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Teletechnology signals: a theoretical construct Martell, Dorthy Julia C. 1987

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TELETECHNOLOGY. SIGNALS: A T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s t r u c t  By DOROTHY JULIA C. MARTELL Reg. N., S t . M i c h a e l s H o s p i t a l , Toronto, O n t a r i o , 1954 D p i . Comm'ctions, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1362 D p i . A d u l t Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 (B.A. e q u i v . ) , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 1  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Communications Media and Technology i n E d u c a t i o n Programme) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October  198?  ©Dorothy J u l i a C. M a r t e l l  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  partial fulfilment  of  British  I agree  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  this  his  or  her  Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  Date  Columbia,  the  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission  for extensive  granted  head  is  by the  understood be  that  allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  This  analytical  literature  describes,  overview,  communications presents  study  general  historical  The  construct  visual,  way,  via a  development  technology and information  a theoretical  manipulation.  the  in a  (computer)  of  select distant  technology; and  f o r TELETECHNOLOGY s i g n a l s and t h e i r  sound  and  binary  signalling  elements  constitute and modulate the i n t e r a c t i o n s of the radiant energy a c t i v i t y within  the  abstract  ethnotechnological terms  influx  world.  i s broached;  model  and  A purview  implications  relate  these  of representative  f o r the  use  and  to  the actual  technological management  of  communications and information technologies are presented; a measurement instrument proposed.  framework  i s depicted;  and a possible new  world view i s  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  CHAPTER I. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF MEDIATIVE ELEMENTS  Introduction  1  Scope of the Study  3  Statement of the Problem  3  Delimitations  7  Research Method  8  Sources of Data  9  Investigative Plan  9  Media Development  f o r Communication  9  General Setting i n Evolutionary Time  10  General Origins of Media: D e f i n i t i o n s  12  Computation: Beginnings  14  V i s u a l s and Sounds: Progressions  16  Signals to Write Far, Sound Far, See Far  17  CHAPTER I I . COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES: SIGNALLING DEVELOPMENT  Electromagnetics  21  The T r a n s i s t o r  24  iv  The Computer  27  A Basic Description  27  Pioneering the Computer  29  Five Generations  30  Memory and Storage  32  COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES SUMMARY  37  CHAPTER I I I . TELETECHNOLOGY SIGNALS: A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT Introduction and D e f i n i t i o n s  41  The TELETECHNOLOGY Domain  46  TELETECHNOLOGY, Defined  60  E a r l i e r Relevant Models  62  The T h e o r e t i c a l Construct (Model Description)  65  Introduction  65  The  67  I n t e r r e l a t e d Elements A.  Basics  68  B.  Dynamics  76  C.  Techs ines  78  TELETECHNOLOGY: P r a c t i c a l examples  83  Example # 1: The Telephone  84  Example # 2: An Exchange System  85  V  A Measurement Instrument: For media service  87  Motion Pictures and Newscasts  88  Evaluation C r i t e r i a f o r Measurement  92  SUMMARY  93  CONCLUSION  93  CHAPTER IV. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS  95  A c t u a l i z a t i o n : Some technologies, computer linked  98  Real L i f e : Some implications o f the TELETECHNOLOGY model  99  Management and U s a b i l i t y  101  U s a b i l i t y C r i t e r i a f o r Communications Technology  102  Management C r i t e r i a f o r Communications Technology  104  An Applied Method: Teleconferencing  106  U s a b i l i t y of Teleconference Method  107  Management o f Teleconference Method  109  Emergent Innovations: A comment  I l l  CONCLUSION  115  A Possible New World View  117  A SELECT REFERENCE LIST  125  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1:  TELETECHNOLOGY Radiant Energy Signals  69  V'll  DEDICATION TO RAE  T h i s work, and the book i n p r o g r e s s which i s based  on t h i s t h e s i s ,  i s d e d i c a t e d t o my _  daughter,,  <»  Rae. I have c r e a t e d t h i s work w i t h the a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t o u r youth, and p a r t i c u l a r l y our young women and g i r l s may prepare  themselves  i n the f i e l d s o f s c i e n c e ,  t e c h n o l o g y , and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s — t h e s e of o u r f u t u r e — i n  a r e the d i s c i p l i n e s  o r d e r t h a t they may g a i n a c c e s s t o  progressive, c e n t r a l decision-making  p o s i t i o n s i n our  r a p i d l y e s c a l a t i n g e t h n o t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y , and i n o r d e r t h a t they may g a i n competence, w i t h human warmth, i n managing and g u i d i n g f a m i l i e s f o r s u c c e s s f u l , ling  lives,  i n a d d i t i o n t o each person's f u l l  ment as a complete  person—while  living  fulfil-  develop-  i n an i n c r e a s i n g -  l y automated t e c h n o l o g i c a l w o r l d c u l t u r e , one s t e p on the moon, and h e a r t i n the s k i e s .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish to acknowledge the assistance, support, and of the following:  my daughter Rae, who  thesis supervisor, Dr. David Bain who  f o r f e i t e d much;  advice my  guided my structuring of  this work i n each of several phases, and then some;  my  formative  phase committee member, Dr. Daniel Brown f o r succinct, perceptive guidance and true heart; my former department head, Professor Bryan Clarke f o r advice and consistent optimism; the EPSE o f f i c e personnel f o r many reasons; the community of l i b r a r i a n s on a l l fronts; writers i n p r i n t and the e l e c t r o n i c media whose information remains with me,  so much of i t interwoven with my own  ideas that I  am indebted to f i n e minds p o l i s h i n g mine i n unrealized ways day a f t e r day.  I apprecite so much, a l l .  I now  look forward to  further horizons and my contributions...  D.J.C. Martell October 4,  1987  Vancouver,  B.C.  1  CHAPTER ONE  HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF MEDIATIVE ELEMENTS  Initiation comprehension  into the  that  once  genesis  does  not  of our exist.  E l e c t r o n i c Age In  past  i s by  the  from  the  eras,  Westernized point of view of time and space, events could p o s s i b l y take place  f o r one  time on  uncommunicated. experience  Today,  replayed  spacecraft  was  the  first  once--on J u l y 13,  i s o l a t e d basis and  is  almost  by  every  media  yet A f r i c a  b i l l i o n viewers,  d a i l y l i v e s of everyone.  impossible:  this  socially  1) the  planet  March 3,  s i m i l a r l y been replayed and  discussions i n a l l media, along with of over two  on  transAtlantic Africa  1985,  remain  world  step--when a human being once walked on  departure--once--on  messages from Earth, has also,  this  of human's first  moon--has been Pioneer 10  a personal,  has  Aid  Earth;  1972,  Aid societal  impact  2) the  carrying  discussed;  television  the  epic  3) so, held--  manifested  by  the i n t e r n a l i z e d memory r e a l i t i e s  created the now  of t h i s event i n the  2  These  open-media,  instantaneousness  and  shared,  global  comprehensiveness  experiences of  depict  today's  the  mediated  communications.  A l l information i n a l l places at a l l times, the impossible i d e a l . But the marriage of communications l i n k s w i l l take us f a r c l o s e r to that goal than we have ever been. (Godfrey, 1980a, page 1)  Once can no longer e x i s t i n an open world environment that has incorporated Now  multi-interrelated  the population  planet  " i n the  of Earth  distant  communications  i s gradually  sky of Earth"  (Sagan,  capabilities.  beginning to r e l a t e ,  1973,  p. 222)  within  as  the  a  solar  system, and also to the suprasystem--our universe (Sagan, 1980, pp.287290) .  Now we  take our place i n what i s , at present, c a l l e d the Space  Age which, by inference,  denotes the c a p a b i l i t y of Earth's society to  master the E l e c t r o n i c Age.  Our  technical advance  hundred years i s s t a r t l i n g (p.222).  during the past  two  We are on the brink of that mastery  with the electromagnetic force (Gottlieb, 1970, p.127) acting both as a bridge and as our guidance system (Barr, 1986, p.B3). Today's v i s i o n and sound systems are global (and, indeed, more than  global).  communications signal  systems  These  signal  systems  exist  at  all  levels  and they are i n t e g r a l to d a i l y s o c i e t a l exchanges. are c e n t r a l  to Earth's developing space  exemplified i n Canada's space program  of  These  technology as  (Canada, 1985; Canadian I n s t i t u t e  for Advanced Research, 1986) as well as i n the ongoing space programs of  3  the USSR, USA, Europe (and others, long on the horizon, such as i n China and, now i n process, Japan).  We have  exchanged  once  (McLuhan, 1964, pp.300-307). some way to a s s i s t influx  f o r now i n a l l places  The work o f f e r e d herein  information  data  i s intended i n  i n bringing about a preliminary understanding  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the signals of sight,  computerized  at a l l times  that  are being  technologies  used  i n a l l areas  i n present of Earth's  sound  of the  and binary  communications and expanding  planetary  culture.  Scope of the Study  Chapter One introduces building  (of s i g n a l elements),  the three  concepts of h i s t o r y ,  theory  and implications; defines the scope and  sets out the l i m i t a t i o n s and the methodology of the study.  This  chapter  i s mainly the d e s c r i p t i o n of media development.  Chapter  Two  presents  an  overview  of  the  development  of  contemporary communications (which includes the computer). Chapter Three sets out the t h e o r e t i c a l construct; explains the operational  variables  and various  s i g n a l progressions;  and  presents  three examples for v a l i d i t y t e s t i n g of the t h e o r e t i c a l construct.  Chapter Four a) deals with the implications of validity and  applications  of  the t h e o r e t i c a l  construct,  testing  and b) proposes  an  4 operational-oriented o r i e n t e d new  management  reference  historical,  materials  Statement o f the  Communications aspect  of  our  as  a  possible  p r e s e n t e d are  of  information They  our  environment.  We  manufacturing  extend  have  devices  to  use  on  past  technologies  The  last  for  technological  world  (Serafini,  both  Only  twenty y e a r s  into  the  any  y e a r s have c a t a p u l t e d  devices,  among  than  their experts  ago,  possibilities  1981,  computer of  what  and  lay  their persons  specialists today  in  the  had  general  history.  increasingly  a  (Cordell, yet  pp.39-67)  in  plethora  operational  not  pp.70-95).  f a s t e r changes  period  which  ever-  devices.  s o c i e t y i n t o an  p.21),  names, and  other  an  1980,  hundred y e a r s have b r o u g h t more and communications  twenty-five  accelerated  confusion  one  natural  increasingly  1980,  (Madden,  almost  our  available  (Parkhill,  costs  pervade  ensure the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f a f f o r d a b l e consumer e l e c t r o n i c  The  general-  i n c l u d e some  systematically  technological  falling  and  technologies  " e l e c t r o n i c highway networks"  continually  those t h a t are  Problem  and  in  variety  sophisticated  in  general  encyclopedias.  lives.  involvement  increasing  The  well  theoretical-construct references;  s p e c i a l i s t d i c t i o n a r i e s and  sensory  as  w o r l d view.  The  every  set  terms  of  cause  1985,  p.23).  gained  insight  public  expects  in  5 highly  s o p h i s t i c a t e d tele-transmission of various  ( P a r k h i l l , op. c i t . , pp.69-95)--in an instant.  information  signals  Now people expect  a multiple-access i n f o r m a t i o n - r e t r i e v a l network [with] access to a l l a v a i l a b l e information...to manipulate and process that information i n almost any way and f o r almost any purpose they may have i n mind (Gottlieb, p.28).  The  rapid  convergence  of various  combinations  technologies creates the need f o r a continuous terms  (Godfrey,  broadcasting, at  1980b p.98).  of  r e d e f i n i t i o n of names and  Many words p e r t a i n i n g to e l e c t r o n i c s ,  media, computer science, and to the communications  field  large are used i n more than one way i n various segments of society;  t h i s s i t u a t i o n applies both i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c contexts i n a changing ( s o p h i s t i c a t e d engineering)  The  and often  t e c h n i c a l sense.  energizing c a p a b i l i t y of e l e c t r o n i c signals underlies most  broadcasting and data tranmission throughout the Western world. prime  examples  technologies, technology  are broadcast various  words  television are used  (and the human experience)  f i e l d of computers, the complexity  concepts,  terms and a c t i v i t i e s .  some method  literature  to examine  and to create  model f o r these  and  computers.  to r e f e r  The two Of  these  to or describe  of t e l e v i s i o n productions;  the  i n the  of both the computer a r c h i t e c t u r e and  the computer programs has given r i s e  by  diverse  to a s t e a d i l y  increasing mass of  The present s i t u a t i o n could be improved  and to organize a basic,  the r a p i d l y  yet comprehensive,  accumulating  categorization  tele-world elements that constitute our communications  and information technologies.  6 The  two prime examples of TELETECHNOLOGY ( d e f i n i t i o n  are t e l e v i s i o n / video and computers. is  confusing  and i n f l u x .  Video  further)  The world of t e l e v i s i o n or video i s being used  increasingly  f o r an  expanding number of projects and i s merging with other technologies and a r t forms.  The either  term video has many current meanings which  the context or on the o r i e n t a t i o n  example,  video  editing style,  may  mean  the recording  often r e l y on  of the speaker/user.  material,  format  size  For  or the  the type of presentation or the kind of audience served.  At times, video may mean t e l e v i s i o n production when used to d i s t i n g u i s h television Video  or video from,  may be used,  also,  say, a more complex to describe  visuals  t e l e v i s i o n production. as d i s t i n c t  from other  screen images such as computergraphics.  These l a t t e r merge i n animated  videographics automated  On the other hand,  by a computer.  usually r e f e r s to a network broadcast program  television  (telecast) that may or may  not be produced o r i g i n a l l y as a video, a (cinematic) f i l m or an o r i g i n a l t e l e v i s i o n program. general facsimile  way,  to  In addition, describe  any  video  i s used frequently,  electrographic,  i . e . television  (document image reproduction), as d i s t i n c t  programs or audio casettes. resides with the communicators  The  word  The term video  and i n a  from e i t h e r  i s flexible:  or  radio  the meaning  and the receivers.  computer i s used  f o r a wide v a r i e t y  of operations  which are improving as the technological c a p a b i l i t i e s are increased to c o n t r o l more advanced  programs,  devices and systems.  ("information") technologies also need new d e f i n i t i o n s  Thus,  computer  (1980a, p.8) and  7 explanations by  i n order that society i n general may be understood better  a l l people.  At present,  obfuscation  of t e c h n i c a l terminology f o r  communications and information e x i s t s both i n the p u b l i c domain as well as i n the academic and s p e c i a l i s t worlds of l i t e r a t u r e .  This mystique  of the technological domain obscures the basic operations of how the new technologies  are able  to work together  (interrelate)  and to  maintain  r e l i a b i l i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y and i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y .  This reference--a  study way  i s undertaken,  of  categorizing  domain of TELETECHNOLOGY  signals.  therefore, this  to create  ever-changing,  a  frame of  non-organized  Thus set out, the matrix  I present  should reveal the basics, the ordering and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the elements within a t h e o r e t i c a l TELETECHNOLOGICAL system. of  the  fundamental  the basics  forms,  dynamics,  and the property  energies,  the techsines.  of  signalling  function standard The model  laws  These c o n s i s t energies,  the  of the s i g n a l l i n g  accommodates the radiant  s i g n a l l i n g f o r sight, f o r sound and f o r data communications  energy  throughout  the TELETECHNOLOGICAL system.  In time, perhaps, terms may be redefined  for  f o r the constantly changing  a more precise vocabulary  innovations  and t h e i r operations i n the real-world complex f i e l d of communications. This model i s a c o n t r i b u t i o n toward more precise d e s c r i p t i o n i n order to further the understanding  of communications technologies.  Delimitations  This work i s not an introduction to, nor a d e s c r i p t i o n of, how the new technologies work, nor i s i t an explanation  of the production  8  methods and presented  techniques  herein  i n the  i s an  field  of communications.  abstracted concept  movement i n a t h e o r e t i c a l system with  The  material  depicting signalling  direct  energy  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r present  communications systems and technologies.  The model was  not created f o r any s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e but i t i s  a general and f l e x i b l e matrix u n i f i e d by i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a general, self-ordering  The  present  innovations judgement  way.  situation  f o r communications  or  for a  c o n t i n u a l l y appearing  does  not  allow  u s e f u l comprehensive  This model i s designed of new  of  technological  for useful  comparative  s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t evaluation.  i n a manner to allow for additions or deletions  technologies at any  l e v e l i n the construct.  However, the basic  model elements do not change, and are i d e n t i f i a b l e as categories wherein any  device  or  any  system  may  be  ordered  by  relationship  to  other  elements and, by such placement, thus gain an i d e n t i t y .  Messages and subject content are not dealt with i n this. work.  Research Method The (Gay,  1976,  distinct  f u n c t i o n a l category p.123).  from  the  of t h i s study  analysis  The prime intent i s to depict a foundational theory outmoded  Bretz  (1971) concept  communications.  Instead,  this  understanding  the  technologies  of  i s descriptive  new  work  is  meant  from  the  of to  using  media  contribute  perspective  for  to of  an how  signals act and are capable of change (fluxion) during a transmission.  9  Sources of Data  Materials f o r t h i s study are from the following sources:  (i)  s e l e c t books and documents  (ii)  government l i t e r a t u r e  ( i i i ) general h i s t o r i c a l works (iv)  technical l i t e r a t u r e  (v)  reference materials, d i c t i o n a r i e s .  Investigative Plan  The  study i s organized around  the need f o r a common model or  base i n order to f a c i l i t a t e discussion about  the new technologies used  at-a-distance--tele-technologies--and the way these are energized ( i . e . electronics) .  The commonality of how a s i g n a l  acts or i s acted upon  from a state of i n e r t i a to a changed state and i s maintained  i n this  manner i s the main organizing p r i n c i p l e :  the way  (how to think about  signals a c t ) .  Media Development f o r Communication  Human beings  have  an innate  another i n a s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g .  need  to communicate  Verbal and t a c t i l e  with one  (as well as v i s u a l  signs) interchange develop into exchanges with extendable tools used f o r daily  needs.  civilizations  As  human  strengthened,  beings  evolved  were manifested  so  also  did  by the c a l i b r e  society: of t h e i r  i n t e l l e c t u a l expressions, and then l a t e r declined, leaving behind  their  10 material c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s - - t h e tangible f a c t s o f t h e i r expressed and communicated l i v e s .  Technological evolution  development  of c i v i l i z a t i o n .  (Boorstin, 1985, p.606). Protohistory designate  o f homo sapiens  In 1836, various  p a r a l l e l e d the  epochs were given  These began with Prehistory.  classification  names  An a d d i t i o n a l  i s mentioned i n some of the l i t e r a t u r e to  a c t i v i t i e s predating Prehistory (described by Fox, 1976).  From the e a r l i e s t times u n t i l the beginning of Earth  citizens'  venture into raw space, the h i s t o r i c a l periods have been  trail-blazed,  and  and hardware  evidenced, by technological  a r t i f a c t s - - t h e materials  used i n humankind's development (p.605).  At t h i s time, i n the l a t t e r part o f the 1980s, our h i s t o r y i s being rewritten because new f a c t s are c o n t i n u a l l y being uncovered by new informations.  This  study  does  not present  an updated  analysis of the most recent archaeological f i n d s .  historical  [This author i s aware  that at any time a new f i n d demonstrates further that what i s documented as our t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r y of mankind may be, i n f a c t , inaccurate. For t h i s reason, attempt  traditional  at evaluation  appropriate  resources  and new references,  or v e r i f i c a t i o n .  as presented,  The reader  include no  i s r e f e r r e d to  i n the f i e l d of archaeology.]  General Setting i n Evolutionary Time  From e a r l i e s t times to our present developed because of technology. McNeill,  E l e c t r o n i c Age, homo sapiens (1971, p.7) states that "the  11 use  of  wood  populations  and  stone  came into  tools... started  existence".  long  Childe  before  (1964, p.15)  fully  human  describes  the  developing human beings' "use of pebbles, s t i c k s , hides, pieces of f l i n t and  bone  as  extensions  of  the  body  in  order  to  survive  in  environment".  As a type of basic language evolved (Childe, 1951,  one  able  human was  tools  and  then  to communicate with another,  inventions  communication was  course  daily  life  p.30),  improvements i n  (p.34).  Face-to-face  gradually replaced by symbols and u s u a l l y c a r r i e d from  sender to r e c e i v e r . Over the  enhanced  while  the  These were marks on s t i c k s , hide, rocks and c l a y .  of h i s t o r y ,  the  transportation system and  c a r r i e r sytem became i n c r e a s i n g l y important and commerce (op.  and  the message  i n t e r r e l a t e d f o r trade  cit.).  Boorstin (p.605) describes the advent of h i s t o r i c a l dating and sets  out  the  following  Protohistory--the  formerly  New); Age  generally unknown;  accepted  historical  Prehistory;  Stone  Ages  Metal Ages (Bronze, Iron) as per Childe (1951, 1964); (mechanization)  (the use  as per  of various  Gideon (1948); and now  information and  periods: (Old  and  Industrial  the Electronics  e l e c t r o n i c s interchangeably).  Age At  present, the term Space Age i s used, also.  Earth  citizens  throughout c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  have  developed  various  products  and  services  from the use of natural-found substances,  then  by adapting the a v a i l a b l e resources to t h e i r needs and incorporating the latest  scientific  discoveries.  produce pottery, and produced by  Fire  was  used  f o r mining operations,  the science of metallurgy  and  in earliest  later.  smelting  Tools, followed.  times  to  then were Alchemy  12  evolved  from  materials  the  (Ronan,  application  of  1982); hence  fire  to  chemistry.  powered and wheel-driven machines  chemicals Water was  ( L i l l e y , 1965).  and  biological  used f o r steam-  Once e l e c t r i c i t y  was  discovered, magnets were used to create electromechanical devices such as the e l e c t r i c motor. electrons)  The present era of e l e c t r o n i c s (manipulation of  (p.177) began i n 1800  with the v o l t a i c  cell  (p.118);  this  opened the way f o r the telegraph and telephone.  In 1886, the  existence  photoelectric  Hertz (1857-1894), of  electromagnetic  investigations:  this  a German p h y s i c i s t , waves was  development of wireless radio broadcasting.  (p.131)  the  true  demonstrated  and  pioneered  beginning of  the  Many other innovations were  to follow r a p i d l y .  General Origins of Media: D e f i n i t i o n s  The common material l i n k s implements  and  other media--as  human beings (McLuhan, p.21). sign,  signal  and  from prehistory to today are tools,  extensions of  Communication  connnunicate  (transfer  the  sensory systems  a r t i f a c t s have been used to thought)  within  societies.  Sign i s a mark or motion used to convey an idea. Signal i s a c o n t r o l l e d act designed set of parameters.  of  carried  out  within  a  Communication i s thought transfer or idea t r a n s f e r by s i g n a l l i n g from sender to receiver; and which i s acknowledged as union with an "other".  