" (p. 61, V o l . 1 ) . These ground m o t i v e s might be compared t o f o r c e s t h a t d i r e c t o r shape t h e p a t t e r n s of t h ought. Dooyeweerd d i s t i n g u i s h e s f o u r ground m o t i v e s r e l a t e d t o t h e development o f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n . The f i r s t ground m o t i v e i s the Greek f o r m r m a t t e r m o t i v e . T h i s m o t i v e was the p r o d u c t o f Greek r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . I t i s r o o t e d on one I l l hand i n the e a r l y n a t u r e r e l i g i o n and on t h e o t h e r hand i n t h e Olympian c u l t u r e r e l i g i o n . K a l s b e e k (197 5) i n h i s Contours o f a C h r i s t i a n P h i l o s o p h y , w h i c h i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Dooyeweerd 1s tho u g h t , s t a t e s t h a t "the o r i g i n o f t h e form-matter m o t i v e l a y i n the c o n f l i c t between two r e l i g i o n s , t he e a r l i e r one whi c h c e n t e r e d on t h e v i t a l f o r c e s o f l i f e , and t h e l a t e r one, as s y m b o l i z e d by t h e Olympian gods, which c e n t e r e d on the c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s o f man" (p. 62). Charac-t e r i s t i c o f t h e form-matter m o t i v e i s i t s d i v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y i n t o two r e a l m s , a lower r e a l m o f m a t t e r and a h i g h e r r e a l m of c u l t u r e . The lower r e a l m was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e w o r s h i p o f Di o n y s u s , god o f o r g a n i c l i f e ; t h e h i g h e r r e a l m , i n t h e w o r s h i p of A p o l l o , the god o f o r d e r , j u s t i c e and l e g a l i t y . T h i s d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t o f form and m a t t e r i s r e c o g n i z a b l e i n s e t s o f o p p o s i t e s such a s , mind and m a t t e r , t h e o r y and p r a c t i s e , p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l , body and s o u l , and a c t u a l and i d e a l . The second ground m o t i v e t h a t Dooyeweerd i n t r o d u c e s i s a s y n t h e s i s o f Greek and C h r i s t i a n thought p a t t e r n s , and i s c a l l e d "the s c h o l a s t i c m o t i v e o f n a t u r e and g r a c e " (p. 63). T h i s second ground m o t i v e was de v e l o p e d by Thomas A q u i n a s . Dooyeweerd (1957) s t a t e s t h a t : A c c o r d i n g t o Thomas, human n a t u r e i s a c o m p o s i t i o n o f a m a t e r i a l body and a r a t i o n a l s o u l as a s u b s t a n -t i a l form, w h i c h , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o A r i s t o t l e ' s c o n c e p t i o n , i s c o n c e i v e d o f as an i m m o r t a l s u b s t a n c e . T h i s s c h o l a s t i c v i e w has no room f o r t h e b i b l i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the r a d i c a l r e l i g i o u s u n i t y o f human 112 e x i s t e n c e . Instead of t h i s u n i t y a n a t u r a l and supranatural aspect i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the c r e a t i o n of man (p. 181, V o l . 1). This d i s t i n c t i o n between a n a t u r a l and supernatural realm found expression during the middle ages.in the r e l a t i o n s h i p between church and s t a t e . I t a l s o d i v i d e d the a r t s i n t o sacred and secular d i v i s i o n s w i t h the r e s u l t that today C h r i s t i a n a r t i s o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h church a r t only. The t h i r d ground motive i s the motive of nature and freedom. This motive i s the most f a m i l i a r i n our present day. On the one hand, i t i s rooted i n the concept that man i s an autonomous and f r e e being. On the other hand, i t presents nature as a realm which i s determined and which f u n c t i o n s according to laws t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d through s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Nature i s not f r e e , but man i s . In c o n t r a s t to the preceding ground motives Dooyeweerd pro-posed as a d r i v i n g f o r c e f o r the Philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea the "ground motive of c r e a t i o n , f a l l and redemption through Jesus C h r i s t i n the communion of the Holy S p i r i t " (Kalsbeek, 1975, p. 63). This ground motive i s not based on "the outcome of t h e o l o g i c a l r e f l e c t i o n but the fundamental b i b l i c a l given upon which a l l theology i s based" (p. 66). C r e a t i o n i s according to Dooyeweerd (1957), not autonomous but i s subjected to the law of the Creator. "This subjec-tedness i s the very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l that which has been created" (p. 99, V o l . . l ) . As such c r e a t i o n "points beyond i t s e l f and i s not s u f f i c i e n t to i t s e l f " (p. 100, 113 V o l . 1 ) . The c o n c e p t o f t h e f a l l i s d e s c r i b e d by t h e a u t h o r as f o l l o w s : Our t e m p o r a l w o r l d , i n i t s t e m p o r a l d i v e r s i t y and coherence o f meaning, i s i n the o r d e r o f God's c r e a t i o n bound t o t h e r e l i g i o u s r o o t o f mankind. A p a r t from t h i s r o o t i t has no meaning and so no r e a l i t y . Hence the a p o s t a s y i n the h e a r t , i n t h e r e l i g i o u s r o o t o f the t e m p o r a l w o r l d s i g n i f i e d t h e a p o s t a s y o f t h e e n t i r e t e m p o r a l c r e a t i o n , w h i c h was c p r E e n t r a t e d i n mankind. Thus t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e f a l l permeated a l l t e m p o r a l a s p e c t s o f meaning o f cosmic r e a l i t y (p. 100, V o l . 1 ) . The r e d e m p t i o n p r o c e s s i s t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e " d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e f a l l " . I t i s the r e d i r e c t i o n o f " a l l t e m p o r a l a s p e c t s o f meaning i n t o f e l l o w s h i p w i t h t h e C r e a t o r , and i n t h a t sense i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f the f a l l . F o r a r t e d u c a t i o n the i m p o r t a n c e o f the c r e a t i o n , f a l l and r e demption ground m o t i v e c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l elements. F i r s t , i t s e t s t h e tone f o r a e s t h e t i c e x p l o r a t i o n s . A r t a c t i v i t i e s t a k e p l a c e i n a c o n t e x t w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s the dependence on the C r e a t o r . S e c o n d l y , a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y i s t o be p a r t o f t h e r e n e w a l p r o c e s s i n l i f e . T h i r d l y , t h e v a r i o u s meanings o f a r t a r e n o t i n t h e works o f a r t as such but i n man, who i s a t the " h e a r t " o f a l l c r e a t e d r e a l i t y . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f ground m o t i v e s f o r a r t , o r a r t e d u c a t i o n have n o t been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n the N e o - C a l v i n -i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e , e x c e p t f o r Rookmaker's a n a l y s i s o f t h e n a t u r e - f r e e d o m m o t i v e i n t h e work o f Gauguin and h i s contem-114 p o r a r i e s . Rookmaker, who was a p r o f e s s o r o f H i s t o r y o f A r t a t t h e F r e e U n i v e r s i t y i n Amsterdam, r e c o g n i z e d i n Gauguin's work a s t r u g g l e between the a r t i s t ' s own views o f r e a l i t y and the demands o f t h e n a t u r a l environment. Rookmaker (1957) s t a t e s t h a t what Gauguin and o t h e r s sought "was i n f a c t t o get f r e e from the making o f a p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f r e a l i t y as seen i n a p o s i t i v i s t i c v i e w , hence t h e freedom o f n a t u r a l -ism" (p. I l l ) . Y e t "they d i d not t h i n k o f a b s t r a c t (non-f i g u r a t i v e ) a r t , such as was t o a r i s e some twenty y e a r s l a t e r " (p. 111). Rookmaker i d e n t i f i e s Gauguin's p e r i o d as a time o f s y n t h e s i s between the n a t u r e and freedom i d e a l s . T h i s s y n t h e s i s i s f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d i n Rookmaker's Modern  A r t and t h e Death'of a C u l t u r e (1970). W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e work o f Van Gogh and Cezanne, Rookmaker men t i o n s , "they b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r the two g r e a t p r i n c i p l e s o f the modern -p o s t E n l i g h t m e n t w o r l d ; the p r i n c i p l e o f s t a r t i n g from sense p e r c e p t i o n i n o r d e r t o g a i n knowledge o f the u n i v e r s e , and t h e o t h e r g r e a t p r i n c i p l e o f human freedom" (p. 9 6 ) . The r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d i n t h e N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between ground m o t i v e s and a r t , appears t o be l i m i t e d t o the h i s t o r y o f a r t , and does n ot i n c l u d e a r t e d u c a t i o n as such. Y e t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the l a t t e r c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made. F o r i n s t a n c e , when a r t e d u c a t o r s change t h e emphasis from t h e c h i l d t o th e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , some r e c o g n i t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s freedom i n a r t has been extended t o a p o i n t where t h e n a t u r e o f a r t as such appears t o be s u f f e r i n g . 