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Art experience in a group setting : a study of four young subjects Lackey, Lara Marie 1988

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ART EXPERIENCE IN A GROUP SETTING A STUDY OF FOUR YOUNG SUBJECTS by LARA MARIE B.F.A.,  LACKEY  The Nova S c o t i a C o l l e g e o f A r t and D e s i g n ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Department  of Visual in  We a c c e p t  this  STUDIES  and P e r f o r m i n g  Arts  Education thesis  as  conforming  to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1988 © Lara Marie  Lackey,  1988  1973  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  his  or  her  representatives.  requirements that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  DE-6(3/81)  the  head of copying  my or  my written  ABSTRACT This  thesis  recordings aged  written  children  materials analysis with and  and  the  as  the  a  extent  materials.  of  For  to  which  adults  subject,  according  to  length  activity;  presence  types  of  activity. detail  of adults The  imitation; Descriptive  specific  social  and  episodes  of  argue  interaction  as  a  ii  art  are  uses  of  others;  heightened in  also  and  and  verbal  from  presented  are  of  approximate  watching,  are  use,  categorized and  of  interacted  i n t e r a c t i o n , and  factor  experiences.  explored  distraction  subjects  for  preschool-  subjects'  absence  passages  i n t e r a c t i n g with  conclusions  the  behavior:  video  art material  l o c a t i o n , type,  interactive  interaction;  four  subjects  data  or  of  The . f o c u s  during  i n t e r a c t i o n on  each  of  setting.  presented of  analysis  spontaneously  group  c h i l d r e n and  effect  an  observations  they  within is  other  provides  the which  behaviors described.  awareness children's  of art  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  1  Introduction  1  Statement Purpose  o f t h e Problem  2  o f t h e Study  4  D e s i g n o f t h e Study  5  Subjects Setting Instruments J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e Method L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Method D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND RESEARCH  5 6 6 6 7 8 12 . . .  Introduction  13  Sociology,  14  Social  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , and t h e S c h o o l  Interaction  Perspectives  in  Art  Education Preschoolers  III  IV  13  25  and S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n  . . . .  32  Summary  42  PROCEDURES  43  Introduction  43  Setting Subjects The D a t a C o l l e c t i n g t h e Data I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Data ANALYSIS OF THE DATA Introduction  43 46 50 51 54 56 56  iii  CHAPTER  PAGE Compartmentalization o f Video Data Development o f C a t e g o r i e s C o l l e c t i o n o f Data Presentation of Results  V  59  Introduction  59 — — — —  Subject A Subject B Subject C Subject D  66 79 90 105  REFLECTIONS ON RESULTS  118  Introduction  118  Summary — S u b j e c t A Summary — Subject B Summary — S u b j e c t C Summary — S u b j e c t D ummary o f R e s u l t s — A l l S u b j e c t s VII  56 57 58 58  RESULTS  Results Results Results Results VI  Recorded  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND  IMPLICATIONS  . .  118 119 120 122 124  . .  131  Summary  131  Conclusions  138  Implications  140  REFERENCES  143  APPENDICES  149  Appendix A T a b l e s A - l t h r o u g h A-7  150  Appendix B Tables  B - l t h r o u g h B-7  158  Appendix C Tables  C - l t h r o u g h C-7  166  iv  TER  PAGE  Appendix D T a b l e s D - l t h r o u g h D-7 Appendix E First version reviewing data Appendix F Second version reviewing data  of  of  v  174 check  check  sheet  used  in 182  sheet  used  in 185  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  TABLE A - l L o c a t i o n o f E p i s o d e s TABLE A-2 A c t i v i t i e s TABLE A-3  - Subject A  . . .  - Subject A  66  Immediate P r e s e n c e o f O t h e r s  - Subject A  TABLE A-4 W a t c h i n g - S u b j e c t A TABLE A-5 V e r b a l TABLE A-6  Interaction  - Subject  TABLE B-3  - Subject  Immediate P r e s e n c e  - Subject  of Others  Imitation - Subject  - Subject  B  . . . .  B  C  - Subject  C  . . .  .  TABLE C-4 W a t c h i n g - S u b j e c t  C  TABLE C-5 V e r b a l  - Subject  90 90  Immediate P r e s e n c e o f O t h e r s - S u b j e c t  C  91 91  C  . . . .  C  - Subject  TABLE D - l L o c a t i o n o f A c t i v i t i e s  vi  80  81  TABLE C-2 A c t i v i t i e s  TABLE C-7 D i s t r a c t i o n  79  81  - Subject  Imitation - Subject  B  B  - Subject  Interaction  79  80  TABLE C - l L o c a t i o n o f E p i s o d e s  TABLE C-6  . . .  79  - Subject  TABLE B-7 D i s t r a c t i o n  B  B  TABLE B-5 V e r b a l  Interaction  67  68  B  TABLE C-3  . . . .  A  TABLE B-4 W a t c h i n g - S u b j e c t  TABLE B-6  A  68  - Subject  TABLE B - l L o c a t i o n o f E p i s o d e s TABLE B-2 A c t i v i t y  67 67  Imitation - Subject A  TABLE A-7 D i s t r a c t i o n  66  91 92  C  93 - Subject  D  . .  .105  TABLE  PAGE  TABLE D-2  Activities  TABLE D-3  Immediate P r e s e n c e o f O t h e r s  TABLE D-4  Watching  TABLE D-5 V e r b a l  - Subject  - Subject  Interaction  TABLE D-6  Imitation - Subject  TABLE D-7  Distraction  D - Subject  D  D  105 106  - Subject D  - Subject  vii  105  D  . . . .  106 107  D  108  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Credit  is  due  to  the  Columbia's  Child  setting  as  well  support  for this  children  and p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d ,  as  were u n f a i l i n g l y camera p e r s o n s and  Shawn  Tarr  encouragement grateful.  be  feel  and  privileged I would  Foster,  study.  Spears, which  I  Dixon,  and  She  the  a l l the  like  which  from thank  initially  produced  provided  of  I  am  approach  deeply Study  providing  students l i k e by  the  ongoing  the Child  for  influenced  to  I  f o r which  i n which  typed the  P a t d e s i g n e d and  also  Director  enthusiastic  a  an  myself  professional,  to  research;  I  t o have worked i n s u c h a s e t t i n g .  also  members  thank  who  i n which  recognition  t o and  technical  accumulated  would  Dixon.  inspiration,  at the centre  exposed  dedicated,  Isabel  recorder,  deserves  environment may  and Glen  Centre,  sincerely  the umbrella project as  and  the  Ray H a r t , D a v i d Rosenblum,  particular  i n this  provided  and a c c o m m o d a t i n g ) ,  and D r . G l e n  involved  used  and  British  t h e c e n t r e t e a c h e r s (who  observations  In  implemented  data  welcoming  of  which  I  (Sheila Hall,  study.  became  research.  written  Patricia  Centre,  the administrative  Wilson),  extensive the  Study  University  like of  my  t o thank  Glen Dixon  thesis  committee,  viii  and M i c h a e l for  their  efforts this  and  very  editing  of  work. My  and  deepest  thesis  respect  support  have  encouraging been  and  supervisor,  undoubtedly the  g r a t i t u d e go  Dr.  Ron  I am  invaluable  to  c e r t a i n that  to  my  MacGregor,  w o r l d ' s most p a t i e n t man.  been  me;  this  had  advisor who  His help he  is and  been  less  work w o u l d n o t  have  completed. Finally,  children, is  h e l p f u l remarks toward the  Erin  difficult  understanding Suffice  i t to  I  extend  my  thanks  and  Meghan, and  to  express  have say  meant  that  t o my  how to  I share  them.  ix  and  much me  to  my  husband David.  It  their  during  this  love  care  recent  and  years.  accomplishment  with  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Introduction An  involvement  understanding children  with  a  the a r t i s t i c  under  3  years  larger  behaviors  of  and d a t a  (MacGregor,  1987).  Patricia  Tarr, plan  recordings  and w r i t t e n  aged the  subjects setting.  observer  consisting  in  this  scope  study  was  Initially,  the  Tarr  data  related  subjects with apparent  only  well;  sparked  the subject  out o f these  study  and  video  preschoolwithin  fostered a  data.  questions  study  This  which  project,  was  individual  were and so  directed  at  interactions of  I n c r e a s i n g l y , however, i t  encounters  but others  events  of  data-  developed.  to  many  a  art materials  of the Tarr  materials.  that  research  of non-participating  subjects  independent  became not  of four  f o r the Tarr  turn  the i n i t i a l  gathering the  observations  the  initial  implemented series  i n the role  familiarity  in this  a  Acting  with  outside  of  encountered  familiarity  the  Under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f  as t h e y  and n o t e - t a k e r  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f  used  the larger project  gathering  directed at  age, p r o v i d e d  exposure t o t h e s e t t i n g 1987; T a r r ,  study,  actually involved  within  the setting  certain patterns  emerged.  as A  2 growing  interest  interacted  with  materials, might the  of  affect  these  ways  i n which  during  a curiosity  about  experiences  t o d e s c r i b e and subjects  how  with  effects  of  understanding  the  interactions  of  children's  children  use  such  of  art  interactions  materials provided  analyze  from  these  their  f o r t h e p r e s e n t work.  young  and  the  others  their  effort  kinds to  and  inspiration  this  in  I t i s hoped t h a t  the  art  encounters  perspective  of  the  w i t h i n them w i l l  add  art  experiences  in  general.  Statement o f the Problem Many  children's  certainly  the  take  majority  place  nevertheless, •at  the  has as  of  those  group  art  experiences  which  occur  settings.  a lack of art education  with  of  art  the  group  Some  a  means  of  argued  affect  our  emphasis  in  directed  on  children's  recent  literature  and  interaction  development  in visual  art  Wilson  and  1982),  o t h e r work  our  and  art  Wilson,  social  understanding 1984;  is,  skill  that  Hamblen,  school  There  setting  materials.  in  research  r e - e s t a b l i s h e d the value of copying  (Duncum, 1984; has  in  effects  behavior  visual  of  and  cultural  art  (Chalmers,  Johnson,  education  and  1982). literature  making  environments  The and  1981,  1984;  overriding practice,  3 however, has  b e e n on  unique p e r s o n a l  Chapman summarizes t h e . ..  the  single  research  in  artistic  art  or  as  an  by  freedom  the  in  facility  with  focused  Herein hand  work t h a t of  any  place  would we  other  optimum  work p r i v a t e l y reveals  to  this viewed  "self,  and  11  medium.  that  our  development effects  research  related  to  of i n t e r a c t i o n  fundamental  responses  on  working  meaning, the  or  of  we  from  which few  Although  our  provide  chances  our  to  literature  interaction  factor within children's art experiences,  that  consistently  and  social  conflict:  children's art  distinct  other,  for interaction  awareness  in  environments  with materials.  a growing  the  out  lie a  personal  opportunity  of  development.  seem  in  the  innovation,  particular  to the  individual;  children  with  typically  of  of  encourage  reflect  and  psychology  marked by  points  patterns  on t h a t  theory  Within  is  a  way:  deals  art.  Laura  p.105)  r a t h e r than  instruction  one  on  of  i s , the  effort  a d d i t i o n Chapman  maturation  on  that  expression  (Chapman, 1982,  has  body  process  individual  in this  education  creating  literature,  In  largest  process;  making  by  literature  expression.  as  a  practical  research  does  questions  form  1)  what  To  that  does  does  interfere with  f o r the  interaction  art activities  extent  awareness.  v e r s i o n of the  research questions  extent  what  reflect  a succinct  the  children's 2)  yet  provide  h a n d and To  not  Two  problem  at  study:  occur  during  i n a g r o u p s e t t i n g ? and,  the  group  c h i l d r e n ' s use  setting  assist  or  of a r t materials?  Purpose o f t h e Study The  purpose  prevalence  of  setting  the  aged  on  of  this  interaction use  subjects  i n an  for  investigation. will  2  Subjects using the  H  3  will  art  others  to  investigate  effects  materials  will during  art  a  group  four preschool-  generated  use  of  the  environment. as  categories  materials  in  the  of others.  tend  s u b j e c t ' s own  Subjects  to  "preschool"  were  tend  immediate p r e s e n c e H  the  organized  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses  Subjects  and  was  o f a r t m a t e r i a l s by  The  Hi  study  use  tend their  to  watch  prior  to,  or  observe  during,  others  and  after  of m a t e r i a l s . to own  interact  verbally  interaction  with  with art  materials. H  4  Subjects copying  will of  tend  others'  to use  engage of  in  imitation  materials  or  through  5 g e s t u r e o r image m a k i n g . H  Subjects  5  of  art  will  tend  materials  to by  be  distracted  the  presence  from or  the  use  actions  of  others. H  There  6  will  be  a  positive  relationship  subjects'  interactions  with  intensity  of  involvement  subject  others  between and  the  with  art  materials.  Design o f the  Study  Subjects The aged  children,  ranged over  subjects  from the  subjects to  period  i n the  members  two  just  were  of  in  over in  chosen  "B",  "C",  and  were  distinct  "D"  data  f o r the  The  f o r the  means t o u n d e r s t a n d  are  to  preschoolwhose  almost  were  they  ages  four  years  gathered.  The  project were  commenced  at  the the  referred youngest time  the  s u b j e c t s , r e f e r r e d t o as sake  o f anonymity,  personalities.  individuals  four  girls,  umbrella  because that  were  two  years  which  classes  initiated.  and  two  introduction two  study  boys  s t u d y was  these  this  included  Brief in  "A",  obviously  descriptions  Chapter  t h e i r behavior w i t h i n the  III  as  study.  of a  6 Setting The Centre  University  provided  were o b s e r v e d  the  programs  contained  equipment  and  Columbia's  for this  Child  study.  Study  Subjects  took p a r t i n morning or a f t e r n o o n  offered for  materials,  riding  British  setting  as t h e y  preschool  dress-up  of  by  play  blocks,  t o y s , books,  and  the  Centre.  with  water,  puzzles,  Facilities "house"  indoor  a variety  and  climbing  of a r t m a t e r i a l s .  Instruments A  JVC  (Scotch) used  video  camera,  r e c o r d i n g on  videocassettes,  and  collect  data  assisted  through  the  use  Two  v e r s i o n s of t h i s  researcher.  developed.  The  made p r i o r Appendix allow  to  F,  analysis.  was  for  first,  a  this  of  which The  version  additional  minute  handwritten  to  the  for  120  study.  check  the  comments  were  sheet  as A p p e n d i x which first,  and  to  was  developed  check  second, of  notes Analysis  sheets  appears  VHS  by  were E  was  appears  as  revised  to  simply  the  analysis.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Method The records of  combined was  of  video-taped  appropriate within this  reasons.  recordings  use  Unlike  enabled  the  written researcher  study  and  written  for a  number  observations,  video  to  capture  complex  7  interactions and  made  repeated  provided as  (including  The  and  outside  i t s range.  producing  could  was  important  able  happening  t o make  meanings b e h i n d  while  could  with  bias  limited  occurring adept  easily  at take  i n the setting,  respect  given i n t e r a c t i o n s .  a  less  more  elsewhere  notes  together provided a clear  had  details  The o b s e r v e r ,  camera  t o observer  nevertheless,  precise transcripts,  precisely,  The v i d e o  counterbalance  miss  relevant events  and  exchanges)  possible.  camera,  range,  in  review  an e f f e c t i v e  well.  verbal  to possible  The two a p p r o a c h e s  record of occurrences.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Method Three method u s e d  difficulties, here.  comprehensive, study  were  i n mind.  not  The  data-gathering)  subject, This  while  fact  video  tapes  existed  gathered  result  was  with  this  that  often  (particularly  at the behavior  of the  i t impossible,  were  reviewed  obtain  needed  information  second  difficulty  volume  of available  with  for this from  this  data,  when  specific greater  present  some  others.  notes  necessitating  was  and  study,  episodes.  approach  parts  individual  with  field  the  though  i n the early  disregarding interactions  made  with  The f i r s t was t h a t t h e d a t a ,  a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d of  however,  the  rather  to The  sheer severe  8  decisions would  about  n o t be  volume,  which  attended  i t  is  t o count  activities  within  should  was  were  information video of  i t  single  "as l e a s t "  limited  about  was s t i l l  limited  even  of vast could  though amounts not o f  motivations concrete  largely  which  results  some r e l e v a n t  or  evidence.  t o an a c c o u n t  d i d r a t h e r t h a n why t h e y  the conclusions  an  x number o f  Finally,  very  of certain  certainly  the analyst  without  humanly  numerical  the gathering  and  to the  be  instance  As a r e s u l t ,  assumptions  of subjects  would  goal,  as m e a n i n g  would  respect  Although  this  accurately,  o f what s u b j e c t s  the  toward  allowed  make  researcher  fact  every  with  may have b e e n m i s s e d .  information  intentions  Also  that  identified.  technology  course,  The  made  o f the data  the data.  be u n d e r s t o o d  instances  to.  argued  impossible  attempt  aspects  didi t .  This  c o u l d be drawn  from  data.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The  following  purposes o f t h i s Art  materials  chalk  definitions  material  used  f o r the  study.  r e f e r s t o paper, p a i n t , brushes, p e n c i l s ,  o i l pastels,  scissors,  were  glue or t o o l  sticks,  crayons, play  pens,  dough,  felt  clay,  markers,  o r any  used i n p a i n t i n g , drawing,  other  scribbling,  9 cutting,  molding,  not  included.  Art  experience  with  or  or a r t a c t i v i t y  with  of  products;  watching  materials  or products;  materials, The  t o o l s , or  immediate  refers  for  within  the  part;  o f an  however,  across  from  quarters  (easy  touching  episode  of  time  remains when  the  i n which there  the  second  within  art project  area  to  begin  the the  of tools, materials,  and  of  others  another  tools,  another  within  about  episode.  touching  This beside  many  the  study  i n d i v i d u a l i s seated or easy  subject  distance  includes  those  the subject f o r  incidents  include  i f in  those  very  close  distance). study  i s defined  subject  enters  i n t e r a c t i n g with  subject  but  use o r i n t e r a c t with  the  this a  not only also  immediately  persons  An  products.  products.  that  or standing  most  includes  the subject's  a l lor part  seated  t o o l s , or  and t a l k i n g w i t h  presence  to the fact  standing  another  are  to interaction  a r t materials,  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  Blocks  i s included.  refers  art materials  exploration  manipulation  activity.  The p e n c i l s h a r p e n e r  one o r more a r t m a t e r i a l s ,  Interaction use  or printmaking  indicates  a r t area  art materials.  completion  i n t h e same another  an  as t h e p e r i o d  by  I t ends  starting  l o c a t i o n o r by  activity.  and  When  a  leaving subjects  10 leave  the a r t area  look  at  another  continue Art  temporarily  activity,  a project, this  but  within  this  study  stations  within  the  setting  interact  with  are  table;  sharpener; material etc.  painting  clay  or  in  play  i n another part  from  one  dough  few  subjects  college/drawing the  Occasionally  i t s original  t o be an a r t a r e a  or  exceptions,  table;  of the s e t t i n g .  areas  the  the  to  episode.  t o those which  easel,  or to  immediately  With  and t h e c h a l k b o a r d .  i s removed  considered  refers  art materials.  the  the  return  i s considered  area  these  t o get supplies  site  This  pencil  a tool and  or  used,  site  then i s  f o r the purposes  of this  study. Verbal  interaction refers to verbal  subject an  by a n o t h e r  r e m a r k s made t o t h e  o r by t h e s u b j e c t  t o another  during  a r t episode.  Watching  others  manipulation,  refers  to  or organization  or products w i t h i n  refers to looking  to  activities  distraction looking  away  (prolonged)  i s defined or  of tools,  the  use,  a r t materials,  an a r t e p i s o d e .  Distraction other  observing  more  looking  in as than  away.  away f r o m a r t i n t e r a c t i o n the  setting.  more  than  3  6  instances  (Note  that  Frequent instances of  of  sustained  distraction  is  distinct  from  watching.)  is  considered  Imitation subject  copies  immediately Playing  art  study r e f e r s  comments  have  action  taken  or  place  activity  when  of  a  another  a f t e r watching i t .  with  a pretend  the  to  materials  for  the  purposes  of  this  to interaction with art materials that  or  f a n t a s y component  or  by  actions.  made a p p a r e n t  (A  boy  by  "flying"  has  verbal a  clay  s c u l p t u r e t h r o u g h t h e a i r w h i l e making a b u z z i n g n o i s e , for  example.)  Lengths  of  brief, one  episodes  medium,  minute.  and  A  medium e p i s o d e Working refers  same p r o j e c t , Using  a  i s any  in  exploration tools, drawing,  on  the  individuals  i s 10  same who  painting,  a of  tool  gluing,  refers  etc.  to  drawing,  refers  art  f o r example)  minutes  tool  rather  in  to  i s less  as  than  o r more.  the  A  of  scribbling,  the  an  i t s use  the  art  cutting,  activities.  examination  (scissors, than  study  etc.  use  or other a r t to  this  a r t m a t e r i a l s on  lump o f c l a y ,  printmaking,  an  referred  episode  surface  used  p i e c e o f paper,  molding,  Manipulating  A brief  are  l e n g t h i n between.  material/tool  material gluing,  long.  study  long episode  together t o two  in this  brushes, in  or clay  painting,  12 Organization returning  of  tools/materials refers  art  designated  tools/materials  storage  to  to  sorting  or  containers  or  locations.  D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study This  study  exhibited  during  including  how  episodes. to,  f o c u s e d on t h e b e h a v i o r s w h i c h s u b j e c t s  they  End  but  have  not  outside  behavior  i n the  art  interacted  products  observed  well.  interaction  Neither  art  area  area,  focal  the  points of t h i s  interacted  with  nor  i n a study  Both  presentation  therefore,  have  others  because  having  within  only  specific  referred,  four  context, general  population, research,  but  the  the  have have  implications rather  as  perhaps i n v o l v i n g  not  of the  for  the  to  be  setting.  the  data,  subjects,  with  in  presented  broad  considerations larger  who  Finally,  dealt  been  the  others  setting. been  the  were  group  to  numbers.  as  however.  also  analysis  immediate  results  of  needed  in addition  subjects  study,  the  to  outside  behaviors  concerned with and  informed  referred  behaviors  subjects  addressed the  the  behavior  or  behavior  art  referred  Where  been  subjects'  work,  the  during  illuminated  i t has  products  while  materials,  others  a r e a s were f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t s o f t h e  Furthermore,  to  with  analyzed.  art  art  art  have b e e n o c c a s i o n a l l y  been  the  with  a as  preschool  for  further  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE AND  RESEARCH  Introduction Research the  turn  of  i n the  the  psychological individual parallel the  field  century,  issues,  ideal  in  spontaneous,  (Chapman,  work  visual  of  the  state  found  to  15  field  its  view,  art education,  which  between field,  ways  needs  can  A  concise  the  has  identified to  and  this  growing  which  sociological  is and  heightened factors  a l s o p r o m o t e d an  adjusted  intimate  a r t student.  out  of  This  interrelationship  sociological  setting  the  socio-cultural  developing the  about  however, a  T h i s t r e n d has  which  of the  recognizes  prepared  be  attention  and  psychological  years,  by  be  pp.296-298.).  10  that  to  (1982,  in  of the  thought  A  adult  i n Smith  awareness  view  notion  without  on the  p.105).  brought  issues.  affect  of  represented  development.  social-psychological of  be  since  focus  which  the  by  models),  a  forces  the past  within  1982,  i n the  (produced  description  characterized  evident  unique  inevitable  movement  art  by  has,  behavior  should  result  Within  the  children's art  or  can be  dominated  on  been  interference of  been  Education  and  i n producing  i n f l u e n c e has  of A r t  issues  which  the  in  the  present  14 work has  grown.  The  discussion  relevant a  literature  somewhat  sources  and  from  the  art  follows  research.  extensive  psychology, and  that  education,  of early  summarize  In o r d e r t o  background,  fields  will  I  present  have  selected  sociology,  social-  childhood education,  psychology.  S o c i o l o g y , S o c i a l Psychology, and t h e School Perhaps with  Berger  very  sense  an  and.Luckmann of  objectively result  of  appropriate point  what  and  (1966),  "real"  subjectively  our  humanly  knowledge.  Built  interactions  with  influential  is  up others  this  transmitted  through  physically different For  the  basic  one:  profound  can  cultures,  purpose  way,  how  of t h i s  our are  human b e i n g s  study,  personal molded  "the  is  stored,  and  analysis  world  wide,  developed way  however,  the  common  "reality"  an  things  society  in in  so  vastly  the point  perspectives, by  of  the  of powerfully  Such  have  both  habitualized  i s maintained,  versions of  life,  system  everyday  easily  one's  i s actually  network  language.  extent  alike,  a  that  everyday  arbitrarily  into  institutions,  an  in  argue  speaking,  from  more c o n c r e t e ,  to  who  constructed  made a l l t h e  explains  at which t o b e g i n i s  a  are". is a most  which  we  15 live,  specifically  have  with  others  therefore, taking  is  issues  on  how  S.  success"  arguing  that  as  learns  or  school  are  what  children  Boocock b e l i e v e s to  interact  contends  that  itself to  without  affect  student  to  in  upon and  a  requires  -of  what  She one  what  is  perceived  within  out,  i s taught to  p a r t i c u l a r view  human b e i n g s have an  a  given  environments; mandate  change  points  how  the  i t is  interaction  cognitive  that  school's  Learning,  and  on  with  school  content  and  Sociology  general,  like"  the  scope  in  (p.4).  