various  13  People  communicated  gestures, pauses, w r i t i n g , various types of media.  by  various  means:  They  drawing, signing, s c u l p t i n g  and  A l l of the foregoing are noted  documents, a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r a l expressions up to today. the  communications were c a r r i e d were by  light  bursts  on  towers  as  couriers, among others.  in  Roman  used  carving i n  in historical The ways that  coded pulses, such times,  E a r l i e r , petroglyphs  drum  words,  relays  as smoke, and  human  (rock signs) were carved  or marked (presumably) to convey d i r e c t i o n s or actions f o r people  who  would  the  "read"  these  at  a  later  time.  These  varied  media  carry  information:  Medium i s a channel, information.  substance  or  conduit used  for  Information i s idea transfer, v i a cognition, that has the p o t e n t i a l to create a change or an exchange.  Information various ways:  may  signs,  be  communicated  signals  and symbols.  using  social  Symbols may  language  in  be comprised  of  v i s u a l and/or sound images.  Symbol i s a v i s u a l or sound analogy or metaphor; a mark, object or figure that represents a s p e c i f i c idea or set of conditions--something other than the mark, itself.  Image i s a v i s u a l or sound representational likeness or counterpart.  Information signals  and  communication  (content) consists of messages,  symbols; (Wiener,  a l l relate 1967,  concepts, signs,  to language which i s fundamental f o r  p.102).  However  interwoven  the  content  14 (information/messages) with carriage,  this  paper  is restricted  to the  transmission/carriage operation and not with content or language.  This carriage i s possible because of the a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l the influx  energy  further).  by  This  technological capacity  discontinuous measurable energy  (digitization).  revolves  allows  units  for  reason we  are able  trade;  per  Shannon  manipulation of  to use  (see  discrete,  electromagnetic radiant  influx  and to quantify  the computer today; the  computation  Counting, c a l c u l a t i n g  beginning of commerce and  as  to stop and s t a r t  completely around  c o n t r o l energy flow.  the  of this  The a b i l i t y  units i s the prime computer  computations,  and  quantization  and computing  computations  to  date from the  have existed  throughout  the e n t i r e known h i s t o r y of homo sapiens.  Computation: Beginnings Counting pebbles were placed e a r l i e r and l a t e r  evolved to a counting frame:  i n shallow sand  the abacus.  These  known ways are documented and i l l u s t r a t e d by Schmandt-Besserat Ronan also describes cultures  cut  impressions  notches  these (p.138, in  sticks,  i n clay, which was  150).  furrows  earliest(1979);  For record-keeping, various  marked  then baked,  stones and  and  sticks,  made  t i e d knots i n rope or  hemp.  The  Ancients of Greece  (who  could  have  originated  Danube region) used a c i r c u l a r device f o r computing. been mentioned  widely i n the l i t e r a t u r e  (G. Smith,  from  the  This device has 1960,  p.6); i t i s  15 comprised  of an i n t e r s e c t i n g axis within a c i r c l e .  to show the p o s i t i o n of the c e l e s t i a l bodies there were a d d i t i o n a l uses, our computers today.  This device was  (p.88).  We  used  do not know i f  or i f these resembled the uses we  make of  Ronan describes the Ancients' navigation over vast  distances; therefore, they could have developed s o p h i s t i c a t e d operations i n s p i r e d by t h e i r experiences i n other lands (Boorstin, p.93  Commerce exchange,  and  required  industry,  based  accountancy,  on  economics  computation,  notation  ).  and  monetary  and  records.  Early records were kept on clay tablets which were stored i n b u i l d i n g s called  libraries  accounts).  (libra  means scales and  refers  to  the balancing  of  Computation became c e n t r a l to a l l business and mandatory f o r  a l l inventions. Computation i s a process of manipulating symbols r e l a t e d to a s o c i e t a l l y understood and acceptable standard or r u l e .  Symbols, signs and  signals are used i n computing numbers  and  words, as well as concepts. Mathematics developed in  geometry,  (Childe, 1951,  into rules which were used i n surveying,  f o r standardized weights and pp.120, 153,  measurements, and  the  like  164, et a l . ) .  The Ancients of Greece developed l o g i c a l reasoning as the basis for geometry, astronomy, algebra (and i n t e g r a l calculus, p.174). is  symbolic  reasoning.  systematized computational  Today,  computers  symbols:  symbolic  operate logic.  on  the  Logic  basics  of  16  V i s u a l s and Sounds: Progressions  The  electromagnetic  visuals  and  operate  through  sounds v i a e l e c t r o n i c channels  messages before 1800, have learned how However,  and l i g h t  the  radiance, which today  and  other high  far different  from  carry the  technology  how  people  systems,  communicated  but the l i g h t and sound sources are unchanged.  We  to access and to use t h i s energy f o r s o c i e t a l b e n e f i t .  visual  and  sound  mediated  images  of  human beings  have  changed by a substantive amount.  V i s u a l representations of a l l kinds static  3,  ideographs--x,  persistence-of-vision,  &,  -/---to  still  two-dimensional  include those pictures  mobiles  and  from  manipulated  prehistorical  pictographs, carvings and  by  three-dimensional  holographic v i r t u a l moving images, from v i s u a l sound and data The  simple  artifacts,  sources.  various  reified  communications throughout h i s t o r y such as maps, paintings, sculpture and musical scores were created from the a v a i l a b l e contemporary materials. With our s c i e n t i f i c and technological s o p h i s t i c a t i o n  we  are constantly  improving our e l e c t r o n i c and l i g h t mediated images.  Our distances has  ability  to  progressed  see,  remote  layer  life-forms  ocean  hear  phenomenally.  r e f i n e d advanced technology we computerized  sense,  sensing and  can  relay  this  write/mark  Remote sensing  take almost  systems  and  i s one  analyze  The computerized  Current  vegetation and  information  to  vast  highly  f o r granted today.  any  computer v i s i o n screen located on Earth or nearby o r b i t t i n g structures.  over  upper capable  mechanical  p r i n t o u t of the organic forms or  compiled  17 text  on  writing  screen  are  the  most  advanced  examples  of  technological  far  to date.  Signals to Write Far. Sound Far. See  Signals (content) detected  are  from one  a  way  of  transmitting  l o c a t i o n to another,  (observed) by  Far  some means.  verbs or a c t i o n i n order to e x i s t :  and  (carriage)  a way  Signals are  information  information  can  active; signals  be  imply  signals act.  There are d i f f e r e n t methods for using v i s u a l and sound s i g n a l s . The  essence  of  signalling  i s that  of  action  degree, from a sender to a sensing receiver. i n order in  a  that receivers may  l o c a t i o n where  signal,  by  there  definition.  significance  because  receiver.)  To  no  put  over a  distance  of  any  Signals, therefore, e x i s t  sense; an action that occurs i n a vacuum or are  no  (The  sensing  receivers  actuality  verification  i t simply,  exists  stacked  may  i s not  take  between  books  do  a  place a  not  sensed without  sender signal  and  a  to  one  There  are  another.  The  Greek for far  off  or at  numerous examples of d i s t a n t writing graphein) English),  and  of  distant  distant  seeing  throughout h i s t o r y . i n various materials. different  kinds  of  a distance  ( i . e . telegraphing,  sounding/hearing (note  is tele.  sequester.  These signals are  (sund  means  Latin  transmitted  from the Greek  for  "sea",  Old  "follower")  and/or are  imbedded  Some examples are smoke s i g n a l s , s i g n a l l i n g using heliographs  (sun  reflectors)  and  the  various  18 telegraph  (distance  (1791-1872).  writer)  Others  (semaphores) used  systems,  are  the  such  light  as  devices used  blinking  i n transport-communications  by  signalling  Morse systems  today, such as on  and naval ships--these are semaphore (signal) transmissions:  trains they use  s i g n a l l i n g energy--smoke, sunlight, e l e c t r i c i t y and focussed l i g h t - - f o r signalling.  Clay,  stone,  paper-bound  messages  and  other  surface  representational or symbolic marks and messages are transmitted to the receiver by l i g h t and sound waves.  Instruments information. image.  Such  The  such  as  the  devices are  a i r i s the  telescope  channels  medium  through  are  that  not  delimit  which  act  on  the  eye  refracted ( s p l i t ) , and  amplified  and  the  brain.  Light  may  be  the  passes  carrying the selected image v i a the telescope lens.  carriers  sensed-lit  light  The  signals  light  reflected  of  signals  (echoed),  relayed (boosted), focussed (polarized and directed)  (enhanced).  In general, sound  waves move i n patterns  s i m i l a r to l i g h t waves.  Sound waves move d i r e c t l y , unobstructed, i n a i r , by relay with instruments (direction  such  as drums, by  changes).  d i f f e r i n g densities.  Sound  reflection  (echoing) and by  waves move r e l a t i v e l y  through  refraction media  Direct sound movement, i n natural s i t u a t i o n s ,  of and  r e f r a c t i o n f o r the control of a s i t u a t i o n were the two main ways sound was  used  In 1906, the  open  f o r communication  among people u n t i l  the f i r s t human speech was broadcast  transmissions  throughout the Western world.  the Age  of E l e c t r o n i c s .  transmitted by radio; t h i s heralded and  almost  instant  communication  19  Sound s i g n a l l i n g may be natural, as l i s t e n i n g f o r v i b r a t i o n s by p l a c i n g an ear to the ground or, by a r t i f i c i a l devices, such as i n sonar (sound navigation and detection  ranging) which i s echolocation, and  and ranging).  sound/acoustical  waves;  Radio both  waves  s i g n a l s , may be transposed  are not to be confused  may transmit  sensed or detected by instrumentation.  radar (radio  that  which  with  may be heard,  Sound s i g n a l s , as w e l l as l i g h t  to writing/marking  (or other sensed r e s u l t s )  as i n sonographs and seismographs, as well as o s c i l l o s c o p e readings  and  printouts.  Sensing or seeing f a r (remote or at a distance) i s v e r i f i e d by e i t h e r marking (writing) that which has been seen remotely, or by other demonstration of such remote sensing operation, such as text d e s c r i p t i o n on a screen. are  both  To see f a r i s bound to the signals o f "to write f a r " ; they  visual.  The v e r i f i c a t i o n  of the sensing/far  seeing i s  demonstrated by recording the event.  Vision magnification by:  systems  enable  the viewer  to r e f l e c t  light for  a) the power of catching and holding the image, or by  b) the a b i l i t y to focus an image from a distance so that the naked may  see t h i s  virtual  closer  v i s i o n systems s t a r t e d with  optics  v i s i o n ) ; t h i s was Lippershey's lenses added  (Boorstin, p.314). to optics  image.  1608  Soon,  The beginning  (the s c i e n t i f i c  of s o p h i s t i c a t e d  study  o f l i g h t and  discovery of the a c t i o n of telescopes  (op. c i t . , Ronan) .  and the  The writings  eye  eyeglass  microscope  were  o f the Ancients  revealed knowledge o f l i g h t r e f r a c t i o n and  reflection  (ibid.).  Western world, Newton's (1642-1727) Opticks  (published i n 1672  In the and  1730)  20  stimulated the s c i e n t i f i c community. more advanced: rays  the Chinese  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the Arab physician A l - K i n d i (813-873) q u a n t i f i e d l i g h t  travelling  formalizing  The Arab world  from  science theory  an illuminated object  (Ronan, pp.133-147). of o p t i c s dates  to the human  Boorstin  eye, thus  (p.353) notes  to the fourth century, BC.  v i s i o n systems and devices have evolved from these  that Many  beginnings.  At t h i s w r i t i n g , s c i e n t i s t s and communications s p e c i a l i s t s are able to send and to receive information v i a e l e c t r o n i c and r e l a t e d l i g h t systems  across  Electronic  Age,  a l l parts  of the globe.  i n 1800, we  have  required to complete a transmission.  Since  the onset  i n c r e a s i n g l y compressed  of the the time  The energy to do so has decreased  while the distance r e l a t i v e to the time to encompass that distance has been  compressed  to zero:  transmission  between sender and r e c e i v e r . all  kinds--production,  economically and  commercial  decline.  instantaneous  The s u b s t a n t i a l continual drop i n costs of  operation,  ready market.  i s virtually  replication,  service--has  created an  The cost of small personal devices, consumer  e l e c t r o n i c s , and  transmission  services  continue  to  21  CHAPTER II  COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES: SIGNALLING DEVELOPMENT  Electromagnetics  Electromagnetics i s the science and a p p l i c a t i o n electrons i n e l e c t r i c and magnetic f i e l d s .  of  The current state of r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive resource power f o r communications i s a r e s u l t energies:  of the  the control of f i r e ,  following progressions  in utilizing  the process of smelting metals  and  the  discovery and control of e l e c t r i c i t y and r e l a t e d radiant energy.  The Ancients of Greece knew of magnetite, (Canby, 1963, the  latter  p.7).  next break-through (1544-1603)  lodestone  The two former materials h e l d powers of a t t r a c t i o n ;  exhibited p o l a r i t y .  magnetic compass  amber and  The  Chinese  (Ronan, pp.172-173,177).  created  the  In the Western world,  came with the English n a t u r a l philosopher  De Magnete  (1600),  e l e c t r i c i t y (Canby, p.14).  which  earliest  differentiated  the  Gilbert's  magnetism  from  22  Electrics like  amber.  was  (The New  the name G i l b e r t gave to substances that behaved Latin  "electricus"  means " l i k e  amber produces sparks when rubbed; ergo, electrics  An energy. at  incandescent p a r t i c l e  Incandescence  that  time,  amber",  because  means "sparks").  i s a spark--a short pulse or flow of  ( l i g h t emission r e l a t e d to temperature) was  separated  from  what  we  understand  not,  today  as  electromagnetism.  Nor  did  Gilbert's  categorization  of magnetism/electricity  include the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of repulsion and conduction as foundational to the concept of e l e c t r i c i t y . 200  years  E l e c t r i c i t y would only be  l a t e r with the concepts  of charge,  capacity  and  understoood potential.  This came with the I t a l i a n Volta's (1745-1827) demonstration of d i r e c t current  electricity  (1791-1867) had  i n 1800.  The  defined induction  e l e c t r i c a l e f f e c t s i n time.  English  i n 1831;  chemist/physicist this  Faraday  i s the propagation of  Faraday's discovery was basic to the entire  concept of electromotive force, which replaced steam- and water-powered machines of h i s day with electromechanics ( i n 1821) 1831)  (Gideon; L i l l e y ; Ronan, p.448).  In 1864,  and the dynamo ( i n  the S c o t t i s h p h y s i c i s t  Maxwell (1831-1879) used Faraday's work to produce Maxwell's equations, which were published as h i s theory of electromagnetism (Ronan, p.467). The following d e f i n i t i o n s are presented i n preparation f o r the d i s c u s s i o n on electromagnetics:  Electron i s a negatively charged subatomic p a r t i c l e ; the charge i s s t a t i c or dynamic, and operates as a ready v a r i a b l e .  23  Electricity i s the phenomenon a r i s i n g from charged p a r t i c l e s which thereby create an energy form.  To charge means to impart energized p o t e n t i a l , or a intensity.  energy; a charge i s an state of e x c i t a t i o n or  Magnetism i s the phenomenon of a force f i e l d which has p o l a r i t y of a t t r a c t i o n and repulsion.  Electromagnet ism i s the phenomenon of simultaneous electric charge and magnetic polarity: Electromagnetics.  The two basic p r i n c i p l e s of electromagnetism are:  1.  an e l e c t r i c a l m o t i o n / e l e c t r i c i t y produces a magnetic  force  a magnetic force f i e l d  field  f i e l d , and 2. produces  an  electromotive  (photoelectricity) that  a  magnet  force.  activates inserted  i n motion across an e l e c t r i c This  means  that  a  spark  electromagnetic waves, as i n radio, into  an  electrical  field  generates  and an  electromagnetic force, as i n generators and t e l e v i s i o n r e c e i v e r s .  Electronics i s 1) the science and technology of e l e c t r o n phenomena, and 2) the commercial industry of devices and systems energized by electromagnetism. Maxwell's communications subsequent  equations  (1864).  communications  became  the  base  His  electromagnetic  that  used  for theory  the  world  of  inspired a l l  electromagnetics (Canby,  Many e l e c t r o n i c inventions p r o l i f e r a t e d a f t e r Volta's work.  p.67).  Radio was  24  developed  during  broadcasts In  1924,  the  i n 1920  r a p i d l y from  a  to f a i r l y regular programming w i t h i n a short  a radio  pp.175-6).  1914-1918 war and improved  telegraph  station  T e l e v i s i o n broadcasts  was put into  operation  brought  were transmitted before World War  i n television:  States of America and about 1952 great war,  approximately i n Canada ( i b i d . ) .  from a new device  (vacuum tube) (Ronan, p.510), the was  the basic component used f o r the other  Other  By the end of The  c a l l e d a thermionic  forerunner  II.  1945 i n the United  world communications had become mainly e l e c t r o n i c .  great change would r e s u l t  time.  (Lilley,  The B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation opened t h e i r system i n 1936. countries  few  transistor,  of the  the next  valve which  new device which would be  c a l l e d the computer.  The T r a n s i s t o r  The scientists  transistor  was produced  had experimented  detection and  for almost  (heat)  valves  emission of heated electrons. plate).  Emission  the  many  problem of  Vacuum tubes,  were used for the  also  flow or  of electrons may be v a r i e d  ( P i t t , 1984,  Electrons flow from the cathode This diode (a device with  and cathode) produces an e l e c t r i c a l current which  v a r i e s s i m i l a r to the way amplified and  after  Electrons enter the system at the cathode  only when the incoming signals are pos5tive. two electrodes--anode  War I I ,  a decade with  (ibid.),  pp.378-379) i n the space charge region.  be  World  a m p l i f i c a t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l current.  known as thermionic  (negative  after  turned  that e l e c t r i c a l signals vary. into sound.  DeForest  The current may  (1873-1961), o f Western  25  Electric,  Chicago,  complicated  invented  electronics,  computers,  are  Thermionic  tubes  the  e.g.  derived  the  from  amplify  first  this  known vacuum tube  radio, the  telephone  electric-current  (strengthen),  rectify  i n 1907; a l l  and  electronic  modulating  (correct) and  device. act  as  o s c i l l a t o r s ( f l u c t u a t o r s ) f o r generating electromagnetic radiant (radio) waves.  [The following i s not a set of s t r i c t engineering d e s c r i p t i o n s . The explanations o f f e r e d are extremely s i m p l i f i e d and presented f o r easy understanding  of  the  general  concepts  and  how  to  think  about  how  electromagnetic radiant energy moves i n designated ways:]  Within and  voltage  the  thermionic valve  (force) are  (vacuum tube) the  interchanged;  the  current  electricity  flows  (trans') the resistance ( r e s i s t o r ) , hence the name transistor s o l i d state device of 1947 secret  of  p.304).  the  transistor  This  dual  lies  i n the  realm  conduction-resistance  of quantum inherent  thus  f o r the  This influx  complicated  potential  electrical  theory  in  the  new The  (Pitt, quantum  In other words, the  v a r i a b l e flows, p o s i t i v e and negative, can reverse one  power,  across  which replaced the thermionic valves.  c a p a b i l i t y makes integrated c i r c u i t s p o s s i b l e .  intechangeably.  (flow)  two  another, or flow  of the t r a n s i s t o r i s i t s Immense signalling  has  been  made  less  expensive and very r e l i a b l e with t r a n s i s t o r s operating at the "speed of thought".  Integrated c i r c u i t r y replace  the  transistor  and  on a substrate (platform) was  the  entire u n i t was  created to  m i n i a t u r i z e d and  then  26  microminiaturized u n i t was unit  was  by  the process of lithography  c a l l e d a chip chipped  from  ( l i g h t etching).  This  because of i t s miniature s i z e , and because each a mass-produced  larger  group  of wafers.  These  u n i t s were l a b e l l e d i n terms of the integrated c i r c u i t r y c a p a c i t i e s such as the following:  small scale integrated (SCI),  large scale  (LSI) and very large scale integrated (VLSI) (O'Brien, 1982,  The which  became  transistor. "...a  many s o l i d the  core  state units  devices of  and  computers  integrated were  integrated p.24).  circuitry  designed  chips  around  the  Evans' (1981, p.109) simple d e f i n i t i o n of the t r a n s i s t o r i s  crystal,  i n which small  provide s i g n a l s " .  flows of electrons  can  be  c o n t r o l l e d to  P i t t ' s more t e c h n i c a l l y complete d e f i n i t i o n follows:  Transistor: A multi-electrode semiconductor device i n which the current flowing between two specified electrodes i s modulated by the voltage or current applied to one or more electrodes. In short,  a t r a n s i s t o r has  r e v e r s i b l e conductivity whereby  an  incoming e l e c t r i c a l current i s e i t h e r admitted or rejected.  This means  a  activating  transistor  is  a  electromagnetic radiant  "no-yes"  modulator  for  incoming  energy signals by which multiple-choice  "tree"  sequencing commands are c o n t r o l l e d by the computer operator/input  device  (terminal).  With the invention of the t r a n s i s t o r and i t s subsequent changes into the machine we first  recognize  mechanical system  which was  today as the computer, there  emerged  the  harbouring s i g n i f i c a n t usable p o t e n t i a l energy  e a s i l y manageable ( c o n t r o l l a b l e ) by human beings.  27 System i s a set of i n t e r r e l a t e d and/or interdependent elements which form an aggregate v i a harmonious and orderly i n t e r a c t i o n s .  The  computer  system  ("modulation r e v e r s i b i l i t y ) processes, to  functions and  basically  and  output  operations  consists  of  operations.  input,  control  A l l other  related  are elaborations, or are  ancillary  these three; v a r i e d additions can be made and thus create an expanded  network of centre  any  that  dimension,  provides  communications and of an  integrated  system, accepted pp.177-179).  and  the  for a wide v a r i e t y of  control  is  the  core  information technologies. learning  as the  One  purposes.  of  today's  The linked  such emerging example  system i s the world  c l a s s TELIDON  videotext  i n t e r n a t i o n a l standard  f o r videotext,  (Graham,  There are  a v a r i e t y of videotext  systems  in  different  countries, widely c i t e d .  The Computer  A Basic Description The developed (using  computer  throughout  pebbles  as  is  both  history  counters)  an from  to  operative the  devices  first such  and  a  device  mathematical as  the  inventions f o r recording, measuring and c r a f t i n g and now of vast q u a n t i t i e s of information. electromagnetic  computer  advent of e l e c t r i c i t y . computer f a s t e r ,  was  The  reckoning  abacus, as a  various processor  operational speed of the to  a  phenomenal  has  rate  first  by  the  Today, more information i s manipulated by  the  better, and  increased  that  i s done so v i a d i r e c t i o n s (programs) of  28  greater complexity and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n than ever before. capabilities,  built  into  computers to access  data  extensively, manipulate retrieve  i t with  the  computers  (at  this  The  writing),  (information), hold i t "on-line",  i t i n many and  complete  fidelity  on  technical power  reroute i t  diverse ways, store t h i s demand, and  manage and  data,  control  other operations with the stored programs (memory), i n a d d i t i o n to other specialty is  in  (custom  designed)  response  incorrectly  to  operator  labelled  coding systems.  operations.  The  The way  commanded  "languages"),  coding  such  as  the computer systems  BASIC,  operates  (which  PASCAL,  and  are LOGO  following are examples of the tasks performed  by  computers:  a) who  are  design of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l project incorporating operators  known  for  or  have  different  styles  of  design  or  unique  outcome  f o r a new  administrative strategy i n a  attributes,  b)  decision  s i t u a t i o n with ongoing d a i l y change i n many categories or departments, c) restrictive  operational management f o r a complex p h y s i c a l areas  for  humans  (such  as  with  corrosive  plant with chemicals,  r a d i a t i o n , intense heat), d)  data gathering i n remote locations at vast distances, and  r e l a y i n g on-line data output v i a d i f f e r i n g machines, simultaneously, i n satellite-based,  relayed, remote sensing of ocean or land areas f o r a  wide v a r i e t y of purposes,  29 e)  choice of an archaeological s i t e on the other side of the  globe where there e x i s t s continuous  c o r r e l a t i o n of relevant data  from  other in-progress s i t e s ,  f)  world-wide stock exchange a c t i v i t i e s , o n - l i n e .  