115 A l s o , i n c o n f l i c t s between th o s e who s t r e s s the " d o i n g " o f a r t , and o t h e r s who emphasize t h e need t o be o n l y c r i t i c a l o r a n a l y t i c a l , t he d u a l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e m a t t e r and form m o t i v e appears e v i d e n t . How the v a r i o u s ground m o t i v e s have shaped a r t e d u c a t i o n i s not t h e prime c o n c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y . However, what i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t i n t h e development o f a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c s c h o o l s t h e ground m o t i v e o f t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Idea forms t h e b a s i s . T h i s means t h a t the a e s t h e t i c domain, as p a r t o f c r e a t e d r e a l i t y , i s never autonomous o r independent. T h i s concept i s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e o t h e r ground m o t i v e s which r e c o g n i z e n a t u r e , g r a c e o r freedom as something w h i c h can be i s o l a t e d o r s e t a p a r t from t h e r e s t o f r e a l i t y . N a t u r e , a c c o r d i n g t o Dooyeweerd, can never be approached as such; i t always e x i s t s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the C r e a t o r and man h i m s e l f . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f r e a l i t y such as b i o l o g y o r a e s t h e t i c s cannot be i s o l a t e d f o r a n a l y s i s , b u t i t does mean t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l be " c o l o r e d " by the i n v e s t i g a t i o r 1 s assumption about t h e o r i g i n o f t he c r e a t i o n and the method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e l e c t e d . Dooyeweerd 1s t h e o r y o f modal a s p e c t s i s r o o t e d i n t h e ground m o t i v e o f c r e a t i o n , f a l l , and re d e m p t i o n . I t t h e r e -f o r e p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l a c c o u n t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the C r e a t o r , man, and t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f r e a l i t y . I n t h i s s t u d y Dooyeweerd's t h e o r y i s p r e s e n t e d as a frame-work f o r the development o f a r t c u r r i c u l a . 116 Theory of Modal Aspects  Mutual I r r e d u c i b i l i t y of Aspects In the w r i t i n g s of Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and v a r i o u s o t h e r a s p e c t s of human experience t h a t are s o c i a l , moral, l i n g u i s t i c or a n a l y t i c . A c c o r d i n g to Dooyeweerd, t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not p e c u l i a r to an a e s t h e t i c experience but "can be observed i n e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s i n temporal r e a l i t y " (Kalsbeek, 1975, p. 38). Man and t h i n g s a l i k e f u n c t i o n i n an a r r a y of aspects t h a t are i n t i m a t e l y connected. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these aspects i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s p h e r e - s o v e r e i g n t y . Sphere-sovereignty i s d e f i n e d by Dooyeweerd (1957) as "mutual i r r e d u c i b i l i t y " (p. 101, V o l . 1). To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s mutual i r r e d u c i b i l i t y he uses the f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n : The l i g h t of the sun i s r e f r a c t e d through a prism, and t h i s r e f r a c t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d by the eye of sense i n seven w e l l known c o l o r s of the spectrum. In them-s e l v e s a l l c o l o r s are dependent r e f r a c t i o n s of the u n r e f r a c t e d l i g h t , and none of them can be regarded as an i n t e g r a l of the c o l o r - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . F u r t h e r , not one of the seven c o l o r s i s capable of e x i s t i n g i n the spectrum a p a r t from the coherence w i t h the r e s t , and by the i n t e r c e p t i o n of the u n r e f r a c t e d l i g h t the e n t i r e p l a y of c o l o r s vanishes i n t o nothing v • • • • j. As the seven c o l o r s do not owe t h e i r o r i g i n to one another, so the temporal aspects of meaning i n face of 117 each o t h e r have s p h e r e - s o v e r e i g n t y o r modal i r r e d u c i b i l i t y (p. 102, V o l . 1 ) . I n t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n Dooyeweerd f o c u s e s on t h e manner o r way i n which t h i n g s e x i s t o r f u n c t i o n . K a l s b e e k (1975), on t h e b a s i s o f Dooyeweerd's c o n c e p t s , p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r i n s i g h t about th e i n t e r w o v e n e s s o f the a s p e c t s when he s t a t e s : The v i s i b i l i t y o f t h i n g s , t h e i r a n a l y s a b i l i t y , t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o be c u l t i v a t e d , t h e i r beauty o r u g l i n e s s , t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o f u n c t i o n as a j u r i d i c a l o r economic o b j e c t - t h e s e a r e a l l i n t r i n s i c a s p e c t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l i t y s t r u c t u r e o f t h i n g s . None o f t h e s e a s p e c t s can e x i s t a p a r t from man who s e e s , a n a l y s e s , forms, a p p r e c i a t e s , and causes j u s t i c e t o be done. T h e r e f o r e , a "Ding an s i c h " cannot e x i s t ; f o r when a t h i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t from the h o r i z o n o f human e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i t s d i v e r s i t y o f a s p e c t s , n o t h i n g i s l e f t o f t h a t t h i n g ;(p. 121) . Order of Modal A s p e c t s Dooyeweerd's t h e o r y o f modal a s p e c t s i n c l u d e s f i f t e e n m o d a l i t i e s w h i c h have t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p l a c e i n an o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s s t r u c t u r e i s not f i n a l but "open t o c o r r e c t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n " ( K a l s b e e k , 1975, p. 38). The f i r s t a s p e c t i n t h e o r d e r i s the n u m e r i c a l o r mathe-m a t i c a l m o d a l i t y . T h i s a s p e c t r e f e r s t o t h a t which can be c o u n t e d , such as t h e number o f l e a v e s on t h e stem of a r o s e o r t h e number o f p e t a l s on a f l o w e r . The second a s p e c t i s 118 t h e s p a t i a l m o d a l i t y w h i c h r e f e r s t o the space r e q u i r e d by the f l o w e r . The m o l e c u l a r movement i n the p l a n t p o i n t s t o t h e k i n e m a t i c m o d a l i t y w h i c h forms th e b a s i s o f t h e p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l a s p e c t o f m o d a l i t y . The o r g a n i c o r b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n t forms the l a s t m o d a l i t y i n w h i c h the p l a n t f u n c t i o n s as a s u b j e c t . I n a l l t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s t h e p l a n t depends on human c o n t a c t and i n t e r v e n t i o n . F o r example, the r o s e f u n c t i o n s i n man's s e n s i t i v e a s p e c t ; t h a t i s , i t can be touched, seen o r s m e l l e d . I t f u r t h e r f u n c t i o n s i n man's a n a l y t i c a l a s p e c t s i n c e t h e r o s e can be a n a l y s e d . Through c u l t i v a t i o n , t h e w i l d r o s e has been changed and many v a r i e t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e today. T h i s c u l t i v a t i o n p r o c e s s r e f e r s t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l m o d a l i t y . The r o s e a l s o f u n c t i o n s i n t h e l i n g u a l a s p e c t ; each p a r t o f t h e p l a n t has a name. S i n c e r o s e - g a r d e n s g i v e o c c a s i o n f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t among p e o p l e the r o s e a l s o f u n c t i o n s i n the s o c i a l a s p e c t . The r o s e f u n c t i o n s i n t h e economic m o d a l i t y when i t becomes a commodity. Roses show a v a r i e t y o f a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s . When i n someone's garden r o s e s a r e w i l f u l l y d e s t r o y e d , t h e owner may p r e s s c h a r g e s . T h i s p o i n t s t o t h e j u r i d i c a l a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n t . The c o n c e r n and c a r e f o r t h e r o s e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p l a n t a l s o f u n c t i o n s i n the m o r a l a s p e c t . The l a s t a s p e c t i n w h i c h the r o s e f u n c t i o n s i s t h e p i s t i c m o d a l i t y . T h i s m o d a l i t y r e f e r s t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c oncept about the r o s e i n c o n t e x t o f t h e o r i g i n o f c r e a t e d r e a l i t y . T h i s c o n c e p t i s u l t i m a t e l y based on a f a i t h commitment, whi c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the p i s t i c m o d a l i t y . 