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A comparison of class management in elementary physical education and the classroom : a qualitative study Zander, B. Dawn 1994

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A COMPARISON OF CLASS MANAGEMENT IN ELEMENTARY PHYSICALEDUCATION AND THE CLASSROOM: A QUALITATIVE STUDYB. DAWN ZANDERB.PHED, Hons., Brock University, 1988B.Ed., Queen’s University, 1989A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESFaculty of EducationCentre for the Study of Curriculum and InstructionWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJune 1994© Barbara Dawn Zander, 1994In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of therequirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference arid study. I furtheragree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes maybe granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. Itis understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of /icThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate /DE-6 (2188)11AbstractClass management is frequently cited as a major concern of teachers,administrators and parents. Yet, despite these concerns, it has only been in the lastdecade that research on class management has taken a central role in the field ofresearch on effective teaching. In the elementary school, teachers often have theresponsibility of managing their classes in physical education and the generaldassroom. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare three teachers’class management practices in the classroom setting and physical education settingat the start of the school year. Three elementary teachers participated in this study.Using a qualitative case study design, data were collected primarily throughobservations recorded in detailed field notes and audiotaped interviews. A total of26 physical education sessions and 34 classroom sessions were observed during thefirst seven weeks of the 1992 school year. The data were inductively analysed usinga method of constant comparison. The dass management practices that emergedwere twenty-nine management strategies and six class management themes. Theclass management strategies were divided into three classifications: preventative,guidance and consequence. Teaching episodes of transitions, direct instruction!demonstration, discussion and task work were also identified.The results indicated that teachers used similar types of strategies and themes inboth physical education and in the classroom. Twenty-eight of the 29 strategieswere found in both settings. Similarities were also found in the emphasis teachersplaced on class management practices. In both settings, over 90% of the strategiesused were prevenatative and/or guidance, 8 of the top 10 strategies were the same;and the rate strategies were used was highest during teaching episodes of transitionand direct instruction and lowest during task work. Differences were found in theemphasis teachers placed in class management practices. Forty - seven percent111more strategies were used in physical education than in the classroom; and safetyguidelines, ‘withitness’ and ‘overlapping’ were emphasised more in physicaleducation. It may be that the learning environment in physical education, with itsphysical movement, space and sound level differences affected the emphasisteachers placed on class management. The type of teaching episodes used in theclassroom and physical education may also explain the differences in classmanagement practices. This study has implications for teacher educationprogrammes, class management research and general understanding of classmanagement.ivTABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract iiTable of Contents ivList of Tables viiList of Figures viiiAcknowledgements ixChapter One General Problem I1.1 Introduction I1.2 Purpose 31.3 Study Questions 31.4 Definition of Key Terms 41.5 Significance of the Study 5Chapter Two Review of Related Literature 82.1 Introduction 82.2 History of Research on Class Management 82.3 Theories and Models of Class Management 112.3.1 Management Theories 122.3.2 Leadership Theories 132.3.3 Non directive Intervention Theories 152.4 The Link Between Effective Class Managementand Achievement 162.5 Management Studies in the Classroom and inPhysical Education 172.5.1 Classroom Studies2.5.2 Physical Education Studies 182.6 Start of the Year Studies 222.6.1 Classroom Study 222.6.2 Physical Education Study 232.7 General Findings from the Class ManagementResearch 242.8 Class Management in Different Contexts 26Chapter Three Design and Methodology 313.1 Introduction 313.2 Research Site 323.2.1 Description 323.2.2 The Process and Criteria for Site Selection 323.3 Partidpant Profiles and Selection 343.3.1 Participant Proffles 363.3.2 Process and Criteria for Participant Selection 37V3.4 Data Collection 383.4.1 Observations 393.4.2 Interviews 403.4.3 Videotaping 413.4.4 Role of the Researcher 423.5 Data Analysis 443.6 Establishing Trustworthiness (Validity andReliability) 463.7 Limitations 513.8 Summary 51Chapter Four Results534.1 Introduction 534.2 Management Strategies 534.2.1 Preventative, Guidance and ConsequenceCategories 534.2.2 Usage Rates and Ranking of ManagementStrategies 574.2.3 Descriptions of Teaching Episodes 594.2.4 Time Spent on Various Teaching Episodes 604.2.5 Rates of Management Strategies used DuringTeaching Episodes 614.3 Management Themes 624.3.1 Establishing Guidelines at the Start of theSchool Year 624.3.2 Respect 714.3.3 Overlapping 764.3.4 Efficient Organisation 794.3.5 Withitness 814.3.6 Mystery Free 85Chapter Five Summary and Discussion 905.1 Introduction 905.2 Summary 905.3 Discussion of Study Questions 925.4 Conclusions 1075.5 Implications 1085.6 Recommendations 110References 112Appendix 3.1 Diagram of School, Classrooms and Gym 117Appendix 3.2 Observation Schedules 123Appendix 3.3 Interview Guide 127Appendix 3.4 Sample Field Notes and Category Development 128Appendix 3.5 Sample of Numbered Categories and Times ofTeaching Episodes 131viAppendix 3.6 Sample Worksheet for Counting the Frequencyof Each Management Strategy 132Appendix 3.7 Sample Worksheet for Counting the Frequencyof Management Strategies during TeachingEpisodes 133Appendix 3.8 Confirmation Letter 134Principal Consent Form 135Participant Letter 136Teacher’s Informed Consent Form 137Parental Consent for Videotaping 139Appendix 4.1 Data Tables for Each Teacher 140Appendix 4.2 Descriptions and Examples of Class ManagementStrategies 142Appendix 4.3 Sample of Interview Notes Transcribed from Audiotape 146Biography 147viiLIST OF TABLESTable 4.1 Rate / Hour of Management Strategies used inthe Classroom and Physical Education Settings 56Table 4.2 The Ten Most Used Management Strategies inthe Classroom and in Physical Education 58Table 4.3 The Five Least Used Management Strategies inthe Classroom and in Physical Education 58viiiLIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1 Theories and Models of Class Management 11Figure 4.1 Number of Strategies According to Three MajorClassificationsFigure 4.2 Names of Strategies According to Three MajorClassifications 55Figure 4.3 Percentage of Time Spent During Classroom andPhysical Education Teaching Episodes 60Figure 4.4 Rate / Hour of all Management Strategies used DuringClassroom and Physical Education Teaching Episodes 61Figure 4.5 Six Class Management Themes 62ixAcknowledgementsA sincere thank you is extended to Dr. Moira Luke for accepting the responsibilityas faculty advisor and for the invaluable support, knowledge and encouragementafforded to me throughout the thesis process. I also wish to acknowledge theenthusiastic participation of the three teachers. Not only did the teachers freelyopen their doors to many hours of observation and questioning, but also providedsubstantial insight into class management. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. IngeWilliams/Andreen and Dr. Charles Curtis who, through their thoughtfulcomments, generous spirit and expertise in research, were an integral part of thisproject.1Chapter 1General Problem1.1 IntroductionIn the elementary school, teachers often have the responsibility of managingtheir classes in a variety of settings. Two settings are those of physical educationand the general classroom. Class management has long been a concern for a vastmajority of teachers (Wendt & Bain, 1989). In fact, Cangelosi (1988) found the mostcommonly expressed complaints of students, teachers, parents and schooladministrators alike were a lack of pupil discipline, poor class management andcontrol, and disruptive student behaviour. Furthermore, the extensive literatureon teacher concerns and problems strongly suggests that classroom managementand control of pupil behaviour are the most significant problem areas for teachers(Behets, 1990; Fernandez-Balboa, 1991). Physical education, with its openenvironment and physical movement, seems to heighten the problem for manyteachers (White & Bailey, 1990).However, despite this concern, it has only been in the last decade that researchon class management has become central to the field of research on effectiveteaching. During this time, researchers found that managing to prevent disruptivebehaviour and promoting optimum class time for academic work, was a patternmost often associated with achievement gains (Brophy & Good, 1986). However,the majority of these studies were conducted in reading and math (Cohen, 1991;O’Sullivan, 1986; and Porter & Brophy, 1988) and the researchers’ findings assumedeffective class management practices in one environment would transfer to allareas (Doyle, 1986). In fact, a large part of what is known about effective classmanagement in physical education has come from research in other subject areasand other teaching environments. Class management research in physicaleducation is at an early stage when compared to the quality and status of research2emerging from the general context of teaching (Luke, 1989).The amount of research comparing class management in differing contexts isquite small. These studies explored differences in class management practicesacross subject matter areas (Doyle, 1986), level of task complexity (Cohen, 1991), classsize (Johnston, 1990) and the physical environment (Bennett & Blundell, 1983).However, no studies were found to compare class management practices in thephysical education setting to the classroom date, there has been practically no research designed to apply a commonconceptual and measurement framework in order to identify similarities anddifferences in instruction in different subject matter areas, althoughextrapolation from findings of studies done within single subject matter areasdoes suggest some commonalities and some ways in which teaching is uniqueto particular subject areas (Porter & Brophy, 1988, p. 81).Doyle (1986) stated that the data available were not sufficient for drawing theconclusion that there is a substantial difference in class management due to subjectmatter, student maturity or group designs.Unfortunately, there is limited information about the class managementpractices of classroom teachers who teach their own physical education. All of theclass management studies in physical education have been undertaken withteachers who have specialised training in physical education. With the trendtoward the generalist teaching of physical education in the elementary school, thereis a particular need to study how they manage their physical education classes.Educators have long assumed that what happens in a classroom during the earlydays of the year sets the stage for the entire year. A small number of beginning ofthe school year studies have strongly indicated that the effective teachers establishtheir management processes at the start of the school year (Brophy, 1983; Emmer,Evertson & Anderson, 1980; Fink & Siedentop, 1989). Evidence from the study of3effective teachers indicates that their major focus during the first few days of theschool year is the establishment of class rules and routines (Brophy & Good, 1986;Fink & Siedentop, 1989). Researchers have suggested that teachers who clearlyspend time at the start of the school year teaching classroom routines (Emmer &Evertson, 1981; Strain & Sainato, 1987) and gymnasium routines (Fink & Siedentop,1989) have an easier time managing their classes throughout the school year andhave students who learn more. In a review of research on classroom management,Doyle (1986) found that successful managers spent considerable time in the earlyweeks introducing rules and procedures. Researchers such as Dowhower (1991) andDoyle (1986) have recommended more research be conducted on managementprocesses at the start of the year. In particular, there is a need for naturalisticinquiry that provides rich and natural descriptions of class management practices(Doyle, 1986).This study is based on the need for rich and natural descriptions of managementpractices in the classroom and physical education settings at the start of the schoolyear. Studies are beginning to show that variables within the teaching context, forexample subject matter and class size, may affect class management. However, therange of contexts has yet to be discovered. Physical education, with its noticeablydifferent teaching environment, needs to be compared to the classroomenvironment.1.2 PurposeThe purpose of this study was to describe and compare three teachers’ classmanagement practices in the classroom setting compared to the physical educationsetting at the start of the school year.1.3 Study QuestionsSpecific questions that were derived from this purpose were the following:1. What are the similarities in class management practices between the4classroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year?a) What types of class management practices are used in both the classroomsetting and physical education setting at the start of the school year?b) What class management practices have a similar emphasis in the classroomwhen compared to physical education at the start of the year?2. What are the differences in class management practices between theclassroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year?a) What types of class management practices are used in only the classroom oronly the physical education setting at the start of the school year?b) What class management practices have a different emphasis in the classroomcompared to physical education at the start of the year?1.4 Definition of Key TermsClass management practices involved the manner and ability in which theteacher 1) establishes and maintains appropriate student behaviours and 2)organises an environment condudve to learning (Anshel, 1990; Rink, 1991; andSiedentop, 1991). Class management practices indude class management strategiesand class management themes.Class management strategies are teacher behaviours used to establish andmaintain appropriate student behaviour. They provide consequences forinappropriate behaviour and also use preventative strategies (Cangelosi, 1988). Themodern definition of discipline is consistent with this definition (Edwards, 1993).Class management themes are class management practices that emerged fromthe data of this particular study. The management themes provide the foundationfor class management strategies and help to organise an environment conducive tolearning.Appropriate student behaviour is defined as student behaviour that isconsistent with the class norms established by the teacher for a specific education5setting (Siedentop, 1991).Inappropriate student behaviour is defined as student behaviour that is outsidethe class norms established by the teacher for a specific education setting (Anshel,1990).Generalist teacher is a classroom teacher who teaches their own physicaleducation classes and does not have specialised training in physical education(Pissanos & Temple, 1990).1.5 Significance of this StudyThe specific purposes of this study are based on the need for a rich and naturalpicture of how teachers manage their classes. Doyle (1986) maintained that a closerlook “at the management processes would provide a rich picture of how classroomorder is achieved and would enlarge the knowledge base for interpreting classroomevents and improving strategies for sustaining order in these complexenvironments” (p. 424). As well, the purpose is based on the lack of research onclass management practices across subject areas and the management concerns ofteachers, administrators and parents. Although no studies could be found thatcompared class management practices of teachers in physical education and theclassroom setting, there is strong suggestion that this study could make acontribution to research in class management, to teacher education and to generalunderstandings of the management process.First, this study may add to the area of dass management research, in particularto context difference studies. Through the use of qualitative methods, it has thepotential to discover issues that have been overlooked by quantitative methods.With the new acceptance of qualitative research in physical education (Earls, 1986;Schempp, 1987), in-depth case studies are especially warranted. With thequalitative design, it is assumed that human behaviour is context-bound (Lincoln& Guba, 1985) which leads the researcher to collect data in the natural surroundings6of the people who produce, influence, and give meaning to observable behaviour(Schempp, 1987). The selection of this design illustrates the researcher’s concern forthe complexities of teacher’s dass management and the belief that many factorscontribute to it. A real picture of how teachers manage their classroom in physicaleducation compared to the classroom environment can emerge and may add to therange of contexts that may have altered the findings of previous studies.Second, this study also has implications for teacher education. Managementpractices of teachers that are similar in both physical education and the classroommay emerge. As well, those practices that are unique to physical education may bediscovered. Therefore, an increased understanding of the variety of managementskills in physical education and the classroom may help to lessen the elementaryteachers’ concerns. Teachers may also need to learn how to shift their rolesaccording to the environment. This supports the major reason for conductingresearch on issues in teaching: to improve instructional practices. This study’sresearch-derived information about class management will help to replace orsubstantiate the collection of management tricks which are often a part of manypreservice and teacher education programmes.Finally, this study may contribute to a general understanding of classmanagement. Through the use of clearly defined terms and rich, detaileddescriptions, administrators, teachers and researchers may be able to add to theirunderstanding that class management concerns are connected to the broaderpurposes of education and are central to the total schooling process. It may also addto the notion that, in some ways, the physical education setting is different fromthat of other settings requiring different class management practices.In summary, it becomes clear that research is needed that compares teachers’class management practices between the classroom setting and the physicaleducation setting at the start of the school year. Such inquiry may contribute to the7research base on class management in physical education, teacher educationprogrammes, and an increased understanding of the management processes in thesettings of physical education and the classroom.8chapter 2Review of Related Literature2.1 IntroductionThe literature reviewed in this section is a result of a systematic search of theclassroom management literature, particularly that published in the last ten yearsthat relates to elementary physical education. The search involved a computerisedERIC, Sport Discus and CIJE searches, published conference proceedings and anexamination of major research outlets (e.g. Tournal of Teaching Physical Education,Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Quest, Journal of Physical Education,Recreation and Dance, Physical Educator and The Canadian Association for Health,Physical Education, and Recreation Tournal). Reference lists were consulted untilno new articles on the subject could be found. What follows provides a base ofknowledge about dass management as it relates to physical education.2.2 History of Research on Class ManagementResearch on class management is reported to have begun in 1970 with Kounin’sinfluential study of 80 first and second grade classrooms. This research has had apowerful impact on describing effective management behaviours in education.Much of the literature today continues to use Kounin’s categories of effectivemanagement. Kounin’s study started a flood of interest in class management as adistinct area of inquiry (Emmer & Evertson, 1981). At least three factors wouldseem to account for this interest. First, school discipline became an importantpublic issue that warranted attention from researchers. Second, specialists inteacher effectiveness research began to study class management categories, many ofwhich were derived from Koumn’s studies. From this, a surge of studies to findmore about effective management practices emerged (Emmer, Evertsori &Anderson, 1980). Third, there was a sharp increase in the number of qualitativestudies of classroom life in the late 1960s. Rich descriptions of classroom contexts9and processes emerging from these reports revealed the complexity of socialarrangements in classrooms and stimulated interest in knowing more about howclassroom events were enacted by teachers and students (Doyle, 1986).Since 1970, many reviews of research in class management were published andmajor research programs to study class management were initiated (Emmer &Evertson, 1981 and Brophy, 1983). By the time the second Handbook of Research onTeaching (Doyle, 1986) was published, there was a large enough body of literatureon classroom management and organisation that it justified the inclusion of aseparate section.Class management research in physical education has lurked in the shadows ofclassroom research. Much of what we know about effective class management inphysical education has come from adaptations of dassroom research (O’Sullivan,1986). In physical education, the research emphasis has tended to be on generalteacher effectiveness rather than on a specific focus on class management. In the1970s, systematic observation studies became popular ways to collect data on teacherand pupil behaviours in physical education. The development of coding systemshelped to clarify components of teaching and isolated particular class managementcategories. One widely used and accepted research tool for studying teaching inphysical education, The Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE)observation system, included two class management categories that reflectedmanagerial and organisational time. However, systematic observation studiesgenerally have not been as useful for defining class management components sincethey rarely isolate management tasks (Luke, 1989). Exceptions to this are two studiesthat focused more specifically on aspects of discipline in physical education(Kennedy, 1980; and Henkel, 1991).A commonly cited model for the study of teacher effectiveness was presented byDunkin and Biddle in 1974. Their process-product model showed the complexity of10teaching by revealing presage, context, process and product variables that interrelateand may affect learning outcomes. Presage variables are factors such as studentexperience, age, gender, intelligence and educational background. Context variablesare the unique aspects of the student, school, facilities, and class size that may affectstudent achievement. Process variables are teacher and student behaviours.Product variables are learning outcomes such as student achievement, skillacquisition and attitudes (Anshel, 1990). Process variables have been linked toproduct outcomes in many teacher effectiveness studies. Process-product researchhas identified class management as an important process variable in effectiveteaching. Despite this recognition, there are currently no process-product studiesexclusive to class management. Furthermore, only a few physical education studieshave examined the class management techniques of elementary teachers. Inaddition, the teachers in these studies were all physical education specialists(Kennedy, 1980; Henkel, 1991; Siedentop, 1989).Early descriptive and experimental research on teacher effectiveness reliedalmost exclusively on quantitative methods. In the 1980s, qualitative methodsstarted being used in physical education (Siedentop, 1991). By the end of the 1980s,qualitative research involving ethnographic or interpretive methods had receivedmuch attention in physical education (Silverman, 1991). Locke’s (1989) review ofnaturalistic inquiry in physical education, followed by commentaries by Schutz(1989), and Siedentop (1989) provided readers of the ROES Tournal with anoverview of these methods. Use of intensive field observations, interviews,videotaping and document analysis were discussed. ROES Tournal recentlypublished articles using qualitative methods (Williamson, 1993; Oslin, 1992; Veal,1991). As well, the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education devoted an issue tothe discussion of naturalistic inquiry in physical education (Earls, 1986) andsupported the publishing of qualitative research (Fernandez-Balboa, 1991).11In summary, the study of dassroom management has “achieved considerablematurity in a relatively short time” and has “moved from relative obscurity to aprominent place in research on teaching” (Doyle, 1986, p. 392). As well,naturalistic inquiry in physical education has increased and is now betterunderstood as a research approach (Silverman, 1991).2.3 Theories and Models of Class ManagementWithout an understanding of major theories and models of class managementthe complex interrelationships of the data are difficult to comprehend. Thepurpose of this section is not to support a particular theory but to provide anorganising scheme to make the information comprehensible. Figure 2.1 shows thetheories and models of class management according to the relative amounts offreedom they provide children and the control that they give to teachers.Figure 2.1Authoritarian Democratic(Management (LeadershipTheories) Theories)Logical ConsequencesReality Therapy4 4 4Laissez-Faire(Non-directiveInterventionTheories)Behavior ModificationAssertive DisciplineKounin ModelJones ModelTransactional AnalysisGinott Model1223.1 Management TheoriesManagement theories tend to assume that children’s growth and developmentare a result of external conditions. Teachers must control the behaviours of thechildren because they are unable to adequately monitor and control themselves.Without supervision, children’s behaviour would be erratic and potentiallydestructive. Desired behaviour occurs when rewards are used and environmentalconditions are arranged (Edwards, 1993). Skinner’s Behaviour Modificationapproach, Canter’s Assertive Discipline, the Jones Model and the Kounin Model areexamples of management theories (Edwards, 1993).Skinner’s behaviourist approach is based on the assumption that behaviour islearned rather than an instinct. Therefore, students respond to and are conditionedby environmental influences. For appropriate behaviour to occur students mustreceive guidance from their teachers. Students cannot learn to be responsible andself-governing, but must be managed by someone who can arrange reinforcersappropriately. Environments are manipulated to increase the chances of desiredbehaviours (rewards). Inappropriate behaviours go unrewarded (Cangelosi, 1988and Edwards, 1993).Canter’s Assertive Discipline approach assumes that students must be forced tocomply with rules. Students cannot be expected to determine or follow the rules.Rules are determined by the teacher with the support from parents and schooladministrators. Students will avoid inappropriate behaviour and engage inappropriate behaviour if punishment is emphasised. Appropriate behaviour isencouraged through positive reinforcement (Cangelosi, 1988; and Edwards, 1993).The Jones model assumes that children need to be controlled to behave properlyTeachers can achieve this control through nonverbal cues and movementscalculated to bring them physically closer to the students. The students arepressured to behave by reducing the time allowed to spend on preferred activities.13Appropriate behaviour is reinforced and stopping instruction is commonly used todeal with inappropriate behaviour (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993).The underlying assumption of the Kounin model is that positive moves byteachers toward students radiate out and influence other students. As well,students become anxious and nervous when the teacher exhibits anger or stress,threatens or physically handles the students. When the teacher responds to onestudent so that the others know what is happening, the students are less likely toexhibit the inappropriate behaviour in the future. The major impact on studentbehaviour is the ability of the teacher to display withitness or an awareness ofstudent behaviour. Other ways of improving appropriate behaviour can beaccomplished by overlapping, smooth transitions, increasing the clarity andfirmness of desists, informing students of their accomplishments, providingvariety and challenges and dealing with discipline problems simultaneously(Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993).23.2 Leadership TheoriesLeadership theories tend to assume that children develop from an interaction ofinner and outer influences. It is believed that behaviour has a multitude of vitalfactors acting on it. There is a constant interplay between children and their socialexperiences. The teacher’s role is one of leadership. If the teacher uses