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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Art experience in a group setting : a study of four young subjects 1988

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ART EXPERIENCE IN A GROUP SETTING A STUDY OF FOUR YOUNG SUBJECTS by LARA MARIE LACKEY B.F.A., The Nova S c o t i a C o l l e g e of A r t and Design, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1988 © Lara Marie Lackey, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT Th i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s an a n a l y s i s of video r e c o r d i n g s and w r i t t e n o b s e r v a t i o n s of f o u r p r e s c h o o l - aged c h i l d r e n as they spontaneously e x p l o r e d a r t m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n a group s e t t i n g . The . focus of a n a l y s i s i s the extent to which s u b j e c t s i n t e r a c t e d with other c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s d u r i n g a r t m a t e r i a l use, and the e f f e c t of i n t e r a c t i o n on the s u b j e c t s ' uses of m a t e r i a l s . For each s u b j e c t , data are c a t e g o r i z e d and p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a t i o n , type, and approximate l e n g t h of a c t i v i t y ; presence or absence of o t h e r s ; and types of i n t e r a c t i v e behavior: watching, v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; i m i t a t i o n ; and d i s t r a c t i o n from the a c t i v i t y . D e s c r i p t i v e passages are presented which d e t a i l s p e c i f i c episodes of i n t e r a c t i o n , and b e h a v i o r s of a d u l t s i n t e r a c t i n g with s u b j e c t s are a l s o d e s c r i b e d . The c o n c l u s i o n s argue f o r heightened awareness of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as a f a c t o r i n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t e x p e r i e n c e s . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Purpose of the Study 4 Design of the Study 5 Subjects 5 S e t t i n g 6 Instruments 6 J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Method 6 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Method 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 8 D e l i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 12 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND RESEARCH . . . 13 I n t r o d u c t i o n 13 Soci o l o g y , S o c i a l Psychology, and the School 14 S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n P e r s p e c t i v e s i n A r t Education 25 P r e s c h o o l e r s and S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n . . . . 32 Summary 42 I I I PROCEDURES 4 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n 43 S e t t i n g 43 Subjects 46 The Data 50 C o l l e c t i n g the Data 51 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Data 54 IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 56 I n t r o d u c t i o n 56 i i i CHAPTER PAGE Compartmentalization o f Video Recorded Data 56 Development of C a t e g o r i e s 57 C o l l e c t i o n o f Data 58 P r e s e n t a t i o n of R e s u l t s 58 V RESULTS 59 I n t r o d u c t i o n 59 R e s u l t s — Subject A 66 R e s u l t s — Subject B 79 R e s u l t s — Subject C 90 R e s u l t s — Subject D 105 VI REFLECTIONS ON RESULTS 118 I n t r o d u c t i o n 118 Summary — Subject A 118 Summary — Subject B 119 Summary — Subject C 120 Summary — Subject D 122 ummary of R e s u l t s — A l l Subjects . . 124 VII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS . . 131 Summary 131 Conclusi o n s 138 I m p l i c a t i o n s 140 REFERENCES 143 APPENDICES 149 Appendix A Tables A - l through A-7 150 Appendix B Tables B - l through B-7 158 Appendix C Tables C - l through C-7 166 i v TER PAGE Appendix D Tables D-l through D-7 174 Appendix E F i r s t v e r s i o n of check sheet used i n rev i e w i n g data 182 Appendix F Second v e r s i o n of check sheet used i n reviewing data 185 v LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE TABLE A - l L o c a t i o n of Episodes - Subject A . . . 66 TABLE A-2 A c t i v i t i e s - Subject A 66 TABLE A-3 Immediate Presence of Others - Subject A 67 TABLE A-4 Watching - Subject A 67 TABLE A-5 V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n - Subject A . . . . 67 TABLE A-6 I m i t a t i o n - Subject A 68 TABLE A-7 D i s t r a c t i o n - Subject A 68 TABLE B - l L o c a t i o n of Episodes - Subject B . . . 79 TABLE B-2 A c t i v i t y - Subject B 79 TABLE B-3 Immediate Presence of Others - Subject B 79 TABLE B-4 Watching - Subject B 80 TABLE B-5 V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n - Subject B . . . . 80 TABLE B-6 I m i t a t i o n - Subject B 81 TABLE B-7 D i s t r a c t i o n - Subject B 81 TABLE C - l L o c a t i o n of Episodes - Subject C . . . 90 TABLE C-2 A c t i v i t i e s - Subject C . 90 TABLE C-3 Immediate Presence of Others - Subject C 91 TABLE C-4 Watching - Subject C 91 TABLE C-5 V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n - Subject C . . . . 91 TABLE C-6 I m i t a t i o n - Subject C 92 TABLE C-7 D i s t r a c t i o n - Subject C 93 TABLE D - l L o c a t i o n of A c t i v i t i e s - Subject D . . .105 v i TABLE PAGE TABLE D-2 A c t i v i t i e s - Subject D 105 TABLE D-3 Immediate Presence of Others - Subject D 105 TABLE D-4 Watching - Subject D 106 TABLE D-5 V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n - Subject D . . . . 106 TABLE D-6 I m i t a t i o n - Subject D 107 TABLE D-7 D i s t r a c t i o n - Subject D 108 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS C r e d i t i s due t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's C h i l d Study Centre, which p r o v i d e d the s e t t i n g as w e l l as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l support f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . I s i n c e r e l y thank the c h i l d r e n and parents i n v o l v e d , the centre t e a c h e r s (who were u n f a i l i n g l y welcoming and accommodating), a l l the camera persons ( S h e i l a H a l l , Ray Hart, David Rosenblum, and Shawn Wilson), and I s a b e l Spears, who typed the ex t e n s i v e w r i t t e n o b s e r v a t i o n s which accumulated from the study. In p a r t i c u l a r I would l i k e t o thank P a t r i c i a T a r r and Dr. Glen Dixon. Pat designed and implemented the umbrella p r o j e c t i n which I i n i t i a l l y became i n v o l v e d as r e c o r d e r , and which produced the data used i n t h i s study. She a l s o p r o v i d e d ongoing encouragement and i n s p i r a t i o n , f o r which I am deeply g r a t e f u l . Glen Dixon, D i r e c t o r o f the C h i l d Study Centre, deserves r e c o g n i t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g an environment at the ce n t r e i n which students l i k e myself may be exposed t o and i n f l u e n c e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l , d e d i c a t e d , and e n t h u s i a s t i c approach t o r e s e a r c h ; I f e e l p r i v i l e g e d t o have worked i n such a s e t t i n g . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Glen Dixon and Michael F o s t e r , members of my t h e s i s committee, f o r t h e i r v i i i e f f o r t s and very h e l p f u l remarks toward the e d i t i n g of t h i s work. My deepest r e s p e c t and g r a t i t u d e go t o my a d v i s o r and t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. Ron MacGregor, who i s undoubtedly the world's most p a t i e n t man. His h e l p and support have been i n v a l u a b l e to me; had he been l e s s encouraging I am c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s work would not have been completed. F i n a l l y , I extend my thanks and love to my c h i l d r e n , E r i n and Meghan, and to my husband David. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o express how much t h e i r care and understanding have meant to me d u r i n g r e c e n t years. S u f f i c e i t to say t h a t I share t h i s accomplishment with them. i x 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Introduction An involvement with a l a r g e r study, d i r e c t e d at understanding the a r t i s t i c b ehaviors and development of c h i l d r e n under 3 years of age, p r o v i d e d the i n i t i a l exposure t o the s e t t i n g and data used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h (MacGregor, 1987; T a r r , 1987). Under the d i r e c t i o n o f P a t r i c i a T a r r , the l a r g e r p r o j e c t implemented a da t a - g a t h e r i n g p l a n c o n s i s t i n g o f a s e r i e s of video r e c o r d i n g s and w r i t t e n o b s e r v a t i o n s of fo u r p r e s c h o o l - aged s u b j e c t s as they encountered a r t m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n the s e t t i n g . A c t i n g i n the r o l e of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g observer and not e - t a k e r f o r the T a r r study f o s t e r e d a f a m i l i a r i t y with the s u b j e c t s and data. T h i s f a m i l i a r i t y i n t u r n sparked questions which were o u t s i d e the i n i t i a l scope of the T a r r p r o j e c t , and so t h i s independent study was developed. I n i t i a l l y , the T a r r study was d i r e c t e d at g a t h e r i n g data r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of the s u b j e c t s with m a t e r i a l s . I n c r e a s i n g l y , however, i t became apparent t h a t many encounters a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d not only the s u b j e c t but others w i t h i n the s e t t i n g as w e l l ; out of these events c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s emerged. A 2 growing i n t e r e s t i n the ways i n which these c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t e d with others d u r i n g t h e i r use of a r t m a t e r i a l s , and a c u r i o s i t y about how such i n t e r a c t i o n s might a f f e c t t h e i r experiences with m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the present work. I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s e f f o r t t o d e s c r i b e and analyze the a r t encounters of these young s u b j e c t s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the kinds and e f f e c t s of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n them w i l l add to understanding of c h i l d r e n ' s a r t experiences i n g e n e r a l . Statement of the Problem Many c h i l d r e n ' s v i s u a l a r t experiences c e r t a i n l y the m a j o r i t y of those which occur i n school take p l a c e i n group s e t t i n g s . There i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a l a c k of a r t e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h d i r e c t e d •at the e f f e c t s of the group s e t t i n g on c h i l d r e n ' s behavior with a r t m a t e r i a l s . Some recent l i t e r a t u r e has r e - e s t a b l i s h e d the v a l u e of copying and i n t e r a c t i o n as a means of s k i l l development i n v i s u a l a r t making (Duncum, 1984; Wilson and Wilson, 1982), and other work has argued t h a t our s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l environments a f f e c t our understanding of a r t (Chalmers, 1981, 1984; Hamblen, 1984; and Johnson, 1982). The o v e r r i d i n g emphasis i n a r t education l i t e r a t u r e and p r a c t i c e , 3 however, has been on unique p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . Laura Chapman summarizes the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s way: . . . the s i n g l e l a r g e s t body of theory and r e s e a r c h i n a r t education d e a l s with the a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s ; t h a t i s , the psychology of making or c r e a t i n g a r t . Within t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , the process i s t y p i c a l l y viewed as an i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t marked by i n n o v a t i o n , by freedom i n e x p r e s s i o n of the " s e l f , 11 and by f a c i l i t y w ith a p a r t i c u l a r medium. (Chapman, 1982, p.105) In a d d i t i o n Chapman p o i n t s out t h a t our r e s e a r c h has focused on p a t t e r n s of development r e l a t e d t o maturation r a t h e r than to the e f f e c t s of i n t e r a c t i o n or i n s t r u c t i o n on t h a t development. Herein would seem to l i e a fundamental c o n f l i c t : on one hand we encourage responses i n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t work t h a t r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l meaning, d i s t i n c t from t h a t of any other i n d i v i d u a l ; on the other, we c o n s i s t e n t l y p l a c e c h i l d r e n i n working environments which p r o v i d e optimum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n and few chances to work p r i v a t e l y with m a t e r i a l s . Although our l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a growing awareness of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as a f a c t o r w i t h i n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t experiences, our p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h does not yet r e f l e c t t h a t awareness. Two q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e a s u c c i n c t v e r s i o n of the problem at hand and form the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o r the study: 1) To what extent does i n t e r a c t i o n occur d u r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n a group s e t t i n g ? and, 2) To what extent does the group s e t t i n g a s s i s t or i n t e r f e r e w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s use of a r t m a t e r i a l s ? Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the p r e v a l e n c e of i n t e r a c t i o n and the e f f e c t s of a group s e t t i n g on the use of a r t m a t e r i a l s by f o u r p r e s c h o o l - aged s u b j e c t s i n an o r g a n i z e d " p r e s c h o o l " environment. The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were generated as c a t e g o r i e s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Hi Subjects w i l l tend to use a r t m a t e r i a l s i n the immediate presence of o t h e r s . H 2 Subjects w i l l tend to watch or observe others u s i n g a r t m a t e r i a l s p r i o r t o , d u r i n g , and a f t e r the s u b j e c t ' s own use of m a t e r i a l s . H 3 Subjects w i l l tend to i n t e r a c t v e r b a l l y with others d u r i n g t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i o n with a r t m a t e r i a l s . H 4 Subjects w i l l tend to engage i n i m i t a t i o n or copying of o t h e r s ' use of m a t e r i a l s through 5 gesture or image making. H5 Subjects w i l l tend to be d i s t r a c t e d from the use of a r t m a t e r i a l s by the presence or a c t i o n s of o t h e r s . H6 There w i l l be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s with others and the i n t e n s i t y of s u b j e c t involvement with a r t m a t e r i a l s . Design of the Study Subjects The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were fo u r p r e s c h o o l - aged c h i l d r e n , two boys and two g i r l s , whose ages ranged from j u s t over two years to almost f o u r years over the p e r i o d i n which data were gathered. The s u b j e c t s were chosen f o r the umbrella p r o j e c t r e f e r r e d t o i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n because they were the youngest members of two c l a s s e s t h a t commenced at the time the study was i n i t i a t e d . The s u b j e c t s , r e f e r r e d t o as "A", "B", "C", and "D" f o r the sake of anonymity, o b v i o u s l y were d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s . B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of these i n d i v i d u a l s are i n c l u d e d i n Chapter I I I as a means to understand t h e i r b ehavior w i t h i n the study. 6 Setting The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's C h i l d Study Centre p r o v i d e d the s e t t i n g f o r t h i s study. Subjects were observed as they took p a r t i n morning or afternoon p r e s c h o o l programs o f f e r e d by the Centre. F a c i l i t i e s c o n t a i n e d equipment f o r p l a y w i t h water, "house" and dress-up m a t e r i a l s , b l o c k s , p u z z l e s , indoor c l i m b i n g and r i d i n g toys, books, and a v a r i e t y of a r t m a t e r i a l s . Instruments A JVC video camera, r e c o r d i n g on 120 minute VHS (Scotch) v i d e o c a s s e t t e s , and handwritten notes were used to c o l l e c t data f o r t h i s study. A n a l y s i s was a s s i s t e d through the use of check sheets developed by the r e s e a r c h e r . Two v e r s i o n s of t h i s check sheet were developed. The f i r s t , which appears as Appendix E was made p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . The second, which appears as Appendix F, was a v e r s i o n of the f i r s t , r e v i s e d t o a l l o w f o r a d d i t i o n a l comments and to simply the a n a l y s i s . J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Method The combined use of v i d e o - t a p e d and w r i t t e n records was a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n t h i s study f o r a number of reasons. U n l i k e w r i t t e n o b s e r v a t i o n s , video r e c o r d i n g s enabled the r e s e a r c h e r to capture complex 7 i n t e r a c t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g v e r b a l exchanges) p r e c i s e l y , and made repeated review p o s s i b l e . The video camera p r o v i d e d an e f f e c t i v e counterbalance t o observer b i a s as w e l l . The camera, n e v e r t h e l e s s , had a l i m i t e d range, and c o u l d miss important d e t a i l s o c c u r r i n g o u t s i d e i t s range. The observer, while l e s s adept at producing p r e c i s e t r a n s c r i p t s , c o u l d more e a s i l y take i n r e l e v a n t events happening elsewhere i n the s e t t i n g , and was able t o make notes with r e s p e c t t o p o s s i b l e meanings behind given i n t e r a c t i o n s . The two approaches to g e t h e r p r o v i d e d a c l e a r r e c o r d of occurrences. Limitations of the Method Three d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, e x i s t e d w i t h the method used here. The f i r s t was t h a t the data, though comprehensive, were not gathered with t h i s s p e c i f i c study i n mind. The r e s u l t was t h a t o f t e n g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l y p a r t s of data-gathering) at the beh a v i o r o f the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t , while d i s r e g a r d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s with o t h e r s . This f a c t made i t im p o s s i b l e , when f i e l d notes and video tapes were reviewed f o r t h i s present study, t o o b t a i n needed i n f o r m a t i o n from some episodes. The second d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s approach was the sheer volume of a v a i l a b l e data, n e c e s s i t a t i n g r a t h e r severe 8 d e c i s i o n s about which aspects of the data would and would not be attended t o . A l s o with r e s p e c t t o the volume, i t i s argued t h a t i t would be humanly im p o s s i b l e t o count every s i n g l e i n s t a n c e of c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the data. Although c e r t a i n l y an attempt was made toward t h i s g o a l , numerical r e s u l t s should be understood as meaning "as l e a s t " x number of in s t a n c e s were i d e n t i f i e d . As a r e s u l t , some r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n may have been missed. F i n a l l y , even though vi d e o technology allowed the g a t h e r i n g o f va s t amounts of i n f o r m a t i o n a c c u r a t e l y , the a n a l y s t c o u l d not of course, make assumptions about m o t i v a t i o n s or i n t e n t i o n s of s u b j e c t s without very concrete evidence. The r e s e a r c h e r was s t i l l l i m i t e d l a r g e l y t o an account of what s u b j e c t s d i d r a t h e r than why they d i d i t . T h i s f a c t l i m i t e d the c o n c l u s i o n s which c o u l d be drawn from the data. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s were used f o r the purposes of t h i s study. A r t m a t e r i a l s r e f e r s t o paper, p a i n t , brushes, p e n c i l s , chalk o i l p a s t e l s , crayons, pens, f e l t markers, s c i s s o r s , glue s t i c k s , p l a y dough, c l a y , or any other m a t e r i a l or t o o l used i n p a i n t i n g , drawing, s c r i b b l i n g , 9 c u t t i n g , molding, or printmaking a c t i v i t y . Blocks are not i n c l u d e d . The p e n c i l sharpener i s i n c l u d e d . A r t experience or a r t a c t i v i t y r e f e r s t o i n t e r a c t i o n with one or more a r t m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , or products. I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a r t m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e s not only the use or e x p l o r a t i o n of a r t m a t e r i a l s , but a l s o the mani p u l a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of t o o l s , m a t e r i a l s , and products; watching another use or i n t e r a c t with t o o l s , m a t e r i a l s or products; and t a l k i n g with another about m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , or pr o d u c t s . The immediate presence of others w i t h i n the study r e f e r s t o the f a c t t h a t another i n d i v i d u a l i s seated or sta n d i n g w i t h i n the s u b j e c t ' s easy t o u c h i n g d i s t a n c e f o r a l l or p a r t of an episode. T h i s i n c l u d e s those seated or s t a n d i n g immediately b e s i d e the s u b j e c t f o r the most p a r t ; however, many i n c i d e n t s i n c l u d e those persons across from the s u b j e c t i f i n very c l o s e q u a r t e r s (easy t o u c h i n g d i s t a n c e ) . An episode w i t h i n t h i s study i s d e f i n e d as the p e r i o d of time i n which a su b j e c t e n t e r s an a r t area and remains t h e r e i n t e r a c t i n g with a r t m a t e r i a l s . I t ends when the su b j e c t i n d i c a t e s completion by s t a r t i n g a second a r t p r o j e c t i n the same l o c a t i o n or by l e a v i n g the area t o begin another a c t i v i t y . When s u b j e c t s 10 leave the a r t area t e m p o r a r i l y t o get s u p p l i e s or t o look at another a c t i v i t y , but r e t u r n immediately t o continue a p r o j e c t , t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d one episode. A r t area w i t h i n t h i s study r e f e r s t o those areas or s t a t i o n s w i t h i n the s e t t i n g i n which the s u b j e c t s i n t e r a c t w i t h a r t m a t e r i a l s . With few excepti o n s , these are the p a i n t i n g e a s e l , the c o l l e g e / d r a w i n g t a b l e ; the c l a y or p l a y dough t a b l e ; the p e n c i l sharpener; and the chalkboard. O c c a s i o n a l l y a t o o l or m a t e r i a l i s removed from i t s o r i g i n a l s i t e and used, e t c . i n another p a r t of the s e t t i n g . T h i s s i t e then i s co n s i d e r e d to be an a r t area f o r the purposes of t h i s study. V e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n r e f e r s t o v e r b a l remarks made to the sub j e c t by another or by the su b j e c t t o another d u r i n g an a r t episode. Watching others r e f e r s t o obs e r v i n g the use, manipul a t i o n , or o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t o o l s , a r t m a t e r i a l s , or products w i t h i n an a r t episode. D i s t r a c t i o n r e f e r s t o l o o k i n g away from a r t i n t e r a c t i o n t o other a c t i v i t i e s i n the s e t t i n g . Frequent d i s t r a c t i o n i s d e f i n e d as more than 6 i n s t a n c e s of l o o k i n g away or more than 3 i n s t a n c e s of s u s t a i n e d (prolonged) l o o k i n g away. (Note t h a t d i s t r a c t i o n i s d i s t i n c t from watching.) I m i t a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d to have taken p l a c e when a s u b j e c t c o p i e s the a c t i o n or a c t i v i t y of another immediately a f t e r watching i t . P l a y i n g with a r t m a t e r i a l s f o r the purposes of t h i s study r e f e r s t o i n t e r a c t i o n with a r t m a t e r i a l s t h a t has a p r e t e n d or f a n t a s y component made apparent by v e r b a l comments or by a c t i o n s . (A boy " f l y i n g " a c l a y s c u l p t u r e through the a i r while making a b u z z i n g n o i s e , f o r example.) Lengths of episodes i n t h i s study are r e f e r r e d t o as b r i e f , medium, and long. A b r i e f episode i s l e s s than one minute. A long episode i s 10 minutes or more. A medium episode i s any l e n g t h i n between. Working t o g e t h e r on the same s u r f a c e i n t h i s study r e f e r s t o two i n d i v i d u a l s who used a r t m a t e r i a l s on the same p r o j e c t , p i e c e of paper, lump of c l a y , e t c . Using a m a t e r i a l / t o o l r e f e r s t o the use of an a r t m a t e r i a l i n p a i n t i n g , drawing, s c r i b b l i n g , c u t t i n g , g l u i n g , molding, printmaking, or other a r t a c t i v i t i e s . M a n i p u l a t i n g a t o o l r e f e r s t o the examination or e x p l o r a t i o n of an a r t t o o l ( s c i s s o r s , brushes, c l a y t o o l s , f o r example) r a t h e r than i t s use i n p a i n t i n g , drawing, g l u i n g , e t c . 12 O r g a n i z a t i o n of t o o l s / m a t e r i a l s r e f e r s t o s o r t i n g or r e t u r n i n g a r t t o o l s / m a t e r i a l s to c o n t a i n e r s or d e s i g n a t e d storage l o c a t i o n s . Delimitations of the Study This study focused on the behaviors which s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n with a r t m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g how they i n t e r a c t e d w i t h others d u r i n g a r t episodes. End products have been o c c a s i o n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o , but have not been analyzed. Where behavior observed o u t s i d e the a r t area i l l u m i n a t e d or informed behavior i n the a r t area, i t has been r e f e r r e d t o as w e l l . N e i t h e r a r t products nor b e h a v i o r o u t s i d e the a r t areas were fundamental p a r t s of the study, however. Furthermore, while the s u b j e c t s ' behaviors were the f o c a l p o i n t s of t h i s work, the behaviors of others who i n t e r a c t e d with the s u b j e c t s needed a l s o t o be addressed i n a study concerned with the group s e t t i n g . Both the p r e s e n t a t i o n and the a n a l y s i s of the data, t h e r e f o r e , have r e f e r r e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o the s u b j e c t s , to others w i t h i n the immediate s e t t i n g . F i n a l l y , because only f o u r s u b j e c t s have been d e a l t with i n a s p e c i f i c context, r e s u l t s have not been presented as having g e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the broad p r e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , but r a t h e r as c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , perhaps i n v o l v i n g l a r g e r numbers. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND RESEARCH Introduction Research i n the f i e l d of A r t E d u c a t i o n has, s i n c e the t u r n of the century, been dominated by a focus on p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s , and on the behavior of the i n d i v i d u a l i n producing a r t (Chapman, 1982, p.105). A p a r a l l e l i n f l u e n c e has been evident i n the n o t i o n t h a t the i d e a l i n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t should be r e p r e s e n t e d by spontaneous, unique work (produced without a d u l t i n t e r f e r e n c e or v i s u a l models), thought to be the r e s u l t of i n e v i t a b l e development. A c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n of the f o r c e s which brought about t h i s s t a t e can be found i n Smith (1982, pp.296-298.). Wi t h i n the past 10 to 15 years, however, a growing movement w i t h i n the f i e l d can be i d e n t i f i e d which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s a t t e n t i o n t o s o c i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s . T h i s t r e n d has heightened awareness of ways i n which s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t a r t education, and has a l s o promoted an a d j u s t e d view of the needs of the d e v e l o p i n g a r t student. T h i s view, which r e c o g n i z e s the i n t i m a t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l i s s u e s i n the f i e l d , prepared the s e t t i n g out of which the present 14 work has grown. The d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s w i l l summarize r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h . In order to present a somewhat e x t e n s i v e background, I have s e l e c t e d sources from the f i e l d s o f s o c i o l o g y , s o c i a l - psychology, a r t education, e a r l y c h i l d h o o d education, and psychology. Sociology, S o c i a l Psychology, and the School Perhaps an a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t at which to begin i s with Berger and.Luckmann (1966), who argue t h a t one's very sense of what i s " r e a l " i n everyday l i f e , both o b j e c t i v e l y and s u b j e c t i v e l y speaking, i s a c t u a l l y the r e s u l t of our humanly c o n s t r u c t e d system o f common knowledge. B u i l t up from a r b i t r a r i l y h a b i t u a l i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s with others i n t o a network of p o w e r f u l l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h i s everyday " r e a l i t y " i s made a l l the more concrete, i s maintained, s t o r e d , and t r a n s m i t t e d through language. Such an a n a l y s i s e x p l a i n s t o an extent how human beings world wide, so p h y s i c a l l y a l i k e , can e a s i l y have developed v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , v e r s i o n s of "the way t h i n g s a r e " . For the purpose of t h i s study, however, the p o i n t i s a b a s i c one: our p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , i n a most profound way, are molded by the s o c i e t y i n which we 15 l i v e , s p e c i f i c a l l y through the i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t we have with others i n our environment. We must not, t h e r e f o r e , make assumptions about "what i s " without t a k i n g i n t o account t h a t i n f l u e n c e . D i s c u s s i o n on how environment can a f f e c t student l e a r n i n g i s found i n a number of t e x t s . These have been b r i e f l y summarized to p r o v i d e a sense of the scope of i s s u e s which t h i s t o p i c encompasses. Sarane S. Boocock's I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S o c i o l o g y of L e a r n i n g (1972) concerns i t s e l f s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h "school success" as opposed to l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l , arguing t h a t "adequate performance i n s c h o o l r e q u i r e s more than p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s " (p.4). Learning, she notes, r e q u i r e s substance or content -- what i t i s t h a t one l e a r n s or achieves; some k i n d of i n t e r a c t i o n with another person or o b j e c t ; and a c o g n i t i v e change or movement from one p o i n t to another. She p o i n t s out, however, t h a t what one l e a r n s and how one i s taught i n school are dependent upon what i s p e r c e i v e d to be e d u c a t i o n a l l y v a l u a b l e and on the p a r t i c u l a r view of "what c h i l d r e n are l i k e " w i t h i n a given s o c i e t y . Boocock b e l i e v e s t h a t human beings have an innate d r i v e to i n t e r a c t with t h e i r environments; she t h e r e f o r e contends t h a t the s c h o o l ' s mandate must be to ensure 16 t h a t i t s environment s t i m u l a t e s the development of i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l i n every student. F u r t h e r , she argues t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s of the n a t u r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s possessed by i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n (our measures of which remain i m p r e c i s e ) , i t i s s o c i a l background which prepares one f o r or prevents one from de v e l o p i n g a r e a d i n e s s to r e c e i v e the " l e a r n i n g " a v a i l a b l e i n s c h o o l s . In a n a l y z i n g these f a c t o r s , Boocock d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n to r e s e a r c h a v a i l a b l e on f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e and s t r u c t u r e ; sex d i f f e r e n c e s ; i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s ; school and classroom s t r u c t u r e s and r o l e s w i t h i n them; and t e a c h e r s and peers, each as they have impact on l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l . Her c o n c l u s i o n s o v e r a l l emphasize the important r o l e of i n t e r a c t i o n , w i t h parents, with peers, and with t e a c h e r s , i n a f f e c t i n g school success. E s p e c i a l l y she notes t h a t the v a l u e s and the composition of the student body, a f f e c t e d i n t u r n by s o c i e t a l and f a m i l y v a l u e s , p l a y a very s t r o n g r o l e i n p r e d i c t i n g student achievement. A second t e x t , The S o c i a l Psychology of School L e a r n i n g (McMillan, 1980) analyzes not l e a r n i n g g e n e r a l l y , but the f a c t o r s " i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t a f f e c t p u p i l d e c i s i o n s t o engage i n s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r s " (p.3). D e a l i n g with s o c i a l psychology r a t h e r than s o c i o l o g y , t h i s t e x t p l a c e s g r e a t e r emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g b e h a v i o r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of o v e r l a p i n the t o p i c s covered by Boocock and Mc M i l l a n . McMillan notes t h a t h i s approach assumes "as a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s the n o t i o n t h a t l e a r n i n g behavior i s understood best by examining the v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the s o c i a l environment" (p.12). Drawing on theory p r o v i d e d by a number of rec o g n i z e d s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s (Brook and E r i c k s o n , and Bandura, among others) McMillan proposes a model which suggests t h a t , i n order t o understand the l e a r n i n g process, one must analyze how i n d i v i d u a l s make d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o behavior w i t h i n a s o c i a l c o ntext. F a c t o r s t o be weighed, he says, i n c l u d e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the needs t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s b r i n g t o a give n s i t u a t i o n , and the feedback they r e c e i v e from " s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s " , from the group, and from the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e as t o a p p r o p r i a t e behavior w i t h i n a s e t t i n g . P a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s are made wit h regard t o the f a m i l i a r i t y or u n f a m i l i a r i t y of the s e t t i n g , whether the s e t t i n g s t i p u l a t e s s p e c i f i c or ambiguous behavior, and the c r e d i b i l i t y of s i g n i f i c a n t 18 others, as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g b e h a v i o r . From t h i s framework, Irene Hanson F r i e z e (1980) focuses on i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e f s about the causes they a t t r i b u t e t o success or f a i l u r e w i t h i n a s e t t i n g . Noted are f a c t o r s such as whether determinants are seen as being i n f l u e n c e d by luck or e f f o r t , i n t e n t i o n a l l y or u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , i n t e r n a l l y or e x t e r n a l l y . Of i n t e r e s t t o the c u r r e n t study, evidence i s found t h a t success f o r a r t i s t i c t a s k s i s more o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o a b i l i t y than t o e f f o r t . In a d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e d by Thomas L. Good (1980), i t i s argued t h a t teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e achievement. Again with p e r t i n e n c e to t h i s study, the p a r t i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e of t e a c h e r s over young c h i l d r e n i s noted: For a v a r i e t y of reasons, i t would seem t h a t t eacher e x p e c t a t i o n s exert more i n f l u e n c e on student achievement i n elementary s c h o o l than i n secondary s c h o o l s . Young c h i l d r e n are more impressionable and are more anxious t o p l e a s e a d u l t s than are o l d e r c h i l d r e n .... In s h o r t , t e a c h e r s have the chance t o d e f i n e f o r young students the meaning of s c h o o l work and t h e i r l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i n performing i t (p.106) . On the s u b j e c t of student-student i n f l u e n c e s on achievement, David W. Johnson (1980) notes t h a t " i n the classroom, the i n f l u e n c e s r e s u l t i n g from student- student r e l a t i o n s h i p s have more powerful e f f e c t s on achievement, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and development than any other f a c t o r , yet the importance and power of peer i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the classroom are o f t e n ignored" (p.25) . Thought to be a d i r e c t r e s u l t of peer i n t e r a c t i o n , the s k i l l of " p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g " i s a l s o p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u e d e d u c a t i o n a l l y . Notes Johnson, S o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g may be d e f i n e d as the a b i l i t y t o understand how a s i t u a t i o n appears to another person, and how t h a t person i s r e a c t i n g c o g n i t i v e l y and e m o t i o n a l l y to the s i t u a t i o n . P i a g e t views a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l development as a p r o g r e s s i v e l o s s of egocentrism and an i n c r e a s e i n a b i l i t y t o take wider and more complex p e r s p e c t i v e s , (p.130) Other i s s u e s d e a l t with i n t h i s t e x t i n c l u d e the s c h o o l as a " m i n i - c u l t u r e " , t r a n s m i t t i n g norms and 20 r o l e s ; the i n f l u e n c e of the h i e r a r c h i c a l elements of the school on students and t e a c h e r s ; and the e f f e c t s of rewards and punishments on m o t i v a t i o n . With r e s p e c t t o the f i n a l i s s u e , and with a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o a r t education, a study by Lepper, Greene, and N i s b e t t (1973) i s c i t e d i n which the " e f f e c t of rewards on the i n t r i n s i c v a lue of drawing on p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n " was measured. In t h i s study, th r e e groups of c h i l d r e n were used...; one group agreed to r e c e i v e a reward f o r drawing; the second group r e c e i v e d an unexpected reward; and the t h i r d group was g i v e n no reward. The group t h a t expected and r e c e i v e d the reward showed a d e c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n drawing over time than the other two groups, (p.222) The work p o i n t s out the importance of d e v e l o p i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n students, perhaps the s t r o n g e s t o v e r a l l message of the t e x t . Such a t t i t u d e s would v a l u e study and achievement f o r t h e i r i n t r i n s i c rewards r a t h e r than f o r e x t r i n s i c ones; they are i n f l u e n c e d by p r i o r experiences as w e l l as the enthusiasm of the teacher and other students f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , and are r e l a t e d t o a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . A t h i r d work d e a l i n g with s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s i s We've A l l Got Scars: What Boys and G i r l s Learn i n Elementary School (Best, 1983). T h i s work documents a 4-year study i n which the author acted as p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r / c o n f i d a n t e f o r one c l a s s of students i n an elementary s c h o o l . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g achievement, Best's involvement l e d her to pursue a hunch t h a t acceptance by the peer group might be an important m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g t o read. I t a l s o caused her to uncover a complex student s u b - c u l t u r e , e x i s t i n g o u t s i d e the academic agenda, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h i s case on the boys i n the s c h o o l . Best's work d e s c r i b e s the e v o l u t i o n of a group of " d i s p a r a t e " males i n grade one, to a h i g h l y d e f i n e d " s e c r e t c l u b " i n grade t h r e e . The c l u b had a c l e a r membership, and i t s r u l e s p r o v i d e d an agenda whereby i t s members c o u l d "prove" t h e i r manhood through a s e r i e s of c h a l l e n g e s . The c l u b excluded g i r l s , but a l s o boys who were not deemed to be up to the standard. C o i n c i d e n t a l l y , the excluded boys were the very ones who seemed t o develop low m o t i v a t i o n s to l e a r n . The c l u b grew powerful enough to impose i t s own w i l l on the classroom at times, i n s p i t e of e f f o r t s by the t e a c h e r t o overcome i t s i n f l u e n c e . 22 The study l e d Best to conclude t h a t peer i n t e r a c t i o n i n schools i s i n f a c t a powerful i n f l u e n c e , one t h a t can d e f i n e and e n f o r c e behavior and e f f e c t m o t i v a t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l l y . Indeed, the e f f e c t s on the excluded boys seemed to reach beyond the consequences of low achievement; those c h i l d r e n were, a c c o r d i n g t o Best, e m o t i o n a l l y " s c a r r e d " by the experience. To d e a l with the s i t u a t i o n , Best i n s t i t u t e d an ongoing d i s c u s s i o n group with the members of the whole c l a s s . As a r e s u l t the students g r a d u a l l y gained the s k i l l s needed to communicate with one another more openly. In l a t e r years, members of the c l a s s r e t a i n e d the c l o s e s u p p o r t i v e nature of t h e i r group, and appeared t o be l e s s e a s i l y i n f l u e n c e d by n e g a t i v e s o c i a l f o r c e s which a f f e c t e d other students i n t h e i r s c h o o l . A f i n a l t e x t of g e n e r a l r e l e v a n c e to t h i s t o p i c i s The S o c i a l Psychology of C r e a t i v i t y (Amabile, 1983). Again d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l psychology r a t h e r than w i t h s o c i o l o g y , Amabile concerns h e r s e l f predominantly with f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y kinds of human i n t e r a c t i o n s , t h a t a f f e c t c r e a t i v i t y . While i t i s c l e a r t h a t c r e a t i v i t y and a r t i s t i c behavior are not n e c e s s a r i l y one and the same, c r e a t i v i t y has long been a concern of a r t educators, and a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of t a s k s p r o v i d e d 23 to students by contemporary a r t educators can be s a i d t o r e q u i r e " c r e a t i v e " s k i l l s as Amabile d e f i n e s them. In her summary of the r e s e a r c h reviewed, Amabile admits t h a t whether or not i t i s p o s s i b l e t o enhance c r e a t i v i t y remains i n q u e s t i o n . I t i s e a s i e r t o determine how c r e a t i v i t y i s i n t e r f e r e d with than how i t i s i n c r e a s e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s she notes a number of s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which can a f f e c t c r e a t i v i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r she d i s c u s s e s task m o t i v a t i o n and the n e c e s s i t y f o r the e x i s t e n c e of i n t r i n s i c r a t h e r than e x t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n s . C o n t r o l , e s p e c i a l l y with r e s p e c t t o how to approach or s o l v e problems, i t c i t e d as being important t o the c r e a t i v e process as w e l l . The i s s u e of modelling, or the va l u e of having a mentor or a c r e a t i v e model, i s i d e n t i f i e d as b e ing r a t h e r complex. On one hand, exposure t o a c r e a t i v e model can prove i n s p i r a t i o n a l i n many cases; on the other, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o become over-dependent on a model and be unable t o break away from t h a t i n f l u e n c e i n order t o develop a person approach. Amabile's advice f o r p r o v i d i n g a sc h o o l environment conducive t o c r e a t i v i t y i s t h a t : The parent or teacher should be encouraging but r a t h e r detached, f o s t e r i n g independence and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . E v a l u a t i o n and s u r v e i l l a n c e should be kept to a minimum; e v a l u a t i o n might be approached by encouraging students t o make p o s i t i v e c r i t i q u e s of t h e i r own and other's work. The p h y s i c a l environment should be " p e r c e p t u a l l y and c o g n i t i v e l y s t i m u l a t i n g " (p.196) . Peer p r e s s u r e to conform can sometimes be a negative f o r c e ; t e a c h e r s might c o n s i d e r encouraging students not to conform. Student programs should i n c l u d e exposure to c r e a t i v e models and to c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . An i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n should be f o s t e r e d by f o c u s i n g on the enjoyable and p o s i t i v e aspects of work. An u n s t r u c t u r e d r a t h e r than a t r a d i t i o n a l , c o n t r o l l e d classroom environment should be e s t a b l i s h e d . A p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n begins to develop from the accumulation of r e s e a r c h summarized i n these t e x t s . 25 T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n speaks t o the o v e r a l l importance o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as a f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g . I t reminds us t h a t the environment i n which l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e i s of human c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t h a t the choice of environment may encourage or exclude c e r t a i n l e a r n e r s . While the tea c h e r i s a key p l a y e r i n c r e a t i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l atmosphere, the student group and the val u e s i t promotes a l s o have a hig h impact on i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s made i n s c h o o l . As w e l l , the a r t s , or at the very l e a s t c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , are not l e s s a f f e c t e d by i n t e r a c t i o n and the s o c i a l environment than other s u b j e c t s i n s c h o o l . These ideas seem t o pr o v i d e the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r much contemporary r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e w i t h i n a r t ed u c a t i o n . A summary of t h a t work i s p r o v i d e d next. S o c i a l Interaction Perspectives i n Art Education Among the f i r s t t o promote s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w i t h i n the f i e l d o f A r t Ed u c a t i o n were Brent and M a r j o r i e Wilson (1982; 1982a; 1977). C r i t i c a l of t e n e t s i n the f i e l d i n f l u e n c e d by V i k t o r Lowenfeld, e s p e c i a l l y those which supported the n o t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c s k i l l s should be allowed t o develop spontaneously and without a d u l t i n t e r f e r e n c e , the Wilsons p o i n t out t h a t a r t educators a c t u a l l y 26 i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t products through t h a t very p o l i c y o f n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n . Evidence f o r these a c c u s a t i o n s i s found, they argue, i n the d i s t i n c t i o n s between "school a r t " and "non-school" work produced o u t s i d e the school agenda. The l a t t e r form, s t a t e the Wilsons, stems from sources found i n t e l e v i s i o n and comic books, and seems t o be the more meaningful form to young a r t i s t s , b e i n g sparked by i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n , through which r e a l - l i f e i s s u e s are e x p l o r e d (1982) . The Wilsons c h a l l e n g e the n o t i o n t h a t much of c h i l d r e n ' s g r a p h i c work i s a c t u a l l y u n i v e r s a l , n o t i n g t h a t a s p e c i f i c form, thought t o be among those produced by a l l c h i l d r e n i n e a r l y stages of development, has s i n c e disappeared and can be t r a c e d t o s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s of the time (1982a). F u r t h e r , the Wilsons f i n d t h a t the concept of spontaneous development i n c h i l d r e n ' s drawing has probably i n t e r f e r e d with many c h i l d r e n ' s g r a p h i c development, l a r g e l y through the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t each drawing task i n v o l v e s d e v e l o p i n g a unique image. Rather, the Wilsons t h e o r i z e t h a t drawing i s r e a l l y a k i n d of v i s u a l sign-making t h a t begins by d e v e l o p i n g a b a s i c "schema" f o r each of a v a r i e t y of o b j e c t s , then a l t e r i n g i t t o " f i t " the r e a l or imagined image. These 27 b a s i c drawing "programs", say the Wilsons, emerge not from a c r e a t i v e e x p l o s i o n but through copying images a v a i l a b l e through the media and from the " t e a c h i n g s " of s i b l i n g s and peers (1977). Advocates of a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of a c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n between a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n i n order to encourage g r a p h i c development, the Wilsons note t h a t c h i l d r e n o f t e n choose to draw i n groups of t h e i r peers, and r e g u l a r l y show one another "how" to draw. O v e r a l l the Wilson l i t e r a t u r e b u i l d s an a l t e r e d p e r c e p t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s g r a p h i c experience, one steeped i n media and s o c i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d imagery and n u r t u r e d by peers — q u i t e o u t s i d e the formerly e s t a b l i s h e d sphere of a r t e d u c a t i o n . Paul Duncum (1984) p r o v i d e s support f o r the Wilsons' c o n t e n t i o n s about copying and i n t e r a c t i o n i n art-making through examining the c h i l d h o o d experiences of a r t i s t s and i l l u s t r a t o r s . Copying, e s p e c i a l l y from popular images of the day, was the most f r e q u e n t l y used s t r a t e g y r e p o r t e d ; as w e l l , s e v e r a l examples of a d u l t a r t i s t i c r o l e models were found. Research conducted by Norman Yakel (198X) concludes t h a t the g r e a t e s t gains i n c h i l d r e n ' s drawing a b i l i t i e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 28 copying a r t i s t ' s images as opposed t o drawing from a " r e a l " o b j e c t . Yakel argues t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s copying and i m i t a t i o n should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o young c h i l d r e n ' s v i s u a l a r t ed u c a t i o n . Diana Korzenik (1981, 1979 and 1974) a l s o o f f e r s s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n a r t educ a t i o n . In an e a r l y a r t i c l e (1974) she concludes, through r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g 5 t o 7-year o l d s , t h a t the c a p a c i t y t o make images which are "readable" t o others — understandable from another's p e r s p e c t i v e — may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f s o c i a l m a t u r i t y . A second a r t i c l e (1979) proposes t h a t drawing must be a l e a r n e d r a t h e r than an in n a t e behavior f o r two reasons. F i r s t , she notes t h a t , p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y , we are unable t o "see" the world i n s t i l l images. Drawing i s , t h e r e f o r e , a matter not of d e p i c t i n g what we see, but of t r a n s f o r m i n g what we see i n t o " f r o z e n p i c t u r e s " . To do t h i s , says Korzenik, c h i l d r e n must use what they have l e a r n e d about making images through watching people make and use a r t , and l i s t e n i n g t o people t a l k about a r t ; i n other words, they draw on the p o o l of s o c i a l knowledge a v a i l a b l e t o them about the t o p i c . Because, says Korzenik, at l e a s t two s e t s of common knowledge e x i s t i n our s o c i e t y (one r e l a t e d t o a c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e , and one r e l a t e d t o 29 a d u l t c u l t u r e ) i n f o r m a t i o n about drawing which c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e may var y . F i n a l l y , Korzenik (1981) p r o v i d e s evidence t h a t awareness of c h i l d a r t (as d i s t i n c t from a d u l t a r t ) i s l i n k e d t o the r e c o g n i t i o n of " c h i l d h o o d " as a phase i n human development. F u r t h e r , she argues t h a t our emphasis on a p a r t i c u l a r phase of c h i l d a r t may be r e l a t e d t o gen e r a l trends i n the world o f a d u l t h i g h a r t . Graeme Chalmers (1981, 1984) was among a r t educators t o draw a t t e n t i o n e a r l y on t o the f a c t t h a t a r t e d u c a t i o n must be viewed with r e g a r d t o s o c i a l i s s u e s . His a r t i c l e "Art Education as Ethnology" (1981) argues t h a t a r t should be conceived o f as c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t , and t h e r e f o r e as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r d i s c u s s i o n on a broad range of s o c i a l s t u d i e s . In t h i s v e i n , a r t educa t i o n would concern i t s e l f predominantly with the "why" of a r t . In a l a t e r a r t i c l e (1984) he reminds the reader t h a t our " a e s t h e t i c " p e r c e p t i o n s and valu e s grow out of a c u l t u r a l context; thus we impose meaning on a r t works from the p e r s p e c t i v e of our own c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Karen Hamblen (1984) r e i n f o r c e s these n o t i o n s , arguing t h a t " a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n i s a matter of 30 l e a r n i n g s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of the a e s t h e t i c " (p.21). Nancy Johnson (1982) comes t o s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s , reminding us t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s meanings about a r t stem from s o c i a l knowledge, t r a n s m i t t e d by a r t t e a c h e r s e n c u l t u r a t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r ways. Joseph R. LaChapelle (1983, 1984) has concerned h i m s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y with s o c i a l i s s u e s i n h e r e n t i n c r e a t i v i t y . In " C r e a t i v i t y Research: I t s S o c i o l o g i c a l and E d u c a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s " (1983) LaChapelle d i s c u s s e s the changes t h a t have e v o l v e d h i s t o r i c a l l y w ith r e s p e c t to the concept of c r e a t i v i t y , and the need t o look more c l o s e l y at the s o c i o l o g i c a l i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o i t . On one l e v e l , he p o i n t s t o the f a c t t h a t our understanding of c r e a t i v i t y i s l i n k e d to i n f l u e n c e s of s o c i a l thought at a given time. A l s o , he notes t h a t we must be c a r e f u l t o d e f i n e c r e a t i v i t y i n ways which are u s e f u l t o v i s u a l a r t e d u c a t i o n . He emphasizes t h a t , because a r t s groups e x i s t w i t h i n a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , many d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y must be t o l e r a t e d . A second a r t i c l e by LaChapelle (1984) p o i n t s out t h a t , i n the past, s o c i o l o g i c a l and other s t u d i e s d i r e c t e d toward v i s u a l a r t have focused on the a l i e n a t i o n of the a r t i s t and the a r t i s t i c community 31 from the dominant c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g to LaChapelle, however, contemporary r e s e a r c h e r s have begun to p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on the ways i n which the a r t i s t i c community f u n c t i o n s as a cohesive s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . This allows a r t making to be viewed not as the i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t y of an estranged i n d i v i d u a l , but as work t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n the context of a p a r t i c u l a r community environment. T h i s concept i n t u r n allows us t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t many forms of a r t may be produced w i t h i n a s o c i e t y , and t h a t we need not f e e l compelled to "rank" them a c c o r d i n g t o v a l u e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t from t h i s summary t h a t many of the sentiments e v i d e n t w i t h i n the s o c i o l o g y and the s o c i a l psychology of general education have permeated a r t e d u c a t i o n as w e l l . T h i s i s only s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t o f the s t r e n g t h of former d i r e c t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t focused on the p e r s o n a l and the spontaneously developmental natures of a r t a c t i v i t y . Current thought i n the f i e l d now r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a r t i s the product of c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s , and t h a t educators w i l l i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t products even i f attempting not t o . In a c c e p t i n g t h a t a r t i s a c u l t u r a l product, educators can t h e r e f o r e r e c o g n i z e t h a t c e r t a i n a r t i s t i c 32 conventions can be and should be taught. The most e f f e c t i v e methods found to date seem to i n v o l v e i n t e r a c t i o n : with a r t products, w i t h t e a c h e r s ; w i t h peers. At the same time a r t educators need not deny the u n i q u e l y p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s of the a r t i s t i c p rocess, t h a t p a r t of art-making t h a t i n v o l v e s the p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of concepts and f e e l i n g s . I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t even t h i s " c r e a t i v e " aspect of a r t demands a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l environment. The need f o r a balance between a focus on p e r s o n a l v i s i o n and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e i s apparent. Preschoolers and S o c i a l Interaction Having e s t a b l i s h e d evidence of s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n both g e n e r a l education and a r t education, i t remains necessary to summarize r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . Here the o r i e n t a t i o n a l t e r s somewhat, f o r the tendency with e a r l y c h i l d h o o d l i t e r a t u r e i s to view p r e s c h o o l e r s ' a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the context of p l a y and e x p l o r a t i o n of the environment. A r t m a t e r i a l s are but one category of items a v a i l a b l e t o the c h i l d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . L i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to t h i s s e c t i o n can be found w i t h i n d i s c u s s i o n of p l a y and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among p r e s c h o o l e r s as w e l l as w i t h i n 33 l i t e r a t u r e on preschool a r t , and the r o l e of the teacher i n preschool s e t t i n g s . The f i r s t s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s reviewed deals w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n g e n e r a l l y among c h i l d r e n of preschool age. Mueller and Lucas (1975) suggest three developmental stages of t o d d l e r i n t e r a c t i o n . The f i r s t stage, t y p i c a l i n one-year-olds, i n v o l v e s no (or very infrequent) exchanges between c h i l d r e n ; r a t h e r , i n t e r a c t i o n focuses on a pl a y object, i n s i t u a t i o n s when one c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n a toy a t t r a c t s another c h i l d to the object as w e l l . A second stage, c a l l e d "simple and complex contingency exchanges" (p.237) may inc l u d e behaviors such as i m i t a t i o n and t u r n t a k i n g , but the i n t e r a c t i o n i s l i k e n e d to s u b s t i t u t i n g a c h i l d f o r an object or toy, and i s not a tru e exchange. The f i n a l stage, "complementary interchange" (p.247), i n v o l v e s r e c i p r o c a l , interdependent a c t i o n s , or i n t e r a c t i o n i n the conventional sense. A study by Mueller and Brenner (1977) found t h a t t o d d l e r i n t e r a c t i o n increased as c h i l d r e n matured, and that sustained i n t e r a c t i o n s were most frequent among age-mates wi t h whom subjects were acquainted. The study d i s t i n g u i s h e s between i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h people and with o b j e c t s , and between i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l 34 behavior ( v o c a l i z i n g , l o o k i n g ) . The authors note t h a t n e a r l y a l l the i n t e r a c t i o n s observed i n t h e i r study o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of i n t e r e s t i n a p l a y o b j e c t , a l s o p o i n t i n g out t h a t one c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n an o b j e c t seemed to make i t more i n t e r e s t i n g t o o t h e r s . F i n a l l y , M u e l l e r and Brenner argue t h a t p a r a l l e l p l a y ( p l a y i n g s i d e by s i d e without exchanges) seems to be a source of i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s argument, they note, runs counter t o the n o t i o n t h a t one develops s o c i a l s k i l l s f i r s t and then begins t o i n t e r a c t . A t h i r d a r t i c l e d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among p r e s c h o o l e r s (Etaugh, C o l l i n s , and Staulcup, 1979) compares the l e v e l of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a group of "10 boys and 3 g i r l s (mean age at the be g i n n i n g of the study = 23.8 months) over a p e r i o d of 8 months" (p.159) with the r e s u l t s of e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study were t h a t "unoccupied b e h a v i o r decreased over semesters, while p a r a l l e l p l a y i n c r e a s e d " (p.160) and t h a t s u b j e c t s spent more time i n s o l i t a r y , unoccupied, or onlooker a c t i v i t y than d i d s u b j e c t s of compared s t u d i e s . The r e s u l t s were a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t t h a t s u b j e c t s of t h i s study had fewer s i b l i n g s and t h e r e f o r e fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l i z i n g than d i d s u b j e c t s of the compared s t u d i e s . 