another.  learns  their  have  specifically  skills"  object;  the  are  with  These  learning  performance  point  valuable  is"  to  some k i n d  one  not,  a sense of the  achieves; or  must  texts.  or  dependent  educationally "what  of  substance  person  that  can  Introduction  opposed  o r movement f r o m one however,  "what  we  encompasses.  intellectual  requires  another  number  concerns  "adequate  more t h a n p u r e l y  with  a  Boocock's  "school  one  about  We  that  influence.  topic  (1972)  that  environment.  summarized t o p r o v i d e  Learning  notes,  interactions  environment  in  which t h i s  Sarane  the  assumptions  found  been b r i e f l y  she  our  i n t o account that  learning  of  in  make  Discussion  of  through  must  be  be of  society.  innate  she  in  drive  therefore to  ensure  16 that  its  environment  intellectual argues  potential  that,  abilities  stimulates every  regardless  possessed  measures  in  of  which  of  the  student.  the  by  individual  remain  for  developing  to  receive  available  in  schools.  Boocock  directs  family  influence  individual  role  to  structure;  roles  t h e y have i m p a c t overall  on  in  that  affecting the  student  body,  values,  play  affected a  very  and in  the  turn  strong  available  on  differences; and  classroom  teachers in  the  and  school. important and  with  Especially  societal  in  from  factors,  composition  by  role  one  with peers,  success.  (our  "learning"  learning  emphasize  school  values  and  she  social  these  sex  them;  i n t e r a c t i o n , with parents,  teachers,  the  school  within  is  prevents  research  styles;  conclusions  of  notes  and  e a c h as  Her  and  it  analyzing  attention  cognitive  structures peers,  In  or  of  intellectual  children  imprecise), one  readiness  Further,  natural  background which prepares a  development  and  predicting  of  she the  family student  achievement. A  second  text,  The  Learning  (McMillan,  generally,  but  affect  pupil  the  1980)  factors  decisions  Social  to  Psychology  analyzes  of  not  School learning  "in social interaction engage  in  specific  that  learning  behaviors" rather  (p.3).  than  emphasis  sociology,  on i n d i v i d u a l  Nevertheless, in  Dealing  there  the  topics  McMillan  notes  theoretical understood  with  this  that  by  his  Drawing recognized  social  Bandura,  which  theory  suggests  others)  of individual  by  a  (Brook  number  and E r i c k s o n ,  proposes  a  model  one must a n a l y z e how i n d i v i d u a l s  make  decisions  t o behavior  be  weighed,  characteristics, given  "significant  within  a  regard  to  setting,  he  says,  from  structure  setting. the  whether  individual  individuals  bring to a  to  Particular  familiarity the  ambiguous b e h a v i o r ,  they  receive  t h e group,  as  or  setting  context.  include  and t h e feedback  others",  organizational  within a social  t h e needs t h a t  situation,  to  of  learning process,  to  order  (p.12).  the  related  in  a  behavior i s  environment"  McMillan  "as  understand  Factors  that,  McMillan.  assumes  the variety  psychologists  among  of overlap  and  learning  provided  greater behavior.  amount  approach  by e x a m i n i n g  on  places  Boocock  basis the notion that  psychology  affecting  i s a substantial  interactions within the social  and  text  motivations  covered  best  social  and  appropriate points  stipulates  the  behavior  a r e made  unfamiliarity  and t h e c r e d i b i l i t y  from  from  with  of the  specific  or  of significant  18 others,  as  factors  From focuses  this  on  framework,  individual  attribute  to  Noted are  influencing  such  as b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by unintentionally, to for  the  current  artistic  than t o  or  Hanson about  failure  is  the  study,  a  is  setting. are  argued  particular  found  Of that  i s more o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d  or  interest success  to  ability  Thomas L. Good  (1980),  that Again  teacher with  influence  expectations  pertinence to t h i s  influence study,  For  a variety  of  reasons,  i t would  teacher  e x p e c t a t i o n s e x e r t more  student  achievement  secondary  more  adults  than  Young  and  are  are  older  s h o r t , t e a c h e r s have t h e  seem  that  influence  i n elementary  schools.  impressionable  please  the  o f t e a c h e r s o v e r young c h i l d r e n i s  noted:  In  seen  effort.  achievement.  in  they  intentionally  or e x t e r n a l l y .  evidence  (1980)  causes  within  l u c k or e f f o r t ,  In a d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e d by it  Frieze  as w h e t h e r d e t e r m i n a n t s  internally  tasks  Irene  beliefs  success  factors  behavior.  on  school  than  children  are  more  anxious  children  to ....  chance t o d e f i n e  f o r young s t u d e n t s t h e meaning o f s c h o o l work  and  their  level  it  (p.106) .  On  the  of p r o f i c i e n c y i n  subject  of  a c h i e v e m e n t , D a v i d W. classroom, student  the  achievement, other  student-student  Johnson  resulting  have  more  socialization,  factor,  interactions  yet in  the  from  powerful  and  classroom  and  " i n the  effects than  power  are  on  student-  development  importance  the  influences  (1980) n o t e s t h a t  influences  relationships  performing  of  often  on any  peer  ignored"  (p.25) . Thought t o be the  skill  valued  of  a direct  the  Notes  appears  to  person  to  is  emotionally  the  increase  in  loss  school  as  issues  of  ability  a  dealt  and  how  that  cognitively  and  Piaget  egocentrism  to  as  situation  development  complex p e r s p e c t i v e s , Other  particularly  defined a  situation.  psychological  progressive  be  how  person,  reacting to  may  understand  another  i s also  Johnson,  perspective-taking  ability  all  of peer i n t e r a c t i o n ,  "perspective-taking"  educationally.  Social  result  take  wider  views as  a  and  an  and  more  (p.130)  with  "mini-culture",  in this  text  transmitting  include norms  the and  20 roles; the  the  school  rewards  influence  of  With  respect  applicability and  "effect  to  on  to  (1973)  three  groups  of  second  children  reward;  and  reward.  The  the  reward  drawing  the  group t h a t a  which  of drawing study, one  given  e x p e c t e d and  no  received  interest  over time than the other  on  unexpected  was  decreasing  the  f o r drawing;  an  group  with  Lepper,  used...;  a reward  third  showed  value  were  by  in  In t h i s  received  and  study  cited  measured.  group  of  a  is  group agreed t o r e c e i v e the  and t h e e f f e c t s  issue,  on t h e i n t r i n s i c  c h i l d r e n " was  of  final  education,  Nisbett  elements  motivation.  the  art  o f rewards  preschool  hierarchical  on s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s ;  and p u n i s h m e n t s  Greene,  the  two  in  groups,  (p.222) The positive overall value  points  attitudes message  out  the  than  of  the  text.  for extrinsic  experiences  teacher  and  other  importance  i n students,  s t u d y and a c h i e v e m e n t  rather prior  work  as  well  perhaps Such  for their  ones; as  of the  strongest  attitudes intrinsic  would rewards  they are i n f l u e n c e d the  enthusiasm  students f o r a p a r t i c u l a r  and a r e r e l a t e d t o a p o s i t i v e  developing  self-concept.  of  by the  activity,  A  third  school Girls  work  with  social  influences  in  s e t t i n g s i s We've A l l Got  Scars:  What Boys  and  Learn  in  dealing  Elementary  School  work documents a 4 - y e a r s t u d y as  in  an  elementary  interested  in  led  pursue  her  group  to  might  reading  be  learning  to  complex  student  academic  agenda,  the  boys  evolution to  It  had  through girls,  a but  "secret  i t s members  series also  the  standard.  the  very  of  boys  club" and  who  were  seemed t o  the  peer  factor  to  in  uncover  not  will  the  classroom  at times,  The  the  in this  case  their club  deemed  to  excluded low  enough t o in spite  t o overcome i t s i n f l u e n c e .  a  outside  work d e s c r i b e s  "prove"  develop  c l u b grew p o w e r f u l  teacher  by  the one,  i n grade t h r e e .  challenges.  The  the  involvement  The  i t s rules provided  could  learn. on  her  influential  C o i n c i d e n t a l l y , the  ones who  Best's  " d i s p a r a t e " males i n grade  c l e a r membership,  agenda whereby  of  Particularly  existing  Best's  acted  class  motivating  caused  school.  of a group of  a  also  particularly  i n the  one  acceptance  sub-culture,  a highly defined  club  achievement,  important  read.  for  This  author  school.  a hunch t h a t an  1983).  i n which the  participant-observer/confidante  students  on  (Best,  an  manhood excluded  be boys  up  to  were  motivations  to  impose i t s  own  of  efforts  by  22 The  study  interaction one  that  motivation  of  low  Best,  boys  and  seemed  achievement;  the  a  to  group the  reach  Best  with  years,  the  less  easily  affected A The  other  final  factors,  text  the  of  class  in their  social  psychology  f o r c e s which  significant  human  amount  1983).  that  that  necessarily been  topic i s  interactions,  i t i s clear  a  be  with  While  and  to  predominantly  of  educators,  close  with  kinds  long  In  r a t h e r than  especially  has  herself  not  skills  (Amabile,  concerns  creativity  the  school.  Creativity  are  class.  appeared  social  of  behavior  deal  more o p e n l y .  and  to  ongoing  r e t a i n e d the  group,  negative  To  whole  gained  another  the  according  an  the  Amabile  creativity.  on  consequences  of general relevance to t h i s  Psychology  artistic  same,  their  students  dealing with  sociology,  affect  of  effect  the experience.  gradually one  influence,  effects  were,  peer  and  instituted  the  i n f l u e n c e d by  Social  Again  and  nature  of  the  beyond  members  students  members  behavior  children  " s c a r r e d " by  that  a powerful  Indeed,  n e e d e d t o communicate w i t h  supportive  conclude  enforce  those  situation,  result  later  to  substantially.  discussion As  define  emotionally  with  Best  i n schools i s i n fact  can  excluded  led  a  creativity one  concern of  tasks  and  the  of  art  provided  23 to  students  to  require In  admits  by c o n t e m p o r a r y "creative" skills  h e r summary that  creativity  whether  in  question.  creativity. motivation intrinsic  and  especially problems, process  having  as  being  i t cited  creative  model  the other,  over-dependent from  that  to  she  to  enhance  easier  complex.  to  can prove  of  affect task  existence  of  Control, or  solve  to the creative  model,  one hand,  or the value i s identified exposure  to a  i n s p i r a t i o n a l i n many  i t i s possible on a model  number  approach  of modelling,  On  a  discusses  important  or a creative  in  is  motivations.  how  as b e i n g  influence  to  can  f o r the  extrinsic  The i s s u e  a mentor rather  necessity  respect  as w e l l .  of  on  with  than  notes  which  particular  the  rather  she  factors  In  Amabile  i s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h a n how i t  Nevertheless  socio-psychological  It  said  them.  reviewed,  or not i t i s p o s s i b l e  remains  increased.  c a n be  as A m a b i l e d e f i n e s  of the research  d e t e r m i n e how c r e a t i v i t y is  a r t educators  cases;  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o become  and be u n a b l e order  to  t o break  develop  a  away  person  approach. Amabile's environment  advice  for  providing  conducive t o c r e a t i v i t y  i s that:  a  school  The  parent  encouraging  but  i n d e p e n d e n c e and Evaluation kept  to  a  approached positive  or  teacher  rather  detached,  be  fostering  self-direction. and  surveillance  minimum; by  should  be  might  be  evaluation  encouraging  critiques  should  of  students  their  own  to  and  make  other's  work. The  physical  "perceptually  and  environment  should  cognitively  be  stimulating"  (p.196) . Peer be  pressure  a negative  encouraging  to  force;  students  Student  to  conform teachers  not  fostered positive  intrinsic by  consider  conform.  to c u l t u r a l  on  the  diversity. should  be  enjoyable  and  o f work.  unstructured  traditional,  might  motivation  focusing  aspects  An  sometimes  programs s h o u l d i n c l u d e exposure  c r e a t i v e m o d e l s and An  to  can  controlled  rather classroom  than  a  environment  s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . A the  particular  accumulation  orientation  begins  o f r e s e a r c h summarized  to  develop  i n these  from texts.  25 This  orientation  social that  is  of  t h e environment human  environment While  the teacher  values  i t  that  key  player  the  student  promotes  also  decisions  made  or at the very  and  have  a  least creative  other  provide  subjects  group high As  and  the  impact  on  well,  activities,  the  are not  environment  research  within  a r t education.  first  within  and  the  Marjorie  of tenets  Lowenfeld,  promote  field  those  artistic  point  i n A r t Education  (1982;  which  skills  that  1982a;  were 1977).  influenced  by  Viktor  supported  the  notion  should  and w i t h o u t  out  sociological  of A r t Education  i n the f i e l d  spontaneously  Wilsons  to  Wilson  especially  children's  A summary o f t h a t  next.  the  perspectives  develop  the  t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r much c o n t e m p o r a r y  Among  the  i n creating  These  S o c i a l Interaction Perspectives  Critical  learners.  seem t o  work i s p r o v i d e d  Brent  of  ideas  literature  i n school.  place  choice  certain  a f f e c t e d by i n t e r a c t i o n a n d t h e s o c i a l  than  that  takes  the  i n school.  of  I t reminds  learning  or exclude  is a  atmosphere,  individual  and  encourage  importance  i n learning.  i n which  construction,  may  educational  less  t o the o v e r a l l  i n t e r a c t i o n as a f a c t o r  us  arts,  speaks  adult  be  allowed  to  interference,  a r t educators  actually  26 influence policy  children's  of  non-intervention.  accusations between  stems  books,  from  a  social  by  drawing Rather, kind basic  the  children  o f t h e time  the  Wilsons  interfered largely  task  notion  produced state the and form  in  (1982) .  that  much  universal,  to  be  noting  among  early  of  those  stages  of  "schema"  in  theorize  concept  drawing  children's  the implication  that  that  a  of has  graphic that  unique  drawing  each  image.  i s really  a  b e g i n s by d e v e l o p i n g a  of a variety  the real  the  children's  developing  sign-making  i t to " f i t "  that  many  through  f o r each  (1982a).  find  with  involves  the Wilsons  of visual  altering  form,  are explored  thought  development  development,  work  h a s s i n c e d i s a p p e a r e d and c a n be t r a c e d t o  Further,  probably  these  in television  i s actually  form,  a l l  influences  spontaneous  found  issues  g r a p h i c work  development,  for  i n the d i s t i n c t i o n s  The l a t t e r  challenge  specific  produced  very  b e i n g s p a r k e d by i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n ,  real-life  Wilsons  children's  Evidence  "non-school"  sources  that  and seems t o be t h e more m e a n i n g f u l  through which The  through  argue,  a r t " and  t o young a r t i s t s ,  that  they  t h e s c h o o l agenda.  Wilsons, comic  i s found,  "school  outside  a r t products  of objects,  or imagined  image.  then These  27 basic from  drawing a  "programs",  creative  available siblings  explosion  and p e e r s  interaction  that  their  but  of  and  a  through  emerge  copying  from t h e  not  images  "teachings" of  particular  kind  of  c o o p e r a t i o n between a d u l t s  children  peers,  Wilsons,  (1977).  o r d e r t o encourage  note  the  t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a and  Advocates  in  say  and  g r a p h i c development,  often  choose  and  regularly  the  Wilson  to  show  draw  one  the  active children Wilsons  i n groups  another  of  "how"  to  draw. Overall perception steeped  of  children's  i n media  nurtured  by  established Paul Wilsons'  and  sphere  —  (1984)  and  artists  outside  provides  c o n t e n t i o n s about  of  copying  examining  the  illustrators.  images o f t h e day,  was  (198X)  well,  the  interaction  in  childhood experiences  used  several  concludes  drawing  and  for  t h e most f r e q u e n t l y  r o l e m o d e l s were f o u n d .  children's  formerly  from  artistic  in  the  and  especially  r e p o r t e d ; as  Yakel  one  imagery  support  Copying,  strategy  Norman  altered  experience,  influenced  quite  an  of a r t education.  Duncum  through  builds  graphic  socially  peers  art-making  popular  literature  Research  that  abilities  examples  the are  of  adult  conducted  greatest associated  by  gains with  28 copying  artist's  "real"  copying  early  (1974)  social  must  behavior  f o r two  images.  depicting  children  that  through  —  article  related  t o make  reflection  (1979) p r o p o s e s than  an  she  notes  of that  innate that,  t o "see" the world i n a matter  not o f  s e e , b u t o f t r a n s f o r m i n g what we s e e To they  watching  the topic.  to a  research  understandable a  i s , therefore,  u s e what  o f common  be  First,  talk  do  this,  have  people  Because,  Korzenik,  about  making  and use a r t , and  a r t ; i n other knowledge  words,  available to  says Korzenik, a t l e a s t  knowledge e x i s t  children's  says  learned  make  about  draw on t h e p o o l o f s o c i a l  sets  through  rather  are unable  t o people  them a b o u t  offers I n an  the capacity  may  learned  pictures".  must  listening  olds,  Drawing  that  a r teducation.  reasons.  we  what we  "frozen  images  a  a  incorporated  i n a r t education.  A second  be  physiologically, still  be  1979 a n d 1974) a l s o  perspective  maturity.  drawing  should  are "readable" to others —  another's  from  instruction  she c o n c l u d e s ,  5 t o 7-year  images w h i c h from  (1981,  t o drawing  that  and i m i t a t i o n  perspectives  article  involving  two  argues  Korzenik  sociological  they  Yakel  young c h i l d r e n ' s v i s u a l Diana  into  as o p p o s e d  object.  includes into  images  culture,  i n o u r s o c i e t y (one a n d one  related  to  29 adult  c u l t u r e ) i n f o r m a t i o n about drawing which  r e c e i v e may  vary.  Finally, awareness  Korzenik  of c h i l d  (1981)  provides  a r t (as d i s t i n c t  evidence  from  linked  to the recognition of "childhood"  human  development.  emphasis related  children  on  a  Further,  particular  to general  she  phase  trends  adult  art) i s  as a phase i n  argues  of  that  child  i n the world  that  our  a r t may  of adult  be high  art. Graeme educators art  t o draw  education  issues. (1981)  this  be  article  argues  that  artifact,  vein,  art  In  a  1984)  viewed  a r t should and t h e r e f o r e range  art  on t o t h e f a c t  that  regard  education  conceived  as  a  would  arguing  of  starting  point  studies.  concern  as  In  itself  w i t h t h e "why" o f a r t .  later  article  context;  Hamblen  that  social  Ethnology"  be  (1984)  thus  he  reminds  and v a l u e s  (1984)  "artistic  the  reader  grow o u t o f  we impose meaning on a r t works  f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f o u r own c u l t u r a l Karen  to  as  of social  our " a e s t h e t i c " perceptions  a cultural  among  with  was  "Art Education  d i s c u s s i o n on a b r o a d  predominantly  that  (1981,  attention early  must  His  cultural for  Chalmers  reinforces  perception  backgrounds. these  is  a  notions, matter  of  30 learning  socially  aesthetic" similar  defined  (p.21).  Nancy  conclusions,  meanings  about  transmitted  by  expectations Johnson  reminding  art  stem  art teachers  of  (1982)  us  from  the  comes  to  that  children's  social  knowledge,  enculturated  in  particular  has  concerned  ways. Joseph himself  R.  particularly  creativity. and  LaChapelle  In  with  the  respect  changes  l o o k more c l o s e l y  to  i t .  understanding social must be useful  of  he  to  visual  define art  A that,  second in  directed alienation  the  article past,  the  to  by  Also,  creativity  artist  historically  he  and  the  need  issues related fact  that  our  influences  of  notes that  we  i n ways w h i c h  He  emphasizes  a pluralistic  are  that,  society,  must be t o l e r a t e d .  LaChapelle  sociological  visual  the  i s l i n k e d to  within  LaChapelle  evolved  points  in  Its Sociological  sociological  time.  inherent  (1983)  have  of c r e a t i v i t y  toward of  Research:  education.  because a r t s groups e x i s t many d e f i n i t i o n s  issues  of c r e a t i v i t y ,  creativity  at a given  careful to  that  at the  level,  thought  social  concept  to  one  1984)  Limitations"  to the  On  with  "Creativity  Educational  discusses  (1983,  art  have  and  the  (1984) and  points  other  focused artistic  out  studies on  the  community  31 from  the  dominant  however,  contemporary  greater  emphasis  community This  activity  within  It the  the  art  and  is  clear  we  that  of  as  that  product  of  educators  educators  well.  will  allows  feel  to  compelled  to  that  of  of  education is  only  former on  field  sociology  the  directions  of  many and  art  the  permeated  surprising  personal  natures now  have  in and  in the the  activity.  recognizes that art i s  attitudes  and  opinions,  influence children's art  not  us  produced w i t h i n  summary the  This  cultural  accepting can  this  within  focused  even i f a t t e m p t i n g In  from  general  i n the  community  value.  developmental  thought  not  isolated  as work t a k i n g  turn be  artistic  as t h e  but  place  structure.  particular  in  need  strength  spontaneously  that  concept  evident  the  literature  the  a  to  the  social  viewed not  of  LaChapelle,  begun  which  cohesive  context  that  psychology  of  Current  in  individual,  them a c c o r d i n g t o  education  light  a  to  have  t h a t many forms o f a r t may  sentiments  social  as  This  society,  "rank"  ways  a r t m a k i n g t o be  environment.  a  the  o f an e s t r a n g e d  recognize  According  researchers  on  functions  allows  place  culture.  and  products  to.  that  art  is  a  cultural  therefore recognize that certain  product, artistic  32 conventions effective  can  the  and  methods  interaction: peers.  be  At  uniquely  art  same  to  date  seem  products, art  personal  that  personal  interpretation  clear,  taught.  time  process,  is  be  found  with the  should  part  however,  qualities  of  that  even t h i s  demands a p a r t i c u l a r  social  for  a  focus  social  between  influence i s  a  and  deny  artistic  involves  the  feelings.  It  "creative"  aspect  environment. on  with  not  the  that  concepts  involve  need  of  art-making of  to  most  teachers;  educators  art  balance  with  The  personal  The  of  need  vision  and  apparent.  P r e s c h o o l e r s and S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n Having  established  perspectives  in  education,  it  literature  i n the  Here t h e with  early  exploration  interaction  of  alters  of the of  among  the  is  related  tendency to  and  A r t m a t e r i a l s are  but  to  the  of  play as  well  of  view  play  relevant to t h i s  preschoolers  art  education.  f o r the  context  available  discussion  and  childhood  somewhat,  within  sociological  summarize  literature  Literature  within  to  early  environment. items  of  education  necessary  field  activity  category  found  general  childhood  investigation. be  remains  orientation  preschoolers'  one  both  evidence  child  for  s e c t i o n can and as  social within  33 literature teacher  on  preschool  i n preschool  articles  reviewed  a r t , and t h e r o l e  settings.  deals  with  of the  The f i r s t  series of  interaction  generally  among c h i l d r e n o f p r e s c h o o l age. Mueller  and  developmental stage,  infrequent)  i n one-year-olds, exchanges  focuses  when one c h i l d ' s child  (1975)  on a p l a y  interest  such  The f i r s t (or v e r y  children;  rather,  object,  i n situations  i n a toy attracts  another  A second s t a g e ,  " s i m p l e and complex c o n t i n g e n c y behaviors  three  i n v o l v e s no  between  t o t h e o b j e c t as w e l l .  include  suggest  stages o f t o d d l e r i n t e r a c t i o n .  typical  interaction  Lucas  exchanges"  as i m i t a t i o n  called  (p.237) may  and t u r n t a k i n g ,  but t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s l i k e n e d t o s u b s t i t u t i n g a c h i l d for  an o b j e c t o r t o y , and i s not a t r u e exchange.  final  stage,  involves  "complementary  reciprocal,  interchange"  interdependent  i n t e r a c t i o n i n the conventional  The  (p.247),  actions,  or  sense.  A study by M u e l l e r and Brenner  (1977) found  that  t o d d l e r i n t e r a c t i o n i n c r e a s e d as c h i l d r e n matured, and that  sustained  age-mates  with  interactions whom  were most  subjects  were  frequent  among  acquainted.  The  study d i s t i n g u i s h e s between i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h people and with  objects,  and  between  interaction  and  social  34 behavior nearly  (vocalizing,  a l l the  looking).  interactions  o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t pointing  out  that  The  observed  of interest one  and  Brenner  child's  argue  s i d e by s i d e w i t h o u t interaction. the  notion  interest  that  among 1979) group  third  that  one  develops  article  "10  social  dealing  with  (Etaugh,  the  level  boys  and  3  findings  fewer  of  decreased  this over  = 23.8  study  unoccupied, of  compared  t o the fact  siblings  socializing  counter t o  skills  first  and  and  or  interaction  and  (mean  months)  Staulcup,  age  over  in a  at  the  a period  of  of e a r l i e r research.  were  semesters,  (p.160) and t h a t  attributed  (playing  participation  girls  (p.159) w i t h t h e r e s u l t s  subjects  runs  social  of s o c i a l  8 months"  solitary,  object  Finally,  play  Collins,  of the study  increased"  also  interact.  compares  behavior  study  i n an  parallel  beginning  The  that  e x c h a n g e s ) seems t o be a s o u r c e o f  preschoolers  of  their  to others.  