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Architects ’R’ us : a personal inquiry into the use of the concepts of architecture in the secondary.. Kinegal, Jane W. N. 2004

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ARCHITECTS  X  R'  US  A personal inquiry i n t o the use of the concepts of architecture i n the secondary artroom, leading to the creation of a *Primer' f o r interested teachers based on the 3 Rs': Receive, Respond, and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . x  •  by  ' '- J a n e W.N.Kinégal B . E d . ( S e c o n d a r y ) 1970, UBC B . A r c h . 1987,• UBC M.A.S.A.. 1989, UBC  .'•  '  "  "  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE' DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I N EDUCATION •• • . in ' THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre f o r Cross-Faculty Inquiry  • We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s , a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  @ J a n e W.N.  2004  K i n e g a l , 2004  Library Authorization  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Name of Author  Title of Thesis:  N^\A  (NTZ? " T U F -  DSF.  Degree:  Date (dd/mm/yyyy)  (please print)  1 T H ^ R > ' Uf? y V  / V f e R ^ U Â s L (NÙgOifr^T  THfL ^ K c - t i P T b  M.A  Department of /^MTK£ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC Canada  /k^SHlTg-^TUgF  Y e a r :  cZ^O^-fr^CVlXj  QjDQ^k  -  IN^Uer  (K  Abstract The processes i n v o l v e d i n making p l a c e s a r e not the .exclusive p r o v i n c e o f experts, but a s e t o f n a t u r a l a c t i o n s that belong t o a l l people. C r e a t i n g p l a c e s f o r o u r s e l v e s i s a n a t u r a l , o r g a n i c , and i n t e g r a l p a r t of our work as a society. The term 'place' •connotes p a r t i c u l a r i s e d , human s e t t i n g s , l o c a t e d at a s p e c i f i c s i t e and r e f l e c t i n g the geographic and c u l t u r a l context. Many people view the a r c h i t e c t as a p r a c t i t i o n e r o f an e s o t e r i c p r o f e s s i o n t h a t i s understood o n l y by the f o r m a l l y t r a i n e d . A r c h i t e c t u r e , which I d e f i n e as the p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n i n g and c r a f t i n g of our b u i l t environment, i s a s u b j e c t f o r us a l l . No one needs t o b e l i e v e t h a t they know nothing about a r c h i t e c t u r e . We each have a t l e a s t a l a t e n t awareness of our surroundings, which can be sharpened and made c o n s c i o u s . Given some s k i l l and confidence, people can move from r e t i c e n c e r e g a r d i n g the shaping o f our p l a c e s t o a more a c t i v e r o l e . The g o a l of t h i s work i s t o i n v i t e , encourage, and p r o v i d e some t o o l s f o r teachers t o promote awareness of our s e t t i n g s , and a c t i v e , responsive and r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the shaping of our p l a c e s . In no way do I mean t o subvert the p r a c t i c e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , or t o encourage i l l - a d v i s e d , headstrong attempts t o b u i l d or r e b u i l d our environment. I hope t o encourage t h o u g h t f u l d i s c o u r s e about how our world might be, and more exchange between the experts and the o t h e r s . F i t t i n g out our s e t t i n g s can be an a c t i o n not only FOR people, but BY the people as w e l l . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , based upon these goals and premises, i s : What i s the nature and scope o f an a r c h i t e c t u r a l 'Primer', designed t o a s s i s t educators t o encourage a c i t i z e n r y t h a t i s aware o f our s e t t i n g s , w i l l i n g t o be i n v o l v e d and capable o f r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the shaping of our c o l l e c t i v e and p r i v a t e p l a c e s ? To c a r r y the 'Primer' i d e a a b i t f u r t h e r , t h i s approach t o p l a c e making i s o r g a n i s e d i n t o l e a r n i n g experiences founded on what I have come t o view as the b a s i c s o f b u i l t environmental e d u c a t i o n : 'the 3 R ' s ' of a r c h i t e c t u r e . The program encourages teachers and t h e i r students t o : 1. RECEIVE - the messages of our environment, t o t h o u g h t f u l l y look, see, and c o n s i d e r what i s 2 . RESPOND - e n v i s i o n and shape what c o u l d be - with growing confidence and c a p a b i l i t y  3 . t a k e RESPONSIBILITY - at the p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e s c a l e t o a f f e c t needed and a p p r o p r i a t e change. These 3R's are as important t o an educated person as are the t r a d i t i o n a l 3R's. We need t o be a b l e t o operate capably with a l l the R's t o maximise o u r s e l v e s and our s e t t i n g s , r a t h e r than a b s t a i n i n g from t h i s d e c i s i o n making. T h i s document p r o v i d e s some s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l and ideas f o r t e a c h e r s who want t o encourage r e s p o n s i v e awareness and involvement i n the shaping of our environment, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the secondary a r t classroom. I f a r c h i t e c t u r e i n v o l v e s the human a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the making our p l a c e s , and i f we a r e a c c e p t i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y thus i m p l i e d , then A r c h i t e c t s * R ' Us!  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents List  of F i g u r e s  iv  (Illustrations)  viii  Acknowledgement  xiv  Preface / D e d i c a t i o n  xv  CHAPTER 1 Statement of the Search 1.1  I n t r o d u c t i o n - the Other  1 searcher  searchers  Moving towards A r c h i t e c t u r e Towards  (and back to)  education  A r c h i t e c t s do have a p l a c e i n the order of things An a r c h i t e c t u r e process/product  story  My p r o f e s s i o n a l stance 1.2  Methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n : the a n a l y t i c a l framework/generating process A story i l l u s t r a t i n g research  the methods of a c t i o n  N a r r a t i v e - " F i r s t day back" A n a l y s i s , Observations, R e f l e c t i o n s , Musings... Theory A c t i o n Research: how impact p r a c t i c e ?  does t h i s approach  Just what i s a c t i o n research? R e l a t i o n to the e x i s t i n g ' l i t e r a t u r e Towards a p e r s o n a l theory of p r a c t i c e A new r e s e a r c h context , research question  - towards a  new  So what am I c u r i o u s about? - f o r m u l a t i o n of the new r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n  1.3  R a t i o n a l e f o r the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n : why i s t h i s important? So how w i l l question?  I move towards answering  Concluding r e a l  this  questions  CHAPTER 2 Educational Scaffolding  42  2. 1  Is there e d u c a t i v e value i n u s i n g the ideas of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the classroom?  2. 2  Interdisciplinary  2. 3  Approaches t o l e a r n i n g  2. 4  And what about C r e a t i v i t y ?  2. 5  Howard Gardner's M u l t i p l e  2. 6  Right b r a i n , L e f t  brain  2. 7  Transmit Transact  Transform  2. 8, Concluding  connections  Intelligences  observations  CHAPTER 3 Connection to broader themes of a r t and architecture 3.1 Drawing t o a r t , drawing t o a r c h i t e c t u r e , drawing t o a c t i o n " I can't draw!" "Yes,  you can..."  So how can we teach drawing? The  f i r s t day  Loosening up Each student needs h i s / h e r own sketchbook How do others draw? Can't I j u s t t u r n on the computer? So do i t 3.2 The design process A s t o r y of how I e r r e d and s t r a y e d A r t i c u l a t i n g the Design Bardach's  'eightfold  Process  path'  70  3.3  Phenomenology D e f i n i t i o n s and  3.4  a clarifying  example  How  might someone put  this into practice?  The  phenomenological approach to  The  b a s i s of phenomenology  The  phenomenology papers  research  Sustainability Is t h i s an i s s u e f o r the schools? In . artroom? So do we  the  r e a l l y have a problem?  Students are beginning to show i n t e r e s t How can students understand and what can do to l e a r n and p r a c t i c e t h i s approach? First, And 3.5  the  story  finally,  the  Community A c t i o n ,  advice Responsibility  Some people don't have a  place  So what does t h i s have to do with artroom? So what can we Global  we  the  DO?  initiatives  Understand our  local  reality  Poverty -• a d e f i n i t e c u l t u r e The  poor are an aspect of our  Endnotes f o r the themes of  CHAPTER 4 Architecture  culture  architecture  i n the Secondary School Artroom...l7 0  What i s a v a i l a b l e ? AIBC a r c h i t e c t u r e f o r kids guide The  B r i t i s h a r t educator, E i l e e n Adams  Ginny Graves  CHAPTER 5  The Primer A s e r i e s of l e s s o n s / l e a r n i n g  194 experiences  A note r e g a r d i n g a d a p t a b i l i t y of t h i s  Primer  A Cautionary Note Re: knives, guns and p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e n s e outcomes 1. mapping 2. home,  imagined  3. redesign A.  and r e v e a l e d  (frankly  facadism)  doorways - a method of drawing  interiors  5. sanctuary - w i t h i n and without 6. f a m i l y r e t r e a t 7. unpave - community 8. community u p l i f t 9. product  process  - providing a r e f i t  design  10. t r a v e l t o make a r t 11. the c u l t u r e of p o v e r t y 12. the world t r a d e c e n t e r  CHAPTER 6  Outcomes and Conclusions  336  6.1 What the People S a i d 6.2 S e l f e v a l u a t i o n of the process and the product of t h i s work 6.3 C o n c l u s i o n s ;  Reference L i s t  possibilities-  37 6  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure  •  Page  1.  Hand t o o l s i n the shop  :  2.  The c y c l e s of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h  24  3.  The components of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h  26  4.  How  57  5.  A complex, rhythmic b u i l d i n g ,  6.  Drawing by a young man Interpersonal  we understand s t r u c t u r e with our bodies student drawing  22  59  whose c h i e f i n t e r e s t i s 60  7.  Drawings and e x p l o r a t i o n s by students  61  8.  Pages from student sketchbooks  64  9.  The t r a n s m i s s i o n p o s i t i o n  65  10. The t r a n s a c t i o n p o s i t i o n  66  11. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p o s i t i o n  66  12. A r c h i t e c t u r e i n the classroom  69  13. C o l l a g e of opening day sample drawings  78  14. B u i l d i n g sketches  82  15. T r o l l e y - l i n e drawing  82  16. P l a n / s e c t i o n / e l e v a t i o n views  83  17. Drawings of the Royal A r t Lodge  84  18. Façade of the H o t e l d e l Coronado  99  19. The Royal Crescent at Bath, 1996  100  20. A e r i a l view of Bath  100  •21.  Dynamiting an unworkable urban p r o j e c t  101  22. The y e l l o w House at A r i e s  109  23. Some v i s u a l p l a c e s t o r i e s  112  24. A  114  'crude but e v o c a t i v e ' study model  25. P e r s p e c t i v e 'how  t o ' drawings  26. C a r y a t i d s - body as support  (Ching)  115 !  116  27. Student model - twin phenomena  117  28. Examples of the p o e t r y  117  29. Concept sketch f o r C e n t r a l P h i l a d e l p h i a  119  30.  by A l v a r A a l t o  119  sketch Hong Kong, student sketch  .'119  32.  From image to r e a l i t y - c o l l a g e of sketches  120  33.  F u l l s c a l e plans  121  Prototype concepts  .31. Conceptual  developed  34. Axonometric and p l a n sketches 35. Axonometric 36.  'exploded'  122 ~.  123  P o e t i c images of Leonardo da V i n c i  123  37. An e v o c a t i v e camp s h e l t e r  :....125  38 . C o l l e c t i v e n o t i c e board  129  39. David Rousseau's p r a c t i c a l guide  136  40. C.K.Choi B u i l d i n g  138  41. CMHC pamphlets - r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e  140  42.  S e a b i r d S u s t a i n a b l e Community, the Roundhouse...155  43. Cuban p u b l i c a r t  156  44.  Photographs from the Downtown E a s t s i d e  158  45.  Excerpt  from T a x i , a l o c a l newspaper  159  46.  Feature a r t i c l e - designers f o r the homeless  160  47. C o l l a g e of P a t t e r n Language excerpt and person sleeping..  homeless 161  48. C o l l a g e of cover and pages of the AIBC Resource Guide 17 7 49. The b u i l t environment education books by Graeme Chalmers. ; 17 8 :  50. C o l l a g e of pages, books of Graeme Chalmers  179  51. School P o r t r a i t s  185  52.  (Adams)  Photomontage showing p o s i t i v e change  53. CUBE home page 54.  Students  using Exacto  (Adams)  187 191  knives  198  55. What i s wrong with these p i c t u r e s ?  201  56.  Part of the scrap c o l l e c t i o n  201  57.  Student  202  u s i n g a glue gun  58. The photo s t r i p 59. A composite  207  of snapshots  one would see  207  60. The work of another g i f t e d student  208  61. Example - pushed o f f from the obvious format  208  62. A grade 8 boy  209  63. An unusual assignment  sci-fi  . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  209  64. A student from A f g h a n i s t a n  210  65. A h i g h l y motivated student's model  210  66. One o f the s e n i o r students caused a s t i r  211  67. Low r e l i e f and 3-D responses  212  68. Danica Phelps - mapping  214  69. M i c h a e l Landy - mapping  214  70. Alex M o r r i s o n - mapping  215  71.  I n u i t a r t i s t s - mapping  216  72.  Plan, s e c t i o n and e l e v a t i o n views  .....218  73. Two sketches o f a student's home  221  74. Two sketches of a student's home - apartment  222  75. A b e a u t i f u l l y sketched house  223  76. Some developments o f the home image  .22 4  77. Reworked e l e v a t i o n s of a 'Vancouver S p e c i a l '  226  78. Renovated home  227  79. C o l l a g e o f facades  227  80. Low r e l i e f  228  facades  81. Mobile 82.  Student  229 a t the schoolhouse  door  230  83. Study o f ' t h e s c h o o l e n t r y  231  84. Reworked e n t r y doors f o r the s c h o o l  232  85. E l e v a t i o n o f the s c h o o l as i s , and as i t might be  233  86. View i n t o a l o c k e r  235  87.  The view through a classroom door, the e n t r y door  and through 236  88. A simple view through a classroom doorway  237  89. View i n t o a c l o s e t  238  (etching)  90. Views of a room  239  91. View of a k i t c h e n  240  92. Through a doorway  241  93.  242  I n t e r i o r drawings  94. Two mandalas  (25% o f o r i g i n a l s i z e )  244  95. Sample pages from A P a t t e r n Language 96. George Bernard Shaw's sanctuary  .24 5  (Tiny Houses ) ...24 6  97. Student worksheet prepared f o r t h i s p r o j e c t  247  98. Simple  249  conventions f o r drawing  plans  99. Sample p r e l i m i n a r y sketches  250  100. A working model  251  101. Model made with love and care  252  102.  Human s c a l e examples  252  103.  Plans and a p a r t i a l model  253  104. A r e n d e r i n g o f a sanctuary  254  105.  Examples o f models  255  106.  Sanctuary  256  f o r a soccer p l a y e r  107. A t h e a t r e / s a n c t u a r y 108.  109.  Pool t a b l e s and g i a n t screens prominently  256 figure 2 56  I d e a l bedrooms  257  110. At the beach  258  111. Anonometric drawing  258  112.  2 62  .113.  Examples o f bubble diagrams 3-D bubble diagrams  :  2 63  114.  Simple p r e s e n t a t i o n models  264  115.  P r e s e n t a t i o n model  265  116. Model views  266  117.  Model views  267  118.  Excerpt from an a r t i c l e  270  119. A simple p r e l i m i n a r y sketch  271  120.  Student  272  121.  Drawings and f u l l  122.  Students working t o g e t h e r  274  123.  The  276  124.  The design sheet  279  125.  Lockers  280  126.  Locker p a i n t e r s at work and some samples  281  127.  Embellished l o c k e r s  282  128.  Sample mural a p p r o v a l drawing...  283  129.  Sample mural p r o p o s a l s and a p a i n t e d mural  284  130.  The completed' scrapbook  285  131.  Public art  288  at work on the paved area s c a l e p l a n s on pavement  sanctuary garden i n Skidegate  132. A r t students p a i n t i n g s e t s  273  289  133.  C h a i r design  134.  Designed  135.  Inquiring i n t o chair design  293  136.  'Annotated  294  137.  P r o f i l e of an intended r e c i p i e n t  296  138.  Simple  297  139.  Chairs  140.  C o l l a g e of c h a i r s  141.  Chair e x h i b i t i o n  142.  More c h a i r s  301  143.  C o l l a g e - d e s i g n t o exhibition.....  302  144.  Toys and g i f t s  303  145.  Cars t h a t are kind to the p l a n e t  304  146.  ...and some evidence of r e s e a r c h  305  147.  Snazzy eco-cars  306  148. A new  '..  chairs  292  diagrams'  axonometric  ..291  drawing  298 :  form of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  299 ..300  307  149.  Green b i c y c l e and f a n t a s y c a r  308  150.  Pennsylvania birdhouses and ' b a r k i t e c t u r e '  309  151.  B i g raven p a i n t i n g  310  152.  Outside the caravan  311  153.  Brochure m a t e r i a l r e : Emily Carr  312  154.  Sketch of Emily C a r r ' s caravan - p l a n view  313  155.  Sketches  o f a student caravan  313  156.  C o l l e c t i o n of student models: Caravans..  314  157.  Emily C a r r landscapes used as m o t i v a t o r  314  158.  Windows onto s e l e c t e d landscape  316  159.  S t r i p s t e l l i n g the day i n a l i f e  319  160.  Drawing o f beds i n a s h e l t e r  320  161.  Reduced examples o f p l a n  162.  Plans and model f o r a s h e l t e r  163.  Designs  f o r s h e l t e r beds: drawings,  164.  Designs  f o r street dwellers  .....321 ..322 models  323 324  165. Worksheets and models o f ideas 166.  Students at work i n Calimete  167.  Vancouver School o f Theology  168.  R e p r i n t o f news: D a i l y Telegraph  169.  Program sheet  170.  Diagram o f s k y s c r a p e r p r o f i l e s  325 :.  'Perspectives'  327 328 32 9  •  330 331  171. The WTC s i t e  332  172.  C o l l a g e of responses t o the q u e s t i o n  333  173.  Liebskind proposal  334  174.  News a r t i c l e ,  175.  Envisioning places  The Vancouver Sun  ....335 375  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am most g r a t e f u l to my students they keep me c u r i o u s .  - we grow together and  Thank you t o : My Committee - Dr.Graeme Chalmers, P r o f e s s o r J o e l Shack, School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e UBC, and Dr.Freda Pagani, UBC - a l l busy people who gave me the g i f t of t h e i r time and expertise. My r e s e a r c h f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s and a s s o c i a t e s who to read t h i s document with a c r i t i c a l eye and make suggestions :  agreed  Dianne C o u l t e r - s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and f e l l o w student, who i n s p i r e d me with her courageous t h e s i s , w r i t t e n a t the same time as t h i s one, and her generous comments, Susan V i c c a r s - a r t t e a c h e r / c o l l e a g u e - and co-adventurer i n a r t i s t i c and e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , who gave me s o l i d and p r a c t i c a l advice and encouragement, Marian S c h e l l e n b e r g - g r a p h i c designer, teacher and a r t i s t , whose suggestions and commentary were u n f a i l i n g l y a s t u t e , Marnie Tamaki - c o l l e a g u e i n both a r c h i t e c t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e - e n e r g e t i c and i n s p i r i n g cop a r t i c i p a n t i n many ventures, i n c l u d i n g t h i s one, Mary Ann Green - designer and b u i l d e r e x t r a o r d i n a i r e , whose i n s i g h t s keep me honest and a l e r t t o the p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s of l i f e .  PRE F A C E / D E D I CAT I ON T h i s work i s d e d i c a t e d Thorne N e s b i t t , who  to the memory of my  l i v e d i n our  Sunbury, f o r more than f i f t y  My  f a t h e r was  father,  f a m i l y home on R i v e r Road,  years.  an a r c h i t e c t i n what I have come to  understand i s a t r u e sense of the word.  Not  formally  t r a i n e d i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , though the r e c i p i e n t of a school  ' t r a i n i n g ' i n a r t and  t y p i c a l of the 19 and  Richard  century  th  i n d u s t r i a l or manual a r t s  i d e a l , he t h o u g h t f u l l y  then b u i l t with care and  house f o r h i s f a m i l y - t o - b e .  high  great  designed  self-taught s k i l l , a  I t i s a s m a l l , modest house -  q u i t e unique i n i t s simple elegance and  stout  construction,  and  i t turned  out  t o be very w e l l t a i l o r e d to the needs of  his  family.  Other f a m i l i e s thought i t would be  s u i t e d to t h e i r needs as w e l l .  I can  well-  remember a l l through  the years I l i v e d i n t h a t house, people came to the door to ask  i f i t was  the f u t u r e . passed on,  f o r s a l e , or might p o s s i b l y be I r e n t i t out now  and  the minute the  the t r e e , I am will  My  miles his plan  go on the t r e e i n my  The  'For S a l e '  been born i n an a r c h i t e c t - d e s i g n e d  home to me  from h i s words.  f a t h e r ' s innate  on  sign  lifetime.  away from h i s home on R i v e r Road.  first  parents are both  'For Rent' s i g n goes up  f l o o d e d with c a l l s .  l i k e l y not  f a t h e r had  that my  available in  He once  house s i x described  i n minute d e t a i l , • while I drew i t i n (Perhaps I had  i n h e r i t e d some of  c a p a c i t y to v i s u a l i s e - t h i s i s an  that can be developed with p r a c t i s e and  my  ability  awareness even  without the i n h e r i t a n c e . )  I had seen the house once, from  the f r o n t porch, j u s t before f o r Douglas C o l l e g e , imagination.  i t was demolished to make way  but I went i n s i d e o n l y i n my  I t was a l o v e l y house, a l s o b e a u t i f u l l y  f i t t e d t o the needs of the f a m i l y ; i t seemed t h a t the a r c h i t e c t l i s t e n e d w e l l , and my grandparents seem t o have been c o n f i d e n t  and a r t i c u l a t e c l i e n t s ,  needs and t h e i r context  But  who understood  their  with some s u r e t y .  somehow I am very g r a t e f u l that my f a t h e r took matters  i n t o h i s own hands. the house was b u i l t depression declared  (It occurs t o me o n l y as I w r i t e  this,  i n the l a s t two years o f the 'great'  - my parents moved i n o n l y days a f t e r war was  i n 1939.  was not consulted,  That perhaps e x p l a i n s why an a r c h i t e c t but c e r t a i n l y does not d i m i n i s h the  simple beauty of the house or the accomplishment i n any way.) For whatever reasons, my f a t h e r was c l e a r l y not w i l l i n g t o be p a r a l y s e d  by a l a c k of c e r t i f i e d  e x p e r t i s e ; he made h i s plans  professional  and got on with the job o f  c o n s t r u c t i o n . Perhaps h i s example i s one o f the reasons why I value  the idea so h i g h l y t h a t we are a l l capable of  participating,  a t l e a s t t o some degree, i n the d e s i g n o f  our p l a c e s  and s e t t i n g s .  foundation  f o r my own p r a c t i c e as a r e g i s t e r e d a r c h i t e c t .  I considered willing, process. citizen,  T h i s idea formed a c r i t i c a l  my c l i e n t s , t o the degree t h a t they were  t o be key p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l As a student, a p r o f e s s i o n a l , an i n t e r e s t e d and as p a r t o f a c l i e n t group i n two l a r g e and  dear-to-my-heart p r o j e c t s , I have u n f o r t u n a t e l y c l i e n t s are not always viewed as a l l i e s architectural  process.  i n the  seen t h a t  I b e l i e v e from my  gut  and  heart  experiences both p o s i t i v e and  and  head, f u e l l e d by  negative,  that the making of  our p l a c e s ,  i s not  alone.  I am  always o p t i m i s t i c about the p o t e n t i a l of  expert  to e n r i c h , and  But  of r e g i s t e r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s  where a p p r o p r i a t e ,  I p o s i t t h a t , however much experts  i n the best people who and  the p r o v i n c e  guide the  have to  i n h a b i t the p l a c e s ,  determined f a t h e r , and  a l l people who  messages of our environment and r e s p o n s i b l e way,  such as my  the  process.  contribute,  of a l l p o s s i b l e worlds the non-experts, will  real  the  courageous  receive  the  are moved to respond i n a  w i l l e n r i c h the process a great  w e l l . • In that sense, ARCHITECTS 'R'  US!  deal  as  CHAPTER 1 1.1  Statement o f the  Search  Introduction - the 'searcher'  I grew up beside  the Fraser River,  near the mouth of i t , so  the t i d e came i n and the t i d e went out the way t i d e s do on seas but not u s u a l l y on r i v e r s .  T h i s was important t o me  as a c h i l d because when the t i d e was out, I had a l o v e l y beach, almost f l a t ,  a l l t o myself, where I c o u l d draw  c r e a t i o n s that would l a s t u n t i l the t i d e came back i n . f a v o u r i t e p r o j e c t was t o draw house p l a n s , then dwell  I still  particularly, elaborate  I felt  caused me to move on.  recall  These f i f t y  some o f the homes I drew.  I r e c a l l the j o y I f e l t  years  And most  i n c r e a t i n g these  and h i g h l y a r t i c u l a t e d f a n t a s i e s .  fortunate,  t o make a t i p i and  f u l l s i z e , and  i n the house u n t i l some event - lunchtime, or  the incoming t i d e , later,  My  as a c h i l d , t o have a f a t h e r who knew how  out of poles t i e d together  covered with the 'indian blanket'  t y p i c a l o f the f o r t i e s - a rug stamped with zigzags done up i n earthy  with stout  from our -car -  generous sturdy  and other  rope,  thick flannel  r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n s and  'primitive' colours.  The t i p i was the  envy o f my f r i e n d s , and a l i v e l y a d d i t i o n t o the a r c h i t e c t u r e i n our community when i t appeared on our f r o n t yard i n the summertime.  I was not o v e r l y t h r i l l e d t o l e a r n that my f a t h e r had designed and b u i l t the home I grew up i n . was that the f a t h e r s d i d that s o r t o f t h i n g .  My assumption The mothers  seemed t o get t o continue the business of homemaking thereafter - refining,  adding grace notes, and m a i n t a i n i n g  the house so i t was indeed a home.  Although  a c t i o n s as n a t u r a l but very e n t e r p r i s i n g a c t i o n now, as a youngster,  i n t e n t i o n and then completed Yes, o f course.  beautiful, well.  architectural  I was able to take  a c t i v i t y completely f o r granted.  house.  I see these  this  My f a t h e r formed the  the a c t i o n of b u i l d i n g a  My mother made the house  and the lawn and gardens a l l around i t l o v e l y as  But n a t u r a l l y .  Nobody was h i r e d t o make a p l a c e f o r my f a m i l y ; R i c h a r d and Sally,  t y p i c a l o f a l l moms and dads, I assumed, made our  home, and then we l i v e d i n i t .  And I was i n v i t e d t o  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the process of p l a c e making, i n the f u l l n e s s of time.  When my f a t h e r s e t t o f i n i s h i n g the u p s t a i r s room  to make a bedroom f o r me, I was able t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the critical  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s .  The q u e s t i o n I  remember with most p l e a s u r e : what shape would the valence over my new c l o s e t door take?  I designed a t r i c k y l i n e indeed. F o r t u n a t e l y my dad had gone through  the a r t t r a i n i n g of the twenties and was as a  r e s u l t , very capable i n geometric  drawing.  My godfather, a  b o a t b u i l d e r , helped by c u t t i n g the f i v e foot valence out on h i s handsaw.  I got t o choose what c o l o u r e v e r y t h i n g would be p a i n t e d and agreed with my dad's i d e a that two shades of rose darker rose where shadows would n a t u r a l l y f a l l  (with  i n the nooks  around the chimney that ran through my room).would be lovely.  He asked me i f I would agree t o t h a t !  my f a t h e r l e t me choose the t i l e s  Moreover,  f o r the f l o o r o f my t i n y  bathroom - and I chose a q u i r k y combination of maybe f i v e • d i f f e r e n t patterns others,  of t i l e that d e l i g h t s me, and some  to t h i s day.  That p a t t e r n  is still  on the f l o o r  these f i f t y years l a t e r . A f t e r a s p i r i t e d debate with my mother, who wasn't q u i t e as l i b e r a t e d about c h i l d r e n ' s r i g h t s as my f a t h e r was perhaps, I got t o choose the c u r t a i n m a t e r i a l as w e l l - a strange e v o c a t i v e c r e a t i o n that gave me hours o f m e d i t a t i v e  geometric  pleasure  over the  years.  Although the l i m i t e d scope of the design i n f i t t i n g up a young g i r l ' s recognised  process  involved  bedroom may not g e n e r a l l y  as ' a r c h i t e c t u r e ' , I would argue that i t i s  a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the simplest  sense.  I t r u s t the good Gage Canadian D i c t i o n a r y ,  and b e l i e v e  that  i n our use o f language, c u l t u r a l l y agreed upon d e f i n i t i o n s must underpin our communications.  Gage t e l l s me t h a t  a r c h i t e c t u r e i s : 1. the s c i e n c e or a r t of b u i l d i n g ; (I would say s c i e n c e and a r t ) , the p l a n n i n g buildings,  ( a l l the work that takes p l a c e  and d e s i g n i n g o f . before  c o n s t r u c t i o n begins) 2. a s t y l e or s p e c i a l manner of b u i l d i n g - eg. Greek a r c h i t e c t u r e , 3. c o n s t r u c t i o n , (the c r a f t i n g o f a b u i l d i n g ) and 4. (the r e s u l t o f the p r o c e s s ) . for  a b u i l d i n g or s t r u c t u r e In my p e r s o n a l  l e x i c o n and  t h i s document, the word a r c h i t e c t u r e i s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e  with p l a c e making, or, as product of the process.,  as the  p l a c e t h a t r e s u l t s from the act of .place making. I see t h i s i n the same s p i r i t as Gage's d e f i n i t i o n .  The  word  'place' connotes a p a r t i c u l a r i s e d s e t t i n g f o r human activity,  conceived  environmental and  and  r e a l i s e d as a response to  c u l t u r a l requirements and  recognise that d i f f e r e n t  context.  I  shades and depths of meaning  be assigned to these words by others - f o r example,  may  an  a r c h i t e c t whose l i f e has been devoted to the more e s o t e r i c pursuits, of h i s or her f i e l d ,  or someone who  o f f by the e s o t e r i c connotations 'architecture'.. d e f i n i t i o n of teacher's  i s frightened  of the word  (The same c o u l d be s a i d f o r the  standard  'teaching' as opposed to a p r a c t i s i n g  r i c h l y emotive response to the word.)  Although a young g i r l ' s p r i v a t e space/bedroom/sanctuary i s not s e r i o u s A r c h i t e c t u r e by any it  imagination,  serves as an example of p l a c e and p l a c e making from  which important t h a t f o r me, was  s t r e t c h of the  and  p r i n c i p l e s can be d e r i v e d . f o r my  both an important  crafting,  And  I can vouch  f a m i l y and a s s o c i a t e d o t h e r s , i t  process  of p l a n n i n g and design  as w e l l as a p l a c e of d e l i g h t .  and  I f the making  and  d w e l l i n g i n such a simple  but meaningful s e t t i n g i s not  be construed  enough to be termed a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  as important  then I would q u e s t i o n product  in this  the word, not the process  or the •  instance.  As a person f o r t u n a t e enough to have been i n v i t e d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the making of my home, I was  to  own  p l a c e i n my  amazed to d i s c o v e r t h a t some people  to  family feel  unequipped or u n e n t i t l e d to make even the s i m p l e s t  efforts  towards i n d i v i d u a l i s a t i o n of t h e i r space. Such concepts as 'paint i t beige housing and  f o r r e s a l e value' and the ' s p e c u l a t i v e  market' and even  the 'turnkey  'colour codes i n the s u b d i v i s i o n '  development' caused me t o f e e l s o r r y and  sad when I d i s c o v e r e d t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . has  Sure not everyone  the time or the i n c l i n a t i o n t o b u i l d a house, or even a  cake f o r t h a t matter, from s c r a t c h , but I f i n d the n o t i o n that bland = b e a u t i f u l , p u r e l y f o r the sake o f conformity or t o maximise r e s a l e value, t o be a f r i g h t e n i n g indictment of our s o c i e t y .  Other searchers Hurray, f o r G e r t i e , who p a i n t e d her k i t c h e n c e i l i n g Red  Chinese  i n 1951 - even though my mother d e c l a r e d t h a t she s t o l e  the d a r i n g c o l o u r scheme from her.  My mom had been  c o n s i d e r i n g the i d e a , had mentioned i t , and d i s c a r d e d the scheme with  some r e l i e f when she saw G e r t i e ' s p l a c e .  Hats  o f f t o Lewis and Anders, who b u i l t themselves t i n y shacks at the edge of the F r a s e r - t o t a l l y t a i l o r e d t o t h e i r needs: s m a l l , easy t o care f o r and,located they wanted t o be. first  p r e c i s e l y where  And kudos t o the developers  of the  s u b d i v i s i o n s t h a t sprang up i n our r u r a l area.  There  were s i x or seven house p a t t e r n s used; some plans were f l i p p e d t o i n c r e a s e v a r i e t y a l l the more, and the purchasers  had input i n t o the f i n i s h i n g s , producing  a quite  n a t u r a l l o o k i n g , v a r i e d neighbourhood.  Moving towards Architecture I d i d n ' t c o n s i d e r a r c h i t e c t u r e as a c a r e e r when I f i n i s h e d high s c h o o l .  I t occurs  t o me now t h a t I was only  dimly  aware t h a t t r a i n e d a r c h i t e c t s were o p e r a t i n g i n the  world.  Wasn't d e s i g n i n g what the dads did? Once at u n i v e r s i t y I met  a t a b l e f u l of a r c h i t e c t u r e students.  whole s c h o o l , except time.  f o r one  A l l male.  teacher, was  P r e t t y w i l d bunch too.  The  male at t h a t  I t never even c r o s s e d  mind to study a r c h i t e c t u r e . Because of my  my  gender I wasn't  even allowed to take D r a f t i n g i n high s c h o o l . Even with  my  encouraging  to  background at home, i t never o c c u r r e d to me  go to a r c h i t e c t u r e s c h o o l .  I became a teacher,  s p e c i a l i s i n g i n a r t and language a r t s ,  and  p r a c t i c e as a teacher when I was  a  still  started  my  teenager.  Time to compress the t a l e : A f t e r s i x years of t e a c h i n g , s e v e r a l more of s t u d y i n g education,  and  I r e a l i s e d a need to  i n v e s t i g a t e what e l s e one might undertake i n September besides e n t e r i n g some i n s t i t u t i o n of l e a r n i n g .  I went to  the north, and by happenstance, a c q u i r e d a small l o t .  I  dreamed numerous house plans f o r n i g h t s and days a f t e r  the  land purchase,  and on about the t e n t h n i g h t dreamed a p l a n  t h a t might be simple enough f o r me decided to t r y to b u i l d myself because I was  to b u i l d .  (I had  a home, reasoning t h a t  s k i l l e d at sewing, the same g e n e r a l  p r i n c i p l e s should apply i n the m a n i p u l a t i o n of wood and metal as i n c l o t h f a b r i c . )  So I d i d s t a r t b u i l d i n g ,  and  so  a t i n y , e s s e n t i a l l y w e l l - t a i l o r e d home e v e n t u a l l y emerged, and so grew i n me  the d e s i r e to study a r c h i t e c t u r e , and  c a r r y on with t h i s very s a t i s f y i n g p r o c e s s . because of my  Perhaps  e a r l y background, I c o n s i d e r e d a r c h i t e c t u r e  to be a n a t u r a l o p e r a t i o n : the p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n i n g of p l a c e s f o r people.  In study and p r a c t i c e ,  I learned that  ' a r c h i t e c t u r e ' has a r i c h meaning indeed, but the definition s t i l l  works f o r  me.  A r c h i t e c t u r e i s i n t r i g u i n g t o me, s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c  e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s broad  i m p l i c a t i o n s ; the t e c h n i c a l  economic aspects of contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l f a s c i n a t e me  somewhat l e s s .  simple  and practice  A f t e r more than ten years of  q u i e t l y s u c c e s s f u l but not e a r t h - s h a k i n g p r a c t i c e , to  n o t i c e t h a t I was  f e e l i n g j e a l o u s of the teachers i n the  s c h o o l s I had spent so many years as an a r c h i t e c t to  I began working  r e p l a n and reprogram, renovate, design or add onto.  r e a l i s e d t h a t the f i n a l years of my  working l i f e  I  c o u l d very  h a p p i l y be spent i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system as a teacher, and I took the necessary steps to r e t u r n t o the with my  classroom,  e x p e r t i s e as an a r c h i t e c t very much a p a r t of  educator's  my  toolkit.  I recount these p e r s o n a l s t o r i e s as an example of how  I  came, over time, to r e c o g n i s e i n myself the c a p a b i l i t y of impacting my  surroundings.  Buoyed by l i t t l e  triumphs,  and  a growing awareness of the environment i n which I moved, I was  i n c r e a s i n g l y a b l e t o g i v e myself the p e r m i s s i o n to  d e c l a r e my  i n t e r e s t i n and w i l l i n g n e s s t o make a mark on  surroundings.  my  There are many ways to come to recognise  o n e s e l f as an aware and r e s p o n s i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e d w e l l e r in  our own  context.  One  might a l s o r e c o g n i s e t h a t t r a v e l  and study of o t h e r p l a c e s helps to sharpen see and understand  our own  as w e l l as other  our a b i l i t y t o settings.  Involvement i n p r o j e c t s at the micro or macro s c a l e g i v e s a sense o f what might be p o s s i b l e and how  those  possibilities  might be r e a l i s e d .  Viewed from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e ,  r e f l e c t i o n upon p e r s o n a l experiences may w e l l y i e l d the r e c o g n i t i o n that we do have something  t o c o n t r i b u t e , and  indeed, have l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d i n some r e a l ways a l r e a d y i n the shaping o f our p l a c e s .  Towards(and back to) education In order t o become f a m i l i a r with c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g and p r a c t i c e s , . I e n r o l l e d i n a program designed t o Help Educators Access a Return, t o Teaching, the H.E.A.R.T. program at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y .  This excellent  course  of s t u d i e s enabled me t o r e t u r n c o n f i d e n t l y t o the classroom, and enabled me t o c o n s i d e r the nature of my contribution.  I owe a great d e a l t o t h e a r t teacher w i t h  whom I worked i n the lengthy, p r a c t i c u m at K i l l a r n e y Secondary  School i n Vancouver.  N e i l Prinsen i s a treasure  house o f ideas and e x p e r t i s e , and he shared generously with me as he has with a g e n e r a t i o n of student t e a c h e r s i n h i s classroom.  He i n a d v e r t e n t l y caused a ' c l i c k ' i n my head  t h a t has helped focus my i n t e n t i o n s f o r t h i s study. day,  One  d u r i n g one o f our many s t i m u l a t i n g and r i c h  c o n v e r s a t i o n s , t h i s s o p h i s t i c a t e d and h i g h l y s k i l l e d a r t educator made a statement s a i d : " I don't  that resonates with me yet. ;  know anything about  wasn't t r y i n g to be cute.  architecture."  Neil  He  (Donna Sheh, another a r t  educator who served as an.outstanding F a c u l t y A d v i s o r f o r a recent student teacher i n my artroom, sentence to me i n March, 2003.)  s a i d e x a c t l y t h e same  So what d i d these educators mean by t h i s statement?  I know  that they both know much more than they c l a i m about architecture. mystique  Perhaps the term  ' a r c h i t e c t u r e ' has a  that makes even the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d among us  shy away from r e c o g n i s i n g our own efficacy.  Perhaps the concept  de-mystified,  understanding  and  ' a r c h i t e c t u r e ' needs t o be  i f indeed we tend to t h i n k of a r c h i t e c t u r e as  an e s o t e r i c p r o f e s s i o n , r e s e r v e d f o r the experts alone. The non-experts  (and maybe some of the experts as well)  need t o g a i n a c c e s s . t o what i t ' i s we a l l know, our understanding of our environment  tacit  and our requirements,  so  t h a t we can operate t o g e t h e r e f f e c t i v e l y i n the process of p l a c e making and i n h a b i t i n g our p l a c e s . towards a sharpened respond to what we change, and we  We  can move  awareness of our surroundings, l e a r n to see and what we need and what we might  can f i n d and grow i n o u r s e l v e s the  c o n f i d e n c e and s k i l l s t o a c t i v e l y and r e s p o n s i b l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the shaping of our designed  environment.  A r c h i t e c t s do have a place i n the order of things I r e c o g n i s e t h a t the i n s i g h t s gathered and developed i n the course of my  a r c h i t e c t u r a l education, i n t e r n s h i p ,  p r a c t i c e as a r e g i s t e r e d a r c h i t e c t put me  and  i n a somewhat  p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n t o operate as a p l a c e d e s i g n e r and p l a c e maker. wonderful  I would never minimise  set of growing  the e f f e c t of a  and l e a r n i n g experiences,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the M.A.S.A. graduate  level  Advanced S t u d i e s i n A r c h i t e c t u r e ) of my the u n i v e r s i t y .  And  (Master of  formal education at  the i n t e r n s h i p program and  p r a c t i c e as a p r o f e s s i o n a l enabled me  daily  to experience a wide  range of c h a l l e n g e s , which i n c r e a s e d my  expertise well  beyond the scope of an average layperson's experience.  I had the o p p o r t u n i t y  ways t o i n v o l v e c l i e n t s process.  architectural  as w e l l t o i n v e s t i g a t e  ( b u i l d i n g users)  i n the design  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n projects i n v o l v i n g schools,  I was  able to work c l o s e l y with school communities i n the conceptual  and design stages  of t h e i r p r o j e c t .  e s p e c i a l l y g r a t i f y i n g to see how students, teachers  I t was  as w e l l as  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , were able t o c o n t r i b u t e  t h o u g h t f u l and reasoned commentary r e g a r d i n g s i t u a t i o n , and imaginative be p o s s i b l e .  the e x i s t i n g  s p e c u l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g what might  They seemed t o enjoy b e i n g asked f o r t h i s  input, and perhaps d i s c o v e r e d ,  i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h e i r  i d e a s , t h a t they knew a great d e a l about a r c h i t e c t u r e . Unfortunately,  budgetary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d i d not allow f o r  much post-occupancy e v a l u a t i o n , but I hope t h a t where input was a c t u a l l y manifested community recognised  i n the b u i l d i n g , the s c h o o l  their  input.  