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Integrated curricular programming for art education : a comparative study Dyne, Karen Lea 1995

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INTEGRATED CURRICULAR PROGRAMMING FOR ART EDUCATION A COMPARATIVE STUDY by KAREN LEA DYNE B.F.A., University of Toronto, 1985 B.Ed., University of Toronto, Faculty of Education, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Curriculum Studies) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1995 ©:Karen Lea Dyne, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis "for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y compares an " i n t e g r a t e d " a r t program w i t h a " d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d " a r t program a t t h e grade e i g h t l e v e l i n two O n t a r i o p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Data were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w and o b s e r v a t i o n . The c omparison i s based upon the i n t e n t i o n a l , c u r r i c u l a r , s t r u c t u r a l and e v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n s o f s c h o o l i n g as o u t l i n e by E i s n e r (1991). The s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s a r e complex and m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l . I n t e g r a t e d outcomes o c c u r and may be c u l t i v a t e d w i t h i n a d i s c i p l i n e -o r i e n t e d s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e . ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table of Contents L i s t of Tables Acknowledgement Chapter One: Introduction Background The Investigation Personal Ground Research Questions C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Terms Significance and Purpose of the Study Chapter Two: Lit e r a t u r e Analysis H i s t o r i c a l Background Philosophy and Ideology of Integration Integration and the Arts Motivation for Integrating the Curriculum Defining Integration Implementing Integrative Practices Limitations I d e n t i f i e d Concluding Remarks Chapter Three: Methodology Overview and Rationale Qualitative Inquiry i n Education Descriptive/Interpretative Analysis i n Qualitative Research Summary of Qualitative Analysis Procedure The Study Population and Setting Data C o l l e c t i o n Interview Process and Questioning Treatment of the Data Analysis of Data R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Study iii Chapter Four: Findings 44 Introduction 44 School and Teacher P r o f i l e 44 Structural Dimension of Schooling 4 6 Program Schedule and Structure 47 Intentional Dimension of Schooling 4 9 Use of Guidelines 49 Aims and Goals 51 Curricular Dimension of Schooling 54 Program and Development 55 Art Projects 62 Art History and Appreciation 73 Integration 74 Teacher Role and Program Delivery 85 Art F a c i l i t y 89 Teacher Collaboration 91 Evaluative Dimension of Schooling 93 Assessment Practices 93 Student Attitude 97 Student Art Knowledge 99 Student Involvement with Art Outside the Art Program 102 Description of Class V i s i t s 107 Lakeview - Class V i s i t #1 107 Lakeview - Class V i s i t #2 110 Riverside - Class V i s i t #1 113 Riverside - Class V i s i t #2 118 Chapter Five: Interpretation 122 Fogarty's Integration Categories 123 Comparative Analysis 124 Teacher and School P r o f i l e 124 Structural Dimension of Schooling 12 7 Program Schedule 127 Intentional Dimension of Schooling 129 Use of Guidelines 129 Aims and Goals 13 0 Curricular Dimension of Schooling 132 Program and Development 132 Art Projects 134 Art History and Appreciation 135 iv Teacher Role and Program Delivery -Riverside 136 Teacher Role and Program Delivery -Lakeview 13 9 Summary 143 Teacher Collaboration 144 Art F a c i l i t y 145 The Evaluative Dimension Of Schooling 147 Student Art Knowledge 147 Student Attitude 148 Assessment Practices 149 Integration 150 Closing Remarks 154 Chapter Six: Conclusion 157 Implications for Theory, Practice and Research 157 Theory and Practice 157 Implications for Research 162 Personal and Professional Learning 164 References 166 Appendix A Code L i s t and D e f i n i t i o n s 176 Appendix B Interview Questions 178 Interview Questions for Teachers Interview Questions for Students v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Toward an Integrated Curriculum Ten Views for Integrating the Curricula (Fogarty, 1991) 25 Table 2 Comparison of Integrated Practices at Lakeview and Riverside 125 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study was made possible through the co-operation and support of many in d i v i d u a l s . I extend my appreciation to the Board of Education i n which t h i s study was conducted and i t s Research Department and to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools, teachers and students who so w i l l i n g l y gave t h e i r time and sincere responses to my i n q u i r i e s . I also thank my research advisor Dr. Rita Irwin f o r her precise advice, d i r e c t i o n and encouragement throughout the study, my thesis committee, Prof. Kit Grauer and Dr. Robert C a r l i s l e , and also Dr. James Gray for getting me started. F i n a l l y , I extend my gratitude to those colleagues, friends and e s p e c i a l l y family who supported me i n t h i s endeavour. vii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Current discussions i n education at both the national and international l e v e l have focused on an integrated approach to art education (Grauer, 1991). In Canada, discussion over the issue has been promulgated by The Year 2 000 c u r r i c u l a i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Ministry of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990), and through s i m i l a r recommendations i n Ontario i n the Transition Years (Ministry of Education, Ontario, 1990) . Although the i n i t i a t i v e s are at various stages of implementation, controversy surrounding integration continues. Background A recurrent, or perhaps concurrent theme i n the history of art education has been the dichotomy between d i s c i p l i n e oriented structures, versus more h o l i s t i c , integrated approaches (Dewey, 1934; Efland, 1978, 1990; Henry, 1958; Munro, 1970; Read, 1948; Saunders, 1978). Integrated art curriculum has not, however, reached wide popularity. The l i t e r a t u r e suggests that, at best, integrated art has achieved s i g n i f i c a n t success only i n special projects and schools. One i s lead to wonder why t h i s practice, which appears to be so pedagogically sound, has not been more widely implemented (Court, 1991) . Surprisingly, despite the h i s t o r i c a l discussion surrounding the integration of v i s u a l art, there has been l i t t l e empirical data available to substantiate the claims of 1 integrated programs beyond the opinions of those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the programs (Grauer, 1991; Kindler, 1987, 1991). Current work being done i n the area i s l a r g e l y descriptive of s p e c i f i c teaching and learning units or projects, rather than program evaluation or philosophical underpinnings (Grauer, 1991). The study of integration i s multifaceted. Each facet needs to be examined i n order to c l e a r l y understand the phenomenon and i t s import for art education. The concept of integration requires careful d e f i n i t i o n and structured investigation (Kindler, 1987, 1991). Williams (1991) has conducted a n a t u r a l i s t i c study of a u n i f i e d studies program at the high school l e v e l . The project, with a history of 15 years, was established to address the needs of students which t r a d i t i o n a l programs ignored. His purpose was to examine i n d e t a i l the l i v e d experiences of the participants i n t h i s integrated curriculum project. Williams' study resulted i n a r i c h description of the learning and teaching a c t i v i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Of interest to t h i s study are his conclusions concerning the personal growth of the students involved and the personality p r o f i l e s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers. Once again, however, we are examining an isolated, special i n i t i a t i v e . This study investigates the e f f e c t s of integrated programming on students and teachers at other l e v e l s i n our regular, public education system. 2 Integration seeks to address a number of concerns which the present d i s c i p l i n e - c e n t r e d curriculum f a i l s to acknowledge, including: the fragmentation of the content and processes of schooling (Case, 1991; Jacobs, 1989; Slaughter, 1989; Williams, 1991); teaching for the transfer of knowledge and of s k i l l s (Miller, 1988; Perkins & Salomon, 1988) ; the relevance of the d i s c i p l i n e s to each other and to l i f e outside the school (Daniels, 1991; Gough, 1989; Holly, 1986; Williams, 1991); and to the expansion of knowledge and the overloaded curriculum (Jacobs, 1989; M i l l e r , Cassie & Drake, 1990). An integrative approach, which encourages analytic and creative thinking, i s also i n keeping with the Ontario Ministry's image of the c h i l d as an active learner (Miller, 1988; Ministry of Education, Ontario, 1990). Conceptually, integration as a model for education embodies a h o l i s t i c approach, seeking to emphasize the interconnected nature of knowledge and the education of the whole c h i l d . This can be achieved through the M i l l e r and S e l l e r (1985) curriculum positions of "transaction" and "transformation", but not through "transmission" ( M i l l e r & S e l l e r , 1885). From the standpoint of transmission the student i s the passive receiver of atomized b i t s of information. The approach i s m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y i n the sense that there are no connections made between the d i s c i p l i n e s (Miller, Cassie, & Drake, 1990). This i s a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d p o s i t i o n . 3 Transaction encourages an on-going rela t i o n s h i p between the student and the curriculum i n order to encourage problem solving s k i l l s . It i s seen as i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y since questions are explored from d i f f e r e n t perspectives (Miller, Cassie, & Drake, 1990). The transformation p o s i t i o n focuses on the whole learner i n a personal and s o c i a l sense, emphasizing interdependence with the environment (Miller, 1988). As such, i t i s seen as t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y or non-d i s c i p l i n a r y i n that the learner i s not bound to address problems from any p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n a r y point of view (Miller, Cassie, & Drake, 1990) . These l a t t e r positions are integrative. There are p a r a l l e l s to the above orientations i n our underlying p h i l o s o p h i c a l - s c i e n t i f i c paradigms. Broadly speaking, the transmission and transaction positions correspond to the Western s c i e n t i f i c systems approach, described as r a t i o n a l , l i n e a r , and sequential, based upon c l a s s i c a l Newtonian laws of science, emphasizing permanence, s t a b i l i t y , and s i m p l i c i t y (Doll, 1989; Gough, 1989; M i l l e r , 1988). It i s from t h i s premise that present curriculum models are rooted (Slaughter, 1989). Nevertheless, while s t i l l i n the process of d e f i n i t i o n , an alternate paradigm, which allows for the complex, transitory, and apparently chaotic nature of the world appears to be emerging (Doll, 1989; Pearse, 1992). This model accounts for the transformation position, which i s 4 personal and contextual (Doll, 1989; Gough, 1989; M i l l e r , 1988) . It i s apparent that there are various approaches to integration. Central to the discussion i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d and integrated methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . The two are not necessarily mutually exclusive. It i s suggested that meaningful i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y experiences cannot occur u n t i l knowledge of the subject matter i s understood (Chambers, 1983; Jacobs, 1989). "It i s arguable that synthesis - putting together - requires a knowledge of the separate parts which are to be integrated into a whole" (Entwistle, 1970, pp.110). 7Any curriculum c a r r i e s with i t both e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t knowledge (Eisner, 1979; Goodlad, 1984). D i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d and integrated approaches each have e f f e c t s on the culture of schooling (Cuban, 1984; Werner, 1991) influencing educational experiences for both students and for teachers. While there i s considerable documentation about the e f f e c t of d i s c i p l i n e -oriented curriculums on schooling (Apple & King 1977; Cuban, 1984, 1990; Fullan, 1991; Goodlad, 1979, 1984; Kane, 1979; Popkewitz, 1977) the impact of integrated studies for teachers and for students remains to be discerned. The Investigation In l i g h t of the fact that the implementation of integrated programs are well under way, i t seemed wise to embark upon an analysis of an integrated program i n the 5 regular school system. This n a t u r a l i s t i c study compared an integrated approach to art education with a d i s c i p l i n e -oriented program through two case studies, employing the q u a l i t a t i v e inquiry methodology outlined i n Chapter I I I . Eisner's (1991) model of educational connoisseurship serves as a conceptual framework for such an investigation. He has outlined dimensions of schooling which served as lenses through which educational a c t i v i t i e s were observed. Three perspectives were selected for t h i s study; the i n t e n t i o n a l dimension of schooling ( e x p l i c i t goals or aims), the c u r r i c u l a r dimension of schooling (quality of content and application) and the s t r u c t u r a l dimension of schooling (organizational aspects). During the i n v e s t i g a t i o n the evaluative dimension of schooling (assessment and evaluation practices) (Eisner, 1991) emerged as an additional area of in t e r e s t . Focus on these topics established a structure for comparison of the two programs. Personal Ground My concern with the issue of integration stemmed from my role as an art educator and high school art department head. Involvement with integrated projects within my classes, department and school has lead to my interest i n comparing t h i s approach with a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d approach. I have worked on the development of integrated projects both large and small. I p a r t i c i p a t e d as part of a three member team, writing and implementing a course c a l l e d 6 Communications, integrating dramatic art, technological studies and English, involving three departments within the school. On more than one occasion, i n conjunction with another teacher, I have combined two d i s c i p l i n e s , such as, v i s u a l art and science, for i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y units or a c t i v i t i e s . Further, as an independent classroom teacher, I have integrated ideas from various subject d i s c i p l i n e s . During these experiences I have witnessed both success and disaster. I also conducted two preliminary studies r e l a t i n g to c u r r i c u l a r integration (Dyne, 1992a, 1992b). The f i r s t addressed problems inherent i n t h i s approach, and the second, examined integration from an organizational perspective. It became apparent from these investigations that an integrated approach to education requires a substantial departure from the established norms of schooling (Cuban, 1990). Research Questions The purpose of t h i s study was to compare an integrated approach to art education with a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d approach. The following research questions were addressed: 1. In terms of the intentional, c u r r i c u l a r , and s t r u c t u r a l dimensions of schooling (Eisner, 1991), what are the implications of an integrated program, which includes v i s u a l art, for students and for teachers? 2. In terms of the intentional, c u r r i c u l a r , and s t r u c t u r a l dimensions of schooling (Eisner, 1991), what are the 7 implications of an d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d art program for students and for teachers? C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Terms The following terms w i l l be used throughout the study requiring c l a r i f i c a t i o n to ensure mutual understanding between reader and author. D i s c i p l i n e F i e l d . " s p e c i f i c body of teachable knowledge with i t s own background of education, t r a i n i n g , procedures, method and content areas" (Jacobs, 1989, p.7) Integration. "uniting of discrete elements into a whole" (Case, 1991, p.2) I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y . "a knowledge view and curriculum approach that consciously applies methodology and language from more than one d i s c i p l i n e to examine a central theme, issue, problem, topic, or experience" (Jacobs, 1989, p. 8) Discipline-oriented. An approach to curriculum which concentrates on a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e f i e l d . The Intentional Dimension of Schooling. "designates aims or goals that are e x p l i c i t l y advocated and p u b l i c l y announced as well as those that are a c t u a l l y employed i n the classroom" (Eisner, 1991, pp.73) The Curricular Dimension of Schooling. "focuses upon the q u a l i t y of the curriculum's content and goals and the a c t i v i t i e s employed to engage students i n i t " (Eisner, 1991, pp.75) 8 The Structural Dimension of Schooling. "the organizational forms of schools - how the school day i s divided and how subjects are assigned to time blocks" (Eisner, 1991, pp.74) Evaluative Dimension of Schooling, "focus on the ways i n which evaluation practices... influence the students' outlook" (Eisner, 1991, pp.80) Significance and Purpose of the Study The Ontario Ministry of Education has asked teachers to implement integrative approaches i n t h e i r classrooms. At t h i s point we know l i t t l e about these practices from an empirical point of view. By comparing and contrasting integrated and d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d approaches, t h i s study attempts to o f f e r new understanding to the f i e l d of art education through descriptive interpretation based upon di r e c t observation. Further, the intention of t h i s empirical study i s to become part of a preponderance of evidence from several case studies over time regarding integrated practices i n re l a t i o n s h i p to art education. 9 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE ANALYSIS H i s t o r i c a l Background The integration of art i s not a new notion having occupied the minds of some of the leading educational thinkers for more than a century (Efland, 1978; Saunders, 1978; Tanner, 1989). It has not, however, reached wide popularity i n public schools. In analyzing the l i t e r a t u r e on c u r r i c u l a r integration the intention i s three-fold: to explore the philosophical basis, i d e n t i f y predominant d e f i n i t i o n s , issues and concerns, and to gain insight into the nature of i t s implementation. Integration has been a recurring, or perhaps a concurrent, theme throughout the educational t r a d i t i o n i n North America and the Commonwealth. It has been expounded by Parker and Morris (Hamblen, 1985) at the turn of the century, Dewey (1934) and the Progressive Movement of the twenties and t h i r t i e s , and Read (1948), Munro (1970) and Winslow (1949) i n the f o r t i e s . In the nineteen f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s , the concept was taken up by Dressel (1958), Bloom (1958), Tyler (1958) and G a i t s k e l l (1969). In the 1970's, The Arts, Education and Americas Panel (1978) released a report, Coming to our senses: The significance of the arts for American education, sparking a barrage of controversy surrounding integrated a r t s . A series of reviews were subsequently published. Efland (1978) 10 outlined a b r i e f history r e l a t i n g the arts to education, while Brigham (1978) presented a case for integrated arts. Acuff (1978) i n , "Using our heads while coming to our senses", was the most c r i t i c a l , pointing to some of the conceptual and p r a c t i c a l problems regarding the issue. At the same time, Cohen (1978) declared that i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y education was a l i v e and well. To bring the discussion up to date, Tanner (1989) reviews the uneven path integration has taken. While integrated art i s occasionally practised, e s p e c i a l l y at the elementary l e v e l , current writing i s l a r g e l y descriptive of s p e c i f i c units rather than program evaluation or t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings (Grauer, 1991). Recent l i t e r a t u r e i s also l a r g e l y concerned with defining and attempting to supply models i n order to operationalize integrative practices. Concerned with issues of implementation are Fogarty (1991) and Jacobs (1989). Recently there has been an international trend towards the implementation of c u r r i c u l a r integration. Grauer (1991) reports that a consistent and central theme i n the t r a i n i n g of teachers for the next century i s to be integration, including the arts. Certainly i n Canada the issue of integration i s front and centre. The Ministry of Education i n Saskatchewan (1992) and B r i t i s h Columbia (1992) have also done considerable work i n t h i s area. Likewise, the Year 2000 c u r r i c u l a i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a s i m i l a r document, the Transition Years i n Ontario are being implemented. Kindler (1991, 1987) 11 laments the lack of s c i e n t i f i c methods for research and evaluation i n the f i e l d . Although the area of interest i s s p e c i f i c a l l y art education and despite the lack of investigative material p a r t i c u l a r to the arts, a generic analysis i s made possible due to the conceptual scope of integration. In other words, what i s true of integration i n general education may also apply to art. The question of integrated arts has been under debate for decades, i n a national and international context. Since, once again, there have been moves towards c u r r i c u l a r integration, i t i s a concept of l a s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . The next section w i l l explore the philosophical and i d e o l o g i c a l basis for c u r r i c u l a r integration followed by a review of the recent l i t e r a t u r e l a r g e l y concerned with describing, defining, and implementing c u r r i c u l a r integration. Philosophy and Ideology of Integration Jacobs (1989) affirms that the underlying philosophy of the curriculum developer w i l l always permeate the design. Therefore, i t i s important to recognize the philosophical basis for c u r r i c u l a r integration as i n v e s t i g a t i o n proceeds. There i s no denying that recently there has been a move towards c u r r i c u l a r integration (Ministry of Education B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985; Ministry of Education Ontario, 1990) a model which presents a more h o l i s t i c view of curriculum development i n contrast to the segmented, separate subject o r i e n t a t i o n of the past. This s h i f t i n emphasis p a r a l l e l s the move into a 12 post-modern world. E s s e n t i a l l y , the underlying structures of the modern world are described as r a t i o n a l , l i n e a r and sequential based upon c l a s s i c a l Newtonian laws of science, emphasizing permanence, s t a b i l i t y and s i m p l i c i t y (Doll, 1989; Gough, 1989) . These ideas have given way to post-modern thought, acknowledging the complex, transitory, apparently chaotic nature of the world (Pearse, 1992). While modern curriculum i s founded upon notions imbedded i n c l a s s i c a l science (Doll, 1989; Slaughter, 1989), post-modern thought stems from work i n the f i e l d s of quantum physics, non-linear mathematics, and physical chaos (Doll, 1989). Based upon investigations of far from equilibrium thermodynamic structures, Doll (1989) i s o l a t e d three foundational assumptions of post-modern thought, having r a d i c a l implications for curriculum. They are: the nature of open systems (versus closed systems), complex structures (as opposed to simple structures), and transformatory change (in contrast to accumulative change). The open system i s environmentally dependent. Thus, learning i s sustained by fluctuations i n the environment. The structure of complexity assumes that r e a l i t y i s akin to a web of multiple i n t e r a c t i n g forces. Moreover, complexity corresponds to the cosmological which i s interconnected and h o l i s t i c . Contrary to t h i s premise i s that the simple i s separate, thus the separation of the d i s c i p l i n e s . F i n a l l y , 13 transformatory change recognizes that learning occurs through channels other than l i n e a r progression (Doll, 1989). The underlying currents of post-modern thought, are bent towards the concept of a " h o l i s t i c paradigm". Van Steenbergen (1990) gives a concise description of contemporary holism (in contrast to h i s t o r i c holism) which helps explain recent moves towards c u r r i c u l a r integration. He uses the metaphor of the pendulum of Foucault, which swings between the extremes of the "part" versus the "whole". It i s claimed that contemporary society has gone too far towards the parts (Van Steenbergen, 1990). For instance, within the c l a s s i c a l s c i e n t i f i c paradigm, complex systems can be understood through properties of the parts, which once understood, could explain the dynamics of the whole. The fundamental rule was, i n order to understand a complex system, i t must be broken up into pieces. This has led to reductionism, dualism and the a n a l y t i c a l method, becoming c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Western culture with i t s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , d i v i s i o n of labour, atomism, individualism and emphasis on the parts (Van Steenbergen, 1990). So i t i s with education. Contemporary h o l i s t s believe that the time i s ripe for the swing of the pendulum i n the other d i r e c t i o n - towards holism. At the same time, the pendulum of Foucault never returns to the same place due to the rotation of the earth. The new swing towards holism i t i s claimed i s not only desirable i n t h i s automistic, fragmented, scattered (Western 14 world), but i s also i n the process of a c t u a l l y taking place i n areas such as, health care, the natural sciences, management, ecology and the arts (Van Steenbergen, 1990). At the same time, Van Steenbergen (1990) c a r e f u l l y acknowledges that holism i n i t s extreme form i s an impossible concept. It means that everything i s related to everything else and embedded i n an encompassing t o t a l i t y . Independent of the question of whether such a world view i s desirable, i t i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y impossible to get a grip on r e a l i t y i n such as way. There i s something to the often heard accusation that holism, taken seriously, i s an eminently unworkable doctrine.... t h i s i s only true i f we take holism i n its' extreme form. However, the concept i s workable i f we speak of " r e l a t i v e holism" and " s p e c i f i c holism". (Van Steenbergen, 1990, pp.1073) Relative holism means that there i s a process of development i n a more h o l i s t i c d i r e c t i o n , while s p e c i f i c holism recognizes only c e r t a i n h o l i s t i c tendencies, eliminating others. Further, holism views society as a network, as an integrated whole where a l l elements are linked together with no top, bottom or periphery, i n contrast to the v e r t i c a l i s m of e a r l i e r structures (Van Steenbergen, 1990). This section ends with the concept of transcendence (Phenix, 1971) where the whole becomes larger than the sum of 15 the parts. To i l l u s t r a t e , the creation of music i s more than stri n g i n g a number of notes together. The arrangement of the notes must then be interpreted by the performer who adds l i f e to the'piece. The way i n which those notes are played, through nuance and with imagination create emotion, the essence of the work which reaches the soul. Art i s created by the way i n which the l i n e s , colours, shapes and objects are arranged and manipulated, juxtaposed and contrasted which reveals meaning. It i s not the l i n e s , shapes and colours themselves that create art, but t h e i r relationships with each other. Integration and the Arts With subject matter as broad.as l i f e , i t has been suggested that the arts can provide a more cohesive curriculum (Fowler, 1994). The arts are not conveyers of information, adding more data to information overload. In contrast, t h e i r purpose i s to supply insight, wisdom and meaning, giving knowledge a human dimension. The arts are a way of extending knowledge and understandings beyond facts to experience. Fowler (1994) gives the example of the sunrise. The science of astronomy explains a sunrise, yet the sense of wonder experienced at sunrise i s another part of i t s t o t a l r e a l i t y or meaning. Fowler (1994) also addresses the interconnectedness of a l l forms of knowing. The Grand Canyon, for instance, may be understood geographically, numerically, through language or 16 poetry or by v i s u a l means. It i s argued that a l l of these should be brought together to reach the o v e r a l l conception. Individually, mathematics, science, and hist o r y convey only part of the r e a l i t y of the world. Nor do the arts alone s u f f i c e . A m u l t i p l i c i t y of symbol systems are required to provide a more complete picture and a more comprehensive education. (Fowler, 1994, pp.5) The arts o f f e r an engaging way to learn, promoting divergent, as opposed to convergent thinking. Students are required to come up with d i f f e r e n t , rather than s i m i l a r answers. They become creative problem solvers and partners i n the learning process (Fowler, 1994). Motivation for Integrating the Curriculum Attention now turns to the goals, objectives and s p e c i f i c reasoning behind integrating the curriculum. According to the l i t e r a t u r e they are numerous and complex. This section begins to s i f t through various layers of motivational forces which lead towards an integrative curriculum. Integrated studies may provide opportunities for less fragmented, more relevant experiences for students, while l i m i t i n g curriculum overload (Case, 1991; Fogarty, 1991; Jacobs, 1989). Various forms of cognition (Gardner, 1983, 1993) and the capacity to generate knowledge by making connections (Caine & Caine, 1991) may also be increased through integrative methods. 