119 A t y p i c a l arrangement o f the a s p e c t s and t h e i r main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : A s p e c t 1. a r i t h m e t i c 2. s p a t i a l 3. k i n e m a t i c 4. p h y s i c a l 5. b i o t i c 6. s e n s i t i v e 7. a n a l y t i c 8. h i s t o r i c a l 9. l i n g u a l 10. s o c i a l 11. economic 12. a e s t h e t i c 13. j u r i d i c a l 14. e t h i c a l 15. p i s t i c Main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r m e a n i n g - n u c l e i d i s c r e t e q u a n t i t y c o n t i n u o u s e x t e n s i o n m o t i o n energy v i t a l i t y ( l i f e ) f e e l i n g l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n f o r m a t i v e power s y m b o l i c meaning s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e f r u g a l i t y i n managing s c a r c e goods harmony ( a l l u s i v e n e s s ) r e t r i b u t i o n (recompensing) l o v e f a i t h ( f i r m a s s urance) ( K a l s b e e k , 1975, p. 100). The o r d e r o f the a s p e c t s i s n o t a r b i t r a r y but f o l l o w s a development from " e a r l i e r " t o " l a t e r " . F o r example, i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f a r o s e the k i n e m a t i c and p h y s i c a l -c h e m i c a l a s p e c t p r e c e d e s t h e b i o t i c s i n c e t h e b i o t i c " l i f e " depends on t h e s e p r e c e d i n g a s p e c t s . W i t h o u t th e k i n e m a t i c and p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l a s p e c t no p l a n t l i f e i s p o s s i b l e . I n c o n t r a s t t o a p l a n t , a r o c k f u n c t i o n s o n l y i n t h e a r i t h m e t i c , s p a t i a l , k i n e m a t i c and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s and l a c k s t h e b i o t i c 120 a s p e c t . A n i m a l s f u n c t i o n i n an a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t because they n o t o n l y need space, energy, p h y s i c a l s u b s t a n c e and b i o l o g i c a l l i f e , but they a l s o have sense organs; they can see, hear, s m e l l and t a s t e . The s e n s i t i v e m o d a l i t y i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a n i m a l l i f e . I t makes a n i m a l s d i f f e r from p l a n t s and r o c k s . Man f u n c t i o n s i n a l l a s p e c t s . Through man a l l t h i n g s , i n c l u d i n g a r t and t h e man-made environment, f u n c t i o n . However, n o t a l l t h i n g s f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o man i n t h e same way. The f o l l o w i n g i s an a n a l y s i s o f a n a t u r a l o b j e c t , an o b j e c t i n the man-made envir o n m e n t , and a work o f a r t . S u b j e c t and O b j e c t S i d e o f I n d i v i d u a l T h i n g s I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f a l i n d e n t r e e Dooyeweerd p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s t r e e f u n c t i o n s as a s u b j e c t i n t h e f i r s t f i v e m o d a l i t i e s and as an o b j e c t i n t h e r e m a i n i n g . The s u b j e c t s i d e i n c l u d e s t h o s e a s p e c t s w h i c h make l i f e f o r t h e t r e e p o s s i b l e . The b i o t i c m o d a l i t y i s the l a s t a s p e c t i n wh i c h t h e t r e e f u n c t i o n s as s u b j e c t . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t r e e ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the o t h e r a s p e c t s Dooyeweerd (1957) s t a t e s : Does t h i s mean t h a t t h e t e m p o r a l r e a l i t y o f our l i n d e n i s c ompleted i n t h e b i o t i c a l m o d a l i t y ? I f such were t h e c a s e we would i n d e e d be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h an i n d i v i -d u a l "Ding an s i c h " i n i t s m e t a p h y s i c a l sense, o r t o be more e x a c t t h e t r e e would n o t a t a l l e x i s t " f o r u s " . A t h i n g e x i s t i n g i n a p r e - p s y c h i c a l modal i s o l a t i o n would be e x c l u d e d from t h e i n t e r - m o d a l t e m p o r a l co-herence o f meaning, n e c e s s a r y f o r human e x p e r i e n c e 121 (p. 56, V o l . 3 ) . From t h e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p i s t i c a s p e c t t h e t r e e f u n c t i o n s " f o r us" as an o b j e c t . We see the t r e e , we a n a l y z e / i t , we c u t i t down and use i t , we g i v e names t o i t s p a r t s , we s o c i a l i z e i n i t s shade, we s e l l i t s wood, we admire i t s shape and c o l o r , we p r o t e c t i t , we c a r e f o r i t , we r e c o g -n i z e i t as p a r t o f c r e a t e d r e a l i t y and e x p l a i n i t s e x i s t e n c e i n terms o f our con c e p t about the o r i g i n o f t h e u n i v e r s e . F o r a l l the man-made t h i n g s , such as t a b l e s and p a i n t i n g s , t h e s u b j e c t s i d e would i n c l u d e o n l y t h e f i r s t f o u r a s p e c t s s i n c e t h e y r e f e r t o the m a t e r i a l s and s i z e o f t h i n g s . Beyond the f o u r t h m o d a l i t y man-made o b j e c t s f u n c t i o n " f o r us" i n the o t h e r a s p e c t s as o b j e c t s . A d d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e made by Dooyeweerd w i t h r e s p e c t t o the a s p e c t s t h a t f u n c t i o n on the o b j e c t s i d e o f man-made t h i n g s . Each t h i n g , even though i t f u n c t i o n s " f o r us" i n a l l a s p e c t s , h a s a l s o , a c c o r d i n g t o Dooyeweerd, two a s p e c t s t h a t g i v e i t i t s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r and make i t d i s t i n c t from o t h e r t h i n g s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e between t h i n g s i s e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f v a r y i n g " i n t e r n a l m o d a l i t y s t r u c t u r e s " . To c l a r i f y t h i s v i e w p o i n t the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l p r e s e n t an a n a l y s i s o f a c h a i r and a p a i n t i n g i n terms o f t h e i r i n t e r n a l m o d a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . The I n t e r n a l M o d a l i t y S t r u c t u r e o f a Thing I n a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f a t h i n g , Dooyeweerd i n t r o d u c e s t h e c o n c e p t o f q u a l i f y i n g o r l e a d i n g f u n c t i o n s . A q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n g i v e s d i r e c t i o n t o , o r l e a d s a l l t h e p r e c e d i n g 122 f u n c t i o n s o f an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g . T h i s q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n i s n o t p e c u l i a r t o man-made t h i n g s ? i t i s a l s o p a r t o f t h e p l a n t and a n i m a l domains. F o r i n s t a n c e , i n a p l a n t t h a t f u n c t i o n s i n t h e n u m e r i c a l , t h e s p a t i a l , k i n e m a t i c , p h y s i c a l , and b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t ; t h e b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t g u i d e s t h o s e t h a t p r e c e e d i t . The p r e c e d i n g a s p e c t s a r e " c o l o r e d " by the b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s i n c e the d e s t i n a t i o n o f the p l a n t i s f u l f i l l e d i n t h i s a s p e c t . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s s t u d y i s Dooyeweerd's a n a l y s i s o f u t e n s i l s o r a r t i f a c t s s i n c e t h e y form an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e man-made environment, and a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the suggested a r t c u r r i c u l a o f Chapman, Feldman, and McFee. I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f u t e n s i l s Dooyeweerd (1957) s i n g l e s o u t two a s p e c t s o r f u n c t i o n s t h a t a r e o f imp o r t a n c e f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y p i c a l o f an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g . One a s p e c t i s t h e q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n and t h e o t h e r the f o u n d a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . The q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n e x p r e s s e s the d e s t i n a t i o n o r use o f a t h i n g ; t h e f o u n d a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t . U t e n s i l s and o t h e r man-made p r o d u c t s a l l have t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t as c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s . The a u t h o r e x p l a i n s t h e f o u n d a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f a c h a i r as f o l l o w s : A p r i m i t i v e man doesr.not need t a b l e s and c h a i r s t o meet h i s n a t u r a l o r s o c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . When he i s t i r e d , t h e ground o r t r e e t r u n k p r o v i d e an adequate r e s t i n g p l a c e . The I n t r o d u c t i o n o f f u r n i t u r e and the c u l t i v a t i o n o f i t s h a b i t u a l s o c i e t a l use a r e dependent 123 on a h i s t o r i c a l d i s c l o s u r e o f human s o c i e t y . We cannot doubt, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e u t e n s i l s have a t y p i c a l h i s t o r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n (p. 137, V o l 3 ) . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o r a s p e c t o f i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s i s n e c e s s a r y s i n c e t h e e a r l i e r a s p e c t s t h a t r e f e r t o t h e m a t e r i a l s and dime n s i o n s o f t h i n g s do n o t e x p l a i n how the t h i n g s come t o be. The second a s p e c t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s man-made t h i n g s i s t h e q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t f o r each i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g . A c h a i r w h i c h f u r n i s h e s o ur home, f o r i n -s t a n c e , i s " e n c l o s e d i n the m o d a l i t y o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . W i t h i n the s t r u c t u r a l s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n i t i s s u b j e c t t o t h e norms o f s o c i a b i l i t y , c l a s s o r rank o b l i g a t i o n s , s t y l e , and so on" (p. 138, V o l . 3 ) . Even though e v e r y c h a i r has the h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t as i t s f o u n d a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n , t h e q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n d i f f e r s , depending on f o r what purpose the c h a i r i s used. F o r i n s t a n c e , Dooyeweerd s t a t e s about the u t e n s i l s i n a c h u r c h t h e f o l l o w i n g : The e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e o f an a l t a r , a c h a p e l , a temple, a c r u c i f i x o r r o s a r y , b e t r a y s t h e i r o b j e c t i v e d e s t i n a t i o n f o r w o r s h i p . The m a j o r i t y o f such t h i n g s a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s a c r e d c h a r a c t e r o f the sub-j e c t i v e community t o w h i c h they b e l o n g , w h i c h i s o b v i o u s l y q u a l i f i e d by t h e f u n c t i o n o f f a i t h (p. 144, V o l . 3 ) . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n i s t h a t i t may be changed. A t e a cup may be used as a wine 124 g l a s s , fin a r t i c l e o f d r e s s , such as shawls when ho l o n g e r f a s h i o n a b l e , may become w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s . Y e t "the l e a d i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e everyday u t e n s i l s i s not t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t i v e ends f o r w h i c h t h e y can be used" (p. 143, V o l . 3) > Because "normal s u b j e c t i v e use i s i n s e p a r a b l y bound t o t h e o b j e c t i v e q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o f the o b j e c t i t s e l f " (p. 143, V o l . 3 ) . F u r t h e r , the q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o f man-made o b j e c t s i n f l u e n c e s a l l the p r e c e d i n g a s p e c t s . F o r example, a c h a i r t h a t i s d e s i g n e d f o r a t y p i s t must be s u i t a b l e f o r i t s t a s k . Such a c h a i r must be a d j u s t a b l e , move e a s i l y and p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e human body i n such a way t h a t t h e work i s n o t h i n d e r e d . The d e s i g n o f such a c h a i r i s i n t h i s c a s e d i r e c t e d by t h e e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r i n t h e economic a s p e c t . The m a t e r i a l s , s i z e , and shape o f t h e c h a i r a r e t o be sub-o r d i n a t e t o i t s q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n arid no d u a l i s m o r t e n s i o n s h o u l d e x i s t between "the t e c h n i c a l form and i t s l e a d i n g f u n c t i o n " (p. 138, V o l . 3 ) . The a e s t h e t i c d i m e n s i o n o f t h i s c h a i r must t h e r e f o r e be r e c o g n i z e d as a secondary element and not as i t s l e a d i n g a s p e c t . A r t and i t s Q u a l i f y i n g F u n c t i o n A r t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t as i t s f o u n d a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n and by t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t as i t s q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n . Because o f t h e q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n Dooyeweerd makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between the " p r a c t i c a l " a r t s and t h e " f i n e " a r t s , o r t h e a p p l i e d o r bound a r t s , and f r e e  a r t . I n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n about t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e a u t h o r 125 f o c u s e s on t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l development. T h i s development has shown t h a t "handwork s e r v e d as an h i s t o r i c a l o c c a s i o n f o r t h e r i s e o f independent p l a s t i c a r t " (p. 138, V o l . 3 ) . These "independent p l a s t i c " a r t s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r , became more a p p a r e n t d u r i n g t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e i r u n i q u e s t r u c t u r e s have emerged. Where i n e a r l i e r t i m e s t h e s e independent p l a s t i c a r t s o r f r e e a r t s were made s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e s o c i a l needs o f s o c i e t y , today a r t can a l s o be e x p e r i e n c e d " f r e e l y " o r i n d e p e n d e n t l y from o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . F r e e a r t o r what Dooyeweerd a l s o c a l l s "pure" a r t i s n o t t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" movements o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y . T h i s i d e a i s made c l e a r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : Our o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s s l o g a n , however, does n o t c o n c e r n i t s i n t e n t i o n t o defend t h e r i g h t o f f r e e a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n a g a i n s t t h o s e who i n t e n d t o make a r t always s e r v e a s p e c i f i c u t i l i t a r i a n o r m o r a l purpose. Our o p p o s i t i o n i s o n l y d i r e c t e d t o t h e a b s o l u t i z a t i o n o f th e a e s t h e t i c m o d a l i t y by r e s t r i c t i n g a work o f a r t t o i t s l e a d i n g s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n and i g n o r i n g i t s p o s t - a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s (p. 139, V o l . 3 ) . What Dooyeweerd wants t o a v o i d i s t h e r e d u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y i n a e s t h e t i c terms. H i s c o n c e r n s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n somewhat d i f f e r e n t terms by Rader and Je s s u p (1976) who f e e l t h a t "an i n d i v i d u a l whose l i f e seems e x c l u s i v e l y o r d i s -p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y absorbed i n one i n t e r e s t we r e g a r d him as 126 abnormal" (p. 177). The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f r e e a r t become more a p p a r e n t i n i t s comparison w i t h t h e a p p l i e d o r bound a r t s . The term "bound" a r t r e f e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o Dooyeweerd,to a l l t h o s e forms o f a r t w h i c h s e r v e o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e a e s t h e -t i c q u a l i t i e s o f a c h a i r a r e an example o f "bound", a r t . The c h a i r i s n o t a r t as such, but a p a i n t i n g i s . The former i s "bound" a r t , the l a t t e r " f r e e " a r t . I n "bound" a r t the a e s t h e t i c " l i f e " i s r e s t r i c t e d . I n " f r e e " a r t i t i s emphasized. W i t h r e s p e c t t o f u r n i s h i n g s , t h e a u t h o r mentions t h a t "the a e s t h e t i c f u n c t i o n can never have the l e a d i n g r o l e i n the s t r u c t u r e o f f u r n i t u r e " (p. 140, V o l . 3 ) . He f u r t h e r goes on t o say t h a t e l a b o r a t e d e c o r a t i o n s such as c a r v i n g s "ought n o t t o o b t r u d e a t t h e expense o f t h e p r o p e r c h a r a c t e r " . However, when t h e s e c a r v i n g s a r e s e p a r a t e d from t h e u t e n s i l t h e y "must 'be c o n s i d e r e d as f r e e works o f a r t " (p. 141, V o l . 3 ) . What a p p l i e s t o u t e n s i l s a l s o a p p l i e s t o a r c h i t e c t u r e w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o Dooyeweerd i s a form o f "bound1;! a r t . A b u i l d i n g i s never a work o f a r t as such, i t i s d e s i g n e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n . The a r c h i t e c t i s never " f r e e " t o e x p r e s s h i s a e s t h e t i c i d e a s , t h e s e i d e a s a r e always sub-o r d i n a t e t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g . The a u t h o r em-p h a s i z e s , however, t h a t : t h i s does n o t mean t h a t i n t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g , a e s t h e t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s must be m i n i m i z e d . I t does i m p l y however, t h a t t h e a r t i s t i s 127 n o t engaged i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a f r e e a e s t h e t i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d o b j e c t (p. 140, V o l . 