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Integrated curricular programming for art education : a comparative study Dyne, Karen Lea 1995

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INTEGRATED CURRICULAR PROGRAMMING FOR ART EDUCATION A COMPARATIVE STUDY by KAREN LEA DYNE B.F.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1985 B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, F a c u l t y o f Education, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1995 ©:Karen Lea Dyne, 1995  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  University  of  British  Columbia,  I agree  available for reference  copying  of  department publication  this or  and  study. I further  thesis "for scholarly purposes by  of this  his thesis  or for  her  permission.  Department of The University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  requirements  be  It  is  gain shall  that the  agree that  may  representatives.  financial  the  not  an  advanced  Library shall  permission for  granted  by the  understood be  for  make  extensive  Head  that  allowed without  it  of  copying  my or  my written  ABSTRACT T h i s q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y c o m p a r e s an  " i n t e g r a t e d " a r t program  w i t h a " d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d " a r t program at the grade level  i n two  Ontario  public schools.  t h r o u g h e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w and c o m p a r i s o n i s b a s e d upon the s t r u c t u r a l and by E i s n e r  p r a c t i c e s are  Data were c o l l e c t e d  observation.  The  intentional, curricular,  e v a l u a t i v e dimensions of s c h o o l i n g  (1991).  The  oriented school  may  as  outline  study indicates that i n t e g r a t i v e  c o m p l e x and  o u t c o m e s o c c u r and  eight  be  multi-dimensional.  Integrated  cultivated within a  discipline-  structure.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table of Contents L i s t of Tables Acknowledgement Chapter One: I n t r o d u c t i o n Background The I n v e s t i g a t i o n Personal Ground Research Questions C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Terms S i g n i f i c a n c e and Purpose of the Study Chapter Two: L i t e r a t u r e A n a l y s i s H i s t o r i c a l Background Philosophy and Ideology of I n t e g r a t i o n I n t e g r a t i o n and the A r t s M o t i v a t i o n f o r I n t e g r a t i n g the Curriculum Defining Integration Implementing I n t e g r a t i v e P r a c t i c e s Limitations Identified Concluding Remarks Chapter Three: Methodology Overview and R a t i o n a l e Q u a l i t a t i v e Inquiry i n Education Descriptive/Interpretative Analysis i n Q u a l i t a t i v e Research Summary o f Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s Procedure The Study P o p u l a t i o n and S e t t i n g Data C o l l e c t i o n Interview Process and Questioning Treatment o f the Data A n a l y s i s of Data R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Study  iii  Chapter Four: F i n d i n g s  44  Introduction School and Teacher P r o f i l e S t r u c t u r a l Dimension of S c h o o l i n g Program Schedule and S t r u c t u r e I n t e n t i o n a l Dimension of S c h o o l i n g Use of G u i d e l i n e s Aims and Goals C u r r i c u l a r Dimension of S c h o o l i n g Program and Development Art Projects Art H i s t o r y and A p p r e c i a t i o n Integration Teacher Role and Program D e l i v e r y Art F a c i l i t y Teacher C o l l a b o r a t i o n E v a l u a t i v e Dimension o f S c h o o l i n g Assessment P r a c t i c e s Student A t t i t u d e Student A r t Knowledge Student Involvement w i t h A r t Outside the A r t Program D e s c r i p t i o n of C l a s s V i s i t s Lakeview - C l a s s V i s i t #1 Lakeview - C l a s s V i s i t #2 R i v e r s i d e - C l a s s V i s i t #1 R i v e r s i d e - C l a s s V i s i t #2 Chapter F i v e : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  44 44 46 47 49 49 51 54 55 62 73 74 85 89 91 93 93 97 99 102 107 107 110 113 118 122  Fogarty's I n t e g r a t i o n C a t e g o r i e s Comparative A n a l y s i s Teacher and School P r o f i l e S t r u c t u r a l Dimension of S c h o o l i n g Program Schedule I n t e n t i o n a l Dimension of S c h o o l i n g Use of G u i d e l i n e s Aims and Goals C u r r i c u l a r Dimension of S c h o o l i n g Program and Development Art P r o j e c t s A r t H i s t o r y and A p p r e c i a t i o n  iv  123 124 124 12 7 127 129 129 13 0 132 132 134 135  Teacher Role and Program D e l i v e r y Riverside Teacher Role and Program D e l i v e r y Lakeview Summary Teacher C o l l a b o r a t i o n Art F a c i l i t y The E v a l u a t i v e Dimension Of S c h o o l i n g Student A r t Knowledge Student A t t i t u d e Assessment P r a c t i c e s Integration C l o s i n g Remarks Chapter S i x : C o n c l u s i o n  136 13 9 143 144 145 147 147 148 149 150 154 157  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory, P r a c t i c e and Research Theory and P r a c t i c e I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research Personal and P r o f e s s i o n a l L e a r n i n g References  157 157 162 164 166  Appendix A  Code L i s t and D e f i n i t i o n s  176  Appendix  Interview Questions Interview Questions f o r Teachers Interview Questions f o r Students  178  B  v  LIST OF TABLES Table 1  Table 2  Toward an I n t e g r a t e d Curriculum Ten Views f o r I n t e g r a t i n g the C u r r i c u l a (Fogarty, 1991) Comparison of I n t e g r a t e d P r a c t i c e s at Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e  vi  25  125  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s study was made p o s s i b l e through the c o - o p e r a t i o n and support o f many i n d i v i d u a l s .  I extend my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the  Board o f E d u c a t i o n i n which t h i s study was conducted and i t s Research Department and t o the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s , and  teachers  students who so w i l l i n g l y gave t h e i r time and s i n c e r e  responses t o my i n q u i r i e s .  I a l s o thank my r e s e a r c h  Dr. R i t a Irwin f o r her p r e c i s e advice,  advisor  d i r e c t i o n and  encouragement throughout the study, my t h e s i s committee, K i t Grauer and Dr. Robert C a r l i s l e , f o r g e t t i n g me s t a r t e d . those c o l l e a g u e s ,  Finally,  Prof.  and a l s o Dr. James Gray  I extend my g r a t i t u d e t o  f r i e n d s and e s p e c i a l l y f a m i l y who supported  me i n t h i s endeavour.  vii  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION Current d i s c u s s i o n s i n education at both the n a t i o n a l  and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l have focused on an i n t e g r a t e d approach t o art education  (Grauer, 1991).  i s s u e has been promulgated B r i t i s h Columbia  In Canada, d i s c u s s i o n over the  by The Year 2 000  curricula in  ( M i n i s t r y of Education, B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1990), and through s i m i l a r recommendations i n O n t a r i o i n the T r a n s i t i o n Years  ( M i n i s t r y of Education, O n t a r i o , 1990) .  Although the i n i t i a t i v e s are at v a r i o u s stages of implementation,  c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding i n t e g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s .  Background A r e c u r r e n t , or perhaps concurrent theme i n the h i s t o r y of a r t e d u c a t i o n has been the dichotomy between d i s c i p l i n e o r i e n t e d s t r u c t u r e s , versus more h o l i s t i c , i n t e g r a t e d approaches Munro, 1970;  (Dewey, 1934; Read, 1948;  E f l a n d , 1978,  1990;  Saunders, 1978).  Henry,  1958;  Integrated art  c u r r i c u l u m has not, however, reached wide p o p u l a r i t y . l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t , at best, i n t e g r a t e d a r t has  The achieved  s i g n i f i c a n t success o n l y i n s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s and s c h o o l s . i s l e a d t o wonder why  t h i s p r a c t i c e , which appears  t o be  One so  p e d a g o g i c a l l y sound, has not been more w i d e l y implemented (Court, 1991) . S u r p r i s i n g l y , d e s p i t e the h i s t o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n surrounding the i n t e g r a t i o n of v i s u a l a r t , t h e r e has been l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l data a v a i l a b l e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the c l a i m s of  1  integrated  programs beyond the o p i n i o n s of those p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n the programs  (Grauer, 1991;  Kindler,  1987,  1991).  Current  work being done i n the area i s l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e of s p e c i f i c teaching  and  evaluation  l e a r n i n g u n i t s or p r o j e c t s ,  r a t h e r than program  or p h i l o s o p h i c a l underpinnings  study of i n t e g r a t i o n i s m u l t i f a c e t e d .  (Grauer, 1991).  The  Each f a c e t needs to  be  examined i n order to c l e a r l y understand the phenomenon and i t s import f o r a r t education. c a r e f u l d e f i n i t i o n and 1987,  The  concept of i n t e g r a t i o n  structured  investigation  requires  (Kindler,  1991). Williams  (1991) has  conducted a n a t u r a l i s t i c study of a  u n i f i e d s t u d i e s program at the h i g h school p r o j e c t , w i t h a h i s t o r y of 15 years, was  level.  The  established  to  address the needs of students which t r a d i t i o n a l programs ignored.  His purpose was  to examine i n d e t a i l the  experiences of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s i n t e g r a t e d project. the  Williams'  l e a r n i n g and  teaching  p e r s o n a l growth of the  and  of  a c t i v i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  students i n v o l v e d  p r o f i l e s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s .  concerning  and  the  system.  2  the  Once again, however, This  the e f f e c t s of i n t e g r a t e d programming on  t e a c h e r s at o t h e r l e v e l s i n our  Of  personality  are examining an i s o l a t e d , s p e c i a l i n i t i a t i v e .  investigates  curriculum  study r e s u l t e d i n a r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n  i n t e r e s t to t h i s study are h i s c o n c l u s i o n s  we  lived  regular,  public  study  students  education  I n t e g r a t i o n seeks to address a number of concerns which the present  d i s c i p l i n e - c e n t r e d curriculum f a i l s  acknowledge, i n c l u d i n g : the fragmentation processes 1989;  of s c h o o l i n g  Williams,  and of s k i l l s  (Case, 1991;  to  of the content  Jacobs, 1989;  Slaughter,  1991); t e a c h i n g f o r the t r a n s f e r of knowledge  (Miller,  1988;  Perkins & Salomon, 1988) ; the  relevance of the d i s c i p l i n e s to each other and to l i f e the school  (Daniels, 1991;  Gough, 1989;  H o l l y , 1986;  1991); and to the expansion of knowledge and the curriculum  and  (Jacobs,  1989;  Miller,  outside  Williams,  overloaded  C a s s i e & Drake, 1990).  An  i n t e g r a t i v e approach, which encourages a n a l y t i c and c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , i s a l s o i n keeping with the O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y ' s image of the c h i l d as an a c t i v e l e a r n e r ( M i l l e r , Education,  Ontario,  Conceptually,  1988;  M i n i s t r y of  1990). i n t e g r a t i o n as a model f o r  education  embodies a h o l i s t i c approach, seeking t o emphasize i n t e r c o n n e c t e d nature whole c h i l d . Seller  of knowledge and the e d u c a t i o n  T h i s can be achieved  of  through the M i l l e r  the  and  (1985) c u r r i c u l u m p o s i t i o n s of " t r a n s a c t i o n " and  "transformation", Seller,  the  but not through " t r a n s m i s s i o n "  (Miller &  1885).  From the standpoint  of t r a n s m i s s i o n the student  p a s s i v e r e c e i v e r of atomized b i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . approach i s m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y connections  The  i n the sense t h a t there are  made between the d i s c i p l i n e s  Drake, 1990).  i s the  (Miller, Cassie,  This i s a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d p o s i t i o n .  3  no &  T r a n s a c t i o n encourages an on-going r e l a t i o n s h i p between the student and the c u r r i c u l u m i n o r d e r t o encourage  problem  solving s k i l l s .  since  I t i s seen as i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  q u e s t i o n s are e x p l o r e d from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s C a s s i e , & Drake, 1990).  (Miller,  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p o s i t i o n focuses  on the whole l e a r n e r i n a p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l sense, emphasizing interdependence w i t h the environment 1988).  As such, i t i s seen as t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y  (Miller, o r non-  d i s c i p l i n a r y i n that the l e a r n e r i s not bound t o address problems from any p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n a r y p o i n t of view ( M i l l e r , C a s s i e , & Drake, 1990) .  These l a t t e r p o s i t i o n s are  integrative. There are p a r a l l e l s t o the above o r i e n t a t i o n s i n our u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l - s c i e n t i f i c paradigms.  Broadly  speaking, the t r a n s m i s s i o n and t r a n s a c t i o n p o s i t i o n s correspond t o the Western s c i e n t i f i c d e s c r i b e d as r a t i o n a l , c l a s s i c a l Newtonian stability, 1988).  systems  approach,  l i n e a r , and s e q u e n t i a l , based upon  laws of s c i e n c e , emphasizing permanence,  and s i m p l i c i t y  ( D o l l , 1989; Gough, 1989;  Miller,  I t i s from t h i s premise that p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m models  are  rooted  (Slaughter, 1989).  Nevertheless, while s t i l l i n  the  p r o c e s s of d e f i n i t i o n , an a l t e r n a t e paradigm, which a l l o w s  for  the complex,  the  world appears t o be emerging  t r a n s i t o r y , and a p p a r e n t l y c h a o t i c nature of ( D o l l , 1989;  Pearse, 1992).  T h i s model accounts f o r the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p o s i t i o n , which i s  4  personal  and  contextual  ( D o l l , 1989;  Gough, 1989;  Miller,  1988) . It i s apparent that there are v a r i o u s integration.  approaches to  C e n t r a l to the d i s c u s s i o n i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d and instruction.  The  two  i n t e g r a t e d methods of  are not n e c e s s a r i l y mutually e x c l u s i v e .  It i s suggested that meaningful i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e s cannot occur u n t i l knowledge of the s u b j e c t matter i s understood  (Chambers, 1983;  that s y n t h e s i s  Jacobs, 1989).  - p u t t i n g together  the separate p a r t s which are to be ( E n t w i s t l e , 1970,  and  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a whole"  c a r r i e s w i t h i t both e x p l i c i t and  (Eisner, 1979;  Goodlad, 1984).  implicit  Discipline-oriented  i n t e g r a t e d approaches each have e f f e c t s on the c u l t u r e of  schooling  (Cuban, 1984;  Werner, 1991)  experiences f o r both students and i s considerable  1990;  influencing  f o r teachers.  on s c h o o l i n g  F u l l a n , 1991;  Popkewitz, 1977)  educational While  documentation about the e f f e c t of  oriented curriculums 1984,  - r e q u i r e s a knowledge of  pp.110).  7Any c u r r i c u l u m knowledge  " I t i s arguable  discipline-  (Apple & King 1977;  Goodlad, 1979,  1984;  Kane,  the impact of i n t e g r a t e d s t u d i e s f o r  and  f o r students remains t o be  The  Investigation  there  Cuban, 1979; teachers  discerned.  In l i g h t of the f a c t that the implementation of i n t e g r a t e d programs are w e l l under way,  i t seemed wise to  embark upon an a n a l y s i s of an i n t e g r a t e d program i n the  5  r e g u l a r school  system.  T h i s n a t u r a l i s t i c study compared  an  i n t e g r a t e d approach to a r t e d u c a t i o n w i t h a d i s c i p l i n e o r i e n t e d program through two  case s t u d i e s , employing  the  q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y methodology o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I . Eisner's  (1991) model of e d u c a t i o n a l  connoisseurship  serves as a conceptual framework f o r such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . He  has  o u t l i n e d dimensions of s c h o o l i n g which served as  through which e d u c a t i o n a l perspectives  a c t i v i t i e s were observed.  lenses  Three  were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study; the i n t e n t i o n a l  dimension of s c h o o l i n g  ( e x p l i c i t goals  c u r r i c u l a r dimension of s c h o o l i n g application)  and  or aims),  ( q u a l i t y of content  the s t r u c t u r a l dimension of  (organizational aspects).  the  During the  and  schooling  i n v e s t i g a t i o n the  evaluative  dimension of s c h o o l i n g  practices)  (Eisner, 1991)  interest.  Focus on these t o p i c s e s t a b l i s h e d a s t r u c t u r e  comparison of the two  (assessment and  evaluation  emerged as an a d d i t i o n a l area of for  programs.  Personal Ground My  concern w i t h the  i s s u e of i n t e g r a t i o n stemmed from  r o l e as an a r t educator and  high school  a r t department head.  Involvement w i t h i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t s w i t h i n my department and  school  has  l e a d to my  my  classes,  i n t e r e s t i n comparing  t h i s approach w i t h a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d approach. I have worked on the development of i n t e g r a t e d both l a r g e and  small.  I p a r t i c i p a t e d as p a r t of a  member team, w r i t i n g and  projects three  implementing a course c a l l e d  6  Communications, i n t e g r a t i n g dramatic a r t , t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s and school.  E n g l i s h , i n v o l v i n g three departments w i t h i n  On more than one  another teacher, v i s u a l a r t and activities.  occasion,  i n conjunction  I have combined two  science,  Further,  have i n t e g r a t e d ideas  disciplines,  the  with such as,  f o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y u n i t s or  as an independent classroom teacher, from v a r i o u s  subject  I  disciplines.  During these experiences I have witnessed both success  and  disaster. I a l s o conducted two  preliminary studies r e l a t i n g  c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n (Dyne, 1992a, 1992b). addressed problems inherent  The  i n t h i s approach, and  to  first the  second,  examined i n t e g r a t i o n from an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . became apparent from these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s that an approach to education  It  integrated  r e q u i r e s a s u b s t a n t i a l departure from  the e s t a b l i s h e d norms of s c h o o l i n g  (Cuban, 1990).  Research Questions The  purpose of t h i s study was  approach to a r t education The 1.  to compare an  integrated  w i t h a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d approach.  f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h questions  were addressed:  In terms of the i n t e n t i o n a l , c u r r i c u l a r , and s t r u c t u r a l  dimensions of s c h o o l i n g  (Eisner, 1991), what are  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s of an i n t e g r a t e d program, which i n c l u d e s v i s u a l art,  f o r students and  for  2.  In terms of the i n t e n t i o n a l , c u r r i c u l a r , and s t r u c t u r a l  dimensions of s c h o o l i n g  teachers?  (Eisner, 1991), what are  7  the  implications  of an d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d a r t program f o r  students and f o r teachers? C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Terms The  following  terms w i l l be used throughout  the  study  r e q u i r i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n to ensure mutual understanding reader and  author.  Discipline Field. with i t s own  " s p e c i f i c body of teachable knowledge  background of education, t r a i n i n g ,  method and content areas" Integration. (Case,  between  1991,  (Jacobs, 1989,  procedures,  p.7)  " u n i t i n g of d i s c r e t e elements i n t o a whole"  p.2)  Interdisciplinary.  "a knowledge view and c u r r i c u l u m  approach that c o n s c i o u s l y a p p l i e s methodology and  language  from more than one d i s c i p l i n e to examine a c e n t r a l theme, i s s u e , problem, t o p i c , or experience" Discipline-oriented.  (Jacobs, 1989,  p. 8)  An approach to c u r r i c u l u m which  c o n c e n t r a t e s on a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e f i e l d . The  Intentional  Dimension of S c h o o l i n g .  or g o a l s that are e x p l i c i t l y advocated  "designates aims  and p u b l i c l y announced  as w e l l as those that are a c t u a l l y employed i n the (Eisner, The  1991,  classroom"  pp.73)  C u r r i c u l a r Dimension of S c h o o l i n g .  "focuses upon the  q u a l i t y of the c u r r i c u l u m ' s content and g o a l s and  the  a c t i v i t i e s employed to engage students i n i t " (Eisner, pp.75)  8  1991,  The  S t r u c t u r a l Dimension of S c h o o l i n g .  organizational  forms of s c h o o l s - how the school  d i v i d e d and how s u b j e c t s 1991,  "the day i s  are a s s i g n e d t o time b l o c k s "  (Eisner,  pp.74) Evaluative  which e v a l u a t i o n  Dimension of S c h o o l i n g ,  "focus on the ways i n  p r a c t i c e s . . . i n f l u e n c e the students' o u t l o o k "  (Eisner, 1991, pp.80) S i g n i f i c a n c e and Purpose o f the Study The  O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n has asked t e a c h e r s t o  implement i n t e g r a t i v e approaches i n t h e i r classrooms.  At t h i s  p o i n t we know l i t t l e about these p r a c t i c e s from an e m p i r i c a l p o i n t o f view.  By comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g  i n t e g r a t e d and  d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d approaches, t h i s study attempts t o o f f e r new understanding t o the f i e l d of a r t e d u c a t i o n through d e s c r i p t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based upon d i r e c t Further,  the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s e m p i r i c a l  observation.  study i s t o become  p a r t of a preponderance o f evidence from s e v e r a l case over time r e g a r d i n g art  studies  integrated practices i n relationship to  education.  9  CHAPTER LITERATURE  TWO ANALYSIS  H i s t o r i c a l Background The i n t e g r a t i o n of a r t i s not a new n o t i o n having occupied the minds of some of the l e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k e r s f o r more than a c e n t u r y 1989).  (Efland, 1978; Saunders,  1978; Tanner,  I t has not, however, reached wide p o p u l a r i t y i n p u b l i c  schools.  In a n a l y z i n g the l i t e r a t u r e on c u r r i c u l a r  i n t e g r a t i o n the i n t e n t i o n i s t h r e e - f o l d : t o e x p l o r e the p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s , i d e n t i f y predominant d e f i n i t i o n s , i s s u e s and concerns, and t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of i t s implementation. I n t e g r a t i o n has been a r e c u r r i n g , o r perhaps concurrent, theme throughout North America  the e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n i n  and the Commonwealth.  Parker and M o r r i s  a  I t has been expounded by  (Hamblen, 1985) at the t u r n of the century,  Dewey (1934) and the P r o g r e s s i v e Movement of the twenties and thirties,  and Read  the f o r t i e s .  (1948), Munro (1970) and Winslow  In the n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s ,  was taken up by D r e s s e l (1958), Bloom Gaitskell  (1949) i n the concept  (1958), T y l e r  (1958) and  (1969).  In the 1970's, The A r t s , E d u c a t i o n and Americas  Panel  (1978) r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t , Coming t o our senses: The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a r t s f o r American education, s p a r k i n g a barrage of c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding i n t e g r a t e d a r t s . of reviews were subsequently p u b l i s h e d .  10  Efland  A series  (1978)  o u t l i n e d a b r i e f h i s t o r y r e l a t i n g the a r t s to education, w h i l e Brigham  (1978) p r e s e n t e d a case f o r i n t e g r a t e d  (1978) i n , "Using our the most c r i t i c a l ,  heads while coming to our  p o i n t i n g to some of the  p r a c t i c a l problems r e g a r d i n g Cohen (1978) d e c l a r e d a l i v e and  that  the  issue.  At the  was  and  same time, was  well.  is occasionally practised,  taken.  (1989) reviews  While i n t e g r a t e d  e s p e c i a l l y at the elementary  art level,  w r i t i n g i s l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e of s p e c i f i c u n i t s  r a t h e r than program e v a l u a t i o n (Grauer, 1991).  operationalize  or t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings  Recent l i t e r a t u r e i s a l s o l a r g e l y concerned  w i t h d e f i n i n g and  attempting to supply models i n o r d e r to  integrative practices.  of implementation are Fogarty R e c e n t l y there has  Concerned w i t h  (1991) and  Jacobs  that a c o n s i s t e n t  and  the a r t s . f r o n t and (1992) and  C e r t a i n l y i n Canada the centre.  The  B r i t i s h Columbia and  integration,  (1991)  t r a i n i n g of including  i s s u e of i n t e g r a t i o n i s  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n Saskatchewan  B r i t i s h Columbia  work i n t h i s area.  towards  Grauer  c e n t r a l theme i n the  t e a c h e r s f o r the next century i s to be  issues  (1989).  been an i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e n d  implementation of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n .  reports  senses",  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y education  the uneven path i n t e g r a t i o n has  the  Acuff  conceptual  To b r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n up to date, Tanner  current  arts.  (1992) have a l s o done  considerable  Likewise, the Year 2000 c u r r i c u l a i n a s i m i l a r document, the T r a n s i t i o n Years  i n O n t a r i o are being implemented.  11  Kindler  (1991,  1987)  laments the evaluation  l a c k of s c i e n t i f i c methods f o r r e s e a r c h i n the  and  field.  Although the area of i n t e r e s t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a r t e d u c a t i o n and  despite  the  l a c k of i n v e s t i g a t i v e m a t e r i a l  the a r t s , a g e n e r i c  a n a l y s i s i s made p o s s i b l e due  conceptual scope of i n t e g r a t i o n .  q u e s t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d  decades, i n a n a t i o n a l and  to  the  In o t h e r words, what i s t r u e  of i n t e g r a t i o n i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n may The  p a r t i c u l a r to  a r t s has  a l s o apply to a r t . been under debate f o r  i n t e r n a t i o n a l context.  Since,  once  again, there have been moves towards c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n , it  i s a concept of l a s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e .  w i l l explore the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n followed  The  next  section  ideological basis  by a review of the  l i t e r a t u r e l a r g e l y concerned w i t h d e s c r i b i n g ,  for  recent  defining,  and  implementing c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n . Philosophy and Jacobs the c u r r i c u l u m  Ideology of  Integration  (1989) a f f i r m s that the u n d e r l y i n g developer w i l l always permeate the  Therefore, i t i s important to r e c o g n i z e the basis  p h i l o s o p h y of design.  philosophical  f o r c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n as i n v e s t i g a t i o n proceeds. There i s no denying that r e c e n t l y there has  towards c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n Columbia, 1985;  ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n B r i t i s h  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n Ontario,  1990)  which p r e s e n t s a more h o l i s t i c view of c u r r i c u l u m i n contrast the p a s t .  to the  segmented, separate s u b j e c t  This s h i f t  been a move  a model  development  o r i e n t a t i o n of  i n emphasis p a r a l l e l s the move i n t o a  12  post-modern world.  Essentially,  the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s of  the modern world are d e s c r i b e d as r a t i o n a l ,  linear  and  s e q u e n t i a l based upon c l a s s i c a l Newtonian laws of s c i e n c e , emphasizing  permanence, s t a b i l i t y and s i m p l i c i t y  Gough, 1989) . thought,  These ideas have g i v e n way  (Pearse,  1989;  to post-modern  acknowledging the complex, t r a n s i t o r y ,  c h a o t i c nature of the world  (Doll,  apparently  1992).  While modern c u r r i c u l u m i s founded upon n o t i o n s imbedded i n c l a s s i c a l science modern thought  ( D o l l , 1989;  Slaughter,  1989), p o s t -  stems from work i n the f i e l d s of quantum  p h y s i c s , n o n - l i n e a r mathematics, and p h y s i c a l chaos 1989).  (Doll,  Based upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of f a r from e q u i l i b r i u m  thermodynamic s t r u c t u r e s , D o l l  (1989) i s o l a t e d  three  f o u n d a t i o n a l assumptions of post-modern thought,  having  r a d i c a l implications f o r curriculum.  They a r e : the nature of  open systems  complex s t r u c t u r e s (as  (versus c l o s e d systems),  opposed to simple s t r u c t u r e s ) , and t r a n s f o r m a t o r y change ( i n c o n t r a s t to accumulative  change).  The open system i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y dependent.  Thus,  l e a r n i n g i s s u s t a i n e d by f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the environment. s t r u c t u r e of complexity assumes t h a t r e a l i t y i s a k i n to a of m u l t i p l e i n t e r a c t i n g f o r c e s . corresponds holistic.  Moreover,  The web  complexity  to the c o s m o l o g i c a l which i s i n t e r c o n n e c t e d and Contrary to t h i s premise i s t h a t the simple i s  separate, thus the s e p a r a t i o n of the d i s c i p l i n e s .  13  Finally,  t r a n s f o r m a t o r y change r e c o g n i z e s that l e a r n i n g o c c u r s through channels o t h e r than l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n  (Doll,  1989).  The u n d e r l y i n g c u r r e n t s o f post-modern thought, are bent towards the concept of a " h o l i s t i c paradigm".  Van Steenbergen  (1990) g i v e s a c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n of contemporary h o l i s m ( i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s t o r i c holism) which helps e x p l a i n recent moves towards c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n .  He uses the metaphor  of the  pendulum of Foucault, which swings between the extremes o f the "part" v e r s u s the "whole".  I t i s claimed that  contemporary  s o c i e t y has gone too f a r towards the p a r t s  (Van Steenbergen,  1990).  scientific  For i n s t a n c e , w i t h i n the c l a s s i c a l  paradigm, complex  systems can be understood through p r o p e r t i e s  of the p a r t s , which once understood, c o u l d e x p l a i n the dynamics o f the whole.  The fundamental r u l e was, i n order t o  understand a complex system, i t must be broken up i n t o p i e c e s . T h i s has l e d t o r e d u c t i o n i s m , d u a l i s m and the a n a l y t i c a l method, becoming c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Western c u l t u r e w i t h i t s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , d i v i s i o n of labour, atomism, emphasis on the p a r t s  i n d i v i d u a l i s m and  (Van Steenbergen, 1990).  So i t i s w i t h  education. Contemporary h o l i s t s b e l i e v e that the time i s r i p e f o r the swing of the pendulum i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n - towards holism.  At the same time, the pendulum o f Foucault never  r e t u r n s t o the same p l a c e due t o the r o t a t i o n o f the e a r t h . The new swing towards h o l i s m i t i s claimed i s not o n l y d e s i r a b l e i n t h i s a u t o m i s t i c , fragmented, s c a t t e r e d  14  (Western  world), but i s a l s o i n the process of a c t u a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e i n areas such as, h e a l t h care, the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , management, ecology and the a r t s  (Van Steenbergen, 1990).  At the same time, Van  Steenbergen  (1990) c a r e f u l l y  acknowledges t h a t h o l i s m i n i t s extreme form i s an  impossible  concept. It means t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s r e l a t e d to e v e r y t h i n g e l s e and embedded i n an encompassing  totality.  Independent of the q u e s t i o n of whether such a world view i s d e s i r a b l e , i t i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y  impossible  to get a g r i p on r e a l i t y i n such as way.  There i s  something to the o f t e n heard a c c u s a t i o n t h a t holism, taken s e r i o u s l y ,  i s an eminently  unworkable  d o c t r i n e . . . . t h i s i s o n l y t r u e i f we i t s ' extreme form. i f we  take h o l i s m i n  However, the concept  speak of " r e l a t i v e holism" and  holism".  (Van Steenbergen, 1990,  i s workable  "specific  pp.1073)  R e l a t i v e h o l i s m means t h a t there i s a process of development i n a more h o l i s t i c d i r e c t i o n , while s p e c i f i c h o l i s m r e c o g n i z e s o n l y c e r t a i n h o l i s t i c tendencies, e l i m i n a t i n g o t h e r s . F u r t h e r , h o l i s m views s o c i e t y as a network, as an i n t e g r a t e d whole where a l l elements are l i n k e d t o g e t h e r w i t h no  top,  bottom or p e r i p h e r y , i n c o n t r a s t to the v e r t i c a l i s m of structures  (Van Steenbergen, 1990).  T h i s s e c t i o n ends w i t h the concept (Phenix,  earlier  1971)  of  transcendence  where the whole becomes l a r g e r than the sum  15  of  the p a r t s .  To i l l u s t r a t e ,  the c r e a t i o n of music i s more than  s t r i n g i n g a number of notes t o g e t h e r .  The  arrangement of  notes must then be i n t e r p r e t e d by the performer who to  the'piece.  The way  i n which those notes are  through nuance and with i m a g i n a t i o n  the way  adds  the  Art i s created  i n which the l i n e s , c o l o u r s , shapes and o b j e c t s  arranged  and manipulated, juxtaposed  r e v e a l s meaning.  life  played,  c r e a t e emotion,  essence of the work which reaches the s o u l .  the  by  are  and c o n t r a s t e d which  I t i s not the l i n e s ,  shapes and  colours  themselves t h a t c r e a t e a r t , but t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each other. I n t e g r a t i o n and the A r t s With s u b j e c t matter as broad.as l i f e ,  i t has  been  suggested t h a t the a r t s can p r o v i d e a more cohesive (Fowler,  1994).  The  a r t s are not conveyers of  adding more data to i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d .  curriculum  information,  In c o n t r a s t ,  their  purpose i s to supply i n s i g h t , wisdom and meaning, g i v i n g knowledge a human dimension.  The  a r t s are a way  knowledge and understandings beyond f a c t s t o Fowler  of  extending  experience.  (1994) g i v e s the example of the s u n r i s e .  The  science  of astronomy e x p l a i n s a s u n r i s e , yet the sense of wonder experienced  at s u n r i s e i s another p a r t of i t s t o t a l r e a l i t y  or  meaning. Fowler all  (1994) a l s o addresses the i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s  forms of knowing.  The  of  Grand Canyon, f o r i n s t a n c e , may  understood g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , n u m e r i c a l l y ,  16  through language or  be  p o e t r y o r by v i s u a l means. should be brought  I t i s argued  t h a t a l l o f these  t o g e t h e r t o reach the o v e r a l l  conception.  I n d i v i d u a l l y , mathematics, s c i e n c e , and h i s t o r y convey o n l y p a r t of the r e a l i t y of the world. do the a r t s alone s u f f i c e .  Nor  A m u l t i p l i c i t y of symbol  systems are r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a more complete p i c t u r e and a more comprehensive e d u c a t i o n . 1994,  pp.5)  The a r t s o f f e r an engaging  way t o l e a r n ,  promoting  d i v e r g e n t , as opposed t o convergent  thinking.  r e q u i r e d t o come up w i t h d i f f e r e n t ,  r a t h e r than  answers.  (Fowler,  Students are similar  They become c r e a t i v e problem s o l v e r s and p a r t n e r s i n  the l e a r n i n g process  (Fowler,  1994).  M o t i v a t i o n f o r I n t e g r a t i n g the C u r r i c u l u m A t t e n t i o n now t u r n s t o the g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and s p e c i f i c r e a s o n i n g behind i n t e g r a t i n g the c u r r i c u l u m . l i t e r a t u r e they are numerous and complex. to s i f t  A c c o r d i n g t o the  This section  begins  through v a r i o u s l a y e r s o f m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s which  l e a d towards an i n t e g r a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m . I n t e g r a t e d s t u d i e s may p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e s s fragmented, more r e l e v a n t experiences f o r students, while l i m i t i n g curriculum overload Jacobs, 1993)  1989).  (Case, 1991; Fogarty, 1991;  V a r i o u s forms of c o g n i t i o n (Gardner, 1983,  and the c a p a c i t y t o generate knowledge by making  connections  (Caine & Caine, 1991) may a l s o be i n c r e a s e d  through i n t e g r a t i v e methods.  17  A c c o r d i n g t o research-based (Caine & Caine, learning.  t e a c h i n g and the human b r a i n  1991), making connections  i s essential to  F u r t h e r , l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s the e n t i r e organism,  both c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e .  When students are emotionally-  i n v o l v e d through making p e r s o n a l connections effectively.  The b r a i n a l s o l e a r n s through  they l e a r n more experience,  systems f o r r o l e l e a r n i n g and s p a t i a l memory.  having  Moreover, the  search f o r meaning i s b a s i c t o the human b r a i n which seeks out patterns.  I t a l s o performs many tasks s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n  p a r a l l e l processes.  F i n a l l y , each b r a i n i s unique,  performing  f u n c t i o n s and l e a r n i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l ways (Caine & Caine, 1991).  From t h i s i t i s evident t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e t e a c h i n g  p r a c t i c e s may be conducive  t o the ways i n which the human  brain functions. Gardner  (1983) has e x p l o r e d the f u n c t i o n s o f the mind,  d e v e l o p i n g the m u l t i p l e i n t e l l i g e n c e s theory.  Various  people  have the c a p a c i t y t o l e a r n i n d i f f e r e n t ways w i t h g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y i n one over another. mathematical, among o t h e r s .  For i n s t a n c e , a person may have  k i n a e s t h e t i c , v i s u a l o r musical  intelligence,  Gardner has found t h a t there are many ways of  knowing and l e a r n i n g .  I n t e g r a t i n g the c u r r i c u l u m by  p r e s e n t i n g the many forms o f knowing may g i v e more students the o p p o r t u n i t y t o be s u c c e s s f u l . T a c i t knowledge i s a way of knowing through other than the l i n e a r and l o g i c a l  ( P o l y a n i , 1967).  