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A comparison of class management in elementary physical education and the classroom : a qualitative study Zander, B. Dawn 1994

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A COMPARISON OF CLASS MANAGEMENT IN ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE CLASSROOM: A QUALITATIVE STUDY  B. DAWN ZANDER B.PHED, Hons., Brock University, 1988 B.Ed., Queen’s University, 1989  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Faculty of Education Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1994 © Barbara Dawn Zander, 1994  the requirements for an advanced In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of agree that the Library shall make it , degree at the University of British Columbia I er agree that permission for extensive freely available for reference arid study. I furth be granted by the head of my copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may . It is understood that copying or department or by his or her representatives not be allowed without my written publication of this thesis for financial gain shall permission.  (Signature)  Department of  /ic  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2188)  /  11  Abstract Class management is frequently cited as a major concern of teachers, administrators and parents. Yet, despite these concerns, it has only been in the last  decade that research on class management has taken a central role in the field of research on effective teaching. In the elementary school, teachers often have the responsibility of managing their classes in physical education and the general dassroom. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare three teachers’ class management practices in the classroom setting and physical education setting at the start of the school year. Three elementary teachers participated in this study. Using a qualitative case study design, data were collected primarily through observations recorded in detailed field notes and audiotaped interviews. A total of 26 physical education sessions and 34 classroom sessions were observed during the first seven weeks of the 1992 school year. The data were inductively analysed using a method of constant comparison. The dass management practices that emerged were twenty-nine management strategies and six class management themes. The class management strategies were divided into three classifications: preventative, guidance and consequence. Teaching episodes of transitions, direct instruction! demonstration, discussion and task work were also identified. The results indicated that teachers used similar types of strategies and themes in both physical education and in the classroom. Twenty-eight of the 29 strategies were found in both settings. Similarities were also found in the emphasis teachers placed on class management practices. In both settings, over 90% of the strategies used were prevenatative and/or guidance, 8 of the top 10 strategies were the same; and the rate strategies were used was highest during teaching episodes of transition and direct instruction and lowest during task work. Differences were found in the emphasis teachers placed in class management practices. Forty seven percent -  111  more strategies were used in physical education than in the classroom; and safety guidelines, ‘withitness’ and ‘overlapping’ were emphasised more in physical education. It may be that the learning environment in physical education, with its physical movement, space and sound level differences affected the emphasis teachers placed on class management. The type of teaching episodes used in the classroom and physical education may also explain the differences in class management practices. This study has implications for teacher education programmes, class management research and general understanding of class management.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  List of Tables  vii  List of Figures  viii  Acknowledgements  ix  Chapter One  General Problem 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Purpose 1.3 Study Questions 1.4 Definition of Key Terms 1.5 Significance of the Study  I I 3 3 4 5  Chapter Two  Review of Related Literature  8  2.1 Introduction 2.2 History of Research on Class Management  8 8  2.3 Theories and Models of Class Management 2.3.1 Management Theories 2.3.2 Leadership Theories 2.3.3 Non directive Intervention Theories 2.4 The Link Between Effective Class Management and Achievement 2.5 Management Studies in the Classroom and in  Physical Education 2.5.1 Classroom Studies 2.5.2 Physical Education Studies 2.6 Start of the Year Studies 2.6.1 Classroom Study 2.6.2 Physical Education Study 2.7 General Findings from the Class Management Research 2.8 Class Management in Different Contexts  Chapter Three Design and Methodology 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Site 3.2.1 Description 3.2.2 The Process and Criteria for Site Selection 3.3 Partidpant Profiles and Selection 3.3.1 Participant Proffles 3.3.2 Process and Criteria for Participant Selection  11 12 13 15 16  17 18 22 22 23 24 26 31 31 32 32 32 34 36 37  V  3.4 Data Collection 3.4.1 Observations 3.4.2 Interviews 3.4.3 Videotaping 3.4.4 Role of the Researcher 3.5 Data Analysis 3.6 Establishing Trustworthiness (Validity and Reliability) 3.7 Limitations 3.8 Summary Chapter Four  Chapter Five  Results 53 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Management Strategies 4.2.1 Preventative, Guidance and Consequence Categories 4.2.2 Usage Rates and Ranking of Management Strategies 4.2.3 Descriptions of Teaching Episodes 4.2.4 Time Spent on Various Teaching Episodes 4.2.5 Rates of Management Strategies used During Teaching Episodes 4.3 Management Themes 4.3.1 Establishing Guidelines at the Start of the School Year 4.3.2 Respect 4.3.3 Overlapping 4.3.4 Efficient Organisation 4.3.5 Withitness 4.3.6 Mystery Free Summary and Discussion 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Summary 5.3 Discussion of Study Questions 5.4 Conclusions 5.5 Implications 5.6 Recommendations  References Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix  3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5  38 39 40 41 42 44 46 51 51  53 53 53 57 59 60 61 62 62 71 76 79 81 85 90 90 90 92 107 108 110 112  Diagram of School, Classrooms and Gym Observation Schedules Interview Guide Sample Field Notes and Category Development Sample of Numbered Categories and Times of Teaching Episodes  117 123 127 128 131  vi Appendix 3.6 Appendix 3.7 Appendix 3.8  Appendix 4.1 Appendix 4.2 Appendix 4.3 Biography  Sample Worksheet for Counting the Frequency of Each Management Strategy Sample Worksheet for Counting the Frequency of Management Strategies during Teaching Episodes Confirmation Letter Principal Consent Form Participant Letter Teacher’s Informed Consent Form Parental Consent for Videotaping Data Tables for Each Teacher Descriptions and Examples of Class Management Strategies Sample of Interview Notes Transcribed from Audiotape  132 133 134 135 136 137 139 140 142 146 147  vii LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1  Rate / Hour of Management Strategies used in the Classroom and Physical Education Settings  56  Table 4.2  The Ten Most Used Management Strategies in the Classroom and in Physical Education  58  Table 4.3  The Five Least Used Management Strategies in the Classroom and in Physical Education  58  viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1  Theories and Models of Class Management  Figure 4.1  Number of Strategies According to Three Major Classifications  Figure 4.2  Names of Strategies According to Three Major Classifications  55  Figure 4.3  Percentage of Time Spent During Classroom and Physical Education Teaching Episodes  60  Figure 4.4  Rate / Hour of all Management Strategies used During Classroom and Physical Education Teaching Episodes  61  Figure 4.5  Six Class Management Themes  62  11  ix  Acknowledgements  A sincere thank you is extended to Dr. Moira Luke for accepting the responsibility as faculty advisor and for the invaluable support, knowledge and encouragement afforded to me throughout the thesis process. I also wish to acknowledge the enthusiastic participation of the three teachers. Not only did the teachers freely open their doors to many hours of observation and questioning, but also provided substantial insight into class management.  Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Inge  Williams/Andreen and Dr. Charles Curtis who, through their thoughtful comments, generous spirit and expertise in research, were an integral part of this project.  1 Chapter 1 General Problem 1.1 Introduction  In the elementary school, teachers often have the responsibility of managing their classes in a variety of settings. Two settings are those of physical education and the general classroom. Class management has long been a concern for a vast majority of teachers (Wendt & Bain, 1989). In fact, Cangelosi (1988) found the most commonly expressed complaints of students, teachers, parents and school administrators alike were a lack of pupil discipline, poor class management and control, and disruptive student behaviour. Furthermore, the extensive literature on teacher concerns and problems strongly suggests that classroom management and control of pupil behaviour are the most significant problem areas for teachers (Behets, 1990; Fernandez-Balboa, 1991). Physical education, with its open environment and physical movement, seems to heighten the problem for many teachers (White & Bailey, 1990). However, despite this concern, it has only been in the last decade that research on class management has become central to the field of research on effective teaching. During this time, researchers found that managing to prevent disruptive behaviour and promoting optimum class time for academic work, was a pattern most often associated with achievement gains (Brophy & Good, 1986). However, the majority of these studies were conducted in reading and math (Cohen, 1991; O’Sullivan, 1986; and Porter & Brophy, 1988) and the researchers’ findings assumed effective class management practices in one environment would transfer to all areas (Doyle, 1986). In fact, a large part of what is known about effective class management in physical education has come from research in other subject areas and other teaching environments. Class management research in physical education is at an early stage when compared to the quality and status of research  2 emerging from the general context of teaching (Luke, 1989). The amount of research comparing class management in differing contexts is quite small. These studies explored differences in class management practices across subject matter areas (Doyle, 1986), level of task complexity (Cohen, 1991), class size (Johnston, 1990) and the physical environment (Bennett & Blundell, 1983). However, no studies were found to compare class management practices in the physical education setting to the classroom setting. to date, there has been practically no research designed to apply a common conceptual and measurement framework in order to identify similarities and differences in instruction in different subject matter areas, although extrapolation from findings of studies done within single subject matter areas does suggest some commonalities and some ways in which teaching is unique to particular subject areas (Porter & Brophy, 1988, p. 81). Doyle (1986) stated that the data available were not sufficient for drawing the conclusion that there is a substantial difference in class management due to subject matter, student maturity or group designs. Unfortunately, there is limited information about the class management practices of classroom teachers who teach their own physical education. All of the class management studies in physical education have been undertaken with teachers who have specialised training in physical education. With the trend toward the generalist teaching of physical education in the elementary school, there is a particular need to study how they manage their physical education classes. Educators have long assumed that what happens in a classroom during the early days of the year sets the stage for the entire year. A small number of beginning of the school year studies have strongly indicated that the effective teachers establish their management processes at the start of the school year (Brophy, 1983; Emmer, Evertson & Anderson, 1980; Fink & Siedentop, 1989). Evidence from the study of  3 effective teachers indicates that their major focus during the first few days of the school year is the establishment of class rules and routines (Brophy & Good, 1986; Fink & Siedentop, 1989). Researchers have suggested that teachers who clearly spend time at the start of the school year teaching classroom routines (Emmer & Evertson, 1981; Strain & Sainato, 1987) and gymnasium routines (Fink & Siedentop, 1989) have an easier time managing their classes throughout the school year and have students who learn more. In a review of research on classroom management, Doyle (1986) found that successful managers spent considerable time in the early weeks introducing rules and procedures. Researchers such as Dowhower (1991) and Doyle (1986) have recommended more research be conducted on management processes at the start of the year. In particular, there is a need for naturalistic inquiry that provides rich and natural descriptions of class management practices (Doyle, 1986). This study is based on the need for rich and natural descriptions of management practices in the classroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year. Studies are beginning to show that variables within the teaching context, for example subject matter and class size, may affect class management. However, the range of contexts has yet to be discovered. Physical education, with its noticeably different teaching environment, needs to be compared to the classroom environment. 1.2 Purpose  The purpose of this study was to describe and compare three teachers’ class management practices in the classroom setting compared to the physical education setting at the start of the school year. 1.3 Study Questions Specific questions that were derived from this purpose were the following: 1. What are the similarities in class management practices between the  4 classroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year? a) What types of class management practices are used in both the classroom setting and physical education setting at the start of the school year? b) What class management practices have a similar emphasis in the classroom when compared to physical education at the start of the year? 2. What are the differences in class management practices between the classroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year? a) What types of class management practices are used in only the classroom or only the physical education setting at the start of the school year? b) What class management practices have a different emphasis in the classroom compared to physical education at the start of the year? 1.4 Definition of Key Terms  Class management practices involved the manner and ability in which the teacher 1) establishes and maintains appropriate student behaviours and 2) organises an environment condudve to learning (Anshel, 1990; Rink, 1991; and Siedentop, 1991). Class management practices indude class management strategies and class management themes.  Class management strategies are teacher behaviours used to establish and maintain appropriate student behaviour.  They provide consequences for  inappropriate behaviour and also use preventative strategies (Cangelosi, 1988). The modern definition of discipline is consistent with this definition (Edwards, 1993).  Class management themes are class management practices that emerged from the data of this particular study. The management themes provide the foundation for class management strategies and help to organise an environment conducive to learning.  Appropriate student behaviour is defined as student behaviour that is consistent with the class norms established by the teacher for a specific education  5 setting (Siedentop, 1991).  Inappropriate student behaviour is defined as student behaviour that is outside the class norms established by the teacher for a specific education setting (Anshel, 1990).  Generalist teacher is a classroom teacher who teaches their own physical education classes and does not have specialised training in physical education (Pissanos & Temple, 1990). 1.5 Significance of this Study The specific purposes of this study are based on the need for a rich and natural picture of how teachers manage their classes. Doyle (1986) maintained that a closer look “at the management processes would provide a rich picture of how classroom order is achieved and would enlarge the knowledge base for interpreting classroom events and improving strategies for sustaining order in these complex environments” (p. 424). As well, the purpose is based on the lack of research on class management practices across subject areas and the management concerns of teachers, administrators and parents. Although no studies could be found that compared class management practices of teachers in physical education and the classroom setting, there is strong suggestion that this study could make a contribution to research in class management, to teacher education and to general understandings of the management process. First, this study may add to the area of dass management research, in particular to context difference studies. Through the use of qualitative methods, it has the potential to discover issues that have been overlooked by quantitative methods. With the new acceptance of qualitative research in physical education (Earls, 1986; Schempp, 1987), in-depth case studies are especially warranted. With the qualitative design, it is assumed that human behaviour is context-bound (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) which leads the researcher to collect data in the natural surroundings  6 of the people who produce, influence, and give meaning to observable behaviour (Schempp, 1987). The selection of this design illustrates the researcher’s concern for the complexities of teacher’s dass management and the belief that many factors contribute to it. A real picture of how teachers manage their classroom in physical education compared to the classroom environment can emerge and may add to the range of contexts that may have altered the findings of previous studies. Second, this study also has implications for teacher education. Management practices of teachers that are similar in both physical education and the classroom may emerge. As well, those practices that are unique to physical education may be discovered.  Therefore, an increased understanding of the variety of management  skills in physical education and the classroom may help to lessen the elementary teachers’ concerns. Teachers may also need to learn how to shift their roles according to the environment. This supports the major reason for conducting research on issues in teaching: to improve instructional practices. This study’s research-derived information about class management will help to replace or substantiate the collection of management tricks which are often a part of many preservice and teacher education programmes. Finally, this study may contribute to a general understanding of class management. Through the use of clearly defined terms and rich, detailed descriptions, administrators, teachers and researchers may be able to add to their understanding that class management concerns are connected to the broader purposes of education and are central to the total schooling process. It may also add to the notion that, in some ways, the physical education setting is different from that of other settings requiring different class management practices. In summary, it becomes clear that research is needed that compares teachers’ class management practices between the classroom setting and the physical education setting at the start of the school year. Such inquiry may contribute to the  7 research base on class management in physical education, teacher education programmes, and an increased understanding of the management processes in the settings of physical education and the classroom.  8 chapter 2 Review of Related Literature 2.1 Introduction The literature reviewed in this section is a result of a systematic search of the classroom management literature, particularly that published in the last ten years that relates to elementary physical education. The search involved a computerised ERIC, Sport Discus and CIJE searches, published conference proceedings and an  examination of major research outlets (e.g. Tournal of Teaching Physical Education, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Quest, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Physical Educator and The Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Tournal). Reference lists were consulted until no new articles on the subject could be found. What follows provides a base of knowledge about dass management as it relates to physical education. 2.2 History of Research on Class Management Research on class management is reported to have begun in 1970 with Kounin’s influential study of 80 first and second grade classrooms. This research has had a powerful impact on describing effective management behaviours in education. Much of the literature today continues to use Kounin’s categories of effective management. Kounin’s study started a flood of interest in class management as a distinct area of inquiry (Emmer & Evertson, 1981). At least three factors would seem to account for this interest. First, school discipline became an important public issue that warranted attention from researchers. Second, specialists in teacher effectiveness research began to study class management categories, many of which were derived from Koumn’s studies. From this, a surge of studies to find more about effective management practices emerged (Emmer, Evertsori & Anderson, 1980). Third, there was a sharp increase in the number of qualitative studies of classroom life  in  the late 1960s. Rich descriptions of classroom contexts  9 and processes emerging from these reports revealed the complexity of social arrangements in classrooms and stimulated interest in knowing more about how classroom events were enacted by teachers and students (Doyle, 1986). Since 1970, many reviews of research in class management were published and major research programs to study class management were initiated (Emmer & Evertson, 1981 and Brophy, 1983). By the time the second Handbook of Research on Teaching (Doyle, 1986) was published, there was a large enough body of literature on classroom management and organisation that it justified the inclusion of a separate section. Class management research in physical education has lurked in the shadows of classroom research. Much of what we know about effective class management in physical education has come from adaptations of dassroom research (O’Sullivan, 1986). In physical education, the research emphasis has tended to be on general teacher effectiveness rather than on a specific focus on class management. In the 1970s, systematic observation studies became popular ways to collect data on teacher and pupil behaviours in physical education. The development of coding systems helped to clarify components of teaching and isolated particular class management categories. One widely used and accepted research tool for studying teaching in physical education, The Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE) observation system, included two class management categories that reflected managerial and organisational time.  However, systematic observation studies  generally have not been as useful for defining class management components since they rarely isolate management tasks (Luke, 1989). Exceptions to this are two studies that focused more specifically on aspects of discipline in physical education (Kennedy, 1980; and Henkel, 1991). A commonly cited model for the study of teacher effectiveness was presented by Dunkin and Biddle in 1974. Their process-product model showed the complexity of  10 teaching by revealing presage, context, process and product variables that interrelate and may affect learning outcomes. Presage variables are factors such as student experience, age, gender, intelligence and educational background. Context variables are the unique aspects of the student, school, facilities, and class size that may affect student achievement. Process variables are teacher and student behaviours. Product variables are learning outcomes such as student achievement, skill acquisition and attitudes (Anshel, 1990).  Process variables have been linked to  product outcomes in many teacher effectiveness studies.  Process-product research  has identified class management as an important process variable in effective teaching. Despite this recognition, there are currently no process-product studies exclusive to class management. Furthermore, only a few physical education studies have examined the class management techniques of elementary teachers. In addition, the teachers in these studies were all physical education specialists (Kennedy, 1980; Henkel, 1991; Siedentop, 1989). Early descriptive and experimental research on teacher effectiveness relied almost exclusively on quantitative methods. In the 1980s, qualitative methods started being used in physical education (Siedentop, 1991). By the end of the 1980s, qualitative research involving ethnographic or interpretive methods had received much attention in physical education (Silverman, 1991).  Locke’s (1989) review of  naturalistic inquiry in physical education, followed by commentaries by Schutz (1989), and Siedentop (1989) provided readers of the ROES Tournal with an overview of these methods. Use of intensive field observations, interviews, videotaping and document analysis were discussed. ROES Tournal recently published articles using qualitative methods (Williamson, 1993; Oslin, 1992; Veal, 1991). As well, the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education devoted an issue to  the discussion of naturalistic inquiry in physical education (Earls, 1986) and supported the publishing of qualitative research (Fernandez-Balboa, 1991).  11 In summary, the study of dassroom management has “achieved considerable  maturity in a relatively short time” and has “moved from relative obscurity to a prominent place in research on teaching” (Doyle, 1986, p. 392).  As well,  naturalistic inquiry in physical education has increased and is now better understood as a research approach (Silverman, 1991). 2.3 Theories and Models of Class Management Without an understanding of major theories and models of class management the complex interrelationships of the data are difficult to comprehend.  The  purpose of this section is not to support a particular theory but to provide an organising scheme to make the information comprehensible. Figure 2.1 shows the theories and models of class management according to the relative amounts of freedom they provide children and the control that they give to teachers. Figure 2.1  4  Authoritarian (Management Theories)  4  Democratic (Leadership Theories)  Behavior Modification  Logical Consequences  Assertive Discipline  Reality Therapy  Kounin Model  Jones Model  4  Laissez-Faire (Non-directive Intervention Theories) Transactional Analysis Ginott Model  12 23.1 Management Theories  Management theories tend to assume that children’s growth and development are a result of external conditions. Teachers must control the behaviours of the children because they are unable to adequately monitor and control themselves. Without supervision, children’s behaviour would be erratic and potentially destructive. Desired behaviour occurs when rewards are used and environmental conditions are arranged (Edwards, 1993). Skinner’s Behaviour Modification approach, Canter’s Assertive Discipline, the Jones Model and the Kounin Model are examples of management theories (Edwards, 1993). Skinner’s behaviourist approach is based on the assumption that behaviour is learned rather than an instinct. Therefore, students respond to and are conditioned by environmental influences. For appropriate behaviour to occur students must receive guidance from their teachers. Students cannot learn to be responsible and self-governing, but must be managed by someone who can arrange reinforcers appropriately. Environments are manipulated to increase the chances of desired behaviours (rewards). Inappropriate behaviours go unrewarded (Cangelosi, 1988 and Edwards, 1993). Canter’s Assertive Discipline approach assumes that students must be forced to comply with rules. Students cannot be expected to determine or follow the rules. Rules are determined by the teacher with the support from parents and school administrators. Students will avoid inappropriate behaviour and engage in appropriate behaviour if punishment is emphasised. Appropriate behaviour is encouraged through positive reinforcement (Cangelosi, 1988; and Edwards, 1993). The Jones model assumes that children need to be controlled to behave properly Teachers can achieve this control through nonverbal cues and movements calculated to bring them physically closer to the students. The students are pressured to behave by reducing the time allowed to spend on preferred activities.  13 Appropriate behaviour is reinforced and stopping instruction is commonly used to deal with inappropriate behaviour (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993). The underlying assumption of the Kounin model is that positive moves by teachers toward students radiate out and influence other students. As well, students become anxious and nervous when the teacher exhibits anger or stress, threatens or physically handles the students. When the teacher responds to one student so that the others know what is happening, the students are less likely to exhibit the inappropriate behaviour in the future. The major impact on student behaviour is the ability of the teacher to display withitness or an awareness of student behaviour. Other ways of improving appropriate behaviour can be accomplished by overlapping, smooth transitions, increasing the clarity and firmness of desists, informing students of their accomplishments, providing variety and challenges and dealing with discipline problems simultaneously (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993). 