17 According to research-based teaching and the human brain (Caine & Caine, 1991), making connections i s es s e n t i a l to learning. Further, learning involves the entire organism, both cognitive and a f f e c t i v e . When students are emotionally-involved through making personal connections they learn more e f f e c t i v e l y . The brain also learns through experience, having systems for role learning and s p a t i a l memory. Moreover, the search for meaning i s basic to the human brain which seeks out patterns. It also performs many tasks simultaneously i n p a r a l l e l processes. F i n a l l y , each brain i s unique, performing functions and learning i n ind i v i d u a l ways (Caine & Caine, 1991). From t h i s i t i s evident that integrative teaching practices may be conducive to the ways i n which the human brain functions. Gardner (1983) has explored the functions of the mind, developing the multiple i n t e l l i g e n c e s theory. Various people have the capacity to learn i n d i f f e r e n t ways with greater f a c i l i t y i n one over another. For instance, a person may have mathematical, kinaesthetic, v i s u a l or musical i n t e l l i g e n c e , among others. Gardner has found that there are many ways of knowing and learning. Integrating the curriculum by presenting the many forms of knowing may give more students the opportunity to be successful. Tacit knowledge i s a way of knowing through channels other than the l i n e a r and l o g i c a l (Polyani, 1967). In other words, knowing more or less i n t u i t i v e l y , without loosing the 18 conviction that one "knows". Integrating the curriculum to provide students with opportunities which u t i l i z e various forms of problem solving, discovery, "leap of f a i t h " experiences, which often r e l y on t r u s t i n g the judgment of oneself and cithers, may help strengthen these s k i l l s . It should be noted that these experiences can often include some form of a r t i s t i c endeavour. Case (1991) provides four "objectives" for the integration of content: dealing with the complexity of the world; overcoming the r i g i d perceptions of subject boundaries; respecting the seamless web of knowledge; and promoting greater e f f i c i e n c y . These d i s t i n c t i o n s are also found i n the work of other writers, such as Fogarty (1991), Jacobs (1989), Perkins (1991) and Perkins & Salomon (1988). The fragmentation of schedules i s keenly f e l t not only by students, but also by teachers. J o s t l i n g back and fo r t h a f t e r 4 0 to 50 minute periods i s hardly conducive to in-depth learning (Jacobs, 1989). At the same time, the fragmentary nature i n which knowledge i s presented i s not i n keeping with the way knowledge i s acquired or used i n the r e a l world (MacGregor, 1975; Perkins, 1988). F i n a l l y , the growth of knowledge i n a l l areas of study i s growing exponentially necessitating that i t be organized i n d i f f e r e n t ways (Case, 1991; Jacobs, 1989). Perkins (1991) has argued against the disconnectedness of the curriculum. Learning i s a l l too often disconnected from 19 the purposes, models and arguments that make i t meaningful. Perkins and Salomon (1988) discuss teaching for "transfer", arguing that s k i l l s or ideas associated with one context can reach out to enhance another. The transfer of s k i l l s has always been an educational goal, yet t h i s aspect i s neglected i n the fragmentary nature of the system. Integrative practices may be a tool to enhance the transfer of knowledge. Perkins and Salomon (1988) describe various modes and degrees of transfer o u t l i n i n g methods for the teaching of transfer. Perkins and Simmons (1988) have a d d i t i o n a l l y developed a model describing four domains of knowledge. These are the "content frame", the "problem-solving frame", the "epistemic frame" and the "inquiry frame". Perkins and Simmons (1988) have noted that content frame i s stressed i n schools. They assert that [student] misunderstandings can i n part be explained by a shallow repertoire i n the noncontent frames and that appropriately designed education can do much to foster understanding by addressing a l l the frames and t h e i r interactions. (Perkins & Simmons, 1988, pp.306) The above argument p a r a l l e l s Cases 1s (1991) c a l l for the integration of s k i l l s and processes into various aspects of schooling. Jacobs (1989) has also argued that students should study epistemology issues throughout t h e i r education. Relevance i n schooling begins with students knowing why they're doing what they're doing. 20 To make learning e f f e c t i v e students need to become aware of how knowledge i s produced through metaknowledge (Novak & Gowin, 1984). It i s required that there be an understanding of how various elements interact when constructing new meanings since a f a u l t y premise w i l l lead to f a u l t y knowledge. Pri n c i p l e s , from which theories are b u i l t , are s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between two or more concepts that guide our understanding of events. Within each d i s c i p l i n e comprehensive theories are r e l a t i v e l y few, taking on d i f f e r e n t structures, a l l representing broad, i n c l u s i v e standards of meaning. Therefore, students should be encouraged to r e l a t e and i n t e r r e l a t e ideas within a d i s c i p l i n e . They should also be helped to see the theories operating i n any inquiry. Thus, i t becomes obvious that the integration of ideas within a d i s c i p l i n e i s important. The concept of relevance i s a major motivator for integration (Case, 1991a; Daniels, 1991; Jacobs, 1989; MacGregor, 1975). Daniels (1991) gives a d e t a i l e d account of the i n t r i c a c i e s of relevance as an objective of integration, based l a r g e l y on the model X being relevant to Y. He points out that there are various relationships of relevance both l o g i c a l and empirical which w i l l have various implications for integration. E s s e n t i a l l y , integration can be used as a tool to encourage two types of relevance. F i r s t , to e s t a b l i s h the relevance of school to students' l i v e s outside school (Case, 1991a; Daniels, 1991; Jacobs, 1989), and second, to e s t a b l i s h 21 relevance of subjects by showing relationships between them (Case, 1991a; Jacobs, 1989). "There i s a need to a c t i v e l y show students how d i f f e r e n t subject areas influence t h e i r l i v e s , and i t i s c r i t i c a l that students see the strength of each d i s c i p l i n e i n a connected way" (Jacobs, 1989, pp.5). Defining Integration This analysis w i l l now turn to the various parameters of c u r r i c u l a r integration, exploring commonly used terminology to allow for c l a r i t y i n the remaining chapters of t h i s study. There i s an obvious need for d e f i n i t i o n of what constitutes integration and what forms i t takes. Apparently, some of the most useful current l i t e r a t u r e concerns i t s e l f with defining and implementing integrative practices. Jacobs (1989) of f e r s succinct d e f i n i t i o n s of both " d i s c i p l i n e f i e l d " and " i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y " which help c l a r i f y notions of c u r r i c u l a r integration. Quoting Piaget, she explains that a " d i s c i p l i n e f i e l d " i s a s p e c i f i c body of teachable knowledge with i t s own background of education, tra i n i n g , procedures, methods, and content areas" (Jacobs, 1989. pp.7). " I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y " i s "a knowledge view that consciously applies methodology and language from more than one d i s c i p l i n e to examine a central theme, issue, problem, topic, or experience" (Jacobs, 1989, pp.8). Further, discussion concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the ideas of integration and subject d i s c i p l i n e s stresses that meaningful i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y experiences cannot occur u n t i l 22 knowledge of the subject matter i s understood (Fogarty, 1991; Irwin, 1993; Jacobs, 1989). An i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach should only be used on occasions i n the curriculum where appropriate and necessary (Irwin, 1993) to overcome fragmentation, promote relevance and the growth of knowledge (Case, 1991a, 1991b; Daniels, 1991; Fogarty, 1991; Jacobs, 1989) . Case (1991) of f e r s an outline of the terms and dimensions of integration. His stated purpose i s to provide vocabulary to f a c i l i t a t e discussion and planning for c u r r i c u l a r integration. Case i d e n t i f i e s eight formal components of integration, "domain", "form", "dimension", "objective", "mode", "locus", "coherence" and "degree". These elements w i l l receive further comment throughout t h i s analysis, however, Case's d i s t i n c t i o n s appear to f a l l into two main categories: d e f i n i t i o n aspects and operational aspects. I n i t i a l l y i t w i l l be useful to appreciate the d e f i n i t i o n s Case presents i n order to acquire a common lexicon. Later t h i s account considers t h e i r pragmatic applications. Case defines integration as the "uniting of discrete elements into a whole" (Case, 1991, pp.2). "Domains" are broad categories of integration and occur i n many f i e l d s . For instance, the domain concerning t h i s study i s the domain of c u r r i c u l a r integration i n education. Within t h i s domain there are further d i s t i n c t i o n s or subcategories he c a l l s "forms" of integration. These are the discrete parts which w i l l be 23 united i n some way. He i d e n t i f i e s the forms as the integration of "content", the integration of "skills/processes", the integration of "school and s e l f " , and " h o l i s t i c " integration. The "dimensions" of integration Case (1991) i d e n t i f i e s as v e r t i c a l and horizontal a f t e r Tyler's model. These are temporal relationships concerning integration at "any given time" i n opposition to integration "over time". Lacking the above mentioned d i s t i n c t i o n s , among others, appears to inst i g a t e much of the confusion regarding c u r r i c u l a r integration. Fogarty (1991) has provided i n graphic form various modes of c u r r i c u l a r integration also useful to t h i s study not only for defining aspects of integration, but also for understanding concerns for implementation. This chart appears i n Table 1. Implementing Integrative Practices Fogarty's (1991) chart suggests how the many forms of integration appear as they are implemented. It i s note worthy that within a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e integrative components emerge and should be encouraged. Subject d i s c i p l i n e s do not preclude c u r r i c u l a r integration. Following, according to Fogarty, a program, such as, D i s c i p l i n e Based Art Education (D.B.A.E.) (Eisner, 1987; Greer, 1984) may be an integrated program i n which four strands make up the art curriculum 24 TABLE 1 Toward an Integrated Curriculum Ten Views for Integrating the Curricula: How Oo You See It? Fragmented P e r i s c o p e — o n e d i rect ion; one l ighting: narrow focus on single discipline o o o o Description The traditional model of separate and distinct discipl ines, which fragments the subject areas. Example Teacher applies this view in Math, Science, Social Studies, Language Arts OR Sciences, Humanities, Fine and Practical Arts. Nested 3-0 glasses—multiple dimensions to one scene, topic, or unit Description Within each subject area, the teacher targets multiple skills: a social skill, a thinking skill, and a content-specific skill. Example Teacher designs the unit on pho-tosynthesis to simultaneously tar-get consensus seeking (social skill), sequencing (thinking skill), and plant life cycle (science content). Shared Binoculars—two disciplines that share overlapping concepts and skills Description Shared planning and teaching take place in two disciplines in which over lapping concepts or ideas emerge as organizing elements. GD Example Science and Math teachers use data collection, charting, and graphing 88 shared concepts that can be team-taught. Threaded Magnifying glass—big ideas that magnify all content through a metacurricular approach Description T h e metacur r icu la r a p p r o a c h threads thinking skills, social skills, multiple intelligences, technology, end study skills through the vari-ous disciplines. Example Teaching staff targets prediction in Reading, Math, and Science lab ex-periments while Social Studies teacher targets forecasting current events, and thus threads the skill (prediction) across disciplines. Description The disciplines become part of the learner's lens of expertise; the learner filters all content through this lens and becomes immersed in his or her own experience. Immersed M i c r o s c o p e — i n t e n s e l y persona l view that allows microscopic expla-nation as all content is filtered through lens of interest and exper-tise Example Student or doctoral candidate has an area of expert interest and sees all learning through that lens. r Connected Opera glass—details of one disci-pl ine; focus on subtleties and interconnections o o o Description Within each subject area, course content is connected topic to topic, concept to concept, one year's work to the next, and relates ideals) explicitly. Exsmple Teacher relates the concept of frac-tions to decimals, which in turn relates to money, grades, etc. < — Sequenced Eyeglasses—varied internal con-tent framed by broad, related con-cepts Description Topics or units of study are rear-ranged and sequenced to coin-cide with one another. Similar ideas are taught in concert while remaining separate subjects. Example English teacher presents an his-torical novel depicting a particular period while the History teacher teaches that same historical period. Webbed Telescope—broad view of an en-tire constellation as one theme, webbed to the various elements Description A fertile theme is webbed to cur-riculum contents and disciplines; subjects use the theme to sift out appropriate concepts, topics, and ideas. Example Teacher presents a simple topical theme, such as the circus, and webs it to the subject areas. A conceptual theme, such as con-flict, can be webbed for more depth in the theme approach. Integrated Kaleidoscope—new patterns and d e s i g n s that use the bas ic elements of each discipline Description This interdisciplinary approach matches subjects for overlaps in topics and concepts with some team teaching in an authentic in-tegrated model. Example In Math, Science, Social Studies, Fine Arts. Language Arts, and Practical Arts, teachers look for patterning models and approach content through these patterns. 10 <aw Networked Prism—a view that creates multiple dimensions and directions of focus Description Learner filters all learning through the expert's eye and makes inter-nal connections that lead to exter-nal networks of experts in related fields. Example Architect, while adapting the C A D / C A M technology for design, net-works with technical programmers and expands her knowledge base, just as she had traditionally done with interior designers. C Robin Fonartv, 1991* 'Extrapolated from "Oesign Options for an Integrated Curriculum" by Heidi Hayes Jacobs in Intarditciplinsry Curriculum, ASCD. 1989. F r o m The Mindful School: Hnw to Integrate f.hft P n r r i m l a by Robin Fogarty, (c) 1991 by IRI\Skylight Publishing Inc., Palatine, IL. Reprinted with permission. 25 including, h i s t o r i c a l , production, c r i t i c a l and aesthetic components. In t h i s way various aspects within the d i s c i p l i n e of art are connected. Case's (1991) categories are also useful i n describing the implementation of c u r r i c u l a r integration. "Locus" refers to the l e v e l of decision making where e f f o r t s to integrate may occur. The three obvious areas he i d e n t i f i e s are the pr o v i n c i a l l e v e l , the school or d i s t r i c t l e v e l , and the classroom l e v e l . The "mode" of integration refers to the way in which discrete parts are drawn together for some sort of i n t e g r i t y . Four modes are i d e n t i f i e d : "fusion" requires the meshing of d i s t i n c t d i s c i p l i n e s ; " insertion" involves introducing one c u r r i c u l a r element into another i n an i s o l a t e d instance; "correlation" draws p a r a l l e l s between elements; and "harmonization" includes enhancing disparate elements, for instance by teaching s i m i l a r s k i l l s across d i s c i p l i n e s . At the same time, Case (1991) has i d e n t i f i e d "degrees" of integration. He has suggested: that one objective of content integration i s to as s i s t students i n seeing how material covered i n one subject connects with material covered i n another subject. While t h i s would j u s t i f y some degree of integration, i t i s not obvious that i t warrants fusion of subjects, such as, English and s o c i a l studies. The mere corr e l a t i o n , from time to time, of the subjects by English and s o c i a l studies 26 teachers night be s u f f i c i e n t to e s t a b l i s h the point (Case, 1991a, pp.9). It i s worth repeating the po s i t i o n that students should have a range of c u r r i c u l a r experiences that r e f l e c t both d i s c i p l i n e f i e l d and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y orientations (Fogarty, 1991; Jacobs, 1989). I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y studies w i l l not benefit students u n t i l they acquire a s o l i d grounding i n the various d i s c i p l i n e s that i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y attempts to bridge (Irwin, 1993). Integration i s a process to address a p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l a r need. "Curricular integration, per se, i s a strategy not a goal" (Case, 1991, pp.5). It should only be used to promote desired objectives when and where needed (Case, 1991; Fogarty, 1991; Jacobs, 1989). An integrated curriculum then, i s a means to a desired end. Ackermann (198 9) has developed i n t e l l e c t u a l and p r a c t i c a l c r i t e r i a f or successful curriculum integration. He acknowledges that even when knowledge gained i n one subject strengthens the understanding of concepts i n another subject, i t i s not always feas i b l e to connect disparate pieces of curriculum. Ackermann has devised a useful series of c r i t e r i a "tests" which help to decide what to integrate, when to integrate, and how t h i s might be done. Jacobs (1989) outlines underlying p r i n c i p l e s for integrated planning. F i r s t , teachers should become active curriculum designers since they most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t what the 27 students do day to day (Goodlad, 1984; Gray & MacGregor 1990, 1991; Jacobs, 1989). Further, students and the community should become more aware of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y practices and i d e a l l y , even p a r t i c i p a t e i n building integrated studies (Hicks, 1991; Jacobs, 1989). Limitations I d e n t i f i e d There are impediments to c u r r i c u l a r integration. Jacobs (1989) has i d e n t i f i e d two recurring problems. She c a l l s the f i r s t the "pot pourri" problem, because integrated units become a mere sampling of knowledge from each d i s c i p l i n e r e s u l t i n g i n a lack of depth. Case (1991) has also made t h i s observation i n a component of integration he c a l l s "coherence". Case points out that i t i s always possible to f i n d some commonality i n content, but that i t may be t r i v i a l . Secondly, Jacobs (1989) notes what she c a l l s the "pol a r i t y " problem. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , integrated versus d i s c i p l i n e - f i e l d perspectives have been seen as an either/or s i t u a t i o n . This has led to a range of c o n f l i c t , not the least of which i s the t e r r i t o r i a l f e e l i n g of some teachers towards t h e i r subjects (Jacobs, 1989; Werner, 1991). It i s important to remember that subject i n t e g r i t y must be maintained i n order not to lose the essence of the d i s c i p l i n e . Irwin (1993) asserts that the reason for integrating must be sound. In the case of art, for instance, i t should not merely serve the purpose of another d i s c i p l i n e . A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between teaching a d i s c i p l i n e , such as art, and 28 using i t as an embellishment for other areas of the curriculum. In other words, drawing a picture i n French class has nothing to do with teaching the d i s c i p l i n e of art . Werner (1991) i s also concerned with the implications and p r a c t i c a l i t y of c u r r i c u l a r integration. His discussion i s focused on school cultures and the concerns of teachers. Werner's inquiry brings to the surface many pragmatic obstacles to c u r r i c u l a r integration, a r i s i n g from issues concerning the notion of resistance to change on the part of both individuals and the entrenched practices of schooling, echoing arguments by Cuban (1984) and Goodlad (1979, 1984). The guiding p r i n c i p l e s of the established school culture, including classroom order and regular schedules, are perceived to be threatened by integrative practices (Werner, 1991). Time for planning, scheduling classes, and time i n classes can also be problematic on many fronts (Ackermann, 198 9; Fullen, 1991; Hargreaves, 1991; Werner, 1991). I r o n i c a l l y , despite perpetual complaints regarding teacher i s o l a t i o n , teachers enjoy t h e i r autonomy i n program planning and fear integration w i l l diminish t h i s feature of th e i r work. Role i d e n t i t y , role status, role e f f i c a c y , and subject t u r f are a l l problem areas i d e n t i f i e d by Werner (1991) and others (Case, 1991a; Court, 1991; Hargreaves, 1991; Jacobs, 1989). An additional concern arises when teachers reach t h e i r "threshold" of integration, refusing to go any further (Werner, 1991). Lastly, teachers may believe they are 29 using integrative methods when i n fact l i t t l e has changed i n th e i r methodology, for instance, when terminology i s merely supplanted on e x i s t i n g practices (Werner, 1991). Concluding Remarks This analysis has explored the evident need to use a common language regarding integration to help c l a r i f y the goals and objectives of t h i s approach. It i s further essential to have a clear notion of the philosophical underpinnings of c u r r i c u l a r integration as inv e s t i g a t i o n proceeds. From the review presented i t i s suggested that there i s a need for empirical study i n the area of c u r r i c u l a r integration through q u a l i t a t i v e research i n schools. Investigation should proceed beyond the information gathering and descriptive stage into a structured analysis of current programs by both outside observers, as well as, those involved i n integrated projects. This type of study should lead to the establishment of evaluation c r i t e r i a i n order to reach recommendations and set parameters for the integrative programs of the future. 30 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Overview and Rationale Before considering the work s p e c i f i c to t h i s study, an outline and rationale for the research design and methodology w i l l be described. N a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry i s the umbrella term for the sty l e of research conducted here. This i s not a type or method of research per se, rather i t i s a la b e l for a knowledge producing paradigm which i s useful e s p e c i a l l y for evaluation (Guba, 1978; Spradley, 1979)• N a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry takes a p o s t - p o s i t i v i s t i c approach to research (Guba & Lincoln, 1985) i n which the researcher i s the instrument and the major data c o l l e c t o r (Guba & Lincoln, 1985; Spradley, 1979) .- The intent i s to have the people under study give meaning to t h e i r to t h e i r experiences p a r a l l e l i n g q u a l i t a t i v e research as a method for getting at the truth (Guba & Lincoln, 1981; Spradley, 1979). Eisner (1991) refers to t h i s s t y l e of research as q u a l i t a t i v e inquiry which, i n the case of t h i s study, w i l l lead to de s c r i p t i v e / i n t e r p r e t i v e q u a l i t a t i v e analysis (Tesch, 1990). Qualitative Inquiry i n Education E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s research f a l l s into the realm of qu a l i t a t i v e research i n education rooted i n h o l i s t i c ethnology and phenomenology (Eisner, 1991; Tesch, 1990). The purpose of h o l i s t i c ethnology i s to describe and analyze practices and b e l i e f s of cultures or communities (Spradley, 1979). 31 S p e c i f i c a l l y , educational ethnography seeks to discover c u l t u r a l patterns within education, giving descriptions of the components and dynamics within settings and comparisons across settings (Goetz & LeCompte, 1984). The intent of t h i s study i s to understand meanings, discover patterns, r e g u l a r i t i e s and differences between an integrated and a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d art program. The case study i s often used to c o l l e c t data i n n a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry, as i n t h i s research. The purpose of the case study i s to gather information for an intensive and detailed account about an i n d i v i d u a l or group (Spradley, 1979). E s s e n t i a l l y , sources of evidence are gathered from di r e c t observation and systematic interviewing. Interpretation of the observations occurs i n the sense that the researcher r e f l e c t s upon the data u n t i l an understanding of i t i s reached (Guba & Lincoln, 1981; Spradley, 1979). Educational connoisseurship and c r i t i c i s m (Eisner, 1975) i s a type of r e f l e c t i v e inquiry, where "connoisseurship i s the art of appreciation [and] c r i t i c i s m i s the art of disclosure" (Eisner, 1976, pp.141). In t h i s sense, a connoisseur i s defined as a person with relevant experience and knowledge of what to look for, providing a refined perception of that which i s observed. The educational connoisseur c r i t i c a l l y describes (discloses), interprets and evaluates s o c i a l phenomenon. In t h i s approach, the researcher i s interested i n the p a r t i c u l a r , not the general, i n the b e l i e f that the general resides i n the 32 p a r t i c u l a r (Eisner, 1981). ".. . p a r t i c u l a r s exemplify more than they describe d i r e c t l y . In the p a r t i c u l a r i s located a general theme" (Eisner, 1991, pp.39). Further, the educational connoisseur requires "an a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e empathetically i n the l i f e of another" (Eisner, 1988, pp.146). Research that seeks to understand phenomenon may also require r e f l e c t i o n i n the sense of being informed by i n t u i t i o n or t a c i t knowledge (Eisner, 1991; Tesch, 1990). In t h i s study the concept of educational connoisseurship and c r i t i c i s m (Eisner, 1975, 1991) helped to inform me by enhancing my observations i n the capacity of data c o l l e c t o r and research instrument. However, the analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s study were based upon the r e s u l t s of ethnographic interviews and observation (Spradley, 1979) and subsequent description, i n contrast to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n through i n t u i t i o n or t a c i t knowledge. Descriptive/Interpretative Analysis i n Qualitative Research Analysis i n n a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry, and educational ethnography i s inductive, generative and constructive (Goetz & LeCompte, 1981). Instead of arranging data into pre-conceived classes, inductive analysis begins with empirical observations and builds t h e o r e t i c a l categories (Guba & Lincoln, 1985; Spradley, 1979). Conceptual categories are derived from the data and extracted from words or phrases which stand out. In other words, units of analysis or data segments are "carved out" from the data based upon t h e i r meaning. Inductive 33 analysis does not v e r i f y suppositions but i s generative i n the sense that i t seeks to construct propositions (Goetz & LeCompte, 1981). Interpretive analysis focuses upon systematic description rather than generating theory (Tesch, 1990). In fact, caution i s advised i n building theory from i n d i v i d u a l accounts or studies (Guba & Lincoln, 1981). The purpose of educational ethnography here i s to provide descriptive data about the a c t i v i t i e s and context of integrative practices for art education i n a h o l i s t i c way (Goetz & LaCompte, 1984). There i s no o b l i g a t i o n on the part of the researcher to e s t a b l i s h theory through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l analysis, but rather to give a coherent, v a l i d , a n a l y t i c a l l y sound account (Tesch, 1990). Analysis i n n a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry i s conducted concurrently with data c o l l e c t i o n . As data i s c o l l e c t e d i t i s c a r e f u l l y considered which, i n turn, leads to more data c o l l e c t i o n (Miles and Huberman, 1984). Researchers record observations, c o l l e c t interview transcriptions and compile f i e l d notes, i n which ideas and thoughts are also captured (Spradley, 1979). Analysis s t a r t s with a reading of the data to get the o v e r a l l picture and to check for repeated topics. Through constant comparison, patterns and reoccurring themes begin to emerge (Guba & Lincoln, 1985). Preliminary segments of information are determined and sections of text are c l a s s i f i e d by codes or units which become the i n i t i a l categories (Guba & Lincoln, 1985). The organizing 34 system of codes or categories can also be developed through the research questions, sub-questions and interview questions, as well as from the data (Goetz & LaCompte, 1981; Spradley, 1979). The purpose of coding i s to c o l l e c t a l l the data about the same topic so that each category may be studied i n d i v i d u a l l y . A q u a l i t a t i v e analysis program, such as QUALPRO (Blackman, 1993), used i n t h i s study, i s an organizing device which clusters a l l segments r e l a t i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r code, concept or theme, which can subsequently be retrieved. Categories do not always remain the same as more data and analysis are conducted, but may be modified, subdivided and refined. Descriptive/interpretive analysis involves the deconstruction and reconstruction of segments of information into an organized system i n order to explore the connections (Tesch, 1990). The f i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the categories to segments of the text gives the researcher the data organization necessary for interpretation, since each code or category contains a l l of the information from the entire body of data relevant to that category. The researcher can then look for patterns and relationships and can make comparisons based on the data. This f i n a l analysis leads to thick description (Geertz, 1973; Guba & Lincoln, 1981) and may lead to propositions (Tesch, 1990) . Summary of Qualitative Analysis Procedure 35 In order to capture the essence of the research about to be presented an overview of q u a l i t a t i v e analysis has been synthesized from Tesch (1990, pp. 95-97). 1. Analysis i s not the l a s t phase i n the research process, but i s integrated with data c o l l e c t i o n and drive each other. 2. The analysis process i s systematic and comprehensive, but not r i g i d , i n that new data i s continually presented. This process ceases when new data no longer produces new insi g h t . 3. Working with the data includes a r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n subsequent notes which guide the process, moving the researcher from the data to the conceptual l e v e l . Records make the r e f l e c t i v e practice more concrete providing accountability. 4. Data i s segmented and divided into relevant meaningful units to enhance interpretation, while connection to the whole i s maintained. 5. Data segments are categorized into a system derived from the data. 6. The predominant i n t e l l e c t u a l t ool i s that of comparison and contrast i n that the goal i s to discern conceptual s i m i l a r i t i e s , refine categories and discover patterns. 7. Categories are tentative and f l e x i b l e i n the early stages as data c o l l e c t i o n i s ongoing. Categories must accommodate l a t e r data. 8. Manipulation of q u a l i t a t i v e data i s " e c l e c t i c " i n that there i s no one "right way". Analysis or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 36 require the creative involvement of the researcher. It i s possible to analyze phenomenon i n more than one way. 9. The procedure i s not s c i e n t i f i c or mechanistic, yet i t follows s p e c i f i c methodology and procedures. 10. The r e s u l t s of analysis are synthesis. Much of the process involves taking information apart i n order to obtain a larger, consolidated picture. Synthesis r e s u l t s i n the description of patterns or themes or a composite summary. THE STUDY Population and Setting The s i t e s selected for t h i s i nvestigation were two junior high schools i n southern Ontario. Two Grade 8 classrooms were chosen since there was an example of both an integrated and d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program. The subjects for the study included two classroom art teachers and one other teacher involved i n the integrated program. The two art teachers sp e c i a l i z e d i n art at t h e i r school, one teaching within an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y structure and the other teaching within a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d structure. The subjects of t h i s study also included four students from each of the classrooms v i s i t e d . It was decided to interview both students and teachers i n order to view the programs from both perspectives. The student interviews also helped to e s t a b l i s h whether or not the intended curriculum had been delivered. The interviews took place i n the working environments of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . 37 The teachers selected were i d e n t i f i e d through the d i s t r i c t superintendent and the school board's research advisory committee. There was an attempt made to match the teachers backgrounds i n the schools as much as possible to better ensure grounds for comparison. The students were chosen by t h e i r teachers based upon a range of academic a b i l i t y . Data C o l l e c t i o n Data were c o l l e c t e d on-site i n the form of intensive interviews and observations (Guba & Lincoln, 1981; Spradley, 1979). In-depth formal and informal interviews were conducted with the three teachers selected and with the selected students. 7An orientation v i s i t was made to each of the schools. Advance arrangements were made to v i s i t the schools when integrated or d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d art i n s t r u c t i o n was occurring. Relevant interview schedules were established before and a f t e r classroom observations. The f i e l d residence for each school occurred over a period of approximately four weeks, i n which various units or a c t i v i t i e s were observed. A f i e l d diary was maintained throughout the investigation, including summary observations and interview notes. With the permission of the participants, interviews were recorded on audio tape. Two classroom a c t i v i t i e s i n each of the schools were also video taped. 38 The f i e l d diary, notes and audio tapes were transcribed verbatim onto computer disc. Corroboration was also enhanced through viewing and notating events from the video tapes. Observations were v e r i f i e d by the participants on-site and i n follow up v i s i t s . The video camera was used to get as objective a perspective of the classroom as possible. It was set i n one p o s i t i o n i n the classroom and l e f t to tape for a period of time, usually about 2 0 minutes. The camera was then moved to another position. Unfortunately, the camera did not have a wide angle lens to capture the a l l of the a c t i v i t y i n the room simultaneously. The objective viewpoint allowed for an analysis of the over a l l structure, tone, management and appearance of the classroom. The video tapes were subsequently edited to approximately one hour i n length for manageable viewing. Interview Process and Questioning Spradley's (1979) suggestions for conducting ethnographic interviews were used. He outlines various types of questions and interview techniques designed to e l i c i t information from the subjects i n t h e i r own terms. Descriptive "grand tour" questions, related to tasks, experiences and examples were used i n order to gain a broad overview and to understand the essence of the classrooms i n question. Structural and comparative questions were asked to c l a r i f y , to extract d e t a i l s and to v e r i f y information which the researcher had 39 already acquired. Overall, an attempt was made to ask open-ended, leading questions, to vary and alternate the type of questions asked, and to repeat questions i n various ways throughout the interviews. (Spradley, 1979). The questions developed for t h i s study appear i n Appendix "B". These questions were often extended i n the actual interviews to e l i c i t expanded responses (Spradley, 1979). As expected, students needed more encouragement than teachers. At each stage, before r e v i s i t i n g the classroom, a domain analysis was made by extracting s i g n i f i c a n t terms and ideas for subsequent v e r i f i c a t i o n or c l a r i f i c a t i o n (Spradley, 1979). These lead to the on-going establishment of codes or categories. Treatment of the Data Through inductive methods the data was c l a s s i f i e d into those categories which emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t elements based upon the interviews and observations c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d (Guba & Lincoln, 1981; Spradley, 1979). Later, the emergent categories were organized into the inte n t i o n a l , c u r r i c u l a r , s t r u c t u r a l dimensions of schooling outlined by Eisner (1991). At t h i s time i t became apparent that the evaluative dimension of schooling (Eisner, 1991) should also be included as an additional category. The computer program QUALPRO (Blackman, 1993), designed to enhance analysis i n ethnographic research, was used to organize the data. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s computer program 40 arranged the data c o l l e c t e d through ethnographic means into categories, a task t r a d i t i o n a l l y achieved through the cut and paste method of organizing text. It allowed the user to structure, l a b e l and group information into sections of related material. The following account w i l l describe the treatment of data s p e c i f i c to t h i s study while explaining the use of the program QUALPRO. Transcribed interviews and notes were entered into QUALPRO and grouped into information "blocks" separating data gathered from teachers and students from school A (Lakeview) and school B (Riverside). Three formal audio taped interviews were conducted at Lakeview; two with teacher X (Chris) and one with teacher Z (Toni). Four formal taped interviews with four d i f f e r e n t students were also conducted at Lakeview. At Riverside, two formal interviews were conducted and audio taped with teacher Y (Pat). Four taped interviews with four d i f f e r e n t students were also conducted. At each school f i v e classroom v i s i t s were made, before and a f t e r which many informal discussions and mini-interviews took place. Lakeview represented the integrated program and Riverside represented the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program. This organization allowed for comparison between the two schools. Once the desired blocks of information had been entered, QUALPRO allowed codes to be assigned to segments of text. Before doing so, a hard copy of the data was printed with numbers attached to each l i n e of text. Manual coding of 41 sections of text was then accomplished. This f a c i l i t a t e d text analysis by inductive methods, since as the data was read, labels were assigned to various categories of information as they emerged. Further, codes may be independent, overlapping or contained within each other. The codes assigned to information gathered i n t h i s study appear i n Appendix "A". The codes and l i n e numbers were then re-entered into QUALPRO. Upon the second r e t r i e v a l of the information, the program separated coded segments of text allowing them to be printed independent of each other. Thus, a l l of the information under an established category was obtained. For instance, a l l information under the code "schedule" was retrieved. QUALPRO also recorded co-occurring codes making correlations between codes apparent. For instance, the program showed where the code "project" and the code "computer" occurred simultaneously. Analysis of Data The analysis of the data was on-going and was made through the inductive methods outlined e a r l i e r i n the section on Interpretive/Descriptive Analysis. Based upon the data and observations recurring themes and patterns were sought and descriptive comparisons made between the integrated and di s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d programs. Descriptions and interpretations appear i n Chapters 4 and 5 respectively. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Study 42 Every attempt has been made to strengthen the int e r n a l and external r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of t h i s study. External r e l i a b i l i t y has been addressed by being e x p l i c i t i n terms of; the role of the researcher as instrument, the context of the investigation, and the procedures for s e l e c t i n g the subjects. The a n a l y t i c a l premise and purpose have also been c l e a r l y stated. To reduce threats to inter n a l r e l i a b i l i t y , verbatim conversations and tran s c r i p t s have been used, including discrepant data. Although the study was conducted by a sole researcher, attempts were made to es t a b l i s h i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y through participant corroboration of observations and by using mechanically recorded data. Data c o l l e c t i o n , organization, analysis and synthesis were enhanced through the use of appropriate research analysis technology strengthening both external r e l i a b i l i t y and inte r n a l v a l i d i t y . An attempt was also made to ensure external v a l i d i t y through the careful description of the research components i n order that other researchers may be able to extend t h i s knowledge. As well, the t h e o r e t i c a l framework and strategies were selected to ensure comparison and t r a n s l a t a b i l i t y to other researchers i n the f i e l d . 43 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS Introduction The findings are based upon formal interviews, observations, f i e l d notes and audio and video tapes. They have been organized into the "str u c t u r a l " , " c u r r i c u l a r " and "intentional" dimensions of schooling as outlined by Eisner (1991). It was also decided to include the "evaluative" dimension of schooling (Eisner, 1991) since i t became apparent that t h i s dimension helped to reveal the focus of each of the programs. As outlined i n the methodology, codes were assigned to segments of transcribed text, reference to which w i l l be made t h i s section. The code d e f i n i t i o n s appear i n Appendix "A" . The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to present the findings from each of the case studies. Included i s a section describing the p r o f i l e s of the schools and the teachers, as well as, descriptions of class v i s i t s to each of the schools. F i c t i t i o u s names have been used for the teachers, schools and the school board i n order to ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . The information presented i s taken d i r e c t l y from transcribed text, paraphrased or quoted d i r e c t l y . The class v i s i t s described were reviewed through f i e l d notes and from the video tapes. My hope i s that the reader w i l l get a sense of the teachers and programs being described. SCHOOL AND TEACHER PROFILE 44 Lakeview was recommended by the Moorington Board art consultant as the school where "integrated" programming could be observed. Whereas, Riverside was the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d school. Riverside was an established school having been i n operation for approximately t h i r t y years. Lakeview has been open for three years. Both schools were located i n predominantly white, middle class suburban neighbourhoods with a limited, although wide ethnic mix. Lakeview had been p i l o t i n g integrated i n i t i a t i v e s under the Transition Years umbrella (Ontario Ministry of Education, 1990). They had also organized the school based upon a model from B r i t i s h Columbia, introduced by the p r i n c i p a l , wherein core curriculum i s integrated by generalist teachers. Lakeview was recognized for i t s state-of-the-art technology, available to both students and teachers. This was made possible through corporate sponsorship, also i n i t i a t e d by the p r i n c i p a l . Although Lakeview could be considered a unique program, i t operated within the public school system. The school r e f l e c t s the board's intentions for the future. E s s e n t i a l l y the teachers were chosen by v i r t u e of t h e i r being the only art teacher i n each of the two d i s t i n c t i v e programs suggested by the board consultant. Each teacher's philosophy and s t y l e of teaching matched the program they offered. At Lakeview Chris, a generalist teacher with q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n geography and art, delivered the art program. Chris s p e c i a l i z e d i n the use of computers and 45 technology i n the classroom and had taught a l l of the art classes i n the school for three years. As a generalist teacher without a background i n art, however, Chris lacked art expertise. One of Chris's main focuses for art, therefore, became the use of technology for art. Upon the recommendation of Chris, a second teacher at Lakeview, Toni, was also interviewed to get a view of the o v e r a l l school program and structure. This teacher was also a generalist teacher who s p e c i a l i z e d i n the s o c i a l sciences. At Riverside the art teacher, Pat, had returned to teaching a f t e r a number of years leave. Pat's experience was with that of a t r a d i t i o n a l classroom and classes at Riverside were conducted i n t h i s manner. Pat,was an art s p e c i a l i s t who had also taught a l l the of the art i n the school for the past three years. Teaching no other subjects, Pat focused a l l attention on the art program. With a degree i n v i s u a l art, Pat's program was t r a d i t i o n a l , characterized by the study of art elements and p r i n c i p l e s and on the use of media. F i r s t impressions indicated that Pat was an extremely competent v i s u a l art teacher. STRUCTURAL DIMENSION OF SCHOOLING The " s t r u c t u r a l " dimension of schooling i s defined by Eisner (1991) as those aspects of schooling related to organizational forms of schools - how the school day i s divided and assigned to time blocks. The following 46 description includes the o v e r a l l school program structure and the Art program structure and scheduling. Program Schedule and Structure Toni, at Lakeview, explains how t h i s teacher spent a t y p i c a l day: I teach language, math, the s o c i a l sciences which involve science, h i s t o r y and geography... i n the morning period we have l i t e r a c y which could involve English and that involves reading, writing, s p e l l i n g s k i l l s , novel studies or whatever, depending on what i t i s we're doing i n our theme work. It also involves math. So we study math i n the morning. In the afternoon we get into r e a l l y d e t ailed work on our themes and that could be a theme which i s science based, a s o c i a l science based or l i t e r a c y based... E s s e n t i a l l y , Lakeview was not organized i n terms of subjects areas per se. One classroom teacher taught students the core areas of the curriculum, namely, l i t e r a c y , -numeracy, science and s o c i a l science. Lakeview operated classes i n time blocks. The organization of time within each block was decided upon by the teacher. Students spent 75% of t h e i r time with t h e i r home room teacher working on l i t e r a c y and numeracy i n the morning and on theme work i n the afternoon. In any given day, 10% to 25% of the time was spent i n one or more of the s p e c i a l t y areas, art, design technology, family studies, physical education or music. These were scheduled on a 47 rotation. Students had an 8 0 minute art class every s i x days. When not on a rotation i n the afternoon, students worked on major themes, sometimes c a l l e d "creative applications", with t h e i r home room teacher. At t h i s time teachers had the option of scheduling t h e i r classes into other areas of the school, such as the art or family studies f a c i l i t i e s , to work on special projects. Teachers also remained with the same class from Grade 6 through Grade 8. Chris explained that, "Each class has at least 80 minutes of art [on a] s i x day cycle. [A] t y p i c a l day usually s t a r t s with math, s i l e n t reading, s p e l l i n g , a l l the regular things. Usually [we] do French i n there and then we have theme units". At Riverside students were scheduled into the t r a d i t i o n a l subject areas; English, French, mathematics, s o c i a l science, including h i s t o r y and geography, physical education, family studies, music and technology. They rotated through classes on a six day tumbling timetable. art classes were scheduled every other day and were 55 or 6 0 minutes long depending upon the morning or afternoon time s l o t . Pat explains the schedule: The art here i s semestered. So I see the f i r s t semester people from September to the end of January. Then the semester changes...I see them every other day for approximately 55 minutes to an hour...the morning period i s 55 minutes and the afternoon period i s 60 minutes...I l i k e i t t h i s way because there i s a l o t of continuity. 48 To summarize, students at Lakeview were receiving an 80 minute Art class every s i x days. It should be noted that those students who had the art teacher as t h e i r home room teacher may have had more exposure to art since they were with that teacher approximately 75% of the time. Students at Riverside had 55 to 60 minutes of art i n s t r u c t i o n two or three times a week for one semester. INTENTIONAL DIMENSION OF SCHOOLING This section describes the findings related to Eisner's (1991) "intentional" dimension of schooling. The goals and intentions e x p l i c i t l y s i t e d by teachers are included here, as well as, those i n evidence i n the classroom. Use of Guidelines The teachers at both Lakeview and Riverside followed the guidelines for art as set out by the Ontario Ministry of Education i n terms of s k i l l s and content to be covered, including c e r t a i n units of i n s t r u c t i o n at the Grade 7 and 8 l e v e l . Lakeview was also using a Ministry guideline from B r i t i s h Columbia elementary schools, brought i n by the p r i n c i p a l . Toni explains: I think b a s i c a l l y there was a model from B r i t i s h Columbia that some schools have used a s i m i l a r format and I think our P r i n c i p a l was f a m i l i a r with the format that they used out there so many of those guidelines were followed. We d e f i n i t e l y have to follow the Ministry guidelines to make sure that the s k i l l s are covered and that the time 49 elements are covered and that cer t a i n units at grade 6, 7 and 8 are covered as well - plus the Board's guidelines as well i n terms of curriculum. So there are a l o t of curriculum guidelines and Ministry guidelines that you have to follow i n setting up the program. Both schools used the curriculum guidelines published by the Moorington Board i n planning t h e i r art programs. In both cases some art a c t i v i t i e s were taken d i r e c t l y from the board guideline. Chris says: I s t i l l t r y to use the curriculum guidelines as much as possible. A l o t of exercises are taken right out of those, the drawings for instance... but there i s always that edge kids l i k e working towards...If you're [a student] at the drawing st a t i o n and you've got a charcoal drawing showing depth and 3D, then you've got to do your s t i p p l i n g and your India ink, but then there i s always the fourth one, which i s up to you. At the same time, both Pat and Chris developed programs independently of suggested a c t i v i t i e s . Pat talks about, "a l i t t l e networking group and we pool our ideas and some of those ideas I think "Gee, I'd l i k e to t r y that" and others I think "No, I don't think I could do that". Pat f e l t that teacher strengths were important to consider when developing Art programs based upon board guidelines. Pat: If you are going to be successful, you have to teach what you l i k e . It doesn't mean you shouldn't t r y something, 50 but i f you r e a l l y can't handle i t and i t ' s not suitable for you, there are a l l kinds of other things that you can do that are very a r t i s t i c and the kids w i l l love them and are good for them. Chris found the board guideline somewhat l i m i t i n g , further commenting that students didn't take the projects very seriously when they couldn't see t h e i r usefulness. "I taught art the old way l a s t year and each class that came i n , well, they didn't l i k e art, i t was just a joke to them. I don't think they saw how i t would help them i n t h e i r l i v e s " . Chris redesigned the program and introduced computer technology into the course of study. Aims and Goals Both Chris and Pat said that t h e i r goals were to have the students enjoy art, to f e e l that they were learning something and have art carry over into t h e i r l i v e s outside school. They did not want the students to perceive the art program and the art room as a place to come to "fool around". Pat says, "I want them to r e a l i z e that art i s not just art i n an i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t y . It's a feature of every day l i f e . . . I want them to f e e l that they're learning something and they are enjoying i t " . Chris explains, "Well, my intention - one, enjoy it...and two, how art can r e a l l y be relevant and three, take something away they can use". Thus, relevance emerged as an important aim for both teachers. 51 Chris often used the term "real world" application. To these ends, Chris implemented a lesson which introduced students to a multitude of art related career opportunities. "I started the year by making i t r e a l l y relevant by taking 80 minutes and showing them a l l the career related f i e l d s that art has from cosmetics to photography and everything else and that c l i c k e d with a l o t of people". Chris also t r i e d to relate classroom a c t i v i t i e s to outside issues, such as the environment. Chris f e l t that i t was very important to rel a t e technology to ar t . The use of computers i n advertising should be recognized by students as the programs they were working with at school. A l o t of them are using programs here and then they go home and watch TV and they see a commercial and they know exactly what [computer] program they've been using. They've been using the same program that the producers used to make that commercial, so they're seeing art out i n the r e a l world and r e a l i z i n g that they can do the exact same thing with the technology we have here. So that makes them aware. Knowledge and manipulation of computer art, i t was hoped, might get them a summer job or a career. Chris believes, "Some of the special s k i l l s that they would be learning are for the real world. Like the kids could go to work i n a computer graphics store or some kind of computer graphics design". 52 Computer s k i l l s emerged as a central theme at Lakeview. Students were working with sophisticated graphics programs developing advanced computer graphic s k i l l s . Chris wanted to b u i l d art s k i l l s at each of the art stations which could be transferred or applied to other areas of the curriculum. Examples given were, drawing depth could be taken and used i n a computer application or computer s k i l l s learned i n art could be used for t h e i r other projects. Chris thought that valuable s k i l l s learned through art should be applied to creating t i t l e pages and designing v i s u a l presentations for t h e i r theme work or creative applications i n other areas. Chris wanted to see students acquiring design s k i l l s and techniques to be used i n other areas of the school program, as well as, beyond the school setting. The ultimate goal would be to have students apply knowledge and s k i l l s learned i n art to any other subject or career area they wished to pursue. Chris says: It's not just drawing for the sake of drawing. It i s with a purpose. For the most part, they get enough time i n art class to be creative... afterwards they carry the rest of the day for a very s p e c i f i c purpose...If you want to make your own company and market something i . e . bowls they have made on the lathe and s e l l them so they have to have letterhead designed. Pat at Riverside saw relevance i n terms of a personal response to art works and to design i n the environment. Pat wanted students to see art as not an i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t y , but as 53 a feature of every day l i v i n g . Students should have an awareness of art and design around them, from fashion to i n t e r i o r design. Pat says: I want them to l i k e i t [art]. Not just i n the sense that t h i s i s fun...I want them to l i k e i t i n the sense that art i s more according to your l i f e . . . I usually do t h i s at the beginning of the semester where you [the students] decorate your house, the colours that you have i n your kitchen, the things that you have up on the wall i n the room...You decorated i t i n a certa i n way because you l i k e i t . That i s art...So art i s r e a l l y very much apart of your everyday l i v i n g , i t i s not just the pictures on the wall...[or] you go to an art g a l l e r y and that's a r t . . . i t comes into l i f e a great deal, and i t ' s very personal. One student from Riverside thought that taking art could be helpful i n the future. In the student's words: Well, I think that i t [learning about Art] w i l l help you in the future i f you are asked to, l i k e i f you are thinking about a future i n art or science...If you are looking through a microscope or something you have to draw what you see and i f you are looking i n art then t h i s r e a l l y helps i n the future...what you learn here about the Group of Seven you can take t h e i r experiences into consideration when you're t a l k i n g about future jobs. CURRICULAR DIMENSION OF SCHOOLING 54 This section focuses upon the program's content and to the a c t i v i t i e s which are used to engage the students i n the program. It includes, program description and development, f a c i l i t i e s , projects and a c t i v i t i e s , and the teacher's role i n classroom. Program and Development Chris describes what i t i s l i k e working at Lakeview and how the program i s developed: It's unique. It's a l o t of hard work...You have to do a l o t of the writing yourself, but i t s fun...You [the teacher] went from grade 7 when you developed a l l t h i s s t u f f , but you can't use i t for two years because now you're i n grade 8 and you've got to redevelop... In a l o t of ways that's good because I can see a teacher who has taught grade 7 for twenty years and every year i t s the exact same thing...The world's always changing. At the time of the study, the art program at Lakeview was new. The program was undergoing continual changes. Chris describes the s i t u a t i o n : "Well, the art program i s r e a l l y i n i t s infancy and i t has been a t r i a l and error type of year where the kids t r a v e l to seven d i f f e r e n t stations, where they go to clay, video, the d i f f e r e n t computer programs; Animation works [and] Superpaint, drawing... they go to each one and they get f a m i l i a r with i t , learn the s k i l l s about each sta t i o n [then] they can take s k i l l s to the next one." 55 Based upon the students' learning i n each of the stations they produced four main projects during the year, one i n each of, drawing, clay, India ink and one of t h e i r own choice. The intention was also to increase technology i n the art program, to come i n l i n e with the rest of the school, a task e s s e n t i a l l y implemented by Chris. "There were no computers i n the art program...[they are] just another t o o l , but the art program wasn't using them u n t i l I came i n l a s t year and said, l e t ' s see what we can do." Since the technological aspect i n art was r e l a t i v e l y new at t h i s l e v e l of public education, Chris had l i t t l e guidance with few examples. I developed i t [the art program] to keep up with the school and what was going on here. Obviously the art program was one area for the grade 7 and 8 that wasn't high tech, l i k e the rest of the school was or hadn't been integrated as much as the regular curriculum, so I said I'd see what I could do to change that, with r e a l l y no help. There was no where to go. You can go to Seaway College there are a l o t of books, a l o t of reading and brainstorming and that was r e a l l y what t h i s year was. See how well i t works and what did and did not work and see what I ended up with at the end of the year. Ultimately Chris hoped to see students come into the Grade 8 art program with many art s k i l l s and techniques i n place, so that they would be able to work even more 56 independently on art projects of t h e i r own formulation. Chris says : Ideally, by the time they get to grade 8 they would have a l l the s k i l l s and then you could spend the following year doing major projects, probably some solo ones, some group ones...1 would probably say to them, you have to combine two to three elements, minimum, so they might be using clay and a movie camera to make a clay animation. In other words, Chris would d i r e c t students to use c e r t a i n types of media independently. Chris would also l i k e to see the school operating on the p r i n c i p l e that students have the opportunity to develop t h e i r own projects with home room teachers, then go to various spe c i a l t y f a c i l i t i e s throughout the school, such as the art room, to work on t h e i r projects under the supervision of the s p e c i a l i s t teacher. Chris explains: What we are working towards i s that a l l the classes have theme units at the same time, and a l l the d i f f e r e n t areas would be opened up...you'd have to do a l o t of teaching and then the kids could say I'm doing a project on World War II and today I want to make a t i t l e page so, I need the art room...each one of us would be more l i k e a f a c i l i t a t o r . . . Y o u would have kids from grades 6, 7 and 8 using the science room, the art room, the music room, family studies. 57 The intention also was to have students apply the s k i l l s learned i n the various work stations between stations or elsewhere i n the curriculum, e s p e c i a l l y where technology was concerned. For instance, knowledge of l i n e and perspective could be used i n computer graphics. Chris says, "They can take the s k i l l s they learned i n drawing, depth, l i n e , symmetry, etc. and take that over to the computer". Since students had many independent projects, each student would have d i f f e r e n t needs and would handle the problem i n a personal way. Students were encouraged to incorporate art s k i l l s into any project they were working on. Chris: They can also take [their knowledge of computer graphics] back to other classes so the s k i l l s they learn here they can take back to t h e i r home room and use i n math, s o c i a l sciences... They could be working on a book report or an essay and they want to add a picture or a t i t l e page and then they take those art s k i l l s they have learned and start applying them...the kids have seen that for a b i t of extra work they hand i n something that looks much better. The concept of theme work emerged as an organizing p r i n c i p l e for Lakeview. Toni explains: The timetable i s set up so that there are blocks of time so that i n the morning time you concentrate on l i t e r a c y and math and the afternoon i s free to work on your theme or as i t i s c a l l e d quite often "creative 58 applications"... Creative a pplication i s taking the s k i l l s that you pick up i n l i t e r a c y and math and c r e a t i v e l y applying them i n your afternoon theme work. So i t might be an a c t i v i t y that the students have decided that they want to do. Maybe i t ' s a play that week. Maybe i t ' s an essay. Maybe i t ' s a TV production or something related to the s k i l l s that they've picked up i n the morning classes through t h e i r l i t e r a c y . . . They can choose i t or i t could be chosen by the teacher or i t could be a combination. One student explained "theme" as, "Not r e a l l y a class, but a mixture of d i f f e r e n t units, l i k e writing and l i s t e n i n g and reading and putting them a l l together". Knowledge gained i n any part of the curriculum could be applied i n theme work. In such a way, students were encouraged to transfer knowledge of art concepts and techniques, as an acquired s k i l l , to projects and presentations for other classes and creative applications. Major themes included, Youth and Law, Canada and Careers. "Art" per se was not taught during theme work. At Riverside the art program was developed by Pat based upon the Moorington Board guidelines with input from the board's art consultant. At the same time, the program was continually changed as needs arose and to keep ideas fresh. Pat l i k e d to t r y new projects, delete others and experiment. Pat explains: 59 I've developed [the program]...we have the Moorington book that has a l l the grade 7 and 8 s t u f f i n i t and then what i t does b a s i c a l l y i s have lesson plans and they are colour coded and t h i s one i s the painting unit and that the pastel unit... I look at the Moorington book that we got from the art consultant and there're some ideas i n there that are great, but I f e e l that I have to use what works for me and what I l i k e , because i f I don't l i k e i t , teaching something, you are not going to do a very good job of i t . The program, now three years old, improved and was s t a b i l i z e d because of the new consistency and continuity developed through grade 7 and 8. Although the school was well established, no one had been looking a f t e r the art program, which had been an ad hoc arrangement taught by one or more of the generalist teachers who knew l i t t l e about art education. Pat f e l t that: The art program has s t a b i l i z e d i n the school since I came because before that there were d i f f e r e n t teachers doing the art every year...one teacher who had taken the art for a l i t t l e b i t of i t i s not an art teacher, he's a guidance man and he was sort of doing i t because there was nobody else to do i t . The focus of the program at Riverside was on exposing the students to a v a r i e t y of art concepts, terms, techniques and 60 materials. Pat wanted the students to experience a l i t t l e b i t of everything. I t r y to throw d i f f e r e n t things at them - media wise. We paint, we do clay, we do cut paper, we do paper r e l i e f s with the grade 7, we do posters. We do art history, which i n grade 7 i s the Kleinberg Group of Seven s t u f f , and Inuit Natives which correlated with the grade 7 language arts and s o c i a l science. The l i n o , the grade 8's need something special to do i n grade 8, the big guys, so you know they're doing l i n o blocking. The program was set up i n terms of various projects and exercises of varying length and complexity. Incorporated into these projects were design lessons, art concepts and techniques for the proper handling of equipment. Art appreciation and art history were also included. Pat says, "We always do Kleinberg. That's just a t r a d i t i o n . . . I think the g a l l e r y experience i s very important. I mean for some of those kids, t h e y ' l l never go to another g a l l e r y again". In Grade 7 students were engaged i n a large unit about Native Canadian studies including Inuit art which was correlated with language arts and s o c i a l science. Pat relates, "We had a big Inuit theme...It r e a l l y t i e s i n with Kleinberg as well because you see we go to see the Inuit display. The whole a l l t i e s together and i t t i e s i n with the Group of Seven as well with the landscape painting". 