I acknowledge that c l i e n t s and t h e i r p r o j e c t s can o f t e n b e n e f i t g r e a t l y from the i n c l u s i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s who have a r i g o r o u s background and a wide range o f experience. But  I a l s o know t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c i s i o n making can be  shared  amongst the t r a i n e d a r c h i t e c t s and the other n a t u r a l  r e p o s i t o r i e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l understanding  - the o r d i n a r y  people who spend most of t h e i r l i v e s i n and around the designed  environment.  I t h i n k i n some i n s t a n c e s ,  a r c h i t e c t s f i n d the s h a r i n g of d e c i s i o n making t o be a messy approach, c o m p l i c a t i n g an a l r e a d y very process.  complex  I t seems that a r c h i t e c t s are perhaps not always  t r a i n e d t o draw out the t a c i t understandings and the v i s i o n a r y p o t e n t i a l that r e s i d e s i n us a l l t o some degree.  I t h i n k t h a t o f t e n people conclude they a r c h i t e c t u r e ' and the processes who  do not  still  'know nothing  about  t h e r e f o r e shy away from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  of p l a c e making.  And  I recognise  t h a t people  choose a r c h i t e c t u r e as t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n  c o n t r i b u t e a great d e a l to the process  making, i f they are given  can  of p l a c e  some b a s i c guidance.  The goal of -this document i s to suggest to teachers, themselves l i k e l y to be untrained i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l l o r e of our culture, how  they can help themselves and t h e i r  students to become more aware inhabitants of the designed environment, and more confident and responsible p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the process of place making.  The Primer consists of teaching/learning experiences  that  are based upon what I have come to think of as the three basics of a r c h i t e c t u r a l necessity. We need to receive and be aware of what e x i s t s i n our surroundings.  We need to  f e e l e n t i t l e d and i n c l i n e d to respond to that increasing awareness, and to act with prudence and care and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - i n the understanding that our actions can have a profound e f f e c t , f o r good or i l l ,  on our  environment.  The program outlined i n the Primer encourages teachers  and  students to be c l e a r about these components, focused upon singly or a l l at once.  I have come to c a l l these elements  the 3 Rs of architecture : 1. RECEIVE : to look thoughtfully and to consider surroundings with attentiveness and wonder.  our  This i s  i n marked contrast to taking our settings f o r granted which, I think, i s a common stance. 2.  RESPOND: to envision and shape what might be - with  confidence and c a p a b i l i t y , based on the clear awareness of what e x i s t s . 3. take RESPONSIBILITY at the micro and the macro scale to a f f e c t needed and appropriate change.  This  change w i l l be based upon values that evolve i n the course of our l i v e s , and which can be developed and c l a r i f i e d as a r e s u l t of a thoughtful educational process.  These three Rs are as important to an educated c i t i z e n r y as are the t r a d i t i o n a l three Rs. We a l l need to be able to operate capably with a l l the Rs to maximise ourselves and our i n d i v i d u a l and shared p o t e n t i a l .  And when ordinary  inhabitants and experts can work together to create settings that r e f l e c t our needs and optimise our l i v e s , then we can say with some confidence that architecture i s not the esoteric constituency of the trained few, but that i  Architects 'R' Us.  An architecture process/product story A couple with whom I was o n l y very i n f o r m a l l y  acquainted  i n v i t e d me some years ago t o t h e i r home on Haida Gwaii t o d i s c u s s the prospect of d e s i g n i n g a home f o r them. were p r e p a r i n g t o r e t i r e ,  They  and wanted a home t o grow o l d i n .  When I s t a t e d my o p e r a t i n g mode i n the i n i t i a l stages o f our work, I f e l t some s t r o n g r e s i s t a n c e from the woman o f the house.  (It was she who had i n i t i a l l y  suggested  t o her  p a r t n e r t h a t I be consulted.)  As an a r c h i t e c t ,  I believe  my j o b i s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the design process with who asked  those  f o r my help, but not t o p r o v i d e the design  singlehandedly;  We had a number of lengthy c o n v e r s a t i o n s  about the dream home t h a t was forming i t s e l f i n our minds, spending  hours d i s c u s s i n g what might take p l a c e i n t h e i r  new home, and what s p e c i a l requirements provided f o r .  would need t o be  Only a f t e r many hours of easy d i s c u s s i o n ,  d u r i n g which I would make v i s u a l notes t o share with them what form t h e i r ideas might a c t u a l l y take, d i d the woman o f the household  e x p l a i n her r e s i s t a n c e t o the n o t i o n o f  p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y i n the d e s i g n p r o c e s s .  I t seems t h a t many years b e f o r e , i n a s i m i l a r manner t o many of us i n Haida Gwaii who had t r i e d t o b u i l d a home, the woman and her then-partner had b u i l t an immensely disappointing structure. dismal f a i l u r e ,  She f e l t the e f f o r t had been a  with r e s p e c t t o both space p l a n n i n g and  s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y , and a waste o f t h e i r p r e c i o u s resources.  She had decided, t h i s time, t o engage an  a r c h i t e c t and to thereby i n s u l a t e h e r s e l f from potential  disaster.  Of course, when I r e a l i s e d the reasons reticence,  another  f o r her e a r l i e r  I was able t o r e a s s u r e her that t o g e t h e r we  c o u l d f i n d a w e l l - t a i l o r e d and sturdy s e t t i n g f o r h e r s e l f and her c u r r e n t l i f e p a r t n e r .  And I r e c o g n i s e d t h a t my  t r a i n i n g and experience both i n academia and i n the r u r a l s e t t i n g and i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i c e had f i t t e d me w e l l f o r t h i s task.  I had l i v e d i n Haida Gwaii f o r many years,  eyes wide open much of the time, and I love those i s l a n d s . I c l a i m some understanding  o f the genius l o c i ,  Norburg-Schulz c a l l s the s p i r i t  as C h r i s t i a n  o f the p l a c e .  The r e s u l t o f our c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t was a l o v e l y house i n Tlell,  Haida Gwaii,  reminiscent  o f the simple  forms b u i l t by cannery owners along the coast, built,  and now l o v i n g l y maintained.  and p r i m i t i v e lovingly  S e v e r a l years  after  the house was completed, the owner wrote t o me t o say how happy she and her husband have been i n t h e house. She added t h a t t h e money they spent  t o i n v o l v e me i n the design  process  - but, as i t turned  process  t o me - was the best money she reckoned she had  ever spent.  Obviously,  out, not t o hand over the  there i s a p l a c e f o r t h o u g h t f u l  a r c h i t e c t u r a l e x p e r t i s e i n p l a c e making.  But j u s t as  o b v i o u s l y , there i s a p l a c e f o r us a l l i n the process. all  need t o make our i m p r i n t on our s e t t i n g s and the  i n s i g h t s we a l l b r i n g t o the design process value o f our made p l a c e s . an e s s e n t i a l s k i l l  can add t o the  I don't t h i n k t h a t the joys of  p l a c e making should be r e s e r v e d all  We  f o r the 'experts'.  o f the experts  Perhaps  i s t o f i n d ways t o enable  r e l e v a n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p l a c e making process t o  c o n t r i b u t e to the v i s i o n and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n - t o b r i n g a l i v e and a c t i v e the l a t e n t knowledge we a l l must i n the course  collect  of dwelling i n place.  C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander, a r c h i t e c t and b u i l d e r , p r o f e s s o r and researcher, Timeless  and author,  with h i s c o l l e a g u e s , o f The  Way -of B u i l d i n g and A P a t t e r n Language, sees  a r c h i t e c t u r e as a n a t u r a l p a r t o f human a c t i o n as w e l l . He  s t a t e s the b e l i e f t h a t b r i n g i n g a b u i l d i n g or even a p a r t of a town to l i f e i s a fundamental human instinct... the d e s i r e to make a p a r t of nature, t o complete a world which i s alreadymade of mountains, streams, snowdrops, and stones, with something made by us, as much a p a r t of nature, and a p a r t of our immediate surroundings. Timeless  Way o f B u i l d i n g , 9 .  Although C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander and h i s  colleagues  acknowledge t h a t t r a i n e d a r c h i t e c t s have  'the d e s i r e t o  make p l a c e s at the very center o f t h e i r l i v e s ' t h i n k t h a t everyone shares degree.  they  that d e s i r e t o at l e a s t some  They h o l d the b e l i e f ,  should design  (ibid)  furthermore,  t h a t people  f o r themselves t h e i r own houses, s t r e e t s ,  communities - based upon the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t most of the wonderful p l a c e s of the world were not made by a r c h i t e c t s , but by the people.  A P a t t e r n Language d e s c r i b e s t h i s a t t i t u d e toward a r c h i t e c t u r e or p l a c e making, and p r o v i d e s , u n s u r p r i s i n g l y , p a t t e r n s - o f t e n o f an a r c h e t y p a l nature action.  - t o guide t h i s  The p a t t e r n s are p r e d i c a t e d on an understanding  of  s u c c e s s f u l p l a c e s and i n f e r the t r a n s f e r e n c e of t h a t understanding that these  t o guide p l a c e making.  While I would agree  i n s i g h t s are profound and v a l u a b l e , and would  a l s o add t h a t I r e f e r r e d t o the p a t t e r n s a great d e a l i n the course  of my a r c h i t e c t u r a l education  and p r a c t i c e ,  must a l s o be s a i d t h a t many a r c h i t e c t s view these  i t  patterns  as o v e r l y p r e s c r i p t i v e and even somewhat overwhelming.  I  would suggest t h a t i f the people l e a r n t o be b r i g h t l y aware of t h e i r surroundings,  the r e a l i s a t i o n of.what e x i s t s and  what i s • s u c c e s s f u l l o g i c a l l y informs the response  or a c t of  p l a c e making i n a n a t u r a l but perhaps more i n d i v i d u a l i s e d way.  Further, I suggest  t h a t people  can be taught  this  awareness, and confidence i n the a c t of p l a c e making, so that they are f r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s n a t u r a l and very satisfying  action.  My p r o f e s s i o n a l stance My background as an a r c h i t e c t has r e l e v a n c e t o my goals as an educator.  I t i s not easy to summarise the goals o f a  person who has been moving about with some energy f o r as many years as I have..But r e f l e c t i n g on my e c l e c t i c and privileged l i f e  as a teacher and a r c h i t e c t ,  I might  a r t i c u l a t e my p e r s o n a l stance some h e l p from Walt Whitman. Somewhere (source long l o s t )  I found t h i s statement and  c o p i e d i t c a r e f u l l y as i t resonated very deeply with me. He s a i d : " A l l a r c h i t e c t u r e i s what you do t o i t when you look upon i t . "  T h i s touches  s q u a r e l y on the 3R's I have  named and has helped t o guide my p r a c t i c e as both an a r c h i t e c t and a t e a c h e r . I want t o continue l e a r n i n g how t o look upon the world,  and keep c o n s i d e r i n g what t o do about  our p l a c e s i n the broadest  sense. And I want t o enable  others t o look upon our designed energy, and d e l i g h t ,  environment with  interest,  r e c e p t i v i t y and a c t i v e c r e a t i v i t y , and  a c o n f i d e n t sense of p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s i n c l u d e s the p l a n e t too, come t o t h i n k about i t . But t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l stance p o i n t s me i n the d i r e c t i o n I e n v i s i o n . We should not j u s t s i t by and wait f o r e n l i g h t e n e d others to shape our s e t t i n g s . A r c h i t e c t s 'R' Us!  1.2 M e t h o d s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n e x p l o r a t i o n : the analytical framework/generating process  and  The method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and documentation t h a t I have used i n t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l concepts secondary  artroom  i s ' a c t i o n r e s e a r c h ' . N a r r a t i v e accounts  t h i s type of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h comprise pedagogical l i t e r a t u r e .  attempt  t o share  p r a c t i c e , u s i n g the  methodologies.  I i n c l u d e , as e x p l a n a t o r y background t o my artroom,  of  a growing body of  T h i s document i s my  i n s i g h t s gleaned i n the course of my action research  i n the  a n a r r a t i v e r e p o r t of my  first  experiences i n the  work with  this  r e s e a r c h process to i l l u s t r a t e and e x p l a i n the methodology. The f o l l o w i n g T e a c h e r - o n - C a l l n a r r a t i v e r e p o r t sheds l i g h t the a c t i o n r e s e a r c h process, and shows how understanding  on  theoretical  can be d e r i v e d from the c y c l e s of a c t i o n  r e s e a r c h . In t h i s example, as a T e a c h e r - o n - C a l l I c o n s t r u c t e d and t e s t e d a working theory r e g a r d i n g the elements of meaning, engagement and connection i n the range of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s I encountered.  I have been a b l e ,  from  t h a t experience, to g e n e r a l i s e some working p r i n c i p l e s t o a l l teaching  situations.  A story i l l u s t r a t i n g the methods of action research The  f o l l o w i n g s t o r y serves to demonstrate the a c t i o n r e s e a r c h  i n v e s t i g a t i o n method.  The  story i s b u i l t  a working j o u r n a l I kept i n 1998 was  f i l l e d with r e f l e c t i o n s ,  practice. belief,  The  from e x c e r p t s  as a T e a c h e r - o n - C a l l , which  i n v a r i o u s forms,  on  i n c l u s i o n of the n a r r a t i v e i s based  fundamental to my  from  understanding  my on the  of the process of  a c t i o n research, t h a t the p e r s o n a l i s u n i v e r s a l ; t h a t  from  our shared s t o r i e s , we take what we can use and grow toward the  light, t o g e t h e r .  The s t o r y , which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y about a r a t h e r unusual and somewhat u n a n t i c i p a t e d design c l a s s , a l s o serves to r e i n f o r c e my  n o t i o n that d e s i g n - and s p e c i f i c a l l y the process of  designing,  (which we do a l l the time i n the course of our  l i v e s i n one way  or another), i s i n t e r e s t i n g , meaningful  and  engaging t o s t u d e n t s . The  'Primer' - chapter 5 of t h i s document, i s intended t o  share, i n reduced n a r r a t i v e form, the i n s i g h t s I have d e r i v e d from a s e r i e s o f i t e r a t i v e attempts to b r i n g the themes and concepts of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t o the secondary s c h o o l artroom. The Primer was  built  from the same type of r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y  as i s t h i s r e p o r t of my  first  attempts at a c t i o n r e s e a r c h , as  teacher-on-call.  Narrative - " F i r s t day back" A f t e r a very prolonged absence  from a classroom of 'my  own',  I r e t u r n e d t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l system as a T.O.C. - Teachero n - C a l l - i n January, 1999.  I had c a r e f u l l y planned my  return  to  t e a c h i n g - had completed t h e • r e - e n t r y program f o r t e a c h e r s  at  SFU and begun graduate work i n education at UBC  p r e v i o u s year, and f e l t classroom  situation.  The f i r s t  assignment  the  ready and w i l l i n g to take on any  o f f e r e d t o me was  Woodwork teacher at a secondary s c h o o l . would be i n a u s p i c i o u s t o r e f u s e my  t o r e p l a c e the I recognised i t  f i r s t position,  I agreed t o do t h i s - and managed t o sound,  so at  I thought,  reasonably s e l f - a s s u r e d about the prospect, even though I don't t h i n k I had ever even been i n s i d e a high s c h o o l  6am  Woodwork shop.  When I was i n high s c h o o l , I asked the  I n d u s t r i a l A r t s teacher i f I c o u l d take d r a f t i n g .  "No" was  a l l he s a i d . I t would have been r i d i c u l o u s i n t h a t context t o have attempted t o e n r o l l i n Woodworking., as much as I wanted to.  Now'I was going t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r a Woodwork teacher.  T h i s was q u i t e a l o t t a process b e f o r e 6:J3.Qam, the f i r s t morning a f t e r a lengthy h i a t u s from the schoolhouse. A f t e r s i g n - i n and key pick-up at the s c h o o l o f f i c e , off  t o the t e c h n i c a l wing.  t r i e d t o look  I headed  A f t e r a few wrong t u r n s , where I  ' i n t e r e s t e d ' r a t h e r than  ' l o s t or 'confused' i n  the maze of t h i s l a r g e s c h o o l , I found the c o r r e c t g e n e r a l area.  I chanced upon a man, s t i l l  i n h i s overcoat,  s t r u g g l i n g with the l o c k on a classroom door. know who I was, so I i n t r o d u c e d myself  He wanted to  and s a i d I was  s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r the Woodwork teacher f o r the day. fell.  H i s face  In the jumble of h i s words, I caught: "you can't t u r n  on the power - w e ' l l have t o have a study p e r i o d - we don't do announcements u n t i l B block, so the c l a s s f o r f i r s t A b l o c k won't come prepared thought  f o r study!"  (Oh dear.  period  I hadn't  about power t o o l s - I t h i n k t h e r e was somewhat more  emphasis on hand t o o l s l a s t time woodworking shop.  I looked i n t o the  Furthermore, I had read i n the T.O.C.  manual t h a t i f you are i n a s p e c i a l t y area l i k e gym - don't try  t o s u p e r v i s e tumbling without  proper t r a i n i n g ,  ditto for  the shops e t c . )  When he d i d pause b r i e f l y ,  I e x p l a i n e d t h a t although  a q u a l i f i e d Tech. Ed. teacher,  I am not  I do have an e x t e n s i v e  t e c h n i c a l background as an a r c h i t e c t , which was what prompted the c a l l b o a r d t o t h i n k o f me t h i s morning. " T h i s i s Woodwork! - With POWER t o o l s ! - i t ' s going t o be a t o t a l mess.- l i k e l a s t time the teacher d i d n ' t show up!"  He suggested  I send, behaviour problems s t r a i g h t t o the  and they would d e a l with the mess t h e r e . and he r e p l i e d , "The  seemed dubious  They warned me A.  about my  The grade  powered by New  two other Tech  Ed.teachers  the grade  11/12  boys of b l o c k  i f I were lucky, t h a t most of the c l a s s  would s k i p out when they saw The b e l l rang.  was,  chances f o r having a n i c e day.  e s p e c i a l l y about  They thought,  he  P r i n c i p a l " and s t a l k e d o f f .  I found the Woodwork room and met who  I asked who  office  a 'sub' was  11/12  there.  boys a r r i v e d .  Perhaps  Year's r e s o l u t i o n s , they were q u i t e p o l i t e  about the s i t u a t i o n .  I hadn't been w a i t i n g t h i s l o n g to get  back to the classroom t o l e t t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y f i z z l e ,  so I  decided t o see what s o r t of i n t e r a c t i o n we c o u l d generate. i n t r o d u c e d myself, e x p l a i n e d why  I was  there  I  (technical  e x p e r t i s e , but not the necessary paper to t u r n on the power) and t o l d them a b i t about myself. s i t u a t i o n was We  the  f a r from p e r f e c t .  t a l k e d about  little.  I acknowledged that  a r c h i t e c t u r a l design and t h e i r p r o j e c t s a  I t o l d them they c o u l d go to get study m a t e r i a l s i f  they wished.  Inasmuch as i t was  their f i r s t  day back a f t e r  the h o l i d a y , there wasn't a l l that much t o study, so they d e c l i n e d t o take a t r i p t o t h e i r l o c k e r s .  I had been  e x p e c t i n g that they would be g l a d f o r the excuse t o take a walk, but they a l l e l e c t e d t o s t a y i n the classroom. ok - l e t ' s do a d e s i g n p r o j e c t - I probably won't be tomorrow so l e t ' s t r y a quick d e s i g n e x e r c i s e or Some of the boys had found something  I said here  'charrette'.  e l s e to do i n the shop,  but more than h a l f of the c l a s s looked q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d . We  s t a r t e d t a l k i n g about  chairs.  chair for a s p e c i f i c character.  We d i s c u s s e d d e s i g n i n g a We  Simpson as a c h a r a c t e r and about how  s p e c u l a t e d about Homer a design response c o u l d  best be t a i l o r e d to Homer's needs and wants.  They got the  i d e a and came up with suggestions both h i l a r i o u s and, thought,  q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Homer.  a f f a i r was  The  I  Clinton/Lewinsky  f r e s h l y u n f o l d i n g , and some of t h e i r i d e a s f o r  other c l i e n t s seemed t o take a somewhat s e x u a l c a s t . the l i n e at a l l o w i n g the but r e c o g n i s e d that the i n t e r e s t and concern.  'rape c h a i r ' i d e a t o be ' a f f a i r ' was  I drew  developed,  indeed an i s s u e of  They seemed to f e e l almost o b l i g e d to  c o n s i d e r t h i s hot news item.  When they saw  t h a t I wasn't  going to shy away from d i s c u s s i o n of the p r e s i d e n t i a l behaviour, quickly.  they moved past sex to other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s I acknowledged t h e i r i n t e r e s t  ( l i k e the r e s t of the  informed world's i n t e r e s t ) i n the s e x u a l / p o l i t i c a l news and d i s c u s s e d i t with them as m a t t e r - o f - f a c t l y as p o s s i b l e . Each student s e l e c t e d a ' c l i e n t ' , wrote a s h o r t b r i e f including a l i s t imagined  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i e n t  requirements,  and  and made p r e l i m i n a r y s k e t c h e s .  Throughout the c l a s s , the students maintained  spirited  c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i v e and  individual  efforts.  The s e v e n t y - f i v e minutes passed r e a s o n a b l y q u i c k l y .  'Art' was  not made t h a t day, but some good ideas were  generated,  the students were m e a n i n g f u l l y engaged, and nobody  needed t o be sent away f o r d i s c i p l i n i n g .  Analysis, Observations, Reflections, Musings...Theory The day went b e t t e r than the p r i n c i p a l and the o t h e r t e a c h e r s had a n t i c i p a t e d , a c t u a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  from the gloomy  s c e n a r i o that they had p r e d i c t e d .  T h i s was  of the t e a c h e r s t o my  I t h i n k t h e r e i s more t o  it  than t h a t .  'calmness'.  a t t r i b u t e d by  one  I t h i n k that the process  of design has a u n i v e r s a l appeal and  comes q u i t e n a t u r a l l y t o many people.  I r e a l i s e t h a t the  design p r o j e c t c o u l d have been more s u c c e s s f u l i f I had been more r e s o l u t e at the o u t s e t .  I saw that the students  i n t e r e s t e d , but I c o u l d have motivated p r o j e c t even more s t r o n g l y . to f i n d them so r e c e p t i v e .  were  the c h a i r design  I was a c t u a l l y a b i t s u r p r i s e d (And I was t r y i n g t o process  q u i t e a l o t of new circumstance  here,  a l l at once.)  that young people r e a l l y want t o be m e a n i n g f u l l y  I think  engaged at  s c h o o l , and they immediately understood t h a t d e s i g n i n g a simple  p i e c e of f u r n i t u r e c o u l d be meaningful.  I needed t o be ready f o r s i t u a t i o n s l i k e t h i s - no plans or guidance from the r e g u l a r teacher, circumstances  and very  constrained  - use o f power t o o l s f o r b i d d e n .  always many o p t i o n s . of hand t o o l s ,  I have subsequently  But there are  explored the use  i n t r o d u c e d other design problems>  motivated  r e s e a r c h problems with l i b r a r y r e f e r e n c e s , assigned t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e s i n the t e x t s .  T h i s school was undergoing a  r e n o v a t i o n and was r i c h with a r c h i t e c t u r a l  possibility;  s t u d y i n g drawings, c r i t i q u i n g the ideas, post-occupancy e v a l u a t i o n o f the s e c t i o n s a l r e a d y i n use. that  'bring m a t e r i a l s f o r study'  Figure  1.  Hand  tools  i n the  shop.  I do not t h i n k  i s ever necessary, and  Action Research: how does t h i s approach impact p r a c t i c e ? Very f o r t u n a t e l y , concept  I began a graduate  of A c t i o n Research  as a T e a c h e r - o n - C a l l .  course based  on  the same week t h a t I s t a r t e d work  I immediately  began a j o u r n a l , i n  which I recorded notes from readings, n a r r a t i v e i n s i g h t s d e r i v e d from experience, new  bits,  processes,  musings, i d e a s , r e f l e c t i o n s , promptings,  issues,  metaphors.  j o u r n a l keeping became an i n g r a i n e d h a b i t almost I cannot without  now  imagine  how  I c o u l d operate  the j o u r n a l h a b i t - my  immediately. t r a c k of and  teaching experiences.  R e f l e c t i n g upon the months where s t u d y i n g and overlapped,  This  intelligently  system of keeping  d e r i v i n g and making meaning from my call  the  teaching-on-  I r e a l i s e t h a t without the j o u r n a l ,  .experience would have been an i n d i s t i n c t b l u r , and  my  the  l e s s o n s embedded i n those experiences would l a r g e l y have been l o s t to me.  I was  able t o convert raw  s t o r i e s which helped me  experience  t o glean some new  into  i n s i g h t s from  the  f a s t - p a c e d , v a r i e d , and densely packed set of circumstances was  I  experiencing.  Just what i s Action Research? E i l e e n Adams, B r i t i s h a r t educator,  succinctly defines action  r e s e a r c h as: " e s s e n t i a l l y a p r a c t i c a l ,  problem-solving  approach which encourages p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o r e f l e c t on p r a c t i c e and to seek ways of improving  it.  their  (Adams 2001,  38)  Adams f u r t h e r notes t h a t the focus of enquiry of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h i s on p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s , as d i s t i n c t  from  theoretical  i s s u e s , and she c a l l s the p r i n c i p a l t h r u s t the study of change.  Moreover, Adams summarises t h a t the study of cases  of p r a c t i c e i s p r e f e r r e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h concept  t o the  study of experimental samples. The r e s e a r c h e r as the main  focus of the r e s e a r c h ; and others are i n v o l v e d as coresearchers,  'educated'  the r e s e a r c h .  witnesses  from the context served by  (Adams 2001)  I c o n s i d e r other t e a c h e r s  (and my students) t o be my r e s e a r c h  p a r t n e r s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h I have undertaken.  Teaching can be  a somewhat i s o l a t i n g occupation, which i s i r o n i c , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t a secondary  s c h o o l teacher can e a s i l y have over 200  students i n the course o f a year, not i n c l u d i n g a l l e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r contacts.  But when i s there time f o r a  s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n v e r s a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y with another t e a c h e r , when we t e a c h e r s are so absorbed  harried  with the goings-on  with students i n and out o f the classroom? I am f o r t u n a t e t o be p a r t of a t e a c h i n g s t a f f t h a t makes time for  teacher discourse.  'critical  f r i e n d s ' o r , as E i l e e n Adams says,  witnesses', call  Each teacher needs t o f i n d a few 'educated  t o c o n s i d e r i s s u e s with and t o share concerns. I  these people my  'research f r i e n d s ' .  r o u t i n e l y ask f o r feedback  As w e l l , I  from students, i n f o r m a l l y and  f o r m a l l y , r e g a r d i n g s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s , aspects o f p r o j e c t s , and the g e n e r a l progress of the courses I teach. of  feedback  know t h i s .  i s a gift,  Each p i e c e  and both my c o l l e a g u e s and students  The p r o f f e r e d o p i n i o n s are very u s e f u l i n g u i d i n g  change i n my p r a c t i c e . From Dr. R i t a Irwin a t UBC, I came t o see a c t i o n r e s e a r c h most c l e a r l y i n terms of the f o l l o w i n g simple diagram:  reflection  action observation  Figure  2.  The  cycles  of  action  research.  T h i s form o f r e - s e a r c h i n g can be seen as i t e r a t i v e loops o f a c t i o n , wherein c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n i n the course o f a c t i o n l e a d s t o t h o u g h t f u l i n q u i r y and the p o s s i b i l i t y of refinement in The  the subsequent  iteration(s).  i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be entered at any p o i n t i n the c y c l e .  As an example, when I began my c a r e e r as a T e a c h e r - o n - C a l l that f i r s t  memorable day, I would say, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g  a l l my  p l a n s and p r e p a r a t i o n s , I entered s q u a r e l y i n the a c t i o n phase o f a c y c l e .  The n a r r a t i v e demonstrates how  observation, r e f l e c t i o n ,  and  right-back-to-the-drawing-board  p l a n n i n g l e d t o p r a c t i c a l i n s i g h t s and r e f i n e d a c t i o n t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n the next s i t u a t i o n . to  my i n i t i a l l y  The c y c l e a l s o l e d  t e n t a t i v e , but l a t e r , more c o n f i d e n t  a r t i c u l a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l theory t h a t served as a guide i n my c a r e e r as a T.O.C, and c o n t i n u e s • t o guide my p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n a§ a r e g u l a r classroom The  teacher.  simple but c l e a r s t r u c t u r e f o r my t h i n k i n g - i n - a c t i o n gave  me the o p p o r t u n i t y t o .convert my response c h a l l e n g i n g s e t of circumstances action.  to a quite  into b e t t e r pedagogical  The change and improvement i n my t e a c h i n g stance was  based on a f o r m a l i s e d and t h e r e f o r e s t r o n g grasp o f the ' b a s e l i n e s i t u a t i o n ' , which was the d i r e c t r e s u l t o f c a r e f u l and d e l i b e r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n . It  became c l e a r to me, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the changeable l i f e I  l i v e d as a T.O.C, t h a t even i f the same s i t u a t i o n , l e s s o n i s never encountered presented.  topic,  again, the o p p o r t u n i t y t o grow i s  I c o u l d f i n d ways t o improve g e n e r a l i s a b l e .  understanding,  or t o make some progress with r e s p e c t t o  simple m a t u r i t y and depth o f thought,  with the a t t e n t i v e  o b s e r v a t i o n and c r e a t i v e t h e o r i s i n g t y p i c a l o f the a c t i o n r e s e a r c h process. circumstance  And i f the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet a s i m i l a r  i s there, as i n p r e s e n t i n g the same t o p i c t o  another  c l a s s the same day or even i n a subsequent year,  this,  a c t i o n r e s e a r c h process leads t o change and f i n e - t u n i n g which improves the q u a l i t y o f the e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e .  T h i s has  been my experience i n the years I have been t e a c h i n g a r t and conducting ongoing  a c t i o n r e s e a r c h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l  system and i n a v a r i e t y o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r As w e l l ,  settings.  I l e a r n e d i n R i t a Irwin's a c t i o n r e s e a r c h c l a s s t h a t  once new i n s i g h t s o r improved pedagogy has been o b t a i n e d and achieved,  s h a r i n g the r e s u l t s i n some way t h a t the pedagogy  of others might be . s i m i l a r l y e n r i c h e d i s an i m p l i e d o p t i o n .  Relation to the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e Another simple diagram serves t o l o c a t e the process o f a c t i o n r e s e a r c h i n terms o f what I c o n s i d e r t o be the p r i n c i p a l components o f growth. thought  The e x i s t i n g body o f p e d a g o g i c a l  i s e x t e n s i v e and r i c h , and i s not t o be overlooked i n  the p e r s o n a l problem s o l v i n g process o f a c t i o n r e s e a r c h . theory »  practice  _.  >• r e s e a r c h  Figure 3 . The components of a c t i o n research.  A very r i c h d i e t o f readings suggested by R i t a Irwin gave me the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c l a r i f y the concepts r e s e a r c h approach.  of the a c t i o n  In the process, I was able t o connect  my  experience, from which I was beginning t o draw out some i n s i g h t s and p r i n c i p l e s , with broader e d u c a t i o n a l thought. I had t o make an i n i t i a l  l e a p of f a i t h when w r i t e r Jean  McNiff and her c o l l a b o r a t o r s , and my p r o f e s s o r , R i t a Irwin,  declared life,  that a c t i o n r e s e a r c h  even though I was and  improve the q u a l i t y of  unable to c l e a r l y e n v i s i o n  i m p l i c a t i o n s at the o u t s e t . between theory  can  I mulled over the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  p r a c t i c e , and  wondered how  "praxis  become more aware of i t s e l f by means of theory." 1990,  the  (Van Manen  154).  I learned  from McNiff et a l , that p r a x i s i s "informed,,  committed a c t i o n t h a t g i v e s r i s e to knowledge, r a t h e r just successful action." a c t i o n research  (McNiff  life.  I was  that  explanation,  events i n the d a i l y u n f o l d i n g  values  (McNiff  13)  professional action.  I n c l u s i v i t y and  which I would want to guide  Equality surfaced  respect,  cousins  first.  of e q u a l i t y ,  followed.  ( E s p e c i a l l y i n a d i s t r i c t where so many of the students recent  recognised  I also  the need to go beyond the somewhat e u r o c e n t r i c  I had  t r a d i t i o n a l l y maintained.)  important to me.  Cooperation i s  (I f e e l t h a t years of p r a c t i c e as  a r c h i t e c t have enabled me  an  to understand and p r a c t i s e  collaboration - I believe i t i s a basic a t t i t u d e / s k i l l the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . ) and  are  immigrants, I need to be aware of the needs of  students whose E n g l i s h s k i l l s are t e n t a t i v e . focus  of  research  about what i s good."  I t r i e d to a r t i c u l a t e the values my  than  I discovered  very a t t r a c t e d by the n o t i o n t h a t t h i s  " d r i v e n by your own  1996,  1996,8)  includes description,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of o r d i n a r y is  can  nurturing personal  values,  Encouraging a s o l i d b e l i e f i n o n e s e l f i n i t i a t i v e and  independence are  r e l a t e d i n t i m a t e l y to the others.  s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s and needs which may T.O.C.s (read increases  'passers-through') but  key  Students a l l have  not be apparent to that, awareness at l e a s t  s e n s i t i v i t y to what might be.  Depth of response,  - founded on a c a p a c i t y f o r c r i t i c a l thought, r e f l e c t i o n c r e a t i v e adaptation,  for  which I i n i t i a l l y  l i s t e d as goals  and for  the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g , became very b a s i c p e r s o n a l g o a l s as . well.-  Measured a g a i n s t what I saw as a b a s e l i n e o f very low  and'pessimistic expectations,  I c o u l d see t h a t a change would  be r e q u i r e d i f I were going t o be able t o r e a l i s e my p r o f e s s i o n a l values to any meaningful extent as a T.O.C. McNiff  suggests  t h a t we motivate  our a c t i o n from the t e n s i o n  r e s u l t i n g from the i n a b i l i t y to l i v e ' o u t our v a l u e s i n practice.  The t r i c k i s t o imagine a b e t t e r way, based on  what we value, then work towards t h a t v i s i o n .  Keeping c l o s e  t r a c k of t e n s i o n s as w e l l as o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e f l e c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the q u o t i d i a n , and even c o n v e r t i n g those notes a form t h a t can be shared,  enables  i n s i g h t that enriches p r a c t i c e . and many o t h e r s which f i l l e d first  into  a c l a r i t y and depth o f  From the above  my l i f e  experiences,  i n the i n t e n s i t y o f t h a t  round of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h , I was a b l e t o d e r i v e c e r t a i n  hypotheses.  Although  my experiences  as a T.O.C. a r e  c e r t a i n l y r e l e v a n t t o my t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e i n g e n e r a l , many of  these new i n s i g h t s thus d e r i v e d f a l l somewhat o u t s i d e the  scope o f t h i s document.  S u f f i c e t o say, the a c t i o n r e s e a r c h  process  path f o r me t o f o l l o w i n d e v e l o p i n g  was an important  a p e r s o n a l theory of p r a c t i c e from hypotheses t h a t I was able to  a r t i c u l a t e from t h i s important  phase o f my c a r e e r . A b r i e f  summary o f how o b s e r v a t i o n became hypothesis became r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n serves t o e l u c i d a t e the process.  Towards a p e r s o n a l theory o f p r a c t i c e At f i r s t  I hypothesised  t h a t content was the key t o  s u c c e s s f u l s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h i n g - p o s s i b l y because my t h r e e weeks as a Teacher-on-Call  first  were spent i n s i t u a t i o n s  where no daybook was s u p p l i e d and where, o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t y c o u l d not take p l a c e - Woodwork shops - the power stays o f f . I approached the s i t u a t i o n by d e v i s i n g content  - a s e r i e s of  l e s s o n s based on s t o r i e s about people i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l r o l e s - Kate B r a i d , carpenter/poet, Emily Carr, a d v e n t u r e r / p a i n t e r / w r i t e r .  I introduced relevant  d e s i g n p r o j e c t s based upon c o l l a b o r a t i o n and analysis.  and her hero critical  I brought the wonderful ideas of Gu Xiong,  p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s n o t i o n of honouring o r d i n a r y simple  and objects,  i n t o the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n wherever p o s s i b l e . I was  attempting  to make the time spent  r e g u l a r teacher meaningful to students the f i r s t  c y c l e of my  of content  - not hugely d i f f e r e n t  It  I r e a l i s e d that  simply  refinement  from the o r d i n a r y  However, some of t h i s  activity  lesson  d e v i s e d f o r s u r v i v a l i n the i n t e n s e s i t u a t i o n of  s u b s t i t u t e teaching, the  - but  a c t i o n r e s e a r c h was  of a conscientious teacher. content,  i n the absence of the  has  evolved  i n t o lessons t h a t appear i n  Primer. should be noted as w e l l t h a t a f t e r the f i r s t  as a T.O.C., the circumstances daybook and not.  planned.  My  changed q u i t e d r a m a t i c a l l y .  c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s were provided,  T h i s was  new  to me,  job was  three .weeks  more o f t e n than  t o have a c t u a l l e s s o n s  then t o ensure t h a t students  already were  engaged i n the work - i n e f f e c t , to c o n t r i b u t e my  classroom  management s k i l l s  has  relevance  i n any  described' i n the  to the s i t u a t i o n . classroom,  This c l e a r l y  and t o the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s  Primer.  I n o t i c e d , as a T.O.C., t h a t i f I made a r e a l e f f o r t connect with students, more smoothly.  our time together  I r e f i n e d simple  to  seemed to u n f o l d  t a c t i c s such as  carefully  c a l l i n g the r o l l - making eye contact with each student they answered. I t o l d s t o r i e s as I i n t r o d u c e d myself encouraged students to  b u i l d t r u s t and  to share  as  and  t h e i r s t o r i e s as w e l l i n order  g o o d w i l l i n the c l a s s .  A  I ' n o t i c e d that  kids are i n t e r e s t e d , g e n e r a l l y , i n what i s going on at  school.  They were o f t e n w i l l i n g to share i n f o r m a t i o n about  themselves and t h e i r s c h o o l , and w i l l i n g to adapt to the r e a l i t i e s of a new  but temporary l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .  c l e a r l y can be a p p l i e d i n any  learning situation,  This  and  i s an  important  dynamic i n a l l the experiences d e s c r i b e d i n the  Primer  well.  as  I became i n c r e a s i n g l y committed to the n o t i o n t h a t something of  value should take p l a c e i n every c l a s s even i f the r e g u l a r  t e a c h e r c o u l d not be t h e r e . I a r t i c u l a t e d a p e r s o n a l statement:  students are e n t i t l e d to move forward with  their  e d u c a t i o n every day at s c h o o l - whether or not t h e i r r e g u l a r teacher i s a v a i l a b l e .  My  initial  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n as  a c t i o n r e s e a r c h e r began to take shape: How  an  can I p r o v i d e f o r  a q u a l i t y l e a r n i n g experience as a s u b s t i t u t e teacher simply as a t e a c h e r ) ?  I t r i e d to i d e n t i f y at l e a s t  components of a good "subbing"  s i t u a t i o n and  that p e r s o n a l connection, e d u c a t i o n a l meaning engagement  three  I speculated (content), and  (process/management), are the primary  Each s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n to these  (and  elements.  fundamental  elements; each s i t u a t i o n must be read to determine i n what p r o p o r t i o n these elements are r e q u i r e d . The n a r r a t i v e of my  c a r e e r as a t e a c h e r - o n - c a l l , b e g i n n i n g  with à memorable f i r s t  day,  serves as a v e h i c l e f o r s h a r i n g  with o t h e r s the i n s i g h t s I was  able to a r t i c u l a t e .  n a t u r a l p a r t of the a c t i o n r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i v e The  This i s a process.  i n s i g h t s and p r i n c i p l e s thus d e r i v e d have formed an  important  p a r t of my  t e a c h i n g stance i n the time I have been  conducting the a c t i o n r e s e a r c h t h a t has l e d to the  Primer.  