T h i s argument, t h e y n o t e ,  then begins t o A  in  note  i n a play object,  seemed t o make i t more i n t e r e s t i n g Mueller  authors  that  "unoccupied  while p a r a l l e l  play  s u b j e c t s s p e n t more t i m e i n onlooker  studies. that  activity The  results  subjects of this  therefore  fewer  than  study  opportunities  t h a n d i d s u b j e c t s o f t h e compared  did were had for  studies.  35 A distinction  h a s b e e n made by r e s e a r c h e r s between  i n t e r a c t i o n with  an o b j e c t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  individual.  discussion  A  of  interaction  with  o b j e c t s by 3 t o 5 - y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s i s f o u n d by  Schneider,  Moch,  Weckman  (1983).  studies  i n which  investigating visual  seems to  something  later  in  manipulation --  using  that the of  visual  else.  with  which  behaviors  process  they  Walter-  to  earlier  related to  play.  as  o f an  the child  the object  Manipulating  study  to  inspection  from  from These  object decides  o r t o move on  i s t h e next  step,  t h e o b j e c t , which i s  either  unconventional  or transforming the function of the object  i t as i f i t were  children.  and  refer  manipulation  interacting  "play" with  which  and  to  a basis  the  i n a study  of behaviors  evolving t o "playing" with  defined  novel  o b j e c t by p r e s c h o o l e r s moved  that  to provide  Averswald,  the authors  t h e sequence  a novel  observe  continue  to  Here  inspection  authors  Standfort,  another  the object  Basically, described compare  else.  increased with  they  concur  work,  linear;  They  note  t h e age o f  w i t h t h e sequence  i n the e a r l i e r  their  i s n o t always  something  but  children  f o r t h between p l a y a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n ,  studies  with  find  that  the  may  move  back  f o r example.  36 Parten  (9171) d e a l s  activity  within  setting.  Using  the  overall  onlooker;  organized  supplementary  observations.  These  commonly  observed  partners  of  play  engage were  same  3)  over  riding  construction  100  She  more  onlookers  children and  were  2)  eager  two  with  usually  interaction  not or a  identified,  activities each. in  play  with and  of  dolls; play  most that  play  out  any  that  other  conversed display  choices  complicated  paper,  painting activity  the  and p a i n t  or p a i n t s  grew o l d e r "  about  their  finished  with  scissors  frequent  clay,  12  commonly  with  " t h e more  to  decreasing  t h a t t h e use o f c l a y 11th  child  The most  order  as t h e c h i l d r e n  to  most  of  i t was  of  were  110  observes  "occasionally  and  for a  play;  than  (unoccupied;  the motivation  times  points  preschool  children  groups  play that u t i l i z e d  also  1)  in  were,  and  became more p o p u l a r Parten  that:  "kiddie kars";  6th  respectively.  the  made a number  whether s o c i a l  Parten notes  the  placing art  associative;  Parten  sex;  of  Sandbox  and p a p e r . were  were  activities  frequency: trains;  play),  s e r v e d . as  i n play;  observed  of  parallel,  t o determine  observed  context  playing  the  object  interaction,  s i x categories of behavior  solitary;  possible  with  (p.89).  attracted and  that  paintings products"  37 (p.93).  In  potential scored clay,  paper,  general refer  context to  two  This  i s active  senses SM  play,  internal  the  of  play,  small  child  The  throughout  and l a r g e m u s c l e  systems.  In  not  attempting  to  (p.51).  play,  representational,  i n c l u d e s both symbolic  SM seems t o be s u s t a i n e d The s e c o n d  According  to  i s understood  play  these to  child to  uses  explore  In symbolic  dramatic  be  ideas  representational  "make-believe" and  of and  authors, that  form  feelings play,  i n a range  situations.  by a  category  t h r o u g h w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s e s p e r s o n a l concepts.  express  i n exploring the external  towards mastery"  and  life. the  drive  play  and  say Wolfgang and  a t t h e body l e v e l .  representational  authors  sensori-motor  world  play.  the  through  thoughts, but r a t h e r  constructive  (198 6)  the world  is  of  with  within  setting.  and c o n t i n u e s  exploration  and t h r o u g h  house  (p.93).  and S a n d e r s  Sensori-motor play,  "begins at b i r t h  playing  art activity  of the preschool categories  their  characteristically  by W o l f g a n g  i n placing  representational. Sanders  are  a c t i v i t i e s , " she c o n c l u d e s  helpful  to  a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e work  and p a i n t s ,  work p r e s e n t e d  also  according  socialization,  "Sand p l a y  beads,  play  The  activities  f o r encouraging  highest.  parallel  is  rating  the  o f ways  Constructive  38 representational  play,  use  to build  of materials  related of  i s t h e one  fall.  presentation on  into  of a  this  The l a t t e r  visual  this  authors  "teacher will  form,  art activity  i n addition to category.  move  behavior be  involves the  forms and images  blocks  within  the  topic  which  include  art materials  orientation,  ideas  or construct  The a u t h o r s  traditional this  hand,  to individual perspectives.  course,  would  on t h e o t h e r  on  From  to  continuum";  included  in  the their  the  next  section. With play  respect  within  a  preschool  (1986) a r g u e s t h a t She  promotes  the  teacher  which  "play  may  role  setting,  Virginia  Green  a d u l t s need t o t a k e a s t r o n g e r  role.  intervention training",  intervene  clarify,  facilitating i n play  and e x p a n d  may  form  suggestions other.  on  of  asking  one hand  She n o t e s  that  adults  tend  t o "...  but not t o (p.17).  questions  to modelling  takes  r o l e t o one i n  the play,  o r manage t h e a c t i v i t i e s "  the  which  i n order  promote c o n t e n t take  i n encouraging P.  from a s t r i c t l y  he/she  revitalize,  to the teacher's  or  behavior  This making on t h e  t o be h e s i t a n t  to  become i n v o l v e d  i n children's play  due t o e m b a r r a s s m e n t  or  that  the b e l i e f  force.  Adult  such  action  will  be  hesitations  can be  overcome  a  negative  easily  with  39 training,  however, n o t e s  Joan  Tamburrini  advocating  greater  teachers,  Green.  (198 6) play  intervention  She n o t e s t h a t  of  that  evidence when  child's Such  the adult's  involvement  play.activity,  to  deal  who  help  with  are:  modelling; propose,  i s t o maintain  Olivia cognitive  N.  style  to  particular,  she  most  with  them"  the  (p.46).  and v a l u i n g f o r  form  possible,  when t h e p l a y (1986)  tend  to play  discusses  play  categories  they  non-directive  directive  intervention.  for  children's  on;  and e x t e n d  referred  of techniques  The  making;  i n preschoolers,  types  amount  their  (1986),  sustain  looking  Saracho  personality  at  respect  environment.  question  behavior  of  synchronize  a continuum  like  and p h y s i c a l  looking-on  the part  i s a growing  and S a n d e r s  active  intervening  in  Tamburrini.  provides would  Green  and r e d i r e c t i n g  elaborate  shows a b a s i c  a preschool  statements;  least  on  function  actions  work by W o l f g a n g  teachers within  and  argues  previously,  "there  children  intentions  The  with  also d i s t i n g u i s h i n g extending  interaction.  capable  concurs  statements;  The g o a l ,  play  by  they  using  the  retreating to active i s sustained deals noting  with that  i n different  field-dependent  (p.61). play  and  different ways. and  In  field-  40  independent  behavior.  explains,  tends  dependent  on  field  to  groups  and  (p.25).  child  child  on  to  and  play  roles  The  other  child's  suggests  style,  approach  gradually  near  The  which  interaction  question,  this  and  on  the that  as  field and  trees,  independent  play  alone  child's  be  which  beginning  and  ideas"  art  work  over  the  year,  personality  with  preschoolers  together  that  adults  complement  to a but the  time.  concerning pieced  of  sensitive  less consistent  by  the  i s developmental; that  dependent  same  such  teachers  the  which. r e c o g n i z e s  others"  complex.  inclination  is  small  objects  field  activities  perspective  interaction one  that  encouraging a c t i v i t y  cognitive  the  to  in  b u i l d i n g t o communicate  that  using  One  prefers  notes  d e t a i l e d and  Saracho cognitive  hand,  block  author  long  (p.25).  more One  of  represent  anything  she  oriented,  to  the  to  child,  cooperative.  prefers  imitate  people"  the  t e n d s t o be  are  often  represent or  (p.26).  is  socially  "draws c i r c l e s  " u s e s a r t work and  child's  more  authority,  "likes  to  flowers, child,  field-dependent  In a r t work, S a r a c h o n o t e s t h a t  dependent sticks  be  adult  dependent  The  these  nature  of  and  studies social  types of i n t e r a c t i o n of  play  the a  individuals in major  role  in  facilitating objects found an  or  and  with  that  a  m o t i v a t e d by  to an  interest  shifted  in  single,  isolated,  was  her  whether the  the  Sherman  as  complicated, the  group  to  proceed upon She  and  use  i t and  the  to  the  "interesting  one  the  that  working  was  in  that  she  i t to  a unique  "there  seemed  sharing  but  a  be  group. more  peer  children  would  then  "elaborating  propose"  them  would  and  that  way,  to  wondered  . . . emerged i n  out  briefly  of  children  became  "imitation  in their  (p.140).  alone  factor  "medium became a v e h i c l e learning"  be  T h i s change  observation  another  by  or  observing  points  action  is  reflect  observations  observed  new  which She  discoveries  social  notes  t e a c h e r s , who  children  although  adapting  concludes  reinforce that  that  (p.139).  to  making  experiences of  with  evidence  environment  f o r example,  of  play  interaction.  from  request  imitate  some  i n a classroom s e t t i n g .  situation"  influence" seemed  an  the  children  those  notes  and  a r t m a t e r i a l s may  in  study  children's  same  of  (1983) ,  freely  made a t  use  Further,  exploring  Sherman  interacting  interaction  people.  child's  approach  Leah  maintaining  be  a  (p.140). need  verbally"  to and  f o r common e x p e r i e n c e  42 A second social  study  activity  ( F u c i g n a and I v e s ,  as b e i n g  the  age o f 24 months,  to  "entrance  into  exploration  of  carried  aloud  Other  on  it  into their  art  area  a r t media" while  take  working  or  first and  with  manual  monologues  art materials.  s a y , "do  i n others'  own c o n c e r n s "  as a p r e c e d e n t  (p.49),  the authors  but w i l l  i n a r t b e h a v i o r s by  i n c l u d i n g watching the  an  classmates,  imitate,  reflected  1982) r e c o g n i z e s  input  not and  directly translate  (p.49).  Summary To  conclude  apparent  that:  literature  has  recognition  among  longer  isolated  be  and  pervade  children's  proceed  on  interest  student  only  artist,  literature,  trends  in  i n the  learning,  a r t educators  object  then,  of  general an  individual  ideas,  survey  considered  social  These  1)  reflect  environment  no  this  that  within and 3)  interaction  in  with the current  effects 2)  that  there  the realm issues  of the to  childhood  at that from  is can  related  early  a background  study.  education  art activity  use o f a r t m a t e r i a l s provide  i t is  age.  which t o  CHAPTER I I I PROCEDURES Introduction As the  p r e v i o u s l y noted,  University  Centre, data  of  British  i n Vancouver,  took  place  1985-86.  this  British  over  two  study  was  conducted  Columbia's  Child  Columbia.  school  A n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d  at  Study  Collection of  years,  1984-85,  and  i n 1987-88.  Setting The  setting  i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s were o b s e r v e d  was an  o n g o i n g p r e s c h o o l p r o g r a m , o f f e r e d by t h e c e n t r e , children over  attended  the school  simultaneously community  f o r two o r t h r e e year.  provide  research  cameras,  and r e s e a r c h e r s  this  setting,  unnoticed, by to  they  the c h i l d r e n . ensure  occur  a  that  i n the  was  consideration.  to  to the  need t o  takers,  video  " t e s t s " were common  d i d n o t go  t o be t a k e n  rather  completely f o r granted  consistent precautions of  researchers  and t h e q u a l i t y  stated  designed  service  Note  they  "overload"  a t any p o i n t ,  experiences  field.  The s t a f f t o o k an  was  p e r week  the university's  conducting  and w h i l e seemed  program  preschool  and t o accommodate  conduct  in  The  half-days  which  always  d i d not  of the children's  to  be  a  primary  44 The place an  first  school  settings  m i g h t be The  were  appropriate  The  activity  first  house-play  area  library  puzzles,  and  a  size  placed year, with  and  annex  and  safety  f o r example,  equipment,  included  area  record  stations  were  with player,  young  to the  types room.  included  a  beds,  a water-play  area,  for blocks  piano,  as  all  of  dolls,  a space  but  facility.  needs  around  of  such  equipment  invitingly  took  of Vancouver)  similar,  a dress-up area,  and  (an  grouped according  kitchen  music  instruments,  program  building,  play  Other s t a t i o n s  area,  the  West s i d e  e q u i p m e n t was and  chairs.  the  the  of  well-equipped preschool  the  During the  a  years  essentially  tables, to  children.  and  on  f o u n d i n any  chairs,  of  second  i n d i f f e r e n t rooms o f  elementary  the  and  and  percussion  and  several  "art"  a  two-sided  easel  stations. The stocked A  art with  table  and  of  an scrap  the  for clay  in  consisted cans,  available  materials  side up  and  paint  was  displaying glue  stations  papers were  brushes,  for  assortment for  of  of  2-D  art  drawing  available second  on  table  or  dough work, w i t h  work,  paper. usually and/or  Additional  open  A  clean  materials  college.  table. play  and  was  shelves  tools at  ordinarily  one set  i n d i v i d u a l boards  45 and  a  variety  available.  rocking  and  decorating  t o these  "boat",  and v a r i o u s  for children  stations,  a small  the  greeted,, hung  t o use.  A large  rabbit  named  great i n t e r e s t  first  up  coats  year,  children  at designated  t h e n spent a s h o r t t i m e w i t h t h e p a r e n t . period  (which became b r i e f e r  Children  arrived,  were  "cubbies",  and  After a brief  as t h e year  parent departed f o r a d i s c u s s i o n  hall. the  a  delight. During  the  slide,  "ride-'em"-type t o y s were  roamed t h e room, t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s  and  tools  table.  addition  available "Lop"  cutting  A s m a l l b i n o f c l a y was on t h e f l o o r t o one  side of t h i s In  of  progressed)  group a c r o s s t h e  were a l l o w e d t o move f r e e l y throughout  room, making t h e i r own c h o i c e s about a c t i v i t i e s i n  which  to  assistant talked  become remained  with  and  involved. with  One  teacher  the c h i l d r e n .  assisted  the  and  These  children,  one  adults  offering  encouragement r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t i o n i n most c a s e s .  The  time was about one and o n e - h a l f hours i n t o t a l , and was loosely play,  structured  snack t i m e ,  b e f o r e g o i n g home.  i n three parts,  consisting  and a b r i e f p e r i o d  of free  o f outdoor  play  46 In t h e s e c o n d more  year,  structured i n that  t h e p r o g r a m was  very  slightly  i t included a "circle  time" i n  w h i c h themes f o r t h e day were i n t r o d u c e d and available to  make  before  t h a t day were d i s c u s s e d . a  specific  leaving  choice  the  crowding at popular Stations to  those  by  example,  provided  virtue  o f t e n than The  of  the  year  materials was  cones, Play  i n the  those  i n the  were  quite  similar.  gain  avoid  over-  were  similar  offered. provided  glitter, dough  more For near  and g l u e  were  offered  more  was  clay.  from  and  children  to  activity  b u t sometimes were  paper  Christmas.  teachers  given,  order  i n t h e second  heart-shaped  out near  beginning  asked  stations.  V a l e n t i n e ' s Day, a n d p i n e set  in  o f f e r e d i n the f i r s t ,  directed  C h i l d r e n were  for a  circle,  activities  to  the  first  confidence  and  respecting the rights  year,  Little  emphasis  explore  second  year  however  specific  was  were the  independence  and  approaches  instruction  explicitly  activities  different  on  helping  materials  while  was  and  to  simultaneously  of others using the  space.  Subjects The centre  s u b j e c t s were t h e f o u r y o u n g e s t members o f t h e classes  provided  f o r two-year-olds  when  data-  gathering introduce Subject  began.  The  following  brief  energetic  and  descriptions  the subjects: "A"  A  highly  "A"  was  toys play to  interested  and  a good  first  the  stopping  activities. "explorer second not  He  year,  round  and  round  briefly  at  many  known  as  showed  tools  activities.  He  working  and  as w e l l was  alone  He was  2.0  were  interest using  in  large  as many  very  other  independent,  rather years  an  In t h e  "ride-'em"-toys  he  and t r u c k s ,  others.  o f h i s time i n  was  when  manipulating  often  f o r him  o f the environment."  available,  blocks  of the  I t was common  riding  boy,  "ride-'em"-  aspects  portion  year  room,  i n the  active  environment.  spend  the  other  confident  than  with  at the start  of the p r o j e c t . Subject  "B"  A  quiet,  great during  focused  deal her  of  girl, interest  first  according  to  experienced  with  "B" in  year.  her  showed  a  art  work  She  was,  mother,  a r t materials,  rather having  48  an  older  brother  and  them r e g u l a r l y . her  She t e n d e d  close  to  fact  suspected  drawings;  near-sighted.  a  deal  out  with  she  f o r various  was 2.2 y e a r s Subject  "C"  A  quiet,  also  be  very  outstanding spent  others, of  serious  notice  when  rather  boy,  "C"  One  "B"  was  could  of h i s that  he  watching observant  often,  for  t h e camera  or the  note  would  not.  in his first  shy.  them  would  others  little  and  o f the study.  o f h i s time  He  showed  Subject  and was among t h e most  example,  very  be  seeking  focused.  subjects.  taker  often  reasons.  deal  might  particularly  characteristics  a great  in  i n books  at the start  often  very  mother  She a l s o  of interest  adults,  used  t o work  r e a d i n g and seemed t o e n j o y being  who  her  that  somewhat great  sister  year  His confidence  He  spoke  and seemed appeared t o  i n c r e a s e g r e a t l y , however, b y t h e s e c o n d year began  and a l t h o u g h to  enjoy  children.  "C"  he r e m a i n e d being was  with  2.2  q u i e t , he the  years  other  at the  Subject  "D"  start  of the project.  Also  rather  little  quiet  girl  initiate spoke and  often  rather  amount long  o f time  also  2.0  was  the  project.  of the subjects, exposure  this  study  ages,  none  of the subjects  were  marginally  spoke when  During  mainly  when  responding  study,  of  adults were  the  activities.  increase  project  in  progressed.  being  very  was  young,  Also  of  setting  due  to  verbal  although  some  than  absolutely Over  children  others,  in  their at the  children subjects  necessary, the period  matured,  of  had had  highly  talkative  the  at the  noticeably  at the beginning  year,  i t was  a  years  t o an a d u l t .  course,  She  interests  to  conducted.  the f i r s t more  or  them.  than  to the kind  which  start.  was  rather amount  as  "D"  previous  out  t o both  her  seemed  confidence  limited  and  children  them  with  to  She t e n d e d t o s p e n d a "medium"  or short  She  other  seek  frequently  children,  this  however,  the  encounters  diverse.  Each  enjoy  would  watchful,  seemed,  particularly and  and  and,  often of, the as  a  50 result,  The  grew i n c r e a s i n g l y more v e r b a l  The  types of data  first  source  videocassettes they  taped  sessions  monthly each  taping  one  throughout  each  was  two  i n eight  tapings;  and  data  the  varied  materials.  Occasionally  exact  to  amounts not  illness of  time  available.  about  or  a  For  subject  each each  on  most  cases, they  sessions  in  Subject  B in  9 tapings. due not  missed  to a  subject  was 10 The  to  the  use  art  taping  circumstance.  subject,  and  used.  involved  or  a  approximately  subjects  some o t h e r  that  of  C was  whether  would  camera p e r s o n  tapings;  involved  the  because  taping  Subject  for  there  In  period  among  decisions  due  21  i n eight  individual's  session  a  The  into  subject  subjects,  for  D was  each  as the  moved  that  years.  two  tapings;  Subject  record  school  of  they  a way  VHS  subjects  Pre-scheduling  same t i m e .  involved  involved  of  as  i n such  available  for  A  amount  materials  recorded  were  hour  Subject  art  to  attended c l a s s at the observer  of  done  over  120-minute  recordings  "stations." was  six  study.  with  opportunity  basis  of  particularly  art  equal  consisted  with  and  designated  s o u r c e s were u s e d i n t h i s  filled  interacted  classroom,  were  self-assured.  Data Two  be  and  The  participated however,  the  51 approximate Subject  A,  amounts 2.25  C, 3.50 h o u r s ; The  of  hours;  data  consisted  of  written  the  recordings.  non-participating researcher.  particular sets  notes  aspect  2.00  the  of written f i e l d  in  used  this  were  study  to  by  of  a  this  i n that the  attend  to  behavior.  were u s e d  with  taken  t h e work  undirected  subjects'  notes  Subject  simultaneously  requested  of  were:  hours.  and were were  data  hours;  used  The n o t e s  not  2.50  taken  observer,  was  B,  source  Observations  note-taker  recorded  Subject  and S u b j e c t D,  second  video  tape  any  Twelve  i n the analysis.  C o l l e c t i n g t h e Data In  an  collection  of  discussion First  to  data  clarify  actually  of t y p i c a l  of a l l ,  observer  prior  events  appropriate  some  teacher spot  i n which the  following  met  at the  this  within  the  point, room  for  place to  equipment  i n t h e room h a d t o be moved s l i g h t l y  for  t o reach  electrical  p o s s i b l e views  furniture  outlets  f o r camera  with  the  the  t o be  clearest  Sometimes  as  pre-arranged  equipment  cords  the  o f any c h i l d r e n , t h e  c o n s u l t a t i o n took  at  s e t up.  ways  and a p p r o a c h e s i s o f f e r e d .  to the a r r i v a l  Usually,  classroom  the  occurred,  and t h e camera p e r s o n  location. the  effort  most  camera  or  other  i n order  or t o ensure  and o b s e r v e r .  the The  52 aim,  however,  possible, freedom  o f movement  director  At might  particular be  parent.  the  available  a special The  and  of  on  some  that was  one  o r watch  i n t h e room.  t h e camera p e r s o n  to  the  the  subjects or  that  were  were  was  and  a t hand. from  be p a r t o f  Materials  date,  paper,  points  not a c t u a l l y  and  any  tools  unusual  a rearranged  room,  recorded.  on  and t h e camera  during  bystanders.  observer  about  r a t h e r than with the usual  particular  c o u l d have  play  research  example,  f o r observation  t o take  and  the  needed t o ensure  were t h e n  as  the children's  of  for  (a s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r ,  friendly  the  with  information  ill,  then  unobtrusive  well,  day;  see but would  that  event)  children  children  as  r o l e s which t h e observer  elsewhere  as  to materials  and a. c l o c k  chosen  encouraged  caused  be  at the a r t centres.  circumstances  with  or  clipboard,  action  point  a grandparent  one c o u l d  those  to  access  provide  late,  positions  were  this  The o b s e r v e r  pencil,  which  or  situation  attending with  The  always  and t o a v o i d i n t e r f e r i n g  equipment.  would  was  this  project  Interacting  person were  t o o much  i n f l u e n c e d the i n t e r a c t i o n or miss  events  Nevertheless, both occasionally  taking  place  the observer  spoke w i t h  or helped  i n s i t u a t i o n s when t h e t e a c h e r was m o m e n t a r i l y  53 unavailable.  Because  with the children, ignored. setting,  was  not  initiated  however, b o t h r e c o r d e r s were  As n o t e d adults  interaction  i n the i n i t i a l  with note  pads  usually  description, of the  a n d cameras were  fairly  common i n t h e s e t t i n g . Upon t h e a r r i v a l started. in  First,  t h e room  ordinarily  of the designated subjects,  t h e time  was  a t which each  noted.  record  The camera  events  until  arrived  a t an a r t s t a t i o n .  subject  took  long  activity,  a  however,  she was d o i n g  time  t h e notes  "10:15 - A s t i l l  the subjects  Particularly moving  to  might  reflect  what  i f a  an a r t he o r  entries  with puzzles";  at puzzles with under, t h e s e  found  at a r t centres  a t t h e same  might  have p o s i t i o n e d  themselves  same  easel,  one  circumstances,  arose  the  camera  a l t e r n a t e t h e f o c u s from periods.  i n which both  visible  time.  one  person  Quite  s u b j e c t s c o u l d be Two s u b j e c t s  on e i t h e r  one, t h e n  An a t t e m p t  i n the notes.  and  "  circumstances.  a situation  subjects  would not  before  often  short  of  arrived  instead.  "10:10 - A w o r k i n g  were t y p i c a l  person  one  actually  subject  work  side  not.  In  usually another  of the these  chose  to  subject,f o r  was made t o a t t e n d t o b o t h  Sometimes  i t was n e c e s s a r y t o  54 move  quietly  closer  clearer  view.  hearing  and v i s i o n  the  With  combination  coherent  a  subject  i n order  so many c h i l d r e n were  of  i n t h e room,  o f t e n obscured.  approaches  t o get a both  Nevertheless,  usually  provided  a  record o f events.  As  snack  observer  time  slipped  labelled Some  to  arrived,  out  of  the  the  camera  room.  at  clarifying Centre's  this  stage  the notes,  office  was  which  spent  were  and  tapes  were  storage  area.  The  and s t o r e d i n t h e c e n t r e ' s t a p e  time  person  re-writing  then  typed  and  by t h e  staff.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Data After field  repeated  notes,  Categories  a procedure were could  hypotheses,  the  broken episode  was  categories check  passages.  the  Some  was  which  which  f o r each  and  of  tables  d e s c r i p t i o n s were  to the  which  would  were  then  s u b j e c t , and each related was  Results  and  drawn  t o the  recorded  f o r t h e purpose.  