words, knowing more o r l e s s i n t u i t i v e l y , without  18  channels In o t h e r  l o o s i n g the  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t one "knows".  I n t e g r a t i n g the c u r r i c u l u m t o  p r o v i d e students w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s which u t i l i z e v a r i o u s forms of problem s o l v i n g , d i s c o v e r y , "leap of f a i t h " experiences, which o f t e n r e l y on t r u s t i n g the judgment of o n e s e l f and cithers, may help strengthen these s k i l l s .  It  should be noted t h a t these experiences can o f t e n i n c l u d e some form of a r t i s t i c Case  endeavour.  (1991) p r o v i d e s f o u r " o b j e c t i v e s " f o r the  i n t e g r a t i o n o f content: d e a l i n g w i t h the complexity of the world; overcoming the r i g i d p e r c e p t i o n s o f s u b j e c t  boundaries;  r e s p e c t i n g the seamless web of knowledge; and promoting greater e f f i c i e n c y .  These d i s t i n c t i o n s are a l s o found  work of o t h e r w r i t e r s , such as Fogarty Perkins The  (1991) and Perkins & Salomon fragmentation  of schedules  students, but a l s o by t e a c h e r s .  (1991),  i n the  Jacobs  (1989),  (1988). i s keenly f e l t not o n l y by  J o s t l i n g back and f o r t h  4 0 t o 50 minute p e r i o d s i s h a r d l y conducive  to in-depth  learning  the  (Jacobs, 1989).  At the same time,  nature i n which knowledge i s presented  fragmentary  i s not i n keeping  the way knowledge i s a c q u i r e d o r used i n the r e a l (MacGregor, 1975; P e r k i n s , 1988).  after  Finally,  with  world  the growth o f  knowledge i n a l l areas of study i s growing e x p o n e n t i a l l y n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h a t i t be o r g a n i z e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways 1991;  Jacobs, Perkins  (Case,  1989). (1991) has argued a g a i n s t the disconnectedness  the c u r r i c u l u m .  L e a r n i n g i s a l l too o f t e n d i s c o n n e c t e d  19  of  from  the purposes,  models and arguments t h a t make i t meaningful.  P e r k i n s and Salomon (1988) d i s c u s s t e a c h i n g f o r " t r a n s f e r " , arguing that s k i l l s or i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one reach out t o enhance another.  context  The t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s  can  has  always been an e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l , yet t h i s aspect i s n e g l e c t e d i n the fragmentary p r a c t i c e s may  nature of the system.  be a t o o l t o enhance the t r a n s f e r of knowledge.  P e r k i n s and Salomon degrees  Integrative  (1988) d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s modes and  of t r a n s f e r o u t l i n i n g methods f o r the t e a c h i n g of  transfer.  P e r k i n s and Simmons (1988) have a d d i t i o n a l l y  developed  a model d e s c r i b i n g f o u r domains of knowledge.  These  are the "content frame", the "problem-solving frame", the "epistemic frame" and the " i n q u i r y frame". P e r k i n s and Simmons (1988) have noted t h a t content i s stressed i n schools. that  frame  They a s s e r t  [student] misunderstandings  can i n p a r t be e x p l a i n e d  by a shallow r e p e r t o i r e i n the noncontent  frames and t h a t  a p p r o p r i a t e l y designed education can do much t o f o s t e r understanding by a d d r e s s i n g a l l the frames and interactions.  (Perkins & Simmons, 1988,  The above argument p a r a l l e l s C a s e s s 1  their  pp.306)  (1991) c a l l  f o r the  i n t e g r a t i o n of s k i l l s and processes i n t o v a r i o u s aspects of schooling.  Jacobs  study epistemology Relevance  (1989) has a l s o argued i s s u e s throughout  t h a t students  t h e i r education.  i n s c h o o l i n g begins w i t h students knowing  they're doing what they're doing.  20  why  should  To make l e a r n i n g e f f e c t i v e students of how  knowledge i s produced through metaknowledge  Gowin, 1984). of how  need to become aware  I t i s r e q u i r e d t h a t there be an  (Novak &  understanding  v a r i o u s elements i n t e r a c t when c o n s t r u c t i n g  new  meanings s i n c e a f a u l t y premise w i l l l e a d t o f a u l t y knowledge. Principles,  from which t h e o r i e s are b u i l t ,  are  significant  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between two  or more concepts t h a t guide  understanding  W i t h i n each d i s c i p l i n e  of events.  t h e o r i e s are r e l a t i v e l y few, all  students  of meaning.  should be encouraged to r e l a t e  i n t e r r e l a t e ideas w i t h i n a d i s c i p l i n e . helped  comprehensive  t a k i n g on d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s ,  r e p r e s e n t i n g broad, i n c l u s i v e standards  Therefore,  our  and  They should a l s o be  to see the t h e o r i e s o p e r a t i n g i n any  inquiry.  Thus, i t  becomes obvious t h a t the i n t e g r a t i o n of ideas w i t h i n a discipline is The  important.  concept of r e l e v a n c e  integration  i s a major m o t i v a t o r  (Case, 1991a; D a n i e l s , 1991;  MacGregor, 1975).  Daniels  Jacobs,  for 1989;  (1991) g i v e s a d e t a i l e d account of  the i n t r i c a c i e s of relevance  as an o b j e c t i v e of i n t e g r a t i o n ,  based l a r g e l y on the model X being r e l e v a n t to Y.  He  out that there are v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s of r e l e v a n c e  points both  l o g i c a l and e m p i r i c a l which w i l l have v a r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r integration.  Essentially,  to encourage two  i n t e g r a t i o n can be used as a t o o l  types of r e l e v a n c e .  relevance of school to students' 1991a; D a n i e l s , 1991;  First,  l i v e s o u t s i d e school  Jacobs, 1989), and  21  to e s t a b l i s h the (Case,  second, to e s t a b l i s h  r e l e v a n c e of s u b j e c t s by showing r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them (Case, 1991a; Jacobs, show students how lives,  1989).  different  and i t i s c r i t i c a l  "There i s a need t o a c t i v e l y s u b j e c t areas i n f l u e n c e t h e i r  t h a t students see the s t r e n g t h of  each d i s c i p l i n e i n a connected  way"  (Jacobs, 1989,  pp.5).  Defining Integration T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l now  t u r n t o the v a r i o u s parameters of  c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n , e x p l o r i n g commonly used t e r m i n o l o g y t o a l l o w f o r c l a r i t y i n the remaining chapters of t h i s  study.  There i s an obvious need f o r d e f i n i t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s i n t e g r a t i o n and what forms i t takes.  Apparently,  most u s e f u l c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e concerns and implementing Jacobs  i t s e l f with d e f i n i n g  integrative practices.  (1989) o f f e r s s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n s of both  " d i s c i p l i n e f i e l d " and  " i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y " which h e l p  n o t i o n s of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n . explains that a " d i s c i p l i n e f i e l d " teachable knowledge w i t h i t s own t r a i n i n g , procedures, 1989.  some of the  pp.7).  Quoting P i a g e t ,  clarify  she  i s a s p e c i f i c body of  background of education,  methods, and content areas"  (Jacobs,  " I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y " i s "a knowledge view t h a t  c o n s c i o u s l y a p p l i e s methodology and language from more than one d i s c i p l i n e t o examine a c e n t r a l theme, i s s u e , problem, t o p i c , or experience"  (Jacobs, 1989,  pp.8).  F u r t h e r , d i s c u s s i o n concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the ideas of i n t e g r a t i o n and s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s s t r e s s e s t h a t meaningful  i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y experiences cannot  22  occur  until  knowledge of the s u b j e c t  matter i s understood  Irwin, 1993; Jacobs, 1989).  (Fogarty, 1991;  An i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach  should o n l y be used on o c c a s i o n s i n the c u r r i c u l u m where a p p r o p r i a t e and necessary  (Irwin,  1993) t o overcome  fragmentation, promote r e l e v a n c e and the growth of knowledge (Case, 1991a, 1991b; D a n i e l s ,  1991; Fogarty, 1991; Jacobs,  1989) . Case  (1991) o f f e r s an o u t l i n e of the terms and dimensions  of i n t e g r a t i o n .  H i s s t a t e d purpose i s t o p r o v i d e v o c a b u l a r y  to f a c i l i t a t e  discussion  integration.  Case i d e n t i f i e s e i g h t  integration,  receive  formal components o f  "domain", "form", "dimension",  "mode", "locus", will  and p l a n n i n g f o r c u r r i c u l a r  "coherence" and "degree".  These elements  f u r t h e r comment throughout t h i s  however, Case's d i s t i n c t i o n s appear t o f a l l categories:  "objective",  analysis, i n t o two main  d e f i n i t i o n aspects and o p e r a t i o n a l  aspects.  I n i t i a l l y i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o a p p r e c i a t e the d e f i n i t i o n s Case p r e s e n t s i n order t o a c q u i r e a common l e x i c o n . account c o n s i d e r s t h e i r pragmatic Case d e f i n e s  instance,  applications.  (Case, 1991, pp.2).  "Domains" a r e  of i n t e g r a t i o n and occur i n many f i e l d s .  For  the domain concerning t h i s study i s the domain of  c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n i n education. are  this  i n t e g r a t i o n as the " u n i t i n g of d i s c r e t e  elements i n t o a whole" broad c a t e g o r i e s  Later  W i t h i n t h i s domain t h e r e  f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n s o r s u b c a t e g o r i e s he c a l l s  integration.  "forms" of  These are the d i s c r e t e p a r t s which w i l l be  23  united  i n some way.  He i d e n t i f i e s the forms as the  i n t e g r a t i o n of "content", the i n t e g r a t i o n of " s k i l l s / p r o c e s s e s " , the i n t e g r a t i o n o f "school and s e l f " , and "holistic" The  integration.  "dimensions" of i n t e g r a t i o n Case  v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l  (1991) i d e n t i f i e s as  a f t e r T y l e r ' s model.  These a r e  temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s concerning i n t e g r a t i o n at "any g i v e n time" i n o p p o s i t i o n  to integration  "over time".  L a c k i n g the  above mentioned d i s t i n c t i o n s , among o t h e r s , appears t o i n s t i g a t e much of the c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g c u r r i c u l a r integration. Fogarty  (1991) has p r o v i d e d i n g r a p h i c form v a r i o u s modes  of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n a l s o u s e f u l t o t h i s study not o n l y f o r d e f i n i n g aspects of i n t e g r a t i o n ,  but a l s o f o r  understanding concerns f o r implementation.  This  chart  appears  i n Table 1. Implementing I n t e g r a t i v e Fogarty's  Practices  (1991) c h a r t  suggests how the many forms of  i n t e g r a t i o n appear as they are implemented. that w i t h i n  a specific discipline integrative  I t i s note worthy components  emerge and should be encouraged.  Subject d i s c i p l i n e s do not  preclude c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n .  Following, according to  Fogarty, a program, such as, D i s c i p l i n e Based A r t E d u c a t i o n (D.B.A.E.) (Eisner,  1987; Greer, 1984) may be an  integrated  program i n which four strands make up the a r t c u r r i c u l u m  24  TABLE 1  Toward an Integrated Curriculum  r  Ten Views for Integrating the Curricula: How Oo You See It? Fragmented Periscope—one direction; one l i g h t i n g : narrow f o c u s on single discipline  oo oo  Connected Opera glass—details of one discip l i n e ; f o c u s on subtleties a n d interconnections  oo o  Description  Example  Description  Exsmple  T h e traditional m o d e l of separate a n d distinct d i s c i p l i n e s , w h i c h fragments the subject areas.  Teacher applies this view in Math, Science, Social Studies, Language Arts OR Sciences, Humanities, Fine a n d Practical Arts.  Within each subject area, course content is connected topic to topic, concept to c o n c e p t , one year's work to the next, and relates ideals) explicitly.  Teacher relates the concept of fractions to decimals, which in turn relates to m o n e y , grades, etc.  Nested  Sequenced  3-0 glasses—multiple dimensions to o n e scene, topic, or unit  <—  Eyeglasses—varied internal c o n tent framed by broad, related c o n cepts  Description  Example  Description  W i t h i n e a c h s u b j e c t a r e a , the teacher targets multiple skills: a social skill, a thinking skill, a n d a content-specific skill.  Example  Teacher designs the unit on photosynthesis to simultaneously target c o n s e n s u s seeking (social skill), s e q u e n c i n g (thinking skill), a n d plant life cycle (science content).  T o p i c s or units of study are rearranged a n d s e q u e n c e d to coincide with one another. Similar ideas are taught in concert while remaining separate subjects.  English teacher presents an historical novel depicting a particular period while the History teacher teaches that same historical period.  Shared Binoculars—two disciplines that share overlapping concepts a n d skills  Webbed  GD  Description  Example  S h a r e d planning a n d teaching take place in two disciplines in which o v e r l a p p i n g c o n c e p t s or ideas e m e r g e as organizing elements.  Science and Math teachers use data collection, charting, a n d graphing 88 shared concepts that c a n be team-taught.  T e l e s c o p e — b r o a d view of an entire constellation as one theme, w e b b e d to the various elements  Example  A fertile theme is w e b b e d to curriculum contents a n d disciplines; subjects use the theme to sift out appropriate concepts, topics, and ideas.  Teacher presents a simple topical theme, such as the circus, and webs it to the subject areas. A conceptual theme, such as conflict, can be w e b b e d for more depth in the theme approach.  Threaded  Integrated  Magnifying g l a s s — b i g ideas that m a g n i f y all content through a metacurricular approach  designs  Description  Example  The metacurricular approach threads thinking skills, social skills, multiple intelligences, technology, e n d study skills through the various disciplines.  T e a c h i n g staff targets prediction in Reading, Math, a n d Science lab experiments while Social Studies teacher targets forecasting current events, a n d thus threads the skill (prediction) across disciplines.  K a l e i d o s c o p e — n e w patterns a n d use  the  basic  Description  Example  T h i s interdisciplinary a p p r o a c h matches subjects for overlaps in topics and concepts with s o m e team teaching in an authentic integrated m o d e l .  In Math, Science, Social Studies, Fine A r t s . L a n g u a g e A r t s , a n d Practical Arts, teachers look for patterning models a n d approach content through these patterns.  10  <aw  Microscope—intensely personal view that allows microscopic explan a t i o n as all content is filtered through lens of interest a n d expertise  T h e disciplines b e c o m e part of the learner's lens of expertise; the learner filters all content through this lens a n d b e c o m e s i m m e r s e d in his or her o w n experience.  that  elements of each discipline  Immersed  Description  Description  Example  Student or doctoral candidate has an area of expert interest and sees all learning through that lens.  Networked P r i s m — a view that creates multiple dimensions and directions of focus  Description  Example  Learner filters all learning through the expert's eye a n d makes internal connections that lead to external networks of experts in related fields.  Architect, while adapting the C A D / C A M technology for design, networks with technical programmers and expands her knowledge base, just as she had traditionally done with interior designers. C Robin Fonartv, 1991*  'Extrapolated from "Oesign Options for an Integrated Curriculum" by Heidi Hayes Jacobs in Intarditciplinsry Curriculum, A S C D . 1989.  The M i n d f u l School: Hnw t o I n t e g r a t e f.hft P n r r i m l a by Robin Fogarty, (c) 1991 by I R I \ S k y l i g h t P u b l i s h i n g Inc., Palatine, IL. Reprinted with permission. F  r  o  m  25  including, h i s t o r i c a l , production, components.  In t h i s way v a r i o u s  critical  and a e s t h e t i c  aspects w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e  of a r t are connected. Case's  (1991) c a t e g o r i e s  are a l s o u s e f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g  the implementation of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n .  "Locus" r e f e r s  to the l e v e l o f d e c i s i o n making where e f f o r t s t o i n t e g r a t e may occur.  The three obvious areas he i d e n t i f i e s are the  provincial level,  the school o r d i s t r i c t  level,  classroom l e v e l .  The "mode" of i n t e g r a t i o n r e f e r s t o the way  i n which d i s c r e t e p a r t s are drawn together integrity.  Four modes are i d e n t i f i e d :  meshing of d i s t i n c t d i s c i p l i n e s ;  and the  f o r some s o r t o f  " f u s i o n " r e q u i r e s the  "insertion" involves  i n t r o d u c i n g one c u r r i c u l a r element i n t o another i n an i s o l a t e d instance;  " c o r r e l a t i o n " draws p a r a l l e l s between elements; and  "harmonization" i n c l u d e s enhancing d i s p a r a t e elements, f o r i n s t a n c e by t e a c h i n g  s i m i l a r s k i l l s across  At the same time, Case integration.  disciplines.  (1991) has i d e n t i f i e d  "degrees" of  He has suggested:  that one o b j e c t i v e of content i n t e g r a t i o n i s t o a s s i s t students i n seeing how m a t e r i a l covered i n one  s u b j e c t connects w i t h m a t e r i a l covered i n  another s u b j e c t .  While t h i s would j u s t i f y some  degree of i n t e g r a t i o n , i t i s not obvious t h a t i t warrants f u s i o n o f s u b j e c t s , social studies.  such as, E n g l i s h and  The mere c o r r e l a t i o n , from time t o  time, of the s u b j e c t s by E n g l i s h and s o c i a l  26  studies  teachers  n i g h t be s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h the p o i n t  (Case, 1991a, pp.9). It have  a  i s worth r e p e a t i n g range  discipline 1991;  of  field  Jacobs,  benefit various bridge  curricular  experiences  and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y 1989).  disciplines  students  that  they a c q u i r e  orientations  that  a solid  both  (Fogarty, will  grounding  interdisciplinarity  should  reflect  I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y studies  students u n t i l  (Irwin,  the p o s i t i o n that  not  i n the  attempts  to  1993).  I n t e g r a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s t o address a p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l a r need.  " C u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n , p e r se, i s a  s t r a t e g y not a g o a l "  (Case, 1991, pp.5).  I t should  o n l y be  used t o promote d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s when and where needed (Case, 1991; Fogarty, 1991; Jacobs, 1989). curriculum  An i n t e g r a t e d  then, i s a means t o a d e s i r e d end.  Ackermann (198 9) has developed i n t e l l e c t u a l and p r a c t i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r successful curriculum  integration.  He  acknowledges that even when knowledge gained i n one s u b j e c t strengthens the understanding of concepts i n another it  subject,  i s not always f e a s i b l e t o connect d i s p a r a t e p i e c e s of  curriculum.  Ackermann has d e v i s e d  a u s e f u l s e r i e s of c r i t e r i a  " t e s t s " which help t o decide what t o i n t e g r a t e , when t o i n t e g r a t e , and how t h i s might be done. Jacobs  (1989) o u t l i n e s u n d e r l y i n g  integrated planning. curriculum  designers  First,  teachers  principles for should become a c t i v e  s i n c e they most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t what the  27  students do day 1991;  to day  Jacobs, 1989).  (Goodlad, 1984; Further,  Gray & MacGregor  students and  the  1990,  community  should become more aware of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p r a c t i c e s ideally, (Hicks,  even p a r t i c i p a t e i n b u i l d i n g i n t e g r a t e d 1991;  and  studies  Jacobs, 1989).  Limitations Identified There are impediments to c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n . (1989) has first  the  i d e n t i f i e d two  r e c u r r i n g problems.  Jacobs  She  calls  "pot p o u r r i " problem, because i n t e g r a t e d  units  the  become a mere sampling of knowledge from each d i s c i p l i n e r e s u l t i n g i n a l a c k of depth. observation  Case  (1991) has  i n a component of i n t e g r a t i o n he  "coherence".  Case p o i n t s out  " p o l a r i t y " problem.  T h i s has  be  sound.  trivial.  versus  have been seen as an  either/or the l e a s t  f e e l i n g of some t e a c h e r s towards  (Jacobs, 1989;  Werner, 1991).  I t i s important  i n t e g r i t y must be maintained i n o r d e r  to l o s e the essence of the Irwin  to  the  l e d to a range of c o n f l i c t , not  to remember that s u b j e c t not  be  calls  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , integrated  of which i s the t e r r i t o r i a l t h e i r subjects  that i t may  (1989) notes what she  d i s c i p l i n e - f i e l d perspectives situation.  calls  that i t i s always p o s s i b l e  f i n d some commonality i n content, but Secondly, Jacobs  a l s o made t h i s  discipline.  (1993) a s s e r t s that the reason f o r i n t e g r a t i n g must In the case of a r t , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  i t should  merely serve the purpose of another d i s c i p l i n e . must be made between t e a c h i n g  a discipline,  28  not  A distinction  such as a r t ,  and  using  i t as an embellishment f o r o t h e r areas o f the  curriculum. has  In o t h e r words, drawing a p i c t u r e i n French c l a s s  n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t e a c h i n g  the d i s c i p l i n e of a r t .  Werner (1991) i s a l s o concerned w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s and p r a c t i c a l i t y of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n . focused on school  c u l t u r e s and the concerns of t e a c h e r s .  Werner's i n q u i r y b r i n g s obstacles  His discussion i s  t o the s u r f a c e  many pragmatic  t o c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n , a r i s i n g from  concerning the n o t i o n  of r e s i s t a n c e  issues  t o change on the p a r t of  both i n d i v i d u a l s and the entrenched p r a c t i c e s of s c h o o l i n g , echoing arguments by Cuban (1984) and Goodlad The  guiding  p r i n c i p l e s of the e s t a b l i s h e d  i n c l u d i n g classroom order and r e g u l a r  culture,  (Werner, 1991).  c l a s s e s , and time i n c l a s s e s can  a l s o be p r o b l e m a t i c on many f r o n t s 1991;  school  schedules, are p e r c e i v e d  to be threatened by i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s Time f o r p l a n n i n g , s c h e d u l i n g  (1979, 1984).  (Ackermann, 198 9;  Fullen,  Hargreaves, 1991; Werner, 1991). I r o n i c a l l y , despite  perpetual  complaints  regarding  teacher i s o l a t i o n , t e a c h e r s enjoy t h e i r autonomy i n program p l a n n i n g and f e a r i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l d i m i n i s h t h e i r work. subject and  Role i d e n t i t y , r o l e s t a t u s ,  r o l e e f f i c a c y , and  t u r f are a l l problem areas i d e n t i f i e d by Werner (1991)  others  (Case, 1991a; Court, 1991; Hargreaves, 1991;  Jacobs, 1989).  An a d d i t i o n a l concern a r i s e s when t e a c h e r s  reach t h e i r " t h r e s h o l d " further  t h i s f e a t u r e of  (Werner, 1991).  of i n t e g r a t i o n , r e f u s i n g t o go any L a s t l y , teachers may b e l i e v e  29  they are  using  i n t e g r a t i v e methods when i n f a c t l i t t l e has changed i n  t h e i r methodology, f o r i n s t a n c e , supplanted on e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s  when terminology i s merely (Werner, 1991).  Concluding Remarks T h i s a n a l y s i s has e x p l o r e d the evident common language r e g a r d i n g g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s  need t o use a  i n t e g r a t i o n t o help c l a r i f y the  of t h i s approach.  e s s e n t i a l t o have a c l e a r n o t i o n  It i s further  o f the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  underpinnings of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n as i n v e s t i g a t i o n proceeds. From the review p r e s e n t e d i t i s suggested that t h e r e i s a need f o r e m p i r i c a l  study i n the area of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n  through q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h  i n schools.  proceed beyond the i n f o r m a t i o n into a structured  gathering  a n a l y s i s of c u r r e n t  observers, as w e l l as, those i n v o l v e d  Investigation  should  and d e s c r i p t i v e stage  programs by both i n integrated  outside  projects.  T h i s type of study should l e a d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of evaluation  criteria  i n order t o reach recommendations and s e t  parameters f o r the i n t e g r a t i v e programs o f the f u t u r e .  30  CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Overview and R a t i o n a l e Before c o n s i d e r i n g the work s p e c i f i c t o t h i s study, an outline  and r a t i o n a l e  w i l l be d e s c r i b e d .  f o r the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and methodology  Naturalistic inquiry  f o r the s t y l e of r e s e a r c h conducted  i s the umbrella  here.  term  T h i s i s not a type  or method of r e s e a r c h p e r se, r a t h e r i t i s a l a b e l f o r a knowledge producing paradigm which i s u s e f u l evaluation  (Guba, 1978; Spradley, 1979)•  takes a p o s t - p o s i t i v i s t i c approach Lincoln,  Naturalistic  t o r e s e a r c h (Guba &  The i n t e n t  (Guba & L i n c o l n ,  1985; Spradley,  i s t o have the people under study g i v e  meaning t o t h e i r t o t h e i r experiences p a r a l l e l i n g r e s e a r c h as a method f o r g e t t i n g 1981;  Spradley, 1979).  r e s e a r c h as q u a l i t a t i v e study, w i l l analysis  inquiry  1985) i n which the r e s e a r c h e r i s the instrument and  the major data c o l l e c t o r 1979) .-  especially for  a t the t r u t h  E i s n e r (1991) r e f e r s  qualitative  (Guba & L i n c o l n , to t h i s s t y l e of  i n q u i r y which, i n the case o f t h i s  lead to d e s c r i p t i v e / i n t e r p r e t i v e  qualitative  (Tesch, 1990).  Qualitative  Inquiry i n Education  Essentially,  t h i s r e s e a r c h f a l l s i n t o the realm o f  q u a l i t a t i v e research i n education rooted i n h o l i s t i c and phenomenology (Eisner,  1991; Tesch,  1990).  ethnology  The purpose of  h o l i s t i c ethnology i s t o d e s c r i b e and analyze p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f s of c u l t u r e s  o r communities  31  (Spradley, 1979).  Specifically,  e d u c a t i o n a l ethnography seeks to d i s c o v e r  c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s w i t h i n education,  g i v i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of  components and dynamics w i t h i n s e t t i n g s and comparisons settings  (Goetz & LeCompte, 1984).  i s to understand  The  i n t e n t of t h i s  the  across study  meanings, d i s c o v e r p a t t e r n s , r e g u l a r i t i e s  and  d i f f e r e n c e s between an i n t e g r a t e d and a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d a r t program. The  case study i s o f t e n used to c o l l e c t data i n  n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y , as i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . case study i s to gather  The purpose of the  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r an i n t e n s i v e and  d e t a i l e d account about an i n d i v i d u a l or group 1979).  Essentially,  sources of evidence  (Spradley,  are gathered  from  d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and s y s t e m a t i c i n t e r v i e w i n g . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o b s e r v a t i o n s occurs i n the sense t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r r e f l e c t s upon the data u n t i l an of i t i s reached  (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1981;  understanding  Spradley,  E d u c a t i o n a l c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and c r i t i c i s m  1979).  (Eisner,  i s a type of r e f l e c t i v e i n q u i r y , where " c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p a r t of a p p r e c i a t i o n [and] (Eisner, 1976,  pp.141).  1975) i s the  c r i t i c i s m i s the a r t of d i s c l o s u r e " In t h i s sense, a connoisseur  d e f i n e d as a person with r e l e v a n t experience  is  and knowledge of  what to look f o r , p r o v i d i n g a r e f i n e d p e r c e p t i o n of t h a t which i s observed. (discloses),  The  e d u c a t i o n a l connoisseur  critically  describes  i n t e r p r e t s and e v a l u a t e s s o c i a l phenomenon.  t h i s approach, the r e s e a r c h e r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the  In  particular,  not the g e n e r a l , i n the b e l i e f t h a t the g e n e r a l r e s i d e s i n the  32  particular  (Eisner, 1981).  than they d e s c r i b e  " . . . p a r t i c u l a r s exemplify more  directly.  g e n e r a l theme" (Eisner, 1991, educational  pp.39).  connoisseur r e q u i r e s  empathetically Research that  i n the  t a c i t knowledge  also  require  intuition  concept of e d u c a t i o n a l  (Eisner, 1975,  pp.146).  or  Tesch, 1990).  1991)  enhancing my  o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the  and  instrument.  research  the  (Eisner, 1988,  sense of being informed by  (Eisner, 1991;  a  a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e  l i f e of another"  In t h i s study the criticism  "an  Further,  seeks to understand phenomenon may  r e f l e c t i o n i n the  and  In the p a r t i c u l a r i s l o c a t e d  connoisseurship  helped to inform me capacity  by  of data c o l l e c t o r  However, the a n a l y s i s  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s study were based upon the r e s u l t s of ethnographic i n t e r v i e w s  and  observation  subsequent d e s c r i p t i o n ,  i n contrast  (Spradley, 1979)  and  to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n through  i n t u i t i o n or t a c i t knowledge. Descriptive/Interpretative Analysis  LeCompte, 1981).  and  inductive  g e n e r a t i v e and  Spradley, 1979). extracted  educational  constructive  a n a l y s i s begins w i t h e m p i r i c a l  observations  (Guba & L i n c o l n ,  Conceptual c a t e g o r i e s  are d e r i v e d  1985; from  the  from words or phrases which stand out.  o t h e r words, u n i t s of a n a l y s i s or data segments are out"  (Goetz &  Instead of a r r a n g i n g data i n t o p r e - c o n c e i v e d  builds t h e o r e t i c a l categories  data and  i n Q u a l i t a t i v e Research  i n n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y , and  ethnography i s i n d u c t i v e ,  classes,  Analysis  from the data based upon t h e i r meaning.  33  "carved  Inductive  In  a n a l y s i s does not v e r i f y s u p p o s i t i o n s but i s g e n e r a t i v e i n the sense t h a t i t seeks to c o n s t r u c t p r o p o s i t i o n s (Goetz & LeCompte, 1981). I n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s focuses upon s y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r than g e n e r a t i n g theory  (Tesch,  1990).  In f a c t ,  caution  i s a d v i s e d i n b u i l d i n g theory from i n d i v i d u a l accounts studies  (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1981).  or  The purpose of e d u c a t i o n a l  ethnography here i s to p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i v e data about  the  a c t i v i t i e s and context of i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s f o r a r t education  i n a h o l i s t i c way  (Goetz & LaCompte, 1984).  There  i s no o b l i g a t i o n on the p a r t of the r e s e a r c h e r to e s t a b l i s h theory through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , but r a t h e r to g i v e a coherent,  valid,  a n a l y t i c a l l y sound account  (Tesch,  1990).  A n a l y s i s i n n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y i s conducted c o n c u r r e n t l y with data c o l l e c t i o n .  As data i s c o l l e c t e d i t i s  c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d which, i n t u r n , leads to more data collection  (Miles and Huberman, 1984).  observations, c o l l e c t f i e l d notes,  Researchers  i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and  i n which ideas and thoughts are a l s o  (Spradley, 1979).  record compile captured  A n a l y s i s s t a r t s with a r e a d i n g of the  to get the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e and to check f o r repeated Through constant  data  topics.  comparison, p a t t e r n s and r e o c c u r r i n g themes  begin to emerge (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1985). P r e l i m i n a r y segments of i n f o r m a t i o n are determined  and  s e c t i o n s of t e x t are c l a s s i f i e d by codes or u n i t s which become the i n i t i a l  categories  (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1985).  34  The  organizing  system of codes or c a t e g o r i e s can a l s o be developed the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , as w e l l as from the data 1979).  sub-questions  and  through  interview questions,  (Goetz & LaCompte, 1981;  Spradley,  The purpose of coding i s to c o l l e c t a l l the data about  the same t o p i c so that each category may individually.  be s t u d i e d  A q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s program, such as QUALPRO  (Blackman, 1993), used i n t h i s study,  i s an o r g a n i z i n g d e v i c e  which c l u s t e r s a l l segments r e l a t i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r code, concept  or theme, which can subsequently  be r e t r i e v e d .  C a t e g o r i e s do not always remain the same as more data a n a l y s i s are conducted, but may refined.  be modified,  and  subdivided  and  D e s c r i p t i v e / i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s the  d e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of segments of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o an o r g a n i z e d system i n order to e x p l o r e the (Tesch,  connections  1990).  The  f i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the c a t e g o r i e s to segments of  the t e x t g i v e s the r e s e a r c h e r the data o r g a n i z a t i o n necessary for of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s i n c e each code or category c o n t a i n s a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n from the e n t i r e body of data r e l e v a n t to  that category.  The  r e s e a r c h e r can then look f o r p a t t e r n s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and can make comparisons based on the  data.  T h i s f i n a l a n a l y s i s leads to t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n (Geertz, Guba & L i n c o l n , 1981)  and may  l e a d to p r o p o s i t i o n s  1990) . Summary of Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s Procedure  35  and  1973;  (Tesch,  In order t o capture the essence be p r e s e n t e d an overview s y n t h e s i z e d from Tesch 1.  of the r e s e a r c h about t o  of q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s has been  (1990, pp.  95-97).  A n a l y s i s i s not the l a s t phase i n the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s ,  but i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h data c o l l e c t i o n and d r i v e each o t h e r . 2.  The a n a l y s i s process i s s y s t e m a t i c and comprehensive, but  not r i g i d ,  i n t h a t new  process ceases when new 3.  data i s c o n t i n u a l l y presented. data no l o n g e r produces new  Working w i t h the data i n c l u d e s a r e f l e c t i v e  This  insight.  activity,  r e s u l t i n g i n subsequent notes which guide the p r o c e s s , moving the r e s e a r c h e r from the data t o the conceptual l e v e l .  Records  make the r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e more concrete p r o v i d i n g accountability. 4.  Data i s segmented and d i v i d e d i n t o r e l e v a n t meaningful  u n i t s t o enhance i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , while c o n n e c t i o n t o the whole is  maintained.  5.  Data segments are c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o a system d e r i v e d from  the data. 6.  The predominant i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l i s t h a t of comparison  and c o n t r a s t i n t h a t the g o a l i s t o d i s c e r n c o n c e p t u a l similarities, 7.  r e f i n e c a t e g o r i e s and d i s c o v e r p a t t e r n s .  C a t e g o r i e s are t e n t a t i v e and f l e x i b l e i n the e a r l y  as data c o l l e c t i o n i s ongoing.  stages  C a t e g o r i e s must accommodate  l a t e r data. 8.  M a n i p u l a t i o n of q u a l i t a t i v e data i s " e c l e c t i c " i n t h a t  there i s no one  " r i g h t way".  A n a l y s i s or  36  interpretation  r e q u i r e the c r e a t i v e involvement of the r e s e a r c h e r . p o s s i b l e to analyze phenomenon i n more than one 9.  way.  The procedure i s not s c i e n t i f i c or mechanistic,  f o l l o w s s p e c i f i c methodology and 10.  It i s  The  process  yet i t  procedures.  r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s are s y n t h e s i s .  Much of  the  i n v o l v e s t a k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n apart i n order t o o b t a i n a  larger, consolidated picture.  S y n t h e s i s r e s u l t s i n the  d e s c r i p t i o n of p a t t e r n s or themes or a composite summary. THE  STUDY  P o p u l a t i o n and S e t t i n g The  s i t e s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were two  high schools i n southern chosen s i n c e there was  Ontario.  classroom  Grade 8 classrooms were  an example of both an i n t e g r a t e d and  d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program. i n c l u d e d two  Two  junior  The  s u b j e c t s f o r the  a r t teachers and one  i n v o l v e d i n the i n t e g r a t e d program.  The  s p e c i a l i z e d i n a r t at t h e i r s c h o o l , one  two  other art  study teacher  teachers  teaching within  an  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t r u c t u r e and the other t e a c h i n g w i t h i n a discipline-oriented structure. a l s o i n c l u d e d f o u r students visited. teachers The  I t was  decided  The  s u b j e c t s of t h i s  study  from each of the classrooms  to i n t e r v i e w both students  and  i n order to view the programs from both p e r s p e c t i v e s .  student  the intended  i n t e r v i e w s a l s o helped  to e s t a b l i s h whether or not  c u r r i c u l u m had been d e l i v e r e d .  The  interviews  took p l a c e i n the working environments of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  37  The  t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d were i d e n t i f i e d through the  district  superintendent  a d v i s o r y committee.  and the s c h o o l board's r e s e a r c h  There was an attempt made t o match the  teachers backgrounds i n the s c h o o l s as much as p o s s i b l e t o b e t t e r ensure grounds f o r comparison.  