The a c t i o n r e s e a r c h process, a r t i c u l a t i n g a commitment to improvement and understanding  of p r a c t i c e  (and the  p r a c t i t i o n e r ) , d r i v e n by p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , and manifested f a c t u a l and s u b j e c t i v e r e s e a r c h accounts  - n a r r a t i v e s of  in  d a i l y u n f o l d i n g a c t i o n - has a l s o become f o r me approach t o ongoing  practice.  a fundamental  I grow c l e a r e r now  f o u n d a t i o n s of my p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge. have been made more e x p l i c i t .  about the  Some t a c i t t r u t h s  The values I have a r t i c u l a t e d  and have moved c l o s e r to are best shown as n a r r a t i v e s put t o g e t h e r from notes i n my  journal.  This narrative,  subsequent o t h e r s , are supported by excerpts from w r i t i n g s of t h e o r e t i c i a n s and new become p a r t of my  operating insights.  s e a r c h i n g i n the sense "Research  heroes  the  of mine t h a t have  I have been r e -  expressed by Burnaford et a l :  . . . ( i s ) the search f o r p r a c t i c a l  possibilities  - t e a c h e r s and students s e a r c h i n g themselves, classrooms,  and  and t h e i r worlds  their  f o r e d u c a t i v e meaning. •  Such meanings are c o n t e x t u a l and o f t e n s o c i a l l y constructed."  (Burnaford et a l 1996, x i i )  In the j o u r n a l notes and n a r r a t i v e s ,  I have made some  progress i n b e i n g a b l e t o ground the a c t i o n of t e a c h i n g i n who  I am - and t o r e l a t e the p r o f e s s i o n a l to the p e r s o n a l .  I  have, over time, come t o agree with Burnaford et a l that " f a i t h f u l d e s c r i p t i o n helps one  to see more", and  I have  l e a r n e d t h a t r e f l e c t i o n i s a " s t a n d i n g back, a pausing to reread, t o mull t h i n g s over and  search f o r connections,  a s s o c i a t i o n s , s i g n i f i c a n c e s and p o s s i b l e meanings not n o t i c e d before".  (Burnaford et a l 1996,  13)  I am guided by Eudora Welty's i n s i g h t , which i s underscored i n one of our a c t i o n r e s e a r c h seminar readings: "The  events  i n our l i v e s happen i n a sequence of time,  but i n t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e to o u r s e l v e s they f i n d own  order ... i t i s a continuous  (Sumara and Luce-Kapler,  their  thread of r e v e l a t i o n . "  394)  W r i t i n g n a r r a t i v e s of, and r e f l e c t i o n s upon p r a c t i c e , process of which culminates i n the s t o r y of my  the  r e t u r n to  teaching,  i s a key p a r t of my  meaning as a teacher. a reflective  e f f o r t t o make and  share  T h i s process has enabled my  growth as  practitioner.  A new research context - towards.a new research question Most of the ideas i n the Primer have e v o l v e d over the through  years  the process of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h , which I c a r r i e d  p r a c t i c e as a r e g u l a r teacher. T e a c h i n g - o n - C a l l , I was  into  A f t e r o n l y a few months of  o f f e r e d a c o n t i n u i n g c o n t r a c t with  the Richmond School D i s t r i c t ,  t e a c h i n g A r t , as w e l l as other  subjects. My  a r t assignment has u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d t e a c h i n g A r t 9,  11, and  12 i n a c l a s s together, o c c a s i o n a l l y with the  grade 8 student thrown i n to the mix more e x c i t i n g . broad  Initially,  t o keep matters  I taught V i s u a l A r t s 3-D  range of students, with drawing and other  techniques  i n c l u d e d as s u p p o r t i n g s k i l l s .  10, odd  even to t h i s  2-D  In order t o  s i m p l i f y the t i m e t a b l i n g i n our department, I was  asked a  year ago t o teach V i s u a l A r t s 9-12,  3-D  together.  both 2-D  and  Over the l a s t s e v e r a l years, I have o c c a s i o n a l l y ,  (maybe twice) been given an a r t c l a s s comprised or perhaps two  grades  only.  of one  I t turns out t h a t the mix  grade, of  grade l e v e l s and experience and ages mostly works t o our advantage i n the artroom.  Students  seldom have the advantage  i n the graded  school system to mix with others of d i f f e r e n t  grade l e v e l s ,  and the general atmosphere of the classroom i s  c o l l a b o r a t i v e r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i v e .  I t i s from  l i v e l y context t h a t the Primer has emerged.  this  So what am I curious about? - formulation of the new question  research  I have noted b e f o r e t h a t I was  d e l i g h t e d , though somewhat  bemused, when the two  f o r whom I have the h i g h e s t  regard both  teachers  s a i d e x a c t l y the same sentence to me:  " I don't  know anything about a r c h i t e c t u r e " . These statements were made more than  f o u r years apart, perhaps when I p e r s o n a l l y needed  to  hear them the most. The  me  was  d u r i n g the course  teaching.  The  f i r s t time a teacher s a i d t h i s to  of my  second time was  p r e p a r a t i o n s to r e t u r n to short weeks before I began  w r i t i n g the a c t u a l t e x t of t h i s document. I have been keeping  notes  a long time,  j o u r n a l s and  and my  i n preparation for this writing for f i l e s are s t u f f e d  with  words, diagrams, photographs, samples and q u o t a t i o n s . course o u t l i n e has been covered to  p r o j e c t ideas and new  presented.  My  with notes  about  Each  refinements  ideas that s p r i n g from ones a l r e a d y  daybooks are s p o t t e d with immediate,  scribbled  r e f l e c t i o n s which are c o l l e c t e d i n t o a j o u r n a l , when the i n t e n s i t y of t e a c h i n g hours.  I keep t r a c k of feedback from c o l l e a g u e s  s t u d e n t s . The t h a t my  changes to the q u i e t of a f t e r  years f l y by and  school  and  i n s i g h t s accrue. How  fitting  notes have t h i s p r o p i t i o u s statement, spoken by  h i g h l y regarded  c o l l e a g u e s : " I don't know anything about  a r c h i t e c t u r e " - at both the beginning classroom  and  of my  r e t u r n to the  again, so r e c e n t l y .  1.3 R a t i o n a l e f o r the research q u e s t i o n : why i s t h i s i m p o r t a n t ? "I  don't know anything about a r c h i t e c t u r e " .  am  c u r i o u s about.  p o i n t , then how l i k e my  two  I f we  use  That's what I  'place making' as a s t a r t i n g  might s o p h i s t i c a t e d , well-educated  people  statement-makers t h i n k they know nothing about  this?  They know a great d e a l and  s h a r i n g with and  fortunate others.  they spend t h e i r  And  lives  they have both l i v e d i n  around a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the broadest sense a l l t h e i r  lives.  So I am  c u r i o u s as to why  they would say t h i s .  p r a c t i t i o n e r s of a r c h i t e c t u r e and/or our somehow caused  Have  c u l t u r e i n general  ' a r c h i t e c t u r e ' to seem too arcane f o r f o r m a l l y  u n i n i t i a t e d people to f e e l p a r t of t h i s process, knowledge of i t , to f e e l t h i s i s the case,  to c l a i m  ' q u a l i f i e d ' to p a r t i c i p a t e ? . I f  then the concepts of a r c h i t e c t u r e c l e a r l y  need to be examined. In our c u l t u r e , i t i s estimated  t h a t roughly  ten per cent  building projects involve a professional a r c h i t e c t . there i s scope f o r the a c t i o n s of n o n - a r c h i t e c t s making a c t i v i t y .  Clearly,  i n our  Place making and b e i n g - i n - p l a c e s  place  is a  n a t u r a l a c t i v i t y of humans - the people should be a b l e approach t h i s n a t u r a l a c t i v i t y with confidence  of  to  r a t h e r than  the o f t e n a r t i c u l a t e d i n s e c u r i t y . C l e a r l y there It  i s some mystery a s s o c i a t e d with  i s viewed by many as a r e s p e c t e d  composed of the s e l e c t e d few who  profession, a guild  pass through the  r i t e s of passage t o emerge as experts o f p l a c e making.  And  yes, a formal  d e a l with the c o u n t l e s s  'architecture'. rigorous  i n the a r t and  education  science  fitting  one  i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the  making of a complex p l a c e , i s an important foundation p l a c e making process  I do not denigrate  to  f o r the  i n many i n s t a n c e s .  or deny the need f o r experts.  My  critical  p o i n t i s that the input of f o r m a l l y t r a i n e d and p r a c t i c e d experts  i s but a p a r t of the requirement f o r s e n s i t i v e and  t h o u g h t f u l place making. w i l l i n g and  An aware and  confident  populace,  able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s c r i t i c a l process,  a key p a r t of the process that someone who  as w e l l .  is  I would venture t o guess  d e c l a r e s " I don't know anything  about  a r c h i t e c t u r e " does not f e e l t h i s confidence and i s u n l i k e l y to agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t of p l a c e making. The people  should not simply accept our p l a c e s from f o r m a l l y  t r a i n e d o t h e r s , imagining perhaps t h a t t h i s i s some p r e s c r i b e d way economics and suit  decreed by the a r b i t e r s of a r t , s c i e n c e , s a f e t y , and then adapt  our p l a c e s over time t o  o u r s e l v e s r a t h e r than the expert d e c i s i o n maker.  Rather,  a l l people who  dwell i n p l a c e s might f e e l welcome t o  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c r e a t i o n and ongoing s e t t i n g s : both the b u i l t we  r e v i s i o n of our  environment and the s i t e s upon which  build.  Although  i t i s an i n t r i g u i n g question, I t h i n k i t i s beyond  the scope of t h i s work to i n v e s t i g a t e why don't  know about a r c h i t e c t u r e .  people f e e l  they  I am much more c u r i o u s about  i n v e s t i g a t i n g what to do about t h i s .  I want to e x p l o r e the  t e a c h a b i l i t y of a r c h i t e c t u r e , with the goal of f i n d i n g ways t o ensure t h a t students and t h e i r teachers w i l l never moved to say " I don't  feel  know anything about a r c h i t e c t u r e " .  In our s o c i e t y we are l e a r n i n g to take p a r t i n a reasoned informed way  with r e s p e c t t o the medical care of our  b o d i e s : r e s e a r c h i n g o p t i o n s , experimenting medicines we  and methodologies,  and  own  with a l t e r n a t i v e  q u e s t i o n i n g the t o t a l a u t h o r i t y  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y g i v e n t o d o c t o r s .  I e n v i s i o n , i n the  same manner t h a t we have begun to p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y i n the processes r e g a r d i n g the care and maintenance of our bodies, t h a t we matters  own  should be a b l e to s i m i l a r l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n  r e g a r d i n g our s e t t i n g s .  awareness and assurance,  We  can act with  reasoned  knowledge, and with r e s p e c t f o r the  v a r y i n g complexity of our p r o j e c t s .  So my  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n f a l l s n a t u r a l l y out of t h i s g o a l :  What i s the nature and scope of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l  primer  designed to a s s i s t educators to encourage a c i t i z e n r y that i s aware, responsive, w i l l i n g to become involved and capable of responsible p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n the shaping of our c o l l e c t i v e  and p r i v a t e places?  T h i s approach t o p l a c e making and being organised  i n t o three i n t e g r a t e d areas,  architecture.  i n the world could be the three Rs of  The program would guide and encourage  students  to : - r e a l i s e - t h o u g h t f u l l y look,  see, c o n s i d e r what i s  - respond - e n v i s i o n and c o n s i d e r what c o u l d be - and accept  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t the micro and macro s c a l e  t o a f f e c t needed and a p p r o p r i a t e  change.  I see each R'. as p a r t of an i n t e g r a t e d concept t h a t begins A  by encouraging a l e r t n e s s t o the environment and one's own powers, and leads t o the development or d i s c o v e r y of a sense of p e r s o n a l  e f f i c a c y of each i n h a b i t a n t o f a p l a c e ,  I t h i n k t h a t these t h r e e environmental  'R's' are as important  t o an educated person as a r e the t r a d i t i o n a l need t o be able t o operate capably  x  3 R's'.  We  with a l l the R's t o  maximise o u r s e l v e s and our i n d i v i d u a l and shared s e t t i n g s .  So how w i l l I move towards answering t h i s question? My methodology i s meant t o be q u a l i t a t i v e i n nature.  This i s  an a c t i o n research p r o j e c t which i s based upon i t e r a t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n s of p o s s i b l e approaches t o the q u e s t i o n . present  I will  ideas f o r l e s s o n s or l e a r n i n g sequences t h a t were  developed t o b u i l d upon the f o l l o w i n g g o a l s : - t o strengthen  awareness of the environment,  - t o encourage r i c h and t h o u g h t f u l responses s i t u a t i o n s and circumstances  i n our  to  settings,  - and t o n u r t u r e a sense of p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e f f i c a c y i n the matters  and  of p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e p l a c e  making. As a p a r t of the study,  I w i l l take a look at some e x i s t i n g  programs which have presented a r c h i t e c t u r a l i d e a s i n the s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y the work of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l of  Institute  B r i t i s h Columbia Committee c a l l e d A r c h i t e c t s i n Schools,  and such educators as Ginny Graves of the USA,  and  Eileen  Adams of B r i t a i n . Buoyed by models and guided by p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s ,  I will  recount s t o r i e s of a s e r i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l experiences which I have p r e s e n t e d and r e f i n e d as a teacher and as an A r c h i t e c t - i n - S c h o o l s over the l a s t  two decades.  the o p p o r t u n i t y to work with these ideas i n my  I have had c l a s s e s i n the  p u b l i c s c h o o l system, at the Shadbolt Centre i n Burnaby, at c l a s s e s f o r h i g h l y motivated districts,  students i n s e v e r a l s c h o o l  and as a T e a c h e r - o n - C a l l at s e v e r a l s c h o o l s .  These r e p o r t s w i l l be presented i n a n a r r a t i v e s t y l e , r e f l e c t i n g my  belief  (and agreement with C a r l Rogers) t h a t  the p e r s o n a l i s most u n i v e r s a l - teachers can adapt s t o r i e s of p r a c t i c e t o meet t h e i r own My  again  unique  my  requirements.  r o l e i n t h i s work has been p a r t i c i p a n t - a s - o b s e r v e r and  o b s e r v e r - a s - p a r t i c i p a n t i n the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g s . I have p r a c t i s e d r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n and My  reflection-on-action.  j o u r n a l s have been c r i t i c a l to t h i s process.  Hobson w r i t e s : (Burnaford et a l 1996,  As  David  10)  The j o u r n a l i s a p l a c e where much of t h a t very important r e s e a r c h process can be d e s c r i b e d , drawn, r e f l e c t e d on, analyzed, and put back to use i n the classroom. Each t e a c h e r ' s j o u r n a l can become the textbook of emergent p r a c t i c e , ongoing r e s e a r c h , and as such may be the most important book a teacher can f u l l y w r i t e and read.  But the process of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h does not end with the journal.  A text i n t r o d u c i n g the methods of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h  states i t c l e a r l y : The f i n a l stage of a c t i o n r e s e a r c h i s when the process and outcomes are made p u b l i c . ( A l t r i c h t e r et a l 1993,176) These authors c o n s i d e r i t important  t o make t e a c h e r s '  knowledge p u b l i c , and back t h i s a s s e r t i o n with s e v e r a l strong reasons.  They urge a g a i n s t what they term  'teacher  p r i v a t i s m ' and b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l r e t i c e n c e t o share i s " d e t r i m e n t a l t o the development of i n s i g h t s professional practice."(ibid).  on  Moreover, they b e l i e v e that  reporting saves knowledge and i n s i g h t s from being f o r g o t t e n i n two senses of the word: by r e p o r t i n g and communicating your own experience you r o o t i t more deeply w i t h i n your own memory, as w e l l as making i t a v a i l a b l e t o other teachers and the p r o f e s s i o n a l community as a whole, ( i b i d , 177) I was  able to generate  and m a i n t a i n the i t e r a t i v e loops of  l e a r n i n g i n the v a r i o u s artrooms and with the wide range of students I was  f o r t u n a t e enough to have access t o . I was  able  to c o l l e c t a r i c h supply of student samples to use as v i s u a l data i n my  r e s e a r c h . I have snapshots,  wordshots, my  own  o b s e r v a t i o n s and the comments of i n t e r e s t e d o t h e r s . I have q u e s t i o n s , t h e o r i e s , answers sometimes too. my  The  r e s u l t s of  e f f o r t s have been e d i t e d and s i f t e d to glean the u s e f u l  m a t e r i a l t h a t can be passed on t o other teachers i n the of a document which I have chosen to c a l l the Primer,  Chapter  form  'Primer'. This .  5 of t h i s document, i s composed of a s e r i e s  of n a r r a t i v e s , i n f o r m a l l y and w r i t e r l y s t y l e d r e p o r t s of the lessons t r i e d i n t h i s research.  I agree that  The realm of meaning i s s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o l i n g u i s t i c forms, and one of the most important forms f o r c r e a t i n g meaning i n human e x i s t e n c e i s the narrative. (Polkinghorne 1988, 183)  I am  s p u r r e d on by the words of Susan Jungck who  writes:  The p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of n a r r a t i v e or s t o r y , i s the process through which i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e g r a t e a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l way of knowing. The dynamic nature of n a r r a t i v e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n r e s e a r c h ; i f we i n t e r p r e t our experiences through n a r r a t i v e , then we can and o f t e n do r e i n t e r p r e t those experiences as well... s t o r i e s of experience and understanding r e f l e c t s t o r i e s of change as w e l l . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s not o n l y the power of n a r r a t i v e as a way to grow, but the p o t e n t i a l of t h i s form of r e s e a r c h as w e l l t o promote growth and change...the methods of p e r s o n a l accounts research...with t h e i r e s s e n t i a l r e l i a n c e on the f i r s t person " I " are i n t e n d e d t o r e f l e c t the l e g i t i m a t e and necessary presence of a r e s e a r c h e r . N a r r a t i v e accounts of experience and r e s e a r c h r e f l e c t the processes through which c u r r e n t understandings are d e r i v e d as w e l l as t h e i r t e m p o r a l i t y ; they are not d e f i n i t i v e or s t a t i c findings. (Burnaford et a l 1996, 177-178) And  I am  wonderful  i n s p i r e d by the work of S y l v i a Ashton n a r r a t i v e , Teacher,  a beacon o f l i g h t l e a d i n g me p r a c t i c e when I f i r s t r e t u r n e d t o my  f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1963,  t h i r d year of t e a c h i n g .  before I  Subsequent readings  b e l i e f i n the power of n a r r a t i v e  b r i n g s t o r i e s of p r a c t i c e a l i v e i n such a way  can b e n e f i t from the t a l e .  became  towards r i c h e r and more humane  read i t i n the summer of 1967,  have served t o r e a f f i r m my to  Warner, whose  Although  she was  t h a t others  d e s c r i b i n g her  days as a teacher i n the i n f a n t room of a p r o v i n c i a l  New  Zealand s c h o o l , f a r from my  school  artroom,  experience i n a secondary  no p e d a g o g i c a l textbooks have e n r i c h e d  my  development as a r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r to the degree t h a t S y l v i a Ashton-Warner's simple but e v o c a t i v e book has done.  I e n v i s i o n the Primer as being of use t o teachers who worry t h a t they don't title  perhaps  know anything about a r c h i t e c t u r e .  I  i t 'Primer' to suggest that i t c o n t a i n s simple  a c c e s s i b l e ideas, not mysterious  arcane  suggestions t h a t  r e q u i r e years of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g to become expert i n Matters A r c h i t e c t u r a l . My  g u i d i n g metaphor f o r the work i s t h a t the  l e s s o n s d e s c r i b e d might be used by t e a c h e r s not j u s t as seeds,  but more as bedding p l a n t s , t o move forward  g o a l of i n t e g r a t i n g the concepts  to'the  of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t o the  r i c h garden of c u r r i c u l u m that e x i s t s today i n our s c h o o l s .  Concluding Real Questions M  Is  t e a c h e r r e s e a r c h r e a l research?  Where?  With whom?  When t e a c h e r s as r e s e a r c h e r s are a f f i r m e d ; when teacher knowledge i s r e s p e c t e d ; when t e a c h e r language i s l e g i t i m a t e ; when theory, p r a c t i c e and r e f l e c t i o n are u n i t e d ; when t e a c h e r - r e s e a r c h e r s a r e e x p e r t s , change agents, and consumers o f meaningful  producers,  knowledge; when teachers pioneer  new methods of knowing; who r e a l l y  benefits?"  (Susan Jungck, i n Burnaford e t a l 1996, 178) I understand  that I have been mostly a f f i r m e d , respected,  encouraged, supported,  understood  i n the. course of my  p r e p a r a t i o n and p r a c t i c e as both a r c h i t e c t and teacher. r e c o g n i s e t h a t I have had access t o guidance p r a c t i t i o n e r s of profound for  I  by educators and  knowledge and g e n e r o s i t y . I take  granted t h a t the r i c h wealth o f i d e a s of others has  always been r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o me, and I understand  that I  have something t h a t may be of value t o others t o share.  I  see how I b e n e f i t from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the communities o f l e a r n i n g where I have been welcomed. that t h i s i s important  But the r e a l  i s my students, the ones who  b e n e f i t i f they have access t o meaningful  reason really  and engaging  programs.  I don't  ever want students or t e a c h e r s t o f e e l the need t o  draw back from a r c h i t e c t u r e .  My goal i s t o enable young  people and t h e i r teachers t o f e e l s e c u r e l y grounded i n what I  have, f o r purposes architecture.  of c l a r i t y , termed the t h r e e R's of  I hope they can r e c e i v e t h e i r surroundings and  form an awareness of t h e i r what i s and what might be, f e e l enabled and moved t o p a r t i c i p a t e settings,  i n an a c t i v e  and operate with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  t h i s p l a n e t we a l l share.  response  to our  and s e n s i t i v i t y on  CHAPTER 2 E d u c a t i o n a l  scaffolding  2 . 1 Is there educative value i n using the ideas of architecture i n the classroom? We  know more about a r c h i t e c t u r e than we might t h i n k we do -  it  i s a l l around us, p r o v i d i n g at l e a s t p a r t of the  f o r our l i v e s .  setting  A r c h i t e c t u r e study can t h e r e f o r e be a very  s a t i s f y i n g p u r s u i t , because we c r y s t a l l i s e i n s i g h t s - we  can r e c o g n i s e  and  have p l e n t y of p r i o r  knowledge  t h a t comes c l e a r with some r e f l e c t i o n .  L e a r n i n g about p l a c e s and p l a c e making i s i n t e r e s t i n g engaging,  f o r myself and  and  f o r students. I have noted that  students tend, i n g e n e r a l , to be i n t e r e s t e d i n , and h i g h l y motivated  to c o n s i d e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l concepts. Moreover, our  r e l a t i o n s h i p with our surroundings  i s important,  be c a r e f u l l y attended t o . T h i s i s one way c u r r i c u l u m t h a t u n f o l d s i n an artroom p a r t of our way  and  should  i n which the  can become a r e l e v a n t  of moving through the world. Authors  June  McFee and Rogena Degge, i n t h e i r e n c y c l o p e d i c handbook f o r a r t t e a c h e r s t i t l e d A r t , C u l t u r e and Environment, a s s e r t that we  a l l i n f l u e n c e the q u a l i t y of the shared environment  i n one way  or another.  They s t a t e :  The q u a l i t y of the environment depends on people's a b i l i t y to use t h e i r design s e n s i t i v i t y , t h e i r s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h e i r e c o l o g i c a l concerns together to s o l v e environmental problems. When t h i s i s done, a r t i s not an appendage, but an i n t e g r a l p a r t of decision-making. (McFee and Degge 1977, 10)  These  same a u t h o r s f u r t h e r o b s e r v e t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l  psychologists built  (citing  I t t e l s o n e t a l , 1974) s t a t e t h a t t h e  environment has a tremendous  impact of the b u i l t  e n v i r o n m e n t o n p e o p l e ' s s e n s e o f who  a n d what t h e y a r e i s c r i t i c a l being.  i m p a c t on o u r l i v e s : t h e  to social  and i n d i v i d u a l  well  (McFee and Degge 1977, 111) T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e 3R's  c l a i m t h a t a c u r r i c u l u m which promotes  awareness  of the  d e s i g n e d e n v i r o n m e n t - ' R e c e i v e ' , o f f e r s , an i n v i t a t i o n t o participate in  a n d t h e p r o m o t i o n o f some s k i l l s  and c o n f i d e n c e  d e s i g n i n g t h e s e t t i n g s we i n h a b i t - 'Respond',  and  g u i d e s some s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b l e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s e efforts  - 'Responsibility'  everyone's  A Art  i s a necessary part of  education.  q u o t a t i o n f r o m a handbook f o r s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e Beaumont Museum o f S o u t h e a s t T e x a s , p r i n t e d  i n 1979 (no f u r t h e r  source information available) gives a f u r t h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r t e a c h i n g a b o u t p l a c e s and p l a c e m a k i n g  i n the schools:  A l t h o u g h one o f i t s g o a l s i s t o p r e p a r e f u t u r e c i t i z e n s t o make e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s , b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n i s n o t an e n d i n i t s e l f . It i s n o t a new s u b j e c t a r e a t o be a d d e d t o t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , b u t r a t h e r an a p p r o a c h t o a n d a f r a m e w o r k f o r l e a r n i n g i n a l l a r e a s . I t i s r a r e t h a t one c a n become i n v o l v e d i n s o m e t h i n g t h a t makes s e n s e , i n some way, t o a l m o s t e v e r y o n e i t t o u c h e s - young a n d o l d alike. B u i l t environment e d u c a t i o n has t h a t q u a l i t y . The s k i l l s a n d a t t i t u d e s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n • and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b u i l t environment a c t i v i t i e s can be a p p l i e d t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f a l l s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  T h i s s t a t e m e n t embodies of for  built  a broad view of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  environment education, which p r o v i d e s t h e c o n t e x t  a rich  array of l e a r n i n g goals - f o r connected,  relevant,  and engaging i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y l e a r n i n g .  Through  such a.study we can begin to k n i t a meaningful worldview t o g e t h e r with and f o r our  students/co-learners.  2.2 I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y connections  A r c h i t e c t u r a l concepts are u s e f u l i n teaching disciplines.  E a r l y on i n my s t u d i e s  i n a range of  I saw ways t o  t r a n s l a t e what I was l e a r n i n g as an a r c h i t e c t u r e into learning opportunities. elementary school  student  In my daughter's daycare and  classrooms, f o r example, we t r i e d some  measuring/mapping p r o j e c t s .  Later,  i n more  structured  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programs f o r h i g h l y motivated students, and  as a t e a c h e r - o n - c a l l  the p u b l i c school from my s t u d i e s  and a r e g u l a r  system, I began to adapt and use ideas  i n artrooms and t e c h n i c a l  classrooms, s o c i a l s t u d i e s  As  classroom teacher i n skills  and even E n g l i s h  a founding member o f the A r c h i t e c t s  classes.  i n Schools program  o f the A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B.C., I have had the o p p o r t u n i t y to see the enthusiasm and p r a c t i c a l and . creative expertise  o f both t e a c h e r s and a r c h i t e c t s i n the  classroom grow over time. p o t e n t i a l of architecture  We a l l became more aware of the as a r i c h t o p i c on i t s own, and  as a way t o f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e g r a t i o n of e x i s t i n g i n the c u r r i c u l u m .  Interesting  and f r u i t f u l  subjects  connections  can be e x p l o r e d between a r c h i t e c t u r e and a l l the s o c i a l studies,  language a r t s , f i n e a r t s , s c i e n c e s ,  home economics, t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s , planning.  career  mathematics,  and p e r s o n a l  The  l e s s o n suggestions presented i n the Primer  reinforce  the content o f other s u b j e c t s and d i s c i p l i n e s as w e l l as d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s t h a t can be used the e x p l i c i t  i n many ways o t h e r than  a r t p r o j e c t s they are embedded i n .  Some  examples: The mapping e x e r c i s e , i n i t s v a r i o u s forms,  encourages  l e a r n e r s t o look, with some i n c r e a s e d awareness and a n a l y s i s , at the journeys they make i n the course of their daily lives.  What i s important  i n the journey,  and how does the e x p r e s s i o n o f the journey r e f l e c t the p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s and values o f each person?  These  are i n t e r e s t i n g questions f o r teens, and i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i l l u m i n a t i n g f o r students t o see t h e i r c h o i c e of focus, f o r the mapping o f the e x p e d i t i o n from bed to schoolhouse other students'  door,  i n the context of the  selections.  The p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n attempting t o draw one's home from the i m a g i n a t i o n and the i n c r e a s e d awareness from a c t u a l l y l o o k i n g a t the home and drawing i t again can be t r a n s f e r r e d t o any o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r i n g the a b i l i t y t o a c t u a l l y see r a t h e r than use a p o r t i o n o f our environment.  just  Students o f t e n  express t h e i r amazement at how l i t t l e  they knew about  such an important p l a c e as t h e i r own home before they r e a l l y took a c l o s e look at i t i n order t o draw i t with some accuracy.  McFee and Degge suggest that  students who look at t h i n g s " o n l y t o know what they are,  need more time and help t o see the p a t t e r n of  design".  (144) Once students r e c o g n i s e t h a t they are  not r e a l l y aware of even such an important  p l a c e as  t h e i r own homes, they are r e c e p t i v e t o l e a r n i n g to see more adequately,  to look f o r and acknowledge the  p a t t e r n s - the order and v a r i e t y and the v i s u a l language  of houses and other b u i l t  forms.  j  In t h e course o f d e s i g n i n g simple or complex p l a c e s , whether s i n g l y or i n small groups,  students are  r e q u i r e d to develop, and r e f i n e , many a t t r i b u t e s . These a t t r i b u t e s i n c l u d e : f l e x i b i l i t y , problem  solving s k i l l s ,  c o o p e r a t i v e s k i l l s , the  increased a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i s e , mathematical  analytical  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f  and s c i e n t i f i c a b i l i t i e s ,  the a p p l i c a t i o n  of i n s i g h t s gleaned from s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and i n c r e a s e d awareness of p e r s o n a l as w e l l as group c h o i c e s .  Students are given the o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n s i d e r how t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r energies can be harnessed t o improve the q u a l i t y o f surroundings shared by the l a r g e r group.  Such experiences as the a c t u a l p l a n n i n g  and e m b e l l i s h i n g o f t h e i r s c h o o l , or the t h e o r e t i c a l r e f i t t i n g of a shared community space i n the 'unpaving'  project exercise t h i s a b i l i t y to contribute  socially.  Moreover, i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f events  o u t s i d e the d a i l y l i f e  of students such as the '911'  r e d e s i g n of a l a r g e urban area, or the i n i t i a t i v e s to c o l l a b o r a t e i n a c t i o n with people o f another students begin t o see ways i n which t h e i r  culture,  socio-  c u l t u r a l values can help t o make a d i f f e r e n c e .  O p p o r t u n i t i e s are there f o r a wide range o f l e a r n i n g possibilities  - i n c l u d i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n o f  i n t e r e s t i n g and u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s . A f a v o u r i t e p r o j e c t with students art' and  p r o j e c t , motivated  i s the ' t r a v e l t o make  by a c l o s e look a t Emily Carr  her t r a v e l s about the p r o v i n c e i n her caravan.  T h i s combines a c l o s e b i o g r a p h i c a l look at an important  h i s t o r i c a l hero o f our h e r i t a g e , an  o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i s e the process of d e s i g n i n a simple manner, and a chance t o c l o s e l y i n v e s t i g a t e a s e l f - s e l e c t e d geographic  area.  To summarise : I see the p r i n c i p a l educational meaning i n the approach presented i n this document to reside i n the b a s i c goals of the program.  The 3R's represent i n shorthand what I have  come to consider the educative foundation that b u i l t environment education can promote : the deepening of appreciation and awareness of our surroundings call  (which I  'Receive' - the f i r s t of the 3Rs), the enjoyment and  sharpening of creative problem solving a t t i t u d e s and techniques  (which I c a l l Respond - the second R), and the  development of s o c i a l values and c o l l a b o r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s (Responsibility - the t h i r d R.)  This i s the theoretical basis of the lesson sequences i n the Primer. Each of the learning experiences focuses upon at least one of the 'Rs' , but most projects involve the three Rs: Receive, Respond and Responsibility.  Latent awareness, teachable e x p e r t i s e , and c i v i c  concern  based on some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f values and i n f l u e n c e s , a l l i n c u b a t e d i n the designed  environment t h a t most o f us  i n h a b i t much o f the time,  can be nurtured t o produce an  aware c i t i z e n r y ,  w i l l i n g and able t o respond and  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the shaping o f the environment.  This  tall  order can be f i l l e d by the a c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l d i s c i p l i n e s i n the study of the b u i l t  environment by a l l  students, not j u s t those who wish to s p e c i a l i s e i n the b u i l t environment as a c a r e e r .  While I would never deny  the need f o r a r c h i t e c t s as expert c o n t r i b u t o r s i n matters to do with the b u i l t environment, I b e l i e v e t h a t  education  must i n v o l v e a f i t t i n g out of a general populace  which i s  prepared  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n aware, responsive, and  r e s p o n s i b l e d w e l l i n g i n our p l a c e s .  2.3 Approaches to learning - what do the psychologists have to say to a r t teachers? I n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e and process d i f f e r e n t ways.  i n f o r m a t i o n i n very  Instead of teachers and students  themselves asking i f a student q u e s t i o n i s 'how i s t h i s person  i s smart, the germane smart?' T h e o r i e s of  l e a r n i n g s t y l e s are based on r e s e a r c h demonstrating h e r e d i t y , environment and c u r r e n t demands  that  enable  i n d i v i d u a l s to d e a l with i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t ways. These ways are g e n e r a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as t o modes of p e r c e p t i o n and modes of p r o c e s s i n g .  Concrete  p e r c e i v e r s are g e n e r a l l y thought t o be those  absorb i n f o r m a t i o n through d i r e c t experience,  who  by doing,  a c t i n g , sensing and f e e l i n g . A b s t r a c t p e r c e i v e r s take i n i n f o r m a t i o n through a n a l y s i s , o b s e r v a t i o n , and t h i n k i n g .  A c t i v e p r o c e s s o r s make sense of an experience new i n f o r m a t i o n q u i c k l y . of an . experience  by u s i n g the  R e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s o r s make sense  by r e f l e c t i n g upon i t . and t h i n k i n g about  i t u n t i l readiness t o a c t o c c u r s .  As educators,  we need t o r e f l e c t upon the modes we  favour.  Are the concrete p e r c e i v e r s and a c t i v e p r o c e s s o r s adequately  p r o v i d e d f o r i n a system t h a t seems t o expect  a b s t r a c t p e r c e i v i n g and r e f l e c t i v e p r o c e s s i n g ? important  matter i s t o ensure t h a t experiences  a p p r o p r i a t e as w e l l t o students' enable  The must be  readiness t o l e a r n , and to  the development of the range of l e a r n i n g modes i n  each l e a r n e r . McFee and Degge, whose handbook  forart  t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e s a s e c t i o n on what a r t t e a c h e r s can d e r i v e from psychology,  i s unequivocal about t h i s p o i n t .  They  state: As t e a c h e r s , we have to help c h i l d r e n use the l e a r n i n g a p t i t u d e s they have a l r e a d y developed, but we can a l s o help conceptual c h i l d r e n become more p e r c e p t u a l and p e r c e p t u a l c h i l d r e n become more c o n c e p t u a l . (McFee and Degge 1977, 336) L e a r n i n g experiences i n the Primer  include opportunities  f o r the development of p e r c e p t u a l i s i n g i n the range of drawing and awareness e x e r c i s e s suggested; c o n c e p t u a l i s i n g as a prelude t o any design process - v e r b a l i s i n g and where necessary,  spoken) and image making  p r e l i m i n a r y work to be done.  (written  comprise  Some students need t o be  encouraged to t r y to p e r c e i v e and process i n the mode which they may not have developed t e a c h i n g to determine  who  - I see i t as the t a s k of  r e q u i r e s what kind of  encouragement and guidance.  MccFee and Degge comment that  a student whose success i n a r t has always been  through  i m p u l s i v e e x p r e s s i o n may not have l e a r n e d to be very r e f l e c t i v e i n h i s / h e r approach.  Teacher  intervention to  help such a c h i l d to r e f l e c t c o u l d indeed help him or her t o develop the h a b i t of r e f l e c t i o n .  Some students engaged  i n simple design p r o j e c t s i n my classroom are s u r p r i s e d at my i n s i s t e n c e t h a t they w r i t e a c t u a l design b r i e f s and p r o v i d e s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s to c o n s i d e r before s e l e c t i n g a d e s i g n i d e a to develop.  I t has not o c c u r r e d to  some that v e r b a l p r o c e s s i n g can be a p a r t of activités i n the artroom.  (The converse happens i n my E n g l i s h and  Philosophy c l a s s e s when I ask students to draw what  they  are t h i n k i n g , to r e t e l l an essay they have j u s t w r i t t e n  .using v i s u a l s only, or to t r a n s l a t e a d e s c r i p t i v e passage they are reading or w r i t i n g i n t o v i s u a l s . u s u a l l y take long f o r them to f i n d a way  McFee and  Degge p o i n t out t h a t  education  has  I t doesn't to do  this.)  'impulsive e x p r e s s i o n i n a r t  sometimes been s t r e s s e d at the expense of  a n a l y t i c expression'.  They note t h a t :  Since the time of the s t r o n g r e a c t i o n to c l a s s i c r e a l i s m and d i s c i p l i n e d drawing and the emergence of the c h i l d - c e n t r e d c u r r i c u l u m , teachers have focused on s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n at the expense of much r e f l e c t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . ' ( i b i d 341) The  e x e r c i s e s i n the Primer,  and perhaps i n any  built  environment c u r r i c u l u m g e n e r a l l y , p r o v i d e a wide range of complexity  which can engage r e f l e c t i v e behaviour  and  visual  a n a l y s i s as w e l l as the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r more i n t u i t i v e impulsive or f r e e r  and  response.  2 . 4 And what about C r e a t i v i t y ? McFee and  Degge r e f e r to p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h which helps  us to understand  which t r a i t s  p e r c e p t i o n , i n content problem s o l v i n g .  l e a d to c r e a t i v i t y i n  of ideas i n a r t outputs,  and i n  They w r i t e :  The c a p a c i t i e s to be independent, f l e x i b l e , f l u e n t , p l a y f u l , to be open to new experience a l l provide c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s with the a t t r i b u t e s needed to be c r e a t i v e , but do not n e c e s s a r i l y ensure i t unless avenues to explore, i n v e n t , manipulate, and solve problems are available-, ( i b i d 353)  A c l e a r case can be made that the l e a r n i n g sequences of the Primer  provide f o r such experiences.  Students  who  have  attempted  the design p r o j e c t s of the primer  (toys,  vehicles,  c h a i r s , and some simple b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s ) and  s p e c u l a t e d about the c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d e s i g n f o r a specific client understand  r a t h e r than the s p e c u l a t i v e market,  t h i s design as an i n t i m a t e , at l e a s t  t h e o r e t i c a l l y doable, their l i f e  e c o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y which  affects  very d i f f e r e n t l y from a shopping e x p e d i t i o n .  McFee and Degge ask: "Are you i n c l u d i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t encourage c o n s t r u c t i v e , a e s t h e t i c a l l y honest materials?"  ( i b i d 354)  While  reuse of  I see t h a t the Primer  a c t i v i t i e s do engage c r e a t i v e use of ideas and m a t e r i a l s , I concede t h a t t h i s work done thus f a r i s a b e g i n n i n g , a step along the way towards a higher order o f w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d problem s o l v i n g which would i n v o l v e a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d understanding  o f r e c y c l i n g and the p r o p e r t i e s of m a t e r i a l s , ,  and a deeper grasp of a e s t h e t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Degge a l s o suggest  McFee and  that inasmuch as c r e a t i v e t r a i t s are  p a r t l y l e a r n e d , we can encourage the development o f c r e a t i v e behaviour by a s k i n g students t o f i n d "many workable answers t o problems r a t h e r than s i n g l e , most r i g h t ones" .  The d e s i g n process suggested  i n the Primer,, where  students a r e r e q u i r e d t o f i n d and c o n s i d e r s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t e s o l u t i o n s before developing one i n d e t a i l , confounds some students i n i t i a l l y ,  but most have  little  t r o u b l e i n t e g r a t i n g the i d e a . I have, however, found t h a t it  does make sense t o the few 'holdouts', and i t does y i e l d  s a t i s f y i n g r e s u l t s i f I model the process f o r them and demonstrate a commitment t o t h i s aspect of the p r o c e s s .  In  g e n e r a l , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y u s i n g  the concepts  and processes of b u i l t environment e d u c a t i o n  seem to me  to be  imagination.  l i m i t e d only by our confidence  I f we  own  that we  a r c h i t e c t u r e r a t h e r than shying we  can  do  or  know r a t h e r a l o t about  away from t h i s knowledge,  i n t e g r a t e t h i s t o p i c i n t o the a c t i v i t i e s of  artroom to p r o v i d e  the  a r i c h source of c r e a t i v e l e a r n i n g  experiences.  2.5 Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences - how the processes of architecture can connect with a l l the identified intelligences In h i s work Frames of Mind: The  Theory of M u l t i p l e  I n t e l l i g e n c e s , Howard Gardner suggests that there are at l e a s t seven ways f o r people to p e r c e i v e world.  He  has  i d e n t i f i e d the l i s t  and  understand  the  of i n t e l l i g e n c e s to  include : V e r b a l - l i n g u i s t i c - u s i n g words and  language -  'word' smart  L o g i c a l - m a t h e m a t i c a l - i n d u c t i v e and deductive t h i n k i n g as w e l l as the use of numbers and the r e c o g n i t i o n of a b s t r a c t patterns V i s u a l - s p a t i a l - the a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i s e o b j e c t s s p a t i a l dimensions and c r e a t e i n t e r n a l images and strong graphic sense - ' p i c t u r e ' smart  and pictures  B o d y - k i n e s t h e t i c - u s i n g the t a c i t understanding of body, p h y s i c a l motion - 'body' smart  the  M u s i c a l - r h y t h m i c - u s i n g the a b i l i t y to recognise t o n a l p a t t e r n s and sounds as w e l l as s e n s i t i v i t y to rhythm I n t e r p e r s o n a l - person-to-person communications r e l a t i o n s h i p s - 'people' smart Intrapersonal awareness. Natural smart  - i n n e r s t a t e s of being,  and  reflection  - a l e r t to the laws of the n a t u r a l world -  and 'nature'  In an i n t e r v i e w with Ronnie Durie,  co d i r e c t o r of  Zero at Harvard, Gardner cautioned  that t h i s system of  attending  to the d i f f e r e n c e s among students should  Project  not  be  used t o l a b e l them.  He claims t h a t the i n t e l l i g e n c e s are  c a t e g o r i e s that help us to d i s c o v e r d i f f e r e n c e i n forms o f mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; they are not good c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n s of what people  are (or are not)  like.  We should t h e r e f o r e  use t h i s r e f l e c t i v e system t o seek and d i s c o v e r what i s s p e c i a l about our students, and t o p e r s o n a l i s e i n s t r u c t i o n , where p o s s i b l e . In short, Gardner a s s e r t s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g can be taught  i n s e v e r a l ways.  I f we r e f l e c t  on the  v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e s we are t r y i n g t o reach, we w i l l be a b l e to f i n d ways to match i n s t r u c t i o n t o p a r t i c u l a r of  types  receptivity.  I have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t most students love t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r own ways of being i n t e l l i g e n t ,  and I begin each  course,  each year, with a short d i s c u s s i o n of Gardner's theory, which I ask them t o apply to themselves. make an e i g h t p e t a l l e d flower  I ask them t o  (or a hubcap, or a t r e e -  whatever symbol p e r s o n a l l y s u i t s ) ,  and to d i s c u s s t h e i r  r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s and yet-to-be-developed  strengths i n  each area of i n t e l l i g e n c e i d e n t i f i e d by Gardner.  Without b e l a b o u r i n g the p o i n t , I p o s i t t h a t the possibilities  inherent i n designed  environment  education  appeal t o each of the range of I n t e l l i g e n c e s here  listed  and p r o v i d e ways to engage and t o strengthen each way of being smart.  Some areas may be more obvious  than others,  so perhaps a b i t of d i s c u s s i o n i s h e l p f u l .  L i n g u i s t i c - Students develop  who are 'stuck' while t r y i n g to  an idea v i s u a l l y f o r a design o f t e n d i s c o v e r t h a t  t r y i n g to d e s c r i b e what i s needed i n words helps to get the ideas r o l l i n g .  Even the making of a simple l i s t  p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t e n serves to m i t i g a t e the  df  intimidating  whiteness  of a f r e s h page i n the sketch book.  projects,  I ask students t o annotate  In design  t h e i r drawings - some  students become q u i t e c h a t t y - and o f t e n the l e v e l of v e r b a l d e t a i l helps to encourage a s i m i l a r l e v e l of v i s u a l d e t a i l i n the  drawings.  L o g i c a l - M a t h e m a t i c a l l y minded students l i k e to use a r c h i t e c t u r a l t o o l s t h a t I make a v a i l a b l e . Graph rulers,  shapes seem t o comfort  mathematically observed The  paper,  s c a l e s , p r o t r a c t o r s and compasses, even  of geometric  the  templates  and encourage the  i n c l i n e d i n t h e i r design quest.  t h a t t h i s does not seem to hamstring  I have creativity.  r e s u l t s might be q u i t e i n n o v a t i v e and sometimes  startling,  but the process might l e a n more t o the  s c i e n t i f i c and mechanical  with students who  c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r mathematical  have  developed  ability.  V i s u a l / S p a t i a l - I b e l i e v e , and share t h i s b e l i e f  with  students, that the a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i s e and c r e a t e i n t e r n a l images i s q u i t e easy to develop,  though of course i t  develops d i f f e r e n t l y i n each person. a r c h i t e c t u r e student,  As a beginning  I ( a l o n g with many of my  peers)  t r o u b l e d enough when r e q u i r e d to draw an e x i s t i n g We  were very s u r p r i s e d to d i s c o v e r how  first,  difficult  was  building. i t was,  at  to draw a b u i l d i n g t h a t d i d n ' t yet e x i s t . Being a  bookish, v e r b a l - l i n g u i s t i c type, I raced to the l i b r a r y t o do some r e s e a r c h on the s u b j e c t of v i s u a l i s a t i o n .  I no  longer  have the  sources a v a i l a b l e to quote, but  d i s c o v e r i e s that helped me l i b r a r y that I d i s c o v e r e d •a s k i l l  a great d e a l . the theory  I t was  i n the  that v i s u a l i s a t i o n i s  that can be developed with p r a c t i c e .  simple v i s u a l i s a t i o n e x e r c i s e s ,  I made some  Certain  such as e n v i s i o n i n g  and  m a n i p u l a t i n g simple geometric shapes, were p r e s c r i b e d e a r n e s t l y attempted. Learning  Confidence and  to see with i n t e r e s t and  drawing to help  seen.  with my  yet e x i s t ? '  fed my  simple  'how  can  s t u d i o at  applying  what i s focused  as  and  Of course the act of c l o s e l y  drawing a c t u a l o b j e c t s  design  same way though  sometimes i t seems with l e s s ' c r y s t a l l i s e d f e a r s  and  the  I draw i t i f i t doesn't  a r c h i t e c t u r e students to the simple e x e r c i s e s ,  observing  yet  exercises  Young' students respond i n much the  b a r r i e r s to overcome.  ability  students whenever I hear the same  lament, so o f t e n heard i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y School of A r c h i t e c t u r e :  using  to v i s u a l i s e what couldn't  I share these suggestions and secondary school  grew.  awareness, and  sharpen the a b i l i t y to see,  to see more i m a g i n a t i v e l y , be  ability  and  i n the world, and  of  s t r a t e g i e s and  c r e a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to  upon a l s o helps  to sharpen the v i s u a l and  spatial facility.  K i n e s t h e t i c - A good way  to i n t e g r a t e the  i n t e l l i g e n c e i n t o the study of p l a c e s  and  body-kinesthetic placemaking i s  something I found i n the AIBC A r c h i t e c t u r e f o r Kids program.(9)  T h i s e x e r c i s e c o u l d be used to f o s t e r an  awareness of the s t r u c t u r e of a b u i l d i n g and f o r c e s and  reactions involved.  considering principal  a b u i l d i n g , and  When students  the s t r u c t u r a l are  t r y i n g to determine  s t r u c t u r a l elements, i t helps  the  to t r y to  understand by  ' a c t i n g out' the elements and  forces  involved.  The diagram, borrowed from the AIBC program,  shows how  students s i n g l y and i n groups might be a b l e to  demonstrate how  a post and beam system operates, how  a dome  or a b a r r e l v a u l t works, and what a c a n t i l e v e r or a t r u s s or a b u t t r e s s  i s , i n c l u d i n g a sense of how  the  i n v o l v e d might o p e r a t e .  Figure  4.  How  we  can  understand  structure  with  our  bodies.  forces  The b o d y - k i n e s t h e t i c i n t e l l i g e n c e i s engaged as w e l l when students are asked to c o n s i d e r how  a s t r u c t u r e that  design might respond t o the p h y s i c a l requirements user, and how addressed.  q u e s t i o n s of comfort  of the  and convenience  might be  Students are r e q u i r e d to r e f l e c t upon and  document how  a space might be used, which a c t i v i t i e s might  be supported i n that s e t t i n g , in  they  how  an a c t u a l person  living  an a c t u a l body might experience the p l a c e that they have  designed.  Moreover, students can chalk f u l l - s i z e d plans  onto expanses of, say, pavement, and i m a g i n a t i v e l y i n h a b i t • those plans, a d j u s t i n g them at f u l l  s c a l e as b e t t e r  arrangements and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s are  imagined.  M u s i c a l - Again r e f e r r i n g t o AIBC m a t e r i a l s , I have seen a wonderful  l e a r n i n g sequence which r e l a t e s b u i l t  musical-rhythmic  intelligence.  I was  form to the  once present when  Clyde M i t c h e l l , the a s s i s t a n t conductor of the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, met  with a group of young students at a  workshop at the Simon F r a s e r downtown campus to c o n s i d e r the m u s i c a l or rhythmic aspect of b u i l d i n g s . The purpose  of the e x e r c i s e was  and s e t them to music.  to  expressed  'read' a façade's rhythms,  Which instrument can best express  the rhythm of a row of b e a u t i f u l windows, or a d e l i c a t e wrought i r o n fence, or an ornate dome? guidance, music,  With a  little  students were able t o set the b u i l d i n g façades t o  to p l a y t h e i r song.  Students with a s o p h i s t i c a t e d  m u s i c a l sense seem to have l i t t l e ' t r o u b l e making the connection between the cadence of a b u i l d i n g and musical rhythm.  Those with s p e c i a l s t r e n g t h i n the  m a t h e m a t i c a l / l o g i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e seem to r e a l l y enjoy s o r t of a c t i v i t y as w e l l .  this  Figure  5.  A complex,  Interpersonal  rhythmic building -  student  drawing.  and i n t r a p e r s o n a l - Many o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t ,  even i n the course o f one p r o j e c t , f o r students t o experience i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l as i n t r a p e r s o n a l , more inward l o o k i n g a c t i o n .  We need t o dare  to dream, i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y . Placemaking a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r a l o v e l y chance t o c o l l a b o r a t e , t o see how a small group can grow ideas perhaps w e l l beyond the c a p a c i t y o f any one person t o develop and r e s o l v e .  This  c o l l a b o r a t i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s an arena f o r p r a c t i s i n g the d e l i c a t e a r t s o f group dynamics, which are not always simple t o achieve.  The growth of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , both  i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e ,  can be nurtured i n p r o j e c t s  which b e n e f i t o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r s .  What b e t t e r way t o  a c q u i r e a t a s t e f o r a n t i c i p a t i n g and meeting  society's  needs than t o e x p l o r e ways t o make d e l i g h t f u l p l a c e s f o r us all  Figure is  to share.  6.  Drawing  h i s impression  by a young of his high  man whose  chief  interest  is  interpersonal.  This  school.  N a t u r a l i s t - Many s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r the s t i m u l a t i o n of t h e i r indoor p u r s u i t s to the j o y s o f g e t t i n g out i n the n a t u r a l world.  Often t h i s i s because  encouraged because  they have not r e a l l y been  t o encounter nature i n a p e r s o n a l way - or  p a r a d i s e has been paved with some f i n a l i t y  immediate surrounds.  i n their  C e r t a i n l y i f students a r e going t o be  encouraged  to make p l a c e s , they need as w e l l t o be  encouraged  t o understand the s e t t i n g i n which those human  made p l a c e s w i l l be c r e a t e d . To the degree  that i t i s  p o s s i b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e t o the program, students need t o l e a r n how t h e i r  (and a l l our) i n t e r v e n t i o n s on the n a t u r a l  landscape a f f e c t the n a t u r a l ecology.  F i g u r e 7. is highly  Drawings developed.  and explorations  by  students  whose  appreciation  of  nature  Howard Gardner does not see the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f M u l t i p l e I n t e l l i g e n c e s as an e d u c a t i o n a l end i n i t s e l f , powerful too f o r e d u c a t i n g .  but as a  Having an awareness of the  s t r e n g t h s our students possess, enables t e a c h e r s t o p l a n programs that w i l l enable l e a r n e r s t o maximise achievement.  their  The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a r i c h s u b j e c t such as  a r c h i t e c t u r e seem almost e n d l e s s with respect t o appeal t o the  v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e s that Gardner has i d e n t i f i e d ,  and  t h a t we have p r o b a b l y always i n s t i n c t i v e l y understood as ways o f l e a r n i n g .  2.6 Right brain, L e f t brain The  theories  regarding  the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s  o f f the  mind suggest t h a t the two s i d e s o f the b r a i n c o n t r o l two different  'modes' of t h i n k i n g .  I t i s f u r t h e r suggested  t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r s , or a t l e a s t has a  stronger  a f f i n i t y f o r , one s i d e or mode over the other.  Experimentation has shown t h a t the two s i d e s , o r hemispheres o f the b r a i n are r e s p o n s i b l e of t h i n k i n g .  The l e f t  be the seat of l o g i c a l , and  f o r d i f f e r e n t ways  s i d e of the b r a i n has been found to r a t i o n a l , sequential, a n a l y t i c a l ,  o b j e c t i v e and d e t a i l e d t h i n k i n g .  The r i g h t b r a i n has  been found to be the s i d e used f o r random, i n t u i t i v e , h o l i s t i c and s u b j e c t i v e  s t y l e s o f thought.  Schools are g e n e r a l l y thought to favour l e f t - b r a i n modes o f thinking, and  although the a p p r e c i a t i o n  of a e s t h e t i c s , a f f e c t  c r e a t i v i t y i s more valued, perhaps, i n education now  than  previously.  Clearly,  l e a r n e r s would b e n e f i t from a c u r r i c u l u m  that  would nurture and expand the powers o f the whole b r a i n . Thus i f we value and a t t e n d imagination  t o matters i n v o l v i n g the  and a c t s of s y n t h e s i s ,  we are engaging the  whole b r a i n r a t h e r than simply the l e f t ,  Betty Brain,  logical  side.  Edwards, author of Drawing on the Right Side of the shares some simple techniques t o help a r t students  engage the r i g h t s i d e o f the b r a i n t o help us see i n a  f r e s h and a l e r t manner. drawing a complicated  Some of her e x e r c i s e s  include  o b j e c t of f i g u r e upside down, r a t h e r  than r i g h t s i d e up - i n the way we are accustomed t o seeing it,  t o f o r c e us t o look with  seer/drawer t o r e a l l y look, information  f r e s h eyes.  r a t h e r than use s t o r e d  t h a t i s known about the o b j e c t o r f i g u r e  i n s t e a d o f l o o k i n g t o see what i s . describes  T h i s , as Edwards  i t , " f o r c e s the c o g n i t i v e s h i f t  left—hemisphere mode".  T h i s helps the  from the dominant  mode to the subdominant right-hemisphere  (Edwards 1979, 53)  I have o f t e n used t h i s technique as a sketchbook e x e r c i s e to introduce  students  t o the concept o f a f r e s h look.  Students a r e o f t e n very s u r p r i s e d at the accuracy able to achieve  they a r e  i n a drawing i f they look at the o b j e c t  model i n a way t h a t i s not t y p i c a l .  They are a l s o amazed  at how they can copy a q u i t e complex drawing- t h a t would not normally it  upside down.  f e e l c o n f i d e n t to' t a c k l e , i f they draw (I ask them to enlarge  t o a v o i d the temptation  Edwards d i s c u s s e s introduced teachers.  the image s l i g h t l y ,  t o trace.)  the technique of contour drawing,  by Kimon N i c o l a i d e s and w e l l known t o many She suggests t h a t t h i s method, of f o l l o w i n g  the eye and drawing edges t o simultaneously and  they  with  engage s i g h t  touch, i s d i s l i k e d by the l e f t b r a i n "which r e j e c t s the  slow, meticulous complex p e r c e p t i o n s information,  thus a l l o w i n g access  processing",  ( i b i d 82-83)  of s p a t i a l ,  t o R-mode ( r i g h t  brain)  This technique can be used f o r  drawing any s u b j e c t , but i t becomes e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s context  relational  interesting  when a p p l i e d t o drawings of b u i l t  form.  Combined with the simple technique of ' s i g h t i n g ' or what I term  ' e y e b a l l i n g ' i n drawing b u i l t  v a l u e i n e n a b l i n g break-throughs  form, t h i s has r e a l  i n confidence,  when c o n f r o n t e d by c h a l l e n g i n g complexity.  She  especially suggests  t h a t i n s t e a d of u s i n g complicated systems of p e r s p e c t i v e drawing, s i g h t i n g i s " v i s u a l p e r s p e c t i v e , with the o p t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c e i v e d d i r e c t l y by the eye and drawn by the a r t i s t without observe  revision."  - u s i n g the r i g h t b r a i n t o  angles and l i n e d i r e c t i o n s .  (Edwards 1979, 119) The  edges o f the paper r e p r e s e n t the t r u e v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l . The p e n c i l , allows the a r t i s t  h e l d p a r a l l e l or p e r p e n d i c u l a r ,  t o gauge the angles being observed  with  r e s p e c t t o the p e n c i l and then the angles or l i n e d i r e c t i o n s are drawn on the paper i n r e l a t i o n t o the h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l edges. T h i s simple d e v i c e ,  engaging  the r i g h t - b r a i n , enables the drawing of complicated  angles  and t r i c k y corners with accuracy and f r e e s students t o draw what they see simply and e f f e c t i v e l y .  2.7 Transmit Transact  Transform  C u r r i c u l u m b u i l d i n g would not be complete without  at l e a s t  a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the three major o r i e n t a t i o n s to c u r r i c u l u m a r t i c u l a t e d by M i l l e r and S e l l e r i n t h e i r book C u r r i c u l u m - P e r s p e c t i v e s and  The  Practice.  authors d e s c r i b e the three major p o s i t i o n s or  m e t a o r i e n t a t i o n s i n c u r r i c u l a r programs: the t r a n s m i s s i o n , t r a n s a c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p o s i t i o n s . b r i e f statement  Following i s a  of each of the three p o s i t i o n s as o u t l i n e d .  In the t r a n s m i s s i o n p o s i t i o n , the f u n c t i o n of education i s to  transmit facts,  and S e l l e r  1990,  5)  skills,  and values to s t u d e n t s . ( M i l l e r  T h i s p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e s a 'one-way  movement' - from c u r r i c u l u m , through student  the teacher to the  - to convey the content i n v o l v e d .  Miller  and  S e l l e r a l i g n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n with an " a t o m i s t i c view of nature  i n which r e a l i t y i s seen i n terms of separate,  i s o l a t e d building blocks."  Figure 9.  (ibid  6)  The transmission p o s i t i o n .  In the t r a n s a c t i o n p o s i t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r i s viewed as solving,  ' r a t i o n a l and capable of i n t e l l i g e n t problem ( i b i d 6)  The  connection between student  and  teacher i s seen as d i a l o g u e between the student and  the  c u r r i c u l u m , and the emphasis i s upon c u r r i c u l u m s t r a t e g i e s  that i n v o l v e problem s o l v i n g and the a p p l i c a t i o n of problem solving s k i l l s  i n s o c i a l contexts and development  cognitive s k i l l s  i n academic p u r s u i t .  M i l l e r and  of Seller  c o n s i d e r the paradigm f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n to be the s c i e n t i f i c method, and the g e n e r a l b e l i e f underpinning  this  p o s i t i o n i s t h a t " r a t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e can be used to improve the s o c i a l environment",  Figure 1 0 .  ( i b i d 8)  The transaction p o s i t i o n .  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n m e t a o r i e n t a t i o n , Seller, of  a c c o r d i n g to M i l l e r  and  focuses on p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l change. They w r i t e  three s p e c i f i c o r i e n t a t i o n s of t h i s  position:  (1)  t e a c h i n g students s k i l l s that promote p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (humanistic and s o c i a l change o r i e n t a t i o n s )  (2)  a v i s i o n of s o c i a l change as movement toward harmony with the environment r a t h e r than as an e f f o r t t o exert c o n t r o l over i t , and  (3)  the a t t r i b u t i o n of a s p i r i t u a l dimension to the environment i n which the e c o l o g i c a l system i s viewed with r e s p e c t and reverence, ( i b i d 8)  In the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p o s i t i o n , the c u r r i c u l u m and the student are seen t o i n t e r p e n e t r a t e each other i n a h o l i s t i c manner.  Figure 1 1 .  The transformation p o s i t i o n .  The  l e a r n i n g sequences i n the primer c o n s i s t o f a mix of  all  the abovementioned c u r r i c u l a r p o s i t i o n s .  There a r e  simple s k i l l s to t r a n s m i t i n the program - as i n mastery l e a r n i n g , as a p p r o p r i a t e t o the needs and i n t e r e s t s of the students.  For example, each student who sees a green  pepper cut t o demonstrate p l a n , s e c t i o n and e l e v a t i o n drawings i s able, t o some degree,  t o r e c o g n i s e and t o draw  u s i n g these a r c h i t e c t u r a l conventions. w e l l as standard artroom  A r c h i t e c t u r a l as  t o o l s are handled  and used  c o r r e c t l y , again t o the degree t h a t the student i s capable. Some textbook the Primer, depth  i n f o r m a t i o n i s t r a n s m i t t e d i n the course o f  u s u a l l y based  upon a judgement r e g a r d i n g the  t o which the student wants t o pursue any aspect o f  the program.  Often t h a t i s a s u r p r i s i n g depth.  course i s not s t r i c t l y b u i l t around the textbook, might be i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n model.  The 'texts'  range o f r e l e v a n t resources) are a v a i l a b l e ,  But the as i t (a wide  not c o n s i d e r e d  core m a t e r i a l but enrichment.  M i l l e r and S e l l e r c r e a t e a " t r a n s a c t i o n s c e n a r i o " f o r the future  ( i b i d 341) wherein  skills  and on making students aware of t h e i r own t h i n k i n g  processes.  teachers focus on problem s o l v i n g  The work r e g a r d i n g the a n a l y s i s o f a design  problem, the design processes p r a c t i c e d i n the Primer, c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s l i g h t .  M i l l e r and S e l l e r  note  as w e l l t h a t the " t r a n s a c t i o n s c e n a r i o i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by some degree of emphasis on a p p l y i n g p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g to s o c i a l dilemmas." Primer  ( i b i d 341)  While  sequences p a r t i c u l a r l y connected  sustainability,  skills  t h i s occurs i n the with  such as 'Unpave", and with r e s p e c t t o  i s s u e s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y such as the poverty u n i t ,  it  differs  from t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of the t r a n s a c t i o n model  i n t h a t the a f f e c t i v e domain i s emphasised and  i n t e g r a l to  the work.  According  to M i l l e r and  scenario,  there  Seller,  i n the  transformational  i s a move toward d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n and  human-scale r a t h e r than l a r g e r corporate and  d e c i s i o n making,  "people w i l l tend to be more s e n s i t i v e to g l o b a l  concerns and more l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l o c a l and  p a r t i c i p a t i v e d e c i s i o n making",  ( i b i d 341)  i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n underpins the involvement i n i n d i v i d u a l and  Such  Primer.  Through  c o l l e c t i v e p r o j e c t s to shape  the b u i l t  environment, i t i s hoped that students  recognise  and  a c t i o n . The  will  b u i l d t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y for cooperative  social  authors p r e d i c t t h a t p r o j e c t s i n the  transformational  scenario " w i l l involve various  improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e That i s a key the  politics...  i n the community",  e f f o r t s to (ibid  342)  t h r u s t of the l e s s o n sequences suggested i n  Primer.  Inasmuch as the t h r u s t of t h i s document i s a c t i o n wherein I have completed my  research,  c u r r i c u l a r explorations  f o l l o w i n g the p l a n - a c t i o n - observe - r e f l e c t p a t t e r n , have not used the implementation monitoring models described  by M i l l e r and  Seller.  I have, however, been  informed by the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the three c u r r i c u l a r p o s i t i o n s , and  have recognised  that the three models of  c u r r i c u l a r r e a l i t y are a l l at work i n the development of the  Primer e x e r c i s e s .  I  Concluding observations As  a m a t u r e s t u d e n t i n t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e - I was  well the  i n t o my t h i r t i e s  k n o w l e d g e t h a t p r e t t y much e v e r y t h i n g  learned  i n my l i f e  students can f e e l and  when I b e g a n - I o f t e n  acquired  revelled i n  I had ever  was u s e f u l i n t h i s d i s c i p l i n e . that  skills  j o y too,  as t h e i r g e n e r a l  Young knowledge  a n d i n s i g h t s a r e drawn o u t , r e f l e c t e d  u p o n , a n d p u t t o new a n d c o n t r i b u t o r y u s e i n t h e i r Simple p r a c t i c a l  design  p r o b l e m s , and t h e o r e t i c a l e f f o r t s  o f g r a n d e r s c a l e , engage l e a r n e r s and f o c u s knowledge, i n s i g h t and a b i l i t i e s a f f i r m i n g way. the  Possibilities  shaped i n t o l e s s o n s  i n a satisfying,  life  that  a r t r o o m and o t h e r  intelligences are  i n our b u i l t  e n v i r o n m e n t c a n be  s a t i s f y a wide range o f c u r r i c u l a r  r e q u i r e m e n t s . The e d u c a t i v e the  their  C r e a t i v i t y i s sharpened, and b o t h s i d e s o f  b r a i n and a l l t h e r e s i d e n t  marshalled.  lives.  potential of architecture i n  c l a s s r o o m s i s r i c h and p l e n t i f u l .  Figure 1 2 . Architecture i n the classroom.  CHAPTER 3 C o n n e c t i o n t o b r o a d e r themes o f a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e and society The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s chapter g i v e s background r a t i o n a l e f o r some of the l e a r n i n g sequences i n the Primer. I t enables  some b a s i c connections t o be made with some o f the  broader  themes of a r c h i t e c t u r e . The Primer,  chapter 5 o f  t h i s document, which can e a s i l y be used as a d i s c r e t e  unit  - c o n t a i n s n a r r a t i v e s of p r a c t i c e which are grounded i n these themes.  Of the many themes of a r c h i t e c t u r e and a r t , I have s e l e c t e d f i v e major ones to focus upon here.  They r e p r e s e n t my  p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s r e g a r d i n g some important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r students, t e a c h e r s , and an a c t i v e c i t i z e n r y t o e x p l o r e . These themes a r e by no means an a l l - i n c l u s i v e l i s t c o u l d be presented i n b u i l t environmental  o f what  education, but  taken t o g e t h e r they support a cohesive approach f o r a s e r i e s o f l e a r n i n g experiences t h a t are focused upon the built  The  environment.  first  theme I e x p l o r e here i s Drawing, because some  form o f v i s u a l communication, drawing being the most obvious,  i s c l e a r l y fundamental t o any kind of p l a n n i n g , or  design.  'Drawing' can here be expanded t o i n c l u d e  diagramming, mapping, v a r i o u s forms and combinations o f v i s u a l / v e r b a l communication, but some f a c i l i t y i n t h i s  area  c e r t a i n l y f r e e s one t o move forward with d e s i g n . The e x p r e s s i v e a r t program can w e l l be supplemented and enhanced by the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of drawing a b i l i t y and confidence.  The drawing s k i l l s t h a t are developed  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of and i n t e r a c t i o n with the b u i l t  through  environment  i n t e g r a t e the l o g i c a l processes o f the l e f t b r a i n and the i n t u i t i v e and h o l i s t i c s t y l e s of thought  o f the r i g h t  brain.  The design process i s e x p l o r e d i n order t o d i r e c t e n t h u s i a s t i c energy  i n s o f a r as t h i s d i r e c t i o n i s needed.  I f the d e s i g n process i s powered by the n o t i o n t h a t s o l u t i o n s t o any problem do indeed e x i s t ,  then an  e x p l o r a t i o n o f the processes by which one analyses a problem, e x p l o r e s o p t i o n s or a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  evaluates  f i n d i n g s , and moves forward i n an i t e r a t i v e way towards a goal i s a p p l i c a b l e i n many areas, not j u s t i n the artroom. I see. something very n a t u r a l about the design process.  We  'design' i n our d a i l y l i v e s i n many c r e a t i v e ways, o f t e n unaware t h a t we are indeed  'designing'.  I think i t helps  to c o n s i d e r t h i s process i n an e x p l i c i t way. leave myself  Although I  open t o the charge t h a t a problem s o l v i n g  approach i s more o f an e n g i n e e r i n g p o i n t o f view than an a r c h i t e c t u r a l stance, I have chosen t o focus upon the i m a g i n a t i v e approach t o c r e a t i n g something new, r a t h e r than the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e s t a b l i s h e d precedents.  Clearly,  seeing e x i s t i n g s t y l e s and t y p o l o g i e s i s p a r t of environmental  awareness, and context i s always an important  aspect of our design d e l i b e r a t i o n s .  I have p l e n t y of  s t i m u l a t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e m a t e r i a l about  existing  a r c h i t e c t u r e a v a i l a b l e , but I do not e x p l i c i t l y teach the  a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s or s t r u c t u r e s i n t h i s program,  except  when i t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y requested by a student.  Phenomenology i s i n t r o d u c e d as a theme f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n as it  i s a key approach i n the making of humane and  particularised architecture. p o s i t i o n suggests  f o r us new  about our world.  We  This thoughtful, r e f l e c t i v e ways of seeing and t h i n k i n g  l e a r n to look with a t t e n t i v e n e s s and  wonder at what e x i s t s i n order to imagine c o u l d be. The phenomenological out and understand  the unique  and manifest what  approach helps us to search c h a r a c t e r of a l o c a l e ,  r e s p e c t and act i n concert with the s p i r i t  to  of the p l a c e .  S u s t a i n a b i l i t y i s another e t h i c a l stance I have r e c o g n i s e d as c r i t i c a l Although  i n the p u t t i n g together of t h i s program.  I do not e x p l i c i t l y teach the p r i n c i p l e s of  s u s t a i n a b l e development i n my  artroom,  I b e l i e v e t h a t there  are many ways t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s u s t a i n a b i l i t y can be woven i n to a l l education programs.  I have gathered  some r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , which some students have used i n the course of t h e i r p r o j e c t e f f o r t s ,  and some of the  l e a r n i n g experiences have e x p l i c i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of sustainability.  T i e d very c l o s e l y to the p r e v i o u s two of  social responsibility,  education i n my mind. environment are never  themes i s the theme  which underpins  any  A r c h i t e c t u r e and the j u s t about form, but  environmental  built complex  i n t e r a c t i o n s between people and t h e i r s e t t i n g s . too,  I think  that many of the small i n t e r v e n t i o n s which we make to  a f f i r m and improve our surroundings  are sometimes not  r e c o g n i s e d as s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  Part of  my goal i s t o acknowledge the a c t i o n s we a l r e a d y perform, as a way of encouraging  f u r t h e r g e n e r o s i t y of t h i s  Moreover, some o f the l e a r n i n g experiences the questions  t h a t c h a l l e n g e us today:  about poverty, degradation?  t h r e a t s of v i o l e n c e ,  sort.  o v e r t l y address  what can we do  environmental  How can the next g e n e r a t i o n be f i t t e d  some o f the awareness and t o o l s they w i l l  with  need i n the  future?  My o b j e c t i v e i n w r i t i n g t h i s document i s t o share some experiences,  both t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l , much of which  i s embodied i n these f i v e themes, i n the hope t h a t i t w i l l i n s p i r e and help others t o c o n f i d e n t l y t a c k l e some of the s u b s t a n t i a l and f a s c i n a t i n g i s s u e s o f p l a c e making i n a c t u a l classrooms.  I t i s , by d e f i n i t i o n ,  a work i n progress  - a c t i o n r e s e a r c h i s always i t e r a t i v e - and I welcome d i a l o g u e on any aspects of t h i s work.  Themes 3.1 Drawing to a r t , drawing to architecture, drawing to action  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r how much and what types and q u a l i t y o f a r c h i t e c t u r e would have been produced i n the world without for  the range o f drawing t o o l s we have d i s c o v e r e d  the purpose of communicating i d e a s .  The t o o l might  vary - f o r example, s t i c k drawing on the sand, or s c r a t c h e s upon a sheet  of i c e may have p r o v i d e d a sketchplan; a l l  manner o f i n t e r e s t i n g methodologies  have without  been employed i n p l a n n i n g f o r b u i l d i n g ,  a doubt  since building  f i r s t began. Moreover, each mode o f drawing s h i f t s the p e r c e p t i o n s of what we are e x p e r i e n c i n g .  But without  some  way o f c r y s t a l l i s i n g the i n i t i a l v i s i o n , , and a way o f s h a r i n g t h a t image with o t h e r s , the making o f a r c h i t e c t u r e would have been s e v e r e l y hamstrung. Drawing i s a key p a r t of  the p r o c e s s .  Based on t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance any s o r t o f design or a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o j e c t ,  o f drawing t o . I propose t h a t  a sequence o f drawing e x e r c i s e s might be u s e f u l l y f o l l o w e d b e f o r e any attempts  are made t o c r e a t e designs of any  scale.  'I can't draw!' It  i s s a f e t o say that many students, e s p e c i a l l y at the  secondary  level,  trepidation.  approach the artroom. with some  Some are quick t o c o n f i d e t h a t they are i n  the a r t c l a s s as a r e s u l t of some f o r c e or mishap w e l l beyond t h e i r p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l . of  statement  I g e n e r a l l y read t h i s  as a s u b t l e request f o r h e l p .  When they  sort trust  me a l i t t l e more, the same student might convey the message "I  can't draw" i n some form or another.  t h i s as- an incomplete to  statement:  I g e n e r a l l y read  " I can't draw... but I want  - i s t h i s c l a s s going t o change t h a t ? "  'Yes, you can...'  I d e f i n e the j o b of an a r t teacher as the a b i l i t y t o r e p l y "yes" t o such q u e s t i o n s / r e q u e s t s . at  Students need to be put  t h e i r ease - i t i s p r e t t y d i f f i c u l t  when s e i z e d by f e a r o f f a i l u r e ,  to produce  anything  p u b l i c shaming, m i s e r a b l e  moments passed w a i t i n g o n l y f o r the b e l l t o r i n g . try  I will  t o s e t . t h e f e a r s a s i d e , but a l l the words i n the world  aren't going t o r e a l l y s o l v e t h i s problem. A c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . R e s u l t s w i l l be needed; drawing a l l y o f words, but a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  E i l e e n Adams quotes  Sue Grason  i s , a f t e r a l l , an  action.  Ford, the d i r e c t o r - of the  annual Campaign f o r Drawing i n the U.K., who o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g encouraging  remarks:  We b e l i e v e t h a t , given the r i g h t encouragement, everyone - not j u s t a r t i s t s - can draw. And not a l l ' drawings have t o be works o f a r t . They can be used t o e x p l a i n our ideas or t o understand how something works, to r e c o r d impressions or to j o g memories, to express what we f e e l or t o e n t e r t a i n others.. We can . draw with anything from a p e n c i l t o a vapour t r a i l , and on anything... (Adams 2001, 34) I often t e l l  students, and I note t h a t they want t o b e l i e v e  me, t h a t i f they can w r i t e - and some o f them cannot,  so I  need t o be very c a r e f u l here - then they can draw. Moreover, I t h i n k that i f they spent the same amount of time drawing  as most of them do handwriting or p r i n t i n g ,  t h e i r drawings would show c h a r a c t e r as t h e i r handwriting or p r i n t i n g does.  Sometimes, however, a student's drawing i s  much more developed statements  than t h e i r w r i t i n g a b i l i t y .  are i n a p p r o p r i a t e here.  So b l a n k e t  For students who have  well-formed  handwriting,  t h i s serves as a c o n f i d e n c e  b o o s t e r . Whatever the s k i l l  s i t u a t i o n o f the student  a r r i v i n g i n c l a s s at the beginning of the course, I see the growth of some drawing s k i l l  as important.  Visual  literacy,  i n c l u d i n g the development of c o n f i d e n c e t o make p u r p o s e f u l meaningful  marks i s , t o my mind, as important  as v e r b a l  literacy.  And p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t t o the  communication of design ideas, the two l i t e r a c i e s can be made t o work together t o express i d e a s .  Architects  commonly use words and images t o develop  and express and  c l a r i f y i d e a s , and i n the c r i t i c a l process o f communication with o t h e r s .  Daina A u g a i t i s , c u r a t o r o f the ' h i p s t e r s ' p a r t of the wonderful at  'Drawing the World - Masters  the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ,  to Hipsters' exhibit  2003 wrote:  Drawing seems as b a s i c and i n t r i n s i c t o human communication as w r i t i n g - we s c r i b b l e an image to c u t to the. core o f a complicated i d e a , we doodle i d l y i n a flow o f consciousness, or we j o t a diagram t o e x p l a i n connections. I t s immediacy i s as v i t a l i n the everyday world as i t i s i n the a r t world. (11) And  Bob S t e e l e , beloved p r o s e l y t i s e r f o r drawing adds: The c h i l d has three languages f o r common use i n the c u r r i c u l u m : words alone, drawings alone, and words and drawings i n a s i n g l e e x p r e s s i o n . ( S t e e l e 1999, 4)  So how can we teach drawing?  Where might we begin  - t o put students a t ease and t o  o f f e r them some i n s i g h t s on s k i l l i n g ,  so t h a t t h i s  vital  a b i l i t y comes t o l i f e ?  I do not b e l i e v e i n simply t e a c h i n g  Drawing S k i l l s as i n 'How To'. I worry t h a t t h i s c o u l d f e t t e r students' adventurous at the high school l e v e l ,  spirit  - which i n some ways,  i s a l r e a d y compromised enough by  the wish to conform. I t h e r e f o r e propose a s e r i e s of e x e r c i s e s to loosen up, get r e s u l t s , b u i l d confidence - and I admit t o a b i a s towards non-conforming, f r e s h , f l e x i b l e process and product.  f r e e and  I do r e c o g n i s e however, t h a t  some students want t o a c t l i k e a camera.  While  I am quick  to p r a i s e the f r e s h and u n f e t t e r e d , I a l s o r e s p e c t each student's r i g h t t o f o l l o w h i s or her own v i s i o n r e g a r d i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s a good drawing.  