Computers have been given the task of c o r r e l a t i n g and  c a r r y i n g through  taken  over  the  out by people.  decisions at u l t r a f a s t  speeds:  r e p e t i t i o u s voluminous c a l c u l a t i o n s  information  Computers  have  previously c a r r i e d  Wisely programmed, and used as an adjunct to b e n e f i c i a l  plans f o r people, computers have the p o t e n t i a l to be major assets i n our daily lives.  Pioneering the Computer  The essence manipulations,  of computing consists of numbers and t h e i r diverse  as described by Evans i s h i s extended d e f i n i t i o n i n The  Making of the Micro  (1981).  As  noted  earlier,  counting pebbles,  the  abacus, knots i n s t r i n g (the quipu), clay t a b l e t s , stone engravings,  and  marks on hide and paper were used f o r computing since e a r l i e s t  The e a r l i e s t records of what we,  times.  today, l a b e l a modern computer  were Babbage's (1792-1871) "difference machine" and " a n a l y t i c a l machine" (O'Brien, p.14)  proposed plans, but these were never b u i l t .  deemed u n r e l i a b l e , first  significant  this  machine  a c i t a t i o n c r e d i t s Pascal with having calculating  used  wheels  machine, between 1642 and  m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and subtraction.  gears,  was  and  capable  Although  invented 1644 of  the  (p.13);  addition,  Babbage's plans had been f o r the  first  30  g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e computer the  1805  logical full  (Evans, p . 4 1 ) .  J a c q u a r d loom t e c h n i q u e pattern.  century  of  For t h i s ,  punched h o l e s  The b a s i c d e s i g n o f  before  its  time)  was  u s e d by  operational  computing machine ( p . 1 3 ) .  were  built  managed  Massachusetts  Institute  by of  i n c a r d s to  B a b b a g e ' s computer  fully  and  Babbage had employed  Turing  (which  1935  to  Business  (MIT)  and  a  create  a  followed  Machines Dartmouth  a  was  The computers t h a t  International Technology  in  create  (IBM), College  (p.63).  [O'Brien competently. Moreau,  and  relevant  to  assist  sets  out  The n e x t  two  are  Five  the  the  are  modern  reader  computer  obtaining  an  of  the  the  development  energized  sophisticated  of  p.13) single  situation intended  easy  computers  capability,  technology  used  speed for  1960,  about  fifteen  years  computers had p r o v e d t h e i r  theory: digital  "any computable machine".  after  value  is  to  overview  and  described size  computers.  i n c l u d e s ample examples and p h o t o g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s  transistor,  are  and  Generations  "generations"  By  very  condensed from O ' B r i e n  contemporary  in  computer  computer.]  Traditionally,  increasing  as  of  The g u i d i n g comments thoughout  unenlightened  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the  history  subchapters  presented  t h i s paper.  the  the  the  (pp.  of  in the  O'Brien 12-31).  invention  b a s e d on T u r i n g ' s  of  the  (Evans,  f u n c t i o n c a n be e v a l u a t e d by means o f  Computers,  in  1960,  were  extremely  a  fast  calculators  with  memory  banks  of  considerable  capacity.  The  developmental stages of the computer (as per O'Brien) are as follows:  large  1.  First  generation  computers  main  frame  structures,  used  required  vacuum  large  tubes.  amounts  were  very  of space  and  e l e c t r i c a l energy;  2.  Second  generation  computers  used  transistors.  stored  information on magnetic media and some punched cards; they required less energy;  3. (chips);  Third  generation  programmed  computers  directions called  used  integrated  software  circuits  had n e g l i g i b l e  energy  requirements and were characterized c h i e f l y by miniaturized chips and the diminishing o v e r a l l component s i z e demonstrated as a microcomputer; 4. (LSI)  of  Fourth the  generation  circuitry  changes  which  were  large-scale  emphasized  integrations  microminiaturizing  components: the memory c a p a b i l i t y increased i n immense proportion. complete computer, e.g. that of IBM, e x i s t s i n the unbelievably  of The  small  size o f .5mm X .5 mm;  5.  Fifth  generation  servomechanisms using d e c i s i o n making. and  artificial  brought  intelligence  the use of automatic (AT) which  c a r r i e d out  AI may also be applied to robotics depending upon use  performance.  electromagnetic  changes  In both  the fourth  and  the f i f t h  energy requirements are minimal.  The high  generation, technology  design i s c o s t l y , e s p e c i a l l y f o r custom/specialized operations, but t h i s  32  latter  i s related  continues fifth  to how the technology  to decline with  generation  capabilities  i s used.  l a r g e r markets.  technologies  In general,  The p h y s i c a l s i z e  continues  to  decrease,  cost  of the software  increase, and transmission speeds are i n development f o r  superordinate c a l c u l a t i o n s of parts of a b i l l i o n t h of a second (O'Brien, p.9).  Memory and Storage  Memory i s the capacity device f o r data retention. between memory and storage. not so c l e a r :  f o r storage  Broadly  speaking,  of data. this  Storage  i s the d i s t i n c t i o n  R e a l i s t i c a l l y speaking, the d i f f e r e n c e s are  the terms are almost interchangeable.  In a computer, there are three basic steps f o r data: storage  is a  (and manipulation),  retrieval  and  redirection;  v a r i a t i o n s on these three throughout various systems.  entry,  there  are  The following are  some d e f i n i t i o n s from Moreau's (1984) point of view:  Memory: "access to memory i s made i n groups of b i t s , e i t h e r words or characters, and the capacity i s measured i n terms of these characters" (p.51). Storage: "Memory i s a device i n which an item of [information] data can be stored and from which i t can be subsequently recovered" (p.49).  "The capacity of [such] a memory i s the maximum volume of information that i t can store" (p.50).  33  The  preceding  points  storage as the same device. that  the way these  out the general  Clarification  notion  of memory and  i s emphasized again, herein,  words are used i s that memory i s capacity or the  program u n i t power: storage  i s the a v a i l a b l e p h y s i c a l space p o s i t i o n i n  a device and i s measured i n b i t s of information.  Therefore, memory i s a  memory-programmed-unit  measurable  capacity:  storage  is a  bit-space-  p o s i t i o n device.  Primary storage circuits  of computers i s the measurable space within the  of the microprocessor  groups of these  circuits  photolithography  on the chips  come--millions  of groups.  (chip).  Each space p o s i t i o n  which have been etched i n the quantity  The access  are presently i n the nanosecond range are soon to be i n the picosecond  includes  by microminiaturized of thousands--and to  times (speed) to these (one b i l l i o n t h  range (one thousandth  circuits  of a second) and of a nanosecond)  (O'Brien, p.9).  The i n t e r n a l space p o s i t i o n s are designed to use the following computer data elements (p.80): 1.  a b i t i s a binary d i g i t and has a value of e i t h e r zero or  2.  a byte i s an e i g h t - b i t grouping  one;  data quantity;  and i s the basic u n i t of  34 3. megabytes  the storage capacity (MB  or  M),  i.e. a  i s expressed thousand  i n bytes, k i l o b y t e s ,  bytes  or  a  million  or  bytes,  respectively.  The u n i t K i s a rounded quantity f o r about 1,000 positions. marketplace  The or  computer  i s usually  engineering  l a b e l l e d and  laboratories  by  identified  t h i s storage  general, computer primary storage c a p a c i t i e s may  storage space in  the  unit--K.  In  range from 4K bytes to  40M bytes f o r a very large computer system;  4.  the word i s a grouping of bytes that are t r a n s f e r r e d as a  group between the primary storage and the l o g i c c o n t r o l u n i t ;  5.  the page, which usually  consists  computer data element which i s continually and  secondary  storage  i n computers  extension of the primary  that  of 2K or 4K bytes,  is a  transferred between primary  have virtual  memory, i . e . an  storage space which gives the appearance  the main area i s unlimited--which  that  i t i s not.  A d d i t i o n a l primary storage media are:  1.  magnetic  core  devices  that  have  reversible  magnetic  d i r e c t i o n f o r nanosecond d i r e c t access storage; 2.  magnetic  1 megabit  (1 m i l l i o n  situations  (p.86);  bubble bits)  chips, are  now  with in  capacities use  of  i n high  32K  bytes  to  shock-resistant  35 charge-coupled  3. structure  of  the  electronic  elements)  a r r a y and h a l f bubble,  will  (CCD)  crystal  itself  to s t o r e  data:  f o r storage  are h i g h l y v o l a t i l e  be  smaller  and  5.  laser  development light.  This  opposite  the  storage  the  types,  innovations.  storage  faster  storage  that  than  (They,  devices  light,  around them.)  are  speed  the  che  120,000 imaging magnetic  in  development storage;  (superconductive  memory  h a r d c o p y ; none o f these i s  devices  the  are  in  p o l a r i z a t i o n of to  the  ( C r y s t a l s are v i b r a t o r s In t h i s  i m m o b i l i z e d by the  case,  crystals,  the  changes  would become  o p e r a t i n g a t the speed o f  a  light.  o f computers today may be c a t e g o r i z e d i n f o u r  change  In g e n e r a l ,  the  with types  rapid are:  in a distinctive  some o f the most used s t o r a g e  - magnetic tape  like  a m p l i f i e d beam r e s o n a t e s  maintaining s t a s i s .  for binary data b i t s  may  about  semiconductor  faster  holographic  focussed,  energy o r mass  which  use  elements form the  today's  allow this  and  the  Secondary s t o r a g e main  the  Char  Josephson J u n c t i o n s ) ;  i n essence,  p o l a r i t y of device  (containing  use c r y s t a l l i n e m a t e r i a l to change  means  focus,  and a f f e c t in  that  sensors  as a s t o r a g e medium.);  e x t r e m e l y low t e m p e r a t u r e s w i l l tunnel j u n c t i o n c i r c u i t s :  half  are  and r e a d - o u t .  cryogenic-electronic  4. that  are  silicon  devices  convergence magnetic, category.  devices:  (cartridge,  casette)  - magnetic d i s k ( v a r i o u s s i z e s ,  thicknesses)  and  optical,  increasing voice  and  The f o l l o w i n g are  36 - magnetic drum  - solid  state disks  which store the  (also  data  on  called the  charge-coupled  crystal).  devices  Sizes may  be  [CCD] i n the  extreme microminiaturized range.  - magnetic bubble (which "holds" data by electromagnetic pulse on the c r y s t a l s )  - o p t i c a l disks (video disk; laser imprint)  - voice (various, synthesized, natural)  - hardcopy (print, graphics, f a c s i m i l e )  - micrographics  (microfIsche, microfilm)  - experimental,  and  i n development, which includes the realm  of  biotechnology and organic sciences, (including t r a n s p l a n t s ) . Some  ancillary  processes  of  the  computer  are  created  with  various hardware such as the following:  1.  voice hardware for both natural speech and f o r synthesized  t a l k i n g chips; voice recognition--various devices (including the newest "smart cards" to use i n bank depositories, telephone machines and other service repositories); "talking prosthetics";  37  2.  character  recognition personal  (OCR),  recognition magnetic  character  hardware, such as o p t i c a l  ink  recogntion  character  (PCR),  for  recognition  example  a  character  (MICR)  handprint  and or  a  fingerprint; 3.  remote location  devices,  such as a microchip embedded i n a  c h i l d ' s tooth, or under the skin, such as f o r family pets and f o r coding and tracking w i l d l i f e for conservation purposes;  4.  smart  cards  used  for  identification  purposes,  remote banking and payment for services (e.g. telephone components  are  microminiaturized  chips  embedded  in  such  calls). the  as  Smart  card;  some  automatically have "use up and delete" q u a n t i t i e s i n progress; 5. sensors  many  that  heat-seeking  activate  emergency-water-release  an  devices  automatic  system  in  of  various  program a  kinds  (e.g.  high-rise  a  operate  on  computerized  complex  for  fire  protection).  Communications Technologies Summary  The technological development of a c i v i l i z a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d by its  capability  informations In e a r l i e s t  to  of various kinds times,  mostly face-to-face. commerce,  articulate,  industry  expressions  and and  transmit,  receive  and  for various communicative transmissions  the  religious  and  professional  upon  purposes.  between peoples  As t h e i r s o c i a l organizations developed and  act  were  and trade,  establishments  evolved so, also, d i d t h e i r communications' media, modes and the q u a l i t y  38 of  their  into  informations.  formalized  which  The concept of s t o r i n g information  systematized  contained,  among  following formats:  files,  other  stores,  things,  libraries  mediated  and data  string  i n the  c l a y t a b l e t s i n sealed c y l i n d e r s , s c r o l l s ,  counting  records,  books, journals, microfilm  sizes and formats),  cinematic  such  and videocasettes,  as  various  videotape computer  banks  information  pebbles i n c l a y containers, parchments i n sealed j a r s , writings,  developed  formats  film  (celluloid),  i n magnetic  ( i n a v a r i e t y of  magnetic  audiotape and other  wampum, vellum  and  tape  formats  audiocasettes,  materials,  video and  audio f i b r e g l a s s disks.  The  methods and media f o r communication among people,  and f o r  c o l l e c t i n g and recording a l l of the above, are described i n t h i s paper as occurring v i a signals that write sound far.  far, see far (and sense far) and  The s i g n i f i c a n t energy resources  which carry the s i g n a l s ,  changed over h i s t o r i c a l time from human and animal labour,  fire,  water  (and steam) to electromagnetics.  Since the discovery and a p p l i c a t i o n s of e l e c t r i c i t y ,  there has  been a constant reduction i n the needs of time, energy and costs f o r the operations,  manufacturing  communications  and service  and, e s p e c i a l l y ,  respect to geographic distance. between  peoples,  related  knowledge, has contracted a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c .  costs  i n the various and time  have  dimensions of collapsed  with  In addition, the psychological distance  to information considerably  access  with  and communities  information  more  of  readily  E l e c t r o n i c Age communications have v i r t u a l l y  39 opened  up  the  world  socially,  intellectually  and  for  economics  and  i n d u s t r i a l trade opportunities.  The  t r a n s i s t o r was  the  breakthrough device  combining the power of communications technologies diverse c a p a b i l i t i e s of the computer as described  that  allowed  for  with the immense  and  earlier.  Throughout the h i s t o r y of media, people have depended on  their  communicative a b i l i t i e s - - t h e i r sensory (reception) a b i l i t i e s - - t h o s e for seeing, hearing, reading  and  touching,  innate  and on t h e i r cognitive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , as i n  "seeing",  i n an auditory and  nonauditory, v i s u a l or  nonvisual way,  as well as on t h e i r language s k i l l s .  encompass the  ability  to comprehend and  transmit  These l a t t e r  skills  messages v i a signals  (carriage) i n preselected codes, within which reside meaning f o r those who is  possess the same (group) knowledge. based  on  information  decoded f o r the message.  gathered As  and  The  s e l e c t or group knowledge  stored,  stated e a r l i e r ,  which  is  encoded  t h i s paper does not  and deal  e x p l i c i t l y with meaning; t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n includes material relevant  to  the s i g n a l energy carriage of message content.  The s i g n a l l i n g energies were discussed as l i g h t and sound waves which were r e f l e c t e d , relayed, focussed to propagate  the  signals over greater  and enhanced/amplified i n order distances.  Mirrors,  relay systems have been used i n many ways h i s t o r i c a l l y . technologies  such  boosters  repeaters.  and  as  reflectors,  r e f r a c t o r s , receivers,  lenses  and  Today, we  use  transmitters,  Cost effectiveness i s the state of the market  40  for  consumer  and commercial  electronics  and f o r personal,  business,  i n d u s t r i a l and corporate oriented computers.  The as  we  computer i s changing our world and w i l l continue to do so  increasingly  integrate  this  machine  into  the management  operations of an increasing number of systems on t h i s planet.  and  41  CHAPTER I I I  TELETECHNOLOGY SIGNALS: A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT  The c l o s e r [people] l i v e Co r e a l i t y , the more daringly inventive and s c i e n t i f i c they become and the quicker they are to adopt new ways.  (R. Buckminster F u l l e r , 1969, p.273.)  The infrastructure  current uses  state both  of  wired  a  tele-world  and non-wired  distant, transmission  engineered systems.  Joined to the computer, telecommunications has created the information economy  ( S e r a f i n i , p.100) which a f f e c t s  globe today.  the l i v e s  of everyone on the  The convergence and e f f e c t i v e management o f communications  and computer technologies a t t a i n i n g an humanistic  (informatics) i s the operant-possible means of and c o g n i t i v e l y high  planet E a r t h - - i f used wisely. which we use these  level  o f c i v i l i z a t i o n on  The perceptive and responsible manner i n  a v a i l a b l e combined technologies and the intent f o r  42 which  we  propose  those  uses  constitutes  the basis  on  which  our  c i v i l i z a t i o n has the a b i l i t y to develop further.  Communications  systems  of  a l l kinds  have  been  developed  throughout h i s t o r y mainly f o r the b e n e f i t of the nation, f o r trade and commerce, and f o r m i l i t a r y are t i g h t l y  controlled  expansion.  In some nations communications  such as those of the USSR and of South  which i n 1986 and 1987 censored journalism. falling  costs  of consumer  electronics,  Africa  Increasingly, the r a p i d l y  and  those  of  the personal  computer, have allowed many people to have ready access to communicate with large numbers of others.  The very powerful computer operations of  large systems and networks handle work done formerly by human beings; they monitor immense numbers of d i v e r s e l y located operators. of work and of human management systems has been changed  The nature irrevocably:  some examples are i n administration, i n management, i n service d e l i v e r y and with products.  Continual a c c e l e r a t i o n  i s expected with  continual  innovation.  Many people are concerned about t h i s computer c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n as  i t continues to disrupt  upheavals.  People  who  their  everyday  lives  are not knowledgeable  with some very major about  the mystique  of  computers and the evolving tele-world require i n s i g h t into the basics of the e f f e c t i v e use and management of technology.  The s t a b i l i t y ,  health  and p o t e n t i a l automomy of humans i n an evolving t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y oriented society  require  that  they have a sense  of control/management and the  a b i l i t y to make r e l i a b l e decisions about t h e i r l i v e s and environment.  43 In order term  to a s s i s t  the reader  TELETECHNOLOGY--systematization  general  term representing systematic  i n the f u l l  meaning of what I  at a d i s t a n c e - - i . e . an abstract interdependence o f operations or,  more u s u a l l y , a device or system f o r d i s t a n t operations, I present below several  definitions  general  way,  communications.  that  lead  to and thus,  circumscribe  comprehensively  TELETECHNOLOGY  f o r the  and i n a field  of  Taken together, this grouping w i l l serve as a concerted  body f o r a cognitive inductive grasp o f the t h e o r e t i c a l representative domain  o f TELETECHNOLOGY  f o r communications  TELETECHNOLOGY i s described. system, an i n t e r r e l a t e d  Throughout t h i s  ordered  concept o f distance/tele--which concept  o f a goal,  grouping  within study,  which  the term  the concept o f a  o f parts/elements,  and  implies, i n a d d i t i o n to " f a r o f f " ,  place/locus  the the  phase/relation--are  or developmental  considered the generalized aggregate grounding with which to comprehend t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l construct.  The encompasses animals  t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y academic f i e l d of communications studies common  i n t e r a c t i o n s and transactions  and machines.  interdependent  description  Communication  among human  may be  described  beings, as an  transaction that i s concerned with message (content) and  a l l relevant technologies activity.  The following d i s t i n c t i o n s are presented:  (devices, systems and methods) to complete the  (Analysis of d e f i n i t i v e f o r purely  machine  cybernetics, communication,  i . e . machine c o n t r o l , and communications  44 engineering are beyond the scope of t h i s work although mention i s made throughout.)  Communication Definitions).  (see under  General Origins  of  Media:  A communication system i s a configuration route f o r sending and receiving messages such as by transmission, networks, relay stations and terminal equipment.  Communications encompasses 1) a l l of the a r t and technology of communicating which s i g n i f y a change or exchange of ideas or thought transfer, [this includes skills and techniques of the arts and sciences (applications) and also those of information (the computer) ] , and 2) the specialized branch of e l e c t r i c a l engineering that deals with information transfer between people and equipment.  Communications technology encompasses a l l devices, systems and techniques for thought transfer. Information technology i s a subset and may be an ancillary.  Communication media are those channels (carriage) by which the information (content) is transported such as phone l i n e s , broadcast, microwave, o p t i c a l communications systems; and s a t e l l i t e communications.  Information (see Definitions).  under  General  Origins  of  Media:  Information Technology ( r e s t r i c t i v e l y ) i s concerned with computers and data; i t is a subset of communications technology: Informatics.  Technology, broadly, i s the a v a i l a b l e knowledge base for systematic a p p l i c a t i o n within a c i v i l i z a t i o n : methods, materials, resources, science and a r t s k i l l s .  45 In encompasses subset  review,  everything  information  communications, i n the broad  the term related  to communication  technology.  technology  technology  The term  c i v i l i z a t i o n ' s l e v e l of development, i n the broad sense. to an advancing relative  technological  to a d e f i n i t i v e  society,  sense, and  refers  the  to a  With reference  such as i n North America, and  use of the term  technology,  I present the  following:  Technology, per se, i s methods and materials designed to achieve qualitative--objectives systems.  the entire systematic body o f i n a c i v i l i z a t i o n which i s measurable--quantitative and i n various s o c i a l areas or  Technology i s used i n today's s c i e n t i f i c , i n d u s t r i a l and s o c i a l world, as well as f o r personal use i n homes and places of entertainment, i n the form of sophisticated designs, devices and operations. advanced  technology has the capacity  Today's  to enhance and to improve  daily  work and l e i s u r e pursuits i n a l l areas o f society; i t could extend the positive  capabilities  of human  beings  i f they  chose  the means o f  technology wisely.  Such  wisdom  may  be  made  possible  through  the general  understanding of how technology i s energized and manipulated  i n theory  and, therefore, how people may use the a v a i l a b l e actual technologies i n order to obtain the best possible those who examine  the present  presented  paper.  i n this  results.  Insight may be gained by  technologies v i a the a n a l y t i c a l  Insight  may also  examine human communication signals i n action.  be gained  model  by those who  T h e o r e t i c a l juxtaposing  46 TELETECHNOLOGY  with  other  investigator,  new horizons  innovations,  personal  restructuring  model  domains  may  r e l a t e d to global  opportunities  contemporary  or  communication  reveal  also,  to the  communications,  other  national  possibilities  exigencies.  The  for  model,  therefore, may be used as a c a t a l y s t f o r v a r i e d thinking s t y l e s or new ways to view the world.  The TELETECHNOLOGY Domain  Teleological i s intended  to mean the u t i l i t y within a comprehensive design or, i n the  sense that logical for  completion.  systematic  (Morris, 1980, p.1323), as used within t h i s paper,  means systematic then  priority.  teleological  presented  I establish as  that  tele  goal  achievement  i s removed  and u s a b i l i t y ,  domain from  as the  (far) i n order to consider  or as u t l i l i t v - a c h i e v e d  the abstract  which  spontaneous production distanced  means  Further, by using  TELETECHNOLOGY as far-goaled inductively,  and i n the sense that Celos i s Greek  design  i n which organic  this  or  and as that which  oriented. work i s  natural  and  e x i s t s as a  (end) design set.  1.  