The students were  chosen by t h e i r teachers based upon a range of academic ability. Data C o l l e c t i o n Data were c o l l e c t e d o n - s i t e i n the form o f i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s 1979).  In-depth  (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1981; Spradley,  formal and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s were  conducted  w i t h the three teachers s e l e c t e d and w i t h the s e l e c t e d students. 7An o r i e n t a t i o n v i s i t was made t o each of the s c h o o l s . Advance arrangements were made t o v i s i t  the s c h o o l s when  i n t e g r a t e d o r d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d a r t i n s t r u c t i o n was occurring.  Relevant  i n t e r v i e w schedules were e s t a b l i s h e d  b e f o r e and a f t e r classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s . for  The f i e l d  each s c h o o l o c c u r r e d over a p e r i o d o f approximately  weeks, i n which v a r i o u s u n i t s o r a c t i v i t i e s were A f i e l d d i a r y was maintained investigation, notes.  four  observed.  throughout the  i n c l u d i n g summary o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n t e r v i e w  With the p e r m i s s i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  were recorded on audio tape. of  residence  the s c h o o l s were a l s o v i d e o  interviews  Two classroom a c t i v i t i e s i n each taped.  38  The  f i e l d d i a r y , notes and audio tapes were t r a n s c r i b e d  verbatim onto computer d i s c .  C o r r o b o r a t i o n was  a l s o enhanced  through viewing and n o t a t i n g events from the v i d e o tapes. Observations were v e r i f i e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s o n - s i t e and i n f o l l o w up  visits.  The v i d e o camera was  used t o get as o b j e c t i v e a  p e r s p e c t i v e of the classroom as p o s s i b l e . p o s i t i o n i n the classroom and l e f t time, u s u a l l y about 2 0 minutes. another p o s i t i o n .  I t was  set i n one  t o tape f o r a p e r i o d of  The camera was  then moved t o  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the camera d i d not have a  wide angle l e n s t o capture the a l l of the a c t i v i t y i n the room simultaneously.  The o b j e c t i v e viewpoint allowed f o r an  a n a l y s i s of the over a l l s t r u c t u r e , tone, management and appearance of the classroom.  The v i d e o tapes were  subsequently e d i t e d t o approximately one hour i n l e n g t h f o r manageable viewing. Interview Process and Q u e s t i o n i n g Spradley's  (1979) suggestions f o r c o n d u c t i n g ethnographic  i n t e r v i e w s were used.  He o u t l i n e s v a r i o u s types of q u e s t i o n s  and i n t e r v i e w techniques designed t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n from the s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r own  terms.  Descriptive  "grand t o u r "  q u e s t i o n s , r e l a t e d t o t a s k s , experiences and examples were used i n o r d e r t o g a i n a broad overview and t o understand the essence of the classrooms i n q u e s t i o n .  Structural  comparative q u e s t i o n s were asked t o c l a r i f y ,  and  to extract  d e t a i l s and t o v e r i f y i n f o r m a t i o n which the r e s e a r c h e r had  39  already acquired.  O v e r a l l , an attempt was made t o ask open-  ended, l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s , t o v a r y and a l t e r n a t e the type o f q u e s t i o n s asked, and t o repeat q u e s t i o n s i n v a r i o u s ways throughout developed  the i n t e r v i e w s . (Spradley, 1979).  The q u e s t i o n s  f o r t h i s study appear i n Appendix "B".  These  questions were o f t e n extended i n the a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w s t o elicit  expanded responses  (Spradley, 1979).  students needed more encouragement than  As expected,  teachers.  At each stage, b e f o r e r e v i s i t i n g the classroom,  a domain  a n a l y s i s was made by e x t r a c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t terms and ideas f o r subsequent v e r i f i c a t i o n o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n These l e a d t o the on-going establishment  (Spradley, 1979).  of codes o r  categories. Treatment of the Data Through i n d u c t i v e methods the data was c l a s s i f i e d  into  those c a t e g o r i e s which emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t elements based upon the i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1981; Spradley,  1979).  L a t e r , the emergent  c a t e g o r i e s were o r g a n i z e d i n t o the i n t e n t i o n a l ,  curricular,  s t r u c t u r a l dimensions of s c h o o l i n g o u t l i n e d by E i s n e r At t h i s time i t became apparent  that the e v a l u a t i v e  (1991).  dimension  of s c h o o l i n g ( E i s n e r , 1991) should a l s o be i n c l u d e d as an additional The  category.  computer program QUALPRO (Blackman, 1993),  to enhance a n a l y s i s i n ethnographic o r g a n i z e the data.  Essentially,  40  designed  r e s e a r c h , was used t o  t h i s computer program  arranged the data c o l l e c t e d through ethnographic means i n t o c a t e g o r i e s , a task t r a d i t i o n a l l y achieved through the c u t and paste method of o r g a n i z i n g t e x t .  I t allowed the user t o  s t r u c t u r e , l a b e l and group i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o s e c t i o n s of related material. treatment  The f o l l o w i n g account w i l l d e s c r i b e the  of data s p e c i f i c t o t h i s study while e x p l a i n i n g the  use of the program QUALPRO. T r a n s c r i b e d i n t e r v i e w s and notes were e n t e r e d  into  QUALPRO and grouped i n t o i n f o r m a t i o n " b l o c k s " s e p a r a t i n g data gathered from t e a c h e r s and students from s c h o o l A (Lakeview) and s c h o o l B ( R i v e r s i d e ) . were conducted  Three formal audio taped i n t e r v i e w s  at Lakeview; two w i t h t e a c h e r X (Chris) and one  w i t h teacher Z (Toni).  Four formal taped i n t e r v i e w s w i t h f o u r  d i f f e r e n t students were a l s o conducted  a t Lakeview.  R i v e r s i d e , two formal i n t e r v i e w s were conducted taped w i t h teacher Y (Pat).  At  and audio  Four taped i n t e r v i e w s w i t h f o u r  d i f f e r e n t students were a l s o conducted.  At each s c h o o l f i v e  classroom v i s i t s were made, b e f o r e and a f t e r which many i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s and m i n i - i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e .  Lakeview  r e p r e s e n t e d the i n t e g r a t e d program and R i v e r s i d e r e p r e s e n t e d the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program.  T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n allowed  f o r comparison between the two s c h o o l s . Once the d e s i r e d b l o c k s of i n f o r m a t i o n had been entered, QUALPRO allowed codes t o be a s s i g n e d t o segments of t e x t . Before doing so, a hard copy of the data was p r i n t e d w i t h numbers a t t a c h e d t o each l i n e of t e x t .  41  Manual coding o f  s e c t i o n s of t e x t was then accomplished.  This f a c i l i t a t e d text  a n a l y s i s by i n d u c t i v e methods, s i n c e as the data was read, l a b e l s were a s s i g n e d t o v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n as they emerged. Further, codes may be independent, or c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n each other. i n f o r m a t i o n gathered The  overlapping  The codes a s s i g n e d t o  i n t h i s study appear i n Appendix "A".  codes and l i n e numbers were then r e - e n t e r e d  QUALPRO.  into  Upon the second r e t r i e v a l o f the i n f o r m a t i o n , the  program separated  coded segments o f t e x t a l l o w i n g them t o be  p r i n t e d independent of each other.  Thus, a l l o f the  i n f o r m a t i o n under an e s t a b l i s h e d category was o b t a i n e d . i n s t a n c e , a l l i n f o r m a t i o n under the code "schedule" retrieved.  QUALPRO a l s o recorded  For  was  c o - o c c u r r i n g codes making  c o r r e l a t i o n s between codes apparent.  F o r i n s t a n c e , the  program showed where the code " p r o j e c t " and the code "computer" o c c u r r e d  sim u l t a n e o u s l y .  A n a l y s i s o f Data The  a n a l y s i s of the data was on-going and was made  through the i n d u c t i v e methods o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n the s e c t i o n on I n t e r p r e t i v e / D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s . observations  Based upon the data and  r e c u r r i n g themes and p a t t e r n s were sought and  d e s c r i p t i v e comparisons made between the i n t e g r a t e d and d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d programs.  D e s c r i p t i o n s and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s appear i n Chapters 4 and 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Study  42  Every attempt has been made t o s t r e n g t h e n the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y reliability  and v a l i d i t y of t h i s study.  has been addressed  by being e x p l i c i t  the r o l e of the r e s e a r c h e r as instrument, i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and the procedures The  External  i n terms o f ;  the context o f the  f o r s e l e c t i n g the s u b j e c t s .  a n a l y t i c a l premise and purpose have a l s o been c l e a r l y  stated. To reduce t h r e a t s t o i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y , c o n v e r s a t i o n s and t r a n s c r i p t s have been used, d i s c r e p a n t data.  Although  including  the study was conducted  r e s e a r c h e r , attempts were made t o e s t a b l i s h reliability  verbatim  by a s o l e  internal  through p a r t i c i p a n t c o r r o b o r a t i o n of o b s e r v a t i o n s  and by u s i n g m e c h a n i c a l l y recorded  data.  Data c o l l e c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s were enhanced through technology  the use of a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h a n a l y s i s  s t r e n g t h e n i n g both e x t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y and  internal validity.  An attempt was a l s o made t o ensure  e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y through  the c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the  r e s e a r c h components i n order t h a t o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s may be able t o extend  t h i s knowledge.  As w e l l , the t h e o r e t i c a l  framework and s t r a t e g i e s were s e l e c t e d t o ensure comparison and t r a n s l a t a b i l i t y t o o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d .  43  CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS Introduction The  f i n d i n g s are based upon formal i n t e r v i e w s ,  o b s e r v a t i o n s , f i e l d notes and audio and v i d e o tapes. have been o r g a n i z e d i n t o the " s t r u c t u r a l " ,  They  " c u r r i c u l a r " and  " i n t e n t i o n a l " dimensions of s c h o o l i n g as o u t l i n e d by E i s n e r (1991). dimension  I t was a l s o decided t o i n c l u d e the " e v a l u a t i v e " of s c h o o l i n g ( E i s n e r , 1991) s i n c e i t became  that t h i s dimension programs. to  apparent  helped t o r e v e a l the focus o f each o f the  As o u t l i n e d i n the methodology, codes were a s s i g n e d  segments of t r a n s c r i b e d t e x t , r e f e r e n c e t o which w i l l be  made t h i s s e c t i o n .  The code d e f i n i t i o n s appear i n Appendix  "A" . The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o present the f i n d i n g s from each of the case s t u d i e s .  Included i s a s e c t i o n  d e s c r i b i n g the p r o f i l e s of the s c h o o l s and the t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as, d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c l a s s v i s i t s  t o each o f the s c h o o l s .  F i c t i t i o u s names have been used f o r the t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l s and the s c h o o l board The  i n order t o ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y .  i n f o r m a t i o n presented  t r a n s c r i b e d t e x t , paraphrased v i s i t s d e s c r i b e d were reviewed the v i d e o tapes. of  i s taken d i r e c t l y o r quoted d i r e c t l y . through  from The c l a s s  f i e l d notes and from  My hope i s t h a t the reader w i l l get a sense  the teachers and programs being d e s c r i b e d . SCHOOL AND TEACHER PROFILE  44  Lakeview was  recommended by the Moorington Board a r t  c o n s u l t a n t as the s c h o o l where " i n t e g r a t e d " programming c o u l d be observed. school.  Whereas, R i v e r s i d e was  R i v e r s i d e was  predominantly  white,  discipline-oriented  an e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l having been i n  o p e r a t i o n f o r approximately open f o r three y e a r s .  the  t h i r t y years.  Lakeview has been  Both s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n middle  c l a s s suburban neighbourhoods w i t h  a l i m i t e d , although wide e t h n i c  mix.  Lakeview had been p i l o t i n g i n t e g r a t e d i n i t i a t i v e s under the T r a n s i t i o n Years umbrella 1990).  (Ontario M i n i s t r y of  Education,  They had a l s o o r g a n i z e d the s c h o o l based upon a model  from B r i t i s h Columbia, i n t r o d u c e d by the p r i n c i p a l , core c u r r i c u l u m i s i n t e g r a t e d by g e n e r a l i s t Lakeview was  teachers.  r e c o g n i z e d f o r i t s s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t technology,  a v a i l a b l e to both students and t e a c h e r s . p o s s i b l e through principal.  wherein  c o r p o r a t e sponsorship,  Although  T h i s was  made  a l s o i n i t i a t e d by  the  Lakeview c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a unique  program, i t operated w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system.  The  school r e f l e c t s the board's i n t e n t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e . E s s e n t i a l l y the teachers were chosen by v i r t u e of being the o n l y a r t t e a c h e r i n each of the two programs suggested  by the board c o n s u l t a n t .  their  distinctive Each t e a c h e r ' s  p h i l o s o p h y and s t y l e of t e a c h i n g matched the program they offered.  At Lakeview C h r i s , a g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r w i t h  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n geography and a r t , d e l i v e r e d the a r t program.  C h r i s s p e c i a l i z e d i n the use of computers  45  and  technology  i n the classroom and had taught  c l a s s e s i n the s c h o o l f o r three y e a r s .  a l l of the a r t  As a g e n e r a l i s t  teacher without  a background i n a r t , however, C h r i s l a c k e d a r t  expertise.  of C h r i s ' s main focuses f o r a r t , t h e r e f o r e ,  One  became the use of technology  for art.  Upon the recommendation of C h r i s , a second t e a c h e r at Lakeview, T o n i , was  a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d to get a view of the  o v e r a l l s c h o o l program and s t r u c t u r e . g e n e r a l i s t teacher who  T h i s t e a c h e r was  also a  s p e c i a l i z e d i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  At R i v e r s i d e the a r t teacher, Pat, had r e t u r n e d to t e a c h i n g a f t e r a number of years l e a v e .  Pat's experience  was  w i t h t h a t of a t r a d i t i o n a l classroom and c l a s s e s at R i v e r s i d e were conducted  i n t h i s manner.  Pat,was an a r t s p e c i a l i s t  who  had a l s o taught a l l the of the a r t i n the s c h o o l f o r the past three y e a r s .  Teaching no o t h e r s u b j e c t s , Pat focused a l l  a t t e n t i o n on the a r t program.  With a degree i n v i s u a l a r t ,  Pat's program was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the study of  traditional,  a r t elements and p r i n c i p l e s and on the use of media. impressions  i n d i c a t e d t h a t Pat was  an extremely  First  competent  v i s u a l a r t teacher. STRUCTURAL DIMENSION OF SCHOOLING The Eisner  " s t r u c t u r a l " dimension  of s c h o o l i n g i s d e f i n e d by  (1991) as those aspects of s c h o o l i n g r e l a t e d to  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms of s c h o o l s - how  the s c h o o l day i s  d i v i d e d and a s s i g n e d to time b l o c k s .  The f o l l o w i n g  46  d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s the o v e r a l l  s c h o o l program s t r u c t u r e and  the A r t program s t r u c t u r e and s c h e d u l i n g . Program Schedule  and S t r u c t u r e  Toni, at Lakeview, e x p l a i n s how t h i s t e a c h e r spent a t y p i c a l day: I teach language, math, the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s which i n v o l v e s c i e n c e , h i s t o r y and geography... i n the morning p e r i o d we have l i t e r a c y which c o u l d i n v o l v e E n g l i s h and t h a t i n v o l v e s reading, w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g  skills,  novel s t u d i e s  or whatever, depending on what i t i s we're doing i n our theme work. the morning.  I t a l s o i n v o l v e s math.  So we study math i n  In the a f t e r n o o n we get i n t o  really  d e t a i l e d work on our themes and t h a t c o u l d be a theme which i s s c i e n c e based, a s o c i a l s c i e n c e based o r l i t e r a c y based... Essentially,  Lakeview was not o r g a n i z e d i n terms of  s u b j e c t s areas per se.  One classroom  t e a c h e r taught  students  the core areas of the c u r r i c u l u m , namely, l i t e r a c y , -numeracy, s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s c i e n c e . blocks.  Lakeview operated c l a s s e s i n time  The o r g a n i z a t i o n of time w i t h i n each b l o c k was  decided upon by the t e a c h e r .  Students  spent  75% of t h e i r  time  w i t h t h e i r home room teacher working on l i t e r a c y and numeracy i n the morning and on theme work i n the a f t e r n o o n .  In any  g i v e n day, 10% t o 25% of the time was spent  i n one o r more of  the s p e c i a l t y areas, a r t , d e s i g n technology,  family studies,  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o r music.  These were scheduled on a  47  rotation.  Students had an 8 0 minute a r t c l a s s every s i x days.  When not on a r o t a t i o n i n the afternoon, students worked on major themes, sometimes c a l l e d t h e i r home room teacher. of  "creative applications",  with  At t h i s time t e a c h e r s had the o p t i o n  s c h e d u l i n g t h e i r c l a s s e s i n t o o t h e r areas o f the s c h o o l ,  such as the a r t o r f a m i l y s t u d i e s f a c i l i t i e s , special projects.  Teachers a l s o remained  t o work on  w i t h the same c l a s s  from Grade 6 through Grade 8. Chris explained that, of  "Each c l a s s has a t l e a s t 80 minutes  a r t [on a] s i x day c y c l e .  [A] t y p i c a l day u s u a l l y  starts  with math, s i l e n t r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g , a l l the r e g u l a r t h i n g s . Usually  [we] do French i n there and then we have theme u n i t s " .  At R i v e r s i d e students were scheduled i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t areas; E n g l i s h , French, mathematics, s o c i a l s c i e n c e , i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r y and geography, p h y s i c a l education, f a m i l y s t u d i e s , music and technology.  They r o t a t e d through  on a s i x day tumbling t i m e t a b l e .  classes  a r t c l a s s e s were scheduled  every o t h e r day and were 55 o r 6 0 minutes l o n g depending the morning o r a f t e r n o o n time s l o t .  upon  Pat e x p l a i n s the  schedule: The a r t here i s semestered.  So I see the f i r s t  people from September t o the end o f January. semester  changes...I  semester  Then the  see them every o t h e r day f o r  approximately 55 minutes t o an hour...the  morning p e r i o d  i s 55 minutes and the a f t e r n o o n p e r i o d i s 60 minutes...I l i k e i t t h i s way because there i s a l o t of c o n t i n u i t y .  48  To summarize, students at Lakeview minute A r t c l a s s every s i x days.  were r e c e i v i n g an 80  I t should be noted that  those students who had the a r t t e a c h e r as t h e i r home room teacher may have had more exposure  t o a r t s i n c e they were w i t h  that t e a c h e r approximately 75% of the time. R i v e r s i d e had 55 t o 60 minutes  Students at  of a r t i n s t r u c t i o n two o r t h r e e  times a week f o r one semester. INTENTIONAL DIMENSION OF SCHOOLING T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o E i s n e r ' s (1991) " i n t e n t i o n a l " dimension of s c h o o l i n g .  The g o a l s and  i n t e n t i o n s e x p l i c i t l y s i t e d by t e a c h e r s are i n c l u d e d here, as w e l l as, those i n evidence i n the classroom. Use o f G u i d e l i n e s The t e a c h e r s a t both Lakeview  and R i v e r s i d e f o l l o w e d the  g u i d e l i n e s f o r a r t as s e t out by the O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n terms o f s k i l l s and content t o be covered, i n c l u d i n g c e r t a i n u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n a t the Grade 7 and 8 level.  Lakeview  B r i t i s h Columbia principal.  was a l s o u s i n g a M i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e elementary s c h o o l s , brought  from  i n by the  Toni e x p l a i n s :  I t h i n k b a s i c a l l y t h e r e was a model from B r i t i s h  Columbia  that some s c h o o l s have used a s i m i l a r format and I t h i n k our P r i n c i p a l was f a m i l i a r w i t h the format that they used out t h e r e so many o f those g u i d e l i n e s were f o l l o w e d .  We  d e f i n i t e l y have t o f o l l o w the M i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s t o make sure that the s k i l l s are covered and that the time  49  elements are covered and that c e r t a i n u n i t s a t grade 6, 7 and  8 are covered as w e l l - p l u s the Board's g u i d e l i n e s  as w e l l i n terms o f c u r r i c u l u m . curriculum  So there a r e a l o t o f  g u i d e l i n e s and M i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s t h a t you  have t o f o l l o w i n s e t t i n g up the program. Both schools used the c u r r i c u l u m the Moorington Board i n p l a n n i n g  g u i d e l i n e s p u b l i s h e d by  t h e i r a r t programs.  In both  cases some a r t a c t i v i t i e s were taken d i r e c t l y from the board guideline. I still  Chris  says:  t r y t o use the c u r r i c u l u m  possible.  g u i d e l i n e s as much as  A l o t of e x e r c i s e s are taken r i g h t out of  those, the drawings f o r i n s t a n c e . . . but  there  i s always  that edge k i d s l i k e working towards...If you're [a student] a t the drawing s t a t i o n and you've got a c h a r c o a l drawing showing depth and 3D, then you've got t o do your s t i p p l i n g and your I n d i a ink, but then there  i s always  the f o u r t h one, which i s up t o you. At the same time, both Pat and C h r i s developed programs independently of suggested a c t i v i t i e s .  Pat t a l k s about, "a  l i t t l e networking group and we pool our ideas and some of those ideas think  I think  "Gee, I'd l i k e t o t r y t h a t " and o t h e r s I  "No, I don't t h i n k I c o u l d do t h a t " .  teacher  strengths  Pat f e l t  were important t o c o n s i d e r when  A r t programs based upon board g u i d e l i n e s .  that  developing  Pat:  I f you are going t o be s u c c e s s f u l , you have t o teach what you  like.  I t doesn't mean you shouldn't t r y something,  50  but i f you r e a l l y can't handle i t and i t ' s not s u i t a b l e f o r you, there are a l l kinds of o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t you can do that are v e r y a r t i s t i c and the k i d s w i l l  l o v e them and  are good f o r them. C h r i s found the board g u i d e l i n e somewhat l i m i t i n g , f u r t h e r commenting that students d i d n ' t take the p r o j e c t s v e r y s e r i o u s l y when they c o u l d n ' t see t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s .  "I taught  a r t the o l d way l a s t year and each c l a s s that came i n , w e l l , they d i d n ' t l i k e a r t , i t was j u s t a joke t o them.  I don't  t h i n k they saw how i t would h e l p them i n t h e i r l i v e s " .  Chris  redesigned the program and i n t r o d u c e d computer technology  into  the course of study. Aims and Goals Both C h r i s and Pat s a i d that t h e i r g o a l s were t o have the students enjoy a r t , t o f e e l that they were l e a r n i n g  something  and have a r t c a r r y over i n t o t h e i r l i v e s o u t s i d e s c h o o l .  They  d i d not want the students t o p e r c e i v e the a r t program and the a r t room as a p l a c e t o come t o " f o o l around".  Pat says, "I  want them t o r e a l i z e that a r t i s not j u s t a r t i n an i s o l a t e d activity.  I t ' s a f e a t u r e of every day l i f e . . . I want them t o  f e e l that they're l e a r n i n g something  and they are e n j o y i n g  it" . C h r i s e x p l a i n s , "Well, my i n t e n t i o n - one, enjoy two, how a r t can r e a l l y be r e l e v a n t and t h r e e , take away they can use".  it...and  something  Thus, r e l e v a n c e emerged as an important  aim f o r both t e a c h e r s .  51  C h r i s o f t e n used the term " r e a l world" a p p l i c a t i o n . these ends, C h r i s implemented a l e s s o n which students t o a multitude "I  of a r t r e l a t e d c a r e e r  introduced opportunities.  s t a r t e d the year by making i t r e a l l y r e l e v a n t by t a k i n g 80  minutes and showing them a l l the c a r e e r r e l a t e d f i e l d s art  To  has from cosmetics t o photography and e v e r y t h i n g  that c l i c k e d w i t h a l o t of people".  that  e l s e and  Chris also t r i e d to  r e l a t e classroom a c t i v i t i e s t o o u t s i d e  i s s u e s , such as the  environment. Chris f e l t  that i t was very  technology t o a r t . be r e c o g n i z e d  important t o r e l a t e  The use o f computers i n a d v e r t i s i n g  should  by students as the programs they were working  w i t h at s c h o o l . A l o t of them are u s i n g programs here and then they go home and watch TV and they see a commercial and they know e x a c t l y what  [computer] program they've been u s i n g .  They've been u s i n g the same program that the producers used t o make that commercial, so they're  s e e i n g a r t out  i n the r e a l world and r e a l i z i n g t h a t they can do the exact  same t h i n g w i t h the technology we have here.  So  that makes them aware. Knowledge and m a n i p u l a t i o n of computer a r t , i t was hoped, might get them a summer j o b o r a c a r e e r . C h r i s b e l i e v e s , of the s p e c i a l s k i l l s r e a l world. graphics  "Some  t h a t they would be l e a r n i n g a r e f o r the  L i k e the k i d s c o u l d go t o work i n a computer  s t o r e o r some k i n d of computer g r a p h i c s  52  design".  Computer s k i l l s emerged as a c e n t r a l theme a t Lakeview. Students were working w i t h s o p h i s t i c a t e d g r a p h i c s programs d e v e l o p i n g advanced computer g r a p h i c s k i l l s .  C h r i s wanted t o  b u i l d a r t s k i l l s at each of the a r t s t a t i o n s which c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d o r a p p l i e d t o o t h e r areas of the c u r r i c u l u m . Examples g i v e n were, drawing depth c o u l d be taken and used i n a computer a p p l i c a t i o n o r computer s k i l l s be used f o r t h e i r o t h e r p r o j e c t s . skills  l e a r n e d through  learned i n art could  C h r i s thought  that valuable  a r t should be a p p l i e d t o c r e a t i n g t i t l e  pages and d e s i g n i n g v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r theme work or c r e a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n o t h e r areas.  C h r i s wanted t o see  students a c q u i r i n g d e s i g n s k i l l s and techniques  t o be used i n  o t h e r areas o f the s c h o o l program, as w e l l as, beyond the school s e t t i n g .  The u l t i m a t e g o a l would be t o have students  apply knowledge and s k i l l s  l e a r n e d i n a r t t o any o t h e r s u b j e c t  or c a r e e r area they wished t o pursue. It's  C h r i s says:  not j u s t drawing f o r the sake of drawing.  w i t h a purpose.  It i s  F o r the most p a r t , they get enough time  i n a r t c l a s s t o be c r e a t i v e . . . afterwards  they c a r r y the  r e s t of the day f o r a v e r y s p e c i f i c purpose...If  you want  to make your own company and market something i . e . bowls they have made on the l a t h e and s e l l them so they have t o have l e t t e r h e a d designed. Pat at R i v e r s i d e saw r e l e v a n c e i n terms o f a p e r s o n a l response  t o a r t works and t o d e s i g n i n the environment.  Pat  wanted students t o see a r t as not an i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t y , but as  53  a f e a t u r e of every day l i v i n g . awareness o f a r t and design i n t e r i o r design.  Students should  have an  around them, from f a s h i o n t o  Pat says:  I want them t o l i k e i t [ a r t ] . t h i s i s fun...I  Not j u s t i n the sense that  want them t o l i k e i t i n the sense t h a t  a r t i s more a c c o r d i n g  t o your l i f e . . . I u s u a l l y do t h i s a t  the b e g i n n i n g of the semester where you [the students] decorate your house, the c o l o u r s that you have i n your kitchen,  the t h i n g s that you have up on the w a l l i n the  room...You decorated i t i n a c e r t a i n way because you l i k e it.  That i s a r t . . . S o  your everyday l i v i n g ,  a r t i s r e a l l y v e r y much apart of i t i s not j u s t the p i c t u r e s on the  w a l l . . . [ o r ] you go t o an a r t g a l l e r y and t h a t ' s comes i n t o l i f e a great d e a l , and i t ' s v e r y  art...it  personal.  One student from R i v e r s i d e thought that t a k i n g a r t c o u l d be h e l p f u l i n the f u t u r e . Well,  In the student's words:  I t h i n k t h a t i t [ l e a r n i n g about Art] w i l l help you  i n the f u t u r e i f you are asked to, l i k e i f you a r e t h i n k i n g about a f u t u r e i n a r t o r s c i e n c e . . . I f you are l o o k i n g through a microscope o r something you have t o draw what you see and i f you are l o o k i n g i n a r t then t h i s r e a l l y helps  i n the future...what you l e a r n here about  the Group o f Seven you can take t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when you're t a l k i n g about f u t u r e CURRICULAR DIMENSION OF SCHOOLING  54  jobs.  T h i s s e c t i o n focuses upon the program's content and t o the a c t i v i t i e s which are used t o engage the students i n the program.  I t i n c l u d e s , program d e s c r i p t i o n and development,  facilities,  p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s ,  and the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n  classroom. Program and Development C h r i s d e s c r i b e s what i t i s l i k e working how  at Lakeview and  the program i s developed: It's lot  unique.  I t ' s a l o t of hard work...You have t o do a  of the w r i t i n g y o u r s e l f , but i t s fun...You  teacher] went from grade  [the  7 when you developed a l l t h i s  s t u f f , but you can't use i t f o r two years because you're of  now  i n grade 8 and you've got t o r e d e v e l o p . . . In a l o t  ways t h a t ' s good because I can see a t e a c h e r who  taught grade  has  7 f o r twenty years and every year i t s the  exact same thing...The world's always  changing.  At the time of the study, the a r t program at Lakeview new.  The program was  d e s c r i b e s the  undergoing  c o n t i n u a l changes.  was  Chris  situation:  "Well, the a r t program i s r e a l l y i n i t s i n f a n c y and i t has been a t r i a l and e r r o r type of year where the k i d s t r a v e l t o seven d i f f e r e n t s t a t i o n s , where they go t o c l a y , video, the d i f f e r e n t computer programs; works  Animation  [and] Superpaint, drawing... they go t o each one  they get f a m i l i a r w i t h i t , l e a r n the s k i l l s about station  [then] they can take s k i l l s t o the next  55  each  one."  and  Based upon the students' l e a r n i n g i n each of the s t a t i o n s produced  f o u r main p r o j e c t s d u r i n g the year, one  drawing, c l a y , The  I n d i a ink and one of t h e i r own  i n t e n t i o n was  they  i n each of,  choice.  a l s o t o i n c r e a s e technology i n the a r t  program, t o come i n l i n e w i t h the r e s t of the s c h o o l , a task e s s e n t i a l l y implemented by C h r i s .  "There were no computers i n  the a r t program...[they are] j u s t another t o o l , but the a r t program wasn't u s i n g them u n t i l l e t ' s see what we a r t was  can do."  r e l a t i v e l y new  w i t h few  education,  examples.  i t [the a r t program] t o keep up w i t h the  s c h o o l and what was program was  said,  Since the t e c h n o l o g i c a l aspect i n  at t h i s l e v e l of p u b l i c  C h r i s had l i t t l e guidance I developed  I came i n l a s t year and  going on here.  O b v i o u s l y the a r t  one area f o r the grade 7 and 8 t h a t wasn't  h i g h tech, l i k e the r e s t of the s c h o o l was  or hadn't been  i n t e g r a t e d as much as the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m , so I s a i d I'd see what I c o u l d do t o change t h a t , w i t h r e a l l y help.  There was  no where t o go.  You  no  can go t o Seaway  C o l l e g e there are a l o t of books, a l o t of r e a d i n g and b r a i n s t o r m i n g and t h a t was See how  r e a l l y what t h i s year  was.  w e l l i t works and what d i d and d i d not work and  see what I ended up w i t h at the end of the year. U l t i m a t e l y C h r i s hoped t o see students come i n t o the Grade 8 a r t program w i t h many a r t s k i l l s and techniques i n p l a c e , so that they would be able t o work even more  56  independently on a r t p r o j e c t s of t h e i r own  formulation.  Chris  says : I d e a l l y , by the time they get to grade 8 they would have all  the s k i l l s and  then you  c o u l d spend the  following  year doing major p r o j e c t s , p r o b a b l y some s o l o ones, some group ones...1 would p r o b a b l y say to them, you combine two  have to  to three elements, minimum, so they might  u s i n g c l a y and  be  a movie camera to make a c l a y animation.  In other words, C h r i s would d i r e c t students t o use  certain  types of media independently. C h r i s would a l s o l i k e to see the school o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e that students have the o p p o r t u n i t y own  p r o j e c t s w i t h home room teachers,  various  such as the a r t  room, to work on t h e i r p r o j e c t s under the s u p e r v i s i o n of s p e c i a l i s t teacher. What we  Chris  the  to develop t h e i r  then go to  s p e c i a l t y f a c i l i t i e s throughout the s c h o o l ,  on  the  explains:  are working towards i s that a l l the c l a s s e s have  theme u n i t s at the same time, and  a l l the d i f f e r e n t  would be opened up...you'd have to do a l o t of and  then the k i d s c o u l d say  War  II and  I'm  teaching  doing a p r o j e c t on World  today I want to make a t i t l e page so,  the a r t room...each one  areas  I need  of us would be more l i k e a  f a c i l i t a t o r . . . Y o u would have k i d s from grades 6,  7 and  u s i n g the s c i e n c e room, the a r t room, the music room, family studies.  57  8  The  i n t e n t i o n a l s o was t o have students a p p l y the s k i l l s  l e a r n e d i n the v a r i o u s work s t a t i o n s between s t a t i o n s o r elsewhere  i n the c u r r i c u l u m , e s p e c i a l l y where technology was  concerned.  F o r i n s t a n c e , knowledge of l i n e and p e r s p e c t i v e  c o u l d be used i n computer g r a p h i c s .  C h r i s says, "They can  take the s k i l l s they l e a r n e d i n drawing,  depth,  line,  symmetry, e t c . and take that over t o the computer". students had many independent  p r o j e c t s , each student would  have d i f f e r e n t needs and would handle the problem p e r s o n a l way. skills  Students were encouraged  ina  to incorporate a r t  i n t o any p r o j e c t they were working  They can a l s o take  Since  on.  Chris:  [ t h e i r knowledge of computer g r a p h i c s ]  back t o o t h e r c l a s s e s so the s k i l l s they l e a r n here  they  can take back t o t h e i r home room and use i n math, s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . . . They c o u l d be working  on a book r e p o r t o r an  essay and they want t o add a p i c t u r e o r a t i t l e page and then they take those a r t s k i l l s they have l e a r n e d and s t a r t a p p l y i n g them...the k i d s have seen t h a t f o r a b i t of  e x t r a work they hand i n something  that looks much  better. The concept of theme work emerged as an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r Lakeview.  Toni e x p l a i n s :  The t i m e t a b l e i s s e t up so that t h e r e are b l o c k s of time so that i n the morning time you c o n c e n t r a t e on l i t e r a c y and math and the a f t e r n o o n i s f r e e t o work on your theme or  as i t i s c a l l e d q u i t e o f t e n " c r e a t i v e  58  a p p l i c a t i o n s " . . . C r e a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n i s t a k i n g the that you p i c k up i n l i t e r a c y and math and a p p l y i n g them i n your a f t e r n o o n  want to do. essay. to  creatively  theme work.  be an a c t i v i t y t h a t the students  skills  So i t might  have decided t h a t  Maybe i t ' s a p l a y t h a t week.  they  Maybe i t ' s an  Maybe i t ' s a TV p r o d u c t i o n or something r e l a t e d  the s k i l l s t h a t they've p i c k e d up i n the morning  c l a s s e s through t h e i r l i t e r a c y . . . They can choose i t or i t c o u l d be chosen by the teacher or i t c o u l d be  a  combination. One  student  explained  "theme" as,  "Not  really a class,  but a mixture of d i f f e r e n t u n i t s , l i k e w r i t i n g and and r e a d i n g and p u t t i n g them a l l together".  listening  Knowledge  gained  i n any p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n theme work. In such a way,  students were encouraged to t r a n s f e r knowledge  of a r t concepts and techniques, p r o j e c t s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s applications. and Careers.  as an a c q u i r e d s k i l l ,  to  f o r other c l a s s e s and c r e a t i v e  Major themes i n c l u d e d , Youth and Law, " A r t " per se was  not taught  At R i v e r s i d e the a r t program was  Canada  d u r i n g theme work.  developed by Pat based  upon the Moorington Board g u i d e l i n e s with input from the board's a r t c o n s u l t a n t .  At the same time, the program  was  c o n t i n u a l l y changed as needs arose and to keep ideas f r e s h . Pat l i k e d t o t r y new  p r o j e c t s , d e l e t e o t h e r s and  Pat e x p l a i n s :  59  experiment.  I've developed  [the program]...we have the  Moorington  book t h a t has a l l the grade 7 and 8 s t u f f i n i t and  then  what i t does b a s i c a l l y i s have l e s s o n p l a n s and they are c o l o u r coded and t h i s one  i s the p a i n t i n g u n i t and t h a t  the p a s t e l u n i t . . . I look at the Moorington  book t h a t  we  got from the a r t c o n s u l t a n t and t h e r e ' r e some i d e a s i n there t h a t are g r e a t , but I f e e l t h a t I have t o use what works f o r me  and what I l i k e , because i f I don't  like i t ,  t e a c h i n g something, you are not going t o do a v e r y good job  of i t .  