61 One student at Riverside made the following comment about the program, "You get a l o t of experience working with everything - l i n o blocking tools...the painting s t u f f , the clay, a l i t t l e b i t of everything". Another had t h i s to say: Well, I'd l i k e to do some more of the same things. Like, I wanted to do more l i n o block, l i k e do some more designs with i t , but once everyone finished, you have to s t a r t something new. Art Projects Chris c i t e d the following projects as studio a c t i v i t i e s ; copying and colour matching Group of Seven post cards with tempera paint, a poster unit developed through a l i f e science project exploring various aspects of human body system, working with clay to make a container, and an India ink pattern assignment. Chris: I gave them postcards of great pieces - Tom Thomson's work - Group of Seven - and asked them to imitate i t right down to the colours - "Let's just copy t h i s as c l o s e l y as you can on a large sheet of paper"...It was a good lesson as well because they were working with colours t r y i n g to create the exact colour from the o r i g i n a l . A student comments, "There were special pictures of Canadian a r t i s t s and we had to draw them and we t r i e d to draw them ourselves and I got t h i s one of a mountain and i t was r e a l l y fun to t r y i t " . 62 Chris also described an art project which was related to a l i f e science unit, "They designed a l i f e science unit, d i f f e r e n t aspects of the human body, the c i r c u l a t o r y system of the human body, designed a model, drawing, posters or whatever showing the blood system". The focus at Lakeview was on integrating technology into the art program, including work with computers and video. Content included computer work i n various drawing and graphic programs. Computers were seen as a tool for the students' use and computer art as another form of expression. Chris: They [computers] are just another tool for kids to express t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y . That's a l l i t i s , but they can take s k i l l s they learn drawing on paper or they can do things they have drawn on paper and using the scanner put i t onto the computer screen and that adds colours and textures and things they may not be comfortable with doing, but on a computer you can do i t and make mistakes and get r i d of i t right away. According to Chris, some students did art work on the computer, "...probably every single day. Other kids once a week. But there are some kids i n here who w i l l be doing some form of art, usually on the computer everyday". Future plans for the use of computers i n the art program included l i n k i n g up to college and u n i v e r s i t y art data bases and the purchase of art work discs for the CD ROM. Chris also says : 63 As soon as the Internet i s worked out we'll be linked up with a l o t of d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s and hopefully art G a l l e r i e s and museums and so i f a k i d i s interested i n Tom Thompson then hopefully next year h e ' l l be able to connect with a computer at the McMichael Canadian C o l l e c t i o n and be able to see a l o t more examples than I have. Chris believed that the computer enhanced the art program and student learning i n many ways. Chris explained how the computer helped students gain confidence i n t h e i r drawing a b i l i t y . They were asked to draw an image on paper and then to scan i t into a computer graphics program, at which point the size, texture and colour of the image could be manipulated. One student scanned a three dimensional Pepsi can into the Superpaint program manipulating i t i n many ways by repeating the image and by changing i t s size and colour. The computer image could also be immediately erased and redone. Chris explains: [Students] s t a r t things off by hand and end up with a fin i s h e d product on computer. Drawing something, scanning i t and then e d i t i n g i t on the computer. The kids r e a l l y l i k e doing that and the res u l t s are good. You are getting the whole spectrum there. The pen c i l and paper right up to the high tech, the fi n i s h e d product. What's good about i t i s that a l o t of kids don't have confidence drawing. They do have confidence on the 64 computer, so i f you can get them started with p e n c i l and get i t on the computer, then a l l of a sudden, i t ' s not drawing any more and i t ' s using the computer and i t builds up t h e i r confidence. Chris also f e l t that the computer makes the students' work look more professional i n terms of organization and neatness. Chris believed that the computer should be used for presentation purposes. Chris says, "The kids have seen that for a b i t of extra work they hand i n something that looks much better". Chris saw the computer enhance the working habits of students. Computer s k i l l s were also seen to s p i l l over into other areas of the curriculum. Students were brought together through computer work to solve mutual problems. They were further encouraged to work independently, not always instructed to do art on the computer, but to apply t h e i r knowledge of computer graphics appropriately i n various situations as they saw f i t . Chris says, "That i s not something that I would say to them - I want you to do art on the computer. It i s coming up naturally". Chris comments further: I see a l o t of people i n the press l a t e l y t a l k i n g about computers and how they force people to work alone...My experience has been that they r e a l l y bring people together. They r e a l l y work and help problem solve. You 65 watch four or f i v e kids spontaneously, without my saying anything, w i l l help solve a problem. Chris described a s p e c i f i c project which involved students generating computer graphic letterhead and logos to market t h e i r own products which were manufactured on the lathe i n t h e i r design and technology c l a s s . Chris says: There were a number of things they did. They did a project on the hi s t o r y of Canada. We designed t i t l e pages and/or logos for t h e i r s p e c i f i c project. Usually something they could i d e n t i f y with...We did several of the Canadian f l a g that i s uniquely t h e i r s and they can put i t i n the bottom right hand corner of every page so automatically I know and they know t h i s i s my work. A student describes the computer a c t i v i t y : We did things on the computer. We draw i t and scan i t and add colour to it...We used Wakem t a b l e t . . . l i k e , a pencil and just draw i t and i t comes up on the computer. Another student t e l l s about her experience with the computer: It [Superpaint] was to do with Animation Works. It was to colour and i t t o l d us what to do and a l l the instructions from which we worked on. But the Superpaint program didn't work that well, so we had to change to Animation Works... I got Animation Works a f t e r a while...I had a l i t t l e trouble at f i r s t . It was in t e r e s t i n g . I mean, I've never come across that type of thing before. 66 Apparently, there were some technical d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with the computer. The following are accounts by students: Sometimes Animation Works could be a b i t of a pain. I would get my l i t t l e cartoon up there, but i t wouldn't l e t me access the painting. I can't get through and nobody can help me...you can make d i f f e r e n t things and get people to walk and you can draw with Superpaint. A student describes designing a logo for t h e i r c i t y plan with the Superpaint drawing program: We had to do a project on a c i t y and make a logo up and do six steps, which i s , f i r s t l y , design one using s i x ideas and then getting i t on one page, then scanning i t , then putting i t into Superpaint and colouring i t and pr i n t i n g i t up. Each student described t h e i r independent art project which was to be scanned into a computer hypercard program and subsequently pressed onto a CD, r e s u l t i n g i n a c o l l e c t i o n of a l l Grade 8 art projects for future reference. A student explains: We had to do a special art project 'cause we're pressing a CD ROM for the 1993 graduates... of art and so [we] had to each make up something i n art that we'd r e a l l y l i k e to do and so what I did i s I scanned a Pepsi can and I put i t into Superpaint and I would change i t as I had so many pictures of i t so the can would be d i f f e r e n t colours or i t would have the coke sign and the white would be black 67 and the darker l i g h t e r . . . everyone has to do one...Dave, he made a sculpture of a hand using chicken wire and then put the clay over the chicken wire, so i t was r e a l l y good...and then what we were going to do i s put i t on a turntable and f i l m i t and put i t into a program c a l l e d hypercard and then that would be a part of the art and then that would be put onto the CD ROM. Another student chose to do a landscape painting based upon a photograph taken by the student. She describes her project: Well, that painting there, which I just did, that was our art project. The teacher asked us to do an art project so that they could choose from them and put i t into the CD ROM. So I got my idea from looking down Lakeshore road. My dad took me there because i t was winter and I thought I'd paint a scenery picture. I didn't want anything modern...I photographed i t f i r s t . It was only about that small so I had to put some of my imagination i n i t because some of the parts I wanted to get a l i t t l e more d e t a i l . The t h i r d and fourth were tempera paintings, one of a mountain and the other of a house, copied from postcards. Other projects were also described by students. Two students t e l l about t h e i r clay work: Our instructions were to make a cup. But a f t e r that I decided to model a l i t t l e thing, so I made a l i t t l e face and I was making l i t t l e designs with my n a i l s . . . I did 68 some clay s t u f f . I made a mug for my mom and I made some sculptures. One of the favourite projects s i t e d by students at Lakeview was drawing and sketching i n the school, "We had to go somewhere around the school and we had to t r y to draw that picture on a piece of manila paper". A children's book, i n which students created a children's story, i l l u s t r a t e d the story on large sheets of manila paper, and then created computer graphics from t h e i r o r i g i n a l drawings, was an a c t i v i t y o r i g i n a t i n g as a language art c l a s s . A student says, "I did a children's book...We were going to get those published when they're done. But that wasn't r e a l l y art. That was more theme". Clay animation through video was an idea for the future. A student explains: That was something [the teacher] said I could t r y by myself. So i t wasn't r e a l l y clay animation, i t was more l i k e people animation...We used people... See, my idea was to do clay animation. I wanted to go further with t h i s afterwards. At Riverside, Pat outlined a number of art a c t i v i t i e s i n some d e t a i l . Pat described figure drawing projects from l i f e , as well as, the sports figures which were inspired by the use of magazine i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Pat explained the sports unit for me as we looked through examples. Sports action poses were chosen by the students from magazines. These figures were 69 then drawn by students and a s t e n c i l made. Dry brush, water colour and India ink techniques were then explored to get a sense of movement i n the art work. Pictures for the Moorington Board's Christmas card were also created and sent to the board o f f i c e for selection. I witnessed the students linoleum block p r i n t i n g class, where they learned about materials, tools and techniques. The design concepts learned were pattern, including, regular, brick and drop configurations. Pat r e c a l l s the introduction to linoleum block p r i n t i n g as one of the most successful classes. ...we looked at the tools and I had s p e c i f i c nibs drawn on the board and they were to f i n d these and look at them and we'd practice putting them into the handles and taking them out and t r y i n g d i f f e r e n t ones...and I showed them the d i f f e r e n t holds...This was new, d i f f e r e n t from anything they'd ever done before. And they t r i e d a few cuts i n crummy pieces of linoleum...and s i t t i n g on the piece of linoleum to warm i t up or whatever...We have these wooden things where there's a piece that hooks over the end of the desk and they could t r y that and they were a l i t t l e nervous and couldn't handle the d i f f e r e n t holds... Ceramic vessels were also created using a mold and the slab or c o i l technique. I also observed t h i s demonstration. The bisque ware was also glazed by a couple of students. 70 Simultaneously, a logo design project was co-ordinated with the l i b r a r i a n using magazines as a source for the development of the student's own logo. Pat remarks, "Now t h i s year was the f i r s t time I s p l i t the classes for the day. Now they didn't p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e the logos, but they much preferred working with the clay. Well I expected that anyway". Pat developed a worksheet with the l i b r a r i a n because they had to work out of magazines which she had. Pat says: They had to cut out, I think, there were f i v e l i t t l e pictures and they had to cut out three logos from magazines and t e l l why they were good logos, why they advertised the company successfully... and then they had to design a couple on t h e i r own. They were using p e n c i l crayons, you know, i n the l i b r a r y , i t ' s small and i t has to be tid y . The students at Riverside reported projects such as, making folders and using India ink to l e t t e r them with d i f f e r e n t types of l e t t e r s . They described the sports and figure drawing units described above, s t e n c i l and dry brush, l i n o block p r i n t i n g , perspective drawing and p o s i t i v e and negative space drawings with a partner, where drawings were traded and the opposite space coloured. Exercises on face proportion was required of students f i n i s h e d other projects early. Two students t e l l about some of the projects they did: 71 We started our folders and did some work with some India ink and we worked along with d i f f e r e n t types of l e t t e r s on the back and then we did a sports unit where we picked a sports person, l i k e on a piece of paper, and traced i t with India ink and worked along with that with some powdered paints. Powdered paints sort of make i t run and now we are the only class that's allowed to do l i n o blocking and we are working on that now and doing p r i n t s with i t . At the star t of the year we made art folders that has a l l our d i f f e r e n t s t u f f and we did our perspective unit and there were about three or four d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . Drawing, sketching and figure drawing were popular a c t i v i t i e s . A student says: Like sketches, figures of people. We had models who would stand i n front. We had models of people from our class and they'd just stand up i n front and we draw them on a big piece of paper. The l i n o block p r i n t i n g and clay work were also favourites: When we introduced the l i n o blocking because i t was sort of a p r i v i l e g e , 'cause we were the only class allowed to do i t because we were more responsible then the other classes and i t was fun learning how, l i k e p r a c t i s i n g on the practise l i n o . It was fun experimenting and writing things down. 72 A c t i v i t i e s less popular were perspective drawing described by a student here: F i r s t of a l l before we started, we had some d i t t o s and you have to fin d , we had to f i n d the 25 perspective points and then there's one building and you have to show the perspective a l l the way down to the ground and another one was the hallway. Art History and Art Appreciation The teacher at Lakeview talked about Canadian a r t i s t s i n class. Chris showed the class paintings by the Group of Seven and had them copy art work by these and other Canadian a r t i s t s from post cards. One of the theme projects was Famous Canadians.• A few students chose an a r t i s t from the Group of Seven as t h e i r famous Canadian. Chris says: We t a l k about a r t i s t s . They do a project where they're researching a r t i s t s , a Canadian a r t i s t , and now for instance, we're doing, the kids are doing a main project on Famous Canadians... I had some creative kids pick the Group of Seven. Students studied the importance of art as an expression of culture for the Native people of Canada through Social Studies. Students commented that they did some art h i s t o r y i n Grade 7. At Riverside students did a unit i n Grade 7 on Canadian A r t i s t s and the Group of Seven. They took a t r i p to the McMichael Gallery i n Kleinberg as part of the experience. As 73 a r e s u l t students could recognize Group of Seven a r t i s t s and t h e i r work. As at Lakeview, i n the Famous Canadians unit, some students chose an a r t i s t from the Group of Seven. Students from Riverside mentioned that they talked about the Group of Seven i n s o c i a l science when learning h i s t o r y and copied a Group of Seven painting. A student from Riverside says, "Actually, I don't know i f we are going to t h i s year, but we did l a s t year. We studied the Group of Seven. We went to the McMichael Gallery and that was pretty i n t e r e s t i n g " . Integration Integration has been treated as a separate category since Pat, Chris and Toni were s p e c i f i c a l l y asked to give t h e i r views on the issue. Following, are,, the reports regarding the concept of integration made by the teachers interviewed. Chris commented that for Lakeview the concept of integration was currently emerging and evolving. Chris says, "As f a r as integration goes, i t ' s a l l so new so I don't know i f I know what to expect right now or what i t s going to be". It was not yet clear what was to be expected or what i t s f i n a l form would take. Lakeview was i n the process of in t e r p r e t i n g and defining integration i n the context of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r school s i t u a t i o n . Nevertheless, i t was apparent that central to the concept of integration at Lakeview, was a desire to incorporate as much of the t r a d i t i o n a l curriculum while building personal s k i l l s , at the same time as, r e l a t i n g the program to the "real world". Toni explains: 74 One of the things that we r e a l l y emphasize are the l i f e s k i l l s and I guess what I'd l i k e to do i s to develop f u l l y independent learners and to make them f a m i l i a r with a l o t of l i f e s k i l l s that they must have - not just make them f a m i l i a r - but to give them a chance at being successful i n acquiring these l i f e s k i l l s and applying them to re a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Chris declares that, "I just t r y to relate as much of i t [the program] as possible, whatever we're working on to the real world...whatever i s happening i n the re a l world i f we can d i r e c t l y r elate i t " . One way the teachers at Lakeview saw integration operating was by building curriculum around central ideas or themes. They saw an integrated unit as one where various subject matter, such as, mathematics, English and the s o c i a l sciences combined many a c t i v i t i e s around a "creative application". In t h i s way the subjects were not taught separately. Instead, students applied s p e c i f i c knowledge and s k i l l s to a p a r t i c u l a r project. Toni gives an outline: For me teaching an integrated unit would be a unit where I involve a l l kinds of subject material, such as, math English, s o c i a l sciences and science and combine those a c t i v i t i e s together so that i t i s an integrated approach or unit that I might use, so that i f a student i s working on a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , i t might be a science based a c t i v i t y or math or l i t e r a c y based. It i s t o t a l l y 75 integrated. I'm not teaching something separate... It might also be, i f I'm doing an integrated theme and there's something special I want done i n the art room, I tal k to the art teacher or the family studies teacher or the i n d u s t r i a l arts teacher and within my theme, i f I talk to them i n advance, I can set up a c t i v i t i e s for the kids to do i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r classes which are related to what we're doing here. That way you get a f u l l i ntegration throughout the school. As quoted e a r l i e r , Chris would ultimately l i k e to see a l l classes working on the same themes simultaneously. At sp e c i f i e d times, students could then sign themselves into various work areas, depending upon the nature of t h e i r project, where the s p e c i a l i s t teacher would f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t y . At Lakeview integration also meant having students see an issue from many perspectives. Instead of rot a t i n g students through separate subjects, at the end of the day, i t was f e l t , that students should be able to see how one idea relates to another. For example, how weather was related to land mass or how art s k i l l s were used i n the broad picture, such as i n lay out and design. Chris explains: Integration I think means l e t t i n g the kids see things from a l l perspectives instead of just one - a l o t of the schools are just rotary where a k i d goes from his 4 0 minutes math and 40 minutes science and geography and 76 none of them are related...Whereas I would hope the kids can s i t and at the end of the day see how studying weather af f e c t s the land mass...So they're studying science, they're studying geography and then i f you can tal k about how that affected migration... then they're also, learning history...So they're not seeing everything as separate, but everything as one and the art would c e r t a i n l y be the s k i l l s brought into that. As f a r as the art program was concerned, Chris wanted to teach the students as many s k i l l s as possible and to get students thinking i n terms of working on projects i n various situations using a l l of the tools at t h e i r disposal. For instance, computer graphic s k i l l s learned i n art could be applied to other areas, while t r a d i t i o n a l drawing s k i l l s could also be combined with computer s k i l l s . Chris says: A l l I can say i s that with the art program I t r y and give them as many s k i l l s as they can take back to t h e i r [home] room as possible... i f they are doing a project and something comes up and they go: "Hey, I remember doing t h i s i n art. We can do t h i s " . That's great. As for my own class I stress a b i t more integration with the art program - i n s i s t on a few things. Chris has been surprised by some of the creative applications students have discovered for computer a r t . For instance, students generated a map then recreated i t i n three dimensions. Chris gives an example: 77 But the kids surprise you sometimes. They do things that I don't think about... Maybe t h e y ' l l design a map of Canada and they use the technique, maybe 3D, that we used i n art...so something that I wouldn't have said "Okay I want you to do a map i n 3D." A l l of a sudden i t just happens. Chris believed that drawing and art s k i l l s should not only be used for t h e i r own sake, but should also be used for other purposes. Science and Design Technology projects often required fine drawing s k i l l s which some students f e l t more comfortable t a c k l i n g on the computer. As outlined i n previously i n the section on art projects, art a c t i v i t i e s were merged into other assignments. . In,a science unit, posters or models were created to show the c i r c u l a t o r y system and a children's book was i l l u s t r a t e d for a language arts unit. For a s o c i a l science c i t y planning project and a design technology lathe project the students created computer generated logos. Lakeview delivered curriculum e s s e n t i a l l y through generalist teachers who integrated subject matter through theme work. At the same time, Chris explained that subject s p e c i a l i s t s were necessary. The art teacher taught art. Chris says, "A l o t [teachers] don't teach art...The way they're thinking of i t i s , you know, I teach a r t . It i s up to you [Chris] to give my kids the s k i l l s " . Home room teachers may, on occasion have used art materials, or have brought t h e i r class to the art room, but they did not teach art, per 78 se, i n t h e i r classroom. Art related to the theme work, such as, posters, papier mache, masks and collage, was executed i n the home room class without art i n s t r u c t i o n . Toni gives an example: If we are doing a s p e c i f i c theme, maybe we're doing something on Native Peoples of Canada, the students might decide to do a collage on Native People or they might make a mask on an Indian t r i b e or a totem pole or something along that l i n e so, I've b u i l t i n a l o t of time for them to work on those type of a c t i v i t i e s . Toni went on to explain that some art work was done i n the home room class such as: ...making of posters, Native masks, collage of the penguin up there... The kids do a l o t of things i n here. If they are making a clay model or something l i k e that then of course they have to go down to the art room to do that. Toni also said, "I think that's an important part of the program, you know, integrating the art into what they're doing". Yet, at the same time, admitted that art concepts and design were not taught i n class. Toni says: Well maybe not i n terms of design. Although when we were studying Native People of Canada, I would ta l k about the art part and how important i t was to the Indians and how through the totem pole, and so on, that was an expression of t h e i r l i f e . . . B u t we didn't get into l i n e s and design 79 and so on. I would probably leave that to the art teacher... But we c e r t a i n l y looked at i t as, okay, t h i s i s an a c t i v i t y that gave the Indians a chance to express t h e i r feelings and t h e i r way of l i f e . And then I t r y to give the students, through t h e i r art work i n these related a c t i v i t i e s , to express what they see and how they f e e l . Nevertheless, Chris saw integration i n one sense as using art s k i l l s , materials and techniques i n other applications such as that which Toni described. Chris also explained how an attempt was being made to integrate the school across the grade l e v e l s . The CD ROM project, incomplete at the time of t h i s study, was designed to bring student music and art work together i n an audio v i s u a l presentation. Some of the s p e c i f i c student projects were outlined i n the section on art projects. Although challenging, plans included having students create t h e i r own hypercard stack. This student generated CD would be housed i n the l i b r a r y where the entire student body had access to the c o l l e c t i o n of projects. Chris outlines some of the plans and challenges: We are going to t r y to make a hypercard stack, which i s a computer program so you can s i t down and f l i p through i t using the computer to go through d i f f e r e n t aspects of i t . . . I t w i l l be unique because they are adding music, art, computer s k i l l s . It i s r e a l l y integrated and the 80 thing that i s nice about that i s the arts aren't always covered. CD ROM's are science or things l i k e that...so a kid i n grade 2 who wants to work on an art project could load t h i s i n and have a look and get ideas as to what has been done i n school. Chris also described a school assembly where students across grade l e v e l s presented t h e i r art work and other special projects to each other. Some of them r e a l l y l i k e showing o f f t h e i r work. I had them s i t on the stage and I had the cordless microphone and I went up to each of them and said, "What's your name" and "What do you do" The l i t t l e kids were just i n awe... At Riverside, Pat the art s p e c i a l i s t taught a l l of the art, although art a c t i v i t i e s , such as drawing and poster making, also occurred i n other classes. S t i l l , as Pat put i t , " a l l the messy s t u f f " was done i n the art room. At the same time, as reported e a r l i e r , art students used the l i b r a r y f a c i l i t y and magazine resources to learn about logos. Half the class worked on a logo package with the l i b r a r i a n , while the other half of the class worked on t h e i r ceramic project. The class then switched. Pat described a number of integrated theme units e s p e c i a l l y at the Grade 7 l e v e l . A s ix week unit about Native Canadians, beginning i n September and ending i n November, correlated language arts with s o c i a l science. Based on the 81 l i v e s of Native Peoples from the Algonquins to the Inuit, students wrote legends and mystery s t o r i e s , created d e t a i l e d maps and described the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l i f e s t y l e s of these people. The unit also included a study of Inuit art and the Group of Seven. Art a c t i v i t i e s included landscape painting and a design project based upon Inuit a r t . The art component was t i e d together with a v i s i t to the McMichael Gallery i n Kleinberg. Pat t e l l s about the unit: In grade 7 that big Native project i s a big one. That i s we do, you know, Native s t u f f i n art...That integrates with language art because they write Indian legends... and s o c i a l science of course, they do the maps where the Native People were situated and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of them...and we integrate the whole shooting match...Within that time t h e y ' l l do the Group of Seven too because t h e i r language - they do a l i t t l e mystery thing...We s t a r t that i n the f a l l and i t goes right up into the Kleinberg t r i p which i s i n November. A f i e l d t r i p for the Grade 8 classes, which, unfortunately, did not materialize, was planned for the Moorington Art Centre. Pat explained that t h i s t r i p was designed to integrate the g a l l e r y experience, i n terms of art appreciation, with the sports figure drawing unit. Pat saw integration also as combining studio and art appreciation experiences. 