The abstract domain of TELETECHNOLOGY  r e l a t i o n to the potential  e x i s t s , therefore, i n  u t i l i z a t i o n of a design(ed) set or construct,  ergo,  2. for  The TELETECHNOLOGY  domain i s an  aggregate of p o s s i b i l i t i e s  the use and management of devices, systems and mediated  within the actual (real) f i e l d of communications.  informations  47 The distinct  abstract  from  ideas  domain o f TELETECHNOLOGY c o n s i s t s o f things, as or other  phenomenological  about TELETECHNOLOGY; one does not being,  think mechanically  one may think i n a systematic,  Succinctly,  one thinks  about  entities:  one thinks  but,  as a human  l o g i c a l or technological manner.  computers  and about  technology; the  computer "works" or operates i n a TELETECHNOLOGICAL manner--the computer does not  think.  The  prime  aspect  o f the TELETECHNOLOGY  r e l a t i v i t y - - b e c a u s e i n an aggregate of any type, parts  relative  (Augros,  1984,  domain  the whole consists of  to one another, i . e . space and time are p.57)  interrelationships,  with  the energy  a l l o f which  that  modifies  act under  i s that o f  laws.  interdependent  or changes [This  their  i s the core  p r i n c i p l e of the t h e o r e t i c a l construct.]  Operations communications theoretical  in utility  technologies  domain  o f the above afford  to accommodate  i n the  virtual  the generalized  both  common  f i e l d of  concept  and possible  of a uses In  ' r e a l ' (actual) l i f e s i t u a t i o n s .  The  TELETECHNOLOGY domain encompasses  information technologies  a l l communications and  that are not of immediate face-to-face, person-  to-person or person-to-animal mode of communication. carrier,  message  medium used,  which  instantaneous, The  reality  or transmission, i s distant  human o r i g i n ,  or any device,  i n physical  Any content or  system,  method or  l o c a t i o n or from  may be construed  as  natural,  tele-techno-logical.  o f t h i s communications oriented concept i s that  i t is  the  48  opposite of unknown o r i g i n or parameters, or of spontaneous existence i n close proximity between sender-receiver to- face) i n any v i r t u a l sense. the  domain  exists  of TELETECHNOLOGY  i n space  meaning aspects  as well  of the message ( i . e . not face-  This emphasis i s required to e s t a b l i s h as an e n t i t y with  as i n time  c o n t i n u i t y and which  and spacetime.  (The cognitive  of communication are not included as c e n t r a l ,  i n this  paper.)  Thus,  the tele-world  i s described  naked eye) yet expressly powerful  as the i n v i s i b l e  domain i n which devices  (to the  and systems  are used i n close p h y s i c a l proximity or at a distance i n space, i n time or  i n the spacetime  continuum.  Spacetime  i s defined  as the fourth  dimension: Spacetime i s the fourth-dimension continuum as defined by Einstein's r e l a t i v i t y theory: an event i s described i n terms of a fourth-dimensional continuum. ( P i t t , p.157 [paraphrased].)  The various orientations of reality interval  and  (occurrence).  duration),  space  These are i m p l i c i t  include time ( c o n s i s t i n g of  (location)  and  spacetime/event  i n any d e s c r i p t i v e analysis of the  TELETECHNOLOGY domain.  1.  This TELETECHNOLOGY domain consists of r e a l space and r e a l  time and r e a l spacetime.  For example, as an a i r c r a f t ascends h e l i c a l l y  i n l e v e l s or a l t i t u d e planes, at each p a r a l l e l point on each l e v e l the time lapsed w i l l be equivalent to the same space covered, things are constant.  i f a l l other  Therefore, at each l e v e l , at the equivalent locus,  49  the  aircraft  equivalent  i s noted to have progressed through one increment of space to  one  increment  of  time:  each  level  attained  increment of spacetime, i f a l l other things remain constant. be an actual true virtual  life  participation  communications and  operators  using  2a.  (vicarious)  possible mobile  experience; t h i s may  as  used during the f l i g h t  controller  communications  "here and now"  a  movie  ascent by  others using mobile equipment,  of  the  is  one  This  may  also be a  above.  the p i l o t ,  airtraffic  telephones, and/or  a l l participate  The  radar  i n real  time i f  time and  extended  are i n progress throughout.  This domain also  consists  space as well as extended spacetime.  of extended The  s i t u a t i o n of planned  future  time and the tangible methods to accomplish t h i s are required f o r design of  a system that e x i s t s i n any area or phase of time and includes the  extended dimensions of a n t i c i p a t e d space--both f o r the future as well as for  the past or f o r any a d d i t i o n a l concurrent phases of the preceding  (which includes spacetime extension).  In (space),  and  trajectory spacetime  calculations, positions  future  speed  (event-intervals)  modelling (simulation) or f o r r e a l war k i l l i n g s ,  (time),  are  target  identical  for  s i m i l a r to those that  appear i n video game programs.  In  an example of extension of time f o r human l i f e cryogenic  (deep cold) suspension, the TELETECHNOLOGICAL system could be programmed for in  various time, space and spacetime c a p a b i l i t i e s . raw  space  could  remain  dormant  (in  Canadian astronauts  suspended  hibernation  50 compartments, they  are  time,  now i n development by the N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ) u n t i l  r e q u i r e d to  and  at  a  distant  vehicle.  The  technologies  of  signs--the  function  fully  future  place  cybernated exacting  on-board  at  a  (programmed)  aboard an o u t e r  environment  precision  electronic  space  requires  between  support,  distant,  the  traversing  communications  humans'  and/or  future  (body)  terrestrial  vital mission  control.  2b. time,  Contraction is  space  Editing is  and spacetime used w i d e l y  imaginative  space  and  the  Sorcerer's  unstoppable  developmental (c)  of  this  of  the  period the  of  usage,  compressed. collapsed.  cognitive  classic,  producer  and  Walt  demonstrates  including  possible  (e)  addition,  time,  operational  anticipations.  Disney's an  film,  The  imaginative  f u n c t i o n p o o r l y managed.  The time r e l a t e s  (i.e.  exists  or h y p o t h e t i c a l  of previously u n t r i e d  popular  in possible  cases,  TELETECHNOLOGICAL system t h e r e  mankind  numbers o f  or  In  Sound may be  w h e r e i n d a t a may be  proposes  the  I n some  to  (a)  pre-computer  times  this  film  era, has  The  the p e r i o d  f i l m was i m a g i n e d , p l a n n e d , d e v e l o p e d and p r o d u c e d ,  (d)  unknown.  purpose,  a run-away t e c h n o l o g i c a l  screened, time,  extension.  contracted.  o p e r a t i o n c r e a t e s chaos.  which the  II) ,  case  Apprentice.  analogy--that  of  ( c o n j u r e d i n the minds o f humans)  and j u x t a p o s i t i o n s  In  War  may be  for this  spacetime;  possibilities  in  reverse  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n the  3. the  the  (b)  post  the  World  been/will  be  c o m b i n a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r e v e n t s i n space  in  possible  the  concept  computerized of  time  of  the  operations, film  as  itself,  yet time  51  considered  as (a) the length of "running  time"  of the e n t i r e  film,  (b) the sense of duration i n which the a c t i o n of the play takes place, which can be depicted i n r e a l or v i r t u a l  time r e l a t e d or unrelated to  the unfolding l i v e s of human beings, i n seconds, minutes, hours,  days,  etc., and from t h i s springs the concept of the c o n t i n u i t y of f i l m time, (c) the sense  of psychological  mental/emotional d e l i g h t , anger  expanded  time  i n which  or perceived  the hero  contracted time  experiences of anxiety,  and so on, (d) the beat of the musical or other sounds  within each scene, and (e) the rhythm of the entire movie as a whole, (f) the perceived viewer's time related to segments enjoyed, ignored or rejected,  a l l of which by attending becomes an i n t e g r a l  i n d i v i d u a l viewer's  involvement  r e l a t e d to the f i l m . highly  individual:  various elements any  by  of the  and experience of any aspect of time  Perceived time, on the part of every viewer i s v i a the preceding methods  of i n t e r r e l a t i n g  with  of the f i l m , the perceiver recreates the experience of  aspect of the f i l m  preset  part  the f i l m  and may comprehend some of the objectives as  producer.  Thus,  the f i l m  has  the f u n c t i o n a l  c a p a b i l i t y of a medium by which a p a r t i c i p a n t may experience time--being there now.  simulated  Extrapolations are also possible f o r space and  spacetime.  A second imaginative example--of space, time and spacetime-- i s that of the popular u n i v e r s i t y professor G. O'Neill's well concept  of space  colonization  (Man. 1985, pp.212-213).  publicized O'Neill's  concepts and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y designed a r c h i t e c t u r a l miniature models have usually  been  construed  from  the s c i e n t i f i c  (technological)  point of  52  view--they things  are  most  classified frequently  as  hypothetical.  by  creating  Scientists  possible  investigate  idealized  models  (constructs) (Augros, p.133) and by analyzing the tests/experiments they  set up  to assess  those  models.  experiments or t r i a l s to challenge  After  a  reasonable  to what  their  true  findings  number of  t h e i r models (as hypotheses) they are  able to f i n d out on a r a t i n g scale how close t h e i r postulates are  that  reveal.  Professor  (guesses)  O ' N e i l l has been  doing the same thing using possible e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l h a b i t a t i o n , such as h i s biospheres i n Arizona,  USA,  part of some NASA t r i a l s .  In t h i s case, h i s work i s considered  s c i e n t i f i c community the conceptual  and vehicular transportation models as  to be t h e o r e t i c a l , so f a r :  stage imaginative  O'Neill's  concepts,  and  scale  existence and c r i t i q u e d f o r a great many years. i n numerous  an a r t i s t would  and the model stage  plans  by the call  creative.  models  have  been  in  They have been depicted  books, journals, photographic s l i d e s , newspapers and films  but have not, as yet, become an e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y .  This  near space c o l o n i z a t i o n concept has an existence of i t s own i n the minds of  many people;  as  yet i t has  not been  reified  as  an  outer  space  h a b i t a t i o n a l complex to, and from which, humans communicate by vehicular and  communications systems and devices.  therefore,  by  definition,  O'Neill's  Many hold concepts  i t as a goal reside  in  and the  TELETECHNOLOGICAL domain.  4. simulation  Simulated  real  models on various  and as computergraphics.  space,  time  display screens,  and  spacetime  i n various  exist  as  environments,  53 Simulation  for training  performance  skill  dimensional  animated  design/computer  operations) software  i n like  are now programs  situations  available which  automated education (CAD/CAE).  (for  i n virtual  are computer  various three-  automated  I c a l l these techno-real  hybrids (TR/H). Simulations may also include and juxtapose appropriate technologies which create a surreal e f f e c t (Morris, p.1295).  Surreal means from the unconscious mind or "beyond the r e a l " , r e s i d i n g i n the unconscious. sound  ever-progressively  Some examples are the numerous v i s u a l and  changing,  These depict unreal combinations of these are used  ever-startling  computergraphics.  of objects, sounds and actions.  f o r advertising  and entertainment.  Similar  Many to a r t  surrealism, some say that they are unconscious expressions of our r e a l world; others depict these e i t h e r as accidental or purposive innovations that are created by manipulating and combining preselected s i g n a l s , with or without human design.  These domain.  surreal  I term these as  6.  Superreal  TELETECHNOLOGICAL domain. large, i n s i z e . l i k e  depictions  reside  i n the TELETECHNOLOGICAL  techno-surreal hybrid (TS/H) images. is  another  reality  orientation  of  the  T y p i c a l examples are (a) the e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y  the massive  TRON t e l e v i s i o n screen used f o r huge  outdoor crowds, b) the greatly magnified image, such as a closeup of a human eyebrow silver  screen,  on a face projected on a cinematic,  twenty-foot-high  (c) the inordinately magnified sound, such as breaking  the sound b a r r i e r by a j e t a i r c r a f t  or quadraphonic  amplified  music,  54 (d) the almost  incomprehensive u l t r a f a s t  the picosecond  ( t r i l l i o n t h - o f - a - s e c o n d ) range, now  stage.  Techno-superreal  hybrid  speeds  of computers  cited in  i n the experimental  (TSR/H) images and devices may  identify  t h i s group as belonging to the TELETECHNOLOGICAL domain.  7.  Combinations, as well as experiments i n several dimensions  of formerly two-dimensional media, are i n the i n v e s t i g a t i v e stage. the c a p a b i l i t i e s  of the  technologies  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r new uses.  are  increased  so,  too, are  As the  Predictions are not possible about emerging  combinations.  The  accomplishment  demonstrated  as  of  computer-aided  Tf?/H  is  simulation  moving  rapidly  combined  with  video screens f o r a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l , and f o r r e a l l i f e ,  and  is  specialized  "on-line", r e a l  time s i t u a t i o n s ; there e x i s t new learning s i t u a t i o n s r e l a t e d to science: One (English  noteworthy  and  Reilly,  computer simulation example Is that of SUNSTAR  1986,  p.11)  University/NASA a f f i l i a t i o n team.  and  other software by  the  Stanford  The computerized simulations  consist  of the fundamentals of the science program c a l l e d "telescience", and of the  activities  scientists, simulation  carried  out  by  astronauts  and  others.  This  includes  space  shuttle  mission  flight  of  a  USA  in-space  ( i n earth  orbit) the  workersreal  time  (p.13)--a  "now"  experience.  The simulations on screens, with sound, may participants shuttle.  within  The  a  real  crew of the  life-sized space  model  shuttle  be experienced by  (replica)  trains  of  with t h i s  the  space  simulation  55 model.  Boeing,  a major a i r l i n e  company, and  others,  have used  this  t r a i n i n g method f o r over twenty years.  All mediations  of  the  foregoing  descriptive  TELETECHNOLOGICAL  domain  concerning human r e a l i t y perceptions of time, of space and of  spacetime, are  exemplified by  standard  concepts  reality,  and  as  manifestations.  of  what  experiences  humans  demonstrated by  depicted  generally  in relation  understand  a v a r i e t y of v i s u a l ,  These are categorized as:  as  to  physical  sound and  real l i f e ,  the  data  actual, v i r t u a l ;  extended and contracted (which includes compacted, compressed, collapsed or  "edited  out");  (beyond the  real);  imaginative super  real;  or and  hypothetical; combinations  simulated; (which  surreal  include  life-  sized model/replicas) .  The  foregoing  media products, videotext,  i n or  television,  electronic-mediated v i s u a l and on various video,  sound images, as  technological devices  radio,  print,  computers  located f o r use i n the following s o c i e t a l areas:  - communications and transportation s i t e s - museums, g a l l e r i e s , e x h i b i t centers, theatres - information and knowledge i n d u s t r i e s - f i e l d s of education;  entertainment  - the a r t i s t i c and l i t e r a r y domains - commercial and i n d u s t r i a l enterprises - s c i e n t i f i c and technological i n v e s t i g a t i o n s - diverse professions  and  systems--  et al.--may  be  56  - government bureaucracies - m i l i t a r y megacomplexes - emerging and experimental s i t u a t i o n s  Many d i s c i p l i n e s and f i e l d s perspectives, l a t e r a l time and spacetime  of endeavour are able to b e n e f i t  from  new  thinking and expanded ways of considering space,  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and experiences w i t h i n the domain  of TELETECHNOLOGY.  The preceding extrapolation i s e s s e n t i a l f o r understanding numerous  possible  operations  v a r i e t y of mediated reality  of  the  computer--to  manifestations--when  command  the  the wide  the computer i s linked  to communications technologies (at a distance, i n c l u d i n g earth o r b i t ) . This  inimitable  interrelate  manipulation  are a c t i v a t e d  by  The  mechanism  the  energy-activating power.  has  the  powerful  capability  to  systems and devices ( v i a channels, l i n k s and c i r c u i t r y ) , a l l  of which core  device  of  speeds;  electromagnetism computer  this  speed  and  light-radiant  i s designed gives  the  to  respond  computer  energy. at  high  i t s immense  Enormous speed accommodates enormous p r o d u c t i v i t y :  the computer  has extraordinary speed i n counting ( d i g i t a l signals) and f o r continuous measurement (analogue s i g n a l s ) .  The intended  for  content  (message  transmisssion  or is  information)  of  interdependent  a  with  communication the  (channels, methods, systems and devices, including a n c i l l a r y [Content i s not dealt with i n t h i s paper.] included because of i t s demonstrable  The  carriage equipment).  following statement i s  significance:  Messages  (content)  57 are  structured f o r , and are wholly dependent  on, the carriage  systems.  S i g n a l l i n g energy i s the core of communications.  Signals f o r and of the s i g n a l l i n g transmission carried  or reception,  message/content  also  itself.  contribute  energy, which  to the formation of the  In the flow of energy,  parts of a message may be d i s t o r t e d or l o s t depending the  a c t i v a t e any  messages or  on v a r i a b l e s of  s i g n a l strength, continuity and r e l i a b i l i t y of the system which uses  i n f l u x s i g n a l l i n g radiant energy.  In  addition,  the m o d u l a t i o n - r e v e r s i b i l i t y of the computer has  almost instantaneous command over t h i s i n f l u x radiant s i g n a l l i n g energy. Linked together, these two compatible dynamic energy formidable  resource  potential.  Extremely  forces present a  complex  and  highly  s o p h i s t i c a t e d technology i s required to access t h i s energy, to maintain the of  influx r e l i a b i l i t y , commands.  The complexity of the actual world of communications i s  beyond d e s c r i p t i o n . communication. the  and to respond immediately to any combinations  The domain of TELETECHNOLOGY has operatives f o r  This domain i s a d e f i n i t i v e abstract concept  depicting  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of the humanly experienced technologies at t h i s time  and place. advanced  Society continues to develop and to integrate  technologies based  on  the many  virtual  increasingly  realities  of the  TELETECHNOLOGICAL doma i n .  TELETECHNOLOGY,  as a c t u a l i t y ,  may  be  concerned  with  varied  patterns and dimensions of uses (now, not now, l a t e r ) i n d i f f e r e n t times and places or phases.  The evaluation of the common-place telephone i s a  58  popular phenomenon. impact  when  No one expected the telephone to have a s i g n i f i c a n t  i t was  first  marketed  general opinion about the video  to  the  telephone  public.  World F a i r  was  People would not  Today, the u n i f y i n g switch mechanism of the ordinary  telephone extends space and time and spacetime, unit  the  at the 1964  that i t would be an immense success, which i t was not. buy i t or use i t .  Conversely,  i f one i s using a mobile  i n t r a n s i t anywhere--sub marine, across land, i n a i r f l i g h t or i n  orbit.  The  corporations,  telephone entire  exchange  national  system  satellite  holds relay  together  systems  entire  and  vital  communications among nations.  The earth o r b i t (teleport) space s t a t i o n communications system, based  on a prototype design, unites space o r b i t e r s with t h e i r  and others on Earth.  The  multiple reruns of videotapes  of astronaut-  Earth communications appear as now.  Other  are v i r t u a l l y  sessions by ordinary c i t i z e n s i n  their  anywhere--from playback  homes, to reviews  by  now  families  head d i g n i t a r i e s  videotaped  experiences  of nations who  refer  to  these now experiences i n many s i t u a t i o n s , including those r e l a t e d to the state-of-the-nation addresses  and world-summit c o l l o q u i e s .  Now can be  i n time ( i . e . any time of day or night), i n space (located or c a r r i e d by any  means  spacetime duration  or  transmitted  ( i . e . moving as  telephone, unstoppable.  anywhere  through  space  e v e n t - i n t e r v a l i n an electrography Now  on  Earth  or  measured  actual  or  a  outer in  space)  or  in  speed/time  or  in  virtual  (television/videography), radio,  i s i n a l l places  and  at  a l l times.  sense) . et a l . , The  The are  eternal  i n i m i t a b l e now has become the popular Idiom of what i s today c a l l e d the  59 computer  era  or,  alternately,  the  Space  Age  (which  is  completely  dependent upon computers).  The  technology  i s a c t u a l i z e d c u r r e n t l y i n the following design  sets of communications or information devices or systems or methods:  - telecommunications,  facsimile,  text,  data,  semaphore  and  character symbol forms;  - broadcasting,  radio, cable t e l e v i s i o n ;  closed c i r c u i t r y ,  maser  (microwave) and laser (lightwave) propagated systems; s a t e l l i t e o r b i t i n g r e l a y systems;  - information technologies/computer  - ranging,  navigation,  (including others and  detection  aerial);  mesh with  other  systems and  telemetry  other;  (including  communications,  detection and  and  links;  such as  problem-solving  remote  sensing  aerial);  various  medical  diagnostic,  instrumentations  and  operations;  - various e l e c t r o n i c of o p t i c ,  systems and  sonic, photonic,  spectographic  scans  devices  that encompass  imaging  tomographic, magnetic resonant  including  those  for  and  crystallography,  chemical analysis and nuclear p a r t i c l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ;  - various  visual,  pressure/friction,  sound, spray  allow interchangeable,  and  synthesized heat  sound,  operational  message-signal formatted  tactile,  devices  that  communications  60 by s p e c i a l t y operators or by persons who more  sensory  interfacing  organ in  (receptors);  addition  i n t e r f a c i n g - - transactional  Currently,  the  to,  or in  are disabled i n one  allow some  or  machine-to-machine  cases,  animal-human  media.  digitization  of  telecommunications  allows  for  transformations from one v i s u a l , sound or text format to another.  The forms  to  sense  operative  TELETECHNOLOGY, which has  complex networks,  of  restrained  escalating  power  dimension  technologies.  The  beings.  The way  well as  l o c a l and  emerges as of  resides  a  from  simpler  subsumed q u a s i - i d e n t i t y .  Inexorable in  evolved  our  magnitude  and  increasingly  A  possible  sophisticated  fulcrum of t h i s power resides i n the wisdom of human  devices and systems are managed and used f o r global, as n a t i o n a l , communication  r a p i d l y advancing technological-nuclear global system problems.  i s the key  to s u r v i v a l i n a  c i v i l i z a t i o n which includes many  Communications media wisely used to strengthen  human r e l a t i o n s h i p s may  help to sustain our  planet.  TELETECHNOLOGY Defined  The  preceding  definement  of  the  abstract  TELETECHNOLOGY emerged from an  inductive  tele,  systematic, which  far-goaled,  and  logical,  analysis  relative  The  TELETECHNOLOGY domain was  orientations  of  space,  time  further  and  the  taken  understood to mean a design set which i s far-goaled goaled).  of  domain  of  meanings  of  together  or distanced  investigated  from  spacetime mediations.  were (endthe The  61 following points are set f o r t h f o r considerations p r i o r to a conclusive precise d e f i n i t i o n of TELETECHNOLOGY:  1.  The  concept  of TELETECHNOLOGY  emerges  construct with the r e a l (actual) p o t e n t i a l to affect  as  an  optimized  human communication  v i a reality-mediations ( i . e . movies, computer simulations and the l i k e ) i n a tangible measurable, as well as i n a symbolic, way v i a computerized or noncomputerized goal-oriented, technological (systematic) using electromagnetic  operations  radiant s i g n a l l i n g energy, i n space, i n time and  i n spacetime.  2. things  into  The c a p a b i l i t y something  of TELETECHNOLOGY can change and exchange  else  ( i . e . become  information  abstracted):  TELETECHNOLOGY i s transformative. 3.  The p o t e n t i a l of TELETECHNOLOGY may r e l a t e  of human beings.  As stated e a r l i e r , understanding  moves (as i t c a r r i e s  to inner  lives  how radiant energy  the content/message) i n a system may be used to  empower the operator/user  to c o n t r o l (to manage e f f e c t i v e l y ) the complex  contemporary technologies.  4. interpersonal  Extensions  of the above  may  be  used  i n the f i e l d s  or organizational r e l a t i o n s or i n management  of  of human  resources.  