form  verifiable  Data  f o r information Information  developed.  related  questions,  "episodes"  developed  in  within  compiled  identified.  r e c o r d i n g s and  f o r analysis  of the subjects.  examined  sheets  presented  be  research  experiences down i n t o  of the video  identified  information  clarify  review  on were  descriptive  directly  from  55 the  field  tapes  notes;  others  together,  recounting  of  description  of  following  and events  the  chapter.  data  were  developed  presented and  as  behavior.  analysis  from a  notes  and  summarized An  i s presented  in-depth in  the  CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA Introduction The evolved A of  procedure after  challenge data  f o r a n a l y z i n g the data  an i n i t i a l  to the researcher  available.  the data,  discussing taken  and,  Compartmentalization  video  to  recordings  involvement episode subject with  were  was  entered  identified  by t h e volume  i t was  which  would  presented.  necessary  to  be u s e f u l i n  Two  steps  were  problems.  deal  with  were  the  identified to  an a r t a r e a , and  therefore,  for have  each  manageable t o a n a l y z e  of  data,  the  and  "episodes"  of  each  subject.  An  taken  place  when  a  remained t h e r e t o i n t e r a c t  indicated  and numbered.  volume  scanned,  o r by l e a v i n g t h e a r e a .  session,  posed  notes.  o f Video Recorded Data  considered  materials,  comments  data.  of that,  the hypotheses  order  was  and  study  o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be drawn  toward r e s o l v i n g these  In  of the tapes  In a d d i t i o n ,  determine the kinds from  review  in this  completion, Within  subject's  either  ray  each r e c o r d i n g episodes  I n t e r a c t i o n s were  then  were more  and s i m p l e r t o r e t r a c e w i t h i n t h e  57  Development o f C a t e g o r i e s  The  next s t e p  videotaped  data  i n extracting information  was  to establish  from t h e  categories  within  which i n f o r m a t i o n , r e l a t e d t o t h e hypotheses, c o u l d be identified.  A review  literature  prompted  "Immediate  Presence  Interaction"; these  the  following  of Others";  categories:  "Watching";  "Verbal  " I m i t a t i o n " ; and " D i s t r a c t i o n " .  Each o f  related  hypotheses.  o f t h e hypotheses and r e l e v a n t  respectively  to  For c l a r i f i c a t i o n ,  the  first  "Number o f  five  Episodes";  "Location  of A c t i v i t i e s "  and " A c t i v i t i e s "  were  included.  Dealing with the f i n a l hypothesis,  also  however,  (the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e q u a l i t y of  the experience)  single  factor  was  could  less  be  s t r a i g h t forward,  used  as  evidence  in  as no this  category.  I t was determined, t h e r e f o r e , t o use s e v e r a l  categories  r e l a t e d to the f i n a l  that  a  pattern  might  emerge  hypothesis overall.  The  c a t e g o r i e s chosen were "Length o f E p i s o d e s " Questions whether  underlying the length  unconventional  these of  an  i n hopes  categories  first  and " P l a y " .  had t o do  with  i n t e r a c t i o n o r t h e more  use o f m a t e r i a l s  i n pretend  have  implications f o r the q u a l i t y of the  Each  of the categories  to this  point  was  play  might  experience. presented  58 quantitatively represent  the  results.  information  missed  categories,  in  the  "Longest  following  Episodes";  Behavior";  "Other  Interactive presented  Child  descriptively  in  were  ensured  of the f i n a l  attempt  the also  identified:  and  final  the  categories  were  They  order  f o r each  "Adult  "Additional  results.  in  to  original  Together";  Behavior";  overlapping  descriptions discussion  were  These  an  by  "Working  Behavior".  intentionally  In  were  that  full  subject; also,  for  hypothesis.  C o l l e c t i o n o f Data At  this  reflected video each the  the  tapes  a  check  organization  were  episode.  reviewed,  In a d d i t i o n ,  interaction  back and  point  i n that  of the sheet.  sheet and  were  a brief  notes  s u p p l e m e n t t h e t a p e s where  developed  categories.  sheets  episode  Field  was  which As  the  completed  for  w r i t t e n summary o f  was  included  on  were  used  clarify  to  the  necessary.  Presentation of Results Quantitative subject tables. from  sheets,  Descriptive  the video review  field the  on t o t a l  results  notes.  results.  Chapter  were  compiled  and p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e form  r e s u l t s made u s e b o t h and o f d i r e c t  for  each of  o f summaries  q u o t a t i o n s from t h e  V includes a f u l l  presentation of  CHAPTER V RESULTS Introduction Results  are  following  headings:  Identified;  Presence  Interaction; Episodes;  determined  episodes  Direct use  Others;  Description  of  developed  excerpts  Adult Behavior;  from  field  of Other  Episodes;  and  R e s u l t s were  o f v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s and  passages  from  Verbal  Length  Interactive Behavior.  Descriptive  Episodes  Watching;  Longest  the  Activities;  Distraction;  from t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  notes.  of  Activities;  P l a y ; Working Together;  A d d i t i o n a l N o t e s on  of  of  s u b j e c t under  number  of  Imitation;  Behavior;  field  f o r each  Total  Location  Immediate  Child  presented  represent  reviews notes  of tapes are  summaries and  indicated  notes. by  the  o f q u o t a t i o n marks. The  refer Total  headings,  to the Number  as n o t e d  i n the D e f i n i t i o n  following: of  Episodes  number o f i n d i v i d u a l  Identified  the  of  Activities  setting  refers  a r t encounters  a subject w i t h i n the a v a i l a b l e Location  o f Terms,  refers  to  to  identified  the for  data. the  location  at which the episode took p l a c e .  within  60 A c t i v i t i e s r e f e r s t o the type of i n t e r a c t i o n s observed with  the  material  or  tool:  use  of  material;  manipulation of t o o l ; sorting/organization or m a t e r i a l ; w a t c h i n g ; o r  of t o o l  "other."  Immediate Presence o f Others r e f e r s t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f an a d u l t o r c h i l d w i t h i n easy t o u c h i n g d i s t a n c e o f the s u b j e c t Watching  during  refers  interaction  an a r t e n c o u n t e r .  to  the  with  activity  an  art  of  tool,  observing  material,  or  product. Verbal  Interaction  talked  refers  t o by  an  to talking  adult  with  or c h i l d  or  during  being  an a r t  episode. Imitation  refers  to  immediate  copying  of  another's  image o r g e s t u r e w i t h i n an a r t e p i s o d e . Distraction  refers  activity  to  to  looking  other  away  activities  Frequent d i s t r a c t i o n i s d e f i n e d instances instances  of  looking  of sustained  Length o f E p i s o d e s r e f e r s Brief  episodes  are  from  away  in  the a r t  the  room.  as more t h a n s i x  o r more  than  three  (prolonged) l o o k i n g away. t o Long, Medium, o r B r i e f . less  than  1  minute;  long  e p i s o d e s a r e more t h a n 10 minutes; medium e p i s o d e s are any l e n g t h  i n between.  61 Play with a r t materials includes a "pretend" Working  Together  the Adult  t o two  individuals  same s u r f a c e o r p r o j e c t  Behavior involved  Description  refers  or  behavior  identified  on  time. of  adults  forsubjects.  provides  summaries  "Medium"  of  episodes  f o r a given subject.  Behavior  children  the  Episodes  working  a t t h e same  ( i f no l o n g e p i s o d e s )  within data Child  to  i n episodes  o f Longest  "Long'  Other  refers  component.  refers  . involved  in  to the behavior episodes  of  other  identified  for  subjects. Additional  Notes  further  on I n t e r a c t i v e  points  about  Behavior  interactions  refers which  been i n c l u d e d i n p r e v i o u s c a t e g o r i e s .  t o any  have n o t  62 SUMMARY OF RESULTS - ALL SUBJECTS T a b l e 1:  Location of A c t i v i t i e s  A  B  C  D  41  32  37  27  137  2  2  14  10  28/20.437%  19  9  11  5  44/32.1167%  10  17  7  10  44/32.1167%  Chalkboard  2  3  2  2  9/6.569%  Pencil  1  0  1  0  2/1.459%  7  1  2  0  10/7.299%  TOTAL/%  Subject Number o f E p i s o d e s Clay  Table  Easel Collage/Art  Table  Sharpener  Other  Activities  T a b l e 2 '•  Subject Number o f E p i s o d e s Watching Using  Only  Material/Tool  Manipulating Organizing  Tool  Only  Tool/Material  TOTAL/%  A  B  C  D  41  32  37  27  1  4  4  2  24  22  28  21  5  0  2  2  9/6.569%  7  2  2  0  11/8.029%  137 11/8.029% 95/69.343%  63 T a b l e 3:  Immediate Presence o f Others  A  B  C  D  Number o f E p i s o d e s  41  32  37  27  137  Yes  23  26  26  22  97/70.802%  No  18  6  11  5  40/29.197%  Adult  10  10  6  6  32/23.357%  Child  7  10  5  4  26/18.978%  A d u l t and C h i l d  6  6  15  12  39/28.467%  Subject  T a b l e 4:  TOTAL/%  Watching  A  B  C  D  41  32  37  27  7  12  13  9  60/43.795%  34  20  13  9  76/55.474%  Adult  2  0  4  6  12/8.759%  Child  4  11  12  7  34/24.817%  A d u l t and C h i l d  1  1  7  5  14/10.218%  Subject Number o f E p i s o d e s Yes No  TOTAL/% 137  64  Table 5:  Verbal  Interaction  A  B  C  D  41  32  37  27  137  Yes  18  21  18  18  75/54.745%  No  23  11  19  9  62/45.255%  Other t o Subject  15  17  15  13  60/43.795%  Adult  15  16  12  9  52/37.956%  Child  3  1  6  3  13/9.489%  12  20  6  14  52/37.956%  Adult  13  17  5  9  44/32.116%  Child  1  2  0  4  7/5.109%  1  1  1  3/2.189%  TOTAL/%  Subject Number o f  Subject  Episodes  t o Other  Unclear  Table 6 :  TOTAL/%  Imitation  A  B  C  D  41  32  37  27  1  0  5  5  40  32  30  21  Adult  1  0  2  4  7/5.109%  Child  0  0  2  1  3/2.189%  Uncertain  1  1  2/1.459%  Adult  1  Subject Number o f  Episodes  Yes No  and C h i l d  137 11/8.029% 123/89.78%  1/0.729%  65  T a b l e 7:  Distraction  A  B  C  D  Number o f E p i s o d e s  41  32  37  27  137  Yes  13  12  32  18  75/54.74%  No  28  20  5  5  61/44.525%  1  2  16  10  29/21.167%  Subject  Frequent/Sustained Unclear  1  TOTAL/%  l/.729%  66 Results  —  Subject A  (see A p p e n d i x A)  T o t a l Number o f Episodes I d e n t i f i e d : 41 Location  o f E p i s o d e s (Appendix  Subject the  easel,  took  A  showed  where  place.  collage  paintings floor;  10  table,  locations.  19  some  episodes 7  being  f o r working  area;  took  took  place  place  and t a k e n  at the  at  down;  "other" where  1 on t h e  o f t h e room; 2. a t a t a b l e  and 1 a t t h e s l i d e .  at  episodes  t h e s e were: 2 a t a w a l l  p u t up  1 ...in t h e m i d d l e  (24%)  (17%)  Specifically,  "housekeeping"  preference  (46%) o f h i s i d e n t i f i e d  and  were  A, T a b l e A - l )  Two  i n the each o f  the r e m a i n i n g e p i s o d e s took p l a c e a t t h e c l a y t a b l e and the chalk board,  and 1 e p i s o d e t o o k p l a c e a t t h e p e n c i l  sharpener. Activities 24 use  (Appendix  A, T a b l e A-2)  (58%) o f A ' s e p i s o d e s  of a material/tool.  organizing  Seven  materials/tools  involved  manipulating tools  involved  "other" a c t i v i t i e s ,  painting; parent;  taking  down  and t a l k i n g  involved  at least  episodes  (17%) i n v o l v e d  only; only,  episodes  (12%)  and 4 e p i s o d e s (10%)  specifically:  a painting;  about  5  some  showing  a painting.  hanging  up a  a tool  to a  67 Immediate Presence o f Others 23  (56%)  of  Subject  (Appendix  A's  A, T a b l e A-3)  episodes  involved  immediate  presence  o f another  episode.  Eighteen  (44%) o f t h e e p i s o d e s  A  working  episodes  alone. (24%)  children;  Of  f o r a l l or part  those  involved  and 6 e p i s o d e s  found  involving  adults;  7  the  of the Subject  others,  (17%)  (15%) i n v o l v e d b o t h  10  involved  a d u l t s and  children. Watching  (Appendix  Thirty-four no w a t c h i n g  (5%)  which  both  adults  instances  interacting  (17%) i n v o l v e d  (10%) i n v o l v e d  involved  watching  (83%) o f S u b j e c t A ' s e p i s o d e s  o f another  Seven e p i s o d e s 4 episodes  A, T a b l e A-4)  watching an a d u l t were  watching an  Of t h e s e ,  a child;  adult;  and  and a c h i l d .  names  a r t materials.  some w a t c h i n g .  watched,  of writing  with  2 episodes  one  involved  The e p i s o d e s i n  however,  on work  involved  concerned  and one o f  2  hanging  up a p a i n t i n g . Verbal Interaction Seventeen this (59%)  subject  spoke  (41%) involved  d i d not.  exchange,  (Appendix  at least  Of 15  to the subject;  of  A, T a b l e A-5)  the  some  episodes  verbal  exchange,  the. episodes  (7%) were  i n which a  noted  for  while  involving  (37%) were n o t e d 3  identified  24  verbal child  i n which  a  68  child  spoke  subject  13  t o the subject;  spoke t o an a d u l t ;  (37%)  and 1  (2%)  i n which t h e i n which t h e  s u b j e c t spoke t o a c h i l d . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e content o f v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s for  this  verbal  15  subject,  interaction  which  were  including  o f t h e 18  were  related  talking  to  about  episodes  containing  to contain  exchanges  a r t episode.  Topics  judged the  or asking  f o r materials or  t o o l s ; t a l k i n g about t h e p r o d u c t ; t a l k i n g about hanging work  up; i n d i c a t i n g  about  clean-up.  completion  Two e p i s o d e s  o f work; which  and t a l k i n g  contained  verbal  i n t e r a c t i o n were u n c l e a r as t o c o n t e n t , and one episode contained  comments  which  were  activity.  The u n r e l a t e d content  unrelated  involved the subject  c a l l i n g out t h e names o f h i s t e a c h e r s "That's  ("That's  !"  ") who were a c r o s s t h e room a t t h e t i m e .  Imitation  (Appendix A, Table A-6)  Only positively place  t o the  one  (2%)  instance  of  be i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s  during  talking  with  zigzag  motion  an episode  with  subject.  i n which  and s i t t i n g  beside  her finger  could  This  took  an a d u l t  who was  the subject  made a  i n t h e a i r above t h e  s u b j e c t ' s paper; he t h e n immediately on h i s paper w i t h a marker.  imitation  made a z i g z a g mark  69 Distraction  (Appendix A, T a b l e  Thirteen at  least  was  one  found  of this  subject's episodes  instance  of d i s t r a c t i o n .  i n 28  involving  distraction.  as  high  (This  was  trying  worked,  but  was  period,  he  looked  however,  a  subject  15,  (32%) i n v o l v e d No  (68%) o f t h e e p i s o d e s .  distraction,  characterized  A-7)  or  instance to  Of t h e 1  (2%)  frequent was  figure  having up  only  distraction  one  out  difficulty;  approximately  be of  which  the  the  within 7  could  amount  in  how  episodes  times  scissors a  brief  (February  1985) .  Length o f Episodes Of t h e 41 e p i s o d e s (46%)  identified for this  c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " b r i e f " ;  "medium"; and one q u a l i f i e d definitions were the 16  noted.  conducted  Of  alone,  "medium" e p i s o d e s ,  the  and 7 5  as " l o n g " "brief  could  of  the  episodes  defined.  episodes,  of others.  (51%) were  12  (29%) Of  alone  The one  and long  of others.  identified  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as h a v i n g  19  according t o the  (12%) were c o n d u c t e d  (2%) i n v o l v e d t h e p r e s e n c e  None  21  (17%) i n v o l v e d o t h e r s .  (39%) i n v o l v e d t h e p r e s e n c e  episode  subject,  for  a "play"  Subject  A  component  as  70  Working  Together  Four subject place  episodes  worked  (10%) were  together  at the easel,  worked  with  least  6  which  this  child's  work,  child were  subject  another  i n which  child:  1 at the chalkboard,  another  episodes  with  identified  usually  2  took  a n d 1 when A  t o p u t up h i s p a i n t i n g .  also  drew  this  identified,  or painted when  the  At  however,  on t o p o f  other  in  another  child  wasn't  there.  A d u l t Behavior In most  addition  frequent  least  6  assisted paper  with  changed name  was  at  in  i n which  and a s s i s t e d w i t h  was i d e n t i f i e d  (March  This,  noted  which  the  easel,  5  an a d u l t  hung  4  in  w r i t t e n on h i s p a p e r  up;  a crayon  identified  organizing materials/tools;  one e a c h  used  exchanges  (the  d i s p l a y e d i n A's e p i s o d e s ) , a t  were  and  material.  the verbal  behavior  episodes  was  subject's  to  i n which  which  by  an  up work;  s l e e v e s o r an a p r o n .  One  5, 1985) i n w h i c h an a d u l t  however, was a c a s e  adults  the  adult; cleaned episode used a  i n which t h e a d u l t  f r o m t h e s u b j e c t s u p p l y t o w r i t e h i s name  on h i s d r a w i n g .  71  Other C h i l d Behavior Other working  than  together,  marked  on  could  the  found  affected  and  another  be  this  verbal  exchanges,  incidents  instances  i n which  the  of  subject  child's  work,  no  further  evidence  which  other  children's  behavior  in  subject's art episodes.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Longest Episodes As  noted  (November This  both  30,  was  rather  sides  A  stood  the  same  from  beside  he  sheet  b u t he  from  one  A's  the  a  one  episodes as  "long."  "whirlwind  but  subject painted  side  back  to  and  the  of  easel  children.  g l a n c e d a t what t h e  was,  after  of paper  d i d not  a  the  —  all, but  series  to  There  and  easel.  with  and  another, were  them  he  seemed m a i n l y  The  other children  he  brief  other c h i l d r e n  working  on  forth,  other,  a r t / c o l l a g e t a b l e to the  side  different  Some o f A's actually  as  alternating  with o r g a n i z i n g the t o o l s . A,  notes  easel,  of  t h e e p i s o d e o t h e r c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t ,  moved  —  the  one  characterized  i n which  brushes  moments when A doing  in  from t h e n e a r b y  Throughout as  of  only  c o u l d be  episode"  paint  brushes  1984)  described  long  moving  previously,  were  on  the  concerned spoke t o  respond. medium-length of  encounters  episodes, with  the  however,  were  same t o o l  or  material, from of  and c o u l d  another.  the  scissors. table;  year,  (October  rectangular  very  he  decided had  of  occurred  involved  in a  orange  paper  across  he  absorbed, no  was  until  longer  cut i t .  finished.  place  No  at a l l .  At a l a t e r  paper  was  at the t a b l e  a second No  one  the paper up  very  He  room.  Carrying scissors  and  t o h e r and s t o o d him.  standing, up  stood  was  cut.  notice  He  table  using  the scissors  and c o n t i n u e d  behind  so  small  point,  with  point,  he  others  however,  A  began  again  at a l lt h i s  time.  along,  difficult across he  At f i r s t  At t h i s She  Then,  A  him  still looked  and  returned  waving  the  she d i d n ' t  p o i n t he  saw  to  "bounced"  h e r and t h e n ,  now!"  to cut.  was  away a t t h e  h i s teacher  her.  smiling.  at a small  this  i t was  and p a p e r  began t o c u t a g a i n .  of  a s e c o n d e p i s o d e ) , and,  long,  behind  pair  activity  on t h e s h e l f ,  spied  followed  at the teacher,  "You're  a  interaction  long  over  long  snipped At  finding  Because  a very  and  i t was  (starting  cut.  with  A snipped  returned to the table  to  session  i n t h e same  from h i m .  one  i n the F a l l  A began w i t h  boy, e n g a g e d  could  taken  and  continuing  He s a t i n t h e " h o u s e k e e p i n g " a r e a  seated d i r e c t l y  that  of these  16, 1985) .  piece  another  paper,  i n t e r p r e t e d as  The f i r s t  second  scissors  be  said,  to his  a piece  of  73  orange paper  i n the  to  teacher  show  again  the  to  his  once  more  piece  of  his  little  and  crossed  He  w a l k e d by  up  her,  to  the  to  the  He  cut.  room  caught  stopped  scissors  "galloped" across  "product".  table  orange paper  scissors. and  a i r , he  the  then  returned  Finally,  with  the  between t h e  he  much  mirror  teacher  he  was  gave him  stood  smaller  blades  f o r a moment, h o l d i n g a  room  of  the  paper  passing.  a little  the  hug  As  A  and  a  smile. A  final  actually the the  had  brush  then  left  stood  gazing  at  i t .  He  The  to  and  then  "Oh!  to  was  of  A  After  painting,  room,  proudly  to  his  lids paint  a  larger  with  this,  completely  making  quite  s e v e r a l minutes,  hands  out  "I'm  The  worked,  c o l o u r s , and  called  for  placed  helped  in  pockets,  pleasantly to  finished! work.  Look a t a l l t h e  at  teacher  f i t smaller  teacher  paint.  the  with.  carefully  shapes.  his  the  pointed  responded with  A  asked  paint  tops  and  can.  from  across A  to  a variety  strokes  episodes  which o c c u r r e d back t o back  their  began  back  teacher, done!"  i n each  using  deliberate  in  longer  b e g a n as A  removed,  A  A's  brushes  holes  as  absorbed,  first  size  were  size  he  The  largest  brushes)  of  composed o f two  easel.  (which  example  I'm The  colours!  the all  teacher Did  you  use  a l l the  easel  she  colours?"  commented,  Next A to  the  the  to  paint  he  on  the  remained  fist. all  and  again.  painting  When  the  a  helped  wall  him  where  teacher  the  wall;  was  too high,  She  another work.  though  paper  take  first A  him  child  called  his  would  room was  A  fixed  one They  the teacher  a t t a c h the  p a i n t i n g very  lowered  tape  and  the  second  him,  and  began  gave  "I'm  responding that  he  The  teacher  the  room  some high  to  tape, on  that  is  i t to a height  at  however,  then to  the  up  p a i n t i n g to the  manage t h e  noisy,  cheerfully,  Getting  decided,  began  very  indicated  hung.  with well.  and  a t t e n t i o n he again  them  lids  use  paintings across be  in  he  rejoined  could  moved  the  s m a l l b r u s h e s as  work.  both  that!"  handing  p a i n t i n g s hung up.  watched. and  replaced  the  careful  he  on  approaching  teacher to  they  could  helped  Even  t o have b o t h  the  which A  of  The  enthusiastically  then  they  kind  same  the p a i n t i n g o f f the  long brushes,  r e p l a c e d the  finished,  done!"  took  sure worked h a r d  undisturbed,  with  would l i k e  "You  Together  small holes  decided  she  removed a l l t h e  teacher.  A  As  wall moved  help  A  himself. away hang  as his  75  A d d i t i o n a l Notes on I n t e r a c t i v e Behavior It  was  the  lack  rather  interaction  that  episodes.  Interaction  reserved after  for  adults,  so  didn't  really  quickly  period  area,  of  the  1984,  about  40  water-play  table,  the  sequences  to  get  a to  then  book, play  played  slide.  go  with  with  i n which  moved  away  moved away a g a i n moved  then  moved t o t h e an  the  like  to  this:  gave  the  he  the  watch  the  can  to on  the  a boy  both  Reaching them  to  the  he  Notes over  kitchen  easel,  board.  the Some  the  room  teacher.  A  then  by  her.  He  and  the  "steps" easel sides  returned the  Five  and  began  a  of  i t .  He  to  it,  and  "ride-'em"-toy. minutes  later  f o r clean brushes, the  A  that  that,  the  close  the  on  that  across  the  easel,  kitchen.  of  reveal  ran  on  ran  painted  from to  A  year,  chalk  sitting  trucks  later  the  or  T h e r e i s some  visited  A  i t to  trucks,  art table.  entire  and  before  with others.  library,  A's  largely  activity  f o r example, A  human  Subject  place  first to  of  was  use.  interact  area,  and  5 minutes  sequence  took  took  activity  minutes,  of  occur  the  r a b b i t ' s den,  the  began  from  30,  of  He  did  during  presence  most  usually  have t i m e t o  f r o m November  then  in  that  and  especially  moved  art  notable  the  (rather than during) m a t e r i a l  evidence,  a  was  than  painting  A he  easel.  76 Holding went  around  two  i n each  fist,  t o the other  red streaks.  brush he  a brush  i n blue.  With  Then,  side  area.  arrival, On  15,  chose  a  moved can line  near  table.  he moved t o t h e e a s e l ;  there  t o o . . He  at  then moved  chose  a  this  to  away.  last  to the puzzle the piano,  dipped  a  A  ran into the since h i s  a  time  area. then  similar.  minute  wide single  away.  brush,  A  later  played  minutes  the assistant  wide  can, looked  and dashed  the easel  Four  quickly  made a q u i c k s q u i g g l e .  painting,  was  He r e p l a c e d t h e b r u s h  later  paint  he  elapsed  and t h e n  a n d made  c o n t a i n e r and dashed  black  then  a large,  paint  the  a n d made  i n the can.  One  there.  chose  brushes,  on t h e p a p e r .  paint,  had  t o play , with,  to the easel,  of clean  first,  1985 t h e s c e n e  at the water-play  and b l o c k s  hand,  red,  at the a r t table.  began  trucks  brush  minutes  noted e a r l i e r  "scale"  of the easel,  "ride-'em"-toy,  Three  February  one i n  w i p i n g h i s hand on h i s c l o t h i n g ,  s a t on a n e a r b y  rabbit  dipped  h i s other  r e p l a c e d the brushes,  then  he  he  with  later  brush  from  arched  he a  blue  i n the blue Two  minutes  t e a c h e r was  and, w i t h  black  He r e p l a c e d t h e b r u s h i n up w h i l e  One m i n u t e  another after  b o y was  A  arrived  he h a d moved t o t h e s l i d e , Four to  minutes  later  the records,  he h a d  and  then  crossed  the  had  a  and  stayed  later  floor  "game" f o r him  he  to  play  crossed  moved t o t h e with  On and  replaced  the  page,  and  the  other  side  another  can  moved  to  to  room  then  he  art of  the  Two  later  dabbled  at  minutes l a t e r causing  a  the  blue  the  then  to,  and  later,  and  he was  at  the  then  shoulder  r o c k i n g boat,  brush.  having  he  moved  can.  chose  about  and  glue.  When  moved t o  the  girl's  table,  the  he  minutes  at the  get  so,  several  to  blocks;  4  where  he  the  slide.  " p r a n c i n g " around to  on  (Nine on  on  On  red  done  hands.  was  He  across  moment  paper  clay  observed  brisk  and  red  he  very  a  his  painted  remove  splashed  used  wash  to  for  There  then  painting  blue  a "ride-'em"-toy.  arrived  He  vigorously  to  thought  to  he  girl's  with  he  scissors,  something  made  her  minutes  table.  he  brush  brush  room  art  Six  someone e l s e ' s  "pats"  easel,  minutes he  "game".  sheets  who  down b e s i d e  for his teacher  table.  since  minutes  i n the  the  a researcher,  sat  the  splattered  jumped on  elapsed  room,  clean  r e t u r n the  left  painting.)  