3 ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n between "bound" and " f r e e " a r t appears not t o be based on a d i f f e r e n c e i n rank but on t h e v a r i o u s " d e s t i n a t i o n s " o r uses o f the i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s . Dooyeweerd 1s d i s t i n c t i o n : , g i v e s f u r t h e r r e c o g n i t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the a r t s , and e l i m i n a t e s d u a l i s m s between the f i n e a r t s and t h e a p p l i e d a r t s . The Meaning K e r n e l o f the A e s t h e t i c A s p e c t An e s s e n t i a l element i n Dooyeweerd 1s t h e o r y o f m o d a l i t i e s i s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e prime c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f each a s p e c t . T h i s prime c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e n u c l e a r meaning  k e r n e l t h a t s e t s a p a r t one a s p e c t from a n o t h e r . I n p r a c t i c a l terms i t d e t e r m i n e s the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s . I t s e p a r a t e s the b i o l o g i s t from th e economist and the psycho-l o g i s t from th e t h e o l o g i a n . I n a r t i t i s t h a t w h i c h makes something p e c u l i a r l y " a e s t h e t i c " . : I n t h e development o f N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y the meaning k e r n e l o f the a e s t h e -t i c a s p e c t has been d e f i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Kuyper d e f i n e d i t as "the b e a u t i f u l " . Dooyeweerd and Rookmaker changed t h i s l a t e r t o " b e a u t i f u l f i t t i n g n e s s " . C a l v i n S e e r v e l d (1980), a s u p p o r t e r o f t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Cosmonomic Idea and s e n i o r member i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l a e s t h e t i c s a t the I n s t i t u t e f o r C h r i s t i a n S t u d i e s i n T o r o n t o n , f i n d s b e a u t i f u l f i t t i n g n e s s "an unexamined and undeveloped p r e s u p p o s i t i o n , r e p l e t e w i t h Greek o v e r t o n e s " (p. 122). He b e l i e v e s t h a t b e a u t i f u l f i t t i n g -n ess " s h o u l d be d i s c a r d e d as an i n a d e q u a t e t r a d i t i o n o f men 128 t h a t today would c e r t a i n l y i n h i b i t l a u n c h i n g an opened - up systematic a e s t h e t i c s " (p. 124). In h i s i n t r o d u c t a r y s t a t e -ments to Modal A e s t h e t i c Theory, P r e l i m i n a r y Questions (1980) Seer v e l d , who i s w e l l aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s o f d e f i n i t i o n s , w r i t e s t h a t " a r t i n the t w e n t i e t h century i s i n an e x c e p t i o n a l l y good p l a c e f o r one to look a t what c h a r a c t e r i z e s a r t as such, s i n c e a r t today i s not bound up d e f i n e d l y by other i n t e r e s t s " (p. 113) . And instead of the b e a u t i f u l or b e a u t i f u l f i t t i n g n e s s , S e e r v e l d argues t h a t "we do w e l l to c o n s i d e r the n u c l e a r moment of the " a e s t h e t i c " s i d e of God-made and man-made t h i n g s to be a matter o f " a l l u s i v e n e s s " or "nuancefulness". W i t h i n context of the theory of m o d a l i t i e s t h i s would mean t h a t a l l " f r e e " a r t such as p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , printmaking and photography, ought to be developed under the q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c aspect w i t h i t s meaning k e r n e l o f " a l l u s i v e n e s s " i In "bound" a r t t h i s " a l l u s i v e n e s s " i s t o be subordinate to the q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g , be i t economic, s o c i a l or ot h e r . In summary i t may be s t a t e d t h a t the theory of m o d a l i t i e s i s a t h e o r e t i c a l account o f the s t r u c t u r e of t h i n g s and how they f u n c t i o n . As such i t i s not r e a l i t y i t s e l f and has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . Yet i t p r o v i d e s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the a e s t h e t i c aspect which makes i t an e s s e n t i a l b a s i c element f o r the development of a r t c u r r i c u l a . 129 A Comparison o f Concepts and T h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r t h e Development o f A r t C u r r i c u l a i n  N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c E d u c a t i o n Common Concerns The c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o v e r a wide range o f t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g s o c i e t y , e d u c a t i o n , and a r t . Many comparisons can be made i n each a r e a . To accommodate the development o f a r t c u r r i c u l a i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g f o c u s e s p r i m a r i l y on t h o s e c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h e a n a l y s i s and p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t . One o f •./the key f a c t o r s i n the w r i t i n g s o f Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee i s t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r a b r o a d e r scope o f a r t e d u c t i o n . None of the a u t h o r s want t o l i m i t a r t e d u c a t i o n t o the s t u d y o f b a s i c elements such as l i n e , t e x t u r e , shape and c o l o r . Each w r i t e r e x p r e s s e s the need t o go beyond th e " f i n e " a r t s and i n c l u d e t h e p o p u l a r a r t s , c o m m e r c i a l a r t and i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n as w e l l . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s e x p a n s i o n v a r y . B a s i c a l l y , t h e y a r e a c o n c e r n f o r t h e s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s o r her c u l t u r e t h r o u g h a r t , and t h e development o f an awareness about t h e i n f l u e n c e o f media i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s broader scope f i n d s a l s o s u p p o r t i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c P h i l o s o p h y . By a d o p t i n g t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t as a f i e l d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a r t e d u c a t i o n must go beyond the s t u d y o f t h e " f i n e " a r t s , and i n c l u d e t h e s t u d y o f the a e s t h e t i c d i m e n s i o n o f l i f e i n g e n e r a l . I n p l a c i n g a r t e d u c a t i o n i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c s c h o o l s 130 on a broader b a s i s however, r e q u i r e s t h a t a t t e n t i o n be giv e n to c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t i o n s . These d i s t i n c t i o n s a re expressed i n terms of " f r e e " a r t and "bound" a r t . When Dooyeweerd r e f e r s to " f r e e " a r t he i d e n t i f i e s an o b j e c t t h a t has no other f u n c t i o n than t o be a work of a r t , such as a p a i n t i n g , a mural, a s c u l p t u r e , a p r i n t , a photograph, or anything e l s e t h a t i s made independent from any other i n t e r e s t . "Free" a r t r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y t o the museum a r t s , i t i s a r t produced with no " s t r i n g s a t t a c h e d " . In c o n t r a s t to f r e e a r t a l l bound a r t serves other i n t e r e s t s . Bound art, such as d e c o r a t i o n s , p o s t e r s , p a t t e r n s , f u r n i t u r e , d i s h e s and c l o t h i n g takes second p l a c e i n o v e r a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n of a product. Bound a r t has i t s own unique q u a l i t i e s . I t i s d i f f e r e n t from the q u a l i t i e s o f " f r e e " a r t s i n c e c o l o r s and shape are subordinated to the q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g . The study of bound a r t w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , have to i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s of the q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n of i n d i -v i d u a l t h i n g s . A second f a c t o r which f i n d s emphasis i n the w r i t i n g s of Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee i s t h e i r concern f o r the r e l a t e d n e s s between a r t and other aspects of human experience. L a n i e r (1976) expressed t h i s concern when he focused on the need i n a r t ed u c a t i o n t o 'attend t o other concerns or. elements i n an a e s t h e t i c t r a n s a c t i o n " (p. 20) . Chapman (1978) s t a t e s i t as "the r o l e o f a r t i n s o c i e t y cannot be reduced t o p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " (p. 115). 131 I n Dooyeweerd's t h e o r y o f modal a s p e c t s the r e l a t e d -ness o f t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t o f a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s i s b a s i c t o i t s s t r u c t u r e . I n t h i s sense N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y s h a r e s i n the c o n c e r n f o r the stu d y o f a r t i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s i n the man-made environment and t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f l i f e i s a l s o acknowledged by Rader and J e s s u p (1976) i n A r t and Human V a l u e s . They s t a t e , "the v a l u e s found i n a l l a r e a s o f human i n t e r e s t a r e t r a n s m i t t e d by a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n and embodiment i n t o the s t u f f o f a r t " (p. 179). I n a c c e p t i n g the r e l a t e d n e s s between a r t and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e , d i f f e r e n t a r t c u r r i c u l a have been developed. Feldman (1980), f o r i n s t a n c e , has d e v e l o p e d f o u r a r t c u r r i c u l a w h i c h each f o c u s on a d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p between a r t and one o f t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s i n human e x p e r i e n c e . I n h i s a r t i c l e A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l  C o n c e p t i o n s o f A r t C u r r i c u l a he men t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g