23.2 Leadership Theories Leadership theories tend to assume that children develop from an interaction of inner and outer influences. It is believed that behaviour has a multitude of vital factors acting on it. There is a constant interplay between children and their social experiences. The teacher’s role is one of leadership. If the teacher uses appropriate intervention strategies, they will get children to responsibly control their own lives (Edwards, 1993). Dreikur’s approach and Reality Therapy/Control Theory are examples of leadership theories (Edwards, 1993). The Dreikurs approach stresses that the teacher should be neither autocratic nor permissive if they expect students to be cooperative in the classroom. Autocratic behaviours leads to power struggles and resentment by the students. Permissive behaviours lack guidance and lead to student confusion. The model is based on the belief that children need to be socially accepted and each person has a unique way of  14 satisfying this need. Children are believed to be able to control their own behaviours. Dreikurs wrote about the advantage of a democratic classroom where children have a voice in determining the rules, and suffer logical, natural and applied consequences for their misbehaviours rather than arbitrary punishment. Children are motivated to be on task because of the intrinsic benefits rather than to avoid ridicule or gain praise. Inappropriate behaviour is motivated by the need to gain attention, exercise power, exact revenge or to display inadequacy. Inappropriate behaviour can be terminated by helping students find legitimate ways to satisfy their needs. Children learn to understand their own motives and the teacher helps them explore why they behave as they do (Cangelosi, 1988 and Edwards, 1993). Reality Therapy/Control Theory by William Glasser assumes that human beings are basically self-regulating and can thus learn to manage their own behaviour (Edwards, 1993). Children learn to be responsible by examining a full range of consequences for their behaviours. They make judgments about their behaviour and its consequences. By understanding why a student exhibits undesirable behaviours is no reason to tolerate such behaviours. Glasser emphasises that students are rational beings and are quite capable of choosing to cooperate and be on task (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993). 2.3.3 Non directive Intervention Theories  Non directive intervention theories tend to assume that children develop from an inner unfolding. That is, they have a blueprint necessary for complete and rational self-determination. Children achieve best if allowed to direct themselves  and the teacher’s role is to provide environmental conditions that promote growth. There is considerable freedom for children in the school so long as they are able to direct their own experiences. Teachers have very little cause to fear that children will make inappropriate choices (Edwards, 1993). The Ginott approach and  15 Transactional Analysis model are examples of non-directive intervention theories (Edwards, 1993). The Ginott model is based on the assumption that student behaviour can be  improved if teachers interact with them more effectively, treating them with understanding, kindness and respect. Positive communication by teachers bolsters the self-concept of students, which in turn produces befter classroom discipline. Students can learn to be autonomous and responsible. Accepting and clarifying students’ feelings will improve their classroom behaviour. The Ginott model also assumes that improper use of praise encourages dependency, punishment encourages misconduct, insults cause rebellion and cooperation increases appropriate behaviour (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993). The Transactional Analysis model by Berne and Harris assumes that behaviour is an outgrowth of information stored in the subconsdous mind that has been learned by interacting with others (Edwards, 1993). Life experiences are recorded unaltered in our subconscious minds. Behaviours such as exuberance and self centredness come from the child ego-state while behaviour designed to control others is nearly automatic and comes from the parent-ego-state. Children can learn to be more responsible by learning how to let their adult ego-state monitor both their child and parent state and eventually alter their automatic behaviours (Edwards, 1993). These models and theories provide a basis for understanding class management strategies. They may even provide a rationale for the use of particular strategies. However, Cohen (1991) suggests that the choice of management strategies should not depend on ideology but rather on the technical requirement of the task the teacher has chosen. By narrowly subscribing to one particular model, teachers may not be able to enlarge their repertoire of management skills which may be needed to deal with the different settings of physical education and the classroom. In fact,  16 an eclectic approach which is informed by a variety of models is now being advocated (Cangelosi, 1988; Edwards, 1993). Teachers may prefer to use elements of a number of models. They may recombine them into an approach that is suitable for managing various environments, situations and children (Cangelosi, 1988). Teachers may also use a shifting orientation where a particular model is used depending on how much teacher control is needed to establish and maintain order. Hence, various class management strategies would be used depending on the situation. Indeed, much of the research on effective class management has focused on the manner and ability of teachers to establish and maintain order rather than the ability of a teacher to implement a particular theory. 2.4 The Link Between Effective Class Management and Achievement  Much of the literature supports the notion that skilful management is a necessary condition for teacher effectiveness.  Rink (1991) daimed that class  management skills are essential to effective teaching.  Martinek (1991) supported  this link by saying that learning cannot take place without class control.  The link between good class management and high academic achievement is now quite strong. Studies show that effective teachers manage their classes to increase academic learning time causing students to score higher on achievement tests. When investigators looked at how teachers were spending their time, they discovered that much time was being wasted due to poor organisation and management. Rink (1993) suggested that as much as 1/3 of the time allocated to physical education is being wasted due to poor organisation and management. From a study of five middle school physical education teachers, it was recorded that teachers spent as much as 35% of class time in housekeeping routines. Moreover, data from major research programs in physical education revealed that management time accounts for 40% of total lesson time and disruptive pupil behaviour is more likely to occur during management and waiting time than  17 during instruction and activity time (Siedentop, 1991).  In sum, effective teachers  maximise time to engage in learning activities and effectively manage to prevent disruptions. 2.5 Management Studies in the Classroom and in Physical Education There is now clear and detailed information on how effective teachers manage  and organise their classrooms. Adaptations of classroom research has provided much of what we know about effective dass management in physical education. However, few studies have directly studied class management in physical education and even fewer have compared physical education and the classroom. The following classroom studies were selected based on variables that received significant attention in the literature. Physical education studies were selected based on their exclusive focus on class management at the elementary level. By providing a description of major management studies conducted in the classroom setting and the few physical education studies, it is hoped that some general comparisons can be drawn to interpret the results of this researcher’s study. 2.5.1 Classroom Studies In a study of 80 first and second grade classes, Kounin (1970) tried to find out what effective managers were doing to handle classroom management problems. Kounin identified specific variables related to class management. The behaviour most strongly correlated with effective classroom management was ‘withitness’. This was the ability of the teacher to know what was going on in the classroom and to target behaviour accurately and with good timing. Teachers who had a high work level involvement and freedom from deviancy were also high on overlapping.  They were able to attend to two or more events at the same time.  Kounin (1970) also found that when good managers were compared to poor managers, they displayed differences in smoothness and momentum (smooth transitions from one activity to another while maintaining momentum); group  18 alerting (keeping the children’s attention); variety and challenge; and accountability. Rosen, Taylor, O’Leary and Sanderson (1990) conducted two studies to examine the methods used by elementary school teachers to manage classroom behaviour. The first study employed a self-report format to find out the proportion of teachers who endorsed specific management techniques and how much they used them. Elementary teachers (N=137) from two middle class suburban school districts responded to the two page survey. Results of the first study showed that teachers used management techniques to control inappropriate social behaviour more than inappropriate academic behaviour. Techniques for appropriate behaviour were equal for social and academic situations. The top strategies used for inappropriate behaviours were: reprimand privately, send note/call parents, discuss with the child, remove privilege, threaten to punish, and move desk away. Least used strategies were: take away gym/art time, publicly post demerits, reduce grade, send to a different classroom and physically shove. To encourage appropriate behaviour, a large portion of teachers used hugging, a pat on the back, bonus points, friendly encouragement and a happy face on their work. The second study provided preliminary data through observations of eight regular elementary school teachers. A revised version of Procedures for Classroom Observation of Teachers and Children was used. The results verified that teachers used more verbal than concrete management techniques and more positive than negative management techniques. 2.5.2 Physical Education Studies  Based on the need student teachers expressed to know the type of malbehaviours encountered in the physical education setting, Kennedy (1982) developed a descriptive-analytic system to monitor disciplinary episodes in physical education. An observational system of 22 student malbehaviour categories and 17 teacher  19 control techniques was developed to record the student malbehaviour coupled with the resultant teacher control technique. Observations included 51 dass periods in suburban, urban and inner city co-ed high school settings. The results showed that teacher control techniques were either positive or punitive.  The  control techniques were: ordering stop/correcting behaviour/explaining why, reducing grades, physically punish, restrain, demand apology, evoke embarrassment, demand restitution and give extra work. Although the study was designed to test the reliability of the observation system, certain behaviours were considered characteristic of the physical education setting. It appeared that, due to the amount of physical movement that took place, the greatest amount of malbehaviours occurred in the physical area rather than the verbal. Teachers needed to deal most with problems resulting from moving infractions and used the Ordering to Stop category most frequently. Behaviour modification techniques were the least used and comprised only 6.2% of the total techniques used. These included time-out (5.9%), praising, token economy and free time (0.3%). Vogler and Bishop (1990) described ways in which a sample of physical education teachers managed disruptive behaviour in an activity based environment. A further purpose of the study was to determine the influence the teacher and context variables had on the management of disruptive behaviour that were known to have differential effects on student achievement in the regular classroom. Elementary school teachers (N=172) were given a survey to measure the degree to which a variety of behaviour management strategies were used with mildly, moderately and severely disruptive behaviour problems encountered in the physical education classes. A list of 29 behaviour management strategies were provided to reflect behavioural, psychodynamic and humanistic theoretical orientations. The top ranked strategies were: praise for appropriate behaviour,  20 non-verbal expression of disapproval, ignoring, modelling, time-out, physical proximity, taking away privilege and verbally admonishing. The least used strategies were: pushing/shoving, giving examples of bad behaviour, and satiation until the student tires. When behaviours became more severe, timeout and removal of privilege were used more. Henkel (1991) was the first researcher to use qualitative methods to examine class control techniques in physical education outside of the high school setting. General principles and teachings for pupil control have been described for physical educators and class teachers, but this is the first study to substantiate their use at the elementary level. The purpose of his study was to describe the development of a conceptual framework for pupil control techniques. The framework was derived from 64 live observations and audiotapes of elementary physical education lessons. Descriptions of how teachers foster pupil self-control were provided. Using qualitative analysis methods, 23 control techniques emerged. These were classified as anticipatory (A), tutorial (T) or punitive (P) techniques. The 23 categories included: “Amending (A,T)  Requiring child to amend improper conduct by exhibiting  -  proper conduct. Correcting (T)  -  Modifying child’s misconduct by emphasising that something is  wrong. Exercising (A,T, P)  Administering exercise as a consequence for misconduct.  -  Gaining attention (A,T, P)  -  Requiring child to keep mouth quiet, listen, think  or watch. Calling Name (T)  -  Saying child’s name without reference to actual or expected  conduct. Immobilising (A,T) Ignoring (T)  -  -  Instructing child to gain control of gym equipment.  Intentionally ignoring misconduct.  21 Locating(A,T)  -  Instructing child to assume a designated or chosen space to begin  or resume activity. Physically reprimanding (T,P)  -  Disapproving of misconduct through aggressive  physical contact. Positioning (A,T)  -  Instructing child to assume a designated or chosen body  position. Praising (A,T)  -  Acknowledging proper conduct without using a material reward  or special privilege. Redirecting (T)  Directing attention from misconduct to proper conduct without  -  direct mention to child. Referring (T,P)  -  Contacting another authority or sending child to another  authority (parent, principal). Reinstating (A)  -  Returning child to previous status of participation and/or  privilege. Relinquishing (A,T,P) Confiscating (A,T,P)  -  -  Taking a privilege away as a consequence of misconduct.  Taking away equipment or personal belonging or early  return of equipment. Removing (A,T,P) Rewarding (A, T)  -  -  Removing child from activity.  Acknowledging proper conduct with a material reward or  special privilege. Starting (A) Clearly indicating when activity is to begin. -  Stating rule (A, T) Establishing or reinforcing a behavioural rule or expectation. -  Waiting (T)  -  Delaying dass until the problem ceases” (Henkel, 1991, p. 56).  2.6 Start of the Year Studies  Educators have long assumed that what happens in a classroom during the early days of the year sets the stage for the entire year. Doyle (1986) supported this when he concluded that when a high level of deviant pupil behaviour is established, it  22 does not revert back to lower levels. Indeed, beginning of the year activities are important in determining the level of pupil cooperation during the remainder of the year (Emmer, Evertson & Anderson, 1980). Emmer et al. (1980) also suggested that establishing routines early, combined with the ability to monitor and respond to pupil concerns will facilitate classroom management throughout the year. In a review of research on class management, Doyle (1986) found that teachers who were successful managers spent considerable time in the early weeks introducing rules and procedures. Teachers personally modelled the procedures, took time to answer questions and allowed practice of procedures during the first few weeks of school. Furthermore, Brophy (1983) found that successful managers did much of the planning and preparation for classroom management prior to the start of the school year. Room arrangement, materials, storage and other physical aspects were prepared in advance. The following are two start of the year studies, one conducted in the classroom setting and the other in physical education. 2.6.1 Classroom Study  In 1980, the results of a landmark study for class management at the start of the year were published by Emmer, Evertson and Anderson.  An extensive  observational study of 27 third grade classes during the first three week of the school year examined how teachers who are effective managers began the year and determined what basic principles of management underscored their teaching. Data were collected using a narrative record and teacher interviews. Based on several criteria for effective management, teachers were classified into two groups, ineffective and effective. Observations were repeated at the end of the year. The results indicated that effective managers integrated rules and procedures into a workable system and taught them more to children without overloading them.  Better managers, those with less discipline problems, had taken  23 considerable time during the first week to explain and remind children of the rules. The teachers taught specific signals and worked out procedures early. They had smoother, shorter transitions and provided more adequate explanations. The teachers planned space, equipment and materials for maximum use, dedded on behaviours appropriate and inappropriate for different areas, decided on consequences, taught rules and encouraged the students to understand the reasons for them and intervened quickly to stop disruptive behaviour. They developed procedures to allow students to be responsible for their behaviour and skill performance and taught listening skills. Moreover, effective teachers did less ignoring, and monitored students more carefully. Better managers displayed better affective skills in listening and expressing feelings. Effective teachers introduced the first academic activity as a simple, enjoyable one such as drawing and colouring. Both effective managers and ineffective managers had rules, however, the more effective managers provided more clarification. The first procedures of more effective managers were related to meeting the child’s immediate needs: where to put a lunch box, how to use the bathroom, how to use certain areas in the class and when and where to get a drink. Children were taught what they needed to know about using the room but were not overloaded with information. Finally, effective managers had carefully thought out procedures for contacting the teacher, lining up, turning in work and standards of conduct during seatwork, group work and whole class activities. The investigators concluded that effective organisation and management were determined during the first few weeks of the school year. 2.6.2 Physical Education Study A start of the school year study (Fink & Siedentop, 1989) was conducted as part of the Effective Elementary Specialist Study to assess the degree in which specialist elementary physical education teachers began the school year in ways that were  24 similar or different from effective dassroom teachers. Data were collected in a total of 42 lessons for seven teachers and divided equally between first and fifth grade classes. Behaviours related to rules, routines and expectations were systematically observed using a system developed for this study. Observations were live, live from videotape or live with the aid of a tape recorder. Field notes were used to record the nature of the event and times. Eleven teacher behaviour codes revealed that the teachers established routines early, described routines clearly, prompted appropriate procedures, provided students with the opportunity to practice routines and gave frequent feedback. The attention/quiet routine and start/stop signals were the routines most often practised. Verbal feedback was the dominant mode of dealing with student behaviour. Teachers relied much more on positive than corrective or negative reactions. The results of this study indicate strong similarities between elementary physical education specialists and results from other studies regarding the practices of effective classroom teachers at the start of the year. To summarise, these two beginning of the year studies in class management in physical education and in the classroom have revealed similar results. Research in both settings have concluded that effective management is predicted in the first several weeks of the year. 2.7 General Findings from the Class Management Research  Research in both the physical education and the classroom setting seem to be in general agreement of what makes an effective manager. Withitness and overlapping have been supported by a number of researchers. Sanford and Evertson’s (1981) study of junior high school teachers found that effective managers had a good pace, monitored students and had them practice procedures and routines. Brophy and Evertson’s study (1976 as cited in Emmer et al, 1980) of first grade dasses found that withitness and, to a lesser extent, overlapping, was  25 positively associated with student achievement. They found that effective managers were sensitive to students and continuously monitored them. However, no support was given for accountability or group alerting. Emmer et al. (1980) also found that monitoring was related to increased work involvement and a decrease in deviancy. Effective managers provide clear instruction and do not bombard children with too many rules or instruction (Tenoschok, 1985). Rules are clear and consequences for inappropriate and appropriate behaviour are outlined (Strain & Sainato, 1987). They systematically teach procedures, explain them and give feedback to ensure students learn and understand the reasons why procedures are in place. Effective managers plan and organise to prevent and minimise dealing with problems in the first place (Porter & Brophy, 1988). Dailey (1985 as dted in Martinek, 1991) found that poor organisation skills were the primary cause of student mishaps in the gym. There is a history of procedures used to increase appropriate student behaviour. Among physical educators and dassroom teachers alike, class management techniques for student behaviour have been frequently classified as preventative or punitive. Preventative techniques include: gaining pupil attention, modelling desirable conduct, teaching prosocial behaviour skills, explaining consequences, self-sefting of consequences, positive reinforcement, maintaining eye contact, proximity control, clarifying appropriate behaviour, and rewarding (Rink, 1991; Siedentop, 1991). Punitive techniques refer to unpleasant consequences that have a of reducing misconduct (Henkel, 1991). Examples of punishment include desists, self-reprimands,extinction, ignore, positive practice, reward cost, timeout, corporal punishment, exercise as punishment, detention, contacting parents and removal of privileges (Rink, 1991; Siedentop, 1991). Many of the original observational studies of class environments documented that when  26 discipline problems occurred, teachers were more likely to employ negative over positive consequences when managing student behaviour (Rosen et al., 1990). However, it has been shown that the “get tough” approach is less than satisfactory in elementary schools (Carter, 1989). Rosen (et al., 1990) found that teachers considered most effective frequently used more positive than negative management techniques. Smooth and rapid transitions are another component of effective dassroom management. Strain and Sainato (1987) found that as much as 20% of the preschool day was spent in transition from activity to activity. Effective dassroom managers, however, have faster, more rapid transitions thereby providing less opportunity for disruptive behaviour (Porter & Brophy, 1986). 2.8 Class Management in Different Contexts The complexity of classroom management has been consistently reported in the literature. This has been largely attributed to the complex nature of the teaching environment.  The factors of multi-dimensionality, immediacy, unpredictability,  publicness and history contribute to the complexity of the teaching environment (Doyle, 1986). Multi-dimensionality means that the teacher must deal with different student needs and agendas. Immediacy refers to the need for decisions to be made quickly with little time to reflect. Unpredictability involves unexpected events. The publicness of the teacher’s decisions affects the entire dass. Finally, the history of the class, such as what was done in the past, even holidays and rain, affects the nature of the dass. The physical education environment may increase the complexity of teachers’ class management.  Locke (1975 as cited in Silverman, 1991) found the gymnasium  to be a “complex place where teachers move from one activity to another, where great diversity exists among students, where the nature of the subject matter makes physical education different from the classroom because of space and noise  27 considerations and where time constraints have an impact on all facets of instruction and curriculum development” (p. 357). The excitement aroused during competition, the necessity of the student to participate physically, the use of equipment and apparatus and the need for students to move appropriately are requisite aspects of physical education and “yet these very aspects provide opportunities conducive to malbehaviours” (Kennedy, 1982, p. 92). FernandezBalboa (1991) suggested that the movement element, physical contact and competitive component of some activities may cause students to exhibit increased off-task, aggressive and non-participatory behaviours that requires unique management strategies. White and Bailey (1990) stated that physical education is a prime location for the occurrence of behaviour problems because of the typically less structured and more open environment. As well, Martinek (1991) reported that teachers in the physical education setting have different aspects of class management to deal with. These include public misbehaviour and little selfcontrol due to the spontaneity of behaviour, increased organisation of the environment and behaviour that can be aggressive. He further stated that class management in physical education is more difficult due to the mobility of the students and the use of various types of equipment. Regarding supervision, Siedentop (1991) considered the classroom setting is less complex than physical education. He observed that supervision was easier in the classroom whether whole group work or seat work due to the small size of the class placement of the students. In physical education, the large size of the playing fields and the movement of the students made supervision more difficult. Despite the recognition that physical education has additional qualities that may affect class management, current research has been limited to therapeutic recreational settings for special populations (White & Bailey, 1990). Comparisons across curricular settings are not well represented in the literature and no  28 conclusions can be made. Some attempts, however have been made to explore differences in class management behaviours across subject matter areas, level of task complexity, class size and physical environment. The following is a summary of these studies. Even though they do not compare the physical education setting to the classroom setting, they give some indication that teaching environments may affect class management. Johnston (1990) conducted a longitudinal study of the effects of dass size on kindergarten to grade three pupils. The project staff randomly assigned teachers from 79 schools to each of three class types: small classes (13 15), regular classes (22 -  -  25) and regular classes with full time teacher aides (22 25 pupils). Based on four -  years of interviews with the teachers, striking differences in managing classroom rules, procedures, and pupil behaviours were noted. The overwhelming comment was that classroom management was easier and that there were fewer behaviour  problems in the smaller classes. The teachers attributed differences in classroom management to the ability to provide more attention to the children. The increased attention from the teachers reduced the likelihood that the children would try to misbehave. Cohen (1991) reflected on ten years of experience as a sodologist on the differences in classroom management when different task structures were presented to children. Her findings indicated that when work becomes highly differentiated, that is, working with different groups and materials, the teacher can manage and guide the students’ behaviour through detailed rules and schedules. Moreover, the behaviours required of students in cooperative groups are quite different from those required in traditional classrooms. Bennett and Blundell (1983) reported a field experiment in which 10 and 11 year  old students in two classes spent two weeks in their normal classroom groups and were then assigned to work independently in rows before being reassigned to  29 groups. The results indicated that there was a noticeable improvement in classroom behaviour when the students were in rows. Even though one could easily imagine how furniture arrangements, types of desks and chairs, density of students and opportunities for interaction could affect classroom order, there is only a limited amount of systematic inquiry done in this area of classroom management (Doyle, 1986). Silverstein (1979) examined the relationships between environmental characteristics and level of problematic behaviour. In a study of two fourth grade  classes, Silverstein found that problematic behaviours from day dreaming and mild distractions due to disruption, shouting and fighting occurred most often during  silent pleasure reading.  However, during small-group and whole-dass formats,  only a few instances of mildly distracting behaviours or non-involvement occurred. Studies have found that teacher behaviours dealing with inappropriate behaviour were typically more frequent during recitation than reading groups (Gump, 1967). Gump suggested that recitations or reading groups were used primarily for group instruction and few attempts were made to work on individual problems during these activities. In such settings, the pressure was to maintain a group pace and to involve as many students as possible in each episode. In a study of two fourth grade classrooms, Bossert (1979) found that dassroom structure had a powerful influence on the types of control exercised by teachers. Reprimand rates were higher during recitation than during seatwork and small groups for all teachers.  