82 We were supposed to go to the Moorington Art Centre a f t e r the sport unit, the figure drawing. They were going to do sculpture, hand building sculpture, l i t t l e figures...So that was to be an integrated unit there. Now not integrated with language, though, just integrated i n an art sense. Riverside p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an art exchange with Japan. Through art work, students made contact with Japanese students t h e i r own age. Research about Japan at school also enriched the experience. In short, the students learned something about Japanese culture through art. Although, i n t h i s case, the art exchange involved only the Grade 6 classes, the entire school became aware of the exchange, seeing the Japanese students' art work. Pat thought that t h i s was a good example of how integration occurs through a relevant a c t i v i t y . Pat describes the event: With the grade 6's, for example, there was a big art exchange i n Japan and you chose pieces from each school and they took 12 of ours...It was to be on Moorington and we divided the grade 6 classes. It was to have a Moorington theme. So we talked about Moorington and they could do the scenery, they could do the neighbourhood or a house or something you do i n Moorington. Pat saw many p o s s i b i l i t i e s to work with other subject areas, such as family studies or technology and would l i k e to do so i n the future. An example of a p r i n t i n g unit was given 83 where students would make p r i n t i n g blocks, p r i n t on f a b r i c and make an a r t i c l e of clothing, which would integrate art, technology and family studies. Pat believed that students should be encouraged to expand t h e i r repertoire by experiencing applications for art outside the art room. In Pat's words: Something I'd l i k e to t r y again i f i t would work and I don't know. It would correlate family studies instead of language arts and I don't see anything wrong with c o r r e l a t i n g elsewhere... We used the wood from the design and technology to put the l i n o on so, there was a l i t t l e b i t of design and technology because we had to cut the wood and get i t right and what not. But a f t e r p r i n t i n g on the paper, I had r e a l f a b r i c paint and the kids printed on c l o t h . . . then they took the c l o t h to family studies and I think the g i r l s were making aprons... I'd love to t r y something and I'm sure [the family studies teacher] would be. You know, she makes these l i t t l e tote bags with the draw str i n g s . Pat outlined problems anticipated when attempting to integrate across subject areas. One of the obstacles would be co-ordinating the Grade 8 classes. The a c t i v i t y would also depend upon the teachers who were w i l l i n g to work on the project and the type of students one had to work with. For instance, Pat thought that the present group of students were 84 not suited to work on an integrated project due to t h e i r l e v e l of maturity. Pat observes: There are p o s s i b i l i t i e s i f we could somehow co-ordinate the grade 8's. If they were a nicer group than they were th i s year...could do the l i n o and practice on paper with the water base paint and go into the o i l based paint, the fab r i c paint and p r i n t something. Teacher Role and Program Delivery At Lakeview generalist teachers taught many of the core areas such as, math, English and s o c i a l science, whereas subject s p e c i a l i s t s taught areas such as art or music. Chris acted as a f a c i l i t a t o r using subject expertise to d i r e c t students and to suggest appropriate resources. Chris introduced and demonstrated art a c t i v i t i e s and developed independent projects with students. Students worked through projects asking Chris for help when they needed i t . Chris gives an example: Right now we're s t a r t i n g one [a theme] on Careers... usually the f i r s t week or two of introducing a theme there i s a l o t of teaching involved and then the kids - say we're doing a unit on Canadian History and you make a big time l i n e , so we spent two weeks covering a l o t of Canadian history, whatever the curriculum c a l l s for and you have that timeline covered and then what happens i s that instead of covering everything, one of the kids might say I'm r e a l l y interested i n the ef f e c t s 85 of the American Revolution on the development of Canada or I'm r e a l l y interested i n World War II so, they have seen the whole timeline but instead of focusing on many years, they take one aspect of i t and I would develop some kind of assignment to go along with i t , making i t some sort of research and [have them] present t h e i r findings to the class using some sort of technology. Chris wanted to develop independent learners. Students are trained to come into the room and get right to work. He says: They come right i n and they know t h e i r assignment and you are at the door and away they go and they've got t h e i r group leaders... Each person i s going to be d i f f e r e n t . It i s not l i k e a l o t of classes where they [the teacher] would say take out your paper, cut t h i s out, glue t h i s here. I want a fi n i s h e d product, but how each one of you get there i s up to you...You've got a l l these tools to use to see how you want to get there. Due to the independent nature of many of the art projects, Chris spent a considerable amount of time with each student on an in d i v i d u a l basis, whether they were having trouble with an assignment or were working ahead. They get a l o t of freedom, but you've got to be careful because there's kids that can get l o s t and just s i t there and do nothing and others get good at looking as though they are doing something... I'd rather they get one or two 86 things i n and not get frustrated then not hand anything in...but you s t i l l need to spend a l o t of time with the kids that are ex c e l l i n g . There are s t i l l a l o t of things that they are not going to understand and they want help with...there's kids that just thrive on i t - you give them an afternoon and they're gone. You don't see them and you know they are going to produce r e s u l t s , but then there's kids you have to say do t h i s and then t h i s and they're just l o s t . At Lakeview Chris explained that tracking students was challenging since many were working independently on d i f f e r e n t projects simultaneously. Chris outlines the concern: One of the problems that we are working.on right now i s tracking. To an extent I do that i n my own room now... There's kids who w i l l be using the l i b r a r y , who w i l l be using the music room, who w i l l be using the design tech, so on a small scale i t i s happening i n my home room now. One student had t h i s to say about the program. "Well, yes I l i k e i t . There's nothing to f i n d wrong with i t . The teaching seems quite clear. I f i n d i t quite enjoyable". Others voiced much the same opinion, commenting on the fact that they l i k e d the freedom given them i n art. At Riverside Pat acted as an ins t r u c t o r and monitor. Pat gave a l l of the instructions and demonstrated the a c t i v i t i e s at the beginning of class. Occasionally, with lengthy a c t i v i t i e s , Pat gave the students t h e i r i n i t i a l i nstructions 87 and had them work independently for two or three classes on the project. Pat monitored student progress and helped them with the a c t i v i t y . Pat orchestrated a l l student a c t i v i t i e s from set up, to assigning clean up duties. This i s Pat's account: They come i n here and they are supposed to come i n and s i t down because I often have, that's when I give my instructions at the beginning... Once they get t h e i r hands d i r t y and get mucking around they can keep going without me interrupting them. Once they get t h e i r instructions, away they go and I guess my job i s to monitor what they are doing. Then comes the favourite part - the clean up of the classroom and I go down the class l i s t so that everybody has a turn...The clean up i s supposed to be a l l done before they go so that the next class can be ready...Put t h e i r stools under the table and l i n e up at the door before they go and that gives me a chance to give a cursory glance around the room to see that indeed the room i s i n reasonable shape. Students at Riverside reported that t h e i r teacher explained everything r e a l l y well so they didn't have to ask too many questions. Pat then l e t the students work at t h e i r own pace. In the words of Pat's students: Well the teacher knows how to teach well. She explains everything so nobody has too many questions. I l i k e being sort of independent, the independent study when you 88 can work at your own pace and you can come i n i f you are behind and work on them...She explains to us and then she writes on the blackboard what we are supposed to do for the next few periods and then when we come i n we get right down to work and she just walks around and supervises so we're kind of working on our own l i k e without her explaining anything... Just the way she brings out your c r e a t i v i t y because she r e a l l y doesn't put out a set of rules. She just outlines i t and then you kind of do i t what you want...1 l i k e d the one [class] we just had a while ago when we were doing l i n o blocks because everyone was doing l i n o blocking so you could s t i l l t a l k to your friends when you were working, but you didn't f e e l rushed or anything. On occasion, Pat held up announcements on cards so as not to disturb work unnecessarily. A student reports, "Sometimes when we come i n s h e ' l l hold up a sign l i k e short announcements so she t e l l s us what i s going on". Art F a c i l i t y The information presented i n t h i s section comes from personal observations made at the time of the study and i n reviewing the video tapes. The art room at Lakeview was prominently located d i r e c t l y off the main foyer across from the main o f f i c e . It served as the art room as well as a home room for the core curriculum. The room was approximately 50 by 50 feet square with windows 89 along half of the back wall. Although the room was square i t did not appear to be so, due to the asymmetrical arrangement of desks and work areas. Student desks were made of l i g h t grey arborite, approximately two by two and a half feet square. Students sat on chairs. Along one side of the room were storage cupboards, a cork display board and counter space housing science equipment. Along another wall were additional cupboards and counter space, a small erasable board and a cork display board. The l a s t wall had a large cork display board across three quarters of the room. There were computer terminals i n two areas; one centre was located near the entrance and the other at the back of the room near the windows. This arrangement changed from time to time. There were nine computers i n a l l . Textbooks, art work, ceramics and various other supplies occupied shelving units i n the back corner of the room. Near t h i s storage area was a round f l o o r model k i l n . A long narrow work table stretched from the entrance of the classroom along one side of the room about f i v e feet from the wall. This served as the teacher's work area and desk. The teacher's work area also included a lap-top computer. At Riverside the art room was situated about half way down one of the corridors on the main f l o o r between the main o f f i c e and the l i b r a r y . There were two entrances to the room. It was a room approximately 50 by 60 feet square. There was a teacher's desk and f i l i n g cabinet i n the back corner. 90 Arborite student desks, two and a half by three feet square, were arranged symmetrically throughout the room i n groups of four. The students used stools for seating. There were windows along the back of the room, a double blackboard and two cork display boards along one side of the room, cork display boards along the entire t h i r d side, and shelving and counter space for paper storage and supplies along the l a s t side of the room. In the back corner was a small enclosed k i l n room with a square f l o o r model k i l n and shelving units housing ceramic projects and supplies. This room was used exclusively for art. Teacher Collaboration Chris explained that at Lakeview the program was organized around a group of generalist teachers responsible for the core curriculum. As a re s u l t , once the i n i t i a l program was set up, there was l i t t l e need for teachers to consult on an ongoing basis. Chris sometimes discussed a c t i v i t i e s with other teachers i n terms of current units or themes. On occasion Chris got together with the Music teacher to plan a project, such as the CD ROM pressing which had sound overlay the v i s u a l images. Usually, any collaborative e f f o r t s concerned the integration of technology. Other teachers i n the school sometimes saw Chris to book the art f a c i l i t y and to set up a c t i v i t i e s or materials i n advance for special projects, often around theme work. Chris comments: 91 Well, the thing here i s that since I b a s i c a l l y teach everything, other than getting together with other teachers to discuss just what we are going to be teaching - what subject areas we are going to be teaching - I wouldn't need to talk to the Math person because I'm teaching a l l that, so I can overview i t and t r y to integrate everything. The only things that aren't here are design and tech., family studies and phys. ed.. Now music, yes we do, obviously he and I have gotten together to say what we can do to integrate things. Since I have the kids for a l l the major subject areas, I don't need to go talk to anyone else. At Riverside, Pat described collaborative work with the Moorington Board consultant i n establishing program parameters. Pat also belonged to a network of other elementary school teachers, reporting that i n i t i a l l y the group had healthy numbers which had recently diminished. Nevertheless, there were s t i l l a core group of teachers involved. Pat describes the group: Now there's L i s a from one school and Jim, another teacher, we just have our group and the group was quite big at f i r s t and then i t got smaller and smaller, but t h i s one l i t t l e nucleus has stayed. The Board consultant or co-ordinator also attends these meetings. 92 As outlined e a r l i e r , Pat also worked d i r e c t l y with the l i b r a r i a n on developing a logo assignment to be executed i n the l i b r a r y . The intention was to s p l i t the class to f a c i l i t a t e work with clay. Lesson plans and a work package for students were developed i n collaboration. EVALUATIVE DIMENSION OF SCHOOLING This section deals with the "evaluative" dimension of schooling (Eisner, 1991)). S p e c i f i c a l l y addressed are; assessment and evaluation, reporting, student knowledge of art and student attitudes towards art. Student art knowledge and attitudes give an in d i c a t i o n of what students think they have learned i n art, helping to determine whether they learned what was intended. Assessment Practices Assessment i n the art program at Lakeview i s l a r g e l y based upon ind i v i d u a l conferences. There was ample opportunity to conference with students while others were working independently. Chris says, "You have a l o t of time to get together with kids, to ta l k to them and hopefully while you are t a l k i n g to them the rest are working. But i t gives you time to interface, to conference". Personal conferences and interviewing took place on a formal r o t a t i o n a l basis and informally, day to day. Assessment also took place i n the form of s e l f -evaluation. Chris received on going feedback from students to see how they f e l t about what they were going. Chris kept a 93 f i l e on each student. In conferences, students were asked for explanations about t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l projects. Chris explains: If they've been working on the computer or, you know, learning a new program or doing India ink or something, then when they are a l l done...I love to ask them to explain to me what's going on, what they've done...what do you mean by 3D, well how do you know i t s 3D, and i f they can explain to me...that's what I'm looking for. Students were assessed and evaluated on an i n d i v i d u a l , not comparative basis. Student e f f o r t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the degree to which students challenge themselves were c r i t e r i a for assessment. Chris gives an overview: I measure mostly by e f f o r t . That's i t because there 1 re kids who have such a natural talent and there are some that they can t r y as hard as they want but they are never going to be able to draw. So I base most of my marks on e f f o r t that's put forth and then challenge them...I don't judge them as a cl a s s . I don't get a standard by one excellent kid. It's more what each k i d puts fort h that's how I mark the i n d i v i d u a l . At Lakeview tracking students and giving feedback to home room teachers was d i f f i c u l t on an on going basis due to a lack of time and structure for doing so. When students from other home rooms were working independently i n the art room Chris says, "If I have 2 0 kids i n the Art room, how do I report back to each one of those in d i v i d u a l teachers". 94 At Lakeview i t was possible to know students well since teachers t r a v e l l e d with the same home room group for three years. The students' maturation process the over time was noticeable, as was the development of t h e i r interactions and communication with teachers, peers and parents. This allowed for accurate progress reports. Toni reports: I r e a l l y get to know the students quite well. They get to know me and what my expectations are and I think that's important as opposed to a f u l l rotary program where you have maybe a hundred students coming i n and you don't r e a l l y get to know those students... and that makes i t a l o t easier for when I meet with parents. At the time of the study, Lakeview was developing a new report card system to help the tracking of students. They were also moving away from l e t t e r grade reporting. Chris says, "In our school we're r e a l l y getting away from marks i n our report cards. In fact, we don't have marks, we do have them, but not t r a d i t i o n a l l y - "A" stands for working beyond expected l e v e l s " . Riverside operated within the standard l e t t e r grade system. Students wrote a short art exam at the end of the term. The written test included questions of a t h e o r e t i c a l , art h i s t o r i c a l and p r a c t i c a l nature. One student relates, "We had an art exam at the end of the year [last year] It was just a few pages. Just questions about the Group of Seven and she asked us to just sketch a sports picture". 95 Student p o r t f o l i o work was also assessed by Pat. At the same time, students were assessed based upon informal information gathered by Pat and through the students' in t e r a c t i o n with peers. Students at Riverside also had the opportunity for self-evaluation i n terms of a spontaneous review of t h e i r productivity while looking through t h e i r p o r t f o l i o s . Pat encouraged students to be self-aware of t h e i r accomplishments i n a r t . B u l l e t i n board displays gave students a further measure of what they had produced over the year. Displays of h i s t o r i c a l art work were also recognized by students. Pat gives an overview: I guess that l i t t l e exam w i l l clue me i n [to what they've learned] and some of the comments that they made when they were leaving a f t e r the test, "I didn't r e a l i z e we had done a l l those things t h i s year"...I think when they peek into t h e i r folders...and they say, "Oh yes, I remember that"...But they r e a l l y don't understand or r e a l i z e u n t i l the end when they see t h e i r output - t h e i r productivity... I remember putting a display case with some of t h e i r class work and the l i n o p r i n t s out i n the hallway. You know, there i s an awareness. I don't think they're aware that they are aware. But they love to pore over the st u f f and say, "What do you think of that one?" I was t h r i l l e d when we had been to Kleinberg and I s t i l l have the display of the Kleinberg pictures and the Group of Seven. "Oh, that's an A.Y. Jackson". "No.No". "Yes. 96 See i t ' s got the l i t t l e house painted i n Quebec, remember?"... So they a l l learned something. Pat also made assessments based upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n . One student commented, "I think everyone enjoys i t and even i f you are not good i n art i t ' s okay because our teacher i s r e a l l y nice so as long as you t r y s h e ' l l give you a good mark". Student Attitude Chris f e l t that when teaching a t r a d i t i o n a l art curriculum, taken d i r e c t l y from the board guideline, students didn't take art very seriously. They saw art as a place to fool around for 80 minutes because they couldn't see the point of what they were doing. Chris noticed an improvement i n student attitude as the program became oriented more toward the i n d i v i d u a l . Chris reported that students went quickly to work on assignments and even spent extra time on t h e i r art. While some students thrived on the independence others needed more d i r e c t i o n . For the most part, however, as students were sent off for the afternoon to work on an art project Chris knew that they would produce r e s u l t s . Most students got straight down to work. Computers helped students come together to solve problems. Chris saw students who d i s l i k e d each other work on graphics programs together. This behaviour spread to other areas of the curriculum. For instance, Chris had combined a more advanced math student with one less capable and had watched them learn as a team. Chris says: 97 There was a big a r t i c l e i n the paper l a s t week about t h i s school and i t talked about how the kids don't work together. In my experience [this] couldn't be further from the truth. You can take two kids who hate each other and s i t them beside each other at a computer working on an art project and one has a problem. It's fascinating to watch them work i t out together. With the technology i t sta r t s there and sta r t s going to a l l other parts of the curriculum. Students at Lakeview commented that the atmosphere i n art class was relaxed and that they l i k e d working on independent projects. They also l i k e d to be able to s o c i a l i z e while they were working. Students enjoyed drawing and doing t h e i r work without too much d i r e c t i o n from the teacher. Comments were made alluding to the freedom available to them within set boundaries. Students commented: Well i t ' s r e a l l y relaxed and we can make our own s t u f f and we can do what we're supposed to do but we can s t i l l t a l k and jabber. It's l i k e very relaxed. And we can just do what we f e e l l i k e , not r e a l l y do what we f e e l l i k e , but draw what we want to draw...This year art has been in t e r e s t i n g . It's r e a l l y fun t h i s year. 'Cause i t s not l i k e sort of l i k e a thing that the teacher t e l l s you to do a ce r t a i n thing or you have to do something, but i t ' s what you want to do...there's boundaries, but there's no boundaries. 98 At Riverside Pat reported that students were excited about t h e i r pictures being sent to the board o f f i c e to be selected for a Christmas card. Students were also looking forward to the p o s s i b i l i t y of p r i n t i n g on f a b r i c and making an a r t i c l e of clothing. They were enthusiastic about the k i l n and glazing t h e i r clay work. At Riverside students l i k e d what they described as the independent study aspect of the class, where the teacher gave them instructions and then l e f t them to do the work without too much interference. They were allowed to work at t h e i r own pace and f i n i s h projects i n t h e i r spare time i f necessary. One student commented that the teacher gave them a chance to express themselves through art, be creative and to do what they f e l t they should do. Another student observed that the teacher didn't give them too many rules. Generally, the students commented that art was a l o t of fun, that everyone r e a l l y enjoyed i t and that the teacher was r e a l l y nice. Students comment: Well i t ' s r e a l l y fun and there are l i k e l o t s of independence and you can go at your own speed, but also you get to learn new things. It i s sort of l i k e a fun class...You can ta l k to your friends and you can work i n d i f f e r e n t places and you can study some things. Student Art Knowledge At Lakeview students f e l t that they had learned something about, perspective, pattern, three dimensions, monsters, space 99 shadows, India ink, computer art, making things with clay, spaghetti bridges, maps and the paper cutter. Students had d i f f i c u l t y expressing what they knew about Art i n terms of design concepts and p r i n c i p l e s . The vocabulary often escaped them. They were more comfortable when t a l k i n g about the materials they used and the projects they worked on. These are the things they remember learning about: No, not l i n e s , but perspectives. How we did 3D s t u f f ...Making things look farther than they are...We talked about perspective, space, shadows, I can't r e a l l y think of anything else...Well, there was the India ink which I hadn't done before...I never saw a computer which you could use to create d i f f e r e n t types of art things. I had never come across that i n my l i f e , so i t was pretty new to me and I learned a few t r i c k s here and there and to make pictures and s t u f f on the computer. Riverside students thought that they had learned how to draw people according to c e r t a i n rules, how to use linoleum cutters and the d i f f e r e n t nibs, how to use pattern i n a brick p r i n t , wallpaper design, and drop pattern with l i n o block, perspective, p o s i t i v e and negative space, dry brush technique, Group of Seven and clay work. One student commented that they learned to take t h e i r time while doing art, and another learned that India ink doesn't come out of clothes. Students describe what they learned i n art at Riverside: 100 Well you learn a l o t to do with art. You learn the background of, l i k e the Group of Seven. And a f t e r you do a painting from them you know about them and you also learn how to do certa i n drawings. And we learned a l o t of s t u f f that you can use i n other classes too...You learn how to draw people...and learn that you st a r t with the head and then just draw the main shape of the body and add d e t a i l s l a t e r . . . d i f f e r e n t ways you use the l i n o cutters, which i s the safest way to do i t . . . India ink doesn't come out of clothes...perspective... I think we learned how to use d i f f e r e n t colours and what were the best colours with warm and cool colours and I learned a l o t about positives and negatives. Students also described the l i n o block a c t i v i t y : Lino block. We cut out a pattern, put your pattern on a l i n o and you cut i t out and then you draw - paint over top and we did f i r s t a wall paper design. We'd put on the sheets of paper and i t would leave a pattern. The pattern we cut out. And then we did wallpaper and then we could do a drop or a block pattern and that was your good copy...First we thought about the picture to draw and to make sure i t had some d e t a i l and st u f f to make i t turn out good on the block and then you could trace i t on the block what ever way you wanted, then you cut i t out. She taught us a l l the d i f f e r e n t nibs, the ones to take out the corners, to gouge out a l l the s t u f f . She taught 101 us how to manoeuvre the tools and st u f f and paint the l i n o block and pr i n t the pictures. Students at Riverside seemed more comfortable when tal k i n g about art techniques, materials and s p e c i f i c projects as opposed to th e o r e t i c a l knowledge. At the same time, t h e i r command of art vocabulary and knowledge of technical s k i l l s was adequate to describe what they had learned. They were aware of design concepts, e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of pattern. Student Involvement with Art Outside the Art Program This section deals with the students' involvement with art outside the art room, i n other classes and outside school. Only one student from Lakeview reported having done art outside school i n terms of drawing toys and cartoons when younger: Actually, when I was younger I used to sketch my own l i t t l e toys because there was something about i t . . . I sometimes l i k e G a r f i e l d . . . I used to draw i t i n d i f f e r e n t poses which was out of the comic books and I just thought of poses for myself of G a r f i e l d . At Riverside the teacher reported some students having attended an art auction. The students also informed Pat of Canadian a r t i s t Casson's death and one student brought a Group of Seven calendar to School. Students at Riverside said they did some drawing at home and one student talked to t h e i r parents about r t . One family went to an art g a l l e r y and the student was proud to know something about the art there: 102 My family went to a museum and I could show them what everything was and where everybody was...talk to my parents about i t . And when they asked me questions about other things I've been able to understand. Like my dad's an a r t i s t . . . when he'd go to courses he'd come back and I'd say, "Oh, I know him." At both Lakeview and Riverside students reported doing art work i n other classes, but only one student from Lakeview said that the teacher made s p e c i f i c reference to art concepts. This reference was made by the Music teacher who pointed out s i m i l a r i t i e s between art and music i n terms of composition, rhythm, harmony, balance and texture. The student reports, "Music... t a l k i n g about how music should be written...In composition when you have songs...I do remember something about the rhythm, whether i t was smooth and having good balance i n d i f f e r e n t instrumentation and compose music". For the most part, students were asked to do art work i n other classes as part of an assignment, but the teacher did not s p e c i f i c a l l y address art as a subject. In other words, the teacher was not concerned with art education. Examples from Lakeview include, comic s t r i p s and posters i n French class, designing the colours for a go cart i n design and technology and drawing a diagram on the computer for science. It should be noted, however, that the students from Lakeview did not see themselves going to many d i f f e r e n t classes since most of t h e i r time was spent with t h e i r home room teacher i n 103 l i t e r a c y and numeracy. Chris described projects, such as physical systems and the children's story book that incorporated art work. Students describe some of t h e i r experiences with art outside t h e i r art c l a s s : It wasn't exactly art, but you know, the French teacher, he usually gives us French assignments and he used to give us things that we had to draw, things and st u f f we can make a comedy out of i t and we can make up comic s t r i p s out of those and posters... Well, there was one time, just recently i t was, well t h i s i s sort of to do with Art as well, but he, I was doing i n D and T cla s s . I was with a teacher and he asked me to design and colour a design for his cart... the design I gave for i t won the best looking car...In French...I had to make d i f f e r e n t , l i k e for Earth Day, we made posters...He [the teacher] just t o l d us, l i k e , draw a picture for Earth day...We used i t [art] i n theme to make logos for a project on our own city...Used i t for a book report... Like with computer graphics I can use that i n d i f f e r e n t animation projects that we're doing...We're doing something for science and I used the paint program from the computer to draw a diagram of what we were doing. At Riverside students described many situations were they used art i n other subjects. Here i s what one student said: 104 We do a l o t i n language. We do a l o t of drawing for projects since we do charts. She always asks for a drawing on i t and so we learned a l o t about drawing i n art so we can use i t there...We did a timeline sort of thing, i n French language art and then we also did maps where we used art and she talked about us using art on our maps. We did a newspaper i n language and most of i t was drawing captions to out sto r i e s or, l i k e , we had to do a movie ad so we were t a l k i n g about using art i n a movie ad...well science we use a l o t of drawings l i k e to explain ce r t a i n things for experiments and we are doing one on the Niagara escarpment right now so we had to do pictures for that. Students also reported doing a l o t of art work i n s o c i a l science: We mainly use i t i n s o c i a l science, l i k e language arts was just a small project, but s o c i a l science we were doing a l o t of people l i k e explorers, famous people, and some people did the Group of Seven and since - so we went to a museum for art - and since we got so much information there we could use i t i n s o c i a l science... When we were doing s o c i a l science we were ta l k i n g about some of the people i n the Group of Seven and i n one group we had to do some project so we were doing that...You're learning s t u f f about s o c i a l science, you're learning l i k e people who did art a long time ago 105 and you are also learning a l o t of s t u f f , but i t ' s also fun so i t ' s something that you can enjoy - i t ' s not something that you have to concentrate on. Other students also reported doing art work i n many other subj ects: Well, i n science right now we are working on the Niagara escarpment and i t involves art work for our presentation and we have to draw maps and sort of s t u f f that makes i t look l i k e i t ' s r e a l . In my group we are doing a p l a s t i c i n e map sort of and we have to do a perspective type thing with it...Probably i n French. We do a l o t of t i t l e pages - st u f f l i k e that so she encourages us to use our drawing... Right now we're doing i n language arts -English we're doing a newspaper project and I think there's four or f i v e d i f f e r e n t drawings we have to do and i n French we've just done t i t l e pages and I think we've done three or four t h i s year...Well, for s o c i a l science we have to do a t i t l e page for a l l of our d i f f e r e n t units and we get marked on those. We have journals that we draw i n every once i n a while... Right now i n language arts and English we are doing newspaper type ad and we have to draw pictures for that. That concerns the books that we are reading...We talked about the Group of Seven a couple of times i n s o c i a l science... that i n math when in art she taught us about making something look smaller i t helps out i n math when you have to reduce something. 