e s s a y d e a l s w i t h one o f t h e f o u r main t y p e s o f a r t c u r r i c u l u m t h a t I have d i s c u s s e d e l s e -where a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h . The o t h e r s a r e : t h e t e c h -n i c a l c u r r i c u l u m , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c u r r i c u l u m and the a e s t h e t i c c u r r i c u l u m (p. 7 ) . L a n i e r i n a s i m i l a r way s t r e s s e s t h e need f o r the d e v e l o p -ment o f an a r t c u r r i c u l u m t h a t f o c u s e s on a e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y . U n d o u b t e d l y , v a r i o u s o t h e r c u r r i c u l a c o u l d be devel o p e d t o f o c u s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and t h e m o r a l a s p e c t , 132 o r the economic a s p e c t . However, when the t h e o r y o f modal a s p e c t s i s b a s i c t o a r t c u r r i c u l a development, the d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e t o t a l f i e l d o f a r t e d u c a t i o n appears t o be l i m i t e d t o two d i r e c t i o n s . S e e r v e l d (1980), who works w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f Neo-C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a r t i s r e l a t e d t o s e v e r a l o t h e r a s p e c t s . However, he argues t h a t when ±he emphasis i n a r t i s p l a c e d on o t h e r a s p e c t s , t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a r t appears t o become secondary. S e e r v e l d ' s c o n c e r n f o r t h e development o f a " f r e e " a r t c u r r i c u l u m a r e e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s : We a l l know a r t i n a p i n c h can s e r v e as c o l l a t e r a l , become booty, be h e l d onto as s u r e t y , a c t as p l e d g e , be t a k e n as an argument o r s e r v e as c o n v e r s a t i o n p i e c e . But we a l s o know t h a t a r t i s not p r i m a r i l y money, b a i l , s a f e r y , an e t h i c a l , l o g i c a l o r s o c i a l o b j e c t ; 'such f u n c t i o n s do n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e a chanson, n o v e l o r p a i n t i n g . And I dare say i t i s more c l e a r today than a t any time i n cosmogonic h i s t o r y o f " a r t " t h a t i f one makes the n u c l e u s o f a r t , so t o speak, an economic c o n f e s s i o n a l o r s o c i a l p r o p e r t y , t h e n you d e n a t u r e a r t i n t o a m a t t e r o f f a s h i o n a b l e p r e s t i g e , penance o r commodity (p. 113). The key c o n c e r n i s here t o f o c u s on t h e n u c l e a r meaning k e r n e l o f t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t and not t o make the emphasis i n a r t s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e meaning k e r n e l o f an o t h e r a s p e c t such as the s o c i a l o r economic. The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s 133 approach would be an a r t c u r r i c u l u m t h a t s t r e s s e s the stud y o f " f r e e " a r t . I n r e l a t i o n t o Dooyeweerd 1s d i s t i n c -t i o n between f r e e a r t and bound a r t a second c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t h a t f o c u s e s on bound a r t and s t r e s s e s t h e s t u d y o f the a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s . I n comparison w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m s u g g e s t i o n s by Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee t h i s bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m does not t a k e i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t s i n the a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i -v i d u a l t h i n g s . A r t e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s case does not e x p l a i n t h e meaning o f t h i n g s . The s t u d y o f a r t i n t h i s c u r r i c u l u m i s dependent on the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the f u n c t i o n o f each i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g . The b a s i c aim i n t h i s c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be t o d e v e l o p t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g about how t h e a e t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s h e l p o r h i n d e r i t s main f u n c t i o n . A t h i r d f a c t o r o f common c o n c e r n i s t h a t even though a r t i s r e l a t e d t o many a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e i t n e v e r t h e l e s s has i t s own unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d and t a u g h t . Chapman (1978), f o r i n s t a n c e , i n c l u d e s a l a r g e s e c t i o n i n her c u r r i c u l u m s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t d e a l s w i t h t h e development o f a r t s k i l l s , such as the r e c o g n i t i o n o f a r t medium and a r t form, the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f symbolism and d e s i g n elements. Feldman (1970) l i k e w i s e emphasizes t h e need t o d e v e l o p t h e s t u d e n t ' s a r t t e c h n i q u e s , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v i s u a l elements such as shape and c o l o r , and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o e v a l u a t e works o f a r t . McFee (1977) a l s o p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d 134 i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the t e a c h i n g o f d r awing and d e s i g n . T h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e e s s e n t i a l elements o f a r t i s a l s o s h a red by t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y . S i n c e Kuyper's c o n c e p t of sphere s o v e r e i g n t y t h e p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a r t have become more c l e a r -l y d e f i n e d and i t s r e c o g n i t i o n as a s e p a r a t e d i s c i p l i n e f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d . However, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o s k i l l and t e c h n i q u e a n a l y s i s . I n comparison w i t h t h e o t h e r a u t h o r s t h e f o c u s i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c c o n c e p t s of a r t has been on a r t s r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r a s p e c t s and t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i t s prime c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r n u c l e a r meaning k e r n e l . I n summary, the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the development o f a r t c u r r i c u l a i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n might be s t a t e d i n t h r e e p o i n t s . ; . F i r s t , t h e scope o f the a r t program s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e f r e e a r t s and the bound a r t s . S e c o n d l y , two c u r r r i c u l a s h o u l d be developed,: a " f r e e " a r t c u r r i c u l u m based on t h e h i s t o r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f u n c t i o n and the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f " a l l u s i v e n e s s " as i t s p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; and a bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m t h a t f o c u s e s on t h e a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s w hich have a q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o t h e r than the a e s t h e t i c . T h i r d l y , t h e a r t programs must i n c l u d e the development of a r t s k i l l s and t h e awareness o f a l l u s i v e n e s s , t h e p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t . P o i n t s o f R e f e r e n c e The a r t c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s e v e r a l 135 p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the development o f a r t c u r r i c u l a i n N e o - C a l v i n i s t e c s c h o o l s . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e t h e o r y o f modal a s p e c t s a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n by Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee t o the s t u d y o f m a t e r i a l s , the s t u d y o f space (McFee), the development o f eye and hand c o o r d i n a t i o n t h r o u g h " s e e i n g t o draw and drawing t o see" (McFee), t h e n u r t u r e o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o c o l o r , shape and l i n e (Chapman) and the d e v e l -opment o f a r t a n a l y s i s . A l s o , emphasis i s p l a c e d on h i s t o r i c a l development o f t h e a r t s , the r e c o g n i t i o n o f s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n a r t (Chapman, Feldman and McFee), t h e development o f p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n t h r o u g h a r t , and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s y m b o l i c meaning. F u r t h e r , c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e m o r a l a s p e c t i n L a n i e r ' s and Feldman's w r i t i n g s and t h e r o l e o f a r t i n r e l i g i o u s ceremonies (Chapman). These p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e may be d e f i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t terms f o r each a u t h o r . Because o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s t h e i r use out o f the o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t may be p r o b l e m a t i c . However, i n t h e i r scope t h e s e