The f i r s t day  I s t a r t each course by g i v i n g each student a sheet of c o l o u r e d paper, II white.  l e s s i n t i m i d a t i n g than the regular- 8-1/2 x  I ask students some q u e s t i o n s which are open-  ended and designed t o allow them t o t e l l me what they want me t o know about themselves:  t h e i r f a m i l y and h e r i t a g e ,  t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s r e g a r d i n g a r t , t h e i r a r t background, t h e i r accumulated and .fears.  skills,  confidence  levels,  From t h i s I can d e r i v e an idea o f t h e i r  s u p p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r l i k e l i h o o d of s u r v i v a l i n the artroom.  The r e s u l t s I r e c e i v e are o f t e n amazingly  and I then have a way o f understanding  the (hugely v a r i e d )  backgrounds, l e v e l s o f i n t e r e s t , p r e v i o u s exposure, and i n s i g h t s brought families, origins, response  t o the c l a s s .  honest,  skills  We might d e a l with  a l l i n any s t y l e of v e r b a l or v i s u a l  - even s t i c k f i g u r e s welcomed.  (A s u r p r i s i n g  number o f s t u d e n t s i n s e c o n d a r y the s t i c k  f i g u r e s t a g e , o r u s e v e r y s i m p l e schema o r  p e r s o n a l symbols,  clearly  learned i n early  Students a r e asked t o r e f l e c t art  s c h o o l do n o t draw b e y o n d  on t h e i r  childhood.)  favourite pieces'of  t h a t t h e y have e v e r c r e a t e d , and t o d e s c r i b e ,  p r e f e r a b l y w i t h an a n n o t a t e d d i a g r a m ,  one o f t h e i r  best  creations.  I h a v e a s k e d h u n d r e d s o f s t u d e n t s t o do t h i s  on t h e f i r s t  day o f c l a s s ,  reply,  except  and have seldom  f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who h a v e n e v e r h a d t h e  o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a r t b e f o r e . some l i t t l e  There  creative jewel crafted  w a n t i n g t o be s h a r e d a g a i n . secondary  received a null  i s almost  i n their  always  background,  (I have had s t u d e n t s i n t h e  s c h o o l who h a v e n e v e r made a r t b e f o r e , n e v e r h a d  an a r t c l a s s .  Then I m i g h t  g e t t o w a t c h t h e m move  through t h e stages o f drawing development,  swiftly  often generating  I t h i n k , and I c l e a r l y s t a t e t o students, t h a t there a r e no wrong answers/responses to a r t p r o j e c t s i f the e x p l o r a t i o n i s approached with i n t e g r i t y i . e . care and thought and e f f o r t and honesty determine  and whatever e l s e students might  i s important  i n t h e i r own h e a r t s .  I would  e x p l a i n t h i s t o new students i n as few words as p o s s i b l e , but with s u f f i c i e n t emphasis t h a t they understand an important  concept  r e g a r d i n g approach i s being  w e l l b e f o r e the f i r s t  ' e x p l o r a t i o n ' a.k.a.  delivered,  assignment-for-  marks i s a s s i g n e d .  Loosening up  Bob  S t e e l e , B e t t y Edwards, and many other drawing r e s o u r c e s  have a number"of drawing games/loosening  up suggestions  that are i n v a l u a b l e i n ' s e t t i n g the tone i n an artroom, and keeping drawing t o o l s moving throughout  One might s t a r t with  'quickdraws':  the course.  quick gesture drawings  of  people i n v a r i o u s poses and of i n t e r e s t i n g o b j e c t s f o r  30  seconds,  6 0 seconds,  and up t o s e v e r a l minutes with a  v a r i e t y of t o o l s ; t h i s s o r t o f warm up i s not new t o many art  teachers.  Drawing with the l e f t  hand, b l i n d  contours,  f r e e z e contours - stop the drawing whenever you look a t ' t h e page - these a l l serve to convince the student whose c o n f i d e n c e i s yet t o be found that he too, she too can make marks, some o f which might be at l e a s t fun t o look a t and share. And f o r a s u r p r i s i n g number of students i n the secondary  classroom,  t h i s i s not yet a d i s c o v e r e d f a c t .  Many students have never drawn f r e e l y , have never  felt  s u c c e s s f u l when t r y i n g to engage i n t h i s simple form o f  visual  communication,  language". "I  can't  8)  (ibid  o f what Bob  He  suggests  draw" syndrome  Steele c a l l s  strategies  "drawing-as-  to reduce  the  which  might i n c l u d e v i s u a l i z a t i o n , g u i d e d imagery, p r e s e n t i n g d r a w i n g as a game, r e l y i n g on r e p e a t e d p r a c t i c e , c r e a t i n g a c l a s s ambience f a v o u r a b l e t o drawing... ( i b i d 9)  Students  seem t o l i k e  They a l s o being  enjoy  a person  adventurous faithful,  and  be  and the  told  a drawing t o o l  fun than  being  class  o t h e r t o o l s moving,  work. the  the  o f some e x c i t i n g  confidence  and  take  over  book an  get  thus  satisfying  i n the  i n g r a i n e d h a b i t , but  initially,  Zany,  f o r continued are  fun assignments,  are needed t o l e t s t u d e n t s  sketchbook/journal  i s not  art  experimentation.  I have n o t i c e d t h a t i f s t u d e n t s  becomes more v i b r a n t .  built  journeys.  secondary  t h e use  of  students independent  invited  s k e t c h b o o k as a s k e t c h / j o u r n a l / s c r a p b o o k ,  work,  t r y some  sketchbook/journal  'safe'  responsibility  of  If a l l  seem t o n e e d t o p r i m e t h e pump - t o g e t own  why  i n hand i s so much more  a camera i n p u r s u i t  of sketchbook/journals  student's  often  i n a r t and  drawing e x e r c i s e s , to  provides a place for  Teachers the  use  a camera!"  o p p o r t u n i t y t o l o o s e n up,  Each student needs his/her own  Regular  are not  representations of r e a l i t y .  'can't-fail'  start  "you  d i s c u s s i o n of r e a l i t y  are given the  'low-stakes',  can  with  realistic  students  pencils  the  t o be  the at  know t h a t  to  use  activity least  the  a place for precious, publishable  (maybe t h a t t o o ) , b u t m a i n l y  a p l a c e to t r y out  ideas  and t o experiment  and above a l l to get on with the process  o f making a r t .  There are some s k e t c h b o o k / j o u r n a l ideas t h a t went over w e l l with students over the l a s t  few years.  Everyone seemed to  l i k e copying a l o v e l y l i n e drawing I found somewhere of a Japanese g e i s h a - upside down and s l i g h t l y e n l a r g e d t o prevent t r a c i n g . s l i g h t l y altered.  (This i s one of B e t t y Edwards' i d e a s , Students  seem l i k e t o make  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l memory drawings,  e s p e c i a l l y when they are  i n v i t e d t o be as symbolic as they choose. soon t u r n i n t o f l e s h i e r f o l k . personal significance,  The  figures  Drawing simple o b j e c t s of  (see the work o f Gu Xiong), and  i n v e n t i n g new o b j e c t s i n schematic threatening  Stick  form are o f t e n non-  assignments.  simple technique o f ' s i g h t i n g ' o u t l i n e d by B e t t y  Edwards - using a h o r i z o n t a l l y h e l d p e n c i l to determine angles i n the corner of a room f r e e s many students who a r e n ' t sure where t o begin t o draw i n t e r i o r s . .  I show simple p e r s p e c t i v e examples and shading t o students, and they s o r t themselves or  'maybe l a t e r ' .  into  'I'm ready t o e x p l o r e t h i s '  But I have found t h a t  students t o look at b u i l t  encouraging  form and draw simple  a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s and facades o f t e n b r i n g s a p l e a s a n t s u r p r i s e - i t ' s easy t o make a good l i k e n e s s of a b u i l d i n g . Furthermore, of b u i l d i n g  i t i s fun to experiment  with a l t e r n a t e forms  ' l i k e n e s s e s ' one of which i s demonstrated by  Alex Morrison i n h i s 31 p a r t drawing s e r i e s t i t l e d  "Every  House I ' v e E v e r L i v e d  i n Drawn f r o m Memory",  (2002) a n d  a n o t h e r i n a s k e t c h o f a s t u d e n t ' s c u r r e n t home.  F i g u r e 14.  B u i l d i n g sketches.  Moreover, axonometric drawings  and x - r a y t y p e d r a w i n g s o f  t h e g u t s o f c a r s o r m a c h i n e s a r e e a s y t o do t o o - maybe just  s t a r t w i t h a simple l i n e drawing  t o copy t o get t h e  I have n o t e d a s w e l l t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n i n t r i g u e d w i t h architectural plans, sections,  e l e v a t i o n s - t h e y want t o  know how t o r e a d them, a n d when t h e y h a v e b e e n g i v e n a few simple conventions  (door swings, w a l l s ,  windows) t h e y a r e  a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d and ready t o use t h i s v o c a b u l a r y t o d e s i g n some r e m a r k a b l e  concoctions.  The u s e o f v e r b a l s and  v i s u a l s t o g e t h e r i n drawings, communicate g r a p h i c a l l y ,  or i n any attempt to  g i v e s some options where drawing  s k i l l s might be a b i t shaky. In p r a c t i c e , a r c h i t e c t s o f t e n adapt  the drawing conventions  t o meet the needs of c l i e n t s  who might not r e a d i l y understand Students,  too, can experiment  plan/section/elevation.  with thèse techniques - i t i s  not necessary t o be hamstrung by conventions.  Simple  sketches, diagrams and c l e a r coding devices' can be used t o communicate many l e v e l s of i d e a s .  Students  are g e n e r a l l y f a s c i n a t e d with  c o n s t r u c t i o n drawings and r e n d e r i n g s .  architectural These can q u i t e  e a s i l y be o b t a i n e d from a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m s , and a r e h e l p f u l f o r students t r y i n g t o understand between drawings on paper and a c t u a l , buildings.  the connection  three-dimensional  As w e l l , a r c h i t e c t s can o f t e n be persuaded t o  donate copies of the process drawings - conceptual diagrams, r e l a t i o n s h i p diagrams and other design development drawings f o r a p r o j e c t , which are l o v e l y f o r demonstrating  how the a r t and s c i e n c e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e work  together i n the e v o l u t i o n of a b u i l d i n g design. Moreover, i t n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w s t h a t when a student i s a b l e t o read the drawings and e n v i s i o n what i s , or i s going t o be, he or she i s much more l i k e l y to be able t o e v e n t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n a meaningful  F i g u r e 16.  way i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o c e s s e s .  . P l a n / s e c t i o n / e l e v a t i o n views  How do others draw? It i s h e l p f u l f o r students whose view of drawing i s very c o n v e n t i o n a l and narrow,  to view drawings from other  c u l t u r e s and t o see that the standard, camera  like  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l drawing i s by no means the only p o s s i b l e goal.  I wish a l l a r t students i n the world could  have  attended the drawing e x h i b i t i o n at the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 2003, t i t l e d  'Drawing the World: masters to  h i p s t e r s ' . The huge range of s t y l e s i n c l u d e d  i n that show,  and the honouring of simple, honest drawings by c h i l d r e n and teenagers o f the Inkameep Day School, and some very young members of the Royal A r t Lodge as w e l l , make t h i s an e x h i b i t i o n that o f f e r s some s e r i o u s i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a l l r e c e p t i v e viewers.  F i g u r e 17. Langlois.  Drawings o f t h e R o y a l A r t Lodge  l e f t : N e i l Farber, r i g h t : M i l e s  I t h i n k that copying the work of others as a way both s k i l l s and c o n f i d e n c e i s a d e l i g h t f u l way as an a r t i s t .  The 80 or so t e a c h e r s who  to a c q u i r e  to p r o g r e s s  had the  o p p o r t u n i t y to copy works from the masters to h i p s t e r s e x h i b i t i o n c e r t a i n l y seemed happy, and I heard many e x p r e s s i o n s of d e l i g h t and s u r p r i s e when a copying e f f o r t was  attempted s u c c e s s f u l l y .  the copybook  Perhaps we have o v e r r e a c t e d to  days by a v o i d i n g t h i s a c t i v i t y as a way  of  e n j o y i n g mark making, not to mention sharpened p e r c e p t i o n of the c o p i e d work, and perhaps a l o v e l y communion at some l e v e l w i t h the o r i g i n a l  Can't I j u s t  artist.  t u r n on t h e  computer?  With r e s p e c t t o the p o s s i b i l i t y that drawing may becoming  an outmoded form of v i s u a l communication  advent of the computer  be with the  image, I o f f e r a statement by one of  the a r t i s t s of the Drawing the World e x h i b i t i o n - Jason McLean, who  wrote:  I f i n d t h a t drawing, and a more hand-made approach i n g e n e r a l , has become a major element i n g r a p h i c d e s i g n . Many young a r t i s t - d e s i g n e r s have been combining t h e i r commercial p r a c t i c e with t h e i r a r t p r a c t i c e , w i t h l i t t l e or no discernment between the two. There has a l s o been a r a d i c a l s h i f t i n the a r t world i n r e a s s e s s i n g the importance of drawing w i t h i n contemporary p r a c t i c e s . I t h i n k these two s h i f t s r e p r e s e n t an i n t e r e s t i n a more p e r s o n a l i s e d approach to v i s u a l communication. (quoted i n A u g a i t i s 2003,15)  So do i t .  I l i k e what another o f the ' h i p s t e r s ' , Ben Reeves, has t o say about drawing.  T h i s comment begins t o p o i n t at the  r i c h n e s s of p o s s i b i l i t y  i n the simple act of drawing =  making marks with meaning.  He s a i d :  Drawing i s both a verb and a noun. I t i s at once an act of r e s e a r c h and a r e p o r t o f i t s f i n d i n g s . It i s a t r a i l and an e x p l o r a t i o n , (quote i n A u g a i t i s 2003, 14) I f students and t h e i r t e a c h e r s look a t drawing i n t h i s way, r a t h e r than as a p r e c i o u s , p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d o p e r a t i o n , sketchbooks  w i l l soon f i l l  possibilities,  up with l i v e l y and e x c i t i n g  and s k i l l s and c o n f i d e n c e w i l l very  likely  rapidly increase.  Drawings of the b u i l t  environment, and the processes  i n v o l v e d i n d e s i g n and development of ideas which o r i g i n a t e i n each student's head, can form a yeasty and promising p a r t of the drawing c u r r i c u l u m . C e r t a i n l y ,  those drawing  s k i l l s w i l l enable students t o take some wonderful i m a g i n a t i v e journeys i n the e x p l o r a t i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the  artroom.  Once students have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t they indeed can express themselves  through  drawing, i n c l u d i n g the conventions and  evocative p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of b u i l t  environment and c o n t e x t u a l  drawings i s n e i t h e r f a r f e t c h e d nor f r i g h t e n i n g . seldom encountered unmotivated secondary  And I have  a student who was i n d i f f e r e n t or  to e x p l o r e the a r c h i t e c t u r a l aspects o f the  s c h o o l a r t c u r r i c u l u m when given the o p p o r t u n i t y .  3.2 The design process A story of how I erred and strayed I was once p a i n f u l l y , but f o r t u n a t e l y o n l y b r i e f l y , o s t r a c i s e d by a beloved p r o f e s s o r at a r c h i t e c t u r e s c h o o l because I t r i e d t o get him t o t a l k about the process o f design. ashes'  I accused him of dropping a l l over peoples' drawings,  'metaphysical  cigar  and s a i d t h a t I wanted  some t a n g i b l e , p r a c t i c a l advice about how t o go about t h e a c t i o n of design.  He a c t u a l l y l i k e d my ash imagery g u i t e a  b i t , but he r e a l l y d i d n ' t want t o t a l k about how t o d e s i g n and  so our hard heads c o l l i d e d .  I w i l l always have a huge r e s p e c t f o r t h a t p r o f e s s o r , and when he forgave me f o r being so tiresome, and when I forgave him f o r h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s c u s s what I c o n s i d e r e d t o be a v a l i d and fundamental q u e s t i o n , I learned.some very b e a u t i f u l l e s s o n s from him.  His i n s i g h t s  e n r i c h e d my work and he showed me a grace and r e c e p t i v i t y t h a t I would probably never have r e c e i v e d from anyone e l s e . But I had t o l e a r n how t o t a l k about and t h i n k about d e s i g n from o t h e r s .  Despite t h i s moving evidence t o the c o n t r a r y , I h e l d the b e l i e f that-one  c o u l d analyse the process o f design, and  perhaps even d i s c u s s i t i n t e l l i g e n t l y with other d e s i g n e r s . Some other p r o f e s s o r s took a r a t h e r more p r a c t i c a l , • a n d perhaps i t needs t o be s a i d , a r t i c u l a t e approach t o design, and  I was a b l e t o p i e c e together some s o r t o f working  approach t h a t helped me f i g u r e out what I needed t o do at  my  s t u d i o desk.  A r t i c u l a t i n g The Design Process  It happens that one of my  p r o f e s s o r s at a r c h i t e c t u r e  school, i n that harrowing  first  year when I was  desperate  to t a l k process, has l a t e l y w r i t t e n a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n i n which she d i s c u s s e s the d e s i g n p r o c e s s .  In her t h e s i s ,  Dr.Freda  Pagani e x p l o r e s the design  processes necessary t o achieve a d a p t i v e b u i l d i n g s t h a t w i l l fit  t h e i r economic, s o c i a l and e c o l o g i c a l environment.  She  " d e s c r i b e s and c r i t i q u e s the contemporary b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t design process and i t s r e s u l t a n t product culture."  (Pagani 1991,1)  i n Western  Here the focus i s upon the steps  of the design process t h a t can be communicated, at l e a s t for  d i s c u s s i o n and c o n s i d e r a t i o n , to students at the  secondary  s c h o o l l e v e l and even students who  are p r e p a r i n g  to become a r c h i t e c t s at a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l .  Dr.Pagani  a s s e r t s t h a t the d e s i g n process i s a s k i l l t h a t  can be l e a r n e d ,  (ibid  136)  T h i s i n i t s e l f i s a very  r e a s u r i n g b i t of news f o r anyone who about how  to begin. While  is initially  her work i s concerned  mystified  with  complex adaptive systems, which are w e l l beyond the scope of our i n t e r e s t here, the t h e s i s i n c l u d e s some i n s i g h t s useable i n the secondary  artroom.  I t i s assumed t h a t the  d e s i g n e r ( s ) w i l l draw on p r e v i o u s experience, what I have c a l l e d l a t e n t knowledge, and more conscious of  the world,  understanding  to make a d e s i g n . The most b a s i c and  u n i v e r s a l l y agreed upon d e s c r i p t i o n of design - t h a t i n  " i n v o l v e s a n a l y s i s / s y n t h e s i s / e v a l u a t i o n as b a s i c processes" ( i b i d 139)  i s acknowledged.  Dr. Pagani  notes  suspension  of d i s b e l i e f  t h a t design i n v o l v e s the  'willing  and "the a b i l i t y to t o l e r a t e  u n c e r t a i n t y of the process". Further, "the processes  the of  d e s i g n are simple and the r e s u l t s are complex p r o d u c t s . " ( i b i d 139)  And  lastly,  her d e s c r i p t i o n of the  d e s i g n process notes t h a t " i d e a s come mostly unbidden f u l l y formed"  ( i b i d 140)  before being- submitted  analysis/synthesis/evaluation  and  to the  process.  Knowing t h a t an approach has been a r t i c u l a t e d and t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to t a l k about t h i s - i n terms which young d e s i g n e r s might be able to grasp - might be very r e a s s u r i n g to teachers unused to the process of design.  Dr.  Pagani  recommended a book c a l l e d A P r a c t i c a l Guide f o r P o l i c y A n a l y s i s - the E i g h t f o l d Path to more E f f e c t i v e  Problem  S o l v i n g , which she b e l i e v e s c l e a r l y p a r a l l e l s the steps i n the d e s i g n p r o c e s s . The problem-solving  author,  Eugene Bardach, d e f i n e s the  process as a process of t r i a l  and  e r r o r and  c a l l s i t ' i t e r a t i v e ' , "so that you u s u a l l y must repeat of these steps, sometimes more than once". xiv)  He  suggests  (Bardach  each  2000,  t h a t i n any of the steps, e s p e c i a l l y i n  the e a r l i e s t phases of the p r o j e c t , one's approach might very t e n t a t i v e .  T h i s might be the most d i f f i c u l t  the process to communicate to students, who be taught t o e x p l o r e a l i t t l e and again.  be  p a r t of  perhaps need to  - to t r y , r e f l e c t ,  I have n o t i c e d that few young people  t r y again, are  w i l l i n g to t r u s t t h a t a b e t t e r idea might be hidden  at  first,  t h a t the f i r s t  f l a s h of i n s i g h t might not prove t o  be the f i n e s t p o s s i b l e . J o e l Shack a s s e r t s a s i m i l a r theory, s u g g e s t i n g t o me i n an e-mail  (25 February,  2004)  that the design process... f o l l o w s a l i n e a r o r d e r l y sequence which i s an e f f e c t i v e model f o r t e a c h i n g t o a v o i d to  form', without  reviewing  'a l e a p  adequately c l a r i f y i n g ' i n t e n t i o n s and  alternatives.  Bardach's 'eightfold path' - an a r t i c u l a t i o n of the design process To summarise, the steps i n Bardach's e i g h t f o l d path are as' follows : 1. Define the problem. ( p . l ) For example, I might ask students t o c o n s i d e r a person know, t o w r i t e a d e t a i l e d p r o f i l e of that person, to  design something f o r t h a t person  to  t h e i r needs.  specifically  they  and then tailored  I c o n s i d e r the d e f i n i t i o n of the problem -  the design g o a l , t o be as c r e a t i v e an aspect of the process as any o t h e r .  2. Assemble some evidence.  (p.7)  Bardach c a l l s the a c t i v i t i e s  i n t h i s step " t h i n k i n g " , and  " h u s t l i n g data",  (p.7) He a s s e r t s that " t h i n k i n g " , which I  take t o mean f r e s h , c r e a t i v e s p e c u l a t i o n about what i s p o s s i b l e , i s "by f a r . t h e most important". connected for  Research  (data)  t o ideas can be an i n t e r e s t i n g and engaging  students at the secondary  task  l e v e l i f i t i s presented as a  way of e n r i c h i n g ones own d e l i b e r a t i o n s .  Some students  might warm t o the t a s k of d e l v i n g i n t o the h i s t o r y of  chairs, quest  f o r example, or other p i e c e s of f u r n i t u r e i n t h e i r  f o r the a new  design.  T h i s i s the p o i n t i n the  process where l a t e n t knowledge of what i s can be I t i s important,  assembled  to  help c r e a t e what might be.  to  overdo the "data" to the p o i n t of overwhelming the  designer, e s p e c i a l l y at the secondary  3.  C o n s t r u c t the A l t e r n a t i v e s  though, not  school l e v e l .  (p.12)  Bardach suggests t h a t one might " e r r on the s i d e of comprehensiveness" at the beginning of the process and t h a t one  should end up much more focused - with a reduced  and  s i m p l i f i e d number or p o s s i b i l i t i e s - at the end of the analysis.  He suggests t h a t c o n s t r u c t i n g a l i s t  alternatives i s useful. students: a l i s t thumbnail  I o f t e n suggest  of a l l  the same t h i n g to  of ideas i n words and/or a s e r i e s of s m a l l  sketches, maybe very symbolic, t o j u s t get  the  i d e a s / p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t o a concrete form, however sketchy they might be. do too.  Bardach s t r e s s e s i n v e n t i v e n e s s here, and I  He notes f u r t h e r t h a t "...design i s a complex  process, r e q u i r i n g many i t e r a t i o n s ,  i n which you  e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n t ways to accomplish  both  a c e r t a i n s e t of  o b j e c t i v e s and a l t e r the set of o b j e c t i v e s i n l i g h t of what you l e a r n about what i s a c t u a l l y p r a c t i c a b l e . "  (p.17)  Young d e s i g n e r s can be encouraged to take t h i s time, can led  to understand  t h a t t h i s ambiguity  c h a l l e n g e , but i n my  an e x p l o r e .  is a delightful  experience, they might not  i n s t i n c t i v e l y understand of  be  I counsel  the j o y t h a t comes from t h i s 'calm' and  kind  'steady' a l o t at t h i s  stage, as I have noted that many students l i k e to l e a p a t t h e i r f i r s t good idea i n a b o l d e r and l e s s manner than what Bardach seems to be  contemplative  suggesting.  4. S e l e c t the C r i t e r i a Bardach suggests  (p.19)  there are two i n t e r c o n n e c t e d but separable  approaches - the a n a l y t i c a l ' ( f a c t u a l and o b j e c t i v e ) and the evaluative  (value judgements) used i n j u d g i n g the  "goodness" of an i d e a .  Students  need t o understand  ' a n a l y s i s ' and ' e v a l u a t i o n ' i n many of the knowledge areas they are s t u d y i n g .  Thus a p p l y i n g the o b j e c t i v i t y o f  a n a l y s i s to t h e i r designs, and e v a l u a t i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s as w e l l ,  i s an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s k i l l both e n a b l i n g the  a r t i s t i c process and enabled by the p r o c e s s .  5.  P r o j e c t the Outcomes  (p.27)  Bardach b e l i e v e s t h i s i s the hardest step i n the process and  g i v e s " t h e most important  it".  advice about t h i s step:... Do  .The p r i n c i p a l c h a l l e n g e i n t h i s step seems t o be t o  put the energy out t o r e a l i s t i c a l l y e n v i s i o n what the outcome of each a l t e r n a t i v e might be.  Bardach  suggests  models, which i n design might take the form o f mock-ups o r at l e a s t informed techniques;  s p e c u l a t i o n o f form, m a t e r i a l s ,  a l l the component p a r t s of the i d e a .  Students  are l i k e l y t o need some c o u n s e l l i n g r e g a r d i n g p a t i e n c e here.  I don't t h i n k many people n a t u r a l l y understand  a good i d e a might be superseded  by another,  that  better idea.  A  mature p a t i e n c e i s r e q u i r e d t o assemble r i c h enough a l t e r n a t i v e s t o make a r e a l c h o i c e .  6. Confront the T r a d e - o f f s  (p. 37)  Bardach allows that sometimes one a l t e r n a t i v e i s dominant, but t h a t u s u a l l y choosing between o p t i o n s i s more complicated.  He suggests  t h a t t h i n k i n g i n terms o f 'trade-  offs'  i s u s e f u l when c o n s i d e r i n g p o l i c y o p t i o n s .  suggest  I would  that a s i m i l a r s e l e c t i o n needs t o be made i n  design, and that the choosing mechanisms r e q u i r e d f o r a product become apparent  with some c o n s i d e r a t i o n at t h i s •  stage i n the process.  7 . Decide ! (p.40) Bardach suggests t h a t i f i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o make the  d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g which a l t e r n a t i v e t o develop, the c h o i c e s or t r a d e - o f f s need t o be c l a r i f i e d .  perhaps This i s  where eager young d e s i g n e r s again may need some calming guidance.  8.  T e l l Your S t o r y  In the artroom,  (p.41)  the p a r a l l e l  i s 'Make I t ' .  The outcome of  the c a r e f u l and p o s s i b l y sometimes c h a o t i c d e s i g n process i s l i k e l y t o be much r i c h e r f o r the p r o c e s s .  I have found that students who do agree t o e x p l o r e possibilities,  r a t h e r than simply going with t h e i r  idea i n a design p r o j e c t , w i l l  first  s t a r t t o i n t e g r a t e an  approach t o problem s o l v i n g t h a t i s u s e f u l i n many areas of a r t as w e l l as other d i s c i p l i n e s . resist  Although  t h i s process o r i e n t e d approach,  experience even i n an adapted  some students  i t i s an e n r i c h i n g  or t r u n c a t e d form.  I f the design process i s c o l l a b o r a t i v e r a t h e r than individual,  the problems o b v i o u s l y are more complex, but  not beyond the realm of p o s s i b i l i t y .  In many o f t h e i r  courses, students are encouraged to work i n groups on projects.  Many c o o p e r a t i v e s k i l l s  can be d i s c o v e r e d and  p r a c t i c e d i n the group design p r o c e s s .  Cooperative  design  i n the a r t s t u d i o both enables and employs those c o o p e r a t i v e a t t r i b u t e s which are c a l l e d upon i n c r e a s i n g l y i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system as w e l l as the work world beyond. The  r e c e p t i v i t y and communication s k i l l s  s o p h i s t i c a t e d and l e a r n a b l e .  r e q u i r e d are  Creating learning  situations  i n which students s i n g l y or i n groups are c h a l l e n g e d to i t e r a t i v e l y c r e a t e new c o n s i d e r and r e f l e c t , and c r e a t e new to  connections and a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  to  t o analyse, to q u e s t i o n assumptions  assumptions f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , to e v a l u a t e ,  choose and to develop  ideas.  T h i s allows students t o  p r a c t i c e l e a r n a b l e problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s which are r e l e v a n t i n a wide range of a p p l i c a t i o n s .  T h i s way  of approaching  design - a process of l e a r n i n g t o  d e s i g n - of p r a c t i s i n g the design process - i s p a r a l l e l the p r o c e s s of p o l i c y design suggested  by Eugene Bardach.  It  i s a l s o , perhaps,  to  c o n f i d e n t l y approaching  to  produce good workable ideas f o r d w e l l i n g harmoniously  the world.  p a r a l l e l to the process of  maturing:  the problems one encounters,  These p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g approaches and  p r a c t i s e d i n the s a f e t y of an a r t s t u d i o , can be  and in  skills, powerful  t o o l s f o r students i n whatever f i e l d of endeavour they find.  to  may  3.3 Phenomenology D e f i n i t i o n s and a c l a r i f y i n g example When I went d i c t i o n a r y shopping i n 1983 word  'phenomenology' as one of my  criteria  amongst the vast a r r a y of d i c t i o n a r i e s new  word I was  not new  '84,  I used the  f o r choosing  available.  I t was  s t r u g g l i n g with at that time, though  to s e v e r a l of my p r o f e s s o r s  A r c h i t e c t u r e or to p h i l o s o p h e r s . construct  or  a  i t was  i n the School of  I was  trying  hard t o  a working d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s word as an  a r c h i t e c t u r e student, h a l f - r e a l i s i n g at the time t h a t concept was  fundamental  to my  a r c h i t e c t u r e , which was  whole approach  this  to  a l s o under c o n s t r u c t i o n at t h a t  time.  My Gage Canadian  Dictionary, copyright  phenomenology i n t h i s  1983,  defines  way:  n. Philosophy. The p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e study of consciousness and the o b j e c t s of consciousness (phenomena), without any attempt t o e x p l a i n causes, origins, etc. T h i s i s the only d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n at t h i s time. good s t a r t ,  I r e a l i s e now,  d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s word.  but by no means a f u l l No mention  word has anything whatsoever my  quest f o r c l a r i t y ,  It i s a  i s made of how  working this  to do with a r c h i t e c t u r e .  i t helped to check the d e f i n i t i o n  In of  phenomenon which reads i n p a r t : 1. a f a c t , event, or circumstance t h a t can be observed...3. Philosophy, a.) something known through the senses r a t h e r than through thought, b.) something as i t i s observed through the senses and understood, as d i s t i n c t from the t h i n g i t s e l f . r  T h i s becomes more i n t e r e s t i n g when I c o n s i d e r an a s s e r t i o n made by Prof. J o e l Shack of the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , UBC,  t h a t there are many more than f i v e senses  can we  l e a r n about the world than through  senses:  s i g h t , s m e l l , t a s t e , h e a r i n g and  indeed are these other senses  and how  i n r e c e i v i n g / p e r c e i v i n g the world? suggested  else  the standard feeling?  five  What  can they be engaged  Some other  by Prof. Shack are the senses  with time - our bodyclock  - how  senses  t h a t have to do  sensors and memory sensors i n  which past p e r c e p t i o n s combine with c u r r e n t A l s o , t h e r e are what he c a l l s  experience.  'mapping p e r c e p t i o n s ' , i n  which we put p e r c e i v e d p a r t s i n t o whole p a t t e r n s .  There i s  as w e l l the k i n a e s t h e t i c  p e r c e p t i o n s such as the senses  balance  He summarises: "Phenomenology  and o r i e n t a t i o n .  of  argues f o r i n c l u s i v e n e s s and m u l t i p l i c i t y and s i m u l t a n e i t y because i t makes i t s o b s e r v a t i o n s and d e s i g n p r o p o s a l s i n the l i v i n g world."  (e-mail, 3 March, 2004)  Prof. Shack suggests,  i n another  correspondence  "perhaps the only d e f i n i t i o n needed  me,  ( f o r the word  phenomenology) i s 'seeing, t h i n k i n g , b u i l d i n g , a t t e n t i v e n e s s and wonder.'"  to  with  (e-mail, 26 June, 2002) T h i s  c l e a r beacon of d e f i n i t i o n leads us to another  source:  the  work of C h a r l e s Moore and Kent Bloomer, whose words predated  the common use of the term  'phenomenology' of  a r c h i t e c t u r e , but whose work i s i t s e l f  a s p l e n d i d example  of the phenomenological approach.  When Kent C. Bloomer and Charles W.  Moore wrote the  landmark book Body, Memory and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n 1977, term  'phenomenology' was  not r e a d i l y bandied  the  about, but,  as  ?  Prof. Shack wrote, regarding  the ideas of Charles  Moore and  Kent Bloomer: t h i s simple d i r e c t way of connecting a r c h i t e c t u r e to human embodiment and i n t r o d u c i n g the 'haptic' sense I have found t o be an e f f e c t i v e way f o r young students to connect t h e i r own l i v e d - i n - t h e - w o r l d experience to phenomenology, ( i b i d ) 'Haptic'  i s not i n c l u d e d i n my aforementioned d i c t i o n a r y -  Gage Canadian 1983, but www.hyperdictionary.com says h a p t i c means : of o r r e l a t i n g t o or proceeding from the sense of touch; 'haptic data'. The  search  engine Google l e d me t o the website of the  U n i v e r s i t y of H e r t f o r d s h i r e Sensory D i s a b i l t i e s Research Unit which c o n t r i b u t e s  that  both t a c t i l e p e r c e p t i o n perception muscles.  'haptic p e r c e p t i o n '  involves  through the s k i n and k i n e s t h e t i c  o f the p o s i t i o n and movement of the j o i n t s and For example, i f we hold a cube, we p e r c e i v e i t  through the s k i n o f our f i n g e r s and the p o s i t i o n o f our fingers.  Indeed, there  are more beyond the b a s i c f i v e we  seem t o have agreed upon.  The  a r t educator, V i k t o r Lowenfeld, i n d i s c u s s i n g the  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n drawing a p t i t u d e s uses the term information  'haptic' t o d e s c r i b e  more from t h e i r  c h i l d r e n who get t h e i r  'inner' experience, as d i s t i n c t  from c h i l d r e n who observe phenomena o u t s i d e which he terms  'visual',  i n children,  themselves,  (quoted i n McFee 1977)  Bloomer and Moore have w r i t t e n what they c a l l  an  ' o p t i m i s t i c ' book t o g e t h e r and have based t h e i r t h e s i s upon the f o l l o w i n g h o p e f u l a s s e r t i o n s : f i r s t , that the landmarks and order of our bodies . c r e a t e a b a s i s , comprehensible by everyone, f o r the e x t e n s i o n of human i d e n t i t y i n t o our environment; and second, t h a t the world of a r c h i t e c t u r e abounds i n s u c c e s s f u l and even i n s p i r i n g examples of t h a t e x t e n s i o n . (Bloomer and Moore 1977,131)  An i n s p i r i n g example c i t e d by Bloomer and Moore i s the H o t e l d e l Coronado i n Southern C a l i f o r n i a , b u i l t I f the term  i n 1888.  'phenomenological' had been i n common usage at  the time o f w r i t i n g or of b u i l d i n g t h i s example, the authors might have commented that t h i s b u i l d i n g i s based on c l e a r and i n s p i r e d phenomenological understanding of i t s requirements.,  Instead, the authors wrote:  The l i f e s t y l e of the i n h a b i t a n t s was w e l l understood by a l l : i t i n c l u d e d the p l e a s u r e s of the beach, the elegance of spacious bedrooms c o o l e d by sea breezes, and the more formal splendours of the great b a l l r o o m and d i n i n g h a l l as w e l l as the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r rendezvous i n s m a l l e r but s t i l l sumptuous p a r l o u r s . The guest rooms were arranged on s e v e r a l f l o o r s around a g r e a t outdoor square, whose s u b t r o p i c a l p l a n t i n g must have a s t o n i s h e d t r a v e l e r s from the East and Midwest j u s t a r r i v i n g on the new t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l railroad. Beside the open c o u r t y a r d , e n c l o s i n g one s i d e o f i t , the s o a r i n g v e r t i c a l spaces of the p u b l i c rooms gave the v i s i t o r the chance to f e e l t h a t he had a r r i v e d and was, i n h i s body and a l l h i s senses, f o r the time b e i n g i n a s p l e n d i d and p e r s o n a l house, ( i b i d 132-3)  From an examination of j u s t one façade of t h i s h o t e l , can see the b u i l t - i n d e l i g h t of the p l a c e .  one  F i g u r e 18.  Facade o f t h e H o t e l d e l Coronado.  Another i n s p i r a t i o n a l example c i t e d of b u i l d i n g s that were made f o r people e s p e c i a l l y "concerned special  with being i n a  Place" i s the Royal Crescent at Bath which Moore  and Bloomer b e l i e v e : express (es) the i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l concern of the people who b u i l t them and (those who) continue to care f o r them. The r i g h t t o i n h a b i t our landscape and to e s t a b l i s h our i d e n t i t y i s fundamental and not l i m i t e d to any group; but with that r i g h t goes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to care. The c a r i n g and the energy f o r i t depend on the s e n s i t i v i t y of the i n h a b i t a n t s , r e i n f o r c e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s devoted to committing a l l t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s to the task of understanding the p o t e n t i a l of a p l a c e and the p o s s i b i l i t y of d w e l l i n g i n i t , of e x p e r i e n c i n g i t with a l l the senses, of f e e l i n g i t and remembering i t and making i t the c e n t r e of a whole w o r l d . ( i b i d 138)  These t h o u g h t f u l offices  o b s e r v e r s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t  w h i c h s e r v e huge c o r p o r a t e c l i e n t s  large  design  and t u r n o u t  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d urban c e l l s f o r s o c i a l masses,  viewing  " p r o b l e m s o f human i n h a b i t a t i o n a s p r o b l e m s o f organisation" "just  An  (ibid  131) do n o t make i n h a b i t a b l e  by g e t t i n g e l e m e n t o f t h e v i s u a l  example o f a p r o j e c t  winning P r u i t t inhabitants  codes  right"  i n t h i s c a t e g o r y w o u l d be t h e p r i z e  Igoe h o u s i n g p r o j e c t  of these high  i n St. Louis.  by u r b a n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  schemes.  play,  and t h e r e  was no p l a c e  was l i t t l e  or t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y V a n d a l i s m and v i o l e n c e  were  were  f o rchildren to  impetus f o r r e s i d e n t s f o r t h e upkeep o f  t o mingle  amenities.  were some o f t h e o u t c o m e s . The  p r o j e c t p r o v e d t o be s o u n s u i t e d habitation that  provided  were  The  a c c o m m o d a t i o n was m i n i m a l , m e c h a n i c a l s e r v i c e s undependable, there  The  r i s e apartment b u i l d i n g s  o f t e n moved i n f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t dispersed  dwellings  t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f human  i t was d y n a m i t e d i n 1972.  F i g u r e 21. The d y n a m i t i n g o f an unworkable urban h o u s i n g p r o j e c t .  Moore and Bloomer s t a t e : To h e l p people i n h a b i t the world, we f e e l the b a s i c a c t i s not o r g a n i z i n g , but caring; the a r c h i t e c t ' s c l i e n t i s not u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o c i e t y but c a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , ( i b i d 132) Moreover, they  assert:  The a r c h i t e c t s ' proper role... i s an a c c e p t i n g and absorbing one, t o encourage others t o make the e f f o r t and t o develop the p h y s i c a l surrounds t h a t make d w e l l i n g p o s s i b l e and attractive... i t i s l i k e a teacher r e a c h i n g and moving a student, not l i k e a magnet moving (however l i g h t l y ) a cloud of i r o n f i l i n g s a c r o s s a s u r f a c e . ( i b i d 132) When t h o u g h t f u l dwelling  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the phenomena impacting  in(a)place  i s taken i n t o account, t h o u g h t f u l and  i n s p i r i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l design can be the r e s u l t .  This  approach i s not j u s t f o r the experts, but f o r a l l o f us to take.  We can do t h i s by making the e f f o r t t o l e a r n about  o f f e r i n g both our s e t t i n g s and the process of p l a c e  making,  the a l e r t and c a r i n g a t t e n t i o n that a l l o f us, as inhabitants,  can g i v e .  A d u l t s can do t h i s .  Students can do t h i s .  Architects  'R' Us, and i t does help t o have s e n s i t i v e guidance from those who have made the design and d e l i v e r y of our p l a c e s t h e i r l i f e work: the p r o f e s s i o n a l  architects.  a r c h i t e c t s t o operate with what Prof.  But we want  Shack c a l l s  'this  c a r e f u l way of being i n the world and c r e a t i n g with (that i s ) the 'ground' that u n d e r l i e s  love  phenomenology.'  So how might someone put t h i s into practice? One in  of the f i r s t  a r c h i t e c t u r e was  t h a t we of for  assignments I completed  i n graduate  a c l e v e r l y designed p r o j e c t g i v e n so  students might understand  the a t t e n t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n  phenomenology by p r a c t i s i n g i t , i f I might be s a y i n g so, immersing  take a 25 minute v i s i t make a 50 item l i s t f e e l i n g s and  school  ourselves, i n i t . to the UBC  We  excused  were asked  swimming pool,'and  to  to  of our minor a c t i o n s , s e n s a t i o n s ,  impressions, and our responses  t o both  impediments and good d e s i g n while p e r s o n a l l y and  design  actively  i n v o l v e d i n the sequence of experiences at the p o o l .  