106 DESCRIPTION OF CLASS VISITS This section w i l l describe two representational classroom experiences from Lakeview and from Riverside. The intention i s to help the reader gain a sense of the atmosphere i n each of the classes. In a l l , s i x classes were v i s i t e d , three at Lakeview and three at Riverside. Classes observed at Lakeview were; a language arts class, i n which students were working independently on the children's book project described e a r l i e r , although other independent a c t i v i t i e s were also occurring simultaneously; an art class, including a demonstration of a s t e n c i l and pattern technique using chalk pastel; and an art class i n which students worked independently at various work stations. The classes observed at Riverside included; a ceramics class with a demonstration of techniques by the teacher; a class i n which students worked independently on linoleum block p r i n t i n g ; and a class i n which students worked independently with clay. The l a t e r class was divided into two groups for the ceramics class. The second group worked on a logo assignment i n the l i b r a r y . This a c t i v i t y was also v i s i t e d . Two classes from each of the schools has been selected for f u l l description on the basis of s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s for the sake of comparison. Lakeview - Class V i s i t #1 It i s a sunny afternoon i n early A p r i l . The art room i s bright and the windows open. It i s the l a s t class of the day. 107 As the home room class leaves, another group of students begins to congregate i n the h a l l outside. There i s laughter and some commotion as they organize themselves into a l i n e . This group i s coming i n for t h e i r art c l a s s . Before they are allowed to enter, Chris asks these students which art s t a t i o n they are working at and what i t i s they w i l l be doing for the period. As they explain t h e i r a c t i v i t y they enter the room. One or two who are not prepared go to the end of the l i n e to further consider t h e i r a c t i v i t y for the period. The conversations between students and Chris are b r i e f and to the point. The whole process takes less than f i v e minutes. There i s some other a l t e r c a t i o n i n the h a l l and Chris goes to see what i t i s . Once the students have stated t h e i r case they go to work, some more slowly than others. They know where to f i n d materials and equipment. Several students go immediately to the computer stations. Three students situate themselves together at a group of desks and work on a pattern project with India ink. Another group of students work with clay. One student asks another to wear her rings while she does clay. Everyone i s s e t t l e d and working within a few minutes. Meanwhile, Chris has gone out to see i f his home room class got to where they were supposed to be. The teacher who was to pick them up didn't a r r i v e . Students do not move between classes without supervision. When Chris returns to class, help i s given to a student working with India ink. One 108 student comes i n late and Chris asks what the student w i l l be working on. Chris then turns back to the f i r s t student, "Now draw your g r i d . It's going to look cool. It's going to look r e a l l y neat." The class i s f a i r l y busy working. There are many a c t i v i t i e s occurring simultaneously. Students t a l k about t h i s and that while working on t h e i r projects. Those working at the computers are quieter. One student asks another, "Did you scan that i n Darryl?" Chris sips on a can of pop. Students approach Chris for various things from water cans to keys for opening cupboards. Chris sends the students to appropriate places to f i n d various equipment. Generally, students are working on t h e i r own. Chris waits for students to come to him for help. Later Chris wanders around the computer graphics stations approving of students' work. A couple of students require assistance and Chris helps them. Students are only allowed to scan o r i g i n a l work into the computer to p r i n t out. Chris adds water to the f i s h tank. One student exclaims, "Mr. Chris! I'm done! What can I do?" Chris makes suggestions such as, clay, India ink and so on, but the student r e p l i e s that a l l of those things have already been done. Chris asks the student i f there i s something else they would l i k e to t r y . The student wants to watch the video disk and goes ahead. Some students are just not working. 109 Another teacher comes into the classroom, but there i s too much a c t i v i t y for Chris to conduct a conversation at t h i s point. The other teacher leaves and w i l l return a f t e r c l a s s . The students working with clay are producing containers with the slab and c o i l technique. This i s an energetic group, yet one student seems to be making clay slab containers for everyone else. The other students are asking t h i s student to make th e i r s for them. Towards the end of the class students become more rambunctious. It's Friday. Some students, however, work right through the 8 0 minute period. Ten minutes before the end of class Chris announces clean up. The students clean up r e l a t i v e l y e f f i c i e n t l y . Most know where equipment and materials are stored. Chris encourages, "Come on clay guys! You've s t i l l got l o t s of s t u f f to put away." Chris goes over to the group to help them clean up, further exclaiming to a group of non-participants, "Clay guys, get over here, you've got clay a l l over the f l o o r and a l l over the desk." They respond by sharing the work. As students f i n i s h cleaning up they s i t down waiting for the b e l l to ring. Chris i n s t r u c t s three students to take t h e i r seats. Students who are f i n i s h e d cleaning up are dismissed one or two at a time. Chris r e c a l l s a couple to s l i d e t h e i r chairs under the desk. The rest of the students shove t h e i r chairs under t h e i r desks and leave as the b e l l rings. Lakeview - Class V i s i t #2 110 I a r r i v e at 8:15 am. Class t h i s morning begins at 8:30. Chris i s t a l k i n g to another s t a f f member. Students are a r r i v i n g . Chris turns to a student and says, "Throw the gum out. It was a joke yesterday, but i t ' s gone too f a r . Happens again - you're out". Then to the class, "Clean your desks right o f f " . Chris informs me that today there w i l l be a formal design lesson on s t e n c i l l i n g . In the h a l l one student with a f r i e n d l y smile, asks me i f I'm coming i n again today. Seems as though I've been accepted into the classroom. From near by: "Kris, K r i s ! You t o l d Laura that I l i k e d her?! Anyways, I don't l i k e her". Some furniture and equipment i n the classroom has been moved around. The computers are arranged d i f f e r e n t l y . L i t t l e cards, coloured construction paper and boxes of pastels are arranged on the teachers desk. Chris walks around the room asking students to clear t h e i r desks. The national anthem and announcements can be heard i n the h a l l . The classroom PA system i s down. The class s i t s q u i e t l y waiting. Someone comes to the door. Apparently the format for t h i s afternoon's assembly has been changed unexpectedly. Chris i s disappointed. Chris l a t e r explains to me that the agenda for the assembly i s to have students from a l l grades gather to show each other t h e i r choice of work from the year. Each student w i l l speak for half a minute or so about what they have been doing to share ideas across grade l e v e l s . I l l Chris s t a r t s the demonstration. They are making a small s t e n c i l about 3 x 3 inches. Chris says, "Okay. If i t works, i f you do i t right, y o u ' l l have unique designs". Chris shows them how to f o l d the paper and cut the design, i n s t r u c t i n g them to keep i t simple. Then open up the design. Chris goes through the various steps for them, using chalk pastel to transfer the pattern, creating a couple of examples. The demonstration i s short. Chris then moves around the room handing out the s t e n c i l paper, then c a l l s one student from each group of tables to come get sci s s o r s . Chris says, "Now the deal i s - hold on before we s t a r t . Do a good job. I ' l l l e t you do a bigger one on a large sheet of paper". Chris then gives l a s t minute hints, "You might want to make two or three. Stenc i l s are f r a g i l e . You might want to make a back up". Chris then walks around the room helping students create t h e i r design and continues the tour handing out chalk pastels. One student says, "I want chalk." Another talks to himself, "If t h i s gets screwed up...I did i t r i g h t ! I did i t r i g h t ! I did i t r i g h t ! " Chris explains to me that t h i s was a l a s t minute sort of lesson and shows me the o r i g i n a l plan. They were going to be making masks from paper plates, but there were no paper plates. Chris goes over to help a special student i n from another class. This student i s much younger than t h i s class, but i s working at much higher l e v e l s than other students his age. This student attends art classes with the grade 8's. 112 Students continue to work away at t h e i r s t e n c i l s . It does not take long for them to sta r t with the pastels. They are working away. The patterns are straight forward r e p e t i t i o n i n straight rows. One or two students have developed a clever colour scheme, blending the pastel. Chris wanders around the room occasionally, commenting on progress. Chris attends to other work. I go to the l i b r a r y to interview students while the video camera runs. Upon my return Chris i s gathering f i n i s h e d pattern pieces on a table near the door. They are being sprayed with a non-smudge matt f i n i s h . Students are fascinated by t h i s procedure. Soon the table i s covered with c o l o u r f u l patterns. Chris w i l l display them l a t e r . Students clean up as they f i n i s h , wiping tables and putting pastels back i n boxes. A couple of students are asked to c o l l e c t up a l l the sci s s o r s . Eventually a l l the materials and equipment are returned to the teacher's desk. As the students leave, Chris puts equipment back into drawers. Riverside - Class V i s i t #1 At 12:55 students s t a r t a r r i v i n g for t h e i r afternoon art class. There i s much commotion and chatter a f t e r lunch. Pat i s s p l i t t i n g the class t h i s afternoon. Some of the students w i l l be working i n the l i b r a r y on a logo assignment, while the others are introduced to a ceramic project. Pat writes the names of those students who w i l l be staying for clay work on the board. As the others enter they are instructed to meet i n 113 the l i b r a r y . Two students are late and quickly get themselves s e t t l e d while the class waits. This i s the f i r s t time I have met t h i s class and I introduce myself. They are a f r i e n d l y bunch and don't seem to mind my being there at a l l . Pat sta r t s her demonstration of hand building techniques for ceramics. The assignment i s to bu i l d a mug using a mold. Pat gives a very d e t a i l e d demonstration. The work area i s r e f l e c t e d from a large demonstration mirror so students have no d i f f i c u l t y i n seeing the correct procedure. As Pat proceeds with her demonstration she outlines expectations of proper handling of clay and behaviour when working with clay. Pat t e l l s her students to keep the clay moist but not wet and introduces terminology such as, "slab", "score" and " s l i p " . Pat shows the students how to make a cylinder around a bott l e using newspaper as a l i n e r , so that the clay w i l l come off the mold. Pat works away, a l l the while t e l l i n g the students to watch out for t h i s , that and t h i s . Students watch Pat's every move with great i n t e r e s t . There i s l i t t l e conversation during the demonstration. As Pat begins jo i n i n g clay pieces the process becomes somewhat messier. Students jabber, "ew, messy, can you use a brush?" Others make puns about " s l i p - slime" as Pat completes the container. When the demonstration i s fi n i s h e d one student comments, "That's what you do i f you want to make one of 114 those", meaning, what i f you want to make something else. Pat says, "Make a container and then y o u ' l l have a chance to make something else". Pat shows examples of containers from previous classes, pointing out texture, handles, ornamentation and other d e t a i l s . Another student asks, "Do we have to make a container?" Pat doesn't respond to the question, having already given the answer. The students are anxious to s t a r t . Pat says, " S i t down please. We're almost ready to s t a r t " . Before they get underway Pat talks about the clean up. This w i l l prove to be a very organized process. There i s a l i s t of materials on the board and a check l i s t as to who w i l l be responsible for cleaning up what equipment. The students get started bringing water containers and boards to t h e i r tables. It i s 20 minutes into the period. Pat, surrounded by students, cuts clay for them. A l i t t l e ruckus erupts: "'Scuse me, don't touch my clay!" "Get l o s t ! " "Get outta here!" Pat merely goes, "Shh" and the problem subsides into murmurs: " T e l l him to get out of here". "Don't touch me. Don't touch anybody". Pat reminds the g i r l s , " G i r l s ! i f you're wearing rings, take them o f f ! I forgot to announce that". One boy complains, "I don't want to make t h i s " . Generally everyone i s working away at something. It i s a busy room. Pat opens the k i l n room for a student who had started work, but was away and hadn't f i n i s h e d his project. 115 Pat moves around the room i n s t r u c t i n g the class, t a l k i n g about the mold and how to apply the paper, showing t h i s student and that how to do various things. Pat continues monitoring progress, t e l l i n g me that soon set up for the next class -printmaking - w i l l begin on an unused table while these students are busy working. A student c a l l s to Pat. Pat goes over to help. Afte r f i n i s h i n g there Pat moves to help another student. Someone else says, "I need to get into the k i l n room again". Pat i s busy with students. Needless to say the l i n o equipment i s not being set up. Everyone i s working well except a couple of students who seem to require a l o t of Pat's attention. At 1:30 I go down to the l i b r a r y to see what the other half of the class i s doing. They are working on a logo project. The l i b r a r i a n i s busy somewhere i n the back room when I enter. Upon her return she goes around to the,students to see how they are doing, commenting, "Make sure you think about the positive/negative aspect you've discussed i n a r t " . Students are working at round tables. In front of them are an assortment of magazines, pencil crayons, glue s t i c k s , scissors and work sheets. The l i b r a r i a n moves from table to table, bringing examples. This i s the s t a r t up a c t i v i t y for the logo assignment. Students are answering a question sheet analyzing various advertisements and logos. 116 Most students are on topic. One table of students i s t a l k i n g about mothers. The l i b r a r i a n walks over and says, "I want t h i s table to define "logo"". A couple of students are working away independently, but most are working i n groups. The l i b r a r i a n returns to the table who were t a l k i n g about mothers. She says, "The word water stands out. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t about that?" She then resumes her tour of the other groups inst r u c t i n g , "If you're ready to move on to the next part, you need to f i n d 5 logos. Three you need to cut and paste. The l a s t two you must draw. Draw a logo which i s easy to copy with a pencil as accurately as you can". A l l of t h i s work i s being done on work sheets i n the form of a l i t t l e booklet. The assignment i s very structured. The students are also required to comment beside each of the logos they glue in, why they think that i t i s e f f e c t i v e . I return to the clay a c t i v i t y at 1:45. Some students have fin i s h e d t h e i r container. The work looks well executed. T y p i c a l l y some students' work i s more successful than others. Its time to st a r t cleaning up as students f i n i s h t h e i r work. A couple of them come over to me and ask me i n more d e t a i l what I am doing v i s i t i n g t h e i r classroom. I explain a l i t t l e . Everyone i s happily cleaning up, washing t h e i r hands. Two g i r l s come over to t e l l me about t h e i r French class and the teacher. Pat i s counting out equipment, making sure everything i s i n order. A group of students come over to see what I am writing so, I read some of my notes to them. 117 Near the end of class an announcement from the p r i n c i p a l breaks into the hubbub. There has been some damage to the school and the consequences w i l l be serious. The announcement ends and Pat says, "Wait! Let's see the room. Good. You did a nice job today. Thank you very much." Riverside - Class V i s i t #2 This i s the l a s t class of the day on a sunny afternoon i n May. The windows are open and birds can be heard outdoors. Students st a r t a r r i v i n g f or class just a f t e r two o'clock. They congregate around the video camera I am taping with. Pat asks everyone to s i t down and to s e t t l e down then looks around the room to see that everyone i s there. Pat asks a student to, " S i t down please" and another, "Melissa, f i n d a stool and s i t on i t , please", then, "Attention up here, please". Pat reminds the students about the p r i n t i n g procedures that they w i l l be continuing with t h i s period. They need to set up everything f i r s t . Pat also reviews the various p r i n t i n g patterns they may use, saying that now they have a l l t r i e d the wall paper pattern they should do a brick or drop pattern and that they should do some p r i n t i n g on coloured paper today, not just on white. Pat stops at one point to exclaim, "I f e e l as though I am shouting because other people are t a l k i n g ! " and waits for the class to refocus on what i s being said. Students l i t e r a l l y dive into work when Pat i s fi n i s h e d speaking. Within two minutes newspaper i s spread on the 118 f l o o r . Two inking stations, on a group of four desks at opposite sides of the classroom, have been set up by Pat. There are red and blue ink at one p r i n t i n g s t a t i o n and yellow and green at the other. The paper i s on the front counter, while the actual p r i n t i n g takes place on the f l o o r around the room. Students ink t h e i r linoleum blocks and p r i n t i n g begins. One or two students are s t i l l cutting t h e i r l i n o design. One student was asked to leave the room for f o o l i n g around. They are i n the h a l l for time out. The rest of the class i s on task and moving fast. A couple of students c a l l , "Mrs. Pat!, Mrs. Pat!" Pat i s busy elsewhere and doesn't respond. Somehow the problem i s resolved without help. One student has made a mistake and Pat goes over, saying, "Oh well, these things happen. Do you want to st a r t again?" Other students ask "Where's the paper Mrs. Pat.?" and "Mrs. Pat! I have a question!" Pat hurries over to answer. Another student wants to pr i n t with white ink. The student who was asked to leave reenters and sta r t s to work. Students have glued t h e i r linoleum to wooden blocks. They pr i n t by f i r s t inking the block, placing i t i n the desired spot, then stand on the back of the block to get a clear, even p r i n t . The room i s f u l l of students balancing on one foot. There i s l o t s of a c t i v i t y and conversation while everyone works away. Students are excited and chattering about colour schemes and patterns. One student asks another, 119 "Does the purple and yellow look okay?" and i s answered "Ya, i t looks nice. Nice texture on there". Pat tours the room and monitors progress, giving instructions while the class i s working. "Grade eights! A l l you need i s a t h i n layer of ink! Just a t h i n layer!" and, "Jamie, w i l l you show so and so how to work with two colours please?" One student instructs another. Pat goes on, "Robin, you might be better o f f just t r y i n g one colour u n t i l you get used to p r i n t i n g " and exclaims, "Katherine! Katherine! There's l o t s of ink there! What are you doing?!" Some students are behind the rest. Pat asks i f they would l i k e to come i n at lunch to catch up, t e l l i n g them that the door w i l l be l e f t open for them. Students joke with Pat. One student i s tapping a l i n o cutter incessantly. Pat goes over and asks, "Are you nervous?" The tapping stops and the l i n o cutter i s put down. Pat s i t s down and begins to devise a check l i s t to organize who w i l l clean up what areas. This takes about one minute. Pat then writes on the board the items to be cleaned. Beside each, the name of the student responsible for that area i s written. Students begin to respond to the instructions on the board. "Amy! Amy! You got the f l o o r ! " , with the unenthusiastic response, "I know. I can't believe i t s back to me again". Twenty minutes before the end of class some students are already s t a r t i n g to clean up. They have stopped p r i n t i n g 120 early. Prints begin to appear on the drying rack. Pat announces who w i l l be cleaning which areas and continues to t r a v e l around the room asking that t h i s and that be done and helps i n the process. Students who are f i n i s h e d are s i t t i n g i n small groups around the room chatting. Others are watching the clean up process. Clean up i s chaotic. Trouble s t a r t s brewing as there are many students f i n i s h e d for the day. There are a few students horsing around. Two students are asked to leave for f o o l i n g around. Pat scolds a student for playing tag. "You do not play tag i n t h i s room!" Then, " a l l right people, stools on the table". The students l i n e up at the door and wait for the b e l l to r i n g . There are a couple of students s t i l l at the sink. Then they are a l l gone. 121 CHAPTER FIVE INTERPRETATION This chapter sets out to assimilate the information presented thus far. S p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l discuss the implications of the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d s t y l e of teaching compared with that of the integrated program, for teachers and for students, i n terms of the s t r u c t u r a l , i n t e n t i o n a l , c u r r i c u l a r and evaluative dimensions of schooling (Eisner, 1991) . In order to do t h i s , the art programs from each of Riverside and Lakeview have been placed into Fogarty's (1991) curriculum integration chart, discussed i n Chapter Two and found i n Table 1. Secondly, the schools w i l l be compared i n terms of the categories which have emerged throughout the study (Spradley, 1979). This chapter w i l l conclude with commentary about integrative practices based upon t h i s study as i t relates to my experience and to current l i t e r a t u r e . At t h i s point I would l i k e to remind the reader about my role i n t h i s research. This i s a descriptive study based upon personal observation and data c o l l e c t i o n and further interpreted through the eyes of the researcher (Guba & Lincoln, 1985). Eisner's (1991) model of educational connoisseurship helped to established the framework for t h i s research and formulate the research questions, while Spradley's (1979) ethnographic procedure and interviewing techniques guided the description, analysis. This s t y l e of 122 interpretation requires that the researcher be f a m i l i a r with s i m i l a r situations as those being studied (Eisner, 1991). This type of work also requires a t a c i t way of knowing, recently recognized i n q u a l i t a t i v e research c i r c l e s as a v a l i d form of knowledge (Tesch, 1990). For my part, I have been teaching v i s u a l art and dramatic art for nine years at the high school l e v e l . I have also acted as head of creative arts for four of those years. The following comments are based e s s e n t i a l l y upon what I have observed during t h i s study, tempered by what I know from working i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Further, the informants i n each case study are as unique as the schools i n which they teach. Since we are also seeing the s i t u a t i o n through t h e i r eyes, t h i s study i s dependent upon t h e i r interpretations of and responses to questions and situations. For the purpose of analysis, i t i s imperative for researcher and reader to be cognisant of t h e i r reference points. When comparing programs i t i s also necessary to consider the individuals d e l i v e r i n g them (Spradley, 1979). F i n a l l y , t h i s analysis w i l l not reach answers cut i n stone. Readers are i n v i t e d to draw t h e i r own conclusions based upon t h e i r experience. Thus, the reader becomes as much part of t h i s commentary as I. Fogarty's Integration Categories One of the discoveries of t h i s study are the ways i n which the art program at Riverside, i n i t i a l l y l a b e l l e d the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d school, had both integrated and subject-123 oriented features as did Lakeview. In Table 2 the programs are compared using Fogarty's (1991) forms of integration model. For each of Lakeview and Riverside examples are included. From t h i s chart we can see that i n fact the program at Riverside i s i n many ways si m i l a r to what was c a l l e d the integrated program at Lakeview. Although both schools show integrative practices, for the purpose of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n I w i l l continue to r e f e r to Lakeview as having the integrated program and Riverside the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d . So, i n both schools there i s evidence of various forms and degrees of integration. At the same time, i t i s apparent that knowledge cannot be integrated without f i r s t a d i s c i p l i n e orientation towards the subject matter. The type of integration occurring depends upon where and how the emphasis i s placed. Chris, at Lakeview i s consciously making i n roads towards integrative programming through the core curriculum and the use of technology. Nonetheless, integrative practices at Riverside also e x i s t . At Riverside integration seems to be a natural outcome of good teaching practices. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Teacher and School P r o f i l e Pat, the teacher at Riverside, was trained and experienced within the t r a d i t i o n a l subject-oriented s t y l e of schooling. After many years of teaching, Pat took an extended 124 TABLE 2 Comparison of I n t e g r a t e d P r a c t i c e s a t Lakeview and R i v e r s i d e Type of Integration Lakeview Riverside Fragmented separate, distinct subject areas Yes isolated Ar t classes (pattern assignment) Yes isolated Ar t classes (clay lesson) Connected within each subject area ideas are explicitly related Yes cartooning, story board computer animation Yes action figure stencil repetition movement Nested multiple skills are targeted (i.e. social and thinking skills) within each subject area Yes independent learners organization skills social skills, problem solving Yes social skills problem solving Sequenced ideas are taught in concert while remaining separate subject areas Yes Social Science - City Plan Visual Ar t - City Logo Yes Social Science - Famous Canadians Visual Ar t - Group of Seven Shared overlap ideas between subjects through shared planning and teaching No (Incidentally with Music through rhythm and harmony) No (Plans for shared textile design/ pattern unit with Family . Studies) Webbed various subjects use a theme to explore ideas Yes Famous Canadians City planning Yes Northern Peoples Famous Canadians Threaded metacurricular approach threads skills through various subjects Yes use of technology problem solving independent learning skills No Integrated interdisciplinary approach overlaps various subjects No No Immersed all content is filtered through a lens of expertise Some (some evidence through individual student's animation) No Networked learner makes internal connections leading to external networks of experts Some (some evidence through the use of technology) No 125 leave and returned to the profession three years p r i o r to t h i s study. Pat was therefore bringing back to the classroom a t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d s t y l e , i n terms of both program content and delivery. Chris, on the other hand, was newer to the profession with less than 5 years experience, trained i n recent program delivery styles, such as, co-operative group learning. Chris was posted at Lakeview to open a new school. His recent t r a i n i n g matched the goals and v i s i o n for the school. In contrast, Riverside was a well established school i n operation for over 20 years. Pat's background and art t r a i n i n g f i t the school as well. Pat was brought into the school to give structure and d i r e c t i o n to the art program along t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s . Chris was brought i n to e s t a b l i s h c u r r i c u l a r integration including art using the l a t e s t concepts. At Lakeview, Chris was a generalist teacher with inte r e s t i n art and computers. Knowledge of computers allowed the integration of t h i s technology. Art and technology could then be infused into other subject areas. At Riverside, Pat was a subject s p e c i a l i s t teacher trained i n a r t . In many ways the teacher of a program determines the curriculum through personal knowledge and teaching s t y l e (Gray & MacGregor, 1990). It occurs to me that the program at Lakeview would have been quite d i f f e r e n t with the art 126 expertise of Pat. Likewise, Chris may have infused the program at Riverside with technological features. Structural Dimension of Schooling Program Schedule Lakeview had art classes scheduled into 80 minute blocks of time once i n six days. Students were also with a home form generalist teacher for 75% of the time, i n which integrative practices, including art, were encouraged. Within the home form teachers had the option of using the art room i f required. However, there was not much evidence that t h i s occurred. Students i n Chris's home form had the advantage of working i n the art room with access to the graphics computers. Chris included art i n the core curriculum, yet t h i s was lim i t e d to creating images. At Riverside, the students followed a f u l l r o t a t i o n a l schedule with art work being created i n other classes as well. At neither school, however, did art i n s t r u c t i o n take place outside the art class. Teachers i n both schools have the opportunity to use the time allocated i n f l e x i b l e ways. The home room class at Lakeview could be divided as the teacher saw f i t . At Riverside, Pat decided to s p l i t an art class, having them work on two projects simultaneously. Lakeview of f e r s art once i n a s i x day r o t a t i o n a l cycle throughout the year. At Riverside, students take art every second day for half the year. Therefore, i n terms of time for 127 art i n s t r u c t i o n , students receive approximately the same amount. However, frequent exposure to art a c t i v i t y appears to eff e c t the student's engagement with the a c t i v i t y : more frequency drives the program forward. At Riverside, students become enthusiastic about seeing projects, which have been developed over a period of time, come to completion. At Lakeview, art classes were few and f a r between. Also, projects were often completed i n one period. An art assignment which could not be completed i n a single class session often took weeks to f i n i s h due to the infrequency of art classes. Students did not seem to have the same drive to see t h e i r projects f i n i s h e d which negatively affected the q u a l i t y of t h e i r work. A stated goal for both schools was to have students see art as part of t h e i r every day l i f e . There i s evidence that students at Riverside were aware of art around them because of the frequency and i n t e n s i t y of the art program. At Lakeview, on the other hand, students r a r e l y discussed art outside the classroom. Experiencing "art" for an hour a week did not help students see the connections intended. The programs at both schools were structured around a s p e c i f i c time for learning about art, r e i n f o r c i n g the notion that integration cannot occur without p r i o r knowledge of the s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . Through art at Lakeview, e x p l i c i t connections were to be made with other areas of the curriculum. There was l i t t l e evidence that t h i s was occurring 128 to any greater degree than at Riverside. More w i l l be said about t h i s i n the section on the c u r r i c u l a r dimension of schooling. From the observations made, there i s no apparent need to r a d i c a l l y modify a school timetable, schedule or structure i n order to accommodate integrative practices. There are many p o s s i b i l i t i e s and opportunities for c u r r i c u l a r integration i n terms of time and scheduling within a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program. The Intentional Dimension of Schooling This section w i l l discuss findings from both schools i n terms of the intentional dimension of schooling. The use of guidelines and the aims and goals of the teachers and t h e i r programs w i l l be compared with regard to s k i l l s development and relevance. Use of Guidelines Both Chris and Pat adapted guidelines to s u i t personal needs and intentions. Pat used guidelines i n close consultation with a board advisor. At Lakeview, Chris used s p e c i f i c lessons from board guidelines i n t e r m i t t e n t l y throughout the program. Pat included formal art appreciation and art c r i t i c i s m components. This was evident from the student's knowledge of Canadian art history, vocabulary of art terms and elements and pr i n c i p l e s of design. While Pat's program remained t r a d i t i o n a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l concerns were incorporated 129 into the program. Chris, on the other hand, did not formally teach art appreciation or c r i t i c i s m i n art class, while believing students acquired t h i s knowledge merely through working with famous art works. Students here did not have art vocabulary at t h e i r finger t i p s . Chris did, however, infuse the curriculum with s i g n i f i c a n t technological components through computer graphics and video. Aims and Goals The art programs at Lakeview and Riverside have s i m i l a r aims and goals, yet t h e i r programs are b u i l t from d i s t i n c t points of view. Chris and Pat wanted students to enjoy art, but not see i t a f r i v o l o u s . They wanted to teach t h e i r students cert a i n s k i l l s . . They wanted students to see the connections between art and other subjects and they wanted t h e i r programs to have relevance to the l i v e s of t h e i r students now and for the future. At the same time, there was a d i s t i n c t difference i n the emphasis placed on various aspects of t h e i r programs. The following discussion w i l l outline the esse n t i a l differences i n intention. The notion of art s k i l l s and relevance were interpreted d i f f e r e n t l y i n the two programs. Pat focused on exposing students to the many materials and techniques s p e c i f i c and unique to art, recognizing art for art's sake. Pat wanted to teach students something about art. This stands to reason since Pat was coming from a subject-oriented premise. Chris, on the other hand, focused on the development of computer art 130 s k i l l s . Technological art s k i l l s were of importance for t h e i r use i n other areas, both academic and i n the r e a l world. Chris did not t a l k about teaching art for i t s own sake. To Pat, relevance e s s e n t i a l l y concerned the general aesthetic q u a l i t y of l i f e . As a person becomes involved i n art, i t becomes part of t h e i r point of reference. Thus, the application of the lessons of art become a natural part of l i f e . At Lakeview t h i s did not occur because Chris did not have the same art background and t r a i n i n g as Pat. Chris's program was very p r a c t i c a l l y oriented. The focus was placed on students becoming computer l i t e r a t e i n order to use computer generated art work i n other subjects and i n the world of work. Interestingly, we see that the manifest aims and goals of both art programs f i t d e f i n i t i o n s of integration as set out by Case (1991) and Fogarty (1991), a l b e i t the emphasis i s d i f f e r e n t i n each. In fact, the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d approach, while a more e f f e c t i v e way of teaching art, also had pot e n t i a l for deep integration of ideas i n the sense that the students become immersed i n the subject. This immersion allows art to become part of the students frame of reference on various leve l s transforming t h e i r view of the world either consciously or unconsciously or both. The subject-oriented approach developed i n students a t a c i t awareness of the essence of art which permeated t h e i r l i v e s (Phenix, 1971, Polyani, 1967). 131 Granted, t h i s was an e s s e n t i a l l y intangible and unmeasurable type of integration, yet i t i s infe r r e d that a l l experience i s connected. Chris, on the other hand, was coming from a p r a c t i c a l , tangible point of view. Aims and goals were c l e a r l y defined and implemented towards integrating technology into the program so that art may become useful i n other areas of the curriculum. Students were not immersed i n the subject of art i n the same way as at Lakeview. Jacobs (1989) has pointed out that the teacher's philosophy w i l l become evident i n program emphasis. The essential differences i n the propensity and personal values of Chris and Pat effected t h e i r intentions and subsequently determined the contrasting program focus. The next section w i l l discuss the manifestation of c u r r i c u l a r integration through program delivery. Curricular Dimension of Schooling This section w i l l compare the c u r r i c u l a r dimension of schooling (Eisner, 1991) discussing, program content and development, art projects, art history and appreciation, teacher role, classroom management and the art f a c i l i t y i t s e l f . Program and Development The art programs at Lakeview and Riverside were both media driven. At Lakeview the program was arranged around various work stations, such as, India ink, ceramics or 132 computer graphics. Short exercises or assignments, for instance, s t e n c i l patterning would be incorporated from time to time. Groups of students were expected to work independently, rotating through the art stations. At Riverside, extended art units were developed around art concepts including the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design and introducing techniques, such as, ceramics and p r i n t making. At Lakeview, Chris incorporated a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of computer art and video technology into the program. Students were computer l i t e r a t e . These s k i l l s then augmented other areas of the curriculum. Chris saw the use of the computer i n art as the integration of technology with c r o s s - c u r r i c u l a r benefits. Nonetheless, given the equipment, computer graphic s k i l l s could also be included i n a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program. As Chris stated, the computer was just another drawing t o o l . In a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program the use of t h i s " t o o l " for image manipulation would be enhanced since the emphasis would f i r s t be placed on the elements of a r t . Students would have the double advantage of art t r a i n i n g married to technological t r a i n i n g . At Lakeview technology had been introduced at the expense of fine art concepts. Chris taught computer art s k i l l s f or the purpose of using t h i s knowledge i n other areas. The program did not have an art s k i l l s focus, but a computer s k i l l s focus. 133 Computer art was used as a hook to get students interested i n art. It was a novelty and a commercial approach for students who enjoyed watching t h e i r pictures move. Nonetheless, at Lakeview, computers were purposefully used to bring students together to problem solve. In t h i s way s o c i a l and problem solving s k i l l s were "threaded" into the curriculum. Art Projects The art projects at Riverside were well developed. Due to Pat's guidance, projects were also well executed by the students r e s u l t i n g i n sophisticated art work. For instance, through the extensive sport figure drawing unit, students explored l i n e and s t e n c i l l i n g , to achieve r e p e t i t i o n , and water colour and India ink techniques, to get a sense of movement. Thus, these design p r i n c i p l e s were introduced. At Riverside, students were engaged i n t h i s project over a period of time. S i m i l a r l y , they developed an in-depth understanding of pattern through the medium and method of linoleum block pr i n t making. In other words, the art a c t i v i t y propelled a r t i s t i c learning. In contrast, at Lakeview, the design concept of pattern was taught through i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . In one, the students developed a sc a f f o l d i n g or g r i d i n pencil on 8 x 11 inch white paper, patterned the g r i d into geometric shapes, then f i l l e d segments i n with India ink. (It would also seem that a lesson about p o s i t i v e and negative space could be derived from t h i s 134 a c t i v i t y . ) Another pattern assignment involved s t e n c i l l i n g using a 3 x 3 inch paper square, fol d i n g i t to cut a motif and using chalk pastel to create a pattern on 8 x 11 inch coloured construction paper. The India ink assignment was executed as one of the art station projects. The s t e n c i l motif was an isolated, one lesson art a c t i v i t y . The clay unit at Riverside was also extended over a period of time, producing well developed r e s u l t s . At Lakeview, ceramics were explored by students as part of t h e i r rotation through the art stations. A l l of t h i s by way of saying, the art projects at Riverside were elaborate and c l o s e l y monitored by the teacher. Student projects at Lakeview were often only one period i n duration. This was p a r t l y due to scheduling, since students would not return to the art room for six days. The d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d art program offered sophisticated fine art projects. At Lakeview opportunities for image making on computer were included, while other art a c t i v i t i e s were more or less exploratory i n nature. Art History and Appreciation At Riverside, Pat included a formal art appreciation and art c r i t i c i s m component, which was associated with studio projects whenever possible. F i e l d t r i p s and formal t e s t i n g at Riverside also tended to emphasize and reinforce the appreciation and art h i s t o r i c a l aspects of the course. 135 The approach towards art appreciation or art hi s t o r y at Lakeview was towards student discovery. For instance, i t was expected that, as a student copied a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t ' s work i n the studio component of the program, they would be motivated, as independent, curious learners, to also do some research into the p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t they copied. I did not see much evidence of t h i s occurring. In the teacher directed program at Riverside, students knew about a v a r i e t y of Canadian a r t i s t s . Students at Lakeview knew only the p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t with which they were personally engaged. This difference was not su r p r i s i n g considering the premise of each of the programs. The d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program was concerned mainly with teaching students about art, while the focus of the program at Lakeview was towards developing independent, s e l f - d i r e c t e d learners. Interestingly, the students at Riverside seemed more motivated and open to art history, having been exposed to art appreciation over time. Teacher Role and Program Delivery - Riverside Riverside delivered a strong art education program. Students there received continuous, in-depth art i n s t r u c t i o n . The program was structured and teacher directed, consistent with Pat's stated aims. At Riverside, Pat's role was that of art i n s t r u c t o r challenging students to work i n creative ways with the ideas presented. Pat then followed up with each student, guiding t h e i r progress. 136 The process at Riverside involved consistent art teaching, demonstration and explanation. Therefore, the production and q u a l i t y of work was high. Art terms, tools and techniques were written on the blackboard for constant reference throughout projects. With a l l students focused, each class began with new instructions or a recap of the lesson or a c t i v i t y before. Once the a c t i v i t y had started students worked independently. Pat moved around the room attending to those students i n need of assistance. When students were fini s h e d a project ahead of the class they worked on teacher prepared study or exercise booklets. Students at Riverside engaged i n each project as a c l a s s . Pat, therefore monitored a uniform a c t i v i t y . Moving as a unit, students had many opportunities for dialogue about projects, among themselves and with the teacher. Therefore, there was a sense of community and camaraderie at Riverside. Everyone could see the progress of t h e i r peers, learn from each other, share ideas and help each other. It became apparent that stronger students were also available to help weaker classmates working on the same project. This was true i n the linoleum block p r i n t i n g experience when Pat asked a student to show another how something was done or to use another student's work as an example. When everyone was working on the same project i t was also easier to keep less focused students on task. 137 Since the Riverside program was teacher directed, every student had a chance to get on board and to stay on track. When a common problem was discovered Pat could stop the entire class to address the concern. For instance, a number of students were getting too much ink on t h e i r linoleum blocks and smearing i t u n t i l Pat pointed out the correct procedure for everyone. It was also apparent that classroom management became e f f i c i e n t with everyone focused on one a c t i v i t y with a cl e a r sense of d i r e c t i o n . Most of the time a l l of the students were working i n the same room on the same project. The exception was the s p l i t class where one half worked i n the l i b r a r y on a logo assignment while the other half worked on the ceramic project. This allowed for greater control of materials and more one on one teacher contact. To give general instructions, Pat talked to the entire class at once. It was quiet before directions were given ensuring that a l l students were able to hear and that they understood. Clean up was also organized by Pat who indicated which student would do what. Students at Riverside were happy and enthusiastic about t h e i r work. They were aware of exactly what was expected of them and f e l t confident and comfortable knowing what they were supposed to be doing. Knowing the parameters of an assignment encouraged t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y . These students enjoyed the freedom within each project to make choices and decisions. 138 When one student had a great idea or did something unique the entire class could benefit from the experience. Teacher Role and Program Delivery - Lakeview Es s e n t i a l l y , the program at Lakeview was based upon discovery. Students were i n i t i a l l y taught about the art medium and project or a c t i v i t y required for each art station. Students then completed a number of projects throughout the year based upon each of these stations. They also had the opportunity to develop an independent project. The majority of art ins t r u c t i o n , therefore, occurred early i n the year. Students were expected to work independently, with i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n from Chris, who acted as f a c i l i t a t o r when needed. Nonetheless, there were some structured art classes randomly interspersed throughout the year. In these cases a l l students were working on the same project. Isolated art lessons, such as the s t e n c i l pattern a c t i v i t y were taught, but not necessarily connected to work sta t i o n projects or to on going a c t i v i t i e s . At Lakeview students got most of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n near the beginning of the year. It was necessary for them to organize themselves to do each project, often having to remember the instructions given weeks before. While many of the work station projects were pr e s c r i p t i v e , students were also required to design an independent project based upon one or more of the stations. I question whether or not many of 139 these students were ready for such independent work since the scope, depth and execution of t h e i r projects seemed li m i t e d . Students were not only expected to remember s p e c i f i c directions for the projects required at each work station, but more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the proper handling of media and techniques often taught weeks or months before. I did not witness the ceramic instructions given, however, judging by the techniques being used, students needed a refresher. Only one student i n a group of seven knew how to handle the clay c o r r e c t l y . The rest were l i t e r a l l y experimenting with the material. At t h i s l e v e l perhaps i t was asking too much of students to r e c a l l exactly how to handle materials properly when directions were given so far i n advance. Detailed instructions needed to be repeated and reinforced. Lakeview students were l e f t more often to work, learn and discover on t h e i r own. Sometimes i t seemed as though these students were working i n a vacuum. Students seemed to need more d i r e c t i o n from t h e i r teacher and needed to exchange ideas with t h e i r peers i n order to inspire, encourage and nourish each other's creative e f f o r t s . At Lakeview sharing occurred i n small groups, but lacked momentum. S t i l l , within group situations students did f i n d opportunities to help each other. Students often worked on the computers together to solve problems, t h i s being the one a c t i v i t y that held everyone's attention. On the other hand, there was also a considerable amount of "group" work going on 140 at the ceramic station, not necessarily of the constructive kind, where one student was making everyone's mug. Many students were also working i n i s o l a t i o n . Chris wanted to develop independent, s e l f - s t a r t e r s who used t h e i r own ideas to develop projects. Therefore, Lakeview students were given instructions and then, for the most part, l e f t on t h e i r own to discover and rediscover. It often seemed as though they were reinventing the wheel i n a sink or swim si t u a t i o n . I suppose i f i t was the intention to t r a i n students to become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , t h i s was one way of doing i t . Only the most clever students, however, survived i n t h i s type of environment. It was also i n t e r e s t i n g to note that, while students at Lakeview are expected to be self-monitoring, they were also supervised by teachers as they moved between classes. Some students found i t d i f f i c u l t to get started on an a c t i v i t y or became e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d given such independence i n the art class. It seemed that more than a few students were getting l e f t behind. Many seemed a l i t t l e l o s t , o f f topic or were working slowly, not r e a l l y knowing what to do next. Students need time, tr a i n i n g , maturity and concrete i n s t r u c t i o n i n Art concepts and techniques i f they are to become independent learners meeting with success. It occurred to me that the independent thinking required of these students was beyond them at t h i s point since many of t h e i r ideas were 141 uninspired. For instance, many made a copy of a painting or a post card for t h e i r independent project because they could not think of anything else to do. The ceramic work was also undeveloped, consisting of the required mug and a few small sculptures. At the same time, those students who showed imagination and who could organize themselves produced r e s u l t s . For instance, one student was working on computer animation through a hypercard program, scanning and manipulating images and introducing sound. This same student also worked on a video piece using various camera t r i c k s . Another student grasped the idea of the independent project. Working with o r i g i n a l subject matter based upon a photograph, the student developed a drawing and then a water colour painting. It was int e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s student was schooled i n the UK up u n t i l the year of t h i s study. However, these students were the exception. Monitoring the many independent a c t i v i t i e s occurring simultaneously at Lakeview was demanding on Chris who was kept busy giving advice, s p e c i f i c instructions or service to p a r t i c u l a r students. Even clean up and dismissal were done on an i n d i v i d u a l basis. Chris was also continually switching gears since each a c t i v i t y was d i f f e r e n t . Further, i f Chris was not immediately available, the l i k e l i h o o d of a student getting behind or off topic was greater. This teaching 142 arrangement became t i r i n g for the teacher and d i f f i c u l t to maintain. Summary The following itemized summary c l a r i f i e s comparative highlights. 1. Lakeview and Riverside are s i m i l a r i n the intentions of t h e i r o v e r a l l program content, such as, Canadian art and basic design concepts, yet t h e i r i s a wide discrepancy i n the degree to which these are accomplished. 2. Art materials are s i m i l a r i n both schools. 3. Art projects vary i n complexity, Riverside having the more complex. 4. Art exercises at Lakeview are often unconnected, whereas at Riverside concepts are c l o s e l y related to studio projects. 5. Riverside o f f e r s in-depth development of each topic emphasizing correct use of art equipment, materials and techniques. 6. Art lessons and a c t i v i t i e s at Riverside are teacher directed where as Lakeview practices a combination of teacher-directed and student-generated projects. 7. Lakeview incorporates computer art and video technology. 8. At Lakeview students usually work independently i n small groups, while at Riverside, for the most part, the class works on projects together. 9. Implicit learning at Lakeview i s to work as an i n d i v i d u a l responsible for oneself. At Riverside i m p l i c i t learning i s 143 towards working as part of a larger community and i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y within the group. 10. Monitoring student a c t i v i t y at Riverside i s e f f i c i e n t since a l l students are working on a project simultaneously. 11. At Lakeview Chris f a c i l i t a t e s student progress. Pat gives more d i r e c t i o n . 12. At Lakeview Chris often waits for students to seek help, while at Riverside, Pat searches out students i n need. 13. Both Lakeview and Riverside programs are f l e x i b l e i n terms of adding or deleting a c t i v i t i e s , adapting to changing needs of students and teachers. 14. At Riverside, process and product are equally important, while at Lakeview the emphasis i s upon process. Teacher Collaboration In both schools scheduling for teacher collaboration was a challenge. Teachers needed to get together before or a f t e r school, at lunch or i n a prep period i f they wanted to work together. Even at Lakeview, where co-ordinating for c u r r i c u l a r integration was a focus, i t remained d i f f i c u l t to get teachers together. At the same time, at Lakeview generalist teachers taught core curriculum, therefore, i n order to co-ordinate ideas i t was not necessary to p h y s i c a l l y work with others. Once i n i t i a l decisions had been made, there was l i t t l e need to get together on an on-going basis. Sometimes, however, there was collaboration i n terms of shared f a c i l i t i e s . At Lakeview, 144 Chris also collaborated with other teachers i n terms of technology, being very involved with computers, computer graphics and video within the school. I came to learn l a t e r that Chris also conducted workshops for other teachers. If teachers at Riverside wished to co-ordinate subject matter i t was necessary for them to get together since they were a l l subject s p e c i a l i s t s . There were, therefore, collaborative e f f o r t s on an on-going basis around required units of work set out by cer t a i n board and ministry guidelines at the grade seven l e v e l . A p a r t i c u l a r teacher's s t y l e determines to what degree they work independently or with other teachers. At Riverside, Pat was an out going teacher who belonged to a small network, a c t i v e l y seeking to work with others. In fact, I worked with t h i s teacher on various committees. Pat also worked with the teacher i n the l i b r a r y . Art F a c i l i t y Art rooms at both Lakeview and Riverside housed much the same equipment, yet there was one s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two f a c i l i t i e s . At Riverside there was a room exclusively for a r t . No other classes took place there. It looked and f e l t l i k e an art room i n terms of equipment and supplies. Riverside had a separate k i l n room with storage space, various types and colours of paper were v i s i b l e along open shelves at one side of the room, many examples of art work from previous years were housed on shelving, the 145 blackboard related art concepts only, nearly a l l of the b u l l e t i n boards displayed current student art work, a drying rack was prominent i n the room and there was a large teacher demonstration table and mirror. Since the f a c i l i t y was used exclusively for Art, materials and equipment stayed i n place. F i n a l l y , rather than chairs, students sat on stools more conducive to art production. By v i r t u e of t h e i r surroundings, students at Riverside got the impression that art was a special a c t i v i t y requiring unique tools and equipment. They learned about art by v i r t u e of being i n the art room. Although the art room at Lakeview housed much the same equipment, the room was not used s t r i c t l y as an art room. Chris taught the home room class numeracy, l i t e r a c y , s o c i a l science and science there as well. Granted, a l l of the art i n the school was taught i n t h i s room, yet the same "art" atmosphere was not created since the room looked l i k e a regular classroom. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s was a general classroom with art equipment i n i t . Another difference between the two rooms were the computers at Lakeview. These were a l l capable of running sophisticated graphics programs. It was a challenge to have sensitive e l e c t r o n i c equipment and clay dust i n the room simultaneously. The program here obviously included more technology. Computer generated art work appeared on a b u l l e t i n board above one of the computer stations. Paintings 146 and drawings were hung on another board at the back of the classroom, while work from other subject areas appeared on the remaining b u l l e t i n boards. Since the d i r e c t i o n at Lakeview was toward integrating subject areas the art room s i t u a t i o n made sense. In terms of teaching about art, Riverside had the more comprehensive f a c i l i t y . The Evaluative Dimension of Schooling This section w i l l address issues of student knowledge of art concepts and techniques, as well as, discuss whether or not students learned what was intended. Student Art Knowledge The art program at Riverside had a fine art focus. Students had a good grasp of art concepts, vocabulary and techniques. I believe t h i s was due to teacher expertise and where program emphasis was placed. The q u a l i t y of t h e i r studio work was also high. Due to the structured nature of the program and i t s in-depth delivery, these students were b a s i c a l l y aware of elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design and very aware of the proper use of art materials, terms and techniques. Students also knew various facts about the Canadian Group of Seven a r t i s t s and t h e i r paintings. The ga l l e r y v i s i t which took place the previous year was reinforced i n the current program. Riverside students also reported p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n art a c t i v i t i e s outside the regular school program. These students were art l i t e r a t e . 