p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e r e l a t e t o most o f t h e modal a s p e c t s , and as such t h e y p r o v i d e r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s and t h e development o f N e o - C a l v i n i s t i c a r t c u r r i c u l a . The Theory o f Modal A s p e c t s and i t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A r t C u r r i c u l a F r e e A r t C u r r i c u l a I n the development o f a f r e e a r t c u r r i c u l u m , f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the f o u n d a t i o n f u n c t i o n 136 and q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o f the a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t . S i n c e t h e f o u n d a t i o n f u n c t i o n f o r a r t i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t , a f r e e a r t c u r r i c u l u m must i n c l u d e t h e s t u d y o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l developments o f t h e a r t s . Such a s t u d y s h o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e an a n a l y s i s o f Western a r t on t h e b a s i s o f the ground m o t i v e p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y . F u r t h e r , i n t h i s h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h o s e works o f a r t t h a t have been " f o r m a t i v e " i n t h e development o f d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s s i n c e the p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t i s " f o r m a t i v e power".' S e c o n d l y , i n a f r e e a r t c u r r i c u l u m emphasis s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the s t u d e n t ' s awareness o f t h e " a l l u s i v e " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a r t . T h i s awareness may be n u r t u r e d t h r o u g h the a n a l y s i s o f works o f a r t and s t u d i o p r o d u c t i o n s . A second s e t o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o the t h e o r y o f modal a s p e c t s i s t h e s t u d y o f the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s i n c o n t e x t o f " f r e e " a r t e x p r e s s i o n . S t u d e n t s need t o be s k i l l e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e i r a r t works. They must be t e c h n i c a l l y p r e p a r e d t o work, g i v e form t o t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . V o c a b u l a r y s t u d i e s and r e c o g n i t i o n o f s y m b o l i c meanings o f m a t e r i a l s and images w i l l need a t t e n t i o n . S t u d e n t s must a l s o be made aware o f the s o c i a l a s p e c t i n a r t w h i c h f o c u s e s on the p l a c e o r s t a t u s o f a p a r t i c u l a r work i n s o c i e t y . C o n s i d e r -a t i o n must a l s o be g i v e n t o t h e economic a s p e c t . Cost o f m a t e r i a l s i s but one element o f t h i s . Other f a c t o r s i n 137 t h e economic a s p e c t r e l a t e t o the manner by which t h e work i s produced and t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f forms. The l a t t e r touches on "how much" can be e x p r e s s e d w i t h "how l i t t l e " . S t u d e n t s must a l s o be made aware o f t h e i r m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a r t . T h i s means t h a t b e s i d e s " s e l f " e x p r e s s i o n a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t " f o r o t h e r s " . T h i s a r t " f o r o t h e r s " must be d i r e c t e d towards the needs and j o y s o f th o s e p e r s o n s the s t u d e n t s c a r e f o r . F i n a l l y , t he s t u d e n t s must be made aware o f the c o n c e p t s o f r e a l i t y e x p r e s s e d i n a work o f a r t . These c o n c e p t s a r e p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the a r t i s t ' s v i e w o f man, n a t u r e and t h e C r e a t o r . Bound A r t C u r r i c u l u m The c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e development o f a bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m stem from t h e q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s . A l l o t h e r a s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g the a e s t h e t i c , a r e o f "secondary" i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s means f o r an a r t c u r r i c u l u m t h a t t h e st u d y o f c o l o r , m a t e r i a l s , shape o r t e x t u r e must be r e l a t e d t o t h e p r i m a r y purpose o f t h i n g s . I t f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s s t u d i e d i n a bound a r t program w i l l be o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e than t h o s e i n a f r e e a r t program. Bound a r t has i t s own unique c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c , d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f f r e e a r t as w e l l as from the a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f n a t u r e . F o r example, t h e c o l o r schemes f o r t o o l s , u t e n s i l s o r machinery a r e n o t de t e r m i n e d by t h e same s t a n d a r d s as i f they were works o f f r e e a r t . Nor i s the shape o f an a u t o m o b i l e t h e " f r e e " e x p r e s s i o n o f the d e s i g n e r . 138 A second c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the development o f a bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m i s the need t o n u r t u r e t h e s t u d e n t s ' aware-ness o f t h e a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i n g s i n c o n t e x t o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l development. Bound a r t , as w e l l as f r e e a r t , has i t s f o u n d a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y s o f a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i -v i d u a l t h i n g s w i t h t h e same q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n . L a u r a Chapman (197 8\, i n her s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c r a f t s and p r o d u c t d e s i g n , s t r e s s e s s i m i l a r needs when she s t a t e s : Compare v e r y s i m p l e and v e r y e l a b o r a t e v e r s i o n s o f the same o b j e c t - an embroidered o r l a c e t a b l e c l o t h and a c o t t o n c l o t h o r v i n y l c o v e r . Have c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s when e a c h . v e r s i o n might be used, how p e o p l e u s i n g t h e o b j e c t might f e e l , how t h e p e r s o n owning t h e o b j e c t m i g h t c a r e f o r i t . I n the same way, compare t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f an o b j e c t w i t h u n u s u a l o r i n n o v a t i v e forms o f t h e same k i n d o f o b j e c t (p. 323). F i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r a bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m a r e t h e st u d y o f elements p r e c e d i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t . These s t u d i e s would m a i n l y f o c u s on a n a l y s i s o f m a t e r i a l s arid e x p l o r a t i o n s o f the appropriateness o f i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o human di m e n s i o n s and p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n s . W i t h i n c o n t e x t o f t h e bound a r t c o n c e p t , c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s may be s e l e c t e d from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s as l o n g as t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n such a way t h a t the 139 a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t h i n g are r e c o g n i z e d as de-pendent on the primary f u n c t i o n f o r which the o b j e c t was designed. In c o n c l u s i o n , the bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m w i l l cover many t o p i c s presented i n the w r i t i n g s of Chapman, Feldman, L a n i e r and McFee, i n c l u d i n g the s t u d i e s of space, a r c h i t e c -t u r e , product d e s i g n and other c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s . I t s o v e r a l l concern i s w i t h the development of the student's a e s t h e t i c c onsciousness. The student's awareness of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , group f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s i n t h i s approach a p r e r e q u i s i t e to the study of a r t . In a bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m students must be prepared to s t r u g g l e w i t h the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n "keeping" w i t h the message. A d v e r t i s i n g a r t must focus on the economic aspect of goods and not on aspects i r r e l e v a n t to the f u n c t i o n of the products. In r e l a t i o n to the student's care f o r o t h e r s , the bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m must p r o v i d e ways t h a t w i l l enable the i n d i v i d u a l s or groups to express t h i s concern w i t h c e r t a i n a e s t h e t i c " i n g r e d i e n t s " . Symbolic and imagit-na.tive means must be e x p l o r e d to g i v e body to e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s concerns. A f a c t o r of major importance i n the bound a r t c u r r i c u l u m i s t h a t the a e s t h e t i c dimensions are always seen i n the l i g h t of the primary f u n c t i o n of t h i n g s Which means t h a t the primary f u n c t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g e x p l a i n s the a r t more so than the a r t e x p l a i n s the meaning of the i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g . 