waited  painting,  pairs  returned,  to  heavy  of  the  different  research  r e t u r n e d the  girl's  which  had  the  and He  p a i n t e d on  brush,  the  sat  the  then  play.  the  easel,  one.  strokes,  Two  to  b l a c k p a i n t , and  that  He  to his teacher  hurt. clay  Then  table,  the he and  78 then t o the a r t t a b l e . brushes  at  the  the paper, and  back  pastels  names  of  That's  easel,  to  to  his  the  (assistant  then  walked  around  supply  then  brush  slide,  he  brush,  and  and  then  the  the  brush  to  the  supply  cupboards.  table.  These  experiences this  kind  in  was  in  the  back  slide.  was  He to  each.  slide  a slot  into  this  Eventually A  finished first  —  first  abound i n t h e  year,  notes.  are and  to  the  watched, inside  He  chose  Moving  to  the  near  mouth,  the  a the  empty top.  he  stood  returned the  brush  about  noticed  the  name)!  look  with  into  descriptions the  began  page,  out  moved  table.  and  i t s handle  of the  A  art  He  on  returned  (teacher's  i t i n h i s mouth.  top  session  the  he  called  name)!"  peeking  put  then  brush  of the  There  "That's  table  on  since  and  "painted"  lodged  putting  box,  to  cupboards,  slender  passed  a handful of  paint-filled  table.  teacher's  and  The  a  art  teachers.  table,  Then  whacked  their  clay  the  he p i c k e d up  s t r o k e d broadly across the top  moved  some  There  at  45  minutes  the  water-play  typical like  had  of  examples  A's of  79 Results —  Subject B  (See  Appendix  B)  T o t a l Number o f Episodes i d e n t i f i e d : Location of Episodes B for  showed  the  easel,  identified place and  preference  (6%)  the  clay  episodes  Table the  9  26  table.  at the  One  of  i n an  table  (81%)  episodes  (28%)  took place  B-l)  collage  totalled  Seventeen  collage table; at  identified  for  which together  episodes.  at the  2  a  (Appendix B,  32  and  of  the  (53%) chalk  this  "other"  took board:  subject's area,  the  housekeeping s t a t i o n . Activity  (Appendix B,  Of  the  involved  using  involved  sorting  not  a  B-2)  identified  material  or  watching (6%)  a  episodes  and  the  "squiggled" possibly  of  immediate  presence  of  of an  the  (69%)  4  (13%)  interact  with  while  choosing off mark  tool  B,  organizing  or  involved  an  a material  but  (13%)  "writing"  Immediate Presence o f Others (81%)  4  pencil  a way  22  only  paper  solely involved  Twenty-six  tool,  involved  specifically  i t ; peeling  for  another  material/tool;  activity,  painting, No  a  Two  using  making  episodes  solely  materials.  "other"  32  Table  crayons on her  "other"  and  completed  name on i t .  manipulation.  (Appendix B, 32  a  (2) ,  episodes for  Table  B-3)  involved  a l l or  part  the of  80 their  durations.  entirely  alone.  an  adult;  and  in 6  least  I n 10 e p i s o d e s  Subject  B's  instance while  20  previously,  32  child;  1  (3%)  involved  adult;  and  Verbal Interaction With subject's  were  subject; 2  to  1  11  noted  were  verbal 21  watching.  As  were  a  solely  watching  child  solely  and  watching  a an an  interaction  (34%) d i d n o t . in  which  an  19  o f t h e 21  were  judged art  At l e a s t adult  of verbal episodes  to  during some 16  this verbal  episodes  spoke  to  the  spoke t o an a d u l t ;  spoke t o a  subject,  the  B-5)  (66%) i n v o l v e d  t o content  to  both  involved  With respect  related  no  at  with  (34%) i n v o l v e d  (3%) i n w h i c h a c h i l d  interactions  present.  interact  (13%)  watching  (5%) i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t  this  child;  materials.  a r t episodes,  exchange, w h i l e  a  was  (38%) i n c l u d e d  (Appendix B, T a b l e  respect  was  were  another  involved  11  episodes  i n t e r a c t with  12  episodes  watching;  worked  B-4)  (63%)  with  (50%)  and a c h i l d  of watching  4  B  (31%) t h e " o t h e r "  episodes,  concerned  no  (19%),  (31%) t h e " o t h e r "  (Appendix B, T a b l e  materials  adult  episodes  (19%) b o t h an a d u l t  one  noted  6  i n 10 e p i s o d e s  Watching Of  In  contain  episode.  and  child. interactions for  containing  verbal  exchanges Topics  which  included  81 talking about  about  or asking  the product;  making  ("I want t o c o l o u r " ) another doing and  to  work,  with  see  for tools  statements  or i n d i c a t i n g  too;  comments  art materials;  t h e work;  or materials;  and  about  intentions  completion; on  calling  what  others  Two  (Appendix B, T a b l e  There episodes noted  i s no  identified  in  which  immediately  Distraction  subject child  o c c u r r e d was  (38%) o f S u b j e c t  one  instance  of  none.  distraction,  Of  only  2  of B.  One  used  the  use  them,  was  scissors  but whether  unclear. B-7)  B's e p i s o d e s  13  could  contained at  while  20  episodes be  (63%)  involving  characterized  containing  frequent  these  place at the c o l l a g e t a b l e .  took  within  instance  to  distraction  (6%)  which  content.  imitation  chose  (Appendix B, T a b l e  Twelve  contained  evidence  another  t o come  B-6)  f o r Subject  the  after  or not i m i t a t i o n  least  clear  were  episodes  c o n t a i n e d v e r b a l e x c h a n g e s were u n c l e a r as t o Imitation  inviting  the teacher  clean-up.  talking  or sustained d i s t r a c t i o n .  as  Both of  Length o f Episodes Concerning episodes, fleeting;  10 18  the  lengths  of  this  subject's  art  (31%) c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a " b r i e f " (56%)  were  "medium",  and  4  (13%)  or  were  82 long.  Of  alone, Of  while  the  were  the b r i e f 6  (19%) i n v o l v e d  episodes  conducted  presence  episodes,  which  were  alone  while  of another.  the presence  4  (13%) were  the presence medium 15  conducted  of  another.  i n length, (47%)  A l l of the long  3  (9%)  involved  the  episodes  involved  o f another.  Play None could  be  of  the  episodes  characterized  as  identified having  for  "play"  Subject  component  B as  defined.  Working  Together  At  least  Subject child the  B  4  episodes  i n which  worked  on t h e same s u r f a c e .  chalk  collage  Adult  board,  and  Two  one  were  identified  together  with  of these  each  at  the  for  another  took  place  easel  and  at the  table.  Behavior In  within  addition B's  to verbal  episodes,  behaviors  were  instances  i n which  organizing paper  she  (13%)  on  subject's  number  identified.  tools; the  a  exchanges  These  the adult 2  easel;  additional  included  the  i n which  name on h e r p a p e r ;  previously  adult  the  adult  at l e a s t  a s s i s t e d with  i n which 6  of  noted  getting changed  adult  wrote  2 i n which the a d u l t  7 or  the the hung  83 up  the  and  subject's  work; 4 i n w h i c h t h e  adult  in  the  which  2  sleeves in  which  or  putting  adult  on  assisted  aprons.  Two  which  the  adult  used  the  instances  in  all,  each  use  request.  In  "restrained  from  wanted h e r  to  2  episodes leaving  clean  up  material. was  area  were  up  noted  Involving the  subject  art  before  at  up;  rolling  episodes  the  an  cleaned  subject's was  by  a  3  gently  parent  who  leaving.  Other C h i l d B e h a v i o r In  addition  instances another  in  easel In  on  a  subject  by  another  another  leave  which  child  which the  the  to  verbal  the  one  more o r  child  instance,  who  worked  those  together was  with  noted  l e s s p u s h e d away f r o m to  subject  table  a n o t h e r boy  and  instance  wanted  the  play-dough  apparent t h a t  subject  surface,  was  exchanges  there,  invited  with  was  work  her  using  a  the too.  child  to  it  was  when  a l l the  in  dough.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Longest Episodes Four of t h i s as  "long".  Each  in  nature.  The  which  B  worked  unquestionably this  was  an  subject's of  these  first for  an  absorbed  episode  in  e p i s o d e s were was  also  (January extended in  her  which  she  characterized  highly  25,  interactive  1985)  period work. worked  is  at  the  one  in  easel,  Nevertheless, side  by  side  84 with the  another  child  teacher  initially  to  at  B's B  no  teacher  now  and  then  or  removed  began  to  short  while.  A  her  A  work  teacher. returned pointed  with  B  once more.  the  the  easel.  parts  Highly  Running a c r o s s the back  side  again,  the  she  called  a  but  B  of  this  of  the  she  turned the  n o t i c e d her  and  they  and  work.  talked The  and  out,  about  for  near  room t o g e t  talking  and  top  stand  teacher  B began  involved, B painted  did  her  stopped,  of  to  to  forward  Smiling,  There  paper,  began  notice  B on t h e p a p e r ,  As  brought  B  The  good-bye,  no  teacher  paint.  the  s i d e by  room  the  a while. it!"  she  stepped  took  painted.  a moment,  different  B  onto  actions.  Then  say  Taking  to  t o work, p a i n t i n g on  w r o t e t h e names o f A and paint  but  to  teacher.  about  A's  painted  crossed  to  then  came  left,  and  her  to  stood  shook p a i n t  seemed  easel.  A  they  already  After  to  her.  continued  had  the  B  j o i n e d them.  easel, A she  as  w r o t e h i s name on  mother A  began with  watched  A,  again;  noticed.  section  where  i t from  B's  She  speaking  but  watched  paint  either.  from  onto  It  S u b j e c t A)  spoke w i t h  and  work.  s i d e of the  comment,  paint  hardly  (actually  —  made  her  easel,  f r o m B's  paper  a l s o made s e v e r a l i n v i t a t i o n s  share  the  Another c h i l d a brush  and  alone  to for  "I d i d i t ! her  and  teacher, pointing  I B to  85 what  she  moved  had  done.  away.  called  out  again  to  easel  with  After "I  the  time her  B  B.  ...  "Are  for  look  to  who  you  painting; time,  at  my  returned  When she  talk  and  paint.  At  the  teacher  however,  B  picture!"  finished?"  again.  more  began  resumed extended  teacher  once  She  ran  to  the  more  asked  the  stopped,  again  teacher.  the  teacher  encouragement.  One  last  away  she  walked  final from  work. In w a t c h i n g  was  an  did  B began t o p a i n t returned  B  genuinely  Regularly became  this  interested  dashing  off  incorporated  give her A  between B happily  to  the  and  the  to  press  atop  shortened  v e r s i o n of the R  and  responded  (researcher)  her paper.  22,  spoke nearly  episode as  B  choosing B  she  "Look a t t h o s e  and  1985)  many,  however, seemed  work.  a  very  was  many  exchanges  sat beside  frequently every  went l i k e drizzled  to  her  colorful  lines!"  B  her p a i n t i n g .  teacher,  researcher.  i t .  and  to  he  glue  sense t h a t  to continue  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  drizzling  the  activity,  (March  a visiting  got  enjoying  get  into  visitor,  B  i n and  episode  session  shapes  one  renewed e n e r g y e a c h t i m e second  lengthy  episode,  paper to  time. this: glue  him  on  the A  86 R:Look  at those  can  do!"  the  paper).  (B makes  yes.  design!"  her  shapes  deliberately  Look  drizzled  "I think  interesting placing  lines,  what  lines  you're  a l l over  making  (B c o n t i n u e s of  coloured  you  a  very  t o work,  paper  quite  on t h e g l u e .  B:(Drizzling  again).  "I'm  doing  wiggly  lines!" R:"I  c a n s e e what y o u ' r e  B:"Triangle!"  making."  (She p l a c e s  a piece  of triangle  paper). "Square!" R:"Do  left  started  teacher. holding  stood  i t at She  researcher  glue  1985.  Both  piece.  up a p e n c i l  with  i t s t i p , the point dropped  gone,  final  When she r e t u r n e d , As  B  she began, t h e  a n d c r o s s e d t h e room t o s p e a k w i t h t h e  i t to  she l o o k e d  away t o t h e " k i t c h e n " Two  (my t e a c h e r ) . "  the teacher.  drizzled  B picked  paper.  ran  t o show  to find  a new  researcher  a square p i e c e ) .  y o u know e x a c t l y what y o u n e e d ? "  B:"I'm g o i n g B  (She p l a c e s  "long" of  the  barely  hand, b u t  touched  table.  disinterested.  the  With  the  She  then  area.  episodes  these  her l e f t  also  occurred involved  on A p r i l B's  14,  visiting  87  "friend" same  nature.  verbal by  from  across  decided and  session,  The  first  these  as  The  tools,  work  she  use  asked  B  was  about  to  did  not  of  he  write  answer.  scissors  a l t e r her  glue,  what  the  included  many  B as  also well,  r a t h e r awkward  also  etc.  assisted  As  the  should  write  something  on  She  When a  scissors,  used  researcher  pouring  he  (he  to  d i d not  The  again  were  p o i n t e d t o h e r work.  began  but  and  the v i s i t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n  researcher  result.  organizing finished,  B ensured  table  try.  a  of  "Look!" and  the  to  and  B w a t c h e d him,  style  but  previous  exchanges,  commenting,  boy  the  dashed  with  episode  about  her  away  her  paper) , from  the  table. Within dimensional her  a  When  B  began  turned  again  to  handed  a  him  to  short  puzzle,  friend.  however,  very  obviously de  difficulty  a  did  again the  to  made,  the B  centre  her  of  announced  respond  drizzle and  which  the that  she  had  to  a  share the  glue. to  B  however,  made  with  puzzle, also  cut.  She  and  told  had  some  with  the  managed a l o n g provided.  3-  She  friend,  did.  finally  rectangle  with  to  began  he  scissors;  r e s e a r c h e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e , she down  returned  of paper t o her  rectangle,  with  B  intended  not  scissors  folded piece cut  time,  The  "pants".  cut cut The  88  e p i s o d e c o n t i n u e d as t h e "pants" were f r i n g e d a l l round with  the  scissors,  and  later  cut  right  in half.  At  t h i s p o i n t B handed t h e paper a g a i n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r and i n s t r u c t e d him t o cut a "worm". down  from  presence  this  point.  It  was  The  e p i s o d e wound  apparent  that  the  o f t h e v i s i t o r i n a l l t h r e e e p i s o d e s had been  a source o f j o y f o r B. A d d i t i o n a l Notes on  I n t e r a c t i v e Behavior —  Subject B  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e b e h a v i o r s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d , number o f o t h e r examples r e v e a l e d an  interest  part i n i n t e r a c t i o n during a r t episodes.  on  a B's  In an episode.  (November 2, 1984), B had engaged i n an ongoing v e r b a l exchange w i t h her mother w h i l e drawing.  When B d e c i d e d  t o l e a v e , she t r i e d t o p u l l her mother w i t h h e r . that  same day,  tightly were  B was  seen t o h o l d her  mother's  and p u l l her i n t o t h e a r t a r e a a g a i n .  a l s o the  two  i n s t a n c e s when B's  working  beside  unsuccessfully  —  s t o o l beside her. mother  (who  1984  her to  gently  up.)  B indicated a preference for mother  s e t up  The  hand (These  mother  r e s t r a i n e d h e r i n o r d e r t o get her t o c l e a n On November 30,  Later  by  attempting  a work space on  s t o o l was  a small  somewhat n e a r e r  s a t on t h e f l o o r ) than was  her  the a r t t a b l e .  The s t o o l , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , proved t o o s m a l l t o work on.  89 On  December  14,  assistant's  hand  this  session,  same  crossing look  a  art  table  was  "only going On  then  with  March  another  teacher, Then  When  teacher  your  until  staff  person  who  children.  was  with,  asked  Later  her to B  seated  sitting  at the  him t h a t she  she s a i d  see  picture!"  the colours  p a i n t i n g was  she had  "Brown!  Green!  s h e wanted  finished,  on i t a n d t a k e  painting, the teacher  said  your  to her  same day, B p a i n t e d  h e r name  at the B  i t away.  responded  t o B's  a t t e n t i o n t o h e r work: the teacher.  asked  "You've  "I made  lines!" example  her teacher and back  the t h i r d  teacher,  o i l p a s t e l s , t r y i n g one,  B t o name  that  to write  painting!"  table,  Within  her  She t o l d  the  t o watch".  her f i r s t  that  take  on Dec. 14 a g a i n ,  "I  a final  follow  clay  Later,  responded  of straight In  to  to  "Watch Me!"  a second  indication  lots  out  on t h e p a g e .  Red!"  to  an a r t a r e a .  B d i d so w i t h g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m .  easel.  see  seen  she d i d , a n d r e t r i e v e d  22, 1985 B u s e d  who  Orange!  After  was  called  as  many  the teacher  used.  the  B  at a p a i n t i n g . beside  B  as she e n t e r e d  the floor  herself  1984  stop  (February from  15, 1985) B was  the collage table,  to the  t o the collage t a b l e again. d i d she b e g i n  seen  Not  t o use m a t e r i a l s ,  90 and  t h e n w o r k e d i n a v e r y u n i n v o l v e d way.  more  interested  case,  than  i n the adult's  She  appeared  companionship,  i n this  she d i d i n t h e m a t e r i a l s .  Results —  Subject C  T o t a l Number o f Episodes I d e n t i f i e d : 37 Location  of Episodes  Subject table  showed  identified place  chalk  episodes.  pencil  one  1  sharpener;  "other"  (11%)  material/tool. and One  episodes  activity; another  this  child's  episodes  (30%)  (19%) t o o k p l a c e a t took (5%)  place took  of  Subject a  solely Two  (3%)  at  the  place a  at  "roving" a pair of  C-2)  watching  episodes  was  involved  C's  episodes  material/tool. another  each  organizing tools/materials episode  (38%)  t h e room c a r r y i n g  C, T a b l e of  use  involved  2  (3%)  episodes  t o o k p l a c e on t h e f l o o r . )  (Appendix  the  11  7 episodes  around  t h e second  Twenty-eight involved  clay/dough  (One " o t h e r " e p i s o d e was  i n w h i c h C moved  Activities  table;  episode  and  locations.  scissors;  Fourteen  at the clay-dough  board;  f o r the  t o g e t h e r c o m p r i s i n g 68% o f h i s  took p l a c e at the e a s e l ; the  C, T a b l e C - l )  a preference  and f o r t h e e a s e l ,  total took  C  (Appendix  painting.  episodes  interact  with  a  (5%) o f m a n i p u l a t i n g  were  categorized talking  Four  (76%)  with  also as  identified. an  "other"  the teacher  about  91 Immediate Presence o f Others Twenty-six i n v o l v e d the part  of  adults;  5  (14%) and  and  Watching  (41%)  C,  of  materials/tools  S u b j e c t C.  episodes  interactions with  exchanges  with  with other both  Of  adults  these  were  watching i t was  others  interact  with  in  episodes  (62%)  23  Thirteen episodes episodes  watched  of  both  4  (35%)  in  times  ( 3 2 % ) ; and adults  and  u n c l e a r whether t h e  involving  which  watching  (11%);  children  7 episodes  (19%)  children.  In  s u b j e c t was  1  watching  distracted.  Verbal Interaction Eighteen  Nineteen  those  the  C-4)  identified  involved  involved  Of  (30%),  interactions  watching  episodes  or simply  f o r Subject C  episodes  involved  were w a t c h e d i n 12  episode  11  involved  Table  were  watching.  occurred,  C-3)  children.  (Appendix  involving  (16%)  Table  of others d u r i n g a l l or  alone.  involved  15  Instances  no  6  C,  identified  In  entirely  others,  children; adults  encounter.  worked  involving  (70%)  immediate p r e s e n c e  the  subject  episodes  (Appendix  at  (Appendix  episodes least  episodes  involving verbal  one  (49%)  C,  Table  identified  instance of  (51%)  exchange,  involved 12  C-5)  (32%)  for  verbal  Subject  C  interaction.  none. were n o t e d  Of  these  i n which  92 an  adult  spoke  spoke t o t h e  to  the  spoke t o to a  an  subject;  adult;  and  (16%)  (14%)  none  With respect  to  content  subject,  of  the  15  interactions  were  in  i n which a  which  i n which the  children  telling  a tool;  ("This  i s red!");  about  what  about  eating  the  child  subject  subject  spoke  chair;  and  exchanges  teacher  that  had  5 during  suggested  Subject  6,  1984; 1986;  to  Table  and  she  back  and  exchange  to  paint  containing In  talk  one  on  verbal episode  f o r some c l a y  were  C-6) judged  November 26,  i n which  "play"  in  colours  materials;  content.  to  art encounters.  instances moved  episodes  joint  the  a warning not  Two as  a  other  i n the a i r .  (14%) C's  couldn't  making;  which  included  substituting a ball  (Appendix C,  November 5, March  unclear  episodes  he  t o o l s and  was  verbal  exchanges  Topics  that  "cookies";  been t o s s e d  Imitation  containing  contain  about  teacher  clean-up.  were  interactions for  c h i l d r e n commenting on  talk  clay  to  subject  other  the  episodes  art episode.  the  o r use  of verbal  18  judged  were r e l a t e d t o t h e  the  5  6  child.  this  a  subject;  April C  appeared  forth  February  1986. to  around  imitation  These t o o k p l a c e  1984;  24,  include  They  imitate the  18,  to  1985;  included  Subject  easel  on  see  D  as C's  93 work;  an a s s i s t a n t  roller after of  and  he  teacher  showed C how t o u s e t h e c l a y  d i d so; C  watching  used  the a s s i s t a n t  styrofoam  his  p i n again  use i t ; C p r e s s e d  other  children  do i t ; a n d C i m i t a t e d an a d u l t who was  peeking  through  a  piece are  of  clay  after  pieces  watching  instances  into  the r o l l i n g  colored  further  cellophane.  detailed  in  the  (These descriptive  passages t o follow.) Distraction  (Appendix C, T a b l e  Thirty-two  of Subject  at ' l e a s t  one  instance  episodes  (43%)  were  C-7)  C's e p i s o d e s  (86%) i n v o l v e d  of distraction. judged  sustained distraction.  to  Of  involve  Five episodes  these,  16  frequent  or  (14%) i n v o l v e d no  distraction.  Length o f Episodes Twenty-eight "medium"  (76%) o f  i n length;  9 episodes  the  medium-length episodes,  and  18  the  18, 6 e p i s o d e s  (14%)  (49%) t o o k  place  an a d u l t  took  place  10  episodes  (24%) were (27%) t o o k  i n the presence  and 7 e p i s o d e s  and a c h i l d .  when  C's  the  subject  place  Of  alone,  of others.  Of  episodes  (19%) i n v o l v e d  Of t h e " l o n g " worked  were  "long".  (16%) i n v o l v e d an a d u l t ; 5  involved a child;  both  Subject  alone  1985) a t t h e e a s e l , a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r t o o k  episodes, (April  1  22,  place i n the  presence only,  of  and  others.  One  of  7 i n v o l v e d both  these  involved  an  a d u l t and  a  "play"  according  to  an  adult  child.  Play One  instance  definition This in  was  identified  among  o c c u r r e d on M a r c h 18, which  C  and  "cookies".  Working  and  teacher  C's  study's episodes.  involved a  pretended  to  sequence eat  clay  i s d e t a i l e d under D e s c r i p t i o n  Together  surface  i n which  with  following  Subject  another  dates:  November 26,  occurred  November 84  C  5,  (easel),  shared in  1984 1  a project  episodes  (easel),  2  on  or the  episodes;  episode.  Behavior As  with  behavior  other  subjects,  identified  interaction. in  1985  Subject  this  Episodes.)  Instances  Adult  his  (This episode  of Longest  and  of  which  within  adult At  episodes  involved  adults  least  instance  was  demonstrated  the  instance  also  was  use  8  with  (22%)  of  a  in  rolling  i n which  an  pin  verbal  organizing Subject  which on  adult  identified  using/manipulating  identified  noted  was  6 i n s t a n c e s were  least  of  frequent  episodes  assisted  materials/tools.  1  most  C's  A l s o at l e a s t an  the  the  D's  clay; an  adult  clay;  adult talked  at  1  about  95 and  looked  did  not  (which  through  a piece  actually  "use"  Long  episodes  November  5,  episodes);  were  1984  (1  February  18,  1986  (1 e p i s o d e ) ; The  November easel  1984  area  when  first  the  point, like  easel  a teacher a  new  initiated,  1984  (2  March  18,  (2 e p i s o d e s ) ; M a r c h 6,  24, 1986  (1 e p i s o d e ) .  easel.  Here  entered  the  child  was  the other  child  the c h i l d  C that  As  to  and  others  other  a n d he c o n t i n u e d  C,  child asking  agreed, then  a  working  work, C b e g a n t o  he c o u l d n ' t  however,  C  already  snatching  worked t o g e t h e r the  he  on t h e same  resisted,  approached  paper.  episode);  on  the  comment,  until  (1  26,  C  on  child  The two  f o r Subject  occurred  announcing  painting!".  a  episodes  away a n d t e l l i n g  acquiesced,  make  long  joining  the  hat  November  22, 1985  another  the other  ignored  of  at  to  C's  A f t e r watching as w e l l ,  1985  and A p r i l of  5,  there.  C  first  but  doing).  identified  episode);  (1 e p i s o d e ) ; A p r i l  brush  material  cellophane,  Episodes  1985  At  the  was what t h e c h i l d r e n were  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Longest  paint  of coloured  surface. C's p a i n t  paint  the  there.  other  that,  child "We're  on t h e same left.  At  side that  i f he w o u l d new  episode  t o work on h i s own.  now was  On for  November 2 6,  C.  where  C  clay,  but  the  The  first  was  working  very  other  at  work,  own  watching  others.  from the  table,  the  other  an  adult,  back t o  the  assistant rolled C  about  roll  also  At  began  clay.  watched  this  boy  the boy  water had  the use  the  table,  Having g l a n c e d at  C  also  using the  and  also  moved  water t a b l e  turned  frequently as  the  clay. and  She  talked  to  attempted  to  Then  another  work.  C  The  boy  spoke  to  t e a c h e r and  o t h e r boy a  by  to  the  took  joined  began  clay.  the  was  away stared  increased  did.  and  while  just  the  C  she  r o l l e d by As  he  "snakes")  house  looked  completely and  at  adjacent  clay  rather  on  her,  the  the  the  work  immediately  clay  work  as  work s p a c e .  been  the  called  C then took a c o i l  to  on  Watching  at  own  C  patted  actually  clay,  t h i s point  table  at  turned  his  to  she  them  his  he  table,  from h i s  rarely  noted  clay  and  away  teacher;  focus  joined  on  held  C c o n t i n u e d t o be  his  the  squeezing  holding  the  it  the  still  (which  clay  and  at  those  he  Eventually  on  child  C.  the  the  fact,  rolling  teacher  coils  He  looked  assistant  but  began  especially In  table.  distracted,  these  children.  the  l o n g e p i s o d e s were  alone.  children, table.  at  of  two  frequently  water-play his  1984,  piece it  for  moved away  of his  frequently  placed  clay  that  own  use.  throughout  97 the  episode,  final boy  C  C finally  stimulus  to leave  A  second  took  place at  long  the  alone,  up  sustained  and  than  joined  attention teacher clay. the  C  back  began  episode  some  other  to  himself.  look  away  he  and  but  began  teacher  turned h i s  with  her  with  C before  rejoined  a  dragon,  distraction group.  too!".  f o r a time. involved  C There  then  as  C gently touched the attempt  added  on  The t e a c h e r  then  moved  away more  to  to the  make  one  teacher's  and C t e n d e d frequently  n o t shown on t h e t a p e ,  c r o s s i n g t h e room t o v i s i t  worked b e s i d e h i m .  