appropriateintervention strategies, they will get children to responsibly control their own lives(Edwards, 1993). Dreikur’s approach and Reality Therapy/Control Theory areexamples of leadership theories (Edwards, 1993).The Dreikurs approach stresses that the teacher should be neither autocratic norpermissive if they expect students to be cooperative in the classroom. Autocraticbehaviours leads to power struggles and resentment by the students. Permissivebehaviours lack guidance and lead to student confusion. The model is based on thebelief that children need to be socially accepted and each person has a unique way of14satisfying this need. Children are believed to be able to control their ownbehaviours. Dreikurs wrote about the advantage of a democratic classroom wherechildren have a voice in determining the rules, and suffer logical, natural andapplied consequences for their misbehaviours rather than arbitrary punishment.Children are motivated to be on task because of the intrinsic benefits rather than toavoid ridicule or gain praise. Inappropriate behaviour is motivated by the need togain attention, exercise power, exact revenge or to display inadequacy.Inappropriate behaviour can be terminated by helping students find legitimateways to satisfy their needs. Children learn to understand their own motives andthe teacher helps them explore why they behave as they do (Cangelosi, 1988 andEdwards, 1993).Reality Therapy/Control Theory by William Glasser assumes that human beingsare basically self-regulating and can thus learn to manage their own behaviour(Edwards, 1993). Children learn to be responsible by examining a full range ofconsequences for their behaviours. They make judgments about their behaviourand its consequences. By understanding why a student exhibits undesirablebehaviours is no reason to tolerate such behaviours. Glasser emphasises thatstudents are rational beings and are quite capable of choosing to cooperate and be ontask (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993).2.3.3 Non directive Intervention TheoriesNon directive intervention theories tend to assume that children develop froman inner unfolding. That is, they have a blueprint necessary for complete andrational self-determination. Children achieve best if allowed to direct themselvesand the teacher’s role is to provide environmental conditions that promote growth.There is considerable freedom for children in the school so long as they are able todirect their own experiences. Teachers have very little cause to fear that childrenwill make inappropriate choices (Edwards, 1993). The Ginott approach and15Transactional Analysis model are examples of non-directive intervention theories(Edwards, 1993).The Ginott model is based on the assumption that student behaviour can beimproved if teachers interact with them more effectively, treating them withunderstanding, kindness and respect. Positive communication by teachers bolstersthe self-concept of students, which in turn produces befter classroom discipline.Students can learn to be autonomous and responsible. Accepting and clarifyingstudents’ feelings will improve their classroom behaviour. The Ginott model alsoassumes that improper use of praise encourages dependency, punishmentencourages misconduct, insults cause rebellion and cooperation increasesappropriate behaviour (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993).The Transactional Analysis model by Berne and Harris assumes that behaviouris an outgrowth of information stored in the subconsdous mind that has beenlearned by interacting with others (Edwards, 1993). Life experiences are recordedunaltered in our subconscious minds. Behaviours such as exuberance and selfcentredness come from the child ego-state while behaviour designed to controlothers is nearly automatic and comes from the parent-ego-state. Children can learnto be more responsible by learning how to let their adult ego-state monitor boththeir child and parent state and eventually alter their automatic behaviours(Edwards, 1993).These models and theories provide a basis for understanding class managementstrategies. They may even provide a rationale for the use of particular strategies.However, Cohen (1991) suggests that the choice of management strategies shouldnot depend on ideology but rather on the technical requirement of the task theteacher has chosen. By narrowly subscribing to one particular model, teachers maynot be able to enlarge their repertoire of management skills which may be neededto deal with the different settings of physical education and the classroom. In fact,16an eclectic approach which is informed by a variety of models is now beingadvocated (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993). Teachers may prefer to use elements ofa number of models. They may recombine them into an approach that is suitablefor managing various environments, situations and children (Cangelosi, 1988).Teachers may also use a shifting orientation where a particular model is useddepending on how much teacher control is needed to establish and maintain order.Hence, various class management strategies would be used depending on thesituation. Indeed, much of the research on effective class management has focusedon the manner and ability of teachers to establish and maintain order rather thanthe ability of a teacher to implement a particular theory.2.4 The Link Between Effective Class Management and AchievementMuch of the literature supports the notion that skilful management is anecessary condition for teacher effectiveness. Rink (1991) daimed that classmanagement skills are essential to effective teaching. Martinek (1991) supportedthis link by saying that learning cannot take place without class control.The link between good class management and high academic achievement isnow quite strong. Studies show that effective teachers manage their classes toincrease academic learning time causing students to score higher on achievementtests. When investigators looked at how teachers were spending their time, theydiscovered that much time was being wasted due to poor organisation andmanagement. Rink (1993) suggested that as much as 1/3 of the time allocated tophysical education is being wasted due to poor organisation and management.From a study of five middle school physical education teachers, it was recorded thatteachers spent as much as 35% of class time in housekeeping routines. Moreover,data from major research programs in physical education revealed thatmanagement time accounts for 40% of total lesson time and disruptive pupilbehaviour is more likely to occur during management and waiting time than17during instruction and activity time (Siedentop, 1991). In sum, effective teachersmaximise time to engage in learning activities and effectively manage to preventdisruptions.2.5 Management Studies in the Classroom and in Physical EducationThere is now clear and detailed information on how effective teachers manageand organise their classrooms. Adaptations of classroom research has providedmuch of what we know about effective dass management in physical education.However, few studies have directly studied class management in physicaleducation and even fewer have compared physical education and the classroom.The following classroom studies were selected based on variables thatreceived significant attention in the literature. Physical education studies wereselected based on their exclusive focus on class management at the elementarylevel. By providing a description of major management studies conducted in theclassroom setting and the few physical education studies, it is hoped that somegeneral comparisons can be drawn to interpret the results of this researcher’s study.2.5.1 Classroom StudiesIn a study of 80 first and second grade classes, Kounin (1970) tried to find out whateffective managers were doing to handle classroom management problems.Kounin identified specific variables related to class management. The behaviourmost strongly correlated with effective classroom management was ‘withitness’.This was the ability of the teacher to know what was going on in the classroom andto target behaviour accurately and with good timing. Teachers who had a highwork level involvement and freedom from deviancy were also high onoverlapping. They were able to attend to two or more events at the same time.Kounin (1970) also found that when good managers were compared to poormanagers, they displayed differences in smoothness and momentum (smoothtransitions from one activity to another while maintaining momentum); group18alerting (keeping the children’s attention); variety and challenge; andaccountability.Rosen, Taylor, O’Leary and Sanderson (1990) conducted two studies to examinethe methods used by elementary school teachers to manage classroom behaviour.The first study employed a self-report format to find out the proportion of teacherswho endorsed specific management techniques and how much they used them.Elementary teachers (N=137) from two middle class suburban school districtsresponded to the two page survey. Results of the first study showed that teachersused management techniques to control inappropriate social behaviour more thaninappropriate academic behaviour. Techniques for appropriate behaviour wereequal for social and academic situations. The top strategies used for inappropriatebehaviours were: reprimand privately, send note/call parents, discuss with thechild, remove privilege, threaten to punish, and move desk away. Least usedstrategies were: take away gym/art time, publicly post demerits, reduce grade, sendto a different classroom and physically shove. To encourage appropriate behaviour,a large portion of teachers used hugging, a pat on the back, bonus points, friendlyencouragement and a happy face on their work.The second study provided preliminary data through observations of eightregular elementary school teachers. A revised version of Procedures for ClassroomObservation of Teachers and Children was used. The results verified that teachersused more verbal than concrete management techniques and more positive thannegative management techniques.2.5.2 Physical Education StudiesBased on the need student teachers expressed to know the type of malbehavioursencountered in the physical education setting, Kennedy (1982) developed adescriptive-analytic system to monitor disciplinary episodes in physical education.An observational system of 22 student malbehaviour categories and 17 teacher19control techniques was developed to record the student malbehaviour coupledwith the resultant teacher control technique. Observations included 51 dassperiods in suburban, urban and inner city co-ed high school settings. The resultsshowed that teacher control techniques were either positive or punitive. Thecontrol techniques were: ordering stop/correcting behaviour/explaining why,reducing grades, physically punish, restrain, demand apology, evokeembarrassment, demand restitution and give extra work.Although the study was designed to test the reliability of the observation system,certain behaviours were considered characteristic of the physical education setting.It appeared that, due to the amount of physical movement that took place, thegreatest amount of malbehaviours occurred in the physical area rather than theverbal. Teachers needed to deal most with problems resulting from movinginfractions and used the Ordering to Stop category most frequently. Behaviourmodification techniques were the least used and comprised only 6.2% of the totaltechniques used. These included time-out (5.9%), praising, token economy andfree time (0.3%).Vogler and Bishop (1990) described ways in which a sample of physical educationteachers managed disruptive behaviour in an activity based environment. Afurther purpose of the study was to determine the influence the teacher and contextvariables had on the management of disruptive behaviour that were known tohave differential effects on student achievement in the regular classroom.Elementary school teachers (N=172) were given a survey to measure the degreeto which a variety of behaviour management strategies were used with mildly,moderately and severely disruptive behaviour problems encountered in thephysical education classes. A list of 29 behaviour management strategies wereprovided to reflect behavioural, psychodynamic and humanistic theoreticalorientations. The top ranked strategies were: praise for appropriate behaviour,20non-verbal expression of disapproval, ignoring, modelling, time-out, physicalproximity, taking away privilege and verbally admonishing. The least usedstrategies were: pushing/shoving, giving examples of bad behaviour, and satiationuntil the student tires. When behaviours became more severe, timeout andremoval of privilege were used more.Henkel (1991) was the first researcher to use qualitative methods to examineclass control techniques in physical education outside of the high school setting.General principles and teachings for pupil control have been described for physicaleducators and class teachers, but this is the first study to substantiate their use at theelementary level.The purpose of his study was to describe the development of a conceptualframework for pupil control techniques. The framework was derived from 64 liveobservations and audiotapes of elementary physical education lessons. Descriptionsof how teachers foster pupil self-control were provided. Using qualitative analysismethods, 23 control techniques emerged. These were classified as anticipatory (A),tutorial (T) or punitive (P) techniques. The 23 categories included:“Amending (A,T) - Requiring child to amend improper conduct by exhibitingproper conduct.Correcting (T) - Modifying child’s misconduct by emphasising that something iswrong.Exercising (A,T, P) - Administering exercise as a consequence for misconduct.Gaining attention (A,T, P) - Requiring child to keep mouth quiet, listen, thinkor watch.Calling Name (T) - Saying child’s name without reference to actual or expectedconduct.Immobilising (A,T) - Instructing child to gain control of gym equipment.Ignoring (T) - Intentionally ignoring misconduct.21Locating(A,T) - Instructing child to assume a designated or chosen space to beginor resume activity.Physically reprimanding (T,P) - Disapproving of misconduct through aggressivephysical contact.Positioning (A,T) - Instructing child to assume a designated or chosen bodyposition.Praising (A,T) - Acknowledging proper conduct without using a material rewardor special privilege.Redirecting (T) - Directing attention from misconduct to proper conduct withoutdirect mention to child.Referring (T,P) - Contacting another authority or sending child to anotherauthority (parent, principal).Reinstating (A) - Returning child to previous status of participation and/orprivilege.Relinquishing (A,T,P) - Taking a privilege away as a consequence of misconduct.Confiscating (A,T,P) - Taking away equipment or personal belonging or earlyreturn of equipment.Removing (A,T,P) - Removing child from activity.Rewarding (A, T) - Acknowledging proper conduct with a material reward orspecial privilege.Starting (A) - Clearly indicating when activity is to begin.Stating rule (A, T) - Establishing or reinforcing a behavioural rule or expectation.Waiting (T) - Delaying dass until the problem ceases” (Henkel, 1991, p. 56).2.6 Start of the Year StudiesEducators have long assumed that what happens in a classroom during the earlydays of the year sets the stage for the entire year. Doyle (1986) supported this whenhe concluded that when a high level of deviant pupil behaviour is established, it22does not revert back to lower levels. Indeed, beginning of the year activities areimportant in determining the level of pupil cooperation during the remainder ofthe year (Emmer, Evertson & Anderson, 1980). Emmer et al. (1980) also suggestedthat establishing routines early, combined with the ability to monitor and respondto pupil concerns will facilitate classroom management throughout the year.In a review of research on class management, Doyle (1986) found that teacherswho were successful managers spent considerable time in the early weeksintroducing rules and procedures. Teachers personally modelled the procedures,took time to answer questions and allowed practice of procedures during the firstfew weeks of school. Furthermore, Brophy (1983) found that successful managersdid much of the planning and preparation for classroom management prior to thestart of the school year. Room arrangement, materials, storage and other physicalaspects were prepared in advance.The following are two start of the year studies, one conducted in the classroomsetting and the other in physical education.2.6.1 Classroom StudyIn 1980, the results of a landmark study for class management at the start of theyear were published by Emmer, Evertson and Anderson. An extensiveobservational study of 27 third grade classes during the first three week of theschool year examined how teachers who are effective managers began the year anddetermined what basic principles of management underscored their teaching. Datawere collected using a narrative record and teacher interviews. Based on severalcriteria for effective management, teachers were classified into two groups,ineffective and effective. Observations were repeated at the end of the year.The results indicated that effective managers integrated rules and proceduresinto a workable system and taught them more to children without overloadingthem. Better managers, those with less discipline problems, had taken23considerable time during the first week to explain and remind children of the rules.The teachers taught specific signals and worked out procedures early. They hadsmoother, shorter transitions and provided more adequate explanations. Theteachers planned space, equipment and materials for maximum use, dedded onbehaviours appropriate and inappropriate for different areas, decided onconsequences, taught rules and encouraged the students to understand the reasonsfor them and intervened quickly to stop disruptive behaviour. They developedprocedures to allow students to be responsible for their behaviour and skillperformance and taught listening skills. Moreover, effective teachers did lessignoring, and monitored students more carefully.Better managers displayed better affective skills in listening and expressingfeelings. Effective teachers introduced the first academic activity as a simple,enjoyable one such as drawing and colouring. Both effective managers andineffective managers had rules, however, the more effective managers providedmore clarification. The first procedures of more effective managers were related tomeeting the child’s immediate needs: where to put a lunch box, how to use thebathroom, how to use certain areas in the class and when and where to get a drink.Children were taught what they needed to know about using the room but werenot overloaded with information. Finally, effective managers had carefullythought out procedures for contacting the teacher, lining up, turning in work andstandards of conduct during seatwork, group work and whole class activities. Theinvestigators concluded that effective organisation and management weredetermined during the first few weeks of the school year.2.6.2 Physical Education StudyA start of the school year study (Fink & Siedentop, 1989) was conducted as part ofthe Effective Elementary Specialist Study to assess the degree in which specialistelementary physical education teachers began the school year in ways that were24similar or different from effective dassroom teachers. Data were collected in a totalof 42 lessons for seven teachers and divided equally between first and fifth gradeclasses. Behaviours related to rules, routines and expectations were systematicallyobserved using a system developed for this study. Observations were live, livefrom videotape or live with the aid of a tape recorder. Field notes were used torecord the nature of the event and times. Eleven teacher behaviour codes revealedthat the teachers established routines early, described routines clearly, promptedappropriate procedures, provided students with the opportunity to practice routinesand gave frequent feedback. The attention/quiet routine and start/stop signalswere the routines most often practised. Verbal feedback was the dominant mode ofdealing with student behaviour. Teachers relied much more on positive thancorrective or negative reactions. The results of this study indicate strongsimilarities between elementary physical education specialists and results fromother studies regarding the practices of effective classroom teachers at the start ofthe year.To summarise, these two beginning of the year studies in class management inphysical education and in the classroom have revealed similar results. Research inboth settings have concluded that effective management is predicted in the firstseveral weeks of the year.2.7 General Findings from the Class Management ResearchResearch in both the physical education and the classroom setting seem to be ingeneral agreement of what makes an effective manager. Withitness andoverlapping have been supported by a number of researchers. Sanford andEvertson’s (1981) study of junior high school teachers found that effective managershad a good pace, monitored students and had them practice procedures androutines. Brophy and Evertson’s study (1976 as cited in Emmer et al, 1980) of firstgrade dasses found that withitness and, to a lesser extent, overlapping, was25positively associated with student achievement. They found that effectivemanagers were sensitive to students and continuously monitored them.However, no support was given for accountability or group alerting. Emmer et al.(1980) also found that monitoring was related to increased work involvement and adecrease in deviancy.Effective managers provide clear instruction and do not bombard children withtoo many rules or instruction (Tenoschok, 1985). Rules are clear and consequencesfor inappropriate and appropriate behaviour are outlined (Strain & Sainato, 1987).They systematically teach procedures, explain them and give feedback to ensurestudents learn and understand the reasons why procedures are in place.Effective managers plan and organise to prevent and minimise dealing withproblems in the first place (Porter & Brophy, 1988). Dailey (1985 as dted inMartinek, 1991) found that poor organisation skills were the primary cause ofstudent mishaps in the gym.There is a history of procedures used to increase appropriate studentbehaviour. Among physical educators and dassroom teachers alike, classmanagement techniques for student behaviour have been frequently classified aspreventative or punitive. Preventative techniques include: gaining pupilattention, modelling desirable conduct, teaching prosocial behaviour skills,explaining consequences, self-sefting of consequences, positive reinforcement,maintaining eye contact, proximity control, clarifying appropriate behaviour, andrewarding (Rink, 1991; Siedentop, 1991). Punitive techniques refer to unpleasantconsequences that have a of reducing misconduct (Henkel, 1991). Examples ofpunishment include desists, self-reprimands,extinction, ignore, positive practice,reward cost, timeout, corporal punishment, exercise as punishment, detention,contacting parents and removal of privileges (Rink, 1991; Siedentop, 1991). Many ofthe original observational studies of class environments documented that when26discipline problems occurred, teachers were more likely to employ negative overpositive consequences when managing student behaviour (Rosen et al., 1990).However, it has been shown that the “get tough” approach is less than satisfactoryin elementary schools (Carter, 1989). Rosen (et al., 1990) found that teachersconsidered most effective frequently used more positive than negativemanagement techniques.Smooth and rapid transitions are another component of effective dassroommanagement. Strain and Sainato (1987) found that as much as 20% of thepreschool day was spent in transition from activity to activity. Effective dassroommanagers, however, have faster, more rapid transitions thereby providing lessopportunity for disruptive behaviour (Porter & Brophy, 1986).2.8 Class Management in Different ContextsThe complexity of classroom management has been consistently reported in theliterature. This has been largely attributed to the complex nature of the teachingenvironment. The factors of multi-dimensionality, immediacy, unpredictability,publicness and history contribute to the complexity of the teaching environment(Doyle, 1986). Multi-dimensionality means that the teacher must deal with differentstudent needs and agendas. Immediacy refers to the need for decisions to be madequickly with little time to reflect. Unpredictability involves unexpected events.The publicness of the teacher’s decisions affects the entire dass. Finally, the historyof the class, such as what was done in the past, even holidays and rain, affects thenature of the dass.The physical education environment may increase the complexity of teachers’class management. Locke (1975 as cited in Silverman, 1991) found the gymnasiumto be a “complex place where teachers move from one activity to another, wheregreat diversity exists among students, where the nature of the subject matter makesphysical education different from the classroom because of space and noise27considerations and where time constraints have an impact on all facets ofinstruction and curriculum development” (p. 357). The excitement aroused duringcompetition, the necessity of the student to participate physically, the use ofequipment and apparatus and the need for students to move appropriately arerequisite aspects of physical education and “yet these very aspects provideopportunities conducive to malbehaviours” (Kennedy, 1982, p. 92). Fernandez-Balboa (1991) suggested that the movement element, physical contact andcompetitive component of some activities may cause students to exhibit increasedoff-task, aggressive and non-participatory behaviours that requires uniquemanagement strategies. White and Bailey (1990) stated that physical education is aprime location for the occurrence of behaviour problems because of the typicallyless structured and more open environment. As well, Martinek (1991) reportedthat teachers in the physical education setting have different aspects of classmanagement to deal with. These include public misbehaviour and little self-control due to the spontaneity of behaviour, increased organisation of theenvironment and behaviour that can be aggressive. He further stated that classmanagement in physical education is more difficult due to the mobility of thestudents and the use of various types of equipment.Regarding supervision, Siedentop (1991) considered the classroom setting is lesscomplex than physical education. He observed that supervision was easier in theclassroom whether whole group work or seat work due to the small size of the classplacement of the students. In physical education, the large size of the playing fieldsand the movement of the students made supervision more difficult.Despite the recognition that physical education has additional qualities that mayaffect class management, current research has been limited to therapeuticrecreational settings for special populations (White & Bailey, 1990). Comparisonsacross curricular settings are not well represented in the literature and no28conclusions can be made. Some attempts, however have been made to exploredifferences in class management behaviours across subject matter areas, level oftask complexity, class size and physical environment. The following is a summaryof these studies. Even though they do not compare the physical education settingto the classroom setting, they give some indication that teaching environmentsmay affect class management.Johnston (1990) conducted a longitudinal study of the effects of dass size onkindergarten to grade three pupils. The project staff randomly assigned teachersfrom 79 schools to each of three class types: small classes (13 - 15), regular classes (22- 25) and regular classes with full time teacher aides (22 - 25 pupils). Based on fouryears of interviews with the teachers, striking differences in managing classroomrules, procedures, and pupil behaviours were noted. The overwhelming commentwas that classroom management was easier and that there were fewer behaviourproblems in the smaller classes. The teachers attributed differences in classroommanagement to the ability to provide more attention to the children. Theincreased attention from the teachers reduced the likelihood that the childrenwould try to misbehave.Cohen (1991) reflected on ten years of experience as a sodologist on thedifferences in classroom management when different task structures werepresented to children. Her findings indicated that when work becomes highlydifferentiated, that is, working with different groups and materials, the teacher canmanage and guide the students’ behaviour through detailed rules and schedules.Moreover, the behaviours required of students in cooperative groups are quitedifferent from those required in traditional classrooms.Bennett and Blundell (1983) reported a field experiment in which 10 and 11 yearold students in two classes spent two weeks in their normal classroom groups andwere then assigned to work independently in rows before being reassigned to29groups. The results indicated that there was a noticeable improvement inclassroom behaviour when the students were in rows. Even though one couldeasily imagine how furniture arrangements, types of desks and chairs, density ofstudents and opportunities for interaction could affect classroom order, there isonly a limited amount of systematic inquiry done in this area of classroommanagement (Doyle, 1986).Silverstein (1979) examined the relationships between environmentalcharacteristics and level of problematic behaviour. In a study of two fourth gradeclasses, Silverstein found that problematic behaviours from day dreaming