140 3. 4, 5. 6. 7. p h y s i c a l t h i n g p l a n t a n i m a l Diagram o f t h e M o d a l i t y S t r u c t u r e and t h e S u b j e c t  F u n c t i o n s o f Man, A n i m a l , P l a n t and P h y s i c a l T h i n g s  A s p e c t s 1. a r i t h m e t i c 2. s p a t i a l k i n e m a t i c p h y s i c a l b i o t i c s e n s i t i v e l o g i c a l 8. h i s t o r i c a l 9. l i n g u a l 10. s o c i a l 11. economic 12. a e s t h e t i c 13. j u r i d i c a l 14. m o r a l 15. p i s t i c man 141 Diagram o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n a l and Q u a l i f y i n g F u n c t i o n o f a C h a i r A s p e c t s 1. a r i t h m e t i c 2. s p a t i a l 3. k i n e m a t i c 4. p h y s i c a l 5. b i o t i c 6. s e n s i t i v e 7. l o g i c a l 8. h i s t o r i c a l 9. l i n g u a l 10. s o c i a l 11. economic 12. a e s t h e t i c 13. j u r i d i c a l 14. m o r a l 15. p i s t i c k i t c h e n c n a i r o f f i c e c h a i r t h r o n e c h u r c h pew s u b j e c t f u n c t i o n s obj e c t f u n c t i o n s 142 Diagram o f the F o u n d a t i o n a l and Q u a l i f y i n g F u n c t i o n o f a Work o f A r t A s p e c t s 1. a r i t h m e t i c 2. s p a t i a l 3. k i n e m a t i c 4. p h y s i c a l 5. 6. b i o t i c s e n s i t i v e a s p e c t s d i r e c t e d by q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n 7. l o g i c a l 8. h i s t o r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n w i t h 9. l i n g u a l f o r m a t i v e power as main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 10. s o c i a l 11. economic 12. a e s t h e t i c q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n w i t h 13. j u r i d i c a l a l l u s i v e n e s s as main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 14. m o r a l 15. p i s t i c 143 B i b l i o g r a p h y A r n s t i n e , D. The a e s t h e t i c as a c o n t e x t f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . I n Hardiman, G.W., and Z e r n i c h , T. ( e d . ) , C u r r i c u l a r C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r v i s u a l a r t s  e d u c a t i o n : R a t i o n a l e , development, and e v a l u a t i o n . Champaign, I l l i n o i s : S t i p e s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1974, 70-78 Broudy, H.S. A r t s e d u c a t i o n as a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n . In Hardiman, G.W., and Z e r n i c h , T. ( e d . ) , C u r r i c u l a r  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r v i s u a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n : R a t i o n a l e , development, and e v a l u a t i o n . Champaign, I l l i n o i s : S t i p e s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1974, 14-^22. Broudy, H.S. B u i l d i n g a p h i l o s o p h y . o f e d u c a t i o n . Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1961. Chapman, L.H. Approaches t o a r t i n e d u c a t i o n . New York: H a r c o u r t B r a c e , 1978. Chapman, L.H. I d e o l o g i e s and p r a c t i c e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . T e x t o f an i l l u s t r a t e d a d d r e s s t o the Museum A f f i l i a t e , N a t i o n a l A r t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , A t l a n t a : March, 1980. Chapman, L.H. Research means " s e a r c h i n g a g a i n " . A r t  E d u c a t i o n , 1979, 3_2, 6-9. Dobbs, S.M. Recent l i t e r a t u r e and i d e a s i n American a r t e d u c a t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m Theory Network, 1974, 42^, ( 3 ) , 169-191. Dooyeweerd, H. A new c r i t i q u e o f t h e o r e t i c a l t hought. P h i l a d e l p h i a : The P r e s b y t e r i a n and Reformed P u b l i s h i n g Co. Volume 1, 1953; Volume 11, 1955; Volume 111, 1957. • 144 Dorn, D.M. (ed.) Report o f t h e NAEA commission on a r t e d u c a t i o n . Reston, V i r g i n i a : N a t i o n a l A r t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977. E i s n e r , E.W. ' E d u c a t i n g a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . New York: C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n . P u b l i s h i n g , 1972. Feldman, E.B. Becoming human t h r o u g h a r t . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1970. Feldman, E.B. A r t and t h e image o f t h e s e l f . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1976, _29 (5) , 10-12. Feldman, E.B. Today's a r t s s t u d e n t - tomorrows p a r t i c i p a n t . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1977, 30. ( 6) 10-13. Feldman, E.B. The t e a c h e r as model c r i t i c . The J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , 1973, 7 ( 1 ) , 50-57. Feldman, E.B. V i s u a l l i t e r a c y . The J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , 1976, 10 ( 3 / 4 ) , 108-111. Feldman, E.B. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f a r t c u r r i c u l a . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1980, 3_3 (6) , 7-9. Feldman, E.B. A r t as the e x p r e s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s . u n p u b l i s h e d paper, n.d. Feldman, E.B. A r t , e d u c a t i o n , and the consumption o f images. In E i s n e r , E.W. ( e d . ) , The a r t s human development and e d u c a t i o n . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f . : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976, 137-148. G r o p i u s , W. Scope o f t o t a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . New York: M a c m i l l a n Company, 19 66. G r o p i u s , W. A p o l l o i n the democracy. New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. 1968. 145 Haggerty, N.E. Enrichment o f the common l i f e . M i n n e a p o l i s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1938. Hardiman, G.W., and Z e r n i c h , T. C u r r i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r v i s u a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n : r a t i o n a l e , development, and e v a l u a t i o n . Champaign, I l l i n o i s : S t i p e s P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1974. H u i z i n g a , J . The waning o f t h e m i d d l e ages. New Yo r k : Doubleday and Co., 1954. Ka l s b e e k , L. Contour s o f a C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : Wedge P u b l i s h i n g F o u n d a t i o n , 1975. Kuyper, A. L e c t u r e s on C a l v i n i s m . Grand R a p i d s , M i c h i g a n : W.B. Eerdmans P u b l i s h i n g 0., 1953. L a n i e r , V. E s s a y s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n : the development o f one p o i n t o f vi e w . New York: MSS E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 197 0. L a n i e r , V. The f i v e f a c e s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1977, 18! ( 3 ) , 26-32. L a n i e r , V. The u n s e e i n g eye: c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the t e a c h i n g o f a r t . I n E i s n e r , E.W. ( e d . ) , The a r t s , human development, and e d u c a t i o n . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976, 101-106. L a n i e r , V. A s s e s s i n g t h e " s " i n a r t s e d u c a t i o n . The J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , 1978, 12 ( 1 ) , 71-83. L a n i e r , V. R e t u r n i n g t h e a r t t o a r t e d u c a t i o n . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1975, 28 ( 3 ) , 28-33. L a n i e r , V. O b j e c t i v e s o f t e a c h i n g a r t . A r t E d u c a t i o n . 1972, 25 ( 3 ) , 15-19. 146 L a n i e r , V. S i x it e m s on t h e agenda f o r the e i g h t i e s . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1980, 33 ( 5 ) , 16-23. McFee, J.K. A r t a b i l i t i e s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e f o r m . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1978, 31 ( 4 ) , 9-12. McFee, J.K., and Degge, R.M. A r t , c u l t u r e , and environment: A c a t a l y s t f o r t e a c h i n g . Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth, 1977. McFee, J.K. C u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s on a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . I n condous, J ; H o w l e t t , J ; and S k u l l , J . ( e d . ) , A r t s i n c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . Sydney: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 198 0. McFee, J.K. New d i r e c t i o n s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1972, 27 ( 8 ) , 11-15. M c N e i l l , J.T. The h i s t o r y and c h a r a c t e r o f C a l v i n i s m . New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. N a y l o r , G. The Bauhaus. London: S t u d i o - V i s t a L i m i t e d , 1968. Rader, M., and J e s s u p , B. A r t and human v a l u e s . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1976. Rookmaker, H.R. Modern a r t and t h e d e a t h o f a c u l t u r e . London: I n t e r - V a r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Rookmaker, H.R. S y n t h e s i s t a r t t h e o r i e s . Amsterdam: Swetz and Z e i t l i n g e r , 1959. S e e r v e l d , C. Rainbows f o r t h e f a l l e n w o r l d . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : Tuppence P r e s s , 198 0. V a n T i l , H.R. The C a l v i n i s t i c c o n c e p t o f c u l t u r e . P h i l a d e p h i a : . The P r e s b y t e r i a n and Reformed P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1959. 

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