less  "dragon"  making  centre  glancing  a  d i d not  the clay  by  The  boy  from  after  somewhat  again  first  c o n c l u s i o n was seen  table  the material.  she s a i d ,  joined this  dragon,  and  make t h e d r a g o n  confusion  The  dragon.  date f o r  The same  and C  h a d worked "I'm  though  described.  the table  t o make,  saying,  children  teacher's  Again,  away,  at the table,  watched h i s t e a c h e r was  on t h i s  to the clay  station.  looking  The boy who two,  identified  a n d h i s work i n v o l v e d f r e q u e n t  i n the f i r s t  again  the d e c i s i o n of the other  returned  water  I t seemed t h a t t h e  table.  episode  as he  working  be  was  t o move t o t h e w a t e r  working  The  moved t h e r e .  again.  but C  the teacher  to  could  who h a d  98 The also  long  took  episode  place  at  identified the  clay  on  table.  teacher,  t h e boy  children  were a l s o w o r k i n g a t t h e  to  work  away,  on  and  work.  the  She  clay  and  knife  C  on  left  i n the previous  another  the  Another  boy  M  They off C  got worked  to the was  M  from the  to  take  retrieve  knife  together  in  Notes  his  i n past  work  C trying C  own  p i n on  the  a  butter  moment i t  and  the  t o keep  finally  won  kitchen-play  until  C  this  two the out  area.  left,  revealed that  during  episodes,  his  used  i t back  the  for a while  kitchen area.  rolling  i t .  from  to  k n i f e the  round the t a b l e ,  another  as  long  place  regular  to  C began  P pulled i t  l e d C back  the  other  moving although  episode,  he  t o l o o k away f r e q u e n t l y  clay.  The took  snatched  tried  trying  absorbed  continued,  C  two  centre.  (M)  1985  assistant  and  piece.  rolling  moved a l l t h e way  and  clay  demonstrated imitated.  M  clay  teacher  hand.  and  (P)  18,  The  episode,  assistant  his clay.  M's,  knife  boy's  February  at  episode the  teacher;  distracted date.  He  patted  and  than  noted  clay notes  he  looked rolled  table point  had  at  in  his  the  on  March Here  out  that  earlier  teacher  clay  C  in  1985  worked he  her  hands  again  with  seemed  episodes  and  her  18,  on  work —  his less that  —  she  but  then  99 looked  away  f o r an  children  behind  him  boat.  child  began  A  C's  attention.  and  flattening  of had  laughter left  He  extended  period,  smiling  at the  who  playing  on  rocking  were  t o c r y then,  turned  i t , then  i n another  back  turned part  away a g a i n  o f t h e room.  t h e t a b l e f o r t h e moment.  children  father. piece  pressing  a t t h e sound The  teacher  around again  C  at the  and a t a d e p a r t i n g  he o f f e r e d t h e t e a c h e r  a  flattened  of clay. Teacher:  "What s h o u l d  C smiles  as t h e t e a c h e r  of  C:  pretends  it?  Eati t ? "  to eat the piece  "What k i n d i s i t ? "  "A c o o k i e .  Teacher: C:  "NO  Teacher: C:  A b i g cookie."  "Oatmeal?  Chocolate  ... no ... no ..."  Chip?  Sugar?"  (smiling).  "What k i n d i s i t ? "  "A b i g c o o k i e ! "  Teacher: C pretended episode  I do w i t h  clay.  Teacher:  and  absorbed  As she r e t u r n e d ,  on t h e r o c k i n g b o a t  Suddenly,  also  to the clay,  t u r n e d b a c k t o h i s work, b u t l o o k e d playing  which  the  "Delicious!" enthusiastically  t o chew t h e c o o k i e .  went on f o r some t i m e ,  pinch  the clay.  The t e a c h e r  as C c o n t i n u e d remained  This  t o work  at the t a b l e  100 talking clay, At  with  which  one  boy  with  rushed  the  returned.  As  (smiling) too!  piece  they  fall he  i f C  smiling, pressed ball  in  children, episode their  the  who  I am!"  she  the  less  22,  used glue  1985 and  long took  was  near),  air. to  assist C  the  to C  rah  clay to  he  as  she  table,  play!  C You  response  C p i c k e d up  the  table,  a large  and  let i t  o f f a smaller piece,  At t h i s p o i n t , the have  of  the  ball  laughing three  a  ball  and  children  at  noted the  foam  then  acting went  teacher  play  attracted  and  episode  to  yellow  clay,  The  place  to  enthusiastic  hands i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s n a c k first  dirt."  i t again!"  Holding  were  the  of  floor.  said  "Want  piece  eat  room m o m e n t a r i l y ,  teacher:  air.  as  the  the  like  a  table  to  agreed.  ended  The April  the  kind  returned  i n the  i t into  up  on  Then, b r e a k i n g  would  he  the  from the b i n b e s i d e  t o s s e d i t up  really  both  time  floor.  to  "special  sand  slightly  (clean-up  t o the  asked  "Here  to  a  not  left  left  I want t o p l a y  of clay  a  spilled  door.  Receiving time  said,  When she  spoke  him  teacher  had  her. the  this  she  who  to  play,  reminding  was,  point  another over  C,  with;  ball,  threw  C the  two  other  silly.  The  o f f to  wash  time. for  art  Subject  table.  c o l l a g e m a t e r i a l s , working alone  C  on  Here  he  f o r most  101 of the  episode.  l o o k i n g up. to  finish  room  been  returned  to  one,  at  the  there!"  table to  continue  the  another the  and  then  he  pay  seemed  to  paint  painting  as  from  the  of she  immediately return,  on  few  the  He  seems he  snipped  Wiping  date  his  on  C  his  paper,  cans.  get  cautioned  C a  on not  line wrote  paper a  nearby  to on  towels  his  C s  work, C  then  to  teacher to  the  moved  wipe  up  a she  the  chair.  C  chair.  Upon  her  name  chair.  his  As  paint the  as  hands)  about  The  He  Just  his painting.  by.  along  the  h i s work.  to  of  stood  fallen  teacher  of paint  down i n t h e  wiped  place  brushes,  pointing enthusiastically  to  painted  and  took  paint  strokes  spoke  parts  teacher  area  that  sorting  (having She  again,  paint  cutting.  attention to  different  the  the  point,  scissors.  by  made a  approached.  began t o  exited  He  finish,  out  "It  this  p l a c e d i n each can  careful  pointing  dribble  episode  p o k e d t h e b r u s h e s up  teacher  away  of  C began  was  shelf.  seemed t o  across  commented, At  seemed  area.  longer  e n s u r i n g t h a t one  h i s work  She  pair  frequent  glue piece, C  carried  busy  e a s e l , where  easel  the  really  second  the  on  teacher.  left  The  and  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  his  than  hands, he  scissors  cutting  show  you've  with  Using  his  to  H i s work was  on  his  easel  102 painting.  C  painted  Noticing this some more with  another  t u r n of events,  paper!"  enthusiasm.  stoke  the teacher  C  painted  The  teacher  again  a f a t sponge, b r i e f l y  to  chair.  the  contentedly painting  a  dough,  long  C began who  turn  as  he  joined  stirring  and  work  frequently,  girls  who  sat  their  dough.  work  the  squeezing his  work,  around watch As  an  near  him  more  pressed  in his  seat  children  at  assistant  lump o f dough t o  He  and so  the  feel.  could  the  with  approached, She  gave  C and  involving a group each  of  child  blue-coloured  table  t o use i t .  away  from  his  children.  He  Two  chips  into  t h e n began t o  with  both  turned  squeeze  centres  of how  hands,  c o n t i n u e d t o l o o k away  other  teacher  After  styrofoam  eventually  he  and  other  as w e l l .  now  washing  198 6)  looked  vigorously,  pressing.  however,  dough.  the  C watched t h i s  dough and  watching  The  a teacher  but  chair,  ended  6,  a second  C p a t t e d h i s dough down f l a t ,  "Here's  equally.  kneading  a l l moved o f f t o  said,  demonstrating  him  (on M a r c h  were m a k i n g p l a y at  they  episode  chair.  a b i g bucket  episode  t a s k s seemed t o i n t e r e s t  children got  The  the  the  soaping the p a i n t e d c h a i r .  Another Subject  on  brought  s o a p y w a t e r and clean  on  at C  the the  completely dough same  offered  i t a pinch  from  and  and  time. her  a  handed  103 it  back  again.  He  back t o t h e f i r s t now  being  continued  table,  prepared,  t o work,  where a r e d b a t c h  under  the  but  other  children  when  boy  to press  had  picked  A  moment  attempted  to  C began  t o work,  seen up  a  of conflict  occurred  boy's  flattened  doing piece  a  rolling  reach,  into  held the  settled,  h i s dough,  earlier. o f dough  pin  explaining  As t h i n g s  o f styrofoam  the g i r l s  a c r o s s t h e room.  watching  The t e a c h e r  f o r i t before.  pieces  often  grab  t o C.  direction. by o t h e r  frequently,  p i n out o f the other  C had asked  began  up  (by t h e t e a c h e r )  rolling that  look  work.  another  promised  he  to  was  surrounded  t o t r y o u t t h e new dough.  continued  moved  of clay  teacher's  Then i t was b a c k t o t h e work t a b l e , children,  b u t soon  Finally,  C as he  and c a r r i e d i t  T h i s h a d been a r a t h e r n o i s y ,  crowded  episode. A April  final 24,  scraps  long  episode  as  children  198 6  and c o l o u r e d helping.  Glancing  up, he t r i e d  hair  which  C  was  hat.  The p a r e n t ,  helped  to press  for C  worked  cellophane.  nearby,  his  noted  seemed  occurred  t o make  hats  absorbed  in  encircled  by  h i s work.  t h e band  (not h i s ) smoothened  a piece  from  A v i s i t i n g mother was  on h i s h a t , a n d r e a c h e d  now  on  of cellophane  to  of the  his hair  into  feel  place.  and C  peeked  through  watched  closely.  beside hat  He e x a m i n e d more  moved  teacher  paper  then  children  boy.  The  lapped.  off he  t o work, w a t c h i n g  a boy  had  who  was  opening  and c l o s i n g The a d u l t  on h i s  s m i l i n g at  the t a b l e to get a  table  stapler.  i t , before  continued  C peered  spent  the effects  through  smiling  of cellophane  some  o f more looked  time than a t one  t h e room,  still  the  and t h e  other  this,  also  one c o l o u r  over-  another C  through  carried his  side of the table  E v e n t u a l l y he w a n d e r e d  holding  had used i n h i s hat-making.  The  i f the  through  at  and l a u g h i n g .  teacher.  asked  to  the transparent  helper  around t h e other  show t h e a s s i s t a n t  and  looking  as d i d t h e a d u l t  three  cellophane,  the tried  The boy and C  across  He t r i e d  b u t d i d n o t make a h a t o f h e r own.  At t h i s ,  again,  discovering  around  approached  colours  to  adult  to h i s hat.  there  cellophane.  piece  the  to the adult,  i t closely,  watch c l o s e l y ,  the  cellophane;  C continued  and t u r n e d  C then  added  coloured  h i m and t a l k i n g w i t h t h e a d u l t .  again  him.  the  a pair  of  scissors  105  Results —  Subject D  T o t a l Episodes I d e n t i f i e d : Location  of A c t i v i t i e s  Subject table  and  comprised  D  the  74%  (Appendix  worked  at  27  art/collage  took  (37%)  took p l a c e at the e a s e l ;  pencil  sharpener  Activities Two solely  of  of  D,  Subject  (scissors);  One  watching, material  D's  -- p e e l i n g  also  episodes  of the  episode.  one  paper  (78%)  involved  a  tool  involved  wrapping  from  contained minimal  (Appendix  (81%)  5  with  episode  episode  presence In  composed  (7%) i n v o l v e d o n l y  included  episodes  t h e immediate  (7%) t o o k  interact  D,  defined  mainly of  category. Table  D-3)  f o r Subject D  o f another  episodes  an  pencil  amount  u s e , so was p l a c e d i n t h e " o t h e r "  Twenty-two  part  10  were  episodes  and  Immediate Presence o f Others  involved  episodes  episodes  additional  but  episodes  D-2)  Twenty-one  manipulation  tips.  Ten  table;  another  use; 2  activity  together  locations.  Table  material/tool  "other"  which  No e p i s o d e s t o o k p l a c e a t t h e  watching  materials/tools.  clay/dough  and 2 e p i s o d e s  or at "other"  (Appendix (7%)  table,  at the clay/dough  at the chalkboard.  at the  locations.  (37%)  place  Table D-l)  predominately  of the episode  place  D,  f o r a l l or  (19%),  D  worked  106 entirely of  alone.  others,  involved adults  6  Watching  only;  and  Table  episodes  episodes (22%)  material;  and  (33%) D  were  only  watched.  Verbal  watched;  (15%)  involved  adult  spoke  to  spoke  to  the  spoke  to  an  the  both  child.  One  seemed t o be  13  both  2 6%  in  18  the  episodes  in  9  3  (33%)  4  (15%)  episode  a  6 or and  child  D-5)  (33%)  were  tool  adults  episodes  Table  In  a  episodes  subject;  and  use  place  (33%)  which  watching.  (19%) 7  in  tools/materials.  9  9  subject; adult;  subject,  in  with  adult  in  took  Of  occurred,  With respect  an  and  episodes;  interaction  subject  4  identified  no  (Appendix D,  occurred.  a  interact  episodes  exchange  D's  spoke t o  only;  (44%)  were  involved  5  Verbal Interaction  exchange  presence  D-4)  watched  in  children  Subject  adults 12  (67%)  D watched o t h e r s  was  i n v o l v i n g the  involved  ( A p p e n d i x D,  episodes  this  episodes  children.  Eighteen  Nine  the  (22%)  children  and  Subject  Of  noted  (67%)  of  no  verbal  which  verbal  in  which  (11%)  in  in  which  the  subject  which  the  subject  in was  noted  which  a  an  child  i n which  the  speaking to h e r s e l f !  to  content  of  the  18  of v e r b a l episodes  interactions for containing  verbal  interactions were  were  related  judged  to contain  t o the a r t episode.  exchanges Topics  which  included  i n v i t i n g another t o work, t o o ; t a l k about t h e f a c t t h a t the p a i n t was d i f f e r e n t it  was okay  from t h e k i n d o f home, b u t t h a t  t o touch  i t ; talk  about  or request f o r  t o o l s o r m a t e r i a l s ; t a l k about t h e s u b j e c t b e i n g  "good"  at making something; a n o t h e r c h i l d s t a t i n g t h a t he was already working at a l o c a t i o n ,  thus c a u s i n g t h e s u b j e c t  t o move away; t a l k about s h a r i n g a b r u s h ;  a s k i n g i f an  a c t i v i t y was "hard"; t a l k about t h e p r o d u c t ; up.  Three e p i s o d e s  were  unclear;  2  episodes  seemed u n r e l a t e d occurred friend  while  they  seemed  verbal  contained  exchanges  which  exchanges  which  One  these  t o the a r t episode.  when t h e s u b j e c t  however, episode  contained  painted  unrelated  played  and c l e a n -  of  and laughed  side-by-side. t o t h e work.  with  The The  a  play, second  o c c u r r e d when t h e o n l y exchange was t h e mother  s t o p p i n g t o say good-bye t o t h e s u b j e c t . Imitation  (Appendix D, Table D-6)  Imitation (19%)  judged  of the episodes  imitation one  was  was e v i d e n t  episode  t o have  defined  place  in 5  f o r S u b j e c t D.  No  i n 21 (78%) o f t h e e p i s o d e s , and  (4%) was u n c l e a r .  which i m i t a t i o n  taken  occurred,  Of t h e 5 e p i s o d e s i n  4 involved the imitation  of  108 an  adult  The  while  instances  shape  one i n v o l v e d t h e i m i t a t i o n of imitation  drawing  (November  on  the  1984) ;  using  a  child  use  watching reproducing  two  teacher  the subject's  using  on a  dabs  rolling  assistant  use  altering  to  i t  a  teacher  apply  applied  cone  cone  i n this to  the  i t with  sat quietly  noticing  D's  the t i p s  of the pine  sprinkle  activity,  the  after  puddle  1984);  and  an A  the  finally, glue  and  assistant  particularly  covering  the  rolled The  first table,  the  pine  assistant  a t t h e e n d o f t h e t a b l e and,  began  deftly  over  (Appendix D, T a b l e  for this  assistant  watching  watching  produced.  Distraction  identified  1984);  10,  applying  and t h e n  c h a n g e d h e r method.  was  after  instance the subject  immediately  Distraction  the  1985);  11, 1 9 8 5 ) .  cone w i t h  glitter  by  after  she was  newspaper  down  mother  10,  (December  18,  glitter,  i n the g l i t t e r i n g  teacher  made  paper  last  circular  her  (December  of paint  i n which  by  a  child.  i n t h e same way  i t  i t (December  glue  sprinkled  glue  (February  pine  s t r o n g example,  board  p i n immediately  t h e way  glitter  involved copying  chalk  5,  of a  evident subject.  t o brush  a glue brush top.  D,  glue  on  and t h e n t o watching,  D-7) in  18 No  episodes distraction  (67%) was  109 evident  in  difficult  8  assess.  In  was  place  in  occurred,  at the  and  10  1  episode  episodes  j u d g e d t o be f r e q u e n t  episodes  distraction  clay  (30%) ,  to  distraction these  episodes  which  collage  table;  too  (37%),  the  or sustained.  frequent  2 took place  was  or  Of  sustained  at the e a s e l ; 3 took  and  4  took  place  at the  table.  Length o f Episodes With was  respect  involved,  episodes  were  "brief". the  1  episode  was  considered  presence  of both  length  involved  the  presence  of a  adults  an  child;  and  adult 2  of  t o be  and  and  and  were  an 10  children.  were c o n d u c t e d a l o n e ,  judged  i n which D  5  "long";  episodes  (November 5, 1984),  episodes,  presence  of episodes  medium;  The l o n g e p i s o d e  "medium"  both  t o the length  a  adult;  3  involved Of  Of  the  alone;  involved  6  the  the presence  the b r i e f  and one e a c h was  were  involved  child. .  conducted  21  episodes,  of 3  conducted i n the  p r e s e n c e o f a c h i l d a n d an a d u l t . P l a  V No  this  instances  subject's  (January watched  21, a  boy  of "play"  as d e f i n e d  a r t episodes. 1985), make  however, a  clay  One  occurred  i n s t a n c e was  in  which  " f l y " like  this an  among  recorded subject airplane,  110 adding  a  zooming  described seems  in  effect.  Additional  to involve  have a f a n t a s y art  sound  (An i n s t a n c e  Interactive  play-like  or pretend  Behavior  interaction,  component  i s also which  b u t does n o t  associated with the  material.)  Working Together Subject the  D  worked  side-by-side  same boy on two o c c a s i o n s :  at the easel  February  with  18, 1985 a n d  November 13, 1985.  Adult  Behavior The  most  frequent  adult  episodes  i n v o l v i n g Subject  AS w e l l ,  at least  adult  easel  paper,  work. adult  wrote  and  in  material/tool. "other"  episodes which  subject's  rolling  up  peeling  name,  mother 3  used  i n which  chalk D's  hung  adult  from  took  used  used  on a  part i n  pencils.  The  i n v o l v e d one i n  on t h e c h a l k b o a r d  mother  up  i n 4 the  or putting  the adult  paper  changed  and up;  sleeves an  organizing  adults  cleaned  episodes  I n one e p i s o d e  activity:  during  i n which the  and  i n which  the adult  7  noted  i n which a d u l t s used m a t e r i a l s  D's  request;  each  the  a s s i s t e d with  were  getting  1  In 2 episodes  aprons;  an  with and  observed  D were v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s .  4 instances  assisted  tools/materials;  behavior  clay,  a t D's rolling  little  balls  and  D's  request);  two  quick  started; and  1  onto  1 i n which the  and  i t ; and  sprinkled  Other C h i l d  Behavior  one  "snarled" he  said.  behaviors  D  are  she  used  on  pine  episodes  just  the  1 i n which the  before  D  clay,  patting  assistant  painted  cones.  As  10,  noted  1984) ,  approached the e a s e l . left.  discussed  pained  involved imitation.  (December  then  (again, at  teacher  paper  teacher  episode  a t D as  assistant  easel  glitter  4 of these  In  them b a c k t o D  the  D's  previously,  it!"  handing  i n which  dabs  squeezing  glue  then  (note:  under  a  boy  "I'm  doing  Additional  child  Additional  Interactive  Notes.)  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Longest Among occurred  S u b j e c t D's on  approached some  Episodes  time  longest  November  the  easel  5,  1984.  with  watching  her  Subject  C  "He  to  that  as  well.  D Her  indicated mother  h e l p i n g h e r t o s e t up from  C.  reached  Having out  her  now  she  assisted  She  he  as  she  stood  for  painted. as  would  her  which  she  like  with  a s t r o k e on  to paint  this  i t , obviously  the  D  pointed  opposite s i d e of the  attempted to  as  one  begins  painting!"  on t h e  finger  It  was  mother.  commented t o h e r m o t h e r : h i s work.  episodes  task, easel  paper,  yearning  D to  112 touch  the  we  "It's  not  finger paint,"  she  had  used  r e a c h e s out an  inch  the  paint.  at  again.  The  wet  immediately. but  Then  soon p e e k e d was  As  p e e k e d r o u n d a t D. mother too!" for  responded  a  moment. area,  paint  again  round  again  painting.  She  the  having  peeked  down  D  that  mentioned to  her  " I t ' s time  commented  on  to  to  D's  with  crying,  D  side  of  then  to  to  out  work:  and  and  "Look  at  brush, what  her  side,  C  then  painting;  lovely stopped  her  for  the  started  work on  her  what  else  to  D  went  for  more  own  side,  might  be  e p i s o d e wound  of  the  teacher The  a l l the  painting  now  side  The  her  painting,  easel.  wash up."  to  at  the  the  did  the  C  (one  touch  easel  easel  room.  "outside"  moment,  D  paint.  see  of the  mother, go  to  than  the  D  the  but  less  okay.  it's a  watch  hand,  would l i k e t o  of  then c o n t i n u e d her  i n other parts  activities)  her  at t h i s  paint  left  other  g o i n g on as  to  "Yes,  inspect,  frequently  by  you  returned  with,  returned  to  kind  D commented a b o u t C's  C,  on  the  f i n g e r was  corner  Hearing another c h i l d  rabbit  bur  began  she  apparently  i t w o u l d be  around the  doing.  that  Passing  "I t h i n k  she  her  back  t i p of her  that  to  pulled  paint.  indicated  explained  w h i c h was She  t e a c h e r commented, and  mother  home.  from the  that!",  C  Her  upcoming  pointed teacher  colours  out also  you've  113 put  on!"  D's  time  to  that  D might  mother  start  another  like  A second 10  minutes,  occurred  therefore  painting  easel  and  another  child.  help  us! you?"  "Yep,"  put  on  smock.  two  quick  dabs  Immediately  D  paint her from  on  her  left her  the  teacher  teacher  her  fingers  D.  then  good  the  paint  now  hand,  she  Stopping  D  boat.  As  at  paper  brush  the  camera,  through  stood you  paper the  shall  from  wet  I put  the  On  helped  a  D  make  brush. can  and  Noticing  some  to paint  with  t u r n e d away  her,  then  then  two  boys  the on  others,  her  "Yeah."  As  easel, on  to  tigers!  the  watching  paint it?  come  with  near  finished?"  to  making  assistant  into  next  a boy  "Are  the  began  ran  teacher  making  f o r a moment, she  she  D  "has  the  first  then  as  than  "long")  about  s t r o k e s onto the paper.  right  as  assistant  watched  poked  "Where  that  the  less  assistant  talking  The  on  took  the  remarked i s very  D  I t began  were  replies  approached.  the  Teacher:  she  teacher,  rocking  enough  i t seemed  categorized  watched  They  work t o w a t c h  assistant  not  paint  hand.  not  (though s l i g h t l y  of  short  though  1984.  assistant  Are  her  10, and  I think  j a b b e d two  painting,  December  The  t h e r e was  to.  the  tigers.  D that  longer episode and  on  told  her  wall?"  C  stroked  painting. D  points.  114 "Put  on  the  wall."  The  teacher  and  C  then  left  t o g e t h e r t o wash C's h a n d s .  A d d i t i o n a l I n t e r a c t i v e Notes Several illustrate fully  final a  dealt  February  18,  characteristic with.  The  1985  a n d began  Simultaneously, the  easel.  teacher,  episodes  Subject  They  each  which  first  began.  p a i n t c a n as i n t h e p a s t ) .  the  cans  as  she named  As she d i d t h i s  D  f o r s e v e r a l seconds  and D began t o work t o g e t h e r brushes  frequently. then  D  to made  yellow,  and  enthusiastically. also  side.  side of with the  were i n t h e  just  circular  one into  down t h e  her.  When he  doing  i t .  on t h e same page;  large  on  t h e " b l a c k " can,  before  other  and  spoke  strokes  The they  rather with  the  dabbed and s w i r l e d up and down, "We  can  paint!"  She w a t c h e d h e r f r i e n d  l e a n e d round  the other  into  each  then  round.  not  been  easel.  (rather than  boy j o i n e d  boy  round  to the  spoke  day  the colors,  thought  blue,  occurred  D put the brushes  the  on  first  her t o put the "blue" brush  handed  these  yet  to the other  that  another  Subject D  not  who e x p l a i n e d t h a t a l l t h e b r u s h e s  per  and  of  C moved  a t t h e end o f t h e t r a y  told  has  as D moved  can  row.  involving  she  said  as he p a i n t e d  t h e e a s e l t o s e e what C was up t o She  continued  to  speak  with  the  teacher  as l o n g as t h e t e a c h e r  point,  her  followed the to  friend  with  teacher stand,  room. more  h e r eyes  She  using  made  she  a  final  she  1985) .  assistant  Little  of  She  between assistant on  Her was  found  friend  having work  as  D  D  then,  continued around the  one.  Once  C was and  was  done  up  moved (Notes  her teacher  at the clay  ( t h e boy  there,  clay.  well  "Oh,  away  piece  and t h e n her  there  after  the  the  isn't  clay.  down  fingers,  table  as  table  (May  the episode  just  Subject long  that  C  and t h e  sticks  nice!"  from  she  She  again. and  said and  a  said  so n i c e was n o t c l e a r .  f r o m h e r work as she p i n c h e d  of  teacher,  from  removed two  ... e x a c t l y what was  looked  tiny  teacher,  episode  teacher.  cheerfully  down  stroke  with  left.)  described)  very  worked.  second  piece  t o no  She  "I'm a l l done!" she s a i d .  while  this  away  D  she l o o k e d said  yellow  t h a t D seemed t o e n j o y  18,  moved  a r o u n d t h e e a s e l t o s e e what  reveal  A  At  h i s hands.  friend  while  paint!"  from t h e e a s e l .  teacher  wash  as h e r  h o l d i n g a brush,  she g l a n c e d  away  to  t o t h e s i n k o u t s i d e t h e room.  "I'm  to.  decided  s t a y e d near by.  glanced  She  then,  "Look walked  at  up  rolled  off a  at  her  a tiny b i t  showing  i t  to  that!"  She  put i t  away.  Leaving,  the  she  116 glanced  back  at  the  table  where  her  tiny  piece  was  laid. Later  that  interested  in  acquired. said  same day a  Again  foam  and  she  said  walked  friend  "Look  boy  at  ball.  As  took  clay  out,  still  with  playing together.  to  go  13,  1985) .  alone.  She  worked  She  at  a  looked  away  from  i t .  At  looking  at  sitting  down  same  manner,  Suddenly friend.  puddle  she He  laughed, smiled  put she  clay  i t down and  and  began t o work.  i n them; a l l the  they  her  playing  b i n , they  each They  seemed  children  the  episode  to  decided  red  her  paint  paper  as  point,  her  her.  D  she  down  D  dabbing her  and paper.  worked,  rarely  to  joined work  at  in  the  Then  D  became  much  her, the  paper.  