TELETECHNOLOGY may be considered as  a  systematized  method  or as  a  from several points of view:  logic  modulator; as a set of v a r i a b l e operatives.  set; as  a  transformation  TELETECHNOLOGY i s created  62 o r i g i n a l l y by human beings  (although machines are now able to design,  program and manufacture technologies).  TELETECHNOLOGY i s spacetime transformation (of the operations of systems, of methods, and of human beings, v i a media)  ergo,  TELETECHNOLOGY i s a design q u a n t i f i a b l e operatives.  set  As  serve  (standard)  such,  this  f o r a wide  including  those  construct  instruments  variety  may  instruments  and functions.  f o r the basic  interrelated  as a kind  of  of systematically designed  of measurement  operations, processes source  definition  of  wide  entities, variety  of  TELETECHNOLOGY has emerged as the  format  f o r quantitative and  for a  template  f o r measurement and evaluation  (appropriately applied)  qualitative  research purposes.  E a r l i e r Relevant Models  In the t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d of communication, the l i t e r a t u r e of  the past  models,  thirty  which  emphasis  is  psychological effects  years  provides  varied  demonstrate  several  changes  on  effects:  mass  (behavioural)  media,  effects  and a t t i t u d e change  effects  a  representative  of  Mainly,  the  (ideological)  and  recently,  of audience  well-organized  communication  focus.  social  and, more  oriented to media analysts and j o u r n a l i s t s . present  and general  targets  the  source  which are  Severin and Tankard (1979) description  of  models  and  63 theories f o r communication and, i n a l i m i t e d way, research.  f o r information theory  Although stated to be so, most of the models i n t h i s and i n  other works do not f i t neatly into categories of interpersonal, into those loosely c a l l e d mathematical.  mass, or  The Bretz taxonomy (1979) which  r e l a t e s wholly to educational technology, i s the best, although now obsolete, example of s t r u c t u r a l choices set out, supposedly,  an  to a s s i s t  learning v i a various media.  Several authors questionably describe group ( i . e . more than one person--a  dyad,  communication.  a  trio,  several  Communication  persons  i s an  or  Individual,  a  large  highly  number)  selective  personal experience that exists within the understanding of one or  someone  or  Communication Spring,  i s union  1985).  purposeful  something  with  (or,  an  Each  possibly,  other  Communication  signalling,  communication.  else  is  (Bain,  mainly  not  solely  person  in  on any  in  self  personal  dialogue signing,  assembly  and  person  dialogue).  communication  and  relies  for  successful  of  communicates, i n d i v i d u a l l y and separately with each other.  human  on  beings  There may  be  a large number of persons, but each communication experience i s each-toa-one or  a simulated one-to-the-other  f i l l e d lecture h a l l ) . collective  takes  on  (as f o r a speaker  in a  large,  Mass communication i s a phenomenon i n which the a  oneness  and  responds  as  one  body,  as  i n the  majority of a population e l e c t i n g a leader, or as i n fans cheering i n support of a favourite performer.  Mathematical models are mainly those  that imply a c o n t r o l l e d cybernated  e f f e c t with a feedback  are systematic and are monitored f o r change.  element;  they  64 Many Influenced  of  by  the  the  communications  Wiener  feedback  models theory,  and  theories  and  by  the  have  been  mathematical  (measurement) o r i e n t a t i o n of Shannon and Weaver (1949, pp.30-32). basic concepts the  are accommodated i n Shannon's basic model which includes  commonality  signalling  These  and  of  continuous  modifications  feedback to  monitoring  maintain  the  of  information  transmission.  (The  o r i e n t a t i o n of most s o c i a l science communication researchers i s based on signing.) oriented  The  d i f f e r e n c e between  theory  and  Shannon describes symbols  (p.33);  the  construct  signalling whereas  general dimensional  Shannon's presented  Information  this  basically  study  as  in  this  measurement-  study  mathematical  describes  that  functions  signalling  forms and v a r i e d interdependencies.  is  energy  or of  Shannon mainly  deals with measurement, with time, with space and other functions i n an exacting mathematical  with  the  (by  the  control-based signals) as basic s i g n a l l i n g forms. through a system;  and  general  way  that  i n a general way  Shannon  interdependent, was  This  study  deals  i s acted  upon  describes the p o t e n t i a l i n t e r r e l a t e d changes a v a i l a b l e preset standard functions of that system.  Wiener  model  model.  radiant energy moves and/or  -dynamics--within  The  engineering  is  feedback linear,  specific  loop  does  i s controlled  not  provide  and  for  continuous;  different  d i f f e r i n g actions to take place--the  on maintaining desired, measured energy l e v e l s .  kinds  with  multiple  goals (products or s e r v i c e s ) .  of  emphasis  Neither Shannon's  nor Wiener's models provided for augmentation or enhancement by relationships  the  a l t e r n a t i v e s for change,  i . e . to  specific change  (Weaver i s included with Shannon because  65 of h i s contribution; he provided an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n into layman's  terms  of Shannon's technical reasoning.)  The model I propose operates within a standardized design set of operatives with two-way, dynamic forms  that  move through  change a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the energy  the system.  This  model  fills  the gaps  as  o u t l i n e d above, and as follows:  a)  by  accommodation  of  simply on one operational l e v e l ,  specific  dynamic  i . e . of reacting  interactions  not  (feedback), but also  of a concerted f i v e - p a r t set of a c t i v i t i e s to guide. manage and optimize the use of energy as i t moves through the system;  b) includes  by standardization of a d e f i n i t i v e ordered framework which  each  arrangement  operation,  that  separate and i n t e r r e l a t e d  i n a hierarchical  allows f o r complementarity or augmentation by other  compatible s i m i l a r systems, thus extending i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s ;  c)  by the u n i f i c a t i o n of converging technologies by cybernated  operations with multiple a l t e r n a t i v e functions, thus enhancing possible aggregate-expanded or networked (ongoing) operations.  The T h e o r e t i c a l Construct  A theoretical elements,  their  construct  order and t h e i r  i s a representation of (fundamental) interrelationships  (Bain,  exploration of such a model often may lead the examiner more r e a d i l y  1977).  An  to understand  the forms and purposes of those devices and systems  that  66  already e x i s t . to  suggest  Furthermore,  to  fertile  t h a t do not e x i s t ,  This  abstract  minds,  proposed  concept  model o f the  devices,  systems  and  model  for  a design  of  how  TELETECHNOLOGY  for a particular  some d e v i c e  works.  i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the system:  centralized control  manipulated) signalling  by  acts  a  (carriage)  monitored continuously;  or  is  (information)  acted  upon  by  The underlying  command.  need  is  principles  framework i s r e q u i r e d  this  signals.  through  A l l o f the  standards  preset  today  for  communications.  f o r a new  perspective  reality  technology  use  required.  A  general  p.133) and  and  and  as  well  set as  is for  is  needed  acted  As  this i t is  directing  resolving  energy i n the  the  system  techsines. transmit,  The store-  follow.)  people  to  understand  Some  kind  from which  of to  the  conceptual  consider  lives.  the  In order  a connection  to make sound d e c i s o n s  management, some k i n d  "grounded"  public  i n order  is  system,  energy  an i n d i v i d u a l sense o f command (autonomy) and (Augros,  nor  r a d i a n t energy  the  by  numerous a v a i l a b l e d e v i c e s which overwhelm our d a i l y maintain  radiant  abstracted  energy  ( c e n t r a l - ) c o n t r o l , exsine,  pressing  an  mechanism.  accessed  ( D e f i n i t i o n s to  of  Is  system, w h i l e  moves  by  o f hardware,  This  regulating, converting  the  techsines c o n s i s t of ensine, a n d - r e t r i e v e , and  energy  concurrently,  t r a c k i n g ) , measuring,  c a r r i e d content  forms  electromagnetic  upon  (and/or  (operational)  piece  t h r o u g h the  resource  power  activated  s i g n a l s move i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y (or  have the  yet.  energy s i g n a l s i s not an  a w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d model may  to  with  r e l a t e d to  o f a common knowledge base i s towards  understanding  administrators,  for  those  for  the  in  the  67  professions, and numerous others, to a s s i s t them i n e f f e c t i v e l y managing these  technologies.  The to  provide  abstract  focus of t h i s study, a  model  (Severin  and  and  i t s main organizing p r i n c i p l e i s  Tankard,  domain of TELETECHNOLOGY may  be  p.29)  perceived  changing phenomenon, pulsed by electromagnetic  This paper (a) how way,  i s intended  through as  a  which  the  continuously  and l i g h t - r a d i a n t energy.  to advance and  extend  thinking about  signals act and are acted upon during transmission, In a general  (b) the i n f l u x information and communications systems and  i n t h i s transformative s o c i e t a l period and, people themselves communicate i n various  devices  (c) (possibly) about the  way  transactions and i n t e r a c t i o n s  (Augros and Stanciu [pp.94-98] propose that any model relevant to human beings  i s concerned with subjectivism-- the realm  of the human mind  and  spirit.)  The I n t e r r e l a t e d Elements  The model I propose consists of three categories, one of which deals with signal  forms; one with processes  the  the  third  foregoing. the  with  functions  to  control  and  manipulate  and the  The possible combination of s i g n a l l i n g energy movements and  transposition  of  any  element, interdependently, into  used  of a l t e r i n g such forms;  another,  transformative.  one  signalling  or i n any one  categorizes  this  a c t i o n r e l a t e d to any  other  s i g n a l a c t i o n output  formatted  TELETECHNOLOGICAL  construct  Because of the i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y p o t e n t i a l ,  differing  68 technologies are able to be combined at control points, which are c a l l e d  links.  The various communications  technologies have the p o t e n t i a l  to be  l i n k e d by d i g i t i z e d computer c a p a b i l i t i e s .  The  theoretical  construct,  figure  1, i s comprised  o f three  types o f i n t e r r e l a t e d elements: F i r s t are the s i g n a l l i n g energy forms I c a l l BASICS. both c a r r i e r s and/or s i g n a l sound,  and o f data  forms f o r mediated images, both v i s u a l and  (pressure  and other) which  The processes o f the construct, control  functions I c a l l  A.  BASICS:  They are  I call  are mediated products.  DYNAMICS.  The standard based  TECHSINES.  (signal forms)  The electromagnetic energy forms are described as the following  forms:  point, line, plane, volume and pattern. A.a.  Point i s a p o s i t i o n  o f an energy  signal  or a single  impulse between i n t e r v a l s of time and/or space, or spacetime. A.b.  Line i s a series of contiguous points o f energy  signals  on the border o f the spacetime plane. A.c.  Plane i s a bounded (or defined) two-dimensional area of  contiguous l i n e s (of s i g n a l l i n g energy) between i n t e r v a l s o f time or o f space or o f spacetime.  Figure 1  TELETECHNOLOGY RADIANT ENERGY 8IGNAL8  A t h e o r e t i c a l construct f o r i n f l u x r a d i a n t energy s i g n a l movement through a TELETECHNOLOGICAL system (D.J.C. M a r t e l l , 1987)  a  b  c  v iv i i i  A. BASICS e. d. c. b. a.  pattern volume plane line point  A. BASICS  d  e  i ii  v iv i i i  i ii  a  d  b  c  B. DYNAMICS v. lv. iii. ii. i.  resolve (ing) convert (ing) regulate (ing) measure (ing) d i r e c t (ing)  B. DYNAMICS  e  C. TECHSINES 6. command 5. store-andretrieve 4. transmit 3 . exsine 2. c o n t r o l 1. ensine C. TECHSINES  70  A.d.  Volume i s a s o l i d (actual or v i r t u a l ) bounded p o s i t i o n of  contiguous planes (of s i g n a l l i n g energy).  A.e. (points,  Pattern i s an interpretable  lines,  planes  or volumes  design composite  of s i g n a l l i n g  energy)  of events located i n  spacetime; i n t e r v a l s may be contrapuntal to events.  Each of these t h e o r e t i c a l q u a l i t a t i v e as  an accessed  energizing s i g n a l  pulse  form;  discrete-valued step-by-step d i g i t i z e d way. as continuous  variable,  f i v e forms i s described each  form  acts  in a  Each form may be accessed  nondiscrete analogue  pulses as d i r e c t e d  by a  s p e c i f i c c e n t r a l control program.  Each channel  space,  form free  i s identifiable space  time (which may be governed  by p o s i t i o n  i n space  ( i n closed-  or any other known transmission space); i n [engineered] by d i f f e r e n t i a l equations [ i . e .  analogue] as set out i n Shannon's model, or i n d i s c r e t e i n t e g r a l values as when required i n pulse code modulation and  i n the general spacetime  continuum:  (PCM) of d i g i t i z e d event,  pulses);  locus formation.  As  such, each form requires radiant energy i n comparable strength and speed (amplitude and frequency)  to transmit s u c c e s s f u l l y  predesigned communication  (thought  of engineering, as per Shannon).  and to receive the  transfer of cognition;  intelligence  71  BASICS:  A.  A.a.  Point  occurs as  an  energy  pulse which  e i t h e r a "0" or a "1" ( i . e . an i n t e r v a l or an event). energy  i s a "1", that p o s i t i o n  carrying  a unit  or a bit  Is  numerically  When the point of  i s energized and capable of moving or  of s i g n a l  energy.  Some examples  are:  instantaneous l i g h t - - a f l a s h of a heliograph, or an e l e c t r o n i c  an  warning  i n d i c a t o r ; a bit or a dot of sound as i n a code, such as Morse code, one b i t i n data transfer s i g n a l l i n g (see Graham, 1983, pp.22,127); a  pixel,  which i s a miniature v i s u a l dot c a l l e d a p i c t u r e element, such as that used i n a t e l e v i s i o n image; a pip (planned p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r ) which i s a radar screen's bright point representing a detectable object in  space:  a phonon i s a  sample/bit of  sound  such  as  located  calculated  in  synthesized speech devices; a photon is one p a r t i c l e of l i g h t energy.  A.b.  Line occurs i n time, where i t may show d i r e c t i o n from one  i n t e r v a l to the next; as a beamed energy s i g n a l such as the d a i l y noonhour  national  standard radio  duration of one minute;  broadcast  the dah--the  signal  which  exists  f o r the  prolonged sound i n the Morse code.  (The Morse c l a s s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n consists of spaces and marks:  "0s" and  "Is".)  A l i n e of energy e x i s t s i n space as a searchlight's beam, which  is  considerable  of  demonstrated undergoes  when  length.  the  observer  computergraphics). known  may  spacetime, watch  the  a  line  of  emerging  energy line  is  as i t  the process of being formed, e s p e c i a l l y i f synchronized to a  time-beat or music which  is  In  as  a  occurs i n many moving pictures  A one-line unit  burst  ( i . e . l i n e a r ) sequence in  data  transfer,  ( f i l m , video,  of energy pulses and  in  computer  72 quantized/digitized units.  operations:  Words or characters  broadcast, energy.  line  of sight  (There  forms; only  A.c.  transmission  one  linear  standardized  unit.  i s analogue,  In open  continuous  wave  or analogue are included i n t h i s  i s highlighted.)  Plane may be d i f f e r e n t types.  the Earth's electromagnetic  as  of, and ways to describe, energy wave  which are d i g i t a l  study and, of these, digital  are measured  are each  are many types  those  these  Planes  (radio) frequency  occur as bands i n  spectrum.  The spectrum i s  an i n v i s i b l e s e r i e s of energy/force  f i e l d planes moving at varying rates  (time)  (space);  over  vast  physical  areas  this  r a d i a t i n g energy i s  continuously expanding outward from the surface of the Earth. the planes  or bands of the world of electromagnetism:  traditionally  expressed  These are  frequencies are  as occurring between two planes--this area i s  c a l l e d the bandwidth ( P i t t , p.35).  Plane Is described i n optics measurable.  Light  level  ( l i g h t and v i s i o n studies) and i s  control i s fundamental f o r q u a l i t y productions.  In general, images are projected from the f o c a l plane. are  displayed by optics on the f o c a l  electronics,  images  are displayed  plane  of a s t i l l  on a cathode  t e l e v i s i o n set or computer display terminal (VDT). in  general,  apply  to holograms which  Images on planes camera.  ray tube  In  (CRT) of a  The same p r i n c i p l e s ,  are two-dimensional;  these are  duplex and more complex o p e r a t i o n a l l y (p.181).  Sound planes or levels music productions  are c o n t r o l l e d c a r e f u l l y i n any sound or  which include f i l m , video  or t e l e v i s i o n .  The sound  73  l e v e l s , synchronized or "mixed" to a v i s u a l production, are expressed as one or more l e v e l s of any kind that e x i s t from moment to moment within each sound-on-picture  frame.  In such  case,  editing  or modifying any  part of any sound l e v e l , as with any change i n l i g h t l e v e l , w i l l change the product as a whole.  Sound compression,  which i s used often when an  o l d movie i s edited to f i t a t e l e v i s i o n airtime, w i l l change the t o t a l e f f e c t of the o v e r a l l timing of the f i l m .  Cognitive planes, or l e v e l s of understanding cinematic  or  throughout  the experience of each viewer/perceiver.  The transmission  television  or may  vary  m u l t i p l i c i t y of energy actions on the several planes  ina  system  production,  contributes  may  to  be  or experiencing a  the  sustained  formation  of  volume  of  electromagnetic radiant energy required f o r complex operations.  A.d.  Volume, as used  to describe electromagnetic  signalling  energy, may be expressed as capacity f o r modulation of visuals, sounds or data  and as capacity f o r combining  these.  The volume  refers  to the  amount (strength) of the a v a i l a b l e energy and to the power (speed) of the p a r t i c u l a r frequency required f o r a transmission.  Volume, as an imaging  event,  energizes the v i s u a l s and sounds  i n an imaging energy s i g n a l and i s produced as an actual visual-with-sound representation. as  simulated  realistic  format,  but  is  illusory  two-dimensional  three-dimensional  These v i r t u a l three-dimensional mediated products  real  life  i n moving  pictures  and, with  surface representation, as moving holograms.  exist  exceptionally In a l l l i g h t -  74 projected  images,  origination  the  plane  focal  from  point  which  on  the  the  image  plane,  the  will  determine the volume dimensionality as actual or v i r t u a l or both.  All  images which appear to have three-  dimensional volume are a c t u a l l y two-dimensional. two-dimensional, format.  virtual  to  apparent  diverge,  surface representational e l e c t r o n i c  appears  or  three-dimensional  Holograms are actual  images produced on a planar  Holograms projected into free space appear as voluminous  are o p t i c a l l y three-dimensional.  (The holographic  an interference pattern of projected, focussed  and  image i s created by  light  and  e x i s t s as  an  image a c c e s s i b l e from multiple angles.)  Remote e l e c t r o n i c sensing and imaging  displays may  accommodate  v i r t u a l three-dimensional,  full-volume images with motion on VDTs.  The  American  spectrometer  for  airborne  subterrestrial  image  mineral  prospecting.  (AIS) The  uses  AIS  this  images  are  screened, simultaneously p r i n t e d out on hard copy and may other formats.  method  computer  be changed to  Some of these are videotape, videodisk, or are sent over  telephone l i n e s as facsimile (fax) transmissions, or other media.  A.e.  Pattern  is  created  by  the  pulsed  signalling  or  systems,  of  electromagnetic energy:  - within  a  closed  system  data/telegraph/facsimile underground, within guides);  wires,  coaxial  on  cables,  as  telephone optical  fibres  along  poles and  or wave  75  - as beams across open, d i r e c t wave systems i n the atmosphere (as i n radio, microwave systems, s a t e l l i t e relay) or;  - as beams within nondirected  wave systems i n the atmosphere i n  l i n e - o f - s i g h t transmission (as i n s a t e l l i t e r e l a y broadcasting, i n c l u d i n g mobile c e l l u l a r r a d i o ) .  Within  the  above,  closed  and  open.  directional  nondirectional communications systems, are the patterns referred  to i n A.d., as s i g n a l modulation  signalling pattern)  and how  combination  they  are propogated  of patterns  related  of transmission  and combination.  consists of where the signals t r a v e l  Energy  ( i . e . open or closed  ( i . e . order,  to amplitude,  and  segmentation and  frequency,  phase and  spacetime considerations).  In review,  this means:  where--loci  as closed or open energy  planes within the Earth's atmosphere and i n near space; how--loci  of the  signals  volume  ordered/combined  transmitted.  as they  The l o c i / p a t t e r n  travel  of energy planes  volume ordering patterns (modulation  Pattern i s an elemental event  and  durations  operates  by  relative  to the t o t a l encompass  the s i g n a l  and multiplexing).  form of radiant energy which occurs as  intervals  and various  of interval-event interdependencies.  modifications A pattern  of the  can e x i s t  within space, within time, or within spacetime, within a l i n e , a plane, or a volume.  Pattern may also  intensity--stronger/weaker; red/yellow/blue,  exist  as a point,  separated  only by  by density--greater/lesser; and by colour--  f o r example,  as i n sparks,  fireworks  or microscopic  76  charged  currents.  beams f o r  In  addition,  television  s u r f a c e image c o l o u r s :  Pattern appearance  of  exists  that  red,  line,  a  triad  of  electronic  g r e e n and b l u e .  as a r e p e t i t i o n  point,  has  plane  or  an a l t e r n a t i v e  or  volume.  of  Texture  the  first  may  result  from j u x t a p o s i n g o f o b j e c t s o r events w h i c h , when combined, c r e a t e entity.  Texture  may  also  be  superimpositions of nonidentical continuous s i g n a l ,  either  these.  The v a r i o u s  and  broadcast  in  information  of  elements  light  patterns  of  at  all  are  pattern  overlays  or a combination o f  signalling  complex.  levels  by  or  such as a p u l s e d s i g n a l w i t h a  o r sound,  energy  transmission  systems  called  a new  of  In  in  data  of  transmission  general,  complexity  any  integrated  provide  enhanced  s e r v i c e s to u s e r s .  B. DYNAMICS  as  Dynamics, following  guide  various sustain,  Directing: or  levels  track of  change  supporting  or  ongoing  B.ii. amount  potential  is  merge energy  change  continuing  at  and r a d i o a  to  this  or  consist  of  quantify  the  to  the  select.  t r a n s m i s s i o n channel to  Channelling,  designed a c t i v i t i e s  sustainable  is  process  spectrum r o u t i n g ;  destination.  towards  measures f o r  or  the  s i g n a l s along a route  Measuring: of,  this  s i g n a l power  requiring differing  the  for  actions:  B.i. order,  processes  and  at  reroute.  receiving, destinations  operations.  c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s to  magnitude  of,  signal  determine power  and  77 transmission  stability  during  various  ongoing a c t i v i t i e s ;  to quantify  s i g n a l duration (time) rate of signals at various l e v e l s of s i g n a l power and radio spectrum routing; to quantify scale and intensity  for a c t i v i t i e s  concerned with  s p e c t r a l colour.  achromatic wavelength r e l a t e d to broadcast within the  luminosity  luminosity  scale.)  d i r e c t i o n of luminous (Note  colour s i g n a l s e x i s t s s o l e l y  scale and i s measured as wavelength w i t h i n Detecting,  that  sensing,  recognizing  that  patterns,  a l l of  to maintain  energy  which include i n t e r p r e t a t i o n for using and regulating.  Regulating i s the continuing process  B.iii.  (signal) strength constantly as measured against a s i g n a l standard: to qualify within signals  additional signals; transistor circuitry onto  a carrier  to harmonize as well  or to modulate  as to modulate  wave, or to modulate  light  signals as  radio  frequency  signals within a  waveguide (microwave or f i b r e o p t i c s ) ; to amplify or enhance i n order to a l l e v i a t e the inherent channel s i g n a l attenuation (a waveform c u t o f f ) or loss ( s i g n a l weakening). Converting  B.iv.  i s the continuing  process  to change  a  regulated s i g n a l e i t h e r from an analogue waveform to a d i g i t a l waveform, or the reverse  (A/D,  D/A),  and to maintain  the s i g n a l conversion  f o r as  long as required to return to r e s o l u t i o n f i d e l i t y .  B.v.  