35 A d i s t i n c t i o n has been made by r e s e a r c h e r s between i n t e r a c t i o n with an o b j e c t and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h another i n d i v i d u a l . A d i s c u s s i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h novel o b j e c t s by 3 to 5-year o l d s u b j e c t s i s found i n a study by Schneider, Moch, S t a n d f o r t , Averswald, and Walter- Weckman (1983). Here the authors r e f e r t o e a r l i e r s t u d i e s i n which the sequence of behaviors r e l a t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g a novel o b j e c t by p r e s c h o o l e r s moved from v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n t o ma n i p u l a t i o n t o p l a y . These authors observe t h a t v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f an o b j e c t seems t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s from which the c h i l d decides to continue i n t e r a c t i n g with the o b j e c t or t o move on to something e l s e . M a n i p u l a t i n g i s the next step, l a t e r e v o l v i n g t o " p l a y i n g " with the o b j e c t , which i s d e f i n e d i n the study as e i t h e r unconventional m a n i p u l a t i o n or t r a n s f o r m i n g the f u n c t i o n o f the o b j e c t -- u s i n g i t as i f i t were something e l s e . They note t h a t " p l a y " with the o b j e c t i n c r e a s e d with the age of the c h i l d r e n . B a s i c a l l y , they concur with the sequence of b e h a v i ors d e s c r i b e d i n the e a r l i e r s t u d i e s with which they compare t h e i r work, but f i n d t h a t the process i s not always l i n e a r ; c h i l d r e n may move back and f o r t h between p l a y and manipulation, f o r example. 36 Parten (9171) deal s with i n t e r a c t i o n , p l a c i n g a r t a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the o v e r a l l context of the p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . Using s i x c a t e g o r i e s of behavior (unoccupied; s o l i t a r y ; onlooker; p a r a l l e l , a s s o c i a t i v e ; and or g a n i z e d supplementary p l a y ) , Parten made a number of o b s e r v a t i o n s . These were t h a t : 1) c h i l d r e n were most commonly observed p l a y i n g i n groups of two wi t h p a r t n e r s of the same sex; 2) i t was u s u a l l y not p o s s i b l e t o determine whether s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n or a p l a y o b j e c t served . as the m o t i v a t i o n f o r a c h i l d t o engage i n p l a y ; 3) of 110 a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d , 12 were observed over 100 times each. The most commonly observed a c t i v i t i e s were, i n order of d e c r e a s i n g frequency: Sandbox p l a y ; p l a y w i t h d o l l s ; p l a y with t r a i n s ; r i d i n g " k i d d i e k a r s " ; and p l a y w i t h s c i s s o r s and paper. Parten notes t h a t the use of c l a y and p a i n t were the 6th and 11th most frequent c h o i c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . She observes t h a t "the more complicated c o n s t r u c t i o n p l a y t h a t u t i l i z e d c l a y , paper, or p a i n t s became more popular as the c h i l d r e n grew o l d e r " (p.89). Parten a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t p a i n t i n g a t t r a c t e d more onlookers than any other a c t i v i t y and t h a t c h i l d r e n " o c c a s i o n a l l y conversed about t h e i r p a i n t i n g s and were eager t o d i s p l a y the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s " 37 (p.93). In r a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r encouraging s o c i a l i z a t i o n , p l a y i n g house scored h i g h e s t . "Sand p l a y and c o n s t r u c t i v e work with c l a y , paper, beads, and p a i n t s , are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p a r a l l e l p l a y a c t i v i t i e s , " she concludes (p.93). The work pres e n t e d by Wolfgang and Sanders (198 6) i s a l s o h e l p f u l i n p l a c i n g a r t a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the gene r a l context o f the p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . The authors r e f e r t o two c a t e g o r i e s of p l a y , sensori-motor and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l . Sensori-motor p l a y , say Wolfgang and Sanders "begins at b i r t h and continues throughout l i f e . T h i s i s a c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n o f the world through the senses and through small and l a r g e muscle systems. In SM p l a y , the c h i l d i s not attempting t o express i n t e r n a l thoughts, but r a t h e r i n e x p l o r i n g the e x t e r n a l world at the body l e v e l . SM seems to be s u s t a i n e d by a d r i v e towards mastery" (p.51). The second category of pl a y , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l , i n c l u d e s both symbolic p l a y and c o n s t r u c t i v e p l a y . A c c o r d i n g t o these authors, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p l a y i s understood t o be t h a t form through which an i n d i v i d u a l expresses p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and concepts. In symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p l a y , the c h i l d uses dramatic "make-believe" i n a range of ways to ex p l o r e ideas and s i t u a t i o n s . C o n s t r u c t i v e 38 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p l a y , on the other hand, i n v o l v e s the use of m a t e r i a l s t o b u i l d or c o n s t r u c t forms and images r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . The l a t t e r form, of course, i s the one i n t o which v i s u a l a r t a c t i v i t y would f a l l . The authors i n c l u d e b l o c k s i n a d d i t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l a r t m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n t h i s category. From t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , the authors move on to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a "teacher behavior continuum"; t h e i r ideas on t h i s t o p i c w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the next s e c t i o n . With r e s p e c t t o the teac h e r ' s r o l e i n encouraging p l a y w i t h i n a p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g , V i r g i n i a P. Green (1986) argues t h a t a d u l t s need t o take a st r o n g e r r o l e . She promotes "play i n t e r v e n t i o n t r a i n i n g " , which takes the t e a c h e r from a s t r i c t l y f a c i l i t a t i n g r o l e t o one i n which he/she may i n t e r v e n e i n p l a y i n order t o "... r e v i t a l i z e , c l a r i f y , and expand the p l a y , but not t o promote content or manage the a c t i v i t i e s " (p.17). T h i s may take the form of a s k i n g questions or making suggestions on one hand t o m o d e l l i n g behavior on the other. She notes t h a t a d u l t s tend t o be h e s i t a n t t o become i n v o l v e d i n c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y due to embarrassment or the b e l i e f t h a t such a c t i o n w i l l be a neg a t i v e f o r c e . A d u l t h e s i t a t i o n s can be overcome e a s i l y w i t h 39 t r a i n i n g , however, notes Green. Joan Tamburrini (198 6) concurs with Green i n advocating g r e a t e r p l a y i n t e r v e n t i o n on the p a r t of tea c h e r s , a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h i n g extending and r e d i r e c t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . She notes t h a t "there i s a growing amount of evidence t h a t c h i l d r e n f u n c t i o n at t h e i r most capable when the a d u l t ' s a c t i o n s synchronize w i t h the c h i l d ' s i n t e n t i o n s and help e l a b o r a t e them" (p.46). Such involvement shows a b a s i c r e s p e c t and v a l u i n g f o r p l a y . a c t i v i t y , argues Tamburrini. The work by Wolfgang and Sanders (1986), r e f e r r e d t o p r e v i o u s l y , p r o v i d e s a continuum of techniques f o r tea c h e r s who would l i k e t o s u s t a i n c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y w i t h i n a p r e s c h o o l environment. The c a t e g o r i e s they d e a l with are: a c t i v e l o o k i n g on; n o n - d i r e c t i v e statements; q u e s t i o n making; d i r e c t i v e statements; mod e l l i n g ; and p h y s i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . The g o a l , they propose, i s to maintain and extend p l a y by u s i n g the l e a s t i n t e r v e n i n g form p o s s i b l e , r e t r e a t i n g t o a c t i v e looking-on behavior when the p l a y i s s u s t a i n e d (p.61). O l i v i a N. Saracho (1986) deal s with p l a y and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e i n p r e s c h o o l e r s , n o t i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y types tend t o p l a y i n d i f f e r e n t ways. In p a r t i c u l a r , she d i s c u s s e s f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t and f i e l d - 40 independent behavior. The f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t c h i l d , she e x p l a i n s , tends to be more s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d , more dependent on a d u l t a u t h o r i t y , and c o o p e r a t i v e . One f i e l d dependent c h i l d o f t e n p r e f e r s to p l a y i n small groups and " l i k e s t o i m i t a t e the r o l e s of o t h e r s " (p.25). In a r t work, Saracho notes t h a t the same f i e l d dependent c h i l d "draws c i r c l e s t o represent o b j e c t s and s t i c k s t o r e p r e s e n t anything long such as t r e e s , flowers, or people" (p.25). One f i e l d independent c h i l d , on the other hand, p r e f e r s to p l a y alone and "uses a r t work and b l o c k b u i l d i n g t o communicate i d e a s " (p.26). The author notes t h a t t h i s c h i l d ' s a r t work tends to be d e t a i l e d and complex. Saracho suggests t h a t t e a c h e r s be s e n s i t i v e t o c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , u s i n g a c t i v i t i e s which complement a c h i l d ' s approach near the b e g i n n i n g of the year, but g r a d u a l l y encouraging a c t i v i t y l e s s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e i n c l i n a t i o n over time. The p e r s p e c t i v e concerning p r e s c h o o l e r s and i n t e r a c t i o n which i s p i e c e d t o g e t h e r by these s t u d i e s i s one which. r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the nature of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s developmental; t h a t types of i n t e r a c t i o n are dependent on the p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n q u e s t i o n , and t h a t a d u l t s p l a y a major r o l e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g or m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n and p l a y with o b j e c t s and with people. F u r t h e r , some evidence i s found t h a t a c h i l d ' s use of a r t m a t e r i a l s may r e f l e c t an approach to e x p l o r i n g the environment or be motivated by an i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r a c t i o n . Leah Sherman (1983) , f o r example, notes t h a t she s h i f t e d i n her study from making o b s e r v a t i o n s of s i n g l e , i s o l a t e d , c h i l d r e n t o o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t i n g f r e e l y i n a classroom s e t t i n g . T h i s change was made at the request of the t e a c h e r s , who wondered whether c h i l d r e n ' s experiences observed alone would be the same as those of c h i l d r e n working i n a group. Sherman notes t h a t although o b s e r v a t i o n became more complicated, an " i n t e r e s t i n g new f a c t o r . . . emerged i n the group s i t u a t i o n " which was " i m i t a t i o n and peer i n f l u e n c e " (p.139). She p o i n t s out t h a t c h i l d r e n seemed to i m i t a t e one another b r i e f l y but would then proceed to use the a c t i o n i n t h e i r way, " e l a b o r a t i n g upon i t and adapting i t to a unique propose" (p.140). She concludes t h a t "there seemed to be a need to r e i n f o r c e d i s c o v e r i e s by s h a r i n g them v e r b a l l y " and t h a t the "medium became a v e h i c l e f o r common experience and s o c i a l l e a r n i n g " (p.140). 42 A second study (Fucigna and Ives, 1982) re c o g n i z e s s o c i a l a c t i v i t y as b e i n g r e f l e c t e d i n a r t behaviors by the age of 24 months, i n c l u d i n g watching as a precedent t o "entrance i n t o the a r t area or f i r s t manual e x p l o r a t i o n of an a r t media" (p.49), and monologues c a r r i e d on aloud while working with a r t m a t e r i a l s . Other classmates, the authors say, "do not d i r e c t l y i m i t a t e , but w i l l take i n o t h e r s ' input and t r a n s l a t e i t i n t o t h e i r own concerns" (p.49). Summary To conclude t h i s survey of l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s apparent t h a t : 1) general trends i n educ a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t an i n t e r e s t i n the e f f e c t s t h a t environment has on student l e a r n i n g , 2) th e r e i s r e c o g n i t i o n among a r t educators t h a t a r t a c t i v i t y can no longer be c o n s i d e r e d only w i t h i n the realm o f the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t , and 3) i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l and o b j e c t i n t e r a c t i o n i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d pervade c h i l d r e n ' s use of a r t m a t e r i a l s at t h a t age. These i d e a s , then, p r o v i d e a background from which t o proceed with the c u r r e n t study. CHAPTER III PROCEDURES Introduction As p r e v i o u s l y noted, t h i s study was conducted at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's C h i l d Study Centre, i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. C o l l e c t i o n o f data took p l a c e over two s c h o o l years, 1984-85, and 1985-86. A n a l y s i s was conducted i n 1987-88. Setting The s e t t i n g i n which s u b j e c t s were observed was an ongoing p r e s c h o o l program, o f f e r e d by the centre, which c h i l d r e n attended f o r two or t h r e e h a l f - d a y s per week over the school year. The program was designed t o sim u l t a n e o u s l y p r o v i d e a p r e s c h o o l s e r v i c e t o the community and to accommodate the u n i v e r s i t y ' s need t o conduct r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d . Note t a k e r s , video cameras, and r e s e a r c h e r s conducting " t e s t s " were common i n t h i s s e t t i n g , and while they d i d not go completely unnoticed, they seemed t o be taken r a t h e r f o r granted by the c h i l d r e n . The s t a f f took c o n s i s t e n t p r e c a u t i o n s to ensure t h a t an "o v e r l o a d " of r e s e a r c h e r s d i d not occur at any p o i n t , and the q u a l i t y of the c h i l d r e n ' s experiences was s t a t e d always t o be a primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 44 The f i r s t and second years of the program took p l a c e i n d i f f e r e n t rooms of the b u i l d i n g , (an annex of an elementary school on the West s i d e of Vancouver) but the s e t t i n g s were e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r , and such as might be found i n any well-equipped p r e s c h o o l f a c i l i t y . The c h a i r s , t a b l e s , and p l a y equipment were a l l a p p r o p r i a t e to the s i z e and s a f e t y needs of young c h i l d r e n . The equipment was grouped a c c o r d i n g to types of a c t i v i t y and p l a c e d i n v i t i n g l y around the room. During the f i r s t year, f o r example, s t a t i o n s i n c l u d e d a house-play area with k i t c h e n equipment, d o l l s , beds, and c h a i r s . Other s t a t i o n s i n c l u d e d a water-play area, a l i b r a r y area, a dress-up area, a space f o r b l o c k s and p u z z l e s , a music area w i t h piano, p e r c u s s i o n instruments, and r e c o r d p l a y e r , and s e v e r a l " a r t " s t a t i o n s . The a r t s t a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of a two-sided e a s e l stocked with p a i n t i n cans, brushes, and c l e a n paper. A t a b l e was a v a i l a b l e f o r 2-D a r t work, u s u a l l y d i s p l a y i n g an assortment of drawing m a t e r i a l s and/or glue and scrap papers f o r c o l l e g e . A d d i t i o n a l t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s were a v a i l a b l e on open shelves at one s i d e of the t a b l e . A second t a b l e was o r d i n a r i l y set up f o r c l a y or p l a y dough work, with i n d i v i d u a l boards 45 and a v a r i e t y of c u t t i n g and decorating t o o l s a v a i l a b l e . A small b i n of c l a y was on the f l o o r to one side of t h i s t a b l e . In a d d i t i o n t o these s t a t i o n s , a small s l i d e , a rock i n g "boat", and va r i o u s "ride-'em"-type toys were a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n to use. A l a r g e r a b b i t named "Lop" roamed the room, to the c h i l d r e n ' s great i n t e r e s t and d e l i g h t . During the f i r s t year, c h i l d r e n a r r i v e d , were greeted,, hung up coats at designated "cubbies", and then spent a short time wi t h the parent. A f t e r a b r i e f p e r i o d (which became b r i e f e r as the year progressed) the parent departed f o r a d i s c u s s i o n group across the h a l l . C h i l d r e n were allowed to move f r e e l y throughout the room, making t h e i r own choices about a c t i v i t i e s i n which to become i n v o l v e d . One teacher and one a s s i s t a n t remained wi t h the c h i l d r e n . These ad u l t s t a l k e d w i t h and a s s i s t e d the c h i l d r e n , o f f e r i n g encouragement r a t h e r than d i r e c t i o n i n most cases. The time was about one and one-half hours i n t o t a l , and was l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d i n three p a r t s , c o n s i s t i n g of fre e play, snack time, and a b r i e f p e r i o d of outdoor play before going home. 46 In the second year, the program was very s l i g h t l y more s t r u c t u r e d i n t h a t i t i n c l u d e d a " c i r c l e time" i n which themes f o r the day were i n t r o d u c e d and a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t h a t day were d i s c u s s e d . C h i l d r e n were asked to make a s p e c i f i c c h o i ce f o r a begi n n i n g a c t i v i t y b e f o r e l e a v i n g the c i r c l e , i n order t o a v o i d over- crowding at popu l a r s t a t i o n s . S t a t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n the second year were s i m i l a r to those o f f e r e d i n the f i r s t , but sometimes were more d i r e c t e d by v i r t u e o f the m a t e r i a l s o f f e r e d . For example, heart-shaped paper was p r o v i d e d near V a l e n t i n e ' s Day, and pine cones, g l i t t e r , and glue were set out near Christmas. P l a y dough was o f f e r e d more o f t e n than c l a y . The t e a c h e r s i n the second year were d i f f e r e n t from those i n the f i r s t year, however the approaches were q u i t e s i m i l a r . L i t t l e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n was given, and the emphasis was e x p l i c i t l y on h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o e x p l o r e a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s and to g a i n confidence and independence while s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e s p e c t i n g the r i g h t s of others u s i n g the space. Subjects The s u b j e c t s were the four youngest members of the centre c l a s s e s p r o v i d e d f o r two-year-olds when da t a - g a t h e r i n g began. The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s i n t r o d u c e the s u b j e c t s : Subject "A" A h i g h l y e n e r g e t i c and c o n f i d e n t boy, "A" was i n t e r e s t e d i n the "ride-'em"- toys and other a c t i v e aspects of the p l a y environment. I t was common f o r him to spend a good p o r t i o n of h i s time i n the f i r s t year r i d i n g round and round the room, sto p p i n g b r i e f l y at many a c t i v i t i e s . He was known as an "e x p l o r e r of the environment." In the second year, when "ride-'em"-toys were not a v a i l a b l e , he showed i n t e r e s t i n man i p u l a t i n g t o o l s and u s i n g l a r g e b l o c k s and t r u c k s , as w e l l as many other a c t i v i t i e s . He was very independent, o f t e n working alone r a t h e r than w i t h o t h e r s . He was 2 . 0 years at the s t a r t of the p r o j e c t . Subject "B" A q u i e t , focused g i r l , "B" showed a great d e a l of i n t e r e s t i n a r t work du r i n g her f i r s t year. She was, ac c o r d i n g to her mother, r a t h e r experienced with a r t m a t e r i a l s , having 48 an o l d e r b r o t h e r and s i s t e r who used them r e g u l a r l y . She tended t o work very c l o s e t o her drawings; her mother i n f a c t suspected t h a t she might be somewhat n e a r - s i g h t e d . She a l s o showed a great d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n books and re a d i n g and seemed t o enjoy p a r t i c u l a r l y b e i n g w i t h a d u l t s , o f t e n seeking them out f o r v a r i o u s reasons. Subject "B" was 2.2 years at the s t a r t of the study. Subject "C" A q u i e t , o f t e n s e r i o u s boy, "C" c o u l d a l s o be very focused. One of h i s outs t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was t h a t he spent a great d e a l o f h i s time watching others, and was among the most observant of s u b j e c t s . He would o f t e n , f o r example, n o t i c e the camera or the note t a k e r when others would not. He spoke very l i t t l e i n h i s f i r s t year and seemed r a t h e r shy. His conf i d e n c e appeared t o i n c r e a s e g r e a t l y , however, by the second year and although he remained q u i e t , he began t o enjoy being w i t h the other c h i l d r e n . "C" was 2.2 years at the s t a r t of the p r o j e c t . Subject "D" A l s o r a t h e r q u i e t and watch f u l , t h i s l i t t l e g i r l seemed, however, t o p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoy the other c h i l d r e n and would o f t e n seek them out or i n i t i a t e encounters w i t h them. She spoke r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y t o both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , and her i n t e r e s t s were d i v e r s e . She tended t o spend a "medium" amount of time r a t h e r than a n o t i c e a b l y long or short amount at the a c t i v i t i e s . She a l s o seemed t o i n c r e a s e i n confidence as the p r o j e c t p rogressed. "D" was 2.0 years at the begin n i n g of the p r o j e c t . Each of the s u b j e c t s , being very young, had had l i m i t e d p r e v i o u s exposure t o the k i n d of s e t t i n g i n which t h i s study was conducted. A l s o due to t h e i r ages, none of the s u b j e c t s was h i g h l y v e r b a l at the s t a r t . During the f i r s t year, although some c h i l d r e n were m a r g i n a l l y more t a l k a t i v e than others, s u b j e c t s spoke mainly when i t was a b s o l u t e l y necessary, o f t e n when responding t o an a d u l t . Over the p e r i o d of, the study, of course, the c h i l d r e n matured, and, as a 50 r e s u l t , grew i n c r e a s i n g l y more v e r b a l and s e l f - a s s u r e d . The Data Two types of data sources were used i n t h i s study. The f i r s t source c o n s i s t e d of s i x 120-minute VHS v i d e o c a s s e t t e s f i l l e d w ith r e c o r d i n g s of s u b j e c t s as they i n t e r a c t e d with a r t m a t e r i a l s throughout the classroom, and p a r t i c u l a r l y as they moved i n t o d e s i g n a t e d a r t " s t a t i o n s . " P r e - s c h e d u l i n g f o r the taped s e s s i o n s was done i n such a way t h a t t h e r e would be equal o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c o r d each s u b j e c t on a monthly b a s i s over two school years. In most cases, each t a p i n g recorded two s u b j e c t s , because they attended c l a s s at the same time. The camera person and observer were a v a i l a b l e f o r a p e r i o d of approximately one hour f o r each of the 21 t a p i n g s e s s i o n s used. Subject A was i n v o l v e d i n e i g h t t a p i n g s ; Subject B was i n v o l v e d i n e i g h t t a p i n g s ; Subject C was i n v o l v e d i n 10 t a p i n g s ; and Subject D was i n v o l v e d i n 9 t a p i n g s . The amount of data v a r i e d among s u b j e c t s due t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n s about whether or not t o use a r t m a t e r i a l s . O c c a s i o n a l l y a s u b j e c t missed a t a p i n g s e s s i o n due to i l l n e s s or some other circumstance. The exact amounts of time t h a t each s u b j e c t p a r t i c i p a t e d were not a v a i l a b l e . For each s u b j e c t , however, the 51 approximate amounts of tape recorded data were: Subject A, 2.25 hours; Subject B, 2.50 hours; Subject C, 3.50 hours; and Subject D, 2.00 hours. The second data source used i n t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of w r i t t e n notes taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with the video r e c o r d i n g s . The notes used were taken by a n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g observer, and were the work of t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . Observations were u n d i r e c t e d i n t h a t the not e - t a k e r was not requested t o a t t e n d t o any p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the s u b j e c t s ' b e h a v i o r . Twelve s e t s of w r i t t e n f i e l d notes were used i n the a n a l y s i s . C o l l e c t i n g the Data In an e f f o r t t o c l a r i f y the ways i n which the c o l l e c t i o n of data a c t u a l l y occurred, the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of t y p i c a l events and approaches i s o f f e r e d . F i r s t of a l l , p r i o r t o the a r r i v a l of any c h i l d r e n , the observer and the camera person met at the pre-arranged l o c a t i o n . U s u a l l y , some c o n s u l t a t i o n took p l a c e with the classroom t e a c h e r at t h i s p o i n t , as to the most a p p r o p r i a t e spot w i t h i n the room f o r the camera equipment t o be set up. Sometimes f u r n i t u r e or other equipment i n the room had to be moved s l i g h t l y i n order f o r cords t o reach e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s or t o ensure the c l e a r e s t p o s s i b l e views f o r camera and observer. The 52 aim, however, was always t o be as un o b t r u s i v e as p o s s i b l e , and to a v o i d i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s freedom of movement or access t o m a t e r i a l s and p l a y equipment. At t h i s p o i n t as w e l l , the r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r might p r o v i d e some i n f o r m a t i o n about the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n t h a t day; one of the s u b j e c t s would be l a t e , or was i l l , f o r example, or was a t t e n d i n g with a grandparent r a t h e r than with the us u a l parent. The observer then needed t o ensure t h a t paper, p e n c i l , c l i p b o a r d , and a. c l o c k or watch were at hand. The p o s i t i o n s chosen f o r o b s e r v a t i o n were p o i n t s from which one c o u l d see but would not a c t u a l l y be p a r t o f the a c t i o n at the a r t c e n t r e s . M a t e r i a l s and t o o l s a v a i l a b l e on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r date, and any unusual circumstances (a s u b s t i t u t e teacher, a rearranged room, a s p e c i a l event) were then recorded. The r o l e s which the observer and the camera person were encouraged t o take on d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e c t were those of f r i e n d l y bystanders. I n t e r a c t i n g too much with c h i l d r e n c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d the i n t e r a c t i o n or caused the observer t o miss events t a k i n g p l a c e elsewhere i n the room. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , both the observer and the camera person o c c a s i o n a l l y spoke with or helped c h i l d r e n i n s i t u a t i o n s when the tea c h e r was momentarily 53 u n a v a i l a b l e . Because i n t e r a c t i o n was not i n i t i a t e d w ith the c h i l d r e n , however, both r e c o r d e r s were u s u a l l y i gnored. As noted i n the i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n , of the s e t t i n g , a d u l t s with note pads and cameras were f a i r l y common i n the s e t t i n g . Upon the a r r i v a l of the desig n a t e d s u b j e c t s , work s t a r t e d . F i r s t , the time at which each s u b j e c t a r r i v e d i n the room was noted. The camera person would not o r d i n a r i l y r e c o r d events u n t i l one of the s u b j e c t s a c t u a l l y a r r i v e d at an a r t s t a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y i f a sub j e c t took a long time b e f o r e moving t o an a r t a c t i v i t y , however, the notes might r e f l e c t what he or she was doing i n s t e a d . "10:10 - A working with p u z z l e s " ; "10:15 - A s t i l l at p u z z l e s with " were t y p i c a l e n t r i e s under, these circumstances. Quite o f t e n a s i t u a t i o n arose i n which both s u b j e c t s c o u l d be found at a r t c e n t r e s at the same time. Two s u b j e c t s might have p o s i t i o n e d themselves on e i t h e r s i d e of the same e a s e l , one v i s i b l e and one not. In these circumstances, the camera person u s u a l l y chose t o a l t e r n a t e the focus from one, then another s u b j e c t , f o r short p e r i o d s . An attempt was made t o a t t e n d t o both s u b j e c t s i n the notes. Sometimes i t was necessary t o 54 move q u i e t l y c l o s e r t o a s u b j e c t i n order t o get a c l e a r e r view. With so many c h i l d r e n i n the room, both h e a r i n g and v i s i o n were o f t e n obscured. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the combination of approaches u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d a coherent r e c o r d o f events. As snack time a r r i v e d , the camera person and observer s l i p p e d out of the room. The tapes were l a b e l l e d and s t o r e d i n the ce n t r e ' s tape storage area. Some time at t h i s stage was spent r e - w r i t i n g and c l a r i f y i n g the notes, which were then typed by the Centre's o f f i c e s t a f f . Interpretation of Data A f t e r repeated review of the video r e c o r d i n g s and f i e l d notes, a procedure f o r a n a l y s i s was developed. C a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n which v e r i f i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be compiled which r e l a t e d t o the hypotheses, the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , and which would c l a r i f y experiences o f the s u b j e c t s . Data were then broken down i n t o "episodes" f o r each s u b j e c t , and each episode was examined f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o the c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d . Information was recorded on check sheets developed f o r the purpose. R e s u l t s were pres e n t e d i n the form of t a b l e s and d e s c r i p t i v e passages. Some d e s c r i p t i o n s were drawn d i r e c t l y from 55 the f i e l d notes; others were developed from notes and tapes together, and presented as a summarized r e c o u n t i n g of events and b e h a v i o r . An i n - d e p t h d e s c r i p t i o n of the data a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA Introduction The procedure f o r a n a l y z i n g the data i n t h i s study evolved a f t e r an i n i t i a l review of the tapes and notes. A c h a l l e n g e t o the r e s e a r c h e r was posed by the volume of data a v a i l a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , i t was necessary t o determine the kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d be drawn from the data, and, of t h a t , which would be u s e f u l i n d i s c u s s i n g the hypotheses presented. Two steps were taken toward r e s o l v i n g these problems. Compartmentalization of Video Recorded Data In order t o d e a l w i t h the volume of data, the vid e o r e c o r d i n g s were scanned, and "episodes" of involvement were i d e n t i f i e d f o r each s u b j e c t . An episode was c o n s i d e r e d t o have taken p l a c e when a s u b j e c t e n t e r e d an a r t area, remained t h e r e t o i n t e r a c t with m a t e r i a l s , and i n d i c a t e d completion, e i t h e r ray comments or by l e a v i n g the area. Within each r e c o r d i n g s e s s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , each s u b j e c t ' s episodes were i d e n t i f i e d and numbered. I n t e r a c t i o n s were then more manageable to analyze and simpler t o r e t r a c e w i t h i n the data. 57 Development of Categories The next step i n e x t r a c t i n g information from the videotaped data was to e s t a b l i s h categories w i t h i n which in f o r m a t i o n , r e l a t e d to the hypotheses, could be i d e n t i f i e d . A review of the hypotheses and re l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e prompted the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : "Immediate Presence of Others"; "Watching"; "Verbal I n t e r a c t i o n " ; " I m i t a t i o n " ; and " D i s t r a c t i o n " . Each of these r e l a t e d r e s p e c t i v e l y to the f i r s t f i v e hypotheses. For c l a r i f i c a t i o n , "Number of Episodes"; "Location of A c t i v i t i e s " and " A c t i v i t i e s " were a l s o i n c l u d e d . Dealing with the f i n a l hypothesis, however, (the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r a c t i o n and the q u a l i t y of the experience) was l e s s s t r a i g h t forward, as no s i n g l e f a c t o r could be used as evidence i n t h i s category. I t was determined, t h e r e f o r e , to use s e v e r a l categories r e l a t e d to the f i n a l hypothesis i n hopes tha t a p a t t e r n might emerge o v e r a l l . The f i r s t c a t e g o r i e s chosen were "Length of Episodes" and "Play". Questions un d e r l y i n g these categories had to do wit h whether the length of an i n t e r a c t i o n or the more unconventional use of m a t e r i a l s i n pretend play might have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the q u a l i t y of the experience. Each of the categories to t h i s p o i n t was presented 58 q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n the r e s u l t s . In an attempt t o represent i n f o r m a t i o n missed by the o r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s , the f o l l o w i n g were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d : "Longest Episodes"; "Working Together"; "Adult Behavior"; "Other C h i l d Behavior"; and " A d d i t i o n a l I n t e r a c t i v e Behavior". These f i n a l c a t e g o r i e s were pres e n t e d d e s c r i p t i v e l y i n the r e s u l t s . They were i n t e n t i o n a l l y o v e r l a p p i n g i n order t h a t f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n s were ensured f o r each s u b j e c t ; a l s o , f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f the f i n a l h y p o t h e s i s . C o l l e c t i o n of Data At t h i s p o i n t a check sheet was developed which r e f l e c t e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n and c a t e g o r i e s . As the video tapes were reviewed, sheets were completed f o r each episode. In a d d i t i o n , a b r i e f w r i t t e n summary of the i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h a t episode was i n c l u d e d on the back of the sheet. F i e l d notes were used t o c l a r i f y and supplement the tapes where necessary. Presentation of Results Q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s were compiled f o r each s u b j e c t on t o t a l sheets, and p r e s e n t e d i n the form of t a b l e s . D e s c r i p t i v e r e s u l t s made use both of summaries from the video review and of d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s from the f i e l d notes. Chapter V i n c l u d e s a f u l l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . CHAPTER V RESULTS Introduction R e s u l t s are presented f o r each s u b j e c t under the f o l l o w i n g headings: T o t a l number of Episodes I d e n t i f i e d ; L o c a t i o n of A c t i v i t i e s ; A c t i v i t i e s ; Immediate Presence of Others; Watching; V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n ; I m i t a t i o n ; D i s t r a c t i o n ; Length of Episodes; P l a y ; Working Together; A d u l t Behavior; Other C h i l d Behavior; D e s c r i p t i o n of Longest Episodes; and A d d i t i o n a l Notes on I n t e r a c t i v e Behavior. R e s u l t s were determined from the examination of video r e c o r d i n g s and f i e l d notes. D e s c r i p t i v e passages r e p r e s e n t summaries of episodes developed from reviews of tapes and notes. D i r e c t e xcerpts from f i e l d notes are i n d i c a t e d by the use of q u o t a t i o n marks. The headings, as noted i n the D e f i n i t i o n of Terms, r e f e r t o the f o l l o w i n g : T o t a l Number of Episodes I d e n t i f i e d r e f e r s t o the number of i n d i v i d u a l a r t encounters i d e n t i f i e d f o r a s u b j e c t w i t h i n the a v a i l a b l e data. L o c a t i o n of A c t i v i t i e s r e f e r s t o the l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the s e t t i n g at which the episode took p l a c e . 60 A c t i v i t i e s r e f e r s to the type of i n t e r a c t i o n s observed wit h the m a t e r i a l or t o o l : use of m a t e r i a l ; manipulation of t o o l ; s o r t i n g / o r g a n i z a t i o n of t o o l or m a t e r i a l ; watching; or "other." Immediate Presence of Others r e f e r s to the presence of an adult or c h i l d w i t h i n easy touching distance of the subject during an a r t encounter. Watching r e f e r s to the a c t i v i t y of observing i n t e r a c t i o n with an a r t t o o l , m a t e r i a l , or product. Verbal I n t e r a c t i o n r e f e r s to t a l k i n g w i t h or being t a l k e d t o by an adult or c h i l d during an a r t episode. I m i t a t i o n r e f e r s t o immediate copying of another's image or gesture w i t h i n an a r t episode. D i s t r a c t i o n r e f e r s to l o o k i n g away from the a r t a c t i v i t y to other a c t i v i t i e s i n the room. Frequent d i s t r a c t i o n i s defined as more than s i x instances of l o o k i n g away or more than three instances of sustained (prolonged) l o o k i n g away. Length of Episodes r e f e r s to Long, Medium, or B r i e f . B r i e f episodes are l e s s than 1 minute; long episodes are more than 10 minutes; medium episodes are any length i n between. 61 P l a y with a r t m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e s a "pretend" component. Working Together r e f e r s t o two i n d i v i d u a l s working on the same s u r f a c e or p r o j e c t at the same time. A d u l t Behavior r e f e r s t o the behavior of a d u l t s i n v o l v e d i n episodes i d e n t i f i e d f o r s u b j e c t s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f Longest Episodes p r o v i d e s summaries of "Long' or ( i f no long episodes) "Medium" episodes w i t h i n data f o r a given s u b j e c t . Other C h i l d Behavior r e f e r s t o the behavior o f other c h i l d r e n . i n v o l v e d i n episodes i d e n t i f i e d f o r s u b j e c t s . A d d i t i o n a l Notes on I n t e r a c t i v e Behavior r e f e r s t o any f u r t h e r p o i n t s about i n t e r a c t i o n s which have not been i n c l u d e d i n p r e v i o u s c a t e g o r i e s . 62 SUMMARY OF RESULTS - ALL SUBJECTS Table 1: Location of A c t i v i t i e s Subject A B C D TOTAL/% Number of Episodes 41 32 37 27 137 Clay Table 2 2 14 10 28/20.437% E a s e l 19 9 11 5 44/32.1167% C o l l a g e / A r t Table 10 17 7 10 44/32.1167% Chalkboard 2 3 2 2 9/6.569% P e n c i l Sharpener 1 0 1 0 2/1.459% Other 7 1 2 0 10/7.299% Table 2 '• A c t i v i t i e s Subject A B C D TOTAL/% Number of Episodes 41 32 37 27 137 Watching Only 1 4 4 2 11/8.029% Using M a t e r i a l / T o o l 24 22 28 21 95/69.343% M a n i p u l a t i n g Tool Only 5 0 2 2 9/6.569% Or g a n i z i n g T o o l / M a t e r i a l 7 2 2 0 11/8.029% 63 Table 3: Immediate Presence of Others Subject A B C D TOTAL/% Number of Episodes 41 32 37 27 137 Yes 23 26 26 22 97/70.802% No 18 6 11 5 40/29.197% Ad u l t 10 10 6 6 32/23.357% C h i l d 7 10 5 4 26/18.978% A d u l t and C h i l d 6 6 15 12 39/28.467% Table 4: Watching Subject A B C D TOTAL/% Number of Episodes 41 32 37 27 137 Yes 7 12 13 9 60/43.795% No 34 20 13 9 76/55.474% A d u l t 2 0 4 6 12/8.759% C h i l d 4 11 12 7 34/24.817% A d u l t and C h i l d 1 1 7 5 14/10.218% 64 Table 5: Verbal Interaction Subject A B C D TOTAL/% Number of Episodes 41 32 37 27 137 Yes 18 21 18 18 75/54.745% No 23 11 19 9 62/45.255% Other t o Subject 15 17 15 13 60/43.795% Ad u l t 15 16 12 9 52/37.956% C h i l d 3 1 6 3 13/9.489% Subject t o Other 12 20 6 14 52/37.956% Ad u l t 13 17 5 9 44/32.116% C h i l d 1 2 0 4 7/5.109% Unclear 1 1 1 3/2.189% Table 6: Imitation Subject A B C D TOTAL/% Number of Episodes 41 32 37 27 137 Yes 1 0 5 5 11/8.029% No 40 32 30 21 123/89.78% A d u l t 1 0 2 4 7/5.109% C h i l d 0 0 2 1 3/2.189% U n c e r t a i n 1 1 2/1.459% Ad u l t and C h i l d 1 1/0.729% Table 7: D i s t r a c t i o n 65 Subject A B C D TOTAL/% Number of Episodes 41 32 37 27 137 Yes 13 12 32 18 75/54.74% No 28 20 5 5 61/44.525% Frequent/Sustained 1 2 16 10 29/21.167% Unclear 1 l/.729% 66 Results — Subject A (see Appendix A) Total Number of Episodes I d e n t i f i e d : 41 Location of Episodes (Appendix A, Table A - l ) Subject A showed some p r e f e r e n c e f o r working at the e a s e l , where 19 (46%) of h i s i d e n t i f i e d episodes took p l a c e . 10 episodes (24%) took p l a c e at the c o l l a g e t a b l e , and 7 (17%) took p l a c e at "other" l o c a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , these were: 2 at a w a l l where p a i n t i n g s were being put up and taken down; 1 on the f l o o r ; 1 ...in the middle of the room; 2. at a t a b l e i n the "housekeeping" area; and 1 at the s l i d e . Two each of the remaining episodes took p l a c e at the c l a y t a b l e and the chalk board, and 1 episode took p l a c e at the p e n c i l sharpener. A c t i v i t i e s (Appendix A, Table A-2) 24 (58%) of A's episodes i n v o l v e d at l e a s t some use of a m a t e r i a l / t o o l . Seven episodes (17%) i n v o l v e d o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s only; 5 episodes (12%) i n v o l v e d m a n i p u l a t i n g t o o l s only, and 4 episodes (10%) i n v o l v e d "other" a c t i v i t i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y : hanging up a p a i n t i n g ; t a k i n g down a p a i n t i n g ; showing a t o o l t o a parent; and t a l k i n g about a p a i n t i n g . 67 Immediate Presence of Others (Appendix A, Table A-3) 23 (56%) of Subject A's episodes i n v o l v e d the immediate presence of another f o r a l l or p a r t of the episode. E i g h t e e n (44%) of the episodes found Subject A working alone. Of those i n v o l v i n g others, 10 episodes (24%) i n v o l v e d a d u l t s ; 7 (17%) i n v o l v e d c h i l d r e n ; and 6 episodes (15%) i n v o l v e d both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . Watching (Appendix A, Table A-4) T h i r t y - f o u r (83%) of Subject A's episodes i n v o l v e d no watching o f another i n t e r a c t i n g with a r t m a t e r i a l s . Seven episodes (17%) i n v o l v e d some watching. Of these, 4 episodes (10%) i n v o l v e d watching a c h i l d ; 2 episodes (5%) i n v o l v e d watching an a d u l t ; and one i n v o l v e d watching both an a d u l t and a c h i l d . The episodes i n which a d u l t s were watched, however, concerned 2 i n s t a n c e s of w r i t i n g names on work and one of hanging up a p a i n t i n g . Verbal Interaction (Appendix A, Table A-5) Seventeen (41%) of the episodes i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s s u b j e c t i n v o l v e d some v e r b a l exchange, while 24 (59%) d i d not. Of the. episodes i n v o l v i n g v e r b a l exchange, at l e a s t 15 (37%) were noted i n which a c h i l d spoke to the s u b j e c t ; 3 (7%) were noted i n which a 68 c h i l d spoke to the subject; 13 (37%) i n which the subject spoke to an a d u l t ; and 1 (2%) i n which the subject spoke to a c h i l d . With respect to the content of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r t h i s subject, 15 of the 18 episodes c o n t a i n i n g v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n were judged to contain exchanges which were r e l a t e d to the a r t episode. Topics i n c l u d i n g t a l k i n g about or asking f o r m a t e r i a l s or t o o l s ; t a l k i n g about the product; t a l k i n g about hanging work up; i n d i c a t i n g completion of work; and t a l k i n g about clean-up. Two episodes which contained v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n were unclear as to content, and one episode contained comments which were un r e l a t e d t o the a c t i v i t y . The u n r e l a t e d content i n v o l v e d the subject c a l l i n g out the names of h i s teachers ("That's !" "That's ") who were across the room at the time. Imitation (Appendix A, Table A-6) Only one instance (2%) of i m i t a t i o n could p o s i t i v e l y be i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s subject. This took place during an episode i n which an adult who was t a l k i n g w i t h and s i t t i n g beside the subject made a zigzag motion w i t h her f i n g e r i n the a i r above the subject's paper; he then immediately made a zigzag mark on h i s paper w i t h a marker. 69 D i s t r a c t i o n (Appendix A, Table A-7) T h i r t e e n of t h i s s u b j e c t ' s episodes (32%) i n v o l v e d at l e a s t one i n s t a n c e of d i s t r a c t i o n . No d i s t r a c t i o n was found i n 28 (68%) of the episodes. Of the episodes i n v o l v i n g d i s t r a c t i o n , however, only 1 (2%) c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a high or frequent amount of d i s t r a c t i o n . (This i n s t a n c e was one i n which the s u b j e c t was t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out how the s c i s s o r s worked, but was having d i f f i c u l t y ; w i t h i n a b r i e f p e r i o d , he looked up approximately 7 times (February 15, 1985) . Length of Episodes Of the 41 episodes i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s s u b j e c t , 19 (46%) c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " b r i e f " ; 21 (51%) were "medium"; and one q u a l i f i e d as "long" a c c o r d i n g t o the d e f i n i t i o n s noted. Of the " b r i e f episodes, 12 (29%) were conducted alone, and 7 (17%) i n v o l v e d o t h e r s . Of the "medium" episodes, 5 (12%) were conducted alone and 16 (39%) i n v o l v e d the presence of o t h e r s . The one long episode (2%) i n v o l v e d the presence of o t h e r s . None of the episodes i d e n t i f i e d f o r Subject A c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as having a "play" component as d e f i n e d . 70 Working Together Four episodes (10%) were i d e n t i f i e d i n which t h i s s u b j e c t worked to g e t h e r with another c h i l d : 2 took p l a c e at the e a s e l , 1 at the chalkboard, and 1 when A worked with another c h i l d t o put up h i s p a i n t i n g . At l e a s t 6 episodes were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d , however, i n which t h i s s u b j e c t drew or p a i n t e d on top of another c h i l d ' s work, u s u a l l y when the other c h i l d wasn't t h e r e . Adult Behavior In a d d i t i o n t o the v e r b a l exchanges noted (the most frequent behavior d i s p l a y e d i n A's e p i s o d e s ) , at l e a s t 6 episodes were i d e n t i f i e d i n which a d u l t s a s s i s t e d with o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s ; 4 i n which paper was changed at the e a s e l , 5 i n which the s u b j e c t ' s name was w r i t t e n on h i s paper by an a d u l t ; and one each i n which an a d u l t hung up work; cle a n e d up; and a s s i s t e d with s l e e v e s or an apron. One episode was i d e n t i f i e d (March 5, 1985) i n which an a d u l t used a m a t e r i a l . T h i s , however, was a case i n which the a d u l t used a crayon from the s u b j e c t supply t o w r i t e h i s name on h i s drawing. 71 Other C h i l d Behavior Other than the v e r b a l exchanges, i n s t a n c e s of working together, and i n c i d e n t s i n which the s u b j e c t marked on another c h i l d ' s work, no f u r t h e r evidence c o u l d be found i n which other c h i l d r e n ' s b ehavior a f f e c t e d t h i s s u b j e c t ' s a r t episodes. Description of Longest Episodes As noted p r e v i o u s l y , only one of A's episodes (November 30, 1984) c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " l o n g . " T h i s was d e s c r i b e d i n the notes as a "whirlwind but r a t h e r long episode" i n which the s u b j e c t p a i n t e d on both s i d e s of the e a s e l , a l t e r n a t i n g back and f o r t h , moving p a i n t brushes from one s i d e t o the other, and brushes from the nearby a r t / c o l l a g e t a b l e t o the e a s e l . Throughout the episode other c h i l d r e n were present, and as A moved from one s i d e of the e a s e l t o another, he stood b e s i d e d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n . There were b r i e f moments when A glanced at what the other c h i l d r e n were doing — he was, a f t e r a l l , working with them on the same sheet of paper — but he seemed mainly concerned w i t h o r g a n i z i n g the t o o l s . The other c h i l d r e n spoke to A, but he d i d not respond. Some of A's medium-length episodes, however, were a c t u a l l y a s e r i e s of encounters with the same t o o l or m a t e r i a l , and c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as c o n t i n u i n g one from another. The f i r s t of these o c c u r r e d i n the F a l l of the second year, and i n v o l v e d i n a s e s s i o n w i t h s c i s s o r s (October 16, 1985) . A began with a very long r e c t a n g u l a r p i e c e o f orange paper and a p a i r of s c i s s o r s . He sat i n the "housekeeping" area at a small t a b l e ; another boy, engaged i n the same a c t i v i t y was seated d i r e c t l y across from him. A snipped away at the paper, very absorbed, u n t i l i t was snipped so smal l t h a t he c o u l d no longer cut i t . At t h i s p o i n t , he decid e d he was f i n i s h e d . No i n t e r a c t i o n with others had taken p l a c e at a l l . At a l a t e r p o i n t , however, A re t u r n e d t o the t a b l e ( s t a r t i n g a second e p i s o d e ) , and, f i n d i n g a second long paper on the s h e l f , began again to c u t . No one was at the t a b l e at a l l t h i s time. Because the paper was very long, i t was d i f f i c u l t t o cut. He stood up and s p i e d h i s teacher across the room. C a r r y i n g s c i s s o r s and paper along, he "bounced" over t o her and stood behind her. At f i r s t she d i d n ' t n o t i c e him. He f o l l o w e d behind her and then, s t i l l s t anding, began t o cut again. At t h i s p o i n t he looked up at the teacher, s m i l i n g . She saw him and s a i d , "You're u s i n g the s c i s s o r s now!" A r e t u r n e d t o h i s t a b l e and continued t o c u t . Then, waving a p i e c e of 7 3 orange paper i n the a i r , he " g a l l o p e d " across the room to show the teacher h i s "product". He then r e t u r n e d again to h i s l i t t l e t a b l e to cut. F i n a l l y , he stood once more and c r o s s e d the room with the much s m a l l e r p i e c e of orange paper caught between the blades of the s c i s s o r s . He stopped f o r a moment, h o l d i n g the paper and s c i s s o r s up to a m i r r o r he was p a s s i n g . As A walked by her, the teacher gave him a l i t t l e hug and a s m i l e . A f i n a l example of A's longer episodes was a c t u a l l y composed of two which o c c u r r e d back to back at the e a s e l . The f i r s t began as A asked the teacher f o r the l a r g e s t s i z e brushes to p a i n t with. The l i d s (which had holes i n t h e i r tops to f i t s m a l l e r p a i n t brushes) were removed, and A c a r e f u l l y p l a c e d a l a r g e r s i z e brush i n each can. The t e a c h e r h e l p e d w i t h t h i s , then l e f t as A began to p a i n t . A worked, completely absorbed, u s i n g a v a r i e t y of c o l o u r s , and making q u i t e d e l i b e r a t e s t r o k e s and shapes. A f t e r s e v e r a l minutes, he stood back from h i s p a i n t i n g , hands i n pockets, gazing at i t . He then c a l l e d out p l e a s a n t l y t o the teacher, across the room, "I'm f i n i s h e d ! I'm a l l done!" A p o i n t e d proudly to h i s work. The teacher responded with "Oh! Look at a l l the c o l o u r s ! D i d you use a l l the c o l o u r s ? " As she took the p a i n t i n g o f f the e a s e l she commented, "You sure worked hard on t h a t ! " Next A removed a l l the long brushes, handing them to the t e a c h e r . Together they r e p l a c e d the l i d s with the small holes and r e p l a c e d the small brushes as w e l l . A d e c i d e d on the k i n d of paper he would use and began to p a i n t again. Even though the room was very n o i s y , he remained undisturbed, approaching the second p a i n t i n g w i t h the same c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n he gave the f i s t . When f i n i s h e d , he c a l l e d again c h e e r f u l l y , "I'm a l l done!" The t e a c h e r r e j o i n e d him, responding e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o h i s work. A i n d i c a t e d t h a t he would l i k e to have both p a i n t i n g s hung up. The t e a c h e r then h e l p e d him take both p a i n t i n g s across the room to a w a l l where they c o u l d be hung. G e t t i n g some tape, the teacher f i r s t f i x e d one p a i n t i n g very h i g h up on the w a l l ; A watched. They decided, however, t h a t i s was too high, and the teacher lowered i t to a h e i g h t at which A c o u l d a t t a c h the p a i n t i n g to the w a l l h i m s e l f . She helped him manage the tape and then moved away as another c h i l d moved i n and began to help A hang h i s work. 75 Additional Notes on Interactive Behavior I t was the l a c k r a t h e r than the presence of human i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t was notable i n most of Subject A's episodes. I n t e r a c t i o n t h a t d i d occur was l a r g e l y r e s e r v e d f o r a d u l t s , and u s u a l l y took p l a c e b e f o r e or a f t e r (rather than during) m a t e r i a l use. There i s some evidence, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the f i r s t year, t h a t A moved so q u i c k l y from a c t i v i t y t o a c t i v i t y t h a t he d i d n ' t r e a l l y have time to i n t e r a c t with o t h e r s . Notes from November 30, 1984, f o r example, r e v e a l t h a t , over a p e r i o d of about 40 minutes, A v i s i t e d the k i t c h e n area, the water-play area, the l i b r a r y , the e a s e l , the a r t t a b l e , the r a b b i t ' s den, and the chalk board. Some of the sequences go l i k e t h i s : A ran across the room to get a book, and gave i t to the t e a c h e r . A then began to p l a y with t r u c k s , s i t t i n g c l o s e by her. He then p l a y e d w i t h the t r u c k s on the " s t e p s " and the s l i d e . 5 minutes l a t e r A ran to the e a s e l and began a sequence i n which he p a i n t e d on both s i d e s of i t . He then moved away from the e a s e l , r e t u r n e d to i t , and moved away again to watch a boy on the "ride-'em"-toy. He moved then to the k i t c h e n . F i v e minutes l a t e r A moved to the a r t t a b l e . Reaching f o r c l e a n brushes, he took an e n t i r e can of them to the p a i n t i n g e a s e l . 