In summary, activities seemed to present their own  problems for order and instruction (Rosenshine, 1983). Actual subject matter studies in dass management are few. However, from the  previous research on task structure, studies on subject matter that focus on the typical task structure provide some connection to the differences in class  management across subjects. Doyle (1986) summarised subject matter differences by  30 stating that sodal studies lessons had fewer practising concepts and skills, and fewer recitation segments than math. Bossert (1979) found that multi task classes versus whole-dass recitation classes had differences in levels of problematic behaviour. Studies suggest that the “greater the amount of student choice and mobility and the greater the complexity of the social scene, the greater the need for overt managing  and controlling actions by teachers” (Doyle, 1986, p. 403). Doyle (1986) stated that the data available at present are not sufficient for drawing the conclusion that there is a substantial difference in class management practices of teachers due to the differences in subject matter forms or group designs. Research on class management has not yet defined the full range of contexts that may affect class management behaviours (Luke, 1989). As well, the majority of studies that have been conducted in differing contexts have been isolated to reading and math. In summary, there are a number of class management models that reflect the relative amounts of freedom they provide children and the control that they give to teachers. However, it has only been in the last 15 years that research on class management has become central to the role of research on effective teaching. Findings from the research has had a tendency to assume that what happens in one environment transfers to other areas. There has been some indication from the small number of context difference studies that there may be a difference in how teachers manage their classes in different settings. In physical education, only a small number of studies have been conducted in the area of class management. Of these, the majority have focused on the physical education specialist rather than the dassroom teacher who teacher his or her own physical education. Moreover,  the literature has shown that the start of the school year is an important time in establishing class management practices.  31 Chapter 3 Design and Methodology 3.1 Introduction The purpose of this study was to describe and compare three teachers’ class management practices in the elementary dassroom setting compared to the elementary physical education setting at the start of the school year. In order to capture an in-depth understanding and meaning of teachers’ class management practices, a qualitative case study design was chosen. With this design, it is assumed that human behaviour is context-bound (Lincoln & Cuba, 1985). This leads the researcher to collect data in the natural surroundings of the people who produce, influence, and give meaning to observable behaviour (Schempp, 1987). The biographies of participants (e.g. experience, age) and school location are “all seen as interacting and unifying variables that provide contextual explanations of the observed” (Schempp, 1987, p. 117). According to Merriam (1991), qualitative case study research is an inductive mode of inquiry which focuses on a specific phenomenon or situation. The primary goals of this type of investigation are for understanding, description, discovery and hypothesis generating. Multiple visits to a single site, multiple data collection techniques, and small, nonrandom samples  are common to qualitative research (Merriam, 1991). As well, the researcher becomes the primary instrument for data collection (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Since the present study was concerned with the real and natural picture of teachers’ class management practices in the physical education and the classroom setting, the qualitative case study design was well-suited. The selection of this design illustrates the researcher’s concern for the complexities of teachers’ class management practices and the belief that many factors contribute to this. The following is a description of the design and metholodogy used in this study. Included are process for site and participant selection, procedures for data collection  32  and analysis and limitations of this study. 3.2 Research Site 3.2.1 Description  A public elementary school in British Columbia’s Lower Mainland provided the site for this study. As of September 1992, the school had 365 students in 15 classes. Most of the classes had multi-age groupings containing two or three age groups with the exception of two half-day Kindergarten classes and one Grade 7 class. There were also two open area classrooms where classes were team taught. The school practised a ‘non-graded’ approach, in which the children were given anecdotal progress reports rather than a letter grade. The school served as a lead school for the implementation of a province wide programme of reform, titled the Year 2000, and had been featured for this program in Ministry of Education videos. In addition, the school had designed and produced district curriculum, planned and led professional development workshops for other districts, collaborated with the university as a teacher education site and had over 250 visitors observe their Year 2000 programme. The staff consisted of 15 classroom teachers, 4 specialist teachers, 6 support staff, a principal and a secretary. The specialist teachers were the French teacher, teacher/librarian, teacher for the hearing impaired and a resource teacher. Two engineers, two staff assistants and two supervisory aides comprised the support staff. The student population was varied and constantly changing. The school had a considerable transiency with a net monthly change of nearly 4%. Approximately 80% of the children had parents who were university students. Of these, about 25% were students from another country who were not landed immigrants. According to the principal, children were from low-income families. The average length of stay was about three years. In a letter sent by the staff to the district school board in  33 October, 1992 the impact of a transient population on the programme at the start of the school year was outlined. (The school) has for many years attempted to respond to the needs of a highly transient school population by creating a stable, supportive learning environment, by planning flexible groupings which address social and emotional needs and by keeping children with the same teacher for a period of two years. District support staff have observed that a significant number of our students have had to cope with higher than average levels of change and loss resulting from family relocation and disruption. This year, in response to these conditions, we devoted the first three days of school to getting to know the (learning needs) of our children who are new this year, and to becoming familiar with the needs and strengths of all the children. We then dedicated our first professional day to creating the best possible learning groups” (Letter, 1992). Whenever possible, the school also attempted to keep children with the same teacher for two or three years to provide stability and enhance student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships. Besides the general classrooms, the school had a large computer room, an activity room, a multi-crafts room, library/resource centre and a basement play space. Physical education facilities consisted of a large gymnasium with a stage area, a pull-out climbing frame, a balance beam, six gymnastic benches, six climbing  ropes and a chalk board. There were change rooms on both sides of the gym. The outdoor facilities included a large playing field with a baseball diamond, an adventure playground, a compound area with basketball hoops and various hopscotch and ball activity games painted on the pavement, and a large forest that surrounded the school. Appendix 3.1 includes a diagram of the school, each teacher’s classroom and the gym. The physical education equipment was extensive. One storage room had a  34 variety of small equipment such as hula hoops, balls, bats, gloves, bases, racquets  and nets. The other storage room had larger equipment such as trestles, climbing ladders, mini-tramps, balance beams, and volleyball posts. Located on the stage was a stack of about 15 small gymnastic mats, six large mats, a piano, and a record/tape player that could be attached to the gym speaker system.  3.2.2 The Process and Criteria for Site Selection The search for a study site began in March, 1992. Initially, one public school  board was approached because it had a large number of schools from which to draw and had a history for its quality physical education programmes. Having a reputation for quality physical education suggested to the investigator the teachers in this district might be more receptive to having an observer in their classrooms. Furthermore, there was the possibility of observing physical education classes two or more times per week. However, the school board’s research department denied contact with the schools until a contract issue with the teachers had been resolved. By June of 1992, the issue had not been resolved and staffing for the start of the school year (September 1992) had not be completed. Since this study was to commence at the start of the school year, the researcher believed it was necessary to have willing participants prior to the summer break. Therefore, an alternate school board was contacted. Even though the next district had a smaller number of schools, it was also known for its quality physical education program. The physical education consultant recommended one school and, after gaining permission from the principal, a meeting was arranged with six of its teachers during the second week of June, 1992. Unfortunately, none of the teachers were willing to participate in the study at the start of the school year. They expressed concern over the amount of out of class time they would have to spend at such a busy time of the year and they displayed discomfort about being observed and videotaped. From this process, the researcher learned that it was ultimately the teacher who  35 must be willing to participate. According to Bogdan and Biklen (1992), “getting permission to conduct the study involves more than getting an official blessing. It involves laying the groundwork for good rapport with those with whom you will be spending time so they will accept you and what you are doing” (p. 82). Over the summer the researcher approached faculty and students at the university in hopes of making a link with potential participants.  This also gave the researcher time to  reevaluate how to present the study to the teachers in a less threatening manner. The researcher decided to place more emphasis on unobtrusive observation and less on video taping. This decision was supported by comments from Bogdan and Bikien (1992) who stated “when seeking research approval, you can facilitate...entry by offering a low-key explanation and not insisting on playing the researcher role” (p. 82). As a further incentive, the researcher offered to teach some physical education classes and to provide the teachers with current physical education resources once all the data was collected. By the end of August, 1992, a university professor in the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia provided the researcher with the name of a teacher who might be willing to participate in this study. The teacher agreed and the school became the research site. The school had a high degree of typicality. Typicality refers to the degree in which the site “may be compared or contrasted along relevant dimensions with other phenomenon” (McMillan & Schumacher, 1989, p. 194). The school had many typical activities and processes of a Canadian elementary school, and, in particular, Lower Mainland, British Columbia elementary schools. First, a public school was considered typical because more than 94% of Canadian children attend a public school (Statistics Canada, 1991). Second, the school had a somewhat typical number of students enrolled (365). According to Statistics Canada (1989 1990), a Canadian elementary public school -  averages 260 students. Even though the study site had more students than the  36 national average, the mean student population for elementary schools within this  district was 382. Finally, the school had a typical schedule for physical education. Each teacher had two, forty minute sessions scheduled for physical education per week. This is typical of elementary schools in British Columbia where the average number of physical education classes is approximately 2. 7 per week (just under 90 minutes) (British Columbia Assessment of Physical Education, 1979). 3.3 Participant Proffles and Selection 33.1 Participant Profiles  Three elementary classroom teachers (two female and one male) participated in this study. All of the participants were in their mid-forties and had four to six years of teaching experience at this school. The following descriptions include each teacher’s background and the classes they were teaching at the time of this study. Diagrams of each teacher’s class and the physical education setting can be found in Appendix 3.1. Names have been changed to conceal the identity of those involved. Bob taught 26 children in a multi-age class which spanned Grades 3 to 6. He was coordinator for physical education at the school and had been teaching at the elementary level for five years, four of which were spent at the present school. Most of his teaching experience had involved multi-age classes at both the primary and intermediate levels. Prior to obtaining his teaching degree in 1986, he had acquired a degree in applied social science and worked for a few years as a parole officer. Bob had worked for a number of years in recreation and worked extensively with physical education teachers. At the time of the study, Bob was finishing a diploma in counselling psychology with the intention of doing a Masters Degree in Curriculum and Instruction. As part of his teacher certification program, Bob took a course on teaching physical education to elementary school children. Wendy taught 26 children in a multi-age class which included Kindergarten to Grade 2. The kindergarten children came only for the morning sessions which left  37 21 children in the afternoon. Wendy had been teaching at the elementary level forl5 years with just over half of this time teaching at various schools in the Lower Mainland. The past five years of teaching were spent at the present school. Prior to obtaining teacher certification, Wendy had a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, with a year of graduate work. During her teacher certification programme, she had taken a games activity course for teaching elementary school children.  Pam taught 25 children in a multi-age class which included Grades 2 and 3. She had been teaching at the primary level for the past five years at the present school. Prior to this she had been a high school teacher librarian and an English teacher at  both the high school and university level. Pam held a Bachelor and Master’s degree in English Literature/Drama, a Master’s Degree in Library Service and a Bachelor’s Degree in Education. She mentioned that she had taken an assortment of other courses over the years, including one on classroom management. During the past couple of summers she had enrolled in a French immersion program. She had not taken any courses in teaching elementary physical education. 3.3.2 Process and Criteria for Participant Selection  Initially, the research site was chosen based on the availability and cooperation of one teacher. However, the process of selecting the participants was consistent with purposeful sampling strategies. In purposeful sampling it is assumed that “one wants to discover, to understand, gain insight; therefore one needs to select a sample from which one can learn the most” (Merriam, 1991, p. 48). In purposeful sampling, certain participants are chosen because they are believed to be information rich and likely yield the most fruitful data (Lincoln & Cuba, 1985). The methods of purposeful sampling were: convenience sampling, network selection, reputational case selection and typical case selection. Time constraints dictated somewhat of a convenience sampling strategy. The school was selected by the willingness of one teacher to participate in the study.  38 From this, network, reputational and typical case selection strategies were employed. In network selection, each successive participant or group is named by a preceding group or individual and the sample is collected on the basis of participant referrals. Once Bob had agreed to do the study, the researcher spent the week before class groupings were formed getting to know the staff (pre-week). During this time the principal and Bob were asked if they knew of any teachers who would be willing to participate in the study and, in their view, were effective classroom managers. The principal and Bob identified three teachers and the researcher left a written outline of the study in their mailboxes. From this, Wendy and Pam approached the researcher expressing interest in participating in the study. According to Merriam (1991), reputational case selection is where participants are chosen on the recommendation of experienced experts in an area. Both the principal and the university professor had an in-depth knowledge about Bob’s reputation. As well, the principal highly recommended Pam and Wendy for the study. In typical case selection, the “researcher develops a profile of attributes possessed by an average case and then seeks an instance of this case” (Patton, 1981 as cited in Merriam, 1991, p. 50). Each of the participant’s role was typical in regards to teaching physical education in the elementary school. Within the public school system, 90% of elementary teachers are responsible for teaching their own physical education classes (British Columbia Physical Education Assessment, 1980). In sum, this study employed purposeful sampling strategies of convenience, typicality, network and reputational case selection. 3.4 Data Collection Data were collected primarily through observations recorded in detailed field notes. These were supported by interviews and videotaped observations. The  39 choice of these methods is supported by Merriam (1991) who stated that “humans are best-suited for the task of naturalistic inquiry and are at their best when using methods that make use of human sensibilities such as interviewing, observing, and analysing” (p. 3). Data collection lasted approximately seven weeks with about 60 hours spent at the school. The length of the study was determined by a saturation procedure suggested by Merriam (1991). This involves the researcher’s intuitive  sense that no more new information would be reached. 3.4.1 Observations During the first seven weeks of the school year, a total of 26 physical education sessions and 34 classroom sessions were observed. Fifty-one hours were spent observing the three participants in the settings of physical education and the classroom. Appendix 3.2 provides a more detailed account of the times and days of observation. The researcher began observing Bob prior to the first week of regular classes.  This week (pre-week) was designed for the teachers to get to know the  children. An emphasis was placed on multiple age groups of children that travelled to various activities around the school. At the end of the week, a professional development day was spent creating groups that would form each teacher’s classroom. By observing pre-week sessions, Bob and the children were given the opportunity to become familiar with the researcher as early as possible. During the next six weeks, the researcher observed almost every physical education dass taught by the three teachers. A slightly longer time was spent observing in the classroom setting. By spending more time in the classroom, it was hoped that the teachers, researcher and children would become more comfortable with each other. Pam was observed teaching 9 physical education classes that averaged 45 minutes. She was observed teaching 11 classroom sessions that averaged 41 minutes. She taught two physical education classes per week, except for the first  40 and fifth week in which she taught just one. Bob was observed teaching 9 physical education classes that averaged 45 minutes. He was observed teaching 12 classroom sessions that averaged 59 minutes. He taught three physical education classes for the first two weeks and was observed teaching one physical education class for each of the following three weeks. Wendy was observed teaching 8 physical education classes that averaged 33 minutes. She was observed teaching 11 classroom sessions that averaged 73 minutes. She averaged two physical education classes per week, except during the first week when she did not schedule a physical education class. The observations focused on the teachers’ class management practices which were guided by the researcher’s knowledge and experience in the area. Field notes, which were typed within 24 hours after the visits, included detailed observations, informal conversations, diagrams of spaces and descriptions of each teacher in his  or her particular context. 3.4.2 Interviews  Each teacher was interviewed regarding a) teaching experience and educational background, b) definitions of class management, c) the role of class management at the start of the school year, and d) the differences and similarities in how they manage their students in the physical education setting compared to the classroom setting. Appendix 3.3 shows the interview guide that consisted of six open-ended questions. The researcher developed, adapted and modified the questions to allow further depth and to explore other related issues. The interviews were arranged at a time and place that was convenient and comfortable for each participant. All teachers were interviewed as early in the school year as possible. These interviews, lasting approximately 30 45 minutes each, were audio taped and later transcribed -  for analysis. Informal interviews were also conducted throughout the study to confirm or  clarify observations. However, the researcher’s questions were limited to reduce  41 the degree of influence the study might have on management practices. This decision was made based on responses from the initial audio taped interviews. For example, the researcher asked Bob after the first day of classes if she was affecting his teaching. He said that his teaching was “pretty much what he usually does” but  that he was more aware of class management from the questions the researcher asked. The influence of the researcher’s question on the participant was echoed in Wendy’s remark that she “hadn’t thought about it (class management) “for a long time” and that it was “good to focus on it.” At the end of the study, an informal interview was conducted with each of the teachers. The issue of similarities and differences in class management in the settings of physical education and the classroom was readdressed. As well, the researcher gained important feedback on the influence she may have had on the findings. Responses were recorded in a note book immediately following each session. 3.4.3 Videotaping  During the sixth week and into the seventh week of school, each teacher was  videotaped teaching two, 40-minute physical education classes and an equal amount of time teaching in the classroom setting. A compact, hand-held 8mm video camera was used to focus on the teachers’ visual behaviours and a wireless microphone was used to record the corresponding verbal behaviours. The researcher had decided to take a low-key, non-threatening approach in order to gain access to the site. This was best done by reducing the role of the video camera. Each of the participants was asked if, following the observation period, the researcher could video-tape a few sessions to highlight the observations. All of the teachers readily agreed to this approach. Due to the following reasons, data from videotapes were not used in this study. The decision to videotape towards the end of the study was made based on the  42 teachers’ level of comfort, parent-consent (Appendix 3.8) and school-reorganisation. The researcher had pilot tested the video in another school to become familiar with the technology, yet all of the teachers expressed some degree of uneasiness with the camera. However, they were quite receptive to field note observations. When the camera was introduced, the researcher encouraged the children to see how the camera worked and to ask questions about it. For the first few visits, the researcher kept the camera turned off, and just held it as though she were videotaping. This seemed to lessen the children’s curiosity when it was eventually turned on. It also allowed time for the teachers to get comfortable with the camera prior to videotaping. Observations were started the first week of school, yet videotaping required time to get parent consent. In fact, obtaining consent took about three weeks, which is an important time of year to observe class management. If the researcher had waited, much valuable data would have been lost. The threat of reorganisation of classes created somewhat of a problem. The extent to which the classes would be reorganised was not known until October 8, 1992 which was the fourth week of the study. The teachers felt that parental consent forms for videotaping would add to the confusion and would most likely have to be sent out again once the issue was resolved. In summary, each teacher was videotaped during the sixth week and seventh week of the school year. The factors of comfort level, gaining access to the site, parent consent and school reorganisation all contributed to this decision. 3.4.4 Role of the Researcher Each of the teachers agreed to accept the researcher’s role as silent observer. According to Darst, Zakrajsek and Mancini (1989), by limiting the participation in the classes, the researcher is free to observe to a greater extent than if participating in the activities. Even though a friendly relationship developed quickly with the  43 teachers, the status as an outsider became evident. There were a few occasions when the teachers asked “when are you going to give us some feedback.” This expectation continued despite an insistence that the researcher only wanted to learn about their class management practices in physical education and classroom settings. During the interviews, the researcher tried to establish a sense of trust and rapport with the teachers. The researcher also asked open-ended questions so the teachers would share more of their thoughts about class management. The researcher also used language that closely matched the participants’. The researcher limited any clarifying questions to times convenient to the teachers. Each teacher was informed of the purpose of the study prior to its start and had the option to withdraw at any time. Throughout the study, the researcher asked them how they were feeling about the researcher’s role and sought their reaction to the amount of time required of the study. All of the participants responded that what was being observed was fairly natural. Wendy commented that she was teaching “the same as if you (the researcher) were not here.” Bob commented that the researcher was probably the “least threatening and non-intrusive visitor we’ve had in a long time.” The researcher was also prepared for an initial period in which the teachers and students were on their best behaviour. However, she was surprised at how fast they became accustomed to the researcher’s role. By the third day of observations, Bob said that he “hardly knew you (the researcher) were there most of the time”. In  all of the classes, the researcher felt as though she was unobtrusive within the first few hours of observation. For example, on the second day in Pam’s classroom, a child was driving a car over desks and chairs. Without looking up, he drove the car over the researcher’s shoulder and onto the next desk. He seemed totally unaware that the researcher was more than a mere obstacle in his path. By starting  44 observations at the start of the year, it is thought that the children accepted the researcher a somewhat of a natural fixture in their class. 3.5 Data Analysis According to Merriam (1991), qualitative data analysis is “the process of making sense of the data” and where the data are compressed and linked together to make  sense to the reader. The data are consolidated, reduced and to some extent, interpreted. This study used inductive data analysis in which the findings were interpreted in a descriptive-analytic mode. Rather than fitting the data into preconceived categories on an observation instrument or explaining the data in terms of an hypothesis to be tested, the analysis was organised as the study evolved. Data from the observations were transcribed within 24 hours of their collection in order to facilitate the integration of new data with the information obtained in previous sessions. Therefore, data collection and analysis occurred somewhat simultaneously. The first stage of data analysis involved jotting down notes, comments and queries in the margins as the researcher read through the transcribed field notes. A separate list of major ideas was kept. According to Merriam (1991), notes such as these serve to isolate the initially most striking, if not ultimately most important aspects of the data.  