The p r o f e s s o r , Dr. R i c h a r d Seaton, i n t e r e s t e d i n our responses introspective,  noted t h a t he was  as an organism:  most  our •  i n t u i t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s ; and t h a t we were  meant to reach w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s t o f i n d our responses express our f e e l i n g s i n words.  (I wonder now  i f words and  p i c t u r e s might have g i v e n a f u l l e r response.)  He wanted to  know about our f r u s t r a t i o n s , and our g r a t i f i c a t i o n s , a t t r i b u t e s of the phenomenon t h a t emerged from experience.  The  and  the  the  focus of our o b s e r v a t i o n was meant t o be  recorded, not n e c e s s a r i l y the degree of our a r o u s a l .  F o l l o w i n g are a few e x c e r p t s from my  response  to t h i s  assignment, which I t h i n k sheds some l i g h t on the of  phenomenology. For me,  kept me  concept  the body memory of t h i s e x e r c i s e  c l e a r when I grappled with the n o t i o n s of  phenomenology over the years at graduate reminded of the process wherein amount of a t t e n t i o n to my  school.  I  was  I p a i d a more-than-usual  s e t t i n g , and as w e l l , put more  energy i n t o g e n e r a t i n g a more-than-usually critical  response  to the experience  I was  observant having.  (These notes were o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n on 50 separate note cards, as assigned. I must have been q u i t e a s i g h t , swimming along with these cards and my pen i n a p l a s t i c bag c l i p p e d on my head!) 3:25pm Sunday, November 8,  1987  C r o s s i n g to the b u i l d i n g from the p a r k i n g l o t , I enjoy the sound of t e n n i s b a l l s being thwacked i n the c o u r t nearby. I a p p r e c i a t e having something to look at b e s i d e s a l l these dormant c a r s . I l i k e the rows of t r e e s t h a t march o f f i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s at the edges of t h i s l o t . What's r e a l l y b e a u t i f u l about them i s t h a t each row Is a d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s and the c o l o u r s are as a r e s u l t a l l d i f f e r e n t at t h i s time of year. But they a l l b l e n d . Made a 'bandit' run across the woodchip landscaped garden. (Very unpleasant. Yuk). I am g l a d I have boots on. I pass a t i r e d , sad l i t t l e garden near the exhaust vent - not f l o u r i s h i n g on the c h l o r i n e fumes. Up the s t a i r s , through the e n t r y t h a t seems to read 'back door', and i n t o the s p e c t a t o r b r i d g e . I like t h i s b r i d g e very much, can look down both s i d e s , t r e e s on one s i d e , s t r o n g l y c h l o r i n a t e d water (vs. epidemics?) on the other s i d e . Lots of a c t i v i t y , loud music b l a r i n g away i n the background, shouts. I've never n o t i c e d b e f o r e how o t h e r w o r l d l y people look when they swim past a s p o t l i g h t i n the s i d e of the pool. Now  I'm  a paying  guest.  People w a i t i n g i n the lobby look hunched over uncomfortable. The design of the. seats makes no sense. Why would anyone design them l i k e with so l i t t l e attempt at p r o v i d i n g comfort? And why would they be purchased f o r the p o o l complex? Manipulation? Locker room - 'warning thieves...' s i g n a l i t t l e disconcerting. A l s o i t would be very easy to f i n d one's way i n t o the wrong (gender) d r e s s i n g room. I'd l i k e to see the rooms much b e t t e r marked. Damn. To get to the l o c k e r I had to cross a wet spot. Maybe I should have l e f t my boots on. Or taken my  socks o f f . I'd l i k e t o see a l i t t l e p l a t f o r m at t h i s edge.  wooden s l a t  Even with bare f e e t t h i s f l o o r i s too s l i p p e r y . I hope t h a t l i t t l e c h i l d doesn't f a l l . There has t o be a b e t t e r way to make a c l e a n a b l e f l o o r . The shower i s body temperature today. Just r i g h t . But now t h a t I'm wet I r e a l l y have to mince a l o n g on these s l i p p e r y t i l e s . I wonder how many times they have been sued here'. And I wonder why p r i v a c y i s so n e g l e c t e d , i n the shower room. I t doesn't seem necessary. Hot tub. I am e x p e r i e n c i n g a new tendency t o r e a l l y look at the o t h e r patrons b e f o r e I get i n . Getting epidemic c o n s c i o u s , I guess. I t ' s very overcrowded today and the water looks overused. I think.I w i l l j u s t put my f e e t i n . People.look so bovine when they have been s i t t i n g f o r a few minutes. The swimming p o o l looks much c l e a n e r , but t h i s warmth i s hard to l e a v e .  here  They should never p l a y a r a d i o s t a t i o n over the loud speaker i n here. The t a l k i n g i s very e e r i e sounding i n t h i s expansive space. Music i s great though. The water hot tub.  i n the p o o l i s uncomfortably c o l d a f t e r the  Four l a p s . I'm almost out of time (25 m'ins.) and breath. (I may never smoke another c i g a r e t t e . ) The water temperature seems p e r f e c t now. I wonder i f a d o l p h i n would l i k e i t i n here. I l i k e the o v e r s i z e d w a l l g r a p h i c s , can enjoy them even without my g l a s s e s . Mincing back t o the l o c k e r room makes me hate t h i s t i l e f l o o r even more. Smart lady j u s t walked by wearing rubber shoes. I wish I had had my towel with me when I got out of the shower. How to do that without paying an e x t r a q u a r t e r to l o c k i t up again? The a i r i n here seems very c o o l on wet s k i n . The breeze from the d r y e r s makes i t worse. Into my c l o t h e s . E v e r y t h i n g i s w r i n k l e d but dry. I t h i n k these t i n y l o c k e r s are r i d i c u l o u s l y s m a l l ; next time I w i l l pay the e x t r a q u a r t e r . Down the back s t a i r s i n t o the f r e s h a i r - a t r e a t a f t e r the c h l o r i n e laden a i r i n s i d e . I l i k e the  a c t i o n of swimming i n the water, but I am reminded today what an i n e f f i c i e n t , p i c k y - p i c k y operation- i t can be. Since t h i s e x e r c i s e , I.have always looked more c a r e f u l l y at swimming p o o l s , and  I have never taken a d i p as this  completely  f o r granted  as I d i d b e f o r e completing  interesting  challenge.  Moreover, i f I were to be p a r t of a design team  to help c r e a t e an a q u a t i c c e n t r e , notes of t h i s would be u s e f u l , even c r i t i c a l  nature  to the process.  This  type  of e x p l o r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to the e x p e r i e n c i n g of a p l a c e , the phenomenological processes of s e n s i t i v e and  of design,  the c r e a t i o n  thoughtful places. It i s c l e a r l y  beyond the scope of anyone's a b i l i t y , paying  and  not  t h i s process  of  c l o s e a t t e n t i o n , and making a mental or a c t u a l l y  w r i t t e n r e c o r d of what i s observed.  T h i s sharpening  of the experience  phenomenon t h a t I have experienced for action research.  The  p o t e n t i a l f o r conversion knowledge and o f conscious  c a l l s to my while  mind the same  j o u r n a l keeping  c l a r i t y of impression of experience  into  and  useable  i n s i g h t i s immensely i n c r e a s e d with t h i s a t t e n t i o n and  kind  recording.  The phenomenological approach to research  Rose Montgomery-Whicher, a r t h i s t o r i a n and  art  educator,  speaks of the phenomenological approach to research i n t h i s way  i n an a r t i c l e t i t l e d "Drawing A n a l o g i e s : A r t  Research as L i v i n g P r a c t i c e s " ,  and  As a p r a c t i c e o f i n q u i r y - a way of q u e s t i o n i n g our experience of the world .- a phenomenological approach to r e s e a r c h shares three important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w i t h drawing from o b s e r v a t i o n : one, i t begins i n the everyday world i n which we l i v e : two, i t i s d i r e c t e d towards a renewed contact with the world; and three, l e a r n i n g t o do t h i s kind of r e s e a r c h , l i k e l e a r n i n g t o draw, i s l a r g e l y a matter of r e l e a r n i n g t o see. ( (Montgomery-Whicher, 217) Montgomery-Whicher b e l i e v e s t h a t a t t e n t i v e n e s s and wonder are t h e t o o l s with which one must view the world, and the ability  t o see " t h e everyday as worthy o f a t t e n t i o n , t o see  through s u r f a c e appearances and worn-out c l i c h e s , t o a t t e n d to what we o r d i n a r i l y overlook,  i n short t o r e - s e a r c h . "  S i m i l a r to the manner t h a t Ben Reeves sees t h a t drawing " i s at  once an act' o f r e s e a r c h and a r e p o r t o f sL-ts f i n d i n g s " ,  Montgomery-Whicher sees " t h e very a c t of d e s c r i b i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g has the c a p a c i t y to. inform the way we see." ( i b i d 219)  Moreover, she i s concerned with the q u a l i t y o f  c o n t a c t made between r e s e a r c h e r and those with whom the r e search  is'shared  (as i s the concern o f the w r i t e r o f t h i s  document), and she o f f e r s t h i s c r i t e r i a  f o r success: "A  s u c c e s s f u l phenomenological d e s c r i p t i o n e l i c i t s a...response...we t h i n k  'ah yes...I know what t h a t ' s  like'...we  'recognise'  i t as a p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of human  experience.  T h i s , Montgomery-Whicher says, .has been c a l l e d  the  'phenomenological nod'."  ( i b i d 221)  C a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n and n o t a t i o n , coupled  with the  r e f l e c t i v e a n a l y s i s t h a t needs t o f o l l o w i n order t o make meaning from such a t t e n t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n , process  demonstrates the  of r e - s e a r c h i n g that'we have come t o c a l l A c t i o n  Research. design,  The  and  phenomenological approach to a r c h i t e c t u r a l  the phenomenological approach of A c t i o n  Research, here a p p l i e d to education, disciplines.  Prof.  are c l e a r l y  allied  Shack noted that he would add  to  Montgomery Whicher's words: the combined 3 'ings' (of a r c h i t e c t u r e ) - seeing, t h i n k i n g and b u i l d i n g - a phenomenological p h i l o s o p h i c a l understanding that i n t e g r a t e s p e r c e p t i o n , a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s l i k e language does. (e-mail  8 September, 2003)  T h i s convergence of the c a p a b i l i t i e s of v i s u a l and attentiveness  and  p l a c e where we Prof.  open-minded wonder l e a d us c l o s e r to  can  'the essences of a r c h i t e c t u r e and  p l a c e s ' - with words, images and poetry  b u i l t places  requirements and  we  built  that evoke  of everyday l i f e . " ( i b i d )  T h i s indeed can occur i n the process of research In a c t i o n r e s e a r c h  the  r e v e a l the e s s e n t i a l requirements, what  Shack c a l l s "  ...the i n h e r e n t  verbal  as w e l l .  seek to l o c a t e f o r the e s s e n t i a l  the everyday poetry,  the d e t a i l that feed our  the p r i n c i p l e s and  i t e r a t i v e search  for refined  action.  We  can  poetry.  look to i n s p i r e d others See  what Vincent  Van  f o r a t a s t e of t h a t everyday Gogh was  ..simple b u i l d i n g that touched him  able to do with a  somehow.  The Yellow House Aries, September 1888 Oil on canvas, 76 x 94 cm RïîV museum Vincent van Gogh, Ams'erdam "My house here is painted butter yellow on the outside and has solid green window shutters; it is located directly in a square with a green park full of planetrees, oleanders and acacias. And inside all the walls are painted white and the floor is tiled in red. Yet the most striking thing is the glaring blue sky. Inside the house I can really live and breathe and think and paint." VINCCNTVANcocu  F i g u r e 2 2 . The y e l l o w H o u s e a t A r i e s : t h e a c t u a l i m a g e s p r o d u c e d b y V i n c e n t V a n Gogh c. 1 8 8 8 .  building  renovated, and  The basis of phenomenology In an e-mail  l e t t e r to  me  (26 June, 2002), Prof. Shack  r e f e r s to Rainer Maria R i l ke October, 1907)  who  ( i n L e t t e r s on Cezanne  spoke o f r e a l l y l o o k i n g , and  (13  then making  t h i n g s as an a c t of love - love f o r the p h y s i c a l i t y of objects,  for buildings  and p l a c e s . In the same l e t t e r ,  Prof. Shack wrote i n p a r t , ...of course, i t ' s not j u s t the p h y s i c a l - the i n t a n g i b l e i s made t a n g i b l e to evoke the i n t a n g i b l e , not e x p l a i n i t , nor s e n t i m e n t a l i z e i t , nor dramatize it. So, i t ' s a way of l o v i n g t h a t honours the essence - of s i t e f o r example, and what one makes t h e r e . For me, t h i s c a r e f u l way of being i n and c r e a t i n g with love i s the 'ground' t h a t u n d e r l i e s phenomenology. S h a l l we  imagine a world  i n which e v e r y t h i n g : b u i l d i n g ,  o b j e c t , work of a r t , s i m p l e s t t o o l , was love?  Sometimes when I slow down and  students  indeed make a world  full  I understand t h a t we  tendency i n t o adulthood.  could  to nurture  and  I wonder i f we  support  that  encourage young  not to mention design p r o f e s s i o n a l s whom we  form the p a t t e r n of a p p l y i n g such l o v i n g care to  settings.  We  worry about the economics of care.  about wasting time.and resources, value i f we  love to  of b e a u t i f u l and humane,  s u p p o r t i v e p l a c e s , were we  to  individualise.  our fret  about a f f e c t i n g r e s a l e  Perhaps i f we  for  our e f f o r t s at placemaking than the  t h i s time.  a higher  show our young  we  r a t h e r expedient  can nurture  We  hire,  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s , our p l a c e s and  and  j u s t watch the  i n the artroom, working with such care and  b r i n g t h e i r v i s i o n s to l i f e ,  people,  made with care  approach t h a t seems to me  societal  value  to p r e v a i l at  The phenomenology papers  In a s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d to the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , UBC "A  i n 1987  and  1988,  Prof: Shack p r e s e n t e d  phenomenological approach to the design  terms t h a t students and r e c e i v e and  use.  t h i s process,  the  (If we  i n t e r e s t e d layperson  w i l l be  to create story' .  'Place-Story'",  that a designer  c r e a t e what might happen i n a p l a c e ,  form that might a p p r o p r i a t e l y enable His d e f i n i t i o n of  the  required).  Shack o f f e r e d the suggestion  imaginatively  could  e f f o r t to understand  In Paper 1, t i t l e d "Making an A u t h e n t i c Prof.  in  are a l l going to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  some t h o u g h t f u l  dynamics of design  process"  might in  order  that-'place-  'place-story i s  more than a 'scenario' f o r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s on s i t e ; p l a c e - s t o r y a l s o i n c l u d e s embodiment of c u l t u r a l p l a c e r i t u a l s , accumulative experience of a b u i l d i n g as one moves through i t and l i v e s i n i t over time, [think cinematographer here] memories and a s s o c i a t i o n with t r a d i t i o n a l and a r c h e t y p a l ways of being i n and making places. I t i s based on a phenomenological p o s i t i o n of a c t u a l experience, though at a l l l e v e l s of experience (combining s u b j e c t i v e , sensory, c o g n i t i v e , s p i r i t u a l or p o e t i c e x p e r i e n c e ) . From a phenomenological p o i n t of view, i t evaluates t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e l l e c t u a l ideas a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e experience -• thus the emphasis on 'authentic' p l a c e - s t o r y . (Shack Paper 1.1987)  In my  p r a c t i c e , I have observed that many students love  do t h i s s t o r y making. the design  In v a r i o u s assignments,  of a p e r s o n a l  sanctuary, students at  particularly the  secondary l e v e l are o f t e n able to d i s c u s s with f u l l what might take place  i n t h e i r proposed design.  to  belief  When  invited  a n d e n c o u r a g e d , t h e y c a n s a y a n d show, o f t e n i n  m i n u t e s t d e t a i l , what t h e i r v i s i o n h o l d s . f o r example, t h e d a i l y  r i t u a l s of l i f e  w a k i n g , e a t i n g , work a n d p l a y ; such as p a r t i e s , there.  designed places paper, "gather association" creative  times  t h a t might take  place  c a p a b l e o f s p e c u l a t i n g how t h e i r  m i g h t , as P r o f .  S h a c k p u t s i t i n t h e same  meaning t h r o u g h use,  over time.  - s u c h as a r r i v i n g ,  a n d dream o f s p e c i a l  informal gatherings,  T h e y m i g h t be v e r y  They c a n i m a g i n e ,  experience  and  We n e e d o n l y t o i n v i t e t h i s  s p e c u l a t i o n - young s t u d e n t s  kind of  seem t o be a b l e t o  q u i c k l y p i c k up on what i s r e q u i r e d a n d p o s s i b l e i n t h e envisioning of a story.  F i g u r e 23. Some v i s u a l p l a c e s t o r i e s - drawing i n bed, surrounded by rhododendron bushes.  a home i n Haida  Gwaii  It occurs to me  as w e l l , as I w r i t e ,  more p o w e r f u l l y  connect t h e i r v i s i o n of what might be  design) to what i s (the s i t e ) , enriched  assignment.  personal  sanctuary, I asked the  the  that i f I attempted  l o c a t e d , to perhaps draw the  Much more would l i k e l y come of that  connection  between s i t e and not  of a  students to imagine where  context.  emphasise s i t e ,  (the  t h i s c o u l d be a much  For example, i n the design  sanctuary might be  to  leave  built  i t as a  critical  form i f I were to 'perhaps' drawing.  c o u l d s t a r t at the beginning of the year to ask  I  students to  'adopt' a s i t e with which they f e e l a s p e c i a l kinship." They c o u l d draw and  study .this s i t e using c a r e f u l  over the course of s e v e r a l seasons, r e c o r d i n g f i n d i n g s as o c c a s i o n a l assigned When the time came to design site,  sketch  observation their  journal projects.  a sanctuary f o r t h e i r  t h i s gathered knowledge and  i n s i g h t about the  would l i k e l y e n r i c h the p l a c e - s t o r y of t h e i r  adopted site  personal  sanctuary, t y i n g i t to an a c t u a l s i t e , w e l l known to them a f t e r c a r e f u l study.  To f u r t h e r e n r i c h the v i s i o n i n g , Prof. Shack notes: Within one b u i l t - p l a c e can e x i s t s e v e r a l l a y e r s of experience: memories of other b u i l d i n g s i n other p l a c e s , the dreaming mind of i t s c r e a t o r , the here and now hand of i t s maker, the urgency of c u r r e n t needs, the v i s i o n s of a b e t t e r l i f e , the e t e r n a l orders of the s i t e of the e a r t h and of the sky, the e t e r n a l images of a r c h e t y p a l p l a c e s i n our minds and i n our bodies. (Shack Paper 1)  Some of t h i s r i c h n e s s all.'  We  can  can be absorbed and  a r t i c u l a t e d by  l e a r n to e n v i s i o n - perhaps must l e a r n to  us  envision, and  i f we a r e t o make o u r p l a c e s  humane,  supportive  beautiful.  P a p e r 2 i n t h e s e r i e s "A P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h t o t h e Design Process",  explores  how t o u s e d r a w i n g a n d m o d e l  making t o 'see' and ' t h i n k ' d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s  Prof.  of design.  S h a c k s u g g e s t s t h a t we t h i n k i n t e r m s o f 'open  seeing',  w h i c h i s more t h a n v i s u a l ,  memory, k i n e t i c s  - beyond simple  but i n c l u d e s  emotions,  visual perception.  a l l o w s t h a t a s t r u g g l e i s i n v o l v e d here,  " t o give  He  presence  t o d i f f i c u l t - t o - d r a w phenomena" a n d t h a t r e s u l t s m i g h t be "crude but often evocative"  d r a w i n g s and models.  F i g u r e 24.  It i s h i s belief  t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s , w h i c h he  "one-eye-still-snapshots" architecture  do more t o d i s t o r t  into " p i c t o r i a l  and  Some o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  m e t h o d s commonly t a u g h t  t o students  category.  convert  c o n s t r u c t s that avoid(ed)  essence of the place".  calls  the  drawing  may be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  F i g u r e 25. P e r s p e c t i v e  'how t o ' drawings.  (Ching)  Prof. Shack suggests i n s t e a d that evocations  of ideas might  g i v e presence to c r i t i c a l phenomena a s s o c i a t e d with design, consider  and  some of the examples he gives that we  the  can  are:  groundedness - standing upon and set down i n t o the ground: o u r s e l v e s and our b u i l d i n g s connect with the earth (how a b u i l d i n g r e s t s ) under the sky: reaching to the l i g h t and covered by the sky dome i n s i d e d n e s s / o u t s i d e d n e s s : how the w i t h i n and of a b u i l d i n g merge i n t o one another  without  t w i n phenomena o f place... ( s u c h as) l i g h t and one and many, i n t i m a t e and p u b l i c s p a c e s  shadow,  j o u r n e y : r i t u a l r o u t e s , p l a c e s and t h r e s h o l d s : t h e p r o c e s s i o n i n t o and o u t o f a b u i l d i n g r h y t h m and r e s o n a n c e o f f o r m and s p a c e : as we s e e e a s i l y i n complex r e p e t i t i v e b u i l d i n g s n e s t i n g o f p a r t and w h o l e . embodiment o f p l a c e : t r a n s p o s i n g body c o n c e p t s architecture  F i g u r e 26.  C a r y a t i d s - body as s u p p o r t ,  Some o f t h e s e but  t r a n s p o s i n g body  c o n c e p t s m i g h t be a b i t h a r d  concepts.  t o draw.  we a r e l o o k i n g f o r t h e " i n n e r e s s e n c e " h e r e ,  than the surface  pictorial.  into  Yes,  rather  Prof.  Shack uses  drawing i n design  the  process  to  make p r o g r e s s , slick  not  presentation  perspectives. bypasses  He  the  'touristic  self-  consciousness' renderings, gives  Figure  27.  S t u d e n t m o d e l - t w i n phenomena: i n t i m a t e a n d  F i g u r e 28. Examples of the p o e t r y : rhythm and above: Gu Xiong beneath: Sydney Opera House.  public  resonance  and  freedom  r e a l i s e the space.  of  to  poetry.  In the design conceptual p l a c e and  3-D  s t u d i o , Prof. Shack experimented with models t h a t explored a vague  large  'image' of a  l a r g e 1" - 1' models to generate the order of a  p l a c e , but with the assumption t h a t the order of the  place  would not be c l e a r t i l l  the end of the d e s i g n  This i s quite d i f f e r e n t  from the approach I have used i n my  artroom.  I have encouraged students  design u s i n g techniques sketchy  to conceive  diagrams, and then to t u r n to modelling, what the idea i s - model as c u l m i n a t i o n .  the other  e l e v a t i o n sketch to show us a l l In most  i n s t a n c e s , except f o r encouraging some very shortage  of  of l i s t m a k i n g , thumbmnail and  drawings, simple p l a n s e c t i o n and  exploratory modelling  process.  rough  - perhaps because of a p e r c e i v e d  of m a t e r i a l s - I have t r i e d to r e s e r v e model  making c a r d f o r the f i n a l p a r t of the p r o j e c t . s t a r t c u t t i n g up more cardboard  Time to  boxes!  Prof. Shack a l s o suggests t h a t the d e s i g n e r might f i n d a p o e t i c image - not a l i t e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n but perhaps a " p a i n t i n g or a photograph as a p o e t i c image or one  imagining  i n t u i t i v e l y y o u r s e l f , ...(which) t r a n s f o r m (s) and  c l a r i t y through a repeated reflection."  An  c y c l e of i n t u i t i o n  gain(s)  and  imagined o r d e r i n g might be a b s t r a c t e d i n t o  a sketch p l a n i n the manner of some a r c h i t e c t s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s p e c t e d by Prof. Shack: Kahn with t h i c k c h a r c o a l s t r i k e s s h i f t i n g volumes i n p l a n ; C o r b u s i e r with ink l i n e s s u b t r a c t i n g and adding i n t e r l o c k i n g spaces; A a l t o with s o f t p e n c i l , overdrawing, c a r v i n g n a t u r a l i z e d b u i l t landscapes on • paper... (Shack 1988, 5)  /  F i g u r e 29.  Concept s k e t c h f o r C e n t r a l P h i l a d e l p h i a - Kahn (from L e s e a u ) .  una fr?x  oi/T o f "the  Pox  «7C  F i g u r e 30.  P r o t o t y p e c o n c e p t s d e v e l o p e d by A l v a r A a l t o  (redrawn by Leseau)  .Yeo\\e,v\icc , friendly ,,,M  F i g u r e 31.  C o n c e p t u a l s k e t c h o f Hong Kong - s t u d e n t sketchbook.  ....  This i s e x c i t i n g .  I haven't  thought  of i t t h i s way f o r a  long time, but these ideas can be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a secondary  s c h o o l artroom.  of these masters.  I c o u l d show students the work  They could see these designs u n f o l d i n g  from p u b l i s h e d drawings r e t a i n e d f o r the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d . I t i s r a r e t o have such c l e a r but deeply e v o c a t i v e  idea of the 'unité  d'habitation  '  F i g u r e 32. From image t o r e a l i t y - c o l l a g e o f c o n c e p t u a l s k e t c h e s and b u i l d i n g s by Le C o r b u s i e r (Benevolo 2)  A f t e r moving i n t h i s  (albeit  s k e t c h i l y recorded)  manner  f r o m i n i t i a l p o e t i c image t o i n n e r o r d e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g , Prof.  Shack s u g g e s t s  actualisation,  the designer  " g i v i n g m a t e r i a l and s p a t i a l presence t o t h e  project... i n t h e l i v e d w o r l d fully",  6)  (ibid  n e x t moves t o  - made t o be  The d e s i g n e r  experienced  c a n mark t h e a c t u a l g r o u n d ,  u s i n g t h e e v o c a t i v e image a n d t h e d i a g r a m o f i n n e r  I have t r i e d  something l i k e  t h i s with students:  order.  we t h o u g h t  a b o u t what c o u l d be done w i t h a n u n d e r u t i l i s e d p a r k i n g l o t and to  a c t u a l l y drew l i f e the school.  understand  their  on t h e p a v e d a r e a  This helped  students  i d e a s more  clearly.  T h i s became t h e f i r s t found i n t h e Primer first  sized plans  to visualise  near  and t o  i t e r a t i o n o f a l e a r n i n g sequence  - C h a p t e r 5 - 'Unpave'.  i t e r a t i o n was t h e p l a n n i n g  (Perhaps t h e  I d i d upon t h e b e a c h i n  f r o n t o f my f a m i l y home a s a c h i l d ! )  Prof. Shack suggests that a f t e r l a y i n g out i n f u l l the  s i z e on  a c t u a l ground, a new layout can be made - a s o r t o f  c o l l a g e based on one's v i s i o n of the h o r i z o n t a l , geometrical' layout .as p e r c e i v e d at t h i s stage - 'close-ups' of  what one might experience i n moving through the imagined  space.  The r e s u l t i n g c o l l a g e of close-ups  can p r o v i d e a balance between the order o f the whole and the uniqueness of the p a r t s as l o n g as the p a r t s are c o n t i n u a l l y re-examined i n i n c r e a s i n g d e t a i l and as long as they come i n t o a 'discontinuous c o n t i n u i t y ' of memory i n the imagined walks through the b u i l d i n g and s i t e . (Shack Paper 2, 7) So the b u i l d i n g design comes a l i v e - i n p l a n , e l e v a t i o n , axonometric  section,  (simple 3-D sketch at an angle b u i l t  up from p l a n ) , mini 3-D sketch and model - l o o s e and sketchy at f i r s t ,  and hardening up as the process u n f o l d s .  A standard story that many architects delight in telling describes h o w the most basic concept for a multimillion-dollar project was first scribbled on the back of a restaurant napkin. I have wondered w h y b o t h , the teller and the listener, always seem to derive amusement f r o m such a story. Perhaps the story restores confidence in the strength of the individual designer, or maybe it is the incongruity that decisions on such important matters are being made in such a relaxed, casual manner. Viewing this story in the context of graphic thinking, it is not at all surprising that inspired, inventive thinking should take place at a restaurant table. Not only are the eyes, minds, and hands of at least t w o persons interacting with the images on the napkin, but they are further stimulated by conversation. Besides, these persons are separated f r o m their day to day work problems; they are relaxing in a pleasant atmosphere and w i t h the consumption of, one hopes, good f o o d , their level of anxiety is significantly reduced. They are open, ready, prepared for discovery; indeed, it w o u l d only be surprising if the most furtive ideas were not born in this setting.  F i g u r e 34 Axonometric and p l a n s k e t c h e s on t h e p r o v e r b i a l p l a c e m a t . ( S t e g l i t z , from Leseau)  F i g u r e 35. A x o n o m e t r i c 'exploded' - a t o o l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and communication.  Prof.  Shack suggests that on a p r o j e c t which i s a c t u a l l y to  be b u i l t ,  full  s i z e models should be made or even  experimental c o n s t r u c t i o n "get  deeper i n t o the  of elements of the b u i l d i n g  a r c h i t e c t u r a l p o e t r y and  of the p o e t i c  image and  architecture."  (ibid  order - to b r i n g the  lessons  'hand' back to  S t u d i e s o f temporary s t r u c t u r e s  steps towards design are  I have t r i e d  actualization  7)  F i g u r e 36. P o e t i c images o f Leonardo da V i n c i : f o r a f e s t i v a l (Leseau).  These evocative  to  i n my  so r e l e v a n t  secondary, artroom.  attempt, with the p a r k i n g l o t e x e r c i s e s ,  to  I did  " t o b r i n g the  foot  and pace back t o a r c h i t e c t u r e " (Shack Paper 3 p . l ) J o e l Shack suggests.  How much r i c h e r would our e f f o r t s to  'Unpave' have been - t o d e s i g n and then work i n p l a n at full  s c a l e with chalks t o l a y out a new v i s i o n on a paved  p a r k i n g l o t - i f I had reminded myself the Working Papers t h a t I f i r s t through  of the contents o f  saw i n 1988.  Having gone  t h i s paper again, which so c l e a r l y s e t s out p o e t i c  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the d e s i g n process, i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r another  I see r i c h  s e t of i t e r a t i o n s i n my  artroom.  These n o t i o n s , s e t out by Prof. Shack i n 1987 and 1988, and which perhaps seem a b i t e s o t e r i c t o anyone unaccustomed t o t h i n k i n g i n terms of the design process, can, with some e f f o r t , be squeezed by t e a c h e r s i n t o useable  form.  We  design t h i n g s a l l the time: programs, l e s s o n s , our p e r s o n a l costume f o r the day, lunch, a new classroom  layout of  f u r n i s h i n g s . We do t h i s with v a r y i n g degrees of care and a t t e n t i o n - sometimes without much thought, i n t e n t l y observant  sometimes  o f the phenomena of our l i v e s . We might  not c a l l t h i s a c t i o n 'design', but that i s what c r e a t i v e arrangement i n i t s myriad called. in  forms i n our l i v e d world i s  The step from d e s i g n i n g the o r d i n a r y items needed  our d a i l y l i v e s ' t o d e s i g n i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l form - making  our p l a c e s - does not need to be c o n s i d e r e d so formidable that i t need be r e s e r v e d f o r only the ' t r a i n e d ' . To some degree, we can a l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the design process t o make our s e t t i n g s .  I f we are f o r t u n a t e , we w i l l f i n d an  a r c h i t e c t o f generous s e n s i b i l i t y who w i l l to share journey.  this-  C e r t a i n l y the a r c h i t e c t u r e ' s t u d e n t s at UBC were  f o r t u n a t e t o have t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y under the t u t e l a g e o f this inspiring  teacher.  All  our c r e a t i v e  acts,  e s p e c i a l l y those a c t s entered  w i t h c a r e and awareness, c a n s e r v e t o t r a i n  us t o move  more c o m p l e x d e s i g n a n d p l a n n i n g u n d e r t a k i n g s We c a n r e l y upon o u r d i r e c t guide  experience  into  i f we c h o o s e .  i n the world t o  u s , a v o i d i n g s e t t h e o r y a n d f i x e d i d e a s a b o u t who i s  entitled,  a n d who i s n o t , how t h i n g s ' s h o u l d ' be o r ' s h o u l d  n o t ' b e . I f we l o o k w i t h f r e s h s e n s e , ( a s c o n s c i o u s l y do i n t h a t t r i p start  into  o f my q u e s t  t o t h e swimming p o o l a t t h e  t o understand  past preconceptions  I began t o  p h e n o m e n o l o g y ) , we c a n move  t o new a n d a u t h e n t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  what i s a n d what n e e d s t o b e .  P e r h a p s we c a n r e a c h t h e  p o i n t w h e r e we a r e a b l e , a s P r o f . Shack s a y s , t o ' r e v e a l the i n h e r e n t poetry o f everyday  life'.(e-mail  8 September,  2003) P e r h a p s we c a n move b e y o n d b e i n g r e l u c t a n t o r reticent participants; if  we c u l t i v a t e  we m i g h t e v e n b l o s s o m  a t a s t e and c a p a b i l i t y  n a t u r a l human a c t i v i t y  into  f o r engaging  poetics, i n the  o f p l a c e making.  F i g u r e 37. An e v o c a t i v e camp s h e l t e r which responds t o c o n t e x t - t h e p r a i r i e s , and e l e g a n t c u l t u r a l p r e c e d e n t s . ( C l i f f o r d Wiens, i n B e r n s t e i n and Cawker)  3.4  Sustainability I f we  were not  so  single-minded  about keeping our l i v e s and  f o r o n c e c o u l d do  perhaps  a huge  nothing,  silence  might i n t e r r u p t t h i s of never and  moving,  sadness  understanding ourselves  of t h r e a t e n i n g ourselves with Pablo  death.  Neruda  Is t h i s an issue f o r the schools? - i n the artroom? The  e l e c t r o n i c p u b l i c a t i o n "Canadian  21: An A s s e s s m e n t " , f i r s t p r o v i d e s t h e f r a m e w o r k and  R e s p o n s e s t o Agenda  c o m p i l e d and  released i n  1994,  context f o r sustainable  development a c t i o n i n Canada.  A t t h e E a r t h Summit i n R i o de J a n e r i o , J u n e governments around which  the world agreed  t o A g e n d a 21 - a p l a n  names what n e e d s t o be done by a l l o f us t o  s u s t a i n a b l e development i n the 2 1 people  s t  century.  achieve  Many y o u n g  w e r e i n s p i r e d a t t h a t Summit by t h e w o r d s o f  Cullis-Suzuki,  t h e n 13 y e a r s o l d , who  a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m s we inherit of  1992,  and  Severn  s p o k e so e l o q u e n t l y  have c r e a t e d f o r her g e n e r a t i o n t o  the p r e s s i n g need t o t a k e c a r e of t h i s  planet  ours.  C a r l a Doucet, P o l i c y A d v i s o r f o r E d u c a t i o n at the N a t i o n a l Round T a b l e on t h e E n v i r o n m e n t  and  Canadian  t h e Economy,  describes the nature of the c h a l l e n g e of s u s t a i n a b l e development v e r y  succinctly.  She  states: " S o c i e t y must f i n d new ways o f d e v e l o p i n g and must r e o r i e n t i t s e l f f r o m an u n s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t y t o a s u s t a i n a b l e one. In order f o r s o c i e t y t o r e i n v e n t i t s e l f i t w i l l r e q u i r e e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s and t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d t o s u s t a i n a b l e development... ( w h i c h ) r e q u i r e s a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach. While s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f e r s hope as a c o n c e p t , p e o p l e a r e o f t e n u n c l e a r as t o what p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n t h e y c a n take... L i n k i n g s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e s and p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n w i l l h e l p c e n t r e t h e e t h i c a l dimension of the i s s u e . " C a n a d i a n R e s p o n s e t o Agenda 21  F o r me,  the  s t u d y and  disciplinary, almost  very fundamental p u r s u i t ,  which c a l l s  a l l t h e s c r a p s o f knowledge I have been a b l e  obtain,  o r g a n i s e and  conscious is  p r a c t i c e of a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a  life.  Not  i r r e l e v a n t when we  put  t o work o v e r t h e c o u r s e  v e r y much o f o u r p r a c t i c a l  o b s e r v a t i o n and in  the  something f o r the b e t t e r : these  I f these  are the value  e n g a g i n g p r o j e c t s i n an a r t r o o m , capabilities  confidence  f o r m i d a b l e c h a l l e n g e s t h a t are ours  elements  and  meaningful  young p e o p l e and  or  f o r the  elements or t o o l s are shared  s u s t a i n a b l e p r a c t i c e s are encouraged through  w i t h the necessary  cooperative  the c o n s t r u c t i v e t h r u s t of b u i l d i n g  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e t h a t h a v e r e l e v a n c e and  very  of  The. t h o u g h t f u l  o f d e s i g n , the dynamics of  community a c t i o n ,  classroom.  my  creative alternative envisioning inherent  the processes  changing  to  knowledge  c h a l l e n g e of r e v e r s i n g the u n s u s t a i n a b l e course of the planet.'  upon  of  c o n s i d e r the magnitude of  d e v e l o p m e n t i n many a r e a s  multi-  c a n be  fitted  t o meet  at t h i s  and  time.  the  So do we r e a l l y have a problem? " T h e r e i s an e x c e p t i o n a l d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i t y t h a t n a t u r a l s y s t e m s c a n no l o n g e r a b s o r b t h e b u r d e n o f c u r r e n t human p r a c t i c e s . The d e p t h a n d b r e a d t h o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e s u p p o r t f o r t h e W a r n i n g s h o u l d g i v e g r e a t p a u s e t o t h o s e who q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y o f t h r e a t s t o our environment." World S c i e n t i s t s ' Warning t o Humanity" 18 November, 1992 For r e s i d e n t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  events  and t h e n t h e  o f t h e summer o f 2003 - t h e f i r e s  f l o o d i n g - became a l o c a l W a r n i n g , s o m e t h i n g  the  t h a t we i n  these b l e s s e d p a r t s had not e x p e r i e n c e d t o a g r e a t l y n o t i c e a b l e degree.  Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e s c h o o l  where I- t e a c h h a v e e m i g r a t e d polluted parts of Asia.  t o Canada f r o m c r o w d e d a n d  They o f t e n comment on t h e q u a l i t y  o f t h e a i r and r e v e l i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c a n d r i n k t h e u n p o l l u t e d water  directly  from t h e t a p i n t h e Lower  Mainland.  Until  the dramatic  Canadians,  l i k e many l o n g t i m e  events  o f t h e 2003, t h e s e  residents,  are r e l a t i v e l y untouched by t h e problem  This i s , of course, by e n v i r o n m e n t a l b o t t l e d water, wearing  of global  t h a t we warming.  n o t t o s a y t h a t we h a v e b e e n u n t o u c h e d  d e g r a d a t i o n . We a r e b e g i n n i n g t o p u r c h a s e  or at least  refrigerators.  have f e l t  new  keep s p e c i a l  filters  i n our  From t i m e t o t i m e , we m i g h t see. someone  a m e d i c a l mask w h i l e o u t i n the. smog.  s t u d e n t s a r e w e l l aware o f t h e t e r m biodegradable' .  'extinct'  Moreover, a n d 'non-  I have t a k e n s t u d e n t s t o t h e V a n c o u v e r  g a r b a g e dump, a n d w a t c h e d them r e a c t w i t h d i s g u s t a n d new resolutions.  One c l a s s e v e n g o t b u s y w i t h a s t r o n g l y  worded p e t i t i o n t a k e n throughout  the v i c i n i t y  of the  school, recycle. solution  t o encourage t h e 'other Students, rather  like  3 R's' - r e d u c e , r e u s e and  a d u l t s , want t o be p a r t  than part  of the problem.  h e a r t e n e d by e v i d e n c e w h e n e v e r I i n i t i a t e of e c o l o g i c a l r o u t i n e s .  sustainable  how t o u s e r e s o u r c e s  T h a t same  t o put  motivation  t o p r o j e c t s of a s o p h i s t i c a t e d  i s important. efficiently  requirements.  38.  even t h e s i m p l e s t  n a t u r e a s w e l l . They know a b o u t s a v i n g t h e  t r e e s a n d why t h a t  Figure  I am a l w a y s  Many s t u d e n t s f l a t l y r e f u s e  p a p e r i n t o t h e g a r b a g e c a n anymore. makes t h e n r e c e p t i v e  of the  Collective  noticeboard.  They a r e r e a d y t o l e a r n to satisfy  our d a i l y  Science and Students  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y t e a c h e r s have been busy.  have been a l e r t e d .  And  whereas students of an  e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n would never have c o n s i d e r e d u s i n g drugs',  f o r example, but might have smoked tobacco  l i t t e r e d the s t r e e t s with packaging,  'soft  and  some of today's  might be more open to e x p l o r a t i o n of mind a l t e r i n g  youth  drugs,  but heed the a n t i - l i t t e r and a n t i - t o b a c c o slogans s c r u p u l o u s l y . Times have changed. I t can perhaps be  said  that we are making some p r o g r e s s , at l e a s t as f a r as e d u c a t i o n of our young i s  concerned.  David Suzuki i s o p t i m i s t i c about our e f f o r t s to teach our children.  He notes t h a t :  Our g i a n t b r a i n allows us to see p a t t e r n s by d i s c e r n i n g r e p e t i t i o n , s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e . From t h i s we g a i n h i s t o r y and we g a i n . f o r e s i g h t - we can p l a n . Because we can l e a r n from experience, we can teach our c h i l d r e n more than we knew when we were t h e i r age. We can change more r a p i d l y than e v o l u t i o n would allow us t o , responding to t h r e a t s by drawing from our experience and d e c i d i n g to a l t e r the way we live." David Suzuki, The  Sacred  Balance  Students generally are beginning to show i n t e r e s t i n , understand, and discuss the concepts of s u s t a i n a b i l i t y .  The  Brundtland Commission made what has become a widely  accepted c a l l to "...meet the needs of the present  without  compromising the a b i l i t y of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s to meet t h e i r own  needs."  (Wackernagel and Rees 1996,33) T h i s i s  the core d e f i n i t i o n of s u s t a i n a b l e development. students understand, B.C.  My  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i v e l y c l e a n  a i r and water, that we have s o i l e d the p l a n e t , and  t h a t much i s to be done to h a l t the damage and t u r n i t around. Indeed, s o p h i s t i c a t e d students  at the high  school  l e v e l speak of the concept of sustainable.development some measure of understanding and c o n f i d e n c e . been paying  with  They have  a t t e n t i o n , although t h i s term i s , r e g r e t t a b l y ,  not much d i s c u s s e d secondary school  i n formal  l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s at the  level.  I know t h a t i n a l l subject areas we need t o engage l e a r n e r s i n d i s c u s s i o n about the h e a l t h of our p l a n e t a r y  home.  