76 H o l d i n g a brush i n each f i s t , he dipped one i n red, went around t o the other s i d e of the e a s e l , and made two r e d s t r e a k s . With h i s other hand, he dipped a brush i n b l u e . Then, wiping h i s hand on h i s c l o t h i n g , he r e p l a c e d the brushes, brush f i r s t , i n the can. A then sat on a nearby "ride-'em"-toy, then ran i n t o the r a b b i t area. Three minutes had e l a p s e d s i n c e h i s a r r i v a l , noted e a r l i e r at the a r t t a b l e . On February 15, 1985 the scene was s i m i l a r . A began at the water-play t a b l e . One minute l a t e r he chose a " s c a l e " t o p l a y , with, and then p l a y e d with t r u c k s and b l o c k s near t h e r e . Four minutes l a t e r he moved t o the e a s e l , chose a l a r g e , wide brush from a can o f c l e a n brushes, and made a s i n g l e arched b l u e l i n e on the paper. He r e p l a c e d the brush i n the blue p a i n t c o n t a i n e r and dashed q u i c k l y away. Two minutes l a t e r he moved t o the e a s e l ; the a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r was the r e too.. He chose a wide brush, and, with b l a c k p a i n t , made a quick s q u i g g l e . He r e p l a c e d the brush i n the b l a c k p a i n t can, looked up while another boy was p a i n t i n g , and dashed away. One minute a f t e r A a r r i v e d at the e a s e l t h i s l a s t time he had moved t o the s l i d e , then t o the p u z z l e area. Four minutes l a t e r he had moved t o the piano, then t o the records, and then c r o s s e d the f l o o r t o h i s t e a c h e r and a r e s e a r c h e r , who had a "game" f o r him to p l a y . He sat down beside her and stayed to p l a y the r e s e a r c h "game". Six minutes l a t e r he c r o s s e d the room to the a r t t a b l e . He then moved t o the e a s e l , p a i n t e d on someone e l s e ' s p a i n t i n g with b l a c k p a i n t , and waited f o r h i s teacher to remove t h a t one. On the c l e a n sheets he made very b r i s k s t r o k e s , and then heavy "pats" with the brush. He r e p l a c e d the brush, s p l a t t e r e d b l u e v i g o r o u s l y across the page, and r e t u r n e d the brush t o the b l u e can. On the other s i d e of the e a s e l , he then splashed r e d on another g i r l ' s p a i n t i n g , thought f o r a moment about which can to r e t u r n the brush to, and having done so, moved to the a r t t a b l e . There he chose s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p a i r s of s c i s s o r s , and used paper and g l u e . He then l e f t the room to wash h i s hands. When he returned, he jumped on a "ride-'em"-toy. (Nine minutes had e l a p s e d s i n c e he p a i n t e d red on the g i r l ' s p a i n t i n g . ) Two minutes l a t e r , he was at the b l o c k s ; 4 minutes l a t e r he a r r i v e d at the c l a y t a b l e , where he dabbled at something and then moved on to the s l i d e . Two minutes l a t e r he was observed "prancing" around the room, causing a g i r l ' s shoulder to get h u r t . Then he sat i n the r o c k i n g boat, moved to the c l a y t a b l e , and 78 then t o the a r t t a b l e . There he p i c k e d up a h a n d f u l of brushes at the e a s e l , whacked a p a i n t - f i l l e d brush on the paper, s t r o k e d b r o a d l y a c r o s s the top of the page, and moved back to the a r t t a b l e . There he r e t u r n e d some p a s t e l s t o t h e i r box, and then c a l l e d out the names of h i s t e a c h e r s . "That's (teacher's name)! That's ( a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r ' s name)!" He moved to the c l a y t a b l e , and then to the a r t t a b l e . He watched, then walked around the t a b l e and began to look i n s i d e the supply cupboards, peeking i n each. He chose a s l e n d e r brush and put i t i n h i s mouth. Moving t o the s l i d e , he then " p a i n t e d " the s l i d e with the empty brush, and lodged i t s handle i n t o a s l o t near the top. Then p u t t i n g the brush back i n t o t h i s mouth, he stood on top of the s l i d e . E v e n t u a l l y A r e t u r n e d the brush to the supply cupboards. The s e s s i o n was f i n i s h e d — about 45 minutes had passed s i n c e A was f i r s t n o t i c e d at the water-play t a b l e . These d e s c r i p t i o n s are t y p i c a l of A's experiences i n the f i r s t year, and l i k e examples of t h i s k i n d abound i n the notes. 79 Results — Subject B (See Appendix B) Total Number of Episodes i d e n t i f i e d : 32 Location of Episodes (Appendix B, Table B-l) B showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the c o l l a g e t a b l e and f o r the e a s e l , which t o g e t h e r t o t a l l e d 26 (81%) of the i d e n t i f i e d e p isodes. Seventeen episodes (53%) took p l a c e at the c o l l a g e t a b l e ; 9 (28%) at the c h a l k board: and 2 (6%) at the c l a y t a b l e . One of t h i s s u b j e c t ' s i d e n t i f i e d episodes took p l a c e i n an "other" area, the housekeeping s t a t i o n . A c t i v i t y (Appendix B, Table B-2) Of the 32 episodes i d e n t i f i e d f o r B, 22 (69%) i n v o l v e d u s i n g a m a t e r i a l or t o o l , w h i le 4 (13%) i n v o l v e d s o l e l y watching another i n t e r a c t w i t h m a t e r i a l s . Two (6%) i n v o l v e d only o r g a n i z i n g or s o r t i n g a m a t e r i a l / t o o l ; and 4 (13%) i n v o l v e d an "other" a c t i v i t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y choosing a m a t e r i a l but not u s i n g i t ; p e e l i n g the paper o f f crayons (2) , and making a " s q u i g g l e d " p e n c i l mark on a completed p a i n t i n g , p o s s i b l y a way of " w r i t i n g " her name on i t . No episodes s o l e l y i n v o l v e d t o o l m a n i p u l a t i o n . Immediate Presence of Others (Appendix B, Table B-3) Twenty-six (81%) of the 32 episodes i n v o l v e d the immediate presence of an "other" f o r a l l or p a r t of 80 t h e i r d u r a t i o n s . In 6 episodes (19%), B worked e n t i r e l y alone. In 10 episodes (31%) the "other" was an a d u l t ; i n 10 episodes (31%) the "other" was a c h i l d ; and i n 6 (19%) both an a d u l t and a c h i l d were p r e s e n t . Watching (Appendix B, Table B-4) Of Subject B's 32 episodes, 12 (38%) i n c l u d e d at l e a s t one i n s t a n c e of watching another i n t e r a c t with m a t e r i a l s while 20 (63%) i n v o l v e d no watching. As noted p r e v i o u s l y , 4 episodes (13%) were s o l e l y concerned with watching; 11 (34%) i n v o l v e d watching a c h i l d ; 1 (3%) i n v o l v e d watching both a c h i l d and an a d u l t ; and no episodes i n v o l v e d s o l e l y watching an a d u l t i n t e r a c t with m a t e r i a l s . Verbal Interaction (Appendix B, Table B-5) With r e s p e c t t o v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n d u r i n g t h i s s u b j e c t ' s a r t episodes, 21 (66%) i n v o l v e d some v e r b a l exchange, while 11 (34%) d i d not. At l e a s t 16 episodes (50%) were noted i n which an a d u l t spoke t o the s u b j e c t ; 1 (3%) i n which a c h i l d spoke t o an a d u l t ; and 2 (5%) i n which the s u b j e c t spoke t o a c h i l d . With r e s p e c t t o content o f v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r t h i s s u b j e c t , 19 of the 21 episodes c o n t a i n i n g v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s were judged t o c o n t a i n exchanges which were r e l a t e d t o the a r t episode. Topics i n c l u d e d 81 t a l k i n g about or ask i n g f o r t o o l s or m a t e r i a l s ; t a l k i n g about the product; making statements about i n t e n t i o n s ("I want to col o u r " ) or i n d i c a t i n g completion; i n v i t i n g another t o work, too; comments on what others were doing w i t h a r t m a t e r i a l s ; c a l l i n g the teacher t o come and see the work; and clean-up. Two episodes which c o n t a i n e d v e r b a l exchanges were u n c l e a r as to content. Imitation (Appendix B, Table B-6) There i s no c l e a r evidence of i m i t a t i o n w i t h i n episodes i d e n t i f i e d f o r Subject B. One i n s t a n c e was noted i n which the s u b j e c t chose t o use s c i s s o r s immediately a f t e r another c h i l d used them, but whether or not i m i t a t i o n o c c u r r e d was u n c l e a r . D i s t r a c t i o n (Appendix B, Table B-7) Twelve (38%) of Subject B's episodes c o n t a i n e d at l e a s t one i n s t a n c e of d i s t r a c t i o n w h ile 20 (63%) co n t a i n e d none. Of the 13 episodes i n v o l v i n g d i s t r a c t i o n , only 2 (6%) c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as c o n t a i n i n g frequent or s u s t a i n e d d i s t r a c t i o n . Both of these took p l a c e at the c o l l a g e t a b l e . Length of Episodes Concerning the lengths of t h i s s u b j e c t ' s a r t episodes, 10 (31%) c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a " b r i e f " or f l e e t i n g ; 18 (56%) were "medium", and 4 (13%) were 82 long. Of the b r i e f episodes, 4 (13%) were conducted alone, while 6 (19%) i n v o l v e d the presence of another. Of the episodes which were medium i n le n g t h , 3 (9%) were conducted alone while 15 (47%) i n v o l v e d the presence of another. A l l of the long episodes i n v o l v e d the presence of another. Play None of the episodes i d e n t i f i e d f o r Subject B c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as having " p l a y " component as d e f i n e d . Working Together At l e a s t 4 episodes (13%) were i d e n t i f i e d f o r Subject B i n which she worked t o g e t h e r with another c h i l d on the same s u r f a c e . Two of these took p l a c e at the chalk board, and one each at the e a s e l and the c o l l a g e t a b l e . Adult Behavior In a d d i t i o n t o v e r b a l exchanges noted p r e v i o u s l y w i t h i n B's episodes, a number of a d d i t i o n a l a d u l t b e h a v i o r s were i d e n t i f i e d . These i n c l u d e d at l e a s t 7 i n s t a n c e s i n which the a d u l t a s s i s t e d with g e t t i n g or o r g a n i z i n g t o o l s ; 2 i n which the a d u l t changed the paper on the e a s e l ; 6 i n which the a d u l t wrote the s u b j e c t ' s name on her paper; 2 i n which the a d u l t hung 83 up the s u b j e c t ' s work; 4 i n which the a d u l t c l e a n e d up; and 2 i n which the a d u l t a s s i s t e d which r o l l i n g up s l e e v e s or p u t t i n g on aprons. Two episodes were noted i n which the a d u l t used the m a t e r i a l . I n v o l v i n g 3 i n s t a n c e s i n a l l , each use was at the s u b j e c t ' s request. In 2 episodes the s u b j e c t was g e n t l y " r e s t r a i n e d from l e a v i n g an a r t area by a parent who wanted her to c l e a n up b e f o r e l e a v i n g . Other C h i l d Behavior In a d d i t i o n t o v e r b a l exchanges and those i n s t a n c e s i n which the s u b j e c t worked t o g e t h e r with another c h i l d on a s u r f a c e , one i n s t a n c e was noted i n which the s u b j e c t was more or l e s s pushed away from the e a s e l by another c h i l d who wanted to work the r e , too. In another i n s t a n c e , the s u b j e c t i n v i t e d a c h i l d t o leave the play-dough t a b l e with her when i t was apparent t h a t another boy was u s i n g a l l the dough. Description of Longest Episodes Four of t h i s s u b j e c t ' s episodes were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " l o n g " . Each of these was a l s o h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e i n nature. The f i r s t (January 25, 1985) i s one i n which B worked f o r an extended p e r i o d at the e a s e l , u nquestionably absorbed i n her work. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s was an episode i n which she worked s i d e by s i d e 84 w i t h another c h i l d and a l s o made s e v e r a l i n v i t a t i o n s t o the t e a c h e r to share her work. I t began as B stood i n i t i a l l y at the e a s e l , speaking with her t e a c h e r . Another c h i l d ( a c t u a l l y Subject A) j o i n e d them. Taking a brush from B's s i d e of the e a s e l , A shook p a i n t onto B's paper — or onto where she seemed about to p a i n t . B made no comment, but watched A's a c t i o n s . The teacher now spoke with A, wrote h i s name on the paper, and then removed i t from the e a s e l . Then B began to p a i n t and A watched her. A then stepped forward and began to p a i n t again; they p a i n t e d s i d e by s i d e f o r a short w h i l e . B's mother came to say good-bye, but B h a r d l y n o t i c e d . A l e f t , but B took no n o t i c e of t h i s e i t h e r . She continued to work, p a i n t i n g on top of the s e c t i o n A had a l r e a d y p a i n t e d . S m i l i n g , she t u r n e d from her work and c r o s s e d the room to stand near the t e a c h e r . A f t e r a moment, the teacher n o t i c e d her and r e t u r n e d with B t o the e a s e l . There they t a l k e d and p o i n t e d to d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the work. The t e a c h e r wrote the names of A and B on the paper, and B began t o p a i n t once more. H i g h l y i n v o l v e d , B p a i n t e d alone f o r a w h i l e . As she stopped, she c a l l e d out, "I d i d i t ! I d i d i t ! " Running across the room t o get her teacher, B brought her back again, t a l k i n g about and p o i n t i n g t o 85 what she had done. B resumed p a i n t i n g ; the t e a c h e r moved away. A f t e r an extended time, however, B again c a l l e d out "I d i d ... look at my p i c t u r e ! " She ran again t o the teacher who r e t u r n e d once more to the e a s e l with B. "Are you f i n i s h e d ? " asked the t e a c h e r . B began to p a i n t again. When she stopped, the t e a c h e r r e t u r n e d f o r more t a l k and encouragement. One f i n a l time B began t o p a i n t . At l a s t she walked away from her work. In watching t h i s episode, one got the sense t h a t B was genuinely i n t e r e s t e d i n and e n j o y i n g her p a i n t i n g . R e g u l a r l y dashing o f f to get the teacher, however, became i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the a c t i v i t y , and seemed t o g i v e her renewed energy each time t o continue her work. A second episode (March 22, 1985) was a very lengthy s e s s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by many, many exchanges between B and a v i s i t i n g r e s e a r c h e r . B sat beside him h a p p i l y d r i z z l i n g glue and choosing c o l o r f u l paper shapes to p r e s s atop i t . B spoke f r e q u e n t l y t o the v i s i t o r , and he responded n e a r l y every time. A shortened v e r s i o n of the episode went l i k e t h i s : B t o R (researcher) as she d r i z z l e d glue on her paper. "Look at those l i n e s ! " 86 R:Look at those l i n e s , yes. Look what you can do!" (B makes d r i z z l e d l i n e s a l l over the paper). "I t h i n k you're making a very i n t e r e s t i n g d e s i g n ! " (B continues t o work, p l a c i n g her shapes of c o l o u r e d paper q u i t e d e l i b e r a t e l y on the glu e . B : ( D r i z z l i n g a g a i n ) . "I'm doing wiggly l i n e s ! " R:"I can see what you're making." B : " T r i a n g l e ! " (She p l a c e s a p i e c e of t r i a n g l e p a p e r ) . "Square!" (She p l a c e s a square p i e c e ) . R:"Do you know e x a c t l y what you need?" B:"I'm going t o show (my t e a c h e r ) . " B l e f t t o f i n d the te a c h e r . When she returned, B s t a r t e d a new d r i z z l e d glue p i e c e . As she began, the re s e a r c h e r stood and c r o s s e d the room t o speak with the te a c h e r . B p i c k e d up a p e n c i l with her l e f t hand, but h o l d i n g i t at i t s t i p , the p o i n t b a r e l y touched the paper. She dropped i t to the t a b l e . With the r e s e a r c h e r gone, she looked d i s i n t e r e s t e d . She then ran away to the " k i t c h e n " area. Two f i n a l " long" episodes o c c u r r e d on A p r i l 14, 1985. Both of these a l s o i n v o l v e d B's v i s i t i n g 87 " f r i e n d " from the p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n , and were of the same nature. The f i r s t o f these again i n c l u d e d many v e r b a l exchanges, and B ensured the v i s i t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n by commenting, "Look!" and p o i n t e d to her work. When a boy across the t a b l e began to use s c i s s o r s , B a l s o d e c i d e d t o t r y . The r e s e a r c h e r used s c i s s o r s as w e l l , and B watched him, but d i d not a l t e r her r a t h e r awkward s t y l e as a r e s u l t . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o a s s i s t e d w i t h o r g a n i z i n g t o o l s , p o u r i n g glue, e t c . As the episode f i n i s h e d , he asked B what he should w r i t e about her work (he was about to w r i t e something on her paper) , but she d i d not answer. She dashed away from the t a b l e . W i thin a very s h o r t time, B r e t u r n e d w i t h a 3- dimensional p u z z l e , o b v i o u s l y intended to share with her f r i e n d . When de d i d not respond t o the p u z z l e , however, B began again to d r i z z l e g l u e . She a l s o t u r n e d again to the s c i s s o r s and began t o c u t . She handed a f o l d e d p i e c e of paper t o her f r i e n d , and t o l d him t o cut a r e c t a n g l e , which he d i d . B had some d i f f i c u l t y with her s c i s s o r s ; however, with the r e s e a r c h e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e , she f i n a l l y managed a long cut down the ce n t r e of the r e c t a n g l e p r o v i d e d . The cut made, B announced t h a t she had made "pants". The 88 episode continued as the "pants" were f r i n g e d a l l round w i t h the s c i s s o r s , and l a t e r cut r i g h t i n h a l f . At t h i s p o i n t B handed the paper again to the researcher and i n s t r u c t e d him to cut a "worm". The episode wound down from t h i s p o i n t . I t was apparent that the presence of the v i s i t o r i n a l l three episodes had been a source of joy f o r B. Additional Notes on Interactive Behavior — Subject B In a d d i t i o n t o the behaviors already presented, a number of other examples revealed an i n t e r e s t on B's part i n i n t e r a c t i o n during a r t episodes. In an episode. (November 2, 1984), B had engaged i n an ongoing v e r b a l exchange w i t h her mother while drawing. When B decided to leave, she t r i e d t o p u l l her mother w i t h her. Later that same day, B was seen to hold her mother's hand t i g h t l y and p u l l her i n t o the a r t area again. (These were a l s o the two instances when B's mother ge n t l y r e s t r a i n e d her i n order to get her to clean up.) On November 30, 1984 B i n d i c a t e d a preference f o r working beside her mother by attempting u n s u c c e s s f u l l y — to set up a work space on a small s t o o l beside her. The s t o o l was somewhat nearer her mother (who sat on the f l o o r ) than was the a r t t a b l e . The s t o o l , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , proved too small to work on. 89 On December 14, 1984 B was seen t o take the a s s i s t a n t ' s hand as she entered an a r t area. Within t h i s same s e s s i o n , B c a l l e d out to her teacher, c r o s s i n g the f l o o r as she d i d , and r e t r i e v e d her to look at a p a i n t i n g . L a t e r , on Dec. 14 again, B seated h e r s e l f b e s i d e a s t a f f person who was s i t t i n g at the a r t t a b l e with many c h i l d r e n . She t o l d him t h a t she was "only going t o watch". On March 22, 1985 B used o i l p a s t e l s , t r y i n g one, then another on the page. "Watch Me!" she s a i d t o her teacher, who responded with, "I see your p i c t u r e ! " Then the teacher asked B to name the c o l o u r s she had used. B d i d so with g r e a t enthusiasm. "Brown! Green! Orange! Red!" L a t e r t h a t same day, B p a i n t e d at the e a s e l . When her f i r s t p a i n t i n g was f i n i s h e d , B asked the t e a c h e r t o w r i t e her name on i t and take i t away. A f t e r a second p a i n t i n g , the tea c h e r responded t o B's i n d i c a t i o n t h a t she wanted a t t e n t i o n t o her work: "I see your p a i n t i n g ! " s a i d the te a c h e r . "You've made l o t s of s t r a i g h t l i n e s ! " In a f i n a l example (February 15, 1985) B was seen to f o l l o w her teacher from the c o l l a g e t a b l e , t o the c l a y t a b l e , and back t o the c o l l a g e t a b l e again. Not u n t i l the t h i r d stop d i d she begin t o use m a t e r i a l s , 90 and then worked i n a very u n i n v o l v e d way. She appeared more i n t e r e s t e d i n the a d u l t ' s companionship, i n t h i s case, than she d i d i n the m a t e r i a l s . Results — Subject C Total Number of Episodes I d e n t i f i e d : 37 Location of Episodes (Appendix C, Table C-l) Subject C showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the clay/dough t a b l e and f o r the e a s e l , t o g e t h e r comprising 68% of h i s t o t a l i d e n t i f i e d episodes. Fourteen episodes (38%) took p l a c e at the clay-dough t a b l e ; 11 episodes (30%) took p l a c e at the e a s e l ; 7 episodes (19%) took p l a c e at the chalk board; 1 episode (3%) took p l a c e at the p e n c i l sharpener; and 2 episodes (5%) took p l a c e at "other" l o c a t i o n s . (One "other" episode was a " r o v i n g " one i n which C moved around the room c a r r y i n g a p a i r o f s c i s s o r s ; the second took p l a c e on the f l o o r . ) A c t i v i t i e s (Appendix C, Table C-2) Twenty-eight of Subject C's episodes (76%) i n v o l v e d the use of a m a t e r i a l / t o o l . Four episodes (11%) i n v o l v e d s o l e l y watching another i n t e r a c t with a m a t e r i a l / t o o l . Two episodes each (5%) of m a n i p u l a t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g t o o l s / m a t e r i a l s were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . One episode (3%) was c a t e g o r i z e d as an "other" a c t i v i t y ; t h i s i n v o l v e d t a l k i n g w i t h the teacher about another c h i l d ' s p a i n t i n g . 91 Immediate Presence of Others (Appendix C, Table C-3) Twenty-six episodes (70%) i d e n t i f i e d f o r Subject C i n v o l v e d the immediate presence of others d u r i n g a l l or p a r t of the encounter. In 11 episodes (30%), the s u b j e c t worked e n t i r e l y alone. Of those episodes i n v o l v i n g others, 6 (16%) i n v o l v e d i n t e r a c t i o n s with a d u l t s ; 5 (14%) i n v o l v e d i n t e r a c t i o n s with other c h i l d r e n ; and 15 (41%) i n v o l v e d exchanges with both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . Watching (Appendix C, Table C-4) Instances of watching others i n t e r a c t w i t h m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s were i d e n t i f i e d i n 23 episodes (62%) i n v o l v i n g Subject C. T h i r t e e n episodes (35%) i n v o l v i n g no watching. Of these episodes i n which watching occurred, a d u l t s were watched 4 times (11%); c h i l d r e n were watched i n 12 episodes (32%); and 7 episodes (19%) i n v o l v e d watching of both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . In 1 episode i t was u n c l e a r whether the s u b j e c t was watching or simply d i s t r a c t e d . Verbal Interaction (Appendix C, Table C-5) Ei g h t e e n episodes (49%) i d e n t i f i e d f o r Subject C i n v o l v e d at l e a s t one i n s t a n c e of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Nineteen episodes (51%) i n v o l v e d none. Of these i n v o l v i n g v e r b a l exchange, 12 (32%) were noted i n which 92 an a d u l t spoke to the s u b j e c t ; 6 (16%) i n which a c h i l d spoke to the s u b j e c t ; 5 (14%) i n which the s u b j e c t spoke to an a d u l t ; and none i n which the s u b j e c t spoke t o a c h i l d . With r e s p e c t to content of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r t h i s s u b j e c t , 15 of the 18 episodes c o n t a i n i n g v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s were judged to c o n t a i n exchanges which were r e l a t e d to the a r t episode. Topics i n c l u d e d other c h i l d r e n t e l l i n g the s u b j e c t t h a t he couldn't j o i n t i n or use a t o o l ; other c h i l d r e n commenting on the c o l o u r s ("This i s r e d ! " ) ; t a l k about t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s ; t a l k about what the teacher was making; a " p l a y " exchange about e a t i n g c l a y "cookies"; a warning not to p a i n t on a c h a i r ; and clean-up. Two episodes c o n t a i n i n g v e r b a l exchanges were u n c l e a r as to content. In one episode the teacher suggested s u b s t i t u t i n g a b a l l f o r some c l a y t h a t had been t o s s e d i n the a i r . Imitation (Appendix C, Table C-6) 5 episodes (14%) were judged to i n c l u d e i m i t a t i o n d u r i n g Subject C's a r t encounters. These took p l a c e on November 5, 1984; November 26, 1984; February 18, 1985; March 6, 1986; and A p r i l 24, 1986. They i n c l u d e d i n s t a n c e s i n which C appeared to i m i t a t e Subject D as she moved back and f o r t h around the e a s e l to see C's 93 work; an a s s i s t a n t t eacher showed C how to use the c l a y r o l l e r and he d i d so; C used the r o l l i n g p i n again a f t e r watching the a s s i s t a n t use i t ; C pr e s s e d p i e c e s of styrofoam i n t o h i s c l a y a f t e r watching other c h i l d r e n do i t ; and C i m i t a t e d an a d u l t who was peeking through a p i e c e of c o l o r e d c e l l o p h a n e . (These i n s t a n c e s are f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d i n the d e s c r i p t i v e passages t o follow.) D i s t r a c t i o n (Appendix C, Table C-7) Thirty-two of Subject C's episodes (86%) i n v o l v e d at ' l e a s t one i n s t a n c e of d i s t r a c t i o n . Of these, 16 episodes (43%) were judged to i n v o l v e frequent or s u s t a i n e d d i s t r a c t i o n . F i v e episodes (14%) i n v o l v e d no d i s t r a c t i o n . Length of Episodes Twenty-eight (76%) of Subject C's episodes were "medium" i n l e n g t h ; 9 episodes (24%) were " l o n g " . Of the medium-length episodes, 10 (27%) took p l a c e alone, and 18 (49%) took p l a c e i n the presence o f o t h e r s . Of the 18, 6 episodes (16%) i n v o l v e d an a d u l t ; 5 episodes (14%) i n v o l v e d a c h i l d ; and 7 episodes (19%) i n v o l v e d both an a d u l t and a c h i l d . Of the "long" episodes, 1 took p l a c e when the s u b j e c t worked alone ( A p r i l 22, 1985) at the e a s e l , and the remainder took p l a c e i n the presence of o t h e r s . One of these i n v o l v e d an a d u l t only, and 7 i n v o l v e d both an a d u l t and a c h i l d . Play One i n s t a n c e of " p l a y " a c c o r d i n g to t h i s study's d e f i n i t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d among Subject C's episodes. T h i s o c c u r r e d on March 18, 1985 and i n v o l v e d a sequence i n which C and h i s teacher pretended t o eat c l a y " c o o k i e s " . (This episode i s d e t a i l e d under D e s c r i p t i o n of Longest Episodes.) Working Together Instances i n which Subject C shared a p r o j e c t or s u r f a c e with another o c c u r r e d i n episodes on the f o l l o w i n g dates: November 5, 1984 ( e a s e l ) , 2 episodes; and November 26, 84 ( e a s e l ) , 1 episode. Adult Behavior As with other s u b j e c t s , the most frequent a d u l t behavior i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n C's episodes was v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n . A l s o at l e a s t 6 i n s t a n c e s were i d e n t i f i e d i n which an a d u l t a s s i s t e d with o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s . At l e a s t 8 (22%) of Subject D's episodes i n v o l v e d a d u l t s u s i n g / m a n i p u l a t i n g c l a y ; at l e a s t 1 i n s t a n c e was i d e n t i f i e d i n which an a d u l t demonstrated the use of a r o l l i n g p i n on the c l a y ; 1 i n s t a n c e was a l s o noted i n which an a d u l t t a l k e d about 95 and looked through a p i e c e of c o l o u r e d cellophane, but d i d not a c t u a l l y "use" the m a t e r i a l t o make a hat (which was what the c h i l d r e n were d o i n g ) . Description of Longest Episodes Long episodes were i d e n t i f i e d f o r Subject C on November 5, 1984 (1 e p i s o d e ) ; November 26, 1984 (2 e p i s o d e s ) ; February 18, 1985 (1 e p i s o d e ) ; March 18, 1985 (1 e p i s o d e ) ; A p r i l 22, 1985 (2 e p i s o d e s ) ; March 6, 1986 (1 e p i s o d e ) ; and A p r i l 24, 1986 (1 e p i s o d e ) . The f i r s t of C's long episodes o c c u r r e d on November 5, 1984 at the e a s e l . Here he ent e r e d the e a s e l area when another c h i l d was a l r e a d y working t h e r e . A f t e r watching the other c h i l d work, C began t o p a i n t as w e l l , j o i n i n g the c h i l d on the same s u r f a c e . At f i r s t the other c h i l d r e s i s t e d , s n a t c h i n g C's p a i n t brush away and t e l l i n g C t h a t he couldn't p a i n t t h e r e . C i g n o r e d the comment, however, and the other c h i l d acquiesced, announcing t o others t h a t , "We're p a i n t i n g ! " . The two worked t o g e t h e r on the same s i d e of the e a s e l u n t i l the other c h i l d l e f t . At t h a t p o i n t , a te a c h e r approached C, a s k i n g i f he would now l i k e a new paper. As C agreed, a new episode was i n i t i a t e d , and he continued then t o work on h i s own. On November 2 6, 1984, two l o n g episodes were noted f o r C. The f i r s t of these began at the c l a y t a b l e , where C was working alone. He h e l d and p a t t e d the c l a y , but very f r e q u e n t l y looked away