The second stage of data analysis involved taking the field notes and sorting them into categories. Appendix 3.4 shows how notes in the margin developed into a primitive classification system which the data were initially sorted. The researcher looked for regularities and patterns which were cirded and transformed into categories into which subsequent items were sorted. The data were divided into the smallest pieces of information that could stand by themselves. Appendix 3.4 shows how each unit was then given a number code. The process involved looking units of information that went together. For example, the first unit of  45 information that could stand by itself was placed in a randomly numbered category. The second unit of information, was compared and either put in the same category or in a new one. As the process continued, new categories emerged rapidly at first but the rate diminished sharply after thirty to forty units were processed. According to Merriam (1991), this is typical of this phase of analysis. As new units, categories and subcategories became scarce, the researcher considered the data saturated and ended the analysis. In order to determine if the categories were exhausted and complete, the data needed to be relatively free from ambiguity, there needed to be a minimum of unassignable data items and the categories needs to be plausible given the data (Merriam, 1991). The development of the categories was a largely intuitive process, yet was informed by the purpose of the study and the researcher’s background. It required convergence where pieces of data converge on a single category and divergence, where the researcher fleshed out the categories once they were developed. The categories were internally homogeneous but between categories, the differences were clear. The researcher had conducted an extensive review of the class management literature. However, Bogden and Biklen (1991) argued against jamming the data into preconceived categories. Therefore, the information was used only as stimulation for thinking about the data. During the time of data analysis, the researcher distanced herself from the literature in order to formulate concepts on her own. As the categories became clearer, the researcher provided each one with a random identification number. Descriptions that best represented each category were then written. Naming of the categories was done once the categories were finalised. The researcher consulted previous literature to find commonly understood names for the categories. Where none were found or not considered  46 appropriate, the researcher created the appropriate name. The researcher realised the categories represented class management strategies teachers used to establish and maintain appropriate student behaviour. The categories were then divided into three major classifications. Once the names of the class management strategies were given, the investigator went back into the field notes to count the number used in physical education and in the classroom. Appendix 3.5 is a sample of the numbered categories associated with the time each event and teaching episode occurred. Appendix 3.6 is a sample worksheet used for counting the frequency of each strategy.  It readily became apparent that teachers used differing amounts of strategies during various portions of the lesson. Therefore, it became necessary to identify these lesson segments. The segments were named as teaching episodes and the length of each was recorded. Following this, the investigator counted the number of strategies used during each episode. Appendix 3.7 shows the identification and recording of categories according to teaching episodes. The researcher could now compare 1) the type and frequency of strategies used in physical education and the classroom, 2) the frequency of strategies used during various teaching episodes in the classroom and physical education, and 3) the percentage of time spent in various teaching episodes. The investigator returned to the list of major ideas and found general themes that did not fit into the list of class management strategies but seemed integral to the teachers’ overall management. These themes were identified and supported by detailed descriptions from field notes. The process of giving names to each of the themes was the same as for the management strategies. 3.6 Establishing Trustworthiness (Validity and Reliability) According to Merriam (1991), “all research is concerned with producing valid and reliable knowledge in an ethical manner. A qualitative case study is no  47 exception” (p. 163). Since qualitative research is based on different assumptions about reality and has a different world view, it has a different conceptualisation of validity and reliability than quantitative research. Lincoln and Guba (1985) proposed the terms ‘truth value’ for internal validity, ‘transferability’ for external validity and ‘consistency’ for reliability. Yet, the basic question is the same: “to what extent can the researcher trust the findings of a qualitative case study” (Merriam, 1991). The following outlines the strategies used to increase the trustworthiness of this study. Credibility or internal validity establishes how confident the researcher is with the truth of the findings based on the research design, informants, and context (Krefting, 1991). It asks the questions: “do the findings capture what is really there?” or “How congruent are the findings with reality?” (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Since reality is constructed, interpreted and based on multiple perceptions of reality, the researcher’s job becomes one of representing those multiple perceptions of the participants as adequately as possible. The issue of credibility hinges on this notion of reality. The question might then be asked, “how can one establish confidence in the truth of the findings of a particular inquiry for the subjects (respondents) with which and the context in which the inquiry was carried out?” (Cuba, 1981, p. 79). A qualitative study is credible when it presents such accurate description or interpretation of human experience that people who also share the experience would immediately recognise the descriptions. Krefting (1991) stated that “truth value (credibility) is perhaps the most important criterion for the assessment of qualitative research” (p. 216). As suggested by Krefting (1991), Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Merriam (1991), the following strategies demonstrate the credibility of the findings: 1) triangulation, 2) peer/colleague examinations, 3) statement of researcher’s biases and assumptions, and 4) prolonged engagement in the research situation.  48 Triangulation refers simply to using several data sources (Krefting, 1991). Triangulation is “strategy that provides a rich and complex picture of some social phenomenon being studied, but rarely does it provide a clear path to a singular view of what is the case” (Matheson, 1988). For this study, triangulation was done by including more than one participant in the study, observing teachers during different times of the day, and collecting data through observations and interviews. Peer/colleague examination involves a discussion of the research process and findings with colleagues who have experience with qualitative methods (Krefting, 1991). This was built into this study by having a thesis committee that provided feedback during each stage of the study. A statement of the researcher’s background, biases and assumptions allows the reader to form an opinion of the authority of the researcher and clarifies the theoretical orientation (Krefting, 1991; Merriam, 1991). This study is the researcher’s first qualitative study. The researcher has taken three graduate level qualitative research courses and is an elementary physical education specialist with  two years of teaching experience in university teacher education programmes and has some experience teaching Kindergarten to Grade 3 physical education in a public school. The researcher’s biases and assumptions parallel those found in qualitative research by Bogdan and Biklen (1992), Guba (1981), Merriam (1991) and Schempp (1987). It is assumed that: 1 ) there are multiple views of reality and that any one part necessarily influences all other parts, 2) the researcher will have some influence on the class culture, 3) generalisations in the traditional sense are not possible, 4) the inquiry process will be inductive, 5) human behaviour is bound by context and time, and 6) by attending to the particular, the general will be discovered. Prolonged engagement at the site enhances the findings “through intimate  49 familiarity and discovery of hidden fact” (Krefting, 1991, p. 217). Spending an extended period of time at the school allowed the participants in this study to adjust to the presence of the researcher and to “satisfy themselves that (she) does not constitute a threat” (Cuba, 1981, p. 84). However, the researcher tried to exerdse caution and avoid becoming over involved with the participants. The researcher kept a journal to assess the influence her perceptions, interests and background had on the research process. Consistency, dependability or reliability are all terms that refer to the question: “Are the results consistent with the data collected?” (Merriam, 1991). Consistency is an aftempt to get outsiders to concur that, given the data collected, the results make sense (Merriam, 1991). Regarding the problem of reliability, Merriam (1991) states that “to some extent we are by-passing the usual problems of reliability by passing the responsibility for them on to the audience” (p. 172). In this study, the following strategies were used to increase the consistency of the study: 1) triangulation, 2) peer  -  colleague examination and 3) audit-trail (Cuba, 1981; Krefting, 1991;  Merriam, 1991). Since triangulation and peer colleague exam have been previously addressed in regards to credibility, only the audit-trail will be discussed here. Establishing an audit-trail will make it possible for others to examine the processes whereby the data were collected, analysed and interpreted (Guba, 1981). An audit-trail is a detailed description of how the data were collected, how categories were derived, and how decisions were made throughout the inquiry (Cuba, 1981; Merriam, 1991). The researcher established an audit trail by making this thesis available to readers at the university library. Transferability, generalisability or external validity all refer to the extent to which the findings of one study can be applied to other situations. There is a  dilemma in that a case study approach was selected in order to understand the  50 particular phenomenon in depth, not to know what is generally true of many. Because of the small number of participants, the type of data collected, and the inductive procedures used in this study for interpreting the data, Goetz and LeCompte (1982) suggested that traditional generalisations of the results cannot be assumed by the researcher. Instead, the results may allow readers to make their own comparisons with familiar context and to look for similarities with their own situation (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Merriam (1991) considers this concept as ‘user generalisation’ and is enhanced by providing: 1) rich thick descriptions, 2) typicality and 3) cross-case analysis (Lincoln & Cuba, 1985, Krefting, 1991; Merriam, 1991). Rich, thick description refers to describing, in detail, everything the reader may need to know to understand the findings. This allows “anyone else interested in transferability a base of information appropriate to the judgment” (Lincoln & Cuba, 1985, pp. 124 125). In this study, rich, thick descriptions were used to describe, in -  detail, the context, people and setting. Since this study employed typical case selection strategies, the readers are more likely to compare the findings to their own situations (Coetz & LeCompte, 1984). As well, the multi-case design allowed the researcher to do a cross case analysis. That is, the researcher could build abstractions and explanations to fit individual cases (Merriam, 1991). In the following quote, Tesch(1987) explains that the analysis is subjective, yet with typical case selection strategies, readers may see findings applied to their own situations. “no two researchers would produce the same result, even if they were faced with exactly the same task, nor were they expected to. Their differences in philosophical stances and individual styles will lead them to perceive and present the phenomenon each in her own way. There are no correct ways of doing qualitative analysis but that does not give the researcher permission to be a dilettante. There is no correct way of drawing a face, either; no two artists will  51 produce exactly the same drawing of someone’s feature, if they are skilful and competent we will nevertheless recognise the same person in their renditions” (p. 1).  3.7 Limitations The qualitative paradigm does not offer a panacea for research on teachers’ class management behaviours; no paradigm can. According to Schempp (1987), there are four commonly cited limitations to the qualitative paradigm; 1) the researcher, 2) the observed, 3) the situation and 4) time and its passing. First researchers vary in their backgrounds, intentions, motives and observation/interpretation skills. Second, the observed will also vary for they represent individuals with unique  qualities and modes of expression. Third, no social setting is entirely replicable, particularly educational settings. Finally, all three previously mentioned elements, the researcher, the observed and the situation, will be influenced by time. Time also changes the interpretations of data after the study has been completed and reported.  3.7 Summary The purpose of this study was to describe and compare dass management practices of teachers within the elementary school classroom and the elementary school physical education settings at the start of the school year. A qualitative case study design was chosen to capture an in depth understanding and meaning of teachers’ class management practices in both settings. The research site was a public elementary school in British Columbia’s Lower Mainland. It was also a lead school for the implementation the Year 2000 programme of reform.  The participants in  this study were three elementary classroom teachers with four to six years teaching experience at this school. All of the teachers had multi-age dasses and were responsible for teaching their own physical education. The two female teachers had  primary level classes and the male teacher had an intermediate class. Data were collected during the first seven weeks of the school year primarily  52 through observations and were supported by interviews. Data were analysed using a method of constant comparison and trustworthiness was established through triangulation, peer-colleague exam, prolonged engagement at the research site, statement of researcher’s biases and assumptions, and an audit-trail. This study was limited to the assumptions underlying qualitative research. The results of this study are reported in the following chapter.  53 chapter 4 Results 4.1 Introduction The results are presented in two sections. The first section includes descriptions  and usage rates of the management strategies teachers used in the physical education and classroom settings. As well, the percentage of time spent in various teaching episodes and the usage rate of management strategies during these episodes is also presented. The second section contains in depth descriptions of eight dass management themes that emerged from observations and interviews in physical education and classroom settings. The following results are not intended to emphasise the differences between the three teachers’ class management. It is recognised that differences among each teacher existed, yet the purpose of this study  was to examine the differences between physical education and the dassroom. Hence, only averages and trends among the teachers are presented. Appendix 4.1 includes tables that show details on each teacher. 4.2 Management Strategies  4.2.1 Preventative, Guidance and Consequence Categories Data analysis revealei 29 management strategies which were divided into three major categories; preventative, guidance, and consequence. Management strategies were considered teacher behaviours that were used to establish and maintain appropriate student behaviours. Preventative strategies were used to prevent inappropriate behaviours and occurred in the absence of inappropriate behaviours. Guidance strategies were used in response to a child’s inappropriate behaviour and the teacher would guide the pupils in deciding how to act. However, a guidance strategy did not apply a consequence even though it may have included an intent to apply a consequence. Consequence strategies were used in response to a child’s inappropriate behaviour and a consequence was applied. Not all management  54 strategies could be considered exclusive to one of the three major categories. Hence, some were a combination of two or even all three. Further descriptions and examples of each management strategy can be found in Appendix 4.2. Twentyeight of the 29 strategies were observed in both physical education and the classroom. By far, there were more preventative and guidance strategies than consequence strategies. Twenty-three of the 29 management strategies were preventative, guidance, or preventative/guidance. The remaining 9 strategies contained a consequence component to them. Figure 4.1 shows there were 3 preventative strategies, 13 preventative/guidance strategies, 8 guidance strategies, 1 preventative/guidance/consequence strategy, 2 guidance! consequence strategies  and 2 consequence strategies. Figure 4.1 Number of Strategies According to Three Major Qassifications  55  Figure 4.2 identifies the classification of each strategy. Figure 4.2 Names of Strategies According to Three Major Classifications  Code Helping 22 15 Informing 2 Reinstating Ignoring 1 Reminding 1 Refocussing 18 Reprimanding 41 Sound Monitoring 24 Stating Behaviour 12 Waiting 11 Warning 51 Acknowledging 4 Attention Getting 21,6 Body Positioning 3 5a,b,c Locating Practising 3 Repeating 1’ Rewarding 8 Starting/Stoppingl3a,t 2: Self-monitoring 6 Closing Space 52 Looking 9 Meeting Referring Removing  7  Preventative  Guidance  Consequence  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1  1  1  1  1  I  I  I  I  I  I  1  1  I  I  1  1  1  I 1 I  —  56  Using data from Table 4.1, it was calculated that teachers used preventative, guidance and preventative/guidance strategies 91.0% of the time in the classroom  and 94.1% of the time in the physical education setting. However, strategies with a consequence component comprised only 9.0% of all dassroom management strategies and 5.9% of all physical education strategies. Table 4.1  Rate/Hour of Management Strategies used in the Classroom and Physical Education Settings Helping Informing Reinstating Ignoring Reminding Refocussing Reprimanding  Sound  Monitoring Stating Behavior Waiting Warning Acknow ledging Attention Getting (name) Attetion Getting (count! interrupt)  Body  Positioning  Class 3.2 3.8 0.1 0.6 3.4 0.8 0.6  P.E. 4.6 4.5 0.4 0.4 5.8 0.5 1.8  1.9  1.9  1.2 3.0 0.7  2.6 5.2 1.2  3.1  Locating (group) Locating (individual) Locating (physical) Practising Repeating Rewarding Starting  Class P.E. j 1.5 3.4 0.4 .J 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.6 ...4  Stopping SelfMonitoring Closing Space  0.3  ...j4  Looking  1.7 0.9 0.8  3.2 ....Q J  6.3  Meeting  0.5  JZ  2.5  3.2  Referring  0.3  ...Q  0.4  0.4  Removing  1.1  ....J.  0.8  1.4  Totals  39.4  74.6  57 4.2.2 Usage Rates and Ranking of Management Strategies From the data in Table 4.1 it was found that teachers used 47% more management strategies per hour in physical education than in the classroom. In the classroom, teachers averaged 39.4 strategies per hour while in physical education, they averaged 74.6 strategies per hour. Nineteen of the 29 strategies were used more in physical education than in the classroom. These included helping, informing, reinstating, reminding, reprimanding, locating (individual), stating behaviour, waiting, warning, acknowledging, attention getting (name-calling), body positioning, locating (group), locating (physical), starting, stopping, selfmonitoring, meeting, and removing. The following strategies were used less often in physical education than in the classroom:  ignoring, refocussing, practising,  repeating, rewarding, closing space and referring. The remaining three strategies of  sound monitoring, attention getting (count/interrupt) and looking were used an equal amount in both settings. Similarities between physical education and the classroom were noted when the ten highest used strategies were compared. Table 4.2 shows that eight of the top ten strategies were the same in the classroom as they were in physical education. Individual locating, informing, reminding, helping, acknowledging, waiting, attention getting (name-calling) and group locating were part of the top ten ,  management strategies used in both the physical education and the classroom. However, differences were noted when three of the top ten strategies used in the classroom setting were not found in the top ten strategies used in the physical education setting. Sound monitoring ranked 8th as a management strategy used in the classroom but ranked 14th in physical education setting. As well, starting and stopping strategies tied to place 4th and 5th in physical education but ranked 22nd and 27th respectively in the classroom.  58 Table 4.2 The Ten Most Used Management Strategies Physical Education (rate/hour)  Classroom (rate/hour) 1. Informing  (3.8)  1. Locating (group)  (6.4)  2. Locating (individual)  (3.4)  2. Acknowledging  (6.3)  2. Reminding  (3.4)  3. Reminding  (5.8)  4. Helping  (3.2)  4. Starting  (5.4)  5. Acknowledging 6. Waiting  (3.1)  4. Stopping  (3.0)  6. Waiting  (5.4) (5.2)  7. Attention Getting (name-calling)(2.5)  7. Attention Getting (name-calling)(5.2)  8. Sound Monitoring 9. Self-monitoring  (1.9)  8. Locating (individual)  (4.9)  (1.7)  9. Helping  (4.6)  10. Locating (group)  (1.5)  10.  Informing  (4.5)  When the five least used strategies were compared between physical education  and the classroom, similarities were also found. Table 4.3 shows that four of the five least used strategies in the classroom setting were also found to be the least used strategies in physical education. These included reinstating, referring, repeating and attention getting. However, the strategies of stopping and physical locating were least used in the dassroom but ranked 5th and 16th respectively in physical education. Ignoring was a least used strategy in the physical education setting but ranked 20th in the classroom setting. Table 4.3 The Five Least Used Management Strategies Classroom (rate/hour) 29. Reinstating  (0.1)  28. Referring  (0.3)  (0.3) 27. Stopping (0.4) 26. Repeating 25. Locating (physical), (0.4, tied) Attention Getting (count/Interrupt)  Physical Education (rate/hour) Referring (0.0) (0.1) Repeating Attention Getting (count/interrupt) (0.4) (0.4) Ignoring Reinstating  (0.4)  59 4.2.3 Descriptions of Teaching Episodes  The teaching episodes were classified as transition, discussion, task work, direct instruction/demonstrations and other. First, transitions referred to times the teacher changed the content of the lesson to such a degree that the children needed to relocate. The teacher initiated the transition and signalled its end. Included in transitions episodes were exit, entry and gathering transitions. Second, discussion referred to times where the children were gathered around the teacher to discuss issues and ask questions. Both the teacher and the student were given opportunities to talk. Third, task work referred to times when the children were working on a given task. In the classroom, for example, this may have taken the form of a reading episode, drawing, painting or groups working on math sheets. In the physical education setting, for example, this may have taken the form of station work in gymnastics, or task work for the game of Capture the Flag. The teacher’s role appeared to be one of observer, occasionally checking in and guiding individuals. Fourth, direct instruction/demonstration referred to the teacher giving directed instruction or providing a teacher-focused demonstration. The teacher’s role appeared to be one of teacher talk while student’s listen. Finally, ‘other’ referred to remaining teaching episodes that were not considered large enough to isolate. The ‘other’ category induded classroom episodes of story time, sing-a-long, and physical education episodes of quickly directed starts and stops. Directed quick starts and stops refers to the times when the teacher signalled the students to a short burst of a specific activity, then stopped them for instruction or pause. Stop and start times were under one minute each and were repeated any number of times. It can be seen from Figure 4.3 that the majority of time was spent on four types of teaching episodes; transition, discussion, task work and direct instruction/ demonstration. In fact, the teachers averaged 95.5% of classroom time and 88.5% of  60 physical education time in these four episodes. Since most of the time was spent on these episodes, they provided a focus for the results. Figure 4.3  50  %  -  I Percentage of Time Spent During Classroom and Physical Education Teaching Episodes  of Time  • Classroom  24.6  fl  Physical Education  fl I 11.5  5.2 ±. Transition  Discussion  I  Task Work Direct/Demo ns Teaching Episodes  ,I  Other  4.2.4 Time Spent on Various Teaching Episodes Regarding the average percentage of time spent during various classroom and physical education episodes, more time was spent on transition and on direct instruction/teacher demonstration in physical education than in the classroom. Figure 4.3 shows that 14.9 % of total class time was spent in transition whereas 19.3% of total physical education time was spent in transition. Also, 5.2% of classroom time involved direct instruction/ demonstration while 24.6% of physical education time involved direct instruction/demonstration.  A slightly higher  percentage of time was spent in task work in physical education than in the dassroom. Task work time involved 40.3% of physical education time and 38.8% of  61 dassroom time. Figure 4.3 illustrates that there was much more discussion in the classroom than in physical education. The tea’chers averaged 36.6% of classroom time in discussion and only 4.3% of physical education time in discussion. 4.2.5 Rates of Management Strategies used During Teaching Episodes  The rate in which teachers used management strategies was similar in physical education and the classroom during transition, direct instruction/demonstration and task work. In both physical education and the classroom, transition and direct  instruction! demonstration episodes revealed the highest rate of management strategies while task work showed the lowest rate of management strategies. Figure 4.4 shows that during transitions, management strategies were used 17.2 times per hour in the classroom and 25.7 times per hour in physical education transitions. During direct instruction/demonstration episodes, management strategies were used 9.6 times per hour in the classroom and 18.2 times per hour in physical education. During task work episodes, management strategies were used 2.6 times per hour in the classroom and 3.4 times per hour in the physical education setting.  Figure 4.4  30  Rate/hour of Strategies used During Classroom and P.E. Teaching Episodes  2  • Classroom  20  L]  17.2  Physical Education  Rate / Hour 11.2 9.6  10  0  Transition  I  Discussion  1j.  3.8  _L  Task Work Direct/Demo ns Teaching Episodes  Other  62 Figure 4.4 also shows that all physical education teaching episodes had a higher management strategy rates in physical education than in the dassroom. 4.3 Management Themes  As the data were analysed, six management themes emerged. These themes were different from the 29 management strategy categories. The management themes seem to be interwoven amongst the 29 strategies and appeared to be vital conditions to their success. The following six dass management themes were chosen as a focus due to the high degree they were observed in both physical education and in the classroom. Each theme includes a general explanation supported by detailed excerpts from observations and interviews. Figure 4.5 Data Display of Class Management Themes  Guidelines at of the the  Respect  Overlapping  43.1 Establishing Guidelines at the Start of the School Year  All of the teachers emphasised the importance of establishing guidelines for appropriate social behaviour and for appropriate use of equipment early on in the school year.  63 Wendy commented in her initial interview that “a lot of teachers have found this out in their first year of teaching that anything that you don’t get in place early on is very difficult to retrieve, so if you don’t establish the overall noise levels very early on or the routines for putting things away, deaning up or the routines for correcting and getting materials then you’ll find the entire year trying to catch up. With respect to setting expectations early in the year, I feel it is important in the gym too. And I’m very, very firm about safety, safe behaviour and quick response (in the gym)”.  Bob also revealed the importance of establishing guidelines at the start of the school year in his initial interview. “I think it’s real important. And I’m just reflecting on last year when I had my year interrupted. When I came back I had to reestablish all the expectations and tone I had set so if you’re establishing tone in the first few days, the kids know what is expected of them..they can usually try out the behaviours. They know what is acceptable for me and what isn’t. They can see what the limits are....I spend alot of time early on in the year so that I won’t have to spend lots of time the rest of the year nagging and waiting” Furthermore, the necessity of developing appropriate social skills early in the school year was supported in the interviews. Pam said: ‘Part of my program for the first six weeks to two months of every school year involves teaching kids cooperative behaviour, to help kids see what’s appropriate and what isn’t. For me definitely their is (a tie between social skills and class management)”  Bob stated that “Those (social skills) are as important as any other skills. If kids are going to have those cooperative skills, the general skills to manage their school life, then  64 your class is going to run alot better. I spend time immediately on listening and I will spend time on asking for help, what to do when your work is done, where to put your work and how to line up. I spend alot of time on this early in the year.” Wendy provided further comment by stating that: “Social learning skills are part and parcel of class management. They are what the children have to learn.” During the first few physical education and dassroom lessons, the teachers  spent considerable time introducing major guidelines for appropriate social behaviour such as listening, how to ask for help, when to speak, how to share ideas, how to line up, and where to locate themselves. As well, the teachers established guidelines for appropriate use of equipment such as correcting work and distributing and collecting materials. Moreover, the teachers commented that similar guidelines occurred in physical education and in the classroom. When asked if there were similarities in how they manage their class in physical education compared to the classroom, Wendy commented that “there aren’t too many differences. I try to be consistent. In the gym, consistent consequences are important.” Pam said that “it’s the same basic philosophy: to help (the child) reach his or her potential. As far as what is allowed and what isn’t allowed, I think I try  to keep the same rules. I hope that there isn’t alot of difference in my management techniques, my underlying philosophy’. The teachers had similar, overriding guidelines that reflected their philosophy of class management. They all stated to the children and in the interview that inappropriate behaviour was anything that interfered with the students’ right to learn and teachers’ right to teach. The following excerpts from field notes show the establishment of guidelines early in the school year. Examples are provided for the physical education setting and the classroom setting. During the first few days of school, Bob spent alot of time on teaching listening  65 skills and on democratic rule setting. Monday, September 14 Bob says he will give the class an easy task. The children are a bit loud and Bob asks them: “What does it mean to listen?” The children put up their hands to answer. “Eva? “Sorry, I can’t hear you”. He pauses until all is quiet.  