The program, now  t h r e e years o l d , improved and  s t a b i l i z e d because of the new developed  c o n s i s t e n c y and  through grade 7 and 8.  was  continuity  Although the s c h o o l was  well  e s t a b l i s h e d , no one had been l o o k i n g a f t e r the a r t program, which had been an ad hoc arrangement taught by one or more of the g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s who  knew l i t t l e  about a r t e d u c a t i o n .  Pat f e l t t h a t : The a r t program has s t a b i l i z e d i n the s c h o o l s i n c e I came because b e f o r e that there were d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s doing the a r t every year...one teacher who for  a little  guidance  man  had taken the a r t  b i t of i t i s not an a r t teacher, he's and he was  a  s o r t of doing i t because t h e r e  was  nobody e l s e t o do i t .  The  focus of the program at R i v e r s i d e was  students t o a v a r i e t y of a r t concepts,  60  on exposing  terms, techniques  the  and  materials.  Pat wanted the students t o experience a l i t t l e b i t  of e v e r y t h i n g . I t r y t o throw d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s at them - media wise. p a i n t , we do c l a y , we do cut paper, w i t h the grade 7, we do p o s t e r s .  We  we do paper r e l i e f s  We do a r t h i s t o r y ,  which i n grade 7 i s the K l e i n b e r g Group of Seven s t u f f , and I n u i t N a t i v e s which c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the grade 7 language a r t s and s o c i a l s c i e n c e .  The l i n o ,  the grade  8's need something s p e c i a l t o do i n grade 8, the b i g guys, so you know they're doing l i n o b l o c k i n g . The program was s e t up i n terms of v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s and e x e r c i s e s o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h and complexity.  Incorporated  into  these p r o j e c t s were d e s i g n l e s s o n s , a r t concepts and techniques f o r the proper h a n d l i n g of equipment. A r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and a r t h i s t o r y were a l s o i n c l u d e d . "We always do K l e i n b e r g .  Pat says,  That's j u s t a t r a d i t i o n . . . I t h i n k  the g a l l e r y experience i s v e r y important.  I mean f o r some o f  those k i d s , t h e y ' l l never go t o another g a l l e r y a g a i n " . In Grade 7 students were engaged i n a l a r g e u n i t about Native Canadian s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g I n u i t a r t which was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h language a r t s and s o c i a l s c i e n c e . relates,  Pat  "We had a b i g I n u i t theme...It r e a l l y t i e s i n w i t h  K l e i n b e r g as w e l l because you see we go t o see the I n u i t display.  The whole a l l t i e s t o g e t h e r and i t t i e s i n w i t h the  Group of Seven as w e l l w i t h the landscape  61  painting".  One  student  at R i v e r s i d e made the f o l l o w i n g comment about  the program, "You everything  get a l o t of experience  working  - l i n o blocking tools...the painting stuff,  clay, a l i t t l e Well,  b i t of e v e r y t h i n g " .  Another had  the  t h i s to  say:  I'd l i k e to do some more of the same t h i n g s .  I wanted to do more l i n o block,  l i k e do some more  with i t , but once everyone f i n i s h e d , you something Art  with  have to  Like, designs  start  new.  Projects C h r i s c i t e d the f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t s as s t u d i o  copying  and  c o l o u r matching Group of Seven post  activities;  cards  tempera p a i n t , a p o s t e r u n i t developed through a l i f e p r o j e c t e x p l o r i n g v a r i o u s aspects  science  of human body system,  working with c l a y to make a c o n t a i n e r , p a t t e r n assignment.  with  and  an I n d i a  ink  Chris:  I gave them postcards  of great p i e c e s  - Tom  Thomson's  work - Group of Seven - and asked them to i m i t a t e i t r i g h t down to the c o l o u r s - "Let's j u s t copy t h i s c l o s e l y as you  can on a l a r g e sheet  of p a p e r " . . . I t  good l e s s o n as w e l l because they were working c o l o u r s t r y i n g to c r e a t e the exact  as was  with  c o l o u r from  the  original. A student  comments, "There were s p e c i a l p i c t u r e s of Canadian  a r t i s t s and we o u r s e l v e s and  had  to draw them and we  I got t h i s one  t r i e d t o draw them  of a mountain and  fun to t r y i t " .  62  i t was  really  a  C h r i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d an a r t p r o j e c t which was a life  science unit,  "They designed a l i f e  r e l a t e d to  science unit,  d i f f e r e n t aspects of the human body, the c i r c u l a t o r y system the human body, designed a model, drawing, showing the b l o o d The  of  p o s t e r s or whatever  system".  focus at Lakeview was  on i n t e g r a t i n g technology  into  the a r t program, i n c l u d i n g work w i t h computers and v i d e o . Content  i n c l u d e d computer work i n v a r i o u s drawing  programs.  Computers were seen as a t o o l f o r the students' use  and computer a r t as another form of e x p r e s s i o n . They  and g r a p h i c  [computers]  Chris:  are j u s t another t o o l f o r k i d s t o  express t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y .  That's a l l i t i s , but they can  take s k i l l s they l e a r n drawing  on paper o r they can  do  t h i n g s they have drawn on paper and u s i n g the scanner put it  onto the computer s c r e e n and that adds c o l o u r s and  t e x t u r e s and t h i n g s they may  not be comfortable w i t h  doing, but on a computer you can do i t and make mistakes and get r i d of i t r i g h t away. A c c o r d i n g t o C h r i s , some students d i d a r t work on the computer, "...probably every s i n g l e day. week.  But there are some k i d s i n here who  form of a r t , u s u a l l y on the computer  Other k i d s once a w i l l be doing some  everyday".  Future p l a n s f o r the use of computers i n the a r t program i n c l u d e d l i n k i n g up t o c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y a r t data and the purchase  of a r t work d i s c s f o r the CD ROM.  says :  63  bases  Chris also  As soon as the I n t e r n e t i s worked out w e ' l l be l i n k e d up w i t h a l o t of d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s and h o p e f u l l y a r t G a l l e r i e s and museums and so i f a k i d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n Tom Thompson then h o p e f u l l y next year h e ' l l be a b l e t o connect w i t h a computer at the McMichael Canadian C o l l e c t i o n and be able t o see a l o t more examples than I have. C h r i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the computer enhanced the a r t program and student l e a r n i n g i n many ways.  C h r i s e x p l a i n e d how the  computer helped students g a i n confidence i n t h e i r drawing ability.  They were asked t o draw an image on paper and then  to scan i t i n t o a computer g r a p h i c s program, at which p o i n t the s i z e , t e x t u r e and c o l o u r of the image c o u l d be manipulated.  One student scanned a three dimensional  Pepsi  can i n t o the Superpaint program m a n i p u l a t i n g i t i n many ways by r e p e a t i n g the image and by changing  i t s s i z e and c o l o u r .  The computer image c o u l d a l s o be immediately redone.  erased and  Chris explains:  [Students] s t a r t t h i n g s o f f by hand and end up w i t h a f i n i s h e d product on computer.  Drawing something,  scanning i t and then e d i t i n g i t on the computer.  The  k i d s r e a l l y l i k e doing t h a t and the r e s u l t s are good. You are g e t t i n g the whole spectrum  there.  The p e n c i l and  paper r i g h t up t o the h i g h tech, the f i n i s h e d  product.  What's good about i t i s t h a t a l o t of k i d s don't confidence drawing.  have  They do have c o n f i d e n c e on the  64  computer, so i f you get  can get them s t a r t e d w i t h p e n c i l  i t on the computer, then a l l of a sudden, i t ' s not  drawing any more and b u i l d s up t h e i r Chris also f e l t  i t ' s u s i n g the computer and i t  confidence. that the computer makes the  students'  work look more p r o f e s s i o n a l i n terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n neatness.  and  C h r i s b e l i e v e d that the computer should be used f o r  presentation for  and  purposes.  C h r i s says,  "The  k i d s have seen that  a b i t of e x t r a work they hand i n something that looks much  better". C h r i s saw students. other  the computer enhance the working h a b i t s  of  Computer s k i l l s were a l s o seen to s p i l l over i n t o  areas of the c u r r i c u l u m .  Students were brought  through computer work to s o l v e mutual problems. f u r t h e r encouraged to work independently, not i n s t r u c t e d to do a r t on the computer, but knowledge of computer g r a p h i c s s i t u a t i o n s as they saw  fit.  They were  always  t o apply  their  appropriately i n various  C h r i s says,  "That i s not  something t h a t I would say to them - I want you the computer.  together  I t i s coming up n a t u r a l l y " .  to do a r t  on  C h r i s comments  further: I see a l o t of people i n the press computers and  how  l a t e l y t a l k i n g about  they f o r c e people to work alone...My  experience has been that they r e a l l y b r i n g people together.  They r e a l l y work and  65  help problem s o l v e .  You  watch f o u r or f i v e k i d s spontaneously,  without  my  saying  anything, w i l l help s o l v e a problem. C h r i s d e s c r i b e d a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t which i n v o l v e d students g e n e r a t i n g computer g r a p h i c l e t t e r h e a d and logos to market t h e i r own in  products which were manufactured on the l a t h e  t h e i r d e s i g n and technology c l a s s .  C h r i s says:  There were a number of t h i n g s they d i d . p r o j e c t on the h i s t o r y of Canada.  We  They d i d a  designed  title  pages and/or logos f o r t h e i r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t .  Usually  something they c o u l d i d e n t i f y with...We d i d s e v e r a l of the Canadian f l a g t h a t i s u n i q u e l y t h e i r s and they  can  put i t i n the bottom r i g h t hand c o r n e r of every page so a u t o m a t i c a l l y I know and they know t h i s i s my  work.  A student d e s c r i b e s the computer a c t i v i t y : We  d i d t h i n g s on the computer.  We  draw i t and scan i t  and add c o l o u r to it...We used Wakem t a b l e t . . . l i k e , p e n c i l and j u s t draw i t and  a  i t comes up on the computer.  Another student t e l l s about her experience w i t h the computer: It  [Superpaint] was  to do w i t h Animation  to  c o l o u r and i t t o l d us what to do and a l l the  i n s t r u c t i o n s from which we worked on. program d i d n ' t work t h a t w e l l , so we Animation  Works... I got Animation  But the  It  was  Superpaint  had t o change to  Works a f t e r a  w h i l e . . . I had a l i t t l e t r o u b l e at f i r s t . interesting.  Works.  It  was  I mean, I've never come a c r o s s t h a t type of  thing before.  66  Apparently,  there were some t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d  with the computer.  The f o l l o w i n g are accounts by s t u d e n t s :  Sometimes Animation Works c o u l d be a b i t o f a p a i n . would get my l i t t l e  I  c a r t o o n up there, but i t wouldn't l e t  me access the p a i n t i n g .  I can't get through and nobody  can help me...you can make d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s and get people t o walk and you can draw w i t h  Superpaint.  A student d e s c r i b e s d e s i g n i n g a logo f o r t h e i r c i t y p l a n w i t h the Superpaint drawing program: We had t o do a p r o j e c t on a c i t y and make a logo up and do s i x steps, which i s , f i r s t l y ,  d e s i g n one u s i n g s i x  ideas and then g e t t i n g i t on one page, then scanning i t , then p u t t i n g i t i n t o Superpaint and c o l o u r i n g i t and p r i n t i n g i t up. Each student d e s c r i b e d t h e i r independent  a r t project  which was t o be scanned i n t o a computer hypercard program and subsequently p r e s s e d onto a CD, r e s u l t i n g i n a c o l l e c t i o n of a l l Grade 8 a r t p r o j e c t s f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e .  A student  explains: We had t o do a s p e c i a l a r t p r o j e c t  'cause we're p r e s s i n g  a CD ROM f o r the 1993 graduates... of a r t and so [we] had to each make up something i n a r t t h a t we'd r e a l l y l i k e t o do and so what I d i d i s I scanned a P e p s i can and I put it  i n t o Superpaint and I would change i t as I had so many  p i c t u r e s of i t so the can would be d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s o r i t would have the coke s i g n and the white would be b l a c k  67  and  the darker l i g h t e r . . . everyone has t o do one...Dave,  he made a s c u l p t u r e of a hand u s i n g c h i c k e n wire and then put  the c l a y over the c h i c k e n wire, so i t was r e a l l y  good...and then what we were going t o do i s put i t on a t u r n t a b l e and f i l m i t and put i t i n t o a program c a l l e d hypercard and then that would be a p a r t of the a r t and then that would be put onto the CD ROM. Another student chose t o do a landscape p a i n t i n g based upon a photograph taken by the student. Well, art  She d e s c r i b e s  her p r o j e c t :  that p a i n t i n g there, which I j u s t d i d , t h a t was our  project.  The teacher  asked us t o do an a r t p r o j e c t  so that they c o u l d choose from them and put i t i n t o the CD ROM. road.  So I got my idea from l o o k i n g down Lakeshore My dad took me there because i t was w i n t e r and I  thought I'd p a i n t a scenery p i c t u r e . I d i d n ' t want anything  modern...I photographed i t f i r s t .  about that small so I had t o put some of my in  I t was o n l y imagination  i t because some o f the p a r t s I wanted t o get a l i t t l e  more d e t a i l . The  t h i r d and f o u r t h were tempera p a i n t i n g s , one o f a mountain  and  the other of a house, c o p i e d  from  postcards.  Other p r o j e c t s were a l s o d e s c r i b e d by students. students t e l l Our  and  about t h e i r c l a y work:  i n s t r u c t i o n s were t o make a cup.  decided  Two  t o model a l i t t l e  I was making l i t t l e  But a f t e r t h a t I  t h i n g , so I made a l i t t l e  face  designs w i t h my n a i l s . . . I d i d  68  some c l a y s t u f f .  I made a mug  f o r my  mom  and  I made some  sculptures. One  of the f a v o u r i t e p r o j e c t s s i t e d by students at Lakeview  was  drawing and  sketching  i n the s c h o o l ,  somewhere around the school and we  had  "We  had  to  go  to t r y to draw that  p i c t u r e on a p i e c e of manila paper". A c h i l d r e n ' s book, i n which students c r e a t e d a c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y , i l l u s t r a t e d the s t o r y on l a r g e sheets of manila paper, and  then c r e a t e d computer g r a p h i c s  drawings, was  "I d i d a c h i l d r e n ' s book...We were going to  get those p u b l i s h e d That was  when they're  done.  But  t h a t wasn't  really  more theme".  Clay animation through v i d e o was A student  original  an a c t i v i t y o r i g i n a t i n g as a language a r t c l a s s .  A student says,  art.  from t h e i r  an i d e a f o r the  future.  explains:  That was  something  [the teacher] s a i d I c o u l d t r y by  myself.  So i t wasn't r e a l l y c l a y animation, i t was  l i k e people animation...We used people... See, to do c l a y animation.  my  more  idea  was  I wanted to go f u r t h e r w i t h t h i s  afterwards. At R i v e r s i d e , some d e t a i l .  Pat o u t l i n e d a number of a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n  Pat d e s c r i b e d  f i g u r e drawing p r o j e c t s from  life,  as w e l l as, the s p o r t s f i g u r e s which were i n s p i r e d by the of magazine i l l u s t r a t i o n s . me  as we  looked  Pat e x p l a i n e d  through examples.  Sports  chosen by the students from magazines.  69  use  the s p o r t s u n i t f o r a c t i o n poses were  These f i g u r e s were  then drawn by students and a s t e n c i l made.  Dry brush, water  c o l o u r and I n d i a i n k techniques were then e x p l o r e d t o get a sense of movement i n the a r t work. Moorington  P i c t u r e s f o r the  Board's Christmas c a r d were a l s o c r e a t e d and sent  to the board o f f i c e f o r s e l e c t i o n . I witnessed the students l i n o l e u m b l o c k p r i n t i n g  class,  where they l e a r n e d about m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s and t e c h n i q u e s . d e s i g n concepts l e a r n e d were p a t t e r n , i n c l u d i n g , b r i c k and drop c o n f i g u r a t i o n s .  The  regular,  Pat r e c a l l s the i n t r o d u c t i o n  to l i n o l e u m b l o c k p r i n t i n g as one of the most s u c c e s s f u l classes. ...we  looked at the t o o l s and I had s p e c i f i c n i b s drawn  on the board and they were t o f i n d these and look a t them and we'd p r a c t i c e p u t t i n g them i n t o the handles and t a k i n g them out and t r y i n g d i f f e r e n t ones...and I showed them the d i f f e r e n t h o l d s . . . T h i s was new, d i f f e r e n t anything they'd ever done b e f o r e .  from  And they t r i e d a few  c u t s i n crummy p i e c e s of linoleum...and s i t t i n g on the p i e c e of l i n o l e u m t o warm i t up o r whatever...We have these wooden t h i n g s where t h e r e ' s a p i e c e that hooks over the end of the desk and they c o u l d t r y t h a t and they were a l i t t l e nervous and couldn't handle the d i f f e r e n t holds... Ceramic v e s s e l s were a l s o c r e a t e d u s i n g a mold and the s l a b o r c o i l technique.  I a l s o observed t h i s  demonstration.  The bisque ware was a l s o g l a z e d by a couple of s t u d e n t s .  70  Simultaneously,  a logo d e s i g n p r o j e c t was c o - o r d i n a t e d  with the l i b r a r i a n u s i n g magazines as a source f o r the development of the student's own logo. year was the f i r s t  Pat remarks, "Now  time I s p l i t the c l a s s e s f o r the day.  this Now  they d i d n ' t p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e the logos, but they much p r e f e r r e d working w i t h the c l a y . anyway".  Pat developed  Well I expected t h a t  a worksheet w i t h the l i b r a r i a n because  they had t o work out of magazines which she had. They had t o cut out, I t h i n k , there were f i v e p i c t u r e s and they had t o cut out t h r e e logos  Pat says: little from  magazines and t e l l why they were good logos, why they a d v e r t i s e d the company s u c c e s s f u l l y . . . and then they had to  d e s i g n a couple on t h e i r own.  crayons, you know, i n the l i b r a r y , to The  They were u s i n g p e n c i l i t ' s s m a l l and i t has  be t i d y . students at R i v e r s i d e r e p o r t e d p r o j e c t s such as,  making f o l d e r s and u s i n g I n d i a i n k t o l e t t e r them w i t h d i f f e r e n t types of l e t t e r s .  They d e s c r i b e d the s p o r t s and  f i g u r e drawing u n i t s d e s c r i b e d above, s t e n c i l and d r y brush, l i n o b l o c k p r i n t i n g , p e r s p e c t i v e drawing and p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e space drawings w i t h a p a r t n e r , where drawings were t r a d e d and the o p p o s i t e space c o l o u r e d .  E x e r c i s e s on f a c e  p r o p o r t i o n was r e q u i r e d o f students f i n i s h e d o t h e r p r o j e c t s early. Two students t e l l  about some of the p r o j e c t s they d i d :  71  We s t a r t e d our f o l d e r s and d i d some work w i t h some I n d i a ink and we worked along w i t h d i f f e r e n t types o f l e t t e r s on the back and then we d i d a s p o r t s u n i t where we p i c k e d a s p o r t s person,  l i k e on a p i e c e of paper,  and t r a c e d i t  w i t h I n d i a i n k and worked along w i t h t h a t w i t h some powdered p a i n t s .  Powdered p a i n t s s o r t of make i t run and  now we are the o n l y c l a s s t h a t ' s allowed t o do l i n o b l o c k i n g and we a r e working on t h a t now and doing p r i n t s with i t .  At the s t a r t o f the year we made a r t f o l d e r s  that has a l l our d i f f e r e n t s t u f f and we d i d our p e r s p e c t i v e u n i t and there were about t h r e e o r f o u r different  activities.  Drawing, s k e t c h i n g and f i g u r e drawing were p o p u l a r A student  activities.  says:  L i k e sketches, f i g u r e s of people. would stand i n f r o n t .  We had models who  We had models o f people  from our  c l a s s and they'd j u s t stand up i n f r o n t and we draw them on a b i g p i e c e of paper. The  l i n o b l o c k p r i n t i n g and c l a y work were a l s o  favourites:  When we i n t r o d u c e d the l i n o b l o c k i n g because i t was s o r t of a p r i v i l e g e ,  'cause we were the o n l y c l a s s allowed t o  do i t because we were more r e s p o n s i b l e then the o t h e r c l a s s e s and i t was fun l e a r n i n g how, l i k e p r a c t i s i n g on the p r a c t i s e l i n o .  I t was fun experimenting  t h i n g s down.  72  and w r i t i n g  A c t i v i t i e s l e s s popular a student  were p e r s p e c t i v e drawing d e s c r i b e d  here:  F i r s t of a l l before we you  have to f i n d , we  p o i n t s and  s t a r t e d , we  had  then there's one  another one  was  A r t H i s t o r y and A r t teacher  the  had  some d i t t o s and  to f i n d the 25  the p e r s p e c t i v e a l l the way  The  by  perspective  b u i l d i n g and you  have to show  down to the ground  and  hallway.  Appreciation  at Lakeview t a l k e d about Canadian a r t i s t s i n  class.  C h r i s showed the c l a s s p a i n t i n g s by the Group of Seven  and had  them copy a r t work by these and other Canadian a r t i s t s  from post  cards.  Canadians.• A few  One  of the theme p r o j e c t s was  students  chose an a r t i s t  Seven as t h e i r famous Canadian. We  t a l k about a r t i s t s .  researching a r t i s t s ,  Chris  from the Group of  says:  They do a p r o j e c t where  a Canadian a r t i s t ,  i n s t a n c e , we're doing,  Famous  and now  the k i d s are doing  on Famous Canadians... I had  they're for  a main p r o j e c t  some c r e a t i v e k i d s p i c k  the  Group of Seven. Students s t u d i e d the importance of a r t as an  expression  of c u l t u r e f o r the Native people of Canada through S o c i a l Studies.  Students commented t h a t they d i d some a r t h i s t o r y i n  Grade 7. At R i v e r s i d e students A r t i s t s and  d i d a u n i t i n Grade 7 on  the Group of Seven.  They took a t r i p to  Canadian the  McMichael G a l l e r y i n K l e i n b e r g as p a r t of the experience.  73  As  a r e s u l t students c o u l d recognize t h e i r work.  Group of Seven a r t i s t s and  As at Lakeview, i n the Famous Canadians u n i t ,  some students chose an a r t i s t  from the Group o f Seven.  Students from R i v e r s i d e mentioned that they t a l k e d about the Group of Seven i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e when l e a r n i n g h i s t o r y and copied a Group of Seven p a i n t i n g . says,  A student from R i v e r s i d e  " A c t u a l l y , I don't know i f we are going t o t h i s year,  but we d i d l a s t year.  We s t u d i e d the Group of Seven.  We went  to the McMichael G a l l e r y and that was p r e t t y i n t e r e s t i n g " . Integration I n t e g r a t i o n has been t r e a t e d as a separate c a t e g o r y s i n c e Pat,  C h r i s and Toni were s p e c i f i c a l l y asked t o g i v e  views on the i s s u e .  their  Following, are,, the r e p o r t s r e g a r d i n g the  concept o f i n t e g r a t i o n made by the teachers  interviewed.  C h r i s commented that f o r Lakeview the concept of i n t e g r a t i o n was c u r r e n t l y emerging and e v o l v i n g . "As if  Chris  says,  f a r as i n t e g r a t i o n goes, i t ' s a l l so new so I don't know I know what t o expect r i g h t now o r what i t s going t o be".  It was not y e t c l e a r what was t o be expected o r what i t s f i n a l form would take. and  Lakeview was i n the p r o c e s s of i n t e r p r e t i n g  d e f i n i n g i n t e g r a t i o n i n the context  school  situation.  Nevertheless,  of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  i t was apparent t h a t c e n t r a l  to the concept of i n t e g r a t i o n at Lakeview, was a d e s i r e t o incorporate  as much o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m  b u i l d i n g personal  skills,  while  at the same time as, r e l a t i n g the  program t o the " r e a l world".  Toni  74  explains:  One  of the t h i n g s that we r e a l l y emphasize are the l i f e  s k i l l s and I guess what I'd l i k e t o do i s t o develop f u l l y independent l e a r n e r s and t o make them f a m i l i a r w i t h a l o t of l i f e  s k i l l s that they must have - not j u s t make  them f a m i l i a r - but t o g i v e them a chance at being s u c c e s s f u l i n a c q u i r i n g these l i f e  s k i l l s and a p p l y i n g  them t o r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Chris declares that,  "I j u s t t r y t o r e l a t e as much o f i t  [the program] as p o s s i b l e , whatever we're working on t o the r e a l world...whatever i s happening i n the r e a l world i f we can directly relate i t " . One  way the teachers  at Lakeview saw i n t e g r a t i o n  o p e r a t i n g was by b u i l d i n g c u r r i c u l u m themes.  around c e n t r a l ideas o r  They saw an i n t e g r a t e d u n i t as one where v a r i o u s  s u b j e c t matter, such as, mathematics, E n g l i s h and the s o c i a l sciences  combined many a c t i v i t i e s around a " c r e a t i v e  application". separately.  In t h i s way the s u b j e c t s were not taught Instead,  students a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c knowledge and  s k i l l s to a p a r t i c u l a r project. For me t e a c h i n g  Toni g i v e s an o u t l i n e :  an i n t e g r a t e d u n i t would be a u n i t where  I i n v o l v e a l l kinds o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l , such as, math English, s o c i a l sciences a c t i v i t i e s together  and s c i e n c e and combine those  so that i t i s an i n t e g r a t e d approach  or u n i t that I might use, so that i f a student i s working on a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ,  i t might be a s c i e n c e  a c t i v i t y o r math o r l i t e r a c y based.  75  based  It i s totally  integrated.  I'm not t e a c h i n g  something separate... I t  might a l s o be, i f I'm doing an i n t e g r a t e d theme and there's  something s p e c i a l I want done i n the a r t room, I  t a l k t o the a r t teacher  o r the f a m i l y s t u d i e s teacher o r  the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s teacher  and w i t h i n my theme, i f I  t a l k t o them i n advance, I can s e t up a c t i v i t i e s f o r the k i d s t o do i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s e s which are r e l a t e d to what we're doing here.  That way you get a f u l l  i n t e g r a t i o n throughout the s c h o o l . As quoted e a r l i e r ,  C h r i s would u l t i m a t e l y l i k e t o see a l l  c l a s s e s working on the same themes s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  At  s p e c i f i e d times, students c o u l d then s i g n themselves i n t o v a r i o u s work areas,  depending upon the nature of t h e i r  p r o j e c t , where the s p e c i a l i s t teacher  would f a c i l i t a t e  their  activity. At Lakeview i n t e g r a t i o n a l s o meant having students see an i s s u e from many p e r s p e c t i v e s . through separate s u b j e c t s ,  Instead  of r o t a t i n g students  at the end of the day, i t was  felt,  that students should be able t o see how one i d e a r e l a t e s t o another.  For example, how weather was r e l a t e d t o l a n d mass o r  how a r t s k i l l s were used i n the broad p i c t u r e , such as i n l a y out and design.  Chris  explains:  I n t e g r a t i o n I t h i n k means l e t t i n g the k i d s see t h i n g s from a l l p e r s p e c t i v e s schools  i n s t e a d of j u s t one - a l o t of the  are j u s t r o t a r y where a k i d goes from h i s 4 0  minutes math and 40 minutes s c i e n c e and geography and  76  none of them are related...Whereas I would hope the k i d s can s i t and at the end of the day see how  studying  weather a f f e c t s the l a n d mass...So they're s c i e n c e , they're t a l k about how  studying  s t u d y i n g geography and then i f you can  t h a t a f f e c t e d m i g r a t i o n . . . then  they're  a l s o , l e a r n i n g h i s t o r y . . . S o they're not s e e i n g as separate,  everything  but e v e r y t h i n g as one and the a r t would  c e r t a i n l y be the s k i l l s brought i n t o t h a t . As f a r as the a r t program was concerned, C h r i s wanted t o teach the students students  as many s k i l l s as p o s s i b l e and t o get  t h i n k i n g i n terms of working on p r o j e c t s i n v a r i o u s  s i t u a t i o n s u s i n g a l l of the t o o l s at t h e i r d i s p o s a l . i n s t a n c e , computer g r a p h i c s k i l l s  For  l e a r n e d i n a r t c o u l d be  a p p l i e d t o other areas, while t r a d i t i o n a l drawing s k i l l s a l s o be combined with computer s k i l l s . All  Chris  could  says:  I can say i s t h a t with the a r t program I t r y and g i v e  them as many s k i l l s as they can take back t o t h e i r  [home]  room as p o s s i b l e . . . i f they are doing a p r o j e c t and something comes up and they go: "Hey, t h i s i n a r t . We can do t h i s " .  I remember doing  That's g r e a t .  As f o r my  own c l a s s I s t r e s s a b i t more i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the a r t program - i n s i s t on a few t h i n g s . C h r i s has been s u r p r i s e d by some of the c r e a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s students i n s t a n c e , students dimensions.  have d i s c o v e r e d f o r computer a r t . For  generated a map  then r e c r e a t e d i t i n three  C h r i s g i v e s an example:  77  But  the k i d s s u r p r i s e you  sometimes.  They do t h i n g s  I don't t h i n k about... Maybe t h e y ' l l d e s i g n Canada and  they use  a map  the technique, maybe 3D,  that  of  t h a t we  used  i n a r t . . . s o something that I wouldn't have s a i d "Okay I want you  to do a map  i n 3D."  A l l of a sudden i t j u s t  happens. C h r i s b e l i e v e d that drawing and o n l y be used f o r t h e i r own other purposes.  Science  sake, but  art s k i l l s should  should  not  a l s o be used f o r  and Design Technology p r o j e c t s  often  r e q u i r e d f i n e drawing s k i l l s which some students f e l t more comfortable t a c k l i n g on the computer.  As o u t l i n e d i n  p r e v i o u s l y i n the s e c t i o n on a r t p r o j e c t s , a r t a c t i v i t i e s were merged i n t o other assignments. . In,a  science unit, posters  models were c r e a t e d to show the c i r c u l a t o r y system and c h i l d r e n ' s book was  p r o j e c t and  a design  Lakeview d e l i v e r e d c u r r i c u l u m  theme work.  who  they're you may,  e s s e n t i a l l y through  At the same time, C h r i s e x p l a i n e d The  "A l o t [teachers]  t h i n k i n g of i t i s , you  [Chris] to g i v e my on o c c a s i o n  logos.  i n t e g r a t e d s u b j e c t matter through  s p e c i a l i s t s were necessary. C h r i s says,  For  technology  l a t h e p r o j e c t the students c r e a t e d computer generated  g e n e r a l i s t teachers  a  i l l u s t r a t e d f o r a language a r t s u n i t .  a s o c i a l science c i t y planning  or  a r t teacher  that  taught a r t .  don't teach art...The know, I teach a r t .  k i d s the s k i l l s " .  have used a r t m a t e r i a l s ,  t h e i r c l a s s to the a r t room, but  78  subject  Home room  way I t i s up teachers  or have brought  they d i d not  teach a r t , per  to  se, i n t h e i r classroom.  A r t r e l a t e d t o the theme work, such  as, p o s t e r s , p a p i e r mache, masks and c o l l a g e , was executed i n the home room c l a s s without a r t i n s t r u c t i o n .  T o n i g i v e s an  example: I f we a r e doing a s p e c i f i c theme, maybe we're doing something  on N a t i v e Peoples of Canada, the students might  decide t o do a c o l l a g e on N a t i v e People o r they might make a mask on an Indian t r i b e o r a totem p o l e o r something  along that l i n e so, I've b u i l t  i n a l o t o f time  f o r them t o work on those type of a c t i v i t i e s . Toni went on t o e x p l a i n that some a r t work was done i n the home room c l a s s such as: ...making of p o s t e r s , N a t i v e masks, c o l l a g e of the penguin up t h e r e . . . The k i d s do a l o t of t h i n g s i n here. I f they a r e making a c l a y model o r something  like  that  then o f course they have t o go down t o the a r t room t o do that. Toni a l s o s a i d ,  "I t h i n k t h a t ' s an important p a r t o f the  program, you know, i n t e g r a t i n g the a r t i n t o what t h e y ' r e doing".  Yet, at the same time, admitted that a r t concepts and  d e s i g n were not taught i n c l a s s .  Toni says:  Well maybe not i n terms o f d e s i g n .  Although when we were  s t u d y i n g N a t i v e People o f Canada, I would t a l k about the a r t p a r t and how important i t was t o the Indians and how through the totem p o l e , and so on, that was an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r l i f e . . . B u t we d i d n ' t get i n t o l i n e s and d e s i g n  79  and so on.  I would p r o b a b l y leave t h a t t o the a r t  t e a c h e r . . . But we c e r t a i n l y looked at i t as, okay, t h i s i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t gave the Indians a chance t o express t h e i r f e e l i n g s and t h e i r way of l i f e .  And then I t r y t o  g i v e the students, through t h e i r a r t work i n these related activities,  t o express what they see and how they  feel. N e v e r t h e l e s s , C h r i s saw i n t e g r a t i o n i n one sense as u s i n g a r t skills,  m a t e r i a l s and techniques i n o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s such as  that which T o n i d e s c r i b e d . C h r i s a l s o e x p l a i n e d how an attempt  was b e i n g made t o  i n t e g r a t e the s c h o o l a c r o s s the grade l e v e l s . p r o j e c t , incomplete  The CD ROM  a t the time of t h i s study, was designed t o  b r i n g student music and a r t work t o g e t h e r i n an audio presentation.  visual  Some of the s p e c i f i c student p r o j e c t s were  o u t l i n e d i n the s e c t i o n on a r t p r o j e c t s .  Although  c h a l l e n g i n g , p l a n s i n c l u d e d having students c r e a t e t h e i r own hypercard s t a c k .  T h i s student generated CD would be housed i n  the l i b r a r y where the e n t i r e student body had access t o the c o l l e c t i o n of p r o j e c t s . C h r i s o u t l i n e s some o f the p l a n s and challenges: We are going t o t r y t o make a hypercard stack, which i s a computer program so you can s i t down and f l i p through i t u s i n g the computer t o go through d i f f e r e n t aspects o f i t . . . I t w i l l be unique  because they are adding music,  art,  I t i s r e a l l y i n t e g r a t e d and the  computer s k i l l s .  80  t h i n g t h a t i s n i c e about t h a t i s the a r t s a r e n ' t always covered. kid  CD ROM's are s c i e n c e or t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . . . s o a  i n grade 2 who  wants t o work on an a r t p r o j e c t c o u l d  l o a d t h i s i n and have a look and get i d e a s as t o what has been done i n s c h o o l . C h r i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d a s c h o o l assembly where students a c r o s s grade l e v e l s p r e s e n t e d t h e i r a r t work and o t h e r  special  p r o j e c t s to each o t h e r . Some of them r e a l l y l i k e showing o f f t h e i r work.  I had  them s i t on the stage and I had the c o r d l e s s microphone and I went up t o each of them and s a i d , name" and  "What do you do" The  little  "What's your  k i d s were j u s t i n  awe... At R i v e r s i d e , Pat the a r t s p e c i a l i s t taught a l l of the art,  although a r t a c t i v i t i e s ,  such as drawing and p o s t e r  making, a l s o o c c u r r e d i n o t h e r c l a s s e s . "all  the messy s t u f f " was  time, as r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r ,  Still,  as Pat put i t ,  done i n the a r t room.  At the same  a r t students used the  library  f a c i l i t y and magazine r e s o u r c e s t o l e a r n about l o g o s .  Half  the c l a s s worked on a logo package w i t h the l i b r a r i a n ,  while  the o t h e r h a l f of the c l a s s worked on t h e i r ceramic The c l a s s then  project.  switched.  Pat d e s c r i b e d a number of i n t e g r a t e d theme u n i t s e s p e c i a l l y at the Grade 7 l e v e l . Canadians,  A s i x week u n i t about N a t i v e  beginning i n September and ending i n November,  c o r r e l a t e d language a r t s w i t h s o c i a l s c i e n c e .  81  Based on the  l i v e s of N a t i v e Peoples students wrote legends  from the Algonquins and mystery s t o r i e s ,  t o the I n u i t , created detailed  maps and d e s c r i b e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l i f e s t y l e s o f these people.  The u n i t a l s o i n c l u d e d a study o f I n u i t a r t and the  Group of Seven.  A r t a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d landscape p a i n t i n g  and a d e s i g n p r o j e c t based upon I n u i t a r t . was t i e d t o g e t h e r w i t h a v i s i t Kleinberg.  The a r t component  t o the McMichael G a l l e r y i n  Pat t e l l s about the u n i t :  In grade 7 t h a t b i g N a t i v e p r o j e c t i s a b i g one.  That i s  we do, you know, N a t i v e s t u f f i n a r t . . . T h a t i n t e g r a t e s w i t h language a r t because they w r i t e Indian legends... and s o c i a l s c i e n c e of course, they do the maps where the Native People were s i t u a t e d and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of them...and we i n t e g r a t e the whole s h o o t i n g match...Within that time t h e y ' l l do the Group of Seven t o o because t h e i r language - they do a l i t t l e in  the f a l l  mystery thing...We s t a r t t h a t  and i t goes r i g h t up i n t o the K l e i n b e r g t r i p  which i s i n November. A f i e l d t r i p f o r the Grade 8 c l a s s e s , which, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e , was planned Moorington A r t Centre.  f o r the  Pat e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s t r i p was  designed t o i n t e g r a t e the g a l l e r y experience,  i n terms of a r t  a p p r e c i a t i o n , w i t h the s p o r t s f i g u r e drawing u n i t .  Pat saw  i n t e g r a t i o n a l s o as combining s t u d i o and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n experiences.  82  We were supposed t o go t o the Moorington A r t Centre a f t e r the s p o r t u n i t , the f i g u r e drawing.  They were going t o  do s c u l p t u r e , hand b u i l d i n g s c u l p t u r e ,  little  f i g u r e s . . . S o that was t o be an i n t e g r a t e d u n i t  there.  Now not i n t e g r a t e d w i t h language, though, j u s t  integrated  i n an a r t sense. R i v e r s i d e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an a r t exchange w i t h Japan. Through a r t work, students made contact w i t h Japanese students t h e i r own age.  