Resolving i s the continuing process  from conversion, in  pixels  to i t s o r i g i n a l or improved d e t a i l  (picture  representational  to return the s i g n a l ,  elements)  visual  and rated  (television,  fidelity--quantified  i n lines  text  data  per or  second--for  graphic,  or  78  holographic),  or f o r sound  image  fidelity.  In  the case  of data  transmission where the s i g n a l may originate with pressure, f r i c t i o n or from an o p t i c a l recorder, the same f i d e l i t y as above applies except that the  readout  seismograph  may or  be a  either  digital  from  an  liquid  oscilloscope,  crystal  display,  a  pen-marking  among  others.  Resolution i s equated with power and with the speed required to maintain a q u a l i t y mediated product.  The  process  of r e s o l u t i o n  also  includes  the separation of  chromatic wavelength differences by appropriate r a t i o s f o r transparency and photographic  colour saturation, gradations, luminous i n t e n s i t y (and  image brightness  approximates)  s p e c t r a l band, numerically. and  by the light  and includes a l l of the above  on a  (Wavelength i s c a l i b r a t e d by the waveform  temperature,  which  i s thermal  and l i g h t  radiant.)  (Radio chemistry and spectroscopy are s p e c i a l t i e s and w i l l not be dealt with further herein.)  Resolution q u a l i t y of picture and sound depends  on the bandwidth of the transmission s i g n a l and on the c a p a b i l i t y of the equipment and system used.  Taken  together,  TELETECHNOLOGY energy  these  signals.  dynamics  describe  the p o t e n t i a l f o r  The means of enacting these  are i n the t h i r d category of the model:  processes  the Techsines.  C. TECHSINES  TECHSINES are the functions f o r immediacy control on/off)  of  the  potential  energy  sines  (variation  (either/or,  capabilities).  7 9 Techsines  consist  of  the following  property  techniques:  ensine,  (central) c o n t r o l , exsine, transmit, store-and-retrieve, and command.  C.l. composite  term  signals; within  Ensine  i s the technique d i r e c t i v e to enter.  meaning  some of these the  expediency,  system  to s t a r t  operations/access  now by the energy  operations are grouped together  (for f l e x i b i l i t y  and f o r immediate  and  (concentrated)  interchangeability,  emergency a l t e r n a t i v e s ) .  ensine functions operated by the energy  Ensine i s a  for  The group of  signals are to input the "on"  s i g n a l , mark or a c t i v i t y to s t a r t systemic functions; to encode (change into machine language) signals f o r various functions; to assign values for characters and symbols i n order to recognize (sense) and manipulate these property patterns; to l i n k , interface  (connect)  tripartite comprised  serial  or operate operation  change or bus ( l i n e  i n the f i r s t  (such  of concentrate. d i s t r i b u t e  as a  stage  complex  up i n s e r i e s ) ,  of a limited-use  network),  and expand functions.  which i s (See also  transmit and command concerning t h i s t r i a d s e r i a l operation.)  C.2. switch  Control  i s the technique  (connect) memory l o g i c  directive  to manipulate  and  units which are of various complexities  and speeds f o r constantly changing a c t i v i t i e s ; to flow data continuously as i n d i f f e r e n t routing patterns through a c e n t r a l processing u n i t (CPU) used f o r the t o t a l system and also to the command (terminal) systems; to sustain ( a l l one-way, two-way, on-line, or any other) operator modes i n operation f o r : the  system's  traffic  communications and computer processing (CACP);  everchanging  central  control  programs  (SCCP);  and  80  management  communications/control  systems ( P x / S )  (change  in  C.3.  Exsine  back  from  is  (thereby  (XX/CP),  C.4.  C.5.],  Transmit  the m e s s a g e / i n f o r m a t i o n includes with  relays,  routing  (of  on w i r e s , also,  to  data);  and  C.5.  programmed  execute:  C.I.);  to  d u r i n g the  various for  to  is  the  technique  (cognitive)  types  from a  compression, of  digitized  are  o r to mix a n d / o r to  placed  second  expand.  (See  stage o f  also  in  transfer  and  on  store-  expediency.  to  a  amplification  distribute  and open ( b r o a d c a s t )  i n the  for  transmitter  signals  of  communications  or  carry  from o r i g i n a t i o n to d e s t i n a t i o n ,  informations  of  systems program  example,  to  all  failures  major  other  directive  decode  override  operational  main o p e r a t i n g  which,  (such as a complex network)  triad serial  to  of  to  o r are i n a "temporary f i l e " )  (insertions)  operate  distribute  and  connections  program (DMP),  modulation,  and c l o s e d  operation  in  rectify  (SCCP):  some  routing various  interleaving  other  c r e a t i n g an o v e r l a p o f f u n c t i o n t e m p o r a r i l y as  [see  and-retrieve  as  and to  programs  management  programs  directive  language,  and c r i t i c a l  system c e n t r a l - c o n t r o l  "hold"  technique  machine  intercommunications  control  the  interruptions,  database  (MC/CP);  development.  interconnections,  (MOS);  programs  and  receiver  and  time  packet-switched  discrete  informations  systems--beamed o r non-beamed; a limited-use  which i s  ensine  tripartite  comprised of  and command,  serial  concentrate,  concerning  this  operation.)  Store-and-retrieve  retrieve  on demand.  It  is  the  includes  technique the  directive  standard  rule  to to  store execute  81  management communications/control information  into appropriate  programs (MC/CP); to f i l e or to place  storage  files;  to a c t i v a t e the  retrieve-  program sequence i n order to reproduce the o r i g i n a l information (or, as later,  i n command,  to  transform  ever-changing f i l e holdings, and reports on those C.6.  i t ) ; to  continuously,  to automatically update and  print  the out  files.  Command i s the technique  a limited-use  evaluate.  tripartite  serial  comprised of concentrate, command technique  d i r e c t i v e f o r the t h i r d stage of  operation,  d i s t r i b u t e and  directives.)  such as  expand.  a complex network,  (See also ensine and  Other command techniques  directives  are  as follows:  a)  to  transform  the  retrieved  information  into  expanded  systems, d i f f e r e n t formats and d i f f e r e n t media, as l i n k e d to (central-) control,  semi-automatically:  (1) servomechanism  to  operate  the  total  ( i . e . a closed-loop  system  as  an  (automatic)  feedback c o n t r o l system  such as  a  thermostat);  (2)  to  switch  to  other  systems  in  one  of  many  network  configurations;  b)  as a remote operating u n i t , to s e l f d i r e c t ,  automatically  as a servomechanism:  (1)  to operate the t o t a l system as a servomechanism;  82 (2)  to design and to produce/manufacture (CD/CM);  (3)  to  switch  functions at a distance control C.2,  to  other  systems  or  to  networks,  or  to  (either automatically or remotely a c t i v a t e d by  from outside the u n i t i t s e l f as  (a)(2),  i n the preceding)  as follows:  - remote  operations,  such  as  broadcasting,  computer  software, processing and p r i n t i n g ;  - remote sensing and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s which include remote s u r v e i l l a n c e and automatic climatology reporting;  - remote  operation  and  guidance  of  a  vehicle  powered or nonhuman powered c r a f t on land or subterranean; water; i n the  atmosphere  (air),  i n orbit,  or  i n raw  or  human  on or under  space;  i n varied  geographic locations ( c e l l s ) ; and other possible l o c a t i o n s ;  - for experimental  and  civil,  federal,  industrial-commercial  (military), public  and  space private  science, operational  ventures.  c)  as a remote operating u n i t which i s s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g , and  i s powered by s o l a r c e l l s , e l e c t r o n i c s or other possible energy in  order  to carry out  possibly others.  activities  similar  to any  of  those  sources  above,  (Note: servomechanism used i n the preceding  as automatic c o n t r o l of a mechanism within any type of system.)  and  i s meant  83  TELETECHNOLOGY: P r a c t i c a l Examples  The  preceding  TELETECHNOLOGY s i g n a l the electromagnetic  s e c t i o n has  set out and  defined  categories of forms, processes  signal/system model.  the  three  and functions of  Under Basics, the forms are  described as q u a l i t a t i v e ( e s s e n t i a l s ) ; under Dynamics, the processes are interdependent Techsines,  and are described as quantitative v a r i a b l e s ;  the standard  functions  are described  as  and under  the  immediate  (on/off) c o n t r o l properties.  In order to demonstrate the v a l i d i t y  (soundness) of the model,  I have chosen two examples, each of which i s used widely by some members of the p u b l i c . ninety-eight second  per cent  i s the  extension  of  configurations such as used  The f i r s t i s the common telephone. a device a v a i l a b l e to  exchange the  system,  telephone.  and l e v e l s  of the Western World.  which The  is a  computer-based  exchange  of complexity,  with  system,  ancillary  The linked  in  varied  technologies  facsimile, or "fax" ( o r i g i n a l document reproduction), et a l . , i s  in  a  wide  megacomplexes.  number  The  of  agencies,  Integrated automatic  widespread throughout  those  of the population  corporations  and  industrial  exchange systems are i n c r e a s i n g l y  the globe.  basic principles  of a l l protocol linked  of a computerized communications  exchange  systems  system are  (Froese,  personal  communication, Spring, 1984).  Such a schema i s based on s p e c i f i c needs  of  contingencies.  users  and on management  This  paper  focuses  on  84 interactions of system energy signals to the exclusion of a design for a p a r t i c u l a r integrated communications or information system. The  two examples of the telephone  (which both use computerized  and of the exchange system  switch control centres  [nodes]) are used  herein to point out the various elements as set out by the model. that the ordering many cases.  sequence of these  Note  two examples i s unimportant, i n  The s i g n a l speeds i n the computerized  control mechanism of  the telephone and the exchange system create the i l l u s i o n , when assessed against the natural reception and d e l i v e r y sensory almost  speeds  of people,  concurrent.  activities  that the entire  Human beings,  electronic  reveal the true time  engineering  description  and gestures) operations are  therefore, perceive many e l e c t r o n i c  and telephone-related a c t i v i t i e s  Space telephones actual  ( i . e . speech  as almost  instantaneous.  lapse by reverberations.  would  reveal  phenomenal  (An  speed  in  e l e c t r i c a l transmissions; we are concerned with g e n e r a l i t i e s . )  In these two examples, instead of w r i t i n g out each category and l e v e l I w i l l simply use i t s designation:  thus,  dynamics--directing--is  Bl.  Example #1: The Telephone The telephone voice signals t r a v e l along ^ space is  A  e  i n a line  a miniature  removing  Bi  A b  .  They are amplified  transmitter-receiver  B  i  l  i  wires  A  i n the handset  The l i n e  i n closed  d  0  1  which  i s "opened" ^  the handset from the contact with the engaged  C2  lever.  by The  85  telephone  channel  classed two-way^  e  speed  i s 3,000 cycles  per  second  (3k  (duplex) wired, simultaneous B i . B i i  Hz);  i t is  Signal switching  O  C6  at  the telephone exchange centre (node) may be automated Bii increasing the speed at which connections are made. emergency, connect line.  the  C3  telephone  operator  an  automated  Bill  a t h i r d party i n the place  one l i n e ,  i s used  at a preset l o c a t i o n  The  be used by  the  third  A<  *'  and  a s p e c i a l device  e t  a l l operations are  1  An Exchange System  automatic  command and  exchange (PABX) telephone system many countries.  may  CI 2•Bi ' .  manipulated from the bridge  Example #2:  mechanism)  an  In planned sessions, f o r multiple users on  such as that of telephone conferences  a bridge  In  of the second party on the  (An automated switch emergency number may  party i n the second case.)  called  (or  , thus  This i s a closed  integrated private  increasingly Ae  automatic  i s being used  (private) l i n e  Ab  branch  throughout  telephone  system  C6  for  one  network  decentralized  within a very  offices  corporations who  large  or f o r units  corporation,  (such as  a group  f o r a group  of  of multinational  have o f f i c e s throughout the globe and a large u n i f y i n g  telephone system), f o r example, those provided by Teleglobe or Telecom. The system may be f o r one enterprise or f o r an agency of any s i z e . Other examples of exchange systems are those on Earth o r b i t t i n g satellites  A  e  spacetelephone  with relays c  A  c  perhaps,  2,4;Ab;Bi,iii,iv,v  v  i  a  between s a t e l l i t e s a  u  t  o  m  a  t  i  c  change  C 6  ^  or v i a a  to or  anywhere on Earth and outward (into various regions of raw space).  from  There  are  many possible  device Ae;Cl,2;Blv  o  f  a  n  y  k  l  n  d  i n  o  linkages r  d  e  r  t o  C6  with  document  C 3  PABX; , file  a C 4  '  read-out or  5  Ae t r a n s f e r messages i n any format may be serviced on demand. A message Bii i i i CI may be v a r i e d ' at the input terminal by the human operator, Is converted  B  i  to d i g i t i z e d s i g n a l s  v  received  and  projected  g  r  a  transmitted A c ; C 4 ; B i i , i i i , V  ,  i n the r e c e i v i n g u n i t ,  transformed  onto a v i s u a l d i s p l a y unit Bv.Ae i n graphics  C 3  text B i . i i . i i i Bii, i i i  stored  B v  p  h  i  f c  s  o  r  .  m  a  ^  t  Bv  n  w i t h  t n e  i  o  w  e  _text  r  h a l f of the screen ^  Biii  example  of  B  (  *  t  e  n  and  v  with  h  finer  as a combined  electronic  mail  C  4  Ae messaging  .  (Software packages determine layout c a p a b i l i t y . ) Biv  Instead of text messaging, the content  may  be  sent out  as  Aa b•C3 hard copy format > >* na  graphics following  u  system  is  unordered  international  J  J  or videotext (such as TELIDON); a s p e c i a l i z e d  incorporated list:  using  operations  Bi,ii,iii;CI,2,3,4,5,6;  communications  satellites  Ac,e  (CTS)  similar  to  the  Aa,b,c,e are  ^  able  to  accommodate these operations (but, as yet, the costs remain high and  the  p u b l i c i n t e r e s t very low). A PABX system may telephone is  or any  computer or any  stochastically  possibilities  are  be used f o r many purposes.  TELETECHNOLOGICAL device/system  (statistically) limited  only  P o t e n t i a l l y , any  by  engineers and by f i n a n c i a l resources.  formalized the  may  imagination  be and  which  used: designs  the of  87 A Measurement Instrument:  For media service  A measurement instrument f o r experimental research i s designed to  provide  for  manipulation  d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g experiments  of  the  independent  variable,  from other methods of research (Gay,  thus p.12).  In order to consider the model i n t h i s study as a resource f o r designing an appropriate measurement may  instrument  Basics, Dynamics, and  Techsines  be taken as v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to an appropriate i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Dynamics  may  be  taken  as  the  conditional  variables,  The  i . e . they  a t t r i b u t e s of the Basics and act as r e l a t i v e occurrences.  Techsines  are may  be considered unconditional v a r i a b l e s .  In  terms  of  the  possibility  for  creating  a  measurement  instrument to assess media (a) energy e f f i c i e n c y (input energy to output attained) or, (b) economic e f f i c i e n c y (costs of devices/systems based delivery  speeds  Basics may be  to  unit  cost  as  dictated  by  the p r o v i d e r ) ,  be considered as the q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s and Dynamics  considered  considered function  related  the  quantitative  variables.  (opportunity) costs f o r the time  for  (captured  as  each  frame)  service  (or product).  electrographic  Techsines  or speed For  (television  on  may  may be  required of each  example,  picture)  a  is  slow-scan relatively  inexpensive.  Computer/data appropriate  transmissions  measurement  product/service  analysis  are  instrument would  consist  low for of  an  or a  medium  priced.  comparative  hierarchically  An cost-  designed  88 g r i d f o r outcomes expected r e l a t e d to u n i t costs c i t e d i n bit rates  for  the various media and routes (O'Brien, pp.332-335).  Motion Pictures and Newscasts  In telephone  addition  and  concerning  the  preceding  two  practical  examples,  the  the exchange system, the following d i s c u s s i o n i s included  the  pictures.  to  most  This  popular  medium  audio-visual  was  chosen  medium  because  on  earth--motion  globally,  we  are  an  exceedingly mediated v i s u a l culture and the vast majority of people have had  experience  with,  or  access  to,  moving pictures/movies/television  despite widely varying socioeconomic s i t u a t i o n s . is  unequivocal.  And,  daily  The  newscasts--televised,  impact of "movies" are  a  part  of  the  l i v e s of most people i n the Western world.  "Movies" surface which,  are  "moving  representational when  energized)  assembled  manner,  requirements of motion. 35mm s l i d e s , frames, and in  still  accessing  Movies  formats  physical,  using  are  pictures  electronic  persistence-of-vision,  (or  appear  Motion pictures include: p i c t u r e cards,  a l l of  those  and  sound  other  like-  to  fulfil  the  a l l r a p i d l y moved celluloid  or  other  be transmitted g l o b a l l y wihout regard to distance  Medium  equipment  any  two-dimensional  these may  general.  mediated  in  via  pictures".  image  quality  (camera) does  is  not  universally available. require  strong  The  image-resolving  power ( q u a n t i t a t i v e ) . The f i l m stock determines the speed/resolution to a  significant  planes  degree.  or bandwidths of  The  speed  relatively  or  rate  low  of  transmission  frequency,  may  be  in  i n c l u d i n g those  of  89 telephone l i n e s , f o r e l e c t r o n i c images.  In t h i s case the time i s great,  the speed (frequency rate) i s slow, the q u a l i t y product required i s low to  moderate,  i.e.  the  (bandwidth) i s low. acceptable  quality  quantity  In general,  of  ( p i x e l s ) r e s o l v i n g power  the  foregoing d e s c r i p t i o n i s f o r an  slow-scan video/electrography  included i n slow-scan transmissions.  image.  units  Sound i s not  These transmissions are possible  g l o b a l l y and to space platforms and outward.  The reverse of the preceding i s f o r s a t e l l i t e transmitted laser  relayed  full  television  productions  d i g i t i z e d v i s u a l and sound images. currently  in  experimental  with  live  state-of-the-art  High q u a l i t y examples are a v a i l a b l e  l a b o r a t o r i e s ; the  general  market  cost  is  prohibitive.  Thus, motion pictures (movies) Include, i n a d d i t i o n to possible others, a l l these perceived as " i n motion":  a)  a l l visual  images  as  in  cinema,  television,  newscasts, holography, and a l l "fireworks - type incandescent laser-light  images.  Scanning [CTS]  (Imaging,  as  i n remote  Computerized  including  images", and Tomography  or ultrasound imaging i s not classed as motion pictures  i n the general sense; i n these cases, we say "imaging" or "scanning"  and  the products are scans);  b)  a l l acoustic images used with or created by the foregoing;  t h i s includes a l l kinds of production formats such as feature films  and  documentaries In p a r t i c u l a r , as well as b r o a d c a s t / t e l e v i s i o n newscasts,  90 experimental  films  and  other  productions  including  (see above)  laser  l i g h t shows.  In the case of motion pictures,  the s i g n a l l i n g  energy  may  be  use of a l l aspects of sound and p i c t u r e s ,  of  considered e i t h e r as:  a)  the v i r t u a l  l i g h t and dark gradations, of energy-nonenergy (i.e.pauses) of these  two  as well as a l l aspects of the beat--or timing--both throughout parts of, and  also  the  total,  unified  rhythm of the movie, I.e.  the  signalling  energies w i t h i n and encasing the production; or as  b)  the  producer-director's designed  s i g n a l l i n g energy sense,  affects  which, i n a metaphysical the  c o l l e c t i v e (group). and  carefully  vicarious  real-life  structured)  depicted  an  (super natural,  individual  message  by  or supraconscious  simulations  production  as  intended cognitive  and,  for  immaterial) some,  as  a  In the l a t t e r ( i . e . b), the force of the (intended,  participation  subconscious  dynamics  viewer  and  in  i n any  techniques,  purposeful d i r e c t i o n ,  the  various  numerous  cybernetic e d i t i n g and  metamessage  viewer  levels.  these of  or  or  (Movies  is  viewers  The  possible ways,  serendipity  on  for  conscious,  are intended to a f f e c t  planes.)  aesthetics  designed  interrelating using  i.e. control  codified planning,  (fortunate accidents) i s  the prime t e c h n i c a l l y concerted process by which the viewer i s a f f e c t e d (Martell, 1981).  The foundational set or settings which may  a f f e c t the experience of viewing motion p i c t u r e s , and reacting to them are the access  including  or may  not  newscasts,  (cost, equipment f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  91 time, t r a v e l , (which station  ideology, group acceptance, e t c . ) ,  has many  conditions,  management  mainly  that  bias) and promulgation  the control  of producer  or  (availability  component television  of  complete  unedited f i l m s ) .  The  foregoing d e s c r i p t i o n of motion pictures as an i n d i v i d u a l  experiential/participatory perceiver comprehending The  idiom  may,  the c a r e f u l l y  or  may  not,  result  set-out design of the producer.  i n t e r n a l i z e d experience of a "movie perceiver" i s h i g h l y  and unique:  selective  each person "sees", "hears" and i n t e r n a l l y experiences an  unique movie or newscast--each Herein l i e s  i n the  the d i f f i c u l t  time the movie or newscast  i s attended.  task f o r p r e c i s i o n tracking of the i n d i v i d u a l  elements of the TELETECHNOLOGY model f o r the reviewer.  This model may  be used s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r movie and newscast p a r t i c i p a t o r y assessments i n these ways:  a)  from  the  individual  viewer's  perception  (for  self  evaluation), or  b)  from the producer's perspective with the objective--that of  s e l f assessment of production choices.  Either of these points of view--  the receiver's or the sender's--may lead one to construct an appropriate and valuable instrument f o r evaluation, from this discussion as r e l a t e d to the elements of the TELETECHNOLOGY model.  92 Evaluation C r i t e r i a f o r Measurement  A s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n instrument f o r use by a viewer of a movie or newscast may service.  be set out s i m i l a r  One  may  producer-director's revealed facts  basic  conscious  design  rated as p l a i n  degrees  of  Interrelationships,  for  affect  to exotic,  revelation--all observed  by  the  scenes as, f o r example, changing on a scale as quantitative. determined  aspects  of  analysis,  such  location  as  (emotive)  (cognitive) i n order to influence ( a f f e c t ) the  These could be various  choose  to the previous d e s c r i p t i o n f o r media  as r e l a t i v e  are  or standard quality  interactions  or  viewer.  information to  comparatives. or  the  The  movements w i t h i n  l i g h t i n g requirements,  could be rated  These movements/changes or i n t e r a c t i o n s are  to the  success  of the product.  The  questions that the evaluator selects i n order to create the  group of instrument  i s the control component.  A production-evaluation instrument evaluation by the producer  also be  used  for self  i n order that s/he maintain c o n t r o l over a l l  aspects during complex production a c t i v i t i e s . describe production  may  calibre  The t r a d i t i o n a l phrase to  i s "production values",  and  this  concept  underlies most of the decision making throughout any production.  One and Techsines  may  also  as time  above descriptions,  no  consider Basics as  space,  Dynamics as  f o r a mediated r e a l i t y assessment base. definite  content or o u t l i n e has  for design of a measurement/evaluation instrument.  spacetime In the  been presented  This i s i n order to  93 allow  i n d i v i d u a l s to use the model as a basic  framework i n creating  t h e i r own instruments p e c u l i a r to t h e i r changing needs and times.  SUMMARY  This segment on TELETECHNOLOGY included the p r a c t i c a l examples of the telephone, the exchange system; of motion pictures/newscasts; a  general  related  framework  f o r a measurement  to the elements of  instrument--all  and  of which are  the TELETECHNOLOGY t h e o r e t i c a l construct.  Included was a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the way the g e n e r a l i t y of the model may be used as a template or base f o r measurement instruments of a l l kinds,  f o r example:  f o r media e f f i c i e n c y choices,  by movie or newscast p a r t i c i p a n t s of a l l types, others.  The  model  elements  articulated  foundational to systems a n a l y s i s :  for self  evaluation  and f o r many possible  i n this  study  emerge  as  thus, this model has g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  of f i r s t magnitude.  