She explains her concept of listening from a previous teacher. Bob asks: “How many people are listening?” He says he sees about 18 listening and “That is pretty good”. He asks for other ideas about listening. The children share these and then Bob proceeds to teach the children the steps in listening. He says that many adults do not know all the steps. A child starts to answer but gets to the fourth step and says he forgot. Bob asks other children and cuts in with “I am still waiting for one person to do Step #1”. The first three steps are: 1) stop what you are doing and look person in the eye, 2) stop fidgeting or doing anything distracting such as holding pencil, and 3) think about what the other person is saying. Before exploring the fourth step, Bob has the children to turn to a person next to them and to tell them the three steps so far and to make sure they know it. After a couple of minutes, Bob gains the students’ attention by saying “Show me you are listening (pause) Thanks Kay, Thanks Evan. Good, who can tell me the steps?” Not all hands are up so he says: “If one person doesn’t know it you’ll need to tell each other again”. This time they all have their hands up to show they know the first three step. Bob continues:  “Is there something you can do to tell the other person to listen?”  A child answers: “By tapping the person on the shoulder”. Bob repeats this answer and adds: “When a person is not listening it doesn’t mean they are a bad person. It just means other things are going on for them and they may need a gentle tap to get their attention (pause). The fourth step takes a lot of courage”. A child raises their hand and contributes the answer to step four as  66 being: “If you don’t understand, ask a question”. Bob explains that courage is needed because “You might think that other children think you are stupid yet people who ask questions generally learn more. Does any one have any questions?” Bob smiles. Monday, September 14 The children are gathered to the carpet. Bob asks “How many people think I should be the one to make the rules?”  “  No Hands go up and Bob asks “How  many people think you should have some input into ideas for rules?” All hands shoot up. Bob explains that he is there as a teacher not as a policeman. He asks: “Does anybody not like the idea of students making their own dass rules?”. There are no objections. Bob makes a suggestion: “Can I do the following? To tell the rules of how we did in the past and you say if you like them?” He gives them time to think and no one stands up to disagree. “What are the rules you would like to know about?” The children brainstorm topics such as music, Supernintendo, gum chewing while Bob vigorously records everything in the guideline book. He explains that he is acting as chairperson and that they will need to raise their hand. “There will be a class meeting where you can dedde who speaks and when. It occurs once per week and we talk about some good and some bad things and things to change and you can talk about it. This meeting is about rules.” The children continue to share ideas about rules and ask questions about the year. Bob is very patient, calm and takes the time to answer their questions. Wednesday, September 16 Bob gathers the children to the carpet to continue setting classroom rules. He explains: “You can make rules any time and change the rules at any time. There is only one rule about rules and that is that everyone needs to agree. If someone doesn’t agree you may speak to try and convince that person.” Bob  67 sits on the chair at the edge of the carpet with the rule book in his hands, like a bible in front of him, raising it every so often to write suggestions and comments from the class. In the following observations in physical education, Bob establishes where to sit, listening skills and emphasises safety. Tuesday, September 15 The children sit on the circle in the centre of the gym and Bob stands on the edge. Bob says: “When you come into p.e. for the first few times I’ll ask you to sit on the red circle. One rule to note today has to do with freezing. What does it mean to freeze?” The lesson included a focus on space awareness, and stopping and starting. He led them into a discussion that identifies stopping quickly as a safety skills. Later in the lesson Bob says “Those that need more training (space awareness) stay on the floor so you don’t lose your license plate. You will if you have more accidents”. He starts the game again and says to two boys “Excuse me guys, I’d really like you to show me safety.” Bob has them change location to be up front with him. He addresses a child who has been given a timeout “Charlie, if you make another noise, I will ask you to go outside”. Bob repeats softly to the class that the signal to come and see him is a hand up. Later in the lesson Bob freezes the game and says “If you don’t listen you will miss valuable instruction”. They are listening quietly as Bob reminds them not to run or eat in the school and to have a nice lunch. Bob introduced signals for gathering in the following observation. Tuesday, September 15 Before going outside, Bob says to the class: “It is important to listen to the instruction so that you know what to do when we get outside. Bob explains that he has two signals. One is when his arm is out so that they line up where  68 it is pointed. The other is a non-verbal gathering motion of both arms extend which means to come in. During the first few days of schools, Wendy established where and how to sit, how to listen, lining up procedures and the importance of personal space in the classroom. Monday, September 14 Wendy adjusts the children, physically and verbally, to sit in a circle on the carpet. When it is satisfactory she says: “That’s how we sit in the circle.” She  has taken a lot of time to get it just right. Wendy calls out each person’s name and records it in her attendance book. She goes around the circle asking “Who  has a new teacher today?” They all do! She is making alot of eye contact and gives big smiles to all the children. Wendy says “Now you can scatter so you can see”. Some do and she says “This is what a scatter is.” She explains: “You have to have a little bubble of space around your body and make sure you aren’t touching anybody else. Look to see if you have a little bubble space around you.” Wednesday, September 16 Wendy is physically and verbally adjusting the children to sit in a circle on the carpet. “Ned and Teddy. You need to move back. Ned you need to sit on your bottom with your hands not touching anyone else.” Wendy tells Ned to move over. The group waits for him. He refuses but, as everyone waits, he goes to a new sitting place. Wendy waits for quiet and says: “We’re waiting”. She scans the class making eye contact with many. About five seconds later all is quiet and Wendy continues with a good morning greeting to each child as she takes attendance. About 15 minutes later Wendy readjusts the group by asking: “How do we sit? We are only waiting for one or two.” She reminds them to sit on their bottoms. As they line up to exit for recess they are  69 reminded to keep their hands on their own bodies and not to touch anyone else in the line. During the first gym class, Wendy established guidelines for listening, lining up, seating, starting and stopping. She focused on space awareness and emphasised safety.  Monday, September 21 The children are sitting on the circle in the centre of the gym and Wendy comments: “It is great to see you sitting on your bottoms on the floor.” A few children are asked to show her how to walk in. Wendy comments: “That is the safe way to walk in”. Wendy asks the children what the rules of the gym are. She gets responses such as to listen and watch where you are going. She emphasises the need for them to stop quickly when she signals them, to listen  and look at her. After they practise this, she explains the need to practise changing stations as well and they need to listen carefully to her voice when she says “Change!” Wendy asks the dass what to do if someone was hurt and crying. A child raises her hand and response with: “We should sit down.” Wendy says they will play act this situation and if they do a good job, then they can go to the stations. Following this successful demonstration, Wendy says they can play on the equipment when she says the start signal of ‘Popcorn balls!” Later in the lesson, Wendy asks the dass what was really  good about a demonstration. After a few responses Wendy agrees that it was good because they were cooperating and leaving space for each other so no one got hurt by being too close. As the children exit they are reminded to keep  their hands on their own bodies and not to touch anyone else when they are in line.  Pam also established guidelines for listening, where and how to sit and stopping and starting in both physical education and in the classroom. She revealed an  70 emphasis on space awareness and safety in physical education. Tuesday, September 22 The class is gathered to the carpet. Pam says “Thank you Sara for passing on the signal so that others will pay aftention and listen.” Pam comments to the whole class: “You can tell that you are cooperating and helping people to listen by passing on the signal. Sometimes people don’t see, so you just need to tap  and remind them it is time to be quiet. Angel, can you sit properly?” Wednesday, September 16 Pam has the children gathered at the carpet. “When we go into the gym, first of all I’m going to ask you to sit on the big red circle in the middle of the gym. Spread out so your hands are up (she demonstrates) on both sides and do not touch anyone. Then I’ll ask you to stand up and we’ll play aeroplane pilot. I’ll explain this later. Do you understand?” Pam explains that there is one big rule at the school that should also be followed in the gym: “Not to do anything that interferes with the right of the teacher to teach and the right of children to learn. Listening is a big rule.” She gives the aeroplane directions. She tells them to walk, not run, and to be quiet in the hallway. As the children enter, they go to the red circle. One child is asked to sit out for not going to the circle immediately.  “Space yourselves around the circle.” Pam then points and  explains areas of the gym that might be unsafe. She repeats that it is necessary for the children to sit quietly and wait so they understand how to take off and land in the aeroplane activity. She emphasis to them that if they are not properly spaced, she is worried that they will crash into each other. In physical education, there seemed to be an increased emphasis on safety due to space and noise concerns. Wendy supported this in her initial interview when she said: “In physical education the children need to be more clear on understanding the expectations, the safety rules.” Bob suggested that: “The differences in physical  71 education have more to do with safety than there is in a regular classroom due to the space concerns and the noise concerns.” Pam said the day before her first day in the gym that she was “nervous and a bit concerned about safety on the first day in the gym.” She added: “I have to speak alot louder. If I’m outdoors I have to use a whistle or very large movements rather than very small movements”.  Bob and  Pam they were observed using a whistle, a louder voice and larger hand gestures for gaining attention in physical education. Wendy kept her voice the same level as in the classroom but also used larger hand gestures for gaining attention. To summarise, the teachers established guidelines for listening, spacing, collecting/distributing equipment, lining up and asking questions in both physical education and the classroom. In physical education there was an increased emphasis on safety due to sound level and space concerns 4.3.2 Respect  An atmosphere of respect was observed in both physical education and in the dassroom. This included listening to ideas without judgment, allowing freedom of expression, calm and patient tone of voice and giving children responsibility for managing their learning environment. Pam advocated respect as an underlying theme of class management when she said: “Fundamental to my belief (about class management) is respecting others. My goals are for children to achieve their personal best, be persistent and try to improve themselves. Everything else is predicated upon that”. She wanted to create an atmosphere that “addresses personal bests and teaching that not being able to do something perfectly the first time or three times is just a stepping stone for personal growth and you keep on trying. Not to feel inferior if you can’t do something as well or as quickly as someone else”  72  Bob also stated that an accepting atmosphere and tone of responsibility underscored much of his class management. “All of those things I do contribute to an atmosphere that is warm and inviting and safe and a good place for kids to learn. A feeling of emotional safety, intellectual safety, to take risks so you can push yourself to new limits and not be afraid to make mistakes. They can establish their own goals and move towards them. In classroom meetings the kids can start solving their  own personal problems so that I don’t have to deal with that on a day to day basis” Moreover, Wendy indicated respect in her need to develop responsibility in the children. “I think of the time substituting. When I went in there was no day book. I noticed there had been a substitute there the day before and my heart failed me but then the children came in and they said ‘Oh, that’s all right, we know how to do it’ and they went through the day. They sort of led me through the rest of the day. And I thought ‘wow, this is how it should be done!’ And I guess I used that as target practise (to get) that kind of responsibility’. The teachers seemed to give time for children to share and discuss their ideas and feelings. During discussions, children would deal with class problems, how they felt about a certain task, ask questions and raise issues regarding the lesson. It is believed that this type of forum contributed significantly to respect for student’s thoughts and feelings. Topics of discussion reflected both issues in physical education and in the classroom. For instance, following a soccer lesson, a student brought up the issue of another teacher not being consistent with the rules their dass had established regarding the soccer referee’s job. The student was given time to complete his point. Bob then asked the rest of the class if they had any comments on it. Once a number of children had shared, he asked if anyone had ideas of what  73 to do about it. The consensus was to confront the teacher and ask him if, in the future, he would follow their rules when he supervised the soccer games. All of the teachers had scheduled a morning circle time. Part of the morning cirde involved sharing feelings. The teachers would have the children turn to a partner and tell them how they were feeling on a scale of one to ten and give reasons why. The teachers gave the children time to chat and then proceeded to ask each child in the cirde to share. If the child did not want to share, they had the right to pass. When this happened, the teachers would approach the child at a later time to see how they were doing. This seemed to provide a warm connection with the teacher. The following are field note examples for the theme of respect. In the following excerpt, Pam reveals her respect for student ideas. Thursday, September 24 The group has gathered at the carpet. Pam has the designated student helper for the day (VIP) set up the overhead projector while she reviews the story they have created from yesterday. She positions herself at the overhead and asks for ideas on the story. She writes down the ideas very quickly on the overhead and asks Zandra to slow down because she can’t keep up with her idea. She writes the idea without adding any of her changes. After much arguing and blaming on the playground during physical education, Pam follows with a democratic discussion in the classroom. Thursday, October 1 Pam begins the discussion by explaining that they need dass rules so that they won’t get upset on the playground. A child blurts out: “It was Sam’s fault!” Pam addresses this by saying: “We can’t change that today. Who has an idea  of how to do it for next time on the playground?” Pam nods, smiles and says a neutral ‘okay’ to each child’s suggestion. After about ten ideas have been  74  shared, Pam looks around to quiet people who are calling without putting up their hand. After a brief pause it is very quiet. She continues: “I want you to be  able to work on you own like in class you can work with groups. I can’t make the refereeing and rules for outside. You have to have control. It is five minutes to lunch and we’ll have to finish the discussion after.” The following week, Pam has incorporated a talking stick during discussions. When the child holds the stick they have the floor to share their ideas. From the following observation, Wendy showed how she involved a child in setting there own consequences for inappropriate behaviour and gave time for the child to express himself. Thursday, October 15 As the dass exits for recess, Wendy tells Manny to stay behind. She asks him: “Why are you here? What did you do?” Manny explains that he was jostling in the line with Orvin. Wendy replies patiently and with a calm tone: “What could you do differently?” She has gives Manny a chance to explain himself. Manny shrugs, not sure what to do. Wendy continues: “I understand that Orvin is very excited about his Dad’s wedding and he needs help to make good choices. Do you think you could help him?” Manny nods in agreement. Wendy continues “What do you think is a good consequence for this?” Manny suggests, with a questioning and unsure look, that maybe he would stay after school. Wendy and Manny share some ideas about the consequence and finally agree that since he had disrupted some gym time that he would miss five minutes of gym time tomorrow. Evidence of respect can be seen in how Bob deals with distracting handling of equipment and disruptive social behaviour. Bob lets the children know that they have choices and sees the positive in each child. Tuesday, October 20  75 Bob blows the whistle in the gym. He pauses, starts a sentence “Any little...” He pauses again until it is quiet. It is quickly quiet and he spends 20 seconds giving the tip to punch the ball and reasons for punching it. He says: “Now it is time to ask questions if some are having trouble.” This is done in a calm and patient voice. He pauses, looks over to Michael who is tossing his ball. “Michael, sit on the stage please”. This is said like it is a benefit to Michael to sit on the stage rather than a punishment. Bob responds with a pleasant: “Thank you”. He continues his questioning by asking how many of the children use open or closed hand. Before he is finished, a number of children are fidgeting with their volley-balls. Bob says to them: “You may need to put your ball down if you find it difficult not to fidget with it while it is in your hand” This is not an order on Bob’s part but a legitimate choice. Some children put their balls on the ground while others keep holding it. I notice the ones holding it no longer fidget with it. He explains that they need to find what works best for them. Wednesday, October 14 The children have gathered at the carpet. Bob begins playing his guitar and many begin to sing with him. One child continues to make popping noises with his hand over his mouth. Bob stops playing and says that he hears an interesting noise. He seems genuinely curious to find out who did it and would like to hear it again. He comments that the popping noise is an excellent example of musical percussion. Adrian sheepishly admits it was him. Bob asks him if he could demonstrate in front of the dass while the class sings. It seems to be sinking in for Adrian that Bob is genuinely interested in using his popping noise as a mini-lesson on percussion. Adrian demonstrates as the dass sings and Bob plays guitar. Every so often the percussion on Adrian’s mouth doesn’t work. This is because Adrian is finding it hard to  76 keep the seal on his mouth over such a big grin. All of the teachers showed evidence of giving responsibility to the children.  In  general, each teacher gave responsibility to the students for holding doors, turning  on and off lights, working out their own problems, quieting the class, distributing and collecting equipment, and even simple marking tasks. Specifically, Pam did this in physical education by having the students set up the gymnastic stations. Bob let his students develop classroom rules and Wendy had each child take turns taking care of a class named guinea pig. Moreover, all of the teachers were observed allowing the children to work out their own conflicts. In both the classroom and in physical education the teachers had incidence where two children were loudly arguing. One or both children would inevitably complain to the teacher about the other. Pam, Bob and Wendy replied quickly that they needed to work it out on their own. Occasionally they would act as a mediator to get things started, but it was ultimately the child’s responsibility to find a resolution. To summarise, respect involved the teacher’s ability to listen and incorporate children’s ideas without imposing personal judgment, allowing children a forum to freely express thoughts and feelings in a safe, warm atmosphere and give children a sense of responsibility for managing their learning environment. 4.3.3 Overlapping  In the dassroom and in physical education, many things would occur at once. Overlapping referred to the extent the teachers could deal with two or more of these issues at the same time. The teachers showed examples of overlapping throughout the study. For example, during observation episodes in the gym, the teachers had to maintain their safety standards, scan the general dass, clarify understanding, judge the pacing of the lesson and provide feedback on individual skills or behaviours. During task work episodes in the classroom, the teachers would scan the general dass, provide individual feedback on skills or behaviours  77 and darify understanding. Bob displayed simultaneity in the following math lesson. Wednesday, October 14 Bob returns to dass with the music machine. He seems to notice there was more noise than when he left. He refocusses the class by saying: “if you guys want to start on today’s math, that’s fine. The yellow group is to work on paper today and the green group is to come over to the carpet for a lesson on estimating.” A child comments quietly to herself “This is a stupid math page.” Bob looks at her and ignores it, refocussing his aftention to the group gathering at the carpet. He asks the group: “Why should you do estimating?” They share ideas and as Bob contributes his thoughts about estimating. He pauses and tells Carrie to go work outside. Carrie was in the yellow group making noise close to the carpet. Bob continues his lesson on estimating. When finished, he tells the group that if they understand they can go work on the exercises. If not, they are to stay. A child looks confused and Bob asks him: “Have you got it? If not, come and see me.” Three children remain. Alfred is directed to help Evan. Craig comes up to Bob and asks how to do the yellow exercise on the paper. The three wait patiently as Bob explains the exercise to Craig. In physical education, Pam and Wendy showed overlapping as they dealt with a number of events at once. Thursday, October 1 Pam blows the whistle in the gym. The children look at her as they stand on the red centre circle. “Kids, listen, there are two big pieces of equipment in the gym to watch out for.” She points to the lunch tables in the corner. Pam begins to walk to the storage room while the children watch her. At the same time she is calling out directions to the children to “take one large step back,  78  one small step and a baby step back”. As she directs this, she gets the pinnies from the storage room, ducking in only for a second. Her eyes are almost always on the children. As she walks back to the centre, she pauses and asks a child why they are sitting out. Pam accepts the child’s response and quickly refocusses on the rest of the class. During the class, Pam ignores the added noises coming from the stage as the lunch program people work. Monday, October 7 Wendy asks “How do you spell ‘move’?” The children respond in chorus, V  E!”. When the children get to the letter ‘E’, they set off to their  stations. Stanley’s mother comes into the gym. Wendy notices and the mother comes over. They talk briefly. Wendy scans the gym occasionally as they talk. Wendy then motions Stanley to come over. The child gives a written note to Wendy. Stanley and Wendy have quick words before he leaves with his mother. Wendy watches the dass from the far corner. They are freely playing at their stations with small equipment. Three minutes later, Stanley returns and Wendy suggests that he go to the hoop station. Meanwhile Lorissa has come flying across the gym floor with a hockey puck in her scoop. Wendy immediately responds: “Lorissa, we’re not playing hockey. See if you can use a ball instead.” Wendy proceeds to the skipping station, watches a moment, then gives feedback to Jon, Christine and Mary: “That looks like a good challenge!” She heads over to Ned and asks what his activity is. He shows her and she comments, “ah” with an interested nod of approval. He grins. Overlapping refers to the extent the teachers could deal with two or more issues at the same time. Evidence of this was shown when the teachers scanned the dass, provided individual feedback, watched the pacing of the lesson and observed for understanding of the task at the same time. In physical education,  79 teachers may have added safety considerations to their list. 4.3.4 Efficient Organisation  Efficient organisation involved the preparation and distribution of materials and pacing of the lesson in order to maximise instruction time and decrease transition time.  In the initial interview, Wendy’s definition of class management included  the “need to have materials ready.” Bob gave some indication of the special need for efficient organisation in physical education. “If you’re outside or in the gym and you haven’t put those things in place (objectives, materials and prepared resources) you’ll find yourself in bigger trouble than you do in the classroom. You have to have the kids more spread out so if you’re not ready you’ll find yourself spending more time correcting than if you prepared beforehand than you would in the dassroom.” However, the researcher observed similar organisational efficiency in the classroom and in physical education. In the following examples, Bob shows efficient organisation by not using practice time to collect equipment or to set up demonstrations. Tuesday, October 20 As the children are practice bumping the volleyballs, Bob designates one child to put the extra balls away and another put the balls in the bags. It is not until most of the balls are in the bag that he calls out for the class to stop and roll over the remaining balls to the helpers. Once they have rolled the remaining balls to the helpers they are to line up. Monday, September 21 Bob says “Michelle, take Mona with you to get pylons and soccer balls. Alfred, go get a few people to help with the soccer balls and we’ll see you on the field.” Meanwhile, the rest of the children are cleaning up and gathering at the door. Tuesday, September 22  80 The children are playing the game of Capture the Flag. As the game continues, Bob motions to a child behind the start line to help put pinnies away from the previous activity. Bob suggests to the child that he get another to help. This is done quickly while the game continues. When the children come in from the field, five or six children bring the big pylons with them. By following Wendy’s materials box throughout the morning, there is some insight into her efficient organisation. Wednesday, October 7 As the children are cleaning up from the morning reading routine, Wendy has the VIP get a cardboard box from behind her desk. It is ifiled with art work and show and tell items to be distributed during circle time. Following cirde time, the children head to the library for a special presentation from the local fire department. There are handouts given and Wendy places them in the empty box. When the children have finished signing out their library books, Wendy checks that the cards are filled out. The books are placed in the box next to her. They go straight to the gym and a child brings the book box with her. Just before lunch, the children have returned to the classroom and Wendy gives out the library books and firefighter handouts from the box so they can put them in their cubby holes before they leave. This also turns into a strategy for lining up. Bob had similar organisation in the following example: Friday, September 25  Bob asks a child to get the file box with the writing folders in them and hand them out while the children are silent reading. As each child gets their folder, they begin to work on the pre-writing task. After they have all started work, Bob calls individuals the carpet area. He individually discusses their progress on the task and checks their spelling.  