and milddistractions due to disruption, shouting and fighting occurred most often duringsilent pleasure reading. However, during small-group and whole-dass formats,only a few instances of mildly distracting behaviours or non-involvementoccurred. Studies have found that teacher behaviours dealing with inappropriatebehaviour were typically more frequent during recitation than reading groups(Gump, 1967). Gump suggested that recitations or reading groups were usedprimarily for group instruction and few attempts were made to work on individualproblems during these activities. In such settings, the pressure was to maintain agroup pace and to involve as many students as possible in each episode.In a study of two fourth grade classrooms, Bossert (1979) found that dassroomstructure had a powerful influence on the types of control exercised by teachers.Reprimand rates were higher during recitation than during seatwork and smallgroups for all teachers. In summary, activities seemed to present their ownproblems for order and instruction (Rosenshine, 1983).Actual subject matter studies in dass management are few. However, from theprevious research on task structure, studies on subject matter that focus on thetypical task structure provide some connection to the differences in classmanagement across subjects. Doyle (1986) summarised subject matter differences by30stating that sodal studies lessons had fewer practising concepts and skills, and fewerrecitation segments than math. Bossert (1979) found that multi task classes versuswhole-dass recitation classes had differences in levels of problematic behaviour.Studies suggest that the “greater the amount of student choice and mobility and thegreater the complexity of the social scene, the greater the need for overt managingand controlling actions by teachers” (Doyle, 1986, p. 403).Doyle (1986) stated that the data available at present are not sufficient for drawingthe conclusion that there is a substantial difference in class management practicesof teachers due to the differences in subject matter forms or group designs.Research on class management has not yet defined the full range of contexts thatmay affect class management behaviours (Luke, 1989). As well, the majority ofstudies that have been conducted in differing contexts have been isolated to readingand math.In summary, there are a number of class management models that reflect therelative amounts of freedom they provide children and the control that they giveto teachers. However, it has only been in the last 15 years that research on classmanagement has become central to the role of research on effective teaching.Findings from the research has had a tendency to assume that what happens in oneenvironment transfers to other areas. There has been some indication from thesmall number of context difference studies that there may be a difference in howteachers manage their classes in different settings. In physical education, only asmall number of studies have been conducted in the area of class management. Ofthese, the majority have focused on the physical education specialist rather thanthe dassroom teacher who teacher his or her own physical education. Moreover,the literature has shown that the start of the school year is an important time inestablishing class management practices.31Chapter 3Design and Methodology3.1 IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to describe and compare three teachers’ classmanagement practices in the elementary dassroom setting compared to theelementary physical education setting at the start of the school year. In order tocapture an in-depth understanding and meaning of teachers’ class managementpractices, a qualitative case study design was chosen. With this design, it isassumed that human behaviour is context-bound (Lincoln & Cuba, 1985). Thisleads the researcher to collect data in the natural surroundings of the people whoproduce, influence, and give meaning to observable behaviour (Schempp, 1987).The biographies of participants (e.g. experience, age) and school location are “allseen as interacting and unifying variables that provide contextual explanations ofthe observed” (Schempp, 1987, p. 117). According to Merriam (1991), qualitativecase study research is an inductive mode of inquiry which focuses on a specificphenomenon or situation. The primary goals of this type of investigation are forunderstanding, description, discovery and hypothesis generating. Multiple visits toa single site, multiple data collection techniques, and small, nonrandom samplesare common to qualitative research (Merriam, 1991). As well, the researcherbecomes the primary instrument for data collection (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).Since the present study was concerned with the real and natural picture ofteachers’ class management practices in the physical education and the classroomsetting, the qualitative case study design was well-suited. The selection of thisdesign illustrates the researcher’s concern for the complexities of teachers’ classmanagement practices and the belief that many factors contribute to this. Thefollowing is a description of the design and metholodogy used in this study.Included are process for site and participant selection, procedures for data collection32and analysis and limitations of this study.3.2 Research Site3.2.1 DescriptionA public elementary school in British Columbia’s Lower Mainland provided thesite for this study. As of September 1992, the school had 365 students in 15 classes.Most of the classes had multi-age groupings containing two or three age groupswith the exception of two half-day Kindergarten classes and one Grade 7 class.There were also two open area classrooms where classes were team taught. Theschool practised a ‘non-graded’ approach, in which the children were givenanecdotal progress reports rather than a letter grade.The school served as a lead school for the implementation of a province wideprogramme of reform, titled the Year 2000, and had been featured for this programin Ministry of Education videos. In addition, the school had designed andproduced district curriculum, planned and led professional developmentworkshops for other districts, collaborated with the university as a teachereducation site and had over 250 visitors observe their Year 2000 programme.The staff consisted of 15 classroom teachers, 4 specialist teachers, 6 support staff, aprincipal and a secretary. The specialist teachers were the French teacher,teacher/librarian, teacher for the hearing impaired and a resource teacher. Twoengineers, two staff assistants and two supervisory aides comprised the supportstaff.The student population was varied and constantly changing. The school had aconsiderable transiency with a net monthly change of nearly 4%. Approximately80% of the children had parents who were university students. Of these, about 25%were students from another country who were not landed immigrants. Accordingto the principal, children were from low-income families. The average length ofstay was about three years. In a letter sent by the staff to the district school board in33October, 1992 the impact of a transient population on the programme at the start ofthe school year was outlined.(The school) has for many years attempted to respond to the needs of a highlytransient school population by creating a stable, supportive learningenvironment, by planning flexible groupings which address social andemotional needs and by keeping children with the same teacher for a period oftwo years. District support staff have observed that a significant number of ourstudents have had to cope with higher than average levels of change and lossresulting from family relocation and disruption. This year, in response to theseconditions, we devoted the first three days of school to getting to know the(learning needs) of our children who are new this year, and to becomingfamiliar with the needs and strengths of all the children. We then dedicated ourfirst professional day to creating the best possible learning groups” (Letter, 1992).Whenever possible, the school also attempted to keep children with the sameteacher for two or three years to provide stability and enhance student-teacher andparent-teacher relationships.Besides the general classrooms, the school had a large computer room, anactivity room, a multi-crafts room, library/resource centre and a basement playspace. Physical education facilities consisted of a large gymnasium with a stage area,a pull-out climbing frame, a balance beam, six gymnastic benches, six climbingropes and a chalk board. There were change rooms on both sides of the gym. Theoutdoor facilities included a large playing field with a baseball diamond, anadventure playground, a compound area with basketball hoops and varioushopscotch and ball activity games painted on the pavement, and a large forest thatsurrounded the school. Appendix 3.1 includes a diagram of the school, eachteacher’s classroom and the gym.The physical education equipment was extensive. One storage room had a34variety of small equipment such as hula hoops, balls, bats, gloves, bases, racquetsand nets. The other storage room had larger equipment such as trestles, climbingladders, mini-tramps, balance beams, and volleyball posts. Located on the stage wasa stack of about 15 small gymnastic mats, six large mats, a piano, and a record/tapeplayer that could be attached to the gym speaker system.3.2.2 The Process and Criteria for Site SelectionThe search for a study site began in March, 1992. Initially, one public schoolboard was approached because it had a large number of schools from which to drawand had a history for its quality physical education programmes. Having areputation for quality physical education suggested to the investigator the teachersin this district might be more receptive to having an observer in their classrooms.Furthermore, there was the possibility of observing physical education classes twoor more times per week. However, the school board’s research department deniedcontact with the schools until a contract issue with the teachers had been resolved.By June of 1992, the issue had not been resolved and staffing for the start of theschool year (September 1992) had not be completed. Since this study was tocommence at the start of the school year, the researcher believed it was necessary tohave willing participants prior to the summer break. Therefore, an alternate schoolboard was contacted. Even though the next district had a smaller number ofschools, it was also known for its quality physical education program. The physicaleducation consultant recommended one school and, after gaining permission fromthe principal, a meeting was arranged with six of its teachers during the secondweek of June, 1992. Unfortunately, none of the teachers were willing to participatein the study at the start of the school year. They expressed concern over theamount of out of class time they would have to spend at such a busy time of theyear and they displayed discomfort about being observed and videotaped.From this process, the researcher learned that it was ultimately the teacher who35must be willing to participate. According to Bogdan and Biklen (1992), “gettingpermission to conduct the study involves more than getting an official blessing. Itinvolves laying the groundwork for good rapport with those with whom you willbe spending time so they will accept you and what you are doing” (p. 82). Over thesummer the researcher approached faculty and students at the university in hopesof making a link with potential participants. This also gave the researcher time toreevaluate how to present the study to the teachers in a less threatening manner.The researcher decided to place more emphasis on unobtrusive observation andless on video taping. This decision was supported by comments from Bogdan andBikien (1992) who stated “when seeking research approval, you can facilitate...entryby offering a low-key explanation and not insisting on playing the researcher role”(p. 82). As a further incentive, the researcher offered to teach some physicaleducation classes and to provide the teachers with current physical educationresources once all the data was collected.By the end of August, 1992, a university professor in the Faculty of Education atthe University of British Columbia provided the researcher with the name of ateacher who might be willing to participate in this study. The teacher agreed andthe school became the research site. The school had a high degree of typicality.Typicality refers to the degree in which the site “may be compared or contrastedalong relevant dimensions with other phenomenon” (McMillan & Schumacher,1989, p. 194). The school had many typical activities and processes of a Canadianelementary school, and, in particular, Lower Mainland, British Columbiaelementary schools. First, a public school was considered typical because morethan 94% of Canadian children attend a public school (Statistics Canada, 1991).Second, the school had a somewhat typical number of students enrolled (365).According to Statistics Canada (1989 - 1990), a Canadian elementary public schoolaverages 260 students. Even though the study site had more students than the36national average, the mean student population for elementary schools within thisdistrict was 382. Finally, the school had a typical schedule for physical education.Each teacher had two, forty minute sessions scheduled for physical education perweek. This is typical of elementary schools in British Columbia where the averagenumber of physical education classes is approximately 2. 7 per week (just under 90minutes) (British Columbia Assessment of Physical Education, 1979).3.3 Participant Proffles and Selection33.1 Participant ProfilesThree elementary classroom teachers (two female and one male) participated inthis study. All of the participants were in their mid-forties and had four to six yearsof teaching experience at this school. The following descriptions include eachteacher’s background and the classes they were teaching at the time of this study.Diagrams of each teacher’s class and the physical education setting can be found inAppendix 3.1. Names have been changed to conceal the identity of those involved.Bob taught 26 children in a multi-age class which spanned Grades 3 to 6. He wascoordinator for physical education at the school and had been teaching at theelementary level for five years, four of which were spent at the present school.Most of his teaching experience had involved multi-age classes at both the primaryand intermediate levels. Prior to obtaining his teaching degree in 1986, he hadacquired a degree in applied social science and worked for a few years as a paroleofficer. Bob had worked for a number of years in recreation and worked extensivelywith physical education teachers. At the time of the study, Bob was finishing adiploma in counselling psychology with the intention of doing a Masters Degree inCurriculum and Instruction. As part of his teacher certification program, Bob tooka course on teaching physical education to elementary school children.Wendy taught 26 children in a multi-age class which included Kindergarten toGrade 2. The kindergarten children came only for the morning sessions which left3721 children in the afternoon. Wendy had been teaching at the elementary levelforl5 years with just over half of this time teaching at various schools in the LowerMainland. The past five years of teaching were spent at the present school. Prior toobtaining teacher certification, Wendy had a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, with ayear of graduate work. During her teacher certification programme, she had taken agames activity course for teaching elementary school children.Pam taught 25 children in a multi-age class which included Grades 2 and 3. Shehad been teaching at the primary level for the past five years at the present school.Prior to this she had been a high school teacher librarian and an English teacher atboth the high school and university level. Pam held a Bachelor and Master’sdegree in English Literature/Drama, a Master’s Degree in Library Service and aBachelor’s Degree in Education. She mentioned that she had taken an assortmentof other courses over the years, including one on classroom management. Duringthe past couple of summers she had enrolled in a French immersion program.She had not taken any courses in teaching elementary physical education.3.3.2 Process and Criteria for Participant SelectionInitially, the research site was chosen based on the availability and cooperationof one teacher. However, the process of selecting the participants was consistentwith purposeful sampling strategies. In purposeful sampling it is assumed that“one wants to discover, to understand, gain insight; therefore one needs to select asample from which one can learn the most” (Merriam, 1991, p. 48). In purposefulsampling, certain participants are chosen because they are believed to beinformation rich and likely yield the most fruitful data (Lincoln & Cuba, 1985). Themethods of purposeful sampling were: convenience sampling, network selection,reputational case selection and typical case selection.Time constraints dictated somewhat of a convenience sampling strategy. Theschool was selected by the willingness of one teacher to participate in the study.38From this, network, reputational and typical case selection strategies wereemployed.In network selection, each successive participant or group is named by apreceding group or individual and the sample is collected on the basis of participantreferrals. Once Bob had agreed to do the study, the researcher spent the week beforeclass groupings were formed getting to know the staff (pre-week). During this timethe principal and Bob were asked if they knew of any teachers who would bewilling to participate in the study and, in their view, were effective classroommanagers. The principal and Bob identified three teachers and the researcher left awritten outline of the study in their mailboxes. From this, Wendy and Pamapproached the researcher expressing interest in participating in the study.According to Merriam (1991), reputational case selection is where participants arechosen on the recommendation of experienced experts in an area. Both theprincipal and the university professor had an in-depth knowledge about Bob’sreputation. As well, the principal highly recommended Pam and Wendy for thestudy.In typical case selection, the “researcher develops a profile of attributes possessedby an average case and then seeks an instance of this case” (Patton, 1981 as cited inMerriam, 1991, p. 50). Each of the participant’s role was typical in regards toteaching physical education in the elementary school. Within the public schoolsystem, 90% of elementary teachers are responsible for teaching their own physicaleducation classes (British Columbia Physical Education Assessment, 1980).In sum, this study employed purposeful sampling strategies of convenience,typicality, network and reputational case selection.3.4 Data CollectionData were collected primarily through observations recorded in detailed fieldnotes. These were supported by interviews and videotaped observations. The39choice of these methods is supported by Merriam (1991) who stated that “humansare best-suited for the task of naturalistic inquiry and are at their best when usingmethods that make use of human sensibilities such as interviewing, observing, andanalysing” (p. 3). Data collection lasted approximately seven weeks with about 60hours spent at the school. The length of the study was determined by a saturationprocedure suggested by Merriam (1991). This involves the researcher’s intuitivesense that no more new information would be reached.3.4.1 ObservationsDuring the first seven weeks of the school year, a total of 26 physical educationsessions and 34 classroom sessions were observed. Fifty-one hours were spentobserving the three participants in the settings of physical education and theclassroom. Appendix 3.2 provides a more detailed account of the times and days ofobservation. The researcher began observing Bob prior to the first week of regularclasses. This week (pre-week) was designed for the teachers to get to know thechildren. An emphasis was placed on multiple age groups of children thattravelled to various activities around the school. At the end of the week, aprofessional development day was spent creating groups that would form eachteacher’s classroom. By observing pre-week sessions, Bob and the children weregiven the opportunity to become familiar with the researcher as early as possible.During the next six weeks, the researcher observed almost every physicaleducation dass taught by the three teachers. A slightly longer time was spentobserving in the classroom setting. By spending more time in the classroom, it washoped that the teachers, researcher and children would become more comfortablewith each other.Pam was observed teaching 9 physical education classes that averaged 45minutes. She was observed teaching 11 classroom sessions that averaged 41minutes. She taught two physical education classes per week, except for the first40and fifth week in which she taught just one. Bob was observed teaching 9 physicaleducation classes that averaged 45 minutes. He was observed teaching 12 classroomsessions that averaged 59 minutes. He taught three physical education classes forthe first two weeks and was observed teaching one physical education class for eachof the following three weeks. Wendy was observed teaching 8 physical educationclasses that averaged 33 minutes. She was observed teaching 11 classroom sessionsthat averaged 73 minutes. She averaged two physical education classes per week,except during the first week when she did not schedule a physical education class.The observations focused on the teachers’ class management practices whichwere guided by the researcher’s knowledge and experience in the area. Field notes,which were typed within 24 hours after the visits, included detailed observations,informal conversations, diagrams of spaces and descriptions of each teacher in hisor her particular context.3.4.2 InterviewsEach teacher was interviewed regarding a) teaching experience and educationalbackground, b) definitions of class management, c) the role of class management atthe start of the school year, and d) the differences and similarities in how theymanage their students in the physical education setting compared to the classroomsetting. Appendix 3.3 shows the interview guide that consisted of six open-endedquestions. The researcher developed, adapted and modified the questions to allowfurther depth and to explore other related issues. The interviews were arranged ata time and place that was convenient and comfortable for each participant. Allteachers were interviewed as early in the school year as possible. These interviews,lasting approximately 30 - 45 minutes each, were audio taped and later transcribedfor analysis.Informal interviews were also conducted throughout the study to confirm orclarify observations. However, the researcher’s questions were limited to reduce41the degree of influence the study might have on management practices. Thisdecision was made based on responses from the initial audio taped interviews. Forexample, the researcher asked Bob after the first day of classes if she was affectinghis teaching. He said that his teaching was “pretty much what he usually does” butthat he was more aware of class management from the questions the researcherasked. The influence of the researcher’s question on the participant was echoed inWendy’s remark that she “hadn’t thought about it (class management) “for a longtime” and that it was “good to focus on it.”At the end of the study, an informal interview was conducted with each of theteachers. The issue of similarities and differences in class management in thesettings of physical education and the classroom was readdressed. As well, theresearcher gained important feedback on the influence she may have had on thefindings. Responses were recorded in a note book immediately following eachsession.3.4.3 VideotapingDuring the sixth week and into the seventh week of school, each teacher wasvideotaped teaching two, 40-minute physical education classes and an equalamount of time teaching in the classroom setting. A compact, hand-held 8mmvideo camera was used to focus on the teachers’ visual behaviours and a wirelessmicrophone was used to record the corresponding verbal behaviours.The researcher had decided to take a low-key, non-threatening approach in orderto gain access to the site. This was best done by reducing the role of the videocamera. Each of the participants was asked if, following the observation period, theresearcher could video-tape a few sessions to highlight the observations. All of theteachers readily agreed to this approach. Due to the following reasons, data fromvideotapes were not used in this study.The decision to videotape towards the end of the study was made based on the42teachers’ level of comfort, parent-consent (Appendix 3.8) and school-reorganisation.The researcher had pilot tested the video in another school to become familiar withthe technology, yet all of the teachers expressed some degree of uneasiness with thecamera. However, they were quite receptive to field note observations. When thecamera was introduced, the researcher encouraged the children to see how thecamera worked and to ask questions about it. For the first few visits, the researcherkept the camera turned off, and just held it as though she were videotaping. Thisseemed to lessen the children’s curiosity when it was eventually turned on. It alsoallowed time for the teachers to get comfortable with the camera prior tovideotaping.Observations were started the first week of school, yet videotaping required timeto get parent consent. In fact, obtaining consent took about three weeks, which is animportant time of year to observe class management. If the researcher had waited,much valuable data would have been lost.The threat of reorganisation of classes created somewhat of a problem. Theextent to which the classes would be reorganised was not known until October 8,1992 which was the fourth week of the study. The teachers felt that parentalconsent forms for videotaping would add to the confusion and would most likelyhave to be sent out again once the issue was resolved.In summary, each teacher was videotaped during the sixth week and seventhweek of the school year. The factors of comfort level, gaining access to the site,parent consent and school reorganisation all contributed to this decision.3.4.4 Role of the ResearcherEach of the teachers agreed to accept the researcher’s role as silent observer.According to Darst, Zakrajsek and Mancini (1989), by limiting the participation inthe classes, the researcher is free to observe to a greater extent than if participatingin the activities. Even though a friendly relationship developed quickly with the43teachers, the status as an outsider became evident. There were a few occasionswhen the teachers asked “when are you going to give us some feedback.” Thisexpectation continued despite an insistence that the researcher only wanted to learnabout their class management practices in physical education and classroomsettings.During the interviews, the researcher tried to establish a sense of trust andrapport with the teachers. The researcher also asked open-ended questions so theteachers would share more of their thoughts about class management. Theresearcher also used language that closely matched the participants’. The researcherlimited any clarifying questions to times convenient to the teachers.Each teacher was informed of the purpose of the study prior to its start and hadthe option to withdraw at any time. Throughout the study, the researcher askedthem how they were feeling about the researcher’s role and sought their reaction tothe amount of time required of the study. All of the participants responded thatwhat was being observed was fairly natural. Wendy commented that she wasteaching “the same as if you (the researcher) were not here.” Bob commented thatthe researcher was probably the “least threatening and non-intrusive visitor we’vehad in a long time.”The researcher was also prepared for an initial period in which the teachers andstudents were on their best behaviour. However, she was surprised at how fastthey became accustomed to the researcher’s role. By the third day of observations,Bob said that he “hardly knew you (the researcher) were there most of the time”. Inall of the classes, the researcher felt as though she was unobtrusive within the firstfew hours of observation. For example, on the second day in Pam’s classroom, achild was driving a car over desks and chairs. Without looking up, he drove thecar over the researcher’s shoulder and onto the next desk. He seemed totallyunaware that the researcher was more than a mere obstacle in his path. By starting44observations at the start of the year, it is thought that the children accepted theresearcher a somewhat of a natural fixture in their class.3.5 Data AnalysisAccording to Merriam (1991), qualitative data analysis is “the process of makingsense of the data” and where the data are compressed and linked together to makesense to the reader. The data are consolidated, reduced and to some extent,interpreted. This study used inductive data analysis in which the findings wereinterpreted in a descriptive-analytic mode. Rather than fitting the data intopreconceived categories on an observation instrument or explaining the data interms of an hypothesis to be tested, the analysis was organised as the study evolved.Data from the observations were transcribed within 24 hours of their collection inorder to facilitate the integration of new data with the information obtained inprevious sessions. Therefore, data collection and analysis occurred somewhatsimultaneously.The first stage of data analysis involved jotting down notes, comments