from h i s work at the other c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y those at the adjacent water-play t a b l e . In f a c t , he r a r e l y a c t u a l l y looked at h i s own work, r o l l i n g and squeezing the c l a y w h ile watching o t h e r s . E v e n t u a l l y he turned completely away from the t a b l e , s t i l l h o l d i n g h i s c l a y , and j u s t s t a r e d at the other c h i l d r e n . At t h i s p o i n t he was j o i n e d by an a d u l t , the a s s i s t a n t teacher; C immediately t u r n e d back t o the t a b l e . C c o n t i n u e d t o be r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y d i s t r a c t e d , but h i s focus on the c l a y i n c r e a s e d as the a s s i s t a n t t eacher began to work on the c l a y . She r o l l e d c o i l s (which she c a l l e d "snakes") and t a l k e d to C about the c l a y . Watching her, C a l s o attempted to r o l l the c l a y on the t a b l e as she d i d . Then another c h i l d j o i n e d them at the house and began to work. C a l s o watched t h i s boy use the c l a y . The boy spoke t o C. C then took a c o i l r o l l e d by the t e a c h e r and p l a c e d i t on h i s own work space. As the other boy moved away to the water t a b l e , C a l s o took a p i e c e of c l a y t h a t the boy had been u s i n g and moved i t f o r h i s own use. Having glanced at the water t a b l e f r e q u e n t l y throughout 97 the episode, C f i n a l l y moved t h e r e . I t seemed t h a t the f i n a l stimulus t o leave was the d e c i s i o n of the other boy t o move to the water t a b l e . A second long episode i d e n t i f i e d on t h i s date f o r C took p l a c e as he r e t u r n e d to the c l a y t a b l e a f t e r working at the water s t a t i o n . Again, he began by working alone, and h i s work i n v o l v e d frequent g l a n c i n g up and s u s t a i n e d l o o k i n g away, though somewhat l e s s than i n the f i r s t episode d e s c r i b e d . The same teacher again j o i n e d C at the t a b l e , and C again t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n back t o the t a b l e and the m a t e r i a l . The teacher began t o make, she s a i d , a "dragon" w i t h her c l a y . The boy who had worked with C be f o r e r e j o i n e d the two, saying, "I'm making a dragon, t o o ! " . C watched h i s tea c h e r make the dragon f o r a time. There was some c o n f u s i o n and d i s t r a c t i o n i n v o l v e d then as other c h i l d r e n j o i n e d t h i s group. C g e n t l y touched the tea c h e r ' s dragon, but d i d not attempt t o make one h i m s e l f . The f i r s t boy added on to the te a c h e r ' s dragon. The te a c h e r then moved away and C tended t o look away from the c l a y c e n t r e more f r e q u e n t l y again. The c o n c l u s i o n was not shown on the tape, but C c o u l d be seen c r o s s i n g the room to v i s i t the teacher who had worked b e s i d e him. 98 The long episode i d e n t i f i e d on February 18, 1985 a l s o took p l a c e at the c l a y t a b l e . The a s s i s t a n t teacher, the boy i n the p r e v i o u s episode, and two other c h i l d r e n were a l s o working at the c l a y c e n t r e . C began to work on another boy's (P) c l a y p i e c e . P p u l l e d i t away, and the a s s i s t a n t t eacher l e d C back to h i s own work. She demonstrated r o l l i n g the r o l l i n g p i n on the c l a y and C i m i t a t e d . Another boy (M) used a b u t t e r k n i f e on h i s c l a y . C snatched the k n i f e the moment i t l e f t M's, hand. M t r i e d t o take i t back and the two moved a l l the way round the t a b l e , C t r y i n g t o keep the k n i f e and M t r y i n g t o r e t r i e v e i t . C f i n a l l y won out and M got another k n i f e from the k i t c h e n - p l a y area. They worked t o g e t h e r f o r a while u n t i l C l e f t , moving o f f t o the k i t c h e n area. Notes r e v e a l e d t h a t although C was absorbed i n h i s work d u r i n g t h i s episode, he continued, as i n past episodes, to look away f r e q u e n t l y from the c l a y . The long episode noted on March 18, 1985 again took p l a c e at the c l a y t a b l e Here C worked with h i s r e g u l a r t e a c h e r ; notes p o i n t out t h a t he seemed l e s s d i s t r a c t e d than he had i n e a r l i e r episodes on t h a t date. He looked at h i s teacher and her work — she p a t t e d and r o l l e d the c l a y i n her hands — but then 99 looked away f o r an extended p e r i o d , s m i l i n g at the c h i l d r e n behind him who were p l a y i n g on the r o c k i n g boat. A c h i l d began t o c r y then, which a l s o absorbed C's a t t e n t i o n . He t u r n e d back t o the c l a y , p r e s s i n g and f l a t t e n i n g i t , then t u r n e d away again at the sound of l a u g h t e r i n another p a r t o f the room. The teacher had l e f t the t a b l e f o r the moment. As she returned, C turned back t o h i s work, but looked around again at the p l a y i n g c h i l d r e n on the r o c k i n g boat and at a d e p a r t i n g f a t h e r . Suddenly, he o f f e r e d the teacher a f l a t t e n e d p i e c e of c l a y . Teacher: "What should I do with i t ? Eat i t ? " C smiles as the tea c h e r pretends t o eat the p i e c e of c l a y . Teacher: "What k i n d i s i t ? " C: "A cookie. A b i g co o k i e . " Teacher: "Oatmeal? Chocolate Chip? Sugar?" C: "NO ... no ... no ..." ( s m i l i n g ) . Teacher: "What k i n d i s i t ? " C: "A b i g c o o k i e ! " Teacher: " D e l i c i o u s ! " C pretended e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o chew the co o k i e . T h i s episode went on f o r some time, as C continued t o work and p i n c h the c l a y . The t e a c h e r remained at the t a b l e 100 t a l k i n g with C, reminding him not to r e a l l y eat the c l a y , which was, she s a i d , a " s p e c i a l k i n d of d i r t . " At one p o i n t the teacher l e f t the t a b l e to a s s i s t another boy who had s p i l l e d sand on the f l o o r . C rah over w i t h her. When she l e f t the room momentarily, he rushed to the door. "Here I am!" she s a i d t o C as she r e t u r n e d . As they both r e t u r n e d to the c l a y t a b l e , C (smiling) spoke t o the t e a c h e r : "Want to p l a y ! You p l a y , too! I want t o p l a y i t again!" R e c e i v i n g a s l i g h t l y l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c response t h i s time (clean-up time was near), C p i c k e d up a l a r g e p i e c e of c l a y from the b i n beside the t a b l e , and l e t i t f a l l t o the f l o o r . Then, b r e a k i n g o f f a s m a l l e r p i e c e , he t o s s e d i t up i n the a i r . At t h i s p o i n t , the t e a c h e r asked i f C would l i k e t o have a b a l l t o p l a y with; s m i l i n g , he agreed. H o l d i n g the yellow foam b a l l , C p r e s s e d i t i n t o a p i e c e of c l a y , and then threw the b a l l up i n the a i r . The b a l l a t t r a c t e d two other c h i l d r e n , who were l a u g h i n g and a c t i n g s i l l y . The episode ended as the t h r e e c h i l d r e n went o f f to wash t h e i r hands i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r snack time. The f i r s t long episode noted f o r Subject C on A p r i l 22, 1985 took p l a c e at the a r t t a b l e . Here he used glue and c o l l a g e m a t e r i a l s , working alone f o r most 101 of the episode. His work was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by frequent l o o k i n g up. Using s c i s s o r s on the glue p i e c e , C seemed to f i n i s h h i s c u t t i n g and c a r r i e d h i s work across the room to show h i s t e a c h e r . She commented, " I t seems you've been r e a l l y busy t h e r e ! " At t h i s p o i n t , he r e t u r n e d t o the t a b l e to continue c u t t i n g . He snipped w i t h one, than another p a i r of s c i s s o r s . Wiping h i s hands, he l e f t the area. The second l o n g e r episode on t h a t date took p l a c e at the e a s e l , where C began by s o r t i n g p a i n t brushes, e n s u r i n g t h a t one was p l a c e d i n each can of p a i n t along the e a s e l s h e l f . He made a few s t r o k e s on the paper, and then poked the brushes up and down i n the cans. He seemed to pay c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to h i s work. Just as he seemed t o f i n i s h , (having wiped h i s hands) the teacher approached. She spoke to C about h i s work, p o i n t i n g out d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of h i s p a i n t i n g . C then began t o p a i n t again, p o i n t i n g e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o h i s p a i n t i n g as the t e a c h e r stood by. The teacher moved away from the area t o get paper towels to wipe up a d r i b b l e of p a i n t f a l l e n on a nearby c h a i r . As she e x i t e d she c a u t i o n e d C not t o p a i n t the c h a i r . C immediately p a i n t e d a l i n e on the c h a i r . Upon her r e t u r n , the teacher wrote C s name on h i s e a s e l 102 p a i n t i n g . C p a i n t e d another stoke on the c h a i r . N o t i c i n g t h i s t u r n of events, the teacher s a i d , "Here's some more paper!" C p a i n t e d again on the c h a i r , now with enthusiasm. The teacher brought a b i g bucket of soapy water and a f a t sponge, b r i e f l y demonstrating how t o c l e a n the c h a i r . The episode ended wi t h C c o n t e n t e d l y soaping the p a i n t e d c h a i r . The washing and p a i n t i n g t a s k s seemed to i n t e r e s t him e q u a l l y . Another long episode (on March 6, 198 6) i n v o l v i n g Subject C began as he j o i n e d a teacher and a group of c h i l d r e n who were making p l a y dough. A f t e r each c h i l d got a t u r n at s t i r r i n g and kneading the b l u e - c o l o u r e d dough, they a l l moved o f f to a second t a b l e t o use i t . C p a t t e d h i s dough down f l a t , but looked away from h i s work f r e q u e n t l y , watching the other c h i l d r e n . Two g i r l s who sat near him p r e s s e d styrofoam c h i p s i n t o t h e i r dough. C watched t h i s as w e l l . He then began to work the dough more v i g o r o u s l y , with both hands, squeezing and p r e s s i n g . He continued to look away from h i s work, however, and e v e n t u a l l y t u r n e d completely around i n h i s seat so he c o u l d squeeze the dough and watch c h i l d r e n at the other c e n t r e s at the same time. As an a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r approached, C o f f e r e d her a lump of dough to f e e l . She gave i t a p i n c h and handed 103 i t back again. He continued t o work, but soon moved back t o the f i r s t t a b l e , where a red batch of c l a y was now being prepared, under the t e a c h e r ' s d i r e c t i o n . Then i t was back t o the work t a b l e , surrounded by other c h i l d r e n , t o t r y out the new dough. C began t o work, but continued t o look up f r e q u e n t l y , o f t e n watching other c h i l d r e n work. A moment of c o n f l i c t o c c u r r e d when another boy attempted t o grab a r o l l i n g p i n promised (by the teacher) t o C. The teacher h e l d the r o l l i n g p i n out of the other boy's reach, e x p l a i n i n g t h a t C had asked f o r i t b e f o r e . As t h i n g s s e t t l e d , C began t o pre s s p i e c e s o f styrofoam i n t o h i s dough, as he had seen the g i r l s doing e a r l i e r . F i n a l l y , he p i c k e d up a f l a t t e n e d p i e c e of dough and c a r r i e d i t across the room. This had been a r a t h e r n o i s y , crowded episode. A f i n a l l o n g episode noted f o r C oc c u r r e d on A p r i l 24, 198 6 as c h i l d r e n worked to make hats from scraps and c o l o u r e d c e l l o p h a n e . A v i s i t i n g mother was nearby, h e l p i n g . C seemed absorbed i n h i s work. G l a n c i n g up, he t r i e d on h i s hat, and reached t o f e e l h i s h a i r which was now e n c i r c l e d by the band of the hat. The parent, (not h i s ) smoothened h i s h a i r and helped t o press a p i e c e of cellophane i n t o p l a c e . C peeked through the c o l o u r e d cellophane; the a d u l t watched c l o s e l y . C continued t o work, watching a boy bes i d e him and t a l k i n g with the a d u l t . He t r i e d on h i s hat again and turne d t o the a d u l t , who was s m i l i n g at him. C then moved around the t a b l e t o get a s t a p l e r . He examined i t c l o s e l y , opening and c l o s i n g i t , b e f o r e added more paper t o h i s hat. The a d u l t continued t o watch c l o s e l y , but d i d not make a hat of her own. The teacher then approached the t a b l e and asked i f the c h i l d r e n t h e r e had t r i e d l o o k i n g through the ce l l o p h a n e . At t h i s , C peered through the t r a n s p a r e n t c o l o u r s again, as d i d the a d u l t h e l p e r and the other boy. The th r e e spent some time at t h i s , a l s o d i s c o v e r i n g the e f f e c t s of more than one c o l o u r over- lapped. The boy and C looked at one another through the c e l l o p h a n e , s m i l i n g and la u g h i n g . C c a r r i e d h i s p i e c e o f cellophane around the other s i d e o f the t a b l e to show the a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r . E v e n t u a l l y he wandered o f f across the room, s t i l l h o l d i n g a p a i r of s c i s s o r s he had used i n h i s hat-making. 105 Results — Subject D Total Episodes I d e n t i f i e d : 27 Location of A c t i v i t i e s (Appendix D, Table D-l) Subject D worked predominately at the clay/dough t a b l e and at the a r t / c o l l a g e t a b l e , which t o g e t h e r comprised 74% of the episode l o c a t i o n s . Ten episodes (37%) took p l a c e at the clay/dough t a b l e ; 10 episodes (37%) took p l a c e at the e a s e l ; and 2 episodes (7%) took p l a c e at the chalkboard. No episodes took p l a c e at the p e n c i l sharpener or at "other" l o c a t i o n s . A c t i v i t i e s (Appendix D, Table D-2) Two (7%) of Subject D's episodes were composed s o l e l y of watching another i n t e r a c t w i t h m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s . Twenty-one episodes (78%) i n v o l v e d m a t e r i a l / t o o l use; 2 episodes (7%) i n v o l v e d only t o o l m a n i p u l a t i o n ( s c i s s o r s ) ; and one episode i n v o l v e d an "other" a c t i v i t y -- p e e l i n g paper wrapping from p e n c i l t i p s . One a d d i t i o n a l episode c o n t a i n e d mainly watching, but a l s o i n c l u d e d a minimal amount of m a t e r i a l use, so was p l a c e d i n the "other" category. Immediate Presence of Others (Appendix D, Table D-3) Twenty-two episodes (81%) d e f i n e d f o r Subject D i n v o l v e d the immediate presence of another f o r a l l or p a r t of the episode. In 5 episodes (19%), D worked 106 e n t i r e l y alone. Of the episodes i n v o l v i n g the presence of others, 6 (22%) i n v o l v e d a d u l t s only; 4 (15%) i n v o l v e d c h i l d r e n only; and 12 (44%) i n v o l v e d both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . Watching (Appendix D, Table D-4) Eighteen episodes (67%) were i d e n t i f i e d i n which Subject D watched others i n t e r a c t with t o o l s / m a t e r i a l s . Nine episodes (33%) i n v o l v e d no watching. In 6 episodes (22%) D watched an a d u l t use a t o o l or m a t e r i a l ; and i n 5 episodes (19%) both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n were watched; and i n 7 episodes 2 6% a c h i l d only was watched. Verbal Interaction (Appendix D, Table D-5) V e r b a l exchange took p l a c e i n 18 (67%) of Subject D's episodes; i n 9 episodes (33%) no v e r b a l exchange oc c u r r e d . Of the episodes i n which v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n occurred, 9 (33%) were noted i n which an a d u l t spoke to the s u b j e c t ; 3 (11%) i n which a c h i l d spoke to the s u b j e c t ; 9 (33%) i n which the s u b j e c t spoke to an a d u l t ; and 4 (15%) i n which the s u b j e c t spoke t o a c h i l d . One episode was noted i n which the s u b j e c t seemed to be speaking to h e r s e l f ! With r e s p e c t to content of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r t h i s s u b j e c t , 13 of the 18 episodes c o n t a i n i n g v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s were judged to contain exchanges which were r e l a t e d to the a r t episode. Topics i n c l u d e d i n v i t i n g another to work, too; t a l k about the f a c t that the p a i n t was d i f f e r e n t from the k i n d of home, but that i t was okay to touch i t ; t a l k about or request f o r t o o l s or m a t e r i a l s ; t a l k about the subject being "good" at making something; another c h i l d s t a t i n g t h a t he was already working at a l o c a t i o n , thus causing the subject to move away; t a l k about sharing a brush; asking i f an a c t i v i t y was "hard"; t a l k about the product; and c l e a n - up. Three episodes contained v e r b a l exchanges which were unclear; 2 episodes contained exchanges which seemed u n r e l a t e d t o the a r t episode. One of these occurred when the subject played and laughed w i t h a f r i e n d while they p a i n t e d s i d e - b y - s i d e . The play, however, seemed un r e l a t e d to the work. The second episode occurred when the only exchange was the mother stopping t o say good-bye t o the subject. Imitation (Appendix D, Table D-6) I m i t a t i o n was judged to have taken place i n 5 (19%) of the episodes defined f o r Subject D. No i m i t a t i o n was evident i n 21 (78%) of the episodes, and one episode (4%) was unclear. Of the 5 episodes i n which i m i t a t i o n occurred, 4 i n v o l v e d the i m i t a t i o n of 108 an a d u l t while one i n v o l v e d the i m i t a t i o n o f a c h i l d . The i n s t a n c e s of i m i t a t i o n i n v o l v e d copying a c i r c u l a r shape drawing on the chalk board by her mother (November 5, 1984) ; u s i n g glue i n the same way a f t e r watching a c h i l d use i t (December 10, 1984); repr o d u c i n g two dabs of p a i n t made by the a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r on the s u b j e c t ' s paper (December 10, 1984); u s i n g a r o l l i n g p i n immediately a f t e r watching the a s s i s t a n t use i t (February 18, 1985); and f i n a l l y , a l t e r i n g the way i n which she was a p p l y i n g glue and g l i t t e r t o a pin e cone a f t e r watching an a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r apply i t (December 11, 1985). A p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g example, i n t h i s l a s t i n s t a n c e the s u b j e c t f i r s t a p p l i e d glue t o the newspaper c o v e r i n g the t a b l e , s p r i n k l e d i t wit h g l i t t e r , and then r o l l e d the pin e cone i n the g l i t t e r i n g puddle produced. The a s s i s t a n t t e acher sat q u i e t l y down at the end of the t a b l e and, n o t i c i n g D's a c t i v i t y , began d e f t l y t o brush glue on the t i p s of the pine cone with a glue brush and then t o s p r i n k l e the g l i t t e r over top. D, watching, immediately changed her method. D i s t r a c t i o n (Appendix D, Table D-7) D i s t r a c t i o n was evident i n 18 episodes (67%) i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s s u b j e c t . No d i s t r a c t i o n was 109 evident i n 8 episodes (30%) , and 1 episode was too d i f f i c u l t t o assess. In 10 episodes (37%), the d i s t r a c t i o n was judged t o be frequent or s u s t a i n e d . Of these episodes i n which frequent or s u s t a i n e d d i s t r a c t i o n occurred, 2 took p l a c e at the e a s e l ; 3 took p l a c e at the c o l l a g e t a b l e ; and 4 took p l a c e at the c l a y t a b l e . Length of Episodes With r e s p e c t t o the l e n g t h of episodes i n which D was i n v o l v e d , 1 episode was judged t o be "long"; 21 episodes were c o n s i d e r e d medium; and 5 episodes were " b r i e f " . The long episode (November 5, 1984), i n v o l v e d the presence of both an a d u l t and a c h i l d . . Of the "medium" l e n g t h episodes, 2 were conducted alone; 6 i n v o l v e d the presence of an a d u l t ; 3 i n v o l v e d the presence of a c h i l d ; and 10 i n v o l v e d the presence of both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . Of the b r i e f episodes, 3 were conducted alone, and one each was conducted i n the presence of a c h i l d and an a d u l t . P l a V No i n s t a n c e s of " p l a y " as d e f i n e d o c c u r r e d among t h i s s u b j e c t ' s a r t episodes. One i n s t a n c e was recorded (January 21, 1985), however, i n which t h i s s u b j e c t watched a boy make a c l a y " f l y " l i k e an a i r p l a n e , 110 adding a zooming sound e f f e c t . (An i n s t a n c e i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d i n A d d i t i o n a l I n t e r a c t i v e Behavior which seems t o i n v o l v e p l a y - l i k e i n t e r a c t i o n , but does not have a fa n t a s y or pretend component a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a r t m a t e r i a l . ) Working Together Subject D worked s i d e - b y - s i d e at the e a s e l with the same boy on two o c c a s i o n s : February 18, 1985 and November 13, 1985. Adult Behavior The most frequent a d u l t behavior observed d u r i n g episodes i n v o l v i n g Subject D were v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . AS w e l l , at l e a s t 4 i n s t a n c e s were noted i n which the a d u l t a s s i s t e d with g e t t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g t o o l s / m a t e r i a l s ; and 1 each i n which a d u l t s changed e a s e l paper, wrote the s u b j e c t ' s name, and hung up work. In 2 episodes the a d u l t c l e a n e d up; i n 4 the a d u l t a s s i s t e d with r o l l i n g up s l e e v e s or p u t t i n g on aprons; and i n 7 episodes an a d u l t used a m a t e r i a l / t o o l . In one episode the a d u l t took p a r t i n an "other" a c t i v i t y : p e e l i n g paper from p e n c i l s . The episodes i n which a d u l t s used m a t e r i a l s i n v o l v e d one i n which D's mother used chalk on the chalkboard at D's request; 3 i n which D's mother used c l a y , r o l l i n g l i t t l e b a l l s and then handing them back to D (again, at D's r e q u e s t ) ; 1 i n which the a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r pained two quick dabs onto D's e a s e l paper j u s t b e f o r e D s t a r t e d ; 1 i n which the teacher used the c l a y , p a t t i n g and squeezing i t ; and 1 i n which the a s s i s t a n t p a i n t e d glue and s p r i n k l e d g l i t t e r on p i n e cones. As noted p r e v i o u s l y , 4 of these episodes i n v o l v e d i m i t a t i o n . Other C h i l d Behavior In one episode (December 10, 1984) , a boy " s n a r l e d " at D as she approached the e a s e l . "I'm doing i t ! " he s a i d . D then l e f t . (note: A d d i t i o n a l c h i l d b e h a v i o r s are d i s c u s s e d under A d d i t i o n a l I n t e r a c t i v e Notes.) Description of Longest Episodes Among Subject D's longest episodes was one which oc c u r r e d on November 5, 1984. I t begins as she approached the e a s e l with her mother. She stood f o r some time watching Subject C as he p a i n t e d . D commented to her mother: "He p a i n t i n g ! " as she p o i n t e d t o h i s work. D i n d i c a t e d t h a t she would l i k e t o p a i n t as w e l l . Her mother a s s i s t e d her with t h i s task, h e l p i n g her to set up on the o p p o s i t e s i d e of the e a s e l from C. Having now attempted a s t r o k e on the paper, D reached out her f i n g e r t o i t , o b v i o u s l y y e a r n i n g to 112 touch the we p a i n t . Her mother e x p l a i n e d t o her t h a t " I t ' s not f i n g e r p a i n t , " which was a p p a r e n t l y the k i n d she had used at home. She p u l l e d back her hand, but reaches out again. The t i p of her f i n g e r was l e s s than an i n c h from the wet p a i n t . P a s s i n g by at t h i s moment, the teacher commented, "I t h i n k you would l i k e t o touch t h a t ! " , and i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would be okay. D d i d t o immediately. Then she began to p a i n t with the brush, but soon peeked around the corner of the e a s e l at what C was doing. As she r e t u r n e d to her s i d e , C then peeked round at D. D commented about C's p a i n t i n g ; her mother responded with, "Yes, i t ' s a l o v e l y p a i n t i n g , t o o ! " Hearing another c h i l d c r y i n g , D stopped p a i n t i n g f o r a moment. C, having l e f t the e a s e l now f o r the r a b b i t area, r e t u r n e d to watch D p a i n t . C s t a r t e d t o p a i n t again on the other s i d e of the e a s e l . D went round again to i n s p e c t , then to her s i d e f o r more p a i n t i n g . She then continued her work on her own s i d e , bur f r e q u e n t l y peeked out to see what e l s e might be going on i n other p a r t s of the room. The episode wound down as D mentioned " o u t s i d e " (one of the upcoming a c t i v i t i e s ) t o her mother, and the teacher p o i n t e d out t h a t " I t ' s time t o go and wash up." The t e a c h e r a l s o commented on D's work: "Look at a l l the c o l o u r s you've 113 put on!" D's mother t o l d D t h a t t h e r e was not enough time to s t a r t another p a i n t i n g , though i t seemed now t h a t D might l i k e t o . A second longer episode (though s l i g h t l y l e s s than 10 minutes, and t h e r e f o r e not c a t e g o r i z e d as "long") o c c u r r e d on December 10, 1984. I t began as D ran t o the p a i n t i n g e a s e l and watched the a s s i s t a n t t eacher and another c h i l d . They were t a l k i n g about making t i g e r s . The a s s i s t a n t remarked t h a t D "has come t o help us! I t h i n k she i s very good at making t i g e r s ! Are you?" "Yep," r e p l i e s D. The a s s i s t a n t helped D put on her smock. D then watched the a s s i s t a n t make two quick dabs of p a i n t on the paper with a brush. Immediately D poked the p a i n t brush i n t o the can and jabbed two short s t r o k e s onto the paper. N o t i c i n g some p a i n t on her r i g h t hand, she began next t o p a i n t w i t h her l e f t hand. Stopping f o r a moment, she tu r n e d away from her work to watch f i r s t a boy near her, then the a s s i s t a n t teacher, then the camera, then two boys on the r o c k i n g boat. As she stood watching others, her t e a c h e r approached. "Are you f i n i s h e d ? " "Yeah." As the t e a c h e r took the paper from the e a s e l , C s t r o k e d her f i n g e r s through the wet p a i n t on her p a i n t i n g . Teacher: "Where s h a l l I put i t ? On w a l l ? " D p o i n t s . 114 "Put on the w a l l . " The teacher and C then l e f t t o g e t h e r t o wash C's hands. Additional Interactive Notes S e v e r a l f i n a l episodes i n v o l v i n g Subject D i l l u s t r a t e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which has not yet been f u l l y d e a l t with. The f i r s t of these o c c u r r e d on February 18, 1985 and began as D moved to the e a s e l . Simultaneously, Subject C moved to the other s i d e o f the e a s e l . They each began. D f i r s t spoke with the teacher, who e x p l a i n e d t h a t a l l the brushes were i n the can at the end of the t r a y t h a t day (rat h e r than one per p a i n t can as i n the p a s t ) . D put the brushes i n t o the cans as she named the c o l o r s , not j u s t down the row. As she d i d t h i s another boy j o i n e d her. When he t o l d her to put the "blue" brush i n t o the "black" can, the thought f o r s e v e r a l seconds b e f o r e doing i t . The boy and D began t o work tog e t h e r on the same page; they handed brushes t o each other and spoke r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y . D made l a r g e c i r c u l a r s t r o k e s with the blue, then yellow, then dabbed and s w i r l e d up and down, round and round. "We can p a i n t ! " she s a i d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . She watched her f r i e n d as he p a i n t e d and a l s o leaned round the e a s e l t o see what C was up to on the other s i d e . She continued t o speak with the t e a c h e r as long as the teacher stayed near by. At t h i s p o i n t , her f r i e n d decided t o wash h i s hands. She f o l l o w e d w i t h her eyes as her f r i e n d moved away with the teacher t o the s i n k o u t s i d e the room. D con t i n u e d t o stand, h o l d i n g a brush, while she looked around the room. "I'm u s i n g p a i n t ! " she s a i d t o no one. Once more she glanced around the e a s e l t o see what C was up t o . She made a f i n a l y e llow s t r o k e then, and moved away from the e a s e l . "I'm a l l done!" she s a i d . (Notes r e v e a l t h a t D seemed to enjoy having her te a c h e r t h e r e while she worked. L i t t l e work was done a f t e r the tea c h e r l e f t . ) A second episode found D at the c l a y t a b l e (May 18, 1985) . Her f r i e n d (the boy from the episode j u s t described) was the r e , as w e l l as Subject C and the a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r . D removed two long s t i c k s from a p i e c e of c l a y . "Oh, i s n ' t t h a t n i c e ! " she s a i d c h e e r f u l l y ... e x a c t l y what was so n i c e was not c l e a r . She looked away from her work as she pinched o f f a very t i n y p i e c e of c l a y . She glanced up at her teacher, and then down again. She r o l l e d a t i n y b i t between her f i n g e r s , and then, showing i t to the a s s i s t a n t teacher, s a i d "Look at t h a t ! " She put i t down on the t a b l e and walked away. Leaving, she 116 glanced back at the t a b l e where her t i n y p i e c e was l a i d . L a t e r t h a t same day D r e t u r n e d to the c l a y t a b l e , i n t e r e s t e d i n a foam b a l l t h a t Subject C had j u s t a c q u i r e d . Again she p i c k e d up a t i n y p i e c e of c l a y and s a i d e m p h a t i c a l l y " I s n ' t t h a t n i c e ! " P i c k i n g up C's c l a y , she s a i d "Look at t h a t ! " She then put i t down and walked away. S h o r t l y afterwards, she and her f r i e n d (the boy mentioned) were laug h i n g and p l a y i n g with the b a l l . As they passed the c l a y b i n , they each took c l a y out, s t i l l laughing, and began to work. They made p i e c e s w i t h s t i c k s stuck i n them; they seemed t o be p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r . F i n a l l y a l l the c h i l d r e n d e c i d e d to go out to wash t h e i r hands. A f i n a l example found D once again with her f r i e n d (November 13, 1985) . As the episode began, D was alone. She worked d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y , dabbing and s t i r r i n g at a puddle of red p a i n t on her r e d paper. She looked away from her paper as she worked, r a r e l y l o o k i n g at i t . At t h i s p o i n t , her f r i e n d j o i n e d her, s i t t i n g down beside her. D continued to work i n the same manner, seldom l o o k i n g down at the paper. Suddenly she laughed, and leaned over to speak with her f r i e n d . He s m i l e d back. Then D became much more animated. She made a "funny" or "comic" sounding sentence. Her f r i e n d laughed, e n j o y i n g her. He then made a pretend "sneezing" gesture, s m i l i n g . D continued t o laugh and her f r i e n d responded. Her i n t e r a c t i o n with the boy seemed t o be of much g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t than the p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t y . The te a c h e r now came along t o hang t h e i r work. D and the boy were s t i l l a c t i n g a l i t t l e s i l l y . The teacher asked "Do you want t o f i n d another job now?" She helped them remove t h e i r aprons. They r i n s e d t h e i r hands i n a nearby bucket and headed o f f t o g e t h e r . 