81 Pam’s minimised transition time by using a writing task to organise the next activity. Tuesday, September 15 The code for the day is written on the board. The children are scattered around the class, some on the carpet floor, some at the paint table, others at various tables. All are busy translating the code. When finished, they go to Pam’s desk for feedback. (I don’t know what the code is, but am surprised when students automatically begin drawing and painting once they have their work checked by Pam. It hits me that the code is used to tell the children what they are to do for the next activity). Another example of efficient organisation involves Monday’s gymnastic stations. Both Pam and Wendy had an arrangement for the organisation and set up of the large apparatus stations. Pam’s class would set up the stations in return for extended gym time. Wendy’s dass would get the benefit of having the stations set up before she entered the gym. In both physical education and in the classroom, all of the teachers showed many examples of efficient organisation. They seemed to get the children involved in laying out the materials prior to the lesson and helping to distribute equipment. Very rarely was it observed that the teachers did not have the materials or equipment they needed when they needed it.  Both in the class and in physical  education, the teachers had equipment or materials set out in a number of piles so that when the children went to get them, there were few line ups. In both physical education and in the classroom, wait time was decreased by having the materials and equipment at stations or centres. 4.3.5 Withitness  Withitness was the extent teachers communicated to the students that they knew what was going on. Evidence of this was found when teachers would  82 frequently scan the class, move amongst the students, implement management strategies immediately and let the students know that they were watching. Although withitness was observed in both settings of physical education and the dassroom, it seemed that withitness was more evident in physical education. Bob suggested that inappropriate behaviour in physical education is more easily seen, therefore there was an increased need to watch the students and not let inappropriate behaviours slide. However, even though the teachers may not have been scanning the classroom as intensely as in physical education, withitness was still present in the classroom. In physical education and in the dassroom, the teachers all used a similar strategy to let the children know they were aware of their behaviours. The teachers would positively acknowledge appropriate behaviours by saying: “I see Adrian with his hand up”, “Thank you Bonnie for raising your hand”, “Thank you Jessica and Jamie for listening”, “I see eighteen out of twenty-three people listening”, “I see Nathan holding his ball still”, or “Thank you for lining up so quickly and not touching other people.” Of course, they also let the children know they were watching by saying things like: “Natalie, I don’t see you listening”, or “Alfred, you need to raise your hand to speak”. It should be noted that the teachers said they tried to ignore much of the inappropriate behaviours and let the children know they were aware of them by “catching them being good.” During task work episodes, the teachers made many individual contacts with the children. It seemed as though the teachers were using this time for ‘checking in’ on as many children as they could. Bob and Wendy let the children know they saw many behaviours in the gym. Monday, October 2 The mini-soccer games have started. A ball comes flying by the goal Bob is adjusting. He saves the ball and a child smiles at him. Bob walks to the  83 game at the far side of the field and watches. He makes a few comments such as: “Way to go Sandra!” He returns to the centre game and says: “That a boy, nice play Jamie. Way to go Erin. Play with Sara all the time.” He leaves this game after two minutes and watches the kick ball game at the baseball diamond. He says jokingly to a child running across the field: “Evan, watch what you’re doing.” He laughs and smiles with the child. Another two minutes and Bob is back in a game. He starts to play and calls out: “Foul on Danny for pushing. You just can’t do that!” He plays a minute and leaves to the far left game. He comments: “Good kick, John.” He returns two minutes later to the centre game saying: “Nice pass Alfred. Nice save Sal! Nice save again!” Bob comments to Carrie (the referee) that he saw someone with their hands on the ball. He hands her the whistle  and says: “Here, use this Carrie. It is not up to the goalie to call it but the referee. Sometimes we can’t see everything, that’s why we have a referee.” Monday, September 28 The children are working on the gymnastic stations. Wendy goes over to the trestle station and asks a child if they can try moving across in another way. The child goes backwards and she smiles. Wendy notices across the gym that some boys are moving a ladder. She walks over and says: “Wait a minute, leave it where it was.” They put it back. Meanwhile Sasha has crashed heads with another child. Wendy takes her aside and says: “Lets talk about it.” She comforts her as the rest of the class continues on the equipment. As she is hugging the child she scans the gymnastic stations. She calls out: “Ben, come over here.” As she is still hugging the child, she explains to Ben not to tie the ropes together. In the following example, Pam shows how she sees a number of things and by choosing a central location she could check in with all the children at one station.  84 Monday, October 5 The children are gradually entering the gym first thing in the morning.  Pam  has started handing out big equipment from the storage unit. She looks up as more children enter and continues what she is doing. She notices one child is off task doing cartwheels and has her join the line to get equipment. Pam notices a couple of girls struggling with the equipment and offers a suggestion of where to put it. Immediately she calls out: “Daniel, you aren’t listening.” He turns in the line. She responds: “Great, good wonderful!” She continues giving out the equipment and notices a child jumping on a chair. “Daniel, that was dangerous, now go to the side of the line.” Immediately following this she says: “Angie, don’t put it that way, put it on its side and slide it.” Meanwhile, she notices a couple swinging on ropes and says: “Manny and Susi, get down. No equipment until I tell you to.” Pam notices across the gym that a child is wearing socks. She calls out: “Sammy, socks are really dangerous. You need to have runners or bare feet. I prefer runners so you don’t hurt your toes.” After the equipment is out and safety checked, Pam locates herself near the beat board station. The children have started moving on the stations. Pam scans the gym. She seems somewhat tense and holds the whistle to her mouth. It is as though she is ready to stop the action immediately should it need to be stopped. A group of children are going over the box horse at her station. Pam comments to a couple of children: “Well done!”, “Jump a little higher.” When there is no one else at her station, Pam moves over to the ropes. She suggests a stool be moved and says: “Danny, I don’t see you climbing.” Withitness seemed to go beyond teachers letting the children know they were aware of the general behaviours. Withitness also appeared to catch behaviours that required teachers to have figurative ‘eyes in the back of their heads’. This is  85 illustrated in the following example. Monday, September 15  Bob has just organised children who have attended the school last year to be a buddy to a new child. He asks the new children where they are from. Bob says he is very excited about the class and doesn’t think he has ever had such a neat group put together like this. A few boys make faces and Bob instantly catches this. He says: “If anyone has a silly thing they like to do, they are free to get it out of their system. All they have to do is raise their hands.” The two boys raise their hands and show the class silly faces. Everyone is laughing, including Bob. Tuesday, October 20 The children are scattered throughout the classroom doing their math.  Bob  is sitting at his desk, looking at a book a child has brought up. He comments that he will deal with the drawing of a cow on the book. Two boys are summoned to his desk and are in deep denial. Bob looks up and says to another boy on the carpet: “Byron, I saw you put your own check marks on your math without looking up the correct answers. I will see you after school to recheck it.” Bob continues with the issue of the cow drawing with the girl. 43.6 Mystery Free  It was quite apparent that the teachers advocated an atmosphere that was free from mystery or secrets in both physical education and the classroom. Students were free to ask questions and the teachers responded openly with what seemed to be well thought out and realistic answers. All of the teachers provided reasons for many of their own actions and actions of the students. Wendy commented in the initial interview: “I try to be very consistent so that the children understand your reasons for this.” Bob explains the reason he wants them to try at spelling by using a soccer  86 analogy. Tuesday, September 15 The students have been working on their writing assignment. Bob calls out: ‘Put your pencil down and show that you are listening.” It is quiet in just a few seconds. Bob questions: “Do I care about spelling?” Some respond with no, some with yes. He says that he does care about spelling. “It is like in soccer (he draws a soccer goal on the board) and trying to get the ball in the goal. I want you to get closer every time, and get better and you will feel very good when you do. I want you to keep trying to do better, but if you don’t get it in the first time, just try to get closer the next. If there is another person that can help teach you, that is fine.  Not everyone’s a great speller (some children  laugh in the corner and Bob smiles) so when you do an assignment, just try to do your best at spelling, but don’t worry if it’s not right.” In a demonstration, Bob shows the reason for looking up when running. Tuesday, September 22 The children are sitting on the grass in front of Bob. He asks them for comments on the days game. A child comments on the dangerous running and that a child was hit in the nose. Bob chooses Danny to demonstrate how dangerous running without leaving space can be. Danny is told to jog slowly and put out his hand as he passes Bob. Without putting any extra force on their hands, I hear a slap as Danny goes by. There is some laughter and Bob says that it is not funny. He explains to the children that even at a slow speed, knocking into someone can hurt both people and to imagine what the slap would sound like if they both were moving. Quite often, the teachers would explain their actions to the children. For instance, they would say: “I’m waiting until all is quiet”, or “I’ll be with you in a minute, I need to talk with someone right now.” In doing so, the children did not  87 have to guess what the teacher was doing. Not only did the teachers explain what they were doing, but were observed telling the children why. Pam showed this in physical education when she gave the children reasons why they needed to stay off the equipment and why gym time was shorter one day. Monday, September 21, “You need to stay off the equipment until I check it. I need to see that it is safe  for you to use. Part of the reason gym was shorter today was due to recess. The bell did not ring until later and we lost ten minutes. Part of the reason too is that we had to stop several times to ask for quiet.” Wendy openly expressed her feelings about listening: Wednesday, October 7 Wendy pauses for quiet. There is chatter and she says: “Just as soon as it is quiet (pause) I feel frustrated when you do that Lorissa. It makes it hard for others to listen.” Bob gives the class reasons for grading and the pre-writing activity: Monday, September 21 Archie has just given a book talk. Bob asks the class “What mark should Archie get?” Bob explains that he will always ask why a person gives a certain mark so to think about that before they speak. He goes onto explain that grades are not given at this school, but they will find them used in hi-school. Therefore they will need to understand the concept of giving a grade. Later on that day Bob is telling the class why pre-writing is important. “Because a story can get longer and longer. So it is important to get the whole idea down first.” Pam provides an explanation for a child returning a library book. Wednesday, September 16 “Could someone take Ramona’s book back because she had to go to the office  88 with a splinter in her hand.” Bob explains his views on grade levels: Monday, September 14 A child asks Bob: “Can we do grade 6?” Bob replies that he doesn’t like to call it that, but that they can work at higher levels if they are ready for it. Bob explains that “nobody makes fun of you if you are not as fast as another. No one here is going to give you a bad mark. Some are great in reading, or like me, a slow reader or poor in art. Nobody expects another to be really good yet or the best or better than another person.” The daily schedule was also free of mystery. All of the teachers clearly had  written on the board the schedule for the day. Bob’s schedule for the first day of dass looked like this:  I  jobs sharpener art sheets  Monday, September 14, 1992 Hello Who Am I Pencils Name Tags Name Game Math Writing  Spelling  Welcome Back  My name is Robert Fitzpatrick Most people call me Bob. I like chocolate, cookies, soft drinks and  sports. Music P.E.  I am working on my Diploma at U.B.C.  89 Pam’s Board looked like this: September 15  Tuesday  Pam Trimble  Code Colours Circle and class temp Cooperation Workshop  Pam’s Code Looks like Sounds Like Math Workshop: patterns Recess Circle Centres All of the teachers had visual aides in the classroom to help explain tasks or remind children of a schedule. Visual explanations for printing, math, cooperation skills and problem-solving were posted in all the classrooms. However, no visual aides were used to assist in physical education. The blackboard was blank and the walls were free of posters and visual aides. In sum, the class management practices that emerged were 29 management strategies and six management themes. The management strategies were divided into three major classifications; preventative, guidance and consequence. The six major themes were: establishing guidelines at the start of the school year, respect, overlapping, efficient organisation, withitness and mystery free atmosphere. Teaching episodes of transition, direct instruction! demonstration, task work, discussion and ‘other’ were also identified. The results indicated that teachers used similar types of management strategies and management themes in both physical education and in the classroom. Similarities and differences were found in the emphasis teachers placed on class management practices.  90 Chapter 5 Summary and Discussion 5.1 Introduction  This chapter is presented in four sections. The first section is an overview of the study and summary of the results. The second section is a discussion of the results in relation to the literature and is organised according to the four study questions. The third section includes implications of this study and the final section provides recommendations for future studies. 5.2 Summary The purpose of this study was to describe and compare three teachers’ class management practices within the classroom setting and the physical education setting at the start of the school year. The specific questions that were derived from  this purpose were: 1. What are the similarities in class management practices between the classroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year? a) What types of class management practices are used in both the classroom setting and physical education setting at the start of the school year? b) What class management practices have a similar emphasis in the classroom when compared to physical education at the start of the year? 2. What are the differences in class management practices between the classroom and physical education settings at the start of the school year? a) What types of class management practices are used in only the classroom or only the physical education setting at the start of the school year? b) What class management practices have a different emphasis in the classroom compared to physical education at the start of the year? Three elementary classroom teachers participated in this study. Data were collected primarily through observations recorded in detailed field notes and  91 audiotaped interviews. During the first seven weeks of the school year, a total of 26 physical education sessions and 34 dassroom sessions were observed. Each teacher was interviewed regarding teaching experience and educational background, definitions of class management, the role of class management at the start of the school year and the differences and similarities in managing their students in the physical education setting compared to the dassroom setting. The data were inductively analysed using a method of constant comparison which involved looking for regularities and patterns in the data, then looking for units of information that went together. Twenty  -  nine management strategies and  six major class management themes emerged. The management strategies were were divided into three classifications: preventative, guidance and consequence. The frequency teachers used each strategy was calculated. Teaching episodes of transition, direct instruction/ demonstration, task work and ‘other’ were identified. The rate per hour teachers used management strategies during these episodes was calculated. The six management themes were: establishing guidelines at the start of the year, withitness, overlapping, organisational efficiency, respect and mystery free. Detailed examples from field notes were used to support these themes. Over 90% of the strategies used in physical education and in the classroom were preventative and/or guidance. Management strategies were used 47% more in physical education than in the classroom and 18 of the 29 strategies were used more in physical education than in the classroom. Eight of the ten highest used strategies and four of the five least used strategies were the same in physical education and the classroom.  In both physical education and the dassroom, the highest rate of  management strategies occurred during transition episodes. The second highest rate of management strategies occurred during direct instruction/ demonstration episodes. The lowest rate occurred during task work. In physical education, management rates were higher than in the classroom during all teaching episodes.  92 Moreover, the six management themes were evident in both physical education  and in the classroom. These included: establishing guidelines at the start of the year, withitness, overlapping, respect, mystery free, and organisational efficiency. Safety was more of an issue in physical education than in the classroom when basic guidelines were established at the start of the year. As well, overlapping and withitness seemed to be emphasised more in physical education than in the classroom. The following discussion is organised according to the four research questions that reflect the purpose of this study. The findings from this study are compared to related literature to show support, contradictions and assist in the interpretation of the results. 5.3 Discussion of Study Ouestions 5.1.1 What types of class management practices are used in both the classroom setting and physical education setting at the start of the school  year? Three dassifications of management strategies namely, preventative, guidance  and consequence were used in both the classroom and physical education setting at the start of the school year. Class management strategies have been classified primarily as preventative and punitive in both the physical education and classroom literature (Porter & Brophy, 1986; Rink, 1991). However, in 1991, Henkel reclassified class management strategies into anticipatory, tutorial or punitive. Anticipatory strategies occurred in the time frame prior to the misconduct where the teacher anticipated and prevented misconduct from occurring. Tutorial strategies occurred following the misconduct and the teacher would guide the pupils in deciding how to act. Punishment involved the students blindly accepting an unpleasant consequence applied by the teacher. Henkel’s (1991) work lends support to the three classifications of strategies used in this study. The descriptions  93 of the classifications were highly similar to the classifications used by Henkel (1991) although the terms are different. The term ‘preventative’ rather than ‘anticipatory’ was chosen to reflect the classification of management strategies commonly cited in the literature. The terms ‘guidance’ and ‘consequence’ were chosen instead of ‘tutorial’ or ‘punitive’ because they best represented Dreikur’s leadership theory of class management that all of the teachers supported. The role of the teacher in Dreikur’s model is to guide and part of this model is the use of consequences rather than punishment (Cangelosi, 1988). Punishment has a negative connotation whereas the term consequence better reflects logical and natural results of inappropriate behaviours. Preventative and punitive categories have been the classifications most commonly used in the literature. The addition of the tutorial or guidance classification is relatively new and has only been a result of one physical education study. Support for the guidance category is lacking in the physical education and classroom literature. However, the literature on specific management strategies used in physical education and in the classroom provide support for the strategies found in this study. Twenty eight of the 29 management strategies found in this study were -  observed in both physical education and the classroom. Seventeen of these strategies matched those found in Henkels (1991) physical education study. Almost all of the strategies used in the present study could be found in the classroom and physical education literature. Although some of the names are different, the descriptions match the categories of removing, referring, stating behaviour, stopping, starting, rewarding, waiting, reinstating, ignoring, reminding, refocussing, reprimanding, acknowledging, attention getting (name) ,locating (individual), body positioning, and practising. Most of the remaining strategies found in this study were supported by various researchers. Vogler and Bishop (1990) recognised dosing space and looking as management strategies. Siedentop  94 (1991) included self-monitoring, meeting, gaining attention, warning, and repeating in his list of preventative and punitive strategies. Hellison (1985) considered the management strategy of helping to be a means of developing pro-social skills which he considered a prerequisite to self-responsibility. Informing was one of the most used strategies in physical education and in the dassroom, yet is one strategy that has not received much attention in the literature. Hellison and Templin (1991) suggested that explaining consequences was necessary to develop responsibility and caring for others. However, informing goes beyond warning students of consequences. It was part of an atmosphere that was free from mystery where the teachers would explain the expectations of future activities and behaviours. The class management strategies that occurred in both physical education and in the dassroom at the start of the year may have reflected the teachers’ orientation towards a particular model of class management that focused on prevention, guidance and consequence. The strategies used in this study could reflect a number of theories of dass management due to their varying degrees of teacher control and student autonomy. The teachers may have chosen particular strategies based on their suitability to the particular situation. Yet, in general, negative strategies such as physical punishment, use of exercise as punishment, degrading children or publicly posting demerits were not used. Six dass management themes were evident in physical education and in the dassroom: establishing guidelines, respect, overlapping, efficient organisation, mystery free and withitness. First, the importance of establishing guidelines for social behaviour and equipment use was emphasised early on in the school year. During the first few physical education and dassroom sessions, the teachers spent considerable time teaching guidelines for listening, how to ask for help, when to speak, how to share ideas, how to line up, where to locate themselves, how to  95 distribute and collect materials and how to evaluate tasks. The teachers spent time reminding children of rules and gave opportunities to practice them. These findings are consistent with the literature on effective management studies conducted in physical education and the classroom. Successful managers spend time in the first few weeks introducing rules and procedures (Doyle, 1986), reminding children of rules, deciding on appropriate and inappropriate behaviour, teaching listening skills and teaching procedures for turning in work and lining up (Emmer, et al., 1980). Effective managers also give time to practice procedures and routines (Fink and Siedentop, 1989; Sanford and Evertson, 1980). The teachers in this study established guidelines in both settings during the early days of the school year that were characteristic of effective managers. According to Emmer et al. (1980), establishing guidelines early on in the year helps to facilitate dass management throughout the year. An atmosphere of respect permeated the classroom and physical education settings. The teachers were observed giving children the responsibility of managing the learning environment, listening to their ideas without judgment, and using a calm and patient tone of voice. The literature on class management does not specifically identify respect as a class management theme. However, there is support for components of respect. Responsibility has been noted by Hellison and Templin (1991) as the ultimate goal of class management. Emmer (et al., 1980) suggested that effective managers gave children responsibility for their behaviour. Responsibility was evident in this study by the high use of the helping strategy. Helping was ranked as one of the ten most used strategies in both physical education and the classroom. The tone of the class has also been considered a factor in effective management (Siedentop, 1991). There is agreement in the literature that a positive or neutral tone is more effective than a negative one.  Rosen (et al,  1990) found that successful managers were more positive than negative. In this  study, the high use of the acknowledging strategy showed that teachers preferred to create a positive atmosphere. All of the teachers had mentioned in their interviews that they wanted to “catch ‘em (the children) being good” rather than focus on inappropriate behaviours. The theme of respect may have been obvious due to the teachers’ belief in a particular theory of class management. The school had subscribed to the Dreikur model of class management where the teacher is neither autocratic nor permissive. They supported the concept that children need to be socially accepted and that children are believed to be able to control their own behaviours. They all had shared the idea of a democratic classroom where children have a voice in determining the rules, and can expect logical and natural consequences rather than arbitrary punishment. Edwards (1993) and Cangelosi (1988) stated that in the Dreikur model, the teacher’s role is one of leadership and if appropriate strategies are used children will come to responsibly control their own lives. It may be that if teachers give more responsibility for managing the learning environment to the children, classes may be organised more efficiently. This may contribute to less transition and wait time, more time on task and higher achievement.  In both the  classroom and physical education setting, the lowest rates of management strategies were observed during task work when teachers seemed to have more opportunities to individually connect with the children. The opportunities to individually contact children during task work may have been a factor in the decreased use of management strategies. In the Dreikur model, connecting with children on a social emotional level is considered an important component in the prevention of discipline problems. Overlapping and withitness were major themes found in physical education and in the classroom. Overlapping was the extent to which the teachers could deal with two or more issues at the same time. The teachers would have to scan the class,  97 clarify understanding, judge the pacing of the lesson, provide feedback on individual skills and maintain or establish appropriate behaviours, and deal with inappropriate behaviours.  Withitness was the extent teachers could communicate  to the students that they knew what is going on. Teachers would frequently scan the class, move among the students, implement management strategies immediately and let the students know they were watching them. In 1970, Kounin coined the terms ‘overlapping’ and ‘withitness’ to represent two key elements in class management. Both the classroom and physical education literature still recognise these themes as integral to class management (Sanford & Evertson, 1980; Siedentop, 1991). Withitness and overlapping may be fundamental elements of class management due to the complex nature of the teaching environment. Doyle (1986) listed the following factors that make teaching environments complex: multi-dimensionality, immediacy, unpredictability, publicness and history. The teacher must deal with different student needs and agendas, immediately make decisions with liftle time to reflect, deal with unexpected events, make decisions that affect the entire class and be in tune to other influences such as holidays or rain that may affect the nature of the class. Withitness and overlapping seemed to be ways that the teachers dealt with the complex nature of the teaching environment. Efficient organisation was a theme that emerged in physical education and the classroom. The teachers prepared and distributed material and paced the lesson in order to maximise instructional time and minimise transition time. The children were highly involved in laying out materials prior to lessons and distributing equipment during lessons. Teachers set out materials in a number of piles to minimise wait time involved in lining up. The high usage rate of the helping strategy may have added to the teachers’ efficient organisation. Emmer et al. (1980) found that efficient organisation was an attribute of effective managers. Effective managers planned their space, equipment and materials for maximum use and had  98 smoother, shorter transitions than ineffective managers. According to Rink (1991), when transition and wait times are decreased and the students have more time on task, achievement is higher. Efficient organisation may help to reduce transition times. Finally, in both physical education and the classroom, the teachers advocated an atmosphere that was free from mystery or secrets. The teachers provided reasons for many of their own actions and actions of the students. They responded to student questions openly and with well-thought out answers. Emmer et al., (1980) found that effective managers gave reasons for rules, expressed feelings and gave more darification than ineffective managers. In this study, the high use of the informing strategy demonstrates the mystery free theme. Strain and Sainato (1987) support this finding when they reported that effective managers had clear rules and outlined the consequences for inappropriate behaviours. Tenoschok (1985) found that effective managers explained procedures and gave children reasons for their actions. Siedentop (1991) recommended that explaining consequences helped to prevent problems. In order for teachers to create an atmosphere that was free from mystery, they needed to understand the reasons for their own actions and the actions of the students. Theoretical models of dass management help teachers to understand reasons for their choice of class management practices (Edwards, 1993). If the teachers are dear on the reasons behind their actions, a mystery-free atmosphere may be more likely. 