andqueries in the margins as the researcher read through the transcribed field notes. Aseparate list of major ideas was kept. According to Merriam (1991), notes such asthese serve to isolate the initially most striking, if not ultimately most importantaspects of the data.The second stage of data analysis involved taking the field notes and sortingthem into categories. Appendix 3.4 shows how notes in the margin developed intoa primitive classification system which the data were initially sorted. Theresearcher looked for regularities and patterns which were cirded and transformedinto categories into which subsequent items were sorted. The data were dividedinto the smallest pieces of information that could stand by themselves. Appendix3.4 shows how each unit was then given a number code. The process involvedlooking units of information that went together. For example, the first unit of45information that could stand by itself was placed in a randomly numberedcategory. The second unit of information, was compared and either put in thesame category or in a new one. As the process continued, new categories emergedrapidly at first but the rate diminished sharply after thirty to forty units wereprocessed. According to Merriam (1991), this is typical of this phase of analysis. Asnew units, categories and subcategories became scarce, the researcher considered thedata saturated and ended the analysis. In order to determine if the categories wereexhausted and complete, the data needed to be relatively free from ambiguity, thereneeded to be a minimum of unassignable data items and the categories needs to beplausible given the data (Merriam, 1991).The development of the categories was a largely intuitive process, yet wasinformed by the purpose of the study and the researcher’s background. It requiredconvergence where pieces of data converge on a single category and divergence,where the researcher fleshed out the categories once they were developed. Thecategories were internally homogeneous but between categories, the differenceswere clear.The researcher had conducted an extensive review of the class managementliterature. However, Bogden and Biklen (1991) argued against jamming the datainto preconceived categories. Therefore, the information was used only asstimulation for thinking about the data. During the time of data analysis, theresearcher distanced herself from the literature in order to formulate concepts onher own.As the categories became clearer, the researcher provided each one with arandom identification number. Descriptions that best represented each categorywere then written. Naming of the categories was done once the categories werefinalised. The researcher consulted previous literature to find commonlyunderstood names for the categories. Where none were found or not considered46appropriate, the researcher created the appropriate name. The researcher realisedthe categories represented class management strategies teachers used to establishand maintain appropriate student behaviour. The categories were then dividedinto three major classifications.Once the names of the class management strategies were given, the investigatorwent back into the field notes to count the number used in physical education andin the classroom. Appendix 3.5 is a sample of the numbered categories associatedwith the time each event and teaching episode occurred. Appendix 3.6 is a sampleworksheet used for counting the frequency of each strategy.It readily became apparent that teachers used differing amounts of strategiesduring various portions of the lesson. Therefore, it became necessary to identifythese lesson segments. The segments were named as teaching episodes and thelength of each was recorded. Following this, the investigator counted the numberof strategies used during each episode. Appendix 3.7 shows the identification andrecording of categories according to teaching episodes.The researcher could now compare 1) the type and frequency of strategies used inphysical education and the classroom, 2) the frequency of strategies used duringvarious teaching episodes in the classroom and physical education, and 3) thepercentage of time spent in various teaching episodes.The investigator returned to the list of major ideas and found general themesthat did not fit into the list of class management strategies but seemed integral tothe teachers’ overall management. These themes were identified and supported bydetailed descriptions from field notes. The process of giving names to each of thethemes was the same as for the management strategies.3.6 Establishing Trustworthiness (Validity and Reliability)According to Merriam (1991), “all research is concerned with producing validand reliable knowledge in an ethical manner. A qualitative case study is no47exception” (p. 163). Since qualitative research is based on different assumptionsabout reality and has a different world view, it has a different conceptualisation ofvalidity and reliability than quantitative research. Lincoln and Guba (1985)proposed the terms ‘truth value’ for internal validity, ‘transferability’ for externalvalidity and ‘consistency’ for reliability. Yet, the basic question is the same: “towhat extent can the researcher trust the findings of a qualitative case study”(Merriam, 1991). The following outlines the strategies used to increase thetrustworthiness of this study.Credibility or internal validity establishes how confident the researcher is withthe truth of the findings based on the research design, informants, and context(Krefting, 1991). It asks the questions: “do the findings capture what is reallythere?” or “How congruent are the findings with reality?” (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).Since reality is constructed, interpreted and based on multiple perceptions of reality,the researcher’s job becomes one of representing those multiple perceptions of theparticipants as adequately as possible. The issue of credibility hinges on this notionof reality. The question might then be asked, “how can one establish confidence inthe truth of the findings of a particular inquiry for the subjects (respondents) withwhich and the context in which the inquiry was carried out?” (Cuba, 1981, p. 79).A qualitative study is credible when it presents such accurate description orinterpretation of human experience that people who also share the experiencewould immediately recognise the descriptions. Krefting (1991) stated that “truthvalue (credibility) is perhaps the most important criterion for the assessment ofqualitative research” (p. 216). As suggested by Krefting (1991), Lincoln and Guba(1985) and Merriam (1991), the following strategies demonstrate the credibility ofthe findings: 1) triangulation, 2) peer/colleague examinations, 3) statement ofresearcher’s biases and assumptions, and 4) prolonged engagement in the researchsituation.48Triangulation refers simply to using several data sources (Krefting, 1991).Triangulation is “strategy that provides a rich and complex picture of some socialphenomenon being studied, but rarely does it provide a clear path to a singularview of what is the case” (Matheson, 1988). For this study, triangulation was doneby including more than one participant in the study, observing teachers duringdifferent times of the day, and collecting data through observations and interviews.Peer/colleague examination involves a discussion of the research process andfindings with colleagues who have experience with qualitative methods (Krefting,1991). This was built into this study by having a thesis committee that providedfeedback during each stage of the study.A statement of the researcher’s background, biases and assumptions allows thereader to form an opinion of the authority of the researcher and clarifies thetheoretical orientation (Krefting, 1991; Merriam, 1991). This study is theresearcher’s first qualitative study. The researcher has taken three graduate levelqualitative research courses and is an elementary physical education specialist withtwo years of teaching experience in university teacher education programmes andhas some experience teaching Kindergarten to Grade 3 physical education in apublic school.The researcher’s biases and assumptions parallel those found in qualitativeresearch by Bogdan and Biklen (1992), Guba (1981), Merriam (1991) and Schempp(1987). It is assumed that: 1 ) there are multiple views of reality and that any onepart necessarily influences all other parts, 2) the researcher will have someinfluence on the class culture, 3) generalisations in the traditional sense are notpossible, 4) the inquiry process will be inductive, 5) human behaviour is bound bycontext and time, and 6) by attending to the particular, the general will bediscovered.Prolonged engagement at the site enhances the findings “through intimate49familiarity and discovery of hidden fact” (Krefting, 1991, p. 217). Spending anextended period of time at the school allowed the participants in this study to adjustto the presence of the researcher and to “satisfy themselves that (she) does notconstitute a threat” (Cuba, 1981, p. 84). However, the researcher tried to exerdsecaution and avoid becoming over involved with the participants. The researcherkept a journal to assess the influence her perceptions, interests and background hadon the research process.Consistency, dependability or reliability are all terms that refer to the question:“Are the results consistent with the data collected?” (Merriam, 1991). Consistency isan aftempt to get outsiders to concur that, given the data collected, the results makesense (Merriam, 1991). Regarding the problem of reliability, Merriam (1991) statesthat “to some extent we are by-passing the usual problems of reliability by passingthe responsibility for them on to the audience” (p. 172). In this study, the followingstrategies were used to increase the consistency of the study: 1) triangulation, 2)peer - colleague examination and 3) audit-trail (Cuba, 1981; Krefting, 1991;Merriam, 1991).Since triangulation and peer colleague exam have been previously addressed inregards to credibility, only the audit-trail will be discussed here. Establishing anaudit-trail will make it possible for others to examine the processes whereby thedata were collected, analysed and interpreted (Guba, 1981). An audit-trail is adetailed description of how the data were collected, how categories were derived,and how decisions were made throughout the inquiry (Cuba, 1981; Merriam, 1991).The researcher established an audit trail by making this thesis available to readers atthe university library.Transferability, generalisability or external validity all refer to the extent towhich the findings of one study can be applied to other situations. There is adilemma in that a case study approach was selected in order to understand the50particular phenomenon in depth, not to know what is generally true of many.Because of the small number of participants, the type of data collected, and theinductive procedures used in this study for interpreting the data, Goetz andLeCompte (1982) suggested that traditional generalisations of the results cannot beassumed by the researcher. Instead, the results may allow readers to make theirown comparisons with familiar context and to look for similarities with their ownsituation (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Merriam (1991) considers this concept as ‘usergeneralisation’ and is enhanced by providing: 1) rich thick descriptions, 2) typicalityand 3) cross-case analysis (Lincoln & Cuba, 1985, Krefting, 1991; Merriam, 1991).Rich, thick description refers to describing, in detail, everything the reader mayneed to know to understand the findings. This allows “anyone else interested intransferability a base of information appropriate to the judgment” (Lincoln & Cuba,1985, pp. 124 - 125). In this study, rich, thick descriptions were used to describe, indetail, the context, people and setting.Since this study employed typical case selection strategies, the readers are morelikely to compare the findings to their own situations (Coetz & LeCompte, 1984).As well, the multi-case design allowed the researcher to do a cross case analysis.That is, the researcher could build abstractions and explanations to fit individualcases (Merriam, 1991). In the following quote, Tesch(1987) explains that the analysisis subjective, yet with typical case selection strategies, readers may see findingsapplied to their own situations.“no two researchers would produce the same result, even if they were facedwith exactly the same task, nor were they expected to. Their differences inphilosophical stances and individual styles will lead them to perceive andpresent the phenomenon each in her own way. There are no correct ways ofdoing qualitative analysis but that does not give the researcher permission to bea dilettante. There is no correct way of drawing a face, either; no two artists will51produce exactly the same drawing of someone’s feature, if they are skilful andcompetent we will nevertheless recognise the same person in their renditions”(p. 1).3.7 LimitationsThe qualitative paradigm does not offer a panacea for research on teachers’ classmanagement behaviours; no paradigm can. According to Schempp (1987), there arefour commonly cited limitations to the qualitative paradigm; 1) the researcher, 2)the observed, 3) the situation and 4) time and its passing. First researchers vary intheir backgrounds, intentions, motives and observation/interpretation skills.Second, the observed will also vary for they represent individuals with uniquequalities and modes of expression. Third, no social setting is entirely replicable,particularly educational settings. Finally, all three previously mentioned elements,the researcher, the observed and the situation, will be influenced by time. Time alsochanges the interpretations of data after the study has been completed and reported.3.7 SummaryThe purpose of this study was to describe and compare dass managementpractices of teachers within the elementary school classroom and the elementaryschool physical education settings at the start of the school year. A qualitative casestudy design was chosen to capture an in depth understanding and meaning ofteachers’ class management practices in both settings. The research site was a publicelementary school in British Columbia’s Lower Mainland. It was also a lead schoolfor the implementation the Year 2000 programme of reform. The participants inthis study were three elementary classroom teachers with four to six years teachingexperience at this school. All of the teachers had multi-age dasses and wereresponsible for teaching their own physical education. The two female teachers hadprimary level classes and the male teacher had an intermediate class.Data were collected during the first seven weeks of the school year primarily52through observations and were supported by interviews. Data were analysed usinga method of constant comparison and trustworthiness was established throughtriangulation, peer-colleague exam, prolonged engagement at the research site,statement of researcher’s biases and assumptions, and an audit-trail. This studywas limited to the assumptions underlying qualitative research. The results of thisstudy are reported in the following chapter.53chapter 4Results4.1 IntroductionThe results are presented in two sections. The first section includes descriptionsand usage rates of the management strategies teachers used in the physicaleducation and classroom settings. As well, the percentage of time spent in variousteaching episodes and the usage rate of management strategies during theseepisodes is also presented. The second section contains in depth descriptions ofeight dass management themes that emerged from observations and interviews inphysical education and classroom settings. The following results are not intendedto emphasise the differences between the three teachers’ class management. It isrecognised that differences among each teacher existed, yet the purpose of this studywas to examine the differences between physical education and the dassroom.Hence, only averages and trends among the teachers are presented. Appendix 4.1includes tables that show details on each teacher.4.2 Management Strategies4.2.1 Preventative, Guidance and Consequence CategoriesData analysis revealei 29 management strategies which were divided into threemajor categories; preventative, guidance, and consequence. Management strategieswere considered teacher behaviours that were used to establish and maintainappropriate student behaviours. Preventative strategies were used to preventinappropriate behaviours and occurred in the absence of inappropriate behaviours.Guidance strategies were used in response to a child’s inappropriate behaviour andthe teacher would guide the pupils in deciding how to act. However, a guidancestrategy did not apply a consequence even though it may have included an intent toapply a consequence. Consequence strategies were used in response to a child’sinappropriate behaviour and a consequence was applied. Not all management54strategies could be considered exclusive to one of the three major categories. Hence,some were a combination of two or even all three. Further descriptions andexamples of each management strategy can be found in Appendix 4.2. Twenty-eight of the 29 strategies were observed in both physical education and theclassroom.By far, there were more preventative and guidance strategies than consequencestrategies. Twenty-three of the 29 management strategies were preventative,guidance, or preventative/guidance. The remaining 9 strategies contained aconsequence component to them. Figure 4.1 shows there were 3 preventativestrategies, 13 preventative/guidance strategies, 8 guidance strategies, 1preventative/guidance/consequence strategy, 2 guidance! consequence strategiesand 2 consequence strategies.Figure 4.1Number of Strategies According to Three Major Qassifications55Figure 4.2 identifies the classification of each strategy.Figure 4.2Names of Strategies According to Three Major ClassificationsCode Preventative Guidance ConsequenceHelping 22Informing 15 1Reinstating 2 1Ignoring 1 1Reminding 1 1Refocussing 18 1Reprimanding 41 1 —Sound Monitoring 24 1Stating Behaviour 12 1Waiting 11 1Warning 51 1Acknowledging 4 1 1Attention Getting 21,6 1 1Body Positioning 3 1 1Locating 5a,b,c I IPractising 3 I IRepeating 1’ I IRewarding 8 1 1Starting/Stoppingl3a,t I ISelf-monitoring 2: 1 1Closing Space 6 1 ILooking 52 1Meeting 9 IReferringRemoving 756Using data from Table 4.1, it was calculated that teachers used preventative,guidance and preventative/guidance strategies 91.0% of the time in the classroomand 94.1% of the time in the physical education setting. However, strategies with aconsequence component comprised only 9.0% of all dassroom managementstrategies and 5.9% of all physical education strategies.Table 4.1Rate/Hour of Management Strategies used in the Classroomand Physical Education SettingsClass P.E. Class P.E.Helping 3.2 4.6 Locating (group) 1.5 jInforming 3.8 4.5 Locating (individual) 3.4Reinstating 0.1 0.4 Locating (physical) 0.4 .JIgnoring 0.6 0.4 Practising 0.7Reminding 3.4 5.8 Repeating 0.4Refocussing 0.8 0.5 Rewarding 0.7Reprimanding 0.6 1.8 Starting 0.6 ...4SoundMonitoring 1.9 1.9 Stopping 0.3 ...j4Stating Self-Behavior 1.2 2.6 Monitoring 1.7 3.2Waiting 3.0 5.2 Closing Space 0.9 ....QWarning 0.7 1.2 Looking 0.8 JAcknowledging 3.1 6.3 Meeting 0.5 JZAttentionGetting (name) 2.5 3.2 Referring 0.3 ...QAttetionGetting (count!interrupt) 0.4 0.4 Removing 1.1 ....J.BodyPositioning 0.8 1.4 Totals 39.4 74.6574.2.2 Usage Rates and Ranking ofManagement StrategiesFrom the data in Table 4.1 it was found that teachers used 47% moremanagement strategies per hour in physical education than in the classroom. Inthe classroom, teachers averaged 39.4 strategies per hour while in physicaleducation, they averaged 74.6 strategies per hour. Nineteen of the 29 strategies wereused more in physical education than in the classroom. These included helping,informing, reinstating, reminding, reprimanding, locating (individual), statingbehaviour, waiting, warning, acknowledging, attention getting (name-calling), bodypositioning, locating (group), locating (physical), starting, stopping, self-monitoring, meeting, and removing. The following strategies were used less oftenin physical education than in the classroom: ignoring, refocussing, practising,repeating, rewarding, closing space and referring. The remaining three strategies ofsound monitoring, attention getting (count/interrupt) and looking were used anequal amount in both settings.Similarities between physical education and the classroom were noted when theten highest used strategies were compared. Table 4.2 shows that eight of the top tenstrategies were the same in the classroom as they were in physical education.Individual locating, informing, reminding, helping, acknowledging, waiting,attention getting (name-calling) , and group locating were part of the top tenmanagement strategies used in both the physical education and the classroom.However, differences were noted when three of the top ten strategies used in theclassroom setting were not found in the top ten strategies used in the physicaleducation setting. Sound monitoring ranked 8th as a management strategy used inthe classroom but ranked 14th in physical education setting. As well, starting andstopping strategies tied to place 4th and 5th in physical education but ranked 22ndand 27th respectively in the classroom.58Table 4.2The Ten Most Used Management StrategiesClassroom (rate/hour) Physical Education (rate/hour)1. Informing (3.8) 1. Locating (group) (6.4)2. Locating (individual) (3.4) 2. Acknowledging (6.3)2. Reminding (3.4) 3. Reminding (5.8)4. Helping (3.2) 4. Starting (5.4)5. Acknowledging (3.1) 4. Stopping (5.4)6. Waiting (3.0) 6. Waiting (5.2)7. Attention Getting (name-calling)(2.5) 7. Attention Getting (name-calling)(5.2)8. Sound Monitoring (1.9) 8. Locating (individual) (4.9)9. Self-monitoring (1.7) 9. Helping (4.6)10. Locating (group) (1.5) 10. Informing (4.5)When the five least used strategies were compared between physical educationand the classroom, similarities were also found. Table 4.3 shows that four of thefive least used strategies in the classroom setting were also found to be the leastused strategies in physical education. These included reinstating, referring,repeating and attention getting. However, the strategies of stopping and physicallocating were least used in the dassroom but ranked 5th and 16th respectively inphysical education. Ignoring was a least used strategy in the physical educationsetting but ranked 20th in the classroom setting.Table 4.3The Five Least Used Management StrategiesClassroom (rate/hour) Physical Education (rate/hour)29. Reinstating (0.1) Referring (0.0)28. Referring (0.3) Repeating (0.1)27. Stopping (0.3) Attention Getting (count/interrupt) (0.4)26. Repeating (0.4) Ignoring (0.4)25. Locating (physical), (0.4, tied) Reinstating (0.4)Attention Getting (count/Interrupt)594.2.3 Descriptions of Teaching EpisodesThe teaching episodes were classified as transition, discussion, task work, directinstruction/demonstrations and other. First, transitions referred to times theteacher changed the content of the lesson to such a degree that the children neededto relocate. The teacher initiated the transition and signalled its end. Included intransitions episodes were exit, entry and gathering transitions. Second, discussionreferred to times where the children were gathered around the teacher to discussissues and ask questions. Both the teacher and the student were givenopportunities to talk. Third, task work referred to times when the children wereworking on a given task. In the classroom, for example, this may have taken theform of a reading episode, drawing, painting or groups working on math sheets. Inthe physical education setting, for example, this may have taken the form of stationwork in gymnastics, or task work for the game of Capture the Flag. The teacher’srole appeared to be one of observer, occasionally checking in and guidingindividuals. Fourth, direct instruction/demonstration referred to the teachergiving directed instruction or providing a teacher-focused demonstration. Theteacher’s role appeared to be one of teacher talk while student’s listen.Finally, ‘other’ referred to remaining teaching episodes that were not consideredlarge enough to isolate. The ‘other’ category induded classroom episodes of storytime, sing-a-long, and physical education episodes of quickly directed starts andstops. Directed quick starts and stops refers to the times when the teacher signalledthe students to a short burst of a specific activity, then stopped them for instructionor pause. Stop and start times were under one minute each and were repeated anynumber of times.It can be seen from Figure 4.3 that the majority of time was spent on four types ofteaching episodes; transition, discussion, task work and direct instruction/demonstration. In fact, the teachers averaged 95.5% of classroom time and 88.5% of60physical education time in these four episodes. Since most of the time was spenton these episodes, they provided a focus for the results.Figure 4.350 - I Percentage of Time Spent During Classroom and Physical Education Teaching Episodes• Classroom% of Time 24.6____fl Physical Education11.55.2 fl±. I ,I ITransition Discussion Task Work Direct/Demo OthernsTeaching Episodes4.2.4 Time Spent on Various Teaching EpisodesRegarding the average percentage of time spent during various classroom andphysical education episodes, more time was spent on transition and on directinstruction/teacher demonstration in physical education than in the classroom.Figure 4.3 shows that 14.9 % of total class time was spent in transition whereas19.3% of total physical education time was spent in transition. Also, 5.2% ofclassroom time involved direct instruction/ demonstration while 24.6% of physicaleducation time involved direct instruction/demonstration. A slightly higherpercentage of time was spent in task work in physical education than in thedassroom. Task work time involved 40.3% of physical education time and 38.8% of61dassroom time. Figure 4.3 illustrates that there was much more discussion in theclassroom than in physical education. The tea’chers averaged 36.6% of classroomtime in discussion and only 4.3% of physical education time in discussion.4.2.5 Rates ofManagement Strategies used During Teaching EpisodesThe rate in which teachers used management strategies was similar in physicaleducation and the classroom during transition, direct instruction/demonstrationand task work. In both physical education and the classroom, transition and directinstruction! demonstration episodes revealed the highest rate of managementstrategies while task work showed the lowest rate of management strategies. Figure4.4 shows that during transitions, management strategies were used 17.2 times perhour in the classroom and 25.7 times per hour in physical education transitions.During direct instruction/demonstration episodes, management strategies wereused 9.6 times per hour in the classroom and 18.2 times per hour in physicaleducation. During task work episodes, management strategies were used 2.6 timesper hour in the classroom and 3.4 times per hour in the physical education setting.30 Figure 4.4Rate/hour of Strategies used During2 Classroom and P.E. Teaching Episodes• ClassroomL] Physical EducationRate / Hour11.2103.80 I _LTransition Discussion Task Work Direct/Demo OthernsTeaching Episodes2017.29.61j.62Figure 4.4 also shows that all physical education teaching episodes had a highermanagement strategy rates in physical education than in the dassroom.4.3 Management ThemesAs the data were analysed, six management themes emerged. These themeswere different from the 29 management strategy categories. The managementthemes seem to be interwoven amongst the 29 strategies and appeared to be vitalconditions to their success. The following six dass management themes werechosen as a focus due to the high degree they were observed in both physicaleducation and in the classroom. Each theme includes a general explanationsupported by detailed excerpts from observations and interviews.Figure 4.5Data Display of Class Management ThemesGuidelines atthe of the Respect Overlapping43.1 Establishing Guidelines at the Start of the School YearAll of the teachers emphasised the importance of establishing guidelines forappropriate social behaviour and for appropriate use of equipment early on in theschool year.63Wendy commented in her initial interview that“a lot of teachers have found this out in their first year of teaching thatanything that you don’t get in place early on is very difficult to retrieve, soif you don’t establish the overall noise levels very early on or the routinesfor putting things away, deaning up or the routines for correcting andgetting materials then you’ll find the entire year trying to catch up. Withrespect to setting expectations early in the year, I feel it is important in thegym too. And I’m very, very firm about safety, safe behaviour and quickresponse (in the gym)”.Bob also revealed the importance of establishing guidelines at the start of theschool year in his initial interview.