Research about Japan at s c h o o l a l s o e n r i c h e d  the e x p e r i e n c e .  In s h o r t , the students l e a r n e d  about Japanese c u l t u r e through a r t . the a r t exchange  something  Although, i n t h i s case,  i n v o l v e d o n l y the Grade 6 c l a s s e s , the e n t i r e  school became aware of the exchange, students' a r t work.  s e e i n g the Japanese  Pat thought that t h i s was a good example  of how i n t e g r a t i o n occurs through a r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t y .  Pat  d e s c r i b e s the event: With the grade 6's, f o r example, exchange  there was a b i g a r t  i n Japan and you chose p i e c e s from each s c h o o l  and they took 12 o f o u r s . . . I t was t o be on Moorington and we d i v i d e d the grade 6 c l a s s e s . Moorington theme.  I t was t o have a  So we t a l k e d about Moorington and they  c o u l d do the scenery, they c o u l d do the neighbourhood o r a house o r something you do i n Moorington. Pat saw many p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o work w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t areas, such as f a m i l y s t u d i e s o r technology and would l i k e t o do so i n the f u t u r e .  An example of a p r i n t i n g u n i t was g i v e n  83  where students would make p r i n t i n g b l o c k s , p r i n t on f a b r i c  and  make an a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g , which would i n t e g r a t e a r t , technology and  family studies.  Pat b e l i e v e d t h a t  students  should be encouraged to expand t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e by experiencing  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r art outside  the a r t room.  In  Pat's words: Something I'd l i k e to t r y again don't know.  I don't see anything  c o r r e l a t i n g elsewhere... We and  technology to put  bit  of design get  and  wrong w i t h  used the wood from the  the l i n o on so, there was  technology because we  i t r i g h t and what not.  on the paper, I had  had  But  r e a l f a b r i c p a i n t and  design  a  little  to cut  the  after printing the  kids  p r i n t e d on c l o t h . . . then they took the c l o t h to s t u d i e s and  I  I t would c o r r e l a t e f a m i l y s t u d i e s i n s t e a d of  language a r t s and  wood and  i f i t would work and  family  I t h i n k the g i r l s were making aprons... I'd  love to t r y something and teacher] would be.  You  I'm  sure  [the f a m i l y  studies  know, she makes these l i t t l e  tote  bags w i t h the draw s t r i n g s . Pat o u t l i n e d problems a n t i c i p a t e d when attempting to i n t e g r a t e across  s u b j e c t areas.  One  c o - o r d i n a t i n g the Grade 8 c l a s s e s . depend  upon the teachers  p r o j e c t and instance,  who  of the o b s t a c l e s would be The  a c t i v i t y would a l s o  were w i l l i n g to work on  the type of students one  had  Pat thought that the present  84  to work with.  the For  group of students were  not  s u i t e d t o work on an i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t due t o t h e i r  of m a t u r i t y .  level  Pat observes:  There are p o s s i b i l i t i e s i f we c o u l d somehow the grade 8's.  co-ordinate  I f they were a n i c e r group than they were  t h i s year...could  do the l i n o and p r a c t i c e on paper w i t h  the water base p a i n t and go i n t o the o i l based p a i n t , the f a b r i c p a i n t and p r i n t  something.  Teacher Role and Program D e l i v e r y At Lakeview g e n e r a l i s t teachers  taught many o f the core  areas such as, math, E n g l i s h and s o c i a l s c i e n c e , subject  whereas  s p e c i a l i s t s taught areas such as a r t o r music.  Chris  acted as a f a c i l i t a t o r u s i n g s u b j e c t e x p e r t i s e t o d i r e c t students and t o suggest a p p r o p r i a t e introduced  resources.  Chris  and demonstrated a r t a c t i v i t i e s and developed  independent p r o j e c t s w i t h students.  Students worked through  p r o j e c t s a s k i n g C h r i s f o r help when they needed i t .  Chris  g i v e s an example: Right  now we're s t a r t i n g one [a theme] on  Careers... u s u a l l y the f i r s t week o r two o f i n t r o d u c i n g a theme there  i s a l o t of t e a c h i n g  i n v o l v e d and then the  k i d s - say we're doing a u n i t on Canadian H i s t o r y and you make a b i g time l i n e ,  so we spent two weeks c o v e r i n g a  l o t o f Canadian h i s t o r y , whatever the c u r r i c u l u m  calls  f o r and you have that t i m e l i n e covered and then what happens i s that i n s t e a d o f c o v e r i n g  everything,  one o f  the k i d s might say I'm r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t s  85  of the American R e v o l u t i o n on the development of Canada or I'm r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n World War I I so, they have seen the whole t i m e l i n e but i n s t e a d of f o c u s i n g on many years, they take one aspect of i t and I would develop some k i n d of assignment  t o go along w i t h i t ,  some s o r t of r e s e a r c h and [have them] p r e s e n t  making i t their  f i n d i n g s t o the c l a s s u s i n g some s o r t of technology. C h r i s wanted t o develop independent  learners.  Students  are t r a i n e d t o come i n t o the room and get r i g h t t o work.  He  says: They come r i g h t i n and they know t h e i r assignment  and you  are at the door and away they go and they've got t h e i r group l e a d e r s . . . Each person i s going t o be d i f f e r e n t . i s not l i k e a l o t of c l a s s e s where they would say take out your paper, here.  It  [the teacher]  cut t h i s out, glue t h i s  I want a f i n i s h e d product, but how each one of you  get there i s up t o you...You've got a l l these t o o l s t o use t o see how you want t o get t h e r e . Due t o the independent  nature o f many o f the a r t  p r o j e c t s , C h r i s spent a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of time w i t h each student on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , whether they were having t r o u b l e w i t h an assignment  o r were working  ahead.  They get a l o t of freedom, but you've got t o be c a r e f u l because t h e r e ' s k i d s that can get l o s t and j u s t s i t there and do n o t h i n g and o t h e r s get good at l o o k i n g as though they are doing something... I'd r a t h e r they get one o r two  86  t h i n g s i n and not get f r u s t r a t e d then not hand a n y t h i n g i n . . . b u t you s t i l l  need t o spend a l o t o f time w i t h the  k i d s t h a t are e x c e l l i n g .  There are s t i l l  that they are not going t o understand  a l o t of t h i n g s  and they want help  w i t h . . . t h e r e ' s k i d s t h a t j u s t t h r i v e on i t - you g i v e them an a f t e r n o o n and they're gone.  You don't  see them  and you know they are going t o produce r e s u l t s , but then t h e r e ' s k i d s you have t o say do t h i s and then t h i s and they're j u s t  lost.  At Lakeview C h r i s e x p l a i n e d t h a t t r a c k i n g students was c h a l l e n g i n g s i n c e many were working independently on d i f f e r e n t projects simultaneously.  C h r i s o u t l i n e s the concern:  One o f the problems t h a t we a r e working.on r i g h t now i s tracking. There's  To an extent I do t h a t i n my own room now...  k i d s who w i l l be u s i n g the l i b r a r y , who w i l l be  u s i n g the music room, who w i l l be u s i n g the d e s i g n tech, so on a s m a l l s c a l e i t i s happening i n my home room now. One student had t h i s t o say about the program. "Well, yes I like i t .  There's n o t h i n g t o f i n d wrong w i t h i t .  seems q u i t e c l e a r .  I f i n d i t quite enjoyable".  The t e a c h i n g Others v o i c e d  much the same o p i n i o n , commenting on the f a c t t h a t they  liked  the freedom g i v e n them i n a r t . At R i v e r s i d e Pat a c t e d as an i n s t r u c t o r and monitor.  Pat  gave a l l o f the i n s t r u c t i o n s and demonstrated the a c t i v i t i e s at  the b e g i n n i n g o f c l a s s .  activities,  Occasionally, with lengthy  Pat gave the students t h e i r i n i t i a l  87  instructions  and had them work independently f o r two o r t h r e e c l a s s e s on the p r o j e c t .  Pat monitored  w i t h the a c t i v i t y .  student p r o g r e s s and helped them  Pat o r c h e s t r a t e d a l l student  from s e t up, t o a s s i g n i n g c l e a n up d u t i e s .  activities  T h i s i s Pat's  account: They come i n here and they are supposed t o come i n and s i t down because I o f t e n have, t h a t ' s when I g i v e my i n s t r u c t i o n s at the b e g i n n i n g . . . Once they get t h e i r hands d i r t y and get mucking around me i n t e r r u p t i n g them.  they can keep going without  Once they get t h e i r  instructions,  away they go and I guess my j o b i s t o monitor what they are doing.  Then comes the f a v o u r i t e p a r t - the c l e a n up  of the classroom and I go down the c l a s s l i s t everybody  has a turn...The  so t h a t  c l e a n up i s supposed t o be a l l  done b e f o r e they go so that the next c l a s s can be ready...Put  t h e i r s t o o l s under the t a b l e and l i n e up at  the door b e f o r e they go and that g i v e s me a chance t o g i v e a c u r s o r y glance around  the room t o see that  indeed  the room i s i n reasonable shape. Students at R i v e r s i d e r e p o r t e d that t h e i r t e a c h e r e x p l a i n e d e v e r y t h i n g r e a l l y w e l l so they d i d n ' t have t o ask too many q u e s t i o n s . own pace.  Pat then l e t the students work at t h e i r  In the words of Pat's s t u d e n t s :  Well the t e a c h e r knows how t o teach w e l l .  She e x p l a i n s  e v e r y t h i n g so nobody has too many q u e s t i o n s . b e i n g s o r t of independent,  the independent  88  I like  study when you  can work at your own pace and you can come i n i f you a r e behind and work on them...She e x p l a i n s t o us and then she w r i t e s on the b l a c k b o a r d what we are supposed t o do f o r the next few p e r i o d s and then when we come i n we get r i g h t down t o work and she j u s t walks around and s u p e r v i s e s so we're k i n d o f working on our own l i k e without her e x p l a i n i n g a n y t h i n g . . . J u s t the way she b r i n g s out your c r e a t i v i t y because she r e a l l y doesn't it one  put out a s e t of r u l e s .  She j u s t  outlines  and then you k i n d o f do i t what you want...1 l i k e d the [class] we j u s t had a while ago when we were doing  l i n o b l o c k s because everyone was doing l i n o b l o c k i n g so you c o u l d s t i l l working,  t a l k t o your f r i e n d s when you were  but you d i d n ' t f e e l rushed o r a n y t h i n g .  On o c c a s i o n , Pat h e l d up announcements on cards so as not to d i s t u r b work u n n e c e s s a r i l y .  A student r e p o r t s , "Sometimes  when we come i n s h e ' l l h o l d up a s i g n l i k e s h o r t announcements so she t e l l s us what i s going on". Art  Facility The  i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n t h i s s e c t i o n comes  from  p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s made at the time o f the study and i n r e v i e w i n g the v i d e o tapes. The a r t room at Lakeview was prominently l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y o f f the main f o y e r a c r o s s from the main o f f i c e .  I t served as  the a r t room as w e l l as a home room f o r the core c u r r i c u l u m . The room was approximately  50 by 50 f e e t square w i t h windows  89  along h a l f of the back w a l l .  Although the room was  d i d not appear t o be so, due t o the asymmetrical of desks and work areas.  arrangement  Student desks were made of l i g h t  grey a r b o r i t e , approximately two by two and a h a l f square.  Students sat on c h a i r s .  were storage cupboards,  feet  Along one s i d e of the room  a cork d i s p l a y board and counter space  housing s c i e n c e equipment. cupboards  square i t  Along another w a l l were a d d i t i o n a l  and counter space, a s m a l l e r a s a b l e board and a cork  d i s p l a y board.  The l a s t w a l l had a l a r g e cork d i s p l a y board  a c r o s s t h r e e q u a r t e r s of the room.  There were computer  t e r m i n a l s i n two areas; one c e n t r e was  l o c a t e d near the  entrance and the o t h e r at the back of the room near the windows.  T h i s arrangement changed from time t o time.  were nine computers i n a l l .  Textbooks,  There  a r t work, ceramics  and  v a r i o u s o t h e r s u p p l i e s o c c u p i e d s h e l v i n g u n i t s i n the back corner of the room. model k i l n .  Near t h i s storage area was  a round  floor  A l o n g narrow work t a b l e s t r e t c h e d from the  entrance of the classroom along one s i d e of the room about f i v e f e e t from the w a l l . area and desk.  T h i s served as the t e a c h e r ' s work  The t e a c h e r ' s work area a l s o i n c l u d e d a l a p -  top computer. At R i v e r s i d e the a r t room was  s i t u a t e d about h a l f  way  down one of the c o r r i d o r s on the main f l o o r between the main o f f i c e and the l i b r a r y . It was  There were two entrances t o the room.  a room approximately 50 by 60 f e e t square.  There was  teacher's desk and f i l i n g c a b i n e t i n the back c o r n e r .  90  a  A r b o r i t e student desks,  two  and a h a l f by three f e e t  were arranged s y m m e t r i c a l l y throughout four.  The  square,  the room i n groups of  students used s t o o l s f o r s e a t i n g .  There were  windows along the back of the room, a double b l a c k b o a r d two  cork d i s p l a y boards along one  and  s i d e of the room, cork  d i s p l a y boards along the e n t i r e t h i r d s i d e , and s h e l v i n g and counter space  f o r paper storage and s u p p l i e s along the  s i d e of the room.  In the back c o r n e r was  k i l n room w i t h a square  last  a small enclosed  f l o o r model k i l n and s h e l v i n g u n i t s  housing ceramic p r o j e c t s and s u p p l i e s .  T h i s room was  used  exclusively for art. Teacher C o l l a b o r a t i o n C h r i s e x p l a i n e d t h a t at Lakeview the program  was  o r g a n i z e d around a group of g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the core c u r r i c u l u m . program was  set up,  As a r e s u l t , once the  there was  c o n s u l t on an ongoing b a s i s .  initial  l i t t l e need f o r t e a c h e r s t o C h r i s sometimes d i s c u s s e d  a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n terms of c u r r e n t u n i t s or themes.  On o c c a s i o n C h r i s got t o g e t h e r w i t h the Music  to p l a n a p r o j e c t , such as the CD ROM o v e r l a y the v i s u a l images. concerned  p r e s s i n g which had  U s u a l l y , any c o l l a b o r a t i v e  the i n t e g r a t i o n of technology.  the s c h o o l sometimes saw  teacher sound  efforts  Other t e a c h e r s i n  C h r i s t o book the a r t f a c i l i t y and t o  set up a c t i v i t i e s or m a t e r i a l s i n advance f o r s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , o f t e n around theme work.  91  C h r i s comments:  Well, the t h i n g here i s t h a t s i n c e I b a s i c a l l y e v e r y t h i n g , o t h e r than g e t t i n g together w i t h teachers  to d i s c u s s j u s t what we  - what s u b j e c t areas we  teach  other  are going to be  teaching  are going to be t e a c h i n g  - I  wouldn't need to t a l k to the Math person because  I'm  t e a c h i n g a l l t h a t , so I can overview i t and t r y to integrate everything.  The  o n l y t h i n g s t h a t aren't  here  are design and tech., f a m i l y s t u d i e s and phys. ed.. music, yes we to  do,  say what we  o b v i o u s l y he and  I have g o t t e n  can do to i n t e g r a t e t h i n g s .  the k i d s f o r a l l the major s u b j e c t areas,  Now  together  Since I have I don't need to  go t a l k to anyone e l s e . At R i v e r s i d e , Pat d e s c r i b e d c o l l a b o r a t i v e work w i t h  the  Moorington Board c o n s u l t a n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g program parameters.  Pat a l s o belonged to a network of  elementary school teachers,  other  r e p o r t i n g that i n i t i a l l y  the group  had h e a l t h y numbers which had r e c e n t l y d i m i n i s h e d . Nevertheless, involved. Now  there's L i s a from one we  at f i r s t  t h i s one The  a core group of  teachers  Pat d e s c r i b e s the group:  teacher, big  there were s t i l l  school and Jim,  another  j u s t have our group and the group was and then i t got s m a l l e r and  l i t t l e nucleus  has  smaller,  stayed.  Board c o n s u l t a n t or c o - o r d i n a t o r a l s o attends  meetings.  92  these  quite but  As o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r ,  Pat a l s o worked d i r e c t l y w i t h the  l i b r a r i a n on d e v e l o p i n g a logo assignment t o be executed i n the l i b r a r y .  The i n t e n t i o n was t o s p l i t  the c l a s s t o  f a c i l i t a t e work w i t h c l a y .  Lesson p l a n s and a work package  for  i n collaboration.  students were developed  EVALUATIVE DIMENSION OF SCHOOLING T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the " e v a l u a t i v e " dimension of schooling  (Eisner, 1991)).  S p e c i f i c a l l y addressed a r e ;  assessment and e v a l u a t i o n , r e p o r t i n g , student knowledge o f a r t and student a t t i t u d e s towards a r t .  Student  a r t knowledge and  a t t i t u d e s g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of what students t h i n k they have l e a r n e d i n a r t , h e l p i n g t o determine  whether they l e a r n e d what  was intended. Assessment  Practices  Assessment i n the a r t program at Lakeview i s l a r g e l y based upon i n d i v i d u a l conferences.  There was ample  o p p o r t u n i t y t o conference w i t h students while o t h e r s were working independently. C h r i s says,  "You have a l o t of time t o  get t o g e t h e r w i t h k i d s , t o t a l k t o them and h o p e f u l l y while you are t a l k i n g t o them the r e s t a r e working.  But i t g i v e s  you time t o i n t e r f a c e , t o conference". Personal  conferences  and i n t e r v i e w i n g took p l a c e on a formal r o t a t i o n a l b a s i s and i n f o r m a l l y , day t o day. Assessment a l s o took p l a c e i n the form o f s e l f evaluation.  C h r i s r e c e i v e d on going feedback  see how they f e l t about what they were going.  93  from students t o C h r i s kept a  f i l e on each student. e x p l a n a t i o n s about  In conferences, students were asked f o r  their individual projects.  Chris explains:  I f they've been working on the computer or, you know, l e a r n i n g a new program o r doing I n d i a i n k o r  something,  then when they are a l l done...I l o v e t o ask them t o e x p l a i n t o me what's going on, what they've done...what do you mean by 3D, w e l l how do you know i t s 3D, and i f they can e x p l a i n t o me...that's what I'm l o o k i n g f o r . Students were assessed and e v a l u a t e d on an i n d i v i d u a l , not comparative degree for  basis.  Student e f f o r t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the  t o which students c h a l l e n g e themselves  assessment.  were  criteria  C h r i s g i v e s an overview:  I measure mostly by e f f o r t .  That's i t because t h e r e r e 1  k i d s who have such a n a t u r a l t a l e n t and t h e r e are some that they can t r y as hard as they want but they are never going t o be a b l e t o draw.  So I base most of my marks on  e f f o r t t h a t ' s put f o r t h and then c h a l l e n g e them...I don't judge them as a c l a s s . excellent kid.  I don't get a standard by one  I t ' s more what each k i d puts f o r t h t h a t ' s  how I mark the i n d i v i d u a l . At Lakeview t r a c k i n g students and g i v i n g feedback room teachers was d i f f i c u l t of  says, to  on an on going b a s i s due t o a l a c k  time and s t r u c t u r e f o r doing so.  home rooms were working  t o home  When students from o t h e r  independently i n the a r t room C h r i s  " I f I have 2 0 k i d s i n the A r t room, how do I r e p o r t back  each one of those i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s " .  94  At Lakeview i t was p o s s i b l e t o know students w e l l s i n c e teachers t r a v e l l e d w i t h the same home room group f o r three years.  The students' maturation process the over time was  n o t i c e a b l e , as was the development o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s and communication w i t h t e a c h e r s , peers and p a r e n t s . f o r a c c u r a t e progress r e p o r t s .  T h i s allowed  Toni r e p o r t s :  I r e a l l y get t o know the students q u i t e w e l l .  They get  to know me and what my e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e and I t h i n k t h a t ' s important  as opposed t o a f u l l  r o t a r y program  where you have maybe a hundred students coming i n and you don't it  r e a l l y get t o know those s t u d e n t s . . . and t h a t makes  a l o t e a s i e r f o r when I meet w i t h p a r e n t s .  At the time of the study, Lakeview was d e v e l o p i n g a new r e p o r t c a r d system t o help the t r a c k i n g of s t u d e n t s . were a l s o moving away from l e t t e r grade r e p o r t i n g . says,  They Chris  "In our s c h o o l we're r e a l l y g e t t i n g away from marks i n  our r e p o r t c a r d s .  In f a c t , we don't have marks, we do have  them, but not t r a d i t i o n a l l y - "A" stands f o r working beyond expected  levels".  R i v e r s i d e operated w i t h i n the standard l e t t e r grade system. term.  Students wrote a short a r t exam at the end o f the The w r i t t e n t e s t i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s of a t h e o r e t i c a l ,  a r t h i s t o r i c a l and p r a c t i c a l nature. had an a r t exam a t the end of the year a few pages.  One student r e l a t e s , [ l a s t year]  "We  I t was j u s t  J u s t q u e s t i o n s about the Group of Seven and she  asked us t o j u s t s k e t c h a s p o r t s p i c t u r e " .  95  Student p o r t f o l i o work was  a l s o assessed by Pat.  At the  same time, students were assessed based upon i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n gathered by Pat and through the students' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h peers.  Students at R i v e r s i d e a l s o had  the  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n i n terms of a spontaneous review of t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y w h i l e l o o k i n g through portfolios.  Pat encouraged  accomplishments i n a r t .  their  students t o be s e l f - a w a r e of t h e i r  B u l l e t i n board d i s p l a y s gave students  a f u r t h e r measure of what they had produced  over the year.  D i s p l a y s of h i s t o r i c a l a r t work were a l s o r e c o g n i z e d by students. Pat g i v e s an  overview:  I guess that l i t t l e exam w i l l c l u e me  i n [to what  they've  learned] and some of the comments that they made when they were l e a v i n g a f t e r the t e s t ,  "I d i d n ' t r e a l i z e  we  had done a l l those t h i n g s t h i s y e a r " . . . I t h i n k when they peek i n t o t h e i r f o l d e r s . . . a n d they say,  "Oh yes, I  remember that"...But they r e a l l y don't understand r e a l i z e u n t i l the end when they see t h e i r output  or - their  p r o d u c t i v i t y . . . I remember p u t t i n g a d i s p l a y case w i t h some of t h e i r c l a s s work and the l i n o p r i n t s out i n the hallway.  You know, there i s an awareness.  they're aware that they are aware. over the s t u f f and say, I was  I don't t h i n k  But they l o v e t o pore  "What do you t h i n k of that one?"  t h r i l l e d when we had been t o K l e i n b e r g and I  still  have the d i s p l a y of the K l e i n b e r g p i c t u r e s and the Group of Seven. "Oh,  t h a t ' s an A.Y.  96  Jackson".  "No.No".  "Yes.  See  i t ' s got the l i t t l e house p a i n t e d i n Quebec,  remember?"... So they a l l l e a r n e d something. Pat a l s o made assessments based upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  One  student commented, "I t h i n k everyone enjoys i t and even i f you are not good i n a r t i t ' s okay because our t e a c h e r i s r e a l l y n i c e so as long as you t r y s h e ' l l g i v e you a good mark". Student A t t i t u d e Chris f e l t  t h a t when t e a c h i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l a r t  c u r r i c u l u m , taken d i r e c t l y from the board g u i d e l i n e , d i d n ' t take a r t v e r y s e r i o u s l y .  They saw  students  a r t as a p l a c e t o  f o o l around f o r 80 minutes because they c o u l d n ' t see the p o i n t of what they were doing.  C h r i s n o t i c e d an improvement i n  student a t t i t u d e as the program became o r i e n t e d more toward the i n d i v i d u a l .  C h r i s r e p o r t e d t h a t students went q u i c k l y t o  work on assignments and even spent e x t r a time on t h e i r a r t . While  some students t h r i v e d on the independence o t h e r s needed  more d i r e c t i o n .  For the most p a r t , however, as students were  sent o f f f o r the a f t e r n o o n t o work on an a r t p r o j e c t C h r i s knew t h a t they would produce r e s u l t s .  Most students got  s t r a i g h t down t o work. Computers helped students come t o g e t h e r t o s o l v e problems. C h r i s saw  students who  g r a p h i c s programs t o g e t h e r . areas of the c u r r i c u l u m .  d i s l i k e d each o t h e r work on  T h i s behaviour  spread t o o t h e r  For i n s t a n c e , C h r i s had combined a  more advanced math student w i t h one watched them l e a r n as a team.  l e s s capable and  C h r i s says:  97  had  There was a b i g a r t i c l e i n the paper l a s t week about school and i t t a l k e d about how the k i d s don't together.  In my experience  from the t r u t h .  this  work  [this] c o u l d n ' t be f u r t h e r  You can take two k i d s who hate  each  o t h e r and s i t them b e s i d e each o t h e r a t a computer working on an a r t p r o j e c t and one has a problem. I t ' s f a s c i n a t i n g t o watch them work i t out t o g e t h e r .  With the  technology i t s t a r t s there and s t a r t s going t o a l l o t h e r p a r t s of the c u r r i c u l u m . Students at Lakeview commented that the atmosphere i n a r t c l a s s was r e l a x e d and that they l i k e d working projects.  on  independent  They a l s o l i k e d t o be able t o s o c i a l i z e w h i l e they  were working.  Students enjoyed drawing  and doing t h e i r work  without too much d i r e c t i o n from the teacher.  Comments were  made a l l u d i n g t o the freedom a v a i l a b l e t o them w i t h i n s e t boundaries.  Students  commented:  Well i t ' s r e a l l y r e l a x e d and we can make our own  stuff  and we can do what we're supposed t o do but we can s t i l l t a l k and jabber.  I t ' s l i k e very relaxed.  And we can  j u s t do what we f e e l l i k e , not r e a l l y do what we l i k e , but draw what we want t o draw...This been i n t e r e s t i n g .  feel  year a r t has  I t ' s r e a l l y fun t h i s year.  'Cause i t s  not l i k e s o r t of l i k e a t h i n g that the t e a c h e r t e l l s you t o do a c e r t a i n t h i n g o r you have t o do something, i t ' s what you want t o do...there's boundaries, but t h e r e ' s no boundaries.  98  but  At R i v e r s i d e Pat r e p o r t e d that students were e x c i t e d about  t h e i r p i c t u r e s b e i n g sent t o the board o f f i c e t o be  s e l e c t e d f o r a Christmas c a r d .  Students were a l s o l o o k i n g  forward t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of p r i n t i n g on f a b r i c and making an a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g .  They were e n t h u s i a s t i c about  the k i l n  and g l a z i n g t h e i r c l a y work. At R i v e r s i d e students l i k e d what they d e s c r i b e d as the independent  study aspect of the c l a s s , where the t e a c h e r gave  them i n s t r u c t i o n s and then l e f t too much i n t e r f e r e n c e .  them t o do the work without  They were allowed t o work at t h e i r  own  pace and f i n i s h p r o j e c t s i n t h e i r spare time i f necessary. One student commented that the teacher gave them a chance t o express themselves they f e l t  through a r t , be c r e a t i v e and t o do what  they should do.  Another  student observed that the  teacher d i d n ' t g i v e them too many r u l e s .  G e n e r a l l y , the  students commented that a r t was a l o t of fun, t h a t r e a l l y enjoyed i t and that the teacher was r e a l l y  everyone nice.  Students comment: Well i t ' s r e a l l y fun and there are l i k e l o t s of independence and you can go at your own speed, you get t o l e a r n new t h i n g s .  but a l s o  I t i s s o r t of l i k e a fun  c l a s s . . . Y o u can t a l k t o your f r i e n d s and you can work i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s and you can study some t h i n g s . Student A r t Knowledge At Lakeview students f e l t  that they had l e a r n e d  about, p e r s p e c t i v e , p a t t e r n , three dimensions,  99  something  monsters,  space  shadows, I n d i a ink, computer a r t , making t h i n g s w i t h c l a y , s p a g h e t t i b r i d g e s , maps and d i f f i c u l t y expressing  the paper c u t t e r .  had  what they knew about A r t i n terms of  design concepts and p r i n c i p l e s . them.  Students  The  They were more comfortable  vocabulary  o f t e n escaped  when t a l k i n g about  the  m a t e r i a l s they used and the p r o j e c t s they worked on.  These  are the t h i n g s they remember l e a r n i n g about: No,  not  l i n e s , but p e r s p e c t i v e s .  How  we  d i d 3D  stuff  ...Making t h i n g s look f a r t h e r than they are...We t a l k e d about p e r s p e c t i v e , of anything  space, shadows, I can't  e l s e . . . W e l l , there was  hadn't done b e f o r e . . . I c o u l d use  never saw  and  I l e a r n e d a few  make p i c t u r e s and  the I n d i a ink which I  a computer which  draw people a c c o r d i n g  life,  so i t was  t r i c k s here and  s t u f f on the  R i v e r s i d e students  c u t t e r s and  think  you  to c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t types of a r t t h i n g s .  never come across t h a t i n my to me  really  to c e r t a i n r u l e s , how  p r i n t , wallpaper design,  there and  to use  space, dry brush  Group of Seven and  student  linoleum  block, technique,  commented t h a t they  l e a r n e d to take t h e i r time while doing a r t , and  another  l e a r n e d t h a t I n d i a ink doesn't come out of c l o t h e s . Students d e s c r i b e what they l e a r n e d i n a r t at R i v e r s i d e :  100  to  to use p a t t e r n i n a b r i c k  p e r s p e c t i v e , p o s i t i v e and negative One  to  l e a r n e d how  and drop p a t t e r n w i t h l i n o  c l a y work.  new  computer.  thought t h a t they had  the d i f f e r e n t n i b s , how  pretty  I had  Well you l e a r n a l o t t o do with a r t .  You l e a r n the  background of, l i k e the Group o f Seven.  And a f t e r you do  a p a i n t i n g from them you know about them and you a l s o l e a r n how t o do c e r t a i n drawings.  And we l e a r n e d a l o t  of s t u f f t h a t you can use i n other c l a s s e s too...You l e a r n how t o draw people...and l e a r n t h a t you s t a r t  with  the head and then j u s t draw the main shape of the body and  add d e t a i l s l a t e r . . . d i f f e r e n t ways you use the l i n o  c u t t e r s , which i s the s a f e s t way t o do i t . . . I n d i a i n k doesn't come out of c l o t h e s . . . p e r s p e c t i v e . . . I t h i n k we l e a r n e d how t o use d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s and what were the best c o l o u r s with warm and c o o l c o l o u r s and I l e a r n e d a l o t about p o s i t i v e s and n e g a t i v e s . Students a l s o d e s c r i b e d the l i n o b l o c k Lino block.  activity:  We cut out a p a t t e r n , put your p a t t e r n on a  l i n o and you cut i t out and then you draw - p a i n t over top and we d i d f i r s t the sheets  a w a l l paper d e s i g n .  We'd put on  of paper and i t would leave a p a t t e r n .  p a t t e r n we cut out.  The  And then we d i d w a l l p a p e r and then  we c o u l d do a drop o r a b l o c k p a t t e r n and t h a t was your good c o p y . . . F i r s t we thought about the p i c t u r e t o draw and  t o make sure i t had some d e t a i l and s t u f f t o make i t  t u r n out good on the b l o c k and then you c o u l d t r a c e i t on the b l o c k what ever way you wanted, then you cut i t o u t . She  taught us a l l the d i f f e r e n t n i b s , the ones t o take  out the corners,  t o gouge out a l l the s t u f f .  101  She taught  us how t o manoeuvre the t o o l s and s t u f f and p a i n t the l i n o b l o c k and p r i n t the p i c t u r e s . Students at R i v e r s i d e seemed more comfortable when t a l k i n g about a r t techniques, m a t e r i a l s and s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s as opposed t o t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge.  At the same time,  command o f a r t v o c a b u l a r y and knowledge o f t e c h n i c a l was adequate t o d e s c r i b e what they had l e a r n e d . aware of d e s i g n concepts, Student  their  skills  They were  e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of p a t t e r n .  Involvement w i t h A r t Outside the A r t Program  T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the students' involvement  with  a r t o u t s i d e the a r t room, i n o t h e r c l a s s e s and o u t s i d e s c h o o l . Only one student from Lakeview r e p o r t e d having done a r t o u t s i d e s c h o o l i n terms of drawing toys and cartoons when younger: A c t u a l l y , when I was younger I used t o s k e t c h my own l i t t l e toys because t h e r e was something about  it...I  sometimes l i k e G a r f i e l d . . . I used t o draw i t i n d i f f e r e n t poses which was out o f the comic books and I j u s t  thought  of poses f o r myself o f G a r f i e l d . At R i v e r s i d e the t e a c h e r r e p o r t e d some students attended an a r t a u c t i o n . Canadian a r t i s t  having  The students a l s o informed Pat o f  Casson's death and one student brought  of Seven c a l e n d a r t o School.  a Group  Students a t R i v e r s i d e s a i d  they  d i d some drawing at home and one student t a l k e d t o t h e i r parents about r t .  One f a m i l y went t o an a r t g a l l e r y and the  student was proud t o know something about the a r t t h e r e :  102  My f a m i l y went t o a museum and I c o u l d show them what e v e r y t h i n g was and where everybody was...talk parents about i t .  t o my  And when they asked me q u e s t i o n s about  o t h e r t h i n g s I've been able t o understand.  L i k e my dad's  an a r t i s t . . . when he'd go t o courses he'd come back and I'd say,  "Oh, I know him."  At both Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e students r e p o r t e d doing a r t work i n o t h e r c l a s s e s , but o n l y one student from Lakeview s a i d t h a t the teacher made s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o a r t concepts. T h i s r e f e r e n c e was made by the Music  teacher who p o i n t e d out  s i m i l a r i t i e s between a r t and music i n terms of composition, rhythm, harmony, balance and t e x t u r e .  The student r e p o r t s ,  "Music... t a l k i n g about how music should be w r i t t e n . . . I n composition when you have songs...I  do remember something  about the rhythm, whether i t was smooth and having good balance i n d i f f e r e n t  i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and compose music".  For the most p a r t , students were asked t o do a r t work i n o t h e r c l a s s e s as p a r t of an assignment, but the t e a c h e r d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y address a r t as a s u b j e c t . the t e a c h e r was not concerned  In o t h e r words,  with a r t education.  Examples  from Lakeview i n c l u d e , comic s t r i p s and p o s t e r s i n French class,  d e s i g n i n g the c o l o u r s f o r a go c a r t  i n d e s i g n and  technology and drawing a diagram on the computer f o r s c i e n c e . It should be noted,  however, t h a t the students from Lakeview  d i d not see themselves  going t o many d i f f e r e n t  classes since  most of t h e i r time was spent w i t h t h e i r home room t e a c h e r i n  103  l i t e r a c y and numeracy.  C h r i s d e s c r i b e d p r o j e c t s , such as  p h y s i c a l systems and the c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y book t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e d a r t work. Students d e s c r i b e some of t h e i r experiences  with a r t  outside t h e i r art c l a s s : It wasn't e x a c t l y a r t , but you know, the French  teacher,  he u s u a l l y g i v e s us French assignments and he used t o g i v e us t h i n g s t h a t we had t o draw, t h i n g s and s t u f f we can make a comedy out o f i t and we can make up comic s t r i p s out o f those and p o s t e r s . . . Well, there was one time, j u s t r e c e n t l y i t was, w e l l t h i s i s s o r t o f t o do with A r t as w e l l , but he, I was doing  i n D and T c l a s s .  I was with a teacher and he asked me t o d e s i g n and c o l o u r a design f o r h i s c a r t . . . the d e s i g n I gave f o r i t won the best l o o k i n g c a r . . . I n French...I had t o make d i f f e r e n t , l i k e f o r E a r t h Day, we made posters...He j u s t t o l d us, l i k e ,  [the  teacher]  draw a p i c t u r e f o r E a r t h day...We  used i t [art] i n theme t o make logos f o r a p r o j e c t on our own c i t y . . . U s e d i t f o r a book r e p o r t . . . L i k e with graphics  I can use t h a t i n d i f f e r e n t animation  that we're doing...We're doing  computer  projects  something f o r s c i e n c e and  I used the p a i n t program from the computer t o draw a diagram of what we were doing. At R i v e r s i d e students used a r t i n other s u b j e c t s .  d e s c r i b e d many s i t u a t i o n s were they Here i s what one student  104  said:  We do a l o t i n language.  We do a l o t of drawing f o r  p r o j e c t s s i n c e we do c h a r t s .  She always asks f o r a  drawing on i t and so we l e a r n e d a l o t about drawing i n art  so we can use i t there...We d i d a t i m e l i n e s o r t of  thing,  i n French language a r t and then we a l s o d i d maps  where we used a r t and she t a l k e d about us u s i n g a r t on our  maps.  We d i d a newspaper i n language and most of i t  was drawing c a p t i o n s t o out s t o r i e s o r , l i k e , we had t o do a movie ad so we were t a l k i n g about u s i n g a r t i n a movie ad...well s c i e n c e we use a l o t o f drawings l i k e t o e x p l a i n c e r t a i n t h i n g s f o r experiments and we a r e doing one on the Niagara escarpment  r i g h t now so we had t o do  pictures f o r that. Students a l s o r e p o r t e d doing a l o t o f a r t work i n s o c i a l science: We mainly use i t i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e , l i k e language a r t s was j u s t a small p r o j e c t , but s o c i a l s c i e n c e we were doing a l o t of people l i k e e x p l o r e r s , famous people, and some people d i d the Group o f Seven and s i n c e - so we went to a museum f o r a r t - and s i n c e we got so much i n f o r m a t i o n there we c o u l d use i t i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e . . . When we were doing s o c i a l s c i e n c e we were t a l k i n g about some of the people i n the Group o f Seven and i n one group we had t o do some p r o j e c t so we were doing that...You're l e a r n i n g s t u f f about s o c i a l  science,  you're l e a r n i n g l i k e people who d i d a r t a long time ago  105  and you are a l s o l e a r n i n g a l o t of s t u f f , but i t ' s a l s o fun  so i t ' s something  something  t h a t you can enjoy - i t ' s not  that you have t o c o n c e n t r a t e on.  