5.1.2 What class management practices have a similar emphasis in the classroom when compared to physical education at the start of the year? Preventative and/or guidance strategies had a similar emphasis in the dassroom when compared to physical education. They comprised over 90% of the total management strategies used in both settings. Educators are now emphasising prevention as a critical component of class management (Cangelosi, 1988;  99  Siedentop, 1991). Researchers have also found that effective managers prevent disruptions more than ineffective managers (Emmer & Evertson, 1980; Henkel, 1991). A similar emphasis was found when the ten most used strategies in physical education were compared to the ten most used strategies in the classroom. Eight out of the ten most used strategies were the same in both settings. Locating (individual), locating (group), informing, reminding, helping, acknowledging, waiting, and attention getting (name-calling) were part of the top ten management strategies used in both physical education and in the classroom. Kennedy’s (1982) physical education study did not identify any of these strategies as the most frequently used. He stated that behaviour modification techniques were not used because the high school setting may have dictated more of a traditional approach. There was some indication in the present study that the ages of the children may have affected the rate of strategies used. Pam and Wendy were primary teachers and had highly similar results in the rate of strategies used. However, Bob was an intermediate teacher and showed more difference in the rate of strategies he used when compared to Pam and Wendy. Henkel (1991) supported some of this study’s findings when he found that gaining attention and locating were two of the most frequently used strategies in physical education. Vogler and Bishop (1990) found that acknowledging was a top strategy used in physical education. Fink and Siedentop (1989) found that the most frequently used strategies were routines relating to attention getting. Rosen’s (et al, 1990) classroom study discovered locating and acknowledging to be the most  frequently used strategies in the classroom. A similar emphasis was also found in the least used strategies in physical education and the classroom. Four of the five least used strategies in the classroom setting were also the least used strategies in physical education. These included  100  reinstating, referring, repeating and attention getting (count/interrupt). The strategy of referring (Henkel, 1991; Rosen, et al, 1990) was the only one that was found to be least used in the classroom and physical education literature. The literature seems to support the findings regarding the most and least used strategies (Henkel, 1991; Rosen et al, 1990; Fink and Siedentop, 1991; Vogler and Bishop, 1990). Due to the small number of studies in this area, the use of strategies may be specific to the teacher’s philosophy of class management.  As well,  participants in other studies may have had varying knowledge and dedication to theories of class management. In this study, there seemed to be a similar emphasis in the most used and least used strategies in the class and in physical education. This could be due to the teachers beliefs that management in physical education and the dassroom were more similar than different. The teachers all strongly advocated Dreikur’s leadership model and stated that they hoped they were consistent in their basic management practices from the classroom to physical education. The highest frequency of dass management strategies was found during transition episodes. Transition time has been frequently been cited as an area where disruptive behaviour is more likely to occur (Porter & Brophy 1986; Siedentop, 1991).  The data from this study cannot show if more disruptive  behaviour occurred, but does show that strategies were used more. It could mean that teachers anticipated inappropriate behaviour during this time or inappropriate behaviour occurred and they had to implement management strategies. Data from this study does not show what types of strategies used during transition time, whether preventative, guidance or consequence. Strain and Sainato (1987) suggest that smooth and rapid transitions make for efficient management. it is interesting to note that less than 20% of the time was spent on transition in physical education and in the classroom. This was less than documented in physical education (30  -  101 40%) and classroom (20%) literature has estimated as time in transition. The second highest rate of class management strategies was found during direct instruction / demonstration episodes in the classroom and physical education settings. The lowest rate of dass management strategies was found during task work in the classroom and physical education setting. The literature seems divided in this area. Silverstein (1979 as cited in Doyle, 1986) found when whole class instruction was used, disruptions decreased, but when seatwork or pleasure reading was used there was an increase in disruptions. This would seem to contradict the findings of this study since higher class management strategy use was found during direct instruction! demonstration episodes which had a whole class focus. However, Gump (1967) found that there were more problems during whole group recitation and less problems during reading. Bossert (1979) also found that reprimands were higher in recitation than during seatwork and small groups. The results of this study and the corresponding literature give some indication that the type of teaching episodes may affect the rate at which teachers use class management strategies. 5.1.3 What types of class management practices are used in only the classroom or only the physical education setting at the start of the school year? The only class management strategy to be used in the classroom and not in physical education was referring. Henkel (1991) identified this strategy as one he did not find in the 64 physical education lessons he observed. Although he did not provide an explanation for this, this investigator suggests that referring is not an immediate strategy and likely not practical nor convenient to implement during physical education lessons. Teachers may have tried other strategies before referring the child to another authority. If a child were to be referred to another authority due to inappropriate behaviours in physical education, the teacher may have waited until the classroom or after school.  102 Although the remaining class management strategies were found in both seffings, the stopping strategy was implemented differently in physical education. Two of the teachers frequently used a whistle, raised their voices and used larger body gestures for stopping the students in physical education. In the classroom, teachers used a light bell, lowered their voices and used smaller body gestures for stopping. The use of different stopping strategies in physical education and in the classroom could have been due to the increased need for an immediate response from the children in physical education. According to Locke (1975) time constraints in physical education have an impact on all facets of curriculum and instruction. Due to time constraints in physical education, the teachers may have utilised stopping strategies that required more of an immediate response. The differences could also be due to concerns regarding space and noise in physical education. When the students are moving and the noise level is high, gaining the children’s aftention may have required different stopping strategies. 5.1.4 What class management practices have a different emphasis in the classroom compared to physical education at the start of the year? There was a different emphasis in the rate dass management strategies were used in the classroom compared to physical education. Forty-seven percent more  strategies were used in physical education than in the classroom. Although no studies have been conducted to compare physical education to the classroom, there is much literature to suggest that the physical education environment may contribute to this difference. Kennedy (1982) considered the excitement of competition, physical movement, equipment and apparatus and the need for moving appropriately in space to be conducive to malbehaviours and impacted on all aspects of teaching. Physical education has been dted as prime location for behaviour problems and off task behaviour due to its open environment, less structure, spontaneity of behaviour, and potential for physical contact (Fernandez-  103 Balboa, 1991; Martinek, 1991; White & Bailey, 1990). Doyle (1986) suggested that if student mobility is increased, there is a need for more overt, controlling management techniques by the teacher. These aspects of the physical education environment may have contributed to the higher use of management strategies. Other factors may also have contributed to the difference. The amount of time spent on direct instruction! demonstration episodes in physical education was more than five times that of the classroom. Direct instruction in physical education showed just over twice the strategy rate compared to the classroom. It may be that the high use of direct instruction! demonstration could have caused the large difference in strategy use in physical education and the classroom. The class management strategy of stopping was emphasised more in physical education than in the classroom. Stopping was one of the ten most used strategies in physical education but ranked 27th in the classroom. The higher rate of stopping strategies in physical education may be due to the increased emphasis on safety and the mobility of students in physical education. Stopping has frequently been cited as a safety skill in physical education (Kirchner, 1989). Therefore, the teachers may have incorporated more stopping strategies in the physical education setting due to an increased concern over safety. Fink and Siedentop (1989) found the ‘attention quiet’ routine to be the most frequently used strategy in physical education and Henkel (1991) recorded stopping as the second most frequently used strategy after gaining attention. Kennedy (1982) found that ordering to stop was most frequently used in physical education. He suggested that due to the amount of movement in physical education, teachers need to be alert to the safety needs of the students. Careful adherence to procedural rules, especially those regarding physical movement is a necessity (Kennedy, 1982). It may be that the movement of the students and safety consequences increased the use of the stopping strategy in physical education.  104 Locating (group) was found to be the second highest used strategy in physical education yet ranked tenth in the classroom. Locating (individual) was found to be the highest used strategy in the classroom, but ranked eight in physical education. Rosen (et al, 1990) found that relocating a child was a highly used strategy in the classroom and Henkel (1991) recorded locating as a highly used strategy in physical education. Children’s location in space is a concern in both physical education and in the dassroom. However, in this study, there was more of an individual focus on locating in the dassroom and more of a group focus in physical education. It could be that the higher use of direct instruction! demonstration in physical education caused the teachers to focus more on the group than the individual. Indeed, a major characteristic of direct instruction! demonstration in this study was a whole group focus. Sound monitoring was one of the ten most used strategies in the classroom but ranked 14th in physical education.  There may have been a higher noise level  expectation in physical education than in the classroom which affected the use of sound monitoring strategies in the classroom. Physical education may be an environment where higher levels of noise can be permitted without disturbing the learning for the rest of the students. The amount of time spent in direct instruction/demonstration was almost five times more in physical education than in the classroom. During direct instruction! demonstration teaching episodes, the rate of management strategies in physical education was just over twice that of the classroom. Some of the literature has indicated that during direct instruction! demonstration episodes, more problems  are likely to occur during seat work or small group instruction (Gump, 1%7; Bossert, 1979). However, Silverstein (1979 as cited in Doyle, 1986) found that during whole class instruction disruptions were less than during seatwork. The amount of time spent in discussion was almost seven times more in the  105 dassroom than in physical education. During discussion teaching episodes the rate of management strategies in physical education was almost twice that of the dassroom. In physical education, the open space and physical movement preceding the discussion may have distracted the children, making it harder for them to pay aftention. Doyle (1986) concluded that there was not enough information in this area to reach a condusion that teaching episodes had an affect on class management. Safety was emphasised more in physical education than in the classroom. When teachers established guidelines, safety was repeatedly mentioned to the children in physical education yet not so in the classroom. The purpose of the first few lessons in physical education was to develop safety related skills such as space awareness and stopping. By adding safety to physical education concerns, the complexity for overlapping may have been greater. Not only did the teacher simultaneously need to focus on judging the pace of the lesson, provide feedback on individual skills or behaviour, darify understanding and scan the general dass, they had to maintain their safety standards. Siedentop (1991) agreed that physical education may add complexities to teaching and according to Locke (1975), safety may be one of them. Even though similar examples of efficient organisation were found in both physical education and the classroom, there was some indication that the consequences of inefficient organisation were greater in physical education than in the classroom. The results of this study show that teachers used 25% more management strategies during transition time in physical education than during transition time in the classroom. Emmer, et al. (1980) suggested that effective managers have organised materials and the environment to reduce transition time. According to Porter and Brophy (1986), decreasing transition time decreased the opportunity for disruptive behaviour. Increased transition time due to inefficient organisation may have greater consequences in physical education than  106 in the classroom. Dailey (1985) suggested that poor organisation of the physical education environment was a cause for mishaps in the gym. According to Martinek (1991), organisation of the physical education environment needs to be increased due to the public misbehaviours and the minimal physical self-control of the children. Withitness seemed to be more evident in physical education where there seemed to be an increased need to watch the students and not let inappropriate behaviours slide. For example, the strategy of ignoring was the least used strategy in physical education but ranked 20th in the classroom setting. Martinek (1991) suggested that physical education has more spontaneous and more public behaviours than in the classroom. Kennedy (1982) added that moving inappropriately was a problem specific to physical education. The teachers may not have been able to ignore the behaviours due to the noticeable affect the behaviours may have had on the rest of the class. Siedentop (1991) suggested that supervision is more complex in physical education due to the increased movement of the students and the large space. If the teachers had a harder supervision task, then it makes sense that withitness may have been emphasised more in physical education. Finally, there was a different emphasis in the use of the self-monitoring and helping strategies in physical education and the classroom. Self-monitoring was ranked 9th in the classroom but 11th in physical education. Helping was ranked 4th in the dassroom and 8th in physical education. The episodes of direct instruction! demonstration may have accounted for these differences. During direct instruction! demonstration episodes, the teachers had more control and responsibility. In the classroom, the teachers used more discussion where the children had more control and responsibility for decisions. Self-monitoring and helping are strategies that reflect increased student responsibility.  107 52 Condusions The following conclusions are limited to the qualitative methods used in this study. The data in this study are comparative and descriptive rather than experimental. The researcher, the participants, the setting and time and its passing will affect the results and interpretations of the results. First, the researcher was limited by her background and observation/interpretation skills. The teachers varied in the type and emphasis of class management practices due to their unique qualities, backgrounds and experiences. Second, the setting of this study is not replicable due to the uniqueness found in the natural social setting. Results cannot be generalised across settings. It is hoped that readers may find aspects of this study that are typical and generalise to their own situation. Third, this study is limited by time and its passing. The start of the school year has been considered a critical time for establishing class management practices. If this study were conducted at a different time of the year, different management practices may have emerged. Indeed, different researchers, participants, settings and times for study, the results and interpretations may have been different. With these limitations in mind, perhaps the overwhelming conclusion of this study was that the types of class management practices were more similar than different in the classroom and physical education setting at the start of the school year. Twenty eight out of 29 management strategies were found in both settings -  and all of the six class management themes were evident in both the physical education setting and the classroom setting.  Similarities were found in the  emphasis teachers placed on class management practices. In both settings, over 90% of the strategies used were preventative and/or guidance; eight of the ten most used strategeis and four of the five least used strategies were the same; the rate strategies were used was highest during teaching episodes of transition and direct instruction/demonstration and lowest during task work. Differences were found  108 in the emphasis teachers placed on class management practices. Forty-seven percent more strategies were used in physical education than in the classroom; the themes of ‘withitness’ and ‘overlapping’ seemed more evident in physical education; safety was emphasised more in physical education during the theme of ‘establishing guidelines’; the rate of management strategies used in physical education was twice that of the classroom during teaching episodes of direct instruction! demonstration and discussion, and the class management theme of respect may have been conceptually linked to Dreikur’s leadership theory of class management. Where related literature could be found, the findings of this study showed to be consistent to the findings of previous studies. The results are highly compatible with current thinking and research about class management in physical education and in the classroom at the start of the school year. The results of this study also indicate that general class management practices and theories of class management seem to be transferable from the classroom to physical education. The nature of physical education and types of teaching episodes may have contributed to differences in class management practices in physical education and the classroom at the start of the year. The results of this study confirm other researcher’s positions that physical education may increase the complexity of class management due to the space and sound level considerations, mobility of the students, publicness and spontaneity of behaviour. 5.3 Implications  This study has implications for research in class management, teacher education  and for general understandings of the management process. This study adds to the area of class management research, particularly to context difference studies. Through the use of qualitative methods, issues have been discovered that may have been overlooked by quantitative methods. Since the range of contexts  109 affecting dass management has yet to be determined, using a quantitative observation system with predetermined categories would have limited the range of management strategies discovered in this study and the identification of teaching episodes. A natural picture of how three teachers in one school managed their dasses in physical education compared to the classroom setting emerged. This study has direct implications for teacher education programmes. It may mean that teachers can effectively manage environments conducive to learning using similar types of management practices in physical education and the dassroom and shifting the emphasis of management practices according to the environment. Studies like this one can be useful to help teachers and teacher educators become more effective in their class management role in physical education and in the classroom. The research-derived information from this study can help to replace or substantiate the collection of management tricks which are often a part of many preservice and teacher education programmes. Those management practices which have a similar emphasis in physical education and the classroom, can provide for consistency between the settings. As well, the transfer of practices from one environment to another may help lessen the teachers’ increased concern over management in physical education. The differences found in the emphasis of class management practices in physical education and the dassroom may provide a basis for teachers learning how to shift their roles according to environments. Theoretical models of class management may provide teachers with a framework and rationale for using certain management practices. This study has implications for furthering an understanding of class management. Through the use of clearly defined class management practices and rich, detailed descriptions, administrators, teachers and researchers may be able to add to their understanding that class management is concerned with the broader  110 purposes of education and is central to the total schooling process. 5.4 Recommendations The following is a list of recommendations for future study based on the findings from this study: 1) This study found that teaching episodes and the nature of physical education may have affected the class management practices of teachers. Further exploration into the range of contexts is needed.  2) This study was conducted at the start of the school year. It would be valuable to study the type and emphasis of class management practices throughout the school year. 3) There is a need for more qualitative studies in class management to further understand the class management process. Qualitative studies can be used to understand and provide a base for quantitative studies to systematically validate emerging themes. Relying solely on systematic observation systems may limit the extent of strategies that are unique to particular setting or participant. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods could be well suited to the study of class management practices of teachers. 4) There is a need to look at class management practices in more depth in order to see subtle variations across settings. 5) Further study is needed in the effect teaching episodes teacher’s subscription to particular theoretical models have on class management practices. 6) Due to the differences found in the emphasis on safety, it would be worth exploring some of these differences in depth. For example, how safety affects choice of teaching episodes, management practices, withitness and overlapping. 7) Examine the effect the content of the lesson and student behaviour has on  class management practices 8) Study the effect certain strategies (preventative, guidance and consequence)  111 have on on task behaviour, achievement, social-emotional development and self concept measures. It cannot be assumed that the results of this study represent other populations. What emerged could form the basis of a number of future studies. Since teachers have the responsibility of managing their classes in a variety of settings and class management has been the most commonly expressed complaint of students, teachers, parents and school administrators, more studies are needed to compare class management between different contexts. Physical education, with its open environment and physical movement increased the concern over class management yet is an area lacking in research. There have not been enough studies to sufficiently draw the condusion that there are differences in class management due to context differences. In particular, information has been limited about the class management practices of classroom teachers who teach their  own physical education. With the trend toward the generalist teaching physical education in the elementary school, more studies are needed to see how classroom teachers manage physical education classes. Because class management seems to play an integral part in teacher effectiveness, more studies are needed to improve teaching.  112  References  Aishel, M. H. (Ed). Dictionary of the sport and exercise sciences. Champaign, 111: Human Kinetics Books. Behets, D. (1990). Concerns of preseervice physical education teachers. Tournal of Teaching in Physical Education, jQ, 66-75. Bennett, N. and Blundell, D. (1983). Quantity and quality of work in rows and  classroom groups. Education Psychology, , 93-105. Bossert, S. (1979). Tasks and social relationships in classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press. Brophy, J.E. (1983). Classroom organization and management. The Elementary School Tournal, 83 (4), 265 285. -  Brophy, J.E. and Good, T.L. (1986). Teacher behavior and student achievement. 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Developing teaching skills in physical education. London, Ontario: Mayfield Publishing Company. Siedentop, D. (1989). Do the lockers really smell. Research Quarterly for Exercise  116 and Sport, fl (1), 36-41. Silverman, S. (1991). Research on teaching in physicla education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62(4), 352 364. -  Statistics Canada (1991). Trends in Public Schools, Catalogue 81 222 -  Statistics Canada (1989- 1990). Elementary—Secondary School Enrollment Catalogue 81-210. Strain, P.S. and Sainato, D.M. (1987). Preventative disicpline in early childhood. Teaching Exceptional Children,  (4)126-30.  Tenoschok, M. (1985). Handling problems in discipline: some guidelines for success. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance,  (2), 29-30.  Wendt, J.C. and Bain, L.L. (1989). Physical educators’ perceptions of stressful teaching events. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, , 177 180. -  White, A.G. and Bailey, J.S. (1990). Reducing disruptive behaviors of elementary physical education students with sit and watch. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3, 353 359. -  Williamson, K.M. (1993). A qualitative study on the socialization of beginning physical education teacher educators. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64 (2), 188 201. -  Veal, M.L. (1992). School-based theories of pupil assessment: A case study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63 (1), 48-59. Vogler, E. W. and Bishop, P. (1990). Management of disruptive behavior in physical education. The Physical Educator, 47(1), 16-26.  117 APPENDIX 3.1 Diagram of School, Classrooms and Gymnasium  PAM  Class Class  •1  GYM a  z  IF__i_I,,  145  11  1J8RARYASOURE  ItIIltiflFIFF  c)  VIFIWfd’.4  Pam  C  FF1551  zzz zzzz  [  Stage way  rs  ;4IPJIJ 11!fI I JIFMD I  Team Class  j  Class  I  Off lc•  ,_  I  Class  LL)  LC Class  Team Class  Door,’  )  Stair. Storage  — kiss__  BASEMENF  Class  -a--  if  Crafts  11  Class Class  Sup01y 5 :uta Rm  Activity Pom  KInd.rclub  CD U)  -‘  U, )  00  3  ‘.0  ) D  j)  r  I) 0  -U  0  121  GYMNASIUM  (Monday Stations)  Tressle Trees  Ladders  Beam  Swinging Bench or Stool and rope station  Ladder Swing  0 Mini  -  Tramp  Box Ho  Rope  Bench  Hoop Station Larg Mats  0  0 0 0  Legend:_____ Mats Door Blackboard  Stools  122  7-  GYMNASIUM Sta-i-r  Mats  Stage  Piano  Hf  Hallway  ()  Stai—  Bench  Bench  3oy  Benc  Pullout Climbing Apparatus  Roo  Ceiling  z  Benct  Girls’  •1 Chan room  Large Mats  ] I  Ceiling Ropes  Bench  S  47re  P  St rage  Balance Beam 1.  