“I think it’s real important. And I’m just reflecting on last year when I hadmy year interrupted. When I came back I had to reestablish all theexpectations and tone I had set so if you’re establishing tone in the first fewdays, the kids know what is expected of them..they can usually try out thebehaviours. They know what is acceptable for me and what isn’t. They cansee what the limits are....I spend alot of time early on in the year so that Iwon’t have to spend lots of time the rest of the year nagging and waiting”Furthermore, the necessity of developing appropriate social skills early in theschool year was supported in the interviews. Pam said:‘Part of my program for the first six weeks to two months of every schoolyear involves teaching kids cooperative behaviour, to help kids see what’sappropriate and what isn’t. For me definitely their is (a tie between socialskills and class management)”Bob stated that“Those (social skills) are as important as any other skills. If kids are going tohave those cooperative skills, the general skills to manage their school life, then64your class is going to run alot better. I spend time immediately on listening and Iwill spend time on asking for help, what to do when your work is done, where toput your work and how to line up. I spend alot of time on this early in the year.”Wendy provided further comment by stating that: “Social learning skills are partand parcel of class management. They are what the children have to learn.”During the first few physical education and dassroom lessons, the teachersspent considerable time introducing major guidelines for appropriate socialbehaviour such as listening, how to ask for help, when to speak, how to share ideas,how to line up, and where to locate themselves. As well, the teachers establishedguidelines for appropriate use of equipment such as correcting work anddistributing and collecting materials. Moreover, the teachers commented thatsimilar guidelines occurred in physical education and in the classroom. Whenasked if there were similarities in how they manage their class in physicaleducation compared to the classroom, Wendy commented that “there aren’t toomany differences. I try to be consistent. In the gym, consistent consequences areimportant.” Pam said that “it’s the same basic philosophy: to help (the child) reachhis or her potential. As far as what is allowed and what isn’t allowed, I think I tryto keep the same rules. I hope that there isn’t alot of difference in my managementtechniques, my underlying philosophy’.The teachers had similar, overriding guidelines that reflected their philosophy ofclass management. They all stated to the children and in the interview thatinappropriate behaviour was anything that interfered with the students’ right tolearn and teachers’ right to teach.The following excerpts from field notes show the establishment of guidelinesearly in the school year. Examples are provided for the physical education settingand the classroom setting.During the first few days of school, Bob spent alot of time on teaching listening65skills and on democratic rule setting.Monday, September 14Bob says he will give the class an easy task. The children are a bit loud andBob asks them: “What does it mean to listen?” The children put up theirhands to answer. “Eva? “Sorry, I can’t hear you”. He pauses until all is quiet.She explains her concept of listening from a previous teacher. Bob asks: “Howmany people are listening?” He says he sees about 18 listening and “That ispretty good”. He asks for other ideas about listening. The children share theseand then Bob proceeds to teach the children the steps in listening. He says thatmany adults do not know all the steps. A child starts to answer but gets to thefourth step and says he forgot. Bob asks other children and cuts in with “I amstill waiting for one person to do Step #1”. The first three steps are: 1) stopwhat you are doing and look person in the eye, 2) stop fidgeting or doinganything distracting such as holding pencil, and 3) think about what the otherperson is saying. Before exploring the fourth step, Bob has the children toturn to a person next to them and to tell them the three steps so far and tomake sure they know it. After a couple of minutes, Bob gains the students’attention by saying “Show me you are listening (pause) Thanks Kay, ThanksEvan. Good, who can tell me the steps?” Not all hands are up so he says: “Ifone person doesn’t know it you’ll need to tell each other again”. This timethey all have their hands up to show they know the first three step. Bobcontinues: “Is there something you can do to tell the other person to listen?”A child answers: “By tapping the person on the shoulder”. Bob repeats thisanswer and adds: “When a person is not listening it doesn’t mean they are abad person. It just means other things are going on for them and they mayneed a gentle tap to get their attention (pause). The fourth step takes a lot ofcourage”. A child raises their hand and contributes the answer to step four as66being: “If you don’t understand, ask a question”. Bob explains that courage isneeded because “You might think that other children think you are stupid yetpeople who ask questions generally learn more. Does any one have anyquestions?” Bob smiles.Monday, September 14The children are gathered to the carpet. Bob asks “How many people think Ishould be the one to make the rules?” “ No Hands go up and Bob asks “Howmany people think you should have some input into ideas for rules?” Allhands shoot up. Bob explains that he is there as a teacher not as a policeman.He asks: “Does anybody not like the idea of students making their own dassrules?”. There are no objections. Bob makes a suggestion: “Can I do thefollowing? To tell the rules of how we did in the past and you say if you likethem?” He gives them time to think and no one stands up to disagree. “Whatare the rules you would like to know about?” The children brainstorm topicssuch as music, Supernintendo, gum chewing while Bob vigorously recordseverything in the guideline book. He explains that he is acting as chairpersonand that they will need to raise their hand. “There will be a class meetingwhere you can dedde who speaks and when. It occurs once per week and wetalk about some good and some bad things and things to change and you cantalk about it. This meeting is about rules.” The children continue to shareideas about rules and ask questions about the year. Bob is very patient, calmand takes the time to answer their questions.Wednesday, September 16Bob gathers the children to the carpet to continue setting classroom rules. Heexplains: “You can make rules any time and change the rules at any time.There is only one rule about rules and that is that everyone needs to agree. Ifsomeone doesn’t agree you may speak to try and convince that person.” Bob67sits on the chair at the edge of the carpet with the rule book in his hands, like abible in front of him, raising it every so often to write suggestions andcomments from the class.In the following observations in physical education, Bob establishes where to sit,listening skills and emphasises safety.Tuesday, September 15The children sit on the circle in the centre of the gym and Bob stands on theedge. Bob says: “When you come into p.e. for the first few times I’ll ask you tosit on the red circle. One rule to note today has to do with freezing. What doesit mean to freeze?”The lesson included a focus on space awareness, and stopping and starting. Heled them into a discussion that identifies stopping quickly as a safety skills.Later in the lesson Bob says “Those that need more training (space awareness)stay on the floor so you don’t lose your license plate. You will if you havemore accidents”. He starts the game again and says to two boys “Excuse meguys, I’d really like you to show me safety.” Bob has them change location tobe up front with him. He addresses a child who has been given a timeout“Charlie, if you make another noise, I will ask you to go outside”. Bob repeatssoftly to the class that the signal to come and see him is a hand up. Later in thelesson Bob freezes the game and says “If you don’t listen you will missvaluable instruction”. They are listening quietly as Bob reminds them not torun or eat in the school and to have a nice lunch.Bob introduced signals for gathering in the following observation.Tuesday, September 15Before going outside, Bob says to the class: “It is important to listen to theinstruction so that you know what to do when we get outside. Bob explainsthat he has two signals. One is when his arm is out so that they line up where68it is pointed. The other is a non-verbal gathering motion of both arms extendwhich means to come in.During the first few days of schools, Wendy established where and how to sit,how to listen, lining up procedures and the importance of personal space in theclassroom.Monday, September 14Wendy adjusts the children, physically and verbally, to sit in a circle on thecarpet. When it is satisfactory she says: “That’s how we sit in the circle.” Shehas taken a lot of time to get it just right. Wendy calls out each person’s nameand records it in her attendance book. She goes around the circle asking “Whohas a new teacher today?” They all do! She is making alot of eye contact andgives big smiles to all the children. Wendy says “Now you can scatter so youcan see”. Some do and she says “This is what a scatter is.” She explains: “Youhave to have a little bubble of space around your body and make sure youaren’t touching anybody else. Look to see if you have a little bubble spacearound you.”Wednesday, September 16Wendy is physically and verbally adjusting the children to sit in a circle on thecarpet. “Ned and Teddy. You need to move back. Ned you need to sit onyour bottom with your hands not touching anyone else.” Wendy tells Ned tomove over. The group waits for him. He refuses but, as everyone waits, hegoes to a new sitting place. Wendy waits for quiet and says: “We’re waiting”.She scans the class making eye contact with many. About five seconds later allis quiet and Wendy continues with a good morning greeting to each child asshe takes attendance. About 15 minutes later Wendy readjusts the group byasking: “How do we sit? We are only waiting for one or two.” She remindsthem to sit on their bottoms. As they line up to exit for recess they are69reminded to keep their hands on their own bodies and not to touch anyoneelse in the line.During the first gym class, Wendy established guidelines for listening, lining up,seating, starting and stopping. She focused on space awareness and emphasisedsafety.Monday, September 21The children are sitting on the circle in the centre of the gym and Wendycomments: “It is great to see you sitting on your bottoms on the floor.” A fewchildren are asked to show her how to walk in. Wendy comments: “That isthe safe way to walk in”. Wendy asks the children what the rules of the gymare. She gets responses such as to listen and watch where you are going. Sheemphasises the need for them to stop quickly when she signals them, to listenand look at her. After they practise this, she explains the need to practisechanging stations as well and they need to listen carefully to her voice whenshe says “Change!” Wendy asks the dass what to do if someone was hurt andcrying. A child raises her hand and response with: “We should sit down.”Wendy says they will play act this situation and if they do a good job, thenthey can go to the stations. Following this successful demonstration, Wendysays they can play on the equipment when she says the start signal of‘Popcorn balls!” Later in the lesson, Wendy asks the dass what was reallygood about a demonstration. After a few responses Wendy agrees that it wasgood because they were cooperating and leaving space for each other so noone got hurt by being too close. As the children exit they are reminded to keeptheir hands on their own bodies and not to touch anyone else when they arein line.Pam also established guidelines for listening, where and how to sit and stoppingand starting in both physical education and in the classroom. She revealed an70emphasis on space awareness and safety in physical education.Tuesday, September 22The class is gathered to the carpet. Pam says “Thank you Sara for passing onthe signal so that others will pay aftention and listen.” Pam comments to thewhole class: “You can tell that you are cooperating and helping people to listenby passing on the signal. Sometimes people don’t see, so you just need to tapand remind them it is time to be quiet. Angel, can you sit properly?”Wednesday, September 16Pam has the children gathered at the carpet. “When we go into the gym, firstof all I’m going to ask you to sit on the big red circle in the middle of the gym.Spread out so your hands are up (she demonstrates) on both sides and do nottouch anyone. Then I’ll ask you to stand up and we’ll play aeroplane pilot. I’llexplain this later. Do you understand?” Pam explains that there is one big ruleat the school that should also be followed in the gym: “Not to do anythingthat interferes with the right of the teacher to teach and the right of children tolearn. Listening is a big rule.” She gives the aeroplane directions. She tellsthem to walk, not run, and to be quiet in the hallway. As the children enter,they go to the red circle. One child is asked to sit out for not going to the circleimmediately. “Space yourselves around the circle.” Pam then points andexplains areas of the gym that might be unsafe. She repeats that it is necessaryfor the children to sit quietly and wait so they understand how to take off andland in the aeroplane activity. She emphasis to them that if they are notproperly spaced, she is worried that they will crash into each other.In physical education, there seemed to be an increased emphasis on safety due tospace and noise concerns. Wendy supported this in her initial interview when shesaid: “In physical education the children need to be more clear on understandingthe expectations, the safety rules.” Bob suggested that: “The differences in physical71education have more to do with safety than there is in a regular classroom due tothe space concerns and the noise concerns.” Pam said the day before her first day inthe gym that she was “nervous and a bit concerned about safety on the first day inthe gym.” She added: “I have to speak alot louder. If I’m outdoors I have to use awhistle or very large movements rather than very small movements”. Bob andPam they were observed using a whistle, a louder voice and larger hand gesturesfor gaining attention in physical education. Wendy kept her voice the same levelas in the classroom but also used larger hand gestures for gaining attention.To summarise, the teachers established guidelines for listening, spacing,collecting/distributing equipment, lining up and asking questions in both physicaleducation and the classroom. In physical education there was an increasedemphasis on safety due to sound level and space concerns4.3.2 RespectAn atmosphere of respect was observed in both physical education and in thedassroom. This included listening to ideas without judgment, allowing freedom ofexpression, calm and patient tone of voice and giving children responsibility formanaging their learning environment.Pam advocated respect as an underlying theme of class management when shesaid:“Fundamental to my belief (about class management) is respecting others.My goals are for children to achieve their personal best, be persistent and tryto improve themselves. Everything else is predicated upon that”.She wanted to create an atmosphere that“addresses personal bests and teaching that not being able to do somethingperfectly the first time or three times is just a stepping stone for personalgrowth and you keep on trying. Not to feel inferior if you can’t do somethingas well or as quickly as someone else”72Bob also stated that an accepting atmosphere and tone of responsibilityunderscored much of his class management.“All of those things I do contribute to an atmosphere that is warm andinviting and safe and a good place for kids to learn. A feeling of emotionalsafety, intellectual safety, to take risks so you can push yourself to new limitsand not be afraid to make mistakes. They can establish their own goals andmove towards them. In classroom meetings the kids can start solving theirown personal problems so that I don’t have to deal with that on a day to daybasis”Moreover, Wendy indicated respect in her need to develop responsibility in thechildren.“I think of the time substituting. When I went in there was no day book. Inoticed there had been a substitute there the day before and my heart failedme but then the children came in and they said ‘Oh, that’s all right, we knowhow to do it’ and they went through the day. They sort of led me through therest of the day. And I thought ‘wow, this is how it should be done!’ And Iguess I used that as target practise (to get) that kind of responsibility’.The teachers seemed to give time for children to share and discuss their ideas andfeelings. During discussions, children would deal with class problems, how theyfelt about a certain task, ask questions and raise issues regarding the lesson. It isbelieved that this type of forum contributed significantly to respect for student’sthoughts and feelings. Topics of discussion reflected both issues in physicaleducation and in the classroom. For instance, following a soccer lesson, a studentbrought up the issue of another teacher not being consistent with the rules theirdass had established regarding the soccer referee’s job. The student was given timeto complete his point. Bob then asked the rest of the class if they had any commentson it. Once a number of children had shared, he asked if anyone had ideas of what73to do about it. The consensus was to confront the teacher and ask him if, in thefuture, he would follow their rules when he supervised the soccer games.All of the teachers had scheduled a morning circle time. Part of the morningcirde involved sharing feelings. The teachers would have the children turn to apartner and tell them how they were feeling on a scale of one to ten and givereasons why. The teachers gave the children time to chat and then proceeded to askeach child in the cirde to share. If the child did not want to share, they had theright to pass. When this happened, the teachers would approach the child at a latertime to see how they were doing. This seemed to provide a warm connection withthe teacher.The following are field note examples for the theme of respect.In the following excerpt, Pam reveals her respect for student ideas.Thursday, September 24The group has gathered at the carpet. Pam has the designated student helperfor the day (VIP) set up the overhead projector while she reviews the storythey have created from yesterday. She positions herself at the overhead andasks for ideas on the story. She writes down the ideas very quickly on theoverhead and asks Zandra to slow down because she can’t keep up with heridea. She writes the idea without adding any of her changes.After much arguing and blaming on the playground during physical education,Pam follows with a democratic discussion in the classroom.Thursday, October 1Pam begins the discussion by explaining that they need dass rules so that theywon’t get upset on the playground. A child blurts out: “It was Sam’s fault!”Pam addresses this by saying: “We can’t change that today. Who has an ideaof how to do it for next time on the playground?” Pam nods, smiles and saysa neutral ‘okay’ to each child’s suggestion. After about ten ideas have been74shared, Pam looks around to quiet people who are calling without putting uptheir hand. After a brief pause it is very quiet. She continues: “I want you to beable to work on you own like in class you can work with groups. I can’t makethe refereeing and rules for outside. You have to have control. It is fiveminutes to lunch and we’ll have to finish the discussion after.” The followingweek, Pam has incorporated a talking stick during discussions. When thechild holds the stick they have the floor to share their ideas.From the following observation, Wendy showed how she involved a child insetting there own consequences for inappropriate behaviour and gave time for thechild to express himself.Thursday, October 15As the dass exits for recess, Wendy tells Manny to stay behind. She asks him:“Why are you here? What did you do?” Manny explains that he was jostlingin the line with Orvin. Wendy replies patiently and with a calm tone: “Whatcould you do differently?” She has gives Manny a chance to explain himself.Manny shrugs, not sure what to do. Wendy continues: “I understand thatOrvin is very excited about his Dad’s wedding and he needs help to make goodchoices. Do you think you could help him?” Manny nods in agreement.Wendy continues “What do you think is a good consequence for this?”Manny suggests, with a questioning and unsure look, that maybe he wouldstay after school. Wendy and Manny share some ideas about the consequenceand finally agree that since he had disrupted some gym time that he wouldmiss five minutes of gym time tomorrow.Evidence of respect can be seen in how Bob deals with distracting handling ofequipment and disruptive social behaviour. Bob lets the children know that theyhave choices and sees the positive in each child.Tuesday, October 2075Bob blows the whistle in the gym. He pauses, starts a sentence “Any little...”He pauses again until it is quiet. It is quickly quiet and he spends 20 secondsgiving the tip to punch the ball and reasons for punching it. He says: “Now itis time to ask questions if some are having trouble.” This is done in a calmand patient voice. He pauses, looks over to Michael who is tossing his ball.“Michael, sit on the stage please”. This is said like it is a benefit to Michael tosit on the stage rather than a punishment. Bob responds with a pleasant:“Thank you”. He continues his questioning by asking how many of thechildren use open or closed hand. Before he is finished, a number of childrenare fidgeting with their volley-balls. Bob says to them: “You may need to putyour ball down if you find it difficult not to fidget with it while it is in yourhand” This is not an order on Bob’s part but a legitimate choice. Somechildren put their balls on the ground while others keep holding it. I noticethe ones holding it no longer fidget with it. He explains that they need to findwhat works best for them.Wednesday, October 14The children have gathered at the carpet. Bob begins playing his guitar andmany begin to sing with him. One child continues to make popping noiseswith his hand over his mouth. Bob stops playing and says that he hears aninteresting noise. He seems genuinely curious to find out who did it andwould like to hear it again. He comments that the popping noise is anexcellent example of musical percussion. Adrian sheepishly admits it washim. Bob asks him if he could demonstrate in front of the dass while the classsings. It seems to be sinking in for Adrian that Bob is genuinely interested inusing his popping noise as a mini-lesson on percussion. Adrian demonstratesas the dass sings and Bob plays guitar. Every so often the percussion onAdrian’s mouth doesn’t work. This is because Adrian is finding it hard to76keep the seal on his mouth over such a big grin.All of the teachers showed evidence of giving responsibility to the children. Ingeneral, each teacher gave responsibility to the students for holding doors, turningon and off lights, working out their own problems, quieting the class, distributingand collecting equipment, and even simple marking tasks. Specifically, Pam didthis in physical education by having the students set up the gymnastic stations. Boblet his students develop classroom rules and Wendy had each child take turnstaking care of a class named guinea pig. Moreover, all of the teachers were observedallowing the children to work out their own conflicts. In both the classroom and inphysical education the teachers had incidence where two children were loudlyarguing. One or both children would inevitably complain to the teacher about theother. Pam, Bob and Wendy replied quickly that they needed to work it out ontheir own. Occasionally they would act as a mediator to get things started, but it wasultimately the child’s responsibility to find a resolution.To summarise, respect involved the teacher’s ability to listen and incorporatechildren’s ideas without imposing personal judgment, allowing children a forumto freely express thoughts and feelings in a safe, warm atmosphere and givechildren a sense of responsibility for managing their learning environment.4.3.3 OverlappingIn the dassroom and in physical education, many things would occur at once.Overlapping referred to the extent the teachers could deal with two or more ofthese issues at the same time. The teachers showed examples of overlappingthroughout the study. For example, during observation episodes in the gym, theteachers had to maintain their safety standards, scan the general dass, clarifyunderstanding, judge the pacing of the lesson and provide feedback on individualskills or behaviours. During task work episodes in the classroom, the teacherswould scan the general dass, provide individual feedback on skills or behaviours77and darify understanding.Bob displayed simultaneity in the following math lesson.Wednesday, October 14Bob returns to dass with the music machine. He seems to notice there wasmore noise than when he left. He refocusses the class by saying: “if you guyswant to start on today’s math, that’s fine. The yellow group is to work onpaper today and the green group is to come over to the carpet for a lesson onestimating.” A child comments quietly to herself “This is a stupid mathpage.” Bob looks at her and ignores it, refocussing his aftention to the groupgathering at the carpet. He asks the group: “Why should you do estimating?”They share ideas and as Bob contributes his thoughts about estimating. Hepauses and tells Carrie to go work outside. Carrie was in the yellow groupmaking noise close to the carpet. Bob continues his lesson on estimating.When finished, he tells the group that if they understand they can go work onthe exercises. If not, they are to stay. A child looks confused and Bob askshim: “Have you got it? If not, come and see me.” Three children remain.Alfred is directed to help Evan. Craig comes up to Bob and asks how to do theyellow exercise on the paper. The three wait patiently as Bob explains theexercise to Craig.In physical education, Pam and Wendy showed overlapping as they dealt with anumber of events at once.Thursday, October 1Pam blows the whistle in the gym. The children look at her as they stand onthe red centre circle. “Kids, listen, there are two big pieces of equipment in thegym to watch out for.” She points to the lunch tables in the corner. Pambegins to walk to the storage room while the children watch her. At the sametime she is calling out directions to the children to “take one large step back,78one small step and a baby step back”. As she directs this, she gets the pinniesfrom the storage room, ducking in only for a second. Her eyes are almostalways on the children. As she walks back to the centre, she pauses and asks achild why they are sitting out. Pam accepts the child’s response and quicklyrefocusses on the rest of the class. During the class, Pam ignores the addednoises coming from the stage as the lunch program people work.Monday, October 7Wendy asks “How do you spell ‘move’?” The children respond in chorus,V E!”. When the children get to the letter ‘E’, they set off to theirstations. Stanley’s mother comes into the gym. Wendy notices and themother comes over. They talk briefly. Wendy scans the gym occasionally asthey talk. Wendy then motions Stanley to come over. The child gives awritten note to Wendy. Stanley and Wendy have quick words before heleaves with his mother. Wendy watches the dass from the far corner. They arefreely playing at their stations with small equipment. Three minutes later,Stanley returns and Wendy suggests that he go to the hoop station.Meanwhile Lorissa has come flying across the gym floor with a hockey puck inher scoop. Wendy immediately responds: “Lorissa, we’re not playing hockey.See if you can use a ball instead.” Wendy proceeds to the skipping station,watches a moment, then gives feedback to Jon, Christine and Mary: “Thatlooks like a good challenge!” She heads over to Ned and asks what his activityis. He shows her and she comments, “ah” with an interested nod of approval.He grins.Overlapping refers to the extent the teachers could deal with two or moreissues at the same time. Evidence of this was shown when the teachers scannedthe dass, provided individual feedback, watched the pacing of the lesson andobserved for understanding of the task at the same time. In physical education,79teachers may have added safety considerations to their list.4.3.4 Efficient OrganisationEfficient organisation involved the preparation and distribution of materials andpacing of the lesson in order to maximise instruction time and decrease transitiontime. In the initial interview, Wendy’s definition of class management includedthe “need to have materials ready.” Bob gave some indication of the special needfor efficient organisation in physical education.