l e a n e d o v e r t o speak w i t h  back.  was  red  friend  continued  looking and  on  friend  began,  disinterestedly, of  seldom  then  D once a g a i n w i t h h e r  As  this  beside  C's  hands.  found  (November  stirring  stuck  Finally  out t o wash t h e i r example  and  just  P i c k i n g up  laughing  the  laughing,  be  final  were  had  and  afterwards,  passed  sticks  She  C  table,  piece of clay  nice!"  that!"  they  clay  Subject  a tiny  that  mentioned)  the  A  that  Shortly  with  made p i e c e s  ball  "Isn't  away.  (the  r e t u r n e d to the  she p i c k e d up  emphatically  clay,  D  her more  animated.  She  sentence. made  a  Her f r i e n d pretend  continued  to  interaction interest came  made  than  along  and  t o hang a little  want  to find  another  aprons.  They  their  or  friend  smiling.  D  Her  The t e a c h e r and t h e boy  She h e l p e d them  their  and headed o f f t o g e t h e r .  then D  responded.  The t e a c h e r a s k e d  j o b now?"  He  t o be o f much g r e a t e r  work.  rinsed  sounding  enjoying her.  activity.  silly.  "comic"  gesture,  her  the painting  acting  bucket  laughed,  t h e boy seemed  still  their  "funny"  "sneezing"  laugh  with  a  hands  in a  now were  "Do y o u remove nearby  118  CHAPTER V I REFLECTIONS ON RESULTS Introduction This  chapter  subject's  provides  experiences,  a condensed  p l u s an o v e r v i e w  review  of  each  of a l l results.  Summary — S u b j e c t A Subject number  of  preference easel.  A's e p i s o d e s "brief"  immediate  and  f o r working  Although  over  presence  distraction  was  imitation  was  episodes  was  also  high  solely  and  aspect of  human  one  with  environment.  involved the watching instance  interaction less  for  (29%)  or  the physical While  A  were and  conventional mobility  his  rather  showed  was t h e  tools  w i t h A's h i g h that  of  other  which  sorting  indicate  or  w i t h i n A's  than  episodes  a  and t h e  o f A's e x p e r i e n c e s  combined  distractibility were  Only  u s i n g them i n a more  T h i s tendency,  low  little  manipulating  r a t h e r than  interactions the  to  very  high  and  table  o f A's e p i s o d e s  Verbal  number  episodes,  collage  slightly  relatively  sense.  half  the  evident.  A notable  materials  at  observed.  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a  "medium"  of others,  subjects.  devoted  were  primary  than  with  interest  in  s h a r i n g h i s accomplishments with h i s t e a c h e r s , t h e r e i s no  evidence  that  he  particularly  wanted  them  nearby  119 while  he  during  worked.  art episodes  It  hectic  highly  as  were  behavior,  one  often  total  of  B's  the  involved  A  involved  one at  involved  at  subject,  between  could He  despite  fact  the  In  A's  not  uninvolved.  be  seemed that  reviewing  systematic  the  were  A's  approach  using  a  the  easel.  a  to  percentage  the  immediate  children. one by  subject  or (81%)  presence  of  high for  Although  material/tool,  very  high  a  preference  organizing,  31%  "other" of  B's  another.  with m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s occurred  of  the  total  of  watching,  Over  one-half  instance  and  and  and  watching,  38%  least  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  episodes  interact  episodes,  directed  the  of  environment.  involving  Watching another  but  or  rather  episodes  only  activities.  All  in spite  experiences  collage table  episodes  12  that  fleeting.  medium-length  at  episodes  children  minimal.  work  a  other  Subject B  Subject  working  his  his  senses  e x p l o r i n g the  Summary —  in  with  however,  haphazard  absorbed  episodes  in  were f a i r l y  approach,  characterized  number  interactions  i s worth n o t i n g ,  rather  most  A's  instance f a r most and  number  identified.  however, of  the  episodes  o f v e r b a l exchange of  adults.  these  exchanges  While  41%  were  of  with were the  120 episodes  i n v o l v e d at l e a s t  one i n s t a n c e o f d i s t r a c t i o n ,  o n l y two c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d frequent a  amount  of d i s t r a c t i o n .  " p l a y " component  children  perhaps  in  contained  study.  w i t h i n episodes  the  area  and  activity.  of  Although  e q u a l l y as o f t e n  watching  Adult's behavior,  predominantly  exchange  episodes  B's e x c h a n g e s w i t h them were l i m i t e d ,  materials/tools. focused  No  as d e f i n e d by t h i s  were p r e s e n t  as a d u l t s ,  as c o n t a i n i n g a h i g h o r  within  support Rarely  using  art  use  of  on t h e o t h e r hand,  B's  activities  the  except  episodes related  on to  materials  verbal the a r t  themselves,  a d u l t s were r a r e l y w a t c h e d . Descriptive with  passages  adults played  B's e p i s o d e s , episodes interested indicated  role  documented.  Although  B  i n using  art materials,  an  adult  presence  and e x t e n d  interaction i n many o f  i n the longest  appeared several  was  to  be  sequences  preferred,  and  h e r work.  Subject C  Subject percentage  the  part  important  acted to maintain  episodes  that  a r a t h e r important  and a v e r y  that  Summary —  indicated  C's e p i s o d e s  o f medium  were  clay/dough  were  and l o n g  recorded. table  Most or  at  characterized encounters. episodes the  by a h i g h No  took  easel.  "brief" place A  at  high  percentage of  C's  episodes  another, a  (76%) i n v o l v e d  was  identified.  the  noted.  by  —  usually  in  C's  62%  of  episodes  or sustained  presence  the  (7.5%)  (86%)  About 70% of  a c h i l d . — use  episodes  distraction  of total  frequent  immediate  5 instances  Subject  percentage  contain  evident  At l e a s t  characterized high  involved  and w a t c h i n g a n o t h e r  material  were  m a t e r i a l / t o o l use.  episodes  of imitation  were  and  a  (43%) were  strongly relatively judged t o  d i s t r a c t i o n from  an a r t  activity. While most  frequent  episodes, tool or  verbal  8  i n t e r a c t i o n with  type  of  adult  (22%) r e v e a l e d  by an a d u l t .  the subject  behavior  some  was t h e  related  to  use o f a m a t e r i a l  A l l b u t one o f t h e s e  involved  C's or clay  clay tools. Descriptive  evidence between with  that  there  Several direct material episodes  o f C's  was  a  fairly  h i s use o f a r t m a t e r i a l s  others,  episodes  passages  especially  described instances his as  attention a  result  strong  Each  relationship  of  i n t e r a c t i o n with  noted  in  which  either  to  or  of  another's  seemed t o be e x t e n d e d  revealed  and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s  adults.  involved were  experiences  C  away  action.  the  long  another. seemed from  to the  Several  as a r e s u l t o f an  adult  122 presence.  Instances  initiated  interaction  were  also  with  an  found  adult  in  which  through  C  an a r t  material. Finally,  the fact  that  C's e p i s o d e s  i n v o l v e d h o l d i n g and p a t t i n g seemed  to  highlight and c l a y  Summary —  Subject D  D's  a r t episodes  were  o f "medium"  mainly  at the clay/dough  high  presence 67%  use.  seven  judged  percent  or t o o l  to  instances Distraction  of was  at  interaction defined,  table.  involved  were  solely  A very  high  place  adults  in  and  Sixty-  imitation  19%  children,  occurred in  place i n  as w e l l .  activities  and  imitation  took  i n v o l v e d some w a t c h i n g o f  watching  evident  (78%)  place  (81%) i n v o l v e d t h e i m m e d i a t e  materials,  taken  Although  equally  of  high  took  manipulation.  o f D's e p i s o d e s  have  a  and a r t / c o l l a g e  episodes  verbal  with  by  which  of the episodes  episodes  interact  encounters. fairly  15%  o f another;  another  D's  o f D's e p i s o d e s  of the t o t a l  characterized  table  of  made up o f w a t c h i n g percentage  compatibility  length encounters  percentage  material/tool  others  o r dough m a n i p u l a t i o n .  number  A  c l a y while watching  the p a r t i c u l a r  "watching"  so f r e q u e n t l y  67%  of  was  of  her a r t  were  directed  4  with this  of  the 5 adults.  subject's  123 episodes;  37%,  frequent  or  behavior  still a  while  subject, that  social  incidental  that the  t o the  to this  in  it  is  to  she  easy  activities  to  used  squeeze  which tended  consistently  was  parts  a  of  evidence also  In some a  into  pinch  working  at  to d i r e c t to  cases  vehicle became  room  were  many i n s t a n c e s were  out  check  but the  paid room  with  clay  clay  while  the  an  i t progressed.  the  material  an  other  or t h a t a r t a c t i v i t y  and  made s u r e  any  was  simply  as  that  with,  episodes child  interaction  other  when  of  the m a t e r i a l  Unlike  another  true particularly  Even  (26%)  interacting  art activity  i t , gazing  T h i s was  elsewhere.  D  or  s u b j e c t , and  which  attention worked.  a d u l t used  among D's  with  social in  support  number  art materials.  interaction,  Activities  found  working  interaction  initiating  interest  high  adult  to  component w i t h i n a r t e p i s o d e s .  appeared  for  used  Although  r e v e a l e d some e v i d e n c e  however, t h e r e was  important it  she  involved  subject.  sequences  enjoyed  amount,  mainly  i n w h i c h an  of t h i s  Descriptive  adult  limited  comparatively  were f o u n d  subject  high  distraction.  was  i n the presence  this  relatively  sustained  activities, episodes  a  easel  of also  little as  she  episodes; looking or  other  o n e ' s f o c u s , however, on  the  activities  of  124 others.  Summary o f R e s u l t s — It the  i s perhaps important  limitations  framework  of  from  results.  We  applied  to  the  results  are,  summarized four  is  respect  subjects  subjects  participation  fact  first  that  the  at  and  two.  the to  as  i n the  first.)  21  episodes  and  subjects  (15%)  an  Of of  of  the  individual  art the  be  at  easel, table,  not year  note  than  by  the  as. r e g u l a r l y of  i s the  identified  the  though  less  explained  were  which  materials,  slightly  second  total  the  previously  centres  at  well  some s m a l l the  The  within  the  clay/dough  dough  i n the  be  observable  overview  and  with  equally  ( T h i s may  the  having  l o c a t i o n or  the  young  population.  c l a y t a b l e was  clay  available  at  the  therefore  of  a  constrasted.  involved  fairly  the  are  from  four  subjects  1) ,  reiterate provide  taken  cannot  remarks,  Table  to  with  experiences,  became  table,  be  here  four  subjects to  worked  art/collage  the  the  (see  of the  may  preschool  following  provided  With the  of  the  thus  representative  individual  experiences  at  general  point to  and  findings  however,  In  study  dealing the  experiences  at t h i s  meaning  are  only;  setting.  this  which  individuals  art  A l l Subjects  the  study  fact  were  that  not  at  125 these  traditional  pencil the  centres,  sharpener,  and  (69%)  involved  subject.  various  most  the  the  chalkboard,  other  Again,  tools the  rather  all,  but  locations  writing cover  involved  the  31%  involved  the  the  around  and  there  were  this  result  adults  of  or  of  down  tool  or  popular  study  tool  by  At  lest  or  of  material  at  another's  putting  them  or p e e l i n g  actually involve  the  8%  at  pastime!  a  episodes  or o r g a n i z i n g  them. a  the  the  looking  w h i c h was  up;  the  paper  Thus,  while  material  r e l a t e d t o but  far  that  r e s u l t i n a group  identified of  found  another.  children  was  fewer  adults  be  explained  may  regularly  fact  did  predicable  presence  adults  use  in  use,  not  art-  se.  episodes  immediate  15%  one's p a p e r ; a  activity  Another of  —  episodes  making p e r  no  paintings  crayons  of  about  involved  one's name on  69%  material  actually using  taking  off  a  noted  with manipulating  instead  painting;  of  however,  than  episodes  experiences  use  were c o n c e r n e d o n l y  the  at  room. Predictably,  of  but  the  moved  from  subjects  Of  those,  fairly  equal.  than  setting,  the  in  presence  i n the  either  by  the  station  to  station  c h i l d r e n tended to  the  Given  children  71%  that room,  fact  that or  c l u s t e r around  by the  126 adults  i n the  episodes centre,  found a  room.  Of  subjects  feat  which  some  interest,  working  would  29%  of the  completely  alone  at a  difficult  in a  group  seem  setting. Some w a t c h i n g noted this  i n 43%  o f another  of the t o t a l  number t o t h e number  was p r e s e n t With  t o watch,  these  watching fairly  episodes.  I f one  applies  of episodes  i n which  another  the percentage  results,  another  u s i n g an a r t m a t e r i a l was  i t  use  significant  seems  fair  materials part  in  i n c r e a s e s t o 62%.  and  to  state  tools  these  that  played  subjects'  a  art  experiences. Verbal (54%)  of  limited were  interaction,  the  at  containing art  38%  verbal  spite  others  of  occurred  in  most  of  these  subjects'  Slightly  more  instances  spoke  to the subject  than  t h e s u b j e c t s spoke t o o t h e r s  the  episodes.  interaction,  Of  83% were r e l a t e d  episodes to the  encounter. Imitation  significant occurring note,  in  Nevertheless,  least  well,  capacities.  i n which  vice versa. in  episodes,  verbal  noted  as  of another's  part  i n only  however,  of 8%  u s e o f m a t e r i a l s was n o t a  these  subjects'  of the t o t a l  i s that  more  experiences,  episodes.  imitation  Of  some  of adults  (5%)  occurred words, occur  than 63%  of  of  the  instances  involved imitation  number were  of adults found  to  (2%)  children  in  of  total;  imitation  of adults.  materials  other  which  did  Again,  the  limited  with  which  adults  and t h e i n f r e q u e n c y use  in  makes  this  result  of  interest. The to  extent  t o which  be a d i s t r a c t i o n  clear.  from  f o r these  It i s true that  contained  instances  their  work  Only  characterized  as  a  environment  the subjects  result  of  of  those,  21%  frequent  or  other  45%  r a t h e r more  of the episodes The  study these  lengths  were  were  definitions which  were  fairly  episodes  that,  contained  were  in a not  flitted  available,  sustained  As  could  study.  be  It  the environment, at a l l .  observed  exact  in this  times  the broadest episodes  for a  for  possible  were  one m i n u t e  encounters  m i n u t e s o r more; and a medium  i n the  as a means o f p u t t i n g  brief under  away  distraction  in this  given  context.  by —  action  no d i s t r a c t i o n  largely  chosen:  looked  sustained  of the a r t encounters  i n c l u d e d here  experiences  encounters  10  surprising  identified  however,  according to the d e f i n i t i o n provided is  proved  s u b j e c t s was n o t e n t i r e l y  55% o f t h e e p i s o d e s  i n which  as  environment.  t h e group  long;  those long  preschooler:  l e n g t h was a n y t h i n g i n  128 between  the  other  "medium" l e n g t h a  hunch  out  by  fell  Nevertheless,  episodes  one  minute  i n length,  minutes  choice  human  environment  for  but  —  using  could  be  addition, boy  of  an  applied one  near  duration.  the  setting  could  (A  is  stations  of  the  category.  a  may  less  (15  in  focus  on  one of  material to  one  a  Whether or  used  child.  a  found  the  active  in  episode  length  be  made,  good  however,  example)  have  caused  "pretend"  These  in  the  widerather  results  study  context  —  only.  In  work o f  both  another  involved  with  a clay airplane.  total,  art materials These  episode  i n the  "flying" 9%  the  two.  subject's  and  than  "play" used i n t h i s  in  subject.  episodes,  or  25%  total)  e x p l o r a t i o n o f many a c t i v i t i e s  "cookies"  subjects  11%  as. f a c t o r s  example was  Thirteen  another  the  "edge",  64%  actually  about  argument  many  art  were  in  subjects  brief  c l a y : making  with  in  narrow d e f i n i t i o n  working  which  longer  Some  t h a n more i n d e p t h The  an  "medium"  only  served  certain  availability ranging  have  percentages: the  and  available  uncertain.  that,  seem t o  recorded  or  broad  is  the  circumstances,  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t n e a r l y  a l l the  10  would  into  of  were  Under t h e s e  episodes  born  episodes  two.  on  were the  noted  same  seem r a t h e r  in  surface low,  on  129 one  hand,  reflect to  given  a  lack  work  the  of  (murals,  several  interesting  point  that  8  took  equipment Only  2  designed  In  Subject  A  early  seemed t o a  child  names,  children  about the  at  least  In  the  on  easel,  an  of  point  is  piece  of  i n mind.  and  were  noted  children did  home by  only  away.  painting  i t was  the  result  in  not  "owning" a p a i n t i n g  Rather,  clay  objection  voiced,  instances  many  a  worker  i n which  another's  fact,  notion  drive this  6  of  Perhaps  this  individual found  lump  the  the seem  during  adults  changing paper  another's piece,  in  who when  writing  on  etc. most  frequent in this  spoke t o  subjects positive adults  direct  etc.).  a n o t h e r p a i n t e r was  sequences.  subjects  Adults  be  s t a r t e d t o work on  The with  at  the  painted  absence.  concerned with the  with  partially  resulted i n turning a subject  addition,  other's  make  place  may  central  one,  to  could  j o i n e d by  of these  which  13  instances  to being one  the  one  smaller  most  of  but  o f p r o j e c t s which might  together  instead  environment,  used  behavior setting  subjects  assisted  and with  was  before,  art materials,  feedback  of  and  adults verbal  during,  interaction. and  after  particularly  encouragement. the  interacting  process  In by  the  provided addition,  organizing  130 materials,  changing  paper,  on  rolling  up  names,  pulling  o f aprons.  used  a r t materials  Half  of these  two  instances  to  making  assistant  at  sleeves,  Episodes were  involved  o r made teacher  glitter.  the subjects'  and  various  writing  putting  i n which  infrequent,  an said  object  18  other  on  adults  actually  materials.  assistant  of i n t e r a c t i o n s with  paint  on a p a p e r ,  examples  referred when t h e  cone  occurred  and/or i n v o l v e d the material:  or r o l l i n g  Only  a dragon",  "made" a p i n e  The r e m a i n i n g requests  once  "making  and  (13%) i n a l l .  herself:  s h e was  kinds  one's h a n d s .  paintings,  c o u l d be f o u n d i n w h i c h an a d u l t  once when a n o t h e r with  hanging  and p a t t i n g  and  covered either  "exploratory" quick  dabs o f  clay  between  CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND  IMPLICATIONS  Summary The extent its  purpose  effects  on  period,  data  were  categorize  i n t e r a c t i o n with tables  to investigate the  group  environment  gathered  as t h e d a t a  social  of  setting.  n o t e s were  analyzed  those  a  i n a preschool  serving  then  was  a r t experiences  and w r i t t e n  year  i n an e f f o r t  to  posed  the  four  young  Video  taped  over  a two-  Results  presentation  of  were  A  f o r the study  The  to describe  exchanges which o c c u r r e d  art materials.  and  f o r the study.  and d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e s .  hypotheses  prelude  the  working  recordings  the  study  of interaction within  subjects  in  of this  and  during  presented  discussion  i s offered  of  as  conclusions  a  and  implications. Consideration data  analysis  posed address results  f o r the issues  within study. with,  of a l l four  characteristics  is first the An  given context  to the r e s u l t s of  the  attempt  will  consideration  both  subjects  as w e l l  as w i t h  of individual subjects.  of  hypotheses be to  made  to  overall  respect t o  132 Hi  Subjects  will  tend  immediate p r e s e n c e This  hypothesis  immediate  presence  of the episodes surprising  to  use  i n the  of others is  supported  o f another  identified  given  art materials  the  was  in  evident  overall.  group  general.  The  i n over  This result  environment,  7 0%  i s not  but  does  reinforce  generally the notion that a r t experiences f o r  children  in  The  such  settings  are not  fact  that  o t h e r s were p r e s e n t  episodes  does  not imply,  on  the  points the  a r t experiences to the high  possibility,  encounters. others  potential  was  the  differences  d i d occur:  Subject  70%;  these  C,  individual  of  in  D,  of  A,  81%.  differences  an  impact  It  effect  episodes  total,  Subject  Subject  subjects.  number  high  an a u t o m a t i c  simply  for interaction,  therefore,  While  present  the  affairs.  i n a l a r g e number o f  however, of  solitary  some  on  art  including individual  56%; S u b j e c t The  and t o  B, 81%;  significance  will  be  addressed  watch  or  observe  at  of a  later point. H  2  Subjects using the This  somewhat  will  tend  art materials  to  prior  to, during,  and  others after  s u b j e c t ' s own u s e o f m a t e r i a l s . hypothesis lesser  i s also  extent.  supported,  Episodes  made  although up  to a  solely  of  watching  took  observed.  place  Over  40%  watching before, materials. episodes  2%;  Subject  D,  7%.  occurred  as C,  evidence  some  activities (Subjects this  subjects  materials, because did  use  after A  however,  is  watched both  or  representationally. that  the  used m a t e r i a l s  materials,  "exploratory"  revealed  were  they  to  within  interest who  effects  episodes, found  less  use  ways  evidence  spontaneously  adults  them  rather  from  in than  these  watched  use  focus,  When use  to  watched.  frequent  to  art  respect  children  often.  that  in  being and  but  materials  with  more  37.%;  establish.  was  was  adults  tended  Although  B,  interactions,  another  "manipulative"  subjects  art  11%;  watching  participation  watching of  C,  Subject  evidence  delay  point  follows:  some  difficult  4  children  adults  subjects'  to  as  Concerning the  (see H ) , and  & D) .  hypothesis,  Although  67%.  17%;  of  subjects,  Subject  involving A,  some  s u b j e c t s ' uses  12.5%;  rather  chose  until C  was  contained  occurred  imitation occurred  infrequent subjects  on  episodes  individual  only  B,  D,  the  to  Subject  Subject  total  episodes  Episodes  others  the  or a f t e r  Subject  62%;  Some i m m e d i a t e was  the  respect  follows:  watching  tangible  it  of  i n v o l v i n g watching A,  of  8%  of  during,  With  Subject  Subject  in  data  others,  the in  fact  that  the  adults  subjects'  opportunity. behavior watch  chose  presence  to  some  may  to  have  use  prove  children's  be  work  more  more  a  in  providing  to  materials  been  differences  indicate that  (modelling)  not  may  Individual  seem  extending  often  missed watching  something  to  effective  in  than  in  others  cases. H  Subjects  3  others  will during  tend  to  their  interact  own  verbally  interaction  with  with  art  materials This the  hypothesis  episodes  is  observed  of  the  activity,  young  verbal  Verbal  subjects' a  interests  course,  be had  in  with as  when  the the  a  the  seemed  Verbal  was  within  the  the  art  existence on  often or  verbal it  to  impact  project  caused  the to  with  would  renew  them  to also  materials,  announce  of art  i n t e r a c t i o n could  interaction teacher  (83%)  of  exchange,  While  that  direct  50%  limited  related  assumed  a  of the  exchanges  were  Over  verbal  subjects.  remarks  second p r o j e c t .  interfere  time.  cannot  interaction  created.  start  collected  it  some  in light  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t most v e r b a l observations  supported.  involved  p e r h a p s more s i g n i f i c a n t development  also  of  clean-up  A g a i n some i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d  among  135 the  subjects with  containing B,  whether  given or H  verbal  66%; S u b j e c t  and  respect t o the percentage interaction:  C, 49%; S u b j e c t  i t i s appropriate  time  are c r u c i a l  n o t an a c t i v i t y Subjects  4  will  will  copying  of  gesture  the  others'  13.5%;  63%  H  5  at a  o r enhanced.  engage  use  in  of  of  imitation  or  materials  through  overall.  Limited  imitation  i n c l u d e d evidence  8%  which  occurred  the  episodes  of  of imitation.  Individual  were: S u b j e c t A, 2%; S u b j e c t B, 0%;  Subject  D,  22%.  Of t h o s e  observed  Subjects  will  tend  art materials  after  about  watching  children.  t o be d i s t r a c t e d by  Subject  percentages,  occurred  27% o c c u r r e d a f t e r w a t c h i n g  of  i s said,  i n c o n s i d e r i n g whether  watching,  of the i m i t a t i o n  adults;  What  Subject  f o r the individual  i s not supported  after  percentages  44%;  o r image m a k i n g .  immediately  C,  to  A,  67%.  be r e i n f o r c e d  consideration  identified  D,  factors  tend  This hypothesis to  Subject  of episodes  the presence  from or  t h e use  actions of  others. This data  hypothesis  available.  observed activity,  Although  contained only  i s not supported  some  over  50%  "looking  20% o f t h e e p i s o d e s  overall of  away"  by t h e  the  episodes  from  the a r t  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d  136 as  containing  distraction. interrupt method the  The  the  remaining  activity,  of maintaining  classroom  frequent  or  respect  to  (prolonged  rather  awareness  setting.  of  Individual  sustained distraction  Subject  data  did  took  precedence  H  There  D,  indicate  over  will  C,  a  to  be  to a  throughout  results  concerning  within in  appear  activity  Subject  Subject  interest  interest  be  frequent)  seemed  were:  43%;  evidence  that  or  i n s t a n c e s d i d not  but  6.25%; S u b j e c t  S u b j e c t B,  6  "sustained"  D,  A,  22%.  2%; With  the  descriptive  social  interaction  i n a r t m a t e r i a l use.  positive  relationship  subjects'  interactions  with  intensity  of  involvement  subject  between  others  and  the  with  art  is  less  materials. The  analysis  straightforward overall This  it  a  number  w h i c h an episode It and  than  seems  assessment  individual  was  of the  it  cannot  is  best  scenarios. of  this  episodes  previous be  often  clear  occasionally  supported  With  respect  were  cited  it  adult  seemed  presence  that  in  within  appeared  however,  as  t o B,  subjects interest that  ones,  understood  adult's interactions o r renew t h e  hypothesis  written. terms  f o r example, the  data  to extend i n the was  interest  of  in  an a r t  activity. preferred,  in  working  137 beside in  an a d u l t  the  was  at least  materials.  