Other students a l s o r e p o r t e d doing a r t work i n many o t h e r subj e c t s : Well, i n s c i e n c e r i g h t now we are working on the Niagara escarpment and i t i n v o l v e s a r t work f o r our p r e s e n t a t i o n and we have t o draw maps and s o r t of s t u f f that makes i t look l i k e i t ' s r e a l . p l a s t i c i n e map  In my group we are doing a  s o r t of and we have t o do a p e r s p e c t i v e  type t h i n g w i t h i t . . . P r o b a b l y i n French.  We do a l o t of  t i t l e pages - s t u f f l i k e that so she encourages  us t o use  our drawing... Right now we're doing i n language  arts -  E n g l i s h we're doing a newspaper p r o j e c t and I t h i n k t h e r e ' s f o u r o r f i v e d i f f e r e n t drawings we have t o do and i n French we've j u s t done t i t l e pages and I t h i n k we've done t h r e e o r f o u r t h i s y e a r . . . W e l l , f o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e we have t o do a t i t l e page f o r a l l of our d i f f e r e n t and we get marked on those.  We have j o u r n a l s t h a t  draw i n every once i n a w h i l e . . . Right now  units we  i n language  a r t s and E n g l i s h we are doing newspaper type ad and we have t o draw p i c t u r e s f o r t h a t .  That concerns the books  that we are reading...We t a l k e d about  the Group of Seven  a couple of times i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e . . . that i n math when i n a r t she taught us about making something i t h e l p s out i n math when you have t o reduce  106  look s m a l l e r something.  DESCRIPTION OF CLASS VISITS T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d e s c r i b e two  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l classroom  experiences from Lakeview and from R i v e r s i d e .  The  intention  i s t o help the reader g a i n a sense of the atmosphere i n each of the c l a s s e s .  In a l l , s i x c l a s s e s were v i s i t e d ,  t h r e e at  Lakeview and three at R i v e r s i d e . C l a s s e s observed at Lakeview were; a language a r t s  class,  i n which students were working independently on the c h i l d r e n ' s book p r o j e c t d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ,  although o t h e r  independent  a c t i v i t i e s were a l s o o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ; an a r t c l a s s , i n c l u d i n g a demonstration  of a s t e n c i l  and p a t t e r n technique  u s i n g chalk p a s t e l ; and an a r t c l a s s i n which students worked independently at v a r i o u s work s t a t i o n s . The  c l a s s e s observed at R i v e r s i d e i n c l u d e d ; a  c l a s s w i t h a demonstration  ceramics  of techniques by the t e a c h e r ; a  c l a s s i n which students worked independently on l i n o l e u m b l o c k p r i n t i n g ; and a c l a s s i n which students worked with clay.  The  l a t e r c l a s s was  the ceramics c l a s s .  The  d i v i d e d i n t o two groups f o r  second group worked on a logo  assignment i n the l i b r a r y . Two  independently  T h i s a c t i v i t y was  also  visited.  c l a s s e s from each of the s c h o o l s has been s e l e c t e d f o r  f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r the sake of  comparison.  Lakeview - C l a s s V i s i t  #1  I t i s a sunny a f t e r n o o n i n e a r l y A p r i l . b r i g h t and the windows open.  The a r t room i s  I t i s the l a s t c l a s s of the  107  day.  As the home room c l a s s l e a v e s , another group of students begins t o congregate  i n the h a l l o u t s i d e .  There  and some commotion as they o r g a n i z e themselves T h i s group i s coming i n f o r t h e i r a r t c l a s s .  i s laughter  into a line. Before they are  allowed t o enter, C h r i s asks these students which a r t s t a t i o n they are working period. One  at and what i t i s they w i l l be doing f o r the  As they e x p l a i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y they e n t e r the room.  or two who  are not prepared go t o the end of the l i n e t o  f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r t h e i r a c t i v i t y f o r the p e r i o d .  The  c o n v e r s a t i o n s between students and C h r i s are b r i e f and t o the point.  The whole process takes l e s s than f i v e minutes.  There  i s some o t h e r a l t e r c a t i o n i n the h a l l and C h r i s goes t o see what i t i s . Once the students have s t a t e d t h e i r case they go t o work, some more s l o w l y than o t h e r s . m a t e r i a l s and equipment. the computer s t a t i o n s .  They know where t o f i n d  S e v e r a l students go immediately Three students s i t u a t e  to  themselves  t o g e t h e r at a group of desks and work on a p a t t e r n p r o j e c t with India ink. One  Another group of students work w i t h c l a y .  student asks another t o wear her r i n g s w h i l e she does  clay.  Everyone  i s s e t t l e d and working w i t h i n a few  minutes.  Meanwhile, C h r i s has gone out t o see i f h i s home room c l a s s got t o where they were supposed t o be. was  t o p i c k them up d i d n ' t a r r i v e .  between c l a s s e s without s u p e r v i s i o n .  The t e a c h e r  Students do not move When C h r i s r e t u r n s t o  c l a s s , h e l p i s g i v e n t o a student working w i t h I n d i a i n k .  108  who  One  student comes i n l a t e and C h r i s asks what the student w i l l working on.  C h r i s then t u r n s back t o the f i r s t  draw your g r i d . really  I t ' s going t o look c o o l .  student,  be "Now  I t ' s going t o look  neat."  The  c l a s s i s f a i r l y busy working.  a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r r i n g simultaneously.  There are many Students  and t h a t while working on t h e i r p r o j e c t s . the computers are q u i e t e r .  One  t a l k about  this  Those working at  student asks another,  "Did you  scan t h a t i n D a r r y l ? " C h r i s s i p s on a can of pop.  Students  approach C h r i s f o r  v a r i o u s t h i n g s from water cans t o keys f o r opening  cupboards.  C h r i s sends the students t o a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s t o f i n d v a r i o u s equipment.  G e n e r a l l y , students are working on t h e i r  C h r i s waits f o r students t o come t o him  f o r help.  own.  Later Chris  wanders around the computer g r a p h i c s s t a t i o n s approving of students' work.  A couple of students r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e and  C h r i s h e l p s them.  Students  are o n l y allowed t o scan  work i n t o the computer t o p r i n t  "Mr.  out.  C h r i s adds water t o the f i s h tank.  One  Chris!  C h r i s makes  I'm  done!  What can I do?"  suggestions such as, c l a y ,  original  student  I n d i a ink and so on, but  exclaims,  the  student r e p l i e s t h a t a l l of those t h i n g s have a l r e a d y been done.  C h r i s asks the student i f there i s something e l s e  would l i k e t o t r y . and goes ahead.  The  they  student wants t o watch the v i d e o d i s k  Some students are j u s t not  109  working.  Another teacher  comes i n t o the classroom, but there i s  too much a c t i v i t y f o r C h r i s to conduct a c o n v e r s a t i o n point. The  The  other teacher  students  with the s l a b and yet one  student  at  leaves and w i l l r e t u r n a f t e r c l a s s .  working w i t h c l a y are producing c o i l technique.  containers  T h i s i s an e n e r g e t i c group,  seems to be making c l a y s l a b c o n t a i n e r s  everyone e l s e .  The  this  o t h e r students  for  are a s k i n g t h i s student  to  make t h e i r s f o r them. Towards the end of the c l a s s students rambunctious.  It's Friday.  Some students,  r i g h t through the 8 0 minute p e r i o d .  m a t e r i a l s are s t o r e d . You've s t i l l  got  however, work  Ten minutes b e f o r e  end of c l a s s C h r i s announces c l e a n up. relatively efficiently.  become more  The  students  Most know where equipment  clean  l o t s of s t u f f to put  group of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  and  away."  C h r i s goes over  further exclaiming  respond by s h a r i n g the work.  As  students  to take t h e i r s e a t s . one  or two  They  f i n i s h cleaning  they s i t down w a i t i n g f o r the b e l l to r i n g .  c l e a n i n g up are d i s m i s s e d  Students who at a time.  are f i n i s h e d Chris  The  #2  110  recalls  r e s t of  shove t h e i r c h a i r s under t h e i r desks and  the b e l l r i n g s .  up  Chris instructs  a couple to s l i d e t h e i r c h a i r s under the desk.  Lakeview - C l a s s V i s i t  to a  "Clay guys, get over here, you've  got c l a y a l l over the f l o o r and a l l over the desk."  the students  up  C h r i s encourages, "Come on c l a y guys!  to the group to help them c l e a n up,  three students  the  leave  as  I a r r i v e at 8:15 Chris i s talking arriving. out.  am.  C l a s s t h i s morning begins at  t o another s t a f f member.  Students  8:30.  are  C h r i s t u r n s t o a student and says, "Throw the  I t was  a joke yesterday, but i t ' s gone too f a r .  again - you're out". right o f f " .  Then t o the c l a s s ,  C h r i s informs me  "Clean your  gum  Happens desks  that today there w i l l be a  formal d e s i g n l e s s o n on s t e n c i l l i n g . In the h a l l one I'm  student w i t h a f r i e n d l y s m i l e , asks me i f  coming i n again today.  i n t o the classroom.  From near by:  Laura that I l i k e d her?! Some f u r n i t u r e moved around.  Seems as though I've been accepted "Kris, Kris!  Anyways, I don't  like  You  told  her".  and equipment i n the classroom has been  The computers are arranged d i f f e r e n t l y .  Little  cards, c o l o u r e d c o n s t r u c t i o n paper and boxes of p a s t e l s are arranged on the t e a c h e r s desk.  C h r i s walks around  a s k i n g students t o c l e a r t h e i r desks.  The n a t i o n a l anthem and  announcements can be heard i n the h a l l . system  i s down.  The c l a s s  comes t o the door.  The classroom  s i t s quietly waiting.  A p p a r e n t l y the format  assembly has been changed unexpectedly. disappointed.  the room  C h r i s l a t e r e x p l a i n s t o me  PA  Someone  f o r t h i s afternoon's Chris i s that the agenda f o r  the assembly i s t o have students from a l l grades gather t o show each o t h e r t h e i r c h o i c e of work from the year.  Each  student w i l l speak f o r h a l f a minute or so about what they have been doing t o share ideas a c r o s s grade  Ill  levels.  C h r i s s t a r t s the demonstration. s t e n c i l about 3 x 3  inches.  They a r e making a s m a l l  C h r i s says,  i f you do i t r i g h t , y o u ' l l have unique  "Okay.  designs".  them how t o f o l d the paper and cut the design, them t o keep i t simple.  I f i t works, C h r i s shows  instructing  Then open up the d e s i g n .  C h r i s goes  through the v a r i o u s steps f o r them, u s i n g c h a l k p a s t e l t o t r a n s f e r the p a t t e r n , c r e a t i n g a couple o f examples. demonstration handing  i s short.  The  C h r i s then moves around the room  out the s t e n c i l paper,  then c a l l s one student  from  each group of t a b l e s t o come get s c i s s o r s . C h r i s says, "Now the d e a l i s - h o l d on b e f o r e we s t a r t . Do a good job. of paper".  I'll  l e t you do a b i g g e r one on a l a r g e sheet  C h r i s then g i v e s l a s t minute h i n t s ,  want t o make two o r t h r e e . want t o make a back up".  "You might  S t e n c i l s are f r a g i l e .  You might  C h r i s then walks around the room  h e l p i n g students c r e a t e t h e i r d e s i g n and c o n t i n u e s the t o u r handing  out c h a l k p a s t e l s .  Another t a l k s t o h i m s e l f , right!  I did i t right!  One student says,  "I want c h a l k . "  " I f t h i s gets screwed up...I d i d i t I did i t right!"  C h r i s e x p l a i n s t o me t h a t t h i s was a l a s t minute s o r t o f l e s s o n and shows me the o r i g i n a l p l a n .  They were going t o be  making masks from paper p l a t e s , but there were no paper plates.  C h r i s goes over t o help a s p e c i a l student i n from  another c l a s s .  T h i s student i s much younger than t h i s  class,  but i s working a t much h i g h e r l e v e l s than o t h e r students h i s age.  T h i s student attends a r t c l a s s e s w i t h the grade 8's.  112  Students  continue t o work away at t h e i r s t e n c i l s .  It  does not take long f o r them t o s t a r t w i t h the p a s t e l s . are working away.  The p a t t e r n s are s t r a i g h t  r e p e t i t i o n i n s t r a i g h t rows. developed  One  or two  They  forward  students have  a c l e v e r c o l o u r scheme, b l e n d i n g the p a s t e l .  Chris  wanders around the room o c c a s i o n a l l y , commenting on p r o g r e s s . C h r i s attends t o other work.  I go t o the l i b r a r y t o i n t e r v i e w  students while the v i d e o camera runs. Upon my  return Chris i s gathering finished pattern pieces  on a t a b l e near the door. smudge matt f i n i s h . procedure.  They are being sprayed w i t h a  Students  are f a s c i n a t e d by  non-  this  Soon the t a b l e i s covered w i t h c o l o u r f u l p a t t e r n s .  C h r i s w i l l d i s p l a y them l a t e r . Students  c l e a n up as they f i n i s h , wiping t a b l e s and  p u t t i n g p a s t e l s back i n boxes.  A couple of students are  to c o l l e c t up a l l the s c i s s o r s .  asked  E v e n t u a l l y a l l the m a t e r i a l s  and equipment are r e t u r n e d t o the t e a c h e r ' s desk.  As  the  students leave, C h r i s puts equipment back i n t o drawers. Riverside - Class V i s i t At 12:55 class.  #1  students s t a r t a r r i v i n g f o r t h e i r a f t e r n o o n a r t  There i s much commotion and c h a t t e r a f t e r l u n c h .  i s s p l i t t i n g the c l a s s t h i s a f t e r n o o n .  Some of the  Pat  students  w i l l be working i n the l i b r a r y on a logo assignment, while the others are i n t r o d u c e d t o a ceramic p r o j e c t . names of those students who the board.  Pat w r i t e s the  w i l l be s t a y i n g f o r c l a y work on  As the others e n t e r they are i n s t r u c t e d t o meet i n  113  the l i b r a r y .  Two students a r e l a t e and q u i c k l y get themselves  s e t t l e d while the c l a s s w a i t s . T h i s i s the f i r s t i n t r o d u c e myself.  time I have met t h i s c l a s s and I  They are a f r i e n d l y bunch and don't  mind my being there at a l l .  Pat s t a r t s her demonstration of  hand b u i l d i n g techniques f o r ceramics. b u i l d a mug u s i n g a mold. demonstration. demonstration the c o r r e c t  seem t o  The assignment i s t o  Pat g i v e s a v e r y d e t a i l e d  The work area i s r e f l e c t e d from a l a r g e m i r r o r so students have no d i f f i c u l t y i n s e e i n g  procedure.  As Pat proceeds  w i t h her demonstration  she o u t l i n e s  e x p e c t a t i o n s of proper h a n d l i n g o f c l a y and behaviour when working w i t h c l a y .  Pat t e l l s her students t o keep the c l a y  moist but not wet and i n t r o d u c e s terminology such as, "score" and " s l i p " .  "slab",  Pat shows the students how t o make a  c y l i n d e r around a b o t t l e u s i n g newspaper as a l i n e r , the c l a y w i l l come o f f the mold.  so t h a t  Pat works away, a l l the  while t e l l i n g the students t o watch out f o r t h i s ,  t h a t and  this. Students watch Pat's every move w i t h g r e a t  interest.  There i s l i t t l e c o n v e r s a t i o n d u r i n g the demonstration.  As Pat  begins j o i n i n g c l a y p i e c e s the process becomes somewhat messier.  Students  jabber, "ew, messy, can you use a brush?"  Others make puns about " s l i p container.  - s l i m e " as Pat completes the  When the demonstration  i s f i n i s h e d one student  comments, "That's what you do i f you want t o make one o f  114  those", meaning, what i f you want t o make something e l s e .  Pat  says, "Make a c o n t a i n e r and then y o u ' l l have a chance t o make something e l s e " .  Pat shows examples  of c o n t a i n e r s from  p r e v i o u s c l a s s e s , p o i n t i n g out t e x t u r e , handles, ornamentation and o t h e r d e t a i l s . Another student asks, "Do we have t o make a c o n t a i n e r ? " Pat  doesn't respond t o the q u e s t i o n , having a l r e a d y g i v e n the  answer.  The students are anxious t o s t a r t .  down p l e a s e .  We're almost ready t o s t a r t " .  underway Pat t a l k s about the c l e a n up. a very organized process. board and a check l i s t c l e a n i n g up what  Before they get  T h i s w i l l prove t o be  There i s a l i s t  as t o who  Pat says, " S i t  of m a t e r i a l s on the  w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  equipment.  The students get s t a r t e d b r i n g i n g water c o n t a i n e r s and boards t o t h e i r t a b l e s . Pat,  I t i s 20 minutes i n t o the p e r i o d .  surrounded by students, c u t s c l a y f o r them. A little  clay!"  ruckus e r u p t s :  "Get l o s t ! "  "'Scuse me,  "Get o u t t a here!"  and the problem subsides i n t o murmurs: of the  here". "Don't girls,  touch me.  don't touch my  Pat merely goes,  "Shh"  " T e l l him t o get out  Don't touch anybody".  Pat reminds  " G i r l s ! i f you're wearing r i n g s , take them o f f !  f o r g o t t o announce t h a t " .  I  One boy complains, "I don't want t o  make t h i s " . G e n e r a l l y everyone i s working away at something. busy room.  Pat opens the k i l n room f o r a student who  It i s a had  s t a r t e d work, but was away and hadn't f i n i s h e d h i s p r o j e c t .  115  Pat moves around the room i n s t r u c t i n g the c l a s s , the mold and how t o apply the paper, that how t o do v a r i o u s t h i n g s .  t a l k i n g about  showing t h i s student and  Pat c o n t i n u e s m o n i t o r i n g  progress, t e l l i n g me t h a t soon s e t up f o r the next c l a s s printmaking  - w i l l begin on an unused t a b l e while  students are busy  working.  A student c a l l s t o Pat.  Pat goes over t o h e l p .  f i n i s h i n g there Pat moves t o help another e l s e says,  these  student.  "I need t o get i n t o the k i l n room a g a i n " .  busy w i t h s t u d e n t s .  Needless  After Someone Pat i s  t o say the l i n o equipment i s not  being s e t up. Everyone i s working w e l l except a couple of students seem t o r e q u i r e a l o t of Pat's a t t e n t i o n .  who  At 1:30 I go down  to the l i b r a r y t o see what the o t h e r h a l f of the c l a s s i s doing. They are working on a logo p r o j e c t .  The l i b r a r i a n i s  busy somewhere i n the back room when I e n t e r .  Upon her r e t u r n  she goes around t o the,students t o see how they are doing, commenting, "Make sure you t h i n k about the p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e aspect you've d i s c u s s e d i n a r t " . Students are working a t round t a b l e s . are an assortment  In f r o n t of them  of magazines, p e n c i l crayons, glue  sticks,  s c i s s o r s and work sheets.  The l i b r a r i a n moves from t a b l e t o  t a b l e , b r i n g i n g examples.  T h i s i s the s t a r t up a c t i v i t y f o r  the logo assignment.  Students  are answering  a n a l y z i n g v a r i o u s advertisements  116  and l o g o s .  a q u e s t i o n sheet  Most students are on t o p i c . t a l k i n g about mothers.  The  One  t a b l e of students i s  l i b r a r i a n walks over and says, "I  want t h i s t a b l e t o d e f i n e "logo"".  A couple of students are  working away independently, but most are working i n groups. The  l i b r a r i a n r e t u r n s t o the t a b l e who  mothers.  She  says,  were t a l k i n g about  "The word water stands out.  What i s  s i g n i f i c a n t about t h a t ? "  She then resumes her t o u r of the  o t h e r groups i n s t r u c t i n g ,  " I f you're  next p a r t , you need t o f i n d 5 l o g o s . and p a s t e .  The  ready t o move on t o the Three you need t o cut  l a s t two you must draw.  Draw a logo which i s  easy t o copy w i t h a p e n c i l as a c c u r a t e l y as you can". t h i s work i s being done on work sheets i n the form of a booklet.  The assignment i s v e r y s t r u c t u r e d .  The  A l l of little  students are  a l s o r e q u i r e d t o comment beside each of the logos they glue in,  why  they t h i n k t h a t i t i s e f f e c t i v e .  I r e t u r n t o the c l a y a c t i v i t y at 1:45. have f i n i s h e d t h e i r c o n t a i n e r .  Some students  The work looks w e l l  executed.  T y p i c a l l y some students' work i s more s u c c e s s f u l than o t h e r s . Its  time t o s t a r t c l e a n i n g up as students f i n i s h t h e i r work.  A couple of them come over t o me  and ask me  what I am doing v i s i t i n g t h e i r classroom.  i n more d e t a i l I explain a  Everyone i s h a p p i l y c l e a n i n g up, washing t h e i r hands. g i r l s come over t o t e l l teacher.  me  about t h e i r French c l a s s and  little. Two the  Pat i s c o u n t i n g out equipment, making sure  everything i s i n order.  A group of students come over t o see  what I am w r i t i n g so, I read some of my  117  notes t o them.  Near the end of c l a s s an announcement from the p r i n c i p a l breaks  i n t o the hubbub.  There has been some damage t o the  school and the consequences w i l l be s e r i o u s . ends and Pat says,  "Wait!  a n i c e j o b today.  Thank you v e r y much."  Riverside - Class V i s i t  The announcement  L e t ' s see the room.  Good.  You d i d  #2  T h i s i s the l a s t c l a s s of the day on a sunny a f t e r n o o n i n May.  The windows a r e open and b i r d s can be heard  Students  outdoors.  s t a r t a r r i v i n g f o r c l a s s j u s t a f t e r two o ' c l o c k .  They congregate  around the v i d e o camera I am t a p i n g w i t h .  Pat  asks everyone t o s i t down and t o s e t t l e down then l o o k s around the room t o see t h a t everyone i s t h e r e . to,  " S i t down p l e a s e " and another,  s i t on i t ,  p l e a s e " , then,  Pat asks a student  " M e l i s s a , f i n d a s t o o l and  " A t t e n t i o n up here, p l e a s e " .  Pat reminds the students about the p r i n t i n g that they w i l l be c o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h i s p e r i o d . set up e v e r y t h i n g f i r s t .  procedures They need t o  Pat a l s o reviews the v a r i o u s  p r i n t i n g p a t t e r n s they may use,  s a y i n g t h a t now they have a l l  t r i e d the w a l l paper p a t t e r n they should do a b r i c k o r drop p a t t e r n and t h a t they should do some p r i n t i n g on c o l o u r e d paper today, exclaim,  not j u s t on white.  Pat stops at one p o i n t t o  "I f e e l as though I am s h o u t i n g because o t h e r  people  are t a l k i n g ! " and waits f o r the c l a s s t o r e f o c u s on what i s being s a i d . Students speaking.  l i t e r a l l y d i v e i n t o work when Pat i s f i n i s h e d  W i t h i n two minutes newspaper i s spread on the  118  floor.  Two i n k i n g s t a t i o n s , on a group o f f o u r desks at  o p p o s i t e s i d e s of the classroom,  have been s e t up by Pat.  There are r e d and blue i n k a t one p r i n t i n g s t a t i o n and y e l l o w and green at the o t h e r .  The paper i s on the f r o n t  counter,  while the a c t u a l p r i n t i n g takes p l a c e on the f l o o r around the room. One  Students  i n k t h e i r l i n o l e u m b l o c k s and p r i n t i n g  o r two students are s t i l l  begins.  c u t t i n g t h e i r l i n o design.  student was asked t o l e a v e the room f o r f o o l i n g around. are i n the h a l l  f o r time out.  task and moving f a s t . Mrs.  A couple of students c a l l , and doesn't  Somehow the problem i s r e s o l v e d without student has made a mistake  "Mrs.  help.  and Pat goes over, s a y i n g ,  Other students ask "Where's the paper Mrs.  again?"  Pat.?" and "Mrs.  Pat h u r r i e s over t o answer.  student wants t o p r i n t with white  Pat!,  respond.  "Oh w e l l , these t h i n g s happen. Do you want t o s t a r t  Pat! I have a q u e s t i o n ! "  They  The r e s t of the c l a s s i s on  Pat!" Pat i s busy elsewhere  One  One  ink.  Another  The student who was  asked t o l e a v e r e e n t e r s and s t a r t s t o work. Students have g l u e d t h e i r l i n o l e u m t o wooden b l o c k s . They p r i n t by f i r s t  i n k i n g the block, p l a c i n g i t i n the  d e s i r e d spot, then stand on the back o f the b l o c k t o get a c l e a r , even p r i n t . one  foot.  The room i s f u l l o f students b a l a n c i n g on  There i s l o t s o f a c t i v i t y and c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i l e  everyone works away.  Students a r e e x c i t e d and c h a t t e r i n g  about c o l o u r schemes and p a t t e r n s .  119  One student asks  another,  "Does the p u r p l e and y e l l o w look okay?" and i s answered "Ya, it  looks n i c e .  Nice t e x t u r e on t h e r e " .  Pat t o u r s the room and monitors p r o g r e s s , i n s t r u c t i o n s while the c l a s s i s working. you need i s a t h i n l a y e r o f i n k !  giving  "Grade e i g h t s ! A l l  Just a t h i n layer!"  and,  "Jamie, w i l l you show so and so how t o work w i t h two c o l o u r s please?"  One student i n s t r u c t s another.  Pat goes on, "Robin,  you might be b e t t e r o f f j u s t t r y i n g one c o l o u r u n t i l you get used t o p r i n t i n g " There's  and exclaims,  l o t s of i n k t h e r e !  "Katherine! K a t h e r i n e !  What a r e you doing?!"  Some students are behind the r e s t .  Pat asks i f they  would l i k e t o come i n at l u n c h t o c a t c h up, t e l l i n g them t h a t the door w i l l be l e f t open f o r them.  Students  joke w i t h Pat.  One student i s t a p p i n g a l i n o c u t t e r i n c e s s a n t l y . over and asks,  "Are you nervous?"  Pat goes  The t a p p i n g stops and the  l i n o c u t t e r i s put down. Pat s i t s down and begins t o d e v i s e a check l i s t t o o r g a n i z e who w i l l c l e a n up what areas. minute.  T h i s takes about one  Pat then w r i t e s on the board the items t o be cleaned.  Beside each,  the name of the student r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t area  is written.  Students begin t o respond  the board.  "Amy! Amy!  u n e n t h u s i a s t i c response,  t o the i n s t r u c t i o n s on  You got the f l o o r ! " , w i t h the "I know. I can't b e l i e v e i t s back t o  me again". Twenty minutes b e f o r e the end of c l a s s some students a r e a l r e a d y s t a r t i n g t o c l e a n up.  They have stopped  120  printing  early.  P r i n t s b e g i n t o appear on the d r y i n g rack.  announces who  Pat  w i l l be c l e a n i n g which areas and c o n t i n u e s t o  t r a v e l around the room a s k i n g t h a t t h i s and t h a t be done and h e l p s i n the p r o c e s s .  Students who  are f i n i s h e d are  i n s m a l l groups around the room c h a t t i n g . the c l e a n up p r o c e s s .  Others are  Clean up i s c h a o t i c .  Trouble  brewing as there are many students f i n i s h e d f o r the There are a few students h o r s i n g around. asked t o leave f o r f o o l i n g around. p l a y i n g t a g . "You r i g h t people,  at the s i n k .  starts day.  students are  The  Then, " a l l  students l i n e up at There are a couple of  Then they are a l l gone.  121  watching  Pat s c o l d s a student f o r  the door and wait f o r the b e l l t o r i n g . students s t i l l  Two  do not p l a y t a g i n t h i s room!"  s t o o l s on the t a b l e " .  sitting  CHAPTER FIVE INTERPRETATION T h i s chapter s e t s out to a s s i m i l a t e the presented  thus f a r .  Specifically,  information  I w i l l d i s c u s s the  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d s t y l e of t e a c h i n g compared with t h a t of the i n t e g r a t e d program, f o r t e a c h e r s f o r students,  i n terms of the s t r u c t u r a l ,  and  intentional,  c u r r i c u l a r and e v a l u a t i v e dimensions of s c h o o l i n g ( E i s n e r , 1991) . In order to do t h i s ,  the a r t programs from each of  R i v e r s i d e and Lakeview have been p l a c e d i n t o Fogarty's  (1991)  c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n c h a r t , d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two  and  found  i n Table 1.  Secondly,  the s c h o o l s w i l l be compared i n  terms of the c a t e g o r i e s which have emerged throughout study  (Spradley, 1979).  T h i s chapter w i l l conclude  with  commentary about i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s based upon t h i s as i t r e l a t e s to my  experience  and to c u r r e n t  the  study  literature.  At t h i s p o i n t I would l i k e to remind the reader about role i n t h i s research.  my  T h i s i s a d e s c r i p t i v e study based upon  p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n and data c o l l e c t i o n and f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t e d through the eyes of the r e s e a r c h e r L i n c o l n , 1985). E i s n e r ' s  (Guba &  (1991) model of e d u c a t i o n a l  c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p helped to e s t a b l i s h e d the framework f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h and  formulate  the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s ,  Spradley's  (1979) ethnographic  techniques  guided  while  procedure and i n t e r v i e w i n g  the d e s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s .  122  T h i s s t y l e of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r be f a m i l i a r w i t h s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s as those being s t u d i e d (Eisner, T h i s type of work a l s o r e q u i r e s a t a c i t way  1991).  of knowing,  r e c e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h c i r c l e s as a v a l i d form of knowledge  (Tesch, 1990).  For my p a r t , I have been  t e a c h i n g v i s u a l a r t and dramatic a r t f o r nine years at the high school l e v e l .  I have a l s o a c t e d as head of c r e a t i v e  f o r f o u r of those y e a r s .  The  f o l l o w i n g comments are  e s s e n t i a l l y upon what I have observed d u r i n g t h i s tempered by what I know from working i n s i m i l a r  based  study,  situations.  F u r t h e r , the informants i n each case study are as as the s c h o o l s i n which they teach.  Since we  arts  unique  are a l s o s e e i n g  the s i t u a t i o n through t h e i r eyes, t h i s study i s dependent upon t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of and responses situations.  to questions  For the purpose of a n a l y s i s ,  and  i t i s imperative f o r  r e s e a r c h e r and reader t o be cognisant of t h e i r r e f e r e n c e points.  When comparing programs i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o  c o n s i d e r the i n d i v i d u a l s d e l i v e r i n g them Finally, stone.  (Spradley, 1979).  t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l not reach answers cut i n  Readers are i n v i t e d t o draw t h e i r own  based upon t h e i r experience.  conclusions  Thus, the reader becomes as much  p a r t of t h i s commentary as I. Fogarty's I n t e g r a t i o n C a t e g o r i e s One  of the d i s c o v e r i e s of t h i s study are the ways i n  which the a r t program at R i v e r s i d e , i n i t i a l l y l a b e l l e d  the  d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d s c h o o l , had both i n t e g r a t e d and s u b j e c t -  123  oriented  features  are compared u s i n g model.  as d i d Lakeview. Fogarty's  In Table 2 the programs  (1991) forms of  For each of Lakeview and  Riverside  integration  examples  are  included. From t h i s chart we Riverside  can  see  that  i n f a c t the program at  i s i n many ways s i m i l a r to what was  i n t e g r a t e d program at Lakeview.  c a l l e d the  Although both s c h o o l s show  i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s , f o r the purpose of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n I w i l l continue to r e f e r to Lakeview as having the program and So, and  Riverside  the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d .  i n both s c h o o l s t h e r e i s evidence of v a r i o u s  degrees of i n t e g r a t i o n .  that knowledge cannot be o r i e n t a t i o n towards the integration occurring is  integrated  At the  same time, i t i s apparent  i n t e g r a t e d without f i r s t subject  matter.  The  depends upon where and  a discipline  type of how  the  emphasis  placed. C h r i s , at Lakeview i s c o n s c i o u s l y  making i n roads towards  i n t e g r a t i v e programming through the core c u r r i c u l u m use  forms  of technology.  Riverside  and  Nonetheless, i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s  also exist.  At R i v e r s i d e  n a t u r a l outcome of good t e a c h i n g  the at  i n t e g r a t i o n seems t o be  a  practices.  COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Teacher and Pat,  School P r o f i l e  the  teacher at R i v e r s i d e ,  experienced w i t h i n schooling.  the  was  trained  and  t r a d i t i o n a l subject-oriented  A f t e r many years of teaching,  124  Pat  s t y l e of  took an  extended  TABLE 2 Comparison of I n t e g r a t e d P r a c t i c e s a t L a k e v i e w and R i v e r s i d e Type of Integration  Lakeview  Riverside  Fragmented separate, distinct subject areas  Yes isolated A r t classes (pattern assignment)  Yes isolated A r t classes (clay lesson)  Connected within each subject area ideas are explicitly related  Yes cartooning, story board computer animation  Yes action figure stencil repetition movement  Nested multiple skills are targeted (i.e. social and thinking skills) within each subject area  Yes independent learners organization skills social skills, problem solving  Yes social skills problem solving  Sequenced ideas are taught i n concert while remaining separate subject areas  Yes Social Science - City Plan Visual A r t - City Logo  Yes Social Science - Famous Canadians Visual A r t - Group of Seven  Shared overlap ideas between subjects through shared planning and teaching  No (Incidentally with Music through rhythm and harmony)  No (Plans for shared textile design/ pattern unit with Family . Studies)  Webbed various subjects use a theme to explore ideas  Yes Famous Canadians City planning  Yes Northern Peoples Famous Canadians  Threaded metacurricular approach threads skills through various subjects  Yes use of technology problem solving independent learning skills  No  Integrated interdisciplinary approach overlaps various subjects  No  No  Immersed all content is filtered through a lens of expertise  Some (some evidence through individual student's animation)  No  Networked learner makes internal connections leading to external networks of experts  Some (some evidence through the use of technology)  No  125  leave and r e t u r n e d t o the p r o f e s s i o n three years p r i o r t o t h i s study.  Pat was t h e r e f o r e b r i n g i n g back t o the classroom a  traditional discipline-oriented style, program content and d e l i v e r y .  i n terms of both  C h r i s , on the o t h e r hand,  newer t o the p r o f e s s i o n w i t h l e s s than 5 years t r a i n e d i n recent program d e l i v e r y s t y l e s ,  was  experience,  such as, co-  o p e r a t i v e group l e a r n i n g . C h r i s was posted at Lakeview t o open a new  school.  His  recent t r a i n i n g matched the g o a l s and v i s i o n f o r the s c h o o l . In c o n t r a s t , R i v e r s i d e was a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l i n o p e r a t i o n f o r over 20 y e a r s .  Pat's background and a r t  t r a i n i n g f i t the s c h o o l as w e l l .  Pat was brought  i n t o the  school t o g i v e s t r u c t u r e and d i r e c t i o n t o the a r t program along t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s .  C h r i s was brought  i n to e s t a b l i s h  c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g a r t u s i n g the l a t e s t concepts. At Lakeview, C h r i s was a g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r w i t h i n a r t and computers.  interest  Knowledge of computers allowed the  i n t e g r a t i o n of t h i s technology.  A r t and technology c o u l d then  be i n f u s e d i n t o o t h e r s u b j e c t areas.  At R i v e r s i d e , Pat was a  s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t teacher t r a i n e d i n a r t . In many ways the teacher of a program determines  the  c u r r i c u l u m through p e r s o n a l knowledge and t e a c h i n g s t y l e & MacGregor,  1990).  I t occurs t o me t h a t the program at  Lakeview would have been q u i t e d i f f e r e n t w i t h the a r t  126  (Gray  e x p e r t i s e o f Pat.  Likewise, C h r i s may have i n f u s e d the  program a t R i v e r s i d e w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . S t r u c t u r a l Dimension of S c h o o l i n g Program  Schedule  Lakeview had a r t c l a s s e s scheduled i n t o 80 minute b l o c k s of time once i n s i x days.  Students were a l s o w i t h a home form  g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r f o r 75% of the time, i n which i n t e g r a t i v e practices,  i n c l u d i n g a r t , were encouraged.  W i t h i n the home  form t e a c h e r s had the o p t i o n of u s i n g the a r t room i f required.  However, there was not much evidence t h a t t h i s  occurred.  Students  i n C h r i s ' s home form had the advantage of  working i n the a r t room w i t h access t o the g r a p h i c s computers. C h r i s i n c l u d e d a r t i n the core c u r r i c u l u m , y e t t h i s was l i m i t e d t o c r e a t i n g images. At R i v e r s i d e , the students f o l l o w e d a f u l l  rotational  schedule w i t h a r t work being c r e a t e d i n o t h e r c l a s s e s as w e l l . At n e i t h e r s c h o o l , however, d i d a r t i n s t r u c t i o n take p l a c e o u t s i d e the a r t c l a s s . Teachers  i n both s c h o o l s have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o use the  time a l l o c a t e d i n f l e x i b l e ways.  The home room c l a s s a t  Lakeview c o u l d be d i v i d e d as the teacher saw f i t .  At  R i v e r s i d e , Pat decided t o s p l i t an a r t c l a s s , having them work on two p r o j e c t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Lakeview o f f e r s a r t once i n a s i x day r o t a t i o n a l throughout  the year.  cycle  At R i v e r s i d e , students take a r t every  second day f o r h a l f the year.  Therefore, i n terms o f time f o r  127  art  instruction,  amount.  students r e c e i v e approximately  the same  However, frequent exposure t o a r t a c t i v i t y appears  to  e f f e c t the student's engagement w i t h the a c t i v i t y : more frequency d r i v e s the program forward.  At R i v e r s i d e , students  become e n t h u s i a s t i c about s e e i n g p r o j e c t s , which have been developed over a p e r i o d of time, come t o completion. Lakeview, a r t c l a s s e s were few and f a r between. p r o j e c t s were o f t e n completed  i n one p e r i o d .  assignment which c o u l d not be completed s e s s i o n o f t e n took weeks t o f i n i s h due art  classes.  At  Also,  An a r t  i n a single  class  t o the i n f r e q u e n c y of  Students d i d not seem t o have the same d r i v e t o  see t h e i r p r o j e c t s f i n i s h e d which n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d  the  q u a l i t y of t h e i r work. A s t a t e d g o a l f o r both s c h o o l s was art  as p a r t of t h e i r every day l i f e .  t o have students  see  There i s evidence t h a t  students at R i v e r s i d e were aware of a r t around them because of the frequency and i n t e n s i t y of the a r t program.  