“If you’re outside or in the gym and you haven’t put those things in place(objectives, materials and prepared resources) you’ll find yourself in biggertrouble than you do in the classroom. You have to have the kids more spreadout so if you’re not ready you’ll find yourself spending more time correctingthan if you prepared beforehand than you would in the dassroom.”However, the researcher observed similar organisational efficiency in theclassroom and in physical education. In the following examples, Bob showsefficient organisation by not using practice time to collect equipment or to setup demonstrations.Tuesday, October 20As the children are practice bumping the volleyballs, Bob designates one childto put the extra balls away and another put the balls in the bags. It is not untilmost of the balls are in the bag that he calls out for the class to stop and rollover the remaining balls to the helpers. Once they have rolled the remainingballs to the helpers they are to line up.Monday, September 21Bob says “Michelle, take Mona with you to get pylons and soccer balls. Alfred,go get a few people to help with the soccer balls and we’ll see you on the field.”Meanwhile, the rest of the children are cleaning up and gathering at the door.Tuesday, September 2280The children are playing the game of Capture the Flag. As the gamecontinues, Bob motions to a child behind the start line to help put pinniesaway from the previous activity. Bob suggests to the child that he get anotherto help. This is done quickly while the game continues. When the childrencome in from the field, five or six children bring the big pylons with them.By following Wendy’s materials box throughout the morning, there is some insightinto her efficient organisation.Wednesday, October 7As the children are cleaning up from the morning reading routine, Wendyhas the VIP get a cardboard box from behind her desk. It is ifiled with art workand show and tell items to be distributed during circle time. Following cirdetime, the children head to the library for a special presentation from the localfire department. There are handouts given and Wendy places them in theempty box. When the children have finished signing out their library books,Wendy checks that the cards are filled out. The books are placed in the box nextto her. They go straight to the gym and a child brings the book box with her.Just before lunch, the children have returned to the classroom and Wendygives out the library books and firefighter handouts from the box so they canput them in their cubby holes before they leave. This also turns into a strategyfor lining up.Bob had similar organisation in the following example:Friday, September 25Bob asks a child to get the file box with the writing folders in them and handthem out while the children are silent reading. As each child gets their folder,they begin to work on the pre-writing task. After they have all started work,Bob calls individuals the carpet area. He individually discusses their progresson the task and checks their spelling.81Pam’s minimised transition time by using a writing task to organise the nextactivity.Tuesday, September 15The code for the day is written on the board. The children are scatteredaround the class, some on the carpet floor, some at the paint table, others atvarious tables. All are busy translating the code. When finished, they go toPam’s desk for feedback. (I don’t know what the code is, but am surprisedwhen students automatically begin drawing and painting once they have theirwork checked by Pam. It hits me that the code is used to tell the children whatthey are to do for the next activity).Another example of efficient organisation involves Monday’s gymnasticstations. Both Pam and Wendy had an arrangement for the organisation and set upof the large apparatus stations. Pam’s class would set up the stations in return forextended gym time. Wendy’s dass would get the benefit of having the stations setup before she entered the gym.In both physical education and in the classroom, all of the teachers showed manyexamples of efficient organisation. They seemed to get the children involved inlaying out the materials prior to the lesson and helping to distribute equipment.Very rarely was it observed that the teachers did not have the materials orequipment they needed when they needed it. Both in the class and in physicaleducation, the teachers had equipment or materials set out in a number of piles sothat when the children went to get them, there were few line ups. In both physicaleducation and in the classroom, wait time was decreased by having the materialsand equipment at stations or centres.4.3.5 WithitnessWithitness was the extent teachers communicated to the students that theyknew what was going on. Evidence of this was found when teachers would82frequently scan the class, move amongst the students, implement managementstrategies immediately and let the students know that they were watching.Although withitness was observed in both settings of physical education and thedassroom, it seemed that withitness was more evident in physical education. Bobsuggested that inappropriate behaviour in physical education is more easily seen,therefore there was an increased need to watch the students and not letinappropriate behaviours slide. However, even though the teachers may not havebeen scanning the classroom as intensely as in physical education, withitness wasstill present in the classroom.In physical education and in the dassroom, the teachers all used a similarstrategy to let the children know they were aware of their behaviours. The teacherswould positively acknowledge appropriate behaviours by saying: “I see Adrian withhis hand up”, “Thank you Bonnie for raising your hand”, “Thank you Jessica andJamie for listening”, “I see eighteen out of twenty-three people listening”, “I seeNathan holding his ball still”, or “Thank you for lining up so quickly and nottouching other people.” Of course, they also let the children know they werewatching by saying things like: “Natalie, I don’t see you listening”, or “Alfred, youneed to raise your hand to speak”. It should be noted that the teachers said theytried to ignore much of the inappropriate behaviours and let the children knowthey were aware of them by “catching them being good.”During task work episodes, the teachers made many individual contacts with thechildren. It seemed as though the teachers were using this time for ‘checking in’ onas many children as they could.Bob and Wendy let the children know they saw many behaviours in the gym.Monday, October 2The mini-soccer games have started. A ball comes flying by the goal Bob isadjusting. He saves the ball and a child smiles at him. Bob walks to the83game at the far side of the field and watches. He makes a few commentssuch as: “Way to go Sandra!” He returns to the centre game and says:“That a boy, nice play Jamie. Way to go Erin. Play with Sara all the time.”He leaves this game after two minutes and watches the kick ball game atthe baseball diamond. He says jokingly to a child running across the field:“Evan, watch what you’re doing.” He laughs and smiles with the child.Another two minutes and Bob is back in a game. He starts to play and callsout: “Foul on Danny for pushing. You just can’t do that!” He plays aminute and leaves to the far left game. He comments: “Good kick, John.”He returns two minutes later to the centre game saying: “Nice pass Alfred.Nice save Sal! Nice save again!” Bob comments to Carrie (the referee) thathe saw someone with their hands on the ball. He hands her the whistleand says: “Here, use this Carrie. It is not up to the goalie to call it but thereferee. Sometimes we can’t see everything, that’s why we have a referee.”Monday, September 28The children are working on the gymnastic stations. Wendy goes over tothe trestle station and asks a child if they can try moving across in anotherway. The child goes backwards and she smiles. Wendy notices across thegym that some boys are moving a ladder. She walks over and says: “Waita minute, leave it where it was.” They put it back. Meanwhile Sasha hascrashed heads with another child. Wendy takes her aside and says: “Letstalk about it.” She comforts her as the rest of the class continues on theequipment. As she is hugging the child she scans the gymnastic stations.She calls out: “Ben, come over here.” As she is still hugging the child, sheexplains to Ben not to tie the ropes together.In the following example, Pam shows how she sees a number of things and bychoosing a central location she could check in with all the children at one station.84Monday, October 5The children are gradually entering the gym first thing in the morning. Pamhas started handing out big equipment from the storage unit. She looks up asmore children enter and continues what she is doing. She notices one child isoff task doing cartwheels and has her join the line to get equipment. Pamnotices a couple of girls struggling with the equipment and offers a suggestionof where to put it. Immediately she calls out: “Daniel, you aren’t listening.”He turns in the line. She responds: “Great, good wonderful!” She continuesgiving out the equipment and notices a child jumping on a chair. “Daniel,that was dangerous, now go to the side of the line.” Immediately followingthis she says: “Angie, don’t put it that way, put it on its side and slide it.”Meanwhile, she notices a couple swinging on ropes and says: “Manny andSusi, get down. No equipment until I tell you to.” Pam notices across the gymthat a child is wearing socks. She calls out: “Sammy, socks are reallydangerous. You need to have runners or bare feet. I prefer runners so youdon’t hurt your toes.” After the equipment is out and safety checked, Pamlocates herself near the beat board station. The children have started movingon the stations. Pam scans the gym. She seems somewhat tense and holds thewhistle to her mouth. It is as though she is ready to stop the actionimmediately should it need to be stopped. A group of children are going overthe box horse at her station. Pam comments to a couple of children: “Welldone!”, “Jump a little higher.” When there is no one else at her station, Pammoves over to the ropes. She suggests a stool be moved and says: “Danny, Idon’t see you climbing.”Withitness seemed to go beyond teachers letting the children know they wereaware of the general behaviours. Withitness also appeared to catch behaviours thatrequired teachers to have figurative ‘eyes in the back of their heads’. This is85illustrated in the following example.Monday, September 15Bob has just organised children who have attended the school last year to be abuddy to a new child. He asks the new children where they are from. Bob sayshe is very excited about the class and doesn’t think he has ever had such a neatgroup put together like this. A few boys make faces and Bob instantly catchesthis. He says: “If anyone has a silly thing they like to do, they are free to get itout of their system. All they have to do is raise their hands.” The two boysraise their hands and show the class silly faces. Everyone is laughing,including Bob.Tuesday, October 20The children are scattered throughout the classroom doing their math. Bobis sitting at his desk, looking at a book a child has brought up. He commentsthat he will deal with the drawing of a cow on the book. Two boys aresummoned to his desk and are in deep denial. Bob looks up and says toanother boy on the carpet: “Byron, I saw you put your own check marks onyour math without looking up the correct answers. I will see you after schoolto recheck it.” Bob continues with the issue of the cow drawing with the girl.43.6 Mystery FreeIt was quite apparent that the teachers advocated an atmosphere that was freefrom mystery or secrets in both physical education and the classroom. Studentswere free to ask questions and the teachers responded openly with what seemed tobe well thought out and realistic answers. All of the teachers provided reasons formany of their own actions and actions of the students. Wendy commented in theinitial interview: “I try to be very consistent so that the children understand yourreasons for this.”Bob explains the reason he wants them to try at spelling by using a soccer86analogy.Tuesday, September 15The students have been working on their writing assignment. Bob calls out:‘Put your pencil down and show that you are listening.” It is quiet in just afew seconds. Bob questions: “Do I care about spelling?” Some respond withno, some with yes. He says that he does care about spelling. “It is like in soccer(he draws a soccer goal on the board) and trying to get the ball in the goal. Iwant you to get closer every time, and get better and you will feel very goodwhen you do. I want you to keep trying to do better, but if you don’t get it inthe first time, just try to get closer the next. If there is another person that canhelp teach you, that is fine. Not everyone’s a great speller (some childrenlaugh in the corner and Bob smiles) so when you do an assignment, just try todo your best at spelling, but don’t worry if it’s not right.”In a demonstration, Bob shows the reason for looking up when running.Tuesday, September 22The children are sitting on the grass in front of Bob. He asks them forcomments on the days game. A child comments on the dangerous runningand that a child was hit in the nose. Bob chooses Danny to demonstrate howdangerous running without leaving space can be. Danny is told to jog slowlyand put out his hand as he passes Bob. Without putting any extra force ontheir hands, I hear a slap as Danny goes by. There is some laughter and Bobsays that it is not funny. He explains to the children that even at a slow speed,knocking into someone can hurt both people and to imagine what the slapwould sound like if they both were moving.Quite often, the teachers would explain their actions to the children. Forinstance, they would say: “I’m waiting until all is quiet”, or “I’ll be with you in aminute, I need to talk with someone right now.” In doing so, the children did not87have to guess what the teacher was doing.Not only did the teachers explain what they were doing, but were observedtelling the children why. Pam showed this in physical education when she gavethe children reasons why they needed to stay off the equipment and why gym timewas shorter one day.Monday, September 21,“You need to stay off the equipment until I check it. I need to see that it is safefor you to use. Part of the reason gym was shorter today was due to recess. Thebell did not ring until later and we lost ten minutes. Part of the reason too isthat we had to stop several times to ask for quiet.”Wendy openly expressed her feelings about listening:Wednesday, October 7Wendy pauses for quiet. There is chatter and she says: “Just as soon as it isquiet (pause) I feel frustrated when you do that Lorissa. It makes it hard forothers to listen.”Bob gives the class reasons for grading and the pre-writing activity:Monday, September 21Archie has just given a book talk. Bob asks the class “What mark shouldArchie get?” Bob explains that he will always ask why a person gives a certainmark so to think about that before they speak. He goes onto explain thatgrades are not given at this school, but they will find them used in hi-school.Therefore they will need to understand the concept of giving a grade. Later onthat day Bob is telling the class why pre-writing is important. “Because a storycan get longer and longer. So it is important to get the whole idea down first.”Pam provides an explanation for a child returning a library book.Wednesday, September 16“Could someone take Ramona’s book back because she had to go to the office88with a splinter in her hand.”Bob explains his views on grade levels:Monday, September 14A child asks Bob: “Can we do grade 6?” Bob replies that he doesn’t like to callit that, but that they can work at higher levels if they are ready for it. Bobexplains that “nobody makes fun of you if you are not as fast as another. Noone here is going to give you a bad mark. Some are great in reading, or likeme, a slow reader or poor in art. Nobody expects another to be really good yetor the best or better than another person.”The daily schedule was also free of mystery. All of the teachers clearly hadwritten on the board the schedule for the day. Bob’s schedule for the first day ofdass looked like this:I Monday, September 14, 1992jobs Hellosharpener Who Am Iart sheets Pencils WelcomeName Tags Back My name isName Game RobertFitzpatrickMath Most people callme Bob.Writing I like chocolate,cookies, softSpelling drinks andsports.Music I am working onmy DiplomaP.E. at U.B.C.89Pam’s Board looked like this:September 15 TuesdayCodeColoursPam Trimble Circle and class tempCooperation WorkshopPam’s CodeLooks like Sounds LikeMath Workshop: patternsRecessCircleCentresAll of the teachers had visual aides in the classroom to help explain tasks orremind children of a schedule. Visual explanations for printing, math, cooperationskills and problem-solving were posted in all the classrooms. However, no visualaides were used to assist in physical education. The blackboard was blank and thewalls were free of posters and visual aides.In sum, the class management practices that emerged were 29 managementstrategies and six management themes. The management strategies were dividedinto three major classifications; preventative, guidance and consequence. The sixmajor themes were: establishing guidelines at the start of the school year, respect,overlapping, efficient organisation, withitness and mystery free atmosphere.Teaching episodes of transition, direct instruction! demonstration, task work,discussion and ‘other’ were also identified. The results indicated that teachers usedsimilar types of management strategies and management themes in both physicaleducation and in the classroom. Similarities and differences were found in theemphasis teachers placed on class management practices.90Chapter 5Summary and Discussion5.1 IntroductionThis chapter is presented in four sections. The first section is an overview of thestudy and summary of the results. The second section is a discussion of the resultsin relation to the literature and is organised according to the four study questions.The third section includes implications of this study and the final section providesrecommendations for future studies.5.2 SummaryThe purpose of this study was to describe and compare three teachers’ classmanagement practices within the classroom setting and the physical educationsetting at the start of the school year. The specific questions that were derived fromthis purpose were:1. What are the similarities in class management practices between theclassroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year?a) What types of class management practices are used in both the classroomsetting and physical education setting at the start of the school year?b) What class management practices have a similar emphasis in the classroomwhen compared to physical education at the start of the year?2. What are the differences in class management practices between theclassroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year?a) What types of class management practices are used in only the classroom oronly the physical education setting at the start of the school year?b) What class management practices have a different emphasis in the classroomcompared to physical education at the start of the year?Three elementary classroom teachers participated in this study. Data werecollected primarily through observations recorded in detailed field notes and91audiotaped interviews. During the first seven weeks of the school year, a total of 26physical education sessions and 34 dassroom sessions were observed. Each teacherwas interviewed regarding teaching experience and educational background,definitions of class management, the role of class management at the start of theschool year and the differences and similarities in managing their students in thephysical education setting compared to the dassroom setting.The data were inductively analysed using a method of constant comparisonwhich involved looking for regularities and patterns in the data, then looking forunits of information that went together. Twenty - nine management strategies andsix major class management themes emerged. The management strategies werewere divided into three classifications: preventative, guidance and consequence.The frequency teachers used each strategy was calculated. Teaching episodes oftransition, direct instruction/ demonstration, task work and ‘other’ were identified.The rate per hour teachers used management strategies during these episodes wascalculated. The six management themes were: establishing guidelines at the start ofthe year, withitness, overlapping, organisational efficiency, respect and mysteryfree. Detailed examples from field notes were used to support these themes.Over 90% of the strategies used in physical education and in the classroom werepreventative and/or guidance. Management strategies were used 47% more inphysical education than in the classroom and 18 of the 29 strategies were used morein physical education than in the classroom. Eight of the ten highest used strategiesand four of the five least used strategies were the same in physical education andthe classroom. In both physical education and the dassroom, the highest rate ofmanagement strategies occurred during transition episodes. The second highestrate of management strategies occurred during direct instruction/ demonstrationepisodes. The lowest rate occurred during task work. In physical education,management rates were higher than in the classroom during all teaching episodes.92Moreover, the six management themes were evident in both physical educationand in the classroom. These included: establishing guidelines at the start of theyear, withitness, overlapping, respect, mystery free, and organisational efficiency.Safety was more of an issue in physical education than in the classroom when basicguidelines were established at the start of the year. As well, overlapping andwithitness seemed to be emphasised more in physical education than in theclassroom.The following discussion is organised according to the four research questionsthat reflect the purpose of this study. The findings from this study are compared torelated literature to show support, contradictions and assist in the interpretation ofthe results.5.3 Discussion of Study Ouestions5.1.1 What types of class management practices are used in both theclassroom setting and physical education setting at the start of the schoolyear?Three dassifications of management strategies namely, preventative, guidanceand consequence were used in both the classroom and physical education setting atthe start of the school year. Class management strategies have been classifiedprimarily as preventative and punitive in both the physical education andclassroom literature (Porter & Brophy, 1986; Rink, 1991). However, in 1991, Henkelreclassified class management strategies into anticipatory, tutorial or punitive.Anticipatory strategies occurred in the time frame prior to the misconduct wherethe teacher anticipated and prevented misconduct from occurring. Tutorialstrategies occurred following the misconduct and the teacher would guide thepupils in deciding how to act. Punishment involved the students blindly acceptingan unpleasant consequence applied by the teacher. Henkel’s (1991) work lendssupport to the three classifications of strategies used in this study. The descriptions93of the classifications were highly similar to the classifications used by Henkel (1991)although the terms are different. The term ‘preventative’ rather than ‘anticipatory’was chosen to reflect the classification of management strategies commonly cited inthe literature. The terms ‘guidance’ and ‘consequence’ were chosen instead of‘tutorial’ or ‘punitive’ because they best represented Dreikur’s leadership theory ofclass management that all of the teachers supported. The role of the teacher inDreikur’s model is to guide and part of this model is the use of consequences ratherthan punishment (Cangelosi, 1988). Punishment has a negative connotationwhereas the term consequence better reflects logical and natural results ofinappropriate behaviours. Preventative and punitive categories have been theclassifications most commonly used in the literature. The addition of the tutorialor guidance classification is relatively new and has only been a result of onephysical education study. Support for the guidance category is lacking in thephysical education and classroom literature. However, the literature on specificmanagement strategies used in physical education and in the classroom providesupport for the strategies found in this study.Twenty - eight of the 29 management strategies found in this study wereobserved in both physical education and the classroom. Seventeen of thesestrategies matched those found in Henkels (1991) physical education study.Almost all of the strategies used in the present study could be found in theclassroom and physical education literature. Although some of the names aredifferent, the descriptions match the categories of removing, referring, statingbehaviour, stopping, starting, rewarding, waiting, reinstating, ignoring, reminding,refocussing, reprimanding, acknowledging, attention getting (name) ,locating(individual), body positioning, and practising. Most of the remaining strategiesfound in this study were supported by various researchers. Vogler and Bishop(1990) recognised dosing space and looking as management strategies. Siedentop94(1991) included self-monitoring, meeting, gaining attention, warning, and repeatingin his list of preventative and punitive strategies. Hellison (1985) considered themanagement strategy of helping to be a means of developing pro-social skills whichhe considered a prerequisite to self-responsibility.Informing was one of the most used strategies in physical education and in thedassroom, yet is one strategy that has not received much attention in the literature.Hellison and Templin (1991) suggested that explaining consequences was necessaryto develop responsibility and caring for others. However, informing goes beyondwarning students of consequences. It was part of an atmosphere that was free frommystery where the teachers would explain the expectations of future activities andbehaviours.The class management strategies that occurred in both physical education and inthe dassroom at the start of the year may have reflected the teachers’ orientationtowards a particular model of class management that focused on prevention,guidance and consequence. The strategies used in this study could reflect a numberof theories of dass management due to their varying degrees of teacher control andstudent autonomy. The teachers may have chosen particular strategies based ontheir suitability to the particular situation. Yet, in general, negative strategies suchas physical punishment, use of exercise as punishment, degrading children orpublicly posting demerits were not used.Six dass management themes were evident in physical education and in thedassroom: establishing guidelines, respect, overlapping, efficient organisation,mystery free and withitness. First, the importance of establishing guidelines forsocial behaviour and equipment use was emphasised early on in the school year.During the first few physical education and dassroom sessions, the teachers spentconsiderable time teaching guidelines for listening, how to ask for help, when tospeak, how to share ideas, how to line up, where to locate themselves, how to95distribute and collect materials and how to evaluate tasks. The teachers spent timereminding children of rules and gave opportunities to practice them. Thesefindings are consistent with the literature on effective management studiesconducted in physical education and the classroom. Successful managers spendtime in the first few weeks introducing rules and procedures (Doyle, 1986),reminding children of rules, deciding on appropriate and inappropriate behaviour,teaching listening skills and teaching procedures for turning in work and lining up(Emmer, et al., 1980). Effective managers also give time to practice procedures androutines (Fink and Siedentop, 1989; Sanford and Evertson, 1980). The teachers inthis study established guidelines in both settings during the early days of the schoolyear that were characteristic of effective managers. According to Emmer et al.