147 The program at Lakeview was oriented towards commercial art. Students were technologically l i t e r a t e . At the same time, these students lacked l i t e r a c y i n terms of art concepts and the proper handling of other art materials. The art in s t r u c t i o n here was not as intense or directed. These students were i n i t i a l l y introduced to various art concepts then worked more or less independently at various work stations. The independent projects were r e l a t i v e l y uninspired with the exception of the brightest students. For instance, many students made copies of post cards. The quality, productivity and p o l i s h of the work at Lakeview l e f t room for improvement. Student Attitude In both programs students reported having fun, enjoying the s o c i a l atmosphere and, what they termed, the freedom given them. Students at Riverside did not see the program as r e s t r i c t i v e even though i t was structured. Riverside students were c l e a r l y focused and worked for the most part on the task at hand, barring some disruption at the end of class during clean up. There was l i t t l e horsing around with materials. Work i t s e l f was taken seriously. Some Lakeview students got off topic when the teacher was elsewhere. The zeal and concentration displayed at Riverside was not as prominent here. Nevertheless, students were excited about the technology at Lakeview, although there was 148 some f r u s t r a t i o n when computer programs did not function properly. Assessment Practices At Lakeview, admittedly, i t was a challenge to track a l l students as they were working independently on many projects. On going in d i v i d u a l student conferences were time consuming. Meanwhile, there was a need to report progress i n art back to the home room teacher. This became a time consuming process as well. A mechanism for reporting was i n development. Lakeview assessment practices included personal interviews about i n d i v i d u a l projects and teacher evaluations of art work. Process was highlighted. Evaluation practices at Riverside were both formal and informal. There were also many vehicles for evaluation. Uniformity i n program delivery had advantages here. Content was stressed, therefore, quizzes were given throughout the term. There was also a formal test or an exam at the end of the term. Further, art production became important through the use of a p o r t f o l i o . Pat reported d i r e c t l y to parents about progress i n art. There was no need to report to other teachers unless an in d i v i d u a l concern arose. Pat had on going dialogue with students as well. Students at Riverside had the opportunity for self-evaluation through a review of t h e i r art production p o r t f o l i o . Their art work was also displayed on b u l l e t i n boards i n the art room and around the school. The Riverside students were, therefore, 149 aware of t h e i r art work production. At Lakeview, while many-student projects which included art work were displayed i n the school, t h i s was not always work exclusive to ar t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n at Lakeview and Riverside was important. Chris and Pat knew students well since they were the only art teachers i n the school. Chris also had the advantage of remaining with the home room class for three years. Integration There were various forms of integration practised i n each of the schools as outlined i n Table 2. Both schools included integrative practices within subjects, across subjects and across grades. Riverside was using integrated models within a subject-oriented school. This way the benefits of integrative practices could be r e a l i z e d without l o s i n g the i n t e g r i t y of art as a d i s c i p l i n e . While not consciously implementing D i s c i p l i n e Based Art Education (D.B.A.E.), Pat's program integrated the four strands of art appreciation, art c r i t i c i s m , art history, and studio art outlined i n t h i s model. In the d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d program there was evidence of some form of integration between s o c i a l science, history, geography, math and art. At Riverside the Grade seven curriculum guideline outlined a detailed language arts and s o c i a l science integrated unit about Native Canadians. Over the years Pat has incorporated v i s u a l art into t h i s package i n a well developed and co-ordinated unit. Riverside students continued 150 to make connections between art, s o c i a l science and language arts at the grade eight l e v e l . Riverside students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n art related a c t i v i t i e s outside the school. I believe t h i s i s due to the art awareness b u i l t into the program, as well as, through other programs i n the school, such as, the Japanese art exchange or the McMichael Gallery v i s i t . Students were aware of art around them. Although committed to the subject o r i e n t a t i o n of the school, Pat was enthusiastic about incorporating art into other areas of study and had many ideas for doing so. At the same time, Pat was aware of obstacles confronted when attempting to integrate across subject areas i n terms of time and co-ordination. A stated goal was to have the grade eight program as well connected as the current grade seven curriculum. Pat was also aware that the type of student i n a given class can also e f f e c t the type of program delivered, observing that integrated projects often include a c e r t a i n amount of independent work, requiring a more mature student. We see from the accounts above that students learned much about art at Riverside, which i s not surprising since t h i s was the focus and the intention. S t i l l , there were many opportunities for integrating subject matter. In fact, the integration of ideas was strong because there was a s o l i d understanding of the subject of ar t . Students appeared to relate art concepts to other areas because they were immersed 151 i n the subject, therefore, connections could be noticed. In other words, d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d programs need not be changed i n order to get integrated learning outcomes. At Lakeview core subjects, such as, l i t e r a c y and numeracy were taught by generalist teachers. The main focus for integrative practices then, occurred through the home form class where the teacher connected subject matter through various thematic projects or a c t i v i t i e s . For instance, a language arts unit about children's s t o r i e s included computer generated storyboards. It was f e l t that t h i s arrangement allowed for subject matter to be connected more e a s i l y because the home room teacher could co-ordinate a l l subject matter. Nonetheless, some subjects, such as, technology, music and art were offered separately within t h i s system. S t i l l , the intention was that art become part of a t o t a l l y integrated education, yet t h i s was not occurring. Teachers of the core curriculum did not teach art. This was due to the background required to teach t h i s area. Chris believed an art s p e c i a l i s t was necessary because generalist teachers without art t r a i n i n g f e l t uncomfortable with the subject. Cross c u r r i c u l a r integration between art and the core curriculum, therefore, remained loosely organised, depending upon i n i t i a t i o n by in d i v i d u a l teachers, as at Riverside. For instance, some s o c i a l history was being taught through art i n a p a r t i c u l a r class at Lakeview. 152 Lakeview students were not aware of the connections between art and other areas because they were not as aware of separate d i s c i p l i n e s . The curriculum was thematic or project driven, therefore, science, s o c i a l science or language arts were not necessarily perceived as separate subjects. It appeared that students were sometimes unaware of and confused about subject boundaries. Art, on the other hand, remained separate. In t h i s way students did not perceive "art" as being done i n other classes, yet they did report several occasions when art work was used i n other projects. Only one student from Lakeview reported a discussion about art i n another class when the music teacher compared concepts such as rhythm and harmony in music to art. At Lakeview i t was evident that the importance of art was to improve work done i n other areas. In fact, art was often used to enhance work at both Lakeview and Riverside. Students were not, however, receiving art i n s t r u c t i o n i n these other subjects. Art was used merely as decoration or adornment for student work. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the concept of integration at Lakeview included technology, focusing on computer l i t e r a c y and computer graphic s k i l l s . This was also seen as being useful for other areas of the curriculum i n terms of creating charts, graphs or i l l u s t r a t i o n s . The use of computer graphics and 153 technology was seen as esse n t i a l for the future of the students. F i n a l l y , Lakeview was making an attempt at integrating ideas across grades by having students present t h e i r art work to the school i n an assembly format. Further, the students were involved i n the creation of a compact disc on which was stored an image of t h e i r independent art project. The intent here was to share t h i s information with other interested students who would have access to the disc through the l i b r a r y . CLOSING REMARKS The concept of integration may mean many things depending upon the context i n which i t i s used. This research has been mainly concerned with c u r r i c u l a r integration i n the sense of connecting art with other subject areas and i t s relevance to a student's l i f e beyond the classroom.. The concept of integration as a school focus at Lakeview was new and evolving, manifesting i n many forms. Since the thrust towards integration has been encouraged at the Ministry l e v e l , various types of integration appeared at Riverside as well. D i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d programs can also integrate ideas. In fact, D i s c i p l i n e Based Art Education (D.B.A.E.) i s an example of an integrated art approach associating art history, art appreciation, art c r i t i c i s m and studio art. Integrated knowledge w i l l be gained i n an environment i n which connections can be made both e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y , 154 where students become immersed i n a subject. The directed focus of a subject d i s c i p l i n e , rather than i s o l a t i n g the learner's knowledge, has the opposite e f f e c t . With the ess e n t i a l subject-based background, the student begins to make connections to other areas of knowledge, e s p e c i a l l y where t h i s intention i s made e x p l i c i t . Integrated understanding i s a natural outcome of a s o l i d education i n a d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d curriculum. Each s i t u a t i o n i s unique. The degree to which integrative ideas can be r e a l i s e d w i l l depend upon the propensity of the teachers who, a f t e r a l l , determine program emphasis. We return to Gray and MacGregor (1990) and t h e i r assertion that the curriculum i s ultimately i n the hands of the teacher. Q u a l i f i e d teachers, f a m i l i a r with the processes and concepts unique to art are e s s e n t i a l , not only for d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d programming, but also for integrated programming. The teacher must have subject expertise, otherwise, connections w i l l be s u p e r f i c i a l . Subject matter cannot be integrated without f i r s t a s o l i d grounding i n each subject. Integration does not mean that the i n t e g r i t y of one d i s c i p l i n e be s a c r i f i c e d i n favour of another. Art education and i n s t r u c t i o n i s not the same as using art materials, techniques and processes i n s u p e r f i c i a l ways to embellish student work i n other areas. Art i s only p a r t l y about making pictures, c o l o u r f u l graphs or computer generated images. 155 Before entering into a high degree of subject integration, consideration should be given to the educational cost of loosing the i n t e g r i t y of subject d i s c i p l i n e s and t h e i r s p e c i f i c models and means of inquiry. Connections can be made without loosing t h e i r unique features. It i s also apparent that there i s no need to change school timetables or structures to accommodate certa i n forms of integration. P o s s i b i l i t i e s exist without the disruption of student and teacher schedules. Integration can occur within a d i s c i p l i n e -oriented structure. Merging art with another subject or subjects i s not p r a c t i c a l , f e a s i b l e or desirable. Art i s a d i s c i p l i n e requiring s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . Like learning to play a musical instrument, learning to draw takes prac t i c e . The personal focus and concentration required to be successful i n art may reinforce these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n other endeavours. Common sense t e l l s us that nothing occurs i n i s o l a t i o n . In r e a l i s i n g the relationships between p a r t i c u l a r s i s found understanding. When b i t s of information are connected new knowledge i s created. Knowledge, therefore i s a product of integrating ideas. P r o f i c i e n t teaching of a subject d i s c i p l i n e , while e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y helping students make connections through metacognition, r e s u l t s i n integrated knowledge. 156 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION As t h i s study draws to conclusion a number of issues present themselves. Chapter Six w i l l highlight some of the thoughts I have had upon r e f l e c t i o n . IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY, PRACTICE AND RESEARCH Theory and Practice In theory, the d i s c i p l i n e of art has a place i n integrated curriculum and, through appropriate implementation, i n practice as well. For instance, Riverside displayed some appropriate integrated programming, on occasion teaching s o c i a l science through art h i s t o r y and art appreciation. Humans are v i s u a l and experiential learners, assimilating information through our multiple i n t e l l i g e n c e s . Art education provides opportunities for the emotional responses necessary to personalize information, thereby making the knowledge ours. A colleague teaches art h i s t o r y and culture i n combination, since each i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the other. For every Art History lesson taught through a s l i d e lecture, some sort of sensory element i s included. For instance, when studying the ancient Egyptians, whose society was established through the development of agriculture, the teacher offered students sunflower seeds to remind them of the importance of grain to these people. During the Renaissance lesson the room f i l l e d with the scent of exotic spices, reminding students of the s p i r i t of exploration and learning prevalent i n Europe at 157 the time. Music also often created the ambience of the era under discussion. Offering students an appropriate morsel awakened t h e i r senses, creating a more t o t a l experience for them. During written evaluations reference was sometimes made to the food presented during lessons, helping students remember the experience and make connections, thereby t r i g g e r i n g information r e c a l l . The sensual element of the art lessons also helped the students r e l a t e to the people of these periods more personally. One of the problems a r i s i n g i s teachers are i l l equip to use art as a connector or f i l t e r through which to view the world since they lack the necessary background i n the d i s c i p l i n e . Where there i s poten t i a l for teaching and understanding through art, we are often l e f t with the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of drawing pictures. For instance, the painting "The Death of Marat" by Jacque Louis David i s a way to understand the backdrop for the French Revolution. In fact, the l i f e of Jacque Louis David i s a point of departure to approach t h i s period i n history. The richness of t h i s teaching material i s l o s t to a s o c i a l science teacher unfamiliar with art history, r e i n f o r c i n g the idea that one cannot r e l a t e subject areas to each other without having a firm grasp of the d i s c i p l i n e s to be connected. Students need a grounding i n each d i s c i p l i n e before they can begin to r e a l i z e overlapping concepts. 158 At the same time, some of the most e f f e c t i v e integration may occur within a subject area. For example, D i s c i p l i n e Based Art Education (D.B.A.E.) unites various aspects of v i s u a l art including, art appreciation, art c r i t i c i s m , art history and the creation of art while r e l a t i n g the arts to culture and s o c i e t a l issues. What students ought to know about art and i t s relationships to other d i s c i p l i n e s and determining the most e f f e c t i v e ways to reach these desired outcomes deserves further study. Also of interest i s how the ways of knowing inherent to art, based on Gardner's (198 9) theory of multiple i n t e l l i g e n c e s , enhance other areas of learning. From t h i s understanding, programs including a combination of d i s c i p l i n e -oriented and integrated curriculum models could be developed. It seems that i n many cases the integration of s k i l l s i s more e a s i l y accomplished than the integration of ideas. To i l l u s t r a t e , given the necessary equipment, integrating the use of computers across the curriculum i s less d i f f i c u l t than integrating the idea of how t h i s technology a f f e c t s art and society. The challenge i s having students see the relationships between ideas. For t h i s we need to develop a curriculum which emphasizes metacognition. If one of the goals i s that students integrate ideas, then we need to l i t e r a l l y teach students how to think i n terms of making connections and make them aware that they are doing so. Relationships need to be 159 made e x p l i c i t l y for students before they w i l l be able to see them on t h e i r own. At each opportunity teachers can model th i s behaviour i m p l i c i t l y as well, exploring relationships by example. The creation of knowledge comes as a r e s u l t of making appropriate connections. Integration also holds implications for assessment practices. It i s obvious that the method of evaluation should r e f l e c t the objectives of that which i s taught. The i m p l i c i t learning must also be considered when designing evaluative practices. As programs s h i f t towards integrative outcomes, where process becomes important, methods of assessment need to be developed to r e f l e c t the change i n focus. In terms of the structure of schools, i t i s apparent that there i s no need to s i g n i f i c a n t l y adjust established timetabling procedures or teacher schedules i n order to accommodate integration. There may be other reasons to restructure schools, such as, concerns about teacher i s o l a t i o n , e f f o r t s to encourage s t a f f collaboration, o f f e r i n g more consistent programs and fostering accountability yet, integration should not be used as the sole motivation for reorganization. I suggest that an e f f e c t i v e means of achieving integrative outcomes would be to introduce t h i s approach incrementally into a t r a d i t i o n a l school structure, p r a c t i s i n g evolution rather than revolution. A fine balance needs to be 160 maintained between the enthusiasm for an e x c i t i n g concept and i t s conscientious implementation. It i s c r u c i a l that the implementation of integrative i n i t i a t i v e s be p r a c t i c a l and the demands for t h i s approach be reasonable. In some camps integration i s being met with a certa i n amount of opposition. Teachers are r e s i s t a n t to change for many reasons, not the least of which i s workload. Consistently a burden for teachers are collaborative meetings to plan for subject integration. In an already crowded time frame these sessions are not only exhausting, but time consuming as well. Further, a teacher's working s t y l e i s not always compatible to close the collaboration which i s assumed to be necessary to reach integrative outcomes. Teaching, as those who teach know, i s often very personal. While working with others may be desirable, many teachers pride themselves on the uniqueness of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l y developed programs. Collaborative work many play a key role towards developing subject integration, s t i l l a teacher with the appropriate background can successfully integrate ideas within t h e i r own classroom. In fact, since the move towards integrated programming i s a fete accompli, some teachers may prefer to acquire additional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and t r a i n i n g i n order to achieve subject integration. It occurs to me that f l e x i b i l i t y needs to be maintained i n the implementing integration. Further research might 161 include a study of the relat i o n s h i p between teachers as professionals and the implementation of integrative approaches. Implications for Research Qualitative research i s i n many ways an appropriate t i t l e for t h i s type of study. The research conducted here i s t o t a l l y dependent upon the s p e c i f i c situations observed, thereby " q u a l i f i e d " by the circumstances. It i s impossible to absolutely match teachers and schools although every attempt should be made to obtain s i m i l a r i t y . For t h i s type of research i t cannot be overemphasized that each s i t u a t i o n i s completely unique. Students change with each semester and curriculum i s manipulated by each teacher. It follows that programs cannot be compared without considering the in d i v i d u a l teachers and students involved. Further, data were generated through the p a r t i c u l a r frames of reference of the informants and researcher. Therefore, i t i s important to understand these points of departure. Designed as an indi v i d u a l case study, hoping to add to a body of empirical evidence on the subject, the results of t h i s research cannot be generalized. At the same time, something of the whole can be discovered by examining the parts. F i n a l l y , teaching art i s a complex a c t i v i t y , influenced by a myriad of variables. Thus, i t has been impossible to discuss absolutes throughout t h i s study. 162 Admittedly, the integrated art program i n t h i s study was very young, making i t d i f f i c u l t to evaluate. A more well established program may have made cer t a i n issues clearer. Certainly, however, the underlying philosophy of c u r r i c u l a r integration as an organizing concept and d i r e c t i o n became apparent. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to look at t h i s program again i n two or three years to see the d i r e c t i o n i t had taken and to follow the history of i t s development. As integrative approaches have been implemented nat i o n a l l y i t i s , i n fact, time now to go back to some of the o r i g i n a l p i l o t projects to observe what has transpired. Assessment and evaluation of c e r t a i n programs should be encouraged to aid the future development and implementation of integration as we move from theory into p r a c t i c e . Integrated i n i t i a t i v e s are being implemented continually, some schools just beginning to come on l i n e with Ministry d i r e c t i v e s . Past experience need to be assessed i f we are to learn from them. In terms of methodology, the QUALPRO computer program was an invaluable tool for e f f i c i e n t l y sorting information from notes and interviews. It could also have been useful for a l l f i e l d notes and other data c o l l e c t e d had they been entered into the program. This approach l e f t me confident that the data was treated accurately and thoroughly i n that no d e t a i l was l e f t out or unaccounted for. The video camera also became an excellent tool for bringing the classrooms v i s i t e d back to l i f e when reviewing 1 6 3 the data. Months af t e r the study was completed I was able to reenter the s i t u a t i o n i n the classroom as an impartial observer. The camera i t s e l f needed a wide angle lens, without which created some problems i n capturing a l l classroom a c t i v i t i e s simultaneously. S t i l l , the essence of the room was maintained, reminding me of each d e t a i l . Persona] Professional Learning Through t h i s study I had the opportunity to see f i r s t hand that a teacher's personality, attitude and knowledge of the subject determines everything that occurs i n the classroom making the Gray and MacGregor's (1990) P.R.O.A.C.T.A. study come to l i f e for me. Like them, I can also conclude that teachers make t h e i r personal mark on the programs they d e l i v e r based upon t h e i r knowledge, background and intent. E x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t learning are controlled by the teacher whose expectations are f u l f i l l e d . It appears that c l e a r l y established ideas and directions re s u l t i n more focused student outcomes. The "integrated" art program at Lakeview would have been much d i f f e r e n t i f taught i n the teacher directed s t y l e of Pat. The more connections are structured for students, the better they w i l l learn how to make connections for themselves. Learning to make connections and i d e n t i f y relationships should be part of the metacognitive integrative lessons taught to students. How t h i s can be accomplished might also be the subject of further research. 164 At the same time, I question at which point i n t h e i r educational development students are ready to st a r t making the types of connections we ask them to make. When and how we integrate I believe needs more careful consideration. A c h i l d cannot run before she or he learns to walk. Likewise, implementation has i t s developmental stages. We need to be cautious i n adopting integrative practices so that i t s pote n t i a l for learning and understanding are not l o s t or made to become s u p e r f i c i a l . The underlying philosophy for c u r r i c u l a r integration i s strong. Integration makes sense i n terms of how humans process information and how we understand our world. 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Curriculum integration and school cultures (Occasional paper #6). Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, F.O.C.I.: Forum on Curricular Integration, T r i -University Integration Project. Williams, D.D. (1991, A p r i l ) . A n a t u r a l i s t i c study of u n i f i e d studies: A h o l i s t i c high school program. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Research Association, Chicago, IL. Winslow, L.L. (1949) . The integrated school art program (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. 175 APPENDIX A CODE LIST AND CODE DEFINITIONS The following i s a l i s t of codes and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s representing ideas which emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t during the interview and observation process. Appreciate: reference made to art appreciation or art history-Art Knowledge: student self-proclaimed knowledge i n reference to art Assessment: gathering of information for the evaluation of student performance Attitude: student outlook towards art Collaborate: teachers plan projects, program or a c t i v i t i e s with other teachers Computer: reference to computers or technology Development: program development and change D i s l i k e : student's least favourite art projects and a c t i v i t i e s F a c i l i t y : art room f a c i l i t i e s Favourite: student's favourite art projects and a c t i v i t i e s Goals: teacher intentions Guideline: use of l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l guidelines and documents for planning program Integrate: interviewee made reference to concept of integration Management: classroom management and student d i s c i p l i n e Other Class: student involvement with art i n a class other than art class 176 Out Side School: student involvement with art out side school Program: description of o v e r a l l program Project: description of s p e c i f i c art projects and a c t i v i t i e s Relevance: reference to the usefulness of the knowledge gained through the program Schedule: program delivery schedule S k i l l s : intended learning outcomes Teacher Role: role of the teacher i n the classroom and program Theme: reference to units of work around a central topic 177 APPENDIX B INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Note that the questions outlined here are i n s k e l e t a l form. When i n actual interviews the questions became extended and more conversational i n nature. Interview Questions for Teachers 1. What i s the h i s t o r i c a l context for art i n the school? 2. Would you show me around the classroom? 3. Would you describe your integrated/subject oriented art program? 4. How i s the school day structured i n terms of time periods or rotations? 5. What are some of the special features of your program? 6. Who has developed the program? 7. Could you provide me with a written outline of the program? 8. What guidelines do you follow, i f any? 9. What do you want students to learn i n your art program? 10. How do you determine what students have learned i n your program? 11. (a) Do you think students are learning about art outside the art room i n other classrooms? (b) Do you think they are learning about art outside the school? (c) If so what do you think they are learning? 178 12. (a) Would you explain or define the concept of integration for me as you see i t . (b) How do you see integration operating i n your classroom? (c) How do you see integration operating i n the school? 13. Would you t e l l me about s p e c i f i c integrated projects or units? 14. How frequent are the integrated projects or units? 15. (a) Would you give me an example of a t y p i c a l art lesson or project? (b) Would you give me an example of a t y p i c a l integrated art lesson or project? 16. What i s the r a t i o of integrated art projects to subject s p e c i f i c art a c t i v i t i e s i n your program? 17. How much time i s a l l o t t e d to art i n s t r u c t i o n or integrated i n s t r u c t i o n which includes v i s u a l art? 18. Could you describe a t y p i c a l art class? 19. Would you describe a class which r e a l l y stands out as having been successful for you? 20. Could you describe some of the experiences you have had working with t h i s art program? 21. Would you outline the objectives and a c t i v i t i e s of the p a r t i c u l a r art classes that I observed? 22. Is there anything else you would l i k e to t e l l me about your experiences with any part of your program? Additional Questions for the Non-art Teacher at Lakeview 179 1. (a) Do students do art i n your program? (b) If so, how much time might they spend on art related a c t i v i t i e s ? 2. What i s the nature of the art a c t i v i t i e s you include i n your program? 3. Can you give me some examples of the art a c t i v i t i e s they've done? 4. Do you address art s p e c i f i c a l l y as a topic of discussion i n your classes? Interview Questions for Students 1. T e l l me about some of the things you have done t h i s year i n a r t . 2. (a) Do you enjoy art? (b) If so, what type of art do you li k e ? 3. What was your favourite art project t h i s year? 4. Which art project(s) didn't you li k e ? 5. T e l l me about an art class you r e a l l y f e l t good about. 6. Do you study art hist o r y or art c r i t i c i s m i n your art program? 7. What do you l i k e best about your art program? 8. If you could change something about your art program, what would you change? 9. (a) Would you l i k e to do more or less art i n school? (b) Why do you say that? 180 10. If your parents asked you what you did i n art class today, what would you t e l l them? What stands out i n your mind? 11. (a) What kinds of things do you learn i n art? (b) What do you think you learned t h i s year? 12. Can you t e l l me about a time that you took what you learned i n art and used i t i n a d i f f e r e n t subject? 13. Can you give me any examples of a time where you've used the things you learned i n art outside school? 14. Can you t e l l me about any times that another teacher talked about art i n t h e i r classes? 15. (a) T e l l me about a times t h i s year that you did art i n another classes. (b) What sorts of art assignments did you do i n other classes? 16. Is there anything else you would l i k e to t e l l me about your experiences i n art? 181 

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