CONCLUSION  TELETECHNOLOGY interrelated, TELETECHNOLOGY  interdependent model  presented  t h e o r e t i c a l construct. interactions  of  the  TELETECHNOLOGY system. all  has been  defined  as  an  operational  s e t of  variables.  The  system/aggregate i n this  chapter  is a  TELETECHNOLOGY  The three categories of the model describe the energy  signalling  within  the  No one element i s v i t a l to maintain  theoretical the system:  three parts i n t e r a c t with a l l other parts, therefore any operation  94 i s modifiable/transformable  i n order to sustain the system and/or the  system's a c t i v i t i e s .  This instruments  model  emerges  for electronic  as  the template  model  f o r measurement  technological systems and devices  that are  used f o r communications.  The first  TELETECHNOLOGY  magnitude"  applications).  for  the  model real  demonstrates world  of  "generalizability technology  Some implications of t h i s powerful,  of  (science  panoptic model f o r  technology are introduced and described i n Chapter IV.  95  CHAPTER IV  SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS  The available present,  theoretical  literature with  covering  extensions  possible u l t r a f a s t  construct  the period  of some  technology  information  was  of ancient  developmental  researched history  trends  speeds) f o r the future.  (such  from  to the as the  This study was  undertaken to create a frame of reference f o r the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the v a r i e d and increasingly complex systems and devices i n the tele-world of communications and information technologies.  The  complexity  and power  of man-made machines  with  almost  l i m i t l e s s c a p a b i l i t i e s leaves many people overwhelmed, uneasy and deeply concerned  about our technological future.  Many require an i n s i g h t  into  the fundamentals of the e f f e c t i v e use and management of technology.  The  wise use of technology  f o r communication at a l l l e v e l s of society could  strengthen human r e l a t i o n s h i p s planet.  and help preserve  our s o c i e t y and our  96 A demonstrated  need e x i s t s today f o r people to understand the  underlying p r i n c i p l e s of communications.  In order to take c o n t r o l over  the increasing number of e l e c t r o n i c devices, p a r t i c u l a r l y the ubiquitous computer,  a conceptual  framework  that  e l e c t r o n i c s ' operations i s needed. and  managers  could  implementation described  assist  at a l l l e v e l s  i n this  technology--for  with  paper  the i n t e g r a t i o n o f  A common knowledge base f o r users  reliable  decision-making  o f society.  could a s s i s t  the general  reveals  public,  A "grounded  i n the task  and p o l i c y  set" such as  of comprehending  administrators and p r o f e s s i o n a l  people of a l l types.  A  common  knowledge  base  assists  people  i n maintaining an  i n d i v i d u a l sense of command (autonomy) and connection with r e a l i t y , and an  ability  to make  sound  decisions  If used wisely,  management.  enhance and to improve  related  our advanced  to technology  use  and  technology has the capacity to  d a i l y work and l e i s u r e pursuits i n a l l areas o f  society; i t could extend and augment the p o s i t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s of human beings,  assisting  them  to a t t a i n  a  higher  potential  of s e l f -  a c t u a l i z a t i o n and a more highly developed c i v i l i z a t i o n .  The model i n t h i s energized  and how the various  Extrapolated knowledge possible categories  study reveals how e l e c t r o n i c  to d a i l y  life,  to the actual results.  elements  people may apply  technologies  The model  of any e l e c t r o n i c  are  sets  system,  manipulated this  i n order  i n theory.  theoretical  to obtain  out the common device  technology i s  common  i t s best  interdependent  or system--those  of  the  97  energizing  signalling  forms  called  Basics,  the  processes  termed  Dynamics, and the v a r i a b l e functions c a l l e d Techsines.  The construct/model was presented as a comprehensive design set of  ordered categories within  the abstract  domain of TELETECHNOLOGY (the design set of i n t e r r e l a t e d  operatives).  In  interrelated hierarchically  real-life  systems  situations  and devices  the computer  at phenomenal  interrelationships  of the various  appear  beings  to  human  to  examination of communications  has  the power  speed. elements  operate  to  interrelate  The multiple  concurrent  of the t r i p a r t i t e  almost  model  instantaneously.  An  systems, devices and services as compared  with the TELETECHNOLOGY model presented i n t h i s paper, as per A, B and C, the energy s i g n a l forms, processes and dynamics, would accrue to the examiner an understanding of underlying commonalities. signals  activate  the system;  the i n t e r r e l a t e d  capable  of changing the content signals  The energising  operating  from one form  signals are into  another.  Understanding these interactions/exchanges and how to c o n t r o l them may allow users and managers a sense of command concerning  our  technological  comprised of the fundamental  world.  (autonomy) and an optimism  The  interactive  model  elements  i n this on which  paper i s electronic  communication systems are based, world-wide.  In the foregoing chapter a b r i e f  d e s c r i p t i o n was included of  the way the generality of the model may be used. be the template examples  (basic  The model was found to  design) for measurement instruments  of measurement  instruments described  i n this  per se.  The  paper were f o r  media e f f i c i e n c y and management-user services as w e l l as f o r movie and  98  newscast  producer  and/or  viewer  evaluation.  The  a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h i s study emerge as foundational analyses; thus, t h i s model was  model  elements  to systems concepts and  found to have g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of f i r s t  magnitude.  The three parts and the interdependent elements may also,  to  media  electronic.  articulation  both  written  and  oral,  contribute, as  well  as  These elemental terms may be used i n the future, perhaps,  i n describing more p r e c i s e l y the forms of mediations and products, the processes of the technologies, technologies perhaps,  required  assist  definition  of  users,  f o r communication managers,  activities  telecommunications  and the functions of the standards and  for  and  per  policy  informatics,  and d i f f e r i n g media  fields.  se.  These  makers  terms  i n more  communications  may,  careful systems,  they may a s s i s t people And.^in understanding  how these are g l o b a l l y integrated.  A c t u a l i z a t i o n : Some technologies, computer  linked  The t h e o r e t i c a l construct presented i n t h i s paper denotes the ways i n which some of the shortcomings (gaps) of e a r l i e r models are eliminated. Wiener's  feedback  and  This model integrates the basic p r i n c i p l e s Shannon's  measurement-control  c o n t r i b u t i o n lacks a u n i f y i n g core, i n my opinion. abstract  model  interrelated,  communication  presented  in  interdependent  electromagnetic energy signals  the and  theories;  (Basics);  i s comprised  qualitative  specific,  Bretz'  In p a r t i c u l a r , the  preceding chapter ordered  of  active,  forms  of of  measurable.  q u a n t i t a t i v e processes (Dynamics) which are c o n t i n u a l l y and p o t e n t i a l l y  99 v a r i a b l e ; and the ordered, standard property all  of  these  engineeered  three  devices  categorical  are adjoined  requirements of an actualized, For  example,  the real-world  comprised of v a r i e d  functions  interfaces i n order  total  communications  (connections),  to f a c i l i t a t e  integrated  emergent  (Techsines).  and  such as combined  and/or data systems, often operated over vast  actual  the defined  technological  integrated  At  system.  networks are  t e l e v i s i o n , radio  global distances,  which  are computer driven (and/or linked networks).  The Space  prime  example  Administration  now  i n place  (NASA) mission  control.  integrated systems of v a r i e d complexity. integrated and  data  information/computer communications  systems  networks  i s the National  the  1984) now a v a i l a b l e w i l l  implications  superlative  of the new  f o r business  (pp.322-327).  significance  be able  superchip  compared  to  are many  other  O'Brien (pp.403-406) presents  systems f o r education are i n an emergent stage. (Somerson,  There  Aeronautics  (defined,  Integrated  learning  The supercomputer power  to increase  and new their  p.403)  productivity:  superpower  present  L. Johnston, c h i e f of programmes and p o l i c y analysis  are of  capability.  f o r the Canadian  Department of Communications --Western Region, states that data, c a r r i e r s and communications  are i n a f a s t changing realignment stage  communication, Spring,  (personal  1985).  Real L i f e : Some implications of the TELETECHNOLOGY model  Some implications (inferences which e x i s t but are not apparent) for  the use of t h i s  t h e o r e t i c a l construct  for real  life  usability,  100  management and evaluation are f o r those persons who produce, create and analyse  various  media  software producers  and  programs,  including  computer  operators,  and evaluators, and with media users, managers and  administrators of a l l types.  Interactions  are actions between people, and i n some instances,  between people and animals.  Transactions  and  instances,  machines  Complex  and, i n some  human  signalling  energy  are  c a r r i e d out between people  between  is  machines  involved  communication and i n human created software  and animals.  in  human-to-human  f o r machines  (and i n most  cases, f o r human i n i t i a t e d animal-human and animal-machine  situations).  The  intellectual  above. media  signalling  energy  i s the commonality  The model may be used--extended from the e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of and  energies  technology  of  cognitive expansion  various  and  will  of t h i s  users-producers--by fundamental  not be  forms  explained  substituting  f o r A, i n this  i s exemplified as a r t i f i c i a l  B, Dynamics may be the various interactions occur  i n a l l of the  during  the  communicative  Basics. paper,  These  are  although  the  intelligence  and/or  activities.  intellectual  ( A l ) . The  transactions  The  which  third  component,  C, Techsines may be standard or c o n t r o l c r i t e r i a of e i t h e r  parameters,  m i l i e u , present objectives or operations to be c a r r i e d out. model  may  involvement  be  used  among  for people  prescriptive, and  descriptive  communications  or  Thus, the analytical  technology  and  computer/information technology.  Careful planning and c o n t r o l f o r the  use,  of  management  possibility  and  evaluation  f o r optimum  outcomes.  these  technologies  The next  segment  enhance  the  deals with the  101  usability  and management of communications  technology, and f o r any combinations  technology  and information  of these.  Management and U s a b i l i t y  . The r e a l  life  a c t u a l i z a t i o n of the TELETECHNOLOGY model sytem  energized by electromagnetic energy.  Intellectual  interactions, other  form  energy  radiant signals may  be  i n the  or i n the form of users'  created by human  i s based on i n t e l l e c t u a l form  computer  intelligence.  of  face-to-face  software,  (The realm  or i n any  of A r t i f i c i a l  I n t e l l i g e n c e [AI] i s not discussed i n depth i n this paper.)  The  f o l l o w i n g i s an a p p l i c a t i o n of the model i n terms of the  i n t e l l e c t u a l , management and user categories.  I have changed the terms  from those of the model i n order to depict more p r e c i s e l y the actions of human managers and users.  Instead of elements used f o r electromagnetic  energy s i g n a l s , I use ongoing human i n t e l l e c t u a l energy f o r the category termed Basics.  The category Dynamics I replace with U s a b i l i t y ; both of  these  interdependent  denote  Management; both  of these  actions.  are centered  Techsines  I replace  on control v a r i a b i l i t y .  with This  extrapolation i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a management-user system energized by I n t e l l e c t u a l energy. Basics (A) are considered r e a l intellectual type).  energy  Instead  regulating,  forms  of idea,  life  human i n t e l l i g e n c e ( i . e .  thought,  of Dynamics (B) of the model  converting  and  resolving),  level,  development and  (directing,  I shall  use  measuring,  the following:  102 Usability  criteria  shall  producing/delivering, criteria, model  instead  and  use  integrating, using  the  These of  of  following  a  above  transformative  A,  B  model  this  and C  then  total  management-usability"  on why  implementing  operating/maintaining,  evaluating. (C),  For  I shall  criteria: and  Management  transpose  orienting,  e n t i t y , adapting users  from  the  priorizing,  communicating.  for  named c r i t e r i a  I shall  teleconference  selecting,  Thus,  i t as  and  I am  a human  managers  of  technologies.  the  construct.  and  Techsines  communication  communications  validity  the  regulating,  intelligence  of  enhancing  of using  model as  elements  consist  the  integrated by  of  parallel  the  an  matching  these  The  and  the  interrelated  "intellectual criteria  energyin  the  impact of technology depends  i t i s used (Martell, 1983b).  enunciates the u s a b i l i t y of communications  to  TELETECHNOLOGICAL  interdependency  system as  example (see f u r t h e r ) .  i t i s used and on how  therefore,  categories  test  matrix  are,  The  following  technologies.  U s a b i l i t y C r i t e r i a for Communications Technology  1.  Selecting:  The  communications  device/system  (CD/S/S) i s examined, i d e n t i f i e d as appropriate  p a r t i c u l a r requirements as per  w r i t t e n objectives.  The  the  for the  objectives of  users'  and selected to  orally  stated  user i s required, also, to consult  r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e / i n f o r m a t i o n s that w i l l  service  f o r the current needs of  the user, tested as a p r e t r i a l run, c a r e f u l l y considered fulfil  or  assist  and/or  appropriate  i n the best s e l e c t i o n  that p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , and  f o r the  optimum  103 expected  results  situations,  f o r the  there  CD/S/S  are consumer  under  groups  construction.  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  (In some or  technical  sources that may be consulted during p r e s e l e c t i o n research.) 2.  a) Operating:  appropriate  conditions;  The  CD/S/S  i s put  quality-control  into  monitoring  operation  under  and maintenance i s  ongoing.  b) Maintaining:  The CD/S/S  i s maintained  i n accordance  with engineered and/or technical manual rules; i s corrected, realigned, boosted,  given small r e p a i r s ,  provided  i n order  to r e t a i n  (oiled),  and other support treatment i s  a comparable n e a r - o r i g i n a l  product.  In the case of a CD or service,  adherence  to regulations are maintained  possible  quality  experience,  state  of the  the optimum conditions and  i n order  simulation, output  to obtain the best or service.  (Close  communication i s maintained with management, i f t h i s i s appropriate.)  3. and  deliver  Producing (under  and Delivering:  The CD/S/S i s used  management i f appropriate)  the intended  product, service or operations as set out i n the objectives, for q u a l i t y  control  and evaluated (to come:  to produce  see 5 ) .  projected with contingency a l t e r n a t i v e s preplanned,  program, monitored  Delivery  i s as  rerouted and other  changes c a r r i e d out under management.  4. extended  Enhancing:  The CD/S/S are augmented, amplified,  or changed by technological  rectified,  (or other) means to optimization.  And/or they also may be linked with other p a r a l l e l  advances to other  104 CD/S  operations i n order  to create extended  or expanded products and  services.  5. summative  Evaluating: evaluations  operations,  ancillary  The CD/S/S undergo formative, cumulative and f o r continuous services  and/or  monitoring  on-line  f o r quality  of  control  all user  satisfaction.  The well-informed autonomous user who i s capable o f the above performances  i s able  communications  to understand  and/or  to maintain  technologies i n most areas o f d a i l y  c o n t r o l of  living.  (In some  s i t u a t i o n s these managers may be users.)  Management C r i t e r i a f o r Communications  1.  Orienting:  Technology  Managers are required to o r i e n t themselves and  those f o r whom they are responsible, to the (new and emergent) CD/S/S, to how these work and the role of each member/worker i n the system or agency.  A l l pertinent updated  operational (Martell, for,  needs  1983a).  informations that r e l a t e  are expected  to be  (devices  and systems)  communications used  and/or  by the agency,  understanding o f the categories of A,B,C o f the model. any  specified  and  understood  Managers are required to accommodate the p r o v i s i o n  or production of, the v a r i e d  technology  assimilated  to management  in-system device, a c t i v i t y ,  information based  on an  In the case of  or any mediated  product, or  comparable computer software, the managers are required to be aware of a l l regulations and to n o t i f y those users or workers f o r whom they are  105  responsible, copyright  of  the  standards,  infringement)  p o l i c y and  that concern any  the  and  regulations  (such  as  a l l CD/S/S f o r which  the  agency i s held responsible, both l e g a l l y and morally.  Competence i s the  minimum requirement for managing the i n t e g r a l operations  of the CD/S/S  as set out i n the job d e s c r i p t i o n for the manager (op. c i t . ) . and  skills'  performance,  credentials,  are  in  required  interdependency of the  addition  that  to  appropriate  concern  system parts, and  the  Knowledge management  viability  of  of o v e r a l l on-line,  the  on-going  guidance or c o n t r o l for e f f i c i e n c y of the t o t a l system.  2.  P r i o r i z i n g and  appropriate, and  Planning:  a v a i l a b l e , timely and  objectives  for  operations;  device/system, as i n A,B,C, users  such  These  resources  personnel; policy; others.  as  facilities  security;  relevant data to  i n order  priorize  to set  operations  goals  of  the  of the model, for matters of importance to  i n d i v i d u a l or may  Managers are required to c o l l e c t  be:  s p e c i a l t y needs,  appropriate  values  and  resources.  back-up  resources;  ancillary  equipment;  emergency  (and  setting);  finances;  insurance  (training  for users,  i f applicable);  and  P r i o r i z i n g includes o n - l i n e / " l i v e " choices and a l t e r n a t i v e s for  operations  in  order  to  fulfil  goals;  and  adherence  to  required  operational standards (including those for health and s a f e t y ) . 3.  Integrating  i n t e g r a t i n g and  and  Organizing:  For  their  links  purposes  organizing people and operations, managers are  to comprehend the manner and the purposes of the A,B,C and  the  with  interdependencies  within  of  required  model categories,  each category,  each  of  106 which has p r i o r i t y  levels  r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c  goals  of the operation.  Managers a s s i s t i n personnel i n t e g r a t i o n , c o n t i n u a l l y .  4.  Regulating and Monitoring:  by the p o l i c i e s , operations  Managers are required to abide  regulations and standards  f o r safety, q u a l i t y  that c o n t r o l a l l aspects of  c o n t r o l and orderly performance of the  device/system.  5. out  Implementing and Adjusting:  operations  to  implement  Managers are required to carry  the objectives  f o r communications  and  information technology devices and systems as appropriate.  6. communicate concerning  Communicating  and  Evaluating:  Managers  are required to  with users, workers and others based on the model system the devices and systems.  that i s formative, cumulative  This refers to evaluation (1983b)  and summative;  to advertising/promotion,  to i n s t r u c t i o n or education,  to any and a l l operations; and to devices,  systems, a n c i l l a r y products  and/or services r e l a t e d to the operations.  The  successful  organizational  managers networks  use  both  f o r continual  the  formal  and  communication  the  informal  among  managers,  workers, s t a f f and r e l a t e d external personnel and the p u b l i c .  An Applied Method: Teleconferencing  The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of communications and information technologies has moved f a s t e r than organizations, agencies, other s o c i e t a l subsystems have been able to respond. not,  as  yet,  been  comprehended  fully  by  (computer) schools and  Telephone use has  any  major  group.  107  Teleconferencing decline,  remains  costly  teleconferencing  proportion  will  at t h i s increase  when  immediately  Teleconferencing  to costs.  writing;  costs  will  and i n inverse  i s any meeting  o f business,  educational or other p r o f e s s i o n a l seminars, by two or more persons, that is  conducted  over  distance  v i a technological  means, which  radio, t e l e v i s i o n , computers, telephone and others media may be integrated slowscan (captured transmitted  (1983c).  includes: Additional  into the telephone m i l i e u as needed:  frame--an  i n nonreal  time  electronic  television  and requires  such as  picture  appropriate  that i s  bandwidth, or  roughly one minute, to appear as a s t i l l video on a screen) and on-line printers  that  output  hard  copies,  intermix, as when astronauts shuttle communications.  et a l . , or several  participants  and mission c o n t r o l are i n session i n space  One example i s the Inuit Inukshuk  System community-conducted teleconferences  Broadcasting  In the Canadian f a r north i n  1981.  In the present are  under  use of t e r r e s t r i a l teleconferencing,  the planning,  management  and evaluation  operations  of managers/co-  ordinators .  U s a b i l i t y of Teleconference  1. interaction  Selecting: between  Users  an  consideration  of  teleconference  method  select  agency  relevant  Method  this  and an  informations  may be used  method  individual) and  by almost  ( i . e . mode after  advisors.  anyone  of  careful (The  who desires an  108 e l e c t r o n i c meeting at a distance.)  A n c i l l a r y materials and technologies  are s e l e c t e d to enhance the a c t i v i t y .  2.  Operating:  Users operate the telephone, radio, t e l e v i s i o n ,  TELIDON viewdata  or  computer  manager i n order  to  obtain optimum  example,  a  button  may  equipment,  require  or  results  activating  follow d i r e c t i o n s from after  f i n i s h e s a point of discussion, or the user may  of  participation. a  distanced  the For  speaker  input text onto the on-  l i n e computer by keyboard, or the user may use an e l e c t r o n i c pen to draw on  the  computer  screen  an  image  which  is  transmitted  to  other  p a r t i c i p a n t s located, perhaps, at great geographic distances. 3. feedback  Monitoring:  method;  participants continuous  in  Users  the  users  order  that  monitor also  their  monitor  communication  " l i v e " on-line a c t i v i t y .  the is  operations  operations maintained  by  of during  Any verbal or nonverbal  the other the  directions  or signals received by the manager are complied with.  4. behaviours  Producting  and  Delivering:  Users  produce  the  actions,  or informations pertinent to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t o r y r o l e ,  such  as a c t i n g as consultants, and they may  supply pertinent information to  a l l other teleconference p a r t i c i p a n t s .  (Stock exchange brokers use t h i s  method c o n t i n u a l l y . personnel  to  situations.  So do tele-medicine s p e c i a l i s t s who  carry out  specific  procedures  advise health  f o r emergency  life-saving  The d e l i v e r y i s c a r r i e d out by the sharing of knowledge as  procedural d i r e c t i v e s i n this case.)  109 5.  Enhancing:  Users  may  enhance  their  communication  with  a n c i l l a r y drawings, graphs, flow charts, p i c t u r e s and sounds of various types, and so on, depending on the s i t u a t i o n .  6.  Evaluating:  Users  managers/co-ordinators and  evaluate  for t h e i r  the  own  experience  needs or  both  for those  for of  the their  p a r t i c u l a r group, agency or organization.  Management of the Teleconference 1.  Orienting:  basic procedures and  Method  Managers welcome the p a r t i c i p a n t s , explain the  operations,  transaction, demonstrate how  to r e c t i f y usual errors (such as " c u t t i n g  o f f " oneself a c c i d e n t a l l y during be h e l p f u l (op. c i t . ) .  have each i n d i v i d u a l carry through a  transmission), or what notetaking  may  The s t y l e of each manager u s u a l l y determines the  manner i n which t h i s introductory i n t e r a c t i o n takes place. 2.  P r i o r i z i n g and Planning:  objectives, such  as  the  elements. topics  assessment of costs based on  speed,  technologies,  format  and  assist  and  and  the  be  may  presented.  users  and  interfacing  to p r i o r i z e  In  i n t e r a c t i o n s between the  users/clients in  Managers  materials  Managers a s s i s t the chairperson ( i f there i s one) to  and  of  technology  appropriate  speakers  clients  cover s p e c i f i c requirements; the  quality  a t t r i b u t e s of  the  to choose the  and  individual  Managers plan and co-ordinate  choose  each  meeting  is  managers and p a r t i c i p a n t s  managers are mainly responsible to a s s i s t  effective or  general,  arrange  accomplishment for  ancillary  of  stated  media  objectives.  