(1980), establishing guidelines early on in the year helps to facilitate dassmanagement throughout the year.An atmosphere of respect permeated the classroom and physical educationsettings. The teachers were observed giving children the responsibility ofmanaging the learning environment, listening to their ideas without judgment,and using a calm and patient tone of voice. The literature on class managementdoes not specifically identify respect as a class management theme. However, thereis support for components of respect. Responsibility has been noted by Hellisonand Templin (1991) as the ultimate goal of class management. Emmer (et al., 1980)suggested that effective managers gave children responsibility for their behaviour.Responsibility was evident in this study by the high use of the helping strategy.Helping was ranked as one of the ten most used strategies in both physicaleducation and the classroom. The tone of the class has also been considered a factorin effective management (Siedentop, 1991). There is agreement in the literaturethat a positive or neutral tone is more effective than a negative one. Rosen (et al,1990) found that successful managers were more positive than negative. In thisstudy, the high use of the acknowledging strategy showed that teachers preferred tocreate a positive atmosphere. All of the teachers had mentioned in theirinterviews that they wanted to “catch ‘em (the children) being good” rather thanfocus on inappropriate behaviours.The theme of respect may have been obvious due to the teachers’ belief in aparticular theory of class management. The school had subscribed to the Dreikurmodel of class management where the teacher is neither autocratic nor permissive.They supported the concept that children need to be socially accepted and thatchildren are believed to be able to control their own behaviours. They all hadshared the idea of a democratic classroom where children have a voice indetermining the rules, and can expect logical and natural consequences rather thanarbitrary punishment. Edwards (1993) and Cangelosi (1988) stated that in theDreikur model, the teacher’s role is one of leadership and if appropriate strategiesare used children will come to responsibly control their own lives. It may be that ifteachers give more responsibility for managing the learning environment to thechildren, classes may be organised more efficiently. This may contribute to lesstransition and wait time, more time on task and higher achievement. In both theclassroom and physical education setting, the lowest rates of management strategieswere observed during task work when teachers seemed to have more opportunitiesto individually connect with the children. The opportunities to individuallycontact children during task work may have been a factor in the decreased use ofmanagement strategies. In the Dreikur model, connecting with children on a socialemotional level is considered an important component in the prevention ofdiscipline problems.Overlapping and withitness were major themes found in physical education andin the classroom. Overlapping was the extent to which the teachers could deal withtwo or more issues at the same time. The teachers would have to scan the class,97clarify understanding, judge the pacing of the lesson, provide feedback onindividual skills and maintain or establish appropriate behaviours, and deal withinappropriate behaviours. Withitness was the extent teachers could communicateto the students that they knew what is going on. Teachers would frequently scanthe class, move among the students, implement management strategiesimmediately and let the students know they were watching them. In 1970, Kounincoined the terms ‘overlapping’ and ‘withitness’ to represent two key elements inclass management. Both the classroom and physical education literature stillrecognise these themes as integral to class management (Sanford & Evertson, 1980;Siedentop, 1991). Withitness and overlapping may be fundamental elements ofclass management due to the complex nature of the teaching environment. Doyle(1986) listed the following factors that make teaching environments complex:multi-dimensionality, immediacy, unpredictability, publicness and history. Theteacher must deal with different student needs and agendas, immediately makedecisions with liftle time to reflect, deal with unexpected events, make decisionsthat affect the entire class and be in tune to other influences such as holidays or rainthat may affect the nature of the class. Withitness and overlapping seemed to beways that the teachers dealt with the complex nature of the teaching environment.Efficient organisation was a theme that emerged in physical education and theclassroom. The teachers prepared and distributed material and paced the lesson inorder to maximise instructional time and minimise transition time. The childrenwere highly involved in laying out materials prior to lessons and distributingequipment during lessons. Teachers set out materials in a number of piles tominimise wait time involved in lining up. The high usage rate of the helpingstrategy may have added to the teachers’ efficient organisation. Emmer et al. (1980)found that efficient organisation was an attribute of effective managers. Effectivemanagers planned their space, equipment and materials for maximum use and had98smoother, shorter transitions than ineffective managers. According to Rink (1991),when transition and wait times are decreased and the students have more time ontask, achievement is higher. Efficient organisation may help to reduce transitiontimes.Finally, in both physical education and the classroom, the teachers advocated anatmosphere that was free from mystery or secrets. The teachers provided reasonsfor many of their own actions and actions of the students. They responded tostudent questions openly and with well-thought out answers. Emmer et al., (1980)found that effective managers gave reasons for rules, expressed feelings and gavemore darification than ineffective managers. In this study, the high use of theinforming strategy demonstrates the mystery free theme. Strain and Sainato (1987)support this finding when they reported that effective managers had clear rules andoutlined the consequences for inappropriate behaviours. Tenoschok (1985) foundthat effective managers explained procedures and gave children reasons for theiractions. Siedentop (1991) recommended that explaining consequences helped toprevent problems. In order for teachers to create an atmosphere that was free frommystery, they needed to understand the reasons for their own actions and theactions of the students. Theoretical models of dass management help teachers tounderstand reasons for their choice of class management practices (Edwards, 1993).If the teachers are dear on the reasons behind their actions, a mystery-freeatmosphere may be more likely.5.1.2 What class management practices have a similar emphasis in theclassroom when compared to physical education at the start of the year?Preventative and/or guidance strategies had a similar emphasis in the dassroomwhen compared to physical education. They comprised over 90% of the totalmanagement strategies used in both settings. Educators are now emphasisingprevention as a critical component of class management (Cangelosi, 1988;99Siedentop, 1991). Researchers have also found that effective managers preventdisruptions more than ineffective managers (Emmer & Evertson, 1980; Henkel,1991).A similar emphasis was found when the ten most used strategies in physicaleducation were compared to the ten most used strategies in the classroom. Eightout of the ten most used strategies were the same in both settings. Locating(individual), locating (group), informing, reminding, helping, acknowledging,waiting, and attention getting (name-calling) were part of the top ten managementstrategies used in both physical education and in the classroom. Kennedy’s (1982)physical education study did not identify any of these strategies as the mostfrequently used. He stated that behaviour modification techniques were not usedbecause the high school setting may have dictated more of a traditional approach.There was some indication in the present study that the ages of the children mayhave affected the rate of strategies used. Pam and Wendy were primary teachers andhad highly similar results in the rate of strategies used. However, Bob was anintermediate teacher and showed more difference in the rate of strategies he usedwhen compared to Pam and Wendy.Henkel (1991) supported some of this study’s findings when he found thatgaining attention and locating were two of the most frequently used strategies inphysical education. Vogler and Bishop (1990) found that acknowledging was a topstrategy used in physical education. Fink and Siedentop (1989) found that the mostfrequently used strategies were routines relating to attention getting. Rosen’s (et al,1990) classroom study discovered locating and acknowledging to be the mostfrequently used strategies in the classroom.A similar emphasis was also found in the least used strategies in physicaleducation and the classroom. Four of the five least used strategies in the classroomsetting were also the least used strategies in physical education. These included100reinstating, referring, repeating and attention getting (count/interrupt). Thestrategy of referring (Henkel, 1991; Rosen, et al, 1990) was the only one that wasfound to be least used in the classroom and physical education literature.The literature seems to support the findings regarding the most and least usedstrategies (Henkel, 1991; Rosen et al, 1990; Fink and Siedentop, 1991; Vogler andBishop, 1990). Due to the small number of studies in this area, the use of strategiesmay be specific to the teacher’s philosophy of class management. As well,participants in other studies may have had varying knowledge and dedication totheories of class management. In this study, there seemed to be a similar emphasisin the most used and least used strategies in the class and in physical education.This could be due to the teachers beliefs that management in physical educationand the dassroom were more similar than different. The teachers all stronglyadvocated Dreikur’s leadership model and stated that they hoped they wereconsistent in their basic management practices from the classroom to physicaleducation.The highest frequency of dass management strategies was found duringtransition episodes. Transition time has been frequently been cited as an areawhere disruptive behaviour is more likely to occur (Porter & Brophy 1986;Siedentop, 1991). The data from this study cannot show if more disruptivebehaviour occurred, but does show that strategies were used more. It could meanthat teachers anticipated inappropriate behaviour during this time or inappropriatebehaviour occurred and they had to implement management strategies. Data fromthis study does not show what types of strategies used during transition time,whether preventative, guidance or consequence. Strain and Sainato (1987) suggestthat smooth and rapid transitions make for efficient management. it is interestingto note that less than 20% of the time was spent on transition in physical educationand in the classroom. This was less than documented in physical education (30 -10140%) and classroom (20%) literature has estimated as time in transition.The second highest rate of class management strategies was found during directinstruction / demonstration episodes in the classroom and physical educationsettings. The lowest rate of dass management strategies was found during taskwork in the classroom and physical education setting. The literature seems dividedin this area. Silverstein (1979 as cited in Doyle, 1986) found when whole classinstruction was used, disruptions decreased, but when seatwork or pleasure readingwas used there was an increase in disruptions. This would seem to contradict thefindings of this study since higher class management strategy use was found duringdirect instruction! demonstration episodes which had a whole class focus.However, Gump (1967) found that there were more problems during whole grouprecitation and less problems during reading. Bossert (1979) also found thatreprimands were higher in recitation than during seatwork and small groups. Theresults of this study and the corresponding literature give some indication that thetype of teaching episodes may affect the rate at which teachers use classmanagement strategies.5.1.3 What types of class management practices are used in only theclassroom or only the physical education setting at the start of the school year?The only class management strategy to be used in the classroom and not inphysical education was referring. Henkel (1991) identified this strategy as one hedid not find in the 64 physical education lessons he observed. Although he did notprovide an explanation for this, this investigator suggests that referring is not animmediate strategy and likely not practical nor convenient to implement duringphysical education lessons. Teachers may have tried other strategies beforereferring the child to another authority. If a child were to be referred to anotherauthority due to inappropriate behaviours in physical education, the teacher mayhave waited until the classroom or after school.102Although the remaining class management strategies were found in bothseffings, the stopping strategy was implemented differently in physical education.Two of the teachers frequently used a whistle, raised their voices and used largerbody gestures for stopping the students in physical education. In the classroom,teachers used a light bell, lowered their voices and used smaller body gestures forstopping. The use of different stopping strategies in physical education and in theclassroom could have been due to the increased need for an immediate responsefrom the children in physical education. According to Locke (1975) time constraintsin physical education have an impact on all facets of curriculum and instruction.Due to time constraints in physical education, the teachers may have utilisedstopping strategies that required more of an immediate response. The differencescould also be due to concerns regarding space and noise in physical education.When the students are moving and the noise level is high, gaining the children’saftention may have required different stopping strategies.5.1.4 What class management practices have a different emphasis inthe classroom compared to physical education at the start of the year?There was a different emphasis in the rate dass management strategies wereused in the classroom compared to physical education. Forty-seven percent morestrategies were used in physical education than in the classroom. Although nostudies have been conducted to compare physical education to the classroom, thereis much literature to suggest that the physical education environment maycontribute to this difference. Kennedy (1982) considered the excitement ofcompetition, physical movement, equipment and apparatus and the need formoving appropriately in space to be conducive to malbehaviours and impacted onall aspects of teaching. Physical education has been dted as prime location forbehaviour problems and off task behaviour due to its open environment, lessstructure, spontaneity of behaviour, and potential for physical contact (Fernandez-103Balboa, 1991; Martinek, 1991; White & Bailey, 1990). Doyle (1986) suggested that ifstudent mobility is increased, there is a need for more overt, controllingmanagement techniques by the teacher. These aspects of the physical educationenvironment may have contributed to the higher use of management strategies.Other factors may also have contributed to the difference. The amount of timespent on direct instruction! demonstration episodes in physical education wasmore than five times that of the classroom. Direct instruction in physicaleducation showed just over twice the strategy rate compared to the classroom. Itmay be that the high use of direct instruction! demonstration could have causedthe large difference in strategy use in physical education and the classroom.The class management strategy of stopping was emphasised more in physicaleducation than in the classroom. Stopping was one of the ten most used strategiesin physical education but ranked 27th in the classroom. The higher rate of stoppingstrategies in physical education may be due to the increased emphasis on safety andthe mobility of students in physical education. Stopping has frequently been citedas a safety skill in physical education (Kirchner, 1989). Therefore, the teachers mayhave incorporated more stopping strategies in the physical education setting due toan increased concern over safety. Fink and Siedentop (1989) found the ‘attentionquiet’ routine to be the most frequently used strategy in physical education andHenkel (1991) recorded stopping as the second most frequently used strategy aftergaining attention. Kennedy (1982) found that ordering to stop was most frequentlyused in physical education. He suggested that due to the amount of movement inphysical education, teachers need to be alert to the safety needs of the students.Careful adherence to procedural rules, especially those regarding physicalmovement is a necessity (Kennedy, 1982). It may be that the movement of thestudents and safety consequences increased the use of the stopping strategy inphysical education.104Locating (group) was found to be the second highest used strategy in physicaleducation yet ranked tenth in the classroom. Locating (individual) was found to bethe highest used strategy in the classroom, but ranked eight in physical education.Rosen (et al, 1990) found that relocating a child was a highly used strategy in theclassroom and Henkel (1991) recorded locating as a highly used strategy in physicaleducation. Children’s location in space is a concern in both physical education andin the dassroom. However, in this study, there was more of an individual focus onlocating in the dassroom and more of a group focus in physical education. It couldbe that the higher use of direct instruction! demonstration in physical educationcaused the teachers to focus more on the group than the individual. Indeed, amajor characteristic of direct instruction! demonstration in this study was a wholegroup focus.Sound monitoring was one of the ten most used strategies in the classroom butranked 14th in physical education. There may have been a higher noise levelexpectation in physical education than in the classroom which affected the use ofsound monitoring strategies in the classroom. Physical education may be anenvironment where higher levels of noise can be permitted without disturbing thelearning for the rest of the students.The amount of time spent in direct instruction/demonstration was almost fivetimes more in physical education than in the classroom. During direct instruction!demonstration teaching episodes, the rate of management strategies in physicaleducation was just over twice that of the classroom. Some of the literature hasindicated that during direct instruction! demonstration episodes, more problemsare likely to occur during seat work or small group instruction (Gump, 1%7;Bossert, 1979). However, Silverstein (1979 as cited in Doyle, 1986) found that duringwhole class instruction disruptions were less than during seatwork.The amount of time spent in discussion was almost seven times more in the105dassroom than in physical education. During discussion teaching episodes the rateof management strategies in physical education was almost twice that of thedassroom. In physical education, the open space and physical movementpreceding the discussion may have distracted the children, making it harder forthem to pay aftention. Doyle (1986) concluded that there was not enoughinformation in this area to reach a condusion that teaching episodes had an affecton class management.Safety was emphasised more in physical education than in the classroom. Whenteachers established guidelines, safety was repeatedly mentioned to the children inphysical education yet not so in the classroom. The purpose of the first few lessonsin physical education was to develop safety related skills such as space awarenessand stopping. By adding safety to physical education concerns, the complexity foroverlapping may have been greater. Not only did the teacher simultaneously needto focus on judging the pace of the lesson, provide feedback on individual skills orbehaviour, darify understanding and scan the general dass, they had to maintaintheir safety standards. Siedentop (1991) agreed that physical education may addcomplexities to teaching and according to Locke (1975), safety may be one of them.Even though similar examples of efficient organisation were found in bothphysical education and the classroom, there was some indication that theconsequences of inefficient organisation were greater in physical education than inthe classroom. The results of this study show that teachers used 25% moremanagement strategies during transition time in physical education than duringtransition time in the classroom. Emmer, et al. (1980) suggested that effectivemanagers have organised materials and the environment to reduce transitiontime. According to Porter and Brophy (1986), decreasing transition time decreasedthe opportunity for disruptive behaviour. Increased transition time due toinefficient organisation may have greater consequences in physical education than106in the classroom. Dailey (1985) suggested that poor organisation of the physicaleducation environment was a cause for mishaps in the gym. According toMartinek (1991), organisation of the physical education environment needs to beincreased due to the public misbehaviours and the minimal physical self-control ofthe children.Withitness seemed to be more evident in physical education where thereseemed to be an increased need to watch the students and not let inappropriatebehaviours slide. For example, the strategy of ignoring was the least used strategyin physical education but ranked 20th in the classroom setting. Martinek (1991)suggested that physical education has more spontaneous and more publicbehaviours than in the classroom. Kennedy (1982) added that movinginappropriately was a problem specific to physical education. The teachers may nothave been able to ignore the behaviours due to the noticeable affect the behavioursmay have had on the rest of the class. Siedentop (1991) suggested that supervisionis more complex in physical education due to the increased movement of thestudents and the large space. If the teachers had a harder supervision task, then itmakes sense that withitness may have been emphasised more in physicaleducation.Finally, there was a different emphasis in the use of the self-monitoring andhelping strategies in physical education and the classroom. Self-monitoring wasranked 9th in the classroom but 11th in physical education. Helping was ranked4th in the dassroom and 8th in physical education. The episodes of directinstruction! demonstration may have accounted for these differences. Duringdirect instruction! demonstration episodes, the teachers had more control andresponsibility. In the classroom, the teachers used more discussion where thechildren had more control and responsibility for decisions. Self-monitoring andhelping are strategies that reflect increased student responsibility.10752 CondusionsThe following conclusions are limited to the qualitative methods used in thisstudy. The data in this study are comparative and descriptive rather thanexperimental. The researcher, the participants, the setting and time and its passingwill affect the results and interpretations of the results. First, the researcher waslimited by her background and observation/interpretation skills. The teachersvaried in the type and emphasis of class management practices due to their uniquequalities, backgrounds and experiences. Second, the setting of this study is notreplicable due to the uniqueness found in the natural social setting. Results cannotbe generalised across settings. It is hoped that readers may find aspects of this studythat are typical and generalise to their own situation. Third, this study is limited bytime and its passing. The start of the school year has been considered a critical timefor establishing class management practices. If this study were conducted at adifferent time of the year, different management practices may have emerged.Indeed, different researchers, participants, settings and times for study, the resultsand interpretations may have been different.With these limitations in mind, perhaps the overwhelming conclusion of thisstudy was that the types of class management practices were more similar thandifferent in the classroom and physical education setting at the start of the schoolyear. Twenty - eight out of 29 management strategies were found in both settingsand all of the six class management themes were evident in both the physicaleducation setting and the classroom setting. Similarities were found in theemphasis teachers placed on class management practices. In both settings, over 90%of the strategies used were preventative and/or guidance; eight of the ten mostused strategeis and four of the five least used strategies were the same; the ratestrategies were used was highest during teaching episodes of transition and directinstruction/demonstration and lowest during task work. Differences were found108in the emphasis teachers placed on class management practices. Forty-sevenpercent more strategies were used in physical education than in the classroom; thethemes of ‘withitness’ and ‘overlapping’ seemed more evident in physicaleducation; safety was emphasised more in physical education during the theme of‘establishing guidelines’; the rate of management strategies used in physicaleducation was twice that of the classroom during teaching episodes of directinstruction! demonstration and discussion, and the class management theme ofrespect may have been conceptually linked to Dreikur’s leadership theory of classmanagement.Where related literature could be found, the findings of this study showed to beconsistent to the findings of previous studies. The results are highly compatiblewith current thinking and research about class management in physical educationand in the classroom at the start of the school year. The results of this study alsoindicate that general class management practices and theories of class managementseem to be transferable from the classroom to physical education.The nature of physical education and types of teaching episodes may havecontributed to differences in class management practices in physical education andthe classroom at the start of the year. The results of this study confirm otherresearcher’s positions that physical education may increase the complexity of classmanagement due to the space and sound level considerations, mobility of thestudents, publicness and spontaneity of behaviour.5.3 ImplicationsThis study has implications for research in class management, teacher educationand for general understandings of the management process. This study adds to thearea of class management research, particularly to context difference studies.Through the use of qualitative methods, issues have been discovered that mayhave been overlooked by quantitative methods. Since the range of contexts109affecting dass management has yet to be determined, using a quantitativeobservation system with predetermined categories would have limited the range ofmanagement strategies discovered in this study and the identification of teachingepisodes. A natural picture of how three teachers in one school managed theirdasses in physical education compared to the classroom setting emerged.This study has direct implications for teacher education programmes. It maymean that teachers can effectively manage environments conducive to learningusing similar types of management practices in physical education and thedassroom and shifting the emphasis of management practices according to theenvironment. Studies like this one can be useful to help teachers and teachereducators become more effective in their class management role in physicaleducation and in the classroom. The research-derived information from this studycan help to replace or substantiate the collection of management tricks which areoften a part of many preservice and teacher education programmes. Thosemanagement practices which have a similar emphasis in physical education andthe classroom, can provide for consistency between the settings. As well, thetransfer of practices from one environment to another may help lessen theteachers’ increased concern over management in physical education. Thedifferences found in the emphasis of class management practices in physicaleducation and the dassroom may provide a basis for teachers learning how to shifttheir roles according to environments. Theoretical models of class managementmay provide teachers with a framework and rationale for using certainmanagement practices.This study has implications for furthering an understanding of classmanagement. Through the use of clearly defined class management practices andrich, detailed descriptions, administrators, teachers and researchers may be able toadd to their understanding that class management is concerned with the broader110purposes of education and is central to the total schooling process.5.4 RecommendationsThe following is a list of recommendations for future study based on thefindings from this study:1) This study found that teaching episodes and the nature of physical educationmay have affected the class management practices of teachers. Further explorationinto the range of contexts is needed.2) This study was conducted at the start of the school year. It would be valuableto study the type and emphasis of class management practices throughout theschool year.3) There is a need for more qualitative studies in class management to furtherunderstand the class management process. Qualitative studies can be used tounderstand and provide a base for quantitative studies to systematically validateemerging themes. Relying solely on systematic observation systems may limit theextent of strategies that are unique to particular setting or participant. Acombination of qualitative and quantitative methods could be well suited to thestudy of class management practices of teachers.4) There is a need to look at class management practices in more depth in orderto see subtle variations across settings.5) Further study is needed in the effect teaching episodes teacher’s subscriptionto particular theoretical models have on class management practices.6) Due to the differences found in the emphasis on safety, it would be worthexploring some of these differences in depth. For example, how safety affects choiceof teaching episodes, management practices, withitness and overlapping.7) Examine the effect the content of the lesson and student behaviour has onclass management practices8) Study the effect certain strategies (preventative, guidance and consequence)111have on on task behaviour, achievement, social-emotional development and selfconcept measures.It cannot be assumed that the results of this study represent other populations.What emerged could form the basis of a number of future studies. Since teachershave the responsibility of managing their classes in a variety of settings and classmanagement has been the most commonly expressed complaint of students,teachers, parents and school administrators, more studies are needed to compareclass management between different contexts. Physical education, with its openenvironment and physical movement increased the concern over classmanagement yet is an area lacking in research. There have not been enoughstudies to sufficiently draw the condusion that there are differences in classmanagement due to context differences. In particular, information has beenlimited about the class management practices of classroom teachers who teach theirown physical education. With the trend toward the generalist teaching physicaleducation in the elementary school, more studies are needed to see how classroomteachers manage physical education classes. Because class management seems toplay an integral part in teacher effectiveness, more studies are needed to improveteaching.112ReferencesAishel, M. H. (Ed). Dictionary of the sport and exercise sciences. Champaign, 111:Human Kinetics Books.Behets, D. (1990). Concerns of preseervice physical education teachers. Tournal ofTeaching in Physical Education, jQ, 66-75.Bennett, N. and Blundell, D. (1983). Quantity and quality of work in rows andclassroom groups. Education Psychology, , 93-105.Bossert, S. (1979). 