At Lakeview,  on the o t h e r hand, students r a r e l y d i s c u s s e d a r t o u t s i d e the classroom.  E x p e r i e n c i n g " a r t " f o r an hour a week d i d not help  students see the connections  intended.  The programs at both s c h o o l s were s t r u c t u r e d around a s p e c i f i c time f o r l e a r n i n g about a r t , r e i n f o r c i n g the n o t i o n that i n t e g r a t i o n cannot specific discipline.  occur without p r i o r knowledge of the  Through a r t at Lakeview,  explicit  connections were t o be made w i t h o t h e r areas of the curriculum.  There was  little  evidence t h a t t h i s was o c c u r r i n g  128  to any g r e a t e r degree than at R i v e r s i d e .  More w i l l be s a i d  about t h i s i n the s e c t i o n on the c u r r i c u l a r dimension o f schooling. From the o b s e r v a t i o n s  made, there i s no apparent need t o  r a d i c a l l y modify a school t i m e t a b l e ,  schedule o r s t r u c t u r e i n  order t o accommodate i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s .  There a r e many  p o s s i b i l i t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n i n terms of time and s c h e d u l i n g w i t h i n a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program. The  I n t e n t i o n a l Dimension o f S c h o o l i n g T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s f i n d i n g s from both s c h o o l s i n  terms o f the i n t e n t i o n a l dimension o f s c h o o l i n g .  The use o f  g u i d e l i n e s and the aims and goals o f the teachers  and t h e i r  programs w i l l be compared with regard t o s k i l l s development and Use  relevance. of Guidelines Both C h r i s and Pat adapted g u i d e l i n e s t o s u i t  needs and i n t e n t i o n s .  personal  Pat used g u i d e l i n e s i n c l o s e  c o n s u l t a t i o n with a board a d v i s o r .  At Lakeview, C h r i s used  s p e c i f i c l e s s o n s from board g u i d e l i n e s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y throughout the program. Pat i n c l u d e d formal components.  a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and a r t c r i t i c i s m  T h i s was evident  from the student's  Canadian a r t h i s t o r y , vocabulary p r i n c i p l e s o f design. traditional,  knowledge o f  o f a r t terms and elements and  While Pat's program remained  s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l concerns were  129  incorporated  i n t o the program.  C h r i s , on the o t h e r hand, d i d not f o r m a l l y  teach a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n o r c r i t i c i s m i n a r t c l a s s ,  while  b e l i e v i n g students a c q u i r e d t h i s knowledge merely  through  working w i t h famous a r t works.  Students here d i d not have a r t  v o c a b u l a r y at t h e i r f i n g e r t i p s .  C h r i s d i d , however, i n f u s e  the c u r r i c u l u m w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l components through computer g r a p h i c s and v i d e o . Aims and Goals The a r t programs a t Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e have s i m i l a r aims and g o a l s , y e t t h e i r programs are b u i l t p o i n t s of view.  from  distinct  C h r i s and Pat wanted students t o enjoy a r t ,  but not see i t a f r i v o l o u s .  They wanted t o t e a c h t h e i r  students c e r t a i n s k i l l s . . They wanted students t o see the connections between a r t and o t h e r s u b j e c t s and they wanted t h e i r programs t o have r e l e v a n c e t o the l i v e s o f t h e i r students now and f o r the f u t u r e .  At the same time, t h e r e was  a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e i n the emphasis p l a c e d on v a r i o u s aspects of t h e i r programs.  The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l  o u t l i n e the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e n t i o n . The n o t i o n of a r t s k i l l s and relevance d i f f e r e n t l y i n the two programs.  were i n t e r p r e t e d  Pat focused on exposing  students t o the many m a t e r i a l s and techniques s p e c i f i c and unique  t o a r t , r e c o g n i z i n g a r t f o r a r t ' s sake.  Pat wanted t o  teach students something about a r t . T h i s stands t o reason s i n c e Pat was coming from a s u b j e c t - o r i e n t e d premise.  Chris,  on the o t h e r hand, focused on the development o f computer a r t  130  skills.  T e c h n o l o g i c a l a r t s k i l l s were of importance  for their  use i n o t h e r areas, both academic and i n the r e a l  world.  C h r i s d i d not t a l k about t e a c h i n g a r t f o r i t s own  sake.  To Pat, r e l e v a n c e e s s e n t i a l l y concerned a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of l i f e . art,  the g e n e r a l  As a person becomes i n v o l v e d i n  i t becomes p a r t of t h e i r p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e .  Thus, the  a p p l i c a t i o n of the l e s s o n s of a r t become a n a t u r a l p a r t of life. At Lakeview t h i s d i d not occur because C h r i s d i d not have the same a r t background and t r a i n i n g as Pat.  C h r i s ' s program  was  p l a c e d on  very p r a c t i c a l l y oriented.  The  focus was  students becoming computer l i t e r a t e i n order t o use generated a r t  computer  work i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s and i n the world of  work. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , we  see t h a t the manifest aims and g o a l s of  both a r t programs f i t d e f i n i t i o n s of i n t e g r a t i o n as set out Case  (1991) and Fogarty  d i f f e r e n t i n each.  (1991),  for  a l b e i t the emphasis i s  In f a c t , the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d  while a more e f f e c t i v e way  by  of t e a c h i n g a r t , a l s o had  deep i n t e g r a t i o n of ideas i n the sense t h a t the  become immersed i n the s u b j e c t .  approach, potential students  T h i s immersion allows a r t t o  become p a r t of the students frame of r e f e r e n c e on v a r i o u s l e v e l s t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e i r view of the world e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y or  u n c o n s c i o u s l y or both.  developed  The  s u b j e c t - o r i e n t e d approach  i n students a t a c i t awareness of the essence of a r t  which permeated t h e i r l i v e s  (Phenix,  131  1971,  P o l y a n i , 1967).  Granted, t h i s was an e s s e n t i a l l y i n t a n g i b l e and unmeasurable type of i n t e g r a t i o n , y e t i t i s i n f e r r e d that a l l experience i s connected. C h r i s , on the other hand, was coming from a p r a c t i c a l , t a n g i b l e p o i n t of view.  Aims and g o a l s were c l e a r l y  defined  and implemented towards i n t e g r a t i n g technology i n t o the program so that a r t may become u s e f u l i n other curriculum.  Students were not immersed  areas of the  i n the s u b j e c t of a r t  i n the same way as at Lakeview. Jacobs philosophy  (1989) has p o i n t e d w i l l become evident  out that the  teacher's  i n program emphasis.  e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o p e n s i t y  and p e r s o n a l  The v a l u e s of  C h r i s and Pat e f f e c t e d t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s and subsequently determined the c o n t r a s t i n g program focus. w i l l d i s c u s s the m a n i f e s t a t i o n  The next s e c t i o n  of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n  through program d e l i v e r y . C u r r i c u l a r Dimension of This section w i l l schooling  Schooling compare  the c u r r i c u l a r dimension of  ( E i s n e r , 1991) d i s c u s s i n g , program content and  development, a r t p r o j e c t s , a r t h i s t o r y and a p p r e c i a t i o n , teacher  r o l e , classroom management and the a r t f a c i l i t y  itself. Program and Development The a r t programs at Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e were both media d r i v e n .  At Lakeview the program was arranged around  v a r i o u s work s t a t i o n s , such as, I n d i a ink, ceramics o r  132  computer g r a p h i c s .  Short e x e r c i s e s o r assignments, f o r  i n s t a n c e , s t e n c i l p a t t e r n i n g would be i n c o r p o r a t e d from time to  time.  Groups of students were expected t o work  independently, r o t a t i n g through the a r t s t a t i o n s .  At  R i v e r s i d e , extended a r t u n i t s were developed around a r t concepts i n c l u d i n g the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n and i n t r o d u c i n g techniques, such as, ceramics and p r i n t At  Lakeview, C h r i s i n c o r p o r a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of  computer a r t and v i d e o technology i n t o the program. were computer l i t e r a t e .  Students  These s k i l l s then augmented o t h e r  areas of the c u r r i c u l u m . art  making.  C h r i s saw the use of the computer i n  as the i n t e g r a t i o n of technology w i t h c r o s s - c u r r i c u l a r  benefits. Nonetheless, g i v e n the equipment, computer g r a p h i c  skills  c o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program.  As  C h r i s s t a t e d , the computer was j u s t another drawing t o o l . a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program the use of t h i s  In  " t o o l " f o r image  m a n i p u l a t i o n would be enhanced s i n c e the emphasis would  first  be p l a c e d on the elements of a r t . Students would have the double advantage of a r t t r a i n i n g married t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l training. At of the  Lakeview technology had been i n t r o d u c e d at the expense  f i n e a r t concepts.  C h r i s taught computer a r t s k i l l s f o r  purpose of u s i n g t h i s knowledge i n o t h e r areas.  program d i d not have an a r t s k i l l s skills  focus.  133  The  focus, but a computer  Computer a r t was interested i n art. f o r students who  used as a hook t o get students  I t was  a n o v e l t y and a commercial  enjoyed watching t h e i r p i c t u r e s move.  Nonetheless, at Lakeview,  computers were p u r p o s e f u l l y used t o  b r i n g students t o g e t h e r to problem and problem  approach  solve.  In t h i s way  social  s o l v i n g s k i l l s were "threaded" i n t o the  curriculum. Art  Projects The a r t p r o j e c t s at R i v e r s i d e were w e l l developed.  Due  to Pat's guidance, p r o j e c t s were a l s o w e l l executed by the students r e s u l t i n g i n s o p h i s t i c a t e d a r t work.  For i n s t a n c e ,  through the e x t e n s i v e sport f i g u r e drawing u n i t , e x p l o r e d l i n e and s t e n c i l l i n g ,  students  t o achieve r e p e t i t i o n ,  and  water c o l o u r and I n d i a ink techniques, t o get a sense of movement.  Thus, these d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s were i n t r o d u c e d .  At  R i v e r s i d e , students were engaged i n t h i s p r o j e c t over a p e r i o d of time.  S i m i l a r l y , they developed an i n - d e p t h understanding  of p a t t e r n through the medium and method of l i n o l e u m b l o c k p r i n t making. artistic  In o t h e r words, the a r t a c t i v i t y  learning.  In c o n t r a s t , at Lakeview, was  propelled  the d e s i g n concept of p a t t e r n  taught through i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s .  In one,  the students  developed a s c a f f o l d i n g or g r i d i n p e n c i l on 8 x 11 i n c h white paper, p a t t e r n e d the g r i d i n t o geometric shapes, segments i n w i t h I n d i a i n k .  then  filled  (It would a l s o seem t h a t a l e s s o n  about p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e space c o u l d be d e r i v e d from  134  this  activity.)  Another p a t t e r n assignment i n v o l v e d  stencilling  u s i n g a 3 x 3 i n c h paper square, f o l d i n g i t t o cut a motif and u s i n g chalk p a s t e l t o c r e a t e a p a t t e r n on 8 x 11 i n c h c o n s t r u c t i o n paper. one  coloured  The I n d i a i n k assignment was executed as  of the a r t s t a t i o n p r o j e c t s .  The s t e n c i l motif  was an  i s o l a t e d , one l e s s o n a r t a c t i v i t y . The  c l a y u n i t a t R i v e r s i d e was a l s o extended over a  p e r i o d of time, producing w e l l developed r e s u l t s . Lakeview, ceramics were e x p l o r e d  At  by students as p a r t of t h e i r  r o t a t i o n through the a r t s t a t i o n s . A l l of t h i s by way of saying, R i v e r s i d e were e l a b o r a t e  the a r t p r o j e c t s at  and c l o s e l y monitored by the teacher.  Student p r o j e c t s at Lakeview were o f t e n o n l y one p e r i o d i n duration.  T h i s was p a r t l y due t o s c h e d u l i n g ,  would not r e t u r n t o the a r t room f o r s i x days.  since  students  The  d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d a r t program o f f e r e d s o p h i s t i c a t e d f i n e a r t projects.  At Lakeview o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r image making on  computer were i n c l u d e d , w h i l e other a r t a c t i v i t i e s were more or l e s s e x p l o r a t o r y  i n nature.  A r t H i s t o r y and A p p r e c i a t i o n At R i v e r s i d e , Pat i n c l u d e d a formal  a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and  a r t c r i t i c i s m component, which was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o j e c t s whenever p o s s i b l e .  studio  F i e l d t r i p s and formal  t e s t i n g at  R i v e r s i d e a l s o tended t o emphasize and r e i n f o r c e the a p p r e c i a t i o n and a r t h i s t o r i c a l aspects of the course.  135  The  approach towards a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n or a r t h i s t o r y at  Lakeview was  towards student d i s c o v e r y .  For i n s t a n c e , i t was  expected t h a t , as a student c o p i e d a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t ' s work i n the s t u d i o component of the program, they would be motivated,  as independent,  c u r i o u s l e a r n e r s , t o a l s o do some  r e s e a r c h i n t o the p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t  they c o p i e d .  I d i d not  see much evidence of t h i s o c c u r r i n g . In the teacher d i r e c t e d program at R i v e r s i d e , students knew about a v a r i e t y of Canadian a r t i s t s .  Students  at  Lakeview knew o n l y the p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t w i t h which they were p e r s o n a l l y engaged.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was  c o n s i d e r i n g the premise  not  surprising  of each of the programs.  d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program was  concerned  The  mainly w i t h t e a c h i n g  students about a r t , while the focus of the program at Lakeview was  towards d e v e l o p i n g independent,  self-directed  learners.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the students at R i v e r s i d e seemed more motivated and open t o a r t h i s t o r y , having been exposed t o a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n over  time.  Teacher Role and Program D e l i v e r y - R i v e r s i d e R i v e r s i d e d e l i v e r e d a s t r o n g a r t e d u c a t i o n program. Students  there r e c e i v e d continuous,  The program was  in-depth a r t i n s t r u c t i o n .  s t r u c t u r e d and teacher d i r e c t e d , c o n s i s t e n t  w i t h Pat's s t a t e d aims.  At R i v e r s i d e , Pat's r o l e was  t h a t of  a r t i n s t r u c t o r c h a l l e n g i n g students t o work i n c r e a t i v e ways w i t h the ideas presented.  Pat then f o l l o w e d up w i t h each  student, g u i d i n g t h e i r p r o g r e s s .  136  The process at R i v e r s i d e i n v o l v e d c o n s i s t e n t a r t teaching, demonstration  and e x p l a n a t i o n .  p r o d u c t i o n and q u a l i t y of work was  high.  Therefore,  the  A r t terms, t o o l s  and  techniques were w r i t t e n on the b l a c k b o a r d f o r constant r e f e r e n c e throughout  projects.  each c l a s s began w i t h new  With a l l students  focused,  i n s t r u c t i o n s or a recap of the  l e s s o n or a c t i v i t y b e f o r e .  Once the a c t i v i t y had  students worked independently.  started  Pat moved around the room  a t t e n d i n g t o those students i n need of a s s i s t a n c e .  When  students were f i n i s h e d a p r o j e c t ahead of the c l a s s  they  worked on teacher prepared study or e x e r c i s e b o o k l e t s . Students at R i v e r s i d e engaged i n each p r o j e c t as a c l a s s . Pat, t h e r e f o r e monitored  a uniform a c t i v i t y .  Moving as a  u n i t , students had many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i a l o g u e about p r o j e c t s , among themselves there was  and w i t h the t e a c h e r .  a sense of community and camaraderie  Therefore,  at R i v e r s i d e .  Everyone c o u l d see the p r o g r e s s of t h e i r peers, l e a r n  from  each other, share ideas and h e l p each o t h e r . It became apparent  t h a t s t r o n g e r students were a l s o  a v a i l a b l e t o h e l p weaker classmates working on the same project.  T h i s was  t r u e i n the l i n o l e u m b l o c k p r i n t i n g  experience when Pat asked a student t o show another something was example.  how  done or t o use another student's work as an  When everyone was  working on the same p r o j e c t i t was  a l s o e a s i e r to keep l e s s focused students on t a s k .  137  Since the R i v e r s i d e program was  teacher d i r e c t e d ,  every  student had a chance t o get on board and t o s t a y on t r a c k . When a common problem was  d i s c o v e r e d Pat c o u l d stop the e n t i r e  c l a s s t o address the concern.  For i n s t a n c e , a number of  students were g e t t i n g too much ink on t h e i r l i n o l e u m b l o c k s and smearing for  i t u n t i l Pat p o i n t e d out the c o r r e c t  procedure  everyone. It was  a l s o apparent  t h a t classroom management became  e f f i c i e n t w i t h everyone focused on one a c t i v i t y w i t h a c l e a r sense of d i r e c t i o n .  Most of the time a l l of the students were  working i n the same room on the same p r o j e c t . was  the s p l i t  The  c l a s s where one h a l f worked i n the l i b r a r y on a  logo assignment while the o t h e r h a l f worked on the project.  exception  ceramic  T h i s allowed f o r g r e a t e r c o n t r o l of m a t e r i a l s and  more one on one teacher c o n t a c t .  To g i v e g e n e r a l  i n s t r u c t i o n s , Pat t a l k e d t o the e n t i r e c l a s s at once.  It  was  q u i e t b e f o r e d i r e c t i o n s were g i v e n e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l students were able t o hear and t h a t they understood. o r g a n i z e d by Pat who Students t h e i r work. them and f e l t  Clean up was  also  i n d i c a t e d which student would do what.  at R i v e r s i d e were happy and e n t h u s i a s t i c about They were aware of e x a c t l y what was  expected  of  c o n f i d e n t and comfortable knowing what they were  supposed t o be doing.  Knowing the parameters of an assignment  encouraged t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y .  These students enjoyed  the  freedom w i t h i n each p r o j e c t t o make c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s .  138  When one student had a great i d e a o r d i d something  unique the  e n t i r e c l a s s c o u l d b e n e f i t from the e x p e r i e n c e . Teacher Role and Program D e l i v e r y - Lakeview Essentially, discovery.  the program at Lakeview was based upon  Students were i n i t i a l l y taught about  the a r t  medium and p r o j e c t o r a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e d f o r each a r t s t a t i o n . Students then completed  a number of p r o j e c t s throughout the  year based upon each of these s t a t i o n s . o p p o r t u n i t y t o develop an independent  They a l s o had the  project.  The m a j o r i t y  of a r t i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , o c c u r r e d e a r l y i n the year. Students were expected t o work independently, w i t h  individual  i n s t r u c t i o n from C h r i s , who a c t e d as f a c i l i t a t o r when needed. Nonetheless,  there were some s t r u c t u r e d a r t c l a s s e s  randomly i n t e r s p e r s e d throughout  the year.  students were working on the same p r o j e c t .  In these cases a l l Isolated art  l e s s o n s , such as the s t e n c i l p a t t e r n a c t i v i t y were taught, but not n e c e s s a r i l y connected t o work s t a t i o n p r o j e c t s o r t o on going  activities. At Lakeview students got most of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n  the b e g i n n i n g of the year. o r g a n i z e themselves  near  I t was necessary f o r them t o  t o do each p r o j e c t , o f t e n having t o  remember the i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n weeks b e f o r e . the work s t a t i o n p r o j e c t s were p r e s c r i p t i v e , a l s o r e q u i r e d t o d e s i g n an independent or more of the s t a t i o n s .  While many of students were  p r o j e c t based upon one  I q u e s t i o n whether o r not many of  139  these students were ready f o r such independent scope,  work s i n c e the  depth and e x e c u t i o n o f t h e i r p r o j e c t s seemed l i m i t e d .  Students were not o n l y expected t o remember  specific  d i r e c t i o n s f o r the p r o j e c t s r e q u i r e d a t each work s t a t i o n , but more s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  the proper h a n d l i n g of media and  techniques o f t e n taught weeks o r months b e f o r e . witness the ceramic  i n s t r u c t i o n s given, however, j u d g i n g by  the techniques b e i n g used, one  I d i d not  students needed a r e f r e s h e r .  student i n a group of seven knew how t o handle  correctly. material.  The r e s t were l i t e r a l l y  Only  the c l a y  experimenting w i t h the  At t h i s l e v e l perhaps i t was a s k i n g too much of  students t o r e c a l l e x a c t l y how t o handle m a t e r i a l s p r o p e r l y when d i r e c t i o n s were g i v e n so f a r i n advance.  Detailed  i n s t r u c t i o n s needed t o be repeated and r e i n f o r c e d . Lakeview students were l e f t more o f t e n t o work, l e a r n and d i s c o v e r on t h e i r own.  Sometimes i t seemed as though these  students were working i n a vacuum.  Students  seemed t o need  more d i r e c t i o n from t h e i r t e a c h e r and needed t o exchange ideas w i t h t h e i r peers i n o r d e r t o i n s p i r e , encourage and n o u r i s h each o t h e r ' s c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s . i n s m a l l groups, Still,  At Lakeview s h a r i n g o c c u r r e d  but l a c k e d momentum.  w i t h i n group s i t u a t i o n s students d i d f i n d  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o help each o t h e r .  Students o f t e n worked on  the computers t o g e t h e r t o s o l v e problems, t h i s b e i n g the one a c t i v i t y that h e l d everyone's  attention.  On the o t h e r hand,  there was a l s o a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of "group" work going on  140  at  the ceramic  s t a t i o n , not n e c e s s a r i l y of the c o n s t r u c t i v e  kind, where one student was making everyone's  mug.  Many  students were a l s o working i n i s o l a t i o n . C h r i s wanted t o develop  independent,  used t h e i r own ideas t o develop p r o j e c t s .  self-starters  who  T h e r e f o r e , Lakeview  students were g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s and then, f o r the most p a r t , left  on t h e i r own t o d i s c o v e r and r e d i s c o v e r .  I t o f t e n seemed  as though they were r e i n v e n t i n g the wheel i n a s i n k o r swim situation.  I suppose i f i t was the i n t e n t i o n t o t r a i n  students t o become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , it.  t h i s was one way of doing  Only the most c l e v e r students, however, s u r v i v e d i n t h i s  type of environment.  I t was a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t ,  while students at Lakeview are expected t o be s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g , they were a l s o s u p e r v i s e d by t e a c h e r s as they moved between classes. Some students found i t d i f f i c u l t  t o get s t a r t e d on an  a c t i v i t y o r became e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d g i v e n such independence i n the a r t c l a s s .  I t seemed t h a t more than a few students  were g e t t i n g l e f t behind.  Many seemed a l i t t l e  lost, off  t o p i c o r were working slowly, not r e a l l y knowing what t o do next. Students need time, t r a i n i n g , m a t u r i t y and concrete i n s t r u c t i o n i n A r t concepts and techniques i f they are t o become independent  l e a r n e r s meeting w i t h success.  to me t h a t the independent  I t occurred  t h i n k i n g r e q u i r e d of these  students  was beyond them at t h i s p o i n t s i n c e many of t h e i r i d e a s were  141  uninspired. post  F o r i n s t a n c e , many made a copy of a p a i n t i n g o r a  c a r d f o r t h e i r independent p r o j e c t because they c o u l d not  t h i n k of anything  e l s e t o do.  The ceramic work was a l s o  undeveloped, c o n s i s t i n g of the r e q u i r e d mug and a few small sculptures. At the same time, those students and who c o u l d organize i n s t a n c e , one student through a hypercard and  imagination  themselves produced r e s u l t s .  For  was working on computer animation  program, scanning  i n t r o d u c i n g sound.  who showed  and m a n i p u l a t i n g  T h i s same student  v i d e o p i e c e u s i n g v a r i o u s camera t r i c k s .  images  a l s o worked on a Another  grasped the i d e a o f the independent p r o j e c t .  student  Working with  o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t matter based upon a photograph, the student developed a drawing and then a water c o l o u r p a i n t i n g . i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h i s student up u n t i l the year of t h i s study. the  was schooled  I t was  i n the UK  However, these students  were  exception. Monitoring  simultaneously  the many independent a c t i v i t i e s  occurring  at Lakeview was demanding on C h r i s who was kept  busy g i v i n g advice,  s p e c i f i c instructions or service to  p a r t i c u l a r students.  Even c l e a n up and d i s m i s s a l were done on  an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  C h r i s was a l s o c o n t i n u a l l y s w i t c h i n g  gears s i n c e each a c t i v i t y was d i f f e r e n t .  Further,  i f Chris  was not immediately a v a i l a b l e , the l i k e l i h o o d o f a student g e t t i n g behind o r o f f t o p i c was g r e a t e r .  142  This  teaching  arrangement became t i r i n g f o r the teacher  and d i f f i c u l t  to  maintain. Summary The  f o l l o w i n g i t e m i z e d summary c l a r i f i e s  comparative  highlights. 1.  Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e are s i m i l a r i n the i n t e n t i o n s of  t h e i r o v e r a l l program content,  such as, Canadian a r t and  design concepts, yet t h e i r i s a wide d i s c r e p a n c y to which these are  basic  i n the degree  accomplished.  2.  A r t m a t e r i a l s are s i m i l a r i n both  3.  A r t p r o j e c t s vary i n complexity,  schools. R i v e r s i d e having  the more  complex. 4.  A r t e x e r c i s e s at Lakeview are o f t e n unconnected, whereas  at R i v e r s i d e concepts are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d i o p r o j e c t s . 5.  R i v e r s i d e o f f e r s in-depth  development of each t o p i c  emphasizing c o r r e c t use of a r t equipment, m a t e r i a l s  and  techniques. 6.  A r t l e s s o n s and  a c t i v i t i e s at R i v e r s i d e are  teacher  d i r e c t e d where as Lakeview p r a c t i c e s a combination of d i r e c t e d and  teacher-  student-generated p r o j e c t s .  7.  Lakeview i n c o r p o r a t e s computer a r t and v i d e o  8.  At Lakeview students  technology.  u s u a l l y work independently  i n small  groups, while at R i v e r s i d e , f o r the most p a r t , the c l a s s works on p r o j e c t s 9.  together.  I m p l i c i t l e a r n i n g at Lakeview i s to work as an i n d i v i d u a l  responsible for oneself.  At R i v e r s i d e i m p l i c i t  143  learning i s  towards working as p a r t of a l a r g e r community and  individual  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n the group. 10.  M o n i t o r i n g student a c t i v i t y  at R i v e r s i d e i s e f f i c i e n t  s i n c e a l l students are working on a p r o j e c t 11.  At Lakeview C h r i s f a c i l i t a t e s  simultaneously.  student p r o g r e s s .  Pat  g i v e s more d i r e c t i o n . 12.  At Lakeview C h r i s o f t e n waits f o r students t o seek help,  while at R i v e r s i d e , Pat searches out students i n need. 13.  Both Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e programs are f l e x i b l e  terms of adding or d e l e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s ,  adapting to  in  changing  needs of students and t e a c h e r s . 14.  At R i v e r s i d e , process and product are e q u a l l y important,  while at Lakeview the emphasis i s upon p r o c e s s . Teacher C o l l a b o r a t i o n In both s c h o o l s s c h e d u l i n g f o r t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a challenge.  was  Teachers needed to get t o g e t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r  s c h o o l , at lunch or i n a prep p e r i o d i f they wanted t o work together.  Even at Lakeview, where c o - o r d i n a t i n g f o r  c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n was  a focus, i t remained d i f f i c u l t t o  get t e a c h e r s t o g e t h e r . At the same time, at Lakeview g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s taught core c u r r i c u l u m , t h e r e f o r e , i n order t o c o - o r d i n a t e ideas i t was  not necessary to p h y s i c a l l y work w i t h o t h e r s .  i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n s had been made, there was together on an on-going  basis.  Once  l i t t l e need t o get  Sometimes, however, t h e r e  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n terms of shared f a c i l i t i e s .  144  At Lakeview,  was  C h r i s a l s o c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h o t h e r teachers i n terms of technology,  b e i n g v e r y i n v o l v e d w i t h computers, computer  g r a p h i c s and v i d e o w i t h i n the s c h o o l . that C h r i s a l s o conducted  I came to l e a r n  later  workshops f o r o t h e r t e a c h e r s .  If teachers at R i v e r s i d e wished to c o - o r d i n a t e s u b j e c t matter i t was  necessary f o r them to get t o g e t h e r s i n c e they  were a l l s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t s .  There were, t h e r e f o r e ,  c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s on an on-going b a s i s around r e q u i r e d u n i t s of work set out by c e r t a i n board and m i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s at  the grade seven l e v e l . A p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r ' s s t y l e determines  t o what degree  they work independently or w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s . Pat was  an out going teacher who  belonged  a c t i v e l y seeking to work w i t h o t h e r s . t h i s teacher on v a r i o u s committees. teacher i n the Art  At R i v e r s i d e ,  to a s m a l l network,  In f a c t ,  I worked w i t h  Pat a l s o worked w i t h  the  library.  Facility Art  rooms at both Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e housed much the  same equipment, yet there was between the two  facilities.  exclusively for art.  one  significant difference  At R i v e r s i d e there was  No o t h e r c l a s s e s took p l a c e t h e r e .  looked and  felt  supplies.  R i v e r s i d e had a separate k i l n room w i t h  space,  a room  l i k e an a r t room i n terms of equipment  and  storage  v a r i o u s types and c o l o u r s of paper were v i s i b l e  open s h e l v e s at one  along  s i d e of the room, many examples of a r t  work from p r e v i o u s years were housed on s h e l v i n g , the  145  It  blackboard r e l a t e d a r t concepts  only, n e a r l y a l l of the  b u l l e t i n boards d i s p l a y e d c u r r e n t student a r t work, a d r y i n g rack was  prominent i n the room and there was  demonstration  t a b l e and m i r r o r .  a large teacher  Since the f a c i l i t y was  used  e x c l u s i v e l y f o r A r t , m a t e r i a l s and equipment stayed i n p l a c e . F i n a l l y , r a t h e r than c h a i r s , students sat on s t o o l s more conducive  to a r t p r o d u c t i o n .  By v i r t u e of t h e i r surroundings, got the impression t h a t a r t was unique t o o l s and equipment.  students at R i v e r s i d e  a special a c t i v i t y  requiring  They l e a r n e d about a r t by  virtue  of being i n the a r t room. Although  the a r t room at Lakeview housed much the same  equipment, the room was  not used s t r i c t l y as an a r t room.  C h r i s taught the home room c l a s s numeracy, l i t e r a c y , s c i e n c e and s c i e n c e there as w e l l .  Granted,  social  a l l of the a r t i n  the s c h o o l was  taught  atmosphere was  not c r e a t e d s i n c e the room looked l i k e a  r e g u l a r classroom.  i n t h i s room, yet the same " a r t "  Essentially,  t h i s was  a general  classroom  w i t h a r t equipment i n i t . Another d i f f e r e n c e between the two computers at Lakeview.  rooms were the  These were a l l capable of  s o p h i s t i c a t e d g r a p h i c s programs.  I t was  running  a c h a l l e n g e to have  s e n s i t i v e e l e c t r o n i c equipment and c l a y dust i n the room simultaneously. technology.  The program here o b v i o u s l y i n c l u d e d more  Computer generated  a r t work appeared on a  b u l l e t i n board above one of the computer s t a t i o n s .  146  Paintings  and drawings were hung on another board at the back o f the classroom,  while work from o t h e r s u b j e c t areas appeared on the  remaining b u l l e t i n boards.  Since the d i r e c t i o n at Lakeview  was toward i n t e g r a t i n g s u b j e c t areas the a r t room s i t u a t i o n made sense.  In terms of t e a c h i n g about a r t , R i v e r s i d e had the  more comprehensive  facility.  The E v a l u a t i v e Dimension o f S c h o o l i n g T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l address concepts  and techniques,  i s s u e s o f student knowledge o f a r t  as w e l l as, d i s c u s s whether o r not  students l e a r n e d what was intended. Student The Students  A r t Knowledge a r t program at R i v e r s i d e had a f i n e a r t f o c u s . had a good grasp of a r t concepts,  techniques.  v o c a b u l a r y and  I b e l i e v e t h i s was due t o t e a c h e r e x p e r t i s e and  where program emphasis was p l a c e d . s t u d i o work was a l s o h i g h .  The q u a l i t y of t h e i r  Due t o the s t r u c t u r e d nature o f  the program and i t s i n - d e p t h d e l i v e r y , these students were b a s i c a l l y aware of elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n and v e r y aware of the proper use of a r t m a t e r i a l s , terms and techniques.  Students  a l s o knew v a r i o u s f a c t s about the  Canadian Group o f Seven a r t i s t s and t h e i r p a i n t i n g s .  The  g a l l e r y v i s i t which took p l a c e the p r e v i o u s year was r e i n f o r c e d i n the c u r r e n t program.  R i v e r s i d e students a l s o  r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e the r e g u l a r s c h o o l program.  These students were a r t l i t e r a t e .  147  The program a t Lakeview was o r i e n t e d towards commercial art.  Students were t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y l i t e r a t e .  At the same  time, these students l a c k e d l i t e r a c y i n terms o f a r t concepts and the proper h a n d l i n g of o t h e r a r t m a t e r i a l s . i n s t r u c t i o n here was not as i n t e n s e o r d i r e c t e d . students were i n i t i a l l y  The a r t These  i n t r o d u c e d t o v a r i o u s a r t concepts  then worked more o r l e s s independently a t v a r i o u s work stations.  The independent  p r o j e c t s were r e l a t i v e l y u n i n s p i r e d  with the e x c e p t i o n of the b r i g h t e s t s t u d e n t s . many students made c o p i e s of post c a r d s .  For i n s t a n c e ,  The q u a l i t y ,  p r o d u c t i v i t y and p o l i s h of the work at Lakeview l e f t  room f o r  improvement. Student A t t i t u d e In both programs students r e p o r t e d having fun, e n j o y i n g the s o c i a l atmosphere and, what they termed, the freedom g i v e n them.  Students  at R i v e r s i d e d i d not see the program as  r e s t r i c t i v e even though i t was s t r u c t u r e d . R i v e r s i d e students were c l e a r l y focused and worked f o r the most p a r t on the task at hand, b a r r i n g some d i s r u p t i o n at the end of c l a s s d u r i n g c l e a n up. around w i t h m a t e r i a l s .  Work i t s e l f  There was l i t t l e h o r s i n g was taken  seriously.  Some Lakeview students got o f f t o p i c when the t e a c h e r was elsewhere.  The z e a l and c o n c e n t r a t i o n d i s p l a y e d a t R i v e r s i d e  was not as prominent here.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , students were  e x c i t e d about the technology at Lakeview, although there was  148  some f r u s t r a t i o n when computer programs d i d not f u n c t i o n properly. Assessment P r a c t i c e s At Lakeview, admittedly,  i t was a c h a l l e n g e t o t r a c k a l l  students as they were working independently on many p r o j e c t s . On going i n d i v i d u a l student conferences were time Meanwhile, there was a need t o r e p o r t p r o g r e s s the home room t e a c h e r . as w e l l .  consuming.  i n a r t back t o  T h i s became a time consuming p r o c e s s  A mechanism f o r r e p o r t i n g was i n development.  Lakeview assessment p r a c t i c e s i n c l u d e d p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s about i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s and teacher e v a l u a t i o n s of a r t work. Process was h i g h l i g h t e d . E v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a t R i v e r s i d e were both formal and informal.  There were a l s o many v e h i c l e s f o r e v a l u a t i o n .  U n i f o r m i t y i n program d e l i v e r y had advantages here.  Content  was s t r e s s e d , t h e r e f o r e , q u i z z e s were g i v e n throughout term.  the  There was a l s o a formal t e s t o r an exam a t the end of  the term.  F u r t h e r , a r t p r o d u c t i o n became important  the use of a p o r t f o l i o . about progress i n a r t .  through  Pat r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o parents There was no need t o r e p o r t t o o t h e r  teachers u n l e s s an i n d i v i d u a l concern  arose.  Pat had on going d i a l o g u e w i t h students as w e l l . Students through  a t R i v e r s i d e had the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n a review of t h e i r a r t p r o d u c t i o n p o r t f o l i o .  Their art  work was a l s o d i s p l a y e d on b u l l e t i n boards i n the a r t room and around the s c h o o l .  The R i v e r s i d e students were, t h e r e f o r e ,  149  aware o f t h e i r a r t work p r o d u c t i o n .  At Lakeview, w h i l e many-  student p r o j e c t s which i n c l u d e d a r t work were d i s p l a y e d i n the school,  t h i s was not always work e x c l u s i v e t o a r t .  P a r t i c i p a t i o n at Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e was important. C h r i s and Pat knew students w e l l s i n c e they were the o n l y a r t teachers  i n the s c h o o l .  