We  need to d i s c u s s s u s t a i n a b l e development as a route t o the f u t u r e h e a l t h of the p l a n e t . conversation  i s provided  A good p l a c e t o s t a r t the  by Wackernagel and Rees who a s s e r t  t h a t s u s t a i n a b i l i t y r e q u i r e s that our emphasis s h i f t "'managing resources'  t o managing ourselves,  t o l i v e as p a r t of nature."  What does t h i s mean? collectively,  t h a t we l e a r n  ( i b i d 4)  What can we do, p e r s o n a l l y and  to l i v e i n a s u s t a i n a b l e way?  as p a r t o f nature  from  Do we not l i v e  already?  What are the i m p l i c a t i o n s of Wackernagel and Rees' a s s e r t i o n t h a t "...human e n t e r p r i s e i s i n s e p a r a b l e n a t u r a l world.  from the  Humankind i s o f t e n the dominant s p e c i e s i n  v i r t u a l l y every s i g n i f i c a n t ecosystem on the p l a n e t . Human beings are embedded i n nature."? are going  to engage students  ( i b i d 4) C e r t a i n l y , i f we  i n the a c t o f d e s i g n i n g  p l a c e s , we need t o acknowledge that  'the environment' i n  which we are l o c a t i n g our v i s i o n s i s a c r i t i c a l p a r t of the e x e r c i s e . Do we know that?  Do we a c t on i t ?  Some would say t h a t i n g e n e r a l , we with s u f f i c i e n t environmental  Do we  do not.  r e s o l v e to undo the very  At least  considerable  damage t h a t has a l r e a d y been done.  g e n e r a l l y recognise t h a t our e x p e c t a t i o n s are  and very d i f f e r e n t generation  not  from the standards  i n Canada?  I have noted  of the  rising  previous  a s t a t i s t i c which I  cannot p r o p e r l y footnote but which begs to be i n c l u d e d here which s t a t e s t h a t while  f a m i l y s i z e s have dropped  p r e c i p i t o u s l y i n North America, the average house s i z e almost doubled 1993.  We  from 1,100  i n 1949  to 2,060 square feet i n  T h i s i s not a h e a l t h y development.  need to show our next  g e n e r a t i o n the p a t t e r n t h a t i s  emerging i n our l i v i n g h a b i t s . understand to  has  How  else w i l l  they  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of our d a i l y choices?  We  need  teach them t h a t ...as l i v i n g standards r i s e , more and more people l i v e on e c o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y 'imported' from somewhere e l s e . The obvious f o l l o w up question i s : how long w i l l i t be b e f o r e we run out of 'somewhere e l s e ' ? (Answer: we a l r e a d y have.) I f the s o - c a l l e d 'advanced' c o u n t r i e s continue to promote a l i f e s t y l e whose s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l r e q u i r e the e q u i v a l e n t of s e v e r a l more p l a n e t s , they' are, i n e f f e c t , b l i n d l y p l a n n i n g t h e i r own demise. The g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n the developed world can make to s u s t a i n a b i l i t y i s to reduce i t s resource consumption by a l l means at i t s disposal...there may w e l l be g r e a t e r e c o l o g i c a l , community and p e r s o n a l merit i n l e a r n i n g to l i v e more simply so others can l i v e at a l l . " ( i b i d 155-6)  Maurice Strong,  i n an undocumented but  statement quoted i n the Guardian,  unforgettable  p o i n t s out that "a  c i t i z e n of an advanced i n d u s t r i a l i s e d n a t i o n consumes i n s i x months the energy  that has t o l a s t the c i t i z e n of a  d e v e l o p i n g country h i s e n t i r e l i f e . "  I t i s not f a i r of us  not t o pass t h i s understanding on to the next g e n e r a t i o n . They need t o know t h i s and we need t o do something  about i t  together.  Dr. Freda Pagani taught a course t i t l e d " S u s t a i n a b i l i t y " at Royal Roads U n i v e r s i t y i n the summer•of 2003. i n her course o u t l i n e  A  statement  reads:  " S u s t a i n a b i l i t y i s both an i d e a and a way of doing t h i n g s , a journey r a t h e r than a d e s t i n a t i o n . " Our c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to g i v e young l e a r n e r s the b e n e f i t of these i n s i g h t s .  Although i t i s an i s s u e  overarches a l l d i s c i p l i n e s and a f f e c t s us a l l ,  that  many  t e a c h e r s are r e l u c t a n t to t a c k l e the q u e s t i o n of sustainability.  We might s h r i n k from t h i s  responsibility  because of a l a c k of knowledge, understanding, energy,  or o p p o r t u n i t y .  optimism,  But we are a l l on the p l a n e t a r y  journey together and our d e s t i n a t i o n w i l l be b l e a k i f we do not e x p l o r e t h i s idea, and f i n d new ways of doing t h i n g s i n our journey together.  So how can students understand this and what can we do to learn and practise this approach? Perhaps I w i l l go i n t o p r o d u c t i o n as a p o s t e r maker. see my artroom changing  I can  s p o t t e d with words as w e l l as the ever-  supply of student work and examples of the f i n e  works of g l o b a l l y aware master a r t i s t s .  I t h i n k students  are each somewhere on the continuum from somewhat t o deeply  d i s t u r b e d by  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  depth charge of present  f u t u r e environmental degradation. generations, generation  I am  too.  On b e h a l f  now  strongly questioning  So what can we  do  that a i r y  i n the artroom?  ecology per But  l i k e many others,  assumption.)  I can't  shape and  based upon the b e l i e f ,  humanities a l l i n t e r l o c k at the I can  initiate  on  discuss  relevant  I can  are some  inject encourage  information  j u s t the non-existent  v  so that  eco'  can b u i l d a knowledge base, work out and  b u i l d a confident,  I sometimes t e l l  problems,  o p t i m i s t i c stance f o r the  students t h a t ,  i n the  o n l y h a l f - j o k i n g l y , I add  t h a t I see my  classroom as somewhat s e l f - s e r v i n g : my  and  f u l l n e s s of time, I for.  b e t t e r get  i t right!  And,  job i n the students are  the  that I w i l l be depending upon to take care  So I had  work  future.  w i l l be j o i n i n g the group that needs to be cared  things.  science  and  there  I can  s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e s o l v i n g our p l a n e t a r y  generation  start  of a  sciences  i n t o the artroom.  i n every classroom, not classroom, we  tenor  key p l a c e s ,  e c o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g i n t o our p r o j e c t s . students to seek and  really  s t r o n g l y held, that i t  a l l h i t c h e s up somewhere, t h a t a r t s and things  A f t e r watching  se - I t h i n k students would r e b e l i f  the c l a s s began to take on the class.  my  might make i t r e l a t i v e l y unscathed, e s p e c i a l l y  f l o o d so c l o s e to home, I am,  teaching  future  ( I have long assumed that  i n this- very p r i v i l e g e d p a r t of the globe. f i r e and  of  and  But  of  I recognise  the same time, that dropping the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on them without some t o o l s i s heavy and  unfair.  at  I do not have a very broad s c i e n t i f i c background,  although  some s c i e n t i f i c r i g o u r was i n c l u d e d i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l training  I am' r i c h l y p r i v i l e g e d t o have r e c e i v e d .  confess t o an i n d e c e n t l y recent sharpened  And I  interest  i n the  good h e a l t h of our p l a n e t . When I was a student o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the 1980's,  'green' was, f o r many students  and many o f our teachers as w e l l ,  j u s t another c o l o u r .  was t o l d by a p r o f e s s o r i n my f i r s t  I  year d e s i g n s t u d i o that  my e f f o r t s t o f i t out an apartment b u i l d i n g with  solar  d e v i c e s was 'boring' and that what I was meant t o l e a r n i n t h i s s t u d i o was good, s t r o n g and e x c i t i n g d e s i g n . Furthermore,  the s u c c e s s f u l , e f f i c i e n t ,  experimental  home, b u i l t by forward l o o k i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e students  solar near  to my campus housing at UBC was summarily demolished one day,  as i t was not deemed to be important enough t o save,  d e s p i t e the e f f o r t s of some students who were c a n v a s s i n g t o have i t preserved. But times, perhaps,  a r e changing.  There  are some simple measures I was b e g i n n i n g to l e a r n about as a student .architect t o conserve r e s o u r c e s , choose h e a l t h y m a t e r i a l s , manifest p l a n e t a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I grabbed a book, v i n t a g e 1976, that was being d i s c a r d e d from the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Reading Efficient  Room a t UBC c a l l e d Low-Cost,  S h e l t e r f o r the owner and b u i l d e r ,  Eugene E c c l i ,  e d i t e d by  and I have r e f e r r e d t o t h a t book from time t o  time i n d e s i g n i n g b u i l d i n g s f o r f r i e n d s . produced  Energy  I have a k i t  by CMHC c a l l e d "Your Tools to a Healthy Home".  have long admired  I  and been a t t e n t i v e t o the work.of David  Rousseau, a f r i e n d and former work p a r t n e r who wrote the very popular and u s e f u l book t i t l e d Your Home, Your Health, and Well-Being, which I have a l s o used as a r e f e r e n c e and which s i t s on my bookshelf at school..  Some of my students  some o  f  these  mater  ials  •r, t h e c o u r s e o f ma m the  king  their  roi ects  I Home, Tour Health, and Well-Being Modes. DESIGNS • SYSTEMS • MATERIALS • RENOVATION • CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL iLLNESS - HOME MANAGEMENT - CONTAMINATION TESTS • RESOURCES  soldi, and Wéfl-oeinf makes it possible to regain control over the quality of our indoor arning how and where pollutants affect us in our homes (air. water, furnishings, finin applying the care full/ explained step-oy-step solutions, we can transform our tful. quiet, clean air. extremely pleasant places ^"here are illustrated, practical, pre tn to every conceivable problem, whether for renovations, new homes, whole r a angle room. A special detailed section gives recommendations for those with vity (aJerjy).  DavH] Rousseau -s an Architectural designer, environmental researcher, and professional builder  m ISBN SV88I79-0I7-6  figure  39.  Dav  id  r a c t i c a l guide-  Rousseau s P  In the a l b e i t  few p r o j e c t s I have given students to  c o n s i d e r i n the artroom  t h a t .have an e x p l i c i t  ecological  component, I have n o t i c e d a degree of i n t e r e s t t h a t me.  Based upon the knowledge that the exhaust  emissions  v e h i c l e s c o n t r i b u t e s a great d e a l to the p o l l u t i o n air,  cheered of  of.our  and to the g l o b a l warming phenomenon, students have  set t h e i r e n e r g i e s to work t o i n v e s t i g a t e and  design  a l t e r n a t i v e f u e l l e d v e h i c l e s which, i n some i n s t a n c e s show evidence of i n t e r e s t i n the s c i e n t i f i c aspects of the problem.  (Some students responded  with l o v i n g l y d r a f t e d  c a r r i a g e s to be p u l l e d by the f a m i l y horse; one with an e x q u i s i t e drawing of a man i s an artroom  after all.)  And  replied  on a f l y i n g carpet - i t  some students are  interested  i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g simple s o l u t i o n s f o r making b u i l d i n g s e c o l o g i c a l l y sound. • I can't push i t to the p o i n t where students are turned o f f and u n w i l l i n g to i n v e s t i g a t e o p t i o n s , but, where there i s i n t e r e s t ,  I am ready  these  with  simple m a t e r i a l s , to encourage some s c i e n t i f i c r i g o u r .  And  some students, with whom I have d i s c u s s e d a p r o j e c t i n which e c o l o g i c a l l y sound housing i s researched designed,  responded  'challenge'.  and  very f a v o u r a b l y t o what they termed the  These p r o j e c t s are e l a b o r a t e d upon i n the  Primer.  There are some f i n e examples of handsome and s u s t a i n b l e b u i l d i n g s which can serve as models to i n s p i r e and eco-motivated  e n e r g i e s of students.  F o l l o w i n g are some  views of the C.K.Choi B u i l d i n g at UBC, and  direct  which opened i n  1996  f e a t u r e s reused and r e c y c l e d m a t e r i a l s , n a t u r a l r a t h e r  than energy lighting,  wasting v e n t i l a t i o n systems, h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t  and the novel composting  t o i l e t s and grey water  recycling  system.  I would t h i n k a f i e l d  trip  to this  i n s p i r i n g b u i l d i n g o r t h e newer L i u C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f Global  Issues,  students,  a l s o a t UBC, w o u l d be o f g r e a t  interest to  f o r a wide range o f reasons, i n c l u d i n g t h e  opportunity  t o s e e f i r s t hand t h e l e a d i n g edge o f s o u n d  sustainable building principles.  Green Buildings 3: S w o o p i n g for Air C It Choi Institut* 0' Afitn netcwcn v J v iv e r r iy o' B n t s i n C o u im o u j ItEKSHfV M*tiu.»ki Wno.ni Archincts  Figure  40.  C.K.Choi  Building f o r the Institute  of Asian Research.  There i s not a shortage of i n f o r m a t i o n a sustainable  way, and teachers  necessary m a t e r i a l s once chosen. my present  about how t o l i v e i n  can e a s i l y l o c a t e the  r e q u i r e d t o supplement our p r o j e c t s ,  I t i s w e l l beyond the scope of t h i s work, and  expertise,  to provide  a list  do have another s t o r y and some advice,  o f sources.  But I  passed on from David  Suzuki's wonderful book, The Sacred Balance which can be used as i n s p i r a t i o n f o r students and teachers  alike.  F i r s t , the story. An  a r c h i t e c t who David Suzuki c l e a r l y admires,  William  McDonough, dean o f A r c h i t e c t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of V i r g i n i a i n C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , " l i k e s to c i t e a s t o r y r e l a t e d by the ecophilosopher  Gregory Bateson:  At new C o l l e g e i n Oxford, England,,the huge oak beams of the u n i v e r s i t y ' s main h a l l are some 12 metres long and 0.5 metre t h i c k . In 1985, dry r o t had f i n a l l y weakened them so much that they needed t o be r e p l a c e d . I f oak t r e e s of such s i z e c o u l d have been found i n • England,- they would have cost about US $250,000 per l o g f o r a t o t a l replacement cost o f about US $50 million. Then the u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t e r informed the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s that when the main h a l l had been b u i l t 350 years e a r l i e r , the a r c h i t e c t s had i n s t r u c t e d t h a t a grove o f oak t r e e s be p l a n t e d and maintained so that when dry r o t s e t i n , about three and a h a l f c e n t u r i e s l a t e r , the beams c o u l d be r e p l a c e d . (Suzuki adds) Now that i s long-term planning, and McDonough b e l i e v e s t h i s has to become standard i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l t h i n k i n g . " (Suzuki 1997, 224-5) We can a l l l e a r n t o t h i n k t h i s way.  And f i n a l l y , the advice. In a s e c t i o n t i t l e d "What can we do?" i n Chapter 9 - A New Millenium,  David Suzuki,  gives a s e r i e s of simple  suggestions  f o r a c t i o n s we c a n a l l t a k e .  o n l y a few o f t h e p r a c t i c a l suggests  f o r changing  particularly  those  I will  approaches David  note  here  Suzuki  t h e Way we t h i n k a n d l i v e ,  t h a t may c o n n e c t  most r e a d i l y  with  d e s i g n work i n a n a r t r o o m : Think c r i t i c a l l y about the information that floods over us. Consider i t s sources carefully... Trust your common sense, your a b i l i t y information... I am w i l l i n g materials  to assess  and a b l e t o assemble s i m p l e and u s e a b l e  f o r use by students i n t h e artroom.  think students w i l l  I do n o t  t o l e r a t e my t u r n i n g t h e a r t r o o m  s c i e n c e l a b , b u t t h e y seem a g r e e a b l e  enough a b o u t t h e  p r o s p e c t o f d o i n g some s i m p l e r e s e a r c h on i s s u e s to  design projects.  Ones who r e s i s t w i l l  connected  n o t be p u s h e d .  F o l l o w i n g a r e some r e s o u r c e s I keep handy:  t i t  F i g u r e 41.  CMHC p a m p h l e t s - r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e  into a  from  CMHC  offices.  Suzuki  continues: P r o j e c t your mind f a r ahead i n t o the f u t u r e and c o n s i d e r t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t we a r e l e a v i n g a s a l e g a c y f o r o u r c h i l d r e n and grandchildren...  T h i s p r o j e c t i o n and the r e c o r d i n g o f d e l i b e r a t i o n s might be e a s i e r f o r a r t students  because of the accumulation  g r a p h i c s k i l l s and confidence, envisioning.  of  and the h a b i t of c r e a t i v e  I can see how t h i s can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a  p r o j e c t f o r students  t o c o n s i d e r the f u t u r e and the works  of a r t i s t s who have p o r t r a y e d  future  p o s s i b i l i t i e s as  well.  R e f l e c t on how we c a n meet o u r f u n d a m e n t a l w h i l e a l s o making a living...  I have observed t h a t students conversations  needs  l i k e t o engage i n  r e g a r d i n g our needs as opposed t o our wants.  T h i s o b v i o u s l y has an e f f e c t upon s u b j e c t s chosen f o r design p r o j e c t s and upon outcomes. Data such as the e a r l i e r mentioned i n f o r m a t i o n about the i n c r e a s e i n house s i z e over time i s i n t e r e s t i n g and r e l e v a n t f o r young people who are forming, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and l i f e p a t t e r n s .  They want to  l i v e w e l l on the e a r t h , they c e r t a i n l y Want the p l a n e t t o be w e l l , and they are w i l l i n g t o put c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t o the designs  f o r l i v i n g t h a t they develop i n a r t  c l a s s e s as w e l l as elsewhere. Over the years, that students  thought  I have noted  love t o design p l a c e s f o r themselves and  t h e i r f a m i l i e s : a personal and/or t h e i r f a m i l y - these  sanctuary,  a home f o r themselves  t o p i c s engage t h e i r deep  a t t e n t i o n over an extended p e r i o d i n some i n s t a n c e s .  I  have not emphasised as much as I might have, the challenge of d e s i g n i n g suggests,  f o r the eco-benign q u a l i t y t h a t  but I w i l l  Suzuki  i n the f u t u r e . I can see very  fertile  p o s s i b i l i t i e s here f o r g e n t l y s h i f t i n g the emphasis towards an e c o - p l a n e t a r y  commitment with r e s p e c t t o p l a c e making.  4  -  Work to get your home as e c o l o g i c a l l y benign as possible.  Of the three Rs - reduce, reuse,  recycle  - reducing i s by f a r the most important preceptReduction  o f s i z e and o v e r a l l m a t e r i a l use i s a r a t i o n a l ,  supportable  approach t o design, not d i f f i c u l t t o  understand, support  and i n t e g r a t e i n t o  planning.  - Lest anyone despair, i t i s worth remembering Margaret Mead's words : "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed c i t i z e n s can change the world. Indeed, i t i s the only thing that ever has." (Suzuki 1997, 209-218)  T h i s w e l l known maxim p r o v i d e s a very s u i t a b l e connector t o the next  s e c t i o n of t h i s document r e g a r d i n g the connections  of my c u r r i c u l a r p r o p o s a l s t o broader architecture.  themes o f  T h i n k i n g of o u r s e l v e s as p a r t of a  community, and engaging i n c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n s together, i s the l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f our d e l i b e r a t i o n s i n b r i n g i n g the ideas o f s u s t a i n a b l e design i n t o the artroom.  3.5  Social responsibility, Community a c t i o n  Some people don't have a place. My  personal  in  much o f my  community  focus  f o r my  adult  something  deal with  into a l i f e ago,  had  dollars f o r the  (Existing pressure  to  this  - so  on  e v e n more h o r r i f i e d  by  i s not  c o u l d buy  what t h i s  k i n d l y and  issue."  At  could  think that "housing"  recognise going be  that  t o be  achieved.  we  spent,  was  not  to  focus  our  the  in a  café  morning.  we  we  can.  settling her  thought  -  good woman  must c h o o s e I could  but said  i s s u e , but  work so  our  never  h o m e l e s s women  a l l n e e d t o c h o o s e where our and  for  t h a t moment,  best  a woman i n c h a r g e o f  to  shelter  coffee  at the  issues  how  f o r her  t o ask  i n the  I realised  reconcile  working  u n d e r e v e n more  horrified  move them a h e a d as  i t was  night  s o m e t h i n g came c l e a r f o r me. and  one  w o r k e r r o u t i n e l y gave  i f anything,  my  then  A f t e r a l l the  they  I was  over c o f f e e  hard  s h e l t e r s t o empty o u t  currently.)  This  worker,  i n the  social  are  Drake Street,,  how  stay.  that  s e r v i c e s are,  "Housing  t o l d me  a place  address.  in  I have  considerations  f o r me  energy,  involvement  of poverty.  a social  came t o h e r  were f i l l e d ,  wait  next:  pattern  voluntary  towards  effects  with  just  women who  women two and  She  in finding  places  the  leaned  emergency s e r v i c e s o f f i c e  Vancouver.  help  has  human d w e l l i n g  m o r n i n g many y e a r s the  life,  I c o u l d most m e a n i n g f u l l y  crystallised  at  p r o f e s s i o n a l and  action against  long believed that  This i s obscene.  I  do  energies  that  goals  are can  Personally, promoting  I don't  l e a n n e a r l y so e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y towards  the harder s c i e n t i f i c aspects o f s u s t a i n a b l e  development.  I do, however, understand  a t t e n t i o n to e c o l o g i c a l matters,  t h a t without  wise  other human c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  may not be r e l e v a n t f o r much longer.  The Canada and Agenda  21 commentary document, a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n , devotes sentences  a chapter t o combatting  Two  jump o f f the page f o r me: " S u s t a i n a b i l i t y  be achieved without And,  poverty.  furthermore,  e r a d i c a t i n g poverty."  cannot  (p.1,Chapter  3)  "The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o v e r t y and  d e g r a d a t i o n o f the environment i s evident."(p.3,Chapter  3)  The commentary continues w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the causes  o f poverty, which are rooted both g l o b a l l y and  nationally, social,  r e s u l t i n d i m i n i s h e d access t o economic,  and p o l i t i c a l o p t i o n s f o r the poor.  The t h r u s t of  the e f f o r t to e r a d i c a t e p o v e r t y i s thus t o r e g a i n access by the poor of o p t i o n s , and t o t r a n s f o r m o p p r e s s i v e systems u s i n g a m u l t i - s e c t o r a l and m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y The  approach.  commentary a s s e r t s t h a t " p o v e r t y e r a d i c a t i o n and  s u s t a i n a b i l i t y w i l l be achieved through community  based  development strategies... t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f ... p o l i c i e s t h a t impede s u c c e s s f u l development e f f o r t s ,  and mechanisms f o r  communities and governments t o share i n p o l i c y  formation."  (ibid)  So what does t h i s have to do with the artroom? How can the students i n an a r t course get i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s h a r i n g of s o c i a l  responsibility?  I b e l i e v e t h a t the artroom can be an important  learning  ground f o r a c q u i r i n g the s k i l l s and understanding  essential  t o the movement a g a i n s t poverty.  O b v i o u s l y , students must be made aware of the p o v e r t y t h a t exists:  i n our own  further a f i e l d .  neighbourhoods,  i n our c i t i e s ,  and  E n v i s i o n i n g s o l u t i o n s , not simply f o r the  a l l e v i a t i o n of homelessness,  but to the u n d e r l y i n g causes  of p o v e r t y and homelessness,  can be p a r t of i m a g i n a t i v e  d e l i b e r a t i o n s i n the  Another The  artroom.  of David Suzuki's proposals f o r a c t i o n ,  Sacred  found i n  Balance:  Get involved... action invariably precedes a profound s h i f t i n values, so actually doing something i s important.  In the process, one learns and becomes  committed..  I sponsor a student c l u b at school c a l l e d C o l t s that and C o l t s Humanitarian  Aid.  Mondays at lunchtime when my seventy students who  Care  I am always d e l i g h t e d on classroom f i l l s  up with over  have come to s i g n up f o r v o l u n t e e r  hours i n the community and f o r f u n d r a i s i n g f o r g l o b a l projects.  I b e l i e v e that much of the m o t i v a t i o n s p r i n g s  from a simple d e s i r e to make the world a b e t t e r - p l a c e . joke sometimes about  how  We  good v o l u n t e e r work looks on a  resume, but I t h i n k there i s much more to i t than t h a t . These students h a v e , r a i s e d many thousands  of d o l l a r s f o r  good g l o b a l causes and have given s i m i l a r l y thousands  of  hours of t h e i r time f o r causes i n the community. I t i s many  of these students who informative of our  have spent hours- making p o s t e r s  artwork which e n l i g h t e n s  s c h o o l with r e s p e c t  r e a l i t y of poverty and i n t e r e s t and  energies  the  We  can o f f e r design  population  to i s s u e s surrounding  the  a l l e v i a t i o n of p o v e r t y .  are t h e r e ;  guide t h a t impulse and  the g e n e r a l  The  i t i s up t o educators to  to p r o v i d e  some scope f o r a c t i o n .  p r o j e c t s that .promote t h o u g h t f u l ,  e c o l o g i c a l responses as p a r t of the a r t c u r r i c u l u m opportunity  and  - the  to combine the wish to l i v e w e l l with p r a c t i c a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of how  to accomplish t h i s . We  students o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o do and  can o f f e r  to l e a r n and  to learn  commitment.  The  M i n i s t r y of Education has  drafted  (February 2000) a  document c a l l e d S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y which r e i n f o r c e s  the  i d e a l of encouraging such a component i n the c u r r i c u l u m . 'rating scale' for s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s included  i n the  Performance Standards document, which might seem a b i t fatuous to some, but which p r o v i d e s regarding  some food  behaviour goals we might embrace.  aspects of behaviour to be r a t e d  2. S o l v i n g problems i n p e a c e f u l 4.  A way  d i v e r s i t y and  school  defending human r i g h t s  goal i s  "works a c t i v e l y to improve  school or community: o f t e n v o l u n t e e r s shows l e a d e r s h i p  and  responsibilities.  of meeting and/or exceeding the f i r s t  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  community  ways  E x e r c i s i n g democratic r i g h t s and  a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h i s way:  several  are:  1. C o n t r i b u t i n g to the classroom and 3. V a l u i n g  f o r thought The  for extra skills".  A  the  While  I am  not sure whether the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y would  i n t e r p r e t these goals i n the same manner t h a t I might do,  I  can see t h a t some of the a c t i v i t i e s one might p r o v i d e i n the artroom might w e l l serve to help students meet these liberal  goals.  So what can we  DO?  A r t students can p l a y a major r o l e i n the simple a c t of b e a u t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r surroundings,  and i n p r o v i d i n g  t h o u g h t f u l works of a r t to provoke thought promote e c o l o g i c a l v a l u e s . environmental  or even to  I c o n s i d e r these a c t s of  enhancement to be an important  aspect of the  a r t c u r r i c u l u m and am w e l l aware of the power of such a c t s for  students.  Because our s c h o o l was T was  scheduled to be demolished  i n 2004,  granted p e r m i s s i o n from the School D i s t r i c t to embark  on a v i g o r o u s program of s c h o o l b e a u t i f i c a t i o n f o r the two  years of our b u i l d i n g ' s l i f e .  last  T h i s i n v o l v e s the  p a i n t i n g of w a l l murals i n spots throughout  the s c h o o l and  the p a i n t i n g of s t u d e n t s ' l o c k e r s , which proved t o be a very p o p u l a r a c t i v i t y .  T h i s l i f t e d our s p i r i t s  p o s s i b l y helped.to reduce  and  the vandalism t h a t might have  a r i s e n i n our old,, soon to be abandoned s c h o o l b u i l d i n g .  At another p o i n t i n our recent h i s t o r y , i n answer to a school-wide  q u e s t i o n "What can we  DO to help people  f o r t u n a t e than o u r s e l v e s ? " , students i n my  less  art classes  researched and r e c r e a t e d at very l a r g e s c a l e the logos of  many of the major h e l p i n g o r g a n i s a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to people experiencing  the impulse to get i n v o l v e d .  In  every  c o r r i d o r of the s c h o o l , logos were d i s p l a y e d , which t i e d i n with the theme of an assembly i n v o l v i n g the e n t i r e school community. have spent education poverty,  Many students,  e s p e c i a l l y the  ' C o l t s t h a t Care'  c o u n t l e s s hours c r e a t i n g w e l l - r e s e a r c h e d posters  public  f o r the s c h o o l which focus on themes of  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d to the work of "Doctors  Without Borders'.  Much of t h i s work was  c l a s s time - students  done o u t s i d e  of  o f t e n spend hours a f t e r s c h o o l i n the  artroom, engaged i n such t a s k s .  With respect to goal 4, responsibilities',  ' e x e r c i s i n g democratic r i g h t s and  the school i n g e n e r a l , and  the artroom  i n p a r t i c u l a r can p l a y a rewarding r o l e i n f o s t e r i n g t h i s kind of development. way  From the r a t i n g s c a l e , we  of meeting and/or exceeding the e x p e c t a t i o n s  see t h a t a of  the  f o u r t h goal i s : "shows a s t r o n g sense of communitymindedness and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ; can d e s c r i b e and work toward an i d e a l f u t u r e f o r the world". T h i s c a l l s to mind the words of an A f r i c a n t h e o l o g i a n , Emmanuel Tehindrazanarivelo,  who  tells  us:  ...the A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n sees education as a process of b r i n g i n g a sense of awareness to people; t h a t i s , an awareness of worth, belonging, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; a sense of t r a d i t i o n , r o o t s , and p r o j e c t i o n - a sense of being human w i t h i n a community. The knowledge produced through education p r o v i d e s people with a v i s i o n that makes them able to i n t e r p r e t and to be c r e a t i v e so they can produce a c t i o n as an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r own l i f e and the l i f e of the community." (Arnold et a l , 1991,  150)  Global i n i t i a t i v e s Every year f o r the l a s t ten, the students and t e a c h e r s of a l o c a l l y developed  course at our s c h o o l c a l l e d G l o b a l  P e r s p e c t i v e s have v i s i t e d an area that i s e x p e r i e n c i n g h a r d s h i p , and work together with the l o c a l people o f t h a t area t o complete a p r o j e c t .  Some o f the c o u n t r i e s these  students and t e a c h e r s have v i s i t e d i n c l u d e r u r a l and i s o l a t e d p a r t s of Ecuador, Guatemala, the P h i l i p p i n e s , China,  T h a i l a n d , Guatemala and Santa  Domingo and Cuba. At  times,  a r t students have p r o v i d e d support t o t h i s program,  perhaps by making a s c a l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l model o f a b u i l d i n g to  be c o n s t r u c t e d i n the r u r a l area, perhaps by sending a r t  work along as g i f t s t o students i n the area, or by h e l p i n g to  p u b l i c i s e f u n d r a i s i n g events f o r the program.  Although  such p r o j e c t s c l e a r l y i n v o l v e much beyond the  d i s c i p l i n e o f a r t , the meaningful  a c t i o n s o f t h i s program  s t r i k e me as a d e f i n i t e example of community a c t i o n at i t s finest.  Such programs, o f which a r t can be an important  component, are t o me exemplary models of s o c i a l , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e d u c a t i o n . There are l o t s o f t h i n g s we can do t h a t don't  i n v o l v e l e a v i n g our own country, or even our  own neighbourhood i n some i n s t a n c e s .  Understand our l o c a l r e a l i t y In  a recent study t i t l e d  homelessness - THE MAKING AND  UNMAKING OF A CRISIS, Jack Layton,  formerly a V i c e -  P r e s i d e n t of the F e d e r a t i o n of Canadian M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and Toronto  City Councillor t e l l s  us t h a t "On Toronto  one homeless c i t i z e n d i e s every s i x days".  streets,  (Layton 2000,  xix)  He b e l i e v e s that homelessness i s "a  construction,  social  a r e s u l t of our c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n s as a  s o c i e t y , an a r t i f a c t . "  ( i b i d xxi)  To me i t seems that i f  t h i s i s t r u e , the unmaking of homelessness c o u l d be a r e s u l t of our c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n s as w e l l .  T h e o r i e s and r e s e a r c h abounds with r e s p e c t to the causes of and reasons f o r homelessness.  The media and the l i t e r a t u r e  c i t e the main f a c t o r s : economic downturn, underemployment,  unemployment and  changes i n ' s o c i a l and medical  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y mental health) p o l i c y , g e n t r i f i c a t i o n - the list  goes on. But i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y recent problem.  Layton notes that "computer o f the '60s,  '70s or e a r l y  word homelessness.(ibid  3)  searches of Canadian  newspapers  '80s y i e l d s no mention of the 1987,  The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Year  of the Homeless,  brought a t t e n t i o n to t h i s phenomenon to  the p u b l i c eye.  I t i s important f o r students, as the  g e n e r a t i o n to i n h e r i t t h i s s o c i e t a l ,  and perhaps p e r s o n a l  problem, to understand homelessness and i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  I t h i n k students need t o understand the f a c t s about homelessness and as w e l l , need to be given the o p p o r t u n i t y to address the problem and seek s o l u t i o n s to both the a l l e v i a t i o n of and the e r a d i c a t i o n of t h i s form of advanced poverty.  The Toronto group CERA, Centre f o r E q u a l i t y  Rights In Accommodation, i s one of many a r t i c u l a t e and v o c a l groups whose m i s s i o n i t i s to see that we are informed about t h i s problem as a s o c i e t y . They a s s e r t  that  i n 1976,  our country r a t i f i e d the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenant  Economic,  S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Rights which ensures that  everyone enjoys an adequate standard of l i v i n g .  Recently  on  the U n i t e d Nations Committee on Economic, S o c i a l  and  C u l t u r a l Rights has expressed grave concern t h a t Canada i s allowing v i o l a t i o n s  (documented by CERA) of the r i g h t  adequate housing to occur, and has  to  recommended t h a t the  problem of homelessness i n Canada be addressed  as a  n a t i o n a l emergency. CERA's c h a r t i n g of how  "epidemic"  and " n a t i o n a l d i s a s t e r " of homelessness has Canada s i n c e t h a t covenant  was  the  spread i n  signed i s i l l u m i n a t i n g  s u c c i n c t l y expressed at t h e i r website  and  -  (www.equaiityrighs.org/cera/docs/tcupdate.rtf.)  Such  a c t i o n groups perform a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e to i n t e r e s t e d students and other c i t i z e n s by making t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . CERA's Test Case L i t i g a t i o n s  are  b r i n g i n g people whose r i g h t s have been denied t o the c o u r t s all  across Canada i n an e f f o r t to p u b l i c i s e t h i s problem  and t o c l a i m fundamental r i g h t s f o r the  Most students I broach  disadvantaged.  t h i s s u b j e c t with, i n the i n n e r c i t y  (Richmond) s c h o o l of very mixed economic l e v e l s where I teach,'are not aware of the reasons why  the few  panhandlers  they see i n the s t r e e t s are t h e r e , a s k i n g f o r money or work.  Few  of my  students are aware t h a t , o n l y a few m i l e s  from t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y comfortable neighbourhood, s i t s p o s t a l code zone which i s documented t o have the  the  lowest  p e r - c a p i t a income i n a l l of Canada - the Downtown E a s t s i d e community of Vancouver. Students  a r r i v e with t h e i r  p e r s o n a l b i a s e s to the d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g why e x i s t s and what we  should do about i t .  own  the problem  I have found t h a t  students are i n t e r e s t e d and w i l l i n g to do the r e s e a r c h and spend t h e i r c r e a t i v e energies i n v o l v e d i n t h i s  issue.  T h i s kind of c r e a t i v e problem f i n d i n g and s o l v i n g i s w e l l s u i t e d t o the artroom  as w e l l as other classrooms.  their collaborative effort. authors people  In  Educating f o r a Change, the  a s s e r t t h a t " s o c i a l change education encourages t o i d e n t i f y , value and c o n t r i b u t e what they know so  they can s o l v e problems t o g e t h e r .  The s o c i a l change  educator must design d i f f e r e n t processes i n v i t e such j o i n t  that a c t i v e l y  l e a r n i n g and problem s o l v i n g " . (Arnold e t a l 1991, 127)  Such e d u c a t i v e a c t i o n t i e s t o g e t h e r the c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g common t o the artroom,  the m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y  t h r u s t of the e d u c a t i o n a l system, and the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y g o a l s a r t i c u l a t e d i n the B.C. M i n i s t r y Performance Standards.  Such a c t i o n a l s o b r i n g s t o l i f e the  A f r i c a n t h e o l o g i a n ' s abovequoted goal to c r e a t e i n students "a sense o f being a l i v e w i t h i n a community". Such a c t i o n i n the classroom  a l s o meets the d e f i n i t i o n of the authors of  Educating f o r a Change t h a t education i s : A way to h e l p people c r i t i c a l l y evaluate and understand themselves and the world around them, t o see themselves as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n that world. Our hopes f o r s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n are i g n i t e d as people come t o see themselves as c r e a t o r s of c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y and an a l t e r n a t e s o c i a l vision... ( i b i d 151) In t h i s way, my e f f o r t s at e d u c a t i o n a l research, should they be meeting some o f these goals, push past the o r i g i n a l goals of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i o n r e s e a r c h t o become p a r t i c i p a t o r y s o c i e t a l a c t i o n , t o the degree that we see o u r s e l v e s - myself  and the students - as a c t i v e  p a r t i c i p a n t s and c o - l e a r n e r s with respect to the s o c i e t a l  change t h a t we address.  In the c o n t i n u e d support t h a t  g i v e one another as r e s e a r c h e r s , learner/students  designers,  and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n our s o c i e t y ,  probe f o r causes and s o l u t i o n s  we  as we  t o g e t h e r t o a p a i n f u l aspect  of our Canadian r e a l i t y , we might reach the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n g o a l s of education d e s c r i b e d  e a r l i e r by M i l l e r and S e l l e r .  Poverty - a d e f i n i t e culture i n our m u l t i c u l t u r a l , p l u r a l i s t society  A young P h i l i p p i n o boy, r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d i n Canada and s e p a r a t e d from h i s P h i l i p p i n o - C a n a d i a n  f r i e n d s i n the  course of an a l t e r c a t i o n , was l a t e l y beaten t o death by a group of young Indo-Canadians near a s c h o o l y a r d .  The  ensuing debate focused upon whether or not t h i s was a ' r a c i s t ' i n c i d e n t . In our p a r t  of the world, we have  achieved a q u i t e s o p h i s t i c a t e d  l e v e l of m u l t i - c u l t u r a l  acceptance, as the extent of our c o l l e c t i v e l y g r i e f over t h i s death w i l l perhaps a t t e s t . read too much i n t o t h i s i n c i d e n t . is  And perhaps we  I t may w e l l be that i t  not the t i p of a ' r a c i s t ' i c e b e r g ,  u n f o r t u n a t e accident  expressed  but a h o r r i b l y  t h a t happened between two groups of  boys of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c  backgrounds.  I am heartened when I read accounts of s t u d e n t s - c o m e - l a t e l y t o Canada who t e l l and  t h e i r s t o r i e s of i n i t i a l  culture  shock  f r u s t r a t i o n and eventual i n t e g r a t i o n and f e e l i n g s of  acceptance i n the c u l t u r e we are a l l working t o evolve here.  I t i s an e x c i t i n g aspect of our contemporary l i f e i n  t h i s region  and I p e r c e i v e  a generally  optimistic  appraisal  of our growing successes, community. A r t has t h a t embraces and r e g i o n supports understanding  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n my  a place i n t h i s s e t t l i n g .  school A  curriculum-  c e l e b r a t e s the p l u r a l i s t i c nature  and  encourages t h i s s e t t l i n g and  t h a t must grow i f we  of  our  the common  are to t r u l y become a  society, a l l together.  Dr.  F.Graeme Chalmers, p r e s e n t l y David Lam  M u l t i c u l t u r a l Education UBC,  asserts that  and  P r o f e s s o r of A r t Education  aspects  at  ' m u l t i c u l t u r a l ' means acknowledging more  than j u s t e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s , t h a t we "all  Chair i n  of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y "  need to  recognise  (Chalmers, 1996,4)  which i n c l u d e s such d i f f e r e n c e s as economic s i t u a t i o n , c l a s s , age  and  ability,  w e l l as the much focused  I have noted my  gender and  sexual o r i e n t a t i o n , as  upon e t h n i c i t y .  p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the  e t h n i c i t i e s have been w e l l - s e r v e d  multivarious  i n our r e g i o n .  The  arts,  not to mention s o c i a l a c t i o n i n general, have proceeded w e l l beyond the tokenism t h a t precedes a understanding  fuller  of meaningful m u l t i c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n .  are, I t h i n k , g e n e r a l l y moving past the  limiting  Eurocentrism  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e d much of our a r t s t u d i e s  previously.  