Bench J  123 APPENDIX 3.2 Observation Schedules  OBSERVATION SCHEDULES The following schedules indicate the times and days each teacher was observed. The boxes that have been highlighted with dark shadow around them refer to the days that particular teacher was observed. The total time observed is shown in the upper portion of the box with the time spent in physical education below the first code. CODES can be interpreted as follows: B=Bob S=September W=Wendy O=October P=Pam  #=date  C=classroom P=Physical Ed.  (in)=inside (out)=outside  For example, BS9P(out) means that the researcher observed Bob on September 9 teaching in the physical education setting outside.  124 Observation Schedule Fall 199 ‘PAM” Monday Sept. 7-11 PRE-WEEK CODE Sept. 14 18 -  WEEK 1  WEEK Z CODE  First day of regular dasses  -  (8:45 10:00) -  PS16C  (10:55-12:00) PS24P(in) (11:05-11:25) PS24C  (8:45 -10:30)  (10:47 12:00) PO1P(in) (10:50-11:20) PO1P(out) (11:20 11:35) Poic  (8:43 -10:25)  WEEK 4  PO5P(in) (8:43 -10:00) PO5C  Oct.12-16 WEEKS CODE Oct.19-23 WEEK CODE  Oct. 26-30 WEEKZ  PS17P(in) (10:55-11:45) PS17C  PS21P(in) (8:37 9:45) PS21C  Oct. 5-9  CODE  (10:40 12:00)  -  -  CODE  THANKS GiVING NO SCHOOL  (8:55 -10:35)  PO19C PO19P(in) (&55 10:00)  PRO-D DAY  -  (1:05 1:30)  (8:37 10:30)  PS2S(in) (8:45 -9:55) PS28C  Friday  NO SCHOOL  -  Sept. 28 Oct.2 WEEKS  Thursday  Family Group Stations  NO SCHOOL  PS15C  Sept. 21-25  Wednesday  LABOUR DAY  CODE  CODE  Tuesday  -  -  Re-ORG ANIZATION Talks Week (Stress)  (10:47 -12:00) PO7C PO7P(in) (11:00-11:25)  E’RO-D DAY NO SCHOOL (10:48 -12:00) PO15P(in) (11:00 11:20) PO15C (Video off) -  Video  -  Video  125 Observation Schedule Fall 1992 “WENDY” Monday Sept. 7-11 PRE-WEEK  CODE Sept.14-18 WEEK 1  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Family Group  Stations  LABOUR DAY  -  PRO-D DAY  NO SCHOOL  NO SCHOOL Firstdayof regular classes (10:40 lunch) W.S14.C  Friday  (10:05 recess)  (8:45-10:30)  W.S15.C.  W.S16.C  -  CODE  Sept. 21 -25 WEEK 2 CODE Sept. 28 Oct. 2 WEEK  (8:50 10:25)  WS21P(in) (12:47 1.30) WS21P(out)  WS24P(in) (9:45 10:25) WS24C  (12:59 -2:25)  (8:45 10:25)  WS28(in) (12:59 -1:30)  WO1P(in) (9:49 10:25)  -  -  -  -  -  CODE  Oct.5-9 WEEK CODE Oct. 12-16 WEEK CODE  Oct. 19 -23 WEEK  CODE Oct. 26-30 WEEK Z CODE  (12:47 2:45)  -  woic  wsc  (1:05-1:30 (200-250) WO5C WO5P(out)  (1:05-1:30)  THANKSGIVING NO SCHOOL  1250-1:10 WO19P(in) 1/2 video (off)  Re-ORG ANIZATION Talks Week (Stress)  -  (8:40-10:30) WO7C wcrnan) (9:50 -10:25)  PRO-D DAY NO SCHOOL  WO15P(in) (9:45 10:25) WO15C -  Video  Video  126  Observation Schedule Fall 1992 “BOB”  Sept. 7-11  PREWEEK  Monday LABOUR DAY NO SCHOOL  CODE Sept. 14-18 WEEK 1 CODE Sept. 21 25 -  First day of regular classes (AU day obs.) B.S14.P (in)B.S14.C (10.50 -12:00)  WEEK2  BS21P(out) (11:20-12:00) BS21C  CODE Sept. 28 Oct.2 ‘WEEK a  -  Tuesday  Wednesday  Acquaintance Early am dismissal (&35 9:10)  Family Group Stations  u.ss.c  B.S9.C  (10:40 12:00)  (10:40 11:40)  B.S15.P.(out)  B.S16.C  -  -  Thursday  Family Group Stations  -  (12:55 2:30) BS1 8P (In) (1:30 2:05) B.S18.C. -  -  -  (1250 2:30) BS22P(in) (12:58-1:04) BS22P(out) (1:04-1:48) BS22C  BS25P(out) (2:20- 2:35 BS25C  (12:48 2:45)  (10:45 11:35)  BS29P(out) (12:55 2:15) BS29C  BO2C  -  (12:48 2:30) -  -  -  Oct. 5-9 RE ORG -  ANIZATION  TALKS  CODE Oct.12-16 WEEK  CODE Oct. 19-23 WEEK  CODE  THANKS GIVING  (1252 2:15)  NO SCHOOL  BOI3P(out) (12:55 1:30) BOI2C  -  -  (12:48 2:40) BO2OC BO2OP(in) (12:48 125) -  -  Oct. 26 -30 WEEKZ CODE  PRO-D DAY  NO SCHOOL  (8:45 10:20)  -  CODE  WEEK 4  Friday  Video  (950 10:20) BO8C -  PROD DAY NO SCHOOL  ReorgedClasses (8:45 -1025) BO14C Video  127 APPENDIX 3.3  Interview Guide 1. What is your formal education background? 2. What teaching experience do you have? 3. If Isay the words ‘class management’, what comes to mind? What is your definition of class management? 4. What role does class management play at the start of the school year? 5. What differences do you see in your class management practices in physical education and in the classroom? 6. What similarities do you see in your class management practices in physical education and in the classroom?  128 APPENDIX 3.4 Sample Observation Field Notes and Categories  Tuesday, September 22, 1992 It is a beautiful, sunny day. It is surprisingly warm. Outside the grass is dry today. Not like yesterday when it was sunny but damp at the far end of the field. Bob has on shorts, a brightly coloured T-shirt with yellow and orange designs. Again he is dressed casually. 1:20 p.m. Bob is watching, occassionally moving from one side of the field to the oth.H does this twice in the game. He now moves the equipment awtf.tmhe(ps’ where the jail is and says toj:fuia “come and help put the pinniesJ He adds “Sandra, could you help Jula p e pinnies away?”. They quickly do this as the game goes one. 1:21 p.m. fc. Bob calls from the centre of the field to the far end; “Hey, red...(he hs his attention by pausing)...you need to make room”. Bob motions Alfredto move out from guarding the bean bags The children continue playing capture the fla _.1  1:25 p.m. Bob goes up to two boys and asks;çWhat happened guys? Are yorbing honest?”. Bob gives an idea out loud as the game goes on and a group of children can hear the suggestion. It is loud enough that the whole field can! “I have a suggestion that the best way to get the bean bag is to send four or five players down”. Another child comments from this to another about the idea that it is good because you can only forfeit someone to jail. A child approaches Bob and comments; “There are too many jail guards”. The child gives a suggestion to Bob and he responds “Gooc... idea!”. 1:30 p.m. Bob goes over to Sammi with the reminder to bring’iñers next time for the good shoes may get wrecked. He compliments how nice the shoes look and that it is just not appropriate for physical education. Another child jnow arguing over the rule that the offense is too close to the jail. Bob ignores thiJrhe game continues with alot of squeals, laughter and an element of seriousness to get the flag and help teammates get out of prison. There are some arguments oer who is right and where gØob does not step in. He is not asked to and he does not interfere. Bob chats iith a boy in prison. They both smile. He chats with him about how things are 1:32 p.m. Diane is accidely hit by Sandra and she begins to cry. She sobs a little and tells Bob that Diane hit her. Bob notices but ignor Diane’s statement of  129 complaint. Diane now has the tears and is visibly upset with Sandra. They are arguing. Diane gets a bit mad at Sandra for doing it. Bob now says in a very calm, unbiased way that maybe Sandra should apologize. She does and also explains that she didn’t really hit her. Diane does not accept this. She holds her injured arm with a look of contempt and anger on her face. Bob says for Diane to sit out until she wants to join and then tells Sandra to go over and apologize and maybe to talk to her. Diane refuses to speak to her. Bob says for Diane to sit out with her until she’s ready to go in. Tyit out d Sandra says to the now ‘harumphed’ Diane that she is really sorry. 1: p.m. Bob calls over Daisy and Craig to the far prison. He says “I don’t think y&-r1alize that you were tagged!”. At this announcement, they stay at the prison and Bob asks a couple of children around them if they have had enough. He gets one ‘no’ and one yes. The yes is from a child who states that he would rather do math. smiles and looks at me with the comment “I’d never heard that before!” 2—3  ()  1:37 p.m. Bob calls out “THREE MINUTES!... THREE MINUTES”. This is done loudly so that the whole field can hear and others repeat this across the field. 1:40p.m. BOb calls out TWO  Is  UTES!...TWO MINUTES!”  1:41 p.m. E!” Bob calls out “ONE M The children continue playing. (o.c. I think they understand the warning) Bob goes over to Alfred who is holding his right shoulder and asks what happened as the game continues. Both of them walk together. I can’t hear the discussion, but I assume it involves an inquiry into his injury.  (7?)  C)  1:42 p.m. Bob calls out while looking at his wttf “15.... 10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1” ‘Tblows the whistle while putting up his hand. (o.c. he seems to have a consistent signal for gathering them outside). The class stops playing right away and the children gather to him from the centre of the field over to the equiptt by the post. One child is picking upa pylion and Bob says “Thank you Jamie(nother begins picking them up and Bob says to the general crowd that he needs some more help with the pylons. A few others go off to get them. Bob goes over to the post, has his hand up and waits as the last children come in with the pylons. He saeç them to take their pinnies off and come over. “Thanks, Cona”. He thankeca..etfild who has put pylons away then thanks each individual who brings the pylons in. Bob has his hand up still as he moves right over to the fence and says for them to have a seat on the grass here. They follow him. He tells tthem to put their pinni ay and thanks to individuals again. He reminds Tom that he still has his ie on. (o.c. implied in stating what sees is that the child chooses the appropriate behavior by  130 looking at what he is doeing). Bob lets the cl1dr chat excitedly about the game for about 30 seconds. He then says, “Sho me you’re listening”. They are very excited and talking about the game. There are a couple of arguments, some general excitement and a bit of toning down iob said to show they were listening (but not by much). He repeats this. All is .4uiet and Bob asks for any ients on the game. A child raises her hand and Bob says “Thankyou for raisinyi4 hand”. There are comments on the roughness, fun. Bob has a few children share their comments and then he makes somjent. He encourages a child to raise their hand “please raise your hand” as the child calls out. ild then comments that it’s not fair. Another says that it is dangerous  131 APPENDIX 3.5 Sample of Phase Data Analysis P07 (gym and class) (Pain, October 7, 1992)  T  WHAT  CATEGORIES  10:47 am  Pam has 4 new children checks in, very noisy, child crying children are in from recess, attendance, adinin.  5a, 51,4,4,, 24, 15, 11,51, 5b, 11, 22, 51, 11,52,4,11,17  children line up  5a,8,4, 12,5a  children are at the circle teacher directed to explain game  Sb, Sb, 5b, Sb, 51, 12,4,4,4,4,41 5a, 5a, 5b, 22, 5a  teacher directed game, 1/3 go at a time. Teacher controls starts and stops  24,11  transition to change the game children sit in the circle, some jump up and down. Pam gets equipment as talks.  67, 24, Sa, 21, 21, 21, 21, 5a, 15, 17  upbeat mood in staff room reorganization finished  ii 10:58  1R4N5  ;1  1100  1AS 11:07-  iA 4S 11:12 1  3  -os  new game started  11:15-11 11:15:45 11:15:15  J  3  11:17  .,  game is stopped, reminders  3’iocr  .  -  4’5TP6L  Game started again  13, 21, 41, 5b 13b, 4b, 4b, 12, 17,21, 17, 21 23 13  Game stopped, children to centre of gym, new activity introduced quickly, teacher demonstration with children watching  13b, 5a, 24, 4b, 11, 11,3,41, 23,41 24, 1, 5a, 15,24  Lining up in play space (transit)  5a, Sb, 12, 4b, 11, 4b, 4b, 4b, 12  Other class enters, no time to play the new game, they go to class they are noisily coining to carpet  13, 5a, 11,51, Sb, 24  11:43 11:44-i  children are doing class temp. asking buddy, sharing and how feeling (discussion) code books transition axe on code books  22,41,21, 22, 11, 11,24, 4b, 4b, 4b, 4b, Sb, Sb, 22,23, 17 5b, 7,7, 18, 18 15, 11, 11,24, 4b, 22,8 23, 21, 41, 22, 15, 15  12:Olpml  children can leave once are finished and some are already in line.  1 I  11:25  j  C)  J j 7 J i3is ,  11:27  11:30  —  C C C C C •‘  .  C  .  —  — — —  ——-  —  — — —  —  —  —  C C C  —  —  ()  —  . C ‘3 C C C C (ii (  (i) C k) C (i) C  —  k) C C  --  —  ‘  —  .  —  ()  C  —  S  .  —  C  —  —  .‘  —  —  —  C C  —  (i3  —  —  —  C C ‘0  L’3 (i) C C ‘0 C C  —  —  -  —  —  r co  1%)  —  ——  I%J m-  ci  0 (ilk)  k)CCCCCCCk)k)Ck)Ck)k)CCk)CCC  C Cj-CCC  C C C C C C C C C C C C C  OO  (C CC (J1CCC CC (J1C iC C  ‘L  t’J(i)(J)  C C C C C C  \O  z w  r1l -S  133  APPENDIX 3.7 Sample Worksheet for Counting the Frequency of Management Strategies used during Various Teaching Episodes  Gym Min#  PAM Week 3 Gym Class # Min# Mm  Gym 1in#  TRANSITION  8  28  2.5  2  11.5  5  DISCUSSION  5  18  21  5  0  0  6  3  12  13  TASK WORK  32 11  4  0  0  12  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  —  —  10  DIRECT INS/DEMON OTHER  14 0 —  0 —  0 —  0 —  7  6  17 3  Class Min#  .5  3  0  —  1  134  CONFIRMATION LETTER “A DESCRIPTIVE COMPARISON OF CLASS MANAGEMENT BETWEEN ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE CLASSROOM’  September 3, 1992 Dawn Zander 4285 W 13th ave Vancouver, B.C. V6R 2T7 222-0293  Dear Mr. This ietter serves to confirm our telephone conversation regarding my master’s degree research. I was thrilled with the enthusiasm you expressed for my observations in. class at the start of the school year. U.B.C. ethics requires that I get informed consent forms signed by the principal and teachers involved. I’ll be asking Phil for informed consent when he returns. Would you be able to fill one out? If you would rather wait until it is agreed with Phil I will understand. In addition, I have enclosed a description of the study along with copies of important procedural forms. If you know of any primary teachers that wouldn’t mind having me observe their physical education and some dassroom sessions at the start of the school year, I would greatly appreciate it if you could pass on the enclosed copies. Following the observation period, I would like to offer the participant teachers any assistance with physical education that I can (teaching dance, games, gymnastics, outdoor ed. etc/ activity ideas/ programming).  Please contact me if you should have any questions or comments. for your cooperation. I look forward to meeting you. Sincerely,  Dawn Zander 222-0293 Faculty Advisor:  Dr. Moira Luke 822-5341  Thank-you  135  PRINCIPAL’S INFORMED CONSENT FORM “A DESCRIPTIVE COMPARISON OF CLASS MANAGEMENT BETWEEN ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE CLASSROOM”  I understand the purpose of this research is to describe and compare the dass management between elementary physical education and the classroom during the first 3 -5 weeks of the school year. I have been informed of what will be required of the teacher (s). I understand that his (their) responses will remain completely anonymous. I understand that he (they) will receive a copy of the final study. I un.istand that any videotaping must obtain further consent and only to be used for research and then erased unless the teacher’s grant permission for other use. I understand that by not participating the teachers position will not be affected. I understand that refusal to participate will not be used as an assessment tool. I understand that the teacher is the primary focus of the research and when the students are observed it is as a class as a whole. I wish to give my voluntary approval for this study.  Signature  Home School Address  Date  City  Province  Dawn Zander 222-0293 Faculty Advisor:  Dr. Moira Luke 822-5341  Postal Code  136  a,  AYfl.  Dawn Zander 4285 W 13th ave Vancouver, B.C. V6R 217 222-0293 Dear  _________:  As a recent primary school physical educator, I am interested in how teachers set up their classes at the start of the school year. For my master’s at the University of British Columbia, I am interested in comparing class management between elementary physical education and the classroom during the first 3 5 weeks of the school year. -  For this study, I would like to observe you teach at least two physical education classes per week and an equal (if not more) number of classroom sessions. I plan to gather information by taking notes following the observation sessions and from interviews.. I would ask you to spend a minumum of 2 hours to a maximum of 5 ho ‘.out of class time. This time would consist of a tape recorded interview at the start of the obse on period and include ongoing, informal questions throughout the 3-5 weeks. Every effort would be made to prevent disrution to classes. I am interested in your ideas in this regard. It is possible that I may ask your permissLrt to videotape some highlights at the end of the observation period, however, consent for that can be dealt with later. vii..  There will be no particular risks or discomforts to you or any children. Names of individual schools, teachers, and pupils will remain anonymous. You may withdraw consent and have the data erased at any time. Please indicate your willingness to participate in this study by signing the attached consent form. Refusal to participate will not affect your position as a teacher nor will it be used as an assessment tool. For your own records you will receive a copy of the consent form.  A detailed proposal of this study is available to you and you will also have access to a copy of the completed study. If you have any questions regarding the procedures or other aspects of the study, please give me a call.  222-0293 Faculty Advisor:  Dr. Moira Luke 822-5341  137 T H E  Li N I V I K  ,  i t  i  ‘i ‘  1)  I  I  —  Centre for the Study of Cumcuham and Instruction  ‘HER’S INFORMED CONSENT FORM  Vancouver,BC. Canada V6T 1Z4 TeL: (604) 822-6502 Fax: (604) 822-8234  “A DESCRIPTIVE COMPARISON OF CLASS MANAGEMENT BETWEEN ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE CLASSROOM”  I understand the purpose of this research is to describe and compare the dass management between elementary physical education and the classroom during the first 3 5 weeks of the school year. -  I have been informed of what will be required of me as a participant. i understand that my responses will remain completely anonymous. I understand that I will receive a copy of the final study. I understand that any videotaping must obtain further consent and only to be used for research and then erased unless I give my permission for other uses of the videotapes ,,  fhø  fttiirø  I understand that by not participating my position as a teacher will not be affected. I understand that refusal to participate will not be used as an assessment tool. I understand that the teacher is the primary focus of the research and when the students are observed it is as a class as a whole. I wish to give my voluntary cooperation as a participant.  Date  Signature  Home School Address  City  Province  Dawn Zander(m 222-0293 Faculty Advisor:  Dr. Moira Luke  g22-s41  Postal Code  138  I GIVE CONSENT TO BEING Y4DOThPP FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS RESEARCH PROJECT. RESEARCH I UNDERSTAND THAT THE TAPES WILL BE USED ONLY FOR OTHER USE. AND THEN ERASED UNLESS I GRANT PERMISSION FOR  (‘Ct. Signture  Date  72  139  Dear Parent or Guardian: I am a Masters student at U.B.C. doing a study on dass management in physical education and the classroom. For my study I would like to videotape a few lessons each week for about 3 weeks. The teacher. not the students. is the focus of the videotaping, however, your child may occasionally come in range of the camera. The videotape will be used only to supplement my observations. The tapes are not intended for public use and names of the school, teacher, and pupils will remain anonymous. The Principal, and your childs teacher have given me their full support. There will be no particular risks or discomforts to the teachers or your children and you may withdraw consent at any time. Refusal to participate or withdrawal will not jeopardize your childs class standing in any away. Please indicate your consent to have your child come within range of the video camera. Please check one and return this form to your childs teacher: -iisent to my child being within video camera range. do not consent to my child being within video camera range.  Parent/Guardian Signature  Date  Teachers Name  Child’s Name  If you have any questions regarding this study please give me or my faculty advisor a call. Thankyou for your cooperation,  Dawn Zander (222  -  3)  Faculty Advisor: Dr. Moira Luke (822-5341)  140  APPENDIX 4.1 Data Tables for Each Teacher  Percentage of Time Spent During Various  Classroomand Physical Education Episodes  Pam____ Averages Class P.E. Class P.E. Class P.E. Wen  Episode Class P.E. Trantions 11.8%  15.3  18.3  24  14.7  185  14.9  193  1  413  4.2  36.6  43  Discussions  37  Z6  3L4  Task Work  44.7  564  40  425  31.6  21.9  388  403  DiictIns.d  2.4  6.9  2.7  218  10.5  45.1  5.2  24.6  76  10.7  1.9  103  43  11.5  Demos.  4.1  Other  13.9  Rate/ Hour of All Management Strategies During Various Classroomand Physical Education Episodes  Class  P.E.  Class  Averages  Pam  Wendy  Bob  Episode  P.E.  Class  P.E.  Class  P.E. 25.7  17.2  Transitions  20.0  11.6  14.9  30.1  16.7  35.4  Discussions  5.7  11.2  5.4  13.9  7.2  8.5  6.1  Task Work  3.2  4.5  1.2  2.0  2.6  4.0  Z6  3.5  Direct Inst/  12.6  13.0  5.4  21.0  10.8  21.0  9.6  18.2  —  11.2  Demons. Other TOTALS  7.2 49.4  8.2 48.5  2.1 29.0  26.1 93.1  0.0 38.9  17.9  3.8  17.4  86.8  39.3  76.4  kc  ——  13 13  cna  b  C 13 0  -  W 00 0 0 13  -  -‘  -b  C C C C C  bbbàO  -  0 0  i.’c  13 C  .  àk  ——  0 C  -  bbi  C  -  -  13 000 .CL4  -  0 U) a’p3  —  .  Ji)i’0  -  cii (ii CCC —  -  C C 0 C C C U)  q  I  U C C C ibi& 0  b  C 00 C % O13I’.30’’C  Ui  C W  -  C C C C C C Cb WDC13  bo-  — C C C a’CCO’  ----—-—  W C C C C uibbbi %0  Pbbcno  %CC0CC  .  a’ -  C cnào  -  -W  —  ——  CO  13 C  -S-  O  ----——-------——  C  obnCo  i  C  -  .-  13 C C C C  -.  -  -  C  13 0  0  I  ..  -  C  .  C  o  0  .-  C  C  &  C  0  ui  C  C 13  .  13 W  0  C bii  ‘-  —  - -  Vi C J C-JW  OC  13  ‘00  (J(3 13a’  —--——  -  —  13 ‘- ( o’w  (31 13  13 vi  b  ‘0  -  a’ - (ii U)P31.)  —  -b  U) C U)  ‘c  — C Ui  0\%0  p3 —  -  o  -.  .-  )cfl  W  -  -  n -—  O  — o cii co Ui  -  .  -  —  Cn  0  —  -oo  C C U) C C U) U)  W C ‘0 CC W U)  -  OOCJCI  C C W C C . -  CCC1-I  -  ;  —  ow-u1a’cn  C C 13 C C 13  00 W 0 C  -  C -. W C C  ——--——--  P3  W  C-fl  13  0  o’  ! I-.  em  r  m  tD  )  0  0  APPENDIX  142  Management Strategies Management strategies are divided into three major categories:  1. Preventative (P): Strategies used to prevent inappropriate behaviours. They occur in the absence of inappropriate behaviors. 2. Guidance (G):  Strategies used in response to a child’s inappropriate behavior. However, a guidance strategy does not apply a consequence even though it may include an intent to apply a consequence.  3. Consequence (C): Strategies used in response to a child’s inappropriate behavior. A consequence is applied. The following management strategies are sub-categories of the three major categories. Categories were originally given a random number such as (22) and were named after they emerged. Names were chosen from the literature or created by the researcher to best fit the description. Beside the name appears the designation as (F), (G), or (C) which designated which major category each fails under. Where the description of a strategy may be unclear, examples from field note observations are included. Also, child refers to a single or more children. Helping (F) (22)  the child helps the teacher or another child with a task  -  Example: A child is asked to turn off the lights, open a door, or mark another child’s math sheet.  Informing (F) (15)  the child is visually or verbally informed of future activities and/or expectations  -  Example: Reinstating (P) (2) Ignoring (C) (1)  -  inappropriate behavior is intentionally ignored  -  Reminding (G) (17)  “When you get into the classroom, I want you to work on your stories” child is returned to previous participation status  -  the child is reminded to follow a certain procedure Example:  “Remember not to tie knots in the ropes”, or. “I didn’t tell you to go anywhere yet”, or “Take your hat off inside”  143  Refocussing (G) (18)  -  focus is changed from the child’s inappropriate behavior onto something else  Example: A child is reading a comic book and is instructed to show the teacher his work instead, or A child is starting to tie knots in the ropes and the teacher has her climb them instead Reprimanding (G) -the child is told that his/her behavior is inappropriate (41) Sound monitoring (G)-the sound level is lowered (24) Examples: “Shhh”, or the teacher taps a child on the shoulder with a pencil to quiet him “Raise your hand is you find it difficult to hear above the noise” Stating Behaviour (G) -the child’s inappropriate behaviour is stated (12) Example: “1 see some people are not listening”, or “I see two or three people are not at the carpet yet” Waiting (G) (11) Warning (G) (51)  -  -  instruction is purposefully delayed until the inappropriate behaviour ceases the child is warned of a future consequence if the present behaviour continues  Example:  Acknowledging (PIG) (4)  -  “You don’t want to make it three weeks do you?” (the child had already lost the privilege of sitting in the big chair and is now warned that more time may be lost)  positive recognition for appropriate behaviour is given when another child is behaving inappropriately  Example:  When a child is speaking out of turn, the teacher recognises those who have their hands up and comments “Thankyou for raising your hand to speak”  Attention getting (P/G)- strategies used to gain child’s attention Name-calling saying a child’s name without (21) reference to her actual or expected conduct -  144  Example: (68/67)  “Betty!” (the child was moving when aijzzere supposed to be still)  Counting/Interrupting the children are informed of how much time they have to listen or the teacher uses noises to get child’s attention. Example: “10, 9,. 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1” (by 1 the children are to be listening) -  Examples:  coughing, snapping fingers, varying voice level, whistle, din ger, or begins an interesting story.  Body Positioning (PIG)- the child is directed to take on a certain body position Examples: (3) Please keep your hands on your own body”, or “Cross your legs with hands folded in your lap” “  Locating (PIG) (5)  child is adjusted to join a formation at a new location (5a) group locating (5b) individual locating (5c) physical locating Examples: “Please line up at the door”, or “Come to the carpet”, or The teacher picks up a child and puts them in line  -  Practising (P/G) (37) Repeating (P/G) (14) Rewarding (P/G) (8)  -  the child is to show the appropriate way to behave Example:  “Show me you are listening”  the child is asked to repeat what was said to show they heard what was said  -  -  special privileges are given when appropriate behaviour is shown  Example:  “Those zvho came to the carpet first, may be dismissed first”  Starting/Stopping (P/G) -a clear indication is given when to start (13a) or stop (13b) an activity (13a,b) Examples: Whistle, dinger, “Please stop”, “You may begin”, “readi, set, go”, or “how do you spell move?” Self-monitoring (P/G)-the child is encouraged to check the appropriateness of their (23) behavior  145  Example: “Is that zvalking?”, or “Are you listening”, or “Is that the way the trestles should be?” Closing Space (PIG/C) -the child is moved closer to the teacher or the teacher moves closer to the child (6) Looking (C/C) (52)  -  Meeting (G/C) (9)  -  Referring (C) (10) Removing (C) (7)  -  -  a stern look is given to the child who is behaving a private discussion with the child regarding their inappropriate behavior a parent or the principal is notified of the child’s inappropriate behavior the child is removed from the activity or a privilege is taken away  146 APPENDIX 4.3 Sample of Interview Notes Transcribed from Audiotape Wendy: Initial Background Interview  (Description from field notes about the interview) This interview took place after the Wednesday early dismissal, September 16, 1992. We finally found a place to chat, the conference room and there were a few interruptions to use the phone. Wendy seemed distracted and nervous, asking me to stop the tape a couple of times so she could have time to think and even made a suggestion if! had thought of giving the questions before had so she could have time to think. I reassured her that she didn’t have to answer them now and could do so later once she had thought about them and that she could change her answers at any time. I also explained the format of the interview (background questions, then general questions on ideas and philosophies about class management, then specific the similarities and differences between physical education and the classroom). As well I told her the tape would be erased one I had transcribed it.  The follow’ gj are excerpts from various parts of the interview. Dawn: In regards to formal training, what is your education background? Wendy: A bachelor of arts in psychology and a fifth year at a graduate school level teaching internship program. One of the first, we died a practicum in the spring with support from the university then a second summer.... D: If I say to you the words class management, what comes to mind? W: I suppose I...keeping..that’s distracting (referring to person on the phone)..just helping the children observe the rules that I establish. That they do nothing that keeps children from learning and teachers from teaching. D: What are some examples of class management? W: Um...Well, I suppose initially getting the kids started and, uh..understanding where they’ll be going and understanding their instructions and routines and having their materials ready. There are the things, you may have noticed, I’m not always very good at (she laughs, chuckling ha, ha, ha,)...uh..redirecting them when they wonder astray, intervening, if necessary momtoring...providing consequences...um..that’s it generally. D: You mentioned consequences, are they....what kinds of consequences? W: Well, we like to talk about natural and logical consequences. So, uh, that’s basically that the punishment fits the crime (laugh)...only in this case what naturally follows..  147  Biography  Barbara Dawn Zander  Name: Address:  do  The Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction Ponderosa F Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z5  Birthdpte:  January 4, 1%5  Education:  B.Ed/ Outdoor-Experiential Education Certificate, Queen’s Univeristy, Kinston, Ontario B.Phed. (Hons) Brock University, St. Catharines, On.  Teaching Experience:  1990 1991 Sessional Lecturer, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Calgary, Alberta. -  1990 1991 K- 3 Physical Education Teacher, Sunalta Public School, Calgary, Alberta. -  1989 1990 Lecturer, Faculty of Physical Activity Studies, University of Regina, Sask. -  Conference Presentations: 1990 Saskatchewan Physical Education Assoc. Conf. Workshops: Outdoor Education, Folk- Dance, Games 1993 WEST CAST Presentation: Class Management in Physical Education and the Classroom at the Start of the School Year 1994 10th International Commonwealth and Scientific Congress. Paper: A Comparison of Class Management in Elementary Physical Education and the Classroom  

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