r e l a t e d to  the  110 scheduled  topics;  teleconference  each  meeting  begins.  Is  Success  communication signs and s k i l l s ,  planned  carefully  throughout  relies  before  on  the  excellent  on feedback from p a r t i c i p a n t s and on the  competence of the managers (op. c i t . ) . 3.  Integrating  and  Organizing:  Managers  carry  out  their  duties as needed i n each s i t u a t i o n ; each p a r t i c i p a n t has ready access to the managers throughout a l l phases of the teleconference.  4.  Regulating  and Monitoring:  the human elements; f o r example, expected,  sharing  of materials  Managers regulate the "flow" of  time f o r each speaker i s stated and and information,  operating equipment ( i f t h i s i s appropriate) is  copying/duplicating,  may be included.  r e l i e d upon h e a v i l y by the managers i n order  to conduct  Feedback successful  teleconferencing.  5.  Implementing  and  Adjusting:  Managers  take  control  to  i n i t i a t e , maintain pace and i n s t r u c t i o n s and transactions, at s i t e , and to terminate the teleconference  transaction.  Close  communication ( v i a  other means) between managers located at d i f f e r e n t s i t e s and the c e n t r a l post manager i s required c o n t i n u a l l y u n t i l a l l operations  6.  Communicating and Evaluating:  knowledgeable  and s k i l l e d  are completed.  Managers are required to be  i n the use of the TELETECHNOLOGY  system  t r i p a r t i t e model, as set out i n t h i s paper, and i n the way the applied human communication s i g n a l l i n g energy model i s used i n teleconferencing. Continuous  attention  and p r a c t i c e  are required  service and attainment of objectives and goals.  to maintain  quality  The prime component, as  Ill  reiterated  throughout,  is  the  i n t e r a c t i o n s and transactions. opinion.  Warm, authentic,  use  of  feedback  for  successful  This cannot be emphasized enough, i n my  skilled  use of feedback  i s elemental i n  promoting and sustaining human communication s a t i s f a c t i o n and perceived spatial  closeness  (which  includes,  i f possible,  appropriate  spatial  closeness).  In review, f o r teleconferencing to occur e f f i c i e n t l y ,  the four  important points f o r managers and co-ordinators are:  - co-ordination p r o f i c i e n c y of operations - p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with the experience - authentic and continuous feedback i n t e r a c t i o n - proximity or perceived s p a t i a l The management networked  foregoing  criteria  and strategies f o r both u s a b i l i t y and  f o r teleconferencing situations.  communications objectives, d) supporting  In  closeness.  would  general,  apply, managers  technology are dealing with  b) designing or  or  producing,  directing,  similarly, dealing  to with  other any  a) o r i g i n a t i n g and s e t t i n g  c) operating  e) evaluating  and  or  monitoring,  f ) communicating  (continuous feedback) among a l l who are involved.  Emergent Innovations:  A comment  Technical laboratories issue products into the marketplace when market devices,  researchers  identify  the willingness  f o r people  to purchase  systems and/or services or to create and manage those services  112 related  to the newest  communications  technology  or computer-related  innovation.  Wise users and managers w i l l adhere to a basic o r i e n t a t i o n  of what the  innovation  t h i s present  i s used f o r i n r e l a t i o n to what i s required at  time, within the l i m i t s o f f i n a n c i a l and  s u i t a b i l i t y to the m i l i e u into which the the  value  of the  objectives.  innovation w i l l be placed  expected r e s u l t s to f u l f i l  These are  general  the  carefully  abstract p r i n c i p l e s .  Applied  to every  s t i l l - p h o t o g r a p h cameras,  which w i l l  soon be followed by throw-away c r e d i t - c a r d s i z e d computers,  oriented  quantum  designing  advanced  (possible)  mechanics  experiments  mini  considered  from  the most highly  throwaway  and  situation,  to  the l a t e s t  resources;  other  research  software  packages  scientists—who  at the u l t r a f a s t  for laser-  are currently  femtoseconds  speed  (i.e.  thousandth of a picosecond)--these p r i n c i p l e s could become the basis f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g sound decisions  r e l a t e d to technology  s e l e c t i o n , use and  management f o r everyone.  All newest and they  are  communications  technologies  o f any kind,  i n c l u d i n g the  the most highly advanced, are successful to the degree that able  to be perceived  by users  as e l i m i n a t i n g  psychological  (and/or p h y s i c a l , s p a t i a l ) distance between sender and receiver, and i n eliminating term.  The  difficulties  ergonomics (designed  e f f i c i e n c y and devices are  are  of u s a b i l i t y .  "User f r i e n d l y "  for humans) requirements are f o r safety,  comfort ( i n a d d i t i o n to aesthetics or cosmetics).  i n use by humans over extended periods  demanding,  concentration.  i s a popular  dangerous Many working  and  which  on-line  require  Many  f o r s i t u a t i o n s that prolonged  s i t u a t i o n s require  mental  split-second  113  timing f o r v i t a l  operations.  Therefore,  many technologies  p h y s i c a l l y as well as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y designed  need to  be  f o r the simplest ways to  use them under p o t e n t i a l l y adverse conditions.  Communications People  of  a l l kinds  technology replaced  technologies  realize  that  pervade  they  need  everyone's to  cybernated  lives  is  urgently  Research needed  b e n e f i c i a l use and management of our  All  strata  understanding  of  society  order  to  aspects  align  of  our  society  technologies.  will  be  required  and t h e i r systems.  Business,  (and m i l i t a r y ) use ninety percent of telephony, technology.  Computers are institutes  medical/health  to  have  some  or  incorporated  which includes a n c i l l a r y  i n most i n d u s t r i a l ,  corporations,  complexes,  industry, government  i n various  recreational  business,  professional  facilities,  -  of  a l l military.  arms  and  communications--their transmissions, Without e f f e c t i v e great s i z e .  communications  lethality  enterprises  technologies, and  today,  there  and  entertainment  i n d u s t r i e s , navigational, governmental and m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s . core  to  of the more complex, more current technological devices,  including instruments  educational  about  devices which have  into various  in  today.  know something  i n order to use and/or understand the new many manual devices.  lives  are  The their  supply s e r v i c e s .  could be  no  war  of  any  This i s a point w e l l worth r e l a y i n g to our youth i n order  that they remember well that the l i n e s of command i n wars and depend completely  on communications for that l e t h a l system.  killings  114 In  addition,  transmissions  the  digital  capability  i s the core of communications.  r e a l i z a t i o n that a l l of the communications in  the  future  encompass  the  capability  for This  computer-linked  fact  advances  the  technologies we have now  and  f o r non-peaceful purposes--a  point strongly made by Wiener, over t h i r t y - f i v e years ago:  I have already said the dissemination of any s c i e n t i f i c secret whatever Is merely a matter of time, and that i n the long run, there i s no d i s t i n c t i o n between arming ourselves and arming our enemies. Thus, each t e r r i f y i n g discovery merely increases our subjection to the need of making a new discovery (Wiener 1967, (c) 1950, p.176). Thus, a new war w i l l almost i n e v i t a b l y see the atomic age i n f u l l swing within less than f i v e years...the a c t u a l i t y and the imminence of this new p o s s i b i l i t y (op. c i t . p.218).  CONCLUSION  The  focus of t h i s study and i t s main organizing p r i n c i p l e i s to  create a model through which the abstract domain of TELETECHNOLOGY be  perceived  as  electromagnetic  a  continuously  changing  and v i s i b l e l i g h t energy.  phenomenon,  may  pulsed  by  A "grounded set" i s needed to  help people today i n understanding the real-world of technology.  The o r i g i n a l TELETECHNOLOGY t h e o r e t i c a l construct, presented t h i s work, integrates and  simplifies  for easier understanding the  complexities of the many a v a i l a b l e kinds of communications and  computer  systems.  These  include:  the  entire  v a r i a b l e waveforms) radio signals of  telecommunications,  and  digitized/quantified  e l e c t r o n i c signals a n c i l l a r y to, or energizing, an aggregate--an integrated system. communication may  (discrete,  of  actual  broadcasting, mechanized)  the computer as  This model also sets out  be improved by c a r e f u l monitoring  vast  technologies  range  analogue (continuous  in  within the  way  between senders  and  receivers. The  model i s an abstract concept and not an actual integrated  system, although the l a t t e r  i s a true p o s s i b i l i t y .  A p p l i c a t i o n of  the  116  model presents a wide varied  media,  and  range  for  communications--for  of p o s s i b i l i t e s  the  media  creation  efficiency  of  related  to understanding  measurement  instruments f o r  (of energy  and  economics),  for  human and resources management, f o r interactions and transactions. elements  of  time,  space  included  as r e l a t i v e l y  and  spacetime  of  organized e n t i t i e s  reality  mediations  The were  of the mediative world.  A  wide range of uses f o r t h i s model may be anticipated.  The radiant  TELETECHNOLOGY  energy  signalling  activities  of  matrix was  considered as  application criteria  demonstrated comment was  was  a) u s a b i l i t y  of  and  theoretical  this  as  and  to  was  the  f o r electromagnetic  real  life  For  this  significant latter,  the  energy-usability-management. method  for usability  applications  the  b) management.  Intelligent  matrix  strategies  applied  construct  and  of  teleconferencing;  management  f o r the method  of  An  success  the were  teleconferencing.  A  Included concerning emergent innovations.  Research  application  i s required  i n the  field  i n order  to  authenticate the statements of theory set out i n t h i s work, i . e . that the  broad  generalizability  magnitude,  and  interrelated  that  variables  of  the  TELETECHNOLOGY, with  model  demonstrates  defined  transformative  as  a  first-order  design  potential',  is  set  of  actually  measurable.  The which may  TELETECHNOLOGY system  i s an  abstract  be r e i f i e d i n actual communications  constructed domain  technology i n t e r a c t i n g i n  the l i v e s of human beings so as to change t h e i r l i v e s  (and, possibly,  117  the  entire  world)  i n some way.  subsumed q u a s i - i d e n t i t y  The operative  of considerable  c o n t r o l the p o t e n t i a l of actual  power.  TELETECHNOLOGY Insight  into  is a  how to  technology may be gained by those who  examine  the present  model.  Insight may also be gained by those who examine a l l types and  levels  technologies  of human communication  v i a the a n a l y t i c a l TELETECHNOLOGY  i n action,  i d e n t i f y i n g the  interaction  system as based on, and as an a p p l i c a t i o n of the TELETECHNOLOGY model. Theoretical reveal  juxtaposing  also,  to  the  TELETECHNOLOGY with investigator  new  communications, to national innovations, other  possibilities  contributed  horizons  model  domains  related  to  therefore,  communications.  may  global  to personal opportunities  for restructuring  i n t h i s paper,  other  or to  The  model  may be used as a c a t a l y s t f o r  v a r i e d thinking s t y l e s or new ways to view the world.  A Possible New World View  The  TELETECHNOLOGY domain and the r e a l l i f e technological world  have been analyzed and each considered as an aggregate--a interdependent, e x i s t s within field  with  i n flux,  operational  variables.  each, i s a ( v i r t u a l or actual)  reversibility  capabilities.  applied  potential  in parallel  of the boundless  ways,  production  and updating  The unifying  information  technology.  which  element  Taken further, the  and transactions  software  Thus, the aggregate  force  i s the  human mind was described  i n interactions  of computer  The constant  i n v i s i b l e energized  l i m i t l e s s p o t e n t i a l of the natural a v a i l a b l e energy. intellectual  design set of  as  and f o r  f o r communications and  (model/system) i s the focus  118 of  this  influx  study:  the fundamental c r i t e r i o n  of the model aggregate Is  energy.  The  universe  itself  may  also  be  considered  an  harmonious  aggregate ( F u l l e r , 1983), a u n i f i e d whole (Augros, p.57) operating under force  field  laws (Boorstin, pp.680-684 ; Ronan, pp.465-519) w i t h i n which  the  individual  is  multidimensional  required  existence:  in  contemporary  related  to that  times  to  live  a  of the microcosm, the  mesocosm, [macrocosm] and the cosmos [universe] (Ronan, p.188, 306); and to  be able, c o n t i n u a l l y , to adjust to contingencies as well as to f i n d  personal meaning and i n d i v i d u a l value i n each of these three dimensions of  life.  people  Communications  to experience  technology  has made possible the a b i l i t y of  the immediacy  of these  three  spheres  of  life,  a c t u a l l y and v i r t u a l l y experienced v i a v i s i o n systems at the microscopic (and  submicroscopic)  level,  level,  and at the cosmic  at the human (outer  (proportioned/operational)  space/universe)  level  v i a diverse  mediated operations.  In order  that an i n d i v i d u a l  live  autonomously,  and i n order  that s/he f i n d meaning and f u l f i l m e n t while e x i s t i n g i n / p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the  actual  or  simultaneously,  virtual  realities  of  these  three  dimensions,  the opportunity arises f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to suspend the  notion of the "once", the one present time, and to replace t h i s with the concept  of the Eternal  Present--an  absolute.  This sense of v i c a r i o u s eternal suspension, allow  the i n d i v i d u a l  mesocosm and the  an enriched  (Discussion  of timelessness,  perception  follows.) may  then  of the microcosm, the  cosmos as v a r i a b l e facets of eternal  spacetime.  In  119 turn, t h i s awareness (consciousness) (Augros, p.94) could increase the individual's  spirit  concerns, i n t e r e s t s interacts And,  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  as being of equal value  lives  this of  developed  others  to consider the  and welfare of "the other" persons  taken further, since primacy  (p.95),  the a b i l i t y  a  concerns  of his/her  own.  of mind i s the core of one's humanity  individual  in  to those  with whom s/he  may then be capable  positive  constructive  to affect  way.  S/he  the could  systematically design his/her communication with "other/s" i n order to consciously a f f e c t  rather than the perceived resultant e f f e c t  and Tankard) on others. energy  Then, perhaps, the p o t e n t i a l human i n t e l l e c t u a l  (of the mind) by those who i n t e r a c t  "other/s", could accrue b e n e f i c i a l large.  Positive  (Severin  constructive  from the point of view of  change to our s o c i e t a l  thought,  thus  carried  systems-at-  out, has the  p o t e n t i a l to reap b e n e f i c i a l s o c i e t a l change.  This perspective, a new world view,  emphasizes the  individual  as r e l a t e d  to a l l aspects of the everchanging ( i n f l u x ) universe.  new  maintains  focus  his/her  inner-outer  each  person's  personal  wholeness  experience  (integrity),  related  to  any  This  sustains reality  dimension, and the extrapolation from the preceding a s s i s t s each person i n valuing  the eternal  metaphysical  (supernatural) presence  relationships.  Sagan (1973, p.177) states:  Anthropologists believe that the development of human i n t e l l i g e n c e has been c r i t i c a l l y dependent on these three factors: Brain volume, b r a i n convolutions, and s o c i a l interactions [underlining mine].  i n human  120  I f t h i s i s true, then, i n d i v i d u a l s develop by i n t e r a c t i o n s with others.  They  need  others  f o r the attainment  of t h e i r  full  human  potential.  Human througout  interactions  time.  The v i t a l  and v a r i e d  relationships  interdependencies  beings and e n t i t i e s , and between supernatural (Ronan, physics and  p.238)  and cosmic  forces  to improve  i n t e r a c t i o n s and transactions individual  i n an  accentuating  release  restrictive,  competitive  assisted  constructive to chance.  accelerating  from  (Augros,  to comprehend  The that  leave  on the value of society,  and by  people  of human  may be  knowledge"  and the communication of peace.  of an i n f l u x  i s that of an aggregate i n  microcosm,  mesocosm  and cosmic  i n t e r a c t i n g aggregate ( F u l l e r ,  which e x i s t s both on the v i s i b l e natural  i n v i s i b l e natural and metaphysical (supernatural)  A proposal  consciously  and not  of l i f e ,  foundation  new world view I here present consists  existences  t i e to) an humanistically  p.85) way  "the absolute  organic  demonstrated i n  By focusing  technological  t o t a l i t y ; a self-generating, continuously 1983)  been  activities,  (a psychological  (p.181), the unity of timelessness,  harmony  (metaphysical)  have  continued  living,  laboratories) (Ronan, pp.480-527) could be combined  purposefully  the  (which  among  have  level  and also on the  reality  levels.  for a possible new world view/direction i s presented  based on the fundamental concepts of the Eternal Present (see further) as  a philosophic  stance  a c c e l e r a t i n g society.  f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n an  This  evolving,  influx,  ethnotechnological  s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g Western  121 (or, perhaps, World) society has a true p o t e n t i a l f o r developing into an interplanetary implies  civilization  advanced  sometime  human and machine  i n the d i s t a n t  future:  this  partnership v i a i n t e l l e c t u a l and  metaphysical development.  The d a i l y experiencing of a metaphysical l i v i n g Eternal Present set design of i n t e r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s i s what eludes many people the aggregate  of matter,  physical  laws and mind.  today:  Perhaps t h i s  paper  w i l l a s s i s t i n these people's perceptions and encourage them to think i n terms of the commonality of a l l living  things.  The commonality of  life,  per se, i s "the absolute foundation of human knowledge" (Augros, p.181). Perhaps by d a i l y consideration of the unity of a l l l i f e which  i s sustained by some Eternal  Present  energy,  i n the cosmos,  we  may  gain an  understanding of the eternal presence of the power of our humanness. We may also consider the i n f l u x concept of the Eternal Present as a f f e c t i n g and energizing a l l aspects and dimensions  of our everyday e f f e c t i v e use  of the communications technologies f o r human b e n e f i t on the planet: power  the machines  allocation  by  our human  of our control  mind  power,  into machine software  at this  time.  we The  as i n AI i s a major  confrontation to the continuity of what i s termed human.  The being  increased i n d i v i d u a l sense of value of and f o r each human  could  sustain  transactions with televised  images,  nonnatural  sound  and  strengthen  people  during  their  computers and other nonhuman machines, with which and  sterotypical-morphic  may  be  surreal  visual  images  animated  films.  and/or  such  as  Common  superreal,  daily nonreal  and with  computergraphics daily  and  transactional  122 encounters telephone  one  may  answering  have  may  include  those  with  voice-synthesized  s i g n a l l e d humanoid "messages", with robots  (Kelly)  or with other devices with a r t i f i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e (Steklasa, 1983). A l l of these have a telepresence, with  the  user  (CIAR,  an a f f e c t as i f a human were i n t e r a c t i n g  pp. 10-11).  As  the  globe  expands  to  Include  i n d u s t r i a l use of near space, with space platforms and v e h i c u l a r t r a v e l and  communications--an  signalling  interactions  transactions  with  imminently with  human  possible others  technological devices  fact  over (and  (Barr,  vast  p.133)--  distances,  systems)  will  and  become  routine (Canada, 1985).  One  maintains  one's  sustaining an i n t e r n a l i z e d  sense  of  wholeness  (integrity)  (mind) point of view of the Eternal Present  grand design and of one's place within the i n f l u x cosmos. theory  Is  another  way  of  explaining  submicroscopic whole of worlds, dimension,  and r e f l e c t s  the  cosmic  The quantum  whole  or of seen or unseen r e a l i t i e s  the universe (aggregate)  in totality.  or of  516)  the any  Quantum  theory r e f l e c t s these three worlds--the microcosm, the mesocosm and cosmos.  by  the  Moreover, t h i s quantum theory viewpoint (Augros, Ronan, pp.496i s the prevalent view i n physics and society today despite our  acknowledged  limitations  i n understanding  quantum  theory  itself,  in  total.  The way well  as  advancing  devices and systems are managed and used f o r global, as  national,  communication  i s the  key  to s u r v i v a l  in a  rapidly  technological-nuclear c i v i l i z a t i o n which includes many global  123  system  problems.  Communication  wisely  used  to  strengthen  human  r e l a t i o n s h i p s may help to sustain our planet.  Just  as  electromagnetics, activates  communications so i t could  human beings.  possible  supernatural  understanding  energized  be p o s s i b l e  The model existence  of these  are  by  abstract,  that  i s a bridge  and  affected  metaphysical  energy  to comprehending  the use of extrapolation.  artificially  by  produced  operations  a An of  Dynamics and Techsines, energized by Basics, may permit the reader a) to perceive  a simplified  view  of the inexpressively complex,  invisible  world of natural electromagnetism and v i s i b l e l i g h t radiance, b) to gain an i n s i g h t into how programmers, designers use  their  intellectual  (mind)  energy  and producers or  i n communication  operators  designs v i a  various media, and c) to Increase each person's autonomy i n our machineoriented world.  Technologies  enhancement  and  a c t u a l i z a t i o n of the d a i l y  l i v e s of large numbers of human beings  who  live, literally,  near or i n o r b i t , or on, t h i s planet Earth.  Our  task  place  anywhere:  i s to a s s i s t  improved  are  i n place  developing  communications  f o r the  and unstable systems  i n d i v i d u a l s , s o c i e t i e s and nations, t h e i r p o t e n t i a l with these  now,  and  nations  i n putting into  opportunities  for  all  i n order to a s s i s t them to r e a l i z e  technologies  In our development towards the  goal of a peaceful interplanetary c i v i l i z a t i o n .  The actions  o v e r a l l i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis i s that energizing and  are c o n t i n u a l l y and endlessly balanced  against  set unifying  124 laws, p r i n c i p l e s or standards  i n any v a r i a b l e set, system or aggregate.  Taken from the greater perspective of c i v i l i z a t i o n , s u r v i v a l may  be attainable by  quantum f i e l d energies that  each  possibility  (Augros, et a l . ) .  individual of  interdependency  (as  well  individual as  a  the equilibrium of  and  within  se, peace  and  physical-metaphysical  In r e a l l i f e terms, t h i s means  each  autonomy  constant  Present perspective, may  as  per  society)  by  fulfilment,  an  retaining  the  and  of  ongoing  o r i e n t a t i o n of  the  Eternal  be able to sustain and  develop outward from a  l i v i n g planet which i s at peace within the u n i v e r s a l aggregate.  This i s  a formidable p r a c t i c e to put into e f f e c t but the mere thought of i t , and the simple  acting out  inimitable  power, perhaps,  throughout  history  energized  of i t by each planetary c i t i z e n ,  have  "design  to  change  always  set  the  used  of  a  world.  A l l power  physical  interrelated  could  and  generate holders  metaphysical  operatives"--reified  TELETECHNOLOGY-- to change t h e i r world.  Insight stimulates learning and, the  individual  by  communications and  constructive  use,  i n turn, may  management  information technology,  and,  i n a l l places. was  enough.  Once, "once"  However, "Now"  to the absolute-to the Eternal Present.  wise  control  which i s imperative  contemporary transformative planetary c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  at a l l times,  and  promote growth of  i s linked  now.  of  f o r our  125  A SELECT REFERENCE LIST  Augros, R.M. and Stanciu, G.N. Lake B l u f f , 111.: Bantam Books. Bain, D.A. Miner Press.  (1986). The  new  storv  of  science.  (1977). The colour of behaviour. Vancouver, B.C.:  Barr, G. (Southam News; 1986, November 15). decisions on space agency. Vancouver Sun. p.B3.  Canada  Facing  Western  tough  Boorstin, D.J. (1985). 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