however,  could  intense,  Subject  be  B's  characterized  as e v i d e n c e d  distraction,  as i m p o r t a n t  and an  by s e v e r a l obvious  as  interest  episodes  overall  as  long  involved  and  encounters,  low  enjoyment  i n use o f t h e  materials. Subject involvement  by  and  extend  the  company  away C's  from  C,  similarly, an a d u l t  of adults.  this  work  addition  that,  children  were  with  occasion, precedence  materials.  Subject  little  others  but  sought  as he  activities  to interaction  on  took  with  at other  his interest  at times  observed  i n which  out  looked  i n t h e room, C's  i n intensity.  interactions  found  t o renew  C also Often  episodes  was f r e q u e n t l y r e f o c u s e d by a d u l t s .  episodes v a r i e d  D's  seemed  the encounter.  attention  In  h a d many  h i s involvement  A,  with  children,  adults,  and e v i d e n c e  interaction over  however,  many  with  interest interacted  and h a d many  very  i n h i s work  still  brief  of was  other in  the  relatively episodes,  appeared  t o be  "intense". Thus, evidence  even  exists  interaction  i n such o f very  can a f f e c t  a  small  different  sample  of subjects,  ways i n w h i c h  art activity,  depending  social on t h e  138 individual's  approach t o h i s or her environment.  Conclusions Overall, art  encounters  with  others:  others  from  collected choose  others,  we  to  working  show  interactions varieties  of  possibility involvement. professional At suggests  the  t o work  mainly  as  materials.  benefits  This  them  place,  longer These  when  points  applies  personal  and  solitary  The  that  so  fact  place  may  occur  many  reinforces  to parents  same  time,  evidence  a r e many ways  make u s e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  of  interaction  understanding  with  to  through  the adult  as  well  as t o  within  the  study  h e l p e r s and t e a c h e r s .  that there  a  children  i n the f i r s t  took  may  extend  cause  has been  of children's a r t experiences i f  interactions that  some e v i d e n c e may  watching  a s s i s t a n c e and  adults, are involved.  them with  others  others,  getting  art materials  our p e r c e p t i o n s of  and w i t h  Certainly  tend  especially  t h a t young c h i l d r e n ' s  instances of interaction  to others;  that  with  with  beside  others.  children  think  confirms  are f i l l e d  t o work  that  alter  study  work; t a l k i n g  feedback  and  this  which  child's that  is  i n which  resources,  appropriate,  experience, child's  will  motivations  individuals  and t h e k i n d  or  which depend  and  mode  will on of  139 operating. Analysis setting of be  can  of  the  reveal  knowledge  social  interactions  something of the  about  art  activity.  useful  in  determining  the  children's  art  experiences  that  setting. gone on  A  child  in this  *  Art  *  Art  may  classroom,  materials  The  *  Art products  *  A r t works a r e  *  Certain  reasons  Cleaning final  and  to  and  continue  to  develop.  through the  result  individual  are  used  receive  of  any  one  what. has  by  process.  children  rather  of  clear-cut.  completed.  appropriate  for  art,  be  the  part  of  art  development  study,  this  encouragement of  important.  w h i c h emerges f r o m t h e s e  t o o l manipulation  this  provision  are  when  a f t e r a r t making i s  While  for  not  praise.  displayed  conclusion  watching  implications  in  for  so.  up  that  scope  goals  exist  f o r making a r t are  less  is  children  a  of  can  that:  materials  others  One  may  construction  information  range  a  adults.  *  *  This  as  i s p r i m a r i l y an  than  the  think,  social  within  settings  and  seem t o material  per  se  data  lead  up  use  as  is  outside  conclusion  holds  of  interaction,  of  opportunities  140 for  i n t e r a c t i o n to  occur.  Implications Those  who  of  ways  aware  with the on  how  to  extend  and  applied  and  experiences may  in be  constructing  is  than the  simply  this  adults  so  may  study,  on,  non-  directive  art  1986)  can  work  and  activity.  socially  group  might  case  The  to  adult  activity,  inclined,  together  painting  rolling  alter  active  or  in  art  small  group  3-D  an  and  the  more a t t e n t i o n  than  participation in  r o l e model i s i n a p o s i t i o n in  the  object,  balls  play  give  perhaps  (making  d i r e c t i o n of  Doing  children  Play  manipulation  within  more  clues  possibilities.  the  representation  looking  tool  use  are  which  general,  art  active  (Wolfgang & S a n d e r s ,  material  are  activity.  extend  as  questioning,  beneficial:  currently  art  experiences.  art  become  interact  support such  who  children  often provide  watching,  children  should  Interactions  modeling  to  organization  In  and  children  individual  statements,  statements,  For  young  which  techniques  directive  groups  in  with  environment.  sustaining  be  deal  with  for  the  direction example,  clay);  the  use  of  state  of  affairs  where c h i l d r e n ' s  watching  the  the to of  rather  perhaps  in  imagination. observed  materials  in  in use  is  often  than  directed  that  of  materials receives  to  the  highly  field  with  of  Clay  directed  can  with  and  the  could  use  pretend  attention.  by  the  be  of a r t activity  a  and  or  to  balance  for  of  example.  course,  children  up  for general  had  be  some  potential in  this to  p l a y : making This  some  the  stories,  would  had  in  to  episode  make  on  could also  appealing  "cookie"  used  read, clay,  after  in  Emphasis  provide  practice,  therefore  activity,  introduced  be  tasks,  seems t o have a g r e a t d e a l o f  stories  party  little  materials  and  evidenced  illustrate  of play  i n classroom  Clay  study.  however,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c u r r e n t l y found  social,  as  art education,  purpose  art  on  and  children.  tea  the  focus  should,  rather  i s sought.  comparatively  literature  here,  Modelling  end  f o r the  pretending  children's activity  i n conjunction with h e u r i s t i c  specific  Within  other  adults.  used c a r e f u l l y , w h i c h no  at  kind  need  to  opportunity  a of be to  explore the m a t e r i a l . In adults provide  general and  the  only  Interaction, definition  i t seems  that  opportunity partial  however, might  seem  to  art is  simple  presence  of  interact  with  materials  experiences  for  children.  much  to  the  more  imply.  complex  than  its  Interaction  may  involve  dialogue  processes, the  as w e l l  situation  form  tool  and does  adult  answers o r how  and  child  the adult the  i t works. or  several  material  playful  or s e r i o u s , depending  occurs. material  indicated, require,  tool  use  beyond  motivations.  of  knowledge the  may  When  take the  on  what  I n t e r a c t i o n may children  art  the use o f a  questions  i n a variety  but determining  understanding  demonstrates  in  the  involve  applying  o f ways  that  a  are  on t h e mood i n w h i c h t h e  A more a c t i v e r o l e and  in  products.  interaction  child's  or  art  participation  as d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t  process  event  a  or  i s appropriate,  of modelling:  tool,  about  of  by a d u l t s young  appropriate  children  seems  interaction  of materials  individual  during the  child's  and  will  processes,  approach  and  REFERENCES Amabile,  (1983).  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V i s u a l A r t s Research, Wilson, B. & Wilson,  iconoclastic  30_, ( 1 ) , 5-12.  two-eyed  influence  An  Review  (Eds.),  (pp.49-62). to  adult of  determine images Art  the  of the  Education  149  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A T a b l e s A - l through A-7  151  APPENDIX Table A-1.  Location o f A c t i v i t i e s —  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Clay/ dough  11/2/84  4  0  Easel  Collage/ Art  0  0  1  2  Subject A  Chalkboard  Pencil Sharpener  Other  2  0  0  0  0  0  3  0  0  0  11/30/84  1  12/14/84  5  1  1/25/85  9  0  7  2  0  0  0  2/15/85  12  1  7  3  0  0  1  3/22/85  2  0  1  10/16/85  2  0  0  0  0  0  2  3/5/86  6  0  2  0  0  0  4  Total/ %  41  19 46.341%  10 24.39%  2 4.878%  0  1  0  0  2 4.878%  1  1 2.439%  0  7 17.073%  APPENDIX A Table A-2.  Activities —  (continued)  152  Subject A  Date o f Episode  Number of Episodes  Watching . Only  Using material/ t o o l only  Manipulating t o o l only  Organizing tools/ materials  other  11/2/84  4  0  3  1  0  0  11/30/84  1  0  0  0  12/14/84  5  0  4  0  0  1  1/25/85  9  1  7  1  1  0  2/15/85  12  0  4  2  4  0  0  0  1  0  3/22/85  2  0  1  1  10/16/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  3/5/85  6  0  3  0  1  3  Total/ %  41  1 2.439%  24 58.536%  5 12.195%  7 17.073%  4 9.756%  APPENDIX A Table A - 3 .  (continued)  Immediate Presence  153  o f Others - - Subject A  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  Adult & Child  11/2/84  4  2  2  2  0  0  11/30/84  1  1  0  0  1  0  12/14/84  5  2  3  0  1  1  1/25/85  9  6  3  3  2  1  2/15/85  12  4  8  1  1  2  3/22/85  2  1  1  1  0  10/16/85  2  2  0  1  1  0  3/5/86  6  5  1  3  0  2  Total/ %  41  23 56.097%  18 43.902%  10 24.39%  7 17.073%  6 14.634%  0  APPENDIX A T a b l e A-4.  Watching —  (continued)  154  Subject A  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  Adult & Child  11/2/84  4  1  3  0  1  0  11/30/84  1  1  0  0  1  0  12/14/84  5  2  3  0  1  1  1/25/85  9  1  8  0  1  0  2/15/85  12  0  12  0  0  0  3/22/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  10/16/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  3/5/86  6  2  4  2  0  0  Total/  41  34 82.926%  2 4.878%  4 9.756%  1 2.439%  %  7 17.073%  APPENDIX A Table A-5.  Date of Episode  11/30/84  Verbal Interaction —  Number of Episodes  11/2/84  Yes  No  4 1  (continued)  1  Other to Subject  2  2  0  1  Subject A  Adult  2  155  Child  2  0  Subject to Other Adult  0 1  1  1  0  0  Child  0 0  12/14/84  5  4  1  2  2  0  2  2  0  1/25/85  9  3  6  3  3  0  2  2  0  2/15/85  12  3/22/85 10/16/85  2 2  3/5/86 Total/ %  2 0 1 6  41  10  1 2  1 5  0 1  1  2  1 0  1 5  1 0  0  2 0  1  5  1  18 23 15 15 43.902% 56.097% 36.585% 36.585%  3 7.317%  0 1  5  0 0 0  5  1  12 13 1 29.268% 31.707% 2.439%  APPENDIX A  (continued)  156  Table A - 6 .  Imitation —  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  11/2/84  4  1  3  1  0  11/30/84  1  0  1  0  0  12/14/84  5  5  0  0  1/25/85  9  0  9  0  0  2/15/85  12  0  12  0  0  3/22/85  2  0  2  0  0  10/16/85  2  0  2  0  0  3/5/86  6  0  6  0  0  Total/ %  41  1 2.439%  40 97.56%  1 2.439%  0 0%  Subject A  0  157  APPENDIX A (continued) T a b l e A-7.  Distraction —  Subject A  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Frequent/ Sustained  11/2/84  4  1  3  0  11/30/84  1  0  1  0  12/14/84  5  3  2  0  1/25/85  9  3  6  0  2/15/85  12  2  10  1  3/22/85  2  1'  1  0  10/16/85  2  2  0  0  3/5/86  6  1  5  0  Total/  41  13 31.707%  28 68.292%  1 2.439%  158  APPENDIX B Tables B - l through B-7  159  APPENDIX B Table B - l . Date o f Episode  Location of A c t i v i t i e s —  Number o f Episodes  Clay/ dough  Easel  Collage/ Art  Subject B  Chalkboard  Pencil Sharpener  Other  11/2/84  7  0  0  3  3  0  1  11/30/84  2  0  0  2  0  0  0  12/14/84  4  0  1  3  0  0  0  1/25/85  4  0  3  1  0  0  0  2/15/85  3  1  0  2  0  0  0  3/22/85  7  0  4  3  0  0  0  4/14/85  2  0  0  2  0  0  0  12/11/85  3  1  1  1  0  0  0  2 6.25%  9 28.125%  17 53.125%  3 9.375%  0 0  Total/ %  32  1 3.125%  APPENDIX B Table B-2.  Activities  (continued)  160  — Subject B  Date o f Episode  Number of Episodes  Watching Only  Using material/ t o o l only  Manipulating t o o l only  Organizing tools/ materials  other  11/2/84  7  1  e  0  0  0 0  11/30/84  2  0  2  0  0  12/14/84  4  0  2  0  0  2  1/25/85  4  1  2  0  0  0  2/15/85  3  1  1  0  0  1  3/22/85  7  0  5  0  2  1  4/14/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  2 6.25%  4 12.5%  12/11/85 Total/ %  3  1  2  0  32  4 12.5%  22 68.75%  0 0  APPENDIX B ( c o n t i n u e d ) Table B - 3 .  161  -- S u b j e c t B  Immediate P r e s e n c e o f O t h e r s  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  11/2/84  7  5  2  2  3'  0  11/30/84  2  2  0  2  0  0  12/14/84  4  3  1  1  1  1  1/25/85  4  3  1  0  3  0  2/15/85  3  3  0  0  0  3  3/22/85  7  5  2  3  1  1  4/14/85  2  2  0  1  0  1  2/11/85  3  3  0  1  2  0  32  26 81.25%  6 18.75%  10 31.25%  10 31.25%  6 18.75%  Total/  %  Child  Adult S Child  APPENDIX B (continued) Table B-4.  Watching —  162  Subject B  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  Adult & Child  11/2/84  7  2  5  0  2  0  11/30/84  2  1  1  0  1  0  12/14/84  4  2  2  0  2  0  1/25/85  4  2  2  0  2  0  2/15/85  3  3  0  0  3  0  3/22/85  7  0  7  0  0  0  4/14/85  2  1  1  0  0  1  12/11/85  3  1  2  0  1  0  32  12 37.5%  20 62.5%  0 0%  11 34.375%  1 3.125%  Total/ %  APPENDIX B ( c o n t i n u e d ) Table B-5.  Date o f Episode  Verbal  Number o f Episodes Yes  Interaction  163  — Subject B  No  Other to Subject  Adult  Child  Subject to Other  Adult  Child  uncertain  1  11/2/84  7  4  3  2  2  0  4  2  1  11/30/84  2  2  0  2  2  0  2  2  0  12/14/84  4  3  1  1  1  0  3  3  0  1/25/85  4  1  3  1  1  0  1  1  0  2/15/85  3  2  1  2  2  0  2  2  0  3/22/85  7  5  2  5  5  0  4  4  0  4/14/85  2  2  0  2  2  0  2  2  0  12/11/85  3  2  1  2  1  1  2  1  1  Total/ 3.125% ' '"  32  21  65.625%  11  34.375%  17  53.125%  16  50.00%  1  3.125%  20  62.50%  17  53.125%  2  6.25%  1  APPENDIX B  (continued)  164  Table B-6.  I m i t a t i o n — Subject B  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  11/2/84  7  0  7  0  0  11/30/84  2  0  2  0  0  12/14/84  4  0  4  0  0  1/25/85  4  0  4  0  0  2/15/85  3  0  3  0  0  3/22/85  7  0  7  0  0  4/11/85  2  0  2  0  0  12/11/85  3  0  3  0  0  32  0  32 100%  0  0  Total/ %  APPENDIX B Table  B-7.  Distraction  (continued)  165  — Subject B  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Frequent/ Sustained  11/2/84  7  2  5  0  11/30/84  2  1  1  0  12/14/84  4  1  3  0  1/25/85  4  1  3  0  2/15/85  3  2  1  2  3/22/85  7  2  5  0  4/14/85  2  1  1  0  12/11/85  3  2  1  0  32  12 37.5%  20 62.5%  2 6.25%  Total/  APPENDIX C T a b l e s C - l through C-  APPENDIX B (continued)  167  APPENDIX C Table C - l .  Location o f A c t i v i t i e s —  Clay/ dough  Easel  Collage/ Art  Subject C  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Chalkboard  Pencil Sharpener  11/5/84  4  0  3  0  1  0  0  11/26/84  4  2  1  1  0  0  0  12/10/84  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  1/21/85  6  0  1  4  0  1  0  2/18/85  5  3  2  0  0  0  0  3/18/85  7  5  2  0  0  0  0  4/22/85  4  1  1  1  1  0  0  1/9/86  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  3/6/86  2  1  0  0  0  0  1  4/24/86  3  1  1  0  0  0  1  Total/ %  37  14 32 .432%  11 35.135%  7 18.919%  2 5.405%  1 2 .703%  Other  2 5.405%  APPENDIX C ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e C-2.  Activities  168  — Subject C  Date o f Episode  Number of Episodes  Watching Only  Using material/ t o o l only  Manipulating t o o l only  Organizing tools/ materials  other  11/5/84.  4  0  4  0  0  0  11/26/84  4  0  4  0  0  0  12/10/84  1  1  0  0  0  0  1/21/85  6  1  2  1  2  0  2/18/85  5  0  5  0  0  0  3/18/85  7  1  5  0  0  1  4/22/85  4  0  4  0  0  0  1/9/86  1  0  1  0  0  0  3/6/86  2  1  1  0  0  0  4/24/86  3  0  2  1  0  0  37  4 10.81%  28 '." 75.675%  2 5.405%  2 5.405%  1 2.702%  Total/  APPENDIX C (continued) Table C-3.  169  Immediate Presence o f Others - - Subject C  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  Adult & Child  11/5/84  4  3  1  0  1  2  11/26/84  4  3  1  0  1  2  12/10/84  1  1  0  0  1  0  1/21/85  6  3  3  0  1  2  2/18/85  5  2  3  1  0  1  3/18/85  7  7  0  4  0  3  4/22/85  4  2  2  1  0  1  1/9/86  1  1  0  0  0  1  3/6/86  2  2  0  0  1  1  4/24/86  3  2  1  0  0  2  37  26 70.270%  11 29.730%  6 16.216%  5 13.514%  15 40.541%  Total/ %  APPENDIX C (continued) Table C-4.  Watching —  170  Subject C  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  11/5/84  4  3  1  0  3  0  11/26/84  4  3  1  0  1  2  12/10/84  1  1  0  0  1  0  1/21/85  6  3  3  1  2  0  2/18/85  5  2  3  0  1  1  3/18/85  7  5  1  3  0  2  4/22/85  4  2  2  0  1  1  1/9/86  1  1  0  0  1  0  3/6/86  2  2  0  0  2  0  4/24/86  3  1  2  0  0  1  37  23 62.162%  13 35.135%  4 10.81%  12 32.432%  7 18.918%  Total/  Adult & unChild certain  1 2.70%  APPENDIX C Table C-5.  Date o f Episode  171  (continued)  Verbal Interaction  Subject C  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  11/5/84  4  2  2  2  0  2  0  0  0  11/26/84  4  2  2  2  2  0  0  0  0  12/10/84  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1/21/85  6  1  5  1  1  1  0  0  0  2/18/85  5  2  3  2  2  1  0  0  0  3/18/85  • 7  3  4  2  2  0  3  2  0  4/22/85  4  3  1  3  2  1  1  1  0  1/9/86  1  1  0  1  1  1  0  0  0  3/6/86  2  1  1  1  1  0  0  0  0  4/24/86  3  2  1  1  1  0  2  2  0  Total/ %  37  Other t o Subject A d u l t  —  Child  Subject t o Other Adult  6 5 18 19 15 12 6 48.648% 51.351% 40.540% 32.432% 16.216% 16.216% 13.513%  Child  0 0%  Dncertain  1 2.702%  APPENDIX C Table C - 6 .  Imitation —  172  (continued)  Subject C  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  uncertain  11/5/84  4  1  3  0  1  0  11/26/84  4  1  3  1  0  0  12/10/84  1  0  1  0  0  0  1/21/85  6  0  5  0  0  1  2/18/85  5  1  4  0  0  0  3/18/85  7  0  7  0  0  0  4/22/85  4  0  4  0  0  0  1/9/86  1  0  0  0  0  1  3/6/86  2  1  1  0  1 .  0  4/24/86  3  1  2  1  0  0  37  5 13.513%  30 81.081%  2 5.405%  2 5.405%  2 5.405%  Total/ %  APPENDIX C Table  C-7.  Distraction  (continued)  173  — Subject C  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Frequent/ Sustained  11/5/84  4  3  1  2  11/26/84  4  4  0  2  12/10/84  1  1  0  1  1/21/85  6  6  0  2  2/18/85  5  5  0  2  3/18/85  7  5  2  4  4/22/85  4  4  0  2  1/9/86  1  1  0  0  3/6/86  2  1  1  1  4/24/86  3  2  1  0  37  32 36.486%  5 13.513%  16 43.243%  Total/ %  174  APPENDIX D T a b l e s D - l through D-7  175  Table D - l .  Date o f Episode  Location o f A c t i v i t i e s —  Number o f Episodes  clay/ dough  Easel  Collage/ Art  Subject D  Chalkboard  Pencil Sharpener  Other  11/5/84  2  0  1  0  1  0  0  11/26/84  3  3  0  0  0  0  0  12/10/84  4  1  1  2  0  0  0  1/21/85  5  1  0  4  0  0  0  2/18/85  3  1  1  1  0  0  0  3/18/85  4  3  1  0  0  0  0  4/22/85  2  0  0  1  1  0  0  11/13/85  2  0  1  1  0  0  0  12/11/85  2  1  0  1  0  0  0  Total/ %  27  10 37.03%  5 18.518%  10 37.03%  2 7 .407%  0  0  APPENDIX D Table D-2.  Activities —  (continued)  176  Subject D  Date o f Episode  Number of Episodes  Watching Only  Using material/ t o o l only  Manipulating t o o l only  Organizing tools/ materials  other  11/5/84  2  0  2  0  0  0  11/26/84  3  0  3  0  0  0  12/10/84  4  1  2  0  0  1  1/21/85  5  0  3  1  0  1  2/18/85  3  0  3  0  0  0  3/18/85  4  0  4  0  0  0  4/22/85  2  0  1  1  0  0  11/13/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  12/11/85  2  1  1  0  0  0  27  2 7.407%  21 77.78%  2 7.407%  0  2 7.407%  Total/ %  APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) Table D - 3 .  177  -- S u b j e c t D  Immediate P r e s e n c e o f O t h e r s  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  Adult & Child  11/5/84  2  2  0  0  0  2  11/26/84  3  3  0  2  0  1  12/10/84  4  3  1  2  1  0  1/21/85  5  4  1  1  2  1  2/18/85  3  3  0  1  0  2  3/18/85  4  3  1  0  0  3  4/22/85  2  1  1  0  0  1  11/13/85  2  1  1  0  0  1  12/11/85  2  2  0  0  1  1  27  22 81.48%  5 18.518%  6 22.222%  4 14.814%  12 44.44%  Total/ %  APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e D-4.  178  Watching — Subject D  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  Adult  Child  Adult & Child  11/5/84  2  2  0  1  1  0  11/26/84  3  3  0  2  1  0  12/10/84  4  3  1  0  2  1  1/21/85  5  4  1  1  1  2  2/18/85  3  2  1  0  1  1  3/18/85  4  2  2  2  0  0  4/22/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  2  0  2  0  0  0  2  2  0  0  1  1  27  18 66.66%  9 33.33%  6 22.22%  7 25.925%  5 18.518%  11/13/85 12/11/85 Total/  %  "  APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e D-5.  Verbal Interaction  Other t o Subject A d u l t  179  - - Subject  D  Date o f Episode  Number of Episodes  Yes  No  11/5/84  2  2  0  1  1  0  2  2  0  11/26/84  3  2  1  2  2  0  2  2  0  12/10/84  4  3  1  3  2  1  1  1  0  1/21/85  5  3  2  3  2  0  2  1  0  2/18/85  3  3  0  2  2  0  2  1  2  3/18/85  Child  Subject t o Other Adult  Child  4  2  2  0  0  0  2  1  0  4/22/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  11/13/85  2  1  1  1  0  1  1  0  1  12/11/85  2  2  0  1  0  1  2  1  1  27  18 66.66%  9 33.33%  13 48.15%  9 33.33%  3 11.11%  14 51.85%  9 33.33%  Total/  Other  1 (herself)  4 1 14.814% 3.703%  APPENDIX D ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e D-6.  180  Imitation — Subject D  Date o f Episode  Number o f Episodes  Yes  No  11/5/84  2  1  1  11/26/84  3  0  3  12/10/84  4  2  1/21/85  5  2/18/85  Child  uncertain  0  0  1  0  0  2  1  1  0  0  4  0  0  1  3  1  2  1  0  0  3/18/85  4  0  4  0  0  0  4/22/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  11/13/85  2  0  2  0  0  0  12/11/85  2  1  1  1  0  0  27  5 22.222%  2 74.071%  4 14.814%  1 3.0703%  1 3.703%  Total/ %  Adult  1  APPENDIX D Table  D-7.  Distraction  D a t e o f Number o f Episode Episodes  (continued)  181  — Subject D  Yes  No  Frequent/ SustainedUncertain  11/5/84  2  1  1  1  0  11/26/84  3  2  1  2  0  12/10/84  4  3  1  3  0  1/21/85  5  5  0  1  0  2/18/85  3  2  1  1  0  3/18/85  4  3  0  1  1  4/22/85  2  0  2  0  0  11/13/85  2  1  1  1  0  12/11/85  2  1  1  0  0  27  18 66.66%  8 29.629%  10 22 .22%  1 3.703%  Total/ %  APPENDIX E F i r s t v e r s i o n o f check sheet used i n r e v i e w i n g data  APPENDIX E SUBJECT OBSERVATION SHEET Tape Date o f O b s e r v a t i o n Episode # Subject Location M a t e r i a l s Used  Others  involved in  Initiator  of  interaction  episode  PRELIMINARY Observes other p r i o r to e n t e r i n g area E n t e r s a r t a r e a when o t h e r i s p r e s e n t Brings other into area Accompanies o t h e r i n t o area Follows other into area Comments r e : i n i t i a t i o n  WATCHING Watches use o f m a t e r i a l / t o o l by c h i l d Watches use o f m a t e r i a l / t o o l by a d u l t Watches w h i l e s u b j e c t uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l Watches w h i l e s u b j e c t does n o t use m a t e r i a l Comments r e : w a t c h i n g  WORKING TOGETHER Works b e s i d e o t h e r Works t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r on same s u r f a c e / p r o j e c t Helps other i n g e t t i n g t o o l s / s u p p l i e s H e l p s / s h o w s o t h e r "how t o " make/do w i t h m a t e r i a l / t o o l Quality of exchange/interaction: active, passive, active/passive Comments r e : Q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n  TALKING/GESTURING T a l k s to a d u l t while s u b j e c t uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l T a l k s t o c h i l d w h i l e s u b j e c t uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l T a l k s t o a d u l t w h i l e s u b j e c t does n o t use m a t e r i a l / t o o l T a l k s t o c h i l d w h i l e s u b j e c t does not use m a t e r i a l / t o o l T a l k s about m a t e r i a l / t o o l / w o r k Does n o t t a l k a b o u t m a t e r i a l / t o o l / w o r k Asks f o r / i n d i c a t e s need t o ; o t h e r f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h use o f m a t e r i a l / t o o l in getting material/tool w i t h image I n v i t e s o t h e r t o work t o o I n s t r u c t s o t h e r i n what/how t o make R e s p o n d s v e r b a l l y / w i t h g e s t u r e t o work o f o t h e r Comments r e : T a l k / g e s t u r e  CONCLUSION A s s i s t s other i n clean-up Interacts with other re: p u t t i n g name on p a p e r / p r o j e c t p u t t i n g away o r h a n g i n g p i e c e / p r o j e c t  PLAYING E n g a g e s i n same g a m e / p l a y / f a n t a s y With t o o l / m a t e r i a l Comments r e p l a y :  as  other  APPENDIX E  (continued)  184  IMITATION/COPYING Copies gesture/movement Copies t o o l / m a t e r i a l use C o p i e s image C o p i e s v e r b a l comment o f o t h e r Comments r e i m i t a t i o n / c o p y i n g  DISTRACTION L o o k s away f r o m c e n t r e / a c t i v i t y a s r e s u l t o f L e a v e s c e n t r e / a c t i v i t y as r e s u l t o f o t h e r Comments  EXTENSION Comments on e x t e n s i o n / l e n g t h other  of interaction  other  with  m a t e r i a l / t o o l as r e s u l t  ADULT OBSERVATION Initiates episode Invites child to join S i t s i n area i n order t o a t t r a c t c h i l d S i t s beside o r near subject Accompanies s u b j e c t t o area Watches s u b j e c t use m a t e r i a l / t o o l s T a l k s t o s u b j e c t while s u b j e c t uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l s Responds v e r b a l l y t o s u b j e c t s work/use o f m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s Uses m a t e r i a l / t o o l Shows s u b j e c t "how t o " copies subject verbally image gesture/movement A s s i s t s s u b j e c t by getting materials/tools organizing materials a d j u s t i n g seat, e t c . W r i t e s s u b j e c t ' s name on p a p e r P u t s away o r h a n g s work f o r s u b j e c t Engages i n p l a y / f a n t a s y with s u b j e c t verbal with m a t e r i a l Creates parts of piece to include i n subject's piece Works a t s u b j e c t s request Instructs/helps subject i n clean-up  of  APPENDIX F Second v e r s i o n o f check sheet used i n r e v i e w i n g data  186 APPENDIX F CHILD ART STUDY CHECK SHEET / TAPE ANALYSIS Tape  #  Date o f O b s e r v a t i o n  Location Others  H!  •  Subject  M a t e r i a l s Used?  involved  •  Watching  only?  Immediate Presence  of other(s) during  Yes  •  No  During  entire  During  part o f episode  episode  Child •  who?  Adult •  who?  episode:  • • D  Comments  H  2  Watching/observing Yes If  others  •  use o f m a t e r i a l s No  yes, c h i l d •  who?  adult •  who?  •  Comments  H  3  Verbal  interaction Yes  If  during episode  •  No  yes, c h i l d •  who?  adult •  who?  •  frequency  o f " s u b j e c t " comments  frequency  of "other"  Comments  comments  about  use o f m a t e r i a l o r product.  187  APPENDIX F (continued)  Evidence  of imitation/copying during Yes  If  y e s , what?  If  y e s , who?  No  • (gesture,  episode.  •  image)D  Adult • Child •  Comments  Evidence  of Looking Yes  •  If  yes, frequency:  If  yes, cause  away/distraction during No  episode.  •  of distraction:  Comment/importance  Comment/intensity  o f other presence  of involvement  with  during  episode.  material.  

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