To focus t h i s i s s u e to the area of  architecture, the b u i l t  We  I see a c h e e r i n g a r r a y of s t y l e s emerging i n  form of the r e g i o n which r e f l e c t s our  of our d i v e r s i t y .  Except f o r the sometimes p a i n f u l  d i s c u s s i o n s surrounding  the s o - c a l l e d 'monster' houses,  a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h i s r e g i o n i s perhaps g e n e r a l l y as r i c h e r f o r t h i s  acceptance  diversity.  the  accepted  Figure  But  42.  Seabird  Sustainable  Community  project,  the  Roundhouse.  Graeme C h a l m e r s i n c l u d e s a q u o t e i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f  p l u r a l i s m w h i c h b r i n g s me t o a l o n g p a u s e : " n o t h i n g n e e d be f o r e i g n i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l Kattner) is,  society",  (ibid  human 7, r e f .  I n my s c h o o l c o m m u n i t y , t h e c u l t u r e o f p o v e r t y  i f present, hidden,  not w e l l - u n d e r s t o o d  n o t w e l l a c k n o w l e d g e d and c e r t a i n l y  by t h o s e who do n o t e x p e r i e n c e i t  directly.  Graeme C h a l m e r s u r g e s us t o a s k "Why we u s e A r t ? And what i s A r t f o r ? should encourage students  He s u g g e s t s  t h a t we  t o a c t as a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , t o  s t u d y a r t t o i d e n t i f y what m a t t e r s t h a t A r t i s "what a c u l t u r e s a y s art  do we make A r t ? How do  i n a c u l t u r e . He  i tis",  i n t h e sense t h a t  i s a " r e p o s i t o r y o f c u l t u r a l meaning".  (ibid  P e r h a p s we c o u l d t h e same a b o u t a r c h i t e c t u r e . the e x i s t i n g b u i l t understanding important  30)  By r e a d i n g  c u l t u r e , we c a n d e r i v e a g r e a t  o f how d w e l l e r s s e e t h e m s e l v e s  t o them.  posits  a n d what i s  By m a k i n g a r t (and a r c h i t e c t u r e ) we  i d e n t i f y o u r s e l v e s and our a s p i r a t i o n s , s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l change. A r t  and p r o v i d e f o r  (and a r c h i t e c t u r e )  can  become a "powerful p e r v a s i v e f o r c e that helps to shape our a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , values and behaviours."  Dr. Chalmers a s s e r t s  that we  (ibid  31)  need to i n s i s t upon i n c l u s i o n  of a r t that has perhaps been overlooked or m a r g i n a l i s e d i n the past i n the E u r o c e n t r i c favoured. He c i t e s murals, of a r t h i s t o r y that we we  o r i e n t a t i o n that we  s t r e e t a r t , p u b l i c a r t , as areas  should not overlook.  focus on the b u i l t environment, as i s the  here, the merging of the b u i l t compelling study.  have  Certainly i f intention  form with a r t i s a very  Consider a Cuban s t r e e t mural,  or a  h i g h l y e m b e l l i s h e d I r i s h neighbourhood, or a high school c o r r i d o r with p u b l i c a r t which has served to enhance and i d e n t i f y the c u l t u r e and make manifest a s p i r a t i o n s from simple a e s t h e t i c , issues.  F i g u r e 43.  Cuban p u b l i c a r t .  to p o l i t i c a l ,  to deeply  ranging  spiritual  The poor are an aspect of our culture less well known than perhaps any e t h n i c i t y that i s a part of our society There e x i s t s a s u b c u l t u r e of p o v e r t y i n our c u l t u r e , as different  from the mainstream as i f the people were from a  d i s t a n t unpronounceable  land, l i t t l e  heard of and seldom  v i s i t e d by o u r s e l v e s .  The Gap e x i s t s , between the  mainstream and the poor, and s t a t i s t i c s n o t i f y us t h a t i t • i s widening.  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l e t h n i c i t i e s are found  i n t h i s c u l t u r e o f poverty, but some groups are o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d t o be sure.  I t h i n k i t i s one of our jobs i n the s c h o o l s t o shed  light  upon t h i s c u l t u r e as w e l l as a l l the other c u l t u r e s we examine and c e l e b r a t e .  I f we are to have a p r o p e r l y  i n t e g r a t e d c u l t u r e , we w i l l need not o n l y t o understand t h i s aspect of our c u l t u r e , but we w i l l need t o a c t upon t h i s understanding - a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y upon t h i s understanding. T h i s means no tokenism,  no shallow  responses, but w e l l grounded, informed and a u t h e n t i c responses t o genuine  issues.  Inasmuch as the f o r t u n a t e ones understand t h i s s u b c u l t u r e h a r d l y at a l l ,  we need t o a c t with care and s e n s i t i v i t y i n  order not t o make p a i n f u l mistakes.  Perhaps  i t i s this  f e a r of e r r o r t h a t keeps us from responding when a ragged panhandler  approaches  us.  Perhaps  i t i s t h i s f e a r that  l e t s us t u r n a b l i n d eye t o the t r o u b l e s of the disadvantaged people i n our midst, who are c o r r a l l e d such areas as the Downtown E a s t s i d e of Vancouver. to know about the people who have no p l a c e t o l i v e ,  into  We need who are  tucked i n t o c r e v a s s e s at the margins of our e x i s t i n g c u l t u r e . We need to understand  built  what i t i s l i k e f o r so many  of the people of our r e g i o n s who l i v e i n substandard or even t o t a l l y  inhumane c o n d i t i o n s .  I t h i n k i f we know about  these c o n d i t i o n s , i f we l e t our students know about conditions,  the urge t o do something about t h i s  these  situation  naturally follows.  I read s t o r i e s to my students, and otherwise make a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the poor i n our c u l t u r e and i n other c u l t u r e s as w e l l . photographic  I tell  them about the recent  i n i t i a t i v e of the 2004 Downtown E a s t s i d e  P o r t r a i t Calendar  i n which 110 b l a c k and white d i s p o s a b l e  cameras were handed out to r e s i d e n t s of the area i n order to f a c i l i t a t e  image making of t h e i r neighbourhood.  I show  them the photographs o f the r e s u l t i n g calendar, along with all  the other a r t i s t i c and i n f o r m a t i v e images I can f i n d  that w i l l help them to understand  poverty.  F i g u r e 44. Photographs from t h e Downtown E a s t s i d e Photographers' 2004 c a l e n d a r .  |nter Povejty  There Is a whole connection with Vancouver and our environment and what our environment baa to blame far the serious heroin and cocaine abuse. I think one of the reasons why tfim fa happening m because they tear down buildings, for example, across from Eaton's. If that building waa there, people would ba in there, doing things, living, working... and it's gone. It's this big hugs empty lot that's like this tooth that's been pulled out of the smile of Vancouver. The way we treat architecture and specs In this city is really connected, I think, to heroin abuse, tf there were mora gardons and less asphalt this wouldn't be ao much of a problem and I really believe that. This has been my neighbourhood for twenty years So when these gsls ask ms, where are you from, I say Tm from right here - where are you from?' I think that these women can bo saved, snd should be saved. A ht of people think that this is Vancouver's problem, but these woman come from all aver Canada. They're not all from the Downtown East Side. They're from everywhere In Canada. These kids, those women have parents and relatives all over Canada, from coast to coast. Its a national problem. 'I'd really like to see these gals look at themselves a Uttte bit differantty and have a little bit of respect for themselves and try to get their dreams happening because they all have dreams, all have great expectations end they all have plana snd fantasies. It would be realty -eat if this could be a turning point for them. • s personal thing to have a record of yourself, snd these gsls hsvs a record of themsshms in the heroin ghetto. So I'd like it if they couid took bade and he Inspired by these photographs and fd Oka them to fust ah... buy s oneway ticket somewhere aha and get the monkey off their back. Therm are a lot of sixteen year-olds, seventsen yaar-ofoa down here, that I realty hope are not hers ten years from now. And I encourage them to change their minds shout being there. You know, I say to them. Isn't there somewhere that you'd like to go?".../ get them to talk about their dreams so they dont forget them. A lot of times I ask them whet they  B  :  r  S  h  i  (  l  -  Enter •  t dimension I  Vancouver's Darkest Cloud by A. Peter Jubb If you can judge a chain by its weakest link, can you judge a city by its poorest neighborhood? That sure would make tourism easy wouldn't it? You could bypass Manhattan for the Bronx, Beverly Hills and Santa Monica for Compton, or in our case Robson Street and Stanley Park for the sketchy alleys and taverns of the Downtown East Side So what would a tour of the Downtown East Side be like? What makes the neighborhood really stand out from the rest of Vancouver? Down near Gassy Jack your first tour guide might be Neil from London Ontario who was kicked out of his house when he was 13 for trying weed Since then. Neil's family has mostly been Charity end fvy Neil is also unemployed as a runner. From E to e Z , Neil will find it ell for you (gratuities expected, of course]. On his arm of the journey Neil will probably tell you that there is in fact a lot of good on the streets, tt's like a famify, hell say., Everyone watching and searching.  wanting and needing - buying and selling somehow brings them together. Everyone has a buddy, but few have friends. Neil might introduce you to his friends Mr. Brownstone, Harry Jones and his brother Blanco in the alley behind 3 0 Hastings. Here you can collect free hype sticks and water bottles! Then Neil might make tracks in Chinatown where hell chase the dragon across the street from Sun Yat Sen Gardens. Don't worry, cops  don't believe in dragons, he'll tHI you Up the street in Memorial Park, your next guide might be Dave from Abbotsford. who won't tell you anything about himself but hell offer you a cigarette. Dave's one of this city's newest rock stars, king of his own sensations, part of the coke generation. And although he spends most of his time on the streets he is quite bitter  Well, to get the best for worst) view of this part of town it is best to start at night in the area commonly known as Zombie Town, or what I like to call the Belushi Belt which is famous for its quantity of heroin and coke users The streets end alleys between Pender and Cordova and from Gambie to Main typify this area's financially challenged population. Despite the destitution the area enjoys a dynamic economy and its restdents are highly mobile. Although there ere no tours of this boisterous district, any number of residents will offer you a unique glimpse of up or down on these  The streets ere tough, hell tell you. The only bande that play here ere rubber; the perfume is always opium, the fashion is always retro grunge. A rat's worth of saloons rumbling with sticky barstools, gym bags, and missing teeth. A minefield for the soul.  mis  Food For Thought"  F i g u r e 45. E x c e r p t from T a x i , a l o c a l newspaper.  I e x p l a i n t o my students the extent of the s o c i a l d y s f u n c t i o n that has emerged e x p l a i n how  i n the neighbourhood, and I  c r u e l i t i s to t u r n the area i n t o a gawk-show,  by c r u i s i n g through to take a look.  I believe,  however,  there i s much we can do, as 'mainstreamers', to understand, to a l l e v i a t e and to work towards e r a d i c a t i o n of poverty i n our c u l t u r e and i n the g l o b a l c u l t u r e as w e l l .  Students love to d i s c u s s i s s u e s of r e l e v a n c e . a l i n e down the centre of the artroom and w r i t e  I might draw 'yes' at  one e n d a n d 'no' a t t h e o t h e r .  I might a s k the s t u d e n t s i f  t h e y t h i n k t h e y s h o u l d g i v e money t o someone who a s k s  for it.  Take y o u r p l a c e on t h e l i n e ,  why y o u a r e t h e r e . and  after  position,  a s we m i g h t r e v i s i t  some d i s c u s s i o n . )  the l i n e  I want s t u d e n t s t o t a k e a  t o f o r m u l a t e and t o share t h e i r views.  i n t r o d u c e d a t a f o r them t o s t u d y , s t o r i e s art  and e x p l a i n  (I m i g h t a s k them t o w r i t e t h e i r name  t h e date on t h e l i n e ,  later,  i nthe s t r e e t  I want t o  f o r them t o h e a r ,  f o r them t o l o o k a t , q u e s t i o n s f o r them t o p o n d e r ,  d i l e m m a s f o r them t o i n v e s t i g a t e . A n d e v e n t u a l l y , I want t o g i v e t h e m o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e some a c t i o n , a l b e i t at t h i s  stage.  I m i g h t a s k them t o c o n s i d e r l i f e people.  i n a s h e l t e r f o r homeless  T h e r e a r e l o t s o f ways we c a n l e a r n a b o u t  r e a l i t y without  t u r n i n g the people  i n t o monkeys i n a z o o . and  limited  I would guide  we a r e c o n c e r n e d  Many s o u r c e s  students t o those  this about  of information exist,  resources.  Perhaps  t h i s w o u l d l e a d t o some d e s i g n i n i t i a t i v e s .  I could  show  them t h e r e s u l t s o f some d e s i g n i n i t i a t i v e s  of others.  MIX.  Architecture's rising stars Stephanie Fors\the and Todd MacAllen have won almost every design competition they have entered  TREVOR BOODDY  ,<i -ummer panner-Ti- wttga - surname ••or«w!H* .r.j "tad Ma*.....-!. n.i<J j 101 M citoîcn wc r,i»v ttvv cnuid ..rplv i ncir .irchi-  Figure  46. Feature  aniess I'm vvroni;. is unequalled in the history of Canadian arc lui ecru rv. It's all the more remarkable or ;ac :.ict ;na! ihe r.nr are only three years out of :.it'ir irtr.iiw.u;.:! -Wùies at Dalhousie University. A is i-mjusune just reading the long list of Forsythe .nd MacAllen s recent design competition wins, ;iever rnino the ions days and nights they slaved all •ummer :o prepare :heir entries. Vhiie ;h< : mer national community lavishes .wards anJ anemion on this couple, who live and work in a modest 7~-0-square-fooi Yaletown loft •.villi their iaree pet ruxcr. Charlie, MacAllen and Fiirsythe currently have no substantive eomrnis-.ons in British Columbia. They are not entirely unrecognized in Canada, however. MacAllen and Forsythe are Z003 recipients m the Canada Council's Ron Thorn Prize, iwardcd to voune designers who demonstrate  re: designers  f o r the homeless,  Trevor  Boddy,  6  Dec.  2003  We c o u l d l o o k a t C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r ' s and  p e r h a p s e x p a n d upon h i s i d e a s f o r m a k i n g p l a c e s  that  enable  sleeping outside.  Perhaps t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f  people  who a r e s l e e p i n g r o u g h b e c a u s e o f h o m e l e s s n e s s has  changed t h e tone o f t h i s p a t t e r n over 94.  fret obtcently r  .....  P a t t e r n Language,  *rr---  „  SLEEPING  „,„j.„  '  ,M .,,0.. »7  ....tad, ™lin,  .«1  the years.  PUBLIC  »~ » -i»  ï *_5  Sir J&-i-i •»« » -*» -t: .  public.  ,h, d,y, ind toll on ihe ground.  It it a mark of success in a park, public lobby or a porch, when people can come there and fall asleep. In * KXiirt* which nurtures people and faMen (run, ihe fact •.hit people îomciiinci »ini :n tleep in public ii thing in (he world. K tomeone liei down on 1 pircmem bench md fall* Jtlccp, if ii pouiblc ro IKM it tcrioutlv u 1 : If he ha» no plice to go—then, we, the people of the town be hippy (hit he cin it  ICJ.II ilecp un the public pathi  Henchr!. ind, of courte, it mif tito be torn cone who doet 1 plice ;o go, but hippeni to like nipping in the meet. But our tociety doci not imite [hit kind of behavior. In o lOcieiy, tleeping :n public, like loitering, it thought of 11 ict Cot criminal! ind deitituict. In our world, when home : buildi people M M tleeping on public benchct or in pub)' 1 reitore "p uprifht citiicnt get nenout. ind the polio and I, . ._ ted my M i only Uter  1... S M " "° ""L _ 1 . S a w »• " " " " " , „ -i»' MM  .1 «rt»ni " '"«-  F i g u r e 4 7 . C o l l a g e o f P a t t e r n Language e x c e r p t , homeless p e r s o n s l e e p i n g (AIA)  We c o u l d d e v e l o p that could take inches apart  the idea of designing a piece of furniture t h e p l a c e o f t h e s i m p l e c o t s l i n e d up o n l y  i n some o f t h e e x i s t i n g h o m e l e s s  We m i g h t c o n s i d e r t h e e x i s t i n g minimum l e g a l f o r h a b i t a b l e rooms i n c o m m u n i t y h o u s i n g  shelters.  requirements  p r o j e c t s , a n d we  c o u l d s e e what m i g h t be p o s s i b l e . We c o u l d l o o k a t some o f the s u p p o r t i v e housing housing  p r o j e c t t h a t have b e e n d e v i s e d by  a d v o c a c y o r g a n i s a t i o n s , a n d s e e what we c o u l d come  up with as w e l l . And  we  c o u l d s p e c u l a t e about the  social  r a m i f i c a t i o n s of our i d e a s , and see where they f i t i n t o existing  I f we  the  context.  c o u l d together,  understand  students  and t e a c h e r s , l e a r n . t o  and e n v i s i o n / c r e a t e an a p p r o p r i a t e response to  the problems of the most m a r g i n a l i s e d of our c u l t u r e , then pluralism,  in i t s fullest  to f l o u r i s h .  sense, c o u l d be g i v e n the chance  Without a d d r e s s i n g t h i s c r i t i c a l p i e c e of  c u l t u r a l p u z z l e , we  leave a t r o u b l i n g and p a i n f u l gap  w i l l o n l y grow with our i n a t t e n t i o n . worse with clumsy but well-meaning  But we  our  that  can make i t  attempts.  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of p l u r a l i s m , Graeme Chalmers i n c l u d e s a ' s o f t ' quote given by L i l l a Watson, an A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n a l woman who to h e l p me,  s a i d something l i k e " i f you have come  don't bother,  but i f you have come because your  l i b e r a t i o n i s t i e d up with mine, then l e t us work together."  ( i b i d 303)  I t i s t h i s very approach  and  a t t i t u d e t h a t w i l l l e a d to a genuine response to the i n j u s t i c e of our present  We may  situation.  cannot walk past a panhandler and not see her, though not f e e l moved to g i v e her money.  r e c o g n i s e t h a t she that a young man  We  at l e a s t need to  i s t h e r e , and c o n s i d e r why.  Why  is i t  i s s e l l i n g s t r e e t newspapers or h i s meagre  c o l l e c t i o n of second hand goods on the sidewalk?  Why  do I  o f t e n f i n d someone s l e e p i n g i n the r e c y c l i n g cupboard of co-op? How beloved  can t h i s be happening i n a country as f a t as  Canada?  we  We  a l l need to understand  what i s  my our  happening  i n the l i v e s of those we might glimpse, t o  c o n s i d e r a p p r o p r i a t e responses t o these people and the situation  they demonstrate  so v i v i d l y .  sense of r e s p o n s i b l e e f f i c a c y  We can develop a  i n d e a l i n g with the  m a r g i n a l i s e d of our c u l t u r e , based upon t h i s  understanding.  A c u r r i c u l u m that i n c l u d e s these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s can h e l p t o evolve and r e a l i s e a genuinely p l u r a l i s t i c c u l t u r e , not o n l y 'everyone's  a r t matters' but. everyone  where  matters.  Endnotes f o r the themes of architecture In  t h i s document, I i n c l u d e e x e r c i s e s t o encourage  and  s t i m u l a t e young people to look, with i n t e r e s t and care, at the world around them.  My  theory i s t h a t people i n g e n e r a l  take our environment f o r granted much of the Anything  time.  I can do t o s t i m u l a t e an i n t e r e s t i n pausing to  take a r e a l l y good look at what i s around us f e e l s t o l i k e a r i g h t and h e l p f u l t h i n g t o do.  I f we b r i n g the  viewing and sensing of our environment t o a f u l l y level, to  we  me  conscious  s t a r t to take a much g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n r e l a t i n g  our s e t t i n g s , and perhaps move to the l e v e l of i n t e r e s t  where we might a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a r r a n g i n g , i f necessary, mending of the p l a c e s we  inhabit.  We  and  can  l e a r n t o c o n s c i o u s l y design an environment f o r o u r s e l v e s t h a t i s s u p p o r t i v e and w e l l - c o n s i d e r e d .  We  can hone the  skills  of c o o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d to make communal e f f o r t s .  And we  can look t o one another t o f i n d the courage  wherewithal  and  to prevent and to r e p a i r the p l a c e s t h a t  we  f i n d t h a t do not maximise our p o t e n t i a l .  I am amazed, i n my surroundings, observe.  until  own  life,  by how  I began to make a conscious e f f o r t  Drawing helped sharpen my  small home d e f i n i t e l y helped me where s h e l t e r comes from. experience that i t was us with homes.. But  I f a i l e d to n o t i c e my  eye, and b u i l d i n g a  to grow i n a p p r e c i a t i o n of  As a c h i l d ,  I knew from my  g e n e r a l l y the f a t h e r s who  I had l i t t l e  to  own  provided  r e a l i s t i c understanding  of  what was i n v o l v e d i n the p r o v i s i o n o f s h e l t e r - beyond, of course, the o u t f i t t i n g of my own immediate surroundings, my bedroom i n our f a m i l y home. myself  B u i l d i n g a simple home f o r  i n Haida Gwaii changed the course of my l i f e , and  d e f i n i t e l y opened my consciousness o f b u i l d i n g s . As w e l l , b u i l d i n g a s m a l l home p l a n t e d the seeds f o r a very • e n t h u s i a s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of what i s p o s s i b l e i n the environment, and how one might go about  realising  possibility.  I want t o help improve our chances o f t a i l o r i n g our environment to meet our human needs.  I want . a l l people who  are so i n c l i n e d t o f e e l welcome i n t h i s n a t u r a l and l i f e a f f i r m i n g process.  I do not q u e s t i o n the need f o r a r c h i t e c t s i n t h a t process, but a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c i s i o n making can be shared. it  Oftentimes  i s not shared as w e l l as i t might be i n the c o n c e p t u a l  and d e s i g n stages - too many ideas make the process messy (read expensive)  and so the users of the b u i l d i n g are  sometimes excluded a f t e r a c e r t a i n t o k e n i s t involvement has taken p l a c e . And o f t e n c l i e n t s and b u i l d i n g users are not confident "I  (can I get away with s a y i n g i t again? - they say  know nothing about a r c h i t e c t u r e " ) so they back o f f , and  t h e i r v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e not i n c l u d e d .  And  although I very much r e s p e c t the complexity o f the f e a r s , and the i n t e n s i t y of the doubts a person might have that p r o h i b i t comfortable involvement  i n p l a c e making, I b e l i e v e  t h e r e i s . much we can do, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the artroom, to mitigate this reticence.  In the 90% of our b u i l d i n g s i n  which a r c h i t e c t s are not  involved,  c a r e f u l thought,  understanding of what i s needed and  how  to o b t a i n humane  responses t o the peoples' needs can be c o n t r i b u t e d people who  by  are not p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t s but whose  e x p e r t i s e runs the whole spectrum of p o s s i b i l i t y . are u n l i m i t e d .scenarios  and  r o l e s to p l a y : the  There  little  who  wants to help c r e a t e h e r / h i s bedroom space, the  who  wants t o p r o v i d e  a house f o r h i s / h e r  child  adult  f a m i l y , the  wife  or husband whose job i t i s to make that house a home, the young couple who  want to renovate an i l l - e q u i p p e d but  a f f o r d a b l e home, the teachers meaningfully  and  students who  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the design  want to  of a s c h o o l  that  r e a l l y works f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g community, homeless women or men b u i l d i n g - who  who  dream of l i v i n g i n a s a f e  know e x a c t l y what i s needed to p r o v i d e  s e c u r i t y , the people who  the  that  have the means to b u i l d t h e i r  dream home on a wonderful p i e c e of p r o p e r t y  they have  worked a l l t h e i r l i v e s to a f f o r d , the group composed of many people wishing to b u i l d a co-housing p r o j e c t the developer who and  responsive  together,  wants to b u i l d a group of very b e a u t i f u l  homes, c i t i z e n s who  need a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g  f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose, a r e l i g i o u s group that needs a p l a c e of worship, - endless  possibilities.  of these abovementioned s c e n a r i o s  would not  speaking be c a l l e d a r c h i t e c t u r e , each i s an incidence  of p l a c e making.  a c t i v i t y of d e c o r a t i n g example, the  has  has  strictly important earth-shaking  has  something to  the a b i l i t y to choose, perhaps  the r i g h t to be  That sense of p e r s o n a l  while many  a young person's bedroom, f o r  idea i s born that one  c o n t r i b u t e , t h a t one that one  Through the l e s s  And  i n v o l v e d i n p l a c e making.  e f f i c a c y , l i k e l y to be a p p l i e d i n  subsequent s i t u a t i o n s as w e l l , i s probably much more  important and powerful than any c l e v e r - d e s i g n - f e a t u r e s might  pink-bedroom-with-  be.  But maybe, on the other  hand, we need t o be c a r e f u l not to underestimate importance  to someone of self-made  the  s e t t i n g s - even i f they  i n v o l v e heavy emphasis upon pink.  P r o f e s s o r Shack wrote to me: doubts  "Maybe you should honour the  about a r c h i t e c t u r e that were expressed by  teachers."  fellow  He continued, " E x p l o r i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e opens up  unknown worlds or u n a r t i c u l a t e d worlds that any n o v i c e would have l i m i t e d experience with. unsettling,  I t can be s c a r y ,  or at l e a s t c h a l l e n g i n g to e n t e r a new  I agree with t h i s s e n s i t i v e statement,  'world."  but f i n d i t s c a r y  that the world of ' a r c h i t e c t u r e ' i n the sense of 'place making', should be unknown to any of us.  We  a l l live in  the world, but o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of our people to be a r c h i t e c t s ,  or even p l a c e makers.  choose  Where have we  e r r e d t h a t we don't a l l f e e l eager and ready to be at l e a s t somewhat i n v o l v e d ?  And,  more i m p o r t a n t l y , at l e a s t t o t h i s  document, what can we do to change t h i s  situation?  I want people t o f e e l that they belong i n these processes and I don't  see that as a widespread phenomenon now.  hear people making- excuses  f o r why  I  they cannot get  i n v o l v e d , and a d m i t t i n g t o a l a c k of c o n f i d e n c e .  I  r e c o g n i s e that people o f t e n put the economic aspect ahead of others and perhaps  concur with a r c h i t e c t s or d e s i g n e r s  that i t i s too messy  (expensive) to get n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s  i n v o l v e d i n the process of design.  I f i n d i t even worse  that people o f t e n l i v e i n t h e i r homes without  personalising  t h e i r space  out of f e a r t h a t the r e s a l e value might be  a f f e c t e d i f any t i n k e r i n g with t h e i r environment  takes  place.  People  are the experts about t h e i r own s e l v e s and t h e i r own  wishes and dreams.  My dream i s t h a t i t w i l l become g e n e r a l  and common p r a c t i c e f o r people who are not p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t s t o be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s of placemaking  - t o r e c o g n i s e that they indeed have a great  d e a l o f knowledge and understanding  o f what i s i n t h e i r  environment, and what c o u l d be. Moreover, I want people t o r e c o g n i s e , and t o a c q u i r e , the simple s k i l l s which are indeed t e a c h a b l e : drawing t o communicate i d e a s ; à rudimentary  understanding  o f design process; a l i v e l y ,  a t t e n t i v e , phenomenonlogical  way of seeing, t h i n k i n g and  being i n the world; a s t r o n g sense o f what we need t o do to s u s t a i n the resources we have been given t o use; and a simple sense of what i t means t o be s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e to respond  t o the needs of the whole community, not j u s t  those who are the advantaged.  I t doesn't  take a g r e a t d e a l  of s h i f t i n g o f a t t i t u d e s , resources, s k i l l i n g ,  or expertise  to accomplish  t h i s . And the h o l d i n g o f the t h e o r y t h a t  these s k i l l s ,  albeit  simple and rudimentary  when compared  with the r i c h s k i l l s e t s h e l d by t r a i n e d a r c h i t e c t s ,  can be  used t o produce genuine c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o p l a c e making, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n concert with the p r o f e s s i o n a l s when that i s p o s s i b l e and/or necessary.  I b e l i e v e t h i s growth can at  l e a s t begin i n the schools and t h i s i s the fundamental r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g the c u r r i c u l u m approach presented here.  Moreover, I b e l i e v e that i f n o n - a r c h i t e c t s choose t o  i n v e s t i g a t e these areas, r a t h e r than demurring:(I  don't  know.... ) , and l e a v i n g the important or even the minor c h o i c e s up to the e x p e r t s , t h i s a c t i o n w i l l add t o , not subtract  from, the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t our s e t t i n g s  r e f l e c t ourselves, aesthetic  our needs, a s p i r a t i o n s ,  will  values and our  preferences.  In the same manner t h a t people i n our c u l t u r e seem t o be moving towards i n c r e a s e d  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and ownership o f the  care o f our bodies, i n v o l v i n g a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and much more power h e l d by the a c t u a l owner of the body i n the making o f c h o i c e s ,  I e n v i s i o n people t a k i n g  r o l e i n the a c t i o n o f p l a c e ordinary  a more mature  making. C e r t a i n l y the f a c t  that  people have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n concert with the  e x p e r t s w i l l enable, at very l e a s t , a sense o f shared ownership and a c t i v e c a r i n g and involvement that m i s s i n g i n our b u i l t  environment.  i s often  CHAPTER 4 A r c h i t e c t u r e i n the Secondary School Artroom What i s available? A r i c h a r r a y of e x i s t i n g programs i s a v a i l a b l e f o r teachers wishing t o b r i n g the concepts  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e and s t u d i e s  of the b u i l t environment i n t o the classroom. section,  In t h i s  I w i l l look at t h r e e such programs, which o n l y  r e p r e s e n t the wide range o f m a t e r i a l s prepared i n t e r e s t e d classroom  f o r the  teacher, and which I t h i n k are  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t f o r teachers here and now i n B.C. schools.  Hinda Avery's  comprehensive survey of b u i l t  environment  programs, which she assembled i n order t o gauge each program's i n c l u s i o n of i s s u e s r e l e v a n t s p e c i f i c a l l y to women, provides a r i c h source o f other  possibilities.  Included i n t h i s very e x t e n s i v e survey are CUBE and the work o f E i l e e n Adams, both o f whom are d i s c u s s e d i n some detail i n this section.  A  'Google' search,, done r e c e n t l y t o check f o r other  r e s o u r c e s , r e v e a l s 'about 1,850,000''responses f o r the key words ' b u i l t environmental exaggerating.)  education'.  (I am not  Although many of these entries' are not  s p e c i f i c a l l y designed  t o a s s i s t educators  s c h o o l l e v e l , many are.  at the secondary  There i s no shortage  of ideas.  The A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of B.C.  architecture f o r kids  guide  In 1997,  the AIBC p u b l i s h e d what i s termed  Guide f o r Teachers', MAIBC.  which was  'a Resource  w r i t t e n by C a r o l e Arnston,  T h i s guide flowed out of a s u c c e s s f u l program  i n i t i a t e d e a r l i e r by a group of a r c h i t e c t s at the AIBC  who  e n v i s i o n e d a p a r t n e r i n g of a r c h i t e c t s and t e a c h e r s working t o g e t h e r t o i n t r o d u c e b u i l t environment education classrooms  around the p r o v i n c e .  T h i s program,  into  called  ' A r c h i t e c t s i n Schools,' has been i n p l a c e s i n c e the  early  1990s, and has achieved v a r y i n g l e v e l s of success on a p r o j e c t by p r o j e c t b a s i s . Some of the more s u c c e s s f u l and w e l l - r e c e i v e d ideas generated  and r e f i n e d by s e v e r a l  t e a c h e r / a r c h i t e c t p a r t n e r s h i p s i n the course of t h i s i n i t i a t i v e have been documented by Rodney C o t t r e l l ,  and  are  a v a i l a b l e by c a l l i n g him at the A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of B.C.  The  resource guide, put t o g e t h e r by C a r o l e Arnston,  supported by other a r c h i t e c t s and teachers, was attempt  an  initial  to draw ideas t o g e t h e r i n t o useable form to enable  wider d i s t r i b u t i o n of some of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the  The  classroom.  resource guide i s s p e c i f i c a l l y geared to c h i l d r e n . a t  the elementary  l e v e l - K i n d e r g a r t e n to Grade 7, but i t does  i n c l u d e many suggestions f o r use at the secondary a r c h i t e c t u r e f o r kids attempts V i s u a l A r t s K-7  level.  to show connections with the  I n t e g r a t e d Resource Package  (review d r a f t  1996)  and thus g i v e s ideas f o r classroom t e a c h e r s t o b r i n g  the i n t e n t i o n s o f the IRP to l i f e  i n the classrooms.  Moreover, the author has made an e f f o r t to e x p l i c i t l y a r t i c u l a t e how each l e s s o n idea connects with the c u r r i c u l u m i n v a r i o u s other s u b j e c t areas as w e l l , • demonstrating  how the t e a c h i n g of a r c h i t e c t u r e can be  r e l e v a n t across  Although  disciplines.  the resource guide i s r i c h l y packed with i d e a s , I  t h i n k that i s o f l i m i t e d value t o any teacher who might be i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k 'I don't architecture'. developed  Although  know anything about  the s i x t e e n l e s s o n ideas t h a t are  i n the guide would p r o b a b l y i n t e r e s t and engage  students, the guide does l i t t l e  t o comfort  and advise the  classroom teacher who f e e l s i n s e c u r e about t e a c h i n g architecture. developed  Some of the ideas i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n a r e not  to the degree t h a t they would be u s e f u l t o a  teacher who has not had some experience i n an a r c h i t e c t u r e s t u d i o . One example of a l e s s o n p l a n c a l l e d  'Perception +  Representation: Plan', t h a t might discourage a teacher, suggests t h a t teachers p r o v i d e a s e t o f ' b l u e p r i n t s ' f o r students t o examine, show c h i l d r e n how t o make a r e f l e c t e d c e i l i n g p l a n , and a s s i g n the task of r e c o r d i n g the landscape 19)  surrounding the s c h o o l i n p l a n .  (Lesson 3, page  No background i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d f o r the teacher,  who q u i t e po'ssibly has never  seen a s e t of a r c h i t e c t u r a l  plans, and who might have no idea where t o begin t o e x p l a i n the c o d i f i e d drawing t o eager  students.  Although the  symbols f o r w a l l , door and window have been provided, and given that much can be done with those three b a s i c symbols,  I still  suspect that some teachers would r e q u i r e a b i t more  d e t a i l r e g a r d i n g how  The  ideas l i s t e d  they might proceed with the l e s s o n .  i n the sample l e s s o n noted above are fun:  1. " v i s u a l l y e x p l o r e the classroom every p o s s i b l e  way",  2. "draw your c h a i r from as many ways of l o o k i n g as  you  can...include a p l a n view" 3.  "draw a f l o o r p l a n of your classroom...discuss s c a l e  and  proportion" 4. "draw the most t h r i l l i n g imaginary classroom you can, i n PLAN"  (page 20).  Many t e a c h e r s might l i k e to s t i m u l a t e t h i s k i n d of a c t i v i t y i n the classroom, but the guide does not p r o v i d e the needed i n f o r m a t i o n to proceed.  A l a t e r l e s s o n attempts  to  address p r o p o r t i o n and s c a l e , but again, needed background i s missing.  Although  some of t h e - i d e a s r e g a r d i n g human  s c a l e might be a c c e s s i b l e to students and t h e i r t e a c h e r s , the guide notes t h a t at the grade 4 to 7 l e v e l ,  "Students  should be encouraged to draw 'to s c a l e ' with the a i d of a r u l e r or a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c a l e .  Ask them to choose an  a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e , such as m e t r i c 1:50." a l o t more guidance,  ( i b i d 28)  t h i s might not be the best way  Without to  encourage an u n i n i t i a t e d teacher to explore some of the more mysterious  t e c h n i c a l aspects of a r c h i t e c t u r e with  students.  Another c r i t i c i s m I might make of the guide i s t h a t i t seems to have the i n t e n t i o n of t e a c h i n g students to l e a r n  and p r a c t i s e the s k i l l s understand  how  of the a r c h i t e c t ,  r a t h e r than to  l a y people, n o n - a r c h i t e c t s , might approach  the very fundamental i s s u e s of p l a c e making.  The  emphasis of the l e s s o n plans seems to be on how  what a r c h i t e c t s do: work i n plan, s e c t i o n and draw t o s c a l e , manipulate templates)  forms  t o c r e a t e v i l l a g e s or f o r t s ,  construction guide)  geometric  (which.are  to do  elevation,  (from i n c l u d e d  c o n s i d e r types of  not c l e a r l y e l a b o r a t e d i n the  and make p l a n s and models of v a r i o u s types of  shelters.  Although  some drawing techniques are i n t r o d u c e d at the  b e g i n n i n g of the guide t h a t would encourage o b s e r v a t i o n and l e a r n i n g to r e a l l y look at the environment, the bulk of the ideas seem to be d i r e c t e d towards t r y i n g on the s k i l l s t h a t a r c h i t e c t s are taught, with t o p i c s being t r e a t e d i n a somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l way, any p a r t i c u l a r concept  and without much development of  or theme.  The  idea of c a r e f u l l y  c o n s i d e r i n g the f u n c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g i s l a r g e l y ignored. T h i s t o my mind i s the c r i t i c a l area where l a y people  can  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the design p r o c e s s .  I t h i n k t h a t with some more d i a l o g u e with teachers, the resource guide c o u l d become a more u s e f u l t o o l f o r the classroom.  Wisely perhaps,  t e a c h e r s e x c l u s i v e l y through workshop program.  the guide i s a v a i l a b l e to the A r c h i t e c t s i n Schools  I t i s thus not a stand-alone document,  but i s given only to teachers i n the workshop s e t t i n g where demonstrations  and more d e t a i l are p r o v i d e d .  Inasmuch as some of the ideas i n t h i s guide,  and the  vision  of p a r t n e r i n g arrangements between teachers and a r c h i t e c t s i n the classroom applaud  are r e l a t i v e l y novel i n B.C.  schools, I  the e f f o r t s to a r t i c u l a t e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s as  AIBC a r c h i t e c t s have t r i e d to do.  the  I would submit t h a t  t h e r e i s much to be done to make the guide u s e f u l , e s p e c i a l l y to the teacher who  has  little  confidence i n  h i s / h e r a b i l i t y t o teach a r c h i t e c t u r e . Refinements to  and  perhaps more comprehensive development of the l e s s o n ideas prepared  f o r the elementary s c h o o l classrooms  strengthen  this  could  resource.  Some AIBC members i n v o l v e d i n the A r c h i t e c t s i n the i n i t i a t i v e have expressed  concern  about the l a c k of  development of ideas f o r the secondary s c h o o l Although  Schools  level.  some work has been done i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n ,  the  group has not yet succeeded i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to develop p u b l i s h a c c e s s i b l e and the secondary  a p p r o p r i a t e plans f o r teachers at  level.  A d r a f t document t i t l e d a l s o authored  and  'Design  by Carole Arnston,  and the B u i l t MAIBC, was  Environment',  c i r c u l a t e d to  four secondary schools to be t e s t e d by t e a c h e r s . In t h i s document there has been-some attempt to connect suggestions  to the IRPs f o r A p p l i e d S k i l l s  lesson plan  11 and  Fine A r t s  11.  A companion document, a l s o i n d r a f t form and dated 2000, c a l l e d the  'Teachers'  Guide f o r S k i l l s  c o n t a i n s l e s s o n plans, e x e r c i s e s and  skills  February  Development', worksheets  intended  t o supplement t h e course manual and to make the  presentation  of t h i s m a t e r i a l e a s i e r f o r t e a c h e r s .  attempting to use t h i s m a t e r i a l convoluted  and too i n v o l v e d '  according  to Rodney C o t t r e l l ,  reported  to b e - u s e f u l  Teachers  t h a t i t was 'too t o them,  MAIBC, C o o r d i n a t o r  of the  A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Schools program i n February 2004, which has l a t e l y been renamed  The  * Discovering  i n i t i a l guide, a r c h i t e c t u r e f o r k i d s , i s . t h u s the only  document as yet p u b l i s h e d c i r c u l a t i o n t o educators. to schools but  A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Schools' .  by the AIBC f o r general Rodney C o t t r e l l i s s t i l l  and documenting some of the lessons  the l a r g e committee i s no longer  going  he teaches,  a c t i v e . Unless the  A r c h i t e c t u r e Foundation, a c h a r i t a b l e foundation  which has  as i t s mandate the promotion of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n B.C., chooses t o fund the D i s c o v e r i n g  A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Schools  program, i t may not be able t o continue,  at l e a s t i n the  form i t has taken s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n almost f i f t e e n  years  ago.  There does e x i s t , however, a r i c h body o f m a t e r i a l t h a t has been assembled by a r c h i t e c t s over time, that c o u l d be shaped i n t o some e x c i t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  materials.  I think  t h a t i f someone approached t h i s m a t e r i a l with an understanding,of the h e s i t a n c y confidence  that many teachers  and perhaps l a c k of f e e l with respect  a r c h i t e