118 CHAPTER V I REFLECTIONS ON RESULTS I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a condensed review o f each s u b j e c t ' s experiences, p l u s an overview of a l l r e s u l t s . Summary — S u b j e c t A Subject A's episodes were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h number of " b r i e f " and "medium" episodes, and a p r e f e r e n c e f o r working at the c o l l a g e t a b l e and the e a s e l . Although over h a l f of A's episodes i n v o l v e d the immediate presence of others, very l i t t l e watching or d i s t r a c t i o n was e v i d e n t . Only one i n s t a n c e of i m i t a t i o n was observed. V e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n A's episodes was a l s o s l i g h t l y l e s s than f o r other s u b j e c t s . A notable aspect of A's experiences was the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h number of episodes (29%) which were devoted s o l e l y t o m a n i p u l a t i n g or s o r t i n g t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s r a t h e r than u s i n g them i n a more c o n v e n t i o n a l sense. T h i s tendency, combined with A's hi g h m o b i l i t y and low d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y i n d i c a t e t h a t h i s primary i n t e r a c t i o n s were with the p h y s i c a l r a t h e r than with the human environment. While A showed i n t e r e s t i n s h a r i n g h i s accomplishments with h i s te a c h e r s , t h e r e i s no evidence t h a t he p a r t i c u l a r l y wanted them nearby 119 while he worked. A's i n t e r a c t i o n s with other c h i l d r e n d u r i n g a r t episodes were f a i r l y minimal. I t i s worth n o t i n g , however, t h a t i n s p i t e of A's r a t h e r h e c t i c approach, h i s experiences c o u l d not be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as haphazard or u n i n v o l v e d . He seemed h i g h l y absorbed i n h i s work d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t episodes were o f t e n f l e e t i n g . In r e v i e w i n g A's behavior, one senses a r a t h e r s y s t e m a t i c approach t o e x p l o r i n g the t o t a l environment. Summary — Subject B Subject B's episodes were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h number of medium-length episodes and a p r e f e r e n c e f o r working at the c o l l a g e t a b l e and the e a s e l . Although most episodes i n v o l v i n g u s i n g a m a t e r i a l / t o o l , 31% i n v o l v e d only watching, o r g a n i z i n g , or "other" a c t i v i t i e s . A very h i g h percentage (81%) of B's episodes i n v o l v e d the immediate presence of another. Watching another i n t e r a c t with m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s o c c u r r e d i n 12 episodes, 38% of the t o t a l number i d e n t i f i e d . A l l but one i n s t a n c e of watching, however, were d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n . Over one-half of the episodes i n v o l v e d at l e a s t one i n s t a n c e of v e r b a l exchange wi t h the s u b j e c t , and by f a r most of these exchanges were between the s u b j e c t and a d u l t s . While 41% of the 120 episodes i n v o l v e d at l e a s t one i n s t a n c e of d i s t r a c t i o n , only two c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as c o n t a i n i n g a h i g h or frequent amount of d i s t r a c t i o n . No episodes c o n t a i n e d a " p l a y " component as d e f i n e d by t h i s study. Although c h i l d r e n were present w i t h i n episodes e q u a l l y as o f t e n as a d u l t s , B's exchanges with them were l i m i t e d , except perhaps i n the area of watching the use of m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s . A d u l t ' s behavior, on the other hand, focused predominantly w i t h i n B's episodes on v e r b a l exchange and support a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o the a r t a c t i v i t y . R a r e l y u s i n g a r t m a t e r i a l s themselves, a d u l t s were r a r e l y watched. D e s c r i p t i v e passages i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n w ith a d u l t s p l a y e d a r a t h e r important p a r t i n many of B's episodes, and a very important r o l e i n the longest episodes documented. Although B appeared t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g a r t m a t e r i a l s , s e v e r a l sequences i n d i c a t e d t h a t an a d u l t presence was p r e f e r r e d , and acted t o m a i n t a i n and extend her work. Summary — Subject C Subject C's episodes were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h percentage of medium and long encounters. No " b r i e f " episodes were recorded. Most episodes took p l a c e at the clay/dough t a b l e or at the e a s e l . A h i g h percentage (76%) i n v o l v e d m a t e r i a l / t o o l use. About 70% of C's episodes i n v o l v e d the immediate presence of another, and watching another — u s u a l l y a c h i l d .— use a m a t e r i a l was ev i d e n t i n 62% of the episodes i d e n t i f i e d . At l e a s t 5 i n s t a n c e s (7.5%) of i m i t a t i o n were noted. Subject C's episodes were s t r o n g l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t r a c t i o n (86%) and a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h percentage of t o t a l episodes (43%) were judged t o c o n t a i n frequent or s u s t a i n e d d i s t r a c t i o n from an a r t a c t i v i t y . While v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n with the s u b j e c t was the most frequent type of a d u l t behavior r e l a t e d t o C's episodes, 8 (22%) r e v e a l e d some use of a m a t e r i a l or t o o l by an a d u l t . A l l but one of these i n v o l v e d c l a y or c l a y t o o l s . D e s c r i p t i v e passages of C's experiences r e v e a l e d evidence t h a t t h e r e was a f a i r l y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s use of a r t m a t e r i a l s and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s with others, e s p e c i a l l y a d u l t s . Each of the long episodes d e s c r i b e d i n v o l v e d i n t e r a c t i o n with another. S e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s were noted i n which C seemed t o d i r e c t h i s a t t e n t i o n e i t h e r t o or away from the m a t e r i a l as a r e s u l t of another's a c t i o n . S e v e r a l episodes seemed t o be extended as a r e s u l t of an a d u l t 122 presence. Instances were a l s o found i n which C i n i t i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n with an a d u l t through an a r t m a t e r i a l . F i n a l l y , the f a c t t h a t C's episodes so f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d h o l d i n g and p a t t i n g c l a y while watching others seemed t o h i g h l i g h t the p a r t i c u l a r c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f "watching" and c l a y or dough m a n i p u l a t i o n . Summary — Subject D D's a r t episodes were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a hig h number of "medium" l e n g t h encounters which took p l a c e mainly at the clay/dough t a b l e and a r t / c o l l a g e t a b l e . A h i g h percentage of D's episodes (78%) i n v o l v e d m a t e r i a l / t o o l use. 15% of the episodes were s o l e l y made up of watching or t o o l m a n i p u l a t i o n . A very h i g h percentage of D's episodes (81%) i n v o l v e d the immediate presence o f another; v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n took p l a c e i n 67% of the t o t a l episodes d e f i n e d , as w e l l . S i x t y - seven percent o f D's episodes i n v o l v e d some watching o f another i n t e r a c t with m a t e r i a l s , and i m i t a t i o n was judged t o have taken p l a c e i n 19% of her a r t encounters. Although watching a c t i v i t i e s were d i r e c t e d f a i r l y e q u a l l y at a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , 4 of the 5 i n s t a n c e s o f i m i t a t i o n o c c u r r e d with a d u l t s . D i s t r a c t i o n was evident i n 67% of t h i s s u b j e c t ' s 123 episodes; 37%, a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h amount, i n v o l v e d frequent or s u s t a i n e d d i s t r a c t i o n . Although a d u l t behavior s t i l l was l i m i t e d mainly t o support a c t i v i t i e s , a comparatively h i g h number (26%) of episodes were found i n which an a d u l t used the m a t e r i a l i n the presence of t h i s s u b j e c t . D e s c r i p t i v e sequences r e v e a l e d some evidence t h a t t h i s s u b j e c t enjoyed working or i n t e r a c t i n g with, an a d u l t w hile she used a r t m a t e r i a l s . U n l i k e any other s u b j e c t , however, t h e r e was among D's episodes evidence t h a t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with another c h i l d was a l s o an important component w i t h i n a r t episodes. In some cases i t appeared t h a t the a r t a c t i v i t y was simply a v e h i c l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , or t h a t a r t a c t i v i t y became i n c i d e n t a l t o the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as i t progressed. A c t i v i t i e s i n other p a r t s of the room were of i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s u b j e c t , and many i n s t a n c e s were a l s o found i n which she used a m a t e r i a l but p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o i t , gazing out i n t o the room as she worked. This was t r u e p a r t i c u l a r l y with c l a y episodes; i t i s easy to squeeze and p i n c h c l a y while l o o k i n g elsewhere. Even when working at the e a s e l or other a c t i v i t i e s which tended to d i r e c t one's focus, however, D c o n s i s t e n t l y made sure to check on the a c t i v i t i e s of 124 o t h e r s . Summary of Results — A l l Subjects I t i s perhaps important at t h i s p o i n t to r e i t e r a t e the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study and thus to p r o v i d e a framework from which meaning may be taken from the r e s u l t s . We are d e a l i n g here with f o u r young i n d i v i d u a l s only; the f i n d i n g s cannot t h e r e f o r e be a p p l i e d t o the g e n e r a l p r e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s are, however, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the observable a r t experiences of the f o u r s u b j e c t s w i t h i n the s e t t i n g . In the f o l l o w i n g remarks, having p r e v i o u s l y summarized i n d i v i d u a l experiences, an overview of the four i s p r o v i d e d (see Table 1) , and the i n d i v i d u a l experiences of the s u b j e c t s are c o n s t r a s t e d . With r e s p e c t to the l o c a t i o n or c e n t r e s at which the s u b j e c t s became i n v o l v e d with a r t m a t e r i a l s , s u b j e c t s worked f a i r l y e q u a l l y at the e a s e l , the a r t / c o l l a g e t a b l e , and at the clay/dough t a b l e , though p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the c l a y t a b l e was s l i g h t l y l e s s than at the f i r s t two. (This may w e l l be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t the c l a y and dough were not as. r e g u l a r l y a v a i l a b l e t o s u b j e c t s i n the second year of the study as i n the f i r s t . ) Of some smal l note i s the f a c t t h a t 21 episodes (15%) of the t o t a l i d e n t i f i e d were not at 125 these t r a d i t i o n a l c e n t r e s , but at the chalkboard, the p e n c i l sharpener, and v a r i o u s other l o c a t i o n s around the room. P r e d i c t a b l y , most experiences noted i n the study (69%) i n v o l v e d the use of a m a t e r i a l or t o o l by a s u b j e c t . Again, however, about 15% of the episodes were concerned only with m a n i p u l a t i n g or o r g a n i z i n g the t o o l s r a t h e r than a c t u a l l y u s i n g them. At l e s t 8% of the episodes i n v o l v e d no use of a t o o l or m a t e r i a l at a l l , but i n s t e a d i n v o l v e d l o o k i n g at another's p a i n t i n g ; t a k i n g p a i n t i n g s down or p u t t i n g them up; w r i t i n g one's name on one's paper; or p e e l i n g the paper cover o f f crayons — a popular pastime! Thus, while 69% of the episodes d i d a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e m a t e r i a l use, 31% i n v o l v e d a c t i v i t y which was r e l a t e d to but not a r t - making per se. Another p r e d i c a b l e r e s u l t i n a group s e t t i n g , 71% of the episodes i d e n t i f i e d found s u b j e c t s i n the immediate presence of another. Of those, the presence of a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n was f a i r l y e q u a l. Given t h a t t h e r e were f a r fewer a d u l t s than c h i l d r e n i n the room, t h i s r e s u l t may be e x p l a i n e d e i t h e r by the f a c t t h a t a d u l t s r e g u l a r l y moved from s t a t i o n to s t a t i o n or by the f a c t t h a t the c h i l d r e n tended to c l u s t e r around the 126 a d u l t s i n the room. Of some i n t e r e s t , 29% of the episodes found s u b j e c t s working completely alone at a centre, a f e a t which would seem d i f f i c u l t i n a group s e t t i n g . Some watching of another u s i n g an a r t m a t e r i a l was noted i n 43% of the t o t a l episodes. I f one a p p l i e s t h i s number t o the number of episodes i n which another was present t o watch, the percentage i n c r e a s e s t o 62%. With these r e s u l t s , i t seems f a i r t o s t a t e t h a t watching another use m a t e r i a l s and t o o l s p l a y e d a f a i r l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n these s u b j e c t s ' a r t exp e r i e n c e s . V e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n , as w e l l , o c c u r r e d i n most (54%) o f the episodes, i n s p i t e of these s u b j e c t s ' l i m i t e d v e r b a l c a p a c i t i e s . S l i g h t l y more i n s t a n c e s were noted i n which others spoke t o the s u b j e c t than v i c e v e r s a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s u b j e c t s spoke t o others i n at l e a s t 38% of the episodes. Of episodes c o n t a i n i n g v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n , 83% were r e l a t e d t o the a r t encounter. I m i t a t i o n of another's use of m a t e r i a l s was not a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of these s u b j e c t s ' experiences, o c c u r r i n g i n only 8% of the t o t a l episodes. Of some note, however, i s t h a t more i m i t a t i o n of a d u l t s (5%) o c c u r r e d than of c h i l d r e n (2%) i n t o t a l ; i n other words, 63% of the i n s t a n c e s of i m i t a t i o n which d i d occur i n v o l v e d i m i t a t i o n o f a d u l t s . Again, the l i m i t e d number of a d u l t s and the in f r e q u e n c y with which a d u l t s were found t o use m a t e r i a l s makes t h i s r e s u l t of i n t e r e s t . The extent t o which the group environment proved to be a d i s t r a c t i o n f o r these s u b j e c t s was not e n t i r e l y c l e a r . I t i s t r u e t h a t 55% of the episodes i d e n t i f i e d c o n t a i n e d i n s t a n c e s i n which the s u b j e c t s looked away from t h e i r work as a r e s u l t of other a c t i o n i n the environment. Only 21% of those, however, c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as frequent or s u s t a i n e d d i s t r a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the d e f i n i t i o n p r o v i d e d i n t h i s study. I t i s r a t h e r more s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , given the environment, 45% of the episodes c o n t a i n e d no d i s t r a c t i o n at a l l . The lengths of the a r t encounters observed i n t h i s study were i n c l u d e d here l a r g e l y as a means of p u t t i n g these experiences i n a context. As exact times f o r encounters were not a v a i l a b l e , the broadest p o s s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s were chosen: b r i e f episodes were those which f a i r l y f l i t t e d by — under one minute long; long episodes were s u s t a i n e d encounters f o r a p r e s c h o o l e r : 10 minutes or more; and a medium l e n g t h was anything i n 128 between the other two. Under these circumstances, the "medium" l e n g t h episodes would seem to have an "edge", a hunch born out by the percentages: 64% of the episodes f e l l i n t o the "medium" category. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t n e a r l y 25% of a l l the episodes recorded were a c t u a l l y l e s s than one minute i n l e n g t h , and only about 11% (15 i n t o t a l ) were 10 minutes or longer i n d u r a t i o n . Whether the broad c h o i c e a v a i l a b l e i n the s e t t i n g or the a c t i v e human environment served as. f a c t o r s i n episode l e n g t h i s u n c e r t a i n . Some argument c o u l d be made, however, t h a t , f o r c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s (A i s a good example) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of many s t a t i o n s may have caused wide- ranging but b r i e f e x p l o r a t i o n of many a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than more i n depth focus on one or two. The narrow d e f i n i t i o n of " p l a y " used i n t h i s study — u s i n g an a r t m a t e r i a l i n a "pretend" context — c o u l d be a p p l i e d to one s u b j e c t ' s episode o n l y . In a d d i t i o n , one example was found i n the work of another boy working near a s u b j e c t . These both i n v o l v e d w i t h c l a y : making "c o o k i e s " and " f l y i n g " a c l a y a i r p l a n e . T h i r t e e n episodes, 9% i n t o t a l , were noted i n which s u b j e c t s used a r t m a t e r i a l s on the same s u r f a c e with another c h i l d . These r e s u l t s seem r a t h e r low, on 129 one hand, given the environment, but may p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t a l a c k of p r o j e c t s which might d i r e c t c h i l d r e n t o work t o g e t h e r (murals, one c e n t r a l lump of c l a y i n s t e a d of s e v e r a l s m a l l e r one, e t c . ) . Perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t to make about t h i s r e s u l t i s t h a t 8 of the 13 took p l a c e at the e a s e l , a p i e c e of equipment designed w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l worker i n mind. Only 2 i n s t a n c e s c o u l d be found i n which an o b j e c t i o n t o b e i n g j o i n e d by another p a i n t e r was v o i c e d , and only one of these r e s u l t e d i n t u r n i n g a s u b j e c t away. In a d d i t i o n , at l e a s t 6 i n s t a n c e s were noted i n which Subject A p a i n t e d on another's p a i n t i n g i n the other's absence. In f a c t , many c h i l d r e n d i d not seem concerned with the n o t i o n of "owning" a p a i n t i n g d u r i n g the e a r l y sequences. Rather, i t was the a d u l t s who seemed t o d r i v e t h i s p o i n t home by changing paper when a c h i l d s t a r t e d to work on another's p i e c e , w r i t i n g on names, e t c . The most frequent behavior of a d u l t s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s e t t i n g was v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n . A d u l t s spoke to s u b j e c t s before, during, and a f t e r the s u b j e c t s used a r t m a t e r i a l s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o v i d e d p o s i t i v e feedback and encouragement. In a d d i t i o n , a d u l t s a s s i s t e d with the process by o r g a n i z i n g 130 m a t e r i a l s , changing paper, hanging p a i n t i n g s , w r i t i n g on names, r o l l i n g up s l e e v e s , and p u t t i n g on and p u l l i n g of aprons. Episodes i n which a d u l t s a c t u a l l y used a r t m a t e r i a l s were i n f r e q u e n t , 18 (13%) i n a l l . H a l f of these i n v o l v e d v a r i o u s other m a t e r i a l s . Only two i n s t a n c e s c o u l d be found i n which an a d u l t r e f e r r e d to making or made an o b j e c t h e r s e l f : once when the a s s i s t a n t teacher s a i d she was "making a dragon", and once when another a s s i s t a n t "made" a pine cone covered with g l i t t e r . The remaining examples o c c u r r e d e i t h e r at the s u b j e c t s ' requests and/or i n v o l v e d " e x p l o r a t o r y " kinds of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the m a t e r i a l : quick dabs of p a i n t on a paper, or r o l l i n g and p a t t i n g c l a y between one's hands. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the extent of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a group environment and i t s e f f e c t s on the a r t experiences of four young s u b j e c t s working i n a p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . Video taped r e c o r d i n g s and w r i t t e n notes were gathered over a two- year p e r i o d , s e r v i n g as the data f o r the study. The data were then analyzed i n an e f f o r t t o d e s c r i b e and c a t e g o r i z e those s o c i a l exchanges which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n with a r t m a t e r i a l s . R e s u l t s were pr e s e n t e d i n t a b l e s and d e s c r i p t i v e passages. A d i s c u s s i o n of the hypotheses posed f o r the study i s o f f e r e d as a prel u d e t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s f i r s t g i v e n t o the r e s u l t s o f data a n a l y s i s w i t h i n the context of the hypotheses posed f o r the study. An attempt w i l l be made to address i s s u e s with, c o n s i d e r a t i o n both t o o v e r a l l r e s u l t s of a l l four s u b j e c t s as w e l l as with r e s p e c t t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s . 132 H i Subjects w i l l tend t o use a r t m a t e r i a l s i n the immediate presence of others T h i s h y pothesis i s supported i n g e n e r a l . The immediate presence of another was evident i n over 7 0% of the episodes i d e n t i f i e d o v e r a l l . T h i s r e s u l t i s not s u r p r i s i n g given the group environment, but does r e i n f o r c e g e n e r a l l y the n o t i o n t h a t a r t experiences f o r c h i l d r e n i n such s e t t i n g s are not s o l i t a r y a f f a i r s . The f a c t t h a t others were present i n a l a r g e number of episodes does not imply, however, an automatic impact on the a r t experiences of the s u b j e c t s . I t simply p o i n t s t o the hig h p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r a c t i o n , and t o the p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , of an e f f e c t on a r t encounters. While the number of episodes i n c l u d i n g others present was hi g h i n t o t a l , some i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s d i d occur: Subject A, 56%; Subject B, 81%; Subject C, 70%; Subject D, 81%. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be addressed at a l a t e r p o i n t . H 2 Subjects w i l l tend t o watch or observe others u s i n g a r t m a t e r i a l s p r i o r t o , during, and a f t e r the s u b j e c t ' s own use of m a t e r i a l s . This hypothesis i s a l s o supported, although t o a somewhat l e s s e r e xtent. Episodes made up s o l e l y of watching took p l a c e i n 8% of the t o t a l episodes observed. Over 40% of the episodes c o n t a i n e d some watching b e f o r e , d u r i n g , or a f t e r the s u b j e c t s ' uses of m a t e r i a l s . With r e s p e c t to i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s , episodes i n v o l v i n g watching only o c c u r r e d as f o l l o w s : Subject A, 2%; Subject B, 12.5%; Subject C, 11%; Subject D, 7%. Episodes i n v o l v i n g some watching o c c u r r e d as f o l l o w s : Subject A, 17%; Subject B, 37.%; Subject C, 62%; Subject D, 67%. Concerning the e f f e c t s of watching others on s u b j e c t s ' a r t i n t e r a c t i o n s , t a n g i b l e evidence was r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h . Some immediate i m i t a t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h i n episodes, but i t was i n f r e q u e n t (see H4) , and evidence was found t h a t some s u b j e c t s chose to delay p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l a f t e r watching another use m a t e r i a l s (Subjects C & D) . A p o i n t of i n t e r e s t with r e s p e c t to t h i s h ypothesis, however, i s who was being watched. Although s u b j e c t s watched both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n use m a t e r i a l s , c h i l d r e n were the more frequent focus, because a d u l t s used m a t e r i a l s l e s s o f t e n . When a d u l t s d i d use m a t e r i a l s , they tended to use them i n " e x p l o r a t o r y " or " m a n i p u l a t i v e " ways r a t h e r than r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l y . Although evidence from these data r e v e a l e d t h a t s u b j e c t s spontaneously watched others, the f a c t t h a t a d u l t s o f t e n chose not t o use m a t e r i a l s i n the s u b j e c t s ' presence may have been a missed o p p o r t u n i t y . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n watching behavior seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o v i d i n g something t o watch (modelling) may prove to be more e f f e c t i v e i n extending some c h i l d r e n ' s work more than i n others cases. H3 Subjects w i l l tend to i n t e r a c t v e r b a l l y with others d u r i n g t h e i r own i n t e r a c t i o n with a r t m a t e r i a l s T h i s hypothesis i s a l s o supported. Over 50% of the episodes observed i n v o l v e d some v e r b a l exchange, perhaps more s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t of the l i m i t e d v e r b a l development of the young s u b j e c t s . While i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t most v e r b a l exchanges (83%) w i t h i n the o b s e r v a t i o n s c o l l e c t e d were r e l a t e d to the a r t a c t i v i t y , i t cannot be assumed t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n had a d i r e c t impact on the a r t c r e a t e d . V e r b a l remarks seemed o f t e n t o renew s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r e s t s i n a p r o j e c t or caused them t o s t a r t a second p r o j e c t . V e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n c o u l d a l s o i n t e r f e r e with the i n t e r a c t i o n with m a t e r i a l s , of course, as when the teacher would announce clean-up time. Again some i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d among 135 the s u b j e c t s with r e s p e c t t o the percentage of episodes c o n t a i n i n g v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n : Subject A, 44%; Subject B, 66%; Subject C, 49%; Subject D, 67%. What i s s a i d , and whether i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l at a give n time are c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n c o n s i d e r i n g whether or not an a c t i v i t y w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d or enhanced. H4 Subjects w i l l tend t o engage i n i m i t a t i o n or copying of oth e r s ' use of m a t e r i a l s through gesture or image making. This h ypothesis i s not supported o v e r a l l . L i m i t e d t o the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i m i t a t i o n which o c c u r r e d immediately a f t e r watching, 8% of the episodes i d e n t i f i e d i n c l u d e d evidence of i m i t a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l percentages were: Subject A, 2%; Subject B, 0%; Subject C, 13.5%; Subject D, 22%. Of those percentages, about 63% of the i m i t a t i o n observed o c c u r r e d a f t e r watching a d u l t s ; 27% o c c u r r e d a f t e r watching c h i l d r e n . H5 Subjects w i l l tend t o be d i s t r a c t e d from the use of a r t m a t e r i a l s by the presence or a c t i o n s of ot h e r s . This hypothesis i s not supported o v e r a l l by the data a v a i l a b l e . Although over 50% of the episodes observed c o n t a i n e d some " l o o k i n g away" from the a r t a c t i v i t y , only 20% of the episodes were c h a r a c t e r i z e d 136 as c o n t a i n i n g " s u s t a i n e d " (prolonged or frequent) d i s t r a c t i o n . The remaining i n s t a n c e s d i d not appear to i n t e r r u p t the a c t i v i t y , but r a t h e r seemed t o be a method of m a i n t a i n i n g awareness of a c t i v i t y throughout the classroom s e t t i n g . I n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s concerning frequent or s u s t a i n e d d i s t r a c t i o n were: Subject A, 2%; Subject B, 6.25%; Subject C, 43%; Subject D, 22%. With resp e c t t o Subject D, evidence w i t h i n the d e s c r i p t i v e data d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n took precedence over i n t e r e s t i n a r t m a t e r i a l use. H6 There w i l l be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s with others and the i n t e n s i t y of s u b j e c t involvement with a r t m a t e r i a l s . The a n a l y s i s of t h i s h y p o thesis i s l e s s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d than the p r e v i o u s ones, however, o v e r a l l i t seems i t cannot be supported as w r i t t e n . This assessment i s best understood i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l s c e n a r i o s . With r e s p e c t to B, f o r example, a number of episodes were c i t e d w i t h i n the data i n which an a d u l t ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s appeared to extend an a r t episode or renew the s u b j e c t s i n t e r e s t i n the a c t i v i t y . I t was o f t e n c l e a r t h a t a d u l t presence was p r e f e r r e d , and o c c a s i o n a l l y i t seemed t h a t i n t e r e s t i n working 137 b e s i d e an a d u l t was at l e a s t as important as i n t e r e s t i n the m a t e r i a l s . Subject B's episodes o v e r a l l however, c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i n v o l v e d and in t e n s e , as evidenced by s e v e r a l long encounters, low d i s t r a c t i o n , and an obvious enjoyment i n use of the m a t e r i a l s . Subject C, s i m i l a r l y , had many episodes i n which involvement by an a d u l t seemed t o renew h i s i n t e r e s t and extend the encounter. C a l s o at times sought out the company of a d u l t s . Often observed as he looked away from t h i s work at other a c t i v i t i e s i n the room, C's a t t e n t i o n was f r e q u e n t l y r e f o c u s e d by a d u l t s . C's episodes v a r i e d i n i n t e n s i t y . In a d d i t i o n t o i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a d u l t s , many of D's i n t e r a c t i o n s were with c h i l d r e n , and evidence was found t h a t , on occasio n , i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h other c h i l d r e n took precedence over i n t e r e s t i n the m a t e r i a l s . Subject A, however, i n t e r a c t e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e w ith others and had many very b r i e f episodes, but h i s involvement i n h i s work s t i l l appeared t o be " i n t e n s e " . Thus, even i n such a small sample of s u b j e c t s , evidence e x i s t s o f very d i f f e r e n t ways i n which s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n can a f f e c t a r t a c t i v i t y , depending on the 138 i n d i v i d u a l ' s approach t o h i s or her environment. Conclusions O v e r a l l , t h i s study confirms t h a t young c h i l d r e n ' s a r t encounters are f i l l e d w ith i n s t a n c e s of i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s : working beside and with others, watching others work; t a l k i n g t o oth e r s ; g e t t i n g a s s i s t a n c e and feedback from o t h e r s . C e r t a i n l y some evidence has been c o l l e c t e d t o show t h a t others may cause c h i l d r e n t o choose t o work with a r t m a t e r i a l s i n the f i r s t p l a c e , and t h a t c h i l d r e n tend t o work with them longer when others, e s p e c i a l l y a d u l t s , are i n v o l v e d . These p o i n t s a l t e r our p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e n ' s a r t experiences i f we t h i n k of them mainly as p e r s o n a l and s o l i t a r y i n t e r a c t i o n s with m a t e r i a l s . The f a c t t h a t so many v a r i e t i e s of i n t e r a c t i o n s took p l a c e r e i n f o r c e s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t b e n e f i t s may occur through a d u l t involvement. T h i s a p p l i e s t o parents as w e l l as t o p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r s and t e a c h e r s . At the same time, evidence w i t h i n the study suggests t h a t t h e r e are many ways i n which i n d i v i d u a l s may make use of environmental resources, and the k i n d of i n t e r a c t i o n which i s a p p r o p r i a t e , or which w i l l extend a c h i l d ' s experience, w i l l depend on understanding t h a t c h i l d ' s m o t i v a t i o n s and mode of 139 o p e r a t i n g . A n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n a s e t t i n g can r e v e a l something of the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of knowledge about a r t a c t i v i t y . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be u s e f u l i n determining the range of goals f o r c h i l d r e n ' s a r t experiences t h a t may e x i s t i n any one s e t t i n g . A c h i l d may t h i n k , as a r e s u l t of what. has gone on i n t h i s classroom, t h a t : * A r t i s p r i m a r i l y an i n d i v i d u a l p r o c e s s . * A r t m a t e r i a l s are used by c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than a d u l t s . * The reasons f o r making a r t are not c l e a r - c u t . * A r t products r e c e i v e p r a i s e . * A r t works are d i s p l a y e d when completed. * C e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a r t , others l e s s so. * C l e a n i n g up a f t e r a r t making i s important. One f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n which emerges from these data i s t h a t watching and t o o l m a n i p u l a t i o n seem to l e a d up to and continue to be p a r t of a r t m a t e r i a l use as c h i l d r e n develop. While development per se i s o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s study, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n holds i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the encouragement of i n t e r a c t i o n , through the p r o v i s i o n of s e t t i n g s and of o p p o r t u n i t i e s 140 f o r i n t e r a c t i o n to occur. Implications Those who d e a l w i t h young c h i l d r e n should become aware of ways i n which i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t with the environment. I n t e r a c t i o n s o f t e n p r o v i d e c l u e s on how t o extend and support a r t e x p e r i e n c e s . P l a y s u s t a i n i n g techniques such as a c t i v e l o o k i n g on, non- d i r e c t i v e s t a t e m e n t s , q u e s t i o n i n g , d i r e c t i v e statements, and modeling (Wolfgang & Sanders, 1986) can be a p p l i e d to watching, t o o l m a n i p u l a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n and m a t e r i a l use w i t h i n a r t a c t i v i t y . For c h i l d r e n who are more s o c i a l l y i n c l i n e d , a r t experiences i n which c h i l d r e n work to g e t h e r i n small groups may be b e n e f i c i a l : group p a i n t i n g or group 3-D c o n s t r u c t i n g are p o s s i b i l i t i e s . In g e n e r a l , a d u l t s might g i v e more a t t e n t i o n than i s c u r r e n t l y the case to a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a r t a c t i v i t y . The a d u l t r o l e model i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o extend a r t a c t i v i t y , perhaps i n the d i r e c t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (making an o b j e c t , f o r example, r a t h e r than simply r o l l i n g b a l l s with the c l a y ) ; perhaps i n the d i r e c t i o n of p l a y and the use of the i m a g i n a t i o n . Doing so may a l t e r the s t a t e of a f f a i r s observed i n t h i s study, where c h i l d r e n ' s watching m a t e r i a l s i n use i s o f t e n d i r e c t e d at other c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t y r a t h e r than t h a t of a d u l t s . M o d e l l i n g should, however, be used c a r e f u l l y , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with h e u r i s t i c t a s k s , i n which no s p e c i f i c end i s sought. W i t h i n the f i e l d of a r t education, the use of a r t m a t e r i a l s f o r the purpose of p l a y and pretend a c t i v i t y r e c e i v e s comparatively l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . Emphasis on p r e t e n d i n g with a r t m a t e r i a l s c o u l d p r o v i d e a balance t o the focus on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c u r r e n t l y found i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i n classroom p r a c t i c e , and c o u l d a l s o be h i g h l y s o c i a l , and t h e r e f o r e a p p e a l i n g to some c h i l d r e n . C lay seems to have a great d e a l of p o t e n t i a l here, as evidenced by the "cookie" episode i n t h i s study. Clay can be used to make up s t o r i e s , t o i l l u s t r a t e s t o r i e s read, or f o r g e n e r a l p l a y : making a t e a p a r t y with c l a y , f o r example. T h i s k i n d of d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t y , of course, would need to be i n t r o d u c e d a f t e r c h i l d r e n had had some o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p l o r e the m a t e r i a l . In g e n e r a l i t seems t h a t the simple presence of a d u l t s and the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r a c t w i t h m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e only p a r t i a l a r t experiences f o r c h i l d r e n . I n t e r a c t i o n , however, i s much more complex than i t s d e f i n i t i o n might seem to imply. I n t e r a c t i o n may i n v o l v e d i a l o g u e about or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r t processes, as w e l l as d i s c u s s i o n about p r o d u c t s . When the s i t u a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e , i n t e r a c t i o n may take the form of m o d e l l i n g : the a d u l t demonstrates the use of a t o o l , and answers the c h i l d ' s q u e s t i o n s on what the t o o l does or how i t works. 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Teacher's r o l e : A c o n s t r u c t f o r s u p p o r t i n g the p l a y of young c h i l d r e n . In Sue Burroughts and Roy Evans (Eds.), p l a y , language, and s o c i a l i s a t i o n (pp.49-62). Yakel, Norman (1980/81) . A study t o determine the e f f e c t s o f c h i l d r e n copying a d u l t images of the human form. Canadian Review of A r t Ed u c a t i o n Research, 6/7, 169-179. 149 APPENDICES APPENDIX A Tables A - l through A-7 151 APPENDIX Table A-1. Location of A c t i v i t i e s — Subject A Date of Number of Clay/ Easel Collage/ Chalk- Pencil Episode Episodes dough Art board Sharpener Other 11/2/84 4 0 0 2 2 0 0 11/30/84 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 12/14/84 5 1 1 3 0 0 0 1/25/85 9 0 7 2 0 0 0 2/15/85 12 1 7 3 0 0 1 3/22/85 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 10/16/85 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 3/5/86 6 0 2 0 0 0 4 T o t a l / 41 2 19 10 2 1 7 % 4.878% 46.341% 24.39% 4.878% 2.439% 17.073% APPENDIX A (continued) Table A-2. A c t i v i t i e s — Subject A 152 Date of Number Watching Using Manipulating Organizing other Episode of . Only material/ too l only tools/ Episodes tool only materials 11/2/84 4 0 3 1 0 0 11/30/84 1 0 0 0 1 0 12/14/84 5 0 4 0 0 1 1/25/85 9 1 7 1 1 0 2/15/85 12 0 4 2 4 0 3/22/85 2 0 1 1 0 0 10/16/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 3/5/85 6 0 3 0 1 3 Total/ 41 1 24 5 7 4 % 2.439% 58.536% 12.195% 17.073% 9.756% APPENDIX A (continued) Table A - 3 . Immediate Presence of Others - 153 - Subject A Date o f Number o f A d u l t & E p i s o d e Ep i sodes Yes No A d u l t C h i l d C h i l d 11/2/84 4 2 2 2 0 0 11/30/84 1 1 0 0 1 0 12/14/84 5 2 3 0 1 1 1/25/85 9 6 3 3 2 1 2/15/85 12 4 8 1 1 2 3/22/85 2 1 1 0 1 0 10/16/85 2 2 0 1 1 0 3/5/86 6 5 1 3 0 2 T o t a l / % 41 23 56.097% 18 43.902% 10 24.39% 7 17.073% 6 14.634% APPENDIX A (continued) Table A-4. Watching — Subject A 154 Date of Number o f A d u l t & E p i s o d e E p i s o d e s Yes No A d u l t C h i l d C h i l d 11/2/84 4 1 3 0 1 0 11/30/84 1 1 0 0 1 0 12/14/84 5 2 3 0 1 1 1/25/85 9 1 8 0 1 0 2 /15/85 12 0 12 0 0 0 3/22/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 10/16/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 3 /5 /86 6 2 4 2 0 0 T o t a l / % 41 7 17.073% 34 82.926% 2 4.878% 4 9.756% 1 2.439% APPENDIX A (continued) Table A-5. Verbal Interaction — Subject A 155 Date of Number of Other to Subject to Episode Episodes Yes No Subject Adult Child Other Adult Child 11/2/84 4 2 2 2 2 0 1 1 0 11/30/84 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 12/14/84 5 4 1 2 2 0 2 2 0 1/25/85 9 3 6 3 3 0 2 2 0 2/15/85 12 2 10 1 2 1 1 2 0 3/22/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 10/16/85 2 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 3/5/86 6 5 1 5 5 1 5 5 1 Total/ 41 18 23 15 15 3 12 13 1 % 43.902% 56.097% 36.585% 36.585% 7.317% 29.268% 31.707% 2.439% APPENDIX A (continued) Table A-6 . Imitation — Subject A 156 Date of Number of Episode Episodes Yes No Adult C h i l d 11/2/84 4 1 3 1 0 11/30/84 1 0 1 0 0 12/14/84 5 0 5 0 0 1/25/85 9 0 9 0 0 2/15/85 12 0 12 0 0 3/22/85 2 0 2 0 0 10/16/85 2 0 2 0 0 3/5/86 6 0 6 0 0 T o t a l / % 41 1 2.439% 40 97.56% 1 2.439% 0 0% APPENDIX A (continued) Table A-7. D i s t r a c t i o n — Subject A 157 Date of Number of Frequent/ Episode Episodes Yes No Sustained 11/2/84 4 1 3 0 11/30/84 1 0 1 0 12/14/84 5 3 2 0 1/25/85 9 3 6 0 2/15/85 12 2 10 1 3/22/85 2 1' 1 0 10/16/85 2 2 0 0 3/5/86 6 1 5 0 T o t a l / 41 13 28 1 31.707% 68.292% 2.439% 158 APPENDIX B Tables B - l through B-7 159 APPENDIX B Table B - l . Location of A c t i v i t i e s — Subject B Date of Number of Clay/ Easel Collage/ Chalk- Pencil Episode Episodes dough Art board Sharpener Other 11/2/84 7 0 0 11/30/84 2 0 0 12/14/84 4 0 1 1/25/85 4 0 3 2/15/85 3 1 0 3/22/85 7 0 4 4/14/85 2 0 0 12/11/85 3 1 1 T o t a l / 32 2 9 % 6.25% 28.125% 3 3 0 1 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 17 53.125% 3 9.375% 0 0 1 3.125% APPENDIX B ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e B-2 . A c t i v i t i e s — S u b j e c t B 160 Date of Number Watching Using Manipulating Organizing other Episode of Only material/ tool only tools/ Episodes tool only materials 11/2/84 7 1 e 0 0 0 11/30/84 2 0 2 0 0 0 12/14/84 4 0 2 0 0 2 1/25/85 4 1 2 0 0 0 2/15/85 3 1 1 0 0 1 3/22/85 7 0 5 0 2 1 4/14/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 12/11/85 3 1 2 0 0 0 Total/ 32 4 22 0 2 4 % 12.5% 68.75% 0 6.25% 12.5% APPENDIX B ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e B - 3 . Immedia te P r e s e n c e o f O t h e r s - 161 - S u b j e c t B Date of Number o f A d u l t S Epi sode Ep i sodes Yes No A d u l t C h i l d C h i l d 11/2/84 7 5 2 2 3 ' 0 11/30/84 2 2 0 2 0 0 12/14/84 4 3 1 1 1 1 1/25/85 4 3 1 0 3 0 2 /15/85 3 3 0 0 0 3 3/22/85 7 5 2 3 1 1 4/14/85 2 2 0 1 0 1 2 /11/85 3 3 0 1 2 0 T o t a l / % 32 26 81.25% 6 18.75% 10 31.25% 10 31.25% 6 18.75% APPENDIX B (continued) Table B-4. Watching — Subject B 162 Date o f Number o f A d u l t & E p i s o d e Ep i sodes Yes No A d u l t C h i l d C h i l d 11/2/84 7 2 5 0 2 0 11/30/84 2 1 1 0 1 0 12/14/84 4 2 2 0 2 0 1/25/85 4 2 2 0 2 0 2 /15/85 3 3 0 0 3 0 3/22/85 7 0 7 0 0 0 4/14/85 2 1 1 0 0 1 12/11/85 3 1 2 0 1 0 T o t a l / % 32 12 37.5% 20 62.5% 0 0% 11 34.375% 1 3.125% APPENDIX B ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e B-5 . V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n — S u b j e c t B 163 Date of Number of Other Subject un- Episode Episodes Yes No to Adult C h i l d to Adult C h i l d certain Subject Other 11/2/84 7 4 3 2 2 0 4 2 1 1 11/30/84 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 12/14/84 4 3 1 1 1 0 3 3 0 1/25/85 4 1 3 1 1 0 1 1 0 2/15/85 3 2 1 2 2 0 2 2 0 3/22/85 7 5 2 5 5 0 4 4 0 4/14/85 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 12/11/85 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 Total/ 3.125% ' '" 32 21 65.625% 11 34.375% 17 53.125% 16 50.00% 1 3.125% 20 62.50% 17 53.125% 2 1 6.25% APPENDIX B (continued) Table B-6. Imitat ion — Subject B 164 Date of Number of Episode Episodes Yes No Adult C h i l d 11/2/84 7 0 7 0 0 11/30/84 2 0 2 0 0 12/14/84 4 0 4 0 0 1/25/85 4 0 4 0 0 2/15/85 3 0 3 0 0 3/22/85 7 0 7 0 0 4/11/85 2 0 2 0 0 12/11/85 3 0 3 0 0 T o t a l / % 32 0 32 100% 0 0 APPENDIX B ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e B-7 . D i s t r a c t i o n — S u b j e c t B 165 Date of Number of Frequent/ Episode Episodes Yes No Sus t a i n e d 11/2/84 7 2 5 0 11/30/84 2 1 1 0 12/14/84 4 1 3 0 1/25/85 4 1 3 0 2/15/85 3 2 1 2 3/22/85 7 2 5 0 4/14/85 2 1 1 0 12/11/85 3 2 1 0 T o t a l / 32 12 20 2 37.5% 62.5% 6.25% APPENDIX C Tables C-l through C- APPENDIX B (continued) APPENDIX C Table C - l . Location of A c t i v i t i e s — Subject C 167 Date of Number of Clay/ Easel Collage/ Chalk- Pencil Episode Episodes dough Art board Sharpener Other 11/5/84 4 0 3 0 1 0 0 11/26/84 4 2 1 1 0 0 0 12/10/84 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1/21/85 6 0 1 4 0 1 0 2/18/85 5 3 2 0 0 0 0 3/18/85 7 5 2 0 0 0 0 4/22/85 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 1/9/86 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3/6/86 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 4/24/86 3 1 1 0 0 0 1 T o t a l / % 37 14 32 .432% 11 35.135% 7 18.919% 2 5.405% 1 2 .703% 2 5.405% APPENDIX C ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e C-2 . A c t i v i t i e s — S u b j e c t C 168 Date of Number Watching Using Manipulating Organizing other Episode of Only material/ tool only tools/ Episodes tool only materials 11/5/84. 4 0 4 0 0 0 11/26/84 4 0 4 0 0 0 12/10/84 1 1 0 0 0 0 1/21/85 6 1 2 1 2 0 2/18/85 5 0 5 0 0 0 3/18/85 7 1 5 0 0 1 4/22/85 4 0 4 0 0 0 1/9/86 1 0 1 0 0 0 3/6/86 2 1 1 0 0 0 4/24/86 3 0 2 1 0 0 Total/ 37 4 28 '." 2 2 1 10.81% 75.675% 5.405% 5.405% 2.702% APPENDIX C (continued) Table C-3. Immediate Presence of Others - 169 - Subject C Date of Number o f A d u l t & Epi sode Ep i sodes Yes No A d u l t C h i l d C h i l d 11/5/84 4 3 1 0 1 2 11/26/84 4 3 1 0 1 2 12/10/84 1 1 0 0 1 0 1/21/85 6 3 3 0 1 2 2 /18/85 5 2 3 1 0 1 3/18/85 7 7 0 4 0 3 4/22/85 4 2 2 1 0 1 1/9/86 1 1 0 0 0 1 3/6/86 2 2 0 0 1 1 4/24/86 3 2 1 0 0 2 T o t a l / 37 26 11 6 5 15 % 70.270% 29.730% 16.216% 13.514% 40.541% APPENDIX C (continued) Table C-4. Watching — Subject C 170 Date of Number o f A d u l t & u n - Epi sode E p i s o d e s Yes No A d u l t C h i l d C h i l d c e r t a i n 11/5/84 4 3 1 0 3 0 11/26/84 4 3 1 0 1 2 12/10/84 1 1 0 0 1 0 1/21/85 6 3 3 1 2 0 2/18/85 5 2 3 0 1 1 3/18/85 7 5 1 3 0 2 4/22/85 4 2 2 0 1 1 1/9/86 1 1 0 0 1 0 3/6/86 2 2 0 0 2 0 4/24/86 3 1 2 0 0 1 T o t a l / 37 23 13 4 12 7 1 62.162% 35.135% 10.81% 32.432% 18.918% 2.70% APPENDIX C (continued) Table C-5. Verbal Interaction — Subject C 171 Date of Number of Other to Subject to Dn- Episode Episodes Yes No Subject Adult Ch i l d Other Adult C h i l d certain 11/5/84 4 2 2 2 0 2 0 0 0 11/26/84 4 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 12/10/84 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/21/85 6 1 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 2/18/85 5 2 3 2 2 1 0 0 0 3/18/85 • 7 3 4 2 2 0 3 2 0 4/22/85 4 3 1 3 2 1 1 1 0 1/9/86 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3/6/86 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 4/24/86 3 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 Total/ 37 18 19 15 12 6 6 5 0 % 48.648% 51.351% 40.540% 32.432% 16.216% 16.216% 13.513% 0% 1 2.702% APPENDIX C (continued) Table C - 6 . Imitation — Subject C 172 Date of Number of Episode Episodes Yes No Adult C h i l d u n c e r t a i n 11/5/84 4 1 3 0 1 0 11/26/84 4 1 3 1 0 0 12/10/84 1 0 1 0 0 0 1/21/85 6 0 5 0 0 1 2/18/85 5 1 4 0 0 0 3/18/85 7 0 7 0 0 0 4/22/85 4 0 4 0 0 0 1/9/86 1 0 0 0 0 1 3/6/86 2 1 1 0 1 . 0 4/24/86 3 1 2 1 0 0 T o t a l / 37 5 30 2 2 2 % 13.513% 81.081% 5.405% 5.405% 5.405% APPENDIX C ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e C-7 . D i s t r a c t i o n — S u b j e c t C 173 Date o f Number o f Frequent/ Episode Episodes Yes No Sus t a i n e d 11/5/84 4 3 1 2 11/26/84 4 4 0 2 12/10/84 1 1 0 1 1/21/85 6 6 0 2 2/18/85 5 5 0 2 3/18/85 7 5 2 4 4/22/85 4 4 0 2 1/9/86 1 1 0 0 3/6/86 2 1 1 1 4/24/86 3 2 1 0 T o t a l / 37 32 5 16 % 36.486% 13.513% 43.243% 174 APPENDIX D Tables D-l through D-7 175 Table D-l. Location of A c t i v i t i e s — Subject D Date of Episode Number of Episodes clay/ dough Easel Collage/ Art Chalk- board Pencil Sharpener Other 11/5/84 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 11/26/84 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 12/10/84 4 1 1 2 0 0 0 1/21/85 5 1 0 4 0 0 0 2/18/85 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 3/18/85 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 4/22/85 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 11/13/85 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 12/11/85 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 T o t a l / % 27 10 37.03% 5 18.518% 10 37.03% 2 7 .407% 0 0 APPENDIX D (continued) Table D-2. A c t i v i t i e s — Subject D 176 Date of Number Watching Using Manipulating Organizing other Episode of Only material/ tool only t o o l s / Episodes tool only materials 11/5/84 2 0 2 0 0 0 11/26/84 3 0 3 0 0 0 12/10/84 4 1 2 0 0 1 1/21/85 5 0 3 1 0 1 2/18/85 3 0 3 0 0 0 3/18/85 4 0 4 0 0 0 4/22/85 2 0 1 1 0 0 11/13/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 12/11/85 2 1 1 0 0 0 Total/ 27 2 21 2 0 2 % 7.407% 77.78% 7.407% 7.407% APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e D - 3 . Immedia te P r e s e n c e o f O t h e r s - 177 - S u b j e c t D Date o f Number o f A d u l t & Epi sode E p i s o d e s Yes No A d u l t C h i l d C h i l d 11/5/84 2 2 0 0 0 2 11/26/84 3 3 0 2 0 1 12/10/84 4 3 1 2 1 0 1/21/85 5 4 1 1 2 1 2/18/85 3 3 0 1 0 2 3 /18/85 4 3 1 0 0 3 4/22/85 2 1 1 0 0 1 11/13/85 2 1 1 0 0 1 12/11/85 2 2 0 0 1 1 T o t a l / 27 22 5 6 4 12 % 81.48% 18.518% 22.222% 14.814% 44.44% APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e D-4 . W a t c h i n g — S u b j e c t D 178 Date o f Number o f A d u l t & Epi sode Ep i sodes Yes No A d u l t C h i l d C h i l d 11/5/84 2 2 0 1 1 0 11/26/84 3 3 0 2 1 0 12/10/84 4 3 1 0 2 1 1/21/85 5 4 1 1 1 2 2 /18/85 3 2 1 0 1 1 3/18/85 4 2 2 2 0 0 4/22/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 11/13/85 " 2 0 2 0 0 0 12/11/85 2 2 0 0 1 1 T o t a l / % 27 18 66.66% 9 33.33% 6 22.22% 7 25.925% 5 18.518% APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e D-5. V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n - - S u b j e c t D 179 Date of Number of Other to Subject to Episode Episodes Yes No Subject Adult C h i l d Other Adult C h i l d Other 11/5/84 2 2 0 1 1 0 2 2 0 11/26/84 3 2 1 2 2 0 2 2 0 12/10/84 4 3 1 3 2 1 1 1 0 1/21/85 5 3 2 3 2 0 2 1 0 2/18/85 3 3 0 2 2 0 2 1 2 3/18/85 4 2 2 0 0 0 2 1 0 4/22/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 11/13/85 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 12/11/85 2 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 Total/ 27 18 9 13 9 3 14 9 4 1 (herself) 1 66.66% 33.33% 48.15% 33.33% 11.11% 51.85% 33.33% 14.814% 3.703% APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e D-6. I m i t a t i o n — S u b j e c t D 180 Date of Number of Episode Episodes Yes No Adult C h i l d u n c e r t a i n 11/5/84 2 1 1 1 0 0 11/26/84 3 0 3 1 0 0 12/10/84 4 2 2 1 1 0 1/21/85 5 0 4 0 0 1 2/18/85 3 1 2 1 0 0 3/18/85 4 0 4 0 0 0 4/22/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 11/13/85 2 0 2 0 0 0 12/11/85 2 1 1 1 0 0 T o t a l / 27 5 2 4 1 1 % 22.222% 74.071% 14.814% 3.0703% 3.703% APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e D-7 . D i s t r a c t i o n — S u b j e c t D 181 Date of Number of Frequent/ Episode Episodes Yes No Su s t a i n e d U n c e r t a i n 11/5/84 2 1 1 1 0 11/26/84 3 2 1 2 0 12/10/84 4 3 1 3 0 1/21/85 5 5 0 1 0 2/18/85 3 2 1 1 0 3/18/85 4 3 0 1 1 4/22/85 2 0 2 0 0 11/13/85 2 1 1 1 0 12/11/85 2 1 1 0 0 T o t a l / % 27 18 66.66% 8 29.629% 10 22 .22% 1 3.703% APPENDIX E F i r s t version of check sheet used i n reviewing data APPENDIX E SUBJECT OBSERVATION SHEET Tape Date o f O b s e r v a t i o n E p i s o d e # S u b j e c t L o c a t i o n M a t e r i a l s Used PRELIMINARY Observes o t h e r p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g a r e a E n t e r s a r t a r e a when o t h e r i s p r e s e n t B r i n g s o t h e r i n t o a r e a Accompanies o t h e r i n t o a r e a F o l l o w s o t h e r i n t o a r e a Comments r e : i n i t i a t i o n WATCHING Watches use o f m a t e r i a l / t o o l by c h i l d Watches use o f m a t e r i a l / t o o l by a d u l t Watches w h i l e s u b j e c t uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l Watches w h i l e s u b j e c t does not use m a t e r i a l Comments r e : w a t c h i n g WORKING TOGETHER Works b e s i d e o t h e r Works t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r on same s u r f a c e / p r o j e c t Helps o t h e r i n g e t t i n g t o o l s / s u p p l i e s Helps/shows o t h e r "how t o " make/do w i t h m a t e r i a l / t o o l Q u a l i t y o f e x c h a n g e / i n t e r a c t i o n : a c t i v e , p a s s i v e , a c t i v e / p a s s i v e Comments r e : Q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n TALKING/GESTURING T a l k s t o a d u l t w h i l e s u b j e c t uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l T a l k s t o c h i l d w h i l e s u b j e c t uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l T a l k s t o a d u l t w h i l e s u b j e c t does not use m a t e r i a l / t o o l T a l k s t o c h i l d w h i l e s u b j e c t does not use m a t e r i a l / t o o l T a l k s about m a t e r i a l / t o o l / w o r k Does not t a l k about m a t e r i a l / t o o l / w o r k Asks f o r / i n d i c a t e s need t o ; o t h e r f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h use o f m a t e r i a l / t o o l i n g e t t i n g m a t e r i a l / t o o l w i t h image I n v i t e s o t h e r t o work too I n s t r u c t s o t h e r i n what/how t o make Responds v e r b a l l y / w i t h g e s t u r e t o work o f o t h e r Comments r e : T a l k / g e s t u r e CONCLUSION A s s i s t s o t h e r i n c l e a n - u p I n t e r a c t s w i t h o t h e r r e : p u t t i n g name on p a p e r / p r o j e c t p u t t i n g away or hanging p i e c e / p r o j e c t PLAYING Engages i n same g a m e / p l a y / f a n t a s y as o t h e r With t o o l / m a t e r i a l Comments re p l a y : O t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n I n i t i a t o r o f e p i s o d e APPENDIX E (continued) 184 IMITATION/COPYING C o p i e s gesture/movement C o p i e s t o o l / m a t e r i a l use C o p i e s image C o p i e s v e r b a l comment o f o t h e r Comments r e i m i t a t i o n / c o p y i n g DISTRACTION Looks away from c e n t r e / a c t i v i t y as r e s u l t o f o t h e r Leaves c e n t r e / a c t i v i t y as r e s u l t o f o t h e r Comments EXTENSION Comments on e x t e n s i o n / l e n g t h o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h m a t e r i a l / t o o l as r e s u l t o f o t h e r ADULT OBSERVATION I n i t i a t e s e p i s o d e I n v i t e s c h i l d t o j o i n S i t s i n a r e a i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t c h i l d S i t s b e s i d e o r near s u b j e c t Accompanies s u b j e c t t o a r e a Watches s u b j e c t use m a t e r i a l / t o o l s T a l k s t o s u b j e c t w h i l e s u b j e c t uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l s Responds v e r b a l l y t o s u b j e c t s work/use o f m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s Uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l Shows s u b j e c t "how t o " c o p i e s s u b j e c t v e r b a l l y image gesture/movement A s s i s t s s u b j e c t by g e t t i n g m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l s a d j u s t i n g s e a t , e t c . W r i t e s s u b j e c t ' s name on paper Puts away or hangs work f o r s u b j e c t Engages i n p l a y / f a n t a s y w i t h s u b j e c t v e r b a l w i t h m a t e r i a l C r e a t e s p a r t s o f p i e c e t o i n c l u d e i n s u b j e c t ' s p i e c e Works a t s u b j e c t s r e q u e s t I n s t r u c t s / h e l p s s u b j e c t i n c l e a n - u p APPENDIX F Second version of check sheet used i n reviewing data APPENDIX F 186 CHILD ART STUDY CHECK SHEET / TAPE ANALYSIS Tape # Date o f O b s e r v a t i o n S u b j e c t L o c a t i o n • M a t e r i a l s Used? Oth e r s i n v o l v e d • Watching o n l y ? H! Immediate P r e s e n c e o f o t h e r ( s ) d u r i n g e p i s o d e : Yes • No • D u r i n g e n t i r e e p i s o d e • D u r i n g p a r t o f e p i s o d e D C h i l d • who? A d u l t • who? Comments H 2 W a t c h i n g / o b s e r v i n g o t h e r s use o f m a t e r i a l s Yes • No • I f yes, c h i l d • who? a d u l t • who? Comments H 3 V e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n d u r i n g e p i s o d e about use o f m a t e r i a l o r p r o d u c t . Yes • No • I f yes, c h i l d • who? a d u l t • who? f r e q u e n c y o f " s u b j e c t " comments f r e q u e n c y o f " o t h e r " comments Comments APPENDIX F (continued) 187 E v i d e n c e o f i m i t a t i o n / c o p y i n g d u r i n g e p i s o d e . I f yes, what? ( g e s t u r e , image)D I f yes, who? A d u l t • C h i l d • Comments E v i d e n c e o f L o o k i n g a w a y / d i s t r a c t i o n d u r i n g e p i s o d e . I f yes, f r e q u e n c y : I f yes, cause o f d i s t r a c t i o n : Comment/importance o f o t h e r p r e s e n c e d u r i n g e p i s o d e . Yes • No • Yes • No • Comment/intensity o f in v o l v e m e n t w i t h m a t e r i a l .

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