C h r i s a l s o had the advantage o f  remaining w i t h the home room c l a s s f o r three  years.  Integration There were v a r i o u s of the schools  forms o f i n t e g r a t i o n p r a c t i s e d i n each  as o u t l i n e d i n Table 2.  integrative p r a c t i c e s within subjects, across  grades.  subject-oriented  Both s c h o o l s across  included  s u b j e c t s and  R i v e r s i d e was u s i n g i n t e g r a t e d models w i t h i n a school.  T h i s way the b e n e f i t s o f i n t e g r a t i v e  p r a c t i c e s c o u l d be r e a l i z e d without l o s i n g the i n t e g r i t y o f a r t as a d i s c i p l i n e .  While not c o n s c i o u s l y  D i s c i p l i n e Based A r t E d u c a t i o n i n t e g r a t e d the f o u r strands criticism,  implementing  (D.B.A.E.), Pat's program  of a r t appreciation, a r t  a r t h i s t o r y , and s t u d i o a r t o u t l i n e d i n t h i s model.  In the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program there was evidence of some form of i n t e g r a t i o n between s o c i a l s c i e n c e , h i s t o r y , geography, math and a r t . At R i v e r s i d e the Grade seven c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e d a d e t a i l e d language a r t s and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t e d u n i t about Native has  incorporated  Canadians.  guideline science  Over the y e a r s Pat  v i s u a l a r t i n t o t h i s package i n a w e l l  developed and c o - o r d i n a t e d  unit.  150  R i v e r s i d e students  continued  to make connections between a r t , s o c i a l s c i e n c e a r t s at the grade e i g h t  and language  level.  R i v e r s i d e students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a r t r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . awareness b u i l t  I b e l i e v e t h i s i s due t o the a r t  i n t o the program, as w e l l as, through  programs i n the s c h o o l ,  other  such as, the Japanese a r t exchange o r  the McMichael G a l l e r y v i s i t .  Students were aware o f a r t  around them. Although committed t o the s u b j e c t o r i e n t a t i o n o f the school,  Pat was e n t h u s i a s t i c about i n c o r p o r a t i n g a r t i n t o  other areas of study and had many ideas f o r doing so. same time, Pat was aware of o b s t a c l e s attempting t o i n t e g r a t e across and  co-ordination.  confronted  At the  when  s u b j e c t areas i n terms o f time  A s t a t e d goal was t o have the grade e i g h t  program as w e l l connected as the c u r r e n t grade seven curriculum.  Pat was a l s o aware that the type of student i n a  g i v e n c l a s s can a l s o e f f e c t the type o f program d e l i v e r e d , observing  that i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t s o f t e n i n c l u d e a c e r t a i n  amount of independent work, r e q u i r i n g a more mature student. We see from the accounts above that students l e a r n e d much about a r t at R i v e r s i d e , which i s not s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e t h i s was the focus and the i n t e n t i o n . opportunities  Still,  there were many  f o r i n t e g r a t i n g s u b j e c t matter.  In f a c t , the  i n t e g r a t i o n of ideas was s t r o n g because there was a s o l i d understanding of the s u b j e c t o f a r t .  Students appeared t o  r e l a t e a r t concepts t o other areas because they were immersed  151  i n the s u b j e c t , t h e r e f o r e , connections  c o u l d be n o t i c e d .  In  o t h e r words, d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d programs need not be changed i n order t o get i n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g outcomes. At Lakeview core s u b j e c t s , such as, l i t e r a c y and numeracy were taught by g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s .  The main focus f o r  i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s then, o c c u r r e d through c l a s s where the teacher connected  the home form  s u b j e c t matter  v a r i o u s thematic p r o j e c t s o r a c t i v i t i e s .  through  For instance, a  language a r t s u n i t about c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s i n c l u d e d computer generated  storyboards.  I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s arrangement  allowed f o r s u b j e c t matter t o be connected  more e a s i l y because  the home room teacher c o u l d c o - o r d i n a t e a l l s u b j e c t Nonetheless,  matter.  some s u b j e c t s , such as, technology,  and a r t were o f f e r e d s e p a r a t e l y w i t h i n t h i s system.  music Still,  the i n t e n t i o n was t h a t a r t become p a r t o f a t o t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d education, y e t t h i s was not o c c u r r i n g . c u r r i c u l u m d i d not teach a r t . r e q u i r e d t o teach t h i s area. was  Teachers  o f the core  T h i s was due t o the background C h r i s b e l i e v e d an a r t s p e c i a l i s t  necessary because g e n e r a l i s t teachers without  f e l t uncomfortable  art training  w i t h the s u b j e c t .  Cross c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n between a r t and the core c u r r i c u l u m , t h e r e f o r e , remained l o o s e l y organised,  depending  upon i n i t i a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l teachers, as a t R i v e r s i d e . F o r i n s t a n c e , some s o c i a l h i s t o r y was being taught through a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s a t Lakeview.  152  art i n  Lakeview students were not aware o f the connections between a r t and o t h e r areas because they were not as aware o f separate d i s c i p l i n e s .  The c u r r i c u l u m was thematic o r p r o j e c t  d r i v e n , t h e r e f o r e , s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s c i e n c e o r language a r t s were not n e c e s s a r i l y p e r c e i v e d as separate s u b j e c t s . I t appeared  t h a t students were sometimes unaware o f and confused  about s u b j e c t boundaries.  A r t , on the o t h e r hand, remained  separate. In t h i s way students d i d not p e r c e i v e " a r t " as b e i n g done i n o t h e r c l a s s e s , y e t they d i d r e p o r t s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s when a r t work was used i n o t h e r p r o j e c t s .  Only one student  from  Lakeview r e p o r t e d a d i s c u s s i o n about a r t i n another c l a s s when the music teacher compared concepts such as rhythm and harmony i n music t o a r t . At Lakeview i t was e v i d e n t t h a t the importance to improve work done i n o t h e r areas.  of a r t was  In f a c t , a r t was o f t e n  used t o enhance work at both Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e .  Students  were not, however, r e c e i v i n g a r t i n s t r u c t i o n i n these o t h e r subjects.  A r t was used merely as d e c o r a t i o n o r adornment f o r  student work. Significantly, i n c l u d e d technology,  the concept o f i n t e g r a t i o n at Lakeview f o c u s i n g on computer l i t e r a c y and  computer g r a p h i c s k i l l s .  T h i s was a l s o seen as b e i n g u s e f u l  f o r o t h e r areas of the c u r r i c u l u m i n terms of c r e a t i n g c h a r t s , graphs o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  The use of computer g r a p h i c s and  153  technology was seen as e s s e n t i a l f o r the f u t u r e o f the students. F i n a l l y , Lakeview was making an attempt  at integrating  ideas a c r o s s grades by having students present t h e i r a r t work to the s c h o o l i n an assembly format.  F u r t h e r , the students  were i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a compact d i s c on which was s t o r e d an image o f t h e i r independent  art project.  here was t o share t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o t h e r  The i n t e n t  interested  students who would have access t o the d i s c through the library. CLOSING REMARKS The concept of i n t e g r a t i o n may mean many t h i n g s depending upon the context i n which i t i s used. mainly concerned  T h i s r e s e a r c h has been  w i t h c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n i n the sense of  connecting a r t w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t areas and i t s r e l e v a n c e t o a student's l i f e beyond the classroom..  The concept o f  i n t e g r a t i o n as a s c h o o l focus at Lakeview was new and e v o l v i n g , m a n i f e s t i n g i n many forms.  Since the t h r u s t towards  i n t e g r a t i o n has been encouraged at the M i n i s t r y l e v e l , v a r i o u s types of i n t e g r a t i o n appeared  at R i v e r s i d e as w e l l .  D i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d programs can a l s o i n t e g r a t e i d e a s . f a c t , D i s c i p l i n e Based A r t E d u c a t i o n  In  (D.B.A.E.) i s an example  of an i n t e g r a t e d a r t approach a s s o c i a t i n g a r t h i s t o r y , a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n , a r t c r i t i c i s m and s t u d i o a r t . I n t e g r a t e d knowledge w i l l be gained i n an environment i n which connections can be made both e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y ,  154  where students become immersed i n a s u b j e c t . focus of a s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e ,  The  directed  r a t h e r than i s o l a t i n g  l e a r n e r ' s knowledge, has the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t .  the  With the  e s s e n t i a l subject-based background, the student begins t o make connections t o o t h e r areas of knowledge, e s p e c i a l l y where t h i s i n t e n t i o n i s made e x p l i c i t .  I n t e g r a t e d understanding  is a  n a t u r a l outcome of a s o l i d e d u c a t i o n i n a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d curriculum. Each s i t u a t i o n i s unique.  The degree t o which  i n t e g r a t i v e ideas can be r e a l i s e d w i l l depend upon the p r o p e n s i t y of the t e a c h e r s who, emphasis.  We  after a l l ,  determine  program  r e t u r n t o Gray and MacGregor (1990) and  their  a s s e r t i o n t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m i s u l t i m a t e l y i n the hands of the teacher.  Q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r o c e s s e s  and concepts unique  t o a r t are e s s e n t i a l , not o n l y f o r  d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d programming, but a l s o f o r i n t e g r a t e d programming.  The  teacher must have s u b j e c t e x p e r t i s e ,  otherwise, connections w i l l be s u p e r f i c i a l . cannot be i n t e g r a t e d without  Subject  f i r s t a s o l i d grounding  matter i n each  subject. I n t e g r a t i o n does not mean t h a t the i n t e g r i t y of d i s c i p l i n e be s a c r i f i c e d i n favour of another.  one  Art education  and i n s t r u c t i o n i s not the same as u s i n g a r t m a t e r i a l s , techniques and processes i n s u p e r f i c i a l ways t o e m b e l l i s h student work i n o t h e r areas.  A r t i s o n l y p a r t l y about making  p i c t u r e s , c o l o u r f u l graphs or computer generated  155  images.  Before e n t e r i n g i n t o a high degree of s u b j e c t i n t e g r a t i o n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l cost o f l o o s i n g the i n t e g r i t y of s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s and t h e i r s p e c i f i c models and means of i n q u i r y . without  l o o s i n g t h e i r unique f e a t u r e s .  Connections  can be made  I t i s a l s o apparent  that there i s no need t o change s c h o o l t i m e t a b l e s o r s t r u c t u r e s t o accommodate c e r t a i n forms of i n t e g r a t i o n . P o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t without teacher schedules.  the d i s r u p t i o n of student and  I n t e g r a t i o n can occur w i t h i n a d i s c i p l i n e -  oriented structure. Merging a r t with another practical,  feasible or desirable.  requiring specific s k i l l s . instrument,  s u b j e c t o r s u b j e c t s i s not Art i s a discipline  L i k e l e a r n i n g t o p l a y a musical  l e a r n i n g t o draw takes p r a c t i c e .  The p e r s o n a l  focus and c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n a r t may r e i n f o r c e these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n other endeavours. Common sense t e l l s  us t h a t n o t h i n g occurs  i n isolation.  In r e a l i s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i c u l a r s i s found understanding.  When b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e connected new  knowledge i s c r e a t e d . i n t e g r a t i n g ideas.  Knowledge, t h e r e f o r e i s a product o f  P r o f i c i e n t t e a c h i n g of a s u b j e c t  d i s c i p l i n e , while e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y h e l p i n g make connections  through metacognition,  knowledge.  156  students  results i n integrated  CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION As t h i s study draws to c o n c l u s i o n a number of i s s u e s present  themselves.  Chapter S i x w i l l  h i g h l i g h t some of  the  thoughts I have had upon r e f l e c t i o n . IMPLICATIONS FOR  THEORY, PRACTICE AND  RESEARCH  Theory and P r a c t i c e In theory,  the d i s c i p l i n e of a r t has a p l a c e i n  i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m and, i n p r a c t i c e as w e l l . appropriate  through a p p r o p r i a t e  implementation,  For i n s t a n c e , R i v e r s i d e d i s p l a y e d some  i n t e g r a t e d programming, on o c c a s i o n  teaching  s o c i a l s c i e n c e through a r t h i s t o r y and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n . Humans are v i s u a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n e r s , a s s i m i l a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n through our m u l t i p l e i n t e l l i g e n c e s . p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the emotional  Art  responses  education  necessary  to p e r s o n a l i z e i n f o r m a t i o n , thereby making the knowledge ours. A c o l l e a g u e teaches a r t h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e i n combination, s i n c e each i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the o t h e r . every A r t H i s t o r y l e s s o n taught s o r t of sensory  through a s l i d e l e c t u r e , some  element i s i n c l u d e d .  s t u d y i n g the a n c i e n t Egyptians,  For  For i n s t a n c e , when  whose s o c i e t y was  established  through the development of a g r i c u l t u r e , the teacher o f f e r e d students  sunflower  seeds t o remind them of the importance of  g r a i n to these people.  During  the Renaissance l e s s o n the room  f i l l e d with the scent of e x o t i c s p i c e s , reminding students the s p i r i t of e x p l o r a t i o n and  learning prevalent  157  of  i n Europe at  the time.  Music a l s o o f t e n c r e a t e d the ambience o f the e r a  under d i s c u s s i o n .  O f f e r i n g students an a p p r o p r i a t e morsel  awakened t h e i r senses, c r e a t i n g a more t o t a l experience f o r them. to  During w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n s r e f e r e n c e was sometimes made  the food p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g l e s s o n s , h e l p i n g students  remember the experience and make connections, thereby triggering information r e c a l l .  The s e n s u a l element o f the a r t  l e s s o n s a l s o helped the students r e l a t e t o the people o f these p e r i o d s more p e r s o n a l l y . One of the problems a r i s i n g i s t e a c h e r s are i l l equip t o use a r t as a connector o r f i l t e r  through which t o view the  world s i n c e they l a c k the necessary background i n the discipline.  Where there i s p o t e n t i a l f o r t e a c h i n g and  understanding through a r t , we a r e o f t e n l e f t w i t h the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y o f drawing p i c t u r e s .  F o r i n s t a n c e , the  p a i n t i n g "The Death of Marat" by Jacque L o u i s David i s a way to  understand the backdrop  f o r the French R e v o l u t i o n .  In  f a c t , the l i f e of Jacque L o u i s David i s a p o i n t of departure to  approach  this period i n history.  The r i c h n e s s o f t h i s  teaching material i s l o s t to a s o c i a l science teacher u n f a m i l i a r w i t h a r t h i s t o r y , r e i n f o r c i n g the i d e a t h a t one cannot r e l a t e s u b j e c t areas t o each o t h e r without having a f i r m grasp of the d i s c i p l i n e s t o be connected. a grounding  Students need  i n each d i s c i p l i n e b e f o r e they can b e g i n t o  r e a l i z e o v e r l a p p i n g concepts.  158  At the same time, some of the most e f f e c t i v e may  occur w i t h i n a s u b j e c t area.  Based A r t E d u c a t i o n  For example,  integration  Discipline  (D.B.A.E.) u n i t e s v a r i o u s aspects of  visual art including, art appreciation, art c r i t i c i s m , art h i s t o r y and the c r e a t i o n of a r t while r e l a t i n g the a r t s t o c u l t u r e and s o c i e t a l  issues.  What students ought t o know about a r t and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s to o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s and determining the most e f f e c t i v e ways t o reach these d e s i r e d outcomes deserves f u r t h e r study.  A l s o of i n t e r e s t i s how  i n h e r e n t t o a r t , based on Gardner's  the ways of knowing  (198 9)  t h e o r y of m u l t i p l e  i n t e l l i g e n c e s , enhance o t h e r areas of l e a r n i n g . understanding,  programs i n c l u d i n g a combination  From t h i s of d i s c i p l i n e -  o r i e n t e d and i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m models c o u l d be  developed.  It seems t h a t i n many cases the i n t e g r a t i o n of s k i l l s i s more e a s i l y accomplished illustrate, of  than the i n t e g r a t i o n of i d e a s .  To  g i v e n the necessary equipment, i n t e g r a t i n g the  computers a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m i s l e s s d i f f i c u l t  i n t e g r a t i n g the i d e a of how  use  than  t h i s technology a f f e c t s a r t and  society. The c h a l l e n g e i s having students see the between i d e a s .  relationships  For t h i s we need t o develop a c u r r i c u l u m which  emphasizes metacognition.  I f one of the g o a l s i s t h a t  students i n t e g r a t e i d e a s , then we need t o l i t e r a l l y students how  teach  t o t h i n k i n terms of making connections and make  them aware t h a t they are doing so.  159  R e l a t i o n s h i p s need t o be  made e x p l i c i t l y f o r students b e f o r e they w i l l be able them on t h e i r own.  The  relationships  Integration  connections.  a l s o holds i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r assessment  I t i s obvious that the method of e v a l u a t i o n  r e f l e c t the o b j e c t i v e s  of that which i s taught.  l e a r n i n g must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d when d e s i g n i n g practices.  by  c r e a t i o n of knowledge comes as a r e s u l t of  making a p p r o p r i a t e  practices.  see  At each o p p o r t u n i t y t e a c h e r s can model  t h i s behaviour i m p l i c i t l y as w e l l , e x p l o r i n g example.  to  The  should  implicit  evaluative  As programs s h i f t towards i n t e g r a t i v e outcomes,  where p r o c e s s becomes important, methods of assessment need to be developed to r e f l e c t the In terms of the  change i n  focus.  s t r u c t u r e of schools,  there i s no need to s i g n i f i c a n t l y adjust timetabling  isolation,  that  established  procedures or teacher schedules i n o r d e r to  accommodate i n t e g r a t i o n . restructure  i t i s apparent  schools,  There may  such as,  be o t h e r reasons t o  concerns about t e a c h e r  e f f o r t s to encourage s t a f f c o l l a b o r a t i o n , o f f e r i n g  more c o n s i s t e n t  programs and  i n t e g r a t i o n should not  fostering accountability  be used as the  yet,  sole motivation for  reorganization. I suggest that an e f f e c t i v e means of i n t e g r a t i v e outcomes would be incrementally evolution  to i n t r o d u c e  i n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l school  r a t h e r than r e v o l u t i o n .  160  achieving t h i s approach  structure,  practising  A f i n e balance needs to  be  maintained between the enthusiasm i t s conscientious  f o r an e x c i t i n g concept  and  implementation.  It i s c r u c i a l t h a t the implementation  of  integrative  i n i t i a t i v e s be p r a c t i c a l and the demands f o r t h i s approach be reasonable.  In some camps i n t e g r a t i o n i s being met  c e r t a i n amount of o p p o s i t i o n .  Teachers  with a  are r e s i s t a n t  to  change f o r many reasons, not the l e a s t of which i s workload. C o n s i s t e n t l y a burden f o r t e a c h e r s are c o l l a b o r a t i v e meetings to p l a n f o r s u b j e c t i n t e g r a t i o n .  In an a l r e a d y crowded time  frame these s e s s i o n s are not o n l y exhausting, but  time  consuming as w e l l . F u r t h e r , a t e a c h e r ' s working s t y l e i s not always compatible  t o c l o s e the c o l l a b o r a t i o n which i s assumed t o be  necessary t o reach i n t e g r a t i v e outcomes. who  teach know, i s o f t e n v e r y p e r s o n a l .  Teaching,  as  those  While working w i t h  o t h e r s may  be d e s i r a b l e , many t e a c h e r s p r i d e themselves  uniqueness  of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l y developed  on the  programs.  C o l l a b o r a t i v e work many p l a y a key r o l e towards d e v e l o p i n g subject i n t e g r a t i o n ,  still  a teacher w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e  background can s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e i d e a s w i t h i n t h e i r classroom.  In f a c t ,  own  s i n c e the move towards i n t e g r a t e d  programming i s a f e t e accompli, some t e a c h e r s may  p r e f e r to  a c q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and t r a i n i n g i n o r d e r t o achieve s u b j e c t i n t e g r a t i o n . I t occurs t o me i n the implementing  t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y needs t o be integration.  161  maintained  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h might  i n c l u d e a study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the implementation of i n t e g r a t i v e approaches. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s i n many ways an a p p r o p r i a t e t i t l e f o r t h i s type of study.  The r e s e a r c h conducted here i s  t o t a l l y dependent upon the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s  observed,  thereby " q u a l i f i e d " by the circumstances. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a b s o l u t e l y match t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s although every attempt  should be made t o o b t a i n s i m i l a r i t y .  For t h i s type of r e s e a r c h i t cannot be overemphasized each s i t u a t i o n i s completely unique.  that  Students change w i t h  each semester and c u r r i c u l u m i s manipulated by each t e a c h e r . It f o l l o w s that programs cannot be compared without c o n s i d e r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s and students i n v o l v e d . F u r t h e r , data were generated through the p a r t i c u l a r frames o f r e f e r e n c e of the informants and r e s e a r c h e r . Therefore, i t i s important t o understand these p o i n t s o f departure.  Designed as an i n d i v i d u a l case study, hoping t o  add t o a body of e m p i r i c a l evidence on the s u b j e c t , the r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d . time, something the p a r t s .  At the same  of the whole can be d i s c o v e r e d by examining  Finally,  t e a c h i n g a r t i s a complex a c t i v i t y ,  i n f l u e n c e d by a myriad of v a r i a b l e s .  Thus, i t has been  i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s a b s o l u t e s throughout  162  this  study.  Admittedly,  the i n t e g r a t e d a r t program i n t h i s study  v e r y young, making i t d i f f i c u l t  to evaluate.  was  A more w e l l  e s t a b l i s h e d program may have made c e r t a i n i s s u e s c l e a r e r . C e r t a i n l y , however, the u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n as an o r g a n i z i n g concept apparent.  and d i r e c t i o n became  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o look at t h i s program  a g a i n i n two o r t h r e e years t o see the d i r e c t i o n i t had taken and t o f o l l o w the h i s t o r y of i t s development. As i n t e g r a t i v e approaches have been implemented n a t i o n a l l y i t i s , i n f a c t , time now  t o go back t o some of the  o r i g i n a l p i l o t p r o j e c t s t o observe what has t r a n s p i r e d . Assessment and e v a l u a t i o n of c e r t a i n programs should be encouraged t o a i d the f u t u r e development and implementation i n t e g r a t i o n as we move from theory i n t o p r a c t i c e . i n i t i a t i v e s are being implemented c o n t i n u a l l y ,  of  Integrated  some s c h o o l s  j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o come on l i n e w i t h M i n i s t r y d i r e c t i v e s .  Past  experience need t o be assessed i f we are t o l e a r n from them. In  terms of methodology, the QUALPRO computer program  was  an i n v a l u a b l e t o o l f o r e f f i c i e n t l y s o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from notes and i n t e r v i e w s .  I t c o u l d a l s o have been u s e f u l f o r a l l  f i e l d notes and o t h e r data c o l l e c t e d had they been e n t e r e d i n t o the program.  T h i s approach l e f t me c o n f i d e n t t h a t the  data was t r e a t e d a c c u r a t e l y and thoroughly i n t h a t no d e t a i l was l e f t out o r unaccounted f o r . The v i d e o camera a l s o became an e x c e l l e n t t o o l f o r b r i n g i n g the classrooms v i s i t e d back t o l i f e when r e v i e w i n g  163  the data.  Months a f t e r the study was  completed  r e e n t e r the s i t u a t i o n i n the classroom as an observer.  I was  able to  impartial  The camera i t s e l f needed a wide angle l e n s ,  without  which c r e a t e d some problems i n c a p t u r i n g a l l classroom a c t i v i t i e s simultaneously. maintained,  Still,  the essence  of the room  was  reminding me of each d e t a i l .  Persona] P r o f e s s i o n a l L e a r n i n g Through t h i s study I had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o see  first  hand t h a t a t e a c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , a t t i t u d e and knowledge of the s u b j e c t determines  e v e r y t h i n g that occurs i n the  making the Gray and MacGregor's come t o l i f e  f o r me.  classroom  (1990) P.R.O.A.C.T.A. study  L i k e them, I can a l s o conclude t h a t  teachers make t h e i r p e r s o n a l mark on the programs they d e l i v e r based upon t h e i r knowledge, background and i n t e n t . and i m p l i c i t  Explicit  l e a r n i n g are c o n t r o l l e d by the t e a c h e r whose  e x p e c t a t i o n s are I t appears  fulfilled. t h a t c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d i d e a s and  r e s u l t i n more focused student outcomes.  The  "integrated" art  program at Lakeview would have been much d i f f e r e n t i n the teacher d i r e c t e d s t y l e of Pat.  directions  i f taught  The more connections  are s t r u c t u r e d f o r students, the b e t t e r they w i l l l e a r n how make connections f o r themselves.  L e a r n i n g t o make connections  and i d e n t i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s should be p a r t of the i n t e g r a t i v e l e s s o n s taught t o s t u d e n t s . accomplished  How  metacognitive  t h i s can  be  might a l s o be the s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  164  to  At the same time,  I q u e s t i o n at which p o i n t i n t h e i r  e d u c a t i o n a l development students are ready t o s t a r t making the types of connections we ask them t o make.  When and how we  i n t e g r a t e I b e l i e v e needs more c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . cannot  run b e f o r e she o r he l e a r n s t o walk.  implementation  has i t s developmental  stages.  A child  Likewise, We need t o be  c a u t i o u s i n adopting i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s so t h a t i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g and understanding  are not l o s t o r made  to become s u p e r f i c i a l . The u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y f o r c u r r i c u l a r i n t e g r a t i o n i s strong.  I n t e g r a t i o n makes sense  i n terms o f how humans  process i n f o r m a t i o n and how we understand it  i s congruent  our world.  Hence,  w i t h the fundamental g o a l s of e d u c a t i o n .  165  REFERENCES Ackerman, D.B.  (1989). I n t e l l e c t u a l and p r a c t i c a l  for successful curriculum (Ed.),  I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y curriculum:  implementation  B.  Design  (pp. 25-3 7). 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Beyond paradigms: A r t e d u c a t i o n theory  p r a c t i c e i n a postparadigmatic  world.  and  Studies i n Art  Education, 33.(4), 244-252. Perkins, D.N.  (1991). E d u c a t i n g f o r i n s i g h t . E d u c a t i o n a l  Leadership. 4J2.(2), Perkins D.N.  4-8.  & Simmons R.  misunderstanding:  (1988).  P a t t e r n s of  An i n t e g r a t i v e model f o r s c i e n c e ,  math, and programming.  Review of E d u c a t i o n a l  Research,  5B.(3), 303-326. Perkins D.N.  & Salomon, G.  (1988). Teaching  E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 4JL(1) , 22-32.  173  for transfer.  Phenix, P.H. (1971). Transcendence  and the c u r r i c u l u m .  Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 22., 271-283. P o l y a n i , M. (1967). The t a c i t dimension. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l . Popkewitz,  T.S. (1977). The l a t e n t v a l u e s of the d i s c i p l i n e -  c e n t r e d c u r r i c u l u m . Theory and Research i n S o c i a l Education, 5.(1), 41-60. Read, H. (1948). E d u c a t i o n through a r t . New York: Saunders,  Pantheon.  R.J. (1978). The a r t s - Working t o g e t h e r t o make  e d u c a t i o n work: An i d e a whose time has come. S t u d i e s i n A r t Education, 12.(3), 14-20. Slaughter, R.A. (1989). C u l t u r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the p o s t modern world. J o u r n a l of C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s , 21(3), 255270 . Spradley, J.P. (1979). The ethnographic i n t e r v i e w . Chicago: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston Inc. Tanner D. & Tanner L. (1980). C u r r i c u l u m Development: Theory i n t o P r a c t i c e . New York: MacMillan. Tanner, D. (1989). A b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f the s t r u g g l e f o r an i n t e g r a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m . E d u c a t i o n a l Horizons, ££.(1), 7-11. Tesch, R. (1990). Q u a l i t a t i v e Research: A n a l y s i s types and software. New York: The Falmer P r e s s . Tesch, R. (1993) . I n t r o d u c t o r y guide t o OUAT.PRO: A MS-DOS program f o r the a n a l y s i s of q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a . Desert Hot Springs, CA: Q u a l i t a t i v e Research Management.  174  T y l e r , R.W.  (1958). Curriculum  (Ed.), The  organization.  In N.B.  f i f t y - s e v e n t h yearbook of the  S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n Chicago: The  National  (pp.  Henry  National 105-125).  S o c i e t y f o r the Study of  Education. Van  Steenbergen, B.  (1990). P o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e of  h o l i s t i c paradigm on the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ,  the  Futures,  22.(10) , 1071-1083 . Werner, W.  (1991). Curriculum  (Occasional  paper #6).  i n t e g r a t i o n and  school  Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of  cultures British  Columbia, F.O.C.I.: Forum on C u r r i c u l a r I n t e g r a t i o n , T r i University Integration Williams,  D.D.  Project.  (1991, A p r i l ) . A n a t u r a l i s t i c study of u n i f i e d  s t u d i e s : A h o l i s t i c high school program. Paper p r e s e n t e d at the annual meeting of the American Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Chicago, Winslow, L.L. ed.). New  (1949) . The  IL. i n t e g r a t e d school a r t program  York: McGraw-Hill.  175  (2nd  APPENDIX A CODE LIST AND CODE DEFINITIONS The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t  of codes and t h e i r  definitions  r e p r e s e n t i n g ideas which emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w and o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e s s . A p p r e c i a t e : r e f e r e n c e made t o a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n o r a r t historyA r t Knowledge:  student s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d knowledge  i n reference  to a r t Assessment: g a t h e r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f student performance A t t i t u d e : student outlook towards a r t C o l l a b o r a t e : t e a c h e r s p l a n p r o j e c t s , program o r a c t i v i t i e s with other teachers Computer:  r e f e r e n c e t o computers o r technology  Development: program development and change D i s l i k e : student's l e a s t f a v o u r i t e a r t p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s F a c i l i t y : a r t room  facilities  F a v o u r i t e : student's f a v o u r i t e a r t p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s Goals: teacher  intentions  G u i d e l i n e : use of l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e l i n e s and documents  f o r p l a n n i n g program  I n t e g r a t e : i n t e r v i e w e e made r e f e r e n c e t o concept of integration Management: classroom management and student Other C l a s s : student involvement than a r t c l a s s  176  discipline  with a r t i n a c l a s s other  Out Side School: student involvement  w i t h a r t out s i d e s c h o o l  Program: d e s c r i p t i o n of o v e r a l l program Project:  d e s c r i p t i o n of s p e c i f i c a r t p r o j e c t s  and a c t i v i t i e s  Relevance: r e f e r e n c e t o the u s e f u l n e s s of the knowledge  gained  through the program Schedule: program d e l i v e r y Skills:  intended l e a r n i n g  schedule outcomes  Teacher Role: r o l e of the t e a c h e r i n the classroom and program Theme: r e f e r e n c e t o u n i t s of work around a c e n t r a l  177  topic  APPENDIX B INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Note t h a t the questions form.  o u t l i n e d here are i n s k e l e t a l  When i n a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w s the q u e s t i o n s  became extended  and more c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n nature. Interview Questions f o r Teachers 1.  What i s the h i s t o r i c a l context  f o r a r t i n the school?  2.  Would you show me around the classroom?  3.  Would you d e s c r i b e your i n t e g r a t e d / s u b j e c t o r i e n t e d a r t  program? 4.  How  i s the school day s t r u c t u r e d i n terms of time p e r i o d s  or r o t a t i o n s ? 5.  What are some of the s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of your program?  6.  Who  7.  Could you p r o v i d e me w i t h a w r i t t e n o u t l i n e of the  has developed the program?  program? 8.  What g u i d e l i n e s do you f o l l o w , i f any?  9.  What do you want students  10.  How  t o l e a r n i n your a r t program?  do you determine what students  have l e a r n e d i n your  program? 11.  (a)  Do you t h i n k students  the a r t room i n other (b)  are l e a r n i n g about a r t o u t s i d e  classrooms?  Do you t h i n k they are l e a r n i n g about a r t o u t s i d e the  school? (c)  I f so what do you t h i n k they are l e a r n i n g ?  178  12.  (a)  Would you e x p l a i n o r d e f i n e the concept o f  integration for  me as you see i t .  (b)  How do you see i n t e g r a t i o n o p e r a t i n g  i n your classroom?  (c)  How do you see i n t e g r a t i o n o p e r a t i n g  i n the school?  13.  Would you t e l l me about s p e c i f i c i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t s o r  units? 14.  How frequent  15.  (a)  are the i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t s o r u n i t s ?  Would you g i v e me an example of a t y p i c a l a r t l e s s o n  or p r o j e c t ? (b)  Would you g i v e me an example o f a t y p i c a l i n t e g r a t e d a r t lesson or project?  16.  What i s the r a t i o o f i n t e g r a t e d a r t p r o j e c t s t o s u b j e c t  s p e c i f i c a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n your program? 17.  How much time i s a l l o t t e d t o a r t i n s t r u c t i o n o r  i n t e g r a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n which i n c l u d e s v i s u a l a r t ? 18.  Could you d e s c r i b e  a typical a r t class?  19.  Would you d e s c r i b e  a c l a s s which r e a l l y stands out as  having been s u c c e s s f u l f o r you? 20.  Could you d e s c r i b e  some o f the experiences you have had  working w i t h t h i s a r t program? 21.  Would you o u t l i n e the o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the  p a r t i c u l a r a r t c l a s s e s that I observed? 22.  Is there anything  e l s e you would l i k e t o t e l l me about  your experiences w i t h any p a r t of your program? A d d i t i o n a l Questions f o r the Non-art Teacher a t Lakeview  179  1. (b)  (a)  Do students do a r t i n your program?  I f so, how much time might they spend on a r t r e l a t e d  activities? 2.  What i s the nature o f the a r t a c t i v i t i e s you i n c l u d e i n  your program? 3.  Can you g i v e me some examples of the a r t a c t i v i t i e s  they've done? 4.  Do you address a r t s p e c i f i c a l l y as a t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n  i n your c l a s s e s ? Interview Questions f o r Students 1.  T e l l me about some of the t h i n g s you have done t h i s y e a r  in art. 2. (b)  (a)  Do you enjoy a r t ?  I f so, what type of a r t do you l i k e ?  3.  What was your f a v o u r i t e a r t p r o j e c t t h i s year?  4.  Which a r t p r o j e c t ( s ) d i d n ' t you l i k e ?  5.  T e l l me about an a r t c l a s s you r e a l l y f e l t good about.  6.  Do you study a r t h i s t o r y o r a r t c r i t i c i s m  i n your a r t  program? 7.  What do you l i k e best about your a r t program?  8.  I f you c o u l d change something about your a r t program, what  would you change? 9. (b)  (a)  Would you l i k e t o do more o r l e s s  Why do you say that?  180  a r t i n school?  10.  I f your p a r e n t s asked you what you d i d i n a r t c l a s s  today, what would you t e l l  them?  What stands out i n your  mind? 11.  (a)  What k i n d s of t h i n g s do you l e a r n i n a r t ?  (b)  What do you t h i n k you l e a r n e d t h i s year?  12.  Can you t e l l me about a time that you took what you  l e a r n e d i n a r t and used i t i n a d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t ? 13. the 14.  Can you g i v e me any examples of a time where you've used t h i n g s you l e a r n e d i n a r t o u t s i d e school? Can you t e l l me about any times t h a t another t e a c h e r  t a l k e d about a r t i n t h e i r c l a s s e s ? 15.  (a)  T e l l me about a times t h i s year t h a t you d i d a r t i n  another c l a s s e s . (b)  What s o r t s of a r t assignments d i d you do i n o t h e r  classes? 16.  Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g e l s e you would l i k e t o t e l l me  your e x p e r i e n c e s i n a r t ?  181  about  

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