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The Physical Educator, 47(1), 16-26.APPENDIX 3.1Diagram of School, Classrooms and GymnasiumPAMClassClassaIF__i_I,, ItIIltiflFIFFz c)145 11 FF1551zzz zzzzPamOff lc•117GYM •11J8RARYASOURECStageVIFIWfd’.4way ,_--[ rs j Class Class LL) LC ClassI I;4IPJIJ 11!fIIIIJIFMD TeamIClassTeamClass Door,’Stair. )Storage—kiss__BASEMENFClassClassClass 11-a-- ifCrafts:utaSup01y5RmActivityPom KInd.rclubU, )-‘00CD U)3‘.0-U I) 0 r j) ) D0121GYMNASIUM (Monday Stations)LaddersTressle TreesBeamLadderSwingSwingingBenchor Stool andrope station0 Mini - TrampBox HoBenchRopeHoop StationLargMats0000StoolsLegend:_____Mats____DoorBlackboardHf ()MatsBench1223oyRooCeiling Ropes47reMatsS Balance Beam BenchrageSta-i-rGYMNASIUMPiano Stage7-HallwayStai—BencCeilingBenctzGirls’•1ChanBenchPullout ClimbingApparatus] BenchIroomLargePSt1. J123APPENDIX 3.2Observation SchedulesOBSERVATION SCHEDULESThe following schedules indicate the times and days each teacherwas observed. The boxes that have been highlighted with darkshadow around them refer to the days that particular teacher wasobserved. The total time observed is shown in the upper portion ofthe box with the time spent in physical education below the first code.CODES can be interpreted as follows:B=Bob S=September #=date C=classroom (in)=insideW=Wendy O=October P=Physical Ed. (out)=outsideP=PamFor example, BS9P(out) means that the researcher observed Bob onSeptember 9 teaching in the physical education setting outside.PRE-WEEKObservation Schedule Fall 199‘PAM”124Sept. 7-11CODEMonday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday FridayFamily GroupLABOUR DAY Stations PRO-D DAYNO SCHOOL NO SCHOOLSept. 14 - 18 First day of (8:45 - 10:00) (10:40 - 12:00)regular dasses (1:05 - 1:30)WEEK 1 PS17P(in)(10:55-11:45)CODE PS15C PS16C PS17C(8:37 - 10:30)PS21P(in)(8:37 - 9:45)PS21C(8:45 -10:30)PS2S(in)(8:45 -9:55)PS28C(8:43 -10:25)PO5P(in)(8:43 -10:00)PO5CTHANKSGiVINGNO SCHOOL(8:55 -10:35)PO19CPO19P(in)(&55 - 10:00)Sept. 21-25WEEK ZCODESept. 28 -Oct.2WEEKSCODEOct. 5-9WEEK 4CODEOct.12-16WEEKSCODEOct.19-23WEEKCODEOct. 26-30WEEKZCODE(10:55-12:00)PS24P(in)(11:05-11:25)PS24C(10:47 - 12:00)PO1P(in)(10:50-11:20)PO1P(out)(11:20 - 11:35)Poic(10:48 -12:00)PO15P(in)(11:00 - 11:20)PO15C(Video off)Re-ORGANIZATIONTalksWeek (Stress)(10:47 -12:00)PO7CPO7P(in)(11:00-11:25)E’RO-D DAYNO SCHOOLVideoVideo125Observation Schedule Fall 1992“WENDY”_________Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday FridaySept. 7-11 Family GroupLABOUR DAY Stations PRO-D DAYPRE-WEEKNO SCHOOL NO SCHOOLCODE_________ _________ _________ _________ _________Sept.14-18 Firstdayofregular classesWEEK 1 (10:40 - lunch) (10:05 - recess) (8:45-10:30)W.S14.CCODEW.S15.C. W.S16.C____ ____Sept. 21 -25 (12:47 - 2:45) (8:50 - 10:25)WEEK 2WS21P(in) WS24P(in)CODE (12:47 - 1.30) (9:45 - 10:25)WS21P(out) WS24C_ __ _Sept. 28- (12:59 -2:25) (8:45 - 10:25)Oct. 2WEEK WS28(in) WO1P(in)(12:59 -1:30) (9:49 - 10:25)CODE wsc woicOct.5-9 (1:05-1:30 (8:40-10:30)(200-250) Re-ORG WO7C PRO-D DAYWEEK WO5C ANIZATION wcrnan)WO5P(out) Talks (9:50 -10:25) NO SCHOOLCODE (1:05-1:30) Week (Stress)Oct. 12-16 THANKS-GIVING WO15P(in)WEEK (9:45 - 10:25)CODENO SCHOOL WO15COct. 19 -231250-1:10 VideoWEEK WO19P(in)1/2 video (off)CODE__ ______ _ _Oct. 26-30VideoWEEK ZCODE__ __Observation Schedule Fall 1992“BOB”126Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday FridaySept. 7-11 Acquaintance Family Group Family GroupLABOUR DAY Early am Stations Stations PRO-D DAYPREWEEK dismissalNO SCHOOL (&35 - 9:10) (8:45 - 10:20) NO SCHOOLCODE B.S9.CSept. 14-18 First day ofregular classes (12:55 - 2:30)WEEK 1 (AU day obs.) (10:40 - 12:00) (10:40 - 11:40) BS1 8P (In)B.S14.P (in)- (1:30 - 2:05)CODE B.S14.C B.S15.P.(out) B.S16.C B.S18.C.Sept. 21 - 25 (10.50 -12:00) (1250 - 2:30)BS22P(in) (12:48 - 2:30)WEEK2 (12:58-1:04)BS21P(out) BS22P(out) BS25P(out)CODE (11:20-12:00) (1:04-1:48) (2:20- 2:35BS21C BS22C BS25CSept. 28- (12:48 - 2:45) (10:45 - 11:35)Oct.2‘WEEK a BS29P(out) BO2C(12:55 - 2:15)CODE BS29COct. 5-9(950 - 10:20) PROD DAYWEEK 4 RE - ORG ANIZATION TALKS BO8CNO SCHOOLCODETHANKSGIVINGNO SCHOOL(1252 - 2:15)BOI3P(out)(12:55 - 1:30)BOI2CReorgedClasses(8:45 -1025)BO14COct.12-16WEEKCODEOct. 19-23WEEKCODEOct. 26 -30WEEKZCODE(12:48 - 2:40) VideoBO2OCBO2OP(in)(12:48 - 125)Video127APPENDIX 3.3Interview Guide1. What is your formal education background?2. What teaching experience do you have?3. If Isay the words ‘class management’, what comes to mind? What is yourdefinition of class management?4. What role does class management play at the start of the school year?5. What differences do you see in your class management practices in physicaleducation and in the classroom?6. What similarities do you see in your class management practices in physicaleducation and in the classroom?128APPENDIX 3.4Sample Observation Field Notes and CategoriesTuesday, September 22, 1992It is a beautiful, sunny day. It is surprisingly warm. Outside the grass is dry today.Not like yesterday when it was sunny but damp at the far end of the field. Bob hason shorts, a brightly coloured T-shirt with yellow and orange designs. Again he isdressed casually.1:20 p.m.Bob is watching, occassionally moving from one side of the field to the oth.Hdoes this twice in the game. He now moves the equipment awtf.tmhe(ps’where the jail is and says toj:fuia “come and help put the pinniesJHe adds“Sandra, could you help Jula p e pinnies away?”. They quickly do this as thegame goes one.1:21 p.m. fc.Bob calls from the centre of the field to the far end; “Hey, red...(he hs hisattention by pausing) need to make room”. Bob motions Alfredto move outfrom guarding the bean bags The children continue playing capture the fla_.11:25 p.m.Bob goes up to two boys and asks;çWhat happened guys? Are yorbing honest?”.Bob gives an idea out loud as the game goes on and a group of children can hear thesuggestion. It is loud enough that the whole field can! “I have a suggestion that thebest way to get the bean bag is to send four or five players down”. Another childcomments from this to another about the idea that it is good because you can onlyforfeit someone to jail. A child approaches Bob and comments; “There are toomany jail guards”. The child gives a suggestion to Bob and he responds “Gooc...idea!”.1:30 p.m.Bob goes over to Sammi with the reminder to bring’iñers next time for the goodshoes may get wrecked. He compliments how nice the shoes look and that it is justnot appropriate for physical education. Another child jnow arguing over the rulethat the offense is too close to the jail. Bob ignores thiJrhe game continues withalot of squeals, laughter and an element of seriousness to get the flag and helpteammates get out of prison. There are some arguments oer who is right and wheregØob does not step in. He is not asked to and he does not interfere. Bob chatsiith a boy in prison. They both smile. He chats with him about how things are1:32 p.m. Diane is accidely hit by Sandra and she begins to cry. She sobs a littleand tells Bob that Diane hit her. Bob notices but ignor Diane’s statement of129complaint. Diane now has the tears and is visibly upset with Sandra. They arearguing. Diane gets a bit mad at Sandra for doing it. Bob now says in a very calm,unbiased way that maybe Sandra should apologize. She does and also explains thatshe didn’t really hit her. Diane does not accept this. She holds her injured arm witha look of contempt and anger on her face. Bob says for Diane to sit out until shewants to join and then tells Sandra to go over and apologize and maybe to talk toher. Diane refuses to speak to her. Bob says for Diane to sit out with her until she’sready to go in. Tyit out d Sandra says to the now ‘harumphed’ Diane thatshe is really sorry.1: p.m.Bob calls over Daisy and Craig to the far prison. He says “I don’t think y&-r1alizethat you were tagged!”. At this announcement, they stay at the prison and Bob asksa couple of children around them if they have had enough. He gets one ‘no’ andone yes. The yes is from a child who states that he would rather do math.smiles and looks at me with the comment “I’d never heard that before!” 2—31:37 p.m. ()Bob calls out “THREE MINUTES!... THREE MINUTES”. This is done loudly so thatthe whole field can hear and others repeat this across the field.1:40p.m. IsBOb calls out TWO UTES!...TWO MINUTES!”1:41 p.m.Bob calls out “ONE M E!”The children continue playing. (o.c. I think they understand the warning)Bob goes over to Alfred who is holding his right shoulder and asks what happenedas the game continues. Both of them walk together. I can’t hear the discussion, but Iassume it involves an inquiry into his injury.C)1:42 p.m. (7?)Bob calls out while looking at his wttf “15.... 10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1” ‘Tblows thewhistle while putting up his hand. (o.c. he seems to have a consistent signal forgathering them outside). The class stops playing right away and the children gatherto him from the centre of the field over to the equiptt by the post. One child ispicking upa pylion and Bob says “Thank you Jamie(nother begins picking themup and Bob says to the general crowd that he needs some more help with the pylons.A few others go off to get them. Bob goes over to the post, has his hand up andwaits as the last children come in with the pylons. He saeç them to take theirpinnies off and come over. “Thanks, Cona”. He thankeca..etfild who has putpylons away then thanks each individual who brings the pylons in. Bob has hishand up still as he moves right over to the fence and says for them to have a seat onthe grass here. They follow him. He tells tthem to put their pinni ay andthanks to individuals again. He reminds Tom that he still has his ie on. (o.c.implied in stating what sees is that the child chooses the appropriate behavior by130looking at what he is doeing). Bob lets the cl1dr chat excitedly about the game forabout 30 seconds. He then says, “Sho me you’re listening”. They are very excitedand talking about the game. There are a couple of arguments, some generalexcitement and a bit of toning down iob said to show they were listening (butnot by much). He repeats this. All is .4uiet and Bob asks for any ients onthe game. A child raises her hand and Bob says “Thankyou for raisinyi4 hand”.There are comments on the roughness, fun. Bob has a few children sharetheir comments and then he makes somjent. He encourages a child to raisetheir hand “please raise your hand” as the child calls out. ild then commentsthat it’s not fair. Another says that it is dangerous131APPENDIX 3.5Sample of Phase Data AnalysisP07 (gym and class) (Pain, October 7, 1992)T WHATupbeat mood in staff roomreorganization finishedPam has 4 new childrenchecks in, very noisy, childcrying children are in fromrecess, attendance, adinin.children line upchildren are at the circleteacher directed to explain1AS gameteacher directed game, 1/3go at a time. Teacher controlsiA 4S starts and stopstransition to change the gamechildren sit in the circle, some-os jump up and down. Pam gets31 equipment as talks.11:15-11 newgame started11:15:45.., game is stopped, remindersJ 3’iocr11:15:15 - Game started again3 4’5TP6LGame stopped, children to1 centre of gym, new activityI introduced quickly, teacherC) demonstration with childrenjwatching11:25 J , Lining up in play space (transit)11:27j11:30 7J i3is11:4311:44-i12:OlpmlCATEGORIES5a, 51,4,4,, 24, 15, 11,51,5b, 11, 22, 51, 11,52,4,11,175a,8,4, 12,5aSb, Sb, 5b, Sb, 51, 12,4,4,4,4,415a, 5a, 5b, 22, 5a24,1113, 21, 41, 5b13b, 4b, 4b, 12, 17,21, 17, 21231313b, 5a, 24, 4b, 11, 11,3,41, 23,4124, 1, 5a, 15,245a, Sb, 12, 4b, 11, 4b, 4b, 4b, 1213, 5a, 11,51,Sb, 2422,41,21, 22, 11, 11,24, 4b,4b, 4b, 4b, Sb, Sb, 22,23, 175b, 7,7, 18, 1815, 11, 11,24, 4b, 22,823, 21, 41, 22, 15, 15ii 1R4N510:47 am10:58;1110011:07-11:12 67, 24, Sa, 21, 21, 21, 21, 5a, 15, 1711:17Other class enters, no time toplay the new game, they go to classthey are noisily coining to carpetchildren are doing class temp.asking buddy, sharing and how feeling(discussion)code books transitionaxe on code bookschildren can leave once are finished and some are already in line.r1l -S\Ot’J(i)(J)OO(ilk)0ci I%Jm-CCCCCC‘LCCCCC•‘CCCCCCCCCCCCC.C———(CCC(J1CCCCC(J1CiCCCCj-CCCk)CCCCCCCk)k)Ck)Ck)k)CCk)CCC--——--1%)rcok)CC..C‘3CCCC(ii(‘.C.L’3(i)CC‘0CC(i3———(i)Ck)C(i)CCCC()()SC.‘CCCC‘0———————————————————————————————z w133APPENDIX 3.7Sample Worksheet for Counting the Frequency of ManagementStrategies used during Various Teaching EpisodesPAM_____Week 3Gym Class Gym Gym ClassMin# Min# Mm # 1in# Min#TRANSITION 8 28 2.5 2 11.5 6 5 3 .5 1DISCUSSION 5 18 21 5 0 0 6 3 12 13TASK WORK 32 11 10 4 0 0 12 2 0 0DIRECT INS/DEMON 14 17 0 0 0 0OTHER 0 0 0 0 7 3 0 0 0 0— — — — — — —134CONFIRMATION LETTER“A DESCRIPTIVE COMPARISON OF CLASS MANAGEMENT BETWEENELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE CLASSROOM’September 3, 1992Dawn Zander4285 W 13th aveVancouver, B.C. V6R 2T7222-0293Dear Mr.This ietter serves to confirm our telephone conversation regarding my master’sdegree research. I was thrilled with the enthusiasm you expressed for my observationsin. class at the start of the school year. U.B.C. ethics requires that I getinformed consent forms signed by the principal and teachers involved. I’ll be askingPhil for informed consent when he returns. Would you be able to fill one out? If youwould rather wait until it is agreed with Phil I will understand.In addition, I have enclosed a description of the study along with copies ofimportant procedural forms. If you know of any primary teachers that wouldn’t mindhaving me observe their physical education and some dassroom sessions at the start ofthe school year, I would greatly appreciate it if you could pass on the enclosed copies.Following the observation period, I would like to offer the participant teachers anyassistance with physical education that I can (teaching dance, games, gymnastics,outdoor ed. etc/ activity ideas/ programming).Please contact me if you should have any questions or comments. Thank-youfor your cooperation. I look forward to meeting you.Sincerely,Dawn Zander222-0293Faculty Advisor: Dr. Moira Luke822-5341135PRINCIPAL’S INFORMED CONSENT FORM“A DESCRIPTIVE COMPARISON OF CLASS MANAGEMENT BETWEENELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE CLASSROOM”I understand the purpose of this research is to describe and compare the dassmanagement between elementary physical education and the classroom during the first3 -5 weeks of the school year.I have been informed of what will be required of the teacher (s).I understand that his (their) responses will remain completely anonymous.I understand that he (they) will receive a copy of the final study.I un.istand that any videotaping must obtain further consent and only to be used forresearch and then erased unless the teacher’s grant permission for other use.I understand that by not participating the teachers position will not be affected.I understand that refusal to participate will not be used as an assessment tool.I understand that the teacher is the primary focus of the research and when thestudents are observed it is as a class as a whole.I wish to give my voluntary approval for this study.Signature DateHome School Address City Province Postal CodeDawn Zander222-0293Faculty Advisor: Dr. Moira Luke822-5341136a, AYfl.Dawn Zander4285 W 13th aveVancouver, B.C. V6R 217222-0293Dear _________:As a recent primary school physical educator, I am interested in how teachers set up their classes atthe start of the school year. For my master’s at the University of British Columbia, I am interested incomparing class management between elementary physical education and the classroom during the first 3 - 5weeks of the school year.For this study, I would like to observe you teach at least two physical education classes per week andan equal (if not more) number of classroom sessions. I plan to gather information by taking notes followingthe observation sessions and from interviews.. I would ask you to spend a minumum of 2 hours to a maximumof 5 ho ‘.out of class time. This time would consist of a tape recorded interview at the start of theobse vii.. on period and include ongoing, informal questions throughout the 3-5 weeks. Every effort wouldbe made to prevent disrution to classes. I am interested in your ideas in this regard. It is possible that Imay ask your permissLrt to videotape some highlights at the end of the observation period, however,consent for that can be dealt with later.There will be no particular risks or discomforts to you or any children. Names of individualschools, teachers, and pupils will remain anonymous. You may withdraw consent and have the data erasedat any time. Please indicate your willingness to participate in this study by signing the attached consentform. Refusal to participate will not affect your position as a teacher nor will it be used as an assessmenttool. For your own records you will receive a copy of the consent form.A detailed proposal of this study is available to you and you will also have access to a copy of thecompleted study. If you have any questions regarding the procedures or other aspects of the study, pleasegive me a call.222-0293Faculty Advisor: Dr. Moira Luke822-5341137T H E Li N I V I K , i t i ‘i ‘ 1) I I —_______Centre for the Study ofCumcuham and Instruction_‘HER’S INFORMED CONSENT FORM Vancouver,BC. Canada V6T 1Z4TeL: (604) 822-6502Fax: (604) 822-8234“A DESCRIPTIVE COMPARISON OF CLASS MANAGEMENT BETWEENELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE CLASSROOM”I understand the purpose of this research is to describe and compare the dassmanagement between elementary physical education and the classroom during the first3 - 5 weeks of the school year.I have been informed of what will be required of me as a participant.i understand that my responses will remain completely anonymous.I understand that I will receive a copy of the final study.I understand that any videotaping must obtain further consent and only to be used forresearch and then erased unless I give my permission for other uses of the videotapes,, fhø fttiirøI understand that by not participating my position as a teacher will not be affected.I understand that refusal to participate will not be used as an assessment tool.I understand that the teacher is the primary focus of the research and when thestudents are observed it is as a class as a whole.I wish to give my voluntary cooperation as a participant.Signature DateHome School Address City Province Postal CodeDawn Zander(m222-0293Faculty Advisor: Dr. Moira Lukeg22-s41138I GIVE CONSENT TO BEING Y4DOThPP FOR THE PURPOSESOF THIS RESEARCH PROJECT.I UNDERSTAND THAT THE TAPES WILL BE USED ONLY FOR RESEARCHAND THEN ERASED UNLESS I GRANT PERMISSION FOR OTHERUSE.(‘Ct. 72Signture Date139Dear Parent or Guardian:I am a Masters student at U.B.C. doing a study on dass management in physicaleducation and the classroom. For my study I would like to videotape a few lessonseach week for about 3 weeks. The teacher. not the students. is the focus of thevideotaping, however, your child may occasionally come in range of the camera.The videotape will be used only to supplement my observations. The tapes arenot intended for public use and names of the school, teacher, and pupils willremain anonymous.The Principal, and your childs teacher have given me theirfull support. There will be no particular risks or discomforts to the teachers oryour children and you may withdraw consent at any time. Refusal to participate orwithdrawal will not jeopardize your childs class standing in any away. Pleaseindicate your consent to have your child come within range of the video camera.Please check one and return this form to your childs teacher:______I-iisent to my child being within video camera range._do not consent to my child being within video camera range.Parent/Guardian Signature DateTeachers Name Child’s NameIf you have any questions regarding this study please give me or my facultyadvisor a call. Thankyou for your cooperation,Dawn Zander (222 - 3)Faculty Advisor: Dr. Moira Luke (822-5341)140APPENDIX 4.1Data Tables for Each TeacherPercentage of Time Spent During VariousClassroomand Physical Education EpisodesEpisode Wen Pam____ AveragesClass P.E. Class P.E. Class P.E. Class P.E.Trantions 11.8% 15.3 18.3 24 14.7 185 14.9 193Discussions 37 Z6 3L4 1 413 4.2 36.6 43TaskWork 44.7 564 40 425 31.6 21.9 388 403DiictIns.d 2.4 6.9 2.7 218 10.5 45.1 5.2 24.6Demos.Other 4.1 13.9 76 10.7 1.9 103 43 11.5Rate/ Hour of All Management Strategies During VariousClassroomand Physical Education EpisodesEpisode Bob Wendy Pam AveragesClass P.E. Class P.E. Class P.E. Class P.E.Transitions 20.0 11.6 14.9 30.1 16.7 35.4 17.2 25.7Discussions 5.7 11.2 5.4 13.9 7.2 8.5 6.1 — 11.2Task Work 3.2 4.5 1.2 2.0 2.6 4.0 Z6 3.5Direct Inst/ 12.6 13.0 5.4 21.0 10.8 21.0 9.6 18.2Demons.Other 7.2 8.2 2.1 26.1 0.0 17.9 3.8 17.4TOTALS 49.4 48.5 29.0 93.1 38.9 86.8 39.3 76.40 0) tDmrI-.em! .. 13 0 -.-131300-C1300C-C-13‘-(--C-.WCCcnauio’o’wI——---—-——-——iC-.0--W000013.00-13W‘-000W0CobnCokcbbbàOàk.n13CCCCCCCCCC-‘13CC13C13CCC13CC13b-bi.’c&biiow-u1a’cnC;----——-------———--——--—%CC0CCOCC-flOC(J(3CCC1-IPbbcno-bo--S-13a’OWCCCCC-CCCCCCCb13CCWViCJ13CCWCC.-uibbbibbiWDC13CO.-P3C-JW‘00OOCJCI%0.----—-—-————--——---——CCCCWUiC00C%—0‘0—CUiW.-WC‘0CCWU)a’CCO’bO13I’.30’’C-Wob‘c)cfl0UCCCqCC0CCCU)-CC13U)CU)-.-CCU)CCU)U)0ibi&cnà—--—--—---130000U)cii(iiCCC—.a’-C(31a’-(iip3——ociico..CL4a’p3Ji)i’013U)P31.)0\%0Ui142APPENDIXManagement StrategiesManagement strategies are divided into three major categories:1. Preventative (P): Strategies used to prevent inappropriate behaviours. Theyoccur in the absence of inappropriate behaviors.2. Guidance (G): Strategies used in response to a child’s inappropriate behavior.However, a guidance strategy does not apply a consequence eventhough it may include an intent to apply a consequence.3. Consequence (C): Strategies used in response to a child’s inappropriatebehavior. A consequence is applied.The following management strategies are sub-categories of the three majorcategories. Categories were originally given a random number such as (22) and werenamed after they emerged. Names were chosen from the literature or created by theresearcher to best fit the description. Beside the name appears the designation as (F),(G), or (C) which designated which major category each fails under. Where thedescription of a strategy may be unclear, examples from field note observations areincluded. Also, child refers to a single or more children.Helping (F) - the child helps the teacher or another child with a task(22)Example: A child is asked to turn off the lights, open a door,or mark another child’s math sheet.Informing (F) - the child is visually or verbally informed of future activities(15) and/or expectationsExample: “When you get into the classroom, I want you to workon your stories”Reinstating (P) - child is returned to previous participation status(2)Ignoring (C) - inappropriate behavior is intentionally ignored(1)Reminding (G) - the child is reminded to follow a certain procedure(17)Example: “Remember not to tie knots in the ropes”, or.“I didn’t tell you to go anywhere yet”, or“Take your hat off inside”143Refocussing (G) - focus is changed from the child’s inappropriate behavior onto(18) something elseExample: A child is reading a comic book and is instructed toshow the teacher his work instead, orA child is starting to tie knots in the ropes and theteacher has her climb them insteadReprimanding (G) -the child is told that his/her behavior is inappropriate(41)Sound monitoring (G)-the sound level is lowered(24)Examples: “Shhh”, orthe teacher taps a child on the shoulder with a pencilto quiet him“Raise your hand is you find it difficult to hear abovethe noise”Stating Behaviour (G) -the child’s inappropriate behaviour is stated(12)Example: “1 see some people are not listening”, or“I see two or three people are not at the carpet yet”Waiting (G) - instruction is purposefully delayed until the inappropriate(11) behaviour ceasesWarning (G) - the child is warned of a future consequence if the present(51) behaviour continuesExample: “You don’t want to make it three weeks do you?” (thechild had already lost the privilege of sitting in the bigchair and is now warned that more time may be lost)Acknowledging (PIG) - positive recognition for appropriate behaviour is given(4) when another child is behaving inappropriatelyExample: When a child is speaking out of turn, the teacherrecognises those who have their hands up andcomments “Thankyou for raising your hand to speak”Attention getting (P/G)- strategies used to gain child’s attention(21) Name-calling - saying a child’s name withoutreference to her actual or expected conduct144Example: “Betty!” (the child was moving when aijzzeresupposed to be still)(68/67) Counting/Interrupting - the children are informed of how muchtime they have to listen or the teacher uses noises to get child’sattention.Example: “10, 9,. 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1” (by 1 the children are to belistening)Examples: coughing, snapping fingers, varying voice level,whistle, dinger, or begins an interesting story.Body Positioning (PIG)- the child is directed to take on a certain body position(3) Examples: “ Please keep your hands on your own body”, or“Cross your legs with hands folded in your lap”Locating (PIG) - child is adjusted to join a formation at a new location(5) (5a) group locating(5b) individual locating(5c) physical locatingExamples: “Please line up at the door”, or“Come to the carpet”, orThe teacher picks up a child and puts them in linePractising (P/G) - the child is to show the appropriate way to behave(37)Example: “Show me you are listening”Repeating (P/G) - the child is asked to repeat what was said to show they heard(14) what was saidRewarding (P/G) - special privileges are given when appropriate behaviour is(8) shownExample: “Those zvho came to the carpet first, may be dismissedfirst”Starting/Stopping (P/G) -a clear indication is given when to start (13a) or stop (13b)an activity(13a,b)Examples: Whistle, dinger, “Please stop”, “You may begin”,“readi, set, go”, or “how do you spell move?”Self-monitoring (P/G)-the child is encouraged to check the appropriateness of their(23) behavior145Example: “Is that zvalking?”, or“Are you listening”, or“Is that the way the trestles should be?”Closing Space (PIG/C) -the child is moved closer to the teacher or the teacher moves(6) closer to the childLooking (C/C) - a stern look is given to the child who is behaving(52)Meeting (G/C) - a private discussion with the child regarding their inappropriate(9) behaviorReferring (C) - a parent or the principal is notified of the child’s inappropriate(10) behaviorRemoving (C) - the child is removed from the activity or a privilege is taken(7) away146APPENDIX 4.3Sample of Interview Notes Transcribed from AudiotapeWendy: Initial Background Interview(Description from field notes about the interview)This interview took place after the Wednesday early dismissal, September 16, 1992. We finally founda place to chat, the conference room and there were a few interruptions to use the phone. Wendy seemeddistracted and nervous, asking me to stop the tape a couple of times so she could have time to think andeven made a suggestion if! had thought of giving the questions before had so she could have time tothink. I reassured her that she didn’t have to answer them now and could do so later once she hadthought about them and that she could change her answers at any time. I also explained the format ofthe interview (background questions, then general questions on ideas and philosophies about classmanagement, then specific the similarities and differences between physical education and theclassroom). As well I told her the tape would be erased one I had transcribed it.The follow’ gj are excerpts from various parts of the interview.Dawn: In regards to formal training, what is your education background?Wendy: A bachelor of arts in psychology and a fifth year at a graduate school levelteaching internship program. One of the first, we died a practicum in the springwith support from the university then a second summer....D: If I say to you the words class management, what comes to mind?W: I suppose I...keeping..that’s distracting (referring to person on the phone)..justhelping the children observe the rules that I establish. That they do nothing thatkeeps children from learning and teachers from teaching.D: What are some examples of class management?W: Um...Well, I suppose initially getting the kids started and, uh..understandingwhere they’ll be going and understanding their instructions and routines andhaving their materials ready. There are the things, you may have noticed, I’m notalways very good at (she laughs, chuckling ha, ha, ha,)...uh..redirecting them whenthey wonder astray, intervening, if necessary’s it generally.D: You mentioned consequences, are they....what kinds of consequences?W: Well, we like to talk about natural and logical consequences. So, uh, that’sbasically that the punishment fits the crime (laugh)...only in this case what naturallyfollows..147BiographyName: Barbara Dawn ZanderAddress: do The Centre for the Study of Curriculum and InstructionPonderosa FFaculty of Education, University of British ColumbiaVancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z5Birthdpte: January 4, 1%5Education: B.Ed/ Outdoor-Experiential Education Certificate,Queen’s Univeristy, Kinston, OntarioB.Phed. (Hons) Brock University, St. Catharines, On.Teaching Experience: 1990 - 1991 Sessional Lecturer, Faculty of PhysicalEducation, University of Calgary, Alberta.1990 - 1991 K- 3 Physical Education Teacher, SunaltaPublic School, Calgary, Alberta.1989 - 1990 Lecturer, Faculty of Physical ActivityStudies, University of Regina, Sask.Conference Presentations: 1990 Saskatchewan Physical Education Assoc. Conf.Workshops: Outdoor Education, Folk- Dance, Games1993 WEST CASTPresentation: Class Management in Physical Educationand the Classroom at the Start of the School